WorldWideScience

Sample records for surface radiation survey

  1. Survey of surface roughness properties of synchrotron radiation optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takacs, P.Z.; Colbert, J.; Church, E.L.

    1986-03-01

    Measurements of surface roughness were made on a large number of grazing incidence mirrors delivered for use at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The measurements were made with a WYKO optical profiler using a 2.5X and a 10X objective and analyzed with our PROFILE code to generate an average periodogram representation for each surface. The data is presented in the form of representative profiles with all of the periodogram curves arranged according to figure type. Analysis of the periodograms allows one to compute bandwidth-limited values for RMS roughness and slope, to provide valuable feedback information to manufacturers regarding compliance with specifications, and to predict the performance of the optic at x-ray wavelengths

  2. Surface radiation survey and soil sampling of the 300-FF-1 operable unit, Hanford Site, southeastern Washington: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teel, S.S.; Olsen, K.B.

    1990-10-01

    The methods used for conducting a radiological characterization of the soil surface for the Phase I Remedial Investigation of a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) site is presented via a case study. The study site is an operable unit (300-FF-1) located in and adjacent to the 300 Area of the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The operable unit contains liquid and solid waste disposal facilities associated with nuclear fuels fabrication. Continuous surface radiation surveying and soil sampling of selected locations were conducted. Contamination was found in several locations within the operable unit including areas near the liquid and solid waste disposal facilities. Instruments used during surveying included portable beta/gamma (P-11) detectors, and the Ultrasonic Ranging and Data System using an NaI (Tl) detector. Laboratory analyses results indicate that above-background radiation levels were primarily due to the presence of uranium. Both types of field instruments used in the study were effective in detecting surface contamination from radionuclides; however, each had specific advantages. Guidelines are presented for the optimum use of these instruments when performing a radiological characterization of the soil surface. 4 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  3. Development of gamma probe for radiation surveys of the bottoms of surface waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.R.; Welch, S.J.; St Aubin, M.J.; Dal Bianco, R.

    1992-01-01

    We have developed a practical method for mapping variations in gamma activity and electrical conductivity of submerged sediments. Prototype probes are being constructed and tested. The first prototype was essentially a background survey meter (Jones, 1979) packaged in a 53-cm-long by 5.4-cm-diameter waterproof vehicle. This tubular vehicle was towed by boat in contact with the bottom sediments of lakes and rivers. Originally, this vehicle was designed (and is still frequently used) for locating groundwater and contaminant entry areas in surface waters. By logging geographic position and sediment variables, it has been possible to produce contour maps in areas of interest. Thus it is possible to optimize environmental analysis and avoid the 'hit or miss' approach of traditional bottom-sediment surveys. (author)

  4. Aerial radiation surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jobst, J.

    1980-01-01

    A recent aerial radiation survey of the surroundings of the Vitro mill in Salt Lake City shows that uranium mill tailings have been removed to many locations outside their original boundary. To date, 52 remote sites have been discovered within a 100 square kilometer aerial survey perimeter surrounding the mill; 9 of these were discovered with the recent aerial survey map. Five additional sites, also discovered by aerial survey, contained uranium ore, milling equipment, or radioactive slag. Because of the success of this survey, plans are being made to extend the aerial survey program to other parts of the Salt Lake valley where diversions of Vitro tailings are also known to exist

  5. Aerial radiation survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradeep Kumar, K.S.

    1998-01-01

    Aerial gamma spectrometry surveys are the most effective, comprehensive and preferred tool to delimit the large area surface contamination in a radiological emergency either due to a nuclear accident or following a nuclear strike. The airborne survey apart from providing rapid and economical evaluation of ground contamination over large areas due to larger ground clearance and higher speed, is the only technique to overcome difficulties posed by ground surveys of inaccessible region. The aerial survey technique can also be used for searching of lost radioactive sources, tracking of radioactive plume and generation of background data on the Emergency Planning Zone (EPZ) of nuclear installations

  6. Organization of radiation survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yatsenko, V.N.; Mazanov, V.L.

    1995-01-01

    The main organizing principles which guarantee efficient activities of medical-sanitary teams of disaster medicine in emergency situations connected with radiation injuries are studied in this paper. The study has demonstrated the priority measures being carried out by radiological team of the Russian Center on Disaster Medicine Zashchita during the current and preparatory periods and in the course of emergency situation, as well as the equipping of the teams. When arranging radiation survey the main emphasis should be placed on the detection of the injured, ascertaining the place and time of location of the personnel and population starting from the moment of the accident, as well as to determine the dynamics of the power of photon radiation in this place in the same period. Special attention is paid to the necessity of coordination on interaction of radiological team of the Russian Center of Disaster Medicine Zashchita with other similar departmental services. 5 refs

  7. Radiative heat exchange between surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yener, Y.; Yuncu, H.

    1987-01-01

    The geometrical features of radiative heat exchange between surfaces are discussed first by developing various radiation shape factor relations. The governing equations for enclosures with diffusely emitting and diffusely reflecting surfaces, as well as the equations for enclosures with gray surfaces having specular component of reflectivity are introduced next. Finally, a simplified model for enclosures with isothermal surfaces under the assumption of uniform radiosity over the surfaces is discussed, and various working relations for different conditions are presented

  8. GEWEX Surface Radiation Budget (SRB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NASA/GEWEX Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) Release-3.0 data sets contains global 3-hourly, daily, monthly/3-hourly, and monthly averages of surface and top-of...

  9. Sound radiation from finite surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunskog, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    A method to account for the effect of finite size in acoustic power radiation problem of planar surfaces using spatial windowing is developed. Cremer and Heckl presents a very useful formula for the power radiating from a structure using the spatially Fourier transformed velocity, which combined...... with spatially windowing of a plane waves can be used to take into account the finite size. In the present paper, this is developed by means of a radiation impedance for finite surfaces, that is used instead of the radiation impedance for infinite surfaces. In this way, the spatial windowing is included...

  10. Radiation surveys in contaminated communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, G.B.

    1977-01-01

    Radiation surveys of uranium contamination in Uranium City and Port Hope, Canada, are described. Samples of soil, water, and crops grown in contaminated soil and air in homes were analyzed for radon content. Following decontamination, measurements were made of γ exposure rates both inside and outside of buildings

  11. DETERMINATION OF RADIATOR COOLING SURFACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Yakubovich

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a methodology for calculation of a radiator cooling surface with due account of heat transfer non-uniformity on depth of its core. Calculation of radiator cooling surfaces of «Belarus-1221» and «Belarus-3022» tractors has been carried out in the paper. The paper also advances standard size series of radiators for powerful «Belarus» tractor type.

  12. Arduino based radiation survey meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, Nur Aira Abd; Lombigit, Lojius; Abdullah, Nor Arymaswati; Azman, Azraf; Dolah, Taufik; Jaafar, Zainudin; Mohamad, Glam Hadzir Patai; Ramli, Abd Aziz Mhd; Zain, Rasif Mohd; Said, Fazila; Khalid, Mohd Ashhar; Taat, Muhamad Zahidee; Muzakkir, Amir

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the design of new digital radiation survey meter with LND7121 Geiger Muller tube detector and Atmega328P microcontroller. Development of the survey meter prototype is carried out on Arduino Uno platform. 16-bit Timer1 on the microcontroller is utilized as external pulse counter to produce count per second or CPS measurement. Conversion from CPS to dose rate technique is also performed by Arduino to display results in micro Sievert per hour (μSvhr −1 ). Conversion factor (CF) value for conversion of CPM to μSvhr −1 determined from manufacturer data sheet is compared with CF obtained from calibration procedure. The survey meter measurement results are found to be linear for dose rates below 3500 µSv/hr

  13. Arduino based radiation survey meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Nur Aira Abd, E-mail: nur-aira@nm.gov.my; Lombigit, Lojius; Abdullah, Nor Arymaswati; Azman, Azraf; Dolah, Taufik; Jaafar, Zainudin; Mohamad, Glam Hadzir Patai; Ramli, Abd Aziz Mhd; Zain, Rasif Mohd; Said, Fazila; Khalid, Mohd Ashhar; Taat, Muhamad Zahidee [Malaysian Nuclear Agency, 43000, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Muzakkir, Amir [Sinaran Utama Teknologi Sdn Bhd, 43650, Bandar Baru Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    This paper presents the design of new digital radiation survey meter with LND7121 Geiger Muller tube detector and Atmega328P microcontroller. Development of the survey meter prototype is carried out on Arduino Uno platform. 16-bit Timer1 on the microcontroller is utilized as external pulse counter to produce count per second or CPS measurement. Conversion from CPS to dose rate technique is also performed by Arduino to display results in micro Sievert per hour (μSvhr{sup −1}). Conversion factor (CF) value for conversion of CPM to μSvhr{sup −1} determined from manufacturer data sheet is compared with CF obtained from calibration procedure. The survey meter measurement results are found to be linear for dose rates below 3500 µSv/hr.

  14. Survey of Gamma Dose and Radon Exhalation Rate from Soil Surface of High Background Natural Radiation Areas in Ramsar, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouhollah Dehghani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Radon is a radioactive gas and the second leading cause of death due to lung cancer after smoking. Ramsar is known for having the highest levels of natural background radiation on earth. Materials and Methods: In this research study, 50 stations of high radioactivity areas of Ramsar were selected in warm season of the year. Then gamma dose and radon exhalation rate were measured.Results: Results showed that gamma dose and radon exhalation rate were in the range of 51-7100 nSv/hr and 9-15370 mBq/m2s, respectively.Conclusion: Compare to the worldwide average 16 mBq/m2s, estimated average annual effective of Radon exhalation rate in the study area is too high.

  15. Practical methods for radiation survey in nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shweikani, R.

    2001-12-01

    This study is placed to those who are responsible to perform radiation survey in the nuclear installations, especially the beginners. Therefore, it gives a comprehensive view to all-important aspects related to their work starting from the structure of atoms to the practical steps for radiation survey works. So, it clarify how to perform personal monitoring, methods for monitoring surface contamination, methods for measuring radioactivity of gases and radioactive aerosols in air, monitoring radiation doses, measuring radiation influences in workplaces and finally measuring internal exposure of radiation workers in nuclear installations. Finally, The study shows some cases of breaches of radiation protection rules in some American nuclear installations and describes the final results of these breaches. The aim of this is to assure that any breach or ignore to radiation protection principles may produce bad results, and there is no leniency in implementing environmental radiation protection principles. (author)

  16. Pilot study for natural radiation survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, L.; Driscoll, C.M.H.; Green, B.M.R.; Miles, J.C.H.

    1983-01-01

    NRPB's national survey of natural radiation exposure in homes commenced in 1982 and will run until 1984. A pilot survey was undertaken in over 100 homes for one year, using passive thermoluminescent dosemeters to measure external radiation from terrestrial and cosmic sources and passive radon dosemeters to measure the radon-222 gas concentration. A preliminary analysis of the results obtained from the pilot survey is given. The main value of the pilot survey was in providing experience and various administrative and scientific procedures have been simplified or automated for the national survey. (U.K.)

  17. Surface gamma-ray survey of SX Tank Farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stromswold, D.C.; Arthur, R.J.

    1996-08-01

    Measurements made over the surface of the SX Tank Farm at Hanford show Cs 137 to be the only significant gamma ray emitting contaminant. A high-purity germanium detector collected the data in the surface survey. Most of the detected radiation originated from specific above ground objects, such as pipes and vents. One area of increased radiation in the north section of the tank farm between tanks SX-102 and SX-105, was apparently due to contamination of the soil by Cs 137. An area of interest near tanks SX-108, SX-111, and SX-112, below which borehole logs has indicated deep Cs 137 contamination, also showed Cs 137 at the surface, but the signal originated mainly from surface objects rather than from contaminated soils. A significant result of the surface survey is the understanding that surface objects with contamination can affect the signal observed by borehole logging tools as they reach the ground surface

  18. Survey of women's awareness about radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Keiko; Aomi, Yuki; Asada, Kiyoe; Kamiya, Masami; Mitsuishi, Haruko

    2008-01-01

    A project in a voluntary group 'Women's Energy Network' conducted two questionnaire surveys on Japanese women's awareness about radiation. The survey was conducted to investigate how women(non-experts) perceive radiation and radioactivity, what is their image about radiation, to what extent they are aware of the use of radiation in their daily life, and whether they find nuclear related information useful or not. The results of those surveys have led WEN to publish a booklet entitled 'Our Life and Radiation' to be used for public communication and to hold public forums in various cities in Japan. The first survey was conducted in 2001 to those living in big cities such as Tokyo and Osaka and to those living in the area where the nuclear power plant is installed. The response rate was 72.4% (1,028 out of 1,419). The second one was done in 2005 to those living in Tokyo and other big cities. The response rate was 84.7% (888 our of 983). It was derived from the two surveys that they were not so much aware of various applications of radiation for daily use (awareness rate was low), but they considered those information would be useful when it becomes available for them and they were interested in knowing about it. As for the image of radiation, about 80% have shown fear when they see or hear a word 'radiation'. This report provides the result of questionnaire surveys on women's awareness about radiation conducted by 'Our Daily Life and Radiation' project in Women's Energy Network. (author)

  19. ISLSCP II Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) Radiation Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains global Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) and a few top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiation budget parameters on a 1-degree x 1-degree spatial...

  20. Radiation Level Changes at RAM Package Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Opperman, Erich [Washington Savannah River Company; Hawk, Mark B [ORNL; Kapoor, Ashok [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Packaging and Transportation; Natali, Ronald [R. B. Natali Consulting, Inc.

    2010-01-01

    This paper will explore design considerations required to meet the regulations that limit radiation level variations at external surfaces of radioactive material (RAM) packages. The radiation level requirements at package surfaces (e.g. TS-R-1 paragraphs 531 and 646) invoke not only maximum radiation levels, but also strict limits on the allowable increase in the radiation level during transport. This paper will explore the regulatory requirements by quantifying the amount of near surface movement and/or payload shifting that results in a 20% increase in the radiation level at the package surface. Typical IP-2, IP-3, Type A and Type B packaging and source geometries will be illustrated. Variations in surface radiation levels are typically the result of changes in the geometry of the surface due to an impact, puncture or crush event, or shifting and settling of radioactive contents.

  1. 2009 Canadian Radiation Oncology Resident Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debenham, Brock, E-mail: debenham@ualberta.net [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cross Cancer Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Banerjee, Robyn [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Fairchild, Alysa; Dundas, George [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cross Cancer Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Trotter, Theresa [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Yee, Don [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cross Cancer Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: Statistics from the Canadian post-MD education registry show that numbers of Canadian radiation oncology (RO) trainees have risen from 62 in 1999 to approximately 150 per year between 2003 and 2009, contributing to the current perceived downturn in employment opportunities for radiation oncologists in Canada. When last surveyed in 2003, Canadian RO residents identified job availability as their main concern. Our objective was to survey current Canadian RO residents on their training and career plans. Methods and Materials: Trainees from the 13 Canadian residency programs using the national matching service were sought. Potential respondents were identified through individual program directors or chief resident and were e-mailed a secure link to an online survey. Descriptive statistics were used to report responses. Results: The eligible response rate was 53% (83/156). Similar to the 2003 survey, respondents generally expressed high satisfaction with their programs and specialty. The most frequently expressed perceived weakness in their training differed from 2003, with 46.5% of current respondents feeling unprepared to enter the job market. 72% plan on pursuing a postresidency fellowship. Most respondents intend to practice in Canada. Fewer than 20% of respondents believe that there is a strong demand for radiation oncologists in Canada. Conclusions: Respondents to the current survey expressed significant satisfaction with their career choice and training program. However, differences exist compared with the 2003 survey, including the current perceived lack of demand for radiation oncologists in Canada.

  2. 2009 Canadian Radiation Oncology Resident Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debenham, Brock; Banerjee, Robyn; Fairchild, Alysa; Dundas, George; Trotter, Theresa; Yee, Don

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Statistics from the Canadian post-MD education registry show that numbers of Canadian radiation oncology (RO) trainees have risen from 62 in 1999 to approximately 150 per year between 2003 and 2009, contributing to the current perceived downturn in employment opportunities for radiation oncologists in Canada. When last surveyed in 2003, Canadian RO residents identified job availability as their main concern. Our objective was to survey current Canadian RO residents on their training and career plans. Methods and Materials: Trainees from the 13 Canadian residency programs using the national matching service were sought. Potential respondents were identified through individual program directors or chief resident and were e-mailed a secure link to an online survey. Descriptive statistics were used to report responses. Results: The eligible response rate was 53% (83/156). Similar to the 2003 survey, respondents generally expressed high satisfaction with their programs and specialty. The most frequently expressed perceived weakness in their training differed from 2003, with 46.5% of current respondents feeling unprepared to enter the job market. 72% plan on pursuing a postresidency fellowship. Most respondents intend to practice in Canada. Fewer than 20% of respondents believe that there is a strong demand for radiation oncologists in Canada. Conclusions: Respondents to the current survey expressed significant satisfaction with their career choice and training program. However, differences exist compared with the 2003 survey, including the current perceived lack of demand for radiation oncologists in Canada.

  3. Public reaction to the natural radiation survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, L [National Radiological Protection Board, Harwell (UK)

    1983-11-01

    A natural radiation survey of a cross-section of homes in the UK has been under way for over a year. Members of the public are contacted by post by the NRPB and asked whether they would be willing to have dosemeters in their homes for 12 months. To date the survey has elicited approximately 50% positive response for over a year which is encouragingly high compared to response rates of postal surveys in general. The survey has attracted notable media attention; in the main the tenor of the stories has been accurate and informative and only a handful could be described as sensational.

  4. Design of a statewide radiation survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagda, N.L.; Koontz, M.D.; Rector, H.E.; Nifong, G.D.

    1989-01-01

    The Florida Institute of Phosphate Research (FIPR) recently sponsored a statewide survey to identify all significant land areas in Florida where the state's environmental radiation rule should be applied. Under this rule, newly constructed buildings must be tested for radiation levels unless approved construction techniques are used. Two parallel surveys - a land-based survey and a population-based survey - were designed and conducted to address the objective. Each survey included measurements in more than 3000 residences throughout the state. Other information sources that existed at the outset of the study, such as geologic profiles mapped by previous investigators and terrestrial uranium levels characterized through aerial gamma radiation surveys, were also examined. Initial data analysis efforts focused on determining the extent of evidence of radon potential for each of 67 counties in the state. Within 18 countries that were determined to have definite evidence of elevated radon potential, more detailed spatial analyses were conducted to identify areas of which the rule should apply. A total of 74 quadrangles delineated by the U.S. Geological Survey, representing about 7% of those constituting the state, were identified as having elevated radon potential and being subject to the rule

  5. Faculty of Radiation Oncology 2010 workforce survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, John; Vukolova, Natalia

    2011-12-01

    This paper outlines the key results of the Faculty of Radiation Oncology 2010 workforce survey and compares these results with earlier data. The workforce survey was conducted in mid-2010 using a custom-designed 17-question survey. The overall response rate was 76%. The majority of radiation oncologist respondents were male (n = 212, 71%), but the majority of trainee respondents were female (n = 59, 52.7%). The age range of fellows was 32-92 years (median: 47 years; mean: 49 years) and that of trainees was 27-44 years (median: 31 years; mean: 31.7 years). Most radiation oncologists worked at more than one practice (average: two practices). The majority of radiation oncologists worked in the public sector (n = 169, 64.5%), with some working in 'combination' of public and private sectors (n = 65, 24.8%) and a minority working in the private sector only (n = 28, 10.7%). The hours worked per week ranged from 1 to 85 (mean: 44 h; median: 45 h) for radiation oncologists, while for trainees the range was 16-90 (mean: 47 h; median: 45 h). The number of new cases seen in a year ranged from 1 to 1100 (mean: 275; median: 250). Most radiation oncologists considered themselves generalists with a preferred sub-specialty (43.3%) or specialists (41.9%), while a minority considered themselves as generalists (14.8%). There are a relatively large and increasing number of radiation oncologists and trainees compared with previous years. The excessive workloads evident in previous surveys appear to have diminished. However, further work is required on assessing the impact of ongoing feminisation and sub-specialisation. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology © 2011 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  6. SMART, Radiation Dose Rates on Cask Surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamakoshi, Hisao

    1989-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: SMART calculates radiation dose rate at the center of each cask surface by using characteristic functions for radiation shielding ability and for radiation current back-scattered from cask wall and cask cavity of each cask, once cask-type is specified. 2 - Method of solution: Matrix Calculation

  7. Survey of radiation protection programmes for transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lizot, M.T.; Perrin, M.L.; Sert, G.; Lange, F.; Schwarz, G.; Feet, H.J.; Christ, R.; Shaw, K.B.; Hughes, J.S.; Gelder, R.

    2001-07-01

    The survey of radiation protection programmes for transport has been jointly performed by three scientific organisations I.P.S.N. (France), G.R.S. ( Germany), and N.R.P.B. (United kingdom) on behalf of the European Commission and the pertaining documentation summarises the findings and conclusions of the work that was undertaken with the principal objectives to provide guidance on the establishment, implementation and application of radiation protection programmes for the transport of radioactive materials by operators and the assessment and evaluation of such programmes by the competent authority and to review currently existing radiation protection programmes for the transport of radioactive materials. (N.C.)

  8. EMERGENCY RADIATION SURVEY DEVICE ONBOARD THE UAV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bogatov

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Radiation survey device (RSD on the base of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV was developed as an equipment of rescue forces for radiation situation reconnaissance in case of emergency. RSD is multi range radiometer with spectrometer functions capable to work within gamma ray fields of dose rate 10–7 – 10–1 Sievert per hour. UAV md4-1000 (Microdrones GmbH, Germany was selected as the RSD carrier as a reliable vehicle with appropriate properties. Short description of RSD, UAV and developed software features as well as sensitivity assessments for different radiation sources are presented.

  9. Scientific substantiation of approaches to organization and conducting radiation surveys at the rehabilitated radiation sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. K. Romanovich

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is concerned with the scientific justification of approaches to the organization of the final radiation survey of facilities having radioactive contamination, after their rehabilitation. Scientific publications on the previous experience in rehabilitation of facilities contaminated with radionuclides, the organization and conducting a radiation survey before the start of the decontamination, during its implementation and after its completion were analyzed. The experience in the rehabilitation of the site for the temporary storage of spent fuel and radioactive waste in Andreeva Bay in the North-West region of Russia, the locations of peaceful nuclear explosions, experimental nuclear power plants, a radiochemical laboratory, and metallurgical plants, that do not belong to radiation facilities, has been studied. It has been established that, besides the surface contamination of the soil, areas of radioactive contamination on sites of decommissioned radiation facilities with significant depth up to 15 m along the profile are available. These local zones with depth soil contamination are persistent contaminants of the groundwater. The experience in the radiation survey of the peaceful nuclear explosions sites shows the removal of radionuclides from cavities, formed with the use of nuclear explosive technologies for peaceful purposes, on the earth’s surface. An optimized list of radionuclides to be monitored during the radiological survey of rehabilitated facilities was proposed based on the analysis of the composition of radionuclides detected at radiation sites subjected to decontamination. The optimized list includes 14 radionuclides with the half-lives of more than three years. 

  10. Radiation survey meters used for environmental monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjerke, H.; Sigurdsson, T.; Meier Pedersen, K.; Grindborg, J.-E.; Persson, L.; Siiskonen, T.; Hakanen, A.; Kosunen, A.

    2012-01-01

    The Nordic dosimetry group set up the GammaRate project to investigate how its expertise could be used to assure appropriate usage of survey meters in environmental monitoring. Considerable expertise in calibrating radiation instruments exists in the Nordic radiation protection authorities. The Swedish, Finnish, Danish and Norwegian authorities operate Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs) that provide users with calibration traceable to internationally recognised primary standards. These authorities together with the Icelandic authorities have formally cooperated since 2002 in the field of radiation dosimetry. Dosimetry is the base for assesment of risk from ionising radiation and calibration of instruments is an imported part in dosimetry. The Nordic dosimetry group has been focused on cancer therapy. This work extends the cooperation to the dosimetry of radiation protection and environmental monitoring. This report contains the formal, theoretical and practical background for survey meter measurements. Nordic standards dosimetry laboratories have the capability to provide traceable calibration of instruments in various types of radiation. To verify and explore this further in radiation protection applications a set of survey instruments were sent between the five Nordic countries and each of the authority asked to provide a calibration coefficient for all instruments. The measurement results were within the stated uncertainties, except for some results from NRPA for the ionchamber based instrument. The comparison was shown to be a valuable tool to harmonize the calibration of radiation protection instruments in the Nordic countries. Dosimetry plays an important role in the emergency situations, and it is clear that better traceability and harmonised common guidelines will improve the emergency preparedness and health. (Author)

  11. Radiation survey meters used for environmental monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjerke, H. (ed.) (Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, NRPA (Norway)); Sigurdsson, T. (Icelandic Radiation Safety Authority, Geislavarnir Rikisins, GR (IS)); Meier Pedersen, K. (National Board of Health, Statens Institut for Straalebeskyttelse (SIS) (Denmark)); Grindborg, J.-E.; Persson, L. (Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, Straalsaekerhetsmyndigheten (SSM) (Sweden)); Siiskonen, T.; Hakanen, A.; Kosunen, A. (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Saeteilyturvakeskus (STUK) (Finland))

    2012-01-15

    The Nordic dosimetry group set up the GammaRate project to investigate how its expertise could be used to assure appropriate usage of survey meters in environmental monitoring. Considerable expertise in calibrating radiation instruments exists in the Nordic radiation protection authorities. The Swedish, Finnish, Danish and Norwegian authorities operate Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs) that provide users with calibration traceable to internationally recognised primary standards. These authorities together with the Icelandic authorities have formally cooperated since 2002 in the field of radiation dosimetry. Dosimetry is the base for assesment of risk from ionising radiation and calibration of instruments is an imported part in dosimetry. The Nordic dosimetry group has been focused on cancer therapy. This work extends the cooperation to the dosimetry of radiation protection and environmental monitoring. This report contains the formal, theoretical and practical background for survey meter measurements. Nordic standards dosimetry laboratories have the capability to provide traceable calibration of instruments in various types of radiation. To verify and explore this further in radiation protection applications a set of survey instruments were sent between the five Nordic countries and each of the authority asked to provide a calibration coefficient for all instruments. The measurement results were within the stated uncertainties, except for some results from NRPA for the ionchamber based instrument. The comparison was shown to be a valuable tool to harmonize the calibration of radiation protection instruments in the Nordic countries. Dosimetry plays an important role in the emergency situations, and it is clear that better traceability and harmonised common guidelines will improve the emergency preparedness and health. (Author)

  12. Survey of Canadian hospitals radiation emergency plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, C [Social Data Research Ltd./The Flett Consulting Group, Inc., Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    1996-02-01

    This report documents the findings of a survey of Canadian hospitals conducted by Social Data Research Ltd. during the Spring and Summer, 1995. The main objective of the survey was to determine the state of readiness of Canadian hospitals in respect of radiation emergency planning. In addition, the AECB was interested in knowing the extent to which a report by the Group of Medical Advisors, `GMA-3: Guidelines on Hospital Emergency Plans for the Management of Minor Radiation Accidents`, which was sponsored and distributed in 1993, was received and was useful to hospital administrators and emergency personnel. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 598 acute care hospitals, and 274 responses were received. The main conclusion of this study is that, with the exception of a few large institutions, hospitals generally do not have specific action plans to handle minor radiation accidents. (author).

  13. Survey of international personnel radiation dosimetry programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swaja, R.E.

    1985-04-01

    In September of 1983, a mail survey was conducted to determine the status of external personnel gamma and neutron radiation dosimetry programs at international agencies. A total of 130 agencies participated in this study including military, regulatory, university, hospital, laboratory, and utility facilities. Information concerning basic dosimeter types, calibration sources, calibration phantoms, corrections to dosimeter responses, evaluating agencies, dose equivalent reporting conventions, ranges of typical or expected dose equivalents, and degree of satisfaction with existing systems was obtained for the gamma and neutron personnel monitoring programs at responding agencies. Results of this survey indicate that to provide the best possible occupational radiation monitoring programs and to improve dosimetry accuracy in performance studies, facility dosimetrists, regulatory and standards agencies, and research laboratories must act within their areas of responsibility to become familiar with their radiation monitoring systems, establish common reporting guidelines and performance standards, and provide opportunities for dosimetry testing and evaluation. 14 references, 10 tables

  14. Survey of Canadian hospitals radiation emergency plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, C.

    1996-02-01

    This report documents the findings of a survey of Canadian hospitals conducted by Social Data Research Ltd. during the Spring and Summer, 1995. The main objective of the survey was to determine the state of readiness of Canadian hospitals in respect of radiation emergency planning. In addition, the AECB was interested in knowing the extent to which a report by the Group of Medical Advisors, 'GMA-3: Guidelines on Hospital Emergency Plans for the Management of Minor Radiation Accidents', which was sponsored and distributed in 1993, was received and was useful to hospital administrators and emergency personnel. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 598 acute care hospitals, and 274 responses were received. The main conclusion of this study is that, with the exception of a few large institutions, hospitals generally do not have specific action plans to handle minor radiation accidents. (author)

  15. 2003 survey of Canadian radiation oncology residents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yee, Don; Fairchild, Alysa; Keyes, Mira; Butler, Jim; Dundas, George

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Radiation oncology's popularity as a career in Canada has surged in the past 5 years. Consequently, resident numbers in Canadian radiation oncology residencies are at all-time highs. This study aimed to survey Canadian radiation oncology residents about their opinions of their specialty and training experiences. Methods and Materials: Residents of Canadian radiation oncology residencies that enroll trainees through the Canadian Resident Matching Service were identified from a national database. Residents were mailed an anonymous survey. Results: Eight of 101 (7.9%) potential respondents were foreign funded. Fifty-two of 101 (51.5%) residents responded. A strong record of graduating its residents was the most important factor residents considered when choosing programs. Satisfaction with their program was expressed by 92.3% of respondents, and 94.3% expressed satisfaction with their specialty. Respondents planning to practice in Canada totaled 80.8%, and 76.9% plan to have academic careers. Respondents identified job availability and receiving adequate teaching from preceptors during residency as their most important concerns. Conclusions: Though most respondents are satisfied with their programs and specialty, job availability and adequate teaching are concerns. In the future, limited time and resources and the continued popularity of radiation oncology as a career will magnify the challenge of training competent radiation oncologists in Canada

  16. Multiagency radiation survey and site investigation manual (MARSSIM): Survey design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abelquist, E.W.; Berger, J.D.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the MultiAgency Radiation Survey and Site Investigation Manual (MARSSIM) strategy for designing a final status survey. The purpose of the final status survey is to demonstrate that release criteria established by the regulatory agency have been met. Survey design begins with identification of the contaminants and determination of whether the radionuclides of concern exist in background. The decommissioned site is segregated into Class 1, Class 2, and Class 3 areas, based on contamination potential, and each area is further divided into survey units. Appropriate reference areas for indoor and outdoor background measurements are selected. Survey instrumentation and techniques are selected in order to assure that the instrumentation is capable of detecting the contamination at the derived concentration guideline level (DCGL). Survey reference systems are established and the number of survey data points is determined-with the required number of data points distributed on a triangular grid Pattern. Two suitistical tests are used to evaluate data from final status surveys. For contaminants that are b, present in background, the Wilcoxon Rank Sum test is used; for contaminants that are not present in background, the Wilcoxon Signed Rank (or Sign) test is used. The number of data points needed to satisfy these nonparametric tests is based on the contaminant DCGL value, the expected Standard deviation of the contaminant in background and in the survey unit, and the acceptable probability of making Type I and Type II decision errors. The MARSSIM also requires a reasonable level of assurance that any small areas of elevated residual radioactivity that could be significant relative to regulatory limits are not missed during the final status survey. Measurements and sampling on a specified grid size are used to obtain an adequate assurance level that small locations of elevated radioactivity will Still satisfy DCGLs-applicable to small areas

  17. Radiation surveys of radioactive material shipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, W.P.

    1986-07-01

    Although contractors function under the guidance of the Department of Energy, there is often substantial variation in the methods and techniques utilized in making radiation measurements. When radioactive materials are shipped from one contractor to another, the measurements recorded on the shipping papers may vary significantly from those measured by the receiver and has been a frequent cause of controversy between contractors. Although significant variances occur in both measurements of radiation fields emanating from shipment containers and measurements of residual radioactivity on the surfaces of the containers, the latter have been the most troublesome. This report describes the measurement of contamination on the exterior surfaces of shipment containers

  18. Pediatric radiation therapy. A Japanese nationwide survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemoto, Kenji; Nagata, Yasushi; Hirokawa, Yutaka

    2006-01-01

    A national survey on the current status of pediatric radiation therapy was performed in October 2004. We sent questionnaires to 638 radiotherapy facilities in Japan (except for Kansai area) and 245 responses were analyzed. According to the database of committee of Japanese Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (JASTRO), the number of pediatric patients who received radiation therapy during 2003 in Japan was 1,101. The most frequent pediatric malignancy was brain tumor, followed by leukemia and lymphoma. The total effort of radiation therapy for children was two to six times larger than that for adult patients. An additional fee seems to be necessary for the highly technical and laborious radiation therapy required for children. (author)

  19. Survey of random surface theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froehlich, J.

    1985-01-01

    The author describes some recent results in random surface theory. Attention is focused on those developments which are relevant for a quantum theory of strings. Some general remarks on the status of mathematical quantum field theory are included at the beginning. (orig.)

  20. Radiation curable coatings having nonadherent surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaske, J.E.; Georgas, N.T.

    1977-01-01

    Radiation polymerizable coatings having nonadherent surfaces are provided utilizing nonaqueous emulsions of a liquid alkyl hydrogen polysiloxane in a radiation polymerizable polyethylenic liquid. Polyacrylates in combination with amines, and ultraviolet photosensitizers are particularly contemplated for rapid nonair inhibited ultraviolet cure. 13 claims

  1. Structured thermal surface for radiative camouflage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Bai, Xue; Yang, Tianzhi; Luo, Hailu; Qiu, Cheng-Wei

    2018-01-18

    Thermal camouflage has been successful in the conductive regime, where thermal metamaterials embedded in a conductive system can manipulate heat conduction inside the bulk. Most reported approaches are background-dependent and not applicable to radiative heat emitted from the surface of the system. A coating with engineered emissivity is one option for radiative camouflage, but only when the background has uniform temperature. Here, we propose a strategy for radiative camouflage of external objects on a given background using a structured thermal surface. The device is non-invasive and restores arbitrary background temperature distributions on its top. For many practical candidates of the background material with similar emissivity as the device, the object can thereby be radiatively concealed without a priori knowledge of the host conductivity and temperature. We expect this strategy to meet the demands of anti-detection and thermal radiation manipulation in complex unknown environments and to inspire developments in phononic and photonic thermotronics.

  2. Methodical recommendations for power unit comprehensive engineering and radiation survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nosovskij, A.V.

    2000-01-01

    The article describes power unit radiation survey methods developed and applied during conduction of Ch NPP unit I Comprehensive Engineering Radiation Survey. Special requirements for units under decommissioning, main survey principals, criteria for definition of volume and the order of survey for various systems of a NPP Unit are included

  3. Literature survey: health effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tveten, U.; Garder, K.

    This report was originally written as a chapter of a report entitled 'Air pollution effects of electric power generation, a literature survey', written jointly by the Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU) and the Institutt for Atomenergi (IFA). (INIS RN242406). A survey is presented of the health effects of radiation. It has not, however, been the intention of the authors to make a complete list of all the literature relevant to this subject. The NILU/IFA report was meant as a first step towards a method of comparing the health effects of electric power generation by fission, gas and oil. Consequently information relevant to quantification of the health effects on humans has been selected. It is pointed out that quantitative information on the health effects of low radiation and dose rates, as are relevant to routine releases, does not exist for humans. The convention of linear extrapolation from higher doses and dose rates is used worldwide, but it is felt by most that the estimates are conservative. As an example of the use of the current best estimates, a calculation of normal release radiation doses is performed. (Auth.)

  4. A microprocessor based mobile radiation survey system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, R.W.; McCormack, W.D.

    1984-01-01

    A microprocessor-based system has been designed and constructed to enhance the performance of routine radiation surveys on roads within the Hanford site. This device continually monitors system performance and output from four sodium iodide detectors mounted on the rear bumper of a 4-wheel drive truck. The gamma radiation count rate in counts-per-second is monitored, and a running average computed, with the results compared to predefined limits. If an abnormal instantaneous or average count rate is detected, an alarm is sounded with responsible data displayed on a liquid crystal panel in the cab of the vehicle. The system also has the capability to evaluate detector output using multiple time constants and to perform more complex tests and comparison of the data. Data can be archived for later analysis on conventional chart recorders or stored in digital form on magnetic tape or other digital storage media

  5. Microprocessor based mobile radiation survey system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, R.W.; McCormack, W.D.

    1983-12-01

    A microprocessor-based system has been designed and constructed to enhance the performance of routine radiation surveys on roads within the Hanford site. This device continually monitors system performance and output from four sodium iodide detectors mounted on the rear bumper of a 4-wheel drive truck. The gamma radiation count rate in counts-per-second is monitored, and a running average computed, with the results compared to predefined limits. If an abnormal instantaneous or average count rate is detected, an alarm is sounded with responsible data displayed on a liquid crystal panel in the cab of the vehicle. The system also has the capability to evaluate detector output using multiple time constants and to perform more complex tests and comparison of the data. Data can be archived for later analysis on conventional chart recorders or stored in digital form on magnetic tape or other digital storage media. 4 figures

  6. Survey on radiation practices in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    This book introduces outline of the survey with title, purpose, target, timing and composition of statistical data, explanation of terms. It consists of three parts about statistical tables. The first part has state of licensed organizations with number of licensed users by category of organizations, utilization by nuclides and by usage purpose and regional distribution of RI using Hospitals and clinics. The second parts deals with production and import with state of production and import, import by category of organizations and by nuclides and annual trend of production and import. The third part includes radiation safety management with collection of radioactive wastes and annual collect of sealed RI wastes.

  7. Radiative Transfer Model for Contaminated Rough Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    reflectance of potassium chlorate and ammonium nitrate contaminated surfaces in mid-wavelength and long-wavelength infrared for detection. Our framework...obtained excellent or good results for lab measurements of potassium chlorate on most aluminum surfaces; however, ammonium nitrate on painted aluminum...misidentify potassium chlorate as ammonium nitrate and vice versa). We also observed moderate success on field data. 15. SUBJECT TERMS radiative

  8. Radiation and contamination survey of the Terengganu offshore facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amran Abd Majid; Sukiman Sarmani

    1995-01-01

    It is well known that low specific activity of technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials (LSA TENORM) such as U-238 and Th-232 and their daughter products have been associated with oil and gas fields. For the period of October 1988 and August 1989 UKM personels were involved in conducting the radiation and contamination survey at several offshore platforms in Terengganu. The results showed that the maximum external and internal radiation levels was 0. 45 μSv/hr whereas the maximum surface contamination level was 0. 124 Bq cm sup -2. These results indicate that the levels were below the level prescribed by the Malaysian Atomic Energy Licensing Board. However, several measures still need to be considered for the safety of the workers and will be discussed in this paper. (author)

  9. Surface Contamination Monitor and Survey Information Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    Shonka Research Associates, Inc.`s (SRA) Surface Contamination Monitor and Survey Information management System (SCM/SIMS) is designed to perform alpha and beta radiation surveys of floors and surfaces and document the measured data. The SRA-SCM/SIMS technology can be applied to routine operational surveys, characterization surveys, and free release and site closure surveys. Any large nuclear site can make use of this technology. This report describes a demonstration of the SRA-SCM/SIMS technology. This demonstration is part of the chicago Pile-5 (CP-5) Large-Scale Demonstration Project (LSDP) sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science and Technology (ST), Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA). The objective of the LSDP is to select and demonstrate potentially beneficial technologies at the Argonne National Laboratory-East`s (ANL) CP-5 Research Reactor Facility. The purpose of the LSDP is to demonstrate that by using innovative and improved deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) technologies from various sources, significant benefits can be achieved when compared to baseline D and D technologies.

  10. Surface Contamination Monitor and Survey Information Management System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-02-01

    Shonka Research Associates, Inc.'s (SRA) Surface Contamination Monitor and Survey Information management System (SCM/SIMS) is designed to perform alpha and beta radiation surveys of floors and surfaces and document the measured data. The SRA-SCM/SIMS technology can be applied to routine operational surveys, characterization surveys, and free release and site closure surveys. Any large nuclear site can make use of this technology. This report describes a demonstration of the SRA-SCM/SIMS technology. This demonstration is part of the chicago Pile-5 (CP-5) Large-Scale Demonstration Project (LSDP) sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science and Technology (ST), Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA). The objective of the LSDP is to select and demonstrate potentially beneficial technologies at the Argonne National Laboratory-East's (ANL) CP-5 Research Reactor Facility. The purpose of the LSDP is to demonstrate that by using innovative and improved deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) technologies from various sources, significant benefits can be achieved when compared to baseline D and D technologies

  11. Evaluation of Arctic broadband surface radiation measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, N.; Long, C. N.; Augustine, J.; Halliwell, D.; Uttal, T.; Longenecker, D.; Niebergall, O.; Wendell, J.; Albee, R.

    2012-02-01

    The Arctic is a challenging environment for making in-situ surface radiation measurements. A standard suite of radiation sensors is typically designed to measure incoming and outgoing shortwave (SW) and thermal infrared, or longwave (LW), radiation. Enhancements may include various sensors for measuring irradiance in narrower bandwidths. Many solar radiation/thermal infrared flux sensors utilize protective glass domes and some are mounted on complex mechanical platforms (solar trackers) that keep sensors and shading devices trained on the sun along its diurnal path. High quality measurements require striking a balance between locating stations in a pristine undisturbed setting free of artificial blockage (such as from buildings and towers) and providing accessibility to allow operators to clean and maintain the instruments. Three significant sources of erroneous data in the Arctic include solar tracker malfunctions, rime/frost/snow deposition on the protective glass domes of the radiometers and operational problems due to limited operator access in extreme weather conditions. In this study, comparisons are made between the global and component sum (direct [vertical component] + diffuse) SW measurements. The difference between these two quantities (that theoretically should be zero) is used to illustrate the magnitude and seasonality of arctic radiation flux measurement problems. The problem of rime/frost/snow deposition is investigated in more detail for one case study utilizing both SW and LW measurements. Solutions to these operational problems that utilize measurement redundancy, more sophisticated heating and ventilation strategies and a more systematic program of operational support and subsequent data quality protocols are proposed.

  12. A radiation analysis of lunar surface habitats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Angelis, G.; Wilson, J.W.; Tripathi, R.K.; Clowdsley, M.S.; Nealy, J.E.

    2003-01-01

    An analysis is performed on the radiation environment found on the surface of the Moon, and applied to different possible lunar base mission scenarios. An optimization technique has been used to minimize the astronaut radiation exposure and at the same time control the effect of shielding, in terms of mass addition and material choice, as a mission cost driver. The optimization process performs minimization of mass along all phases of a mission scenario, considered in terms of time frame, equipment, location, crew characteristics and performance required, radiation exposure annual and career limit constraints (those proposed in NCRP 132), and implementation of the ALARA principle. In the lunar environment manned habitats are to host future crews involved in the construction and/or in the utilization of moon based infrastructure. Three different kinds of lunar missions are considered in the analysis, Moon Base Construction Phase, during which astronauts are on the surface just to build an outpost for future resident crews, Moon Base Outpost Phase, during which astronaut crews are resident but continuing exploration and installation activities, and Moon Base Routine Phase, with shifting resident crews. In each scenario various kinds of habitats, from very simple shelters to more complex bases, are considered in detail (e.g. shape, thickness, materials, etc) with considerations of various shielding strategies. The results for all scenarios clearly showed that the direct exposure to the space environment like in transfers and EVAs phases gives the most of the dose, with the proposed shielded habitats and shelters giving quite a good protection from radiation. Operational constraints on hardware and scenarios have all been considered by the optimization techniques. Within the limits of this preliminary analysis, the three Moon Base related mission scenarios are perfectly feasible from the astronaut radiation safety point of view with the currently adopted and proposed

  13. Robotic radiation survey and analysis system for radiation waste casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thunborg, S.

    1987-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratories have been involved in the development of remote systems technology concepts for handling defense high-level waste (DHLW) shipping casks at the waste repository. This effort was demonstrated the feasibility of using this technology for handling DHLW casks. These investigations have also shown that cask design can have a major effect on the feasibility of remote cask handling. Consequently, SNL has initiated a program to determine cask features necessary for robotic remote handling at the waste repository. The initial cask handling task selected for detailed investigation was the robotic radiation survey and analysis (RRSAS) task. In addition to determining the design features required for robotic cask handling, the RRSAS project contributes to the definition of techniques for random selection of swipe locations, the definition of robotic swipe parameters, force control techniques for robotic swipes, machine vision techniques for the location of objects in 3-D, repository robotic systems requirements, and repository data management system needs

  14. Laser surface cladding:a literature survey

    OpenAIRE

    Gedda, Hans

    2000-01-01

    This work consists of a literature survey of a laser surface cladding in order to investigate techniques to improve the cladding rate for the process. The high local heat input caused by the high power density of the laser generates stresses and the process is consider as slow when large areas are processed. To avoid these disadvantages the laser cladding process velocity can be increased three or four times by use of preheated wire instead of the powder delivery system. If laser cladding is ...

  15. Evaluation of Arctic broadband surface radiation measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Matsui

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic is a challenging environment for making in-situ surface radiation measurements. A standard suite of radiation sensors is typically designed to measure incoming and outgoing shortwave (SW and thermal infrared, or longwave (LW, radiation. Enhancements may include various sensors for measuring irradiance in narrower bandwidths. Many solar radiation/thermal infrared flux sensors utilize protective glass domes and some are mounted on complex mechanical platforms (solar trackers that keep sensors and shading devices trained on the sun along its diurnal path. High quality measurements require striking a balance between locating stations in a pristine undisturbed setting free of artificial blockage (such as from buildings and towers and providing accessibility to allow operators to clean and maintain the instruments. Three significant sources of erroneous data in the Arctic include solar tracker malfunctions, rime/frost/snow deposition on the protective glass domes of the radiometers and operational problems due to limited operator access in extreme weather conditions. In this study, comparisons are made between the global and component sum (direct [vertical component] + diffuse SW measurements. The difference between these two quantities (that theoretically should be zero is used to illustrate the magnitude and seasonality of arctic radiation flux measurement problems. The problem of rime/frost/snow deposition is investigated in more detail for one case study utilizing both SW and LW measurements. Solutions to these operational problems that utilize measurement redundancy, more sophisticated heating and ventilation strategies and a more systematic program of operational support and subsequent data quality protocols are proposed.

  16. A background radiation survey along the transcontinental railway in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minato, Susumu; Kodaira, Kazuo; Ito, Masaru

    1995-01-01

    This article reports a survey, carried out during a period from October 31 to November 3, 1994 in Australia, as well as some basic techniques of train-borne measurements for estimating outdoor gamma-ray dose rates. Surface rock and bedrock data are presented for convenience for geological analysis. Cosmic-ray dose rates estimated from atmospheric pressure data are also presented for researchers who are interested in total background radiation dose rates. It was found that gamma levels can be high in the western area. The dose rate data were based on the shielding correction factor evaluated at platforms in many stations. To confirm the validity of this method, the data from train-borne surveys in central Japan were compared with the present Australian data. There were, to some extent, correlations between them. The present study suggests that the train-borne measurements are useful for surveying wide area in a short time with an error of about 20%. (N.K.)

  17. The influence of the solar radiation model on the calcutated solar radiation from a horizontal surface to a tilted surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Lund, Hans; Furbo, Simon

    2004-01-01

    Measured solar radiation data are most commonly available as total solar radiation on a horizontal surface. When using solar radiation measured on horizontal to calculate the solar radiation on tilted surfaces and thereby the thermal performance of different applications such as buildings and solar...... heating systems, different solar radiation models can be used. The calculation of beam radiation from a horizontal surface to a tilted surface can be done exactly whereas different solar radiation models can calculate the sky diffuse radiation. The sky diffuse radiation can either be assumed evenly...... in the calculation. The weather data are measured at the solar radiation measurement station, SMS at the Department of Civil Engineering at the Technical University of Denmark. In this study the weather data are combined with solar collector calculations based on solar collector test carried out at Solar Energy...

  18. A survey on classical minimal surface theory

    CERN Document Server

    Meeks, William H

    2012-01-01

    Meeks and Pérez present a survey of recent spectacular successes in classical minimal surface theory. The classification of minimal planar domains in three-dimensional Euclidean space provides the focus of the account. The proof of the classification depends on the work of many currently active leading mathematicians, thus making contact with much of the most important results in the field. Through the telling of the story of the classification of minimal planar domains, the general mathematician may catch a glimpse of the intrinsic beauty of this theory and the authors' perspective of what is happening at this historical moment in a very classical subject. This book includes an updated tour through some of the recent advances in the theory, such as Colding-Minicozzi theory, minimal laminations, the ordering theorem for the space of ends, conformal structure of minimal surfaces, minimal annular ends with infinite total curvature, the embedded Calabi-Yau problem, local pictures on the scale of curvature and t...

  19. Survey for youth about life and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washino, Ikumi; Ozaki, Fumihiko; Ukai, Mitsuko

    2007-01-01

    In accordance with the basic law on nutritional education of Japan, it is important to provide children with an awareness to pay attention to their diets when more and more children are developing poor eating habits, such as missioning breakfast and eating too much junk food. WEN (Women Energy Network) of Japan investigated the consciousness of Japanese high-school and college students for life and radiations by questionnaires. Questionnaires on food safety and radiation applications toward about 100 students were analyzed to have information about their feeling and knowledge of radiations as well as food. Food irradiation technology, as particularly effective in controlling food-borne spoilage microorganisms in refrigerated meat and sprout inhibition of potatoes was hardly understood by youth. In conclusion, it is essential that youth should be informed of adequate knowledge on health education that what are radiations and also radiation applications. (S. Ohno)

  20. Harmonics radiation of graphene surface plasmon polaritons in terahertz regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, D., E-mail: dazhi_li@hotmail.com [Institute for Laser Technology, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Wang, Y. [School of Physical Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Nakajima, M. [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Hashida, M. [Advanced Research Center for Beam Science, ICR, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Wei, Y. [School of Physical Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Miyamoto, S. [Laboratory of Advanced Science and Technology for Industry, University of Hyogo, Ako, Hyogo 678-1205 (Japan)

    2016-06-03

    This letter presents an approach to extract terahertz radiation from surface plasmon polaritons excited in the surface of a uniform graphene structure by an electron beam. A sidewall configuration is proposed to lift the surface plasmon mode to be close to the light line, so that some of its harmonics have chances to go above the light line and become radiative. The harmonics are considered to be excited by a train of periodic electron bunches. The physical mechanism in this scheme is analyzed with three-dimensional theory, and the harmonics excitation and radiation are demonstrated through numerical calculations. The results show that this technique could be an alternative to transform the surface plasmon polaritons into radiation. - Highlights: • An approach to extract terahertz radiation from graphene surface plasmon polaritons is presented. • A sidewall configuration is proposed to lift the surface plasmon mode. • Harmonics of surface plasmon polaritons are possible to radiate.

  1. Radiation survey at video display terminals (VDTs): a credibility issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deitchman, R.; Gross, L.

    1986-01-01

    New York Telephone and Harvard University routinely monitor video display terminals as part of employee education or office design projects. Measurements are made with sensitive geiger end window or pancake detectors at the screen surface. In previous years all measurements indicated no difference from background levels in the occupied space. Recently, some newer VDTs were found to have measurable levels consistently above normal background at the screen surface. A gamma spectral analysis was made of one of the VDTs using a high resolution Ge-Li gamma ray detector coupled to a multi-channel gamma ray spectrometer. A slightly elevated potassium-40 level was detected and it was hypothesized that the potassium-40 was contained in the glass of the screen surface. The authors recommend that VDTs should be surveyed with the unit turned off to determine if the source of elevated readings may be in the glass. They also recommend expert advice in determining the proper radiation monitoring instrumentation for use in making these measurements

  2. Lunar surface fission power supplies: Radiation issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houts, M.G.; Lee, S.K.

    1994-01-01

    A lunar space fission power supply shield that uses a combination of lunar regolith and materials brought from earth may be optimal for early lunar outposts and bases. This type of shield can be designed such that the fission power supply does not have to be moved from its landing configuration, minimizing handling and required equipment on the lunar surface. Mechanisms for removing heat from the lunar regolith are built into the shield, and can be tested on earth. Regolith activation is greatly reduced compared with a shield that uses only regolith, and it is possible to keep the thermal conditions of the fission power supply close to these seen in free space. For a well designed shield, the additional mass required to be brought fro earth should be less than 1000 kg. Detailed radiation transport calculations confirm the feasibility of such a shield

  3. Lunar surface fission power supplies: Radiation issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houts, M.G.; Lee, S.K.

    1994-01-01

    A lunar space fission power supply shield that uses a combination of lunar regolith and materials brought from earth may be optimal for early lunar outposts and bases. This type of shield can be designed such that the fission power supply does not have to be moved from its landing configuration, minimizing handling and required equipment on the lunar surface. Mechanisms for removing heat from the lunar regolith are built into the shield, and can be tested on earth. Regolith activation is greatly reduced compared with a shield that uses only regolith, and it is possible to keep the thermal conditions of the fission power supply close to those seen in free space. For a well designed shield, the additional mass required to be brought from earth should be less than 1,000 kg. Detailed radiation transport calculations confirm the feasibility of such a shield

  4. Radiation effects on lead silicate glass surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, P.W.; Zhang, L.P.; Borgen, N.; Pannell, K.

    1996-01-01

    Radiation-induced changes in the microstructure of lead silicate glass were investigated in situ under Mg K α irradiation in an ultra-high vacuum (UHV) environment by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Lead-oxygen bond breaking resulting in the formation of pure lead was observed. The segregation, growth kinetics and the structural relaxation of the lead, with corresponding changes in the oxygen and silicon on the glass surfaces were studied by measuring the time-dependent changes in concentration, binding energy shifts, and the full width at half maximum. A bimodal distribution of the oxygen XPS signal, caused by bridging and non-bridging oxygens, was found during the relaxation process. All experimental data indicate a reduction of the oxygen concentration, a phase separation of the lead from the glass matrix, and the metallization of the lead occurred during and after the X-ray irradiation. (author)

  5. Surface radiation fluxes in transient climate simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garratt, J. R.; O'Brien, D. M.; Dix, M. R.; Murphy, J. M.; Stephens, G. L.; Wild, M.

    1999-01-01

    Transient CO 2 experiments from five coupled climate models, in which the CO 2 concentration increases at rates of 0.6-1.1% per annum for periods of 75-200 years, are used to document the responses of surface radiation fluxes, and associated atmospheric properties, to the CO 2 increase. In all five models, the responses of global surface temperature and column water vapour are non-linear and fairly tightly constrained. Thus, global warming lies between 1.9 and 2.7 K at doubled, and between 3.1 and 4.1 K at tripled, CO 2, whilst column water vapour increases by between 3.5 and 4.5 mm at doubled, and between 7 and 8 mm at tripled, CO 2. Global cloud fraction tends to decrease by 1-2% out to tripled CO 2, mainly the result of decreases in low cloud. Global increases in column water, and differences in these increases between models, are mainly determined by the warming of the tropical oceans relative to the middle and high latitudes; these links are emphasised in the zonal profiles of warming and column water vapour increase, with strong water vapour maxima in the tropics. In all models the all-sky shortwave flux to the surface S↓ (global, annual average) changes by less than 5 W m -2 out to tripled CO 2, in some cases being essentially invariant in time. In contrast, the longwave flux to the surface L↓ increases significantly, by 25 W m -2 typically at tripled CO 2. The variations of S↓ and L↓ (clear-sky and all-sky fluxes) with increase in CO 2 concentration are generally non-linear, reflecting the effects of ocean thermal inertia, but as functions of global warming are close to linear in all five models. This is best illustrated for the clear-sky downwelling fluxes, and the net radiation. Regionally, as illustrated in zonal profiles and global distributions, greatest changes in both S↓ and L↓ are the result primarily of local maxima in warming and column water vapour increases.

  6. [Wing 1 radiation survey and contamination report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, K.

    1991-01-01

    We have completed the 5480.11 survey for Wing 1. All area(s)/item(s) requested by the 5480.11 committee have been thoroughly surveyed and documented. Decontamination/disposal of contaminated items has been accomplished. The wing 1 survey was started on 8/13/90 and completed 9/18/90. However, the follow-up surveys were not completed until 2/18/91. We received the final set of smear samples for wing 1 on 1/13/91. A total of 5,495 smears were taken from wing 1 and total of 465 smears were taken during the follow-up surveys. There were a total 122 items found to have fixed contamination and 4 items with smearable contamination in excess of the limits specified in DOE ORDER 5480.11 (AR 3-7). The following area(s)/item(s) were not included in the 5480.11 survey: Hallways, Access panels, Men's and women's change rooms, Janitor closets, Wall lockers and item(s) stored in wing 1 hallways and room 1116. If our contract is renewed, we will include those areas in our survey according to your request of April 15, 1991

  7. Research progress in airborne surveys of terrestrial gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burson, Z.G.

    1974-01-01

    Progress during the last few years in airborne surveys of terrestrial gamma radiation, i.e. in the measuring, recording, and interpreting of gamma ray signals in NaI(Tl) crystals, is discussed. Non-terrestrial background contributions have been accurately characterized. The feasibility of determining the water equivalent of snow cover by aerial survey techniques has been demonstrated. Repeat surveys over areas surrounding reactor sites can now be used to detect average differences of less than 1.0 μR/hr in terrestrial gamma radiation levels. New data acquisition and recording systems allow isotope concentrations and total inventories to be measured in spatial resolutions of a few hundred feet. Aerial survey data have been combined with population distribution data to obtain population exposure values from natural terrestrial gamma radiation around reactor sites

  8. Health survey of radiation workers. Results of questionnaire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morikawa, Kaoru; Aoyama, Takashi; Kawagoe, Yasumitsu; Sunayashiki, Tadashi; Tanaka, Kiyoshi; Nishitani, Motohiro; Yoshinaga, Nobuharu

    1998-01-01

    The Japanese Society of Radiological Technology asked radiation workers about the radiation doses and the state of their health as well as family. The reports by the Health and Welfare Ministry were referenced to compare radiation workers with others. The questionnaire was sent to about 4,000 members, and returned from 2,479. The survey showed that 684 persons (27.6%) felt health anxiety, 455 persons (18.4%) had medical check for recent one year, and 1,645 persons (66.4%) had anamnesis. Radiation doses for one year and cumulated doses varied according to engaging duration. (K.H.)

  9. Survey of radiation effect on sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M'selmi, Nadia Ammar

    2005-01-01

    The high nutrient and organic matter contents of sewage sludge make it a useful soil amandment for famers. the presence of heavy metals and pathogens poses a major problem for utilisation of sladge to agriculture land. Radiation is a convenable method of sewage treatment. (author)

  10. A knowledge and awareness level survey of radiation protection among the radiation workers in Henan Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Xiao-jun; Tian, Chong-bin; Zhang, Qin-fu; Liu, Cheng; Ding, Li

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Objective: To reveal the knowledge and awareness level of radiation protection among radiation workers in Henan province and to explore the methods to improve it. Methods: A questionnaire survey was carried out among 208 radiation workers. Results: The correct rate of the answer to radiation protection knowledge from radiation workers in Henan province is 53.78%. Most of them (88.9%) realized that it is important to protect patients and their companions. They adhere to the principles of justification of medial exposure and optimization of radiation protection and follow the management system of radiation protection. However, a few workers didn't follow the principles strictly. Sometime, during the radio diagnosis and radiotherapy services, the patients and their companions were not well protected from the radiation, and some patients were given unnecessary X-ray examine. Even worse, some workers did not attach importance to the regulations of radiation protection and disobey them frequently. Again, some hospital leaders disregard the regulation of radiation protection and didn't follow the regulation of health surveillance and radiation protection monitoring properly. And those behaviors and attitude, in fact, influence some workers' attitude to radiation protection. Conclusion: The level of radiation protection knowledge and awareness among the radiation workers in Henan province needs to be improved. It is necessary to strengthen radiation protection knowledge by strengthening training, and to improve safety awareness among the radiation staff, and, more important, the hospital leaders as well. (author)

  11. Risk management of radiation therapy. Survey by north Japan radiation therapy oncology group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Masahiko; Abe, Yoshinao; Yamada, Shogo; Hareyama, Masato; Nakamura, Ryuji; Sugita, Tadashi; Miyano, Takashi

    2004-01-01

    A North Japan Radiation Oncology Group (NJRTOG) survey was carried out to disclose the risk management of radiation therapy. During April 2002, we sent questionnaires to radiation therapy facilities in northern Japan. There were 31 replies from 27 facilities. Many incidents and accidents were reported, including old cases. Although 60% of facilities had a risk management manual and/or risk manager, only 20% had risk management manuals for radiation therapy. Eighty five percent of radiation oncologists thought that incidents may be due to a lack of manpower. Ninety percent of radiation oncologists want to know the type of cases happened in other facilities. The risk management system is still insufficient for radiation therapy. We hope that our data will be a great help to develop risk management strategies for radiation therapy for all radiation oncologists in Japan. (author)

  12. Survey of environmental radiation dose rates in Tokushima prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakama, Minoru; Imura, Hiroyoshi; Akou, Natsuki; Takeuchi, Emi; Morihiro, Yukinori

    2004-01-01

    Survey of environmental radiation dose rates in Tokushima prefecture has been carried out using a portable NaI (Tl) scintillation survey meter and a CsI(Tl) pocket type one. To our knowledge, previous several surveys in Tokushima, for example by Abe et al. (1982) and Yoshino et al. (1991), have remained to report the environmental radiation dose rates merely about the major cities, that is Tokushima City and others along the Pacific. Up to now, there have been few efforts to survey the environmental radiation dose rates about mountain valleys in Tokushima. In this work, it is remarkable that we have for the first time made surveys of environmental radiation dose rates on the 6 routes across the Sanuki mountains and inside the pier of Onaruto Bridge, 'Naruto Uzu-no-michi', in the northern area of Tokushima. In the course of present surveys, the maximum value of the environmental radiation dose rates was 0.117±0.020 μGy/h at Higetouge in Sanuki City, and then it was found that the radiation dose rates across the Sanuki mountains tend to increase slightly with approaching Kagawa area from Tokushima one. Considering geological formation around the northern side of Sanuki mountains, there are mainly geological layers of granodiorite containing in the substantial amount of naturally occurring radionuclides, 40 K, U-series, and Th-series, than other geological rocks and it was found that the terrestrial gamma-rays have effect on the environmental radiation dose rates according to the geological formation. (author)

  13. Models for prediction of global solar radiation on horizontal surface ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The estimation of global solar radiation continues to play a fundamental role in solar engineering systems and applications. This paper compares various models for estimating the average monthly global solar radiation on horizontal surface for Akure, Nigeria, using solar radiation and sunshine duration data covering years ...

  14. Radiation induced diffusion as a method to protect surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumvol, I.J.R.

    1980-01-01

    Radiation induced diffusion forms a coating adeherent and without interface on the surface of metalic substrates. This coating improves the behaviour of metal to corrosion and abrasion. The effect of radiation induced diffusion of tin and calcium on pure iron surface is described and analyzed in this work. (author) [pt

  15. Development of aerial gamma radiation survey system, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsutsumi, Masahiro; Saito, Komei; Sakamoto, Ryuichi; Nagaoka, Toshi; Moriuchi, Shigeru

    1986-05-01

    JAERI has started to develop an aerial gamma radiation survey system by a helicopter in 1980. The development of measuring instruments, the experiments in the field of natural and artificial radiation sources, and the imaginary emergency survey at a real site, were executed. This report describes mainly about the hardware and software of this system. The system consists of gamma-ray measuring instruments with NaI(Tl) scintillation detectors, microwave positioning instruments, and a data processing system for postflight data. A foreign-made geological survey system is improved on for radiation measurements. For covering the wide radiation range, detectors of various shapes and sizes are prepared, from a large volume detector, DET-1024 - four 4'' x 4'' x 16'' crystals assembly - to a 2'' diameter x 2'' NaI(Tl) crystal. Radiation and position data are recorded on a magnetic tape, and computer-processed afterwards. Moreover, scene below flight courses and internal communication are recorded on video tape with the information of clock and position superimposed. In consequence of field experiments carried out five times, basic radiation data for evaluating airborne acquired data are accumulated, and flight survey procedures are established. As more practical use, a system has been produced more compactly and functionally. Exposure rates (> 1 mR/h), energy distribution spectra, and energy window counts are obtained for radiation data. Using the Spectrum-Dose Conversion Method, the accurate exposure rates are directly calculated from pulse height spectra. Numerical tables of G(E) function converting pulse height spectra into exposures are shown in this report. As regards the analysis of survey data, process codes have been completed with either large-computer or mini-computer. (author)

  16. Benign disease in radiation therapy: a survey in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beauduin, M.; Deneufbourg, J.M.; Deneve, W.; Hermans, J.; Hoornaert, M.T.; Scalliet, P.; Spaas, P.; Vanderick, J.; Dijcke, V.; Van Houtte, P.; Vynckier, S.; Weltens, C.

    2001-01-01

    In 1996 and 2000, a survey of radiation practice in Belgium was performed by sending a questionnaire to the different centers asking their opinion and number of patients treated. There was a great similarity between the two surveys both for indications and total number of patients irradiated. For the most common indications (prevention of cheloids, heterotopic bone formation, hyperthyroid ophthalmopathy), there was a trend to use similar radiation technique following recent publications. In contrast, if the number of cases of macular degeneration is declining, the prevention of vessels restenosis is becoming more and more an indication. (authors)

  17. Underwater sediment-contact radiation survey method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.R.; St. Aubin, M.; Welch, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    The authors are striving to produce a practical system for mapping lateral distributions in gamma activity on submerged sediments. This is in response to the need for quality control and interpretation of data obtainable by sediment sampling and analyses near nuclear utilities. A prototype gamma probe has been constructed and tested. The prototype is essentially a background survey meter packaged in a 53-cm-long x 5.4-cm-diam waterproof vehicle. This usage-shaped vehicle is connected to a cable for towing in contact with bottom sediments of lakes, rivers, and coastal waters. This vehicle, or sediment probe as it is called, was initially developed for measuring sediment electrical conductances, a parameter that can be used to locate underwater areas of groundwater and contaminant upwelling. During towing, the probe does not roll or twist around its longitudinal axis by more than 10 deg, so that sensors, which have been fixed within the vehicle, can be oriented to look up, down, or sideways. In over 450 lin-km of underwater survey, only a single sediment probe has been irretrievably snagged on sunken rocks or other debris. Work in the Ottawa River near the Chalk River Laboratories has shown good agreement among point measurements of river sediment with continuous measurements using the moving probe

  18. Measurement of solar radiation at the Earth's surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartman, F. L.

    1982-01-01

    The characteristics of solar energy arriving at the surface of the Earth are defined and the history of solar measurements in the United States presented. Radiation and meteorological measurements being made at solar energy meteorological research and training sites and calibration procedures used there are outlined. Data illustrating the annual variation in daily solar radiation at Ann Arbor, Michigan and the diurnal variation in radiation at Albuquerque, New Mexico are presented. Direct normal solar radiation received at Albuquerque is contrasted with that received at Maynard, Massachusetts. Average measured global radiation for a period of one year for four locations under clear skies, 50% cloud cover, and 100% cloud cover is given and compared with the solar radiation at the top of the atmosphere. The May distribution of mean daily direct solar radiation and mean daily global solar radiation over the United States is presented. The effects of turbidity on the direct and circumsolar radiation are shown.

  19. Aerial radiation survey techniques for efficient characterization of large areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sydelko, T.; Riedhauser, S.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Accidental or intentional releases of radioactive isotopes over potentially very large surface areas can pose serious health risks to humans and ecological receptors. Timely and appropriate responses to these releases depend upon rapid and accurate characterization of impacted areas. These characterization efforts can be adversely impacted by heavy vegetation, rugged terrain, urban environments, and the presence of unknown levels of radioactivity. Aerial survey techniques have proven highly successful in measuring gamma emissions from radiological contaminates of concern quickly, efficiently, and safely. Examples of accidental releases include the unintentional distribution of uranium mining ores during transportation, the loss of uranium processing and waste materials, unintentional nuclear power plant emissions into the atmosphere, and the distribution of isotopes during major flooding events such as the one recently occurring in New Orleans. Intentional releases have occurred during the use of deleted uranium ammunition test firing and war time use by military organizations. The threat of radiological dispersion device (dirty bomb) use by terrorists is currently a major concern of many major cities worldwide. The U.S. Department of Energy, in cooperation with its Remote Sensing Laboratory and Argonne National Laboratory, has developed a sophisticated aerial measurement system for identifying the locations, types, and quantities of gamma emitting radionuclides over extremely large areas. Helicopter mounted Nal detectors are flown at low altitude and constant speed along parallel paths measuring the full spectrum of gamma activity. Analytical procedures are capable of distinguishing between radiological contamination and changes in natural background emissions. Mapped and tabular results of these accurate, timely and cost effective aerial gamma radiation surveys can be used to assist with emergency response actions, if necessary, and to focus more

  20. Simulation of Solar Radiation Incident on Horizontal and Inclined Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Basunia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A computer model was developed to simulate the hourly, daily and monthly average of daily solar radiation on horizontal and inclined surfaces. The measured hourly and daily solar radiation was compared with simulated radiation, and favourable agreement was observed for the measured and predicted values on clear days. The measured and simulated monthly averages of total (diffuse and beam daily solar radiation were compared and a reasonable agreement was observed for a number of stations in Japan. The simulation showed that during the rice harvesting season, September to October, there is a daily average of 14.7 MJ/m2 of solar irradiation on a horizontal surface in Matsuyama, Japan. There is a similar amount of solar radiation on a horizontal surface during the major rice harvesting season, November to December, in Bangladesh. This radiation can be effectively utilized for drying rough rice and other farm crops.

  1. New generation low power radiation survey instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waechter, D.A.; Bjarke, G.O.; Trujillo, F.; Umbarger, C.J.; Wolf, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    A number of new, ultra-low-powered radiation instruments have recently been developed at Los Alamos. Among these are two instruments which use a novel power source to eliminate costly batteries. The newly developed gamma detecting radiac, nicknamed the Firefly, and the alpha particle detecting instrument, called the Simple Cordless Alpha Monitor, both use recent advances in miniaturization and powersaving electronics to yield devices which are small, rugged, and very power-frugal. The two instruments consume so little power that the need for batteries to run them is eliminated. They are, instead, powered by a charged capacitor which will operate the instruments for an hour or more. Use of a capacitor as a power source eliminates many problems commonly associated with battery-operated instruments, such as having to open the case to change batteries, battery storage life, availability of batteries in the field, and some savings in weight. Both line power and mechanical sources are used to charge the storage capacitors which power the instruments

  2. Position-sensitive radiation monitoring (surface contamination monitor). Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-06-01

    The Shonka Research Associates, Inc. Position-Sensitive Radiation Monitor both detects surface radiation and prepares electronic survey map/survey report of surveyed area automatically. The electronically recorded map can be downloaded to a personal computer for review and a map/report can be generated for inclusion in work packages. Switching from beta-gamma detection to alpha detection is relatively simple and entails moving a switch position to alpha and adjusting the voltage level to an alpha detection level. No field calibration is required when switching from beta-gamma to alpha detection. The system can be used for free-release surveys because it meets the federal detection level sensitivity limits requires for surface survey instrumentation. This technology is superior to traditionally-used floor contamination monitor (FCM) and hand-held survey instrumentation because it can precisely register locations of radioactivity and accurately correlate contamination levels to specific locations. Additionally, it can collect and store continuous radiological data in database format, which can be used to produce real-time imagery as well as automated graphics of survey data. Its flexible design can accommodate a variety of detectors. The cost of the innovative technology is 13% to 57% lower than traditional methods. This technology is suited for radiological surveys of flat surfaces at US Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facility decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) sites or similar public or commercial sites

  3. Position-sensitive radiation monitoring (surface contamination monitor). Innovative technology summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-06-01

    The Shonka Research Associates, Inc. Position-Sensitive Radiation Monitor both detects surface radiation and prepares electronic survey map/survey report of surveyed area automatically. The electronically recorded map can be downloaded to a personal computer for review and a map/report can be generated for inclusion in work packages. Switching from beta-gamma detection to alpha detection is relatively simple and entails moving a switch position to alpha and adjusting the voltage level to an alpha detection level. No field calibration is required when switching from beta-gamma to alpha detection. The system can be used for free-release surveys because it meets the federal detection level sensitivity limits requires for surface survey instrumentation. This technology is superior to traditionally-used floor contamination monitor (FCM) and hand-held survey instrumentation because it can precisely register locations of radioactivity and accurately correlate contamination levels to specific locations. Additionally, it can collect and store continuous radiological data in database format, which can be used to produce real-time imagery as well as automated graphics of survey data. Its flexible design can accommodate a variety of detectors. The cost of the innovative technology is 13% to 57% lower than traditional methods. This technology is suited for radiological surveys of flat surfaces at US Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facility decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) sites or similar public or commercial sites.

  4. Radiation protection for human interplanetary spaceflight and planetary surface operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, B.C. [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Inst., Bethesda, MD (United States)]|[DLR Inst. of Aerospace Medicine, Cologne (Germany)]|[NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Radiation protection issues are reviewed for five categories of radiation exposure during human missions to the moon and Mars: trapped radiation belts, galactic cosmic rays, solar flare particle events, planetary surface emissions, and on-board radiation sources. Relative hazards are dependent upon spacecraft and vehicle configurations, flight trajectories, human susceptibility, shielding effectiveness, monitoring and warning systems, and other factors. Crew cabins, interplanetary mission modules, surface habitats, planetary rovers, and extravehicular mobility units (spacesuits) provide various degrees of protection. Countermeasures that may be taken are reviewed relative to added complexity and risks that they could entail, with suggestions for future research and analysis.

  5. Radiation survey of aircraft and heavy machinery scrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idriss, Hajo; Salih, Isam; Gumaa, Elsadig; Yassin, Abbas; Yousif, E H; Abdel Hamid, Saad Eldeen M; Sam, A K

    2012-12-01

    This study was conducted primarily to survey aircraft and heavy machinery at 30 locations within Khartoum State using handheld radiation survey meters to detect and identify any radiation sources that might be present and to estimate radiation dose levels. The survey has resulted in detection of 16 sealed sources of (90)Sr and one of (226)Ra in aircraft scrap. Of course, (90)Sr sources are used in military aircraft as temperature sensors while (226)Ra is used for indicating fuel levels. These sources were found intact without spreading radioactivity contamination; however, none was detected in heavy machine scrap. The levels of radiation dose measured at 0.1m from the source fall within the range of 25.1-40.2 μSv/h with an average value of 33.52 ± 4.06 μSv/h. These orphan sources have been separated from the scrap, tested for possible leakage, conditioned and stored in waste management facility. The result of this study has revealed without doubt that the scrap constitute a serious source of public exposure and highlights the importance of legislation making radiation monitoring of scrap in the country mandatory before it is sold to metal industry for reprocessing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A survey of research programs in radiation protection in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    A survey of research programs in Canada concerned with radiation protection was conducted in 1991-92 by the Joint Subcommittee on Regulatory Research (JSCRR) of the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) Advisory Committees on Radiological Protection and on Nuclear Safety. The purpose of this survey was to determine the current state of funding for this type of research in Canada. Funding for health-related radiation research in Canada is critical to establishing and maintaining a supply of trained professionals who can provide competent advice on health-related problems in radiation protection. The present report is an analysis of the information received in this survey. This survey concludes with the recommendation that the organization and definition of subprograms for the AECB Regulatory Research and Support Program should be completed as soon as possible. In this report the JSCRR should assist AECB staff in preparing a report in which priorities for research related to radiation protection are indicated. The sources of information noted at the end of the Discussion section of this report should be considered for this purpose. (author). 15 refs., 3 tabs.

  7. Proceedings of the workshop on radiation survey instruments and calibrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selby, J.M.; Swinth, K.L.; Vallario, E.J.; Murphy, B.L.

    1985-11-01

    The workshop was held to discuss two topics: first, a performance standard for radiation survey instruments and the potential for a testing program based on that standard; and second, a system of secondary standards laboratories to provide instrument calibrations and related services. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the individual presentations

  8. A survey of research programs in radiation protection in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    A survey of research programs in Canada concerned with radiation protection was conducted in 1991-92 by the Joint Subcommittee on Regulatory Research (JSCRR) of the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) Advisory Committees on Radiological Protection and on Nuclear Safety. The purpose of this survey was to determine the current state of funding for this type of research in Canada. Funding for health-related radiation research in Canada is critical to establishing and maintaining a supply of trained professionals who can provide competent advice on health-related problems in radiation protection. The present report is an analysis of the information received in this survey. This survey concludes with the recommendation that the organization and definition of subprograms for the AECB Regulatory Research and Support Program should be completed as soon as possible. In this report the JSCRR should assist AECB staff in preparing a report in which priorities for research related to radiation protection are indicated. The sources of information noted at the end of the Discussion section of this report should be considered for this purpose. (author). 15 refs., 3 tabs

  9. Proceedings of workshop on surface finishing by radiation curing technology: radiation curing for better finishing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This book compiled the paper presented at this workshop. The papers discussed are 1. Introduction to radiation curing, 2. Radiation sources -ultraviolet and electron beams, 3. UV/EB curing of surface coating - wood and nonwood substrates, 4. Development of EPOLA (epoxidised palm oil products acrylate) and its application, 5. Development of radiation-curable resin based natural rubber

  10. Proceedings of workshop on surface finishing by radiation curing technology: radiation curing for better finishing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This book compiled the paper presented at this workshop. The papers discussed are 1. Introduction to radiation curing, 2. Radiation sources -ultraviolet and electron beams, 3. UV/EB curing of surface coating - wood and nonwood substrates, 4. Development of EPOLA (epoxidised palm oil products acrylate) and its application, 5. Development of radiation-curable resin based natural rubber.

  11. Investigation of zones with increased ground surface gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butkus, D.V.; Morkunas, G.S.; Styro, B.I.

    1989-01-01

    Measurements of the increased gamma radiation zones of soils were conducted in the South-Western part of the Litvinian. The shores of lakes in the north-eastern part of the Suduva high land were investigated. the maximum values of the gamma radiation dose rates were distributed along the lake shores at a distance of 1 m from the water surface, while farther than 1.5 m from it the dose rate was close to the natural value. The increased gamma radiation intensity zones on the ground surface were found only at the northern (Lake Reketija) or the western shore (other lakes under investigation). The highest values of the gamma radiation dose 200-600 μR/h (0.5-1.5 nGy/s) were observed in the comparatively small areas (up to several square metres). The gamma radiation intensity of soil surface increased strongly moving towards the point where the maximum intensity was obsered. 10 figs

  12. Regularities of radiation defects build up on oxide materials surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitenbaev, M.I.; Polyakov, A.I.; Tuseev, T.

    2005-01-01

    Analysis of experimental data by radiation defects study on different oxide elements (silicon, beryllium, aluminium, rare earth elements) irradiated by the photo-, gamma-, neutron-, alpha- radiation, protons and helium ions show, that gas adsorption process on the surface centers and radiation defects build up in metal oxide correlated between themselves. These processes were described by the equivalent kinetic equations for analysis of radiation defects build up in the different metal oxides. It was revealed in the result of the analysis: number of radiation defects are droningly increasing up to limit value with the treatment temperature growth. Constant of radicals death at ionizing radiation increases as well. Amount of surface defects in different oxides defining absorbing activity of these materials looks as: silicon oxide→beryllium oxide→aluminium oxide. So it was found, that most optimal material for absorbing system preparation is silicon oxide by it power intensity and berylium oxide by it adsorption efficiency

  13. Nonlinear radiation of waves at combination frequencies due to radiation-surface wave interaction in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Naggar, I.A.; Hussein, A.M.; Khalil, Sh.M.

    1992-09-01

    Electromagnetic waves radiated with combination frequencies from a semi-bounded plasma due to nonlinear interaction of radiation with surface wave (both of P-polarization) has been investigated. Waves are radiated both into vacuum and plasma are found to be P-polarized. We take into consideration the continuity at the plasma boundary of the tangential components of the electric field of the waves. The case of normal incidence of radiation and rarefield plasma layer is also studied. (author). 7 refs

  14. Multisource Estimation of Long-term Global Terrestrial Surface Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, L.; Sheffield, J.

    2017-12-01

    Land surface net radiation is the essential energy source at the earth's surface. It determines the surface energy budget and its partitioning, drives the hydrological cycle by providing available energy, and offers heat, light, and energy for biological processes. Individual components in net radiation have changed historically due to natural and anthropogenic climate change and land use change. Decadal variations in radiation such as global dimming or brightening have important implications for hydrological and carbon cycles. In order to assess the trends and variability of net radiation and evapotranspiration, there is a need for accurate estimates of long-term terrestrial surface radiation. While large progress in measuring top of atmosphere energy budget has been made, huge discrepancies exist among ground observations, satellite retrievals, and reanalysis fields of surface radiation, due to the lack of observational networks, the difficulty in measuring from space, and the uncertainty in algorithm parameters. To overcome the weakness of single source datasets, we propose a multi-source merging approach to fully utilize and combine multiple datasets of radiation components separately, as they are complementary in space and time. First, we conduct diagnostic analysis of multiple satellite and reanalysis datasets based on in-situ measurements such as Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA), existing validation studies, and other information such as network density and consistency with other meteorological variables. Then, we calculate the optimal weighted average of multiple datasets by minimizing the variance of error between in-situ measurements and other observations. Finally, we quantify the uncertainties in the estimates of surface net radiation and employ physical constraints based on the surface energy balance to reduce these uncertainties. The final dataset is evaluated in terms of the long-term variability and its attribution to changes in individual

  15. Radiation survey of aircraft and heavy machinery scrap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idriss, Hajo; Salih, Isam; Gumaa, Elsadig; Yassin, Abbas; Yousif, E.H.; Abdel Hamid, Saad Eldeen M.; Sam, A.K.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted primarily to survey aircraft and heavy machinery at 30 locations within Khartoum State using handheld radiation survey meters to detect and identify any radiation sources that might be present and to estimate radiation dose levels. The survey has resulted in detection of 16 sealed sources of 90 Sr and one of 226 Ra in aircraft scrap. Of course, 90 Sr sources are used in military aircraft as temperature sensors while 226 Ra is used for indicating fuel levels. These sources were found intact without spreading radioactivity contamination; however, none was detected in heavy machine scrap. The levels of radiation dose measured at 0.1 m from the source fall within the range of 25.1–40.2 μSv/h with an average value of 33.52±4.06 μSv/h. These orphan sources have been separated from the scrap, tested for possible leakage, conditioned and stored in waste management facility. The result of this study has revealed without doubt that the scrap constitute a serious source of public exposure and highlights the importance of legislation making radiation monitoring of scrap in the country mandatory before it is sold to metal industry for reprocessing. - Highlights: ► Sealed radioactive sources ( 90 Sr and 226 Ra) were detected in aircraft scrap. ► No source was detected in heavy machine scrap. ► Radiation dose measured at 0.1 m from the source can be used to estimate exposure to public. ► Monitoring of scrap was found to be useful for protection (from orphan sources).

  16. Evaluation of methods to calibrate radiation survey meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, R.C.; Arbeau, N.D.

    1987-04-01

    Calibration requirements for radiation survey meters used in industrial radiography have been reviewed. Information obtained from a literature search, discussions with CSLD inspectors and firms performing calibrations has been considered. Based on this review a set of minimum calibration requirements was generated which, when met, will determine that the survey meter is suited for measurements described in the current AEC Regulations that apply to industrial radiography equipment. These requirements are presented in this report and may be used as guidelines for evaluating calibration methods proposed or in use in industry. 39 refs

  17. Fifth nationwide survey on radiation oncology of China in 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Weibo; Yuyun; Chen Bo; Tian Fenghua

    2007-01-01

    Objective: In order to find out the present status of Chinese Radiation Oncology, the Chinese Society of Radiation Oncology did the fifth nationwide survey on Radiation Oncology in China. Methods: Questionnaire forms had been sent through the board member of Chinese Society of Radiation Oncology to each center throughout the country. The forms, after filing, were returned for analysis. Results: On September 30th, 2006, there were 952 radiation oncology centers. They possess personnel: 5247 doctors including 2 110 residents, 1181 physicists, 6864 nurses, 4559 technicians and 1141 engineers. For equipment: There were 918 linear accelerators, 472 telecobalt units, 146 deep X-ray machine, 827 simulators, 214 CT simulators, 400 brachytherapy units, 400 treatment planning system, 796 dosimeters, 467 X-knife, 149 γ-knife (74 for head only, 75 for the head and body). Treatment: 35 503 beds (35 centers did not report the number of beds), 42 109 patients treated per day, 409 440 new patients were treated per year (no report from 45 centers). Conclusion: Radiation oncology has been developing rapidly in the last 5 years either in quantity or in quality. They are still being considered insufficient in proportion to our population. Training programs and development of QA and QC system ate needed. (authors)

  18. Survey of Tsuruga inhabitants concerning radiation and its risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinoda, Yoshihiko; Yamano, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident has led to changes in the acceptance of nuclear power in many people. The authors conducted an opinion survey of 300 adult inhabitants of Tsuruga city in Fukui prefecture, Japan. The aim of this survey is to obtain people's opinions concerning radiation and its risks. Authors classified Tsuruga inhabitants on the basis of responses to questions on the concept and knowledge of risk and the cognition of radiation by factor and cluster analyses of multivariable analysis. Using the results of these analyses, Tsuruga inhabitants have been assigned to five categories: “acceptance group,” “anxiety group,” and three intermediate groups. (author)

  19. Entropy flow and generation in radiative transfer between surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Z.M.; Basu, S. [Georgia Institute of Technolgy, Atlanta, GA (United States). George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering

    2007-02-15

    Entropy of radiation has been used to derive the laws of blackbody radiation and determine the maximum efficiency of solar energy conversion. Along with the advancement in thermophotovoltaic technologies and nanoscale heat radiation, there is an urgent need to determine the entropy flow and generation in radiative transfer between nonideal surfaces when multiple reflections are significant. This paper investigates entropy flow and generation when incoherent multiple reflections are included, without considering the effects of interference and photon tunneling. The concept of partial equilibrium is applied to interpret the monochromatic radiation temperature of thermal radiation, T{sub l}(l,{omega}), which is dependent on both wavelength l and direction {omega}. The entropy flux and generation can thus be evaluated for nonideal surfaces. It is shown that several approximate expressions found in the literature can result in significant errors in entropy analysis even for diffuse-gray surfaces. The present study advances the thermodynamics of nonequilibrium thermal radiation and will have a significant impact on the future development of thermophotovoltaic and other radiative energy conversion devices. (author)

  20. WE-F-209-02: Radiation Safety Surveys of Linear Accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, M.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few years, numerous Accreditation Bodies, Regulatory Agencies, and State Regulations have implemented requirements for Radiation Safety Surveys following installation or modification to x-ray rooms. The objective of this session is to review best practices in performing radiation safety surveys for both Therapy and Diagnostic installations, as well as a review of appropriate survey instruments. This session will be appropriate for both therapy and imaging physicists who are looking to increase their working knowledge of radiation safety surveys. Learning Objectives: Identify Appropriate Survey Meters for Radiation Safety Surveys Develop best practices for Radiation Safety Surveys for Therapy units that include common areas of concern. Develop best practices for Radiation Safety Surveys of Diagnostic and Nuclear Medicine rooms. Identify acceptable dose levels and the factors that affect the calculations associated with performing Radiation Safety Surveys.

  1. Instrument evaluation no. 33. Automess Szintomat 6134 radiation survey meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClure, D.R.

    1986-04-01

    The various radiations encountered in radiological protection cover a wide range of energies and radiation measurements have to be carried out under an equally broad spectrum of environmental conditions. This report is one of a series intended to give information on the performance characteristics of radiological protection instruments, to assist in the selection of appropriate instruments for a given purpose, to interpret the results obtained with such instruments, and, in particular, to know the likely sources and magnitude of errors that might be associated with measurements in the field. The radiation, electrical and environmental characteristics of radiation protection instruments are considered together with those aspects of the construction which make an instrument convenient for routine use. To provide consistent criteria for instrument performance, the range of tests performed on any particular class of instrument, the test methods and the criteria of acceptable performance are based broadly on the appropriate Recommendations of the International Electrotechnical Commission. The radiations in the tests are, in general, selected from the range of reference radiations for instrument calibration being drawn up by the International Standards Organisation. Normally, each report deals with the capabilities and limitations of one model of instrument and no direct comparison with other instruments intended for similar purposes is made, since the significance of particular performance characteristics largely depends on the radiations and environmental conditions in which the instrument is to be used. The results quoted here have all been obtained from tests on instruments in routine production, with the appropriate measurements being made by the NRPB. This instrument evaluation report deals with the Automess Szintomat 6134 Radiation Survey Meter

  2. The Remote Sensing of Surface Radiative Temperature over Barbados.

    Science.gov (United States)

    remote sensing of surface radiative temperature over Barbados was undertaken using a PRT-5 attached to a light aircraft. Traverses across the centre of the island, over the rugged east coast area, and the urban area of Bridgetown were undertaken at different times of day and night in the last week of June and the first week of December, 1969. These traverses show that surface variations in long-wave radiation emission lie within plus or minus 5% of the observations over grass at a representative site. The quick response of the surface to sunset and sunrise was

  3. Radiation pressure on a dielectric surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, A.

    2010-01-01

    The radiation pressure on an insulating dielectric medium should be calculable from the force acting on the polarization vector P. The well-known force proposed by Gordon (Phys. Rev. A, 8, 14 (1973) disappears in the case of a steady-state plane wave. A new form of force explicitly involving the polarization vector is proposed and applied to determine the partition of the incident momentum among the reflected and transmitted wave, and the dielectric medium. The momentum of electromagnetic wave in a dielectric medium thus found is consistent with the classical relationship, wave momentum flux density = wave intensity/wave velocity. (author)

  4. Evaluation of uncertainties in the calibration of radiation survey meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potiens, M.P.A.; Santos, G.P.

    2006-01-01

    In order to meet the requirements of ISO 17025, the quantification of the expanded uncertainties of experimental data in the calibration of survey meters must be carried out using well defined concepts, like those expressed in the 'ISO-Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement'. The calibration procedure of gamma ray survey meters involves two values that have to get their uncertainties clearly known: measurements of the instrument under calibration and the conventional true values of a quantity. Considering the continuous improvement of the calibration methods and set-ups, it is necessary to evaluate periodically the involved uncertainties in the procedures. In this work it is shown how the measurement uncertainties of an individual calibration can be estimated and how it can be generalized to be valid for others radiation survey meters. (authors)

  5. Palliative care and palliative radiation therapy education in radiation oncology: A survey of US radiation oncology program directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Randy L; Colbert, Lauren E; Jones, Joshua; Racsa, Margarita; Kane, Gabrielle; Lutz, Steve; Vapiwala, Neha; Dharmarajan, Kavita V

    The purpose of this study was to assess the state of palliative and supportive care (PSC) and palliative radiation therapy (RT) educational curricula in radiation oncology residency programs in the United States. We surveyed 87 program directors of radiation oncology residency programs in the United States between September 2015 and November 2015. An electronic survey on PSC and palliative RT education during residency was sent to all program directors. The survey consisted of questions on (1) perceived relevance of PSC and palliative RT to radiation oncology training, (2) formal didactic sessions on domains of PSC and palliative RT, (3) effective teaching formats for PSC and palliative RT education, and (4) perceived barriers for integrating PSC and palliative RT into the residency curriculum. A total of 57 responses (63%) was received. Most program directors agreed or strongly agreed that PSC (93%) and palliative radiation therapy (99%) are important competencies for radiation oncology residents and fellows; however, only 67% of residency programs had formal educational activities in principles and practice of PSC. Most programs had 1 or more hours of formal didactics on management of pain (67%), management of neuropathic pain (65%), and management of nausea and vomiting (63%); however, only 35%, 33%, and 30% had dedicated lectures on initial management of fatigue, assessing role of spirituality, and discussing advance care directives, respectively. Last, 85% of programs reported having a formal curriculum on palliative RT. Programs were most likely to have education on palliative radiation to brain, bone, and spine, but less likely on visceral, or skin, metastasis. Residency program directors believe that PSC and palliative RT are important competencies for their trainees and support increasing education in these 2 educational domains. Many residency programs have structured curricula on PSC and palliative radiation education, but room for improvement exists in

  6. The accuracy of surface-contamination measurements; survey of UK hospitals, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    In response to a number of concerns expressed at both national and international levels, the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) conducted a survey of UK hospitals and associated Regional Radiation Protection Services. Sources of surface contamination were distributed and participants were requested to measure these and interpret the relevant responses in terms of emission and activity per unit area. The analysis of the returns demonstrates that the vast majority of results was significantly in error and that the quality of radiation protection may be impaired. (author)

  7. 'Radiation Fair' for 15 years in Osaka, Japan, and survey of the participants attitude toward radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuta, Masakazu; Asano, Takeyoshi; Hayashi, Toshio; Hosokawa, Yasushi; Kakefu, Tomohisa; Nishihara, Hideaki

    1999-01-01

    We have been successfully operating 'Radiation Fair--The relationship between daily life and radiation--' during summer vacation season in August every year for 15 years in Osaka, the largest city of western Japan. The purpose of this event is radiation education of public including school kids through efficient information transfer of radiation and radiation-related technology. Currently we set up the space of it on a floor of Kintetsu Department Store, one of the major department stores in downtown Osaka and display various irradiated products available in our daily life together with explanatory panels. We have been devising various attractions as efficient information transfer media so that even elementary-school kids understand the basic knowledge of radiation and irradiation technologies. The number of participants has increased year by year until more than 20,000 in recent years. We distributed questionnaires to the visitors for recent 3 years to inquire their status toward radiation and irradiated products as well as impression toward the displays. The survey results suggest that school education may contribute to establish the public image toward 'radiation' as well as mass media. (author)

  8. Inconing solar radiation estimates at terrestrial surface using meteorological satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, N.; Almeida, F.C. de.

    1982-11-01

    By using the digital images of the visible channel of the GOES-5 meteorological satellite, and a simple radiative transfer model of the earth's atmosphere, the incoming solar radiation reaching ground is estimated. A model incorporating the effects of Rayleigh scattering and water vapor absorption, the latter parameterized using the surface dew point temperature value, is used. Comparisons with pyranometer observations, and parameterization versus radiosonde water vapor absorption calculation are presented. (Author) [pt

  9. Automated analysis of damages for radiation in plastics surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, C.; Camacho M, E.; Tavera, L.; Balcazar, M.

    1990-02-01

    Analysis of damages done by the radiation in a polymer characterized by optic properties of polished surfaces, of uniformity and chemical resistance that the acrylic; resistant until the 150 centigrade grades of temperature, and with an approximate weight of half of the glass. An objective of this work is the development of a method that analyze in automated form the superficial damages induced by radiation in plastic materials means an images analyst. (Author)

  10. Survey of sexual educational needs in radiation oncology patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, L.; Sweeney, P.; Wallace, G.; Neish, P.; Vijayakumar, S.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the knowledge of and need for education about sexuality in oncology patients treated with radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Patients who received radiation therapy for any disease site were given a self-assessment survey to complete to determine their opinions on sexuality and needs for sexual education. The surveys were given to patients on follow-up visit seen approximately 6 months to 2 years after radiation therapy. All patients were diagnosed with a malignancy and asked to participate on a voluntary basis; confidentiality was ensured by excluding any identifying patient information on the survey form. Respondents were polled with a survey that consisted of 17 questions about their sexual activity. Questions were broadly categorized into the following: definition of sexual activity, frequency of sexual activity prior to and after diagnosis and treatment of cancer, perception of sexual attractiveness, sexual satisfaction in the relationship, patient perception of partner's sexual satisfaction in the relationship, educational needs with regard to sexuality after therapy for cancer, and demographic information. Results: All patients were over age 18, and received radiation therapy as part of the treatment. Patients with all disease sites were included in the survey, regardless of stage or diagnosis. A total of 28 patients completed the survey form, which was approved by our institutional review board. Forty-three percent of patients felt that the cancer diagnosis or treatment effect was the cause of not engaging in sexual intercourse. Fifty percent reported not having the same sexual desire as before the diagnosis of cancer, while 46% reported having the same sexual desire as prior to the diagnosis of cancer. Forty-six percent felt less attractive than before the diagnosis of cancer, while 43% felt the same as before diagnosis. Thirty-six percent of patients received no information with regards to sexuality and cancer, while 18% received

  11. Sensitivity of surface temperature to radiative forcing by contrail cirrus in a radiative-mixing model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Schumann

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Earth's surface temperature sensitivity to radiative forcing (RF by contrail cirrus and the related RF efficacy relative to CO2 are investigated in a one-dimensional idealized model of the atmosphere. The model includes energy transport by shortwave (SW and longwave (LW radiation and by mixing in an otherwise fixed reference atmosphere (no other feedbacks. Mixing includes convective adjustment and turbulent diffusion, where the latter is related to the vertical component of mixing by large-scale eddies. The conceptual study shows that the surface temperature sensitivity to given contrail RF depends strongly on the timescales of energy transport by mixing and radiation. The timescales are derived for steady layered heating (ghost forcing and for a transient contrail cirrus case. The radiative timescales are shortest at the surface and shorter in the troposphere than in the mid-stratosphere. Without mixing, a large part of the energy induced into the upper troposphere by radiation due to contrails or similar disturbances gets lost to space before it can contribute to surface warming. Because of the different radiative forcing at the surface and at top of atmosphere (TOA and different radiative heating rate profiles in the troposphere, the local surface temperature sensitivity to stratosphere-adjusted RF is larger for SW than for LW contrail forcing. Without mixing, the surface energy budget is more important for surface warming than the TOA budget. Hence, surface warming by contrails is smaller than suggested by the net RF at TOA. For zero mixing, cooling by contrails cannot be excluded. This may in part explain low efficacy values for contrails found in previous global circulation model studies. Possible implications of this study are discussed. Since the results of this study are model dependent, they should be tested with a comprehensive climate model in the future.

  12. Radiative decay of surface plasmons on nonspherical silver particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, J.W.; Ferrell, T.L.; Callcott, T.A.; Arakawa, E.T.

    1982-01-01

    We have studied the radiation emitted by electron-bombarded silver particles. Electron micrographs have shown that the particles, obtained by heating thin (5 nm) silver films, were oblate (flattened) with minor axes aligned along the substrate normal. The characteristic wavelength obtained by bombarding these particles with 15-keV electrons was found to vary with angle of photon emission. We have modeled this wavelength shift as a result of the mixture of radiation from dipole and quadrupole surface-plasmon oscillations on oblate spheroids. Experimental observations of the energy, polarization, and angular distribution of the emitted radiation are in good agreement with theoretical calculations

  13. Safety practices, perceptions, and behaviors in radiation oncology: A national survey of radiation therapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhouse, Kristina Demas; Hashemi, David; Betcher, Kathryn; Doucette, Abigail; Weaver, Allison; Monzon, Brian; Rosenthal, Seth A; Vapiwala, Neha

    Radiation therapy is complex and demands high vigilance and precise coordination. Radiation therapists (RTTs) directly deliver radiation and are often the first to discover an error. Yet, few studies have examined the practices of RTTs regarding patient safety. We conducted a national survey to explore the perspectives of RTTs related to quality and safety. In 2016, an electronic survey was sent to a random sample of 1500 RTTs in the United States. The survey assessed department safety, error reporting, safety knowledge, and culture. Questions were multiple choice or recorded on a Likert scale. Results were summarized using descriptive statistics and analyzed using multivariate logistic regression. A total of 702 RTTs from 49 states (47% response rate) completed the survey. Respondents represented a broad distribution across practice settings. Most RTTs rated department patient safety as excellent (61%) or very good (32%), especially if they had an incident learning system (ILS) (odds ratio, 2.0). Only 21% reported using an ILS despite 58% reporting an accessible ILS in their department. RTTs felt errors were most likely to occur with longer shifts and poor multidisciplinary communication; 40% reported that burnout and anxiety negatively affected their ability to deliver care. Workplace bullying was also reported among 17%. Overall, there was interest (62%) in improving knowledge in patient safety. Although most RTTs reported excellent safety cultures within their facilities, overall, there was limited access to and utilization of ILSs by RTTs. Workplace issues identified may also represent barriers to delivering quality care. RTTs were also interested in additional resources regarding quality and safety. These results will further enhance safety initiatives and inform future innovative educational efforts in radiation oncology. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Radiation Oncology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Calibration for radiation protection survey meter SSM1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Hua.

    1992-03-01

    The calibration functions for the Radiation Protection Survey Meter SSM1 built-in Geiger Mueller measuring tubes of the type ZP 1201 (low dose rate tube) and ZP 1313 (high dose rate tube) are given in the present study. Six dose rate points are proposed as the calibration points of covering the range from 500 nSv/h up to 5 Sv/h. The difference between the true dose rate and the values calculated with the method in this paper for No. 382 SSM1 is less than ±2%. (author)

  15. Database on epidemiological survey in high background radiation research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Sunyuan; Guo Furong; Liu Yusheng

    1992-01-01

    In order to store and check the data of the health survey in high background radiation area (HBRA) and control area in Guangdong Province, and to use these data in future, three databases were set up by using RBASE 5000 database software. (1) HD: the database based on the household registers especially established for the health survey from 1979 to 1986, covering more than 160000 subjects and 2200000 data. (2) DC: the database based on the registration cards of deaths from cancers and all other diseases during the period of 1975-1986 including more than 10000 cases and 260000 data. (3) MCC: the database for the case-control study on mutation-related factors for four kinds of cancers (liver, stomach, lung cancers and leukemia), embracing 626 subjects and close to 90000 data. The data in the databases were checked up with the original records and compared with the manual analytical results

  16. Surface modification of fluorocarbon polymers by synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Kanda, K; Matsui, S; Ideta, T; Ishigaki, H

    2003-01-01

    The surface modification of a poly (tetrafluoroethylene) sheet was carried out by synchrotron radiation in the soft X-ray region. The poly (tetrafluoroethylene) substrate was exposed to synchrotron radiation while varying the substrate temperature from room temperature to 200degC. The contact angle of the modified surfaces with a water drop decreased from 96deg to 72deg by the irradiation at room temperature, while the contact angle increased to 143deg by the irradiation at the substrate temperature of 200degC. Scanning electron microscopy suggested that this repellence was ascribable to the microstructure of the poly (tetrafluoroethylene) surface. We succeeded in controlling the wettability of the poly (tetrafluoroethylene) surface from hydrophobic to hydrophilic by irradiation of the soft X-ray light. (author)

  17. Statistical analysis of solar radiation on variously oriented sloping surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, H.P.; Garg, S.N.

    1985-12-01

    For four years, daily global radiation on a south facing surface and on four vertical walls namely south wall, north wall, east wall and west wall, has been computed and statistically analysed for each of the 4 stations: New Delhi, Calcutta, Poona and Madras. Daily direct radiation at normal incidence at New Delhi has also been studied. It has been found that maximum global radiation is 30 MJ/m 2 /day for a south facing tilted surface, 21 MJ/m 2 /day for a south wall, 18 MJ/m 2 /day for an east west wall and 12 MJ/m 2 /day for a north wall. Maximum direct radiation at normal incidence at New Delhi is also 30 MJ/m 2 /day. For a south facing tilted surface, nearly 80% of the days have energy between 21-27 MJ/m 2 /day. Atmospheric transmittance for direct radiation is seen to vary from 20% in July to 52% in November

  18. Biocompatibility of Er:YSGG laser radiated root surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benthin, Hartmut; Ertl, Thomas P.; Schmidt, Dirk; Purucker, Peter; Bernimoulin, J.-P.; Mueller, Gerhard J.

    1996-01-01

    Pulsed Er:YAG and Er:YSGG lasers are well known to be effective instruments for the ablation of dental hard tissues. Developments in the last years made it possible to transmit the laser radiation at these wavelengths with flexible fibers. Therefore the application in the periodontal pocket may be possible. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in-vitro conditions to generate a bioacceptable root surface. Twenty extracted human teeth, stored in an antibiotic solution, were conventionally scaled, root planed and axially separated into two halves. Two main groups were determined. With the first group laser radiation was carried out without and in the second group with spray cooling. The laser beam was scanned about root surface areas. Laser parameters were varied in a selected range. The biocompatibility was measured with the attachment of human gingival fibroblasts and directly compared to conventionally treated areas of the root surfaces. The fibroblasts were qualified and counted in SEM investigations. On conventionally treated areas gingival fibroblasts show the typical uniform cover. In dependance on the root roughness after laser treatment the fibroblasts loose the typical parallel alignment to the root surface. With spray cooling a better in-vitro attachment could be obtained. Without spray cooling the higher increase in temperature conducted to less bioacceptance by the human gingival fibroblasts to the root surface. These results show the possibility of producing bioacceptable root surfaces with pulsed laser radiation in the range of very high water absorption near 3 micrometer.

  19. Digging the METEOSAT Treasure—3 Decades of Solar Surface Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Müller

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Solar surface radiation data of high quality is essential for the appropriate monitoring and analysis of the Earth's radiation budget and the climate system. Further, they are crucial for the efficient planning and operation of solar energy systems. However, well maintained surface measurements are rare in many regions of the world and over the oceans. There, satellite derived information is the exclusive observational source. This emphasizes the important role of satellite based surface radiation data. Within this scope, the new satellite based CM-SAF SARAH (Solar surfAce RAdiation Heliosat data record is discussed as well as the retrieval method used. The SARAH data are retrieved with the sophisticated SPECMAGIC method, which is based on radiative transfer modeling. The resulting climate data of solar surface irradiance, direct irradiance (horizontal and direct normal and clear sky irradiance are covering 3 decades. The SARAH data set is validated with surface measurements of the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN and of the Global Energy and Balance Archive (GEBA. Comparison with BSRN data is performed in order to estimate the accuracy and precision of the monthly and daily means of solar surface irradiance. The SARAH solar surface irradiance shows a bias of 1.3 \\(W/m^2\\ and a mean absolute bias (MAB of 5.5 \\(W/m^2\\ for monthly means. For direct irradiance the bias and MAB is 1 \\(W/m^2\\ and 8.2 \\(W/m^2\\ respectively. Thus, the uncertainty of the SARAH data is in the range of the uncertainty of ground based measurements. In order to evaluate the uncertainty of SARAH based trend analysis the time series of SARAH monthly means are compared to GEBA. It has been found that SARAH enables the analysis of trends with an uncertainty of 1 \\(W/m^2/dec\\; a remarkable good result for a satellite based climate data record. SARAH has been also compared to its legacy version, the satellite based CM-SAF MVIRI climate data record. Overall

  20. Radiation exchange between persons and surfaces for building energy simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorre, Mette Havgaard; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Dreau, Jerome Le

    2015-01-01

    Thermal radiation within buildings is a significant component of thermal comfort. Typically the methods applied for calculating view factors between a person and its building surfaces requires great computational time. This research developed a view factor calculation method suitable for building...

  1. Effect of solar radiation on surface ozone in Cairo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizk, H F.S. [National Research Centre, Air Pollution Research Dept., Cairo (Egypt)

    1992-04-01

    Measurements of surface ozone content over an urban area in Cairo were conducted during a year, May 1989 to April 1990, while solar radiation at the same area was measured. Low and high concentrations of ozone are compared with those recommended by the WHO expert committee regarding the daily cycle of ozone concentration. 15 refs.

  2. Precise estimation of total solar radiation on tilted surface

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rajeev

    rarely available required for precise sizing of energy systems. The total solar radiation at different orientation and slope is needed to calculate the efficiency of the installed solar energy systems. To calculate clearness index (Kt) used by Gueymard (2000) for estimating solar irradiation H, irradiation at the earth's surface has ...

  3. How Radiation Oncologists Would Disclose Errors: Results of a Survey of Radiation Oncologists and Trainees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Suzanne B.; Yu, James B.; Chagpar, Anees

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze error disclosure attitudes of radiation oncologists and to correlate error disclosure beliefs with survey-assessed disclosure behavior. Methods and Materials: With institutional review board exemption, an anonymous online survey was devised. An email invitation was sent to radiation oncologists (American Society for Radiation Oncology [ASTRO] gold medal winners, program directors and chair persons of academic institutions, and former ASTRO lecturers) and residents. A disclosure score was calculated based on the number or full, partial, or no disclosure responses chosen to the vignette-based questions, and correlation was attempted with attitudes toward error disclosure. Results: The survey received 176 responses: 94.8% of respondents considered themselves more likely to disclose in the setting of a serious medical error; 72.7% of respondents did not feel it mattered who was responsible for the error in deciding to disclose, and 3.9% felt more likely to disclose if someone else was responsible; 38.0% of respondents felt that disclosure increased the likelihood of a lawsuit, and 32.4% felt disclosure decreased the likelihood of lawsuit; 71.6% of respondents felt near misses should not be disclosed; 51.7% thought that minor errors should not be disclosed; 64.7% viewed disclosure as an opportunity for forgiveness from the patient; and 44.6% considered the patient's level of confidence in them to be a factor in disclosure. For a scenario that could be considerable, a non-harmful error, 78.9% of respondents would not contact the family. Respondents with high disclosure scores were more likely to feel that disclosure was an opportunity for forgiveness (P=.003) and to have never seen major medical errors (P=.004). Conclusions: The surveyed radiation oncologists chose to respond with full disclosure at a high rate, although ideal disclosure practices were not uniformly adhered to beyond the initial decision to disclose the occurrence of the error.

  4. Radiation aspects on the Earth's surface during solar flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansurov, K.Zh.; Aitmukhambetov, A.A.

    2002-01-01

    In the paper the results of investigation of radiation solution in the space near the Earth at the different altitudes of the Earth atmosphere and at the ground level in dependence on geo-coordinates and solar activity during 1957-1999 are presented. Radiation is due to the Galactic cosmic ray flux for different periods of the Solar activity: - the radiation doses of the radioactive clouds at latitudes ∼12-13 km which go ground the Earth two or three times were created; - it seems to years that these clouds make a certain contribution to the ecological situation in the Earth atmosphere and on the surface. The radiation near ground level of the Earth for the last 1500 years was calculated also using the data of radioactive carbon 14 C intensity investigation

  5. Survey of Radiation Oncology Centres in Australia: report of the radiation oncology treatment quality program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klybaba, M.; Kenny, L.; Kron, T.; Harris, J.; O'Brien, P.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: One of the first steps towards the development of a comprehensive quality program for radiation oncology in Australia has been a survey of practice. This paper reports on the results of the survey that should inform the development of standards for radiation oncology in Australia. A questionnaire of 108 questions spanning aspects of treatment services, equipment, staff, infrastructure and available quality systems was mailed to all facilities providing radiation treatment services in Australia (n = 45). Information of 42 sites was received by June 2006 providing data on 113 operational linear accelerators of which approximately 2/3 are equipped with multi-leaf collimators. More than 75% of facilities were participating in a formal quality assurance (QA) system, with 63% following a nationally or internationally recognised system. However, there was considerable variation in the availability of policies and procedures specific to quality aspects, and the review of these. Policies for monitoring patient waiting times for treatment were documented at just 71% of all facilities. Although 85% of all centres do, in fact, monitor machine throughput, the number and types of efficiency measures varied markedly, thereby limiting the comparative use of these results. Centres identified workload as the single most common factor responsible for limiting staff involvement in both QA processes and clinical trial participation. The data collected in this 'snapshot' survey provide a unique and comprehensive baseline for future comparisons and evaluation of changes

  6. A survey of radiation synovectomy in Europe, 1991-1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clunie, G.; Ell, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    We have evaluated radiation synovectomy practice in Europe over the period 1991-1993 by means of a postal questionnaire. More than 2300 European members of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine were questioned about the number of treated patients and joints, disease prevalence in their patients and the use of radiopharmaceuticals. Overall, 119/490 (24%) of centres replying to the survey practised radiation synovectomy during the 3 years. There were 13450 different joint injections in 8578 patients. Rheumatoid arthritis was the most prevalent disease in patients treated (71%) and the most frequently treated joints were knee (46%) and finger joints (20%). Eight different radiopharmaceuticals were employed. Yttrium-90 colloids were most frequently and widely (100/119 centres) used, mainly employed for knee synovectomy but were also used to treat most appendicular joints. Erbium-169 colloid was almost exclusively used to treat finger joints (31/33 centres). Corticosteroid was routinely co-injected in 36/60 (60%) centres. Radiation synovectomy was widely practised throughout Europe during 1991-1993. There are variations in practice illustrated by the diversity of treated arthritides and injected joints and by the use and application of different radiopharmaceuticals. (orig.). With 7 figs., 1 tab

  7. The current state of radiation education in schools and results of the opinion survey on radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murai, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    In 2008, a new guideline about radioactivity was added to the government guidelines for teaching junior high school science. Since then people involved with school education have been trying to spread correct information about radioactivity. On the other hand, people's confusion in the aftermath of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident has clearly shown that people do not know much about radioactivity. Considering the situation, the author conducted an investigation about the current state of radiation education and carried out an opinion survey about radioactivity among adults. The investigation about education showed the following: (1) the nature of radiation, such as its permeability, and its uses were described in the government-approved textbooks; (2) basic knowledge, such as what are radiation effects, were described comprehensively in the supplementary reading recommendations made by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology; and (3) locale education committees created teaching materials such as guidance to present topics. The opinion survey had questions to judge: (1) current public understanding of radioactivity; (2) the degree of general information that people collected for themselves; (3) the degree of specific knowledge about radioactivity that people had; and (4) people's attitudes toward various problems with radioactivity in the environment. The results suggested that for radiation education the following items are important: (1) to learn that radioactivity exists in people's daily lives and is used safely in various field; (2) to get basic knowledge and better quantitative understanding of such things as radioactivity units, radiation dose and radiation effects; and (3) to acquire practical experience to use the information effectively. (author)

  8. External gamma radiation survey for oil wellheads in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassar, Rafat M.; Mously, Khalid A.; Cowie, Michael I.

    2008-01-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is known to be associated with oil and gas extraction. As part of a comprehensive NORM management strategy, Saudi Aramco needed to determine the extent of NORM contamination associated with their oil and gas operations. As part of that strategy, this study focused on external gamma survey of oil producing wellheads at various locations. The study aimed to: 1-) Identify wellheads with elevated gamma radiation dose rate; 2-) Specify the exact locations of the high dose rates on the wellheads; 3-) Identify the radioisotopes responsible for the high dose rates; and 4-) Propose worker protection requirements during maintenance. The majority (∼92%) of the surveyed wellheads showed no enhanced gamma dose-rate above background level. From the remaining ∼8%, only a few wellheads showed dose rates between 1,000-3,700 n Sv/h. The study revealed that NORM contamination tends to accumulate at turns of the pipes, around pipe diameter changes, the joints, the back of valves, and at the base of the wellhead. Also, for a given location, NORM build up on the interior of pipework varies over time and continues to migrate down stream until it reaches the Gas and Oil Separation Plants (GOSP). There NORM is expected to accumulate and reside in the form of sludge. Gamma spectroscopy analysis revealed that 226 Ra and its progeny are responsible for the high radiation dose rates detected. It was concluded that NORM will not pose significant radiation hazards to workers as long as the tubing and piping are not opened. (author)

  9. ENSO surface longwave radiation forcing over the tropical Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. G. Pavlakis

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the spatial and temporal variation of the surface longwave radiation (downwelling and net over a 21-year period in the tropical and subtropical Pacific Ocean (40 S–40 N, 90 E–75 W. The fluxes were computed using a deterministic model for atmospheric radiation transfer, along with satellite data from the ISCCP-D2 database and reanalysis data from NCEP/NCAR (acronyms explained in main text, for the key atmospheric and surface input parameters. An excellent correlation was found between the downwelling longwave radiation (DLR anomaly and the Niño-3.4 index time-series, over the Niño-3.4 region located in the central Pacific. A high anti-correlation was also found over the western Pacific (15–0 S, 105–130 E. There is convincing evidence that the time series of the mean downwelling longwave radiation anomaly in the western Pacific precedes that in the Niño-3.4 region by 3–4 months. Thus, the downwelling longwave radiation anomaly is a complementary index to the SST anomaly for the study of ENSO events and can be used to asses whether or not El Niño or La Niña conditions prevail. Over the Niño-3.4 region, the mean DLR anomaly values range from +20 Wm−2 during El Niño episodes to −20 Wm−2 during La Niña events, while over the western Pacific (15–0 S, 105–130 E these values range from −15 Wm−2 to +10 Wm−2, respectively. The long- term average (1984–2004 distribution of the net downwelling longwave radiation at the surface over the tropical and subtropical Pacific for the three month period November-December-January shows a net thermal cooling of the ocean surface. When El Niño conditions prevail, the thermal radiative cooling in the central and south-eastern tropical Pacific becomes weaker by 10 Wm−2 south of the equator in the central Pacific (7–0 S, 160–120 W for the three-month period of NDJ, because the DLR increase is larger than the increase in surface thermal emission. In contrast, the

  10. Effective aerosol optical depth from pyranometer measurements of surface solar radiation (global radiation) at Thessaloniki, Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Lindfors, A. V.; Kouremeti, N.; Arola, A.; Kazadzis, S.; Bais, A. F.; Laaksonen, A.

    2013-01-01

    Pyranometer measurements of the solar surface radiation (SSR) are available at many locations worldwide, often as long time series covering several decades into the past. These data constitute a potential source of information on the atmospheric aerosol load. Here, we present a method for estimating the aerosol optical depth (AOD) using pyranometer measurements of the SSR together with total water vapor column information. The method, which is based on radiative transfer simulations, w...

  11. American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) Survey of Radiation Biology Educators in U.S. and Canadian Radiation Oncology Residency Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenstein, Barry S.; Held, Kathryn D.; Rockwell, Sara; Williams, Jacqueline P.; Zeman, Elaine M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain, in a survey-based study, detailed information on the faculty currently responsible for teaching radiation biology courses to radiation oncology residents in the United States and Canada. Methods and Materials: In March-December 2007 a survey questionnaire was sent to faculty having primary responsibility for teaching radiation biology to residents in 93 radiation oncology residency programs in the United States and Canada. Results: The responses to this survey document the aging of the faculty who have primary responsibility for teaching radiation biology to radiation oncology residents. The survey found a dramatic decline with time in the percentage of educators whose graduate training was in radiation biology. A significant number of the educators responsible for teaching radiation biology were not fully acquainted with the radiation sciences, either through training or practical application. In addition, many were unfamiliar with some of the organizations setting policies and requirements for resident education. Freely available tools, such as the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) Radiation and Cancer Biology Practice Examination and Study Guides, were widely used by residents and educators. Consolidation of resident courses or use of a national radiation biology review course was viewed as unlikely by most programs. Conclusions: A high priority should be given to the development of comprehensive teaching tools to assist those individuals who have responsibility for teaching radiation biology courses but who do not have an extensive background in critical areas of radiobiology related to radiation oncology. These findings also suggest a need for new graduate programs in radiobiology.

  12. A model investigation of annual surface ultraviolet radiation in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabziparvar, A.-A.

    2003-01-01

    In recent years, there has been some concern regarding solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation received at the earth,s surface because of its biological hazards affecting living organisms. Although the geographical distribution of ground-based UV network is relatively good in some continents,but over Asia, the number of UV instruments are not sufficient for meteorological and biological purposes. Iran, as an Asian country, is also suffering from the lack of UV monitoring network with the exception of one ground-based UV spectrophotometer site (Brower III) at Esfahan. Using a complex radiative transfer model and various meteorological data (for 8 years) such as total column ozone, cloudiness, surface albedo, surface air pressure, relative humidity, visibility and daily total solar radiation (TSR), the geographical distribution of annual integrated biological surface UV irradiances such as UVB, erythema and cataracts are calculated. The comparison is made for cloud-free and all-sky conditions for eight selected cities distributed from the southern tip of the country (25 N-60 E) to the northern border (39 N-48 E). It is shown that the difference between the annual UV at south and north in all-sky condition is larger than the differences in cloud-free condition. The ratio of some biological UV irradiances at southern cities to the same component at northern cities shows a factor of two and more which is quite significant. The possible reasons which might cause such differences are discussed

  13. A positioning and data logging system for surface geophysical surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyquist, J.E.; Blair, M.S.

    1988-01-01

    The Ultrasonic Ranging and Data System (USRADS) developed at ORNL is being adapted to work with two commercially available geophysical instruments: a magnetometer and an EM31 terrain conductivity meter. Geophysical surveys have proven an important preliminary step in investigating hazardous waste sites. Magnetometers and terrain conductivity meters are used to locate buried drums, trenches, conductive contaminant plumes and map regional changes in geology. About half the field time of a typical geophysical investigation is spent surveying the position of the grid points at which the measurements will be made. Additional time is lost and errors may be made recording instrument values in field notebooks and transcribing the data to a computer. Developed for gamma radiation surveys, the USRAD system keeps track of the surveyor's position automatically by triangulating on an ultrasonic transmitter carried in a backpack. The backpack also contains a radio transmitter that sends the instrument's reading coincident with the ultrasonic pulse. The surveyor's position and the instrument's reading are recorded by a portable computer which can plot the data to check the survey's progress. Electronic files are stored in a form compatible with AutoCAD to speed report writing. 7 refs., 3 figs

  14. Mars Surface Ionizing Radiation Environment: Need for Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J. W.; Kim, M. Y.; Clowdsley, M. S.; Heinbockel, J. H.; Tripathi, R. K.; Singleterry, R. C.; Shinn, J. L.; Suggs, R.

    1999-01-01

    Protection against the hazards from exposure to ionizing radiation remains an unresolved issue in the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) enterprise [1]. The major uncertainty is the lack of data on biological response to galactic cosmic ray (GCR) exposures but even a full understanding of the physical interaction of GCR with shielding and body tissues is not yet available and has a potentially large impact on mission costs. "The general opinion is that the initial flights should be short-stay missions performed as fast as possible (so-called 'Sprint' missions) to minimize crew exposure to the zero-g and space radiation environment, to ease requirements on system reliability, and to enhance the probability of mission success." The short-stay missions tend to have long transit times and may not be the best option due to the relatively long exposure to zero-g and ionizing radiation. On the other hand the short-transit missions tend to have long stays on the surface requiring an adequate knowledge of the surface radiation environment to estimate risks and to design shield configurations. Our knowledge of the surface environment is theoretically based and suffers from an incomplete understanding of the physical interactions of GCR with the Martian atmosphere, Martian surface, and intervening shield materials. An important component of Mars surface robotic exploration is the opportunity to test our understanding of the Mars surface environment. The Mars surface environment is generated by the interaction of Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) and Solar Particle Events (SPEs) with the Mars atmosphere and Mars surface materials. In these interactions, multiple charged ions are reduced in size and secondary particles are generated, including neutrons. Upon impact with the Martian surface, the character of the interactions changes as a result of the differing nuclear constituents of the surface materials. Among the surface environment are many neutrons diffusing from

  15. Vehicle-borne survey techniques for background radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minato, Susumu

    1995-01-01

    This paper presented methods for converting count rates measured inside cars and trains in the natural environment into outdoor terrestrial gamma-ray dose rates. First, (1) the method of calibration for a survey meter is described to be applicable to various geological terrains. Next, the regression formulas were acquired experimentally to correct (2) the shielding effects of cars and trains, and (3) the influence of pavements and ballasts. Furthermore, (4) a new method for removing interfering radiation components emitted from cliffs and tunnels was proposed, and the errors in the calculations were evaluated with numerical experiments. In addition, the degree of influence from the cliff was represented with the angle of elevation subtended to the detector. For the items (2)-(4), in particular, it could be explained with simple models that those methods are reasonable. The method for evaluating simply and accurately cosmic-ray dose rates by means of a portable barometer was also described. (author)

  16. Wide Range Portable Radiation Survey Meter for Emergency Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gangadharan, P.; Bhave, D. G.; Gokarn, R. S.; Khadake, R. G. [Directorate Of Radiation Protection, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Bombay (India)

    1969-05-15

    The paper describes a portable battery-operated radiation survey meter for monitoring a wide range of X- and gamma-ray exposure rates from 1 mR/h to 100 R/h. The instrument Incorporates a halogen GM tube as the detector and a count-rate meter for indication. A transistorized d.c. -d.c. converter supplies the necessary high voltage to the GM counter. The instrument response has been made energy independent in the energy range 80 keV to 1.25 MeV. Further, the response is linear over the entire range of exposure rates. Suitable extension rods have been designed to provide sufficient separation between the probe and the meter in cases where remote monitoring is necessary because of high fields. (author)

  17. Research in radiation monitoring survey instrumentation. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blalock, T.V.; Kennedy, E.J.; Phillips, R.G.; Walker, E.W. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Two low-power solid-state prototype readout units were developed, an LED display and a LCD display. This display output was in a bar-graph format, covering four-decades of information, with 10-segments per decade. The displays accept a frequency input, which is standardly available from several portable radiation-survey instruments. Both readout units will operate on two D-cell batteries (3.0 Volt), with a typical current drain requirement of 0.3 MA for the LED display and 30μA for the LCD display. A wide-range electrometer circuit was also developed. The circuit covers an input current range from 10 -13 A to 10 -8 A. The output signal is a pulse whose frequency is directly proportional to input current. The circuit requires no high-megohm resistors, and is autoranging. Several candidate input amplifiers were analyzed and evaluated for use with the electrometer circuit

  18. Survey of Radiation Protection Education and Training in Finland in 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havukainen, R.; Korpela, H.; Vaisala, S.; Piri, A.; Kettunen, E.

    2004-01-01

    The current state and need for radiation protection training in Finland have been surveyed by the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority STUK. The survey sought to determine whether the current requirements for radiation protection training had been met, and to promote radiation protection training. Details of the scope and quality of present radiation protection training were requested from all educational institutes and organizations providing radiation protection training. The survey covered both basic and further training, special training of radiation safety officers, and supplementary training. The questionnaire was sent to 77 educational organization units, 66 per cent of which responded. Radiation workers and radiation safety officers were asked about radiation protection knowledge and needs for additional training. The questionnaire was sent to 880 radiation users and 170 radiation safety officers, 70 per cent of whom responded. The survey covered all professional groups and fields of the use of ionizing radiation except nuclear energy. The amount of radiation protection training in basic and further (specialization) training in the same vocational or academic degree varied remarkably by educational organization. The average amounts of radiation protection included in most professional degrees met the requirements. 32 per cent of workers considered their radiation protection training inadequate for their duties, and 48 per cent had completed no supplementary training in radiation protection over the last five years. Nurses working in public sector hospitals and physicians working in health centres had the greatest need for radiation protection training. 78 per cent of radiation workers in industry felt that they had sufficient radiation protection training. Co-operation between educational organizations is necessary to harmonize radiation protection training. Guidance of the Ministry of Education (the competent authority for education) is needed in this

  19. Glass transition near the free surface studied by synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikorski, M.

    2008-06-01

    A comprehensive picture of the glass transition near the liquid/vapor interface of the model organic glass former dibutyl phthalate is presented in this work. Several surface-sensitive techniques using x-ray synchrotron radiation were applied to investigate the static and dynamic aspects of the formation of the glassy state from the supercooled liquid. The amorphous nature of dibutyl phthalate close to the free surface was confirmed by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction studies. Results from X-ray reflectivity measurements indicate a uniform electron density distribution close to the interface excluding the possibility of surface freezing down to 175 K. Dynamics on sub-μm length-scales at the surface was studied with coherent synchrotron radiation via x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy. From the analysis of the dispersion relation of the surface modes, viscoelastic properties of the dibutyl phthalate are deduced. The Kelvin-Voigt model of viscoelastic media was found to describe well the properties of the liquid/vapor interface below room temperature. The data show that the viscosity at the interface matches the values reported for bulk dibutyl phthalate. The scaled relaxation rate at the surface agrees with the bulk data above 210 K. Upon approaching the glass transition temperature the free surface was observed to relax considerably faster close to the liquid/vapor interface than in bulk. The concept of higher relaxation rate at the free surface is also supported by the results of the quasielastic nuclear forward scattering experiment, during which dynamics on molecular length scales around the calorimetric glass transition temperature is studied. The data were analyzed using mode-coupling theory of the glass transition and the model of the liquid(glass)/vapor interface, predicting inhomogeneous dynamics near the surface. The quasielastic nuclear forward scattering data can be explained when the molecular mobility is assumed to decrease with the increasing

  20. Glass transition near the free surface studied by synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikorski, M.

    2008-06-15

    A comprehensive picture of the glass transition near the liquid/vapor interface of the model organic glass former dibutyl phthalate is presented in this work. Several surface-sensitive techniques using x-ray synchrotron radiation were applied to investigate the static and dynamic aspects of the formation of the glassy state from the supercooled liquid. The amorphous nature of dibutyl phthalate close to the free surface was confirmed by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction studies. Results from X-ray reflectivity measurements indicate a uniform electron density distribution close to the interface excluding the possibility of surface freezing down to 175 K. Dynamics on sub-{mu}m length-scales at the surface was studied with coherent synchrotron radiation via x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy. From the analysis of the dispersion relation of the surface modes, viscoelastic properties of the dibutyl phthalate are deduced. The Kelvin-Voigt model of viscoelastic media was found to describe well the properties of the liquid/vapor interface below room temperature. The data show that the viscosity at the interface matches the values reported for bulk dibutyl phthalate. The scaled relaxation rate at the surface agrees with the bulk data above 210 K. Upon approaching the glass transition temperature the free surface was observed to relax considerably faster close to the liquid/vapor interface than in bulk. The concept of higher relaxation rate at the free surface is also supported by the results of the quasielastic nuclear forward scattering experiment, during which dynamics on molecular length scales around the calorimetric glass transition temperature is studied. The data were analyzed using mode-coupling theory of the glass transition and the model of the liquid(glass)/vapor interface, predicting inhomogeneous dynamics near the surface. The quasielastic nuclear forward scattering data can be explained when the molecular mobility is assumed to decrease with the increasing

  1. Radiation dosage to the breast in well-women screening surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asbury, D L; Barker, P G [University Hospital of South Manchester (UK)

    1975-12-01

    The D.H.S.S. is supporting research in several centres to determine the feasibility of establishing a nationwide Breast Cancer Screening Programme. This paper answers the questions 'What is the radiation dose produced by mammography, and is it safe'. In the context of well-women screening surveys a maximum skin dose of 2 R has been recommended. The variation of dose across the breast surface is recorded and the reasons for this enumerated. The lowest mean dose recorded with industrial quality film was 4.9 R, so that such fine-grain film cannot be used for this purpose. Doses within the recommended safety limit are achieved by the use of vacuum-packed film-screen combinations. The new rare-earth phosphor screens produced the lowest dose (0.2 R). There was no significant gonad dose. It is concluded that mammographic examination of well-women can be performed at safe radiation levels.

  2. Development of aerial gamma radiation survey system, 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Kimiaki; Nagaoka, Toshi; Sakamoto, Ryuichi; Tsutsumi, Masahiro; Moriuchi, Shigeru

    1985-02-01

    Field experiments have been performed by JAERI since 1982 to obtain fundamental data required for development of aerial radiation survey system. In order to supplement the fundamental radiation data, theoretical calculations have been carried out. The utilized Monte Carlo transport program was verified by simulative calculations of the field experiments, and characteristics data on environmental gamma rays have been accumulated. In this report, the field experiments in 1981 and 1982 were simulated making use of the Monte Carlo transport calculation code YURI developed in JAERI. Comparisons were made between experimental and calculated results for exposure rate and flux density originated from terrestrial sources, and from a point source at height of 2.5 m above the ground. Good agreements between the data verified the transport program. As fundamental characteristics data on environmental gamma rays, spatial distributions of exposure, fluence, energy spectra, angular spectra and average energy were reported and discussed, for terrestrial sources of 40 K, 232 Th-series and 238 U-series, for a plane source on the ground and for a point source at 2.5 m above the ground. (author)

  3. SALTS AND RADIATION PRODUCTS ON THE SURFACE OF EUROPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M. E.; Hand, K. P.

    2013-01-01

    The surface of Europa could contain the compositional imprint of an underlying interior ocean, but competing hypotheses differ over whether spectral observations from the Galileo spacecraft show the signature of ocean evaporates or simply surface radiation products unrelated to the interior. Using adaptive optics at the W. M. Keck Observatory, we have obtained spatially resolved spectra of most of the disk of Europa at a spectral resolution ∼40 times higher than seen by the Galileo spacecraft. These spectra show a previously undetected distinct signature of magnesium sulfate salts on Europa, but the magnesium sulfate is confined to the trailing hemisphere and spatially correlated with the presence of radiation products like sulfuric acid and SO 2 . On the leading, less irradiated, hemisphere, our observations rule out the presence of many of the proposed sulfate salts, but do show the presence of distorted water ice bands. Based on the association of the potential MgSO 4 detection on the trailing side with other radiation products, we conclude that MgSO 4 is also a radiation product, rather than a constituent of a Europa ocean brine. Based on ocean chemistry models, we hypothesize that, prior to irradiation, magnesium is primarily in the form of MgCl 2 , and we predict that NaCl and KCl are even more abundant, and, in fact, dominate the non-ice component of the leading hemisphere. We propose observational tests of this new hypothesis.

  4. SALTS AND RADIATION PRODUCTS ON THE SURFACE OF EUROPA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M. E. [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Hand, K. P., E-mail: mbrown@caltech.edu [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    The surface of Europa could contain the compositional imprint of an underlying interior ocean, but competing hypotheses differ over whether spectral observations from the Galileo spacecraft show the signature of ocean evaporates or simply surface radiation products unrelated to the interior. Using adaptive optics at the W. M. Keck Observatory, we have obtained spatially resolved spectra of most of the disk of Europa at a spectral resolution {approx}40 times higher than seen by the Galileo spacecraft. These spectra show a previously undetected distinct signature of magnesium sulfate salts on Europa, but the magnesium sulfate is confined to the trailing hemisphere and spatially correlated with the presence of radiation products like sulfuric acid and SO{sub 2}. On the leading, less irradiated, hemisphere, our observations rule out the presence of many of the proposed sulfate salts, but do show the presence of distorted water ice bands. Based on the association of the potential MgSO{sub 4} detection on the trailing side with other radiation products, we conclude that MgSO{sub 4} is also a radiation product, rather than a constituent of a Europa ocean brine. Based on ocean chemistry models, we hypothesize that, prior to irradiation, magnesium is primarily in the form of MgCl{sub 2}, and we predict that NaCl and KCl are even more abundant, and, in fact, dominate the non-ice component of the leading hemisphere. We propose observational tests of this new hypothesis.

  5. Martian sub-surface ionising radiation: biosignatures and geology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Ward

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The surface of Mars, unshielded by thick atmosphere or global magnetic field, is exposed to high levels of cosmic radiation. This ionising radiation field is deleterious to the survival of dormant cells or spores and the persistence of molecular biomarkers in the subsurface, and so its characterisation is of prime astrobiological interest. Here, we present modelling results of the absorbed radiation dose as a function of depth through the Martian subsurface, suitable for calculation of biomarker persistence. A second major implementation of this dose accumulation rate data is in application of the optically stimulated luminescence technique for dating Martian sediments.

    We present calculations of the dose-depth profile in the Martian subsurface for various scenarios: variations of surface composition (dry regolith, ice, layered permafrost, solar minimum and maximum conditions, locations of different elevation (Olympus Mons, Hellas basin, datum altitude, and increasing atmospheric thickness over geological history. We also model the changing composition of the subsurface radiation field with depth compared between Martian locations with different shielding material, determine the relative dose contributions from primaries of different energies, and discuss particle deflection by the crustal magnetic fields.

  6. Radiative capture of slow electrons by tungsten surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artamonov, O.M.; Belkina, G.M.; Samarin, S.N.; Yakovlev, I.I.

    1987-01-01

    Isochromatic spectra of radiation capture of slow electrons by the surface of mono- and polycrystal tungsten recorded on 322 and 405 nm wave lengths are presented. The effect of oxygen adsorption on isochromates of the (110) face of tungsten monocrystal is investigated. The obtained isochromatic spectra are compared with energy band structure of tungsten. Based on the analysis of the obtained experimental results it is assumed that optical transition to the final state at the energy of 7.3 eV relatively to Fermi level is conditioned by surface states of the tungsten face (110)

  7. Surface terms and radiative corrections to the VVA triangle diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhury, A.M.; McKeon, G.

    1986-01-01

    The two-loop radiative corrections to the divergence of the axial-vector current are analyzed in the context of spinor electrodynamics. It is found that the arbitrariness that occurs in the relevant Feynman diagrams due to the appearance of surface terms associated with linearly divergent integrals is sufficient to ensure that at two-loop order the Ward identity can be satisfied, irrespective of how the divergences that occur are parametrized. This indicates that the Adler-Bardeen theorem is satisfied

  8. Directional radiative properties of anisotropic rough silicon and gold surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, H.J.; Chen, Y.B.; Zhang, Z.M. [George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States)

    2006-11-15

    Recent studies have shown that the topography of some chemically etched microrough silicon surfaces is non-Gaussian and may be strongly anisotropic. However, the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) of anisotropic surfaces has not been fully understood. The present study uses the Monte Carlo method to investigate the out-of-plane BRDF, multiple scattering, and the change of the polarization state upon reflection. Two ray-tracing algorithms are developed that incorporate the surface topography or slope distribution of the samples obtained by the use of an atomic force microscope. The predicted BRDFs for silicon surfaces with or without a gold coating are in reasonable agreement with the results measured using a laser scatterometer at a wavelength of 635nm. The employment of surface topographic data is indispensable to the BRDF modeling of anisotropic surfaces. While first-order scattering makes the dominant contribution to reflections from the studied surfaces, it is critical to consider the polarization state change in order to correctly predict the out-of-plane BRDF. The versatile Monte Carlo modeling tools developed through the present study help gain a better understanding of the directional radiative properties of microrough surfaces and, furthermore, will have an impact on thermal metrology in the semiconductor industry. (author)

  9. The Growth of Academic Radiation Oncology: A Survey of Endowed Professorships in Radiation Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasserman, Todd H.; Smith, Steven M.; Powell, Simon N.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The academic health of a medical specialty can be gauged by the level of university support through endowed professorships. Methods and Materials: We conducted a survey of the 86 academic programs in radiation oncology to determine the current status of endowed chairs in this discipline. Results: Over the past decade, the number of endowed chairs has more than doubled, and it has almost tripled over the past 13 years. The number of programs with at least one chair has increased from 31% to 65%. Conclusions: Coupled with other indicators of academic growth, such as the proportion of graduating residents seeking academic positions, there has been clear and sustained growth in academic radiation oncology.

  10. Patient information about radiation therapy: a survey in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, Annie; Kantor, Guy; Dilhuydy, Jean-Marie; Toulouse, Claude; Germain, Colette; Le Polles, Gisele; Salamon, Roger; Scalliet, Pierre

    1997-01-01

    Background and purpose: We performed a survey to evaluate the present status and means of information given to patients treated by radiotherapy. A short questionnaire was sent, with the help of ESTRO, to 746 European heads of department with a request to send specific documents used for informing the patient. Within 2 months (March and April 1996) we received 290 answers (39%) and 97 centres sent documents. Materials and methods: Analysis of the questionnaire and the documents was performed quantitatively with usual statistical methods and qualitatively with a socio-anthropological method of content analysis. Results: Analysis of the questionnaire shows the major role of the radiation oncologist in giving information and writing documents. The 298 different samples sent from 97 centres represent a wide panel with a booklet of general information (59 booklets/57 centres), practical advice and specific explanations (177 documents/49 centres) and informed consent (36 documents/28 centres). The anthropological study was centred on the way information was given, evaluation of the patient's understanding and analysis of documents sent. Conclusion: This preliminary survey needs to be completed by a study, including the patient's point of view and needs, about the information given

  11. Parametric plasma surface instabilities with s-polarized radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rappaport, H.L.

    1994-01-01

    The authors argue that parametric plasma surface mode excitation is a viable broadband instability mechanism in the microwave regime since the wavelength of incident radiation ca be large compared to plasma ion density gradient scale lengths. They restrict their attention to plasmas which are uniform in the planes perpendicular to the density gradients. The boundary is characterized by three parameters: (1) the ion density gradient scale length, (2) the electron Debye length, and (3) the excursion of boundary electrons as they move in response to monochromatic radiation. For s-polarized radiation, equilibrium fluid motion is parallel to the boundary when the ratio of the pump quiver velocity to the speed of light is small. In this case, an abruptly bounded plasma may be modeled with no transition width. If in this case the cold fluid approximation is used as well, the specular and diffuse boundary approximations become the same. A new formation is presented in which pump induced perturbations are expressed as an explicit superposition of linear and non-linear plasma half-space modes. A four-wave interaction is found to produce instability as well as surface wave frequency-shift. This mode is compared against other modes known to exist in this geometry. The theory of surface wave linear mode conversion is reviewed with special attention paid to power flow and energy conservation in this system

  12. Surface radiative forcing of forest disturbances over northeastern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yuzhen; Liang, Shunlin

    2014-01-01

    Forests provide important climate forcing through biogeochemical and biogeophysical processes. In this study, we investigated the climatic effects of forest disturbances due to changes in forest biomass and surface albedo in terms of radiative forcing over northeastern China. Four types of forest disturbances were considered: fires, insect damage, logging, and afforestation and reforestation. The mechanisms of the influence of forest disturbances on climate were different. ‘Instantaneous’ net radiative forcings caused by fires, insect damage, logging, and afforestation and reforestation were estimated at 0.53 ± 0.08 W m −2 , 1.09 ± 0.14 W m −2 , 2.23 ± 0.27 W m −2 , and 0.14 ± 0.04 W m −2 , respectively. Trajectories of CO 2 -driven radiative forcing, albedo-driven radiative forcing, and net forcing were different with time for each type of disturbance. Over a decade, the estimated net forcings were 2.24 ± 0.11 W m −2 , 0.20 ± 0.31 W m −2 , 1.06 ± 0.41 W m −2 , and −0.47 ± 0.07 W m −2 , respectively. These estimated radiative forcings from satellite observations provided evidence for the mechanisms of the influences of forest disturbances on climate. (paper)

  13. Development of aerial gamma radiation survey system III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaoka, Toshi; Sakamoto, Ryuichi; Saito, Kimiaki; Tsutsumi, Masahiro; Moriuchi, Shigeru; Miyasaka, Satoshi.

    1985-01-01

    An aerial gamma-ray survey system using a helicopter has been developed since 1980 in order to perform quick gamma-ray survey covering a wide area. To form a line in the chain of the development, a series of flight measurements were conducted in Watarase reservoir, Tochigi prefecture, in which artificial gamma-ray fields were realized using 60 Co (100 and 400 mCi) and 137 Cs (100 and 300 mCi) point sources located on the ground. For the purpose of obtaining gamma-ray pulse height spectra in the field, 6 sets of NaI(Tl) scientillation detectors were prepared. These sets of detectors consist of ones for evaluation with high accuracy as the standard, for intercomparison with other authors' results, and for practical use. Two sets of them were boarded for each flight considering the exposure rate level and detector's sensitivity. The flight measurements were performed in a space of 20 m to 500 m in altitude, and 0 m to 500 m in horizontal distance from the source. The experimental results of the spatial gamma-ray distribution for each gamma-ray field satisfactorily agreed with calculational results by Monte Carlo method. Throughout this experiment, characteristics of this survey system and detectors were clarified, and versatile data processing and analysis code was completed. Also, a method for subtraction of background exposure rate in a field including artificial radiation component was discussed using energy band information, and the coefficients for this method were determined. These data obtained are expected to be used as widely applicable data not only for the interpretation of measured value, but also for analysis of environmental gamma-ray field. (author)

  14. Epidemiological survey of radiation workers. Risk of leukemia and solid cancer by low level radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatsumi, Kouichi

    2011-01-01

    An interim report on the epidemiological survey of cohort involving radiation workers in the nuclear power plants in Japan was introduced. It consists of eight chapters such as introduction, the objects of mortality rate survey from death causes and creating a cohort, the method of tracking the life and death, analytical methods of mortality rate, analytical results, confounded effects of life style, discussion: contrast the report on the mortality rate of solid cancer except leukemia in Japan and other countries and the conclusions. The subjects of mortality rate of the forth survey were about 277,000 workers including from the first to the third survey. In a prospective cohort study, 203,904 workers were screened for analytical study, and they included 14,224 deaths (5,711 from malignant neoplasm, 6,310 from nonmalignant neoplasm and 1,995 from extrinsic death). The analytical results were shown by three types of death caused from leukemia, malignant neoplasm except for leukemia and nonmalignant neoplasm. Analytical results of the mortality rate from death caused in third and forth study, change of analytical results from the first to the forth observation period were illustrated. (S.Y.)

  15. Surface erosion of fusion reactor components due to radiation blistering and neutron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, S.K.; Kaminsky, M.

    1975-01-01

    Radiation blistering and neutron sputtering can lead to the surface erosion of fusion reactor components exposed to plasma radiations. Recent studies of methods to reduce the surface erosion caused by these processes are discussed

  16. Surface energy and radiation balance systems - General description and improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritschen, Leo J.; Simpson, James R.

    1989-01-01

    Surface evaluation of sensible and latent heat flux densities and the components of the radiation balance were desired for various vegetative surfaces during the ASCOT84 experiment to compare with modeled results and to relate these values to drainage winds. Five battery operated data systems equipped with sensors to determine the above values were operated for 105 station days during the ASCOT84 experiment. The Bowen ratio energy balance technique was used to partition the available energy into the sensible and latent heat flux densities. A description of the sensors and battery operated equipment used to collect and process the data is presented. In addition, improvements and modifications made since the 1984 experiment are given. Details of calculations of soil heat flow at the surface and an alternate method to calculate sensible and latent heat flux densities are provided.

  17. Environmental Ionizing Radiation Survey of Quarry Sites in Ilorin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJABS

    Besides, human exposure to radiations may increase if they live in areas with radiation doses above normal background value. Hence, this study involves the determination of background ionizing radiation levels around quarry sites in the industrial area of Ilorin with a view to assessing whether the radiation level is within ...

  18. Effect of surface treatments on radiation buildup in steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asay, R.H.; Pick, M.E.; van Melsen, C.

    1991-11-01

    Test coupons of typical PWR materials of construction were prepared using a number of pretreatments to minimize radiation buildup. The coupons were then exposed to primary coolant at the Doel-2 PWR in Belgium. The exposure periods for the coupons ranged from one to three fuel cycles. After removal from the primary system, doserate and gamma spectroscopy measurements were made to determine the radioactivity levels on the coupons. Varying levels of success were achieved for the preconditioning techniques tested. Electropolishing alone provided some degree of resistance to radiation buildup on the treated surface and electropolishing plus passivation was shown to be even better. Radiation buildup resistance of the palladium-coated coupons was poor; radiation levels on these coupons were even higher than on the untreated reference coupons. The poor performance of the palladium-coated coupons was possibly due to the method used to apply the coating. In contrast to palladium coating, very encouraging results were achieved with chromium plating plus passivation. Preliminary results show that this technique can inhibit activity deposition by as much as a factor of ten. 4 refs., 64 figs., 26 tabs

  19. Alpha particle response for a prototype radiation survey meter based on poly(ethylene terephthalate) with un-doping fluorescent guest molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Philip; Nakamura, Hidehito; Sato, Nobuhiro; Takahashi, Tomoyuki; Maki, Daisuke; Kanayama, Masaya; Takahashi, Sentaro; Kitamura, Hisashi; Shirakawa, Yoshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    There is no radiation survey meter that can discriminate among alpha particles, beta particles, and gamma-rays with one material. Previously, undoped poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) has been shown to be an effective material for beta particle and gamma-ray detection. Here, we demonstrate a prototype survey meter for alpha particles based on undoped PET. A 140 × 72 × 1-mm PET substrate was fabricated with mirrored surfaces. It was incorporated in a unique detection section of the survey meter that directly detects alpha particles. The prototype exhibited an unambiguous response to alpha particles from a 241 Am radioactive source. These results demonstrate that undoped PET can perform well in survey meters for alpha particle detection. Overall, the PET-based survey meter has the potential to detect multiple types of radiation, and will spawn an unprecedented type of radiation survey meter based on undoped aromatic ring polymers. (author)

  20. Parametric plasma surface instabilities with p-polarized radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rappaport, H.L.

    1994-01-01

    The authors argue that parametric plasma surface mode excitation is a viable broadband instability mechanism in the microwave regime since the wavelength of incident radiation can be large compared to plasma ion density gradient scale lengths. The authors restrict their attention to plasmas which are uniform in the planes perpendicular to the density gradients. The boundary region is characterized by three parameters: (1) the ion density gradient length; (2) the electron Debye length; and (3) the excursion of boundary electrons as they move in response to monochromatic p-polarized radiation. A thin vacuum plasma transition layer, in which the ion density gradient scale length is large compared with the Debye length and the electron excursion, is included in the analysis of plasma stability. The recently proposed Lagrangian Frame Two-Plasmon Decay mode (LFTPD) is investigated in the regime in which the instability is not resonantly coupled to surface waves propagating along the boundary region. In this case they have found both spatially dependent growth rate profiles and spatially dependent transit layer magnetic fields due to nonlinear surface currents. LFTPD growth rate profiles are displayed as a function of pump amplitude. The results of a time domain simulation of this mode is also shown

  1. Effect of surface wettability caused by radiation induced surface activation on leidenfrost condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamasa, T.; Hazuku, T.; Tamura, N.; Okamoto, K.; Mishima, K.; Furuya, M.

    2003-01-01

    Improving the limit of boiling heat transfer or critical heat flux requires that the cooling liquid can contact the heating surface, or a high-wettability, highly hydrophilic heating surface, even if a vapor bubble layer is generated on the surface. From this basis, we investigated surface wettability and Leidenfrost condition using metal oxides irradiated by γ-rays. In our previous study, contact angle, an indicator of macroscopic wettability, of a water droplet on metal oxide at room temperature was measured by image processing of the images obtained by a CCD video camera. The results showed that the surface wettability on metal oxide pieces of titanium, Zircaloy No. 4, SUS-304, and copper was improved significantly by the Radiation Induced Surface Activation (RISA) phenomenon. To delineate the effect of Radiation Induced Surface Activation (RISA) on heat transferring phenomena, the Leidenfrost condition and quenching of metal oxides irradiated by γ-rays were investigated. In the Leidenfrost experiment, when the temperature of the heating surface reached the wetting limit temperature, water-solid contact vanished because a stable vapor film existed between the droplet and the metal surface; i.e., a Leidenfrost condition obtained. The wetting limit temperature increased with integrated irradiation dose. After irradiation, the wet length and the duration of contact increased, and the contact angle decreased. In the quenching test, high surface wettability, or a highly hydrophilic condition, of a simulated fuel rod made of SUS was achieved, and the quenching velocities were increased up to 20-30% after 300 kGy 60Co γ-ray irradiation

  2. Effect of surface wettability caused by radiation induced surface activation on leidenfrost condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takamasa, T.; Hazuku, T.; Tamura, N.; Okamoto, K. [Tokyo Univ., Tokyo (Japan); Mishima, K. [Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan); Furuya, M. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    Improving the limit of boiling heat transfer or critical heat flux requires that the cooling liquid can contact the heating surface, or a high-wettability, highly hydrophilic heating surface, even if a vapor bubble layer is generated on the surface. From this basis, we investigated surface wettability and Leidenfrost condition using metal oxides irradiated by {gamma}-rays. In our previous study, contact angle, an indicator of macroscopic wettability, of a water droplet on metal oxide at room temperature was measured by image processing of the images obtained by a CCD video camera. The results showed that the surface wettability on metal oxide pieces of titanium, Zircaloy No. 4, SUS-304, and copper was improved significantly by the Radiation Induced Surface Activation (RISA) phenomenon. To delineate the effect of Radiation Induced Surface Activation (RISA) on heat transferring phenomena, the Leidenfrost condition and quenching of metal oxides irradiated by {gamma}-rays were investigated. In the Leidenfrost experiment, when the temperature of the heating surface reached the wetting limit temperature, water-solid contact vanished because a stable vapor film existed between the droplet and the metal surface; i.e., a Leidenfrost condition obtained. The wetting limit temperature increased with integrated irradiation dose. After irradiation, the wet length and the duration of contact increased, and the contact angle decreased. In the quenching test, high surface wettability, or a highly hydrophilic condition, of a simulated fuel rod made of SUS was achieved, and the quenching velocities were increased up to 20-30% after 300 kGy 60Co {gamma}-ray irradiation.

  3. Radiation level survey of a mobile phone base station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, M.C.; Schaffer, S.R.

    2006-01-01

    Electromagnetic field (E.M.F.) evaluations were carried out in the surroundings of a roof-top mobile-phone radio-base station (R.B.S.). Four of its sector-panel antennas are installed on two parallel vertical masts, each supporting two panels in a vertical collinear-array. The geometry is such that the vertical plane containing both masts is about 10 meters distant and parallel to the backside of an educational institution. This proximity provoked great anxiety among the local community members regarding potential health hazards.1. Introduction: To keep up with the expansion of the mobile-phone services, the number of Radio-Base Stations (R.B.S.) installations is increasing tremendously in Brazil. Efficient control and radiation monitoring to assess R.B.S. compliance to existing regulations are still lacking and particularly in big cities, clearly non - compliant R.B.S. can be seen which represent potentially hazardous E.M.F. sources to the nearby population. This first survey of an irregular R.B.S. revealed significant E-field strengths outside, as well as inside a classroom of an educational building where an usually prolonged stay is necessary. These results confirm that this problem deserves further attention, moreover, if one considers that public and occupational exposure limits set by I.C.N.I.R.P. (also adopted in Brazil) are exclusively based on the immediate thermal effects of acute exposure, disregarding any potential health risk from prolonged exposure to lower level radiation. Research activities focusing on quantitative aspects of electromagnetic radiation from R.B.S., as well as on biological and adverse health effects are still at a very incipient level, urging for immediate actions to improve this scenario in our country. 2. Material, methods and results Measurements were carried out with a broadband field strength monitor, E.M.R.-300 (W and G) coupled to an isotropic E-field probe (100 khz to 3 GHz). Preliminary measurements helped locating

  4. Survey by measurement of urban environmental radiation, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inokoshi, Yukio; Kitahara, Akiharu; Suzuki, Takashi; Sugiura, Shiroharu; Shindo, Kotaro

    1984-01-01

    In the evaluation of the effect of radiation on the population of Tokyo Metropolis, it is necessary to know the external exposure due to natural radiation. Radiation dose rate has been measured on the ground (parks, etc.), paved roads (sidewalks), buildings, and transportation facilities (subways). The average values of cosmic ray and ground radiation were 8.8 x 10 -10 C/kg.h and 6.5 x 10 -10 C/kg.h, respectively. The radiation dose rate on roads differed largely with the structural materials, thickness, etc. The radiation in wooden buildings was almost similar to surrounding natural radiation. In high-rise buildings, there was not much difference from floor to floor. The natural radiation in subways depends largely on the depth. (Mori, K.)

  5. Kinetics of radiation-induced precipitation at the alloy surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, N. Q.; Nguyen, T.; Leaf, G. K.; Yip, S.

    1988-05-01

    Radiation-induced precipitation of a new phase at the surface of an alloy during irradiation at elevated temperatures was studied with the aid of a kinetic model of segregation. The preferential coupling of solute atoms with the defect fluxes gives rise to a strong solute enrichment at the surface, which, if surpassing the solute solubility limit, leads to the formation of a precipitate layer. The moving precipitate/matrix interface was accommodated by means of a mathematical scheme that transforms spatial coordinates into a reference frame in which the boundaries are immobile. Sample calculations were performed for precipitation of the γ'-Ni 3Si layer on Ni-Si alloys undergoing electron irradiation. The dependences of the precipitation kinetics on the defect-production rate, irradiation temperature, internal defect sink concentration and alloy composition were investigated systematically.

  6. Urban Surface Radiative Energy Budgets Determined Using Aircraft Scanner Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Quattrochi, Dale A.; Rickman, Doug L.; Estes, Maury G.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    the surface energy budget. Knowledge of it is important in any attempt to describe the radiative and mass fluxes which occur at the surface. Use of energy terms in modeling surface energy budgets allows the direct comparison of various land surfaces encountered in a urban landscape, from vegetated (forest and herbaceous) to non-vegetated (bare soil, roads, and buildings). These terms are also easily measured using remote sensing from aircraft or satellite platforms allowing one to examine the spacial variability. The partitioning of energy budget terms depends on the surface type. In natural landscapes, the partitioning is dependent on canopy biomass, leaf area index, aerodynamic roughness, and moisture status, all of which are influenced by the development stage of the ecosystem. In urban landscapes, coverage by man-made materials substantially alters the surface face energy budget. The remotely sensed data obtained from aircraft and satellites, when properly calibrated allows the measurement of important terms in the radiative surface energy budget a urban landscape scale.

  7. ENSO surface shortwave radiation forcing over the tropical Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. G. Pavlakis

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the spatial and temporal variation of the downward shortwave radiation (DSR at the surface of the Earth during ENSO events for a 21-year period over the tropical and subtropical Pacific Ocean (40° S–40° N, 90° E–75° W. The fluxes were computed using a deterministic model for atmospheric radiation transfer, along with satellite data from the ISCCP-D2 database, reanalysis data from NCEP/NCAR for the key atmospheric and surface input parameters, and aerosol parameters from GADS (acronyms explained in main text. A clear anti-correlation was found between the downward shortwave radiation anomaly (DSR-A time-series, in the region 7° S–5° N 160° E–160° W located west of the Niño-3.4 region, and the Niño-3.4 index time-series. In this region where the highest in absolute value DSR anomalies are observed, the mean DSR anomaly values range from −45 Wm−2 during El Niño episodes to +40 Wm−2 during La Niña events. Within the Niño-3.4 region no significant DSR anomalies are observed during the cold ENSO phase in contrast to the warm ENSO phase. A high correlation was also found over the western Pacific (10° S–5° N, 120–140° E, where the mean DSR anomaly values range from +20 Wm−2 to −20 Wm−2 during El Niño and La Niña episodes, respectively. There is also convincing evidence that the time series of the mean downward shortwave radiation anomaly in the off-equatorial western Pacific region 7–15° N 150–170° E, precedes the Niño-3.4 index time-series by about 7 months and the pattern of this anomaly is indicative of ENSO operating through the mechanism of the western Pacific oscillator. Thus, the downward shortwave radiation anomaly is a complementary index to the SST anomaly for the study of ENSO events and can be used to assess whether or not El Niño or La Niña conditions prevail.

  8. The World Radiation Monitoring Center of the Baseline Surface Radiation Network: Status 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driemel, Amelie; König-Langlo, Gert; Sieger, Rainer; Long, Charles N.

    2017-04-01

    The World Radiation Monitoring Center (WRMC) is the central archive of the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN). The BSRN was initiated by the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) Working Group on Radiative Fluxes and began operations in 1992. One of its aims is to provide short and long-wave surface radiation fluxes of the best possible quality to support the research projects of the WCRP and other scientific projects. The high quality, uniform and consistent measurements of the BSRN network can be used to monitor the short- and long-wave radiative components and their changes with the best methods currently available, to validate and evaluate satellite-based estimates of the surface radiative fluxes, and to verify the results of global climate models. In 1992 the BSRN/WRMC started at ETH Zurich, Switzerland with 9 stations. Since 2007 the archive is hosted by the Alfred-Wegener-Institut (AWI) in Bremerhaven, Germany (http://www.bsrn.awi.de/) and comprises a network of currently 59 stations in contrasting climatic zones, covering a latitude range from 80°N to 90°S. Of the 59 stations, 23 offer the complete radiation budget (down- and upwelling short- and long-wave data). In addition to the ftp-service access instituted at ETH Zurich, the archive at AWI offers data access via PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science (https://www.pangaea.de). PANGAEA guarantees the long-term availability of its content through a commitment of the operating institutions. Within PANGAEA, the metadata of the stations are freely available. To access the data itself an account is required. If the scientist accepts to follow the data release guidelines of the archive (http://bsrn.awi.de/data/conditions-of-data-release/) he or she can get an account from amelie.driemel@awi.de. Currently, more than 9,400 station months (>780 years) are available for interested scientists (see also https://dataportals.pangaea.de/bsrn/?q=LR0100 for an overview on available data

  9. A conductive surface coating for Si-CNT radiation detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentini, Antonio, E-mail: antonio.valentini@ba.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70125 Bari (Italy); Valentini, Marco [INFN, Sezione di Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Ditaranto, Nicoletta [Dipartimento di Chimica, Università degli Studi di Bari, Via Amendola 173, 70126 Bari (Italy); Melisi, Domenico [INFN, Sezione di Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Aramo, Carla, E-mail: aramo@na.infn.it [INFN, Sezione di Napoli, Via Cintia 2, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Ambrosio, Antonio [CNR-SPIN U.O.S. di Napoli and Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Università degli Studi di Napoli “Federico II”, Via Cintia 2, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Casamassima, Giuseppe [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70125 Bari (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Cilmo, Marco [INFN, Sezione di Napoli, and Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Università degli Studi di Napoli “Federico II”, Via Cintia 2, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Fiandrini, Emanuele [INFN, Sezione di Perugia, and Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Perugia, Piazza Università 1, 06100 Perugia (Italy); Grossi, Valentina [INFN, Sezione di L’Aquila, and Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche e Chimiche, Università degli Studi dell’Aquila, Via Vetoio 10 Coppito, 67100 L’Aquila (Italy); and others

    2015-08-01

    Silicon–Carbon Nanotube radiation detectors need an electrically conductive coating layer to avoid the nanotube detachment from the silicon substrate and uniformly transmit the electric field to the entire nanotube active surface. Coating material must be transparent to the radiation of interest, and must provide the drain voltage necessary to collect charges generated by incident photons. For this purpose various materials have been tested and proposed in photodetector and photoconverter applications. In this article interface properties and electrical contact behavior of Indium Tin Oxide films on Carbon Nanotubes have been analyzed. Ion Beam Sputtering has been used to grow the transparent conductive layer on the nanotubes. The films were deposited at room temperature with Oxygen/Argon mixture into the sputtering beam, at fixed current and for different beam energies. Optical and electrical analyses have been performed on films. Surface chemical analysis and in depth profiling results obtained by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy of the Indium Tin Oxide layer on nanotubes have been used to obtain the interface composition. Results have been applied in photodetectors realization based on multi wall Carbon Nanotubes on silicon. - Highlights: • ITO was deposited by Ion Beam Sputtering on MWCNT. • ITO on CNT makes an inter-diffusion layer of the order of one hundred nanometers. • Improvements of quantum efficiency of photon detectors based on CNT with ITO.

  10. Fast simulation tool for ultraviolet radiation at the earth's surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelsen, Ola; Kylling, Arve

    2005-04-01

    FastRT is a fast, yet accurate, UV simulation tool that computes downward surface UV doses, UV indices, and irradiances in the spectral range 290 to 400 nm with a resolution as small as 0.05 nm. It computes a full UV spectrum within a few milliseconds on a standard PC, and enables the user to convolve the spectrum with user-defined and built-in spectral response functions including the International Commission on Illumination (CIE) erythemal response function used for UV index calculations. The program accounts for the main radiative input parameters, i.e., instrumental characteristics, solar zenith angle, ozone column, aerosol loading, clouds, surface albedo, and surface altitude. FastRT is based on look-up tables of carefully selected entries of atmospheric transmittances and spherical albedos, and exploits the smoothness of these quantities with respect to atmospheric, surface, geometrical, and spectral parameters. An interactive site, http://nadir.nilu.no/~olaeng/fastrt/fastrt.html, enables the public to run the FastRT program with most input options. This page also contains updated information about FastRT and links to freely downloadable source codes and binaries.

  11. A survey of radiation safety training among South African interventionalists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Rose

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Ionising radiation is increasingly being used in modern medicine for diagnostic, interventional and therapeutic purposes. There has been an improvement in technology, resulting in lower doses being emitted. However, an increase in the number of procedures has led to a greater cumulative dose for patients and operators, which places them at increased risk of the effects of ionising radiation. Radiation safety training is key to optimising medical practice.Objective. To present the perceptions of South African interventionalists on the radiation safety training they received and to offer insights into the importance of developing and promoting such training programmes for all interventionalists.Methods. In this cross-sectional study, we collected data from interventionalists (N=108 using a structured questionnaire.Results. All groups indicated that radiation exposure in the workplace is important (97.2%. Of the participants, the radiologists received the most training (65.7%. Some participants (44.1% thought that their radiation safety training was adequate. Most participants (95.4% indicated that radiation safety should be part of their training curriculum. Few (34.3% had received instruction on radiation safety when they commenced work. Only 62% had been trained on how to protect patients from ionising radiation exposure.Conclusion. Radiation safety training should be formalised in the curriculum of interventionalists’ training programmes, as this will assist in stimulating a culture of radiation protection, which in turn will improve patient safety and improve quality of care.

  12. Data survey about radiation protection and safety of radiation sources in research laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paura, Clayton L.; Dantas, Ana Leticia A.; Dantas, Bernardo M.

    2005-01-01

    In Brazil, different types of research using unsealed sources are developed with a variety of radioisotopes. In such activities, professionals and students involved are potentially exposed to internal contamination by 14 C, 45 Ca, 51 Cr, 3 H, 125 I, 32 P, 33 P, 35 S, 90 Sr and 99m Tc. The general objective of this work is to evaluate radiological risks associated to these practices in order to supply information for planning actions aimed to improve radiation protection conditions in research laboratories. The criteria for risk evaluation and the safety aspects adopted in this work were based on CNEN Regulation 6.02 and in IAEA and NRPB publications. The survey of data was carried out during visits to laboratories in public Universities located in the city of Rio de Janeiro where unsealed radioactive sources are used in biochemistry, biophysics and genetic studies. According to the criteria adopted in this work, some practices developed in the laboratories require evaluation of risk of internal contamination depending on the conditions of source manipulation. It was verified the need for training of users of radioactive materials in this type of laboratory. This can be facilitated by the use of basic guides for the classification of areas, radiation protection, safety and source security in research laboratories. It was also observed the need for optimization of such practices in order to minimize the contact with sources. It is recommended to implement more effective source and access controls as a way to reduce risks of individual radiation exposure and loss of radioactive materials (author)

  13. Projections onto the Pareto surface in multicriteria radiation therapy optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokrantz, Rasmus; Miettinen, Kaisa

    2015-10-01

    To eliminate or reduce the error to Pareto optimality that arises in Pareto surface navigation when the Pareto surface is approximated by a small number of plans. The authors propose to project the navigated plan onto the Pareto surface as a postprocessing step to the navigation. The projection attempts to find a Pareto optimal plan that is at least as good as or better than the initial navigated plan with respect to all objective functions. An augmented form of projection is also suggested where dose-volume histogram constraints are used to prevent that the projection causes a violation of some clinical goal. The projections were evaluated with respect to planning for intensity modulated radiation therapy delivered by step-and-shoot and sliding window and spot-scanned intensity modulated proton therapy. Retrospective plans were generated for a prostate and a head and neck case. The projections led to improved dose conformity and better sparing of organs at risk (OARs) for all three delivery techniques and both patient cases. The mean dose to OARs decreased by 3.1 Gy on average for the unconstrained form of the projection and by 2.0 Gy on average when dose-volume histogram constraints were used. No consistent improvements in target homogeneity were observed. There are situations when Pareto navigation leaves room for improvement in OAR sparing and dose conformity, for example, if the approximation of the Pareto surface is coarse or the problem formulation has too permissive constraints. A projection onto the Pareto surface can identify an inaccurate Pareto surface representation and, if necessary, improve the quality of the navigated plan.

  14. Projections onto the Pareto surface in multicriteria radiation therapy optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bokrantz, Rasmus; Miettinen, Kaisa

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To eliminate or reduce the error to Pareto optimality that arises in Pareto surface navigation when the Pareto surface is approximated by a small number of plans. Methods: The authors propose to project the navigated plan onto the Pareto surface as a postprocessing step to the navigation. The projection attempts to find a Pareto optimal plan that is at least as good as or better than the initial navigated plan with respect to all objective functions. An augmented form of projection is also suggested where dose–volume histogram constraints are used to prevent that the projection causes a violation of some clinical goal. The projections were evaluated with respect to planning for intensity modulated radiation therapy delivered by step-and-shoot and sliding window and spot-scanned intensity modulated proton therapy. Retrospective plans were generated for a prostate and a head and neck case. Results: The projections led to improved dose conformity and better sparing of organs at risk (OARs) for all three delivery techniques and both patient cases. The mean dose to OARs decreased by 3.1 Gy on average for the unconstrained form of the projection and by 2.0 Gy on average when dose–volume histogram constraints were used. No consistent improvements in target homogeneity were observed. Conclusions: There are situations when Pareto navigation leaves room for improvement in OAR sparing and dose conformity, for example, if the approximation of the Pareto surface is coarse or the problem formulation has too permissive constraints. A projection onto the Pareto surface can identify an inaccurate Pareto surface representation and, if necessary, improve the quality of the navigated plan

  15. Application of low-dose radiation protocols in survey CT scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Qiang; Liu Ting; Lu Tao; Xu Ke; Zhang Lin

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To characterize the protocols with low-dose radiation in survey CT scans for localization. Methods: Eighty standard adult patients, head and body phantoms were recruited. Default protocols provided by operator's manual setting were that all the tube voltage for head, chest, abdomen and lumbar was 120 kV; the tube currents were 20,10,20 and 40 mA, respectively. Values of kV and mA in the low-dose experiments were optimized according to the device options. For chest and abdomen, the tube position were compared between default (0 degree) and 180 degree. Phantoms were scanned with above protocols, and the radiation doses were measured respectively. Paired t-test were used for comparisons of standard deviation in CT value, noise and exposure surface dose (ESD) between group with default protocols and group with optimized protocols. Results: The optimized protocols in low-dose CT survey scans were 80 kV, 10 mA for head, 80 kV, 10 mA for chest, 80 kV, 10 mA for abdomen and 100 kV, 10 mA for lumbar. The values of ESD for phantom scan in default and optimized protocols were 0.38 mGy/0.16 mGy in head, 0.30 mGy/0.20 mGy in chest, 0.74 mGy/0.30 mGy in abdomen and 0.81 mGy/0.44 mGy in lumbar, respectively. Compared with default protocols, the optimized protocols reduced the radiation doses 59%, 33%, 59% and 46% in head, chest, abdomen and lumbar. When tube position changed from 0 degree to 180 degree, the ESD were 0.24 mGy/0.20 mGy for chest; 0.37 mGy/0.30 mGy for abdomen, and the radiation doses were reduced 20% and 17%. Conclusion: A certain amount of image noise is increased in low-dose protocols, but image quality is still acceptable without problem in CT localization. The reduction of radiation dose and the radiation harm to patients are the superiority. (authors)

  16. The Surface Radiation Budget over Oceans and Continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garratt, J. R.; Prata, A. J.; Rotstayn, L. D.; McAvaney, B. J.; Cusack, S.

    1998-08-01

    An updated evaluation of the surface radiation budget in climate models (1994-96 versions; seven datasets available, with and without aerosols) and in two new satellite-based global datasets (with aerosols) is presented. All nine datasets capture the broad mean monthly zonal variations in the flux components and in the net radiation, with maximum differences of some 100 W m2 occurring in the downwelling fluxes at specific latitudes. Using long-term surface observations, both from land stations and the Pacific warm pool (with typical uncertainties in the annual values varying between ±5 and 20 W m2), excess net radiation (RN) and downwelling shortwave flux density (So) are found in all datasets, consistent with results from earlier studies [for global land, excesses of 15%-20% (12 W m2) in RN and about 12% (20 W m2) in So]. For the nine datasets combined, the spread in annual fluxes is significant: for RN, it is 15 (50) W m2 over global land (Pacific warm pool) in an observed annual mean of 65 (135) W m2; for So, it is 25 (60) W m2 over land (warm pool) in an annual mean of 176 (197) W m2.The effects of aerosols are included in three of the authors' datasets, based on simple aerosol climatologies and assumptions regarding aerosol optical properties. They offer guidance on the broad impact of aerosols on climate, suggesting that the inclusion of aerosols in models would reduce the annual So by 15-20 W m2 over land and 5-10 W m2 over the oceans. Model differences in cloud cover contribute to differences in So between datasets; for global land, this is most clearly demonstrated through the effects of cloud cover on the surface shortwave cloud forcing. The tendency for most datasets to underestimate cloudiness, particularly over global land, and possibly to underestimate atmospheric water vapor absorption, probably contributes to the excess downwelling shortwave flux at the surface.

  17. A National Radiation Oncology Medical Student Clerkship Survey: Didactic Curricular Components Increase Confidence in Clinical Competency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagadeesan, Vikrant S. [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, Pritzker School of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Raleigh, David R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, University of California–San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Koshy, Matthew; Howard, Andrew R.; Chmura, Steven J. [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, Pritzker School of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Golden, Daniel W., E-mail: dgolden@radonc.uchicago.edu [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, Pritzker School of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Students applying to radiation oncology residency programs complete 1 or more radiation oncology clerkships. This study assesses student experiences and perspectives during radiation oncology clerkships. The impact of didactic components and number of clerkship experiences in relation to confidence in clinical competency and preparation to function as a first-year radiation oncology resident are evaluated. Methods and Materials: An anonymous, Internet-based survey was sent via direct e-mail to all applicants to a single radiation oncology residency program during the 2012-2013 academic year. The survey was composed of 3 main sections including questions regarding baseline demographic information and prior radiation oncology experience, rotation experiences, and ideal clerkship curriculum content. Results: The survey response rate was 37% (70 of 188). Respondents reported 191 unique clerkship experiences. Of the respondents, 27% (19 of 70) completed at least 1 clerkship with a didactic component geared towards their level of training. Completing a clerkship with a didactic component was significantly associated with a respondent's confidence to function as a first-year radiation oncology resident (Wilcoxon rank–sum P=.03). However, the total number of clerkships completed did not correlate with confidence to pursue radiation oncology as a specialty (Spearman ρ P=.48) or confidence to function as a first year resident (Spearman ρ P=.43). Conclusions: Based on responses to this survey, rotating students perceive that the majority of radiation oncology clerkships do not have formal didactic curricula. Survey respondents who completed a clerkship with a didactic curriculum reported feeling more prepared to function as a radiation oncology resident. However, completing an increasing number of clerkships does not appear to improve confidence in the decision to pursue radiation oncology as a career or to function as a radiation oncology resident. These

  18. A national radiation oncology medical student clerkship survey: didactic curricular components increase confidence in clinical competency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagadeesan, Vikrant S; Raleigh, David R; Koshy, Matthew; Howard, Andrew R; Chmura, Steven J; Golden, Daniel W

    2014-01-01

    Students applying to radiation oncology residency programs complete 1 or more radiation oncology clerkships. This study assesses student experiences and perspectives during radiation oncology clerkships. The impact of didactic components and number of clerkship experiences in relation to confidence in clinical competency and preparation to function as a first-year radiation oncology resident are evaluated. An anonymous, Internet-based survey was sent via direct e-mail to all applicants to a single radiation oncology residency program during the 2012-2013 academic year. The survey was composed of 3 main sections including questions regarding baseline demographic information and prior radiation oncology experience, rotation experiences, and ideal clerkship curriculum content. The survey response rate was 37% (70 of 188). Respondents reported 191 unique clerkship experiences. Of the respondents, 27% (19 of 70) completed at least 1 clerkship with a didactic component geared towards their level of training. Completing a clerkship with a didactic component was significantly associated with a respondent's confidence to function as a first-year radiation oncology resident (Wilcoxon rank-sum P=.03). However, the total number of clerkships completed did not correlate with confidence to pursue radiation oncology as a specialty (Spearman ρ P=.48) or confidence to function as a first year resident (Spearman ρ P=.43). Based on responses to this survey, rotating students perceive that the majority of radiation oncology clerkships do not have formal didactic curricula. Survey respondents who completed a clerkship with a didactic curriculum reported feeling more prepared to function as a radiation oncology resident. However, completing an increasing number of clerkships does not appear to improve confidence in the decision to pursue radiation oncology as a career or to function as a radiation oncology resident. These results support further development of structured didactic

  19. A National Radiation Oncology Medical Student Clerkship Survey: Didactic Curricular Components Increase Confidence in Clinical Competency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagadeesan, Vikrant S.; Raleigh, David R.; Koshy, Matthew; Howard, Andrew R.; Chmura, Steven J.; Golden, Daniel W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Students applying to radiation oncology residency programs complete 1 or more radiation oncology clerkships. This study assesses student experiences and perspectives during radiation oncology clerkships. The impact of didactic components and number of clerkship experiences in relation to confidence in clinical competency and preparation to function as a first-year radiation oncology resident are evaluated. Methods and Materials: An anonymous, Internet-based survey was sent via direct e-mail to all applicants to a single radiation oncology residency program during the 2012-2013 academic year. The survey was composed of 3 main sections including questions regarding baseline demographic information and prior radiation oncology experience, rotation experiences, and ideal clerkship curriculum content. Results: The survey response rate was 37% (70 of 188). Respondents reported 191 unique clerkship experiences. Of the respondents, 27% (19 of 70) completed at least 1 clerkship with a didactic component geared towards their level of training. Completing a clerkship with a didactic component was significantly associated with a respondent's confidence to function as a first-year radiation oncology resident (Wilcoxon rank–sum P=.03). However, the total number of clerkships completed did not correlate with confidence to pursue radiation oncology as a specialty (Spearman ρ P=.48) or confidence to function as a first year resident (Spearman ρ P=.43). Conclusions: Based on responses to this survey, rotating students perceive that the majority of radiation oncology clerkships do not have formal didactic curricula. Survey respondents who completed a clerkship with a didactic curriculum reported feeling more prepared to function as a radiation oncology resident. However, completing an increasing number of clerkships does not appear to improve confidence in the decision to pursue radiation oncology as a career or to function as a radiation oncology resident. These results

  20. Interplay of radiative and nonradiative transitions in surface hopping with radiation-molecule interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajo, Juan José [Departamento de Química-Física I, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Granucci, Giovanni, E-mail: giovanni.granucci@unipi.it; Persico, Maurizio [Università di Pisa, Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industriale, via Risorgimento 35, 56126 Pisa (Italy)

    2014-01-28

    We implemented a method for the treatment of field induced transitions in trajectory surface hopping simulations, in the framework of the local diabatization scheme, especially suited for on-the-fly dynamics. The method is applied to a simple one-dimensional model with an avoided crossing and compared with quantum wavepacket dynamics. The results show the importance of introducing a proper decoherence correction to surface hopping, in order to obtain meaningful results. Also the energy conservation policy of standard surface hopping must be revised: in fact, the quantum wavepacket energetics is well reproduced if energy absorption/emission is allowed for in the hops determined by radiation-molecule coupling. To our knowledge, this is the first time the issues of decoherence and energy conservation have been analyzed in depth to devise a mixed quantum-classical method for dynamics with molecule-field interactions.

  1. Knowledge in Radiation Protection: a Survey of Professionals in Medical Imaging, Radiation Therapy and Nuclear Medicine Units in Yaounde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ongolo-Zogo, P.; Nguehouo, M.B.; Yomi, J.; Nko'o Amven, S.

    2013-01-01

    Medical use of ionizing radiation is now the most common radiation source of the population at the global level. The knowledge and practices of health professionals working with X-rays determine the level and quality of implementation of internationally and nationally recommended measures for radiation protection of patients and workers. The level of implementation and enforcement of international recommendations in African countries is an issue of concern due to weak laws and regulations and regulatory bodies. We report the results of a cross-sectional survey of health professionals working with ionizing radiation in Yaounde, the capital city of Cameroon. More than 50% of these professionals have a moderate level of knowledge of the norms and principles of radiation protection and more than 80% have never attended a continuing professional development workshop on radiation protection. (authors)

  2. Aerial Mobile Radiation Survey Following Detonation of a Radiological Dispersal Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Laurel E; Fortin, Richard; Buckle, John L; Coyle, Maurice J; Van Brabant, Reid A; Harvey, Bradley J A; Seywerd, Henry C J; McCurdy, Martin W

    2016-05-01

    A series of experiments was conducted in 2012 at the Defence Research and Development Canada's Suffield Research Centre in Alberta, Canada, during which three radiological dispersal devices were detonated. The detonations released radioactive (140)La into the air, which was then carried by winds and detectable over distances of up to 2 km. The Nuclear Emergency Response group of Natural Resources Canada conducted airborne radiometric surveys shortly following the explosions to map the pattern of radioactivity deposited on the ground. The survey instrument suite was based on large volume NaI(Tl) scintillation gamma radiation detectors, which were situated in a basket mounted exterior to the helicopter and oriented end-to-end to maximize the sensitivity. A standard geophysical data treatment was used to subtract backgrounds and to correct the data to produce counts due to (140)La at the nominal altitude. Sensitivity conversion factors obtained from Monte Carlo simulations were then applied to express the measurements in terms of surface activity concentration in kBq m(-2). Integrated over the survey area, the results indicate that only 20 to 25% of the bomb's original inventory of radioactive material is deposited within a 1.5-km radius of ground zero. These results can be accommodated with a simple model for the RDD behavior and atmospheric dispersion.

  3. Effective aerosol optical depth from pyranometer measurements of surface solar radiation (global radiation at Thessaloniki, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Lindfors

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Pyranometer measurements of the solar surface radiation (SSR are available at many locations worldwide, often as long time series covering several decades into the past. These data constitute a potential source of information on the atmospheric aerosol load. Here, we present a method for estimating the aerosol optical depth (AOD using pyranometer measurements of the SSR together with total water vapor column information. The method, which is based on radiative transfer simulations, was developed and tested using recent data from Thessaloniki, Greece. The effective AOD calculated using this method was found to agree well with co-located AERONET measurements, exhibiting a correlation coefficient of 0.9 with 2/3 of the data found within ±20% or ±0.05 of the AERONET AOD. This is similar to the performance of current satellite aerosol methods. Differences in the AOD as compared to AERONET can be explained by variations in the aerosol properties of the atmosphere that are not accounted for in the idealized settings used in the radiative transfer simulations, such as variations in the single scattering albedo and Ångström exponent. Furthermore, the method is sensitive to calibration offsets between the radiative transfer simulations and the pyranometer SSR. The method provides an opportunity of extending our knowledge of the atmospheric aerosol load to locations and times not covered by dedicated aerosol measurements.

  4. Development and pilot of an international survey: 'Radiation Therapists and Psychosocial Support'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsner, Kelly L; Naehrig, Diana; Halkett, Georgia K B; Dhillon, Haryana M

    2018-06-07

    Up to one third of radiation therapy patients are reported to have unmet psychosocial needs. Radiation therapists (RTs) have daily contact with patients and can provide daily psychosocial support to reduce patient anxiety, fear and loneliness. However, RTs vary in their values, skills, training, knowledge and involvement in providing psychosocial support. The aims of this study were to: (1) develop an online survey instrument to explore RT values, skills, training and knowledge regarding patient anxiety and psychosocial support, and (2) pilot the instrument with RT professionals to assess content validity, functionality and length. An online cross-sectional survey, titled 'Radiation therapists and psychosocial support' was developed. Items included patient vignettes, embedded items from RT research, and the Professional Quality of Life Scale (ProQOL5). Four radiation oncology departments volunteered to pilot the survey; each nominated four RT staff to participate. Survey data were analysed descriptively and qualitative feedback grouped and coded to determine whether the survey needed to be refined. Thirteen of sixteen RTs completed the pilot survey and feedback form. Median time to completion was 35 mins, with 54% of respondents stating this was too long. Respondents reported content, questions and response options were relevant and appropriate. Feedback was used to: refine the survey instrument, minimise responder burden and drop out and improve functionality and quality of data collection. This pilot of the 'Radiation therapists and psychosocial support' survey instrument demonstrated content validity and usability. The main survey will be circulated to a representative sample of RTs for completion. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Medical Radiation Sciences published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Australian Society of Medical Imaging and Radiation Therapy and New Zealand Institute of Medical Radiation Technology.

  5. Survey and analysis of radiation safety management systems at medical institutions. Second report. Radiation measurement, calibration of radiation survey meters, and periodic check of installations, equipment, and protection instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohba, Hisateru; Ogasawara, Katsuhiko; Aburano, Tamio

    2006-01-01

    We carried out a questionnaire survey to determine the actual situation of radiation safety management measures in all medical institutions in Japan that had nuclear medicine facilities. The questionnaire consisted of questions concerning the evaluation of shielding capacity; radiation measurement; periodic checks of installations, equipment, and protection instruments; and the calibration of radiation survey meters. The analysis was undertaken according to region, type of establishment, and number of beds. The overall response rate was 60 percent. For the evaluation of shielding capacity, the outsourcing rate was 53 percent of the total. For the radiation measurements of ''leakage radiation dose and radioactive contamination'' and contamination of radioactive substances in the air'', the outsourcing rates were 28 percent and 35 percent of the total, respectively (p<0.001, according to region and establishment). For the periodic check of radiation protection instruments, the implementation rate was 98 percent, and the outsourcing rate was 32 percent for radiation survey meters and 47 percent for lead aprons. The non-implemented rate for calibration of radiation survey meters was 25 percent of the total (p<0.001, according to region and establishment). The outsourcing rate for calibration of radiation survey meters accounted for 87 percent of the total, and of these medical institutions, 72 percent undertook annual calibration. The implementation rate for patient exposure measurement was 20 percent of the total (p<0.001, according to number of beds), and of these medical institutions 46 percent recorded measurement outcome. (author)

  6. A survey on the public's notion of 'radiation' and 'radioactivity'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Minoru

    1996-01-01

    An inquiry was carried out regarding the cognition of the public on the concepts of 'radiation' and 'radioactivity'. There was observed a high level of understanding of the word 'radiation' mainly through school education and hospital life, but also a stubborn misunderstanding between the concepts of 'radiation' and 'radioactivity'. It was found that the word 'radiation' was associated with neutral or positive image words such as 'Roentgen', 'therapy', 'medical care' and 'research', but that the word 'radioactivity' was rather strongly associated with negative image words such as 'nuclear weapon', 'Chernobyl accident', 'Hiroshima and Nagasaki' and 'danger'. An advice was also given that medical workers should pay careful attention to the choice of words in the process of communication with the patients especially regarding the proper distinction between 'radiation' and 'radioactivity'. (author)

  7. Radiation grafting of methacrylate onto carbon nanofiber surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evora, M.C.; Klosterman, D.; Lafdi, K.; Li, L.

    2011-01-01

    Radiation can be used to modify and improve the properties of materials. Electron beam irradiation has potential application in modifying the structure of carbon fibers in order to produce useful defects in the graphite structure and create reactive sites. In this study, vapor grown carbon nano fibers (VGCF) were irradiated with a high energy (3 MeV) electron beam in air to dose of 1000 kGy to create active sites and added to methyl methacrylate (MMA) dissolved in water/methanol (50% V). The irradiated samples were analyzed by X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy to assess the impact on surface and bulk properties. Oxygen was readily incorporated enhancing the dispersion of VGCF. Raman spectroscopy analyses indicated that the sample irradiated and preirradiated grafted sample with MMA had the intensity ratio increased. (author)

  8. Radiation survey of mobile and wireless technology masts in public places in Kaduna metropolis Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onoh, N. I.; Ogbanje, G. O.; Jonah, S. A.

    2014-01-01

    Work was done to measure radiation exposure of the populace in Kaduna metropolis from radiation emitted from global satellite communication masts. Base stations were surveyed in residential, school and office areas. Parameters sampled include the electric field strength, magnetic field strength, power density and ionizing radiation dose rate of the 20 surveyed masts belonging to four service providers. The instruments deployed include the Rf- EMF strength meter Model 480836 used to measure the first three parameters and Radiation Monitor Radex RD 1503 used to determine the forth parameter. The result obtained in this work was compared with the limits set by international regulatory bodies. Our result shows that electromagnetic and ionizing radiation exposures from the surveyed masts are far below the standard limits. Based on this, the population in Kaduna metropolis is not subjected to any adverse health effects from the Global System of Mobile Communication/Universal Mobile Telecommunication System masts at the moment.

  9. Can radiation therapy treatment planning system accurately predict surface doses in postmastectomy radiation therapy patients?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Sharon; Back, Michael; Tan, Poh Wee; Lee, Khai Mun; Baggarley, Shaun; Lu, Jaide Jay

    2012-01-01

    Skin doses have been an important factor in the dose prescription for breast radiotherapy. Recent advances in radiotherapy treatment techniques, such as intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and new treatment schemes such as hypofractionated breast therapy have made the precise determination of the surface dose necessary. Detailed information of the dose at various depths of the skin is also critical in designing new treatment strategies. The purpose of this work was to assess the accuracy of surface dose calculation by a clinically used treatment planning system and those measured by thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs) in a customized chest wall phantom. This study involved the construction of a chest wall phantom for skin dose assessment. Seven TLDs were distributed throughout each right chest wall phantom to give adequate representation of measured radiation doses. Point doses from the CMS Xio® treatment planning system (TPS) were calculated for each relevant TLD positions and results correlated. There were no significant difference between measured absorbed dose by TLD and calculated doses by the TPS (p > 0.05 (1-tailed). Dose accuracy of up to 2.21% was found. The deviations from the calculated absorbed doses were overall larger (3.4%) when wedges and bolus were used. 3D radiotherapy TPS is a useful and accurate tool to assess the accuracy of surface dose. Our studies have shown that radiation treatment accuracy expressed as a comparison between calculated doses (by TPS) and measured doses (by TLD dosimetry) can be accurately predicted for tangential treatment of the chest wall after mastectomy.

  10. Survey of current situation in radiation belt modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Shing F.

    2004-01-01

    The study of Earth's radiation belts is one of the oldest subjects in space physics. Despite the tremendous progress made in the last four decades, we still lack a complete understanding of the radiation belts in terms of their configurations, dynamics, and detailed physical accounts of their sources and sinks. The static nature of early empirical trapped radiation models, for examples, the NASA AP-8 and AE-8 models, renders those models inappropriate for predicting short-term radiation belt behaviors associated with geomagnetic storms and substorms. Due to incomplete data coverage, these models are also inaccurate at low altitudes (e.g., <1000 km) where many robotic and human space flights occur. The availability of radiation data from modern space missions and advancement in physical modeling and data management techniques have now allowed the development of new empirical and physical radiation belt models. In this paper, we will review the status of modern radiation belt modeling. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  11. Survey Talk--New Laser and Optical Radiation Diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leemans, W.P.

    1998-01-01

    New techniques am reported for electron beam monitoring, that rely either on the analysis of the properties of wiggler radiation (from static magnetic fields as well as from laser ''undulators'', also referred to as Thomson scattering) or on the non-linear mixing of laser radiation with electron beam radiation. The different techniques reviewed are capable of providing information on femtosecond time scales and micron or even sub-micron spatial scales. The laser undulator is also proposed as a useful tool for non- destructive measurement of high power electron beams. An example is given of measuring electron beam energy and energy spread through spectral filtering of spontaneous wiggler radiation [1]. A novel technique based on fluctuational characteristics of radiation is described, for single shot, nondestructive measurement of the electron beam bunch length [2,3]. Thomson scattering based beam monitoring techniques are discussed which, through analysis of the radiated beam properties, allow non-destructive detailed measurement of transverse and longitudinal distributions of relativistic electron beams [4]. Two new techniques are discussed which rely on non-linear optical mixing of laser radiation with electron bunch emission: differential optical gating (DOG) [5] and electron bunch length measurement in a storage ring based on sum-frequency generation [6

  12. Survey of radiation protection, radiation transport, and shielding information needs of the nuclear power industry. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maskewitz, B.F.; Trubey, D.K.; Roussin, R.W.; McGill, B.L.

    1976-04-01

    The Radiation Shielding Information Center (RSIC) is engaged in a program to seek out, organize, and disseminate information in the area of radiation transport, shielding, and radiation protection. This information consists of published literature, nuclear data, and computer codes and advanced analytical techniques required by ERDA, its contractors, and the nuclear power industry to improve radiation analysis and computing capability. Information generated in this effort becomes a part of the RSIC collection and/or data base. The purpose of this report on project 219-1 is to document the results of the survey of information and computer code needs of the nuclear power industry in the area of radiation analysis and protection

  13. Survey of radiation protection, radiation transport, and shielding information needs of the nuclear power industry. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maskewitz, B.F.; Trubey, D.K.; Roussin, R.W.; McGill, B.L.

    1976-04-01

    The Radiation Shielding Information Center (RSIC) is engaged in a program to seek out, organize, and disseminate information in the area of radiation transport, shielding, and radiation protection. This information consists of published literature, nuclear data, and computer codes and advanced analytical techniques required by ERDA, its contractors, and the nuclear power industry to improve radiation analysis and computing capability. Information generated in this effort becomes a part of the RSIC collection and/or data base. The purpose of this report on project 219-1 is to document the results of the survey of information and computer code needs of the nuclear power industry in the area of radiation analysis and protection.

  14. Results of the 1993 Association of Residents in Radiation Oncology survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, Stella M.; Flynn, Daniel F.

    1996-01-01

    In 1993, the Association of Residents in Radiation Oncology (ARRO) conducted its tenth annual survey of all residents training in radiation oncology in the United States. The characteristics of current residents are described. Factors influencing the choice of Radiation Oncology as a medical specialty, and posttraining career plans were identified. Residents raised issues on the adequacy of training, problems in work routine, and expressed concerns about board certification and recertification, and about decreased future practice opportunities

  15. Tunable surface plasmon instability leading to emission of radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gumbs, Godfrey [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Hunter College of the City University of New York, 695 Park Avenue, New York, New York 10065 (United States); Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC), P de Manuel Lardizabal, 4, 20018 San Sebastian, Basque Country (Spain); Iurov, Andrii, E-mail: aiurov@chtm.unm.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Hunter College of the City University of New York, 695 Park Avenue, New York, New York 10065 (United States); Center for High Technology Materials, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87106 (United States); Huang, Danhong [Air Force Research Laboratory, Space Vehicles Directorate, Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico 87117 (United States); Pan, Wei [Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

    2015-08-07

    We propose a new approach for energy conversion from a dc electric field to tunable terahertz emission based on hybrid semiconductors by combining two-dimensional (2D) crystalline layers and a thick conducting material with possible applications for chemical analysis, security scanning, medical (single-molecule) imaging, and telecommunications. The hybrid nano-structure may consist of a single or pair of sheets of graphene, silicene, or a 2D electron gas. When an electric current is passed through a 2D layer, we discover that two low-energy plasmon branches exhibit a characteristic loop in their dispersion before they merge into an unstable region beyond a critical wave vector q{sub c}. This finite q{sub c} gives rise to a wavenumber cutoff in the emission dispersion of the surface plasmon induced instability and emission of radiation (spiler). However, there is no instability for a single driven layer far from the conductor, and the instability of an isolated pair of 2D layers occurs without a wavenumber cutoff. The wavenumber cutoff is found to depend on the conductor electron density, layer separation, distances of layers from the conductor surface, and the driving-current strength.

  16. Radiation dominated acoustophoresis driven by surface acoustic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jinhong; Kang, Yuejun; Ai, Ye

    2015-10-01

    Acoustophoresis-based particle manipulation in microfluidics has gained increasing attention in recent years. Despite the fact that experimental studies have been extensively performed to demonstrate this technique for various microfluidic applications, numerical simulation of acoustophoresis driven by surface acoustic waves (SAWs) has still been largely unexplored. In this work, a numerical model taking into account the acoustic-piezoelectric interaction was developed to simulate the generation of a standing surface acoustic wave (SSAW) field and predict the acoustic pressure field in the liquid. Acoustic radiation dominated particle tracing was performed to simulate acoustophoresis of particles with different sizes undergoing a SSAW field. A microfluidic device composed of two interdigital transducers (IDTs) for SAW generation and a microfluidic channel was fabricated for experimental validation. Numerical simulations could well capture the focusing phenomenon of particles to the pressure nodes in the experimental observation. Further comparison of particle trajectories demonstrated considerably quantitative agreement between numerical simulations and experimental results with fitting in the applied voltage. Particle switching was also demonstrated using the fabricated device that could be further developed as an active particle sorting device. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. SWFSC FED Mid Water Trawl Juvenile Rockfish Survey, Surface Data, 1987-2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — SWFSC FED Mid Water Trawl Juvenile Rockfish Survey: Station Information and Surface Data. Surveys have been conducted along the central California coast in May/June...

  18. Radiation safety considerations and compliance within equine veterinary clinics: Results of an Australian survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surjan, Y.; Ostwald, P.; Milross, C.; Warren-Forward, H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To examine current knowledge and the level of compliance of radiation safety principles in equine veterinary clinics within Australia. Method: Surveys were sent to equine veterinary surgeons working in Australia. The survey was delivered both online and in hardcopy format; it comprised 49 questions, 15 of these directly related to radiation safety. The participants were asked about their current and previous use of radiation-producing equipment. Information regarding their level of knowledge and application of radiation safety principles and practice standards was collected and analysed. Results: The use of radiation-producing equipment was evident in 94% of responding clinics (a combination of X-ray, CT and/or Nuclear Medicine Cameras). Of those with radiation-producing equipment, 94% indicated that they hold a radiation licence, 78% had never completed a certified radiation safety course and 19% of participants did not use a personal radiation monitor. In 14% of cases, radiation safety manuals or protocols were not available within clinics. Conclusions: The study has shown that knowledge and application of guidelines as provided by the Code of Practice for Radiation Protection in Veterinary Medicine (2009) is poorly adhered to. The importance of compliance with regulatory requirements is pivotal in minimising occupational exposure to ionising radiation in veterinary medicine, thus there is a need for increased education and training in the area. - Highlights: • Application of the Code of Practice for Veterinary Medicine is poorly adhered to. • Majority of veterinary clinics had not completed certified radiation safety course. • One-fifth of participants did not use personal radiation monitoring. • Increased education and training in area of radiation safety and protection required to generate compliance in clinics

  19. A survey on the public's notion of 'radiation' and 'radioactivity'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Minoru; Nakamura, Katuo; Murakoshi, Akio

    1994-01-01

    An inquiry was carried out regarding the cognition of patients on the concepts of 'radiation' and 'radioactivity'. There was observed a high level of understanding of the word 'radiation' mainly through school education and hospital life, but also a stubborn misunderstanding between the concepts of 'radiation' and 'radioactivity'. It was found that the word 'radiation' was associated with neutral or positive image words such as 'Roentgen', 'therapy', 'medical care' and 'research', but that the word 'radioactivity' was rather strongly associated with negative image words such as 'nuclear weapon', 'Chernobyl accident', 'Hiroshima and Nagasaki' and 'danger'. Authors suggested that the fundamental knowledge about these concepts should be given to the general public in the course of compulsory education curricula and that it is important to reconsider medical facilities including hospital as a social education spot for the public to learn such concepts. An advice was also given that medical workers should pay careful attention to the choice of words in the process of communication with the patients especially regarding the proper distinction between 'radiation' and 'radioactivity'. (author)

  20. International Activities in Radiation-Induced Carcinogenesis. Survey Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komarov, E. [World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland)

    1969-11-15

    During the past 10 years special attention has been paid to the problem of late effects of radiation and in particular to radiation-induced carcinogenesis and leukaemogenesis. In the UNSCEAR report of 1958-1962 this.problem was mentioned as being of considerable importance from the point of view of estimation of risk to the population from environmental radiation. In 1964 a special report was prepared by UNSCEAR on radiation- induced carcinogenesis. In the ICRP publication No. 8, a chapter dealing with assessment of somatic risks discussed the problem of leukaemia and other neoplasms and particularly stressed the problem of thyroid carcinoma-and bone sarcoma. WHO panels of experts discussed the problem in 1960-1966 and made some recommendations for international activity in this field. In spite of the amount of scientific attention that has been given in recent years to experimental radiobiology in animals and lower forms, it has become abundantly clear that information directly applicable to humans is woefully inadequate and that there is a desperate need for carefully collected data from man on which to base public health planning and day to day work in radiation protection. This has long been recognized in the technical program of WHO in the emphasis given to the practical importance of epidemiology in human radiobiology and the degree to which it depends upon international collaboration.

  1. Proceedings of national executive management seminar on surface finishing by radiation curing technology: radiation curing for better finishing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This book compiled the paper presented at this seminar. The papers discussed are 1. Incentives for investment in the manufacturing sector (in Malaysia) 2.Trends and prospect of surface finishing by radiation curing technology in Malaysia 3. Industrial application of radiation curing.

  2. Proceedings of national executive management seminar on surface finishing by radiation curing technology: radiation curing for better finishing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This book compiled the paper presented at this seminar. The papers discussed are 1. Incentives for investment in the manufacturing sector (in Malaysia) 2.Trends and prospect of surface finishing by radiation curing technology in Malaysia 3. Industrial application of radiation curing

  3. 'Radiation Fair' for 15 years in Osaka, Japan, and survey of the participants attitude toward radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuta, Masakazu; Asano, Takeyoshi; Hayashi, Toshio; Hosokawa, Yasushi [Research Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, Osaka Prefecture Univ., Sakai, Osaka (Japan); Kakefu, Tomohisa; Nishihara, Hideaki

    1999-09-01

    We have been successfully operating 'Radiation Fair--The relationship between daily life and radiation--' during summer vacation season in August every year for 15 years in Osaka, the largest city of western Japan. The purpose of this event is radiation education of public including school kids through efficient information transfer of radiation and radiation-related technology. Currently we set up the space of it on a floor of Kintetsu Department Store, one of the major department stores in downtown Osaka and display various irradiated products available in our daily life together with explanatory panels. We have been devising various attractions as efficient information transfer media so that even elementary-school kids understand the basic knowledge of radiation and irradiation technologies. The number of participants has increased year by year until more than 20,000 in recent years. We distributed questionnaires to the visitors for recent 3 years to inquire their status toward radiation and irradiated products as well as impression toward the displays. The survey results suggest that school education may contribute to establish the public image toward 'radiation' as well as mass media. (author)

  4. Results of the Association of Directors of Radiation Oncology Programs (ADROP) Survey of Radiation Oncology Residency Program Directors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, Eleanor; Abdel-Wahab, May; Spangler, Ann E.; Lawton, Colleen A.; Amdur, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To survey the radiation oncology residency program directors on the topics of departmental and institutional support systems, residency program structure, Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) requirements, and challenges as program director. Methods: A survey was developed and distributed by the leadership of the Association of Directors of Radiation Oncology Programs to all radiation oncology program directors. Summary statistics, medians, and ranges were collated from responses. Results: Radiation oncology program directors had implemented all current required aspects of the ACGME Outcome Project into their training curriculum. Didactic curricula were similar across programs nationally, but research requirements and resources varied widely. Program directors responded that implementation of the ACGME Outcome Project and the external review process were among their greatest challenges. Protected time was the top priority for program directors. Conclusions: The Association of Directors of Radiation Oncology Programs recommends that all radiation oncology program directors have protected time and an administrative stipend to support their important administrative and educational role. Departments and institutions should provide adequate and equitable resources to the program directors and residents to meet increasingly demanding training program requirements.

  5. Surface Radiation Budget (SURFRAD) Network 1-Hour Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Radiation measurements at SURFRAD stations cover the range of the electromagnetic spectrum that affects the earth/atmosphere system. Direct solar radiation is...

  6. Survey of the gamma dose rate and locations with extremely abnormal radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sansoni, B.; Matthes, W.

    1985-01-01

    The goals pursued by the investigation on hand were: (a) to get a survey of natural radioactivity in the Fichtelgebirge; (b) to find and describe locally restricted areas of high natural radioactivity (abnormal radiation, hot spots); this will be a starting point (c) for the assessment of possible increased radiation exposure and of the state of health of a restricted number of persons. Furthermore, there are also (d) underground data for the eventual stipulation of maximum permissible values for natural radioactivity. (e) The situation in the Fichtelgebirge shall be compared with that of the monazite sand-stone areas in India. The highest gamma dose rates measured in locally restricted areas were: (1) granite road pavement: 24 μR/h; (2) granite quarries (35 μR/h); (3) caves below granite rock (40 to 70 μR/h); (4) slag brick pavement on market place and main street of Marktredwitz (53.4 μR/h) (part of which removed already); (5) uranium abnormalities on a farmer's field (80-100 μR/h) (0.6 m below the surface: 1.500 μR/h); this may be considered a uranium deposit with a content in uranium of up to 0.3%; (6) over 100 μR/h in front of an uranium ore mine in the uranium prospection drift (rest of the drift in the granite no more than 29.3+-3.3 μR/h). The resulting maximum conceivable radiation exposure is assessed. The question whether there is a necessity for setting tolerance limit values for natural radioactivity is raised again; the magnitude in comparison with limit values for artificial radioactivity in radioactive controlled areas is pointed out. (orig./HP) [de

  7. Survey of Michigan dentists and radiation oncologists on oral care of patients undergoing head and neck radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Yoshita; Bahlhorn, Hannah; Zafar, Saniya; Zwetchkenbaum, Samuel; Eisbruch, Avraham; Murdoch-Kinch, Carol Anne

    2012-07-01

    Oral complications of radiation therapy for head and neck cancer (HNC) are associated with a significant decline in oral health-related quality of life (OHQOL). The dentist, working with the radiation oncologist and the rest of the health care team, plays an important role in the prevention and management of these complications, but patients do not always receive care consistent with current guidelines. This study investigated barriers to recommended care. There is variability in knowledge and practice among dentists and radiation oncologists regarding the dental management of patients treated with head and neck radiotherapy (HNRT), and inadequate communication and collaboration between members of the patient's health care team contribute to inconsistencies in application of clinical care guidelines. There is on interest and need for continuing dental (CDE) and medical education (CME) on this topic. A questionnaire was developed to assess dentists' knowledge and practice of dental management of HNC patients and their interest in CDE on this topic. All members of the Michigan Dental Association (MDA) with email addresses were asked to complete the survey online, and a random sample of MDA members without email addresses was invited to complete a paper version of the same survey. All Michigan members of the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) were invited to complete an online version of the survey modified for radiation oncologists. The response rate for dentists was 47.9% and radiation oncologists was 22.3%. Of the dentists who responded, 81% reported that a major barrier to providing dental treatment before radiotherapy was a lack of time between initial dental consultation and the start of radiation; inadequate communication between health care providers was blamed most frequently for this. Ten percent of the dentists and 25% of the radiation oncologists reported that they did not treat HNC patients because they lacked adequate training, and 55% of

  8. Study of radiation dosimetry for child in dentistry, 1. Examination survey on radiation dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tateno, H; Shinji, H; Higaki, M; Kanno, M; Higashi, T [Kanagawa Dental Coll., Yokosuka (Japan)

    1980-09-01

    Patients in pedodontics usually do not appropriately report the symptoms of their own disease because of their immaturity. For this reason X-ray inspection plays a big part in diagnosis. It is considered that radiation injury for children is generally more severe than that for adults under the same exposure dose. Therefore it is necessary to detect the effective minimum exposure dose as accurately as possible for protection. The exposure dose was surveyed by use of TLD combined with the 6-films technique for children (child intraoral technique) currently used in the dental clinic. First, the reliability of TLD, the effect of scattered rays and indicator dependence etc. were tested. Second, the distribution of exposure dose in the intraoral technique for children was examined by water phantom. The following results were obtained. 1. It was necessary to select the stabilized TLD as the measuring values were comparatively scattered. 2. Measuring of the effect of scattered rays showed that it was the least in use of Pb, value of which was 101 for air dose 100. This indicated that Pb was the best for scatter protection. 3. For the indicator dependence it was unnecessary to adjust the glancing angle in case it was below 60 degrees. 4. TLD showed a stable result even in the increased time of exposure, and at the same time there was no error with the electric timer. 5. The result of the basic experiment of water phantom required further investigation as to the overlapped exposure in treatment of child patients with much smaller dental arches where the irradiation field was bigger than in that of adult patients with larger dental arches.

  9. Extensive validation of CM SAF surface radiation products over Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urraca, Ruben; Gracia-Amillo, Ana M; Koubli, Elena; Huld, Thomas; Trentmann, Jörg; Riihelä, Aku; Lindfors, Anders V; Palmer, Diane; Gottschalg, Ralph; Antonanzas-Torres, Fernando

    2017-09-15

    This work presents a validation of three satellite-based radiation products over an extensive network of 313 pyranometers across Europe, from 2005 to 2015. The products used have been developed by the Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring (CM SAF) and are one geostationary climate dataset (SARAH-JRC), one polar-orbiting climate dataset (CLARA-A2) and one geostationary operational product. Further, the ERA-Interim reanalysis is also included in the comparison. The main objective is to determine the quality level of the daily means of CM SAF datasets, identifying their limitations, as well as analyzing the different factors that can interfere in the adequate validation of the products. The quality of the pyranometer was the most critical source of uncertainty identified. In this respect, the use of records from Second Class pyranometers and silicon-based photodiodes increased the absolute error and the bias, as well as the dispersion of both metrics, preventing an adequate validation of the daily means. The best spatial estimates for the three datasets were obtained in Central Europe with a Mean Absolute Deviation (MAD) within 8-13 W/m 2 , whereas the MAD always increased at high-latitudes, snow-covered surfaces, high mountain ranges and coastal areas. Overall, the SARAH-JRC's accuracy was demonstrated over a dense network of stations making it the most consistent dataset for climate monitoring applications. The operational dataset was comparable to SARAH-JRC in Central Europe, but lacked of the temporal stability of climate datasets, while CLARA-A2 did not achieve the same level of accuracy despite predictions obtained showed high uniformity with a small negative bias. The ERA-Interim reanalysis shows the by-far largest deviations from the surface reference measurements.

  10. A survey of radiation safety training among South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Ionising radiation is increasingly being used in modern medicine for diagnostic, interventional and therapeutic purposes. There has been an improvement in technology, resulting in lower doses being emitted. However, an increase in the number of procedures has led to a greater cumulative dose for patients ...

  11. Surface Coating of Musa Brachycarpa Trunk Using UV-Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danu, Sugiarto; Sumarni, Anik; Nurhadi, Agus; Puspita, Rita

    2000-01-01

    An experiment on UV-curing of surface coating of Musa brachycarpa was carried out using urethane acrylate polymer films. Radiation curable material was the mixture of urethane acrylate resin, tripropylene glycol diacrylate monomer (TPGDA) and radical photo initiator of 2,2-dimethyl -2-hydroxy acetophenone. The TPGDA concentrations in the mixture with urethane acrylate resin were 60; 70 and 80% weight, Whereas concentrations of photo initiator were varied at the level 1.5:2.0 and 2.5% by weight based on resin and monomer mixture. Irradiation was conducted by using 80 Watt/cm intensity UV-light at the conveyor speed of 2: 3 and 4 m/min. Analysis and film properties observed were IR spectrum, gel fraction, hardness, abrasion resistance, glossy and chemical, solvent and stain resistances. Films have good resistances against 1% sodium carbonate, 5% acetic acid, 50% alcohol, thinner and red, blue and black permanent marker, except against 10% sodium hydroxide and 10% sulfuric acid. Optimum condition was achieved at the photo initiator concentration level of 2% and conveyor speed of 3 m/min

  12. Explicit validation of a surface shortwave radiation balance model over snow-covered complex terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbig, N.; Löwe, H.; Mayer, B.; Lehning, M.

    2010-09-01

    A model that computes the surface radiation balance for all sky conditions in complex terrain is presented. The spatial distribution of direct and diffuse sky radiation is determined from observations of incident global radiation, air temperature, and relative humidity at a single measurement location. Incident radiation under cloudless sky is spatially derived from a parameterization of the atmospheric transmittance. Direct and diffuse sky radiation for all sky conditions are obtained by decomposing the measured global radiation value. Spatial incident radiation values under all atmospheric conditions are computed by adjusting the spatial radiation values obtained from the parametric model with the radiation components obtained from the decomposition model at the measurement site. Topographic influences such as shading are accounted for. The radiosity approach is used to compute anisotropic terrain reflected radiation. Validations of the shortwave radiation balance model are presented in detail for a day with cloudless sky. For a day with overcast sky a first validation is presented. Validation of a section of the horizon line as well as of individual radiation components is performed with high-quality measurements. A new measurement setup was designed to determine terrain reflected radiation. There is good agreement between the measurements and the modeled terrain reflected radiation values as well as with incident radiation values. A comparison of the model with a fully three-dimensional radiative transfer Monte Carlo model is presented. That validation reveals a good agreement between modeled radiation values.

  13. Contemporary management of prostate cancer: a practice survey of Ontario genitourinary radiation oncologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, George; D'Souza, David; Crook, Juanita; Malone, Shawn; Sathya, Jinka; Morton, Gerard

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To survey radiation oncology practice in the utilization of hormonal and radiation therapy in the primary, adjuvant and salvage treatment of localized prostate cancer. Materials and methods: Genitourinary radiation oncologists practicing in Ontario were invited to participate in a practice survey examining staging, hormonal and radiation management, and radiation technique for a variety of common clinical scenarios. Background demographic information was collected on all respondents. The survey consisted of three cases relating to the hormonal/radiation management of low-, intermediate-, and high-risk prostate cancer as well as two adjuvant and one salvage post-prostatectomy scenarios. The survey response rate was 70% (26/37). Results: Clinicians were more likely to utilize laboratory and imaging studies for staging as the risk categorization increased. Low-risk disease was managed with radiation alone in 26/26 (70 Gy in 65%, 74-79.8 Gy in 35%). Intermediate-risk disease was managed with radiation (70 Gy in 46%, 74-79.8 Gy in 54%) with neoadjuvant hormones in 58%. All respondents managed high-risk disease with adjuvant hormones in addition to radiation therapy (70-71 Gy in 85%, and 76 Gy in 15%). In the pT3a, margin negative (PSA undetectable) scenario, most individuals would not recommend adjuvant radiation (73%). If margins were positive, 30% would still not recommend adjuvant radiation. In the salvage scenario (slowly rising PSA 4 years post-prostatectomy for pT2a close margin disease), all respondents would manage with radiation therapy. Hormones were not routinely recommended in the initial management of the adjuvant and salvage scenarios. Radiation doses utilized for both adjuvant and salvage treatment ranged from 60-70 Gy (median 66 Gy). Conclusions: General agreement exists for the management of low- and high-risk disease and in the post-prostatectomy salvage setting. Use of dose-escalation and neoadjuvant hormones in the intermediate

  14. The "Chocolate Experiment"--A Demonstration of Radiation Absorption by Different Colored Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    In the typical "cookbook" experiment comparing the radiation absorption rates of different colored surfaces, students' hands are commonly used as a measurement instrument to demonstrate that dull black and silvery surfaces are good and poor absorbers of radiation, respectively. However, college students are often skeptical about using…

  15. Bikini Atoll ionizing radiation survey - May 1985 - May 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shingleton, K.L.; Cate, J.L.; Trent, M.G.; Robison, W.L.

    1988-01-01

    Between 1946 and 1958, the United States conducted 23 nuclear tests at the Bikini Atoll in the Marshall Islands. The single largest detonation was the Bravo test, which resulted in extensive radioactive contamination of a number of islands and prevented the timely resettlement of the native population. Since 1958, many studies have been conducted to assess clean up options and the internal and external radiation doses the Bikinians would likely receive, should they resettle the islands. Although the external dose rates from β and γ radiation have been previously determined by aerial and ground measurement techniques, technical constraints limited the assessment of external β dose rates from the Cs-137 and Sr-90/Y-90 contamination on the islands. Now, because of the recent development of very thin thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs), these external β dose rates can be measured

  16. Improvement of a device for region radiation survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poltinnikov, S.A.

    1978-01-01

    The electromechnanical device based on coding the turning angle of an automobile wheel by the number of electric pulses controlling the step motor of a film gate of gamma radiometer is proposed. The device is intended for automatizing recordings of gamma-radiation levels depending on a certain distance in a given terrain. The device has been tested at car speeds from 10 to 80 km/hr

  17. Survey of dental radiographic equipment and radiation doses in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havukainen, R.

    1988-01-01

    The radiation dose exposure, and the faults in about 1 700 dental units inspected at dental surgeries by the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety in 1981-1985, were analysed. The mean value of skin doses in the bite-wing projection was about 6.2 mGy, the range 0.5 to 151 mGy. The mean energy imparted per bite-wing examination was estimated as 0.68 mJ and that per panoramic examination as 1.2 mJ. That gives a total imparted energy of about 600 J per year for conventional dental examinations and about 420 J per year for panoramic examinations. This gives a total of 0.13 mJ from conventional and 0.089 mJ from panoramic examinations per inhabitant per year. The collective effective dose equivalent was calculated as about 9 manSv for conventional dental examinations and about 6 manSv for panoramic examinations. Twenty per cent of units had some fault which was capable of decreasing radiation safety. Forty per cent of units were served reparation orders or other remarks were made in inspection documents. Large doses were usually accounted for by incorrect film processing and malfunction of the exposure timer. (orig.)

  18. The Effect of Non-Lambertian Surface Reflectance on Aerosol Radiative Forcing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricchiazzi, P.; O' Hirok, W.; Gautier, C.

    2005-03-18

    Surface reflectance is an important factor in determining the strength of aerosol radiative forcing. Previous studies of radiative forcing assumed that the reflected surface radiance is isotropic and does not depend on incident illumination angle. This Lambertian reflection model is not a very good descriptor of reflectance from real land and ocean surfaces. In this study we present computational results for the seasonal average of short and long wave aerosol radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere and at the surface. The effect of the Lambertian assumption is found through comparison with calculations using a more detailed bi-direction reflectance distribution function (BRDF).

  19. Surface and Bulk Nanostructuring of Polymers Using Ionizing Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Güven, O.; Barsbay, M.; Ateş,; Akbulut, M. [Hacettepe University, Department of Chemistry, Ankara (Turkey)

    2009-07-01

    Ionizing radiation has long been known tobe a powerful tool in modifying and controlled the properties, forms and eventually end-uses of polymeric materials for a variety of applications. Industrial applications are full of successful examples of macro scale, bulk property modifications by radiation. Extremely short wavelength of ionizing radiation however, makes it an important and useful tool in creating very small size structures in polymers.

  20. Surface and Bulk Nanostructuring of Polymers Using Ionizing Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Güven, O.; Barsbay, M.; Ateş; Akbulut, M.

    2009-01-01

    Ionizing radiation has long been known tobe a powerful tool in modifying and controlled the properties, forms and eventually end-uses of polymeric materials for a variety of applications. Industrial applications are full of successful examples of macro scale, bulk property modifications by radiation. Extremely short wavelength of ionizing radiation however, makes it an important and useful tool in creating very small size structures in polymers

  1. Generating Ground Reference Data for a Global Impervious Surface Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilton, James C.; deColstoun, Eric Brown; Wolfe, Robert E.; Tan, Bin; Huang, Chengquan

    2012-01-01

    We are engaged in a project to produce a 30m impervious cover data set of the entire Earth for the years 2000 and 2010 based on the Landsat Global Land Survey (GLS) data set. The GLS data from Landsat provide an unprecedented opportunity to map global urbanization at this resolution for the first time, with unprecedented detail and accuracy. Moreover, the spatial resolution of Landsat is absolutely essential to accurately resolve urban targets such as buildings, roads and parking lots. Finally, with GLS data available for the 1975, 1990, 2000, and 2005 time periods, and soon for the 2010 period, the land cover/use changes due to urbanization can now be quantified at this spatial scale as well. Our approach works across spatial scales using very high spatial resolution commercial satellite data to both produce and evaluate continental scale products at the 30m spatial resolution of Landsat data. We are developing continental scale training data at 1m or so resolution and aggregating these to 30m for training a regression tree algorithm. Because the quality of the input training data are critical, we have developed an interactive software tool, called HSegLearn, to facilitate the photo-interpretation of high resolution imagery data, such as Quickbird or Ikonos data, into an impervious versus non-impervious map. Previous work has shown that photo-interpretation of high resolution data at 1 meter resolution will generate an accurate 30m resolution ground reference when coarsened to that resolution. Since this process can be very time consuming when using standard clustering classification algorithms, we are looking at image segmentation as a potential avenue to not only improve the training process but also provide a semi-automated approach for generating the ground reference data. HSegLearn takes as its input a hierarchical set of image segmentations produced by the HSeg image segmentation program [1, 2]. HSegLearn lets an analyst specify pixel locations as being

  2. Calculation of radiation exposure in diagnostic radiology. Method and surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duvauferrier, R.; Ramee, A.; Ezzeldin, K.; Guibert, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    A computerized method for evaluating the radiation exposure of the main target organs during various diagnostic radiologic procedures is described. This technique was used for educational purposes: study of exposure variations according to the technical modalities of a given procedure, and study of exposure variations according to various technical protocols (IVU, EGD barium study, etc.). This method was also used for studying exposure of patients during hospitalization in the Rennes Regional Hospital Center (France) in 1982, according to departments (urology, neurology, etc.). This method and results of these three studies are discussed [fr

  3. The results of complex radiation-hygienic survey of the reference settlements in Mogilev region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ageeva, T.N.; Chegerova, T.I.; Shchur, A.V.; Shapsheeva, T.P.; Lipnitskij, L.V.

    2011-01-01

    The results of complex radiation-hygienic survey of the reference settlements located on the radioactively contaminated territory have been presents in the article. The four-year dynamics of the internal exposure doses of the reference settlements' inhabitants and their relationship with the 137 Cs content in foods consumed by the population have been shown. It was ascertained that there are still some isolated individuals with high doses of internal radiation among the surveyed population, which have the significant influence on the average annual radiation dose for the inhabitants and dose of its critical group. The external exposure individual doses of the inhabitants and the results of measuring of the gamma radiation dose rate in place of the settlements have been analyzed. It have been expressed the opinion about need entering adjustment in the measuring techniques of external doses. (authors)

  4. Factors influencing perception of radiation risk in people around Chernobyl. Survey in Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Yoshisada

    2010-01-01

    To elucidate the factors influencing perception of radiation risk in people around Chernobyl, we conducted a survey in Ukraine using self-administered questionnaire consisting of 37 questions including 5 questions about radiation contamination of their living places and foodstuffs, and 9 questions about radiation and risk. The subjects were high school or university students and their parents living in Zhytomyr, Rivne, Kirovograd and Odesa regions, and Slavutych city. In each of these 5 survey areas, we distributed 330 questionnaires to students and their parents, respectively. A total of 1,536 students (93%) responded to the questionnaire, while in parents only 861 (52%) responded. In students, a significant difference by place of residence was observed in the frequency of those regarding radiation accident or radon in dwellings being highly dangerous. (author)

  5. Special report: results of the 2000-2002 association of residents in radiation oncology (arro) surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagsi, Reshma; Chronowski, Gregory M.; Buck, David A.; Kang, Song; Palermo, James

    2004-01-01

    Between 2000 and 2002, the Association of Residents in Radiation Oncology (ARRO) conducted its 18th, 19th, and 20th annual surveys of all residents training in radiation oncology in the United States. This report summarizes these results. The demographic characteristics of residents in training between 2000 and 2002 are detailed, as are issues regarding the quality of training and career choices of residents entering practice

  6. Inverse Estimation of Surface Radiation Properties Using Repulsive Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyun Ho [Sejong University, Sejong (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ki Wan [Agency for Defense Development, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    The heat transfer mechanism for radiation is directly related to the emission of photons and electromagnetic waves. Depending on the participation of the medium, the radiation can be classified into two forms: surface and gas radiation. In the present study, unknown radiation properties were estimated using an inverse boundary analysis of surface radiation in an axisymmetric cylindrical enclosure. For efficiency, a repulsive particle swarm optimization (RPSO) algorithm, which is a relatively recent heuristic search method, was used as inverse solver. By comparing the convergence rates and accuracies with the results of a genetic algorithm (GA), the performances of the proposed RPSO algorithm as an inverse solver was verified when applied to the inverse analysis of the surface radiation problem.

  7. Inverse Estimation of Surface Radiation Properties Using Repulsive Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyun Ho; Kim, Ki Wan

    2014-01-01

    The heat transfer mechanism for radiation is directly related to the emission of photons and electromagnetic waves. Depending on the participation of the medium, the radiation can be classified into two forms: surface and gas radiation. In the present study, unknown radiation properties were estimated using an inverse boundary analysis of surface radiation in an axisymmetric cylindrical enclosure. For efficiency, a repulsive particle swarm optimization (RPSO) algorithm, which is a relatively recent heuristic search method, was used as inverse solver. By comparing the convergence rates and accuracies with the results of a genetic algorithm (GA), the performances of the proposed RPSO algorithm as an inverse solver was verified when applied to the inverse analysis of the surface radiation problem

  8. Survey of radiation doses received by atomic-bomb survivors residing in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, G.D.; Yamada, H.; Marks, S.

    1976-01-01

    A survey has been completed of 300 of an estimated 500 to 750 survivors of the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki who reside in the United States. Distributions with respect to age, sex, citizenship status, distance from the hypocenter at the time of bombing, and dose from immediate weapon radiation have been tabulated from the results and are presented for this group of 300 survivors. Also presented are survey results concerning exposures to residual radiation from fallout and neutron-induced radioactivity in the areas adjacent to the hypocenter

  9. Contemporary management of stage i testicular seminoma: a survey of Canadian radiation oncologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samant, R.; Alomary, I.; Genest, P.; Eapen, L.

    2008-01-01

    Recently published studies clearly indicate that there are now several acceptable options for managing stage i testicular seminoma patients after orchiectomy. We therefore decided to survey Canadian radiation oncologists to determine how they currently manage such patients and to compare the results with previous surveys. Our results demonstrate that adjuvant single-agent chemotherapy is being considered as an option by an increasing proportion of radiation oncologists (although it is not considered the preferred option), the routine use of radiotherapy is declining, and surveillance is becoming increasingly popular and is recommended most often. PMID:18769613

  10. Influence of atmospheric rainfall to γ radiation Kerma rate in surface air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Zhe; Wan Jun; Yu Rongsheng

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the influence rule of the atmospheric Rainfall to the γ radiation Kerma rate in surface air in order to revise the result of its measurement during rainfall. Methods: The influence factors of rainfall to the measurement of the γ radiation Kerma rate in air were analyzed and then the differential equation of the correlation factors was established theoretically, and by resolving the equation, the mathematical model Was obtained. The model was discussed through several practical examples. Results: The mathematical model was coincided with the tendency of curve about the measured data on the influence rule of rainfall to the γ radiation Kerma rate in surface air. Conclusion: By using the theoretical formula in this article which is established to explain the relationship between the rainfall and the γ radiation Kerma rate in surface air, the influence of rainfall to the γ radiation Kerma rate in surface air could be correctly revised. (authors)

  11. Microbiology of the surface water samples in the high background radiation areas of Ramsar, Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motamedifar, Mohammad; Zamani, Khosrow; Sedigh, Hadi; Mortazavi, Seyed Mohammad Javad; Taeb, Shahram; Haghani, M.; Mortazavi, Seyed Ali Reza; Soofi, Amir

    2014-01-01

    Residents of high background radiation areas of Ramsar have lived in these areas for many generations and received radiation doses much higher than the dose limit recommended by ICRP for radiation workers. The radioactivity of the high background radiation areas of Ramsar is reported to be due to 226 Ra and its decay products, which have been brought to the surface by the waters of hot springs. Over the past years the department has focused on different aspects of the health effects of the elevated levels of natural radiation in Ramsar. This study was aimed to perform a preliminary investigation on the bioeffects of exposure to elevated levels of natural radiation on the microbiology of surface water samples. Water samples were collected from surface water streams in Talesh Mahalleh district, Ramsar as well as a nearby area with normal levels of background radiation. Only two strains of bacteria, that is, Providencia stuartii and Shimwellia blattae, could be isolated from the water samples collected from high background radiation areas, while seven strains (Escherichia coli, Enterobacter asburiae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Shigella dysenteriae, Buttiauxella agerstis, Tatumella punctuata and Raoultella ornithinolytica) were isolated from the water samples collected from normal background radiation areas. All the bacteria isolated from water samples of high and normal background radiation areas were sensitive to ultraviolet radiation, heat, betadine, alcohol, and deconex. Although other investigators have reported that bacteria isolated from hot springs show radioresistance, the results reported here do not reveal any adaptive response. (author)

  12. New-generation low-power radiation survey instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waechter, D.A.; Bjarke, G.O.; Wolf, M.A.; Trujillo, F.; Umbarger, C.J.

    1983-01-01

    A number of new, ultra-low-powered radiation instruments have recently been developed at Los Alamos. Among these are two instruments which use a novel power source to eliminate costly batteries. The newly developed gamma detecting radiac, nicknamed the Firefly, and the alpha particle detecting instrument, called the Simple Cordless Alpha Monitor, both use recent advances in miniaturization and power-saving electronics to yield devices which are small, rugged, and very power-frugal. The two instruments consume so little power that the need for batteries to run them is eliminated. They are, instead, powered by a charged capacitor which will operate the instruments for an hour or more. Both line power and mechanical sources are used to charge the storage capacitors which power the instruments

  13. General survey of non-neoplastic radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silini, G.

    1983-01-01

    The 1982 report of UNSCEAR analysed a large body of information on the non-tumourous consequences of irradiation after partial- and whole-body exposure. Based on that analysis this review discusses, for partial-body exposure, the major points relating to morphological and functional non-stochastic early effects such as induction mechanisms, relationships with dose, time and radiation quality, and specific nature of the effects in various tissues. The review specifically considers doses and effects that are likely to be critical under conditions of highly fractionated and long-term exposure. It shows that for organ irradiation the presence of a dose threshold is the most important characteristic of non-stochastic effects. The significance of the threshold in relation to mechanisms, its dependence on physical or biological variables and its practical significance are particularly commented upon. The review considers the distinctive features of early effects of whole-body irradiation and late effects of partial-body exposure and underlines their main interest under accident conditions and for medical treatment, respectively. As to late consequences of whole-body irradiation, lifespan shortening is the effect specifically considered. The review discusses the basic aspects of the life shortening action, such as general definitions, relationships to physiological ageing, technical and methodological assessment and relationships to other specific or non-specific effects of radiation. Data on life shortening in various animal species are briefly reviewed under the form of dose relationships for short-term and lifelong exposures with some discussion of human data. The conclusion is drawn that, in the light of present evidence, at the low doses and dose rates which are most important in practice, life shortening appears to be due essentially to the induction of tumours. (author)

  14. Evaluation of different models to estimate the global solar radiation on inclined surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demain, C.; Journée, M.; Bertrand, C.

    2012-04-01

    Global and diffuse solar radiation intensities are, in general, measured on horizontal surfaces, whereas stationary solar conversion systems (both flat plate solar collector and solar photovoltaic) are mounted on inclined surface to maximize the amount of solar radiation incident on the collector surface. Consequently, the solar radiation incident measured on a tilted surface has to be determined by converting solar radiation from horizontal surface to tilted surface of interest. This study evaluates the performance of 14 models transposing 10 minutes, hourly and daily diffuse solar irradiation from horizontal to inclined surface. Solar radiation data from 8 months (April to November 2011) which include diverse atmospheric conditions and solar altitudes, measured on the roof of the radiation tower of the Royal Meteorological Institute of Belgium in Uccle (Longitude 4.35°, Latitude 50.79°) were used for validation purposes. The individual model performance is assessed by an inter-comparison between the calculated and measured solar global radiation on the south-oriented surface tilted at 50.79° using statistical methods. The relative performance of the different models under different sky conditions has been studied. Comparison of the statistical errors between the different radiation models in function of the clearness index shows that some models perform better under one type of sky condition. Putting together different models acting under different sky conditions can lead to a diminution of the statistical error between global measured solar radiation and global estimated solar radiation. As models described in this paper have been developed for hourly data inputs, statistical error indexes are minimum for hourly data and increase for 10 minutes and one day frequency data.

  15. Radiation distribution measurement using plastic scintillating optical fibers for survey of radioactive contamination in wide area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Chikara; Ito, Keisuke; Ishikawa, Takashi; Yoshida, Akihiro; Sanada, Yukihisa; Torii, Tatsuo; Nohtomi, Akihiro; Wakabayashi, Genichiro; Miyazaki, Nobuyuki

    2013-01-01

    It is important to examine distribution of environmental contamination due to the accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station and to confirm the effect of decontamination works. We have applied radiation distribution measurement using plastic scintillating optical fibers (PSFs) in the survey of contamination in wide area including residential, farmland, forests, etc. In the measurements system, two scintillation lights that emitted at an incidence of a radiation transmit to photomultiplier tubes at the both end of PSFs. The position where scintillation light emitted is obtained from the detection time difference of each photomultiplier tube. The distribution of light emission quantity indicates the distribution of radiation incident in a PSF which is corresponds to the distribution of dose-rate. The radiation detection system using the PSFs has been applied to the radiation distribution measurement on grounds, trees, etc. The results show a good agreement with point data measured by survey meters using sodium iodide scintillators. As the PSFs which have water resistance, they have been successfully applied to the radiation distribution measurement in the river. We have also succeeded in measuring two-dimensional distribution of radiation by measuring the count rate while moving to the fiber at a constant speed. (author)

  16. On the awareness of radiation protection. A questionnaire survey of junior college students of radiological technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayamori, Ryo; Togashi, Atsuhiko; Yamazaki, Yoshihiro; Inakoshi, Hideki

    2002-01-01

    A questionnaire survey on the awareness of radiation protection was conducted to improve our curriculum of radiation protection education, which seems to be important for the safe administrative control systems and handling techniques of radiation. A total of 426 students answered our questionnaire during the period of 1994 to 1999. They were 80 first-year, 114 second-year and 232 third-year students. The facility values of 4 questions on the influence of radiation to a human body were 50.2%, 30.3%, 28.9% and 7.0%. There was no statistically significant difference among different age groups. The facility values of 3 questions on the dose limitation of occupation exposure were 50.5% (on the effective dose equivalent), 36.4% (on the tissue dose equivalent to skin), and 40.9% (on the crystalline lens). On safe handling of radiation, only 35.7% of students correctly answered that they use a plastic board to protect themselves from β-ray, while 77.0% correctly answered the question on the decontamination method of radioactive substance from the skin. The results show the students' lack of knowledge on radiation protection. Those involved in basic science education and radiation protection education, therefore, need to clarify their teaching content and offer explicit explanations on the proper dose of radiation, effects to exposure dose, interaction between different materials and radiation. (author)

  17. A questionnaire survey about public's image of radiation after the Fukushima Dacha Nuclear Power Plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okazaki, Ryuji; Ootsuyama, Akira; Kubo, Tatsuhiko; Abe, Toshiaki

    2012-01-01

    A questionnaire survey about the public's image of radiation was performed after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP) accident. The survey was taken by general citizens (200 and 1,640 in Fukushima and 52 outside of Fukushima) and doctors (63 in Fukushima and 1,942 outside of Fukushima (53 in Oita, 44 in Sagamihara and 1,845 in Kitakyushu) in and outside of Fukushima and second year medical students in the University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Japan. The questionnaire surveys were performed during lectures about radiation. The response rates were 86% for the general citizens in Fukushima, 91% for the general citizens outside of Fukushima, 86% for doctors in Fukushima, 85% and 86% for doctors in Sagamihara and Oita, respectively. The questionnaire surveys were sent to clinics and hospitals in Fukushima where the general citizens answered with a response rate of 50%. When the questionnaire surveys were sent to clinics and hospitals in Kitakyushu, doctors answered, with a response rate of 17%. The percentages of anxiety about future radiation effects after the FDNPP accident were the highest among the general citizens (71.6% in Fukushima and 40.4% outside of Fukushima), in the middle among the doctors (30.2% in Fukushima and 26.2% outside of Fukushima) and the lowest among the medical students (12.2%). The doctors in Fukushima and the medical students were anxious about food and soil pollution. The general citizens and the detectors outside of Fukushima were anxious about health problems and food and soil pollution. We concluded that a high level of education about radiation decreased the anxiety about the radiation effects. It is important to spread knowledge about radiation. (author)

  18. Development of an airborne gamma radiation system for snow surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritzsche, A E [EG and G, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (USA)

    1979-01-01

    An airborne gamma-snow survey system requires detailed design to obtain maximum precision and accuracy. The use of NaI(Te) gamma detectors with a full gamma energy spectrum pulse height analyzer together with a small computer provide a self-contained and flexible system. The dual detector method determines atmospheric radon perturbations in the detection system. Detailed calibration experiments must be performed to determine twenty parameters that describe the physical nature of the system. Multiple high altitude and lake flights are used to obtain background components. Simulation pads, loaded with varying concentrations of /sup 40/K, /sup 232/Th and /sup 23/..gamma..U yield photopeak stripping coefficients and basic system sensitivity. Multiple altitude flights over land lines provide air attenuation coefficients which may converted to water attenuation coefficients.

  19. Perceptions and practices regarding women's vaginal health following radiation therapy: A survey of radiation oncologists practicing in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachnic, Lisa A; Bruner, Deborah W; Qureshi, Muhammad M; Russo, Gregory A

    Vaginal stenosis (VS) is a recognized complication of pelvic and vaginal radiation therapy (RT). A 26-item survey assessing the signs/symptoms, risk factors, diagnosis, prevention, treatment, and impact of VS on women's sexual health was distributed to radiation oncologists. Descriptive statistics were calculated. Chi-square tests examined differences in categorical responses. A total of 233 (10.5%) participants completed the entire survey. Twelve percent, 21%, and 68% report treating gynecologic (GYN) tumors only, non-GYN pelvic tumors only, or both, respectively. Regarding risk factors, 78% believed that VS can be caused by pelvic RT alone, 91% by vaginal brachytherapy alone, and 98% by combined pelvic RT and vaginal brachytherapy. Approximately one-half of respondents felt that being postmenopausal and having a hysterectomy before radiation therapy were risk factors for VS, whereas the other half felt that these were not risk factors. All respondents agreed that VS is a clinical diagnosis. Respondents indicated that VS symptoms include dyspareunia, vaginal pain, dryness, and/or bleeding (100%, 90%, 85%, and 72%, respectively); 65% indicated all 4. The most commonly recommended treatment for VS is vaginal dilator use. Radiation oncologists who treat GYN-only versus non-GYN cancers were more likely to perform a vaginal examination, to distribute written instructions regarding vaginal dilator use (P = .002), to have vaginal bleeding reported after RT (P = .001), and to refer patients to a sexual counselor (P = .007). Most providers (73%) expressed willingness to participate in prospective research on the diagnosis and treatment of VS. This is the first large-scale survey of radiation oncologists' perceptions and practices regarding VS. There is agreement among providers regarding the signs/symptoms of VS and strategies for its prevention/treatment using vaginal dilators. Further prospective and observational research is needed. This survey shows a willingness on

  20. Solar radiation at the surface in the Baltic Proper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirje Keevallik

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Radiation data recorded at 12 sites around the central part of the Baltic Sea during 1996-2000 drawn from the BALTEX (Baltic Sea Experiment meteorological data archives are used to study the spatio-temporal variability of daily global radiation totals. The annual average daily global radiation total varies from about 10 MJ m-2 at Visby(on Gotland and Kołobrzeg (on the coast of Poland to less than 9 MJ m-2 at Zīlāni (inland Latvia, Šilutė (Lithuaniaand Jokioinen (Finland. The monthly average daily global radiation total over the whole region extends from 0.93 in December to 19.0 in June. The variability in global radiation is analysed on the basis of the fraction of the daily total at the top of the atmosphere.The spatial and temporal variability is the least in August - this shows that the variation in the cloud cover and atmospheric properties at this time of year is the smallest. The spatial correlation is the strongest between the two Finnish stations - Vantaa and Jokioinen. It is also high between Stockholm and Norrköping, on the east coast of Sweden. The correlation coefficients are the largest over the whole area in April. Radiation data from coastal stations are compared with an earlier parameterization basedon ship observations (Rozwadowska & Isemer 1998, Isemer & Rozwadowska 1999. It is concluded that in climatological research, actinometric data from Visby can be used to characterize the radiation field over the northern part of the Baltic Proper and those from Kołobrzeg to characterize the radiation field over the southern part of this sea.

  1. Estimating surface solar radiation from upper-air humidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kun Yang [Telecommunications Advancement Organization of Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Koike, Toshio [University of Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2002-07-01

    A numerical model is developed to estimate global solar irradiance from upper-air humidity. In this model, solar radiation under clear skies is calculated through a simple model with radiation-damping processes under consideration. A sky clearness indicator is parameterized from relative humidity profiles within three atmospheric sublayers, and the indicator is used to connect global solar radiation under clear skies and that under cloudy skies. Model inter-comparisons at 18 sites in Japan suggest (1) global solar radiation strongly depends on the sky clearness indicator, (2) the new model generally gives better estimation to hourly-mean solar irradiance than the other three methods used in numerical weather predictions, and (3) the new model may be applied to estimate long-term solar radiation. In addition, a study at one site in the Tibetan Plateau shows vigorous convective activities in the region may cause some uncertainties to radiation estimations due to the small-scale and short life of convective systems. (author)

  2. Coordination of Breast Cancer Care Between Radiation Oncologists and Surgeons: A Survey Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagsi, Reshma; Abrahamse, Paul; Morrow, Monica; Hamilton, Ann S.; Graff, John J.; Katz, Steven J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To assess whether radiation oncologists and surgeons differ in their attitudes regarding the local management of breast cancer, and to examine coordination of care between these specialists. Methods and Materials: We surveyed attending surgeons and radiation oncologists who treated a population-based sample of patients diagnosed with breast cancer in metropolitan Detroit and Los Angeles. We identified 419 surgeons, of whom 318 (76%) responded, and 160 radiation oncologists, of whom 117 (73%) responded. We assessed demographic, professional, and practice characteristics; challenges to coordinated care; and attitudes toward management in three scenarios. Results: 92.1% of surgeons and 94.8% of radiation oncologists indicated access to a multidisciplinary tumor board. Nevertheless, the most commonly identified challenge to radiation oncologists, cited by 27.9%, was failure of other providers to include them in the treatment decision process early enough. Nearly half the surgeons (49.7%) stated that few or almost none of the breast cancer patients they saw in the past 12 months had consulted with a radiation oncologist before undergoing definitive surgery. Surgeons and radiation oncologists differed in their recommendations in management scenarios. Radiation oncologists were more likely to favor radiation than were surgeons for a patient with 3/20 lymph nodes undergoing mastectomy (p = 0.03); surgeons were more likely to favor more widely clear margins after breast conservation than were radiation oncologists (p = 0.001). Conclusions: Despite the widespread availability of tumor boards, a substantial minority of radiation oncologists indicated other providers failed to include them in the breast cancer treatment decision-making process early enough. Earlier inclusion of radiation oncologists may influence patient decisions, and interventions to facilitate this should be considered.

  3. Coordination of Breast Cancer Care Between Radiation Oncologists and Surgeons: A Survey Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagsi, Reshma, E-mail: rjagsi@med.umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Abrahamse, Paul [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Morrow, Monica [Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Hamilton, Ann S. [Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California/Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Graff, John J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Katz, Steven J. [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of General Medicine and Department of Health Management and Policy, School of Public Health, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To assess whether radiation oncologists and surgeons differ in their attitudes regarding the local management of breast cancer, and to examine coordination of care between these specialists. Methods and Materials: We surveyed attending surgeons and radiation oncologists who treated a population-based sample of patients diagnosed with breast cancer in metropolitan Detroit and Los Angeles. We identified 419 surgeons, of whom 318 (76%) responded, and 160 radiation oncologists, of whom 117 (73%) responded. We assessed demographic, professional, and practice characteristics; challenges to coordinated care; and attitudes toward management in three scenarios. Results: 92.1% of surgeons and 94.8% of radiation oncologists indicated access to a multidisciplinary tumor board. Nevertheless, the most commonly identified challenge to radiation oncologists, cited by 27.9%, was failure of other providers to include them in the treatment decision process early enough. Nearly half the surgeons (49.7%) stated that few or almost none of the breast cancer patients they saw in the past 12 months had consulted with a radiation oncologist before undergoing definitive surgery. Surgeons and radiation oncologists differed in their recommendations in management scenarios. Radiation oncologists were more likely to favor radiation than were surgeons for a patient with 3/20 lymph nodes undergoing mastectomy (p = 0.03); surgeons were more likely to favor more widely clear margins after breast conservation than were radiation oncologists (p = 0.001). Conclusions: Despite the widespread availability of tumor boards, a substantial minority of radiation oncologists indicated other providers failed to include them in the breast cancer treatment decision-making process early enough. Earlier inclusion of radiation oncologists may influence patient decisions, and interventions to facilitate this should be considered.

  4. Survey of chemical speciation of trace elements using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, B.M.

    1985-01-01

    Information concerning the chemical state of trace elements in biological systems generally has not been available. Such information for toxic elements and metals in metalloproteins could prove extremely valuable in the elucidation of their metabolism and other biological processes. The shielding of core electrons by binding electrons affect the energy required for creating inner-shell holes. Furthermore, the molecular binding and the symmetry of the local environment of an atom affect the absorption spectrum in the neighborhood of the absorption edge. X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) using synchrotron radiation excitation can be used to provide chemical speciation information for trace elements at concentrations as low as 10 ppM. The structure and position of the absorption curve in the region of an edge can yield vital data about the local structure and oxidation state of the trace element in question. Data are most easily interpreted by comparing the observed edge structure and position with those of model compounds of the element covering the entire range of possible oxidation states. Examples of such analyses are reviewed. 14 refs., 1 fig

  5. Epidemiological survey of the effects of low level radiation dose: a comparative assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, K.S.B.

    1993-10-01

    This volume presents the collations tables of a six volume comparative epidemiological survey of the effects of low level radiation dose. Data are collated for the effects observed in the following irradiated groups:- Preconception irradiation, intra-uterine irradiation, childhood irradiation, adult irradiation. (UK).

  6. Breaking bad news issues: A survey among radiation oncologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milind Kumar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Discussion of bad news and resuscitation in terminal cancer is an important but difficult and often neglected issue in day-to-day oncology practice. Materials and Methods: We interviewed 35 radiation oncologists using an indigenous 15-item questionnaire on their beliefs about breaking bad news and resuscitation to terminal cancer patients. Results: Most responders had an oncology experience of three to seven years (20/35.Thirty-two were comfortable discussing cancer diagnosis, prognosis and life expectancy-related issues. A similar number believed all cancer-related information should be disclosed, while only four believed in imparting all information in one visit. All agreed that disclosing sensitive information did not affect survival. When requested by relatives to withhold truth from patients, 11 said they would not comply, 22 agreed to tell the truth only if asked and two agreed to avoid difficult questions. Twenty responders denied having been adequately trained in breaking bad news and were keen on dedicated classes or sessions in this area of practice. Most (33/35 believed that Indian patients were keen on knowing their diagnosis and prognosis. Although all agreed to the importance of discussing resuscitation, only 17 believed patients should be involved. Majority (20/35 agreed that the issue needs to be discussed while the patient was conscious. Patients with unsalvageable disease were deemed unsuitable for aggressive resuscitation by 30 responders while the rest believed it should be offered to all. Most (21/35 admitted to feeling depressed after breaking bad news though only seven felt disclosure was more stressful than untruthful statements. Only four knew of a law regarding resuscitation in cancer. Conclusion: Observing the widely varied beliefs and practices for disclosing bad news, it is recommended that such training be a regular part of medicine curriculum, especially in the Oncology setting.

  7. The influence of surface type on the absorbed radiation by a human under hot, dry conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, A. W.; Vanos, J. K.

    2018-01-01

    Given the predominant use of heat-retaining materials in urban areas, numerous studies have addressed the urban heat island mitigation potential of various "cool" options, such as vegetation and high-albedo surfaces. The influence of altered radiational properties of such surfaces affects not only the air temperature within a microclimate, but more importantly the interactions of long- and short-wave radiation fluxes with the human body. Minimal studies have assessed how cool surfaces affect thermal comfort via changes in absorbed radiation by a human ( R abs) using real-world, rather than modeled, urban field data. The purpose of the current study is to assess the changes in the absorbed radiation by a human—a critical component of human energy budget models—based on surface type on hot summer days (air temperatures > 38.5∘C). Field tests were conducted using a high-end microclimate station under predominantly clear sky conditions over ten surfaces with higher sky view factors in Lubbock, Texas. Three methods were used to measure and estimate R abs: a cylindrical radiation thermometer (CRT), a net radiometer, and a theoretical estimation model. Results over dry surfaces suggest that the use of high-albedo surfaces to reduce overall urban heat gain may not improve acute human thermal comfort in clear conditions due to increased reflected radiation. Further, the use of low-cost instrumentation, such as the CRT, shows potential in quantifying radiative heat loads within urban areas at temporal scales of 5-10 min or greater, yet further research is needed. Fine-scale radiative information in urban areas can aid in the decision-making process for urban heat mitigation using non-vegetated urban surfaces, with surface type choice is dependent on the need for short-term thermal comfort, or reducing cumulative heat gain to the urban fabric.

  8. Proposed Philippine radiation-sterilization plant, and a survey of market potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singson, C.C.; Ibe, L.D.

    1975-01-01

    The paper deals with a study to assess the market potential of radiation sterilization in the Philippines. A market survey conducted with the technical assistance of an IAEA expert from India shows that most of the pharmaceutical industries engaged in the manufacture of medical products unanimously agree that there is an urgent need for a centralized radiation sterilization plant to meet the demands of sterilization of most of their products and packaging materials. The authorities of the government and some of the private hospitals surveyed are also very keen for the establishment of a sterilization facility since most modern medical products and devices are made of heat-sensitive thermoplastics which cannot be heat or steam sterilized. Availability of sterile products will help improve the public health standards of the population. The scope of the utilization of a radiation-sterilization facility in Diliman Quezon City is also discussed. (author)

  9. Survey of instrumentation for environmental monitoring: major update. Volume 3. Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-01

    This is the third volume of a four-volume (seven-part) series, the culmination of a comprehensive survey of instrumentation for environmental monitoring. Consideration is given to instruments and techniques presently in use and to those developed for other purposes but having possible applications to radiation monitoring. The results of the survey are given as descriptions of the physical and operating characteristics of available instruments, critical comparisons among instrumentation methods, and recommendations of promising methodology and development of new instrumentation. Information is also given regarding the pollutants to be monitored, their characteristics and forms, their sources and pathways, their effects on the ecosystem, and the means of controlling them through process and regulatory controls. The discussion is presented under sections entitled radiation sources; instrumentation: by type of radiation or instrument type; and, instrumentation for specific radionuclides. (JGB)

  10. Survey of instrumentation for environmental monitoring: major update. Volume 3. Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-09-01

    This is the third volume of a four-volume (seven-part) series, the culmination of a comprehensive survey of instrumentation for environmental monitoring. Consideration is given to instruments and techniques presently in use and to those developed for other purposes but having possible applications to radiation monitoring. The results of the survey are given as descriptions of the physical and operating characteristics of available instruments, critical comparisons among instrumentation methods, and recommendations of promising methodology and development of new instrumentation. Information is also given regarding the pollutants to be monitored, their characteristics and forms, their sources and pathways, their effects on the ecosystem, and the means of controlling them through process and regulatory controls. The discussion is presented under sections entitled radiation sources; instrumentation: by type of radiation or instrument type; and, instrumentation for specific radionuclides

  11. Development of an Urban Multilayer Radiation Scheme and Its Application to the Urban Surface Warming Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyagi, Toshinori; Takahashi, Shunji

    2012-02-01

    To investigate how a three-dimensional structure such as an urban canyon can affect urban surface warming, we developed an urban multilayer radiation scheme. The complete consideration of multiple scattering of shortwave and longwave radiation using the radiosity method is an important feature of the present scheme. A brief description of this scheme is presented, followed by evaluations that compare its results with observations of the effective albedo and radiative temperature for urban blocks. Next, we calculate the urban surface warming potential (USWP), defined as the difference between the daily mean radiative temperature of urban surfaces (which are assumed to be black bodies), including their canyon effects and the daily mean temperature of a flat surface with the same material properties, under a radiative equilibrium state. Assuming standard material properties (albedo and emissivity of 0.4 and 0.9, respectively), we studied the sensitivity of the USWP to various aspect ratios of building heights to road widths. The results show that the temporally-averaged surface temperature of an urban area can be higher than that of a flat surface. In addition, we determined the overestimation of the effective temperature of urban surfaces induced by the overestimation of the radiation distribution to the walls when one uses a single-layer scheme for urban block arrays that have a low sky-view factor less than around 0.5.

  12. Radiation survey of first Hi-Art II Tomotherapy vault design in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinhikar, Rajesh A.; Jamema, S.V.; Pai, Rajeshree; Sharma, P.K. Dash; Deshpande, Deepak D.

    2009-01-01

    A vault as per government-regulation compliance with adequate shielding needs was designed and constructed for Hi-Art II Tomotherapy machine being the first in India. Radiation measurements around this Tomotherapy treatment vault were carried out to check the shielding adequacy of the source housing and the vault. It was mandatory to get this un-conventional machine 'Type Approved' by Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) in India. The aim of this paper was to report on the radiation levels measured during the radiation survey carried out for this machine. The radiation levels in and around the vault were measured for stationary as well as rotational treatment procedures with the largest open field size (5 cm x 40 cm) at the isocenter with and without scattering medium. The survey was performed at three locations near each wall surrounding the vault as well. The leakage radiation from the source housing was measured both in the patient plane outside the treatment field and one meter distance from the source outside the patient plane. The radiation levels both for stationary as well as rotational procedures were within 1 mR/h. No significance difference was observed in the radiation levels measured for rotational procedures with and without scattering medium. The leakage radiation in the patient plane was found to be 0.04% (Tolerance 0.2%), while the head leakage was 0.007% (Tolerance 0.5%) of the dose rate at the isocenter. The treatment delivery with Tomotherapy does play safe radiation levels around the installation layout and also passes the leakage criteria as well.

  13. Refining surface net radiation estimates in arid and semi-arid climates of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golkar, Foroogh; Rossow, William B.; Sabziparvar, Ali Akbar

    2018-06-01

    Although the downwelling fluxes exhibit space-time scales of dependency on characteristic of atmospheric variations, especially clouds, the upward fluxes and, hence the net radiation, depends on the variation of surface properties, particularly surface skin temperature and albedo. Evapotranspiration at the land surface depends on the properties of that surface and is determined primarily by the net surface radiation, mostly absorbed solar radiation. Thus, relatively high spatial resolution net radiation data are needed for evapotranspiration studies. Moreover, in more arid environments, the diurnal variations of surface (air and skin) temperature can be large so relatively high (sub-daily) time resolution net radiation is also needed. There are a variety of radiation and surface property products available but they differ in accuracy, space-time resolution and information content. This situation motivated the current study to evaluate multiple sources of information to obtain the best net radiation estimate with the highest space-time resolution from ISCCP FD dataset. This study investigates the accuracy of the ISCCP FD and AIRS surface air and skin temperatures, as well as the ISCCP FD and MODIS surface albedos and aerosol optical depths as the leading source of uncertainty in ISCCP FD dataset. The surface air temperatures, 10-cm soil temperatures and surface solar insolation from a number of surface sites are used to judge the best combinations of data products, especially on clear days. The corresponding surface skin temperatures in ISCCP FD, although they are known to be biased somewhat high, disagreed more with AIRS measurements because of the mismatch of spatial resolutions. The effect of spatial resolution on the comparisons was confirmed using the even higher resolution MODIS surface skin temperature values. The agreement of ISCCP FD surface solar insolation with surface measurements is good (within 2.4-9.1%), but the use of MODIS aerosol optical depths as

  14. Epidemiological surveys on the effects of low-level radiation dose: a comparative assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, K.S.B.

    1988-01-01

    In this report, the health effects of low-level doses of radiation are considered by reference to published epidemiological surveys. The work was carried out with three objectives in mind: 1. to provide a comprehensive and critical review of the subject; 2. to seek consistent indications of particular health effects by collating results and comparing with those from surveys at moderate-level doses; 3. to provide an authoritative view on the epidemiology of low-level radiation-induced health effects. Vol E (DRAFT A) is appended and contains group collation tables. Epidemiological surveys can be conveniently divided into four classes (A, B, C, D) according to the phase of life when irradiation occurs or the effect is diagnosed. The first of the classes (A) is addressed here; this class is concerned with possible effects arising from radiation received by a parent before conception. Possible effects of preconception irradiation were identified under four broad groupings. These are Down's syndrome, ''Indicators of Reproductive Damage'' (mainly Primary Sterility, Congenital Abnormalities, Sex Ratio, Fetal Mortality, Infant Mortality), Childhood Malignancies, and Chromosomal Changes in Abortuses. Information about each survey, and comparisons with results from moderate-level dose surveys, are contained in synopses that are set out in the Appendix. (author)

  15. Parallel Study of HEND, RAD, and DAN Instrument Response to Martian Radiation and Surface Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martiniez Sierra, Luz Maria; Jun, Insoo; Litvak, Maxim; Sanin, Anton; Mitrofanov, Igor; Zeitlin, Cary

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear detection methods are being used to understand the radiation environment at Mars. JPL (Jet Propulsion Laboratory) assets on Mars include: Orbiter -2001 Mars Odyssey [High Energy Neutron Detector (HEND)]; Mars Science Laboratory Rover -Curiosity [(Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD); Dynamic Albedo Neutron (DAN))]. Spacecraft have instruments able to detect ionizing and non-ionizing radiation. Instrument response on orbit and on the surface of Mars to space weather and local conditions [is discussed] - Data available at NASA-PDS (Planetary Data System).

  16. Radiation flaw detector for testing non-uniform surface bodies of revolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valevich, M.I.

    1984-01-01

    Radiation flaw detector for testing bodies of revolution with non-uniform surface, welded joints, etc., based on spatial filtration and differentiation of ionizing radiation flux has been described. The calculation of the most important unit of flaw detector - integrators - is made. Experimental studies of the sensitivity have shown, that the radiation flaw detector can be used for rapid testing of products with the sensitivity comparable with the sensitivity of radiographic testing of steel

  17. Survey of cognition on nuclear and radiation in Beijing high school students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chao; He Jianrong; Zhu Xiayang; Yang Guoliang; Cong Huiling; Hu Qinfang

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To explore cognition level on nuclear and radiation in Beijing high school students, which may provide evidence for promoting science popularization on nuclear and radiation. Methods: Questionnaire-based survey was conducted in Beijing high school students, randomized cluster sampling was used to recruit study participants. Demographic information was collected, and cognition level on nuclear and radiation was evaluated by questionnaire. Results: A total of 1029 pieces of eligible questionnaires were collected. The correct rate for answering common sense about nuclear and radiation was 58%, with score of boys significantly higher than that of girls (t = 4.131, P < 0.05). About subjective cognition of nuclear and radiation knowledge, 87 (8.5%) indicated 'quite clear', 779 (75.7%) indicated 'know a little', 163 (15.8%) indicated 'know nothing'. There was significant difference in score of common sense about nuclear and radiation among people with various subjective cognition level of nuclear and radiation (J-T = 8.279, P < 0.05). There was a linear correlation between support degree for nuclear power and subjective cognition level of nuclear and radiation (r = 0.161, P < 0.05). There was significant difference in score of common sense about nuclear and radiation among people with various support degree for nuclear power (J-T = 7.508, P < 0.05), whereas those who had got high scores tended to support nuclear power to a higher degree. Conclutions: Students knew little about knowledge on nuclear and radiation. It is necessary to strengthen propaganda and education on nuclear and radiation, which may help enhance the students' comprehensive quality, and sustainable expansion of nuclear power more support in the long run. (authors)

  18. Validation of solar radiation surfaces from MODIS and reanalysis data over topographically complex terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd A. Schroeder; Robbie Hember; Nicholas C. Coops; Shunlin Liang

    2009-01-01

    The magnitude and distribution of incoming shortwave solar radiation (SW) has significant influence on the productive capacity of forest vegetation. Models that estimate forest productivity require accurate and spatially explicit radiation surfaces that resolve both long- and short-term temporal climatic patterns and that account for topographic variability of the land...

  19. Mars' surface radiation environment measured with the Mars science laboratory's curiosity rover

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassler, D.M.; Zeitlin, C.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R.F.; Ehresmann, B.; Rafkin, S.; Eigenbrode, J.L.; Brinza, D.E.; Weigle, G.; Böttcher, S.; Böhm, E.; Burmeister, S.; Guo, J.; Köhler, J.; Martin, C.; Reitz, G.; Cucinotta, F.A.; Kim, M.-H.; Grinspoon, D.; Bullock, M.A.; Posner, A.; Gómez-Elvira, J.; Vasavada, A.; Grotzinger, J.P.; MSL Science Team, the|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/292012217

    2014-01-01

    The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) on the Mars Science Laboratory’s Curiosity rover began making detailed measurements of the cosmic ray and energetic particle radiation environment on the surface of Mars on 7 August 2012. We report and discuss measurements of the absorbed dose and dose

  20. Modeling solar radiation at the Earth's surface recent advances

    CERN Document Server

    Badescu, Viorel

    2008-01-01

    Solar radiation data is important for a wide range of applications, e.g. in engineering, agriculture, health sector, and in many fields of the natural sciences. A few examples showing the diversity of applications may include: architecture and building design e.g. air conditioning and cooling systems; solar heating system design and use; solar power generation; weather and climate prediction models; evaporation and irrigation; calculation of water requirements for crops; monitoring plant growth and disease control; skin cancer research. Solar radiation data must be provided in a variety of f

  1. Neutron radiative capture methods for surface elemental analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombka, J.I.; Senftle, F.; Schmadebeck, R.

    1970-01-01

    Both an accelerator and a 252Cf neutron source have been used to induce characteristic gamma radiation from extended soil samples. To demonstrate the method, measurements of the neutron-induced radiative capture and activation gamma rays have been made with both Ge(Li) and NaI(Tl) detectors, Because of the possible application to space flight geochemical analysis, it is believed that NaI(Tl) detectors must be used. Analytical procedures have been developed to obtain both qualitative and semiquantitative results from an interpretation of the measured NaI(Tl) pulse-height spectrum. Experiment results and the analytic procedure are presented. ?? 1970.

  2. Collective migration of adsorbed atoms on a solid surface in the laser radiation field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreev, V V; Ignat'ev, D V; Telegin, Gennadii G

    2004-01-01

    The lateral (in the substrate plane) interaction between dipoles induced in particles adsorbed on a solid surface is studied in a comparatively weak laser radiation field with a Gaussian transverse distribution. It is shown that the particles migrate over the surface in the radial direction either outside an illuminated spot with the formation of a 'crater' or inside the spot with the formation of a 'mound'. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

  3. Instrument evaluation no. 5. Wallac OY universal radiation survey meter type RD-8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, D.F.; Blundell, D.R.; Callowhill, K.; Iles, W.J.

    1976-05-01

    The Wallace RD-8 is a portable, battery-operated survey meter covering an exposure rate range from 0.01 mR/h to 300 R/h. The instrument was designed specifically for military and civil defence applications and is accordingly of particularly rugged construction and claimed to be both waterproof and shockproof. This instrument is unusual in that it has two internally mounted radiation detectors. An end-window GM tube is used to cover the range from 0.01 to 300 mR/h, and a GM tube covers the range from 0.01 to 300 R/h. Both tubes have energy compensation sheaths for the measurement of photon radiation in the forward direction. Only the first tube permits the measurement of β-radiation. The information is given under the following headings; Facilities and controls; radiation characteristics; electrical characteristics; environmental characteristics; mechanical characteristics; summary of performance; calibration procedure; conclusions. (U.K.)

  4. Parametric influence of powerful radiation on plasma surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuklin, V.M.; Panchenko, I.P.; Chernousenko, V.M.

    1989-01-01

    A self-consistent set of equations that describes one-dimensional dynamics to develop the instability of long-wave intensive Langmuir wave is obtained and solved. The parametric instability influence on the character of absorption of the incident radiation energy is elucidated primarily. 40 refs.; 8 figs

  5. Surface gamma-ray survey of the Barre West quadrangle, Washington and Orange Counties, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Gregory J.; Satkoski, Aaron M.

    2005-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the levels of naturally occurring radioactivity in bedrock from surface measurements at outcrops during the course of 1:24,000-scale geologic mapping and to determine which rock types were potential sources of radionuclides. Elevated levels of total alpha particle radiation (gross alpha) occur in a public water system in Montpelier, Vermont. Measured gross alpha levels in the Murray Hill water system (Vermont Dept. of Environmental Conservation, unpub. data, 2005) have exceeded the maximum contaminant level of 15 picocuries per liter (pCi/l) set by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (EPA, 2000). The Murray Hill system began treatment for radium in 1999. Although this treatment was successful, annual monitoring for gross alpha, radium, and uranium continues as required (Jon Kim, written communication, 2005). The water system utilizes a drilled bedrock well located in the Silurian-Devonian Waits River Formation. Kim (2002) summarized radioactivity data for Vermont, and aside from a statewide assessment of radon in public water systems (Manning and Ladue, 1986) and a single flight line from the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) (Texas Instruments, 1976) (fig. 1), no data are available to identify the potential sources of naturally occurring radioactivity in the local bedrock. Airborne gamma-ray surveys are typically used for large areas (Duval, 2001, 2002), and ground-based surveys are more commonly used for local site assessments. For example, ground-based surveys have been used for fault mapping (Iwata and others, 2001), soil mapping (Roberts and others, 2003), environmental assessments (Stromswold and Arthur, 1996), and mineral exploration (Jubeli and others, 1998). Duval (1980) summarized the methods and applications of gamma- ray spectrometry. In this study, we present the results from a ground-based gamma-ray survey of bedrock outcrops in the 7.5-minute Barre West quadrangle, Vermont. Other related and

  6. Evaluating solar radiation on a tilted surfaces - a study case in Timis (Romania)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasar, C; Prostean, O; Prostean, G

    2016-01-01

    In the last years the usage of solar energy has grown considerably in Romania, as well as in Europe, stimulated by various factors as government programs, green pricing policies, decreasing of photovoltaic components cost etc. Also, the rising demand of using Solar Energy Conversion Systems (SECS) is driven by the desire of individuals or companies to obtain energy from a clean renewable source. In many applications, remote consumers far from other energetic grids can use solar systems more cost-effectively than extending the grid to reach the location. Usually the solar energy is measured or forecast on horizontal surface, but in SECS there is needed the total solar radiation incident on the collector surface, that is oriented in a position that maximize the harvested energy. There are many models that convert the solar radiation from horizontal surface to a tilted surface, but they use empirical coefficients and the accuracy is influenced by different facts as geographical location or sky conditions. Such models were used considering measured values for solar radiation on horizontal plane, in the western part of Romania. Hourly values measured for global solar irradiation on the horizontal plane, diffuse solar irradiation on the horizontal plane and reflected solar irradiation by ground are used to compute the total solar radiation incident on different tilted surfaces. The calculated incident radiation is then compared with the real radiation measured on tilted surface in order to evaluate the performance of the considered conversion models. (paper)

  7. Effects of laser radiation on surfaces and coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowdermilk, W.H.

    1985-01-01

    A summary is given of the principal aspects of laser-induced damage to polished optical surfaces and dielectric, thin-film, high-reflectivity and antireflective coatings. Methods for producing porous antireflective surfaces and coatings and their damage properties are also reviewed. Finally, new areas of basic research to solve current and future problems are addressed

  8. Solar Irradiance Changes And Photobiological Effects At Earth's Surface Following Astrophysical Ionizing Radiation Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Brian; Neale, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Astrophysical ionizing radiation events have been recognized as a potential threat to life on Earth for decades. Although there is some direct biological damage on the surface from redistributed radiation several studies have indicated that the greatest long term threat is from ozone depletion and subsequent heightened solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation. It is known that organisms exposed to this irradiation experience harmful effects such as sunburn and even direct damage to DNA, proteins, or other cellular structures. Simulations of the atmospheric effects of a variety of events (such as supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, and solar proton events) have been previously published, along with estimates of biological damage at Earth's surface. In the present work, we employed a radiative transfer model to expand and improve calculations of surface-level irradiance and biological impacts following an ionizing radiation event. We considered changes in surface-level UVB, UVA, and photosynthetically active radiation (visible light). Using biological weighting functions we have considered a wide range of effects, including: erythema and skin cancer in humans; inhibition of photosynthesis in the diatom Phaeodactylum sp. and dinoflagellate Prorocentrum micans inhibition of carbon fixation in Antarctic phytoplankton; inhibition of growth of oat (Avena sativa L. cv. Otana) seedlings; and cataracts. We found that past work overestimated UVB irradiance, but that relative estimates for increase in exposure to DNA damaging radiation are still similar to our improved calculations. We also found that the intensity of biologically damaging radiation varies widely with organism and specific impact considered; these results have implications for biosphere-level damage following astrophysical ionizing radiation events. When considering changes in surface-level visible light irradiance, we found that, contrary to previous assumptions, a decrease in irradiance is only present for a short time in

  9. A Numerical Simulation for Prediction of Infrared Radiation Emitted from Plain Surfaces with Different Geometries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vakilabadi K.A.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, infrared radiation exiting plain surfaces with different geometries is numerically simulated. Surfaces under consideration are assumed to have steady uniform heat generation inside. Moreover, the boundaries of the surfaces are considered to be at the surroundings temperature. Infrared radiation is calculated based on the temperature profile determined for the surface. The temperature profile of the surface is determined assuming the two dimensional heat conduction equations to govern the problem. The physical domain is transformed into the appropriate computational domain and the governing equation is mapped into the suitable forms in the new coordinate system of variables. After that the temperature profile of the surface is computed, the infrared radiation distribution of the surface is evaluated based on the equations given in the manuscript. The temperature profile as well as the IR images are given in the results section. It is concluded that the maximum value of infrared radiation of the surface occurs at the center. Moreover, it is concluded that among surfaces with equal areas, the one having the largest perimeter has the least value of IR at its center.

  10. Biological variables for the site survey of surface ecosystems - existing data and survey methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kylaekorpi, Lasse; Berggren, Jens; Larsson, Mats; Liberg, Maria; Rydgren, Bernt

    2000-06-01

    In the process of selecting a safe and environmentally acceptable location for the deep level repository of nuclear waste, site surveys will be carried out. These site surveys will also include studies of the biota at the site, in order to assure that the chosen site will not conflict with important ecological interests, and to establish a thorough baseline for future impact assessments and monitoring programmes. As a preparation to the site survey programme, a review of the variables that need to be surveyed is conducted. This report contains the review for some of those variables. For each variable, existing data sources and their characteristics are listed. For those variables for which existing data sources are inadequate, suggestions are made for appropriate methods that will enable the establishment of an acceptable baseline. In this report the following variables are reviewed: Fishery, Landscape, Vegetation types, Key biotopes, Species (flora and fauna), Red-listed species (flora and fauna), Biomass (flora and fauna), Water level, water retention time (incl. water body and flow), Nutrients/toxins, Oxygen concentration, Layering, stratification, Light conditions/transparency, Temperature, Sediment transport, (Marine environments are excluded from this review). For a major part of the variables, the existing data coverage is most likely insufficient. Both the temporal and/or the geographical resolution is often limited, which means that complementary surveys must be performed during (or before) the site surveys. It is, however, in general difficult to make exact judgements on the extent of existing data, and also to give suggestions for relevant methods to use in the site surveys. This can be finally decided only when the locations for the sites are decided upon. The relevance of the different variables also depends on the environmental characteristics of the sites. Therefore, we suggest that when the survey sites are selected, an additional review is

  11. Biological variables for the site survey of surface ecosystems - existing data and survey methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kylaekorpi, Lasse; Berggren, Jens; Larsson, Mats; Liberg, Maria; Rydgren, Bernt [SwedPower AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2000-06-01

    In the process of selecting a safe and environmentally acceptable location for the deep level repository of nuclear waste, site surveys will be carried out. These site surveys will also include studies of the biota at the site, in order to assure that the chosen site will not conflict with important ecological interests, and to establish a thorough baseline for future impact assessments and monitoring programmes. As a preparation to the site survey programme, a review of the variables that need to be surveyed is conducted. This report contains the review for some of those variables. For each variable, existing data sources and their characteristics are listed. For those variables for which existing data sources are inadequate, suggestions are made for appropriate methods that will enable the establishment of an acceptable baseline. In this report the following variables are reviewed: Fishery, Landscape, Vegetation types, Key biotopes, Species (flora and fauna), Red-listed species (flora and fauna), Biomass (flora and fauna), Water level, water retention time (incl. water body and flow), Nutrients/toxins, Oxygen concentration, Layering, stratification, Light conditions/transparency, Temperature, Sediment transport, (Marine environments are excluded from this review). For a major part of the variables, the existing data coverage is most likely insufficient. Both the temporal and/or the geographical resolution is often limited, which means that complementary surveys must be performed during (or before) the site surveys. It is, however, in general difficult to make exact judgements on the extent of existing data, and also to give suggestions for relevant methods to use in the site surveys. This can be finally decided only when the locations for the sites are decided upon. The relevance of the different variables also depends on the environmental characteristics of the sites. Therefore, we suggest that when the survey sites are selected, an additional review is

  12. Japanese structure survey of radiation oncology in 2007 with special reference to designated cancer care hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numasaki, Hodaka; Shibuya, Hitoshi; Nishio, Masamichi

    2011-01-01

    Background and Purpose: The structure of radiation oncology in designated cancer care hospitals in Japan was investigated in terms of equipment, personnel, patient load, and geographic distribution. The effect of changes in the health care policy in Japan on radiotherapy structure was also examined. Material and Methods: The Japanese Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology surveyed the national structure of radiation oncology in 2007. The structures of 349 designated cancer care hospitals and 372 other radiotherapy facilities were compared. Results: Respective findings for equipment and personnel at designated cancer care hospitals and other facilities included the following: linear accelerators/facility: 1.3 and 1.0; annual patients/linear accelerator: 296.5 and 175.0; and annual patient load/full-time equivalent radiation oncologist was 237.0 and 273.3, respectively. Geographically, the number of designated cancer care hospitals was associated with population size. Conclusion: The structure of radiation oncology in Japan in terms of equipment, especially for designated cancer care hospitals, was as mature as that in European countries and the United States, even though the medical costs in relation to GDP in Japan are lower. There is still a shortage of manpower. The survey data proved to be important to fully understand the radiation oncology medical care system in Japan. (orig.)

  13. Results of the 2004 Association of Residents in Radiation Oncology (ARRO) Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Shilpen; Jagsi, Reshma; Wilson, John; Frank, Steven; Thakkar, Vipul V.; Hansen, Eric K.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to document adequacy of training, career plans after residency, use of the in-service examination, and motivation for choice of radiation oncology as a specialty. Methods and Materials: In 2004, the Association of Residents in Radiation Oncology (ARRO) conducted a nationwide survey of all radiation oncology residents in the United States. Results: The survey was returned by 297 residents (response rate, 54%). Of the respondents, 29% were female and 71% male. The most popular career choice was joining an established private practice (38%), followed by a permanent academic career (29%). Residents for whom a permanent academic career was not their first choice were asked whether improvements in certain areas would have led them to be more likely to pursue an academic career. The most commonly chosen factors that would have had a strong or moderate influence included higher salary (81%), choice of geographic location (76%), faculty encouragement (68%), and less time commitment (68%). Of respondents in the first 3 years of training, 78% believed that they had received adequate training to proceed to the next level of training. Of those in their fourth year of training, 75% believed that they had received adequate training to enter practice. Conclusions: Multiple factors affect the educational environment of physicians in training. Data describing concerns unique to resident physicians in radiation oncology are limited. The current survey was designed to explore a variety of issues confronting radiation oncology residents. Training programs and the Residency Review Committee should consider these results when developing new policies to improve the educational experiences of residents in radiation oncology

  14. Modelling of Surface Fault Structures Based on Ground Magnetic Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, A.; McEnroe, S. A.

    2017-12-01

    The island of Leka confines the exposure of the Leka Ophiolite Complex (LOC) which contains mantle and crustal rocks and provides a rare opportunity to study the magnetic properties and response of these formations. The LOC is comprised of five rock units: (1) harzburgite that is strongly deformed, shifting into an increasingly olivine-rich dunite (2) ultramafic cumulates with layers of olivine, chromite, clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene. These cumulates are overlain by (3) metagabbros, which are cut by (4) metabasaltic dykes and (5) pillow lavas (Furnes et al. 1988). Over the course of three field seasons a detailed ground-magnetic survey was made over the island covering all units of the LOC and collecting samples from 109 sites for magnetic measurements. NRM, susceptibility, density and hysteresis properties were measured. In total 66% of samples with a Q value > 1, suggests that the magnetic anomalies should include both induced and remanent components in the model.This Ophiolite originated from a suprasubduction zone near the coast of Laurentia (497±2 Ma), was obducted onto Laurentia (≈460 Ma) and then transferred to Baltica during the Caledonide Orogeny (≈430 Ma). The LOC was faulted, deformed and serpentinized during these events. The gabbro and ultramafic rocks are separated by a normal fault. The dominant magnetic anomaly that crosses the island correlates with this normal fault. There are a series of smaller scale faults that are parallel to this and some correspond to local highs that can be highlighted by a tilt derivative of the magnetic data. These fault boundaries which are well delineated by the distinct magnetic anomalies in both ground and aeromagnetic survey data are likely caused by increased amount of serpentinization of the ultramafic rocks in the fault areas.

  15. Europa's surface radiation environment and considerations for in-situ sampling and biosignature detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordheim, T.; Paranicas, C.; Hand, K. P.

    2017-12-01

    Jupiter's moon Europa is embedded deep within the Jovian magnetosphere and is thus exposed to bombardment by charged particles, from thermal plasma to more energetic particles at radiation belt energies. In particular, energetic charged particles are capable of affecting the uppermost layer of surface material on Europa, in some cases down to depths of several meters (Johnson et al., 2004; Paranicas et al., 2009, 2002). Examples of radiation-induced surface alteration include sputtering, radiolysis and grain sintering; processes that are capable of significantly altering the physical properties of surface material. Radiolysis of surface ices containing sulfur-bearing contaminants from Io has been invoked as a possible explanation for hydrated sulfuric acid detected on Europa's surface (Carlson et al., 2002, 1999) and radiolytic production of oxidants represents a potential source of energy for life that could reside within Europa's sub-surface ocean (Chyba, 2000; Hand et al., 2007; Johnson et al., 2003; Vance et al., 2016). Accurate knowledge of Europa's surface radiation environment is essential to the interpretation of space and Earth-based observations of Europa's surface and exosphere. Furthermore, future landed missions may seek to sample endogenic material emplaced on Europa's surface to investigate its chemical composition and to search for biosignatures contained within. Such material would likely be sampled from the shallow sub-surface, and thus, it becomes crucial to know to which degree this material is expected to have been radiation processed.Here we will present modeling results of energetic electron and proton bombardment of Europa's surface, including interactions between these particles and surface material. In addition, we will present predictions for biosignature destruction at different geographical locations and burial depths and discuss the implications of these results for surface sampling by future missions to Europa's surface.

  16. Surface-structure dependence of healing radiation-damage mechanism in nanoporous tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Guohua; Li, Xiangyan; Sun, Jingjing; Hao, Congyu; Xu, Yichun; Zhang, Yange; Liu, Wei; Liu, C. S.

    2018-01-01

    Under nuclear fusion environments, displacement damage in tungsten (W) is usually caused by neutrons irradiation through producing large quantities of vacancies (Vs) and self-interstitial atoms (SIAs). These defects not only affect the mechanical properties of W, but also act as the trap sites for implanted hydrogen isotopes and helium. Nano-porous (NP) W with a high fraction of free surfaces has been developed to mitigate the radiation damage. However, the mechanism of the surface reducing defects accumulation is not well understood. By using multi-scale simulation methods, we investigated the interaction of the SIA and V with different surfaces on across length and time scales. We found that, at a typical operation temperature of 1000 K, surface (1 1 0) preferentially heals radiation damage of W compared with surface (1 0 0) and boundary (3 1 0). On surface (1 1 0), the diffusion barrier for the SIA is only 0.68 eV. The annihilation of the SIA-V happens via the coupled motion of the V segregation towards the surface from the bulk and the two-dimensional diffusion of the SIA on the surface. Such mechanism makes the surface (1 1 0) owe better healing capability. On surface (1 0 0), the diffusion energy barrier for the SIA is 2.48 eV, higher than the diffusion energy barrier of the V in bulk. The annihilation of the SIA-V occurs via the V segregation and recombination. The SIA was found to migrate one-dimensionally along a boundary (3 1 0) with a barrier of 0.21 eV, leading to a lower healing efficiency in the boundary. This study suggested that the on-surface process plays an important role in healing radiation damage of NP W in addition to surface-enhanced diffusion and annihilation near the surface. A certain surface structure renders nano-structured W more radiation-tolerant.

  17. A Survey of Ballistic Transfers to the Lunar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Rodney L.; Parker, Jeffrey S.

    2011-01-01

    In this study techniques are developed which allow an analysis of a range of different types of transfer trajectories from the Earth to the lunar surface. Trajectories ranging from those obtained using the invariant manifolds of unstable orbits to those derived from collision orbits are analyzed. These techniques allow the computation of trajectories encompassing low-energy trajectories as well as more direct transfers. The range of possible trajectory options is summarized, and a broad range of trajectories that exist as a result of the Sun's influence are computed and analyzed. The results are then classified by type, and trades between different measures of cost are discussed.

  18. Probing droplets on superhydrophobic surfaces by synchrotron radiation scattering techniques

    KAUST Repository

    Accardo, Angelo

    2014-06-10

    Droplets on artificially structured superhydrophobic surfaces represent quasi contact-free sample environments which can be probed by X-ray microbeams and nanobeams in the absence of obstructing walls. This review will discuss basic surface wettability concepts and introduce the technology of structuring surfaces. Quasi contact-free droplets are compared with contact-free droplets; processes related to deposition and evaporation on solid surfaces are discussed. Droplet coalescence based on the electrowetting effect allows the probing of short-time mixing and reaction processes. The review will show for several materials of biological interest that structural processes related to conformational changes, nucleation and assembly during droplet evaporation can be spatially and temporally resolved by raster-scan diffraction techniques. Orientational ordering of anisotropic materials deposited during solidification at pinning sites facilitates the interpretation of structural data. 2014 International Union of Crystallography.

  19. Probing droplets on superhydrophobic surfaces by synchrotron radiation scattering techniques

    KAUST Repository

    Accardo, Angelo; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.; Limongi, Tania; Marinaro, Giovanni; Riekel, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Droplets on artificially structured superhydrophobic surfaces represent quasi contact-free sample environments which can be probed by X-ray microbeams and nanobeams in the absence of obstructing walls. This review will discuss basic surface wettability concepts and introduce the technology of structuring surfaces. Quasi contact-free droplets are compared with contact-free droplets; processes related to deposition and evaporation on solid surfaces are discussed. Droplet coalescence based on the electrowetting effect allows the probing of short-time mixing and reaction processes. The review will show for several materials of biological interest that structural processes related to conformational changes, nucleation and assembly during droplet evaporation can be spatially and temporally resolved by raster-scan diffraction techniques. Orientational ordering of anisotropic materials deposited during solidification at pinning sites facilitates the interpretation of structural data. 2014 International Union of Crystallography.

  20. Epidemiological surveys on the effects of low-level radiation dose: a comparative assessment. V. E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, K.S.B.

    1990-01-01

    These tables present data on the effects of low-level radiation dose for the following effects:- pre-conception irradiation and Down's Syndrome, pre-conception irradiation and reproductive damage, surveys of effect in relation to the source of radiation, distribution by maternal preconception exposure of the 7 most common major congenital abnormalities in the Japanese, pre-conception irradiation and childhood malignancies, parental gonadal dose at Hiroshima and Nagasaki in relation to leukemia, sex chromosome aneuploids in children of A-bomb survivors, untoward pregnancy outcomes by parental gonad dose, pre-conception irradiation and chromosomal abnormalities, and intra-uterine irradiation and intelligence. (author).

  1. Epidemiological surveys on the effects of low-level radiation dose: a comparative assessment. V. E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, K.S.B.

    1990-01-01

    These tables present data on the effects of low-level radiation dose for the following effects:- pre-conception irradiation and Down's Syndrome, pre-conception irradiation and reproductive damage, surveys of effect in relation to the source of radiation, distribution by maternal preconception exposure of the 7 most common major congenital abnormalities in the Japanese, pre-conception irradiation and childhood malignancies, parental gonadal dose at Hiroshima and Nagasaki in relation to leukemia, sex chromosome aneuploids in children of A-bomb survivors, untoward pregnancy outcomes by parental gonad dose, pre-conception irradiation and chromosomal abnormalities, and intra-uterine irradiation and intelligence. (author)

  2. Mars' Surface Radiation Environment Measured with the Mars Science Laboratory's Curiosity Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassler, Donald M.; Zeitlin, Cary; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.; Ehresmann, Bent; Rafkin, Scot; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.; Brinza, David E.; Weigle, Gerald; Böttcher, Stephan; Böhm, Eckart; Burmeister, Soenke; Guo, Jingnan; Köhler, Jan; Martin, Cesar; Reitz, Guenther; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Kim, Myung-Hee; Grinspoon, David; Bullock, Mark A.; Posner, Arik; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Vasavada, Ashwin; Grotzinger, John P.; MSL Science Team; Kemppinen, Osku; Cremers, David; Bell, James F.; Edgar, Lauren; Farmer, Jack; Godber, Austin; Wadhwa, Meenakshi; Wellington, Danika; McEwan, Ian; Newman, Claire; Richardson, Mark; Charpentier, Antoine; Peret, Laurent; King, Penelope; Blank, Jennifer; Schmidt, Mariek; Li, Shuai; Milliken, Ralph; Robertson, Kevin; Sun, Vivian; Baker, Michael; Edwards, Christopher; Ehlmann, Bethany; Farley, Kenneth; Griffes, Jennifer; Miller, Hayden; Newcombe, Megan; Pilorget, Cedric; Rice, Melissa; Siebach, Kirsten; Stack, Katie; Stolper, Edward; Brunet, Claude; Hipkin, Victoria; Léveillé, Richard; Marchand, Geneviève; Sánchez, Pablo Sobrón; Favot, Laurent; Cody, George; Steele, Andrew; Flückiger, Lorenzo; Lees, David; Nefian, Ara; Martin, Mildred; Gailhanou, Marc; Westall, Frances; Israël, Guy; Agard, Christophe; Baroukh, Julien; Donny, Christophe; Gaboriaud, Alain; Guillemot, Philippe; Lafaille, Vivian; Lorigny, Eric; Paillet, Alexis; Pérez, René; Saccoccio, Muriel; Yana, Charles; Armiens-Aparicio, Carlos; Rodríguez, Javier Caride; Blázquez, Isaías Carrasco; Gómez, Felipe Gómez; Hettrich, Sebastian; Malvitte, Alain Lepinette; Jiménez, Mercedes Marín; Martínez-Frías, Jesús; Martín-Soler, Javier; Martín-Torres, F. Javier; Jurado, Antonio Molina; Mora-Sotomayor, Luis; Caro, Guillermo Muñoz; López, Sara Navarro; Peinado-González, Verónica; Pla-García, Jorge; Manfredi, José Antonio Rodriguez; Romeral-Planelló, Julio José; Fuentes, Sara Alejandra Sans; Martinez, Eduardo Sebastian; Redondo, Josefina Torres; Urqui-O'Callaghan, Roser; Mier, María-Paz Zorzano; Chipera, Steve; Lacour, Jean-Luc; Mauchien, Patrick; Sirven, Jean-Baptiste; Manning, Heidi; Fairén, Alberto; Hayes, Alexander; Joseph, Jonathan; Squyres, Steven; Sullivan, Robert; Thomas, Peter; Dupont, Audrey; Lundberg, Angela; Melikechi, Noureddine; Mezzacappa, Alissa; Berger, Thomas; Matthia, Daniel; Prats, Benito; Atlaskin, Evgeny; Genzer, Maria; Harri, Ari-Matti; Haukka, Harri; Kahanpää, Henrik; Kauhanen, Janne; Kemppinen, Osku; Paton, Mark; Polkko, Jouni; Schmidt, Walter; Siili, Tero; Fabre, Cécile; Wray, James; Wilhelm, Mary Beth; Poitrasson, Franck; Patel, Kiran; Gorevan, Stephen; Indyk, Stephen; Paulsen, Gale; Gupta, Sanjeev; Bish, David; Schieber, Juergen; Gondet, Brigitte; Langevin, Yves; Geffroy, Claude; Baratoux, David; Berger, Gilles; Cros, Alain; d'Uston, Claude; Forni, Olivier; Gasnault, Olivier; Lasue, Jérémie; Lee, Qiu-Mei; Maurice, Sylvestre; Meslin, Pierre-Yves; Pallier, Etienne; Parot, Yann; Pinet, Patrick; Schröder, Susanne; Toplis, Mike; Lewin, Éric; Brunner, Will; Heydari, Ezat; Achilles, Cherie; Oehler, Dorothy; Sutter, Brad; Cabane, Michel; Coscia, David; Israël, Guy; Szopa, Cyril; Dromart, Gilles; Robert, François; Sautter, Violaine; Le Mouélic, Stéphane; Mangold, Nicolas; Nachon, Marion; Buch, Arnaud; Stalport, Fabien; Coll, Patrice; François, Pascaline; Raulin, François; Teinturier, Samuel; Cameron, James; Clegg, Sam; Cousin, Agnès; DeLapp, Dorothea; Dingler, Robert; Jackson, Ryan Steele; Johnstone, Stephen; Lanza, Nina; Little, Cynthia; Nelson, Tony; Wiens, Roger C.; Williams, Richard B.; Jones, Andrea; Kirkland, Laurel; Treiman, Allan; Baker, Burt; Cantor, Bruce; Caplinger, Michael; Davis, Scott; Duston, Brian; Edgett, Kenneth; Fay, Donald; Hardgrove, Craig; Harker, David; Herrera, Paul; Jensen, Elsa; Kennedy, Megan R.; Krezoski, Gillian; Krysak, Daniel; Lipkaman, Leslie; Malin, Michael; McCartney, Elaina; McNair, Sean; Nixon, Brian; Posiolova, Liliya; Ravine, Michael; Salamon, Andrew; Saper, Lee; Stoiber, Kevin; Supulver, Kimberley; Van Beek, Jason; Van Beek, Tessa; Zimdar, Robert; French, Katherine Louise; Iagnemma, Karl; Miller, Kristen; Summons, Roger; Goesmann, Fred; Goetz, Walter; Hviid, Stubbe; Johnson, Micah; Lefavor, Matthew; Lyness, Eric; Breves, Elly; Dyar, M. Darby; Fassett, Caleb; Blake, David F.; Bristow, Thomas; DesMarais, David; Edwards, Laurence; Haberle, Robert; Hoehler, Tori; Hollingsworth, Jeff; Kahre, Melinda; Keely, Leslie; McKay, Christopher; Wilhelm, Mary Beth; Bleacher, Lora; Brinckerhoff, William; Choi, David; Conrad, Pamela; Dworkin, Jason P.; Floyd, Melissa; Freissinet, Caroline; Garvin, James; Glavin, Daniel; Harpold, Daniel; Jones, Andrea; Mahaffy, Paul; Martin, David K.; McAdam, Amy; Pavlov, Alexander; Raaen, Eric; Smith, Michael D.; Stern, Jennifer; Tan, Florence; Trainer, Melissa; Meyer, Michael; Voytek, Mary; Anderson, Robert C.; Aubrey, Andrew; Beegle, Luther W.; Behar, Alberto; Blaney, Diana; Calef, Fred; Christensen, Lance; Crisp, Joy A.; DeFlores, Lauren; Ehlmann, Bethany; Feldman, Jason; Feldman, Sabrina; Flesch, Gregory; Hurowitz, Joel; Jun, Insoo; Keymeulen, Didier; Maki, Justin; Mischna, Michael; Morookian, John Michael; Parker, Timothy; Pavri, Betina; Schoppers, Marcel; Sengstacken, Aaron; Simmonds, John J.; Spanovich, Nicole; Juarez, Manuel de la Torre; Webster, Christopher R.; Yen, Albert; Archer, Paul Douglas; Jones, John H.; Ming, Douglas; Morris, Richard V.; Niles, Paul; Rampe, Elizabeth; Nolan, Thomas; Fisk, Martin; Radziemski, Leon; Barraclough, Bruce; Bender, Steve; Berman, Daniel; Dobrea, Eldar Noe; Tokar, Robert; Vaniman, David; Williams, Rebecca M. E.; Yingst, Aileen; Lewis, Kevin; Leshin, Laurie; Cleghorn, Timothy; Huntress, Wesley; Manhès, Gérard; Hudgins, Judy; Olson, Timothy; Stewart, Noel; Sarrazin, Philippe; Grant, John; Vicenzi, Edward; Wilson, Sharon A.; Hamilton, Victoria; Peterson, Joseph; Fedosov, Fedor; Golovin, Dmitry; Karpushkina, Natalya; Kozyrev, Alexander; Litvak, Maxim; Malakhov, Alexey; Mitrofanov, Igor; Mokrousov, Maxim; Nikiforov, Sergey; Prokhorov, Vasily; Sanin, Anton; Tretyakov, Vladislav; Varenikov, Alexey; Vostrukhin, Andrey; Kuzmin, Ruslan; Clark, Benton; Wolff, Michael; McLennan, Scott; Botta, Oliver; Drake, Darrell; Bean, Keri; Lemmon, Mark; Schwenzer, Susanne P.; Anderson, Ryan B.; Herkenhoff, Kenneth; Lee, Ella Mae; Sucharski, Robert; Hernández, Miguel Ángel de Pablo; Ávalos, Juan José Blanco; Ramos, Miguel; Malespin, Charles; Plante, Ianik; Muller, Jan-Peter; Navarro-González, Rafael; Ewing, Ryan; Boynton, William; Downs, Robert; Fitzgibbon, Mike; Harshman, Karl; Morrison, Shaunna; Dietrich, William; Kortmann, Onno; Palucis, Marisa; Sumner, Dawn Y.; Williams, Amy; Lugmair, Günter; Wilson, Michael A.; Rubin, David; Jakosky, Bruce; Balic-Zunic, Tonci; Frydenvang, Jens; Jensen, Jaqueline Kløvgaard; Kinch, Kjartan; Koefoed, Asmus; Madsen, Morten Bo; Stipp, Susan Louise Svane; Boyd, Nick; Campbell, John L.; Gellert, Ralf; Perrett, Glynis; Pradler, Irina; VanBommel, Scott; Jacob, Samantha; Owen, Tobias; Rowland, Scott; Atlaskin, Evgeny; Savijärvi, Hannu; García, César Martín; Mueller-Mellin, Reinhold; Bridges, John C.; McConnochie, Timothy; Benna, Mehdi; Franz, Heather; Bower, Hannah; Brunner, Anna; Blau, Hannah; Boucher, Thomas; Carmosino, Marco; Atreya, Sushil; Elliott, Harvey; Halleaux, Douglas; Rennó, Nilton; Wong, Michael; Pepin, Robert; Elliott, Beverley; Spray, John; Thompson, Lucy; Gordon, Suzanne; Newsom, Horton; Ollila, Ann; Williams, Joshua; Vasconcelos, Paulo; Bentz, Jennifer; Nealson, Kenneth; Popa, Radu; Kah, Linda C.; Moersch, Jeffrey; Tate, Christopher; Day, Mackenzie; Kocurek, Gary; Hallet, Bernard; Sletten, Ronald; Francis, Raymond; McCullough, Emily; Cloutis, Ed; ten Kate, Inge Loes; Kuzmin, Ruslan; Arvidson, Raymond; Fraeman, Abigail; Scholes, Daniel; Slavney, Susan; Stein, Thomas; Ward, Jennifer; Berger, Jeffrey; Moores, John E.

    2014-01-01

    The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) on the Mars Science Laboratory's Curiosity rover began making detailed measurements of the cosmic ray and energetic particle radiation environment on the surface of Mars on 7 August 2012. We report and discuss measurements of the absorbed dose and dose equivalent from galactic cosmic rays and solar energetic particles on the martian surface for ~300 days of observations during the current solar maximum. These measurements provide insight into the radiation hazards associated with a human mission to the surface of Mars and provide an anchor point with which to model the subsurface radiation environment, with implications for microbial survival times of any possible extant or past life, as well as for the preservation of potential organic biosignatures of the ancient martian environment.

  3. Surface and top-of-atmosphere radiative feedback kernels for CESM-CAM5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendergrass, Angeline G.; Conley, Andrew; Vitt, Francis M.

    2018-02-01

    Radiative kernels at the top of the atmosphere are useful for decomposing changes in atmospheric radiative fluxes due to feedbacks from atmosphere and surface temperature, water vapor, and surface albedo. Here we describe and validate radiative kernels calculated with the large-ensemble version of CAM5, CESM1.1.2, at the top of the atmosphere and the surface. Estimates of the radiative forcing from greenhouse gases and aerosols in RCP8.5 in the CESM large-ensemble simulations are also diagnosed. As an application, feedbacks are calculated for the CESM large ensemble. The kernels are freely available at https://doi.org/10.5065/D6F47MT6" target="_blank">https://doi.org/10.5065/D6F47MT6, and accompanying software can be downloaded from https://github.com/apendergrass/cam5-kernels" target="_blank">https://github.com/apendergrass/cam5-kernels.

  4. The effect of clear sky radiation on crop surface temperature determined by thermal thermometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svendsen, H.; Jensen, H.E.; Jensen, S.E.; Mogensen, V.O.

    1990-01-01

    By numerical integration of Planck's radiation function, a relationship between emitted radiation from a black body in the wavelength band 8–14 μm and the corresponding surface temperature was obtained. Using this relationship, an equation was developed relating the temperature error at different temperatures to the crop surface emissivity and clear sky radiation. It is concluded that the temperature error to be expected from neglect of clear sky radiation in the wavelength band 8–14μm in radiometric crop surface temperature determination is < 0.2 and 0.1 °C for crops with an emissivity > 0.96 and 0.98, respectively, for a leaf temperature range from 0 to 30°C

  5. Mars' surface radiation environment measured with the Mars Science Laboratory's Curiosity rover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassler, Donald M; Zeitlin, Cary; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F; Ehresmann, Bent; Rafkin, Scot; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L; Brinza, David E; Weigle, Gerald; Böttcher, Stephan; Böhm, Eckart; Burmeister, Soenke; Guo, Jingnan; Köhler, Jan; Martin, Cesar; Reitz, Guenther; Cucinotta, Francis A; Kim, Myung-Hee; Grinspoon, David; Bullock, Mark A; Posner, Arik; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Vasavada, Ashwin; Grotzinger, John P

    2014-01-24

    The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) on the Mars Science Laboratory's Curiosity rover began making detailed measurements of the cosmic ray and energetic particle radiation environment on the surface of Mars on 7 August 2012. We report and discuss measurements of the absorbed dose and dose equivalent from galactic cosmic rays and solar energetic particles on the martian surface for ~300 days of observations during the current solar maximum. These measurements provide insight into the radiation hazards associated with a human mission to the surface of Mars and provide an anchor point with which to model the subsurface radiation environment, with implications for microbial survival times of any possible extant or past life, as well as for the preservation of potential organic biosignatures of the ancient martian environment.

  6. Comparative researches concerning cleaning chosen construction materials surface layer using UV and IR laser radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napadlek, W.; Marczak, J.; Kubicki, J.; Szudrowicz, M.

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents comparative research studies of cleaning out of deposits and pollution disposals on different constructional materials like; steel, cast iron, aluminium, copper by using UV and IR laser radiation of wavelength λ =1.064 μm; λ = 0.532 μm; λ = 0.355 μm and λ = 0.266 μm and also impulse laser TEA CO 2 at radiation λ = 10.6 μm were used for the experiments. Achieved experimental results gave us basic information on parameters and conditions and application of each used radiation wavelength. Each kind of pollution and base material should be individually treated, selecting the length of wave and radiation energy density. Laser microtreatment allows for broad cleaning application of the surface of constructional materials as well as may be used in future during manufacturing processes as: preparation of surface for PVD technology, galvanotechnics, cleaning of the surface of machine parts etc. (author)

  7. Correcting surface solar radiation of two data assimilation systems against FLUXNET observations in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Lee, Xuhui; Liu, Shoudong

    2013-09-01

    Solar radiation at the Earth's surface is an important driver of meteorological and ecological processes. The objective of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of the reanalysis solar radiation produced by NARR (North American Regional Reanalysis) and MERRA (Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications) against the FLUXNET measurements in North America. We found that both assimilation systems systematically overestimated the surface solar radiation flux on the monthly and annual scale, with an average bias error of +37.2 Wm-2 for NARR and of +20.2 Wm-2 for MERRA. The bias errors were larger under cloudy skies than under clear skies. A postreanalysis algorithm consisting of empirical relationships between model bias, a clearness index, and site elevation was proposed to correct the model errors. Results show that the algorithm can remove the systematic bias errors for both FLUXNET calibration sites (sites used to establish the algorithm) and independent validation sites. After correction, the average annual mean bias errors were reduced to +1.3 Wm-2 for NARR and +2.7 Wm-2 for MERRA. Applying the correction algorithm to the global domain of MERRA brought the global mean surface incoming shortwave radiation down by 17.3 W m-2 to 175.5 W m-2. Under the constraint of the energy balance, other radiation and energy balance terms at the Earth's surface, estimated from independent global data products, also support the need for a downward adjustment of the MERRA surface solar radiation.

  8. Development of apparatus for surveying uranium surface contamination quantity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qingheng; Han Jingquan

    1994-11-01

    An apparatus for measuring uranium contamination of the surface of reactor plate component is described. The searching unit of the apparatus is a large surface multi-wire proportional counter. The cathode of the counter is made of stainless steel with low radioactive background, the window is made of film which is plated with aluminum about 6 μm; and the anode is mad by gild tungsten wire of 0.025 mm diameter. The sensitive area of the counter is 1113 mm x 100 mm. It has been shown that the intrinsic radioactive background of the apparatus is 0.002 cpm/cm 2 (2 count/min). The detecting efficiency is 67% for enriched uranium source (2π solid angle). The stability is 0.84% within 24 hour (including detector, high voltage power supply, amplifier, discriminator, computer, type and display system). The lower detection limit of the apparatus is 4.6 x 10 -10 g/cm 2 (for 20% 235 U, 0.13% 234 U, 79.64% 238 U). The apparatus can present timing by a computer controlling, and it also has the following functions: displaying, automatic alarming, classifying and typing the results. (2 tabs., 7 figs.)

  9. Solar irradiance changes and photobiological effects at earth's surface following astrophysical ionizing radiation events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Brian C; Neale, Patrick J; Snyder, Brock R

    2015-03-01

    Astrophysical ionizing radiation events have been recognized as a potential threat to life on Earth, primarily through depletion of stratospheric ozone and subsequent increase in surface-level solar ultraviolet radiation. Simulations of the atmospheric effects of a variety of events (such as supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, and solar proton events) have been previously published, along with estimates of biological damage at Earth's surface. In this work, we employed the Tropospheric Ultraviolet and Visible (TUV) radiative transfer model to expand and improve calculations of surface-level irradiance and biological impacts following an ionizing radiation event. We considered changes in surface-level UVB, UVA, and photosynthetically active radiation (visible light) for clear-sky conditions and fixed aerosol parameter values. We also considered a wide range of biological effects on organisms ranging from humans to phytoplankton. We found that past work overestimated UVB irradiance but that relative estimates for increase in exposure to DNA-damaging radiation are still similar to our improved calculations. We also found that the intensity of biologically damaging radiation varies widely with organism and specific impact considered; these results have implications for biosphere-level damage following astrophysical ionizing radiation events. When considering changes in surface-level visible light irradiance, we found that, contrary to previous assumptions, a decrease in irradiance is only present for a short time in very limited geographical areas; instead we found a net increase for most of the modeled time-space region. This result has implications for proposed climate changes associated with ionizing radiation events.

  10. [A Survey about the Radiation Effects and A Health Survey of Fukushima Inhabitants after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Ryuji; Ohga, Kazuhiro; Yoko-O, Makoto; Kohzaki, Masaoki

    According to questionnaire surveys in 2011 and 2013 about the health effects of radiation after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident, the guardians of child patients were more anxious than doctors and medical students. Also, according to the thyroid examinations in a Fukushima health survey, 190 cases of thyroid cancer were reported, and anxiety about radiation effects remained. This study is based on a survey about the guardians of child patients anxiety about radiation effects six years after the nuclear power plant accident, and includes a questionnaire survey about radiation effects and thyroid examinations in a Fukushima health survey. Anonymous question sheets with 20 questions were sent to pediatric medical facilities in Fukushima, and the parents of children who consulted the pediatric and medical staff answered the questionnaire. Thirty percent of the guardians of child patients had never been educated about radiation and 67% had never been educated about the effects of radiation on humans. The guardians of child patients were more anxious than the medical staff about thyroid cancer, health effects on children and genetic effects. Our results indicate that the guardians of child patients think that the increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer is due to radiation effects after the nuclear power plant accident and they desire continued thyroid examinations.

  11. A Survey of the Potential Effects of Increasing UV-B Radiation on the Biosphere. Revision

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martin, L

    1998-01-01

    ..., and an increase in UV-B radiation at the surface of the Earth. An increase in UV-B on average would increase the incidence rate of non-melanoma skin cancer worldwide, with an unproved but likely increase in melanoma skin cancer...

  12. Radiation- stimulated adsorption of n-hexane on the surface of silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajiyeva, N.N.

    2014-01-01

    Full text : This paper presents the results of studies of radiation-stimulated adsorption of n-hexane on a silicon surface, obtained by infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy method. It has been used a monocrystal silicon plate with high reflectance coefficient of the surface. Irradiation of the samples was carried out on gamma-quantum source of 60Co

  13. Surface phenomena and the evolution of radiating fluid spheres in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera, L.; Jimenez, J.; Esculpi, M.; Ibanez, J.

    1989-01-01

    A method used to study the evolution of radiating spheres (Herrera, Jimenez, and Ruggeri) is extended to the case in which surface phenomena are taken into account. The equations have been integrated numerically for a model derived from the Schwarzschild interior solution, bringing out the effects of surface tension on the evolution of the spheres. 17 refs

  14. Experimental survey of the potential energy surfaces associated with fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britt, H.C.

    1980-01-01

    Progress in the experimental determination of the properties of the potential energy surface associated with fission is reviewed. The importance of nuclear symmetry effects on the calculation of fission widths is demonstrated. Evidence is presented for the fragmentation of the mass-asymmetric second barrier in the thorium region and the axial asymmetric first barrier in the californium region. Detailed analyses of experimental data suggest the presence of two parallel second barriers; the normal mass-asymmetric, axial-symmetric barrier and a slightly higher mass-symmetric, axial-asymmetric barrier. Experimental barrier parameters are determined systematically and compared with calculations from various theoretical models. Techniques for expanding fission probability measurements to higher energies are discussed. (author)

  15. Sampling strategy for a large scale indoor radiation survey - a pilot project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, T.; Stranden, E.

    1986-01-01

    Optimisation of a stratified random sampling strategy for large scale indoor radiation surveys is discussed. It is based on the results from a small scale pilot project where variances in dose rates within different categories of houses were assessed. By selecting a predetermined precision level for the mean dose rate in a given region, the number of measurements needed can be optimised. The results of a pilot project in Norway are presented together with the development of the final sampling strategy for a planned large scale survey. (author)

  16. Radiation and Radon Survey of Akchatau (Khazakstan) and Experience with Radon Remedial Measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soroka, Y.; Molchanov, A.

    1998-01-01

    A radiation survey of the territory of Akchatau settlement has been carried out. The main factors affecting the high content of radon in dwelling houses were revealed. The experiment on isolation of under floor spaces was carried out to prevent the entry of radon-containing soil gas into living rooms. The repair works efficiency for decreasing of the radon content in hazardous houses was analysed. The survey showed a need for regulation of the value of 222 Rn exhalation on the territories planned for construction works. (author)

  17. Surface roughness control by extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahad, Inam Ul; Obeidi, Muhannad Ahmed; Budner, Bogusław; Bartnik, Andrzej; Fiedorowicz, Henryk; Brabazon, Dermot

    2017-10-01

    Surface roughness control of polymeric materials is often desirable in various biomedical engineering applications related to biocompatibility control, separation science and surface wettability control. In this study, Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) polymer films were irradiated with Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) photons in nitrogen environment and investigations were performed on surface roughness modification via EUV exposure. The samples were irradiated at 3 mm and 4 mm distance from the focal spot to investigate the effect of EUV fluence on topography. The topography of the EUV treated PET samples were studied by AFM. The detailed scanning was also performed on the sample irradiated at 3 mm. It was observed that the average surface roughness of PET samples was increased from 9 nm (pristine sample) to 280 nm and 253 nm for EUV irradiated samples. Detailed AFM studies confirmed the presence of 1.8 mm wide period U-shaped channels in EUV exposed PET samples. The walls of the channels were having FWHM of about 0.4 mm. The channels were created due to translatory movements of the sample in horizontal and transverse directions during the EUV exposure. The increased surface roughness is useful for many applications. The nanoscale channels fabricated by EUV exposure could be interesting for microfluidic applications based on lab-on-a-chip (LOC) devices.

  18. Probing droplets on superhydrophobic surfaces by synchrotron radiation scattering techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Accardo, Angelo [Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Via Morego 30, Genova 16163 (Italy); Di Fabrizio, Enzo [KAUST (King Abdullah University of Science and Technology), Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); BIONEM Lab at University Magna Graecia, Campus Salvatore Venuta, Viale Europa 88100, Germaneto-Catanzaro (Italy); Limongi, Tania [KAUST (King Abdullah University of Science and Technology), Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Marinaro, Giovanni [Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Via Morego 30, Genova 16163 (Italy); European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Riekel, Christian, E-mail: riekel@esrf.fr [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex (France)

    2014-06-10

    A comprehensive review about the use of micro- and nanostructured superhydrophobic surfaces as a tool for in situ X-ray scattering investigations of soft matter and biological materials. Droplets on artificially structured superhydrophobic surfaces represent quasi contact-free sample environments which can be probed by X-ray microbeams and nanobeams in the absence of obstructing walls. This review will discuss basic surface wettability concepts and introduce the technology of structuring surfaces. Quasi contact-free droplets are compared with contact-free droplets; processes related to deposition and evaporation on solid surfaces are discussed. Droplet coalescence based on the electrowetting effect allows the probing of short-time mixing and reaction processes. The review will show for several materials of biological interest that structural processes related to conformational changes, nucleation and assembly during droplet evaporation can be spatially and temporally resolved by raster-scan diffraction techniques. Orientational ordering of anisotropic materials deposited during solidification at pinning sites facilitates the interpretation of structural data.

  19. X-ray photoemission analysis of chemically modified TlBr surfaces for improved radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, A. J.; Voss, L. F.; Beck, P. R.; Graff, R. T.; Conway, A. M.; Nikolic, R. J.; Payne, S. A.; Lee, J.-S.; Kim, H.; Cirignano, L.; Shah, K.

    2013-01-01

    We subjected device-grade TlBr to various chemical treatments used in room temperature radiation detector fabrication to determine the resulting surface composition and electronic structure. As-polished TlBr was treated separately with HCl, SOCl 2 , Br:MeOH and HF solutions. High-resolution photoemission measurements on the valence band electronic structure and Tl 4f, Br 3d, Cl 2p and S 2p core lines were used to evaluate surface chemistry and shallow heterojunction formation. Surface chemistry and valence band electronic structure were correlated with the goal of optimizing the long-term stability and radiation response

  20. Luminescence Properties of Surface Radiation-Induced Defects in Lithium Fluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voitovich, A. P.; Kalinov, V. S.; Martynovich, E. F.; Novikov, A. N.; Runets, L. P.; Stupak, A. P.

    2013-11-01

    Luminescence and luminescence excitation spectra are recorded for surface radiation-induced defects in lithium fluoride at temperatures of 77 and 293 K. The presence of three bands with relatively small intensity differences is a distinctive feature of the excitation spectrum. These bands are found to belong to the same type of defects. The positions of the peaks and the widths of the absorption and luminescence bands for these defects are determined. The luminescence decay time is measured. All the measured characteristics of these surface defects differ from those of previously known defects induced by radiation in the bulk of the crystals. It is found that the luminescence of surface defects in an ensemble of nanocrystals with different orientations is not polarized. The number of anion vacancies in the surface defects is estimated using the polarization measurements. It is shown that radiative scattering distorts the intensity ratios of the luminescence excitation bands located in different spectral regions.

  1. Effect of surface characteristics on diffuse reflection radiation at lambda=0. 40. mu. m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takashima, T [Atmospheric Environment Service, Downsview, Ontario (Canada)

    1976-08-01

    The diffuse radiation in the upward direction at the top and at an internal level of an inhomogeneous atmosphere is computed at lambda=0.40 ..mu..m. The surface is assumed to reflect light in accordance with a hybrid mode of a diffuse and specular reflector. The objective is to estimate the effect of underlying surface characteristics in terms of the diffuse radiation field. By making use of these results, accuracy in monitoring the atmospheric aerosols would be increased for the use of remote sensing satellite techniques. Junge power law (..gamma..*=3) is adopted for the size distribution of aerosols (1963), while the data given by McClatchy et al. (1971) is used for the number density of aerosols with height distribution. It is noted from the computations that the diffuse reflection radiation is affected by the surface characteristics, even if the albedo of the surface is a fixed constant and very small.

  2. A transitioning Arctic surface energy budget: the impacts of solar zenith angle, surface albedo and cloud radiative forcing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedlar, Joseph; Tjernstroem, Michael; Leck, Caroline [Stockholm University, Department of Meteorology, Stockholm (Sweden); Mauritsen, Thorsten [Max-Planck-Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg (Germany); Shupe, Matthew D.; Persson, P.O.G. [University of Colorado, NOAA-ESRL-PSD, Boulder, CO (United States); Brooks, Ian M.; Birch, Cathryn E. [University of Leeds, School of Earth and Environment, Leeds (United Kingdom); Sirevaag, Anders [University of Bergen, Bjerknes Center for Climate Research, Bergen (Norway); Nicolaus, Marcel [Norwegian Polar Institute, Tromsoe (Norway); Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    Snow surface and sea-ice energy budgets were measured near 87.5 N during the Arctic Summer Cloud Ocean Study (ASCOS), from August to early September 2008. Surface temperature indicated four distinct temperature regimes, characterized by varying cloud, thermodynamic and solar properties. An initial warm, melt-season regime was interrupted by a 3-day cold regime where temperatures dropped from near zero to -7 C. Subsequently mean energy budget residuals remained small and near zero for 1 week until once again temperatures dropped rapidly and the energy budget residuals became negative. Energy budget transitions were dominated by the net radiative fluxes, largely controlled by the cloudiness. Variable heat, moisture and cloud distributions were associated with changing air-masses. Surface cloud radiative forcing, the net radiative effect of clouds on the surface relative to clear skies, is estimated. Shortwave cloud forcing ranged between -50 W m{sup -2} and zero and varied significantly with surface albedo, solar zenith angle and cloud liquid water. Longwave cloud forcing was larger and generally ranged between 65 and 85 W m{sup -2}, except when the cloud fraction was tenuous or contained little liquid water; thus the net effect of the clouds was to warm the surface. Both cold periods occurred under tenuous, or altogether absent, low-level clouds containing little liquid water, effectively reducing the cloud greenhouse effect. Freeze-up progression was enhanced by a combination of increasing solar zenith angles and surface albedo, while inhibited by a large, positive surface cloud forcing until a new air-mass with considerably less cloudiness advected over the experiment area. (orig.)

  3. Global Surface Net-Radiation at 5 km from MODIS Terra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Verma

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Reliable and fine resolution estimates of surface net-radiation are required for estimating latent and sensible heat fluxes between the land surface and the atmosphere. However, currently, fine resolution estimates of net-radiation are not available and consequently it is challenging to develop multi-year estimates of evapotranspiration at scales that can capture land surface heterogeneity and are relevant for policy and decision-making. We developed and evaluated a global net-radiation product at 5 km and 8-day resolution by combining mutually consistent atmosphere and land data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS on board Terra. Comparison with net-radiation measurements from 154 globally distributed sites (414 site-years from the FLUXNET and Surface Radiation budget network (SURFRAD showed that the net-radiation product agreed well with measurements across seasons and climate types in the extratropics (Wilmott’s index ranged from 0.74 for boreal to 0.63 for Mediterranean sites. Mean absolute deviation between the MODIS and measured net-radiation ranged from 38.0 ± 1.8 W∙m−2 in boreal to 72.0 ± 4.1 W∙m−2 in the tropical climates. The mean bias was small and constituted only 11%, 0.7%, 8.4%, 4.2%, 13.3%, and 5.4% of the mean absolute error in daytime net-radiation in boreal, Mediterranean, temperate-continental, temperate, semi-arid, and tropical climate, respectively. To assess the accuracy of the broader spatiotemporal patterns, we upscaled error-quantified MODIS net-radiation and compared it with the net-radiation estimates from the coarse spatial (1° × 1° but high temporal resolution gridded net-radiation product from the Clouds and Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES. Our estimates agreed closely with the net-radiation estimates from the CERES. Difference between the two was less than 10 W·m−2 in 94% of the total land area. MODIS net-radiation product will be a valuable resource for the

  4. Radiation survey and management on the reconstructed radioactive work-site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Tao; Liang Shiqiang; Wang Youmei

    2004-12-01

    The experiences of radiation survey and administration in the prophase on reconstructed radioactive work-site are summarized. The advance works are to investigate the reconstructed work-site, settle working plans, devise inspecting flow charts, deal with something in time in the local and train the staffers. The works about prophasic decontaminating, removing and cleaning up the site have been finished, which have established the deep foundation to develop later task. (authors)

  5. ON THE NECESSITY OF RADIATION SURVEY OF THE BUILDINGS AFTER THE CONSTRUCTION, REPAIR OR RECONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Gorsky

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents regulation of radon concentration in the air of dwellings and public buildings in Russia in the historical aspect. It is shown with a specific reference to Saint-Petersburg that implementation of obligatory radiation survey of new buildings has led to the significant reduction of radon concentration in the dwelling air and, consequently, the levels of population exposure due to natural sources.

  6. Multi-agency radiation survey and site investigation manual (MARSIM). Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    The MARSSIM provides information on planning, conducting, evaluating, and documenting building surface and surface soil final status radiological surveys for demonstrating compliance with dose or risk-based regulations or standards. The MARSSIM is a multi-agency consensus document that was developed collaboratively by four Federal agencies having authority and control over radioactive materials: Department of Defense (DOD), Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The MARSSIM's objective is to describe a consistent approach for planning, performing, and assessing building surface and surface soil final status surveys to meet established dose or risk-based release criteria, while at the same time encouraging an effective use of resources

  7. Multi-agency radiation survey and site investigation manual (MARSIM). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The MARSSIM provides information on planning, conducting, evaluating, and documenting building surface and surface soil final status radiological surveys for demonstrating compliance with dose or risk-based regulations or standards. The MARSSIM is a multi-agency consensus document that was developed collaboratively by four Federal agencies having authority and control over radioactive materials: Department of Defense (DOD), Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The MARSSIM`s objective is to describe a consistent approach for planning, performing, and assessing building surface and surface soil final status surveys to meet established dose or risk-based release criteria, while at the same time encouraging an effective use of resources.

  8. Synthesis of freeform refractive surfaces forming various radiation patterns using interpolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voznesenskaya, Anna; Mazur, Iana; Krizskiy, Pavel

    2017-09-01

    Optical freeform surfaces are very popular today in such fields as lighting systems, sensors, photovoltaic concentrators, and others. The application of such surfaces allows to obtain systems with a new quality with a reduced number of optical components to ensure high consumer characteristics: small size, weight, high optical transmittance. This article presents the methods of synthesis of refractive surface for a given source and the radiation pattern of various shapes using a computer simulation cubic spline interpolation.

  9. Surface photo reaction processes using synchrotron radiation; Hoshako reiki ni yoru hyomenko hanno process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imaizumi, Y. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Institute for Materials Research; Yoshigoe, A. [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan); Urisu, T. [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan). Institute for Molecular Science

    1997-08-20

    This paper introduces the surface photo reaction processes using synchrotron radiation, and its application. A synchrotron radiation process using soft X-rays contained in electron synchrotron radiated light as an excited light source has a possibility of high-resolution processing because of its short wave length. The radiated light can excite efficiently the electronic state of a substance, and can induce a variety of photochemical reactions. In addition, it can excite inner shell electrons efficiently. In the aspect of its application, it has been found that, if radiated light is irradiated on surfaces of solids under fluorine-based reaction gas or Cl2, the surfaces can be etched. This technology is utilized practically. With regard to radiated light excited CVD process, it may be said that anything that can be deposited by the ordinary plasma CVD process can be deposited. Its application to epitaxial crystal growth may be said a nano processing application in thickness direction, such as forming an ultra-lattice structure, the application being subjected to expectation. In micromachine fabricating technologies, a possibility is searched on application of a photo reaction process of the radiated light. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  10. Sensitivity of surface radiation budget to clouds over the Asian ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    National Climate Centre, India Meteorological Department, Pune 400 005. ... down on the earth surface–atmosphere system also as an imbalance between surface netcloud ... the clouds produce more cooling effect in short-wave band than the warming effect in long-wave .... In the present study, we use the analysis method.

  11. Trapped surfaces due to concentration of gravitational radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beig, R.; O Murchadha, N.

    1991-01-01

    Sequences of global, asympotically flat solutions to the time-symmetric initial value constraints of general relativity in vacuo are constructed which develop outer trapped surfaces for large values of the argument. Thus all such configurations must gravitationally collapse. A new proof of the positivity of mass in the strong-field regime is also found. (Authors) 22 refs

  12. The effects of viscosity on sound radiation near solid surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morfey, C.L.; Sorokin, Sergey; Gabard, G.

    2012-01-01

    Although the acoustic analogy developed by Lighthill, Curle, and Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings for sound generation by unsteady flow past solid surfaces is formally exact, it has become accepted practice in aeroacoustics to use an approximate version in which viscous quadrupoles are neglected. Her...

  13. Radiation Protection in Pediatric Radiology: Results of a Survey Among Dutch Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijwaard, Harmen; Valk, Doreth; de Waard-Schalkx, Ischa

    2016-10-01

    A survey about radiation protection in pediatric radiology was conducted among 22 general and seven children's hospitals in the Netherlands. Questions concerned, for example, child protocols used for CT, fluoroscopy and x-ray imaging, number of images and scans made, radiation doses and measures taken to reduce these, special tools used for children, and quality assurance issues. The answers received from 27 hospitals indicate that radiation protection practices differ considerably between general and children's hospitals but also between the respective general and children's hospitals. It is recommended that hospitals consult each other to come up with more uniform best practices. Few hospitals were able to supply doses that can be compared to the national Diagnostic Reference Levels (DRLs). The ones that could be compared exceeded the DRLs in one in five cases, which is more than was expected beforehand.

  14. A questionnaire survey of medical physicist and quality manager for radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishio, Teiji; Ashino, Yasuo; Onishi, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    A questionnaire survey of medical physicists and quality managers for radiation therapy was performed by the Japanese Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (JASTRO) Future Planning Committee. We mailed the questionnaire to 726 radiotherapy facilities with the answers returned from 353 radiotherapy facilities. The result showed 178 facilities were staffed by radiotherapy workers who were licensed medical physicists or quality managers. A staff of 289 was licensed radiotherapy workers. Most of the staff were radiotherapy technologists. Quality control for radiation therapy was rated satisfactory according to each facility's assessment. Radiation therapy of high quality requires continued education of medical physicists and quality managers, in addition to keeping up with times for quality control. (author)

  15. A national-wide survey of radon and gamma radiation levels in Australian homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langaroo, M.K.; Wise, K.N.; Duggleby, J.K.; Kotler, L.H.

    1990-04-01

    A nation-wide survey of Australian homes has been conducted to determine the average annual doses to the Australian population from exposure to radon and gamma radiation. The exposure to radon was measured using solid state track detectors (SSTD) whilst the gamma radiation dose was concurrently determined using thermoluminescent dosimetry. Dosemeters were placed in approximately 3400 randomly distributed homes (representing about 1 in 1400 occupied dwellings) for twelve months. The measured annual average radon concentration in Australian homes is 12 Bq m -3 . Using appropriate conversion factors, the annual average effective dose equivalents to the Australian population were determined to be 0.6 mSv and 0.9 mSv for radon and gamma radiation respectively. 20 refs., 3 tabs., 7 figs

  16. Calibration of a radiation survey meter using Cs-137 gamma source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, R. O.

    2005-07-01

    The survey instrument smartIon was calibrated at the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory, Sudan Atomic Energy Commission, in terms of kerma, free in air using Cs-137 gamma radiation. All the calibrations were performed using the reference instrument spherical ionization chamber LS-01. This reference instrument has been calibrated at the International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna for x-rays, 137 Cs and 60 Co gamma radiation. The air kerma calibration factors for the instrument were determined as the ratio of the dose rates obtained with the reference standard chamber LS-01 and the dose rates of the instrument under calibration. The uncertainties for the survey meter smartIon and another survey meter RADOS were obtained and the results compared with the uncertainty for the reference standard chamber. Also, the values of dose rates were obtained for various angles of the incident beam, by changing the angle by which the radiation was incident on the sensitive point of the instrument.(Author)

  17. ALARA and paediatric imaging in radiation therapy: A survey of Canadian paediatric imaging practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgerson, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: There is little discussion in the literature regarding paediatric imaging dose reduction with respect to conventional imaging carried out in radiotherapy departments. This is in contrast to diagnostic radiography where dose optimization when imaging children is a very current topic. For this reason Canadian radiotherapy clinics were surveyed to look at paediatric imaging practice, knowledge and perspectives with respect to imaging dose reduction. Method: As this was an exploratory study, a questionnaire was developed and sent to radiation therapy clinics across Canada, via email, to assess knowledge of paediatric imaging and dose reduction initiatives. The questionnaire focus was CT simulation and treatment verification imaging of children. Results: Practice and knowledge of paediatric imaging varied across Canada. Forty percent of clinics reported using paediatric specific protocols for CT simulation and 20% of clinics reported using paediatric specific protocols for treatment verification imaging. There was variation in imaging practices among the clinics that reported treating the most children. The survey results show that while some measures are being taken to reduce paediatric imaging dose in radiation therapy, 46.7% of the respondents felt more could be done. Conclusion: The survey demonstrates interest in dose reduction in radiation therapy imaging as well as differences in current practice and knowledge across Canada. Paediatric imaging dose reduction would appear to be an area of practice that would benefit from more study and development of standards of practice

  18. Survey of radiation doses and health effects in medical diagnostic X-ray workers in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jixian; Zhang Liangan; Liu Jinzhong; Zhang Jingyuan

    1984-01-01

    The results of a nationwide survey of radiation doses and health effects in 26983 medical diagnostic X-ray workers in 28 provinces of China were reported. The control group was composed of 25785 non-X-ray medical workers in the same hospitals where the investigated X-ray workers worked. Of the radiological workers surveyed 75.3% received cumulative radiation doses below 50 mGy, only 2.7% received doses greater than 500 mGy, the average cumulative dose being 45.0 mGy. The average length of service was 11 years. The main radiation effects relating to radiation doses were the increase of frequencies of both chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei in peripheral blood lymphocytes, which were 0.362% and 0.0358% in the irradiated group, and 0.122% and 0.0138% in the control group, respectively. The incidence and mortality rate of leukemias increased significantly in the irradiated group. The incidence and standardized incidence of leukemias were 9.61 . 10 -5 and 9.67 . 10 -5 in the irradiated group and 2.74 . 10 -5 and 2.77 . 10 -5 in the control group. The leukemia mortality rates in the two groups were 8.60 . 10 -5 and 1.24 . 10 -5 respectively, and the standardized mortality rates were 8.60 . 10 -5 and 1.27 . 10 -5 respectively. (Author)

  19. Satellite-based climate data records of surface solar radiation from the CM SAF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trentmann, Jörg; Cremer, Roswitha; Kothe, Steffen; Müller, Richard; Pfeifroth, Uwe

    2017-04-01

    The incoming surface solar radiation has been defined as an essential climate variable by GCOS. Long term monitoring of this part of the earth's energy budget is required to gain insights on the state and variability of the climate system. In addition, climate data sets of surface solar radiation have received increased attention over the recent years as an important source of information for solar energy assessments, for crop modeling, and for the validation of climate and weather models. The EUMETSAT Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring (CM SAF) is deriving climate data records (CDRs) from geostationary and polar-orbiting satellite instruments. Within the CM SAF these CDRs are accompanied by operational data at a short time latency to be used for climate monitoring. All data from the CM SAF is freely available via www.cmsaf.eu. Here we present the regional and the global climate data records of surface solar radiation from the CM SAF. The regional climate data record SARAH (Surface Solar Radiation Dataset - Heliosat, doi: 10.5676/EUM_SAF_CM/SARAH/V002) is based on observations from the series of Meteosat satellites. SARAH provides 30-min, daily- and monthly-averaged data of the effective cloud albedo, the solar irradiance (incl. spectral information), the direct solar radiation (horizontal and normal), and the sunshine duration from 1983 to 2015 for the full view of the Meteosat satellite (i.e, Europe, Africa, parts of South America, and the Atlantic ocean). The data sets are generated with a high spatial resolution of 0.05° allowing for detailed regional studies. The global climate data record CLARA (CM SAF Clouds, Albedo and Radiation dataset from AVHRR data, doi: 10.5676/EUM_SAF_CM/CLARA_AVHRR/V002) is based on observations from the series of AVHRR satellite instruments. CLARA provides daily- and monthly-averaged global data of the solar irradiance (SIS) from 1982 to 2015 with a spatial resolution of 0.25°. In addition to the solar surface

  20. Climatology of surface ultraviolet-radiation in Valparaiso, Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordero, Raul R.; Roth, Pedro; Georgiev, Aleksandar; Silva, Luis da

    2005-01-01

    Despite the lack of long-term records, it is possible to describe many of the short term characteristics, dependencies and climatology of surface UV irradiance. This paper describes the climatology of on ground UV irradiance at Valparaiso (33.05 deg. S, 71.63 deg. W, sea level), Chile. The dependence of UV-B irradiance on ozone and on other climate variables is discussed with reference to our observations conducted during the last four years. Special attention was paid to detect 'ozone events' by surface UV irradiance measurements. By analyzing time series of the UV-B/UV-A ratio, we suppressed the cloud variability effect and detected events that implied ozone column changes of about 15%. According to our measurements, during the last four years, the ozone column over Valparaiso was not affected negatively by the Antarctic ozone hole phenomenon

  1. The use of roentgen diagnostics in chiropractor activities. Project based survey according to new regulations regarding radiation protection and use of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raaum, Aud; Widmark, Anders

    2005-12-01

    An audit has been performed in 17 chiropractic enterprises according to new radiation protection legislation. Before the audits a survey of the use of diagnostic imaging in Norwegian chiropractic enterprises was carried out. This report summarizes the results of the survey and the findings at the audits. (Author)

  2. Preliminary analysis of surface radiation measurements recorded at the Nansen ice sheet (Antarctica)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonafe', U.; Dalpane, E.; Georgiadis, T.; Pitacco, A.

    1996-01-01

    An experiment on radiation and surface energy balance was conducted during the 9. Italian expedition in Antarctica at the Nancen ice sheet, a glacier situated close to the Italian base at Terra Nova Bay, to correlate surface balances to the formation and development of katabatic winds. Measurements were taken by radiometers covering the whole spectra of solar and terrestrial emissions and by fast sensors of atmospheric wind velocity and humidity for the application of the eddy correlation technique. A preliminary analysis of the radiometric data collected in order to quantify the major components of radiative energy balance during the Antarctic summer in clear sky conditions is reported and discussed. The findings show the very low available energy (mean about 1 W/m 2 ), in terms of net radiation, for the physical processes such as sensible- and latent-heat fluxes. Long-wave radiation balance was applied to estimate the reliability of the Swinbank's parametrization, relative to general conditions of the atmosphere

  3. Radiation treatment of surface and sewage waters and decontamination of effluents from livestock farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brusentseva, S.A.; Dolin, P.I.; Fel', N.S.

    1983-01-01

    The report deals with the use of high level radiation for treatment of surface and sewage waters. The surface water radiation treatment at the dose of 0,1 Mrad produces a complex effect of color, taste and odor control and desinfection of water. In order to reduce the cost of radiation it is necessary to use the synergistic effect and optimization of treatment. Sewage from animal breeding complexes was studied during the introduction of air and ammonia. E. coli, salmonellum and staphylloccocus aureus were used as test microorganisms (10 4 -10 6 cell/ml). The sources of radiation-accelerators (energy 8 and 0.4 MeV, dose rates 0.1-10 2 Krad/s). When air and ammonia are introduced into the sewage the adequate decontamination dose is 4-5 times reduced. (author)

  4. A model to calculate solar radiation fluxes on the Martian surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente-Retortillo Álvaro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a new comprehensive radiative transfer model to study the solar irradiance that reaches the surface of Mars in the spectral range covered by MetSIS, a sensor aboard the Mars MetNet mission that will measure solar irradiance in several bands from the ultraviolet (UV to the near infrared (NIR. The model includes up-to-date wavelength-dependent radiative properties of dust, water ice clouds, and gas molecules. It enables the characterization of the radiative environment in different spectral regions under different scenarios. Comparisons between the model results and MetSIS observations will allow for the characterization of the temporal variability of atmospheric optical depth and dust size distribution, enhancing the scientific return of the mission. The radiative environment at the Martian surface has important implications for the habitability of Mars as well as a strong impact on its atmospheric dynamics and climate.

  5. Radiative surface temperatures of the burned and unburned areas in a tallgrass prairie

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asrar, G.; Harris, T.R.; Lapitan, R.L.; Cooper, D.I.

    1988-01-01

    This study was conducted in a natural tallgrass prairie area in the Flint Hills of Kansas. Our objective was to evaluate the surface radiative temperatures of burned and unburned treatments of the grassland as a means of delineating the areas covered by each treatment. Burning is used to remove the senescent vegetation resulting from the previous year's growth. Surface temperatures were obtained in situ and by an airborne scanner. Burned and unburned grass canopies had distinctly different diurnal surface radiative temperatures. Measurements of surface energy balance components revealed a difference in partitioning of the available energy between the two canopies, which resulted in the difference in their measured surface temperatures. The magnitude of this difference is dependent on the time of measurements and topographic conditions. (author)

  6. "Intelligent Ensemble" Projections of Precipitation and Surface Radiation in Support of Agricultural Climate Change Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Patrick C.; Baker, Noel C.

    2015-01-01

    Earth's climate is changing and will continue to change into the foreseeable future. Expected changes in the climatological distribution of precipitation, surface temperature, and surface solar radiation will significantly impact agriculture. Adaptation strategies are, therefore, required to reduce the agricultural impacts of climate change. Climate change projections of precipitation, surface temperature, and surface solar radiation distributions are necessary input for adaption planning studies. These projections are conventionally constructed from an ensemble of climate model simulations (e.g., the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5)) as an equal weighted average, one model one vote. Each climate model, however, represents the array of climate-relevant physical processes with varying degrees of fidelity influencing the projection of individual climate variables differently. Presented here is a new approach, termed the "Intelligent Ensemble, that constructs climate variable projections by weighting each model according to its ability to represent key physical processes, e.g., precipitation probability distribution. This approach provides added value over the equal weighted average method. Physical process metrics applied in the "Intelligent Ensemble" method are created using a combination of NASA and NOAA satellite and surface-based cloud, radiation, temperature, and precipitation data sets. The "Intelligent Ensemble" method is applied to the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 anthropogenic climate forcing simulations within the CMIP5 archive to develop a set of climate change scenarios for precipitation, temperature, and surface solar radiation in each USDA Farm Resource Region for use in climate change adaptation studies.

  7. Radiation loss of planar surface plasmon polaritons transmission lines at microwave frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhixia; Li, Shunli; Yin, Xiaoxing; Zhao, Hongxin; Liu, Leilei

    2017-07-21

    Radiation loss of a typical spoof surface plasmon polaritons (SSPPs) transmission line (TL) is investigated in this paper. A 325 mm-long SSPPs TL is designed and fabricated. Simulated results show that radiation loss contributes more to transmission loss than dielectric loss and conductor loss from 2 GHz to 10 GHz. Radiation loss of the SSPPs TL could be divided into two parts, one is caused by the input mode converter, and the other is caused by the corrugated metallic strip. This paper explains mechanisms of radiation loss from different parts, designs a loaded SSPPs TL with a series of resistors to absorb electromagnetic energy on corrugated metallic strip, and then discriminates radiation loss from the input mode converter, proposes the concept of average radiation length (ARL) to evaluate radiation loss from SSPPs of finite length, and concludes that radiation loss is mainly caused by corrugated structure of finite length at low frequency band and by the input mode converter at high frequency band. To suppress radiation loss, a mixed slow wave TL based on the combination of coplanar waveguides (CPWs) and SSPPs is presented. The designed structure, sample fabrication and experimental verification are discussed.

  8. Measurements and TCAD Simulations of Bulk and Surface Radiation Damage Effects

    CERN Document Server

    F. Moscatelli; G. M. Bilei; A. Morozzi; G.-F. Dalla Betta; R. Mendicino; M. Boscardin; N. Zorzi; L. Servoli; P. Maccagnani

    2016-01-01

    In this work we propose the application of a radiation damage model based on the introduction of deep level traps/recombination centers suitable for device level numerical simulation of radiation detectors at very high fluences (e.g. 1÷2×1016 1-MeV equivalent neutrons per square centimeter) combined with a surface damage model developed by using experimental parameters extracted from measurements from gamma irradiated p-type dedicated test structures.

  9. Generation of tunable narrow-band surface-emitted terahertz radiation in periodically poled lithium niobate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, C; Torosyan, G; Avetisyan, Y; Beigang, R

    2001-04-15

    Generation of tunable narrow-band terahertz (THz) radiation perpendicular to the surface of periodically poled lithium niobate by optical rectification of femtosecond pulses is reported. The generated THz radiation can be tuned by use of different poling periods and different observation angles, limited only by the available bandwidth of the pump pulse. Typical bandwidths were 50-100 GHz, depending on the collection angle and the number of periods involved.

  10. A Low-Cost Energy-Efficient Cableless Geophone Unit for Passive Surface Wave Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Kaoshan; Li, Xiaofeng; Lu, Chuan; You, Qingyu; Huang, Zhenhua; Wu, H Felix

    2015-09-25

    The passive surface wave survey is a practical, non-invasive seismic exploration method that has increasingly been used in geotechnical engineering. However, in situ deployment of traditional wired geophones is labor intensive for a dense sensor array. Alternatively, stand-alone seismometers can be used, but they are bulky, heavy, and expensive because they are usually designed for long-term monitoring. To better facilitate field applications of the passive surface wave survey, a low-cost energy-efficient geophone system was developed in this study. The hardware design is presented in this paper. To validate the system's functionality, both laboratory and field experiments were conducted. The unique feature of this newly-developed cableless geophone system allows for rapid field applications of the passive surface wave survey with dense array measurements.

  11. The influence of the radiation pressure force on possible critical surfaces in binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanbeveren, D.

    1978-01-01

    Using a spherically symmetric approximation for the radiation pressure force to compute a possible critical surface for binary systems, previous authors found that the surface opens up at the far side of the companion. It is shown that this effect may be unreal, and could be a consequence of the simple approximation for the radiation pressure force, Due to the influence of the radiation force, mass will be lost over the whole surface of the star. In that way much mass could leave the system in massive binary systems. On the basis of evolutionary models, including mass loss by stellar wind, the results were applied on the X-ray binaries 3U 1700 - 37 and HD 77581. (Auth.)

  12. Evaluating Surface Radiation Fluxes Observed From Satellites in the Southeastern Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinker, R. T.; Zhang, B.; Weller, R. A.; Chen, W.

    2018-03-01

    This study is focused on evaluation of current satellite and reanalysis estimates of surface radiative fluxes in a climatically important region. It uses unique observations from the STRATUS Ocean Reference Station buoy in a region of persistent marine stratus clouds 1,500 km off northern Chile during 2000-2012. The study shows that current satellite estimates are in better agreement with buoy observations than model outputs at a daily time scale and that satellite data depict well the observed annual cycle in both shortwave and longwave surface radiative fluxes. Also, buoy and satellite estimates do not show any significant trend over the period of overlap or any interannual variability. This verifies the stability and reliability of the satellite data and should make them useful to examine El Niño-Southern Oscillation variability influences on surface radiative fluxes at the STRATUS site for longer periods for which satellite record is available.

  13. Mixed convection-radiation interaction in boundary-layer flow over horizontal surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, F. S.; Hady, F. M.

    1990-06-01

    The effect of buoyancy forces and thermal radiation on the steady laminar plane flow over an isothermal horizontal flat plate is investigated within the framework of first-order boundary-layer theory, taking into account the hydrostatic pressure variation normal to the plate. The fluid considered is a gray, absorbing-emitting but nonscattering medium, and the Rosseland approximation is used to describe the radiative heat flux in the energy equation. Both a hot surface facing upward and a cold surface facing downward are considered in the analysis. Numerical results for the local Nusselt number, the local wall shear stress, the local surface heat flux, as well as the velocity and temperature distributions are presented for gases with a Prandtl number of 0.7 for various values of the radiation-conduction parameter, the buoyancy parameter, and the temperature ratio parameter.

  14. Survey of advanced radiation technologies used at designated cancer care hospitals in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shikama, Naoto; Tsujino, Kayoko; Nakamura, Katsumasa; Ishikura, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Our survey assessed the use of advanced radiotherapy technologies at the designated cancer care hospitals in Japan, and we identified several issues to be addressed. We collected the data of 397 designated cancer care hospitals, including information on staffing in the department of radiation oncology (e.g. radiation oncologists, medical physicists and radiation therapists), the number of linear accelerators and the implementation of advanced radiotherapy technologies from the Center for Cancer Control and Information Services of the National Cancer Center, Japan. Only 53% prefectural designated cancer care hospitals and 16% regional designated cancer care hospitals have implemented intensity-modulated radiotherapy for head and neck cancers, and 62% prefectural designated cancer care hospitals and 23% regional designated cancer care hospitals use intensity-modulated radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Seventy-four percent prefectural designated cancer care hospitals and 40% regional designated cancer care hospitals employ stereotactic body radiotherapy for lung cancer. Our multivariate analysis of prefectural designated cancer care hospitals which satisfy the institute's qualifications for advanced technologies revealed the number of radiation oncologists (P=0.01) and that of radiation therapists (P=0.003) were significantly correlated with the implementation of intensity-modulated radiotherapy for prostate cancer, and the number of radiation oncologists (P=0.02) was correlated with the implementation of stereotactic body radiotherapy. There was a trend to correlate the number of medical physicists with the implementation of stereotactic body radiotherapy (P=0.07). Only 175 (51%) regional designated cancer care hospitals satisfy the institute's qualification of stereotactic body radiotherapy and 76 (22%) satisfy that of intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Seventeen percent prefectural designated cancer care hospitals and 13% regional designated cancer care hospitals

  15. Microwave radiation is effective at disinfecting dental stone surfaces without changing their physical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bona, Ariel José; Amaral-Brito, Mauro Gustavo; Rodrigues, José Augusto; Peruzzo, Daiane Cristina; França, Fabiana Mantovani Gomes

    2017-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the effectiveness of different microwave radiation regimens for disinfection of type IV dental stone surfaces and to assess the influence of these regimens on surface roughness and dimensional change following disinfection. Three hundred cylindrical (20 × 2-mm) test specimens were made in type IV stone and divided into subgroups of 20 according to the microorganisms tested (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, or Candida albicans) and the 900-W microwave radiation protocol (cycles of 3, 5, or 7 minutes; a positive control; or a negative control). To test physical changes, 80 test specimens were made with the same dimensions except that they had 2 parallel and symmetrical indentations measuring 8 × 4 mm. These specimens were divided into 4 subgroups of 20 each (a subgroup for each radiation time and a negative control). The mean dimensional change and roughness data were analyzed by mixed models for repeated measures and Tukey-Kramer tests. Disinfection was analyzed with descriptive statistics. For E coli and C albicans, all radiation times proved effective at sterilizing the test specimens. For S aureus, sterilization was achieved with 5 and 7 minutes of exposure; however, colonies were observed in 10 Petri dishes (50%) exposed to 3 minutes of microwave radiation. No statistically significant difference in dimensional change or surface roughness was observed for any radiation regimen (P > 0.05).

  16. Effect of near-ultraviolet radiation on the cell surface of the protozoan Tritichomonas foetus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filho, F.C.S.; Elias, C.A.; Souza, W. de

    1982-01-01

    It is concluded that the authors' data showing that near-ultraviolet radiation decreases the cellular electrophoretic mobility of Tritrichomonas foetus indicate that ultraviolet radiation may have an important effect on basic properties of the plasma membrane such as (a) its surface charge, (b) the mobility of membrane-associated components, as revealed by the concanavalin A-induced agglutination, and (c) changes in its permeability to cytoplasmic components. These data also indicate that protozoa may be a useful model for studies related with the effect of radiation on eukaryotic cells. (author)

  17. A Method of Retrieving BRDF from Surface-Reflected Radiance Using Decoupling of Atmospheric Radiative Transfer and Surface Reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Radkevich

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Bi-directional reflection distribution function (BRDF defines anisotropy of the surface reflection. It is required to specify the boundary condition for radiative transfer (RT modeling used in aerosol retrievals, cloud retrievals, atmospheric modeling, and other applications. Ground based measurements of reflected radiance draw increasing attention as a source of information about anisotropy of surface reflection. Derivation of BRDF from surface radiance requires atmospheric correction. This study develops a new method of retrieving BRDF on its whole domain, making it immediately suitable for further atmospheric RT modeling applications. The method is based on the integral equation relating surface-reflected radiance, BRDF, and solutions of two auxiliary atmosphere-only RT problems. The method requires kernel-based BRDF. The weights of the kernels are obtained with a quickly converging iterative procedure. RT modeling has to be done only one time before the start of iterative process.

  18. A new CM SAF Solar Surface Radiation Climate Data Set derived from Meteosat Satellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trentmann, J.; Mueller, R. W.; Pfeifroth, U.; Träger-Chatterjee, C.; Cremer, R.

    2014-12-01

    The incoming surface solar radiation has been defined as an essential climate variable by GCOS. It is mandatory to monitor this part of the earth's energy balance, and thus gain insights on the state and variability of the climate system. In addition, data sets of the surface solar radiation have received increased attention over the recent years as an important source of information for the planning of solar energy applications. The EUMETSAT Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring (CM SAF) is deriving surface solar radiation from geostationary and polar-orbiting satellite instruments. While CM SAF is focusing on the generation of high-quality long-term climate data records, also operationally data is provided in short time latency within 8 weeks. Here we present SARAH (Solar Surface Radiation Dataset - Heliosat), i.e. the new CM SAF Solar Surface Radiation data set based on Meteosat satellite observations. SARAH provides instantaneous, daily- and monthly-averaged data of the effective cloud albedo (CAL), the direct normalized solar radiation (DNI) and the solar irradiance (SIS) from 1983 to 2013 for the full view of the Meteosat satellite (i.e, Europe, Africa, parts of South America, and the Atlantic ocean). The data sets are generated with a high spatial resolution of 0.05 deg allowing for detailed regional studies, and are available in netcdf-format at no cost without restrictions at www.cmsaf.eu. We provide an overview of the data sets, including a validation against reference measurements from the BSRN and GEBA surface station networks.

  19. Improving representation of canopy temperatures for modeling subcanopy incoming longwave radiation to the snow surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Clare; Rutter, Nick; Jonas, Tobias

    2017-09-01

    A comprehensive analysis of canopy surface temperatures was conducted around a small and large gap at a forested alpine site in the Swiss Alps during the 2015 and 2016 snowmelt seasons (March-April). Canopy surface temperatures within the small gap were within 2-3°C of measured reference air temperature. Vertical and horizontal variations in canopy surface temperatures were greatest around the large gap, varying up to 18°C above measured reference air temperature during clear-sky days. Nighttime canopy surface temperatures around the study site were up to 3°C cooler than reference air temperature. These measurements were used to develop a simple parameterization for correcting reference air temperature for elevated canopy surface temperatures during (1) nighttime conditions (subcanopy shortwave radiation is 0 W m-2) and (2) periods of increased subcanopy shortwave radiation >400 W m-2 representing penetration of shortwave radiation through the canopy. Subcanopy shortwave and longwave radiation collected at a single point in the subcanopy over a 24 h clear-sky period was used to calculate a nighttime bulk offset of 3°C for scenario 1 and develop a multiple linear regression model for scenario 2 using reference air temperature and subcanopy shortwave radiation to predict canopy surface temperature with a root-mean-square error (RMSE) of 0.7°C. Outside of these two scenarios, reference air temperature was used to predict subcanopy incoming longwave radiation. Modeling at 20 radiometer locations throughout two snowmelt seasons using these parameterizations reduced the mean bias and RMSE to below 10 W m s-2 at all locations.

  20. Radiation oncology training in Poland: results of a national survey (2007)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemiec, M.; Kepka, L.; Lindner, B.; Bujko, K.; Lindner, B.; Maciejewski, B.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this survey was to evaluate the quality of training in radiation oncology in Poland in relation to the ESTRO recommendations, and to learn motivations, level of satisfaction, complaints, suggestions and career plans of radiation oncologists.The detailed questionnaire was addressed to radiation oncologists from all centres in Poland who have been certified as specialists after 1990. Of the 212 approached, 103 radiation oncologists responded to the questionnaire (49%). In general, 40% of respondents declared that the majority of tutors/supervisors devoted sufficient time to their training (60% in academic, 28% in regional centres); 60% had access to the literature, and 50% to the internet. The number of treated patients during the training period ranged from 10 to 3000 (median: 375). 69% of the respondents completed a training in another Polish oncology centre (median duration - 2 months), 21% underwent such training abroad, 55% attended international courses/ conferences. Respondents from academic centres had access and attended national and/or international training more often than those from regional centres. Financial matters have been listed as a major obstacle for out-door training by 93% of respondents. 64% of respondents were pleased or rather pleased with the general quality of training, and the remaining 36% were unsatisfied (these mainly from regional centres). Considering career plans, 72% respondents wanted to continue practice at their employing institutions; however 24% have declared a wish to continue their career abroad. This first national survey has shown some weak points in radiotherapy training in Poland, mainly the quality differences between the departments in favour of academic centres. Some of the problems can and should be solved by the Polish Society of Radiation Oncology, others need legislation changes and decisions at the level of the Ministry of Health. (authors)

  1. TXRF with synchrotron radiation. Analysis of Ni on Si-wafer surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wobrauschek, P [Atominstitut der Oesterreichischen Universitaeten, Vienna (Austria); Kregsamer, P [Atominstitut der Oesterreichischen Universitaeten, Vienna (Austria); Ladisich, W [Atominstitut der Oesterreichischen Universitaeten, Vienna (Austria); Streli, C [Atominstitut der Oesterreichischen Universitaeten, Vienna (Austria); Pahlke, S [Wacker Chemitronic GmbH, D-84479 Burghausen (Germany); Fabry, L [Wacker Chemitronic GmbH, D-84479 Burghausen (Germany); Garbe, S [Institut fuer Anorg. u. Angew. Chemie, Universitaet Hamburg, Martin-Luther King-Pl.6, D-20146 Hamburg (Germany); Haller, M [Institut fuer Anorg. u. Angew. Chemie, Universitaet Hamburg, Martin-Luther King-Pl.6, D-20146 Hamburg (Germany); Knoechel, A [Institut fuer Anorg. u. Angew. Chemie, Universitaet Hamburg, Martin-Luther King-Pl.6, D-20146 Hamburg (Germany); Radtke, M [Institut fuer Anorg. u. Angew. Chemie, Universitaet Hamburg, Martin-Luther King-Pl.6, D-20146 Hamburg (Germany)

    1995-09-11

    SR-TXRF (Synchrotron Radiation excited Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence Analysis) with monoenergetic radiation produced by a W/C multilayer monochromator has been applied to the analysis of Ni on a Si-wafer surface. An intentionally contaminated wafer with 100 pg has been used to determine the detection limits. 13 fg have been achieved for Ni at a beam current of 73 mA and extrapolated to 1000 s. This technique simulates the sample preparation technique of Vapour Phase Decomposition (VPD) on a wafer surface. (orig.).

  2. Effects of radiation pressure on the equipotential surfaces in X-ray binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Y.; Mccluskey, G. E., Jr.; Gulden, S. L.

    1976-01-01

    Equipotential surfaces incorporating the effect of radiation pressure were computed for the X-ray binaries Cen X-3, Cyg X-1 = HDE 226868, Vela XR-1 = 3U 0900-40 = HD 77581, and 3U 1700-37 = HD 153919. The topology of the equipotential surfaces is significantly affected by radiation pressure. In particular, the so-called critical Roche (Jacobian) lobes, the traditional figure 8's, do not exist. The effects of these results on modeling X-ray binaries are discussed.

  3. Effects of radiation pressure on the equipotential surfaces in x-ray binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Y.; McCluskey, G.E. Jr.; Gulden, S.L.

    1976-01-01

    Equipotential surfaces incorporating the effect of radiation pressure were computed for the x-ray binaries Cen X-3, Cyg X-1 = HDE 226868, Vela XR-1 = 3U 0900-40 = HD 77581, and 3U 1700-37 = HD 153919. The topology of the equipotential surfaces is significantly affected by radiation pressure. In particular, the so-called critical Roche (Jacobian) lobes, the traditional figure 8's, do not exist. The effects of these results on modeling x-ray binaries are discussed

  4. TXRF with synchrotron radiation. Analysis of Ni on Si-wafer surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wobrauschek, P.; Kregsamer, P.; Ladisich, W.; Streli, C.; Pahlke, S.; Fabry, L.; Garbe, S.; Haller, M.; Knoechel, A.; Radtke, M.

    1995-01-01

    SR-TXRF (Synchrotron Radiation excited Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence Analysis) with monoenergetic radiation produced by a W/C multilayer monochromator has been applied to the analysis of Ni on a Si-wafer surface. An intentionally contaminated wafer with 100 pg has been used to determine the detection limits. 13 fg have been achieved for Ni at a beam current of 73 mA and extrapolated to 1000 s. This technique simulates the sample preparation technique of Vapour Phase Decomposition (VPD) on a wafer surface. (orig.)

  5. Photonic crystal and photonic quasicrystal patterned in PDMS surfaces and their effect on LED radiation properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suslik, Lubos [Dept. of Physics, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Zilina, Univerzitna 1, 010 26, Zilina (Slovakia); Pudis, Dusan, E-mail: pudis@fyzika.uniza.sk [Dept. of Physics, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Zilina, Univerzitna 1, 010 26, Zilina (Slovakia); Goraus, Matej [Dept. of Physics, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Zilina, Univerzitna 1, 010 26, Zilina (Slovakia); Nolte, Rainer [Fakultät für Maschinenbau FG Lichttechnik Ilmenau University of Technology, Ilmenau (Germany); Kovac, Jaroslav [Inst. of Electronics and Photonics, Slovak University of Technology, Ilkovicova 3, 812 19, Bratislava (Slovakia); Durisova, Jana; Gaso, Peter [Dept. of Physics, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Zilina, Univerzitna 1, 010 26, Zilina (Slovakia); Hronec, Pavol [Inst. of Electronics and Photonics, Slovak University of Technology, Ilkovicova 3, 812 19, Bratislava (Slovakia); Schaaf, Peter [Chair Materials for Electronics, Institute of Materials Engineering and Institute of Micro- and Nanotechnologies MacroNano, TU Ilmenau, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Str. 5, 98693 Ilmenau (Germany)

    2017-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Photonic quasicrystal patterned in the surface of polydimethylsiloxane membrane (left) and radiation pattern of light emitting diode with patterned membrane applied in the surface (right). - Highlights: • We presented fabrication technique of PDMS membranes with patterned surface by photonic crystal (PhC) and photonic quasi-crystal (PQC). • Presented technique is effective for preparation PhC and PQC PDMS membranes easily implementing in the LED chip. • From the goniophotometer measurements, the membranes document effective angular emission due to the diffraction on patterned surfaces. • 12 fold symmetry PQC structure shows homogeneous radiation pattern, while the 2 fold symmetry of square PhC shows evident diffraction lobes. - Abstract: We present results of fabrication and implementation of thin polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membranes with patterned surface for the light emitting diode (LED). PDMS membranes were patterned by using the interference lithography in combination with embossing technique. Two-dimensional photonic crystal and photonic quasicrystal structures with different period were patterned in the surface of thin PDMS membranes with depth up to 550 nm. Patterned PDMS membranes placed on the LED chip effectively diffracted light and increased angular emission of LED radiation pattern. We presented effective technique for fabrication of patterned PDMS membranes, which could modify the emission properties of optoelectronic devices and can be applied directly on surface LEDs and small optical devices.

  6. Relationship between cloud radiative forcing, cloud fraction and cloud albedo, and new surface-based approach for determining cloud albedo

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Liu; W. Wu; M. P. Jensen; T. Toto

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on three interconnected topics: (1) quantitative relationship between surface shortwave cloud radiative forcing, cloud fraction, and cloud albedo; (2) surfaced-based approach for measuring cloud albedo; (3) multiscale (diurnal, annual and inter-annual) variations and covariations of surface shortwave cloud radiative forcing, cloud fraction, and cloud albedo. An analytical expression is first derived to quantify the relationship between cloud radiative forcing, cloud fractio...

  7. Global Performance of a Fast Parameterization Scheme for Estimating Surface Solar Radiation from MODIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, W.; Yang, K.; Sun, Z.; Qin, J.; Niu, X.

    2016-12-01

    A fast parameterization scheme named SUNFLUX is used in this study to estimate instantaneous surface solar radiation (SSR) based on products from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor onboard both Terra and Aqua platforms. The scheme mainly takes into account the absorption and scattering processes due to clouds, aerosols and gas in the atmosphere. The estimated instantaneous SSR is evaluated against surface observations obtained from seven stations of the Surface Radiation Budget Network (SURFRAD), four stations in the North China Plain (NCP) and 40 stations of the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN). The statistical results for evaluation against these three datasets show that the relative root-mean-square error (RMSE) values of SUNFLUX are less than 15%, 16% and 17%, respectively. Daily SSR is derived through temporal upscaling from the MODIS-based instantaneous SSR estimates, and is validated against surface observations. The relative RMSE values for daily SSR estimates are about 16% at the seven SURFRAD stations, four NCP stations, 40 BSRN stations and 90 China Meteorological Administration (CMA) radiation stations.

  8. Radiative warming of the air observed near a bare-soil surface on calm clear nights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sang, N.; Kobayahsi, T.

    1999-01-01

    The radiative flux in the lowest three meters above a bare-soil surface was directly measured on calm nights with little cloud cover. Although divergence of upward radiative flux occurred above 1m, convergence was often observed between 0.2m and 1m all through the night. Almost the same results were obtained for the net flux except that the transitional height between divergence and convergence was some tens of centimeters, which means that radiative warming occurred just above the bare-soil surface during the night. This phenomenon can be explained by postulating that cold air is produced by conduction at the surface of small heat-insulated projections (HIPs) such as soil grains on the ground surface, while the ground releases the heat stored during the day by radiation through the pores between HIPs and warms the air immediately above the surface at night. This “HIP hypothesis” can also account for the so-called “raised minimum (RM)” phenomenon. (author)

  9. A Climatology of Surface Cloud Radiative Effects at the ARM Tropical Western Pacific Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McFarlane, Sally A.; Long, Charles N.; Flaherty, Julia E.

    2013-04-01

    Cloud radiative effects on surface downwelling fluxes are investigated using long-term datasets from the three Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) sites in the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) region. The Nauru and Darwin sites show significant variability in sky cover, downwelling radiative fluxes, and surface cloud radiative effect (CRE) due to El Niño and the Australian monsoon, respectively, while the Manus site shows little intra-seasonal or interannual variability. Cloud radar measurement of cloud base and top heights are used to define cloud types so that the effect of cloud type on the surface CRE can be examined. Clouds with low bases contribute 71-75% of the surface shortwave (SW) CRE and 66-74% of the surface longwave (LW) CRE at the three TWP sites, while clouds with mid-level bases contribute 8-9% of the SW CRE and 12-14% of the LW CRE, and clouds with high bases contribute 16-19% of the SW CRE and 15-21% of the LW CRE.

  10. Extensive reduction of surface UV radiation since 1750 in world's populated regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Kvalevåg

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Human activity influences a wide range of components that affect the surface UV radiation levels, among them ozone at high latitudes. We calculate the effect of human-induced changes in the surface erythemally weighted ultra-violet radiation (UV-E since 1750. We compare results from a radiative transfer model to surface UV-E radiation for year 2000 derived by satellite observations (from Total Ozone Mapping Spectroradiometer and to ground based measurements at 14 sites. The model correlates well with the observations; the correlation coefficients are 0.97 and 0.98 for satellite and ground based measurements, respectively. In addition to the effect of changes in ozone, we also investigate the effect of changes in SO2, NO2, the direct and indirect effects of aerosols, albedo changes and aviation-induced contrails and cirrus. The results show an increase of surface UV-E in polar regions, most strongly in the Southern Hemisphere. Furthermore, our study also shows an extensive surface UV-E reduction over most land areas; a reduction up to 20% since 1750 is found in some industrialized regions. This reduction in UV-E over the industrial period is particularly large in highly populated regions.

  11. Influence of Ice Particle Surface Roughening on the Global Cloud Radiative Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Bingqi; Yang, Ping; Baum, Bryan A.; LEcuyer, Tristan; Oreopoulos, Lazaros; Mlawer, Eli J.; Heymsfield, Andrew J.; Liou, Kuo-Nan

    2013-01-01

    Ice clouds influence the climate system by changing the radiation budget and large-scale circulation. Therefore, climate models need to have an accurate representation of ice clouds and their radiative effects. In this paper, new broadband parameterizations for ice cloud bulk scattering properties are developed for severely roughened ice particles. The parameterizations are based on a general habit mixture that includes nine habits (droxtals, hollow/solid columns, plates, solid/hollow bullet rosettes, aggregate of solid columns, and small/large aggregates of plates). The scattering properties for these individual habits incorporate recent advances in light-scattering computations. The influence of ice particle surface roughness on the ice cloud radiative effect is determined through simulations with the Fu-Liou and the GCM version of the Rapid Radiative Transfer Model (RRTMG) codes and the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Atmosphere Model (CAM, version 5.1). The differences in shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) radiative effect at both the top of the atmosphere and the surface are determined for smooth and severely roughened ice particles. While the influence of particle roughening on the single-scattering properties is negligible in the LW, the results indicate that ice crystal roughness can change the SW forcing locally by more than 10 W m(exp -2) over a range of effective diameters. The global-averaged SW cloud radiative effect due to ice particle surface roughness is estimated to be roughly 1-2 W m(exp -2). The CAM results indicate that ice particle roughening can result in a large regional SW radiative effect and a small but nonnegligible increase in the global LW cloud radiative effect.

  12. Estimating radiative feedbacks from stochastic fluctuations in surface temperature and energy imbalance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proistosescu, C.; Donohoe, A.; Armour, K.; Roe, G.; Stuecker, M. F.; Bitz, C. M.

    2017-12-01

    Joint observations of global surface temperature and energy imbalance provide for a unique opportunity to empirically constrain radiative feedbacks. However, the satellite record of Earth's radiative imbalance is relatively short and dominated by stochastic fluctuations. Estimates of radiative feedbacks obtained by regressing energy imbalance against surface temperature depend strongly on sampling choices and on assumptions about whether the stochastic fluctuations are primarily forced by atmospheric or oceanic variability (e.g. Murphy and Forster 2010, Dessler 2011, Spencer and Braswell 2011, Forster 2016). We develop a framework around a stochastic energy balance model that allows us to parse the different contributions of atmospheric and oceanic forcing based on their differing impacts on the covariance structure - or lagged regression - of temperature and radiative imbalance. We validate the framework in a hierarchy of general circulation models: the impact of atmospheric forcing is examined in unforced control simulations of fixed sea-surface temperature and slab ocean model versions; the impact of oceanic forcing is examined in coupled simulations with prescribed ENSO variability. With the impact of atmospheric and oceanic forcing constrained, we are able to predict the relationship between temperature and radiative imbalance in a fully coupled control simulation, finding that both forcing sources are needed to explain the structure of the lagged-regression. We further model the dependence of feedback estimates on sampling interval by considering the effects of a finite equilibration time for the atmosphere, and issues of smoothing and aliasing. Finally, we develop a method to fit the stochastic model to the short timeseries of temperature and radiative imbalance by performing a Bayesian inference based on a modified version of the spectral Whittle likelihood. We are thus able to place realistic joint uncertainty estimates on both stochastic forcing and

  13. Current technological clinical practice in breast radiotherapy; results of a survey in EORTC-Radiation Oncology Group affiliated institutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Laan, Hans Paul; Hurkmans, Coen W; Kuten, Abraham; Westenberg, Helen A

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the current technological clinical practice of radiation therapy of the breast in institutions participating in the EORTC-Radiation Oncology Group (EORTC-ROG). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A survey was conducted between August 2008 and January 2009 on behalf of the Breast Working

  14. Inspection surveys of x-ray inspection systems: results of five years and implications on future management of radiation risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maharaj, H.P.

    1999-01-01

    Until the mid-1980s, federal inspectors performed radiation surveys annually on individual x-ray inspection systems which were operated for security screening purposes in federal facilities nationwide, and problems identified were corrected. The surveys were undertaken because of perceived high radiation risks and a need to ensure worker and public external exposures were minimized. The x-ray inspection systems are federally regulated under the Radiation Emitting Devices (RED) Act and, initially they were assessed by model type against the design, construction and performance criteria specified in the applicable RED regulations (Schedule II, Part IV) and were found compliant. A subsequent study not only demonstrated a much lower radiation risk attributed to a combination of technological advances in x-ray system design with narrow primary beams, high efficiency detectors and image processing capability, but also stressed the need for proper equipment maintenance and continued education of operators and maintenance personnel. Survey frequency was thus reduced to once every 2-3 years in accordance with a 1993 federal operational standard (Safety Code 29). The radiation protection principles in Safety Code 29 are similar to those of the 1996 International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Basic Safety Standards for the protection against ionizing radiation and the safety of radiation sources. The purpose of this study was to assess inspection-survey data from 1993 through 1997 to elicit guidance toward the future management of radiation risks associated with the operation of such x-ray systems. (author)

  15. Economic Analysis Of Radiation Surface Coating Of Parquet Flooring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danu, S.

    1989-01-01

    The surface coating of mosaic parquet flooring has been done using electron beam and UV irradiation in a pilot scale and technically successful. Economic analysis of the coating process will be discussed in this paper. Four kinds of irradiated parquet flooring were used for comparing costs and important factors on the analysis such as capital, production cost, selling price, break-event point, payout time and internal rate of return. The results showed there the higher quality of the products, the higher are its production cost and selling price. The selling price of irradiated parquet flooring per m2 for process A, B, C and D were Rp. 20,700; Rp. 23,900; Rp. 24,500; and Rp. 25,000 at the lowest profit level of 10% and RP. 25,500; Rp. 34,700; Rp. 35,500; and Rp. 36,400 at the highest profit level of 150% of the fixed capital. The total capital required were Rp. 1.9 billion up to 3.3 billion. (author). 5 refs, 9 tabs

  16. Semi-automatic surface sediment sampling system - A prototype to be implemented in bivalve fishing surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rufino, Marta M.; Baptista, Paulo; Pereira, Fábio; Gaspar, Miguel B.

    2018-01-01

    In the current work we propose a new method to sample surface sediment during bivalve fishing surveys. Fishing institutes all around the word carry out regular surveys with the aim of monitoring the stocks of commercial species. These surveys comprise often more than one hundred of sampling stations and cover large geographical areas. Although superficial sediment grain sizes are among the main drivers of benthic communities and provide crucial information for studies on coastal dynamics, overall there is a strong lack of this type of data, possibly, because traditional surface sediment sampling methods use grabs, that require considerable time and effort to be carried out on regular basis or on large areas. In face of these aspects, we developed an easy and un-expensive method to sample superficial sediments, during bivalve fisheries monitoring surveys, without increasing survey time or human resources. The method was successfully evaluated and validated during a typical bivalve survey carried out on the Northwest coast of Portugal, confirming that it had any interference with the survey objectives. Furthermore, the method was validated by collecting samples using a traditional Van Veen grabs (traditional method), which showed a similar grain size composition to the ones collected by the new method, on the same localities. We recommend that the procedure is implemented on regular bivalve fishing surveys, together with an image analysis system to analyse the collected samples. The new method will provide substantial quantity of data on surface sediment in coastal areas, using a non-expensive and efficient manner, with a high potential application in different fields of research.

  17. Frequency-Wavenumber (FK)-Based Data Selection in High-Frequency Passive Surface Wave Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Feng; Xia, Jianghai; Xu, Zongbo; Hu, Yue; Mi, Binbin

    2018-04-01

    Passive surface wave methods have gained much attention from geophysical and civil engineering communities because of the limited application of traditional seismic surveys in highly populated urban areas. Considering that they can provide high-frequency phase velocity information up to several tens of Hz, the active surface wave survey would be omitted and the amount of field work could be dramatically reduced. However, the measured dispersion energy image in the passive surface wave survey would usually be polluted by a type of "crossed" artifacts at high frequencies. It is common in the bidirectional noise distribution case with a linear receiver array deployed along roads or railways. We review several frequently used passive surface wave methods and derive the underlying physics for the existence of the "crossed" artifacts. We prove that the "crossed" artifacts would cross the true surface wave energy at fixed points in the f-v domain and propose a FK-based data selection technique to attenuate the artifacts in order to retrieve the high-frequency information. Numerical tests further demonstrate the existence of the "crossed" artifacts and indicate that the well-known wave field separation method, FK filter, does not work for the selection of directional noise data. Real-world applications manifest the feasibility of the proposed FK-based technique to improve passive surface wave methods by a priori data selection. Finally, we discuss the applicability of our approach.

  18. Frequency-Wavenumber (FK)-Based Data Selection in High-Frequency Passive Surface Wave Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Feng; Xia, Jianghai; Xu, Zongbo; Hu, Yue; Mi, Binbin

    2018-07-01

    Passive surface wave methods have gained much attention from geophysical and civil engineering communities because of the limited application of traditional seismic surveys in highly populated urban areas. Considering that they can provide high-frequency phase velocity information up to several tens of Hz, the active surface wave survey would be omitted and the amount of field work could be dramatically reduced. However, the measured dispersion energy image in the passive surface wave survey would usually be polluted by a type of "crossed" artifacts at high frequencies. It is common in the bidirectional noise distribution case with a linear receiver array deployed along roads or railways. We review several frequently used passive surface wave methods and derive the underlying physics for the existence of the "crossed" artifacts. We prove that the "crossed" artifacts would cross the true surface wave energy at fixed points in the f- v domain and propose a FK-based data selection technique to attenuate the artifacts in order to retrieve the high-frequency information. Numerical tests further demonstrate the existence of the "crossed" artifacts and indicate that the well-known wave field separation method, FK filter, does not work for the selection of directional noise data. Real-world applications manifest the feasibility of the proposed FK-based technique to improve passive surface wave methods by a priori data selection. Finally, we discuss the applicability of our approach.

  19. [Knowledge about UV-radiation and sun protection: survey of adolescents and young adults in Bavaria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichhorn, C; Seibold, C; Loss, J; Steinmann, A; Nagel, E

    2008-10-01

    Identifying deficits in sun protection knowledge and behavior can serve as a starting point for primary prevention interventions. The aim of this study was to investigate knowledge and behavior related to ultraviolet radiation in the population between 14 and 45 years of age in Bavaria, as well as effects of the awareness campaign "Sensible in the Sun". In two Bavarian districts, 545 individuals of the target population completed a telephone survey about risks of UV-radiation, sun protection knowledge and behavior, and effects of the campaign. Sunburn and skin cancer as adverse effects of ultraviolet radiation were named by almost every participant. When asked about protective interventions, 91% mentioned sunscreen and 45-54% clothing, limited stay in the sun and seeking shade at noon. Women were better informed than men, adults better than adolescents. 10.6% were aware of the campaign. In this group, 37.9% had been motivated to consider their sun protective behavior; 13.8% (especially women >30 years) stated they had changed their behavior because of the campaign. There were deficits in knowledge, especially about eye damage and the importance of getting slowly used to UV radiation. Physician advice, but also broadcast and print media, has an effect on UV-related knowledge.

  20. A survey of senile dementia in the high background radiation areas in Yangjiang, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jia; Su Gasaki, H.; Yang Yuhua

    1997-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of long-term low dose and low dose-rate ionizing radiation exposure on the prevalence rate of senile dementia, further assess the effects of low-dose radiation exposure on central nervous system and study the pathogen of senile dementia, and provide direct observational data of human beings. Methods: A cross-sectional study of the prevalence of senile dementia was carried out in high background radiation areas in Yangjiang, Guangdong Province, China. The survey was conducted in two stages. For the initial screening, Hasegawa Dementia Scale (HDS) was used for all subjects. In the second stage, the stage of diagnosis, special questionnaires of healthy state of old people were sued. The final diagnoses were made according to the third revised edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM III-R) of American Psychiatric Association. Results: 1018 inhabitants aged 65 years and over, including 513 persons in HBRA and 505 in CA were observed. According to DSM III-R, 61 cases (31 cases in HBRA and 30 cases in CA) of senile dementia were diagnosed. The prevalence rates of senile dementia are 6.04% in HBRA and 5.94% in CA, the total prevalence rate being 5.99%. Conclusion: No significant statistical difference in the prevalence rate of senile dementia between the two areas was found, suggesting that the prevalence rate of senile dementia in these areas is not associated with the high background radiation exposure

  1. Comparison of the properties polyamide 6.6 surfaces treated by plasma and by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irineu, Rosa Maria da Silva

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to compare the surface properties of polyamide 6.6 plasma treatment and ionizing radiation, as well as determine the best technique and condition of the surface activation, adhesion of the same order and polyacrylic rubber used in manufacturing of automotive retainers. Treatment of polyamide 6.6 plasma was performed using an equipment 'Electronic Diener - Plasma - Surface-Technology LFG40' with nitrogen gas at a pressure of 1.40 kg/cm 2 . Samples of polyamide 6.6 were also treated with ionizing radiation, atmospheric pressure and in vacuum, using an industrial electron accelerator, Dynamitron JOB 188 with radiation dose of 5, 10, 20, 40, 50, 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500kGy with a dose rate of 11.22 kGy/s for all doses and rate of 11.22 kGy/s and 22.38 kGy/s for a dose of 20kGy. After the processes of surface modification of polyamide 6.6, part of the untreated samples, treated by plasma and by ionizing radiation were incorporated into the polyacrylic rubber, and another part was designed to characterize the surface using the techniques of SEM / EDS, FT- IR, PIXE / RBS, AFM and contact angle. Untreated samples and the irradiated samples did not join the polyacrylic rubber. The samples treated by plasma joined the polyacrylic rubber efficiently and showed differences in roughness in SEM and AFM, and an increase in contact angle when compared with untreated samples. The irradiated samples showed no significant differences in the analysis of properties used in this study when compared with untreated samples. Ionizing radiation was not effective in surface modification of polyamide 6.6 for adherence with polyacrylic rubber. (author)

  2. Use of a surface contamination survey simulation program and its effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onuma, Isamu; Kobayashi, Makoto; Umehara, Takashi; Shimizu, Isamu

    2012-01-01

    A computer simulation program has been developed to train the practitioners examining the surface contamination of objects to be carried out from the controlled area. The efficiency of the examination depends significantly on the proficiency in radiation measurement and proper perception of contamination. It has been demonstrated through the usage of the program that it helps practitioners very much suggest their weakness and promote their skill in examination. The program runs on the commonly used personal computers and users can easily experience the virtual examination by sweeping and cricking the mouse. The program is useful to radiation protection practitioners not only beginners but also experts. (author)

  3. Survey and analysis of radiation safety management systems at medical institutions. Initial report. Radiation protection supervisor, radiation safety organization, and education and training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohba, Hisateru; Ogasawara, Katsuhiko; Aburano, Tamio

    2005-01-01

    In this study, a questionnaire survey was carried out to determine the actual situation of radiation safety management systems in Japanese medical institutions with nuclear medicine facilities. The questionnaire consisted of questions concerning the Radiation Protection Supervisor license, safety management organizations, and problems related to education and training in safety management. Analysis was conducted according to region, type of establishment, and number of beds. The overall response rate was 60%, and no significant difference in response rate was found among regions. Medical institutions that performed nuclear medicine practices without a radiologist participating accounted for 10% of the total. Medical institutions where nurses gave patients intravenous injections of radiopharmaceuticals as part of the nuclear medicine practices accounted for 28% of the total. Of these medical institutions, 59% provided education and training in safety management for nurses. The rate of acquisition of Radiation Protection Supervisor licenses was approximately 70% for radiological technologists and approximately 20% for physicians (regional difference, p=0.02). The rate of medical institutions with safety management organizations was 71% of the total. Among the medical institutions (n=208) without safety management organizations, approximately 56% had 300 beds or fewer. In addition, it became clear that 35% of quasi-public organizations and 44% of private organizations did not provide education and training in safety management (p<0.001, according to establishment). (author)

  4. Current status of brachytherapy in Korea: a national survey of radiation oncologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Haeyoung; Kim, Joo Young; Kim, Juree; Park, Won; Kim, Young Seok; Kim, Hak Jae; Kim, Yong Bae

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to acquire information on brachytherapy resources in Korea through a national survey of radiation oncologists. Between October 2014 and January 2015, a questionnaire on the current status of brachytherapy was distributed to all 86 radiation oncology departments in Korea. The questionnaire was divided into sections querying general information on human resources, brachytherapy equipment, and suggestions for future directions of brachytherapy policy in Korea. The response rate of the survey was 88.3%. The average number of radiation oncologists per center was 2.3. At the time of survey, 28 centers (36.8%) provided brachytherapy to patients. Among the 28 brachytherapy centers, 15 (53.5%) were located in in the capital Seoul and its surrounding metropolitan areas. All brachytherapy centers had a high-dose rate system using (192)Ir (26 centers) or (60)Co (two centers). Among the 26 centers using (192)Ir sources, 11 treated fewer than 40 patients per year. In the two centers using (60)Co sources, the number of patients per year was 16 and 120, respectively. The most frequently cited difficulties in performing brachytherapy were cost related. A total of 21 centers had a plan to sustain the current brachytherapy system, and four centers noted plans to upgrade their brachytherapy system. Two centers stated that they were considering discontinuation of brachytherapy due to cost burdens of radioisotope source replacement. The present study illustrated the current status of brachytherapy in Korea. Financial difficulties were the major barriers to the practice of brachytherapy.

  5. Definitive Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT) for Extracranial Oligometastases: An International Survey of >1000 Radiation Oncologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Stephen L; Porceddu, Sandro; Nakamura, Naoki; Palma, David A; Lo, Simon S; Hoskin, Peter; Moghanaki, Drew; Chmura, Steven J; Salama, Joseph K

    2017-08-01

    Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is often used to treat patients with oligometastases (OM). Yet, patterns of SBRT practice for OM are unknown. Therefore, we surveyed radiation oncologists internationally, to understand how and when SBRT is used for OM. A 25-question survey was distributed to radiation oncologists. Respondents using SBRT for OM were asked how long they have been treating OM, number of patients treated, organs treated, primary reason for use, doses used, and future intentions. Respondents not using SBRT for OM were asked reasons why SBRT was not used and intentions for future adoption. Data were analyzed anonymously. We received 1007 surveys from 43 countries. Eighty-three percent began using SBRT after 2005 and greater than one third after 2010. Eighty-four percent cited perceived treatment response/durability as the primary reason for using SBRT in OM patients. Commonly treated organs were lung (90%), liver (75%), and spine (70%). SBRT dose/fractionation schemes varied widely. Most would offer a second course to new OM. Nearly all (99%) planned to continue and 66% planned to increase SBRT for OM. Of those not using SBRT, 59% plan to start soon. The most common reason for not using SBRT was lack of clinical efficacy (48%) or lack of necessary image guidance equipment (34%). Radiation oncologists are increasingly using SBRT for OM. The main reason for not using SBRT for OM is a perceived lack of evidence demonstrating clinical advantages. These data strengthen the need for robust prospective clinical trials (ongoing and in development) to demonstrate clinical efficacy given the widespread adoption of SBRT for OM.

  6. The Martian surface radiation environment – a comparison of models and MSL/RAD measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthiä Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL has been measuring the radiation environment on the surface of Mars since August 6th 2012. MSL-RAD is the first instrument to provide detailed information about charged and neutral particle spectra and dose rates on the Martian surface, and one of the primary objectives of the RAD investigation is to help improve and validate current radiation transport models. Aims: Applying different numerical transport models with boundary conditions derived from the MSL-RAD environment the goal of this work was to both provide predictions for the particle spectra and the radiation exposure on the Martian surface complementing the RAD sensitive range and, at the same time, validate the results with the experimental data, where applicable. Such validated models can be used to predict dose rates for future manned missions as well as for performing shield optimization studies. Methods: Several particle transport models (GEANT4, PHITS, HZETRN/OLTARIS were used to predict the particle flux and the corresponding radiation environment caused by galactic cosmic radiation on Mars. From the calculated particle spectra the dose rates on the surface are estimated. Results: Calculations of particle spectra and dose rates induced by galactic cosmic radiation on the Martian surface are presented. Although good agreement is found in many cases for the different transport codes, GEANT4, PHITS, and HZETRN/OLTARIS, some models still show large, sometimes order of magnitude discrepancies in certain particle spectra. We have found that RAD data is helping to make better choices of input parameters and physical models. Elements of these validated models can be applied to more detailed studies on how the radiation environment is influenced by solar modulation, Martian atmosphere and soil, and changes due to the Martian seasonal pressure cycle. By extending the range of the calculated particle

  7. Surface water-quality activities of the U.S. Geological Survey in New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, Thomas G.

    2016-03-23

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collaborates with a variety of Federal, State, local, and tribal partners on scientific projects to provide reliable and impartial water-quality data and interpretation to resource managers, planners, stakeholders, and the general public. The themes related to surface water quality include the following:

  8. Analysis of method of polarization surveying of water surface oil pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukov, B. S.

    1979-01-01

    A method of polarization surveying of oil films on the water surface is analyzed. Model calculations of contrasted oil and water obtained with different orientations of the analyzer are discussed. The model depends on the spectral range, water transparency and oil film, and the selection of observational direction.

  9. Integrity of the National Resident Matching Program for Radiation Oncology: National Survey of Applicant Experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holliday, Emma B. [Division of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Thomas, Charles R., E-mail: thomasch@ohsu.edu [Department of Radiation Medicine, OHSU Knight Cancer Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon (United States); Kusano, Aaron S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle, Washington (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine the experiences of radiation oncology applicants and to evaluate the prevalence of behaviors that may be in conflict with established ethical standards. Methods and Materials: An anonymous survey was sent to all 2013 applicants to a single domestic radiation oncology residency program through the National Resident Matching Program (NRMP). Questions included demographics, survey of observed behaviors, and opinions regarding the interview and matching process. Descriptive statistics were presented. Characteristics and experiences of respondents who matched were compared with those who did not match. Results: Questionnaires were returned by 87 of 171 applicants for a 51% response rate. Eighty-two questionnaires were complete and included for analysis. Seventy-eight respondents (95.1%) reported being asked at least 1 question in conflict with the NRMP code of conduct. When asked where else they were interviewing, 64% stated that this query made them uncomfortable. Forty-five respondents (54.9%) reported unsolicited post-interview contact by programs, and 31 (37.8%) felt pressured to give assurances. Fifteen respondents (18.3%) reported being told their rank position or that they were “ranked to match” prior to Match day, with 27% of those individuals indicating this information influenced how they ranked programs. Half of respondents felt applicants often made dishonest or misleading assurances, one-third reported that they believed their desired match outcome could be improved by deliberately misleading programs, and more than two-thirds felt their rank position could be improved by having faculty from their home institutions directly contact programs on their behalf. Conclusions: Radiation oncology applicants report a high prevalence of behaviors in conflict with written NRMP policies. Post-interview communication should be discouraged in order to enhance fairness and support the professional development of future

  10. Integrity of the National Resident Matching Program for Radiation Oncology: National Survey of Applicant Experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holliday, Emma B.; Thomas, Charles R.; Kusano, Aaron S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine the experiences of radiation oncology applicants and to evaluate the prevalence of behaviors that may be in conflict with established ethical standards. Methods and Materials: An anonymous survey was sent to all 2013 applicants to a single domestic radiation oncology residency program through the National Resident Matching Program (NRMP). Questions included demographics, survey of observed behaviors, and opinions regarding the interview and matching process. Descriptive statistics were presented. Characteristics and experiences of respondents who matched were compared with those who did not match. Results: Questionnaires were returned by 87 of 171 applicants for a 51% response rate. Eighty-two questionnaires were complete and included for analysis. Seventy-eight respondents (95.1%) reported being asked at least 1 question in conflict with the NRMP code of conduct. When asked where else they were interviewing, 64% stated that this query made them uncomfortable. Forty-five respondents (54.9%) reported unsolicited post-interview contact by programs, and 31 (37.8%) felt pressured to give assurances. Fifteen respondents (18.3%) reported being told their rank position or that they were “ranked to match” prior to Match day, with 27% of those individuals indicating this information influenced how they ranked programs. Half of respondents felt applicants often made dishonest or misleading assurances, one-third reported that they believed their desired match outcome could be improved by deliberately misleading programs, and more than two-thirds felt their rank position could be improved by having faculty from their home institutions directly contact programs on their behalf. Conclusions: Radiation oncology applicants report a high prevalence of behaviors in conflict with written NRMP policies. Post-interview communication should be discouraged in order to enhance fairness and support the professional development of future

  11. The state of survivorship care in radiation oncology: Results from a nationally distributed survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Melissa A; Rosenthal, Seth A; Vapiwala, Neha; Monzon, Brian T; Berman, Abigail T

    2018-04-18

    Survivorship care has become an increasingly critical component of oncologic care as well as a quality practice and reimbursement metric. To the authors' knowledge, the current climate of survivorship medicine in radiation oncology has not been investigated fully. An institutional review board-approved, Internet-based survey examining practices and preparedness in survivorship care was distributed to radiation oncology practices participating in the American College of Radiology Radiation Oncology Practice Accreditation program between November 2016 and January 2017. A total of 78 surveys were completed. Among these, 2 were nonphysicians, resulting in 76 evaluable responses. Radiation oncologists (ROs) frequently reported that they are the primary provider in the evaluation of late toxicities and the recurrence of primary cancer. Although approximately 68% of ROs frequently discuss plans for future care with survivors, few provide a written survivorship care plan to their patients (18%) or the patients' primary care providers (24%). Patient prognosis, disease site, and reimbursement factors often influence the provision of survivorship care. Although ROs report that several platforms offer training in survivorship medicine, the quality of these resources is variable and extensive instruction is rare. Fewer than one-half of ROs believe they are expertly trained in survivorship care. ROs play an active role within the multidisciplinary team in the cancer-related follow-up care of survivors. Investigation of barriers to the provision of survivorship care and optimization of service delivery should be pursued further. The development of high-quality, easily accessible educational programming is needed so that ROs can participate more effectively in the care of cancer survivors. Cancer 2018. © 2018 American Cancer Society. © 2018 American Cancer Society.

  12. A survey of natural radiation levels in soils and rocks from Aliaga-Foca region in Izmir, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuesun cam, N.; Oezken, I.; Yaprak, G.

    2013-01-01

    The gamma spectroscopic analysis of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K has been carried out in surface soil samples collected from Aliaga-Foca industrial region. The rock samples as parent materials of the soils are also collected and analysed for relevant radionuclides in order to evaluate the natural radiation levels. In the present study, the mean activity concentrations and ranges of the related radionuclides in the soil samples from 60 sites distributed all over the region are as follows: 226 Ra is 38 (14-123) Bq kg -1 ; 232 Th, 63 (27-132) Bq kg -1 and 40 K , 633 (141-1666) Bq kg -1 . Meanwhile, the ranges of natural radionuclide activities in the rock samples characterising the region are 41-95 Bq kg -1 for 226 Ra, 10-122 Bq kg -1 for 232 Th and 264-1470 Bq kg -1 for 40 K , respectively. Based on the available data, the radiation hazard parameters associated with the surveyed soils/rocks are calculated and the results do not exceed the permissible recommended values except for soils originated from Foca rhyolites and tuffs. Furthermore, the collected data allowed for the mapping of the measured activities and corresponding gamma dose rates. (authors)

  13. Near-surface 3D reflections seismic survey; Sanjigen senso hanshaho jishin tansa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakahigashi, H; Mitsui, H; Nakano, O; Kobayashi, T [DIA Consultants Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    Faults are being actively investigated across Japan since the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake. Discussed in this report is the application of the 3D near-surface reflection seismic survey in big cities. Data from trenching and drilling is used for the geological interpretation of the surroundings of a fault, and the reflection seismic survey is used to identify the position, etc., of the fault. In this article, when the results obtained from the experimental field are examined, it is found that the conventional 2D imaging reflection survey betrays the limit of its capability when the geological structure is complicated, that the 3D reflection seismic survey, on the contrary, is capable of high-precision imaging and, when augmented by drilling, etc., becomes capable of a more detailed interpretation, and that it also contributes effectively to the improvement of local disaster prevention in big cities. Using as the model the Tachikawa fault that runs near JR Tachikawa Station, embodiment of the 3D reflection seismic survey is reviewed. For the acquisition of data excellent in quality in a 3D reflection seismic survey conducted utilizing the roads in the sector chosen for experiment in the urban area, the shock generating points and receiving points should be positioned by taking into account the parameters in the bin arranging process so that the mid-points will be regularly distributed on the surface. 3 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Survey of nine surface mines in North America. [Nine different mines in USA and Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, L.G.; Brackett, R.D.; Floyd, F.D.

    1981-01-01

    This report presents the information gathered by three mining engineers in a 1980 survey of nine surface mines in the United States and Canada. The mines visited included seven coal mines, one copper mine, and one tar sands mine selected as representative of present state of the art in open pit, strip, and terrace pit mining. The purpose of the survey was to investigate mining methods, equipment requirements, operating costs, reclamation procedures and costs, and other aspects of current surface mining practices in order to acquire basic data for a study comparing conventional and terrace pit mining methods, particularly in deeper overburdens. The survey was conducted as part of a project under DOE Contract No. DE-AC01-79ET10023 titled The Development of Optimal Terrace Pit Coal Mining Systems.

  15. The `Chocolate Experiment' - A Demonstration of Radiation Absorption by Different Colored Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Dennis

    2015-12-01

    In the typical "cookbook" experiment comparing the radiation absorption rates of different colored surfaces, students' hands are commonly used as a measurement instrument to demonstrate that dull black and silvery surfaces are good and poor absorbers of radiation, respectively. However, college students are often skeptical about using their bare hands in this experiment because they learned in early science lessons that skin is not a reliable detector of heat transfer. Moreover, when the experiment is conducted in a school laboratory, it is often difficult for students to perceive the slight differences in heat transfer on the dull black and silvery aluminum leaves attached to their hands. Rather than replacing students' bare hands with such sophisticated apparatus as a data logger and temperature probe, I suggest using a simple (and delicious!) low-cost instrument, i.e., chocolate, which simply melts when it receives radiation.

  16. Method and apparatus for surface characterization and process control utilizing radiation from desorbed particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, L.C.; Kraus, J.S.; Tolk, N.H.; Traum, M.M.; Tully, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    Emission of characteristic electromagnetic radiation in the infrared, visible, or UV from excited particles, typically ions, molecules, or neutral atoms, desorbed from solid surfaces by an incident beam of low-momentum probe radiation has been observed. Disclosed is a method for characterizing solid surfaces based on the observed effect, with low-momentum probe radiation consisting of electrons or photons. Further disclosed is a method for controlling manufacturing processes that is also based on the observed effect. The latter method can, for instance, be advantageously applied in integrated circuit-, integrated optics-, and magnetic bubble device manufacture. Specific examples of applications of the method are registering of masks, control of a direct-writing processing beam, end-point detection in etching, and control of a processing beam for laser- or electron-beam annealing or ion implantation

  17. Sizewell nuclear power station: investigation of radiation exposure pathways from liquid effluents. Local habits survey 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, D.R.P.; Smith, B.D.

    1982-01-01

    A habits and consumption survey to review radiation exposure pathways due to liquid effluents released from the CEGB Sizewell site is described. It is relevant to both the Sizewell A and proposed Sizewell B nuclear power stations. The main objectives are to provide input data to a radiological assessment by means of identifying critical groups and to provide data for guidance in a review of environmental monitoring programmes. The way in which data for the different pathways should be combined in order to aid the subsequent radiological assessment is discussed. Recommendations are made for adjustments to the present monitoring programmes. (U.K.)

  18. A survey of clinical performance skills requirements in medical radiation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowntree, P.A.; Veitch, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    This paper outlines the reasons behind carry out a study of clinical performance skills requirements and the method being used to gather data. It describes the changes which have occurred in radiographer education in Queensland, the broader impact brought about by changes in professional body requirements and the development of a Competency based Standards Document for the profession. The paper provides examples of the survey design and layout being developed for distribution to third year students in the Medical Imaging Technology major of the Bachelor of Applied Science (Medical Radiation Technology) Queensland University of Technology, graduates and clinical departments in Queensland. 1 tab., 1 fig

  19. Design and evaluation of an inexpensive radiation shield for monitoring surface air temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachary A. Holden; Anna E. Klene; Robert F. Keefe; Gretchen G. Moisen

    2013-01-01

    Inexpensive temperature sensors are widely used in agricultural and forestry research. This paper describes a low-cost (~3 USD) radiation shield (radshield) designed for monitoring surface air temperatures in harsh outdoor environments. We compared the performance of the radshield paired with low-cost temperature sensors at three sites in western Montana to several...

  20. Effect of surface radiation on natural convection in an asymmetrically heated channel-chimney system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasri, Zied; Derouich, Youssef; Laatar, Ali Hatem; Balti, Jalloul

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, a more realistic numerical approach that takes into account the effect of surface radiation on the laminar air flow induced by natural convection in a channel-chimney system asymmetrically heated at uniform heat flux is used. The aim is to enrich the results given in Nasri et al. (Int J Therm Sci 90:122-134, 2015) by varying all the geometric parameters of the system and by taking into account the effect of surface radiation on the flows. The numerical results are first validated against experimental and numerical data available in the literature. The computations have allowed the determination of optimal configurations that maximize the mass flow rate and the convective heat transfer and minimize the heated wall temperatures. The analysis of the temperature fields with the streamlines and the pressure fields has helped to explain the effects of surface radiation and of the different thermo-geometrical parameters on the system performances to improve the mass flow rate and the heat transfer with respect to the simple channel. It is shown that the thermal performance of the channel-chimney system in terms of lower heated wall temperatures is little affected by the surface radiation. At the end, simple correlation equations have been proposed for quickly and easily predict the optimal configurations as well as the corresponding enhancement rates of the induced mass flow rate and the convective heat transfer.

  1. Impacts of Climate Change and Land use Changes on Land Surface Radiation and Energy Budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land surface radiation and energy budgets are critical to address a variety of scientific and application issues related to climate trends, weather predictions, hydrologic and biogeophysical modeling, and the monitoring of ecosystem health and agricultural crops. This is an introductory paper to t...

  2. An acoustic radiator with integrated cavity and active control of surface vibration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, Arthur; Tajdari, Farnaz

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a method to realize an acoustic source for low frequencies with relatively small thickness. A honeycomb plate structure which is open on one side combines the radiating surface and the major part of the air cavity. The vibration of the plate is controlled with a decentralized

  3. Radiation exchange factors between specular inner surfaces of a rectangular enclosure such as transplant production unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Ghany, Ahmed M.; Kozai, Toyoki

    2006-01-01

    General mathematical relations are presented for the specular exchange factors, F S , of diffuse radiation exchange between the inner surfaces of a rectangular enclosure. Three of these surfaces are specular reflectors, diffuse emitters and the fourth surface is a diffuse reflector, diffuse emitter. This enclosure can be used as a transplant production unit with artificial lighting for electric energy saving purposes. An image system and the crossed string method are used to derive these relations. The resulting expressions are conceptually simple and similar to the commonly known expressions of the exchange factors between diffuse surfaces, F. The accuracy of the presented F S relations was examined for different numbers of multiple reflections, N, on the specular surfaces and for different aspect ratios (ratio of the width, w to the height, h). The results proved that the relations are accurate and strongly satisfy the well-known relation of the radiation exchange between enclosure surfaces and satisfy the reciprocity relation. For any aspect ratio, considering N of 150 between highly reflective surfaces (ρ = 0.99) is sufficient to estimate the F S factors without any possible error. Using specular reflecting surfaces in such cases significantly reduces the electric energy consumption used for lighting

  4. A robotic system to conduct radiation and contamination surveys on nuclear waste transport casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrigan, R.W.; Sanders, T.L.

    1990-06-01

    The feasibility of performing, numerous spent fuel cask operations using fully integrated robotic systems is under evaluation. Using existing technology, operational and descriptive software and hardware in the form of robotic end effectors are being designed in conjunction with interfacing cask components. A robotic radiation and contamination survey system has been developed and used on mock-up cask hardware to evaluate the impact of such fully automated operations on cask design features and productivity. Based on experience gained from the survey system, numerous health physics operations can be reliably performed with little human intervention using a fully automated system. Such operations can also significantly reduce time requirements for cask-receiving operations. 7 refs., 51 figs., 6 tabs

  5. Survey of pediatric MDCT radiation dose from university hospitals in Thailand. A preliminary for national dose survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kritsaneepaiboon, Supika [Dept. of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Prince of Songkla Univ., Hat Yai (Thailand)], e-mail: supikak@yahoo.com; Trinavarat, Panruethai [Dept. of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn Univ., Bangkok (Thailand); Visrutaratna, Pannee [Dept. of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai Univ., Chiang Mai (Thailand)

    2012-09-15

    Background: Increasing pediatric CT usage worldwide needs the optimization of CT protocol examination. Although there are previous published dose reference level (DRL) values, the local DRLs should be established to guide for clinical practice and monitor the CT radiation. Purpose: To determine the multidetector CT (MDCT) radiation dose in children in three university hospitals in Thailand in four age groups using the CT dose index (CTDI) and dose length product (DLP). Material and Methods: A retrospective review of CT dosimetry in pediatric patients (<15 years of age) who had undergone head, chest, and abdominal MDCT in three major university hospitals in Thailand was performed. Volume CTDI (CTDIvol) and DLP were recorded, categorized into four age groups: <1 year, 1- < 5 years, 5- <10 years, and 10- <15 years in each scanner. Range, mean, and third quartile values were compared with the national reference dose levels for CT in pediatric patients from the UK and Switzerland according to International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommendation. Results: Per age group, the third quartile values for brain, chest, and abdominal CTs were, respectively, in terms of CTDIvol: 25, 30, 40, and 45 mGy; 4.5, 5.7, 10, and 15.6 mGy; 8.5, 9, 14, and 17 mGy; and in terms of DLP: 400, 570, 610, and 800 mGy cm; 80, 140, 305, and 470 mGy cm; and 190, 275, 560,765 mGy cm. Conclusion: This preliminary national dose survey for pediatric CT in Thailand found that the majority of CTDIvol and DLP values in brain, chest, and abdominal CTs were still below the diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) from the UK and Switzerland regarding to ICRP recommendation.

  6. Technical critique on radiation test facilities for the CTR surface and materials program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persiani, P.J.

    1975-02-01

    Major radiation test facilities will be necessary in the near-term (5 years) and long-term (greater than 10 years) future for the timely development and understanding of fusion confinement systems and of prototype fusion power reactors. The study includes the technical justifications and requirements for CTR Neutron and Plasma Radiation Test Facilities. The initial technical critique covers the feasibility and design problems: in upgrading the performance of the accelerator-rotating (solid TiT) target systems, and in transforming the accelerator-supersonic jet target concept into a radiation testing facility. A scoping assessment on the potential of a pulsed high-beta plasma device (dense plasma focus) is introduced to explore plasma concepts as near-term neutron and plasma radiation sources for the CTR Surface and Materials Program. (U.S.)

  7. Elevated Radiation Exposure Associated With Above Surface Flat Detector Mini C-Arm Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Dennis P; Chapman, Talia; Williamson, Christopher; Tinsley, Brian; Ilyas, Asif M; Wang, Mark L

    2017-11-01

    This study aims to test the hypothesis that: (1) radiation exposure is increased with the intended use of Flat Surface Image Intensifier (FSII) units above the operative surface compared with the traditional below-table configuration; (2) this differential increases in a dose-dependent manner; and (3) radiation exposure varies with body part and proximity to the radiation source. A surgeon mannequin was seated at a radiolucent hand table, positioned for volar distal radius plating. Thermoluminescent dosimeters measured exposure to the eyes, thyroid, chest, hand, and groin, for 1- and 15-minute trials from a mini C-arm FSII unit positioned above and below the operating surface. Background radiation was measured by control dosimeters placed within the operating theater. At 1-minute of exposure, hand and eye dosages were significantly greater with the flat detector positioned above the table. At 15-minutes of exposure, hand radiation dosage exceeded that of all other anatomic sites with the FSII in both positions. Hand exposure was increased in a dose-dependent manner with the flat detector in either position, whereas groin exposure saw a dose-dependent only with the flat detector beneath the operating table. These findings suggest that the surgeon's hands and eyes may incur greater radiation exposure compared with other body parts, during routine mini C-arm FSII utilization in its intended position above the operating table. The clinical impact of these findings remains unclear, and future long-term radiation safety investigation is warranted. Surgeons should take precautions to protect critical body parts, particularly when using FSII technology above the operating with prolonged exposure time.

  8. On the Modeling of Thermal Radiation at the Top Surface of a Vacuum Arc Remelting Ingot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delzant, P.-O.; Baqué, B.; Chapelle, P.; Jardy, A.

    2018-06-01

    Two models have been implemented for calculating the thermal radiation emitted at the ingot top in the VAR process, namely, a crude model that considers only radiative heat transfer between the free surface and electrode tip and a more detailed model that describes all radiative exchanges between the ingot, electrode, and crucible wall using a radiosity method. From the results of the second model, it is found that the radiative heat flux at the ingot top may depend heavily on the arc gap length and the electrode radius, but remains almost unaffected by variations of the electrode height. Both radiation models have been integrated into a CFD numerical code that simulates the growth and solidification of a VAR ingot. The simulation of a Ti-6-4 alloy melt shows that use of the detailed radiation model leads to some significant modification of the simulation results compared with the simple model. This is especially true during the hot-topping phase, where the top radiation plays an increasingly important role compared with the arc energy input. Thus, while the crude model has the advantage of its simplicity, use of the detailed model should be preferred.

  9. Estimating the solar radiation environment on the soil surface between rows using crop canopy architectural models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuge, K.; Haraguchi, T.; Nakano, Y.; Kuroda, M.; Funakoshi, T.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study is quantification of the solar radiation in the farmland located in the hilly and mountainous areas, considering the effect of the shelter adjacent to the field, such as the forest (This effect is called as the edge-effect in this study.). To evaluate the edge-effect on the solar radiation environment in the farmland, solar radiations are measured at the center and edge of the study site adjacent to the forest. The simulation model is composed, coupling with the fish-eye projection method and procedure for the separating direct and diffuse solar radiations. Using this model, the diurnal solar radiations are simulated at the center and edge of the study site. The simulation result showed good agreement with the observation. The spatial distribution of the solar radiation in an observational field is quantified by this method, considering the edge-effect. The simulation result indicated that the solar radiation environment on the field surface is affected by the shelter adjacent to the field and the field direction. (author)

  10. Radiation of fast positrons interacting with periodic microstructure on the surface of a crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epp, V., E-mail: epp@tspu.edu.ru [Tomsk State Pedagogical University, ul. Kievskaya 60, 634061 Tomsk (Russian Federation); Tomsk State University, pr. Lenina 36, 634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation); Janz, J.G., E-mail: Yanc@tpu.ru [Tomsk Polytechnic University, pr. Lenina 34, 634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation); Kaplin, V.V., E-mail: kaplin@tpu.ru [Tomsk Polytechnic University, pr. Lenina 34, 634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • New tunable crystalline source of X-ray radiation is described. • Radiation is emitted by the channeling relativistic particles. • A set of crystal plates offers more effective monitoring of the photon energy. • Formulae describing the radiation properties are obtained. - Abstract: Radiation of positrons passing through a set of equidistant crystal plates is calculated. Each plate is of thickness of half of the particle trajectory period at planar channeling in a thick crystal. Positively charged particle entering the first plate at an angle smaller than the critical channeling angle is captured into channeling mode and changes the direction of its transversal velocity to reversed. Between the half-wave plates the particle moves along a straight line. The proposed setup can be realized as a set of equidistant ridges on the surface of a single crystal. Passing through such set of half-wave crystal plates the particle moves on quasi-undulator trajectories. Properties of the particle radiation emitted during their passage through such “multicrystal undulator” are calculated. The radiation spectrum in each particular direction is discrete, and the frequency of the first harmonic and the number of harmonics in the spectrum depend on the distance between the plates, on energy of the particles and on the averaged potential energy of atomic planes of the crystal. The radiation is bound to a narrow cone in the direction of the average particle velocity and polarized essentially in a plane orthogonal to the atomic planes in the crystal.

  11. Observational determination of surface radiative forcing by CO2 from 2000 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, D R; Collins, W D; Gero, P J; Torn, M S; Mlawer, E J; Shippert, T R

    2015-03-19

    The climatic impact of CO2 and other greenhouse gases is usually quantified in terms of radiative forcing, calculated as the difference between estimates of the Earth's radiation field from pre-industrial and present-day concentrations of these gases. Radiative transfer models calculate that the increase in CO2 since 1750 corresponds to a global annual-mean radiative forcing at the tropopause of 1.82 ± 0.19 W m(-2) (ref. 2). However, despite widespread scientific discussion and modelling of the climate impacts of well-mixed greenhouse gases, there is little direct observational evidence of the radiative impact of increasing atmospheric CO2. Here we present observationally based evidence of clear-sky CO2 surface radiative forcing that is directly attributable to the increase, between 2000 and 2010, of 22 parts per million atmospheric CO2. The time series of this forcing at the two locations-the Southern Great Plains and the North Slope of Alaska-are derived from Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer spectra together with ancillary measurements and thoroughly corroborated radiative transfer calculations. The time series both show statistically significant trends of 0.2 W m(-2) per decade (with respective uncertainties of ±0.06 W m(-2) per decade and ±0.07 W m(-2) per decade) and have seasonal ranges of 0.1-0.2 W m(-2). This is approximately ten per cent of the trend in downwelling longwave radiation. These results confirm theoretical predictions of the atmospheric greenhouse effect due to anthropogenic emissions, and provide empirical evidence of how rising CO2 levels, mediated by temporal variations due to photosynthesis and respiration, are affecting the surface energy balance.

  12. Preliminary survey of natural background radiation in the Gaza Strip in Palestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yassin, S.S.; Steck, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    A preliminary survey of indoor radon, outdoor radon and surface alpha activity on glass in northern Gaza found that the average value indoors was 34 Bq m -3 , 18 Bq m -3 outdoors, and 13 Bq m -2 on glass. Good correlation was found between the retrospectively reconstructed radon exposure from implanted activity and the estimate based on contemporary radon gas concentration and age. (orig.)

  13. Global, direct and diffuse solar radiation on horizontal and tilted surfaces in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sebaii, A.A.; Al-Hazmi, F.S.; Al-Ghamdi, A.A.; Yaghmour, S.J.

    2010-01-01

    The measured data of global and diffuse solar radiation on a horizontal surface, the number of bright sunshine hours, mean daily ambient temperature, maximum and minimum ambient temperatures, relative humidity and amount of cloud cover for Jeddah (lat. 21 o 42'37''N, long. 39 o 11'12''E), Saudi Arabia, during the period (1996-2007) are analyzed. The monthly averages of daily values for these meteorological variables have been calculated. The data are then divided into two sets. The sub-data set I (1996-2004) are employed to develop empirical correlations between the monthly average of daily global solar radiation fraction (H/H 0 ) and the various weather parameters. The sub-data set II (2005-2007) are then used to evaluate the derived correlations. Furthermore, the total solar radiation on horizontal surfaces is separated into the beam and diffuses components. Empirical correlations for estimating the diffuse solar radiation incident on horizontal surfaces have been proposed. The total solar radiation incident on a tilted surface facing south H t with different tilt angles is then calculated using both Liu and Jordan isotropic model and Klucher's anisotropic model. It is inferred that the isotropic model is able to estimate H t more accurate than the anisotropic one. At the optimum tilt angle, the maximum value of H t is obtained as ∼36 (MJ/m 2 day) during January. Comparisons with 22 years average data of NASA SSE Model showed that the proposed correlations are able to predict the total annual energy on horizontal and tilted surfaces in Jeddah with a reasonable accuracy. It is also found that at Jeddah, the solar energy devices have to be tilted to face south with a tilt angle equals the latitude of the place in order to achieve the best performance all year round.

  14. Ontario Radiation Oncology Residents' Needs in the First Postgraduate Year-Residents' Perspective Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szumacher, Ewa; Warner, Eiran; Zhang Liying; Kane, Gabrielle; Ackerman, Ida; Nyhof-Young, Joyce; Agboola, Olusegun; Metz, Catherine de; Rodrigues, George; Voruganti, Sachi; Rappolt, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To assess radiation oncology residents' needs and satisfaction in their first postgraduate year (PGY-1) in the province of Ontario. Methods and Materials: Of 62 radiation oncology residents, 58 who had completed their PGY-1 and were either enrolled or had graduated in 2006 were invited to participate in a 31-item survey. The questionnaire explored PGY-1 residents' needs and satisfaction in four domains: clinical workload, faculty/learning environment, stress level, and discrimination/harassment. The Fisher's exact and Wilcoxon nonparametric tests were used to determine relationships between covariate items and summary scores. Results: Of 58 eligible residents, 44 (75%) responded. Eighty-four percent of residents felt that their ward and call duties were appropriate. More than 50% of respondents indicated that they often felt isolated from their radiation oncology program. Only 77% agreed that they received adequate feedback, and 40% received sufficient counseling regarding career planning. More than 93% of respondents thought that faculty members had contributed significantly to their learning experience. Approximately 50% of residents experienced excessive stress and inadequate time for leisure or for reading the medical literature. Less than 10% of residents indicated that they had been harassed or experienced discrimination. Eighty-three percent agreed or strongly agreed that their PGY-1 experience had been outstanding. Conclusions: Most Ontario residents were satisfied with their PGY-1 training program. More counseling by radiation oncology faculty members should be offered to help residents with career planning. The residents might also benefit from more exposure to 'radiation oncology' and an introduction to stress management strategies

  15. CAUSES: Attribution of Surface Radiation Biases in NWP and Climate Models near the U.S. Southern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Weverberg, K.; Morcrette, C. J.; Petch, J.; Klein, S. A.; Ma, H.-Y.; Zhang, C.; Xie, S.; Tang, Q.; Gustafson, W. I.; Qian, Y.; Berg, L. K.; Liu, Y.; Huang, M.; Ahlgrimm, M.; Forbes, R.; Bazile, E.; Roehrig, R.; Cole, J.; Merryfield, W.; Lee, W.-S.; Cheruy, F.; Mellul, L.; Wang, Y.-C.; Johnson, K.; Thieman, M. M.

    2018-04-01

    Many Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) and climate models exhibit too warm lower tropospheres near the midlatitude continents. The warm bias has been shown to coincide with important surface radiation biases that likely play a critical role in the inception or the growth of the warm bias. This paper presents an attribution study on the net radiation biases in nine model simulations, performed in the framework of the CAUSES project (Clouds Above the United States and Errors at the Surface). Contributions from deficiencies in the surface properties, clouds, water vapor, and aerosols are quantified, using an array of radiation measurement stations near the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Southern Great Plains site. Furthermore, an in-depth analysis is shown to attribute the radiation errors to specific cloud regimes. The net surface shortwave radiation is overestimated in all models throughout most of the simulation period. Cloud errors are shown to contribute most to this overestimation, although nonnegligible contributions from the surface albedo exist in most models. Missing deep cloud events and/or simulating deep clouds with too weak cloud radiative effects dominate in the cloud-related radiation errors. Some models have compensating errors between excessive occurrence of deep cloud but largely underestimating their radiative effect, while other models miss deep cloud events altogether. Surprisingly, even the latter models tend to produce too much and too frequent afternoon surface precipitation. This suggests that rather than issues with the triggering of deep convection, cloud radiative deficiencies are related to too weak convective cloud detrainment and too large precipitation efficiencies.

  16. UV and IR laser radiation's interaction with metal film and teflon surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedenev, A. V.; Alekseev, S. B.; Goncharenko, I. M.; Koval', N. N.; Lipatov, E. I.; Orlovskii, V. M.; Shulepov, M. A.; Tarasenko, V. F.

    2003-04-01

    The interaction of Xe ([lambda] [similar] 1.73 [mu]m) and XeCl (0.308 [mu]m) laser radiation with surfaces of metal and TiN-ceramic coatings on glass and steel substrates has been studied. Correlation between parameters of surface erosion versus laser-specific energy was investigated. Monitoring of laser-induced erosion on smooth polished surfaces was performed using optical microscopy. The correlation has been revealed between characteristic zones of thin coatings damaged by irradiation and energy distribution over the laser beam cross section allowing evaluation of defects and adhesion of coatings. The interaction of pulsed periodical CO2 ([lambda] [similar] 10.6 [mu]m), and Xe ([lambda] [similar] 1.73 [mu]m) laser radiation with surfaces of teflon (polytetrafluoroethylene—PTFE) has been studied. Monitoring of erosion track on surfaces was performed through optical microscopy. It has been shown that at pulsed periodical CO2-radiation interaction with teflon the sputtering of polymer with formation of submicron-size particles occurs. Dependencies of particle sizes, form, and sputtering velocity on laser pulse duration and target temperature have been obtained.

  17. Calibrate the aerial surveying instrument by the limited surface source and the single point source that replace the unlimited surface source

    CERN Document Server

    Lu Cun Heng

    1999-01-01

    It is described that the calculating formula and surveying result is found on the basis of the stacking principle of gamma ray and the feature of hexagonal surface source when the limited surface source replaces the unlimited surface source to calibrate the aerial survey instrument on the ground, and that it is found in the light of the exchanged principle of the gamma ray when the single point source replaces the unlimited surface source to calibrate aerial surveying instrument in the air. Meanwhile through the theoretical analysis, the receiving rate of the crystal bottom and side surfaces is calculated when aerial surveying instrument receives gamma ray. The mathematical expression of the gamma ray decaying following height according to the Jinge function regularity is got. According to this regularity, the absorbing coefficient that air absorbs the gamma ray and the detective efficiency coefficient of the crystal is calculated based on the ground and air measuring value of the bottom surface receiving cou...

  18. Radiation properties modeling for plasma-sprayed-alumina-coated rough surfaces for spacecrafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, R.M.; Joshi, Sunil C.; Ng, H.W.

    2006-01-01

    Spacecraft thermal control materials (TCMs) play a vital role in the entire service life of a spacecraft . Most of the conventional TCMs degrade in the harmful space environment . In the previous study, plasma sprayed alumina (PSA) coating was established as a new and better TCM for spacecrafts, in view of its stability and reliability compared to the traditional TCMs . During the investigation, the surface roughness of PSA was found important, because the roughness affects the radiative heat exchange between the surface and its surroundings. Parameters such as root-mean-square roughness cannot properly evaluate surface roughness effects on radiative properties of opaque surfaces . Some models have been developed earlier to predict the effects, such as Davies' model , Tang and Buckius's statistical geometric optics model . However, they are valid only in their own specific situations. In this paper, an energy absorption geometry model was developed and applied to investigate the roughness effects with the help of 2D surface profile of PSA coated substrate scanned at micron level. This model predicts effective normal solar absorptance (α ne ) and effective hemispherical infrared emittance (ε he ) of a rough PSA surface. These values, if used in the heat transfer analysis of an equivalent, smooth and optically flat surface, lead to the prediction of the same rate of heat exchange and temperature as that of for the rough PSA surface. The model was validated through comparison between a smooth and a rough PSA coated surfaces. Even though not tested for other types of materials, the model formulation is generic and can be used to incorporate the rough surface effects for other types of thermal coatings, provided the baseline values of normal solar absorptance (α n ) and hemispherical infrared emittance (ε h ) are available for a generic surface of the same material

  19. Lead exposure in radiator repair workers: a survey of Washington State radiator repair shops and review of occupational lead exposure registry data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Stephen G

    2003-07-01

    Radiator repair workers in Washington State have the greatest number of very elevated (> or =60 microg/dL) blood lead levels of any other worker population. The goals of this study were to determine the number of radiator repair workers potentially exposed to lead; estimate the extent of blood lead data underreporting to the Occupational Lead Exposure Registry; describe current safety and health practices in radiator repair shops; and determine appropriate intervention strategies to reduce exposure and increase employer and worker awareness. Lead exposure in Washington State's radiator repair workers was assessed by reviewing Registry data and conducting a statewide survey of radiator repair businesses. This study revealed that a total of 226 workers in Washington State (including owner-operators and all employees) conduct repair activities that could potentially result in excessive exposures to lead. Approximately 26% of radiator repair workers with elevated blood lead levels (> or =25 microg/dL) were determined to report to Washington State's Registry. This study also revealed a lack of awareness of lead's health effects, appropriate industrial hygiene controls, and the requirements of the Lead Standard. Survey respondents requested information on a variety of workplace health and safety issues and waste management; 80% requested a confidential, free-of-charge consultation. Combining data derived from an occupational health surveillance system and a statewide mail survey proved effective at characterizing lead exposures and directing public health intervention in Washington State.

  20. Study of Textile Surface Characteristic Modification by Using Electron Beam Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iswani Gitawati; Rany Saptaaji

    2007-01-01

    The success of accelerator technology application in various field of industry, medical and pharmacy, environment, agricultural, food increase each year as the increasing of people needs, not excepted for surface treatment of fibers and textiles in textile industry. This writing aim is to asses the application of electron beam accelerator for textile surface treatment on finishing step. Surface treatment was done with electron beam low energy (100 - 500 keV), and because of its low penetration it was suitable used to gain the improvement of chemical, physical and mechanical properties of textile surface such as adhesion, wettability, printability, dyes-intake, crease recovery, wrinkle-resistance, flammability, abrasion resistance, soil and stain release to get better result. Modification of fibers and textiles surface properties on finishing process can be caused by crosslinking, grafting and degradation reactions. The assesment results showed that the greatest impact on commercial application of radiation in textiles were crease recovery and surface modification of wetting properties (soil and stain release). The radiation dose used for those purposes were 5 - 50 kGy. The bach process of graft textiles surface modification before and after irradiation by Co-60 source (gamma energies of 1.33 and 1.17 MeV) and continue process by electron beam were presented. The assesment results were reported in this paper. (author)

  1. Community Surveys: Low Dose Radiation. Fernald, Ohio and Rocky Flats, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. K. Mertz; James Flynn; Donald G. MacGregor; Theresa Satterfield; Stephen M. Johnson; Seth Tuler; Thomas Webler

    2002-10-16

    This report is intended to present a basic description of the data from the two community surveys and to document the text of the questions; the methods used for the survey data collection; and a brief overview of the results. Completed surveys were conducted at local communities near the Rocky Flats, Colorado and the Fernald, Ohio sites; no survey was conducted for the Brookhaven, New York site. Fernald. The Fernald sample was randomly selected from 98% of all potential residential telephones in the townships of Ross, Morgan, and Crosby. The only telephone exchanges not used for the Fernald study had 4%, or fewer, of the holders of the telephone numbers actually living in either of the three target townships. Surveying started on July 24, 2001 and finished on August 30, 2001. A total of 399 completed interviews were obtained resulting in a CASRO response rate of 41.8%. The average length of an interview was 16.5 minutes. Rocky Flats. The sample was randomly selected from all potential residential telephones in Arvada and from 99% of the potential telephones in Westminster. Surveying started on August 10, 2001 and finished on September 25, 2001. A total of 401 completed interviews were obtained with a CASRO response rate of 32.5%. The average length of an interview was 15.7 minutes. Overall, respondents hold favorable views of science. They indicate an interest in developments in science and technology, feel that the world is better off because of science, and that science makes our lives healthier, easier, and more comfortable. However, respondents are divided on whether science should decide what is safe or not safe for themselves and their families. The majority of the respondents think that standards for exposure to radiation should be based on what science knows about health effects of radiation and on what is possible with today's technology. Although few respondents had visited the sites, most had heard or read something about Fernald or Rocky Flat s in

  2. Community Surveys: Low Dose Radiation. Fernald, Ohio and Rocky Flats, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C. K. Mertz; James Flynn; Donald G. MacGregor; Theresa Satterfield; Stephen M. Johnson; Seth Tuler; Thomas Webler email ckmertz@decisionresearch.org

    2002-01-01

    This report is intended to present a basic description of the data from the two community surveys and to document the text of the questions; the methods used for the survey data collection; and a brief overview of the results. Completed surveys were conducted at local communities near the Rocky Flats, Colorado and the Fernald, Ohio sites; no survey was conducted for the Brookhaven, New York site. Fernald. The Fernald sample was randomly selected from 98% of all potential residential telephones in the townships of Ross, Morgan, and Crosby. The only telephone exchanges not used for the Fernald study had 4%, or fewer, of the holders of the telephone numbers actually living in either of the three target townships. Surveying started on July 24, 2001 and finished on August 30, 2001. A total of 399 completed interviews were obtained resulting in a CASRO response rate of 41.8%. The average length of an interview was 16.5 minutes. Rocky Flats. The sample was randomly selected from all potential residential telephones in Arvada and from 99% of the potential telephones in Westminster. Surveying started on August 10, 2001 and finished on September 25, 2001. A total of 401 completed interviews were obtained with a CASRO response rate of 32.5%. The average length of an interview was 15.7 minutes. Overall, respondents hold favorable views of science. They indicate an interest in developments in science and technology, feel that the world is better off because of science, and that science makes our lives healthier, easier, and more comfortable. However, respondents are divided on whether science should decide what is safe or not safe for themselves and their families. The majority of the respondents think that standards for exposure to radiation should be based on what science knows about health effects of radiation and on what is possible with today's technology. Although few respondents had visited the sites, most had heard or read something about Fernald or Rocky Flat s in the

  3. Orthopedic surgeons’ knowledge regarding risk of radiation exposition: a survey analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tunçer Nejat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the knowledge levels of orthopedic surgeons working in Turkey about the uses and possible risks of fluoroscopy and assess methods for preventing radiation damage. Methods: A questionnaire with a total of 12 questions was sent to 1121 orthopedic surgeons working in Turkey. The questionnaire evaluated participants’ knowledge about the uses and risks of fluoroscopy and methods for preventing damage. One thousand and twenty-four orthopedic surgeons were found to be suitable for inclusion in the study. The effects of fluoroscopy on patients were not assessed in our study. Results: The data obtained were statistically evaluated. Of the surveyed surgeons, 313 (30% had used fluoroscopy in over 50% of their operations. The average number of fluoroscopy shots per case was 54.5. A lead apron was the most commonly used (88% protection from the harmful effects of radiation. Fluoroscopy shots were performed with the help of operating room personnel (86%. A dosimeter was used 5% of the time. Conclusion: According to the survey results, the need for fluoroscopy was very high in orthopedic surgery. However, orthopedic surgeons have inadequate knowledge about the uses and risks of fluoroscopy and methods for preventing damage. Therefore, we believe that training on this topic should be provided to all orthopedic surgeons.

  4. Orthopedic surgeons' knowledge regarding risk of radiation exposition: a survey analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunçer, Nejat; Kuyucu, Ersin; Sayar, Şafak; Polat, Gökhan; Erdil, İrem; Tuncay, İbrahim

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the knowledge levels of orthopedic surgeons working in Turkey about the uses and possible risks of fluoroscopy and assess methods for preventing radiation damage. A questionnaire with a total of 12 questions was sent to 1121 orthopedic surgeons working in Turkey. The questionnaire evaluated participants' knowledge about the uses and risks of fluoroscopy and methods for preventing damage. One thousand and twenty-four orthopedic surgeons were found to be suitable for inclusion in the study. The effects of fluoroscopy on patients were not assessed in our study. The data obtained were statistically evaluated. Of the surveyed surgeons, 313 (30%) had used fluoroscopy in over 50% of their operations. The average number of fluoroscopy shots per case was 54.5. A lead apron was the most commonly used (88%) protection from the harmful effects of radiation. Fluoroscopy shots were performed with the help of operating room personnel (86%). A dosimeter was used 5% of the time. According to the survey results, the need for fluoroscopy was very high in orthopedic surgery. However, orthopedic surgeons have inadequate knowledge about the uses and risks of fluoroscopy and methods for preventing damage. Therefore, we believe that training on this topic should be provided to all orthopedic surgeons. © The Authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2017.

  5. Gaps in Radiation Therapy Awareness: Results From an Educational Multi-institutional Survey of US Internal Medicine Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaverdian, Narek; Yoo, Sun Mi; Cook, Ryan; Chang, Eric M; Jiang, Naomi; Yuan, Ye; Sandler, Kiri; Steinberg, Michael; Lee, Percy

    2017-08-01

    Internists and primary care providers play a growing role in cancer care. We therefore evaluated the awareness of radiation therapy in general and specifically the clinical utility of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) among current US internal medicine residents. A web-based institutional review board-approved multi-institutional survey was distributed to US internal medicine residency programs. The survey evaluated trainee demographic characteristics, baseline radiation oncology awareness, knowledge of the role of SBRT for early-stage NSCLC, and whether the survey successfully improved awareness. Thirty US internal medicine programs participated, with an overall participant response rate of 46% (1177 of 2551). Of the trainees, 93% (n=1076) reported no radiation oncology education in their residency, 39% (n=452) reported confidence in knowing when to consult radiation oncology in an oncologic emergency, and 26% (n=293) reported confidence in knowing when to consult radiation oncology in the setting of a newly diagnosed cancer. Of the participants, 76% (n=850) correctly identified that surgical resection is the standard treatment in operable early-stage NSCLC, but only 50% (n=559) of participants would recommend SBRT to a medically inoperable patient, followed by 31% of participants (n=347) who were unsure of the most appropriate treatment, and 10% (n=117) who recommended waiting to offer palliative therapy. Ninety percent of participants (n=1029) agreed that they would benefit from further training on when to consult radiation oncology. Overall, 96% (n=1072) indicated that the survey increased their knowledge and awareness of the role of SBRT. The majority of participating trainees received no education in radiation oncology in their residency, reported a lack of confidence regarding when to consult radiation oncology, and overwhelmingly agreed that they would benefit from further training. These findings

  6. Reconstruction of solar spectral surface UV irradiances using radiative transfer simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindfors, Anders; Heikkilä, Anu; Kaurola, Jussi; Koskela, Tapani; Lakkala, Kaisa

    2009-01-01

    UV radiation exerts several effects concerning life on Earth, and spectral information on the prevailing UV radiation conditions is needed in order to study each of these effects. In this paper, we present a method for reconstruction of solar spectral UV irradiances at the Earth's surface. The method, which is a further development of an earlier published method for reconstruction of erythemally weighted UV, relies on radiative transfer simulations, and takes as input (1) the effective cloud optical depth as inferred from pyranometer measurements of global radiation (300-3000 nm); (2) the total ozone column; (3) the surface albedo as estimated from measurements of snow depth; (4) the total water vapor column; and (5) the altitude of the location. Reconstructed daily cumulative spectral irradiances at Jokioinen and Sodankylä in Finland are, in general, in good agreement with measurements. The mean percentage difference, for instance, is mostly within +/-8%, and the root mean square of the percentage difference is around 10% or below for wavelengths over 310 nm and daily minimum solar zenith angles (SZA) less than 70 degrees . In this study, we used pseudospherical radiative transfer simulations, which were shown to improve the performance of our method under large SZA (low Sun).

  7. Effect of MeV Electron Radiation on Europa’s Surface Ice Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudipati, Murthy; Henderson, Bryana; Bateman, Fred

    2017-10-01

    MeV electrons that impact Europa’s trailing hemisphere and cause both physical and chemical alteration of the surface and near-surface. The trailing hemisphere receives far lower fluxes above 25 MeV as compared with lower energy particles, but can cause significant chemical and physical modifications at these energies. With NASA's planned Europa Clipper mission and a Europa Lander Concept on the horizon, it is critical to understand and quantify the effect of Europa’s radiation environment on the surface and near surface.Electrons penetrate through ice by far the deepest at any given energy compared to protons and ions, making the role of electrons very important to understand. In addition, secondary radiation - Bremsstrahlung, in X-ray wavelengths - is generated during high-energy particle penetration through solids. Secondary X-rays are equally lethal to life and penetrate even deeper than electrons, making the cumulative effect of radiation on damaging organic matter on the near surface of Europa a complex process that could have effects several meters below Europa’s surface. Other physical properties such as coloration could be caused by radiation.In order to quantify this effect under realistic Europa trailing hemisphere conditions, we devised, built, tested, and obtained preliminary results using our ICE-HEART instrument prototype totally funded by JPL’s internal competition funding for Research and Technology Development. Our Ice Chamber for Europa High-Energy Electron And Radiation-Environment Testing (ICE-HEART) operates at ~100 K. We have also implemented a magnet that is used to remove primary electrons subsequent to passing through an ice column, in order to determine the flux of secondary X-radiation and its penetration through ice.Some of the first results from these studies will be presented and their relevance to understand physical and chemical properties of Europa’s trailing hemisphere surface.This work has been carried out at Jet

  8. Development of accurate radioactivity assessment system for radiation survey with various detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, Osamu; Kim, Eunjoo; Ueda, Junichi; Yamada, Yuji; Akashi, Makoto; Kido, Hiroko; Oguri, Tomomi; Nemoto, Shintaro; Nemoto, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    In response to requests from the sites of radiation emergency medicine, we developed a prototype of a computer system for assessing radioactive contaminants remaining in a wound or on the skin surface. This system implements numerical calibration of detectors measuring the contamination using a Monte Carlo simulation-based radiation transport code (MCNPX), coupled to a numerical phantom modeling the contaminants and the surrounding tissue. With the help of functional graphical user interfaces (GUIs) provided by the system, a user can perform desired simulations without complicated procedures to prepare input files for MCNPX. Benchmark calculations of MCNPX were conducted to verify the simulations and adjust detection-related parameter values not sufficiently provided by suppliers. The developed system should aid in making better assessments of the radiological contamination. (author)

  9. Evaluation of the Reanalysis Surface Incident Shortwave Radiation Products from NCEP, ECMWF, GSFC, and JMA Using Satellite and Surface Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaotong Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Solar radiation incident at the Earth’s surface (Rs is an essential component of the total energy exchange between the atmosphere and the surface. Reanalysis data have been widely used, but a comprehensive validation using surface measurements is still highly needed. In this study, we evaluated the Rs estimates from six current representative global reanalyses (NCEP–NCAR, NCEP-DOE; CFSR; ERA-Interim; MERRA; and JRA-55 using surface measurements from different observation networks [GEBA; BSRN; GC-NET; Buoy; and CMA] (674 sites in total and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES EBAF product from 2001 to 2009. The global mean biases between the reanalysis Rs and surface measurements at all sites ranged from 11.25 W/m2 to 49.80 W/m2. Comparing with the CERES-EBAF Rs product, all the reanalyses overestimate Rs, except for ERA-Interim, with the biases ranging from −2.98 W/m2 to 21.97 W/m2 over the globe. It was also found that the biases of cloud fraction (CF in the reanalyses caused the overestimation of Rs. After removing the averaged bias of CERES-EBAF, weighted by the area of the latitudinal band, a global annual mean Rs values of 184.6 W/m2, 180.0 W/m2, and 182.9 W/m2 were obtained over land, ocean, and the globe, respectively.

  10. French Radiotherapy Database: Results of a survey of French radiation oncology centers in 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauvet, B.; Bolla, M.; Eschwege, F.; Lipinski, F.; Mazeron, J.J.; Mornex, F.; Alies-Patin, A.; Weissmann, H.; Bara, C.; Chantome, G.; Fournie, E.; Bourguignon, M.; Estivalet, S.; Faue, P.; Lipinski, F.; Pointreau, Y.

    2009-01-01

    The second year, the French Radiotherapy Database presents information from French radiation oncology centers. Among 179 centers, 159 have participated (90 %). The number of accelerators increased from 371 to 384 between 2006 and 2007, 11 % of these machines are more than 15 years old. On average, centers are open 50 hours per week for treatment and 9.5 % more for maintenance. The lack of dedicated CT remains a difficulty: 158 from 159 centers have an access to a CT, but only 50 % have a dedicated scanner. There is no progress compared to 2006. The proportion of centers having a MU double calculation system has increased from 51 to 58 %. Two thirds of centers do not implement in vivo dosimetry. The activity is stable around 190 000 treatments per year. Three-dimension conformal radiotherapy is used for more than half of treatments in 77.2 % of private centers and 50 % of public hospitals. Intensity modulated radiotherapy remains rarely used. The number of radiation oncologists and technologists remains stable. The number of radio physicists has increased from 7.6 %. Despite some progress, the difficulties of this speciality persist in France and are equally distributed across all regions, and between private and public centers. In 2009, the French Society for Radiation Oncology and the associated partners will continue this survey, which interest is recognized by both professionals and health administrations. (authors)

  11. Nationwide radiation dose survey of computed tomography for fetal skeletal dysplasias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyazaki, Osamu [National Center for Child Health and Development, Department of Radiology, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Sawai, Hideaki [Hyogo College of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Nishinomiya-shi, Hyogo (Japan); Murotsuki, Jun [Miyagi Children' s Hospital, Department of Maternal and Fetal Medicine, Sendai-shi, Miyagi (Japan); Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Advanced Fetal and Developmental Medicine, Sendai-shi, Miyagi (Japan); Nishimura, Gen [Tokyo Metropolitan Children' s Medical Center, Department of Pediatric Imaging, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo (Japan); Horiuchi, Tetsuya [National Center for Child Health and Development, Department of Radiology, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Osaka University, Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Division of Medical Technology and Science, Course of Health Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka (Japan)

    2014-08-15

    Recently, computed tomography (CT) has been used to diagnose fetal skeletal dysplasia. However, no surveys have been conducted to determine the radiation exposure dose and the diagnostic reference level (DRL). To collect CT dose index volume (CTDIvol) and dose length product (DLP) data from domestic hospitals implementing fetal skeletal 3-D CT and to establish DRLs for Japan. Scan data of 125 cases of 20 protocols from 16 hospitals were analyzed. The minimum, first-quartile, median, third-quartile and maximum values of CTDIvol and DLP were determined. The time-dependent change in radiation dose setting in hospitals with three or more cases with scans was also examined. The minimum, first-quartile, median, third-quartile and maximum CTDIvol values were 2.1, 3.7, 7.7, 11.3 and 23.1 mGy, respectively, and these values for DLP were 69.0, 122.3, 276.8, 382.6 and 1025.6 mGy.cm, respectively. Six of the 12 institutions reduced the dose setting during the implementation period. The DRLs of CTDIvol and DLP for fetal CT were 11.3 mGy and 382.6 mGy.cm, respectively. Institutions implementing fetal CT should use these established DRLs as the standard and make an effort to reduce radiation exposure by voluntarily decreasing the dose. (orig.)

  12. Radiation dose from multidetector CT studies in children: results from the first Italian nationwide survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granata, Claudio [IRCCS Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Department of Radiology, Genoa (Italy); Origgi, Daniela; Palorini, Federica [Istituto Europeo di Oncologia, Department of Medical Physics, Milan (Italy); Matranga, Domenica [University of Palermo, Department of Sciences for Health Promotion and Mother and Child Care ' ' G. D' Alessandro' ' , Palermo (Italy); Salerno, Sergio [University of Palermo, Department of Medical and Forensic Biopathology and Biotechnologies, Section of Radiology, Palermo (Italy)

    2015-05-01

    Multidetector CT (MDCT) scanners have contributed to the widespread use of CT in paediatric imaging. However, concerns are raised for the associated radiation exposure. Very few surveys on radiation exposure from MDCT studies in children are available. The aim of this study was to outline the status of radiation exposure in children from MDCT practice in Italy. In this retrospective multicentre study we asked Italian radiology units with an MDCT scanner with at least 16 slices to provide dosimetric and acquisition parameters of CT examinations in three age groups (1-5, 6-10, 11-15 years) for studies of head, chest and abdomen. The dosimetric results were reported in terms of third-quartile volumetric CT dose index (CTDI{sub vol}) (mGy), size-specific dose estimate (SSDE) (mGy), dose length product (DLP) (mGy cm), and total DLP for multiphase studies. These results were compared with paediatric European and adult Italian published data. A multivariate analysis assessed the association of CTDI{sub vol} with patient characteristics and scanning modalities. We collected data from 993 MDCT examinations performed at 25 centres. For age groups 1-5 years, 6-10 years and 11-15 years, the CTDI{sub vol}, DLP and total DLP values were statistically significantly below the values observed in our analogous national survey in adults, although the difference decreased with increasing age. CTDI{sub vol} variability among centres was statistically significant (variance = 0.07; 95% confidence interval = 0.03-0.16; P < 0.001). This study reviewed practice in Italian centres performing paediatric imaging with MDCT scanners. The variability of doses among centres suggests that the use of standardised CT protocols should be encouraged. (orig.)

  13. Temporal variation of optimal UV exposure time over Korea: risks and benefits of surface UV radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y. G.; Koo, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    Solar UV radiation in a wavelength range between 280 to 400 nm has both positive and negative influences on human body. Surface UV radiation is the main natural source of vitamin D, providing the promotion of bone and musculoskeletal health and reducing the risk of a number of cancers and other medical conditions. However, overexposure to surface UV radiation is significantly related with the majority of skin cancer, in addition other negative health effects such as sunburn, skin aging, and some forms of eye cataracts. Therefore, it is important to estimate the optimal UV exposure time, representing a balance between reducing negative health effects and maximizing sufficient vitamin D production. Previous studies calculated erythemal UV and vitamin-D UV from the measured and modelled spectral irradiances, respectively, by weighting CIE Erythema and Vitamin D3 generation functions (Kazantzidis et al., 2009; Fioletov et al., 2010). In particular, McKenzie et al. (2009) suggested the algorithm to estimate vitamin-D production UV from erythemal UV (or UV index) and determined the optimum conditions of UV exposure based on skin type Ⅱ according to the Fitzpatrick (1988). Recently, there are various demands for risks and benefits of surface UV radiation on public health over Korea, thus it is necessary to estimate optimal UV exposure time suitable to skin type of East Asians. This study examined the relationship between erythemally weighted UV (UVEry) and vitamin D weighted UV (UVVitD) over Korea during 2004-2012. The temporal variations of the ratio (UVVitD/UVEry) were also analyzed and the ratio as a function of UV index was applied in estimating the optimal UV exposure time. In summer with high surface UV radiation, short exposure time leaded to sufficient vitamin D and erythema and vice versa in winter. Thus, the balancing time in winter was enough to maximize UV benefits and minimize UV risks.

  14. Origin of cell surface proteins released from Micrococcus radiodurans by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchel, R.E.J.

    1975-01-01

    The exposure of Micrococcus radiodurans to sublethal doses of ionizing radiation causes the release of certain proteins into the surrounding medium. As estimated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, these proteins range from approximately 20,000 to 125,000 daltons. At least some of the proteins, including an exonuclease, have a surface location and appear to originate from the lipid-rich midwall layer. The exonuclease has two functionally distinct locations, one with its active site available to external substrate and a second with the active site masked from the exterior. Ionizing radiation releases both the masked and unmasked activity into the surrounding medium

  15. Immobilization of microbial cells on cellulose-polymer surfaces by radiation polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumakura, M.; Kaetsu, I.

    1983-01-01

    Streptomyces phaeochromogens cells were immobilized on cellulose-polymer surfaces by radiation polymerization using hydrophilic monomers and paper. The enzyme activity of immobilized cell sheets was higher than that of immobilized cell composites obtained by the usual radiation polymerization technique. The enzyme activity of the sheets was affected by monomer concentration, the thickness of paper, and the degree of polymerization of paper. The copolymerization of hydroxyethyl methacrylate and methoxytetraethyleneglycol methacrylate in the sheets led to a further increase of the enzyme activity due to the increase of the hydrophilicity of the polymer matrix. The Michaelis constant of the sheets from low monomer concentration was close to that of intact cells

  16. Shielding Factors for Gamma Radiation from Activity Deposited on Structures and Ground Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Hedemann

    1985-01-01

    A computer model DEPSHIELD for the calculation of shielding factors for gamma radiation at indoor residences in multistorey and single-family houses has been developed. The model is based on the exponential point kernel that links the radiation flux density at a given detector point to a point...... it possible to determine the dose reduction effect from a decontamination of the different surfaces. The model has been used in a study of the consequences of land contamination of Danish territory after hypothetical core-melt accidents at the Barseback nuclear power plant in Sweden. The model has also been...

  17. Performances study of UWB monopole antennas using half-elliptic radiator conformed on elliptical surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djidel, S.; Bouamar, M.; Khedrouche, D., E-mail: dkhedrouche@yahoo.com [LASS (Laboratoired’Analyse des Signaux et Systèmes), Department of Electronics, University of M’sila BP.166, Route Ichebilia, M’sila, 28000 Algeria (Algeria)

    2016-04-21

    This paper presents a performances study of UWB monopole antenna using half-elliptic radiator conformed on elliptical surface. The proposed antenna, simulated using microwave studio computer CST and High frequency simulator structure HFSS, is designed to operate in frequency interval over 3.1 to 40 GHz. Good return loss and radiation pattern characteristics are obtained in the frequency band of interest. The proposed antenna structure is suitable for ultra-wideband applications, which is, required for many wearable electronics applications.

  18. Photoionization of rhodamine dyes adsorbed at the aqueous solution surfaces investigated by synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seno, Koichiro; Ishioka, Toshio; Harata, Akira; Hatano, Yoshihiko

    2002-01-01

    Photoionization spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation as a photon source was applied to the aqueous solution surfaces of rhodamine B (RhB), rhodamine 6G (Rh6G), and rhodamine 101 (Rh101) with their concentration of 0-100 μmol dm -3 . Synchrotron radiation was irradiated upon the solution surface between two electrodes in the photon energy range of 4-7 eV, and photoionization current was measured by a pico-ammeter. The photocurrent for each of the rhodamine aqueous solution surface showed an increase with the photon energy above a threshold photon energy. The photoionization threshold of RhB at the aqueous solution surface was 5.6 eV, which was smaller than that in the gas phase. The intensity of photoionization current of Rh6G was smaller than that of RhB or Rh101. Photoionization processes and the state of Rhodamine dye molecules at the aqueous solution surface were discussed in connection with results of surface tension measurements. (author)

  19. Radiation risks knowledge in resident and fellow in paediatrics: a questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Sergio; Marchese, Paola; Magistrelli, Andrea; Tomà, Paolo; Matranga, Domenica; Midiri, Massimo; Ugazio, Alberto G; Corsello, Giovanni

    2015-03-22

    Analyse through a multi-choice anonymous questionnaire the knowledge's level in paediatric residents and fellows in two different main Italian hospital, looking mainly to the information to patients and relatives related to risks of ionizing radiation used in common radiological investigations in children. 65 multi choice questionnaires were distributed to paediatric residents and fellows of two different hospitals, an University Hospital (A.O.U.P. "P. Giaccone"- University of Palermo) and a national reference centre for paediatrics (Ospedale Pediatrico Bambino Gesù - Rome). The questionnaire included twelve multiple-choice questions with the aim of analyzing the knowledge about ionizing radiation related risks in infants and children who undergo common diagnostic radiology investigations. The data obtained were processed using software Stata/MP version 11.2. In order to measure the level of expertise of each interviewee a binary indicator was built. The value 1 was assigned if the percentage of correct answers exceeds the median of the distribution and 0 for values not exceeding the median. The association between the level of competence and demographic characteristics (gender, age) and training experience was measured by means of α(2) test. 51/65 questionnaires were completed, returned and analysed (87.7%). Only 18 surveyed (35%), (95% IC = [22%-48%]) can be defined as competent in radiation risk knowledge for common radiological investigations, considering the percentage of correct answers at least of 50% (sufficient knowledge was given with a minimum score of 8 correct answers out of 12). The study demonstrates an urgent need to implement the radiation protection knowledge in the training programme of paediatricians, that improve if just a short targeted training is performed.

  20. Psychological distress and the perception of radiation risks: the Fukushima health management survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabe, Hirooki; Yasumura, Seiji; Ohira, Tetsuya; Niwa, Shin-Ichi; Ohtsuru, Akira; Mashiko, Hirobumi; Maeda, Masaharu; Abe, Masafumi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess relationships between the perception of radiation risks and psychological distress among evacuees from the Fukushima nuclear power plant disaster. Methods We analysed cross-sectional data from a survey of evacuees conducted in 2012. Psychological distress was classified as present or absent based on the K6 scale. Respondents recorded their views about the health risks of exposure to ionizing radiation, including immediate, delayed and genetic (inherited) health effects, on a four-point Likert scale. We examined associations between psychological distress and risk perception in logistic regression models. Age, gender, educational attainment, history of mental illness and the consequences of the disaster for employment and living conditions were potential confounders. Findings Out of the 180 604 people who received the questionnaire, we included 59 807 responses in our sample. There were 8717 respondents reporting psychological distress. Respondents who believed that radiation exposure was very likely to cause health effects were significantly more likely to be psychologically distressed than other respondents: odds ratio (OR) 1.64 (99.9% confidence interval, CI: 1.42–1.89) for immediate effects; OR: 1.48 (99.9% CI: 1.32–1.67) for delayed effects and OR: 2.17 (99.9% CI: 1.94–2.42) for genetic (inherited) effects. Similar results were obtained after controlling for individual characteristics and disaster-related stressors. Conclusion Among evacuees of the Fukushima nuclear disaster, concern about radiation risks was associated with psychological distress. PMID:26478623

  1. A national survey of occupational radiation exposure among diagnostic radiologic technologists in South Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeeyoung; Cha, Eun Shil; Jeong, Meeseon; Lee, Won Jin

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate representative occupational characteristics and radiation exposure for South Korean radiologic technologists. The authors conducted a national survey by stratified sampling of South Korean administrative districts and types of medical facilities. A total of 585 technologists were surveyed, and survey data were linked with dosimetry data from the National Dose Registry. A total of 73 % of radiologic technologists sampled were male, 62 % were younger than age 40 and 86.5 % began employment after 1990. The most frequent practices among radiologic technologists were diagnostic routine X-ray followed by computed tomography (CT) and portable X-ray. Male workers were more frequently involved in CT, portable X-ray and interventional radiology whereas female workers carried out most mammography procedures. The average annual effective dose was 2.3 mSv for male and 1.3 mSv for female workers. The dose was significantly higher for workers in the provinces and those who had recently started work. (authors)

  2. Wettability modification of human tooth surface by water and UV and electron-beam radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiznado-Orozco, Gaby E.; Reyes-Gasga, José; Elefterie, Florina; Beyens, Christophe; Maschke, Ulrich; Brès, Etienne F.

    2015-01-01

    The wettability of the human tooth enamel and dentin was analyzed by measuring the contact angles of a drop of distilled water deposited on the surface. The samples were cut along the transverse and longitudinal directions, and their surfaces were subjected to metallographic mirror-finish polishing. Some samples were also acid etched until their microstructure became exposed. Wettability measurements of the samples were done in dry and wet conditions and after ultraviolet (UV) and electron beam (EB) irradiations. The results indicate that water by itself was able to increase the hydrophobicity of these materials. The UV irradiation momentarily reduced the contact angle values, but they recovered after a short time. EB irradiation raised the contact angle and maintained it for a long time. Both enamel and dentin surfaces showed a wide range of contact angles, from approximately 10° (hydrophilic) to 90° (hydrophobic), although the contact angle showed more variability on enamel than on dentin surfaces. Whether the sample's surface had been polished or etched did not influence the contact angle value in wet conditions. - Highlights: • Human tooth surface wettability changes in dry/wet and UV/EB radiation conditions. • More variability in contact angle is observed on enamel than on dentin surfaces. • Water by itself increases the hydrophobicity of the human tooth surface. • UV irradiation reduces momentarily the human tooth surface hydrophobicity. • EB irradiation increases and maintains the hydrophobicity for a long time

  3. Wettability modification of human tooth surface by water and UV and electron-beam radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiznado-Orozco, Gaby E., E-mail: gab0409@gmail.com [UMET, Bâtiment C6, Université de Lille 1, Sciences et Technologies, 59650 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Unidad Académica de Odontología, Universidad Autónoma de Nayarit, Edificio E7, Ciudad de la Cultura “Amado Nervo”, C.P. 63190 Tepic, Nayarit (Mexico); Reyes-Gasga, José, E-mail: jreyes@fisica.unam.mx [UMET, Bâtiment C6, Université de Lille 1, Sciences et Technologies, 59650 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Instituto de Física, UNAM, Circuito de la Investigación s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Coyoacan, México, D.F. (Mexico); Elefterie, Florina, E-mail: elefterie_florina@yahoo.com [UMET, Bâtiment C6, Université de Lille 1, Sciences et Technologies, 59650 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Beyens, Christophe, E-mail: christophe.beyens@ed.univ-lille1.fr [UMET, Bâtiment C6, Université de Lille 1, Sciences et Technologies, 59650 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Maschke, Ulrich, E-mail: Ulrich.Maschke@univ-lille1.fr [UMET, Bâtiment C6, Université de Lille 1, Sciences et Technologies, 59650 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Brès, Etienne F., E-mail: etienne.bres@univ-lille1.fr [UMET, Bâtiment C6, Université de Lille 1, Sciences et Technologies, 59650 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France)

    2015-12-01

    The wettability of the human tooth enamel and dentin was analyzed by measuring the contact angles of a drop of distilled water deposited on the surface. The samples were cut along the transverse and longitudinal directions, and their surfaces were subjected to metallographic mirror-finish polishing. Some samples were also acid etched until their microstructure became exposed. Wettability measurements of the samples were done in dry and wet conditions and after ultraviolet (UV) and electron beam (EB) irradiations. The results indicate that water by itself was able to increase the hydrophobicity of these materials. The UV irradiation momentarily reduced the contact angle values, but they recovered after a short time. EB irradiation raised the contact angle and maintained it for a long time. Both enamel and dentin surfaces showed a wide range of contact angles, from approximately 10° (hydrophilic) to 90° (hydrophobic), although the contact angle showed more variability on enamel than on dentin surfaces. Whether the sample's surface had been polished or etched did not influence the contact angle value in wet conditions. - Highlights: • Human tooth surface wettability changes in dry/wet and UV/EB radiation conditions. • More variability in contact angle is observed on enamel than on dentin surfaces. • Water by itself increases the hydrophobicity of the human tooth surface. • UV irradiation reduces momentarily the human tooth surface hydrophobicity. • EB irradiation increases and maintains the hydrophobicity for a long time.

  4. Survey of environmental radiation dose rates in Kyoto and Shiga prefectures, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minamia, Kazuyuki; Shimo, Michikuni; Oka, Mitsuaki; Ejiri, Kazutaka; Sugino, Masato; Minato, Susumu; Hosoda, Masahiro; Yamada, Junya; Fukushi, Masahiro

    2008-01-01

    We have measured environmental radiation dose rates in several Prefectures, such as Ai chi Prefecture, Gifu Prefecture, and Mie Prefecture, in central Japan. Recently, we measured the environmental radiation dose rates in Kyoto and Shiga Prefectures that are also located in central Japan with a car-borne survey system. At the time of measurement, Kyoto Prefecture (area: 4,613 km 2 ) had a total of 36 districts, and Shiga Prefecture (area: 3,387 km 2 ) a total of 26. Terrestrial gamma ray dose rates and secondary cosmic ray dose rates were measured by a 2 inches ψ x 2 inches NaI(Tl) scintillation counter and a handy-type altimeter (GPS eTrex Legend by Gamin), respectively. The following factors were taken into consideration the shielding effect of the car body, the effect of the road pavement, radon progeny borne by precipitation, and increases in tunnels and near the walls. Terrestrial gamma ray dose rates in Kyoto and Shiga Prefectures were estimated to be 51.7 ± 6.0 n Gy/h (district average: 52.4 ± 4.7 n Gy/h), 52.2 ± 10.5 n Gy/h (district average: 51.9 ± 8.1 n Gy/h), respectively. Secondary cosmic ray dose rates in Kyoto and Shiga Prefectures were 30.0 ± 0.6 n Gy/h (district average: 29.9 ±0.3 n Gy/h), 30.1 ± 0.3 n Gy/h (district average: 30.0 ± 0.2 n Gy/h), respectively. The environmental radiation dose rates due to the sum dose rates of terrestrial gamma ray and secondary cosmic ray in Kyoto and Shiga Prefectures were 81.7 ± 6.2 n Gy/h (district average: 82.3 ± 4.8 n Gy/h), 82.3 ± 10.6 n Gy/h (district average: 82.0 ± 8.1 n Gy/h), respectively. We confirmed that the environmental radiation dose rates in Kyoto and Shiga Prefectures mainly depended on the change of the terrestrial gamma ray dose rates, since the secondary cosmic ray dose rates had little change. Therefore, radiation dose-rate maps of the terrestrial gamma rays as well as maps of the environmental radiation dose-rate were drawn. (author)

  5. A radiometric model of an earth radiation budget radiometer optical system with diffuse-specular surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luther, M. R.

    1981-01-01

    The Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) is to fly on NASA's Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) and on NOAA F and NOAA G. Large spatial scale earth energy budget data will be derived primarily from measurements made by the ERBE nonscanning instrument (ERBE-NS). A description is given of a mathematical model capable of simulating the radiometric response of any of the ERBE-NS earth viewing channels. The model uses a Monte Carlo method to accurately account for directional distributions of emission and reflection from optical surfaces which are neither strictly diffuse nor strictly specular. The model computes radiation exchange factors among optical system components, and determines the distribution in the optical system of energy from an outside source. Attention is also given to an approach for implementing the model and results obtained from the implementation.

  6. Radiation and Radioactivity Levels Survey of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) at PT Caltex Pacific Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakri, Jusuf; Siregar, Roland

    2003-01-01

    PT Caltex Pacific Indonesia (CPI) is the largest oil company sharing contractor with Pertamina, located in Riau Province, Central Sumatera, employs about 6,800 employees and works together with 28,000 business partner employees. Currently CPI produces about 510,000 bbls crude oil. The production process mobilizes the naturally occurring radionuclides from deep reservoir rock that are deposited as Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) in well tubes, surface pipes, vessels and other processing equipment. NORM has a potential to be externally exposed during production process due to the accumulation of gamma emitting radionuclides and internal exposure to employees/business partners particularly during maintenance, sludge processing and decontamination of equipment. Understanding of the possible NORM hazards to human life, CPI initiated a NORM survey in order to obtain a clear picture of the magnitude of NORM in CPI operations. The survey has been conducted in 2001 and 2002 involved experts from Chevron Texaco USA, BATAN and BAPETEN Jakarta. The survey covered the determination of gamma exposure rates and the concentration of 238 U, 232 Th, 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 228 Th and 40 K in several samples taken from scale, sludge, tank bottom and sand. To safely management of NORM, the Industrial Health Team of Corporate Health, Environment and Safety in coordination with Training Center Team and BATAN have conducted a NORM training for Industrial Hygienist and employees exposed to NORM, developed Standard Operating Procedure for NORM Handling and Disposal and continuously performed NORM survey and mapping of all suspected areas. (author)

  7. Near-surface layer radiation color centers in lithium fluoride nanocrystals: Luminescence and composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voitovich, A.P., E-mail: voitovich@imaph.bas-net.by; Kalinov, V.S.; Stupak, A.P.; Novikov, A.N.; Runets, L.P.

    2015-01-15

    Lithium fluoride nanocrystals are irradiated by gamma quanta at 77 K. The radiation color centers formed in a near-surface layer of nanocrystals are studied. Absorption, luminescence and luminescence excitation spectra of the surface defects have been measured. It has been found that the luminescence excitation spectra for aggregated surface centers consist of two or three bands with not very much different intensities. Reactions of the surface centers separately with electrons and with anion vacancies have been investigated. Numbers of anion vacancies and electrons entering into the centers composition have been established and it has been found that F{sub S1}, F{sub S1}{sup −}, F{sub S2}, F{sub S2}{sup −}, F{sub S3}{sup +} and F{sub S3} types of the surface centers are formed. The degree of luminescence polarization has been defined and it has been determined that the polarization degree for F{sub S2}{sup +} centers changes sign under transition from one excitation band to another. It has been shown that during irradiation at 77 K radiation-induced defects are formed more efficiently on the surface than in the bulk. - Highlights: • Radiative color centers were fabricated in lithium fluoride nanocrystals. • The unique absorption and luminescence characteristics are inherent in the centers. • The reactions of these centers with electrons and anion vacancies were studied. • The degree of luminescence polarization was defined. • Numbers of anion vacancies and electrons forming the centers were established.

  8. Effects of dust accumulation and removal on radiator surfaces on Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaier, J.R.; Perez-Davis, M.E.; Rutledge, S.K.; Hotes, D.; Olle, R.

    1991-01-01

    Tests were carried out to assess the impact of wind blown dust accumulation and abrasion on radiator surfaces on Mars. High emittance arc-textured copper (Cu) and niobium-1%-zirconium (Nb-1%Zr) samples were subjected to basaltic dust laden wind at Martian pressure (1000 Pa) at speeds varying from 19 to 97 m/s in the Martian Surface Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center. The effect of accumulated dust was also observed by pre-dusting some of the samples before the test. Radiator degradation was determined by measuring the change in the emittance after dust was deposited and/or removed. The principal mode of degradation was abrasion. Arc-textured Nb-1%Zr proved to be more susceptible to degradation than Cu, and pre-dusting appeared to have lessened the abrasion

  9. The near-field acoustic levitation for spheres by transducer with concave spherical radiating surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jian Fang; Sun, Xu Guang; Jiao, Xiao Yang; Chen, Hong Xia; Hua, Shun Ming; Zhang, Hong Chun

    2013-01-01

    To levitate ICF target spheres in the near-field acoustic levitation, a transducer with concave spherical radiating surface and a nearfield acoustic levitation system is established. The concave spherical radiating surface of the transducer is designed by the finite element parametric method. Then the levitation height and levitation perturbation of spheres with different mass and diameters in the near-field acoustic levitation system are tested and discussed in the driving voltage at 400V, 500V and 600V, respectively, when the levitation system is under the resonant frequency. Finally, based on the experimental results, the height formula of the near-field acoustic levitation for spheres is deduced by introducing a coupling coefficient.

  10. The near-field acoustic levitation for spheres by transducer with concave spherical radiating surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jian Fang; Sun, Xu Guang; Jiao, Xiao Yang; Chen, Hong Xia [Jilin University, Changchun (China); Hua, Shun Ming [Zhejiang University, Ningbo (China); Zhang, Hong Chun [Aviation University of AirForce, Changchun (China)

    2013-02-15

    To levitate ICF target spheres in the near-field acoustic levitation, a transducer with concave spherical radiating surface and a nearfield acoustic levitation system is established. The concave spherical radiating surface of the transducer is designed by the finite element parametric method. Then the levitation height and levitation perturbation of spheres with different mass and diameters in the near-field acoustic levitation system are tested and discussed in the driving voltage at 400V, 500V and 600V, respectively, when the levitation system is under the resonant frequency. Finally, based on the experimental results, the height formula of the near-field acoustic levitation for spheres is deduced by introducing a coupling coefficient.

  11. Hyper fast radiative transfer for the physical retrieval of surface parameters from SEVIRI observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liuzzi, G; Masiello, G; Serio, C; Blasi, M G; Venafra, S

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the theoretical aspects of a fast scheme for the physical retrieval of surface temperature and emissivity from SEVIRI data, their implementation and some sample results obtained. The scheme is based on a Kalman Filter approach, which effectively exploits the temporal continuity in the observations of the geostationary Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) platform, on which SEVIRI (Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager) operates. Such scheme embodies in its core a physical retrieval algorithm, which employs an hyper fast radiative transfer code highly customized for this retrieval task. Radiative transfer and its customizations are described in detail. Fastness, accuracy and stability of the code are fully documented for a variety of surface features, showing a peculiar application to the massive Greek forest fires in August 2007. (paper)

  12. Synergistic effects in radiation-induced particle ejection from solid surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Noriaki

    1990-01-01

    A description is given on radiation-induced particle ejection from solid surfaces, emphasizing synergistic effects arising from multi-species particle irradiation and from irradiation under complex environments. First, it is pointed out that synergisms can be treated by introducing the effects of material modification on radiation-induced particle ejection. As examples of the effects of surface modification on the sputtering induced by elastic encounters, sputtering of alloys and chemical sputtering of graphite are briefly discussed. Then the particle ejection induced by electronic encounters is explained emphasizing the difference in the behaviors from materials to materials. The possible synergistic effects of electronic and elastic encounters are also described. Lastly, we point out the importance of understanding the elementary processes of material-particle interaction and of developing computer codes describing material behaviors under irradiation. (author)

  13. Distribution of radionuclides in surface seawater obtained by an aerial radiological survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inomata, Yayoi; Aoyama, Michio; Hirose, Katsumi; Sanada, Yukihisa; Torii, Tatsuo; Tsubono, Takaki; Tsumune, Daisuke; Yamada, Masatoshi

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the distribution in seawater of anthropogenic radionuclides from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP1) as preliminary attempt using a rapid aerial radiological survey performed by the U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration on 18 April 2011. We found strong correlations between in-situ activities of 131 I, 134 Cs, and 137 Cs measured in surface seawater samples and gamma-ray peak count rates determined by the aerial survey (correlation coefficients were 0.89 for 131 I, 0.96 for 134 Cs, and 0.92 for 137 Cs). The offshore area of high radionuclide activity extended south and southeast from the FNPP1. The maximum activities of 131 I, 134 Cs, and 137 Cs were 329, 650, and 599 Bq L -1 , respectively. The 131 I/ 137 Cs ratio in surface water of the high-activity area ranged from 0.6 to 0.7. Considering the radioactive decay of 131 I (half-life 8.02 d), we determined that the radionuclides in this area were directly released from FNPP1 to the ocean. We confirm that aerial radiological surveys can be effective for investigating the surface distribution of anthropogenic radionuclides in seawater. Our model reproduced the distribution pattern of radionuclides derived from the FNPP1, although results simulated by a regional ocean model were underestimated. (author)

  14. Map of natural gamma radiation in Spain: radiometric characterization of different types of surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez Mahou, E.; Fernandez Amigot, J.A.; Botas Medina, J.

    1997-01-01

    The gamma radioactivity flowing from ground and rocks is due to the presence in these of uranium, thorium and potassium-40. The method of radiometric characterization depends on the purpose of the undertaking. Radiometric characterization can be realized on big surfaces (tens or hundreds of square kilometres studied on a national scale), medium size surfaces (50 to 1000 square kilometres, for example, in epidemiological or biological studies in areas with a determined radiometric background) small surfaces of less than 50 square kilometres (industrial sites, pre-operational studies, etc.). This article considers aspects of radiometric characterization on surfaces of interest and describes the contribution of the MARNA (Natural Provisional Radiation Map of Spain) Project selection and radiometric characterization

  15. Adhesion of yeast cells on surface of polymers produced by radiation polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Zhaoxin; Takehisa, Masaaki; Xie Zongchuan.

    1995-01-01

    The adhesion of yeast (Saccharomyces formesences) cells on polymers was studied thermodynamically. The polymers were laminally prepared by means of radiation polymerization. By measuring contact angles, we calculated dispersion component and polar component of surface free energy of the polymers and the cells, and interfacial free energy between the polymer and the cells. Then interfacial free energy change of the cell adhesion to surface of the polymer was evaluated. The adhesion behavior of yeast cells on the polymers was observed by optical microscope. From above results, we conclude that the initial adhesion of the cells is related to the surface free energy of the polymer, but the irreversible adhesion may be close to the polar component in surface free energy. The high polar component is favourable the irreversible adhesion of yeast cells. (author)

  16. Measuring safety culture: Application of the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture to radiation therapy departments worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Sarah; O'Donovan, Anita

    Minimizing errors and improving patient safety has gained prominence worldwide in high-risk disciplines such as radiation therapy. Patient safety culture has been identified as an important factor in reducing the incidence of adverse events and improving patient safety in the health care setting. The aim of distributing the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSPSC) to radiation therapy departments worldwide was to assess the current status of safety culture, identify areas for improvement and areas that excel, examine factors that influence safety culture, and raise staff awareness. The safety culture in radiation therapy departments worldwide was evaluated by distributing the HSPSC. A total of 266 participants were recruited from radiation therapy departments and included radiation oncologists, radiation therapists, physicists, and dosimetrists. The positive percent scores for the 12 dimensions of the HSPSC varied from 50% to 79%. The highest composite score among the 12 dimensions was teamwork within units; the lowest composite score was handoffs and transitions. The results indicated that health care professionals in radiation therapy departments felt positively toward patient safety. The HSPSC was successfully applied to radiation therapy departments and provided valuable insight into areas of potential improvement such as teamwork across units, staffing, and handoffs and transitions. Managers and policy makers in radiation therapy may use this assessment tool for focused improvement efforts toward patient safety culture. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Radiation Oncology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Hard synchrotron radiation scattering from a nonideal surface grating from multilayer X-ray mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punegov, V.I.; Nesterets, Ya.I.; Mytnichenko, S.V.; Kovalenko, N.V.; Chernov, V.A.

    2003-01-01

    The hard synchrotron radiation scattering from a multilayer surface grating is theoretically and experimentally investigated. The numerical calculations of angular distribution of scattering intensity from X-ray mirror Ni/C are executed with use of recurrence formulae and statistical dynamical theory of diffraction. It is shown, that the essential role in formation of a diffraction pattern plays a diffuse scattering caused by structure imperfection of a multilayer grating [ru

  18. Investigation of the Surface Filamentary Discharge in Focus of Microwave Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    microwave radiation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER ISTC Registration No: 3784 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Dr. Kirill...NUMBER(S) ISTC 07-7011 12. DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. (approval given by local...contract to the International Science and Technology Center ( ISTC ), Moscow Project ISTC # 3784p (077011) Investigation of the surface filamentary

  19. Operational surface UV radiation product from GOME-2 and AVHRR/3 data

    OpenAIRE

    J. Kujanpää; N. Kalakoski

    2015-01-01

    The surface ultraviolet (UV) radiation product, version 1.20, generated operationally in the framework of the Satellite Application Facility on Ozone and Atmospheric Chemistry Monitoring (O3M SAF) of the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) is described. The product is based on the total ozone column derived from the measurements of the second Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME-2) instrument aboard EUMETSA...

  20. RADIATION ACCESS ZONE AND VENTILATION CONFINEMENT ZONE CRITERIA FOR THE MGR SURFACE FACILITIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D. A. Padula

    2000-01-01

    The objectives of this technical report are to: (1) Establish the criteria for Radiation Access Zone (RAZ) designation. (2) Establish the criteria for the Ventilation Confinement Zone (VCZ) designation. The scope will be to formulate the RAZ and VCZ zoning designation for the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) surface facilities and to apply the zoning designations to the current Waste Handling Building (WHB), Waste Treatment Building (WTB), and Carrier Preparation Building (CPB) configurations

  1. Variability of solar radiation and CDOM in surface coastal waters of the northwestern Mediterranean sea

    OpenAIRE

    Sempéré, Richard; Para, J.; Tedetti, Marc; Charriere, B.; Mallet, M.

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric and in-water solar radiation, including UVR-B, UVR-A and PAR, as well as chromophoric dissolved organic matter absorption [a(CDOM)()] in surface waters were monthly measured from November 2007 to December 2008 at a coastal station in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea (Bay of Marseilles, France). Our results showed that the UVR-B/UVR-A ratio followed the same trend in the atmosphere and at 2m depth in the water (P

  2. Evaluation of the morphological alteration of the root surface radiated with a diode laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulin, Mauricio

    2003-01-01

    The diode laser has been studied for periodontal therapy, as much for removal of calculus as for microbial reduction of periodontal pockets, as well as the visible analgesic effects and biomodulation capacity. For this reason the purpose of this study was to evaluate the morphological alteration of the root surface after radiation with the diode laser, 808 nm through analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Besides this, to verify the temperature variations caused during the radiation, a thermometer put into the dentinal wall of the root canal was used. In all, 18 teeth were used, 15 of which for the SEM study, and the other 3 were used to temperature variation analysis. The 25 samples were scraped on the root surface and planed with manual instruments. The other 5 were not subjected to any type of treatment. This, 6 groups of 5 samples each were formed. Control Group C whose samples had not received any treatment; Control Group C 1 was only scraped and polished conventionally with Hu-Friedy Gracey curettes 5 and 6; the other samples groups L1, L2, L3, L4 were radiated by diode laser using parameters of power 1,0 W; 1,2 W; 1,4 W; and 1,6 W respectively, 2 times for 10 seconds with 20 seconds intervals between each radiation in continuous mode. The results with relation to the increase of temperature in the interior of the root canal demonstrated that there was an increase of more than 5 degree Celsius. The results of the scanning electron microscope analysis of Control Group C demonstrated great irregularity and ridges on the root surface, with the presence of a dentine layer. Control Group C1 presented a similar aspect to Group L 1's, smoother and more homogeneous surface. Groups L2, L3, and L4 presented scratches alternating with smoother areas showing that fiber contacted the surface of the sample. The results reconfirmed the necessity of further studies using diode laser, with a beam of light emitted in an interrupted mode to improve the control of the

  3. Germanium nitride and oxynitride films for surface passivation of Ge radiation detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maggioni, G., E-mail: maggioni@lnl.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia G. Galilei, Università di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Viale dell’Universita’2, I-35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Carturan, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia G. Galilei, Università di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Viale dell’Universita’2, I-35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Fiorese, L. [Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Viale dell’Universita’2, I-35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Dipartimento di Ingegneria dei Materiali e delle Tecnologie Industriali, Università di Trento, Via Mesiano 77, I-38050 Povo, Trento (Italy); Pinto, N.; Caproli, F. [Scuola di Scienze e Tecnologie, Sezione di Fisica, Università di Camerino, Via Madonna delle Carceri 9, Camerino (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Napoli, D.R. [Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Viale dell’Universita’2, I-35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Giarola, M.; Mariotto, G. [Dipartimento di Informatica—Università di Verona, Strada le Grazie 15, I-37134 Verona (Italy)

    2017-01-30

    Highlights: • A surface passivation method for HPGe radiation detectors is proposed. • Highly insulating GeNx- and GeOxNy-based layers are deposited at room temperature. • Deposition parameters affect composition and electrical properties of the layers. • The improved performance of a GeNx-coated HPGe diode is assessed. - Abstract: This work reports a detailed investigation of the properties of germanium nitride and oxynitride films to be applied as passivation layers to Ge radiation detectors. All the samples were deposited at room temperature by reactive RF magnetron sputtering. A strong correlation was found between the deposition parameters, such as deposition rate, substrate bias and atmosphere composition, and the oxygen and nitrogen content in the film matrix. We found that all the films were very poorly crystallized, consisting of very small Ge nitride and oxynitride nanocrystallites, and electrically insulating, with the resistivity changing from three to six orders of magnitude as a function of temperature. A preliminary test of these films as passivation layers was successfully performed by depositing a germanium nitride film on the intrinsic surface of a high-purity germanium (HPGe) diode and measuring the improved performance, in terms of leakage current, with respect to a reference passivated diode. All these interesting results allow us to envisage the application of this coating technology to the surface passivation of germanium-based radiation detectors.

  4. Surface temperatures in New York City: Geospatial data enables the accurate prediction of radiative heat transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghandehari, Masoud; Emig, Thorsten; Aghamohamadnia, Milad

    2018-02-02

    Despite decades of research seeking to derive the urban energy budget, the dynamics of thermal exchange in the densely constructed environment is not yet well understood. Using New York City as a study site, we present a novel hybrid experimental-computational approach for a better understanding of the radiative heat transfer in complex urban environments. The aim of this work is to contribute to the calculation of the urban energy budget, particularly the stored energy. We will focus our attention on surface thermal radiation. Improved understanding of urban thermodynamics incorporating the interaction of various bodies, particularly in high rise cities, will have implications on energy conservation at the building scale, and for human health and comfort at the urban scale. The platform presented is based on longwave hyperspectral imaging of nearly 100 blocks of Manhattan, in addition to a geospatial radiosity model that describes the collective radiative heat exchange between multiple buildings. Despite assumptions in surface emissivity and thermal conductivity of buildings walls, the close comparison of temperatures derived from measurements and computations is promising. Results imply that the presented geospatial thermodynamic model of urban structures can enable accurate and high resolution analysis of instantaneous urban surface temperatures.

  5. Survey of radiation damage effects in superconducting magnet components and systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guess, J.F.; Boom, R.W.; Coltman, R.R. Jr.; Sekula, S.T.

    1975-12-01

    A study has been made of the published investigations of fast-particle irradiations at low temperatures on the properties of likely CTR magnet materials. The materials topics included in this survey are: (1) irradiation of Nb-Ti alloys with fast neutrons, protons, deuterons, and electrons; (2) irradiation of A-15 compounds (mainly Nb 3 Sn) with fast neutrons, deuterons, and oxygen ions; (3) irradiation of Cu and Al with fast and thermal neutrons; (4) irradiation of insulators with neutrons and gamma rays; and (5) irradiation of structural materials with neutrons. The study of the literature also included the available information on the effects of low-temperature irradiation on integrated components of the materials described above which might be envisaged in the construction of a CTR magnet system, since the ultimate problem is the operation of a magnet system in a radiation environment

  6. Proposal of a survey of radiation protection procedures during breast feeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Liliane dos; Oliveira, Silvia M. Velasques de

    2009-01-01

    Contamination can occur by breast milk ingestion involving mothers subjected to diagnostic procedures or treatment with radiopharmaceuticals, which can reach high concentrations in milk causing significant absorbed doses to the children organs. Besides internal dose, close contact between the baby and his mother give rise to external exposures. In Brazil, 7% of diagnostic procedures use 131 I or 123 I for thyroid imaging and 84% of these were hold by women. For 131 I, 67 Ga and 201 Tl, is recommended breast feeding cessation. The present work proposes a survey of the state of the art of radiation protection to breast feeding infants. It was planned interviews with nuclear medicine staff applying a questionnaire in order to assess specific procedures to women in reproductive age. This is 'on progress work'. (author)

  7. Fellowship training in radiation oncology: an Australian survey of current teaching and perceived needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izard, M.A.; Berry, M.P.; Bosch, C.

    1994-01-01

    Thirty Australian and New Zealand Radiation Oncology registrars, who were preparing for their final qualifying examinations, were surveyed about their attitudes to their training programmes. While two (7%) indicated that they had no structured tuition whatsoever, the majority 19 (63%) received on average 1-2h per week, which was much less than their perceived need. Other areas of training considered deficient included exposure to curriculum requirements, peer support and access to other hospital specialty meetings. When asked about the concept of job rotation between training centres, 23 (77%) considered it to be potentially advantageous, with a majority preferring one such rotation of 6-12 months duration occurring in their third year, with a return to their base unit prior to final qualifying examinations. Limitations and potential benefits of the job rotation concept are discussed. 12 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs

  8. Geothermal survey handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-01-01

    The objective of this handbook is to publicize widely the nature of geothermal surveys. It covers geothermal survey planning and measurement as well as measurement of thermal conductivity. Methods for the detection of eruptive areas, the measurement of radiative heat using snowfall, the measurement of surface temperature using infrared radiation and the measurement of thermal flow are described. The book also contains information on physical detection of geothermal reservoirs, the measurement of spring wells, thermographic measurement of surface heat, irregular layer surveying, air thermographics and aerial photography. Isotope measurement techniques are included.

  9. Surface radiation changes and their impact on climate in Central Europe[Dissertation 17578

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruckstuhl, Ch.

    2008-07-01

    The rapid temperature increase of 0.7 {sup o}C averaged over the Northern Hemisphere and of 1 {sup o}C over mainland Europe since 1980 is considerably larger than expected from anthropogenic greenhouse warming. The present thesis addresses questions like whether this rapid climate change is due to unexpected large greenhouse forcing that includes strong water vapor feedback or whether the temperature rise is strengthened by an increase in shortwave radiation fluxes observed since the mid-1980s. Solar dimming, a decrease of solar radiation measured at the Earth's surface, has been observed during several decades before the 1980s. Since then a reversed trend with increasing solar radiation has been observed. Our investigations show that this solar brightening has apparently added to the temperature rise since the 1980s. The analyses give evidence for a substantial decline in aerosol concentrations over Europe, which has led to a significant increase of solar radiation reaching the ground. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) observations at six remote locations from the Baltic Sea to the Central Alps show a decrease in AOD by up to 63 percent from 1986 to 2005. Solar radiation, concurrently measured under cloud-free skies and averaged over eight German and twenty-five Swiss radiation stations below 1000 m a.s.l., shows a statistically significant increase of +1.15 [+0.68 to +1.62] W m{sup -2} dec {sup -1} between 1981 and 2005. Hence, the direct aerosol effect is clearly measured. On the other hand, all-sky solar radiation shows a statistically significant increase only due to the extraordinary year 2003, with its strongly reduced cloud amount. Without considering the year 2003, which has only a marginal impact on the temperature trends, the increase in solar radiation due to changes in clouds is +0.78 [-1.26 to +2.82] W m{sup -2} dec {sup -1}. This shortwave cloud forcing is further reduced due to the counterbalancing longwave cloud effect. With respect to climate

  10. A survey of radiation doses received by atomic-bomb survivors residing in the U.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, G.D.; Yamada, H.; Marks, S.

    1976-01-01

    A survey has been completed of 300 of an estimated 500 to 750 survivors of the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki who reside in the U.S. Distributions with respect to age, sex, citizenship status, distance from the hypocenter at the time of bombing, and dose from immediate weapon radiation have been tabulated from the results and are presented for this group of 300 survivors. Also presented are survey results concerning exposures to residual radiation from fallout and neutral-induced radioactivity in the areas adjacent to the hypocenter. (author)

  11. Establishment of a procedure to calculate the measurement uncertainties in radiation survey meters calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manzoli, J.E.; Potiens, M.P.A.

    2000-01-01

    The Calibration Laboratory of Sao Paulo calibrates more than one thousand gamma ray survey meters a year; beside other kinds of radiotherapy, radiodiagnostic and radiation protection instruments. It has a standard (600 cm 3 ) cylinder ionization chamber (Nuclear Enterprises Ltd. model 2511/3) traceable to the Brazilian Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL) whose instruments are traceable to the BIPM. Annually the beam dosimetry is performed using this chamber and the results are used as the true values for calibration purposes. The uncertainties present in every direct or indirect measurement during the calibration procedure must be evaluated for purposes of laboratory quality control. All calculation steps in the propagation of errors are presented in this work staging from the ionization chamber charge measured with the standard instrument. Such a propagation was made in space and time, considering even the environmental quantities uncertainties. The propagation was necessary in space, because the ionization chamber measurements were performed at only one space position. The time propagation was essential due to the fact that the activity is a peculiar physical quantity which changes with time according to precise relations for a specific radionuclide. The clear indication of every measurement uncertainty is always important to quantify the quality of this measurement. Nowadays the achievement of calibration laboratory quality systems requires the expression of all uncertainties and the procedure used to evaluate it. An example of this procedure in the case of the calibration of a typical portable radiation survey meter is presented. The direct exposure rate instrument measurement was compared with the true value given by the standard instrument properly propagated and all quantities used have their uncertainties shown. (author)

  12. Surface-coupling of Cerenkov radiation from a modified metallic metamaterial slab via Brillouin-band folding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Anirban; Barik, Ranjan Kumar; Sattorov, Matlabjon; Kwon, Ohjoon; Min, Sun-Hong; Baek, In-Keun; Kim, Seontae; So, Jin-Kyu; Park, Gun-Sik

    2014-02-10

    Metallic metamaterials with positive dielectric responses are promising as an alternative to dielectrics for the generation of Cerenkov radiation [J.-K. So et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(15), 151107 (2010)]. We propose here by theoretical analysis a mechanism to couple out Cerenkov radiation from the slab surfaces in the transverse direction. The proposed method based on Brillouin-zone folding is to periodically modify the thickness of the metamaterial slab in the axial direction. Moreover, the intensity of the surface-coupled radiation by this mechanism shows an order-of-magnitude enhancement compared to that of ordinary Smith-Purcell radiation.

  13. Surface modification of PTFE sheet by synchrotron radiation in the soft X-ray region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Y.; Kanda, K.; Haruyama, Y.; Matsui, S.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The surface properties of poly (tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) are changed by the exposure to synchrotron radiation (SR). We succeeded in controlling the wettability of the PTFE surface from hydrophobic to hydrophilic by varying the substrate temperature during the SR irradiation and found that the wettability was ascribable to microstructure and chemical composition of surface.In these previous works, oxygen atoms were found to inhabit on the hydrophobic surface of PTFE. In this study, we investigated the surface modification of PTFE from the SR exposure experiment under the O 2 gas atmosphere. The SR exposure to the PTFE sheet was carried out at beamline 6 (BL6) of the New- SUBARU. The PTFE sheet was irradiated to the white beam, ranging 50-1000 eV at BL6 at room temperature. The gas cell was mounted at the irradiation chamber. The O 2 gas pressure in the gas cell can be maintained at about 0.20 Pa during the SR exposure using 5mm φ hole window. The wettability of PTFE surface was evaluated by the contact angle of a small water drop. Contact angle was measured with the water drop of 1 μl using the contact angle meter. Fig.1 shows the SR dose dependence of contact angle of PTFE surface under the O 2 gas atmosphere and under the vacuum. Contact angle decreased monotonically with SR dose. The decrease rate of contact angle of the PTFE surface irradiated under the O 2 gas atmosphere was larger than that of the PTFE surface irradiated without O 2 gas. Therefore, the combination of O atom to the PTFE surface was enhanced by the O 2 gas in the reaction region. These results suggested that the bonding of O atom on the hydrophobic PTFE surface is dominantly produced in the sample chamber during SR irradiation, but not in the air atmosphere after the SR irradiation

  14. Occupational exposure to beryllium in French enterprises: a survey of airborne exposure and surface levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Raymond; Catani, Jacques; Créau, Yvon; Frocaut, Anne-Marie; Good, Andrée; Goutet, Pierre; Hou, Alain; Leray, Fabrice; André-Lesage, Marie-Ange; Soyez, Alain

    2009-06-01

    An assessment survey of occupational exposure to beryllium (Be) was conducted in France between late 2004 and the end of 2006. Exposure estimates were based on the analytical results of samples collected from workplace air and from work surfaces in 95 facilities belonging to 37 sectors of activity. The results of this study indicated airborne Be concentrations in excess of the occupational exposure limit value of 2 microg m(-3) recommended in France. Metallurgy and electronic component manufacturing represented the activities and occupations where workers had the highest arithmetic mean exposures to Be. Surface contamination levels were also high and frequently exceeded thresholds recommended by different bodies. These results should prompt the development of prevention programmes that include Be substitution, process control and surface decontamination, in conjunction with suitable medical surveillance.

  15. Mapping 2000 2010 Impervious Surface Change in India Using Global Land Survey Landsat Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Panshi; Huang, Chengquan; Brown De Colstoun, Eric C.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding and monitoring the environmental impacts of global urbanization requires better urban datasets. Continuous field impervious surface change (ISC) mapping using Landsat data is an effective way to quantify spatiotemporal dynamics of urbanization. It is well acknowledged that Landsat-based estimation of impervious surface is subject to seasonal and phenological variations. The overall goal of this paper is to map 200-02010 ISC for India using Global Land Survey datasets and training data only available for 2010. To this end, a method was developed that could transfer the regression tree model developed for mapping 2010 impervious surface to 2000 using an iterative training and prediction (ITP) approach An independent validation dataset was also developed using Google Earth imagery. Based on the reference ISC from the validation dataset, the RMSE of predicted ISC was estimated to be 18.4%. At 95% confidence, the total estimated ISC for India between 2000 and 2010 is 2274.62 +/- 7.84 sq km.

  16. Examination of the long-term stability of radiation survey meters and electronic pocket dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chida, K.; Nishimura, Y.; Sato, Y.; Endo, A.; Sakamoto, M.; Hoshi, C.; Zuguchi, M.

    2008-01-01

    To describe the stability of radiation survey meters (RSMs) and electronic pocket dosemeters (EPDs), we examined 28 EPDs and 24 RSMs: 12 used NaI(Tl) scintillation RSMs and 12 used Geiger-Muller (GM) RSMs. We used simple methods for the relative calibration of the 24 RSMs and 28 EPDs. The RSM and EPD measurements were compared with a calibrated RSM and EPD (reference: traceable from the national standard of exposure) using a homemade measurement device to maintain the reproducibility of the measurements with reference radiation sources (i.e. 137 Cs, 90 Sr and 67 Ga). The response of RSMs and EPDs, especially after prolonged use, should be checked periodically. In particular, GMRSMs that have been in use for many years have very low sensitivity and poor reproducibility. Our simple method for the relative calibration of RSMs and EPDs was shown to be effective for quality assurance purposes in checking RSMs and EPDs. We recommend regular checks and calibration for sustained performance of RSMs and EPDs. (authors)

  17. Cancer pain management by radiotherapists: a survey of radiation therapy oncology group physicians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleeland, Charles S.; Janjan, Nora A.; Scott, Charles B.; Seiferheld, Wendy F.; Curran, Walter J.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) physicians were surveyed to determine their approach to and attitudes toward cancer pain management. Methods and Materials: Physicians completed a questionnaire assessing their estimates of the magnitude of pain as a specific problem for cancer patients, their perceptions of the adequacy of pain management, and their report of how they manage pain in their own practice setting. Results: Eighty-three percent believed the majority of cancer patients with pain were undermedicated. Forty percent reported that pain relief in their own practice setting was poor or fair. Assessing a case scenario, 23% would wait until the patient's prognosis was 6 months or less before starting maximal analgesia. Adjuvants and prophylactic side effect management were underutilized in the treatment plan. Barriers to pain management included poor pain assessment (77%), patient reluctance to report pain (60%), patient reluctance to take analgesics (72%), and staff reluctance to prescribe opioids (41%). Conclusions: Physicians' perceptions of barriers to cancer pain management remain quite stable over time, and physicians continue to report inadequate pain treatment education. Future educational efforts should target radiation oncologists as an important resource for the treatment of cancer pain

  18. Identifying Key Issues and Potential Solutions for Integrated Arrival, Departure, Surface Operations by Surveying Stakeholder Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aponso, Bimal; Coppenbarger, Richard A.; Jung, Yoon; Quon, Leighton; Lohr, Gary; O’Connor, Neil; Engelland, Shawn

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) collaborates with the FAA and industry to provide concepts and technologies that enhance the transition to the next-generation air-traffic management system (NextGen). To facilitate this collaboration, ARMD has a series of Airspace Technology Demonstration (ATD) sub-projects that develop, demonstrate, and transitions NASA technologies and concepts for implementation in the National Airspace System (NAS). The second of these sub-projects, ATD-2, is focused on the potential benefits to NAS stakeholders of integrated arrival, departure, surface (IADS) operations. To determine the project objectives and assess the benefits of a potential solution, NASA surveyed NAS stakeholders to understand the existing issues in arrival, departure, and surface operations, and the perceived benefits of better integrating these operations. NASA surveyed a broad cross-section of stakeholders representing the airlines, airports, air-navigation service providers, and industry providers of NAS tools. The survey indicated that improving the predictability of flight times (schedules) could improve efficiency in arrival, departure, and surface operations. Stakeholders also mentioned the need for better strategic and tactical information on traffic constraints as well as better information sharing and a coupled collaborative planning process that allows stakeholders to coordinate IADS operations. To assess the impact of a potential solution, NASA sketched an initial departure scheduling concept and assessed its viability by surveying a select group of stakeholders for a second time. The objective of the departure scheduler was to enable flights to move continuously from gate to cruise with minimal interruption in a busy metroplex airspace environment using strategic and tactical scheduling enhanced by collaborative planning between airlines and service providers. The stakeholders agreed that this departure concept could improve schedule

  19. Radiation shielding aspects for long manned mission to space - Criteria, survey study and preliminary model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sztejnberg, M.; Xiao, S.; Satvat, N.; Limon, F.; Hopkins, J.; Jevremovic, T.; T. Jevremovic)

    2006-01-01

    The prospect of manned space missions out side Earth's or bit is limited by the travel time and shielding against cosmic radiation. The chemical rockets currently used in the space program have no hope of propelling a manned vehicle to a far away location such as Mars due to the enormous mass of fuel that would be required. The specific energy available from nuclear fuel is a factor of 106 higher than chemical fuel; it is there fore obvious that nuclear power production in space is a must. On the other hand, recent considerations to send a man to the Moon for a long stay would require a stable, secured, and safe source of energy (there is hardly anything beyond nuclear power that would provide a useful and reliably safe sustainable supply of energy). National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) anticipates that the mass of a shielding material required for long travel to Mars is the next major design driver. In 2006 NASA identified a need to assess and evaluate potential gaps in existing knowledge and understanding of the level and types of radiation critical to astronauts' health during the long travel to Mars and to start a comprehensive study related to the shielding design of a spacecraft finding the conditions for the mitigation of radiation components contributing to the doses beyond accepted limits. In order to reduce the overall space craft mass, NASA is looking for the novel, multi-purpose and multi-functional materials that will provide effective shielding of the crew and electronics on board. The Laboratory for Neutronics and Geometry Computation in the School of Nuclear Engineering at Purdue University led by Prof. Tatjana Jevremovic began in 2004 the analytical evaluations of different lightweight materials. The preliminary results of the design survey study are presented in this paper. (author)

  20. Radiation shielding aspects for long manned mission to space: Criteria, survey study, and preliminary model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sztejnberg Manuel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The prospect of manned space missions outside Earth's orbit is limited by the travel time and shielding against cosmic radiation. The chemical rockets currently used in the space program have no hope of propelling a manned vehicle to a far away location such as Mars due to the enormous mass of fuel that would be required. The specific energy available from nuclear fuel is a factor of 106 higher than chemical fuel; it is therefore obvious that nuclear power production in space is a must. On the other hand, recent considerations to send a man to the Moon for a long stay would require a stable, secured and safe source of energy (there is hardly anything beyond nuclear power that would provide a useful and reliably safe sustainable supply of energy. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA anticipates that the mass of a shielding material required for long travel to Mars is the next major design driver. In 2006 NASA identified a need to assess and evaluate potential gaps in existing knowledge and understanding of the level and types of radiation critical to astronauts' health during the long travel to Mars and to start a comprehensive study related to the shielding design of a spacecraft finding the conditions for the mitigation of radiation components contributing to the doses beyond accepted limits. In order to reduce the overall space craft mass, NASA is looking for the novel, multi-purpose and multi-functional materials that will provide effective shielding of the crew and electronics on board. The Laboratory for Neutronics and Geometry Computation in the School of Nuclear Engineering at Purdue University led by Prof. Tatjana Jevremović began in 2004 the analytical evaluations of different lightweight materials. The preliminary results of the design survey study are presented in this paper.

  1. The role of a convective surface in models of the radiative heat transfer in nanofluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, M.M., E-mail: mansurdu@yahoo.com; Al-Mazroui, W.A.; Al-Hatmi, F.S.; Al-Lawatia, M.A.; Eltayeb, I.A.

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • The role of a convective surface in modelling with nanofluids is investigated over a wedge. • Surface convection significantly controls the rate of heat transfer in nanofluid. • Increased volume fraction of nanoparticles to the base-fluid may not always increase the rate of heat transfer. • Effect of nanoparticles solid volume fraction depends on the types of constitutive materials. • Higher heat transfer in nanofluids is found in a moving wedge rather than in a static wedge. - Abstract: Nanotechnology becomes the core of the 21st century. Nanofluids are important class of fluids which help advancing nanotechnology in various ways. Convection in nanofluids plays a key role in enhancing the rate of heat transfer either for heating or cooling nanodevices. In this paper, we investigate theoretically the role of a convective surface on the heat transfer characteristics of water-based nanofluids over a static or moving wedge in the presence of thermal radiation. Three different types of nanoparticles, namely copper Cu, alumina Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and titanium dioxide TiO{sub 2} are considered in preparation of nanofluids. The governing nonlinear partial differential equations are made dimensionless with the similarity transformations. Numerical simulations are carried out through the very robust computer algebra software MAPLE 13 to investigate the effects of various pertinent parameters on the flow field. The obtained results presented graphically as well as in tabular form and discussed from physical and engineering points of view. The results show that the rate of heat transfer in a nanofluid in the presence of thermal radiation significantly depends on the surface convection parameter. If the hot fluid side surface convection resistance is lower than the cold fluid side surface convection resistance, then increased volume fraction of the nanoparticles to the base fluid may reduces the heat transfer rate rather than increases from the surface of

  2. Influence of surface oxidation on the radiative properties of ZrB{sub 2}-SiC composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ning, E-mail: lncaep@163.com [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang, 621900 (China); Xing, Pifeng; Li, Cui [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang, 621900 (China); Wang, Peng [School of Material Science and Engineering, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255049 (China); Jin, Xinxin [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin University of Science and Technology, Harbin 150040 (China); Zhang, Xinghong [Science and Technology on Advanced Composites in Special Environments Laboratory, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2017-07-01

    Highlights: • Surface component affected radiative properties of ZrB{sub 2}-SiC composites significantly. • Emissivity in long-wave range gradually increased with the thickness of oxide scale. • The surface temperature had a little effect on radiative properties of composites. • Influence of surface roughness on emissivity could be negligible. • Covering the surface with glass is a method for improving radiative properties. - Abstract: The spectral emissivities of ZrB{sub 2}-20 vol.% SiC composites with various surface components of ZrB{sub 2}/SiC (ZS1), silica-rich glass (ZS2) and porous zirconia (ZS3) were measured using infrared spectrometer in the wavelength range from 2.5 to 25.0 μm. The relationship between surface oxidation (associated with surface component, thickness of oxide scale, testing temperature as well as roughness) and the radiative properties of ZrB{sub 2}-SiC composites were investigated systematically. Surface component affected the radiative properties of composites significantly. The total emissivity of ZS1 varied from 0.22 to 0.81 accompanied with surface oxidation in the temperature range 300–900 °C. The emissivity of ZS2 was about 1.5 times as that of ZS3 under the same testing conditions. The oxide scale on specimen surface enhanced the radiative properties especially in terms of short-wave range, and the emissivity in the long-wave range gradually increased with the thickness of oxide scale within a certain range. The influence of testing temperature and surface roughness was also investigated. The testing temperature had a little effect on radiative properties, whereas effect of surface roughness could be negligible.

  3. Survey of radiation protection programmes for transport; Etude des programmes de radioprotection pour les transports de matieres radioactives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lizot, M.T.; Perrin, M.L.; Sert, G. [CEA Fontenay-aux-Roses, Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, Dept. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, 92 (France); Lange, F.; Schwarz, G.; Feet, H.J.; Christ, R. [Gesellschaft fur Anlagen-und Reaktorsicherheit, GRS, mbH, Cologne (Germany); Shaw, K.B.; Hughes, J.S.; Gelder, R. [National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB), Oxon, OX (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    The survey of radiation protection programmes for transport has been jointly performed by three scientific organisations I.P.S.N. (France), G.R.S. ( Germany), and N.R.P.B. (United kingdom) on behalf of the European Commission and the pertaining documentation summarises the findings and conclusions of the work that was undertaken with the principal objectives to provide guidance on the establishment, implementation and application of radiation protection programmes for the transport of radioactive materials by operators and the assessment and evaluation of such programmes by the competent authority and to review currently existing radiation protection programmes for the transport of radioactive materials. (N.C.)

  4. Local Adaptive Calibration of the GLASS Surface Incident Shortwave Radiation Product Using Smoothing Spline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.; Liang, S.; Wang, G.

    2015-12-01

    Incident solar radiation (ISR) over the Earth's surface plays an important role in determining the Earth's climate and environment. Generally, can be obtained from direct measurements, remotely sensed data, or reanalysis and general circulation models (GCMs) data. Each type of product has advantages and limitations: the surface direct measurements provide accurate but sparse spatial coverage, whereas other global products may have large uncertainties. Ground measurements have been normally used for validation and occasionally calibration, but transforming their "true values" spatially to improve the satellite products is still a new and challenging topic. In this study, an improved thin-plate smoothing spline approach is presented to locally "calibrate" the Global LAnd Surface Satellite (GLASS) ISR product using the reconstructed ISR data from surface meteorological measurements. The influences of surface elevation on ISR estimation was also considered in the proposed method. The point-based surface reconstructed ISR was used as the response variable, and the GLASS ISR product and the surface elevation data at the corresponding locations as explanatory variables to train the thin plate spline model. We evaluated the performance of the approach using the cross-validation method at both daily and monthly time scales over China. We also evaluated estimated ISR based on the thin-plate spline method using independent ground measurements at 10 sites from the Coordinated Enhanced Observation Network (CEON). These validation results indicated that the thin plate smoothing spline method can be effectively used for calibrating satellite derived ISR products using ground measurements to achieve better accuracy.

  5. Final report: survey and removal of radioactive surface contamination at environmental restoration sites, Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, K.A.; Mitchell, M.M.; Jean, D.; Brown, C.; Byrd, C.S.

    1997-09-01

    This report describes the survey and removal of radioactive surface contamination at Sandia's Environmental Restoration (ER) sites. Radiological characterization was performed as a prerequisite to beginning the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) corrective action process. The removal of radioactive surface contamination was performed in order to reduce potential impacts to human health and the environment. The predominant radiological contaminant of concern was depleted uranium (DU). Between October 1993 and November 1996 scanning surface radiation surveys, using gamma scintillometers, were conducted at 65 sites covering approximately 908 acres. A total of 9,518 radiation anomalies were detected at 38 sites. Cleanup activities were conducted between October 1994 and November 1996. A total of 9,122 anomalies were removed and 2,072 waste drums were generated. The majority of anomalies not removed were associated with a site that has subsurface contamination beyond the scope of this project. Verification soil samples (1,008 total samples) were collected from anomalies during cleanup activities and confirm that the soil concentration achieved in the field were far below the target cleanup level of 230 pCi/g of U-238 (the primary constituent of DU) in the soil. Cleanup was completed at 21 sites and no further radiological action is required. Seventeen sites were not completed since cleanup activities wee precluded by ongoing site activity or were beyond the original project scope

  6. Final report: survey and removal of radioactive surface contamination at environmental restoration sites, Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, K.A.; Mitchell, M.M. [Brown and Root Environmental, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jean, D. [MDM/Lamb, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brown, C. [Environmental Dimensions, Inc., Albuquerque, NM 87109 (United States); Byrd, C.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-09-01

    This report describes the survey and removal of radioactive surface contamination at Sandia`s Environmental Restoration (ER) sites. Radiological characterization was performed as a prerequisite to beginning the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) corrective action process. The removal of radioactive surface contamination was performed in order to reduce potential impacts to human health and the environment. The predominant radiological contaminant of concern was depleted uranium (DU). Between October 1993 and November 1996 scanning surface radiation surveys, using gamma scintillometers, were conducted at 65 sites covering approximately 908 acres. A total of 9,518 radiation anomalies were detected at 38 sites. Cleanup activities were conducted between October 1994 and November 1996. A total of 9,122 anomalies were removed and 2,072 waste drums were generated. The majority of anomalies not removed were associated with a site that has subsurface contamination beyond the scope of this project. Verification soil samples (1,008 total samples) were collected from anomalies during cleanup activities and confirm that the soil concentration achieved in the field were far below the target cleanup level of 230 pCi/g of U-238 (the primary constituent of DU) in the soil. Cleanup was completed at 21 sites and no further radiological action is required. Seventeen sites were not completed since cleanup activities wee precluded by ongoing site activity or were beyond the original project scope.

  7. Thermal radiation characteristics and direct evidence of tungsten cooling on the way to nanostructure formation on its surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takamura, S., E-mail: takamura@aitech.ac.jp [Faculty of Engineering, Aichi Institute of Technology, Yakusa-cho, Toyota 470-0392 (Japan); Miyamoto, T. [Faculty of Engineering, Aichi Institute of Technology, Yakusa-cho, Toyota 470-0392 (Japan); Ohno, N. [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan)

    2013-07-15

    The physical properties of tungsten with nanostructure on its surface are investigated focusing on the thermal radiation and cooling characteristics. First, direct evidence of substantial W surface cooling has been clearly shown with use of a very thin thermocouple inserted into W target, which solves an uncertainty associated with a radiation thermometer. Second, the above measurements of W surface temperature make it possible to estimate quantitatively the total emissivity from which we may evaluate the radiative power through the Stefan–Boltzmann equation, which is very important for mitigation evaluation of a serious plasma heat load to the plasma-facing component.

  8. Thermal radiation characteristics and direct evidence of tungsten cooling on the way to nanostructure formation on its surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamura, S.; Miyamoto, T.; Ohno, N.

    2013-01-01

    The physical properties of tungsten with nanostructure on its surface are investigated focusing on the thermal radiation and cooling characteristics. First, direct evidence of substantial W surface cooling has been clearly shown with use of a very thin thermocouple inserted into W target, which solves an uncertainty associated with a radiation thermometer. Second, the above measurements of W surface temperature make it possible to estimate quantitatively the total emissivity from which we may evaluate the radiative power through the Stefan–Boltzmann equation, which is very important for mitigation evaluation of a serious plasma heat load to the plasma-facing component

  9. Effect of far-UV and near-UV radiation on the cell surface charge of the protozoan Tritrichomonas foetus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Filho, F C; Elias, C A; Souza, W de

    1986-05-01

    Cell electrophoresis was used to detect the effect of far-UV or near-UV radiation on the cell surface charge of the pathogenic protozoan Tritrichomonas foetus. Either far-UV or near-UV radiation interfered with the surface charge of T. foetus at fluences which inhibited cell growth by 50%. Both UV-radiations induced a significant decrease on surface charge of T. foetus, as evaluated by measurement of its electrophoretic mobility (EPM). Determinations of EPM of protozoa in solution of low ionic strength indicated that the decrease in the EPM induced by far-UV is much less pronounced that that observed for near-UV or control cells.

  10. Effect of Increasing Doses of γ-Radiation on Bone Marrow Stromal Cells Grown on Smooth and Rough Titanium Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiation therapy for oral and maxillofacial tumors could damage bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs in jaw, which caused dental implant failure. However, how radiation affects BMSCs on SLA (sandblasted with large-grits, acid-etched surfaces is still unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate effect of different dose of γ-radiation on BMSCs on SLA and PT (polished titanium surfaces. Rat BMSCs were radiated with 2, 4, and 8 Gy γ-radiation and then seeded on both surfaces. Cell adhesion, spreading, and proliferation were tested. The osteogenesis and the adipogenesis ability were examined by Alizarin-Red and Oil-Red staining, respectively. Real-time PCR was performed to detect osteogenic (osteocalcin, OCN; runt-related transcription factor 2, Runx2 and adipogenic (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, PPARγ gene expression at days 7 and 14 postirradiation. Results showed that γ-radiation reduced cell proliferation, adhesion, spreading, and osteogenic differentiation. 2 Gy radiation promoted adipogenic differentiation, but it was significantly decreased when dosage reached 4 Gy. In conclusion, results suggest that γ-radiation influenced BMSCs behaviors in a dosage-dependent manner except adipogenic differentiation, low dose promoted it, and high dose inhibited it. This effect was influenced by surface characteristics, which may explain the different failure rate of various implants in patients after radiation.

  11. Clouds, radiation, and the diurnal cycle of sea surface temperature in the tropical Western Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webster, P.J.; Clayson, C.A.; Curry, J.A. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1996-04-01

    In the tropical Western Pacific (TWP) Ocean, the clouds and the cloud-radiation feedback can only be understood in the context of air/sea interactions and the ocean mixed layer. Considerable interest has been shown in attempting to explain why sea surface temperature (SST) rarely rises above 30{degrees}C, and gradients of the SST. For the most part, observational studies that address this issue have been conducted using monthly cloud and SST data, and the focus has been on intraseasonal and interannual time scales. For the unstable tropical atmosphere, using monthly averaged data misses a key feedback between clouds and SST that occurs on the cloud-SST coupling time scale, which was estimated to be 3-6 days for the unstable tropical atmosphere. This time scale is the time needed for a change in cloud properties, due to the change of ocean surface evaporation caused by SST variation, to feed back to the SST variation, to feed back to the SST through its effect on the surface heat flux. This paper addresses the relationship between clouds, surface radiation flux and SST of the TWP ocean over the diurnal cycle.

  12. A radiosity-based model to compute the radiation transfer of soil surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Feng; Li, Yuguang

    2011-11-01

    A good understanding of interactions of electromagnetic radiation with soil surface is important for a further improvement of remote sensing methods. In this paper, a radiosity-based analytical model for soil Directional Reflectance Factor's (DRF) distributions was developed and evaluated. The model was specifically dedicated to the study of radiation transfer for the soil surface under tillage practices. The soil was abstracted as two dimensional U-shaped or V-shaped geometric structures with periodic macroscopic variations. The roughness of the simulated surfaces was expressed as a ratio of the height to the width for the U and V-shaped structures. The assumption was made that the shadowing of soil surface, simulated by U or V-shaped grooves, has a greater influence on the soil reflectance distribution than the scattering properties of basic soil particles of silt and clay. Another assumption was that the soil is a perfectly diffuse reflector at a microscopic level, which is a prerequisite for the application of the radiosity method. This radiosity-based analytical model was evaluated by a forward Monte Carlo ray-tracing model under the same structural scenes and identical spectral parameters. The statistics of these two models' BRF fitting results for several soil structures under the same conditions showed the good agreements. By using the model, the physical mechanism of the soil bidirectional reflectance pattern was revealed.

  13. Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The chapter one presents the composition of matter and atomic theory; matter structure; transitions; origin of radiation; radioactivity; nuclear radiation; interactions in decay processes; radiation produced by the interaction of radiation with matter

  14. Extra-nodal lymphoma. A survey of Japan lymphoma radiation therapy group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguchi, Masahiko; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Shigeo

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine, retrospectively, national-wide clinical data of patients with localized extranodal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) who were treated by radiation therapy with or without chemotherapy. The survey was carried out at 25 radiation oncology institutions in Japan in 1998. In 1999, according to the Revised European American Lymphoma (REAL) classification, central pathological review conducted at Aichi cancer center was carried out for the data from 7 radiation oncology institutions. The 5-year progression free survival rates (PFS) were calculated to identify prognostic factors. Survey: Data from 1, 141 patients with stage I and II NHL were recruited from 1988 through 1992. Of them, 787 patients, who were treated using definitive radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy for intermediate and high-grade lymphomas in Working Formulation, constituted the core of this study. Primary tumors arose mainly from extra-nodal organs (71%) in the head and neck (Waldeyer's ring: 41%, thyroid gland: 7%, nasal cavities: 5%, oral cavities: 4%, sinus: 3%, orbital structures: 3%, skin: 2% and etc.). The median age of 60 years for patients with extra-nodal NHL was higher than that of 56 years for patients with nodal NHL (p<0.01). Female were dominant in incidence of extra-nodal NHL arising from the thyroid gland, skin and gastrointestinal tract. The percentage of stage I to the extra-nodal NHL from orbit, sino-nasal presentation was higher than that of other NHLs. The percentage of stage II to the extra-nodal NHL from Waldeyer's ring and thyroid gland was higher than that of other NHLs. Central pathological review was carried out for pathological data from 79 patients (Waldeyer's ring: 45, thyroid gland: 19, sinonasal cavities: 15). Of these, diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) composed 63% of all patients, mucosa associated lyumphoid tissue lymphoma (MALT-L): 16%, Natural Killer/T cell lymphoma (NK/T-L): 11%, and mantle cell lymphoma: 5% in REAL

  15. Status of the Development of Low Cost Radiator for Surface Fission Power - II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarau, Calin; Maxwell, Taylor; Anderson, William G.; Wagner, Corey; Wrosch, Matthew; Briggs, Maxwell H.

    2016-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is developing fission power system technology for future Lunar and Martian surface power applications. The systems are envisioned in the 10 to 100kWe range and have an anticipated design life of 8 to 15 years with no maintenance. NASA GRC is currently setting up a 55 kWe non-nuclear system ground test in thermal-vacuum to validate technologies required to transfer reactor heat, convert the heat into electricity, reject waste heat, process the electrical output, and demonstrate overall system performance. The paper reports on the development of the heat pipe radiator to reject the waste heat from the Stirling convertors. Reducing the radiator mass, size, and cost is essential to the success of the program. To meet these goals, Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc. (ACT) and Vanguard Space Technologies, Inc. (VST) are developing a single facesheet radiator with heat pipes directly bonded to the facesheet. The facesheet material is a graphite fiber reinforced composite (GFRC) and the heat pipes are titanium/water Variable Conductance Heat Pipes (VCHPs). By directly bonding a single facesheet to the heat pipes, several heavy and expensive components can be eliminated from the traditional radiator design such as, POCO"TM" foam saddles, aluminum honeycomb, and a second facesheet. As mentioned in previous papers by the authors, the final design of the waste heat radiator is described as being modular with independent GFRC panels for each heat pipe. The present paper reports on test results for a single radiator module as well as a radiator cluster consisting of eight integral modules. These tests were carried out in both ambient and vacuum conditions. While the vacuum testing of the single radiator module was performed in the ACT's vacuum chamber, the vacuum testing of the eight heat pipe radiator cluster took place in NASA GRC's vacuum chamber to accommodate the larger size of the cluster. The results for both articles show good agreement

  16. Temperature thresholds for surface blistering of platinum and stainless steel exposed to curium-242 alpha radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonell, W.R.; Dillich, S.

    1981-01-01

    Implantation of helium in materials exposed to alpha-emitting radionuclides such as 242 Cm causes surface blistering at elevated temperatures. The temperature thresholds for such blistering are of practical importance to the selection of suitable container materials for radionuclides, and are of fundamental interest with regard to the mechanisms of helium blistering of materials in radiation environments. The purpose of this investigation was to establish temperature thresholds for surface blistering of platinum and stainless-steel container materials by post-irradiation heating of specimens exposed at room temperature to alpha particles from an external 242 Cm source. These thresholds were compared with (1) the analogous temperature thresholds for surface blistering of materials exposed to external beams of accelerator helium ions, and (2) thresholds for swelling and grain-boundary cracking of materials in which helium is generated internally by (n,α) reactions during reactor exposures

  17. Observation of modified radiative properties of cold atoms in vacuum near a dielectric surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, V V; Cornelussen, R A; Heuvell, H B van Linden van den; Spreeuw, R J C

    2004-01-01

    We have observed a distance-dependent absorption linewidth of cold 87 Rb atoms close to a dielectric-vacuum interface. This is the first observation of modified radiative properties in vacuum near a dielectric surface. A cloud of cold atoms was created using a magneto-optical trap (MOT) and optical molasses cooling. Evanescent waves (EW) were used to observe the behaviour of the atoms near the surface. We observed an increase of the absorption linewidth by up to 25% with respect to the free-space value. Approximately half the broadening can be explained by cavity quantum electrodynamics (CQED) as an increase of the natural linewidth and inhomogeneous broadening. The remainder we attribute to local Stark shifts near the surface. By varying the characteristic EW length we have observed a distance dependence characteristic for CQED

  18. Sunshine-based estimation of global solar radiation on horizontal surface at Lake Van region (Turkey)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duzen, Hacer; Aydin, Harun

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The global solar radiation at Lake Van region is estimated. ► This study is unique for the Lake Van region. ► Solar radiation around Lake Van has the highest value at the east-southeast region. ► The annual average solar energy potential is obtained as 750–2458 kWh/m 2 . ► Results can be used to estimate evaporation. - Abstract: In this study several sunshine-based regression models have been evaluated to estimate monthly average daily global solar radiation on horizontal surface of Lake Van region in the Eastern Anatolia region in Turkey by using data obtained from seven different meteorological stations. These models are derived from Angström–Prescott linear regression model and its derivatives such as quadratic, cubic, logarithmic and exponential. The performance of this regression models were evaluated by comparing the calculated clearness index and the measured clearness index. Several statistical tests were used to control the validation and goodness of the regression models in terms of the coefficient of determination, mean percent error, mean absolute percent error, mean biased error, mean absolute biased error, root mean square error and t-statistic. The results of all the regression models are within acceptable limits according to the statistical tests. However, the best performances are obtained by cubic regression model for Bitlis, Gevaş, Hakkari, Muş stations and by quadratic regression model for Malazgirt, Tatvan and Van stations to predict global solar radiation. The spatial distributions of the monthly average daily global solar radiation around the Lake Van region were obtained with interpolation of calculated solar radiation data that acquired from best fit models of the stations. The annual average solar energy potential for Lake Van region is obtained between 750 kWh/m 2 and 2485 kWh/m 2 with annual average of 1610 kWh/m 2 .

  19. Estimation of Downwelling Surface Longwave Radiation under Heavy Dust Aerosol Sky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunlei Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The variation of aerosols, especially dust aerosol, in time and space plays an important role in climate forcing studies. Aerosols can effectively reduce land surface longwave emission and re-emit energy at a colder temperature, which makes it difficult to estimate downwelling surface longwave radiation (DSLR with satellite data. Using the latest atmospheric radiative transfer code (MODTRAN 5.0, we have simulated the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR and DSLR under different land surface types and atmospheric profile conditions. The results show that dust aerosol has an obvious “warming” effect to longwave radiation compared with other aerosols; that aerosol longwave radiative forcing (ALRF increased with the increasing of aerosol optical depth (AOD; and that the atmospheric water vapor content (WVC is critical to the understanding of ALRF. A method is proposed to improve the accuracy of DSLR estimation from satellite data for the skies under heavy dust aerosols. The AOD and atmospheric WVC under cloud-free conditions with a relatively simple satellite-based radiation model yielding the high accurate DSLR under heavy dust aerosol are used explicitly as model input to reduce the effects of dust aerosol on the estimation of DSLR. Validations of the proposed model with satellites data and field measurements show that it can estimate the DSLR accurately under heavy dust aerosol skies. The root mean square errors (RMSEs are 20.4 W/m2 and 24.2 W/m2 for Terra and Aqua satellites, respectively, at the Yingke site, and the biases are 2.7 W/m2 and 9.6 W/m2, respectively. For the Arvaikheer site, the RMSEs are 23.2 W/m2 and 19.8 W/m2 for Terra and Aqua, respectively, and the biases are 7.8 W/m2 and 10.5 W/m2, respectively. The proposed method is especially applicable to acquire relatively high accurate DSLR under heavy dust aerosol using MODIS data with available WVC and AOD data.

  20. An intercomparison and validation of satellite-based surface radiative energy flux estimates over the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riihelä, Aku; Key, Jeffrey R.; Meirink, Jan Fokke; Kuipers Munneke, Peter; Palo, Timo; Karlsson, Karl-Göran

    2017-05-01

    Accurate determination of radiative energy fluxes over the Arctic is of crucial importance for understanding atmosphere-surface interactions, melt and refreezing cycles of the snow and ice cover, and the role of the Arctic in the global energy budget. Satellite-based estimates can provide comprehensive spatiotemporal coverage, but the accuracy and comparability of the existing data sets must be ascertained to facilitate their use. Here we compare radiative flux estimates from Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Synoptic 1-degree (SYN1deg)/Energy Balanced and Filled, Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) surface energy budget, and our own experimental FluxNet / Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring cLoud, Albedo and RAdiation (CLARA) data against in situ observations over Arctic sea ice and the Greenland Ice Sheet during summer of 2007. In general, CERES SYN1deg flux estimates agree best with in situ measurements, although with two particular limitations: (1) over sea ice the upwelling shortwave flux in CERES SYN1deg appears to be underestimated because of an underestimated surface albedo and (2) the CERES SYN1deg upwelling longwave flux over sea ice saturates during midsummer. The Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer-based GEWEX and FluxNet-CLARA flux estimates generally show a larger range in retrieval errors relative to CERES, with contrasting tendencies relative to each other. The largest source of retrieval error in the FluxNet-CLARA downwelling shortwave flux is shown to be an overestimated cloud optical thickness. The results illustrate that satellite-based flux estimates over the Arctic are not yet homogeneous and that further efforts are necessary to investigate the differences in the surface and cloud properties which lead to disagreements in flux retrievals.