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Sample records for surface perturbations decouple

  1. Decoupling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fletcher, Robert; Rammelt, Crelis

    2017-01-01

    Central to the United Nations’ post-2015 development agenda grounded in the Sustainable Development Goals is the notion of ‘decoupling’: the need to divorce economic growth from its ecological impact. For proponents, decoupling entails increasing the efficiency with which value is derived from

  2. ADE spectral networks and decoupling limits of surface defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longhi, Pietro [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala university,Uppsala (Sweden); Park, Chan Y. [NHETC and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University,New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

    2017-02-03

    We study vacua and BPS spectra of canonical surface defects of class S theories in different decoupling limits using ADE spectral networks. In some regions of the IR moduli spaces of these 2d-4d systems, the mixing between 2d and 4d BPS states is suppressed, and the spectrum of 2d-4d BPS states becomes that of a 2d N=(2,2) theory. For some decoupling limits, we identify the 2d theories describing the surface defects with nonlinear sigma models and coset models that have been previously studied. We also study certain cases where the decoupling limit of a surface defect exhibits a set of vacua and a BPS spectrum that appear to be entirely new. A detailed analysis of these spectra and their wall-crossing behavior is performed.

  3. Surface-atmosphere decoupling limits accumulation at Summit, Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkelhammer, Max; Noone, David C; Steen-Larsen, Hans Christian; Bailey, Adriana; Cox, Christopher J; O'Neill, Michael S; Schneider, David; Steffen, Konrad; White, James W C

    2016-04-01

    Despite rapid melting in the coastal regions of the Greenland Ice Sheet, a significant area (~40%) of the ice sheet rarely experiences surface melting. In these regions, the controls on annual accumulation are poorly constrained owing to surface conditions (for example, surface clouds, blowing snow, and surface inversions), which render moisture flux estimates from myriad approaches (that is, eddy covariance, remote sensing, and direct observations) highly uncertain. Accumulation is partially determined by the temperature dependence of saturation vapor pressure, which influences the maximum humidity of air parcels reaching the ice sheet interior. However, independent proxies for surface temperature and accumulation from ice cores show that the response of accumulation to temperature is variable and not generally consistent with a purely thermodynamic control. Using three years of stable water vapor isotope profiles from a high altitude site on the Greenland Ice Sheet, we show that as the boundary layer becomes increasingly stable, a decoupling between the ice sheet and atmosphere occurs. The limited interaction between the ice sheet surface and free tropospheric air reduces the capacity for surface condensation to achieve the rate set by the humidity of the air parcels reaching interior Greenland. The isolation of the surface also acts to recycle sublimated moisture by recondensing it onto fog particles, which returns the moisture back to the surface through gravitational settling. The observations highlight a unique mechanism by which ice sheet mass is conserved, which has implications for understanding both past and future changes in accumulation rate and the isotopic signal in ice cores from Greenland.

  4. Using lagged dependence to identify (de)coupled surface and subsurface soil moisture values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, Coleen D. U.; van der Ploeg, Martine J.; Torfs, Paul J. J. F.

    2018-04-01

    Recent advances in radar remote sensing popularized the mapping of surface soil moisture at different spatial scales. Surface soil moisture measurements are used in combination with hydrological models to determine subsurface soil moisture values. However, variability of soil moisture across the soil column is important for estimating depth-integrated values, as decoupling between surface and subsurface can occur. In this study, we employ new methods to investigate the occurrence of (de)coupling between surface and subsurface soil moisture. Using time series datasets, lagged dependence was incorporated in assessing (de)coupling with the idea that surface soil moisture conditions will be reflected at the subsurface after a certain delay. The main approach involves the application of a distributed-lag nonlinear model (DLNM) to simultaneously represent both the functional relation and the lag structure in the time series. The results of an exploratory analysis using residuals from a fitted loess function serve as a posteriori information to determine (de)coupled values. Both methods allow for a range of (de)coupled soil moisture values to be quantified. Results provide new insights into the decoupled range as its occurrence among the sites investigated is not limited to dry conditions.

  5. Reconstruction of local perturbations in periodic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechleiter, Armin; Zhang, Ruming

    2018-03-01

    This paper concerns the inverse scattering problem to reconstruct a local perturbation in a periodic structure. Unlike the periodic problems, the periodicity for the scattered field no longer holds, thus classical methods, which reduce quasi-periodic fields in one periodic cell, are no longer available. Based on the Floquet–Bloch transform, a numerical method has been developed to solve the direct problem, that leads to a possibility to design an algorithm for the inverse problem. The numerical method introduced in this paper contains two steps. The first step is initialization, that is to locate the support of the perturbation by a simple method. This step reduces the inverse problem in an infinite domain into one periodic cell. The second step is to apply the Newton-CG method to solve the associated optimization problem. The perturbation is then approximated by a finite spline basis. Numerical examples are given at the end of this paper, showing the efficiency of the numerical method.

  6. The influence of surface versus free-air decoupling on temperature trend patterns in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    N.C. Pepin; C. Daly; J. Lundquist

    2011-01-01

    We analyzed temperature trends from 460 GHCNv2 weather stations in the western United States for 1948¨C2006 to determine whether the extent of decoupling of surface temperatures from the free atmosphere influences past change. At each location we derived monthly indices representative of anticyclonicity using NCEP/NCAR 700 hPa reanalysis pressure fields. The number of...

  7. Random surfaces: A non-perturbative regularization of strings?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambjoern, J.

    1989-12-01

    I review the basic properties of the theory of randum surfaces. While it is by now well known that the theory of (discretized) random surfaces correctly describes the (perturbative) aspects of non-critical strings in d 1. In these lectures I intend to show that the theory of dynamical triangulated random surfaces provides us with a lot of information about the dynamics of both the bosonic string and the superstring even for d>1. I also briefly review recent attempts to define a string field theory (sum over all genus) in this approach. (orig.)

  8. Decoupling capabilities of split-loop resonator structure for 7 Tesla MRI surface array coils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurshkainen, A.; Kurdjumov, S.; Simovski, C.; Glybovski, S.; Melchakova, I.; van den Berg, C. A. T.; Raaijmakers, A.; Belov, P.

    2017-09-01

    In this work we studied electromagnetic properties of one-dimentional periodic structures composed of split-loop res-onators (SLRs) and investigated their capabilities in decoupling of two dipole antennas for full-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Two different finite structures comprising a single-SLR and a double-SLR constitutive elements were studied. Numerical simulations of the structures were performed to evaluate their decoupling capabilities. As it was demonstrated two dipole antennas equipped with either a single or a double-SLR structure exhibit high isolation even for an electrically short distance between the dipoles. Double-SLR structure while dramatically improving isolation of the dipoles keeps the field created by each of the decoupled dipoles comparable with one of a single dipole inside the target area.

  9. Practical aspects of 13C surface receive coils with active decoupling and tuning circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Daniel; Mohr, Johan Jacob; Zhurbenko, Vitaliy

    2012-01-01

    is based on application-specified coil profile and includes impedance matching and balancing circuits. Active decoupling is implemented in order to minimize the influence of the receiving coil on the homogeneity of the transmit-coil field. Measurement results for a coil prototype are presented, including...... imaging experiments and estimation of the signal-to-noise ratio....

  10. Semiclassical perturbation theory for diffraction in heavy atom surface scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miret-Artés, Salvador; Daon, Shauli; Pollak, Eli

    2012-05-28

    The semiclassical perturbation theory formalism of Hubbard and Miller [J. Chem. Phys. 78, 1801 (1983)] for atom surface scattering is used to explore the possibility of observation of heavy atom diffractive scattering. In the limit of vanishing ℏ the semiclassical theory is shown to reduce to the classical perturbation theory. The quantum diffraction pattern is sensitive to the characteristics of the beam of incoming particles. Necessary conditions for observation of quantum diffraction are derived for the angular width of the incoming beam. An analytic expression for the angular distribution as a function of the angular and momentum variance of the incoming beam is obtained. We show both analytically and through some numerical results that increasing the angular width of the incident beam leads to decoherence of the quantum diffraction peaks and one approaches the classical limit. However, the incoherence of the beam in the parallel direction does not destroy the diffraction pattern. We consider the specific example of Ar atoms scattered from a rigid LiF(100) surface.

  11. Non-perturbative string theories and singular surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bochicchio, M.

    1990-01-01

    Singular surfaces are shown to be dense in the Teichmueller space of all Riemann surfaces and in the grasmannian. This happens because a regular surface of genus h, obtained identifying 2h disks in pairs, can be approximated by a very large genus singular surface with punctures dense in the 2h disks. A scale ε is introduced and the approximate genus is defined as half the number of connected regions covered by punctures of radius ε. The non-perturbative partition function is proposed to be a scaling limit of the partition function on such infinite genus singular surfaces with a weight which is the coupling constant g raised to the approximate genus. For a gaussian model in any space-time dimension the regularized partition function on singular surfaces of infinite genus is the partition function of a two-dimensional lattice gas of charges and monopoles. It is shown that modular invariance of the partition function implies a version of the Dirac quantization condition for the values of the e/m charges. Before the scaling limit the phases of the lattice gas may be classified according to the 't Hooft criteria for the condensation of e/m operators. (orig.)

  12. Investigation of (de)coupling between surface and subsurface soil moisture using a Distributed Lag Non-linear Model (DNLM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, Coleen; van der Ploeg, Martine

    2017-04-01

    Accurate estimates of water content in the soil profile are essential for environmental and climate modeling studies. Current trends for estimating profile soil moisture incorporate remote sensing methods for mapping soil moisture at greater spatial coverage but is limited to the upper soil layers (e.g. 5cm for radar satellites). Data assimilation methods offer promising computational techniques to translate mapped surface soil moisture to estimates of profile soil moisture, in conjunction with physical models. However, a variety of factors, such as differences in the drying rates, can lead to "decoupling" (Capehart and Carlson, 1997) of surface and subsurface soil moisture. In other words, surface soil moisture conditions no longer reflect or represent subsurface conditions. In this study, we investigated the relation and observed decoupling between surface and subsurface soil moisture from 15-minute interval time series datasets in four selected Dutch agricultural fields (SM_05, SM_09, SM_13, SM_20) from the soil moisture network in Twente region. The idea is that surface soil moisture conditions will be reflected in the subsurface after a certain time lag because of its movement or flow from the surface. These lagged associations were analysed using distributed lag non-linear model (DLNM). This statistical technique provides a framework to simultaneously represent non-linear exposure-response dependencies and delayed effects. DNLM was applied to elucidate which surface soil moisture conditions resulted in a high association to subsurface values, indicating good correlation between the two zones. For example, initial results for this ongoing study from SM_13 show an overall low but increasing association from dry to intermediate soil moisture values (0 to 25%). At this range of values, we say that the two zones are decoupled. Above these values towards near saturated conditions ( 40%), associations between the two zones remain high. For predictor

  13. No difference between mechanical perturbation training with compliant surface and manual perturbation training on knee functional performance after ACL rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawasreh, Zakariya; Logerstedt, David; Failla, Mathew; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

    2017-10-27

    Manual perturbation training improves dynamic knee stability and functional performance after anterior cruciate ligament rupture (ACL-rupture). However, it is limited to static standing position and does not allow time-specific perturbations at different phase of functional activities. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether administering mechanical perturbation training including compliant surface provides effects similar to manual perturbation training on knee functional measures after an acute ACL-rupture. Sixteen level I/II athletes with ACL-ruptures participated in this preliminary study. Eight patients received mechanical (Mechanical) and eight subjects received manual perturbation training (Manual). All patients completed a functional testing (isometric quadriceps strength, single-legged hop tests) and patient-reported measures (Knee Outcome Survey-Activities of Daily Living Scale (KOS-ADLS), Global Rating Score (GRS), International Knee Documentation Committee 2000 (IKDC 2000) at pre- and post-training. 2 × 2 ANOVA was used for data analysis. No significant group-by-time interactions were found for all measures (p > 0.18). Main effects of time were found for single hop (Pre-testing: 85.14% ± 21.07; Post-testing: 92.49% ± 17.55), triple hop (Pre-testing: 84.64% ± 14.17; Post-testing: 96.64% ± 11.14), KOS-ADLS (Pre-testing: 81.13% ± 11.12; Post-testing: 88.63% ± 12.63), GRS (Pre-testing: 68.63% ± 15.73; Post-testing: 78.81% ± 13.85), and IKDC 2000 (Pre-testing: 66.66% ± 9.85; Post-testing: 76.05% ± 14.62) (p training using compliant surfaces induce effects similar to manual perturbation training on knee functional performance after acute ACL-rupture. The clinical significance is both modes of training improve patients' functional-performance and limb-to-limb movement symmetry, and enhancing the patients' self-reported of knee functional measures after ACL rupture. Mechanical

  14. A Meta-Surface Antenna Array Decoupling (MAAD) Method for Mutual Coupling Reduction in a MIMO Antenna System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ziyang; Zhao, Luyu; Cai, Yuanming; Zheng, Shufeng; Yin, Yingzeng

    2018-02-16

    In this paper, a method to reduce the inevitable mutual coupling between antennas in an extremely closely spaced two-element MIMO antenna array is proposed. A suspended meta-surface composed periodic square split ring resonators (SRRs) is placed above the antenna array for decoupling. The meta-surface is equivalent to a negative permeability medium, along which wave propagation is rejected. By properly designing the rejection frequency band of the SRR unit, the mutual coupling between the antenna elements in the MIMO antenna system can be significantly reduced. Two prototypes of microstrip antenna arrays at 5.8 GHz band with and without the metasurface have been fabricated and measured. The matching bandwidths of antennas with reflection coefficient smaller than -15 dB for the arrays without and with the metasurface are 360 MHz and 900 MHz respectively. Using the meta-surface, the isolation between elements is increased from around 8 dB to more than 27 dB within the band of interest. Meanwhile, the total efficiency and peak gain of each element, the envelope correlation coefficient (ECC) between the two elements are also improved by considerable amounts. All the results demonstrate that the proposed method is very efficient for enhancing the performance of MIMO antenna arrays.

  15. Decoupling Bulk and Surface Contributions in Water- Splitting Photocatalysts by In Situ Ultrafast Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appavoo, Kannatassen [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Center for Functional Nanomaterials; Mingzhao, Liu [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Center for Functional Nanomaterials; Black, Charles T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Center for Functional Nanomaterials; Sfeir, Matthew Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Center for Functional Nanomaterials

    2015-05-10

    By performing ultrafast emission spectroscopy in an operating, bias-controlled photoelectrochemical cell, we distinguish between bulk (charge transport) and surface (chemical reaction) recombination processes in a nanostructured photocatalyst and correlate its electronic properties directly with its incident-photon-to-current efficiency.

  16. Decoupling single nanowire mobilities limited by surface scattering and bulk impurity scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanal, D. R.; Levander, A. X.; Wu, J.; Yu, K. M.; Liliental-Weber, Z.; Walukiewicz, W.; Grandal, J.; Sanchez-Garcia, M. A.; Calleja, E.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate the isolation of two free carrier scattering mechanisms as a function of radial band bending in InN nanowires via universal mobility analysis, where effective carrier mobility is measured as a function of effective electric field in a nanowire field-effect transistor. Our results show that Coulomb scattering limits effective mobility at most effective fields, while surface roughness scattering only limits mobility under very high internal electric fields. High-energy α particle irradiation is used to vary the ionized donor concentration, and the observed decrease in mobility and increase in donor concentration are compared to Hall effect results of high-quality InN thin films. Our results show that for nanowires with relatively high doping and large diameters, controlling Coulomb scattering from ionized dopants should be given precedence over surface engineering when seeking to maximize nanowire mobility.

  17. Perturbation of higher-genus spatial surfaces in (2+1)-dimensional gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamura, T.; Ishihara, H.

    1992-01-01

    We study dynamical evolutions of spatial surfaces with genus g≥2 in (2+1)-dimensional pure Einstein gravity by the perturbation analysis around static moduli solutions. We find that an action of the perturbed Teichmueller parameters has a harmonic-oscillator form with a time-dependent mass and frequency. It is also shown that a set of the static moduli solutions is an attractor of nearby solutions

  18. Benchmark Database of Transition Metal Surface and Adsorption Energies from Many-Body Perturbation Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Per Simmendefeldt; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2018-01-01

    We present an extensive set of surface and chemisorption energies calculated using state of the art many body perturbation theory. In the first part of the paper we consider 10 surface reactions in the low coverage regime where experimental data is available. Here the random phase approximation...

  19. Material transport of a magnetizable fluid by surface perturbation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Böhm, V. [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Ilmenau University of Technology, Ilmenau D-98693 (Germany); Naletova, V.A. [Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Vorobyovy gory, 119899 Moscow (Russian Federation); Popp, J. [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Ilmenau University of Technology, Ilmenau D-98693 (Germany); Zeidis, I., E-mail: igor.zeidis@tu-ilmenau.de [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Ilmenau University of Technology, Ilmenau D-98693 (Germany); Zimmermann, K. [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Ilmenau University of Technology, Ilmenau D-98693 (Germany)

    2015-12-01

    Within the research for apedal, contour variable locomotion systems, the influence of an alternating magnetic field on the shape of the free surface of a magnetizable fluid (magnetic fluid) is studied. In the framework of the Stokes approximation, for the case where the amplitude of the alternating component of the applied magnetic field is much less than the magnitude of the permanent component, it is shown analytically that a periodical traveling applied magnetic field can generate a transport of the fluid in a prescribed direction. Numerical computations are performed to calculate and analyze the flow rate of the fluid as a function of the parameters of the field and the fluid. This effect can be used in fluid transporting engineering mini- and microsystems. - Highlights: • The influence of a magnetic field on the shape of a magnetic fluid is studied. • A periodical traveling magnetic field can generate a transport of the fluid. • This effect can be used in fluid transporting engineering mini- and microsystems.

  20. Quantifying the ice-albedo feedback through decoupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravitz, B.; Rasch, P. J.

    2017-12-01

    The ice-albedo feedback involves numerous individual components, whereby warming induces sea ice melt, inducing reduced surface albedo, inducing increased surface shortwave absorption, causing further warming. Here we attempt to quantify the sea ice albedo feedback using an analogue of the "partial radiative perturbation" method, but where the governing mechanisms are directly decoupled in a climate model. As an example, we can isolate the insulating effects of sea ice on surface energy and moisture fluxes by allowing sea ice thickness to change but fixing Arctic surface albedo, or vice versa. Here we present results from such idealized simulations using the Community Earth System Model in which individual components are successively fixed, effectively decoupling the ice-albedo feedback loop. We isolate the different components of this feedback, including temperature change, sea ice extent/thickness, and air-sea exchange of heat and moisture. We explore the interactions between these different components, as well as the strengths of the total feedback in the decoupled feedback loop, to quantify contributions from individual pieces. We also quantify the non-additivity of the effects of the components as a means of investigating the dominant sources of nonlinearity in the ice-albedo feedback.

  1. Null-polygonal minimal surfaces in AdS{sub 4} from perturbed W minimal models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatsuda, Yasuyuki [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Ito, Katsushi [Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Satoh, Yuji [Tsukuba Univ., Sakura, Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Physics

    2012-11-15

    We study the null-polygonal minimal surfaces in AdS{sub 4}, which correspond to the gluon scattering amplitudes/Wilson loops in N=4 super Yang-Mills theory at strong coupling. The area of the minimal surfaces with n cusps is characterized by the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz (TBA) integral equations or the Y-system of the homogeneous sine-Gordon model, which is regarded as the SU(n-4){sub 4}/U(1){sup n-5} generalized parafermion theory perturbed by the weight-zero adjoint operators. Based on the relation to the TBA systems of the perturbed W minimal models, we solve the TBA equations by using the conformal perturbation theory, and obtain the analytic expansion of the remainder function around the UV/regular-polygonal limit for n = 6 and 7. We compare the rescaled remainder function for n=6 with the two-loop one, to observe that they are close to each other similarly to the AdS{sub 3} case.

  2. Evolution of Topographic Stress Perturbations Near the Surface of the Earth and Application to Sheeting Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    Topography perturbs the near-surface stress fields caused by gravity and by regional horizontal stresses. Two-dimensional analytical solutions for elastic stresses in uniform, isotropic rock allow the effects of gravity and a uniform regional horizontal stress P to be distinguished beneath isolated bell-shaped ridges and valleys. The topographic stress perturbations vary depending on the shape of the topography. Gravity, by itself, causes surface-perpendicular and surface-parallel compressive stresses beneath the crest of a bell-shaped ridge. Regional compression contributes a surface-parallel compression atop broad gentle bell-shaped ridges with steepest slopes less than 45°, but a surface-parallel tension atop narrower ridges with steeper slopes. If P is an order of magnitude less compressive than rg|b|, where r is rock density, g is gravitational acceleration, and b is the topographic relief, then effects of gravity dominate effects of the regional compression near the topographic surface. Conversely, if P is an order of magnitude more compressive than rg|b|, then effects of regional compression dominate the effects of gravity, and tensile stresses can develop normal to the surface beneath gentle convex bell-shaped ridges and the convex portions of bell-shaped valleys. The latter conditions promote the widespread development of sheeting joints. The locations of topographic inflection points help define where sheeting joints can develop at a particular time. As erosion progresses and the shape of the topographic surface changes, sheeting joints can form in new areas and be left as relict structures in others. The distribution of sheeting joints thus reflects the dynamic response of geologic systems that evolve through time.

  3. Decoupling structure and metallogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong Hangshou

    1993-01-01

    The decoupling structure is, at present, a hot spot for the study in geoscience. A study on the decoupling structure is not only of great theoretical significance, but also of more economic importance. The author briefly discusses the study of the decoupling structure in terms of its present status, implication, characteristics, formation mechanism and theoretical significance, in addition, with emphasis on the expounding of the decoupling structure over endogenic metallic deposits such as oil and gas, coal, gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc and iron etc. At last reconsideration is made on the ore control theory of the decoupling structure to the ore control structure in the uranium ore field in South China. The author proposes a superficial idea in order to provide a basis of geological structures for expanding old mining areas, opening up new areas(bases), and prospecting for large and rich uranium deposits

  4. Application of Probabilistic and Nonprobabilistic Hybrid Reliability Analysis Based on Dynamic Substructural Extremum Response Surface Decoupling Method for a Blisk of the Aeroengine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Bai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For the nondeterministic factors of an aeroengine blisk, including both factors with sufficient and insufficient statistical data, based on the dynamic substructural method of determinate analysis, the extremum response surface method of probabilistic analysis, and the interval method of nonprobabilistic analysis, a methodology called the probabilistic and nonprobabilistic hybrid reliability analysis based on dynamic substructural extremum response surface decoupling method (P-NP-HRA-DS-ERSDM is proposed. The model includes random variables and interval variables to determine the interval failure probability and the interval reliability index. The extremum response surface function and its flow chart of mixed reliability analysis are given. The interval analysis is embedded in the most likely failure point in the iterative process. The probabilistic analysis and nonprobabilistic analysis are investigated alternately. Tuned and mistuned blisks are studied in a complicated environment, and the results are compared with the Monte Carlo method (MCM and the multilevel nested algorithm (MLNA to verify that the hybrid model can better handle reliability problems concurrently containing random variables and interval variables; meanwhile, it manifests that the computational efficiency of this method is superior and more reasonable for analysing and designing a mistuned blisk. Therefore, this methodology has very important practical significance.

  5. Sea surface wind perturbations over the Kashevarov Bank of the Okhotsk Sea. A satellite study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarkhova, T.I.; Permyakov, M.S.; Potalova, E.Yu.; Semykin, V.I. [V.I. Il' ichev Pacific Oceanological Institute of the Far Eastern Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok (Russian Federation). Lab. of the Ocean and Atmosphere Interaction Studies

    2011-07-01

    Sea surface wind perturbations over sea surface temperature (SST) cold anomalies over the Kashevarov Bank (KB) of the Okhotsk Sea are analyzed using satellite (AMSR-E and QuikSCAT) data during the summerautumn period of 2006-2009. It is shown, that frequency of cases of wind speed decreasing over a cold spot in August- September reaches up to 67%. In the cold spot center SST cold anomalies reached 10.5 C and wind speed lowered down to {proportional_to}7ms {sup -1} relative its value on the periphery. The wind difference between a periphery and a centre of the cold spot is proportional to SST difference with the correlations 0.5 for daily satellite passes data, 0.66 for 3-day mean data and 0.9 for monthly ones. For all types of data the coefficient of proportionality consists of {proportional_to}0.3 {sup -1} on 1 C. (orig.)

  6. Second order classical perturbation theory for atom surface scattering: analysis of asymmetry in the angular distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yun; Pollak, Eli; Miret-Artés, Salvador

    2014-01-14

    A second order classical perturbation theory is developed and applied to elastic atom corrugated surface scattering. The resulting theory accounts for experimentally observed asymmetry in the final angular distributions. These include qualitative features, such as reduction of the asymmetry in the intensity of the rainbow peaks with increased incidence energy as well as the asymmetry in the location of the rainbow peaks with respect to the specular scattering angle. The theory is especially applicable to "soft" corrugated potentials. Expressions for the angular distribution are derived for the exponential repulsive and Morse potential models. The theory is implemented numerically to a simplified model of the scattering of an Ar atom from a LiF(100) surface.

  7. Isomorphism, Diffusion and Decoupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boxenbaum, Eva; Jonsson, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    This chapter traces the evolution of the core theoretical constructs of isomorphism, decoupling and diffusion in organizational institutionalism. We first review the original theoretical formulations of these constructs and then examine their evolution in empirical research conducted over the past...

  8. Dosimetric perturbations of a lead shield for surface and interstitial high-dose-rate brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candela-Juan, Cristian; Granero, Domingo; Vijande, Javier; Ballester, Facundo; Perez-Calatayud, Jose; Rivard, Mark J

    2014-01-01

    In surface and interstitial high-dose-rate brachytherapy with either 60 Co, 192 Ir, or 169 Yb sources, some radiosensitive organs near the surface may be exposed to high absorbed doses. This may be reduced by covering the implants with a lead shield on the body surface, which results in dosimetric perturbations. Monte Carlo simulations in Geant4 were performed for the three radionuclides placed at a single dwell position. Four different shield thicknesses (0, 3, 6, and 10 mm) and three different source depths (0, 5, and 10 mm) in water were considered, with the lead shield placed at the phantom surface. Backscatter dose enhancement and transmission data were obtained for the lead shields. Results were corrected to account for a realistic clinical case with multiple dwell positions. The range of the high backscatter dose enhancement in water is 3 mm for 60 Co and 1 mm for both 192 Ir and 169 Yb. Transmission data for 60 Co and 192 Ir are smaller than those reported by Papagiannis et al (2008 Med. Phys. 35 4898–4906) for brachytherapy facility shielding; for 169 Yb, the difference is negligible. In conclusion, the backscatter overdose produced by the lead shield can be avoided by just adding a few millimetres of bolus. Transmission data provided in this work as a function of lead thickness can be used to estimate healthy organ equivalent dose saving. Use of a lead shield is justified. (paper)

  9. A thermodynamic perturbation theory for the surface tension and ion density profile of a liquid metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, R.; Kumaravadivel, R.

    1976-01-01

    A simple scheme for determining the ion density profile and the surface tension of a liquid metal is described. Assuming that the interaction between metallic pseudo-ions is of the form introduced by Evans, an approximate expression for the excess free energy of the system is derived using the thermodynamic perturbation theory of Weeks, Chandler and Anderson. This excess free energy is then minimized with respect to a parameter which specifies the ion density profile, and the surface tension is given directly. From a consideration of the dependence of the interionic forces on the electron density it is predicted that the ions should take up a very steep density profile at the liquid metal surface. This behaviour is contrasted with that to be expected for rare-gas fluids in which the interatomic forces are density-independent. The values of the surface tension calculated for liquid Na, K and Al from a simplified version of the theory are in reasonable agreement with experiment. (author)

  10. Thermal analysis of dry eye subjects and the thermal impulse perturbation model of ocular surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Aizhong; Maki, Kara L; Salahura, Gheorghe; Kottaiyan, Ranjini; Yoon, Geunyoung; Hindman, Holly B; Aquavella, James V; Zavislan, James M

    2015-03-01

    In this study, we explore the usage of ocular surface temperature (OST) decay patterns to distinguished between dry eye patients with aqueous deficient dry eye (ADDE) and meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD). The OST profiles of 20 dry eye subjects were measured by a long-wave infrared thermal camera in a standardized environment (24 °C, and relative humidity (RH) 40%). The subjects were instructed to blink every 5 s after 20 ∼ 25 min acclimation. Exponential decay curves were fit to the average temperature within a region of the central cornea. We find the MGD subjects have both a higher initial temperature (p model, referred to as the thermal impulse perturbation (TIP) model. We conclude that long-wave-infrared thermal imaging is a plausible tool in assisting with the classification of dry eye patient. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Open string decoupling and tachyon condensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalmers, G.

    2001-01-01

    The amplitudes in perturbative open string theory are examined as functions of the tachyon condensate parameter. The boundary state formalism demonstrates the decoupling of the open string modes at the non-perturbative minima of the tachyon potential via a degeneration of open world-sheets and identifies an independence of the coupling constants g s and g YM at general values of the tachyon condensate. The closed sector is generated at the quantum level; it is also generated at the classical level through the condensation of the propagating open string modes on the D-brane degrees of freedom.

  12. The dynamic response of hyporheic zone redox zonation after surface flow perturbation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, M.; Zheng, L.; Cardenas, M. B.

    2015-12-01

    As water in a stream or river flows over ripples and other bedforms, differential surface pressures create bedform-induced hyporheic exchange. The oxygen, carbon, and nutrients carried into the bed by the surface water as well as those already existing in the bed material form the basis for microbial communities in the sediment.The resulting dissolved oxygen conditions are a critical control on the ecological function of the hyporheic zone (HZ), from both micro- and macro-biological habitat perspectives. Because hyporheic exchange rates are controlled by surface flow velocity, variations in surface flow have significant impact on the subsurface oxygen conditions. Most rivers are subject to flow velocity variations due to natural forcing including precipitation and variations in evapotranspiration as well as anthropogenic forces like dam releases. We use a large (10m x 0.7m x 0.3m) programmable flume instrumented with a bedform-scale high-resolution planar optode dissolved oxygen imaging system to observe the distribution of oxygenated sediment within the HZ over time. Using this system we characterize the rate at which hyporheic oxygen conditions reconfigure in response to changes in the surface flow velocity, particularly the time it takes for conditions to recover after a pulse of increased flow velocity. In addition, we make use of numerical models to further identify critical response time drivers. With these tools, we develop equations to describe the post-disturbance recovery time as a function of relative pulse magnitude and duration. Using these equations we can predict the time scale over which the hyporheic zone will recover following both natural and anthropogenic flow regime disturbances. Being able to predict the magnitude and duration of dissolved oxygen changes in the wake of flow perturbing events allows us to better understand the impact these disturbances have on the ecology of the hyporheic zone.

  13. Sea surface wind perturbations over the Kashevarov Bank of the Okhotsk Sea: a satellite study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. I. Tarkhova

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Sea surface wind perturbations over sea surface temperature (SST cold anomalies over the Kashevarov Bank (KB of the Okhotsk Sea are analyzed using satellite (AMSR-E and QuikSCAT data during the summer-autumn period of 2006–2009. It is shown, that frequency of cases of wind speed decreasing over a cold spot in August–September reaches up to 67%. In the cold spot center SST cold anomalies reached 10.5 °C and wind speed lowered down to ~7 m s−1 relative its value on the periphery. The wind difference between a periphery and a centre of the cold spot is proportional to SST difference with the correlations 0.5 for daily satellite passes data, 0.66 for 3-day mean data and 0.9 for monthly ones. For all types of data the coefficient of proportionality consists of ~0.3 m s−1 on 1 °C.

  14. Decoupling Responsible Management Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasche, Andreas; Gilbert, Dirk Ulrich

    stringency, (2) face overt or covert resistance against change processes, (3) are confronted with competing institutional pressures, and (4) perceive institutional demands as ambiguous. The discussion points to two implications. While decoupling may give rise to the illusion that responsible management...... education from organizational practices. We argue that schools may be unable to match rising institutional pressures to publicly commit to responsible management education with their internal capacity for change. Our analysis proposes that decoupling is likely if schools (1) are exposed to resource......Business schools increasingly aim to embed corporate responsibility, sustainability, and ethics into their curricular and extracurricular activities. This paper examines under what conditions business schools may decouple the structural effects of their engagement in responsible management...

  15. Optimal decoupling controllers revisited

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kučera, Vladimír

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 1 (2013), s. 1-16 ISSN 0324-8569 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TE01020197 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : linear systems * fractional representations * decoupling controller s * stabilizing controller s * optimal controller s Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory

  16. Decoupling Responsible Management Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasche, Andreas; Gilbert, Dirk Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    This article examines under what conditions business schools may decouple the structural effects of their engagement in responsible management education from actual organizational practices. We argue that schools may be unable to match rising institutional pressures to publicly commit to responsi......This article examines under what conditions business schools may decouple the structural effects of their engagement in responsible management education from actual organizational practices. We argue that schools may be unable to match rising institutional pressures to publicly commit...... to responsible management education with their limited internal capacity for change. Our analysis proposes that decoupling is likely if schools (a) are exposed to resource stringency, (b) face overt or covert resistance against change processes, (c) are confronted with competing institutional pressures, and (d......) perceive institutional demands as ambiguous. We discuss two implications of this proposition. On one hand, decoupling can cause dissonant legitimacy perceptions, leading to cynicism around responsible management education within business schools. On the other hand, a temporary inconsistency between talk...

  17. Dynamic Temporal Decoupling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mountakis, K.S.; Klos, T.; Witteveen, C.

    2017-01-01

    Temporal decoupling is a method to distribute a temporal constraint problem over a number of actors, such that each actor can solve its own part of the problem. It then ensures that the partial solutions provided can be always merged to obtain a complete solution. This paper discusses static and

  18. Modeling the South American regional smoke plume: aerosol optical depth variability and surface shortwave flux perturbation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. E. Rosário

    2013-03-01

    . This highlights the need to improve modelling of the regional smoke plume in order to enhance the accuracy of the radiative energy budget. An aerosol optical model based on the mean intensive properties of smoke from the southern part of the Amazon basin produced a radiative flux perturbation efficiency (RFPE of −158 Wm−2/AOD550 nm at noon. This value falls between −154 Wm−2/AOD550 nm and −187 Wm−2/AOD550 nm, the range obtained when spatially varying optical models were considered. The 24 h average surface radiative flux perturbation over the biomass burning season varied from −55 Wm−2 close to smoke sources in the southern part of the Amazon basin and cerrado to −10 Wm−2 in remote regions of the southeast Brazilian coast.

  19. Catalytic Decoupling of Quantum Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majenz, Christian; Berta, Mario; Dupuis, Frédéric

    2017-01-01

    The decoupling technique is a fundamental tool in quantum information theory with applications ranging from quantum thermodynamics to quantum many body physics to the study of black hole radiation. In this work we introduce the notion of catalytic decoupling, that is, decoupling in the presence...... of an uncorrelated ancilla system. This removes a restriction on the standard notion of decoupling, which becomes important for structureless resources, and yields a tight characterization in terms of the max-mutual information. Catalytic decoupling naturally unifies various tasks like the erasure of correlations...

  20. Decoupling Responsible Management Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasche, Andreas; Gilbert, Dirk Ulrich

    Business schools increasingly aim to embed corporate responsibility, sustainability, and ethics into their curricular and extracurricular activities. This paper examines under what conditions business schools may decouple the structural effects of their engagement in responsible management educat...... education is progressing, it is also possible that an inconsistency between talk and action can help schools to articulate ambitions for responsible management education, which, over time, inspire recoupling effects....

  1. Geometrical method of decoupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Baumgarten

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The computation of tunes and matched beam distributions are essential steps in the analysis of circular accelerators. If certain symmetries—like midplane symmetry—are present, then it is possible to treat the betatron motion in the horizontal, the vertical plane, and (under certain circumstances the longitudinal motion separately using the well-known Courant-Snyder theory, or to apply transformations that have been described previously as, for instance, the method of Teng and Edwards. In a preceding paper, it has been shown that this method requires a modification for the treatment of isochronous cyclotrons with non-negligible space charge forces. Unfortunately, the modification was numerically not as stable as desired and it was still unclear, if the extension would work for all conceivable cases. Hence, a systematic derivation of a more general treatment seemed advisable. In a second paper, the author suggested the use of real Dirac matrices as basic tools for coupled linear optics and gave a straightforward recipe to decouple positive definite Hamiltonians with imaginary eigenvalues. In this article this method is generalized and simplified in order to formulate a straightforward method to decouple Hamiltonian matrices with eigenvalues on the real and the imaginary axis. The decoupling of symplectic matrices which are exponentials of such Hamiltonian matrices can be deduced from this in a few steps. It is shown that this algebraic decoupling is closely related to a geometric “decoupling” by the orthogonalization of the vectors E[over →], B[over →], and P[over →], which were introduced with the so-called “electromechanical equivalence.” A mathematical analysis of the problem can be traced down to the task of finding a structure-preserving block diagonalization of symplectic or Hamiltonian matrices. Structure preservation means in this context that the (sequence of transformations must be symplectic and hence canonical. When

  2. Surface perturbations of a shallow viscous fluid heated from below and the (2+1)-dimensional Burgers equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraenkel, R.A.; Pereira, J.G.; Manna, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    The (2+1)-dimensional Burgers equation is obtained as the equation of motion governing the surface perturbations of a shallow viscous fluid heated from below, provided the Rayleigh number of the system satisfy the condition R ≠ 30. A solution to this equation is explicity exhibited and it is argued that it describes the nonlinear evolution of a nearly one-dimensional kink. (author)

  3. A stable high-order perturbation of surfaces method for numerical simulation of diffraction problems in triply layered media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Youngjoon, E-mail: hongy@uic.edu; Nicholls, David P., E-mail: davidn@uic.edu

    2017-02-01

    The accurate numerical simulation of linear waves interacting with periodic layered media is a crucial capability in engineering applications. In this contribution we study the stable and high-order accurate numerical simulation of the interaction of linear, time-harmonic waves with a periodic, triply layered medium with irregular interfaces. In contrast with volumetric approaches, High-Order Perturbation of Surfaces (HOPS) algorithms are inexpensive interfacial methods which rapidly and recursively estimate scattering returns by perturbation of the interface shape. In comparison with Boundary Integral/Element Methods, the stable HOPS algorithm we describe here does not require specialized quadrature rules, periodization strategies, or the solution of dense non-symmetric positive definite linear systems. In addition, the algorithm is provably stable as opposed to other classical HOPS approaches. With numerical experiments we show the remarkable efficiency, fidelity, and accuracy one can achieve with an implementation of this algorithm.

  4. Weight Symmetry and Latency Scores for Unexpected Surface Perturbations in Subjects With Traumatic and Vascular Unilateral Transtibial Amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Rueda, Francisco; Molero-Sánchez, Alberto; Alguacil-Diego, Isabel M; Carratalá-Tejada, María; Cuesta-Gómez, Alicia; Miangolarra-Page, Juan Carlos

    2016-03-01

    Subjects with lower limb amputation develop new motor control strategies to preserve balance when they experience unexpected perturbations. Most studies performed thus far have not aimed to discuss the possible differences in postural control between subjects with vascular unilateral transtibial amputation (UTA) and subjects with traumatic UTA. To analyze the automatic postural reaction in response to unexpected surface perturbations in a sample of subjects with traumatic and vascular UTA and to compare these observations with those for a group of healthy subjects. University department. Observational study. A total of 9 men with traumatic UTA, 7 men with vascular UTA, and 10 control subjects without amputation. Computerized dynamic posturography Smart EquiTest System version 8.0 was used to measure automatic postural responses in both groups. The motor control test was used to assess the participants' automatic postural responses to unexpected surface perturbations. Latency scores showed that subjects with traumatic UTA coped with faster latencies under their sound limb than did the subjects with vascular UTA in medium backward and forward perturbations (medium-backward: P = .004; medium-forward: P = .037). In addition, the subjects with traumatic UTA also managed faster responses to medium-backward (P = .017 versus right control limb; P = .046 versus left control limb) and large-backward (P = .021 versus right control limb) and medium-forward (P = .012 versus right control limb; P = .043 versus left control limb) perturbations in their sound limb in contrast to control subjects. Weight symmetry showed that the subjects with traumatic UTA bore significantly more weight through their sound limb compared with the control subjects during medium and large backward translations (P = .028 and P = .045, respectively). The subjects with traumatic UTA had a greater reliance on their sound limb, and they had faster latencies and more weight in the sound limb upon

  5. Analytical solutions for the surface response to small amplitude perturbations in boundary data in the shallow-ice-stream approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. H. Gudmundsson

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available New analytical solutions describing the effects of small-amplitude perturbations in boundary data on flow in the shallow-ice-stream approximation are presented. These solutions are valid for a non-linear Weertman-type sliding law and for Newtonian ice rheology. Comparison is made with corresponding solutions of the shallow-ice-sheet approximation, and with solutions of the full Stokes equations. The shallow-ice-stream approximation is commonly used to describe large-scale ice stream flow over a weak bed, while the shallow-ice-sheet approximation forms the basis of most current large-scale ice sheet models. It is found that the shallow-ice-stream approximation overestimates the effects of bed topography perturbations on surface profile for wavelengths less than about 5 to 10 ice thicknesses, the exact number depending on values of surface slope and slip ratio. For high slip ratios, the shallow-ice-stream approximation gives a very simple description of the relationship between bed and surface topography, with the corresponding transfer amplitudes being close to unity for any given wavelength. The shallow-ice-stream estimates for the timescales that govern the transient response of ice streams to external perturbations are considerably more accurate than those based on the shallow-ice-sheet approximation. In particular, in contrast to the shallow-ice-sheet approximation, the shallow-ice-stream approximation correctly reproduces the short-wavelength limit of the kinematic phase speed given by solving a linearised version of the full Stokes system. In accordance with the full Stokes solutions, the shallow-ice-sheet approximation predicts surface fields to react weakly to spatial variations in basal slipperiness with wavelengths less than about 10 to 20 ice thicknesses.

  6. Gauge symmetry from decoupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Wetterich

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Gauge symmetries emerge from a redundant description of the effective action for light degrees of freedom after the decoupling of heavy modes. This redundant description avoids the use of explicit constraints in configuration space. For non-linear constraints the gauge symmetries are non-linear. In a quantum field theory setting the gauge symmetries are local and can describe Yang–Mills theories or quantum gravity. We formulate gauge invariant fields that correspond to the non-linear light degrees of freedom. In the context of functional renormalization gauge symmetries can emerge if the flow generates or preserves large mass-like terms for the heavy degrees of freedom. They correspond to a particular form of gauge fixing terms in quantum field theories.

  7. Disturbance Decoupling in Dynamic Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, W.A.; Schumacher, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    A theory for disturbance decoupling problems has been well developed in the area of geometric control theory. The aim of the present study is to introduce disturbance decoupling problems in a dynamic game context. For this purpose, techniques from geometric control theory are applied. Necessary and

  8. Laplacian drop shapes and effect of random perturbations on accuracy of surface tension measurement for different drop constellations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Sameh M I; Neumann, A Wilhelm

    2015-08-01

    Theoretical drop shapes are calculated for three drop constellations: pendant drops, constrained sessile drops, and unconstrained sessile drops. Based on total Gaussian curvature, shape parameter and critical shape parameter are discussed as a function of different drop sizes and surface tensions. The shape parameter is linked to physical parameters for every drop constellation. The as yet unavailable detailed dimensional analysis for the unconstrained sessile drop is presented. Results show that the unconstrained sessile drop shape depends on a dimensionless volume term and the contact angle. Random perturbations are introduced and the accuracy of surface tension measurement is assessed for precise and perturbed profiles of the three drop constellations. It is concluded that pendant drops are the best method for accurate surface tension measurement, followed by constrained sessile drops. The unconstrained sessile drops come last because they tend to be more spherical at low and moderate contact angles. Of course, unconstrained sessile drops are the only option if contact angles are to be measured. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Decoupling schemes for the SSC Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Y.; Bourianoff, G.; Cole, B.; Meinke, R.; Peterson, J.; Pilat, F.; Stampke, S.; Syphers, M.; Talman, R.

    1993-05-01

    A decoupling system is designed for the SSC Collider. This system can accommodate three decoupling schemes by using 44 skew quadrupoles in the different configurations. Several decoupling schemes are studied and compared in this paper

  10. Decoupling schemes for the SCC Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Y.; Bourianoff, G.; Cole, B.; Meinke, R.; Peterson, J.; Pilat, F.; Stampke, S.; Syphers, M.; Talman, R.

    1993-01-01

    A decoupling system is designed for the SSC Collider. This system can accommodate three decoupling schemes by using 44 skew quadrupoles in the different configurations. Several decoupling schemes are studied and compared in this paper

  11. Selective Regulator Decoupling and Organizations' Strategic Responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heese, Jonas; Krishnan, Ranjani; Moers, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Organizations often respond to institutional pressures by symbolically adopting policies and procedures but decoupling them from actual practice. Literature has examined why organizations decouple from regulatory pressures. In this study, we argue that decoupling occurs within regulatory agencies

  12. Destruction of Invariant Surfaces and Magnetic Coordinates for Perturbed Magnetic Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, S.R.

    2003-01-01

    Straight-field-line coordinates are constructed for nearly integrable magnetic fields. The coordinates are based on the robust, noble-irrational rotational-transform surfaces, whose existence is determined by an application of Greene's residue criterion. A simple method to locate these surfaces is described. Sequences of surfaces with rotational-transform converging to low order rationals maximize the region of straight-field-line coordinates

  13. Unexpected hydrologic perturbation in an abandoned underground coal mine: Response to surface reclamation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, D.; Olyphant, G.A.; Hartke, E.J.

    1990-01-01

    A reclamation project at the abandoned Blackhawk Mine site near Terre Haute, Indiana, lasted about four months and involved the burial of coarse mine refuse in shallow (less than 9 m) pits excavated into loess and till in an area of about 16 ha. An abandoned flooded underground coal mine underlies the reclamation site at a depth of about 38 m; the total area underlain by the mine is about 10 km2. The potentiometric levels associated with the mine indicate a significant (2.7 m) and prolonged perturbation of the deeper confined groundwater system; 14 months after completing reclamation, the levels began to rise linearly (at an average rate of 0.85 cm/d) for 11 months, then fell exponentially for 25 months, and are now nearly stable. Prominent subsidence features exist near the reclamation site. Subsidence-related fractures were observed in cores from the site, and such fractures may have provided a connection between the shallower and deeper groundwater systems. ?? 1990 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  14. Fast Automated Decoupling at RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Beebe-Wang, Joanne

    2005-01-01

    Coupling correction is essential for the operational performance of RHIC. The independence of the transverse degrees of freedom makes diagnostics and tune control easier, and it is advantageous to operate an accelerator close to the coupling resonance to minimize nearby nonlinear sidebands. An automated decoupling application has been developed at RHIC for coupling correction during routine operations. The application decouples RHIC globally by minimizing the tune separation through finding the optimal settings of two orthogonal skew quadrupole families. The program provides options of automatic, semi-automatic and manual decoupling operations. It accesses tune information from all RHIC tune measurement systems: the PLL (Phase Lock Loop), the high frequency Schottky system, and the tune meter. It also supplies tune and skew quadrupole scans, finding the minimum tune separation, display the real time results and interface with the RHIC control system. We summarize the capabilities of the decoupling application...

  15. FRF decoupling of nonlinear systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaycıoğlu, Taner; Özgüven, H. Nevzat

    2018-03-01

    Structural decoupling problem, i.e. predicting dynamic behavior of a particular substructure from the knowledge of the dynamics of the coupled structure and the other substructure, has been well investigated for three decades and led to several decoupling methods. In spite of the inherent nonlinearities in a structural system in various forms such as clearances, friction and nonlinear stiffness, all decoupling studies are for linear systems. In this study, decoupling problem for nonlinear systems is addressed for the first time. A method, named as FRF Decoupling Method for Nonlinear Systems (FDM-NS), is proposed for calculating FRFs of a substructure decoupled from a coupled nonlinear structure where nonlinearity can be modeled as a single nonlinear element. Depending on where nonlinear element is, i.e., either in the known or unknown subsystem, or at the connection point, the formulation differs. The method requires relative displacement information between two end points of the nonlinear element, in addition to point and transfer FRFs at some points of the known subsystem. However, it is not necessary to excite the system from the unknown subsystem even when the nonlinear element is in that subsystem. The validation of FDM-NS is demonstrated with two different case studies using nonlinear lumped parameter systems. Finally, a nonlinear experimental test structure is used in order to show the real-life application and accuracy of FDM-NS.

  16. Long-Term Adaptations to Unexpected Surface Perturbations: Postural Control During Stance and Gait in Train Conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgart, Christian; Hoppe, Matthias Wilhelm; Freiwald, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    The authors aimed to evaluate the differences in postural control during stance and gait between train conductors and controls. Twenty-one train conductors and 21 office workers performed 6 unilateral and bilateral balance tests on stable and unstable surfaces as well as a gait analysis. In the balance tests, the mean velocity of the center of pressure and unstable surface was measured. In the bilateral balance tests the selected stance width was measured. During gait the length, width, frequency, and velocity of the steps were calculated from the ground reaction forces. Train conductors showed a significantly greater step width during gait (15.4 ± 4.7 vs. 13.0 ± 3.4 cm; p = .035) and stance width during the bilateral stance on the unstable surface (21.0 ± 5.1 vs. 17.8 ± 3.7 cm; p = .026) than the office workers, while no differences were revealed in balance variables. The revealed differences between train conductors and office workers may represent task-specific feedforward control strategies, which increase the base of support and may be helpful to resist unexpected perturbations in trains.

  17. Development of surface perturbation target and thin silicon foil target used to research Rayleigh-Taylor instability in inertial confinement fusion experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Bin; Sun Qi; Huang Yaodong; Shen Jun; Wu Guangming; Wang Jue

    2004-01-01

    The developments of the surface perturbation target and the thin silicon foil target used to research Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the resolved experiments of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) are carried out. Based on the laser interference process combined with the figure-transfer process, the surface perturbation target with sine modulated perturbation is gotten, the wavelength is in the range of 20-100 μm and the amplitude is several micrometers. The thin silicon foil within the thickness about 3-4 μm is prepared by semiconductor process together with heavy-doped self-stop etching. Combined with ion beam etching, the check or the stripe patterns are transferred to the surface of thin silicon foils, and then the silicon grating foil is obtained

  18. Adaptation response surfaces for managing wheat under perturbed climate and CO2 in a Mediterranean environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruiz-Ramos, M.; Ferrise, Roberto; Rodríguez, A

    2018-01-01

    Adaptation of crops to climate change has to be addressed locally due to the variability of soil, climate and the specific socio-economic settings influencing farm management decisions. Adaptation of rainfed cropping systems in the Mediterranean is especially challenging due to the projected...... decline in precipitation in the coming decades, which will increase the risk of droughts. Methods that can help explore uncertainties in climate projections and crop modelling, such as impact response surfaces (IRSs) and ensemble modelling, can then be valuable for identifying effective adaptations. Here......, a combination of adaptations for dealing with climate change demonstrated that effective adaptation is possible at Lleida. Combinations based on a cultivar without vernalization requirements showed good and wide adaptation potential. Few combined adaptation options performed well under rainfed conditions...

  19. Analyzing relationships between surface perturbations and local chemical reactivity of metal sites: Alkali promotion of O2 dissociation on Ag(111)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Hongliang; Linic, Suljo

    2016-06-01

    Many commercial heterogeneous catalysts are complex structures that contain metal active sites promoted by multiple additives. Developing fundamental understanding about the impact of these perturbations on the local surface reactivity is crucial for catalyst development and optimization. In this contribution, we develop a general framework for identifying underlying mechanisms that control the changes in the surface reactivity of a metal site (more specifically the adsorbate-surface interactions) upon a perturbation in the local environment. This framework allows us to interpret fairly complex interactions on metal surfaces in terms of specific, physically transparent contributions that can be evaluated independently of each other. We use Cs-promoted dissociation of O2 as an example to illustrate our approach. We concluded that the Cs adsorbate affects the outcome of the chemical reaction through a strong alkali-induced electric field interacting with the static dipole moment of the O2/Ag(111) system.

  20. Coupled vs. decoupled boundary layers in VOCALS-REx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Jones

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the extent of subtropical stratocumulus-capped boundary layer decoupling and its relation to other boundary-layer characteristics and forcings using aircraft observations from VOCALS-REx along a swath of the subtropical southeast Pacific Ocean running west 1600 km from the coast of Northern Chile. We develop two complementary and consistent measures of decoupling. The first is based on boundary layer moisture and temperature stratification in flight profiles from near the surface to above the capping inversion, and the second is based the difference between the lifted condensation level (LCL and a mean lidar-derived cloud base measured on flight legs at 150 m altitude. Most flights took place during early-mid morning, well before the peak in insolation-induced decoupling.

    We find that the boundary layer is typically shallower, drier, and well mixed near the shore, and tends to deepen, decouple, and produce more drizzle further offshore to the west. Decoupling is strongly correlated to the "mixed layer cloud thickness", defined as the difference between the capping inversion height and the LCL; other factors such as wind speed, cloud droplet concentration, and inversion thermodynamic jumps have little additional explanatory power. The results are broadly consistent with the deepening-warming theory of decoupling.

    In the deeper boundary layers observed well offshore, there was frequently nearly 100 % boundary-layer cloud cover despite pronounced decoupling. The cloud cover was more strongly correlated to a κ parameter related to the inversion jumps of humidity and temperature, though the exact functional relation is slightly different than found in prior large-eddy simulation studies.

  1. 'Glocalization' versus Notions of Decoupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Discussing modes of political and/or economic decoupling in an era of economic globalization seems almost contradictory as the dominating keywords in the latter are increasing integration, interdependency and harmonization. For example, when looking towards the political realm it seems problematic...... to suggest that a nation-state can opt for a withdrawal from the global community in order to nurture its domestic potential. Likewise, when looking towards the economic realm, it seems even more problematic to suggest the possibility of a national economy withdrawing from the global economy, taking...... an increasing internationalization of domestic markets into account. Nonetheless, there is a discourse devoted to just that, namely whether or not to decouple economically and politically from the global community. The present article explores this discourse by first taking a critical look at the concept...

  2. The theory and practice of decoupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, J.; Stoft, S.; Belden, T.

    1994-01-01

    Decoupling revenues from sales is an important regulatory option under consideration by regulators seeking to transform utilities from sellers of a least-cost energy commodity to providers of least-cost energy services. This report examines decoupling from three perspectives. First, the authors consider threshold issues for decoupling, including characterization of the ratemaking practices addressed by decoupling which make incremental sales profitable to utilities, the role of rate case frequency in limiting the consequences of this incentive, and finally the existence of other incentives to sell electricity, which are not addressed by decoupling. Second, they examine the operation and performance of decoupling, including the mechanics of decoupling as a between-rate-case modification to the traditional ratemaking process, the ability of revenue-per-customer decoupling versus traditional ratemaking to recover nonfuel costs accurately, and a comparison of the profit implications of various decoupling approaches. Third, they review the rate impacts of decoupling for California`s electric utilities, which have had the longest experience with decoupling.

  3. Perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, R.; Kirtman, B.; Davidson, E.R.

    1978-01-01

    After noting some advantages of using perturbation theory some of the various types are related on a chart and described, including many-body nonlinear summations, quartic force-field fit for geometry, fourth-order correlation approximations, and a survey of some recent work. Alternative initial approximations in perturbation theory are also discussed. 25 references

  4. A Decoupled Approach for Flight Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espen Oland

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A decoupling method for flight control is presented that greatly simplifies the controller design. By approximating the higher order derivatives of the angle of attack and sideslip, it enables a rotation controller and a speed controller to be derived independently of each other, and thus gives access to a vast number of controller solutions derived for general classes of rotational and translational systems. For rotational control, a quaternion-based sliding surface controller is derived to align the wind frame in a desired direction, and using standard Lyapunov methods an airspeed controller is derived to ensure that an unmanned aerial vehicle moves with a positive airspeed. Simulations validate the potential of the proposed method, where the unmanned aerial vehicle is able to obtain leveled flight and move in a desired direction with a desired airspeed.

  5. Spectroscopy With Surface Coils and Decoupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-23

    Adrenal Cortical Cancer; Brain Cancer; Breast Cancer; CNS Cancer; Colon Cancer; HEENT Cancer; Hodgkin's Disease; Kaposi's Sarcoma; Liver Cancer; Lung Cancer; Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma; Ovarian Cancer; Pancreatic Cancer; Prostate Cancer; Rectal Cancer; Renal Cancer; Sarcoma; Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Thyroid Cancer

  6. The effective gravitational decoupling between dark matter and the CMB

    CERN Document Server

    Voruz, Luc; Tram, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    We present a detailed and self-contained analytical derivation of the evolution of sub-horizon cosmological perturbations before decoupling, based on previous work by S. Weinberg. These solutions are valid in the minimal LCDM scenario, to first order in perturbation theory, in the tight-coupling limit and neglecting neutrino shear stress. We compare them to exact numerical solutions computed by a Boltzmann code, and we find the two to be in very good agreement. The analytic solutions show explicitly that CDM and the baryon-photon fluid effectively behave as separate self-gravitating fluids until the epoch of baryon drag. This in turn leads to the surprising conclusion that the CMB is much less sensitive to the clustering properties of minimally coupled Dark Matter models than what would be naively expected.

  7. Decoupling, situated cognition and immersion in art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboul, Anne

    2015-09-01

    Situated cognition seems incompatible with strong decoupling, where representations are deployed in the absence of their targets and are not oriented toward physical action. Yet, in art consumption, the epitome of a strongly decoupled cognitive process, the artwork is a physical part of the environment and partly controls the perception of its target by the audience, leading to immersion. Hence, art consumption combines strong decoupling with situated cognition.

  8. Sound Radiation from an Elastically Restrained Plate Covered by an Acoustic Decoupling Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The sound radiation from elastically restrained plates covered by a decoupling layer is studied using the Spectrogeometric Method (SGM, which is a meshless and parametric modeling technique. By adopting the Rayleigh-Ritz procedure and the Rayleigh integral, a vibroacoustic coupling system is established. This model studies the situation when the plate is immersed in heavy fluid, such as water, in which the strong coupling between the structure and sound field should be fully considered. The influence of the boundary conditions on the radiated sound power and sound reduction provided by the decoupling layer based on the locally reacting model is studied. The nonuniform distributed decoupling layer is also studied to analyze the sound reduction effect. The sound intensity on the outer surface of the decoupling layer is investigated and tends to be uniform along the plate scale with increasing thickness of the decoupling layer.

  9. FAST AUTOMATED DECOUPLING AT RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BEEBE-WANG, J.J.

    2005-01-01

    Coupling correction is essential for the operational performance of RHIC. The independence of the transverse degrees of freedom makes diagnostics and tune control easier, and it is advantageous to operate an accelerator close to the coupling resonance to minimize nearby nonlinear sidebands. An automated coupling correction application iDQmini has been developed for RHIC routine operations. The application decouples RHIC globally by minimizing the tune separation through finding the optimal settings of two orthogonal skew quadrupole families. The program iDQmini provides options of automatic, semi-automatic and manual decoupling operations. It accesses tune information from all RHIC tune measurement systems: the PLL (phase lock loop), the high frequency Schottky system and the tune meter. It also supplies tune and skew quadrupole scans, finding the minimum tune separation, display the real time results and interface with the RHIC control system. We summarize the capabilities of the coupling correction application iDQmini, and discuss the operational protections incorporated in the program

  10. Using a Combination of FEM and Perturbation Method in Frequency Split Calculation of a Nearly Axisymmetric Shell with Middle Surface Shape Defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Vakhlyarskiy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method to calculate the splitting of natural frequency of the shell of hemispherical resonator gyro. (HRG. The paper considers splitting that arises from the small defect of the middle surface, which makes the resonator different from the rotary shell. The presented method is a combination of the perturbation method and the finite element method. The method allows us to find the frequency splitting caused by defects in shape, arbitrary distributed in the circumferential direction. This is achieved by calculating the perturbations of multiple natural frequencies of the second and higher orders. The proposed method allows us to calculate the splitting of multiple frequencies for the shell with the meridian of arbitrary shape.A developed finite element is an annular element of the shell and has two nodes. Projections of movements are used on the axis of the global cylindrical system of coordinates, as the unknown. To approximate the movements are used polynomials of the second degree. Within the finite element the geometric characteristics are arranged in a series according to the small parameter of perturbations of the middle surface geometry.Movements on the final element are arranged in series according to the small parameter, and in a series according to circumferential angle. With computer used to implement the method, three-dimensional arrays are used to store the perturbed quantities. This allows the use of regular expressions for the mass and stiffness matrices, when building the finite element, instead of analytic dependencies for each perturbation of these matrices of the required order with desirable mathematical operations redefined in accordance with the perturbation method.As a test task, is calculated frequency splitting of non-circular cylindrical resonator with Navier boundary conditions. The discrepancy between the results and semi-analytic solution to this problem is less than 1%. For a cylindrical shell is

  11. Theoretical study of the influence on surface temperature of a geometrical perturbation of wall of an electrically heated channel (1960)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, R.; Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, Saclay

    1960-01-01

    In experiments on forced convection heat transfer in an electrically heated channel, the temperature of the channel face in contact with the fluid is generally calculated from the measured temperature of the isolated face. A process for measuring this temperature leads to the study of the theoretical influence of a local perturbation of the wall thickness on the temperature distribution in this wall. Various problems at the limits, posed by this question of measurement, are dealt with. (author) [fr

  12. Mechanical Perturbations of the Walking Surface Reveal Unaltered Axial Trunk Stiffness in Chronic Low Back Pain Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Prins, Maarten R.; van der Wurff, Peter; Meijer, Onno G.; Bruijn, Sjoerd M.; van Die?n, Jaap H.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP) often demonstrate altered timing of thorax rotations in the transverse plane during gait. Increased axial trunk stiffness has been claimed to cause this movement pattern. Objectives The objective of this study was to assess whether axial trunk stiffness is increased in gait in CLBP patients. Methods 15 CLBP patients and 15 healthy controls walked on a treadmill that imposed rotational perturbations in the transverse plane. The effect of ...

  13. Decoupling pipeline influences in soil resistivity measurements with finite element techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deo, R. N.; Azoor, R. M.; Zhang, C.; Kodikara, J. K.

    2018-03-01

    Periodic inspection of pipeline conditions is an important asset management strategy conducted by water and sewer utilities for efficient and economical operations of their assets in field. The Level 1 pipeline condition assessment involving resistivity profiling along the pipeline right-of-way is a common technique for delineating pipe sections that might be installed in highly corrosive soil environment. However, the technique can suffer from significant perturbations arising from the buried pipe itself, resulting in errors in native soil characterisation. To address this problem, a finite element model was developed to investigate the degree to which pipes of different a) diameters, b) burial depths, and c) surface conditions (bare or coated) can influence in-situ soil resistivity measurements using Wenner methods. It was found that the greatest errors can arise when conducting measurements over a bare pipe with the array aligned parallel to the pipe. Depending upon the pipe surface conditions, in-situ resistivity measurements can either be underestimated or overestimated from true soil resistivities. Following results based on simulations and decoupling equations, a guiding framework for removing pipe influences in soil resistivity measurements were developed that can be easily used to perform corrections on measurements. The equations require simple a-prior information on the pipe diameter, burial depth, surface condition, and the array length and orientation used. Findings from this study have immediate application and is envisaged to be useful for critical civil infrastructure monitoring and assessment.

  14. Disturbance Decoupling of Switched Linear Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yurtseven, E.; Heemels, W.P.M.H.; Camlibel, M.K.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we consider disturbance decoupling problems for switched linear systems. We will provide necessary and sufficient conditions for three different versions of disturbance decoupling, which differ based on which signals are considered to be the disturbance. In the first version the

  15. Kinematically Decoupled Cores in Dwarf (Elliptical) Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toloba, E.; Peletier, R. F.; Guhathakurta, P.; van de Ven, G.; Boissier, S.; Boselli, A.; Brok, M. d.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Hensler, G.; Janz, J.; Laurikainen, E.; Lisker, T.; Paudel, S.; Ryś, A.; Salo, H.

    An overview is given of what we know about the frequency of kinematically decoupled cores in dwarf elliptical galaxies. New observations show that kinematically decoupled cores happen just as often in dwarf elliptical as in ordinary early-type galaxies. This has important consequences for the

  16. High magnetic field ohmically decoupled non-contact technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilgen, John [Oak Ridge, TN; Kisner, Roger [Knoxville, TN; Ludtka, Gerard [Oak Ridge, TN; Ludtka, Gail [Oak Ridge, TN; Jaramillo, Roger [Knoxville, TN

    2009-05-19

    Methods and apparatus are described for high magnetic field ohmically decoupled non-contact treatment of conductive materials in a high magnetic field. A method includes applying a high magnetic field to at least a portion of a conductive material; and applying an inductive magnetic field to at least a fraction of the conductive material to induce a surface current within the fraction of the conductive material, the surface current generating a substantially bi-directional force that defines a vibration. The high magnetic field and the inductive magnetic field are substantially confocal, the fraction of the conductive material is located within the portion of the conductive material and ohmic heating from the surface current is ohmically decoupled from the vibration. An apparatus includes a high magnetic field coil defining an applied high magnetic field; an inductive magnetic field coil coupled to the high magnetic field coil, the inductive magnetic field coil defining an applied inductive magnetic field; and a processing zone located within both the applied high magnetic field and the applied inductive magnetic field. The high magnetic field and the inductive magnetic field are substantially confocal, and ohmic heating of a conductive material located in the processing zone is ohmically decoupled from a vibration of the conductive material.

  17. Structural Decoupling and Disturbance Rejection in a Distillation Column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahar, Mehrdad; Jantzen, Jan; Commault, C.

    1996-01-01

    Introduction, distillation column model, input-output decoupling, disturbance rejection, concluding remarks, references.......Introduction, distillation column model, input-output decoupling, disturbance rejection, concluding remarks, references....

  18. Effects of multi-directional vibrotactile feedback on vestibular-deficient postural performance during continuous multi-directional support surface perturbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sienko, K H; Balkwill, M D; Oddsson, L I E; Wall, C

    2008-01-01

    Single-axis vibrotactile feedback of trunk tilt provided in real-time has previously been shown to significantly reduce the root-mean-square (RMS) trunk sway in subjects with vestibular loss during single-axis perturbation. This research examines the effect of multi-directional vibrotactile feedback on postural sway during continuous multi-directional surface perturbations when the subjects' eyes are closed. Eight subjects with vestibular loss donned a multi-axis feedback device that mapped body tilt estimates onto their torsos with a 3-row by 16-column array of tactile actuators (tactors). Tactor row indicated tilt magnitude and tactor column indicated tilt direction. Root-mean-square trunk tilt, elliptical fits to trunk sway trajectory areas, percentage of time spent outside a no vibrotactile feedback zone, RMS center of pressure, and anchoring index parameters indicating intersegmental coordination were used to assess the efficacy of the multi-directional vibrotactile balance aid. Four tactor display configurations in addition to the tactors off configuration were evaluated. Subjects had significantly reduced RMS trunk sway, significantly smaller elliptical fits of the trajectory area, and spent significantly less time outside of the no feedback zone in the tactors on versus the tactors off configuration. Among the displays evaluated in this study, there was not an optimal tactor column configuration for standing tasks involving continuous surface perturbations. Furthermore, subjects performed worse when erroneous information was displayed. Therefore, a spatial resolution of 90 degrees (4 columns) seems to be as effective as a spatial resolution of 22.5 degrees (16 columns) for control of standing.

  19. Ground surface temperature reconstructions: Using in situ estimates for thermal conductivity acquired with a fiber-optic distributed thermal perturbation sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freifeld, B.M.; Finsterle, S.; Onstott, T.C.; Toole, P.; Pratt, L.M.

    2008-10-10

    We have developed a borehole methodology to estimate formation thermal conductivity in situ with a spatial resolution of one meter. In parallel with a fiber-optic distributed temperature sensor (DTS), a resistance heater is deployed to create a controlled thermal perturbation. The transient thermal data is inverted to estimate the formation's thermal conductivity. We refer to this instrumentation as a Distributed Thermal Perturbation Sensor (DTPS), given the distributed nature of the DTS measurement technology. The DTPS was deployed in permafrost at the High Lake Project Site (67 degrees 22 minutes N, 110 degrees 50 minutes W), Nunavut, Canada. Based on DTPS data, a thermal conductivity profile was estimated along the length of a wellbore. Using the thermal conductivity profile, the baseline geothermal profile was then inverted to estimate a ground surface temperature history (GSTH) for the High Lake region. The GSTH exhibits a 100-year long warming trend, with a present-day ground surface temperature increase of 3.0 {+-} 0.8 C over the long-term average.

  20. Decoupling Agricultural Nonpoint Source Pollution from Crop Production: A Case Study of Heilongjiang Land Reclamation Area, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingshan Yang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Modern agriculture often leads to nonpoint source pollution. From the perspective of a decoupling analysis, this research evaluates the relationship between crop production and agricultural nonpoint source pollution (via fertilizer application, using the Heilongjiang land reclamation area as a case study. As it is the largest commodity grain base and green food base in China, more than 80% of water pollution in this area comes from fertilizer application. This study adopts an export coefficient model to hindcast nitrogen loss delivered to surface water via fertilizer application and conduct a further analysis of decoupling agricultural nonpoint source pollution from crop production. The results indicated that weak decoupling frequently occurred. However, this tendency was not steady in the period 2001–2012, and weak decoupling was typical in each branch based on the average value. Regarding the example of decoupling agricultural nonpoint source pollution from rice production, weak decoupling occurred more often, but this tendency was not steady over time. In addition, expansive coupling occurred in 2006, 2010 and 2012, and there were no definite signs of it improving. All branches, except for the Suihua branch, reached the degree of weak decoupling. A basic fact is that a decoupling tendency and environmental deterioration coexist in both the past and present. The decoupling analysis will contribute to localized strategies for sustainable agricultural development.

  1. Li-air batteries: Decouple to stabilize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ji-Jing; Zhang, Xin-Bo

    2017-09-01

    The utilization of porous carbon cathodes in lithium-air batteries is hindered by their severe decomposition during battery cycling. Now, dual redox mediators are shown to decouple the complex electrochemical reactions at the cathode, avoiding cathode passivation and decomposition.

  2. Inventory classification based on decoupling points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joakim Wikner

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The ideal state of continuous one-piece flow may never be achieved. Still the logistics manager can improve the flow by carefully positioning inventory to buffer against variations. Strategies such as lean, postponement, mass customization, and outsourcing all rely on strategic positioning of decoupling points to separate forecast-driven from customer-order-driven flows. Planning and scheduling of the flow are also based on classification of decoupling points as master scheduled or not. A comprehensive classification scheme for these types of decoupling points is introduced. The approach rests on identification of flows as being either demand based or supply based. The demand or supply is then combined with exogenous factors, classified as independent, or endogenous factors, classified as dependent. As a result, eight types of strategic as well as tactical decoupling points are identified resulting in a process-based framework for inventory classification that can be used for flow design.

  3. Renormalized Lie perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosengaus, E.; Dewar, R.L.

    1981-07-01

    A Lie operator method for constructing action-angle transformations continuously connected to the identity is developed for area preserving mappings. By a simple change of variable from action to angular frequency a perturbation expansion is obtained in which the small denominators have been renormalized. The method is shown to lead to the same series as the Lagrangian perturbation method of Greene and Percival, which converges on KAM surfaces. The method is not superconvergent, but yields simple recursion relations which allow automatic algebraic manipulation techniques to be used to develop the series to high order. It is argued that the operator method can be justified by analytically continuing from the complex angular frequency plane onto the real line. The resulting picture is one where preserved primary KAM surfaces are continuously connected to one another

  4. Perturbative computation of string one-loop corrections to Wilson loop minimal surfaces in AdS{sub 5}×S{sup 5}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forini, V. [Institut für Physik, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, IRIS Adlershof,Zum Großen Windkanal 6, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Tseytlin, A.A. [Theoretical Physics Group, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College,London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Vescovi, E. [Institut für Physik, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, IRIS Adlershof,Zum Großen Windkanal 6, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Institute of Physics, University of São Paulo,Rua do Matão 1371, 05508-090 São Paulo (Brazil)

    2017-03-01

    We revisit the computation of the 1-loop string correction to the “latitude' minimal surface in AdS{sub 5}×S{sup 5} representing 1/4 BPS Wilson loop in planar N=4 SYM theory previously addressed in https://arxiv.org/abs/1512.00841 and https://arxiv.org/abs/1601.04708. We resolve the problem of matching with the subleading term in the strong coupling expansion of the exact gauge theory result (derived previously from localization) using a different method to compute determinants of 2d string fluctuation operators. We apply perturbation theory in a small parameter (angle of the latitude) corresponding to an expansion near the AdS{sub 2} minimal surface representing 1/2 BPS circular Wilson loop. This allows us to compute the corrections to the heat kernels and zeta-functions of the operators in terms of the known heat kernels on AdS{sub 2}. We apply the same method also to two other examples of Wilson loop surfaces: generalized cusp and k-wound circle.

  5. DECOUPLER DESIGN FOR AN INTERACTING TANKS SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duraid F. Ahmed

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical model forthe two interacting tanks system was derived and the dynamic behavior of thissystem was studied by introducing a step change in inlet flow rate. In thispaper, the analysis of the interaction loops between the controlled variable(liquid level and manipulated variable (inlet flow rate was carried out usingthe relative gain array. Also decoupling technique is applied to eliminate theeffect this interaction by design suitable decouplers for the system. Theresults show that the gain of each loop is cut in half when the opposite loopis closed and the gain of other loop changes sign when the opposite loop isclosed. The decoupling method show that the liquid level of tank one isconstant when the second inlet flow changes and to keep the liquid level oftank two constant the first inlet flow must be changed.

  6. Vision-Based Autonomous Landing of a Quadrotor on the Perturbed Deck of an Unmanned Surface Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Polvara

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous landing on the deck of an unmanned surface vehicle (USV is still a major challenge for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs. In this paper, a fiducial marker is located on the platform so as to facilitate the task since it is possible to retrieve its six-degrees of freedom relative-pose in an easy way. To compensate interruption in the marker’s observations, an extended Kalman filter (EKF estimates the current USV’s position with reference to the last known position. Validation experiments have been performed in a simulated environment under various marine conditions. The results confirmed that the EKF provides estimates accurate enough to direct the UAV in proximity of the autonomous vessel such that the marker becomes visible again. Using only the odometry and the inertial measurements for the estimation, this method is found to be applicable even under adverse weather conditions in the absence of the global positioning system.

  7. Hedge Funds and Risk-Decoupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringe, Wolf-Georg

    three perspectives to analyse the problems created by negative risk-decoupling: an agency costs approach, an analysis of information costs, and a perspective from corporate finance. It shows how risk-decoupling is a type of market behaviour that creates significant costs for market participants......, in particular existing shareholders and potential investors. The paper then develops regulatory responses, envisaged particularly for EU level lawmaking, but also raises underlying issues on a more general level. Whilst several proposed regulatory tools are rejected, the paper prefers a solution that uses...

  8. Locating critical points on multi-dimensional surfaces by genetic algorithm: test cases including normal and perturbed argon clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhury, Pinaki; Bhattacharyya, S. P.

    1999-03-01

    It is demonstrated that Genetic Algorithm in a floating point realisation can be a viable tool for locating critical points on a multi-dimensional potential energy surface (PES). For small clusters, the standard algorithm works well. For bigger ones, the search for global minimum becomes more efficient when used in conjunction with coordinate stretching, and partitioning of the strings into a core part and an outer part which are alternately optimized The method works with equal facility for locating minima, local as well as global, and saddle points (SP) of arbitrary orders. The search for minima requires computation of the gradient vector, but not the Hessian, while that for SP's requires the information of the gradient vector and the Hessian, the latter only at some specific points on the path. The method proposed is tested on (i) a model 2-d PES (ii) argon clusters (Ar 4-Ar 30) in which argon atoms interact via Lennard-Jones potential, (iii) Ar mX, m=12 clusters where X may be a neutral atom or a cation. We also explore if the method could also be used to construct what may be called a stochastic representation of the reaction path on a given PES with reference to conformational changes in Ar n clusters.

  9. Investigation of marine stratocumulus under coupled and decoupled conditions over the arm Azores site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwantes, Adam Christopher

    Stratocumuli are a type of low clouds composed of individual convective elements that together form a continuous layer of clouds. Stratocumuli cover large regions of the Earth's surface, which make them important components in the Earth's radiation budget. Stratocumuli strongly reflect solar shortwave radiation, while weakly affecting outgoing longwave radiation. This leads to a strong radiative cooling effect that affects the Earth's radiation budget. Therefore it is important to investigate the mechanisms that affect the longevity of stratocumuli, so that their impact on the Earth's radiation budget can be fully understood. One mechanism that is currently being studied as influencing the lifetime of such cloud layers is boundary layer/surface coupling. It has been shown than in some regions (i.e. the west coast of South America) stratocumuli tend to break up when the boundary layer is decoupled with the surface, because they are cut off from their moisture source. This study will investigate the macro- and micro-physical properties of stratocumuli when boundary layers are either coupled to or decoupled from the surface. This will help advance understanding of the effects these macro- and micro-physical properties have on the lifetime of stratocumuli under different boundary layer conditions. This study used the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (DOE ARM) mobile measurements facility (AMF) at the Azores site from June 2009 to December 2010. The measurements that were used include temperature profiles from radiosondes, cloud liquid water path (LWP) retrieved from the Microwave radiometer, and cloud base and top heights derived from W-band ARM Cloud Radar and lidar. Satellite images provided by the NASA Langley Research Center were also used to visually decipher cloud types over the region so that only single-layered stratocumuli cases are used in the study. To differentiate between coupled and decoupled cloud layers, two methods are used. The

  10. Hedge Funds and Risk-Decoupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringe, Georg

    2013-01-01

    categories of corporate law, financial derivatives, and risk management. This Article is only concerned with the first of these two forms— negative decoupling.9 It looks at the various forms of negative riskdecoupling strategies and tries to shed light on their overall desirability. Three distinct...... theoretical perspectives are used as an analytical framework to examine the vast challenges of risk-decoupling: (1) a classical agency costs approach; (2) an information costs perspective; and (3) a view from corporate finance. This Article argues that shareholders with hedged risk exposure do not correspond...... to the traditional market expectations of shareholders. Based on the insight developed from these policy perspectives, this article develops regulatory reform proposals, particularly with regard to the EU context....

  11. Quadratic dynamical decoupling with nonuniform error suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quiroz, Gregory; Lidar, Daniel A.

    2011-01-01

    We analyze numerically the performance of the near-optimal quadratic dynamical decoupling (QDD) single-qubit decoherence errors suppression method [J. West et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 130501 (2010)]. The QDD sequence is formed by nesting two optimal Uhrig dynamical decoupling sequences for two orthogonal axes, comprising N 1 and N 2 pulses, respectively. Varying these numbers, we study the decoherence suppression properties of QDD directly by isolating the errors associated with each system basis operator present in the system-bath interaction Hamiltonian. Each individual error scales with the lowest order of the Dyson series, therefore immediately yielding the order of decoherence suppression. We show that the error suppression properties of QDD are dependent upon the parities of N 1 and N 2 , and near-optimal performance is achieved for general single-qubit interactions when N 1 =N 2 .

  12. Delayed Antiwindup Control Using a Decoupling Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huawei Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the antiwindup (AW control problem for plants with input saturation. The AW compensator is not activated as soon as input saturation occurs as usual. A delayed decoupling structure is first proposed. Then, appropriate linear matrix inequalities (LMIs are developed to determine a plant-order AW compensator. Effectiveness of the presented AW technique is illustrated by a fighter aircraft model.

  13. Decoupling tissue and cell scale stresses using embedded oil microdroplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Elijah; Serwane, Friedhelm; Mongera, Alessandro; Lucio, Adam; Campàs, Otger

    Embryonic development and organ morphogenesis require mechanical stresses to be patterned in space and time over length scales ranging from cellular to tissue level. While several approaches use 4D live-imaging to infer forces from the observed flow fields, few techniques allow direct measurements of stress in vivo and in situ. We use oil microdroplets injected in between cells as direct stress sensors. Through confocal imaging and custom software for high resolution 3D droplet surface reconstruction, we can directly measure the patterns of stress by looking at the deformations of the drop. This analysis allows us to decouple the stresses at the tissue scale from those generated at cellular scales by disentangling ellipsoidal drop deformation modes from higher order drop deformations. Using this technique we measure both tissue and cell scale stresses within aggregates of mesenchymal cells as well as within developing zebrafish embryonic tissues. The decoupling of mechanical stresses at cell and tissue scales makes our technique uniquely suited for understanding how tissue scale reorganizations emerge from cell scale interactions. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship.

  14. Decoupling mechanisms-paying for conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, P.S.

    1993-07-15

    In 1988, the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners issued a policy statement that said [open quotes]ratemaking practices should align utilities' pursuit of profit with least-cost planning.[close quotes] This policy coincided with then-current thinkingg at a number of state commissions about the much-touted goal of encouraging utilities to invest in conservation, or demand-side management (DSM) programs, rather than in generating resources to meet system load requirements. Besides utility concerns about recovering conservation program investments, regulators also notices a built-in [open quotes]disincentive[close quotes] to investment in the traditional ratemaking format: If profit is tied to sales, then utilities will always shy away from aggressively promoting conservation. Or so the thinkin went. [open quotes]Decoupling mechanisms[close quotes] were born to remove this disincentive. A number of states have implemented these mechanisms, while several others are investigating the issue. One chief drawback of the mechanisms is that if sales go down, rates go up to cover the shortfall. (Of course, rates go down if sales exceed forecasted levels.) A major problem has been that rate increases have occurred at exactly the wrong time, during economic slowdowns when utilities are struggling to retain price-sensitive customers and residential ratepayers are least likely to bear with quiet stoicism the burden placed on family budgets. Decoupling is seen by some as a step backwards in the move to competitive regulatory reforms that seek to encourage utilities to behave like free-market companies. Indeed, the newest decoupling mechanisms face serious challenge.

  15. Global Decoupling on the RHIC Ramp

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Yun; Della Penna, Al; Fischer, Wolfram; Laster, Jonathan S; Marusic, Al; Pilat, Fulvia Caterina; Roser, Thomas; Trbojevic, Dejan

    2005-01-01

    The global betatron decoupling on the ramp is an important issue for the operation of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). In the polarized proton run, the betatron tunes are required to keep almost constant on the ramp to avoid spin resonance line crossing and the beam polarization loss. Some possible correction schemes on the ramp, like three-ramp correction, the coupling amplitude modulation and the coupling phase modulaxtion, have been found. The principles of these schemes are shortly reviewed and compared. Operational results of their applications on the RHIC ramps are given.

  16. Hedge Funds and Risk-Decoupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringe, Georg

    2013-01-01

    The law must remain adaptive and responsive to the constantly changing challenges of our society and our business life. One of the most pressing challenges of the past years is the emergence of alternative investment funds, in particular hedge funds, which masterfully exploit the traditional...... theoretical perspectives are used as an analytical framework to examine the vast challenges of risk-decoupling: (1) a classical agency costs approach; (2) an information costs perspective; and (3) a view from corporate finance. This Article argues that shareholders with hedged risk exposure do not correspond...

  17. Decoupled Hierarchical Structures for Suppression of Leidenfrost Phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farokhnia, Nazanin; Sajadi, Seyed Mohammad; Irajizad, Peyman; Ghasemi, Hadi

    2017-03-14

    Thermal management of high temperature systems through cooling droplets is limited by the existence of the Leidenfrost point (LFP), at which the formation of a continuous vapor film between a hot solid and a cooling droplet diminishes the heat transfer rate. This limit results in a bottleneck for the advancement of the wide spectrum of systems including high-temperature power generation, electronics/photonics, reactors, and spacecraft. Despite a long time effort on development of surfaces for suppression of this phenomenon, this limit has only shifted to higher temperatures, but still exists. Here, we report a new multiscale decoupled hierarchical structure that suppress the Leidenfrost state and provide efficient heat dissipation at high temperatures. The architecture of these structures is composed of a nanomembrane assembled on top of a deep micropillar structure. This architecture allows to independently tune the involved forces and to suppress LFP. Once a cooling droplet contacts these surfaces, by rerouting the path of vapor flow, the cooling droplet remains attached to the hot solid substrates even at high temperatures (up to 570 °C) for heat dissipation with no existence of Leidenfrost phenomenon. These new surfaces offer unprecedented heat dissipation capacity at high temperatures (2 orders of magnitude higher than the other state-of-the-art surfaces). We envision that these surfaces open a new avenue in thermal management of high-temperature systems through spray cooling.

  18. Kinematic Analysis of a Partially Decoupled 3-DOF Parallel Wrist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A unique spherical parallel wrist with three partially decoupled rotational degrees of freedom (DOFs is introduced in this paper. The mechanism has the significant advantages of few singularities and simple partially decoupled kinematics. A modified parallel wrist is optimized to have the least link interference workspace. Finally, the decoupled motion is studied in detail to exhibit the kinematic performance of the mechanism.

  19. Decoupled Multicamera Sensing for Flexible View Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek K. Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Any sensing paradigm has three important components, namely, the actor, the sensor, and the environment. Traditionally, the sensors have been attached to either the actor or the environment. This restricts the kind of sensing that can be undertaken. We study a newer decoupled sensing paradigm, which separates the sensors from both the actor and the environment and tremendously increases the flexibility with which the scenes can be viewed. For example, instead of showing just one view, “how the environment sees the actor” or “how the actor sees the environment,” a viewer can choose to see either one or both of these views and even choose to see the scene from any desired position in any desired direction. We describe a methodology using mobile autonomous sensors to undertake such decoupled sensing and study the feasible number as well as the placement of such sensors. Also, we describe how the sensors can coordinate their movements around a moving actor so as to continue capturing the required views with minimum overall cost. The practical results obtained demonstrate the viability of the proposed approach.

  20. Decoupling Novelty from R&D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimpe, Christoph; Chatterjee, Rabikar; Bhargava, Mukesh

    and services. We argue that marketing innovation may significantly increase a firm’s innovation performance. Further, we posit that investments in marketing and technological innovation are substitutes because of resource constraints and a compounding of risks. We propose that the substitutive relationship......Conventional wisdom ties successful innovation primarily to technological R&D. In this paper, we introduce the concept of marketing innovation in which novelty originates separately from the innovative design, packaging, pricing, promotion, and/or distribution of technologically unchanged products...... is especially pronounced in small firms and high-tech industries. Based on the analysis of a dataset of 866 firms from a diverse set of industries in Germany, we find empirical support for our hypotheses, suggesting that novelty can in fact be decoupled from R&D...

  1. Decoupling from international food safety standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mercado, Geovana; Hjortsø, Carsten Nico; Honig, Benson

    2018-01-01

    in the market. These include: (1) partial adoption of formal rules; (2) selective adoption of convenient rules; and (3) ceremonial adoption to avoid compliance. Decoupling strategies allow local actors to largely disregard the formal food safety regulations while accommodating traditional cultural practices......Although inclusion in formal value chains extends the prospect of improving the livelihoods of rural small-scale producers, such a step is often contingent on compliance with internationally-promoted food safety standards. Limited research has addressed the challenges this represents for small...... rural producers who, grounded in culturally-embedded food safety conceptions, face difficulties in complying. We address this gap here through a multiple case study involving four public school feeding programs that source meals from local rural providers in the Bolivian Altiplan. Institutional logics...

  2. Atomic Quadrupole Moment Measurement Using Dynamic Decoupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaniv, R; Akerman, N; Ozeri, R

    2016-04-08

    We present a method that uses dynamic decoupling of a multilevel quantum probe to distinguish small frequency shifts that depend on m_{j}^{2}, where m_{j}^{2} is the angular momentum of level |j⟩ along the quantization axis, from large noisy shifts that are linear in m_{j}, such as those due to magnetic field noise. Using this method we measured the electric-quadrupole moment of the 4D_{5/2} level in ^{88}Sr^{+} to be 2.973_{-0.033}^{+0.026}ea_{0}^{2}. Our measurement improves the uncertainty of this value by an order of magnitude and thus helps mitigate an important systematic uncertainty in ^{88}Sr^{+} based optical atomic clocks and verifies complicated many-body quantum calculations.

  3. Decoupling of CO2 emissions and GDP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Rocha de Salles Lima

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objetive of this work is to analyze the variation of CO2 emissions and GDP per capita throughout the years and identify the possible interaction between them. For this purpose, data from the International Energy Agency was collected on two countries, Brazil and the one with the highest GDP worldwide, the United States. Thus, the results showed that CO2 emissions have been following the country’s economic growth for many years. However, these two indicators have started to decouple in the US in 2007 while in Brazil the same happened in 2011. Furthermore, projections for CO2 emissions are made until 2040, considering 6 probable scenarios. These projections showed that even if the oil price decreases, the emissions will not be significantly affected as long as the economic growth does not decelerate.

  4. Load flow analysis using decoupled fuzzy load flow under critical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The conventional load flow methods like Newton-Raphson load flow (NRLF), Fast Decoupled load flow (FDLF) provide poor performance under critical conditions such as high R/X ratio, heavily loading condition etc. Exploiting the decoupling properties of power system, reliable fuzzy load flow is developed to overcome the ...

  5. Optimal Temporal Decoupling in Task Scheduling with Preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endhoven, L.; Klos, T.B.; Witteveen, C.

    2011-01-01

    Multi-agent planning and scheduling concerns finding a joint plan to achieve some set of common goals with several independent agents each aiming to find a plan or schedule for their part of the goals. To avoid conflicts in these individual plans or schedules decoupling is used. Such a decoupling

  6. Dwarf elliptical galaxies with kinematically decoupled cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rijcke, S.; Dejonghe, H.; Zeilinger, W. W.; Hau, G. K. T.

    2004-10-01

    We present, for the first time, photometric and kinematical evidence, obtained with FORS2 on the VLT, for the existence of kinematically decoupled cores (KDCs) in two dwarf elliptical galaxies; FS76 in the NGC 5044 group and FS373 in the NGC 3258 group. Both kinematically peculiar subcomponents rotate in the same sense as the main body of their host galaxy but betray their presence by a pronounced bump in the rotation velocity profiles at a radius of about 1''. The KDC in FS76 rotates at 10 ± 3 km s-1, with the host galaxy rotating at 15 ± 6 km s-1; the KDC in FS373 has a rotation velocity of 6 ± 2 km s-1 while the galaxy itself rotates at 20 ± 5 km s-1. FS373 has a very complex rotation velocity profile with the velocity changing sign at 1.5 Re. The velocity and velocity dispersion profiles of FS76 are asymmetric at larger radii. This could be caused by a past gravitational interaction with the giant elliptical NGC 5044, which is at a projected distance of 50 kpc. We argue that these decoupled cores are most likely not produced by mergers in a group or cluster environment because of the prohibitively large relative velocities. A plausible alternative is offered by flyby interactions between a dwarf elliptical or its disky progenitor and a massive galaxy. The tidal forces during an interaction at the relative velocities and impact parameters typical for a group environment exert a torque on the dwarf galaxy that, according to analytical estimates, transfers enough angular momentum to its stellar envelope to explain the observed peculiar kinematics.

  7. Procedure to decouple reflectance and down-shifting effects in luminescent down-shifting enhanced photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabr, Ahmed M; Walker, Alexandre W; Wilkins, Matthew M; Kleiman, Rafael; Hinzer, Karin

    2017-06-12

    The down-shifting (DS) process is a purely optical approach used to improve the short-wavelength response of a solar cell by shifting high-energy photons to the visible range, which can be more efficiently absorbed by the solar cell. In addition to the DS effect, coupling a DS layer to the top surface of a solar cell results in a change in surface reflectance. The two effects are intermixed and therefore, usually reported as a single effect. Here we propose a procedure to decouple the two effects. Analytical equations are derived to decouple the two effects, that consider the experimentally measured quantum efficiency of the solar cell with and without the DS layer, in addition to transfer matrix simulations of the parasitic absorption in the device structure. In this work, an overall degradation of 0.46 mA/cm 2 is observed when adding a DS layer composed of silicon nanocrystals embedded in a quartz matrix to a silicon solar cell of 11% baseline efficiency. To fully understand the contribution from each effect, the surface reflectance and DS effects are decoupled and quantified using the described procedure. We observe an enhancement of 0.27 mA/cm 2 in short-circuit current density due to the DS effect, while the surface reflectance effect leads to a degradation of 0.73 mA/cm 2 in short-circuit current density.

  8. Radiation transport out from the reactor core: to decouple or not to decouple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burn Kenneth W.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of the extension of the lifetime of currently operating reactors as well as of issues connected to decommissioning, accurate calculations of neutron and gamma responses outside the reactor core are increasingly being sought. Recently Monte Carlo calculations have been extended to provide a deep penetration capability incorporated within the eigenvalue calculation. This allows, in principle, neutron and gamma ray responses quite far outside the fissile region to be calculated within the same source-iteration scheme employed to define the neutronic responses in the fissile zone. In this paper, the new algorithm is compared to the classic decoupled approach - an eigenvalue calculation followed by a fixed source one - with the point of decoupling chosen as the fission sites. Two contrasting sample problems are discussed: a small fast research reactor and a large GEN-III Pressurized Water Reactor. The latter problem highlights the role of superhistories in maintaining the fundamental mode.

  9. STATISTICAL DECOUPLING OF A LAGRANGIAN FLUID PARCEL IN NEWTONIAN COSMOLOGY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xin; Szalay, Alex

    2016-01-01

    The Lagrangian dynamics of a single fluid element within a self-gravitational matter field is intrinsically non-local due to the presence of the tidal force. This complicates the theoretical investigation of the nonlinear evolution of various cosmic objects, e.g., dark matter halos, in the context of Lagrangian fluid dynamics, since fluid parcels with given initial density and shape may evolve differently depending on their environments. In this paper, we provide a statistical solution that could decouple this environmental dependence. After deriving the evolution equation for the probability distribution of the matter field, our method produces a set of closed ordinary differential equations whose solution is uniquely determined by the initial condition of the fluid element. Mathematically, it corresponds to the projected characteristic curve of the transport equation of the density-weighted probability density function (ρPDF). Consequently it is guaranteed that the one-point ρPDF would be preserved by evolving these local, yet nonlinear, curves with the same set of initial data as the real system. Physically, these trajectories describe the mean evolution averaged over all environments by substituting the tidal tensor with its conditional average. For Gaussian distributed dynamical variables, this mean tidal tensor is simply proportional to the velocity shear tensor, and the dynamical system would recover the prediction of the Zel’dovich approximation (ZA) with the further assumption of the linearized continuity equation. For a weakly non-Gaussian field, the averaged tidal tensor could be expanded perturbatively as a function of all relevant dynamical variables whose coefficients are determined by the statistics of the field

  10. Automated Lattice Perturbation Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monahan, Christopher

    2014-11-01

    I review recent developments in automated lattice perturbation theory. Starting with an overview of lattice perturbation theory, I focus on the three automation packages currently "on the market": HiPPy/HPsrc, Pastor and PhySyCAl. I highlight some recent applications of these methods, particularly in B physics. In the final section I briefly discuss the related, but distinct, approach of numerical stochastic perturbation theory.

  11. Inferring evoked brain connectivity through adaptive perturbation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepage, Kyle Q; Ching, ShiNung; Kramer, Mark A

    2013-04-01

    Inference of functional networks-representing the statistical associations between time series recorded from multiple sensors-has found important applications in neuroscience. However, networksexhibiting time-locked activity between physically independent elements can bias functional connectivity estimates employing passive measurements. Here, a perturbative and adaptive method of inferring network connectivity based on measurement and stimulation-so called "evoked network connectivity" is introduced. This procedure, employing a recursive Bayesian update scheme, allows principled network stimulation given a current network estimate inferred from all previous stimulations and recordings. The method decouples stimulus and detector design from network inference and can be suitably applied to a wide range of clinical and basic neuroscience related problems. The proposed method demonstrates improved accuracy compared to network inference based on passive observation of node dynamics and an increased rate of convergence relative to network estimation employing a naïve stimulation strategy.

  12. Robust Power Decoupling Control Scheme for DC Side Split Decoupling Capacitor Circuit with Mismatched Capacitance in Single Phase System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yao, Wenli; Loh, Poh Chiang; Tang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    imperfections when storage mismatch occurs, which may break the standard requirement such as IEEE 1547. As a consequence, a robust control scheme is then proposed for half-bridge circuit, which realized power decoupling by generating second order harmonic voltage on the split dc decoupling capacitor instead...

  13. Nuclear magnetic resonance of external protons using continuous dynamical decoupling with shallow NV centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Las Casas, Charles; Ohno, Kenichi; Awschalom, David D.

    2015-03-01

    The nitrogen vacancy (NV) center in diamond is a paramagnetic defect with excellent spin properties that can reside within a few nanometers of the diamond surface, enabling atomic-scale magnetic resonance sensing of external nuclear spins. Here we use rotating frame longitudinal spin relaxation (T1ρ) based sensing schemes, known as Continuous Dynamical Decoupling (CDD), to detect external nuclear spins with shallow NV centers (DIAMANT program.

  14. On the domain of string perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, S.

    1989-06-01

    For a large class of effectively closed surfaces, it is shown that the only divergences in string scattering amplitudes at each order in perturbation theory are those associated with the coincidence of vertex operators and the boundary of moduli space. This class includes all closed surfaces of finite genus, and infinite-genus surfaces which can be uniformized by a group of Schottky type. While the computation is done explicitly for bosonic strings in their ground states, it can also be extended to excited states and to superstrings. The properties of these amplitudes lead to a definition of the domain of perturbation theory as the set of effectively closed surfaces. The implications of the restriction to effectively closed surfaces on the behavior of the perturbation series are discussed. (author). 20 refs, 6 figs

  15. Frame independent cosmological perturbations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prokopec, Tomislav; Weenink, Jan, E-mail: t.prokopec@uu.nl, E-mail: j.g.weenink@uu.nl [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, Leuvenlaan 4, 3585 CE Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-09-01

    We compute the third order gauge invariant action for scalar-graviton interactions in the Jordan frame. We demonstrate that the gauge invariant action for scalar and tensor perturbations on one physical hypersurface only differs from that on another physical hypersurface via terms proportional to the equation of motion and boundary terms, such that the evolution of non-Gaussianity may be called unique. Moreover, we demonstrate that the gauge invariant curvature perturbation and graviton on uniform field hypersurfaces in the Jordan frame are equal to their counterparts in the Einstein frame. These frame independent perturbations are therefore particularly useful in relating results in different frames at the perturbative level. On the other hand, the field perturbation and graviton on uniform curvature hypersurfaces in the Jordan and Einstein frame are non-linearly related, as are their corresponding actions and n-point functions.

  16. Strings as perturbations of evolving spin networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolin, Lee

    2000-01-01

    One step in the construction of a background independent formulation of string theory is detailed, in which it is shown how perturbative strings may arise as small fluctuations around histories in a formulation of non-perturbative dynamics of spin networks due to Markopoulou. In this formulation the dynamics of spin network states and their generalizations is described in terms of histories which have discrete analogues of the causal structure and many fingered time of Lorentzian spacetimes. Perturbations of these histories turn out to be described in terms of spin systems defined on 2-dimensional timelike surfaces embedded in the discrete spacetime. When the history has a classical limit which is Minkowski spacetime, the action of the perturbation theory is given to leading order by the spacetime area of the surface, as in bosonic string theory. This map between a non-perturbative formulation of quantum gravity and a 1+1 dimensional theory generalizes to a large class of theories in which the group SU(2) i s extended to any quantum group or supergroup. It is argued that a necessary condition for the non-perturbative theory to have a good classical limit is that the resulting 1+1 dimensional theory defines a consistent and stable perturbative string theory

  17. Synthetic clock transitions via continuous dynamical decoupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trypogeorgos, D.; Valdés-Curiel, A.; Lundblad, N.; Spielman, I. B.

    2018-01-01

    Decoherence of quantum systems due to uncontrolled fluctuations of the environment presents fundamental obstacles in quantum science. Clock transitions which are insensitive to such fluctuations are used to improve coherence, however, they are not present in all systems or for arbitrary system parameters. Here we create a trio of synthetic clock transitions using continuous dynamical decoupling in a spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensate in which we observe a reduction of sensitivity to magnetic-field noise of up to four orders of magnitude; this work complements the parallel work by Anderson et al. [R. P. Anderson et al., following paper, Phys. Rev. A 97, 013408 (2018), 10.1103/PhysRevA.97.013408]. In addition, using a concatenated scheme, we demonstrate suppression of sensitivity to fluctuations in our control fields. These field-insensitive states represent an ideal foundation for the next generation of cold-atom experiments focused on fragile many-body phases relevant to quantum magnetism, artificial gauge fields, and topological matter.

  18. The Perturbed Puma Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rong Shu-Jun; Liu Qiu-Yu

    2012-01-01

    The puma model on the basis of the Lorentz and CPT violation may bring an economical interpretation to the conventional neutrinos oscillation and part of the anomalous oscillations. We study the effect of the perturbation to the puma model. In the case of the first-order perturbation which keeps the (23) interchange symmetry, the mixing matrix element U e3 is always zero. The nonzero mixing matrix element U e3 is obtained in the second-order perturbation that breaks the (23) interchange symmetry. (the physics of elementary particles and fields)

  19. The Perturbed Puma Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Shu-Jun; Liu, Qiu-Yu

    2012-04-01

    The puma model on the basis of the Lorentz and CPT violation may bring an economical interpretation to the conventional neutrinos oscillation and part of the anomalous oscillations. We study the effect of the perturbation to the puma model. In the case of the first-order perturbation which keeps the (23) interchange symmetry, the mixing matrix element Ue3 is always zero. The nonzero mixing matrix element Ue3 is obtained in the second-order perturbation that breaks the (23) interchange symmetry.

  20. Vortex-strings in N=2 SQCD and bulk-string decoupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerchkovitz, Efrat; Karasik, Avner

    2018-02-01

    We study vortex-strings in four-dimensional N=2 supersymmetric SU( N c ) × U(1) gauge theories with N f hypermultiplets in the fundamental representation of SU( N c ) and general U(1) charges. If N f > N c , the vacuum is not gapped and the low-energy theory contains both the vacuum massless excitations and the string zero-modes. The question we address in this work is whether the vacuum and the string moduli decouple at low energies, allowing a description of the low-energy dynamics in terms of a two-dimensional theory on the string worldsheet. We find a simple condition controlling the bulk-string coupling: if there exist two flavors such that the product of their U(1) charge difference with the magnetic flux carried by the string configuration is not an integer multiple of 2 π, the string has zero-modes that decay slower than 1 /r, where r is the radial distance from the string core. These modes are coupled to the vacuum massless excitations even at low energies. If, however, all such products are integer multiples of 2 π, long-range modes of this type do not exist and the string moduli decouple from the bulk at low energies. This condition turns out to coincide with the condition of trivial Aharonov-Bohm phases for the particles in the spectrum. In addition to a derivation of the bulk-string decoupling criterion using classical analysis of the string zero-modes, we provide a non-perturbative derivation of the criterion, which uses supersymmetric localization techniques.

  1. Decoupled Closed-Form Solution for Humanoid Lower Limb Kinematics

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandro Said; Ernesto Rodriguez-Leal; Rogelio Soto; J. L. Gordillo; Leonardo Garrido

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an explicit, omnidirectional, analytical, and decoupled closed-form solution for the lower limb kinematics of the humanoid robot NAO. The paper starts by decoupling the position and orientation analysis from the overall Denavit-Hartenberg (DH) transformation matrices. Here, the joint activation sequence for the DH matrices is based on the geometry of a triangle. Furthermore, the implementation of a forward and a reversed kinematic analysis for the support and swing phase e...

  2. A Fully Symmetric and Completely Decoupled MEMS-SOI Gyroscope

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelhameed SHARAF; Sherif SEDKY; Mohamed SERRY; Amro ELSHURAFA; Mahmoud ASHOUR; S. E.-D. HABIB

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel MEMS gyroscope that is capable of exciting the drive mode differentially. The structure also decouples the drive and sense modes via an intermediate mass and decoupling beams. Both drive and sense modes are fully differential enabling control over the zero-rate-output for the former and maximizing output sensitivity using a bridge circuit for the latter. Further, the structure is fully symmetric about the x- and y- axes which results in minimizing the temperature...

  3. Perturbative QCD and jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, A.H.

    1986-03-01

    A brief review of some of the recent progress in perturbative QCD is given (heavy quark production, small-x physics, minijets and related topics, classical simulations in high energy reactions, coherence and the string effect)

  4. Zircons reveal ancient perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, N. Ryan

    2017-12-01

    A link between CO2 outgassing from carbonatite volcanoes during the Ediacaran and one of the most prominent carbon cycle perturbations in Earth's history is suggested by an analysis of the trace-element composition of detrital zircons.

  5. Introduction to perturbation techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Nayfeh, Ali H

    2011-01-01

    Similarities, differences, advantages and limitations of perturbation techniques are pointed out concisely. The techniques are described by means of examples that consist mainly of algebraic and ordinary differential equations. Each chapter contains a number of exercises.

  6. Decoupling allogenic and autogenic processes in experimental stratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W.

    2009-12-01

    At the heart of interpreting the history of Earth surface evolution preserved in the sedimentary record is decoupling environmental (allogenic) forcing from internally generated (autogenic) “noise.” One of the major stumbling blocks for distinguishing allogenic and autogenic origins in the stratigraphic record lies in the lack of quantitative understanding on autogenic processes. So far no existing computational models can explicitly model geomorphic self-organization. However, flume studies with sediment and water, which clearly show self-organized, internally driven sediment transport processes, do give the opportunity to model and investigate autogenic processes under controlled boundary conditions. I present data from two recent experiments performed in the Experimental EarthScape (XES) subsiding basin at St. Anthony Falls Laboratory, University of Minnesota. Evolution of experimental deltas in XES performed in 2002 and 2005 showed 1) clear cyclic alternations of autogenic fluvial sediment storage and release associated with changes in the fluvial planform pattern and 2) changes in time and event size of the autogenic processes by interaction with external controls e.g., tectonics. Comparing the experimental data conducted under either no or active relative base-level rise, I further explore the effects of coupling autogenic processes with environmental forcing.

  7. Decoupling - past trends and prospects for the future[Decoupling of economic growth and environmental impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azar, Christian; Holmberg, John; Karlsson, Sten [Chalmers Univ. of Tech., Goeteborg (SE). Physical Resource Theory] [and others

    2002-05-01

    There are widespread demands in society for a dematerialization or decoupling of economic growth from environmental impact. Calls are being made for eco-efficiency and/or an improvement of resource efficiency by a factor of 10. At the same time, some analysts claim there is an environmental Kuznet's curve that supposedly implies a fall in environmental pressure, as we get richer. An improvement in the environmental situation has already been observed in many cases, but there are also many areas where the situation is deteriorating. The purpose of this report is to summarize some key trends of energy and material use over time in both developing and developed countries. We have focused on Sweden, the EU, Japan and the USA as well as China, India and Brazil. The main findings in this paper can be summarized as follows: Absolute emissions of CO{sub 2} have been increasing in most countries and periods studied. Some countries have experienced periods with constant or even falling emissions, but this is the exception rather than the rule, and it has been triggered by oil crises or economic recessions. In order to stabilize atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations, CO{sub 2} emissions have to be decoupled much more rapidly than has been the case in the past, and it is extremely unlikely that this will happen by itself. There was some decoupling of CO{sub 2} emissions from GDP in the major economies of the world from 1970 to 1998 in the EU, Japan and the US as well as in some major developing countries such as China, although India actually increased its emissions over GDP by 1.4 per cent/yr over this period. The drop in CO{sub 2} intensity has been prompted by some decoupling of energy from GDP and CO{sub 2} from energy, the latter being a consequence of an increased use of natural gas and nuclear power. In the South, fossil CO 2 per energy tends to increase from rather low levels. With industrialization, the proportion of biomass drops and the proportion of fossil

  8. Linear Perturbation Adaptive Control of Hydraulically Driven Manipulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T.O.; Hansen, M.R.; Conrad, Finn

    2004-01-01

    control.Using the Lyapunov approach, under slowly time-varying assumptions, it is shown that the tracking error and the parameter error remain bounded. This bound is a function of the ideal parameters and a bounded disturbance. The control algorithm decouples and linearizes the manipulator so that each......A method for synthesis of a robust adaptive scheme for a hydraulically driven manipulator, that takes full advantage of any known system dynamics to simplify the adaptive control problem for the unknown portion of the dynamics is presented. The control method is based on adaptive perturbation...

  9. Elimination of polarization degeneracy in circularly symmetric bianisotropic waveguides: a decoupled case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Wu, Bingbing; Chen, Yuntian

    2015-05-04

    Mode properties of circularly symmetric waveguides with one special type of bianisotropy are studied using finite element approach. We find that the polarization degeneracy in circularly symmetric waveguides can be eliminated, by introducing intrinsic crossing coupling between electric and magnetic moments in the constituent units of the waveguide media. Breaking the polarization degeneracy in high order mode groups is also confirmed numerically. With the bianisotropic parameters chosen in this work, the x and y-polarized modes remain decoupled. Typically, the y-polarized modes remain completely unchanged, while the x-polarized modes are turned into leaky modes that are lossy along propagation direction. A perturbation model from coupled mode theory is developed to explain the results and shows excellent agreement. Such asymmetric behavior between different polarizations might be feasible and useful for developing compact polarizers in terahertz or mid-infrared regime.

  10. Embedded cluster density functional and second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory study on the adsorption of N2 on the rutile (110) surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stodt, Dorothee; Hättig, Christof

    2012-09-01

    The adsorption of N2 on the rutile TiO2 (110) surface in the limit of low coverage has been studied as a prototype example for the adsorption of non-polar molecules on strongly ionic oxide surfaces. We employed for this study an embedded cluster ansatz in combination with density functional theory and wavefunction methods. Both, clusters saturated with hydrogen atoms and electrostatically embedded clusters have been applied and methods and basis sets have been varied to test their reliability and accuracy for describing the electrostatic potential on the surface and its interaction with the non-polar N2 molecule. Quantum clusters consisting of up to 342 atoms have been used to converge the results with respect to the cluster size. For electrostatically embedded clusters, the convergence can considerably be enhanced by optimizing the charges for the point charge embedding. On the rutile (110) surface an accurate account of the long ranging interaction of the adsorbate with the bridging oxygen atoms is important for quantitative adsorption energies of weakly bound molecules. In addition the geometric relaxation of the surface has a marked influence on the results, whereas the basis set-dependence is small. Of all methods investigated (HF, DFT/PBE, DFT/B3LYP, MP2), only MP2 and DFT/B3LYP were able to describe the adsorption of N2 on the rutile surface properly. After including the zeropoint vibrational energy, the calculated adsorption energy is close to experimental results. The approach is thus promising for future investigations on adsorption energies and structures of non-polar molecules on ionic oxide surfaces.

  11. Integration of serpentine channels for microchip electrophoresis with a palladium decoupler and electrochemical detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Amanda L; Martin, R. Scott

    2010-01-01

    While it has been shown that microchip electrophoresis with electrochemical detection can be used to separate and detect electroactive species, there is a need to increase the separation performance of these devices so that complex mixtures can be routinely analyzed. Previous work in microchip electrophoresis has demonstrated that increasing the separation channel length leads to an increase in resolution between closely eluting analytes. This paper details the use of lengthened serpentine microchannels for microchip electrophoresis and electrochemical detection where a palladium decoupler is used to ground the separation voltage so that the working electrodes remain in the fluidic network. In this work, palladium electrodepositions were used to increase the decoupler surface area and more efficiently dissipate hydrogen produced at the decoupler. Dopamine and norepinephrine, which only differ in structure by a hydroxyl group, were used as model analytes. It was found that increasing the separation channel length led to improvements in both resolution and the number of theoretical plates for these analytes. The use of a bi-layer valving device, where PDMS-based valves are utilized for the injection process, along with serpentine microchannels and amperometric detection resulted in a multi-analyte separation and an average of 28,700 theoretical plates. It was also shown that the increased channel length is beneficial when separating and detecting analytes from a high ionic strength matrix. This was demonstrated by monitoring the stimulated release of neuro-transmitters from a confluent layer of PC 12 cells. PMID:19739137

  12. Acoustic-sounder investigation of the effects of boundary-layer decoupling on long-distance polutant transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, E.L.

    1976-01-01

    The formation of the nocturnal surface temperature inversion results in a decrease in vertical momentum transfer which, in turn, is accompanied by an associated reduction in the transfer of pollutants from the atmosphere to surface sinks, thus decoupling the surface layer from the layer above the inversion. The diurnal oscillation in the surface temperature profiles may therefore have a significant effect upon the transport of atmospheric pollutants over long distances. Flights of a large manned balloon with a diverse array of chemical and meteorological instrumentation aboard, known as Project de Vinci, provided a unique opportunity to combine acoustic-sounder observations of qualitative temperature structure in the atmospheric boundary layer with the chemical measurements necessary to gain increased understanding of this decoupling process and its consequences for pollutant transport. The data collected on ozone on the balloon and the grounds are reported

  13. Optimal control of decoupling point with deteriorating items

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan Yang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this paper is to develop a dynamic model to simultaneously determine the optimal position of the decoupling point and the optimal path of the production rate as well as the inventory level in a supply chain. With the objective to minimize the total cost of the deviation from the target setting, the closed forms of the optimal solution are derived over a finite planning horizon with deterioration rate under time-varying demand rate.Design/methodology/approach: The Pontryagin's Maximum Principle is employed to explore the optimal position of decoupling point and the optimal production and inventory rate for the proposed dynamic models. The performances of parameters are illustrated through analytical and numerical approaches.Findings: The results denote that the optimal production rate and inventory level are closely related to the target setting which are highly dependent on production policy; meanwhile the optimal decoupling point is exist and unique with the fluctuating of deteriorating rate and product life cycle. The further analyses through both mathematic and numerical approaches indicate that the shorten of product life cycle shifts the optimal decoupling point forward to the end customer meanwhile a backward shifting appears when the deterioration rate increase.Research limitations/implications: There is no shortage allowed and the replacement policy is not taken into account.Practical implications: Solutions derived from this study of the optimal production-inventory plan and decoupling point are instructive for operation decision making. The obtained knowledge about the performance of different parameters is critical to deteriorating supply chains management.Originality/value: Many previous models of the production-inventory problem are only focused on the cost. The paper introduces the decoupling point control into the production and inventory problem such that a critical element-customer demand, can be taken into

  14. Perturbative anyon gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasnieres de Veigy, A.; Ouvry, S.; Paris-6 Univ., 75

    1992-06-01

    The problem of the statistical mechanics of an anyon gas is addressed. A perturbative analysis in the anyonic coupling constant α is reviewed, and the thermodynamical potential is computed at first and second order. An adequate second quantized formalism (field theory at finite temperature) is proposed. At first order in perturbation theory, the results are strikingly simple: only the second virial coefficient close to bosonic statistics is corrected. At second order, however, the complexity of the anyon model appears. One can compute exactly the perturbative correction to each cluster coefficient. However, and contrary to first order, a closed expression for the equation of state seems out of reach. As an illustration, the perturbative expressions of a 3 , a 4 , a 5 and a 6 are given at second order. Finally, using the same formalism, the equation of state of an anyon gas in a constant magnetic field is analyzed at first order in perturbation theory. (K.A.) 16 refs.; 3 figs.; 7 tabs

  15. Local pressure components and interfacial tensions of a liquid film in the vicinity of a solid surface with a nanometer-scale slit pore obtained by the perturbative method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, K; Shibahara, M

    2015-03-07

    A classical molecular dynamics simulation was conducted for a liquid-solid interfacial system with a nanometer-scale slit pore in order to reveal local thermodynamic states: local pressure components and interfacial tensions of a liquid film in the vicinity of the slit. The simulation also examined the transition mechanism between the two states of the liquid film: (a) liquid film on the slit and (b) liquid film in the slit, based on the local thermodynamic quantities from a molecular point of view. An instantaneous expression of the local pressure components and interfacial tensions, which is based on a volume perturbation, was presented to investigate time-dependent phenomena in molecular dynamics simulations. The interactions between the particles were described by the 12-6 Lennard-Jones potential, and effects of the fluid-solid interaction intensity on the local pressure components and interfacial tensions of the fluid in the vicinity of the slit were examined in detail by the presented perturbative method. The results revealed that the local pressure components tangential to the solid surface in the vicinity of the 1st fluid layer from the solid surface are different in a two dimensional plane, and the difference became pronounced in the vicinity of the corner of the slit, for cases where the fluid-solid interaction intensities are relatively strong. The results for the local interfacial tensions of the fluid inside the slit suggested that the local interfacial tensions in the vicinity of the 2nd and 3rd layers of the solid atoms from the entrance of the slit act as a trigger for the transition between the two states under the influence of a varying fluid-solid interaction.

  16. Conformal invariance of curvature perturbation

    CERN Document Server

    Gong, Jinn-Ouk; Park, Wan Il; Sasaki, Misao; Song, Yong-Seon

    2011-01-01

    We show that in the single component situation all perturbation variables in the comoving gauge are conformally invariant to all perturbation orders. Generally we identify a special time slicing, the uniform-conformal transformation slicing, where all perturbations are again conformally invariant to all perturbation orders. We apply this result to the delta N formalism, and show its conformal invariance.

  17. Chiral perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecker, G.

    1996-06-01

    After a general introduction to the structure of effective field theories, the main ingredients of chiral perturbation theory are reviewed. Applications include the light quark mass ratios and pion-pion scattering to two-loop accuracy. In the pion-nucleon system, the linear σ model is contrasted with chiral perturbation theory. The heavy-nucleon expansion is used to construct the effective pion-nucleon Lagrangian to third order in the low-energy expansion, with applications to nucleon Compton scattering. (author)

  18. Continuously observing a dynamically decoupled spin-1 quantum gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R. P.; Kewming, M. J.; Turner, L. D.

    2018-01-01

    We continuously observe dynamical decoupling in a spin-1 quantum gas using a weak optical measurement of spin precession. Continuous dynamical decoupling modifies the character and energy spectrum of spin states to render them insensitive to parasitic fluctuations. Continuous observation measures this new spectrum in a single preparation of the quantum gas. The measured time series contains seven tones, which spectrogram analysis parses as splittings, coherences, and coupling strengths between the decoupled states in real time. With this we locate a regime where a transition between two states is decoupled from magnetic-field instabilities up to fourth order, complementary to a parallel work at higher fields [D. Trypogeorgos et al., preceding paper, Phys. Rev. A 97, 013407 (2018), 10.1103/PhysRevA.97.013407]. The decoupled microscale quantum gas offers magnetic sensitivity in a tunable band, persistent over many milliseconds: the length scales, frequencies, and durations relevant to many applications, including sensing biomagnetic phenomena such as neural spike trains.

  19. Evaluating Decoupling Process in OECD Countries: Case Study of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Nazan; Şengün Ucal, Meltem; Kurnaz, M. Levent

    2017-04-01

    Climate change is at the top of the present and future problems facing humanity. Climate change is now largely attributed to human activities and economic activities are the source of human activities that cause climate change by creating pressure on the environment. Providing the sustainability of resources for the future seems possible by reducing the pressure of these economic activities on the environment. Given the increasing population pressure and growth-focused economies, it is possible to say that achieving decoupling is not so easy on a global basis. It is known that there are some problems in developing countries especially in terms of accessing reliable data in transition and implementation process of decoupling. Developed countries' decoupling practices and proper calculation methods can also be a guide for developing countries. In this study, we tried to calculate the comparative decoupling index for OECD countries and Turkey in terms of data suitability, and we showed the differences between them. We tried to indicate the level of decoupling (weak, stable, strong) for each country. We think that the comparison of Turkey can be an example in terms of developing countries. Acknowledgement: This research has been supported by Bogazici University Research Fund Grant Number 12220.

  20. Are Human and Natural Systems Decoupling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, P. R.; Ehrlich, A. H.

    2012-12-01

    trivial financial problems currently facing rich nations. Financial coverage in the media is massive compared to, say, the news that Earth's coral reefs are now beyond saving. Or consider the utter failure of most social scientists to come to grips with the inability of civilization to develop mechanisms to deal with global environmental problems, or of the persistence of an economic system based on unrealistic academic models and the preposterous notion that growth can continue forever. Whether mutually beneficial human-nature coupling can be restored in time is an open question. Doubtless grassroots action would be required, as well as new institutions/mechanisms for coordinating bottom-up and top-down efforts. There are many hopeful small-scale recoupling efforts such as the Natural Capital Project (http://www.naturalcapitalproject.org/) to protect biodiversity and ecosystem services, deployment of renewable energy systems in many countries, and work to unite academics and civil society in developing the necessary foresight intelligence, as in the Millennium Alliance for Humanity and the Biosphere (MAHB - http://mahb.stanford.edu/). Bottom-up efforts such as Occupy Wall Street (http://occupywallst.org/), the Movement to Solve the Climate Crisis (http://www.350.org/), and many other civil society groups are gaining some traction. But time is short, and in our view decoupling is winning.

  1. Perturbed S3 neutrinos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    jora, Renata; Schechter, Joseph; Naeem Shahid, M.

    2009-01-01

    We study the effects of the perturbation which violates the permutation symmetry of three Majorana neutrinos but preserves the well known (23) interchange symmetry. This is done in the presenceof an arbitrary Majorana phase which serves to insure the degeneracy of the three neutrinos...

  2. Decoupled Closed-Form Solution for Humanoid Lower Limb Kinematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Said

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an explicit, omnidirectional, analytical, and decoupled closed-form solution for the lower limb kinematics of the humanoid robot NAO. The paper starts by decoupling the position and orientation analysis from the overall Denavit-Hartenberg (DH transformation matrices. Here, the joint activation sequence for the DH matrices is based on the geometry of a triangle. Furthermore, the implementation of a forward and a reversed kinematic analysis for the support and swing phase equations is developed to avoid matrix inversion. The allocation of constant transformations allows the position and orientation end-coordinate systems to be aligned with each other. Also, the redefinition of the DH transformations and the use of constraints allow decoupling the shared DOF between the legs and the torso. Finally, a geometric approach to avoid the singularities during the walking process is indicated. Numerical data is presented along with an experimental implementation to prove the validity of the analytical results.

  3. Optimally combining dynamical decoupling and quantum error correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz-Silva, Gerardo A; Lidar, D A

    2013-01-01

    Quantum control and fault-tolerant quantum computing (FTQC) are two of the cornerstones on which the hope of realizing a large-scale quantum computer is pinned, yet only preliminary steps have been taken towards formalizing the interplay between them. Here we explore this interplay using the powerful strategy of dynamical decoupling (DD), and show how it can be seamlessly and optimally integrated with FTQC. To this end we show how to find the optimal decoupling generator set (DGS) for various subspaces relevant to FTQC, and how to simultaneously decouple them. We focus on stabilizer codes, which represent the largest contribution to the size of the DGS, showing that the intuitive choice comprising the stabilizers and logical operators of the code is in fact optimal, i.e., minimizes a natural cost function associated with the length of DD sequences. Our work brings hybrid DD-FTQC schemes, and their potentially considerable advantages, closer to realization.

  4. Robust dynamical decoupling for quantum computing and quantum memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Alexandre M; Alvarez, Gonzalo A; Suter, Dieter

    2011-06-17

    Dynamical decoupling (DD) is a popular technique for protecting qubits from the environment. However, unless special care is taken, experimental errors in the control pulses used in this technique can destroy the quantum information instead of preserving it. Here, we investigate techniques for making DD sequences robust against different types of experimental errors while retaining good decoupling efficiency in a fluctuating environment. We present experimental data from solid-state nuclear spin qubits and introduce a new DD sequence that is suitable for quantum computing and quantum memory.

  5. Protected quantum computing: interleaving gate operations with dynamical decoupling sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingfu; Souza, Alexandre M; Brandao, Frederico Dias; Suter, Dieter

    2014-02-07

    Implementing precise operations on quantum systems is one of the biggest challenges for building quantum devices in a noisy environment. Dynamical decoupling attenuates the destructive effect of the environmental noise, but so far, it has been used primarily in the context of quantum memories. Here, we experimentally demonstrate a general scheme for combining dynamical decoupling with quantum logical gate operations using the example of an electron-spin qubit of a single nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond. We achieve process fidelities >98% for gate times that are 2 orders of magnitude longer than the unprotected dephasing time T2.

  6. A closer look at non-decoupling D-Terms

    CERN Document Server

    Staub, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Non-Decoupling D-Terms are an attractive possibility to enhance the tree-level mass of the standard model like Higgs boson in supersymmetric models. We discuss here for the case of a new Abelian gauge group two effects usually neglected in literature: (i) the size of the additional radiative corrections to the Higgs mass due to the presence of the new gauge coupling, and (ii) the impact of gauge kinetic mixing. It is shown that both effects reduce to some extent the positive effect of the non-decoupling D-terms on the Higgs mass.

  7. Soft-pulse dynamical decoupling with Markovian decoherence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pryadko, Leonid P.; Quiroz, Gregory

    2009-01-01

    We consider the effect of broadband decoherence on the performance of refocusing sequences, having in mind applications of dynamical decoupling in concatenation with quantum error correcting codes as the first stage of coherence protection. Specifically, we construct cumulant expansions of effective decoherence operators for a qubit driven by a pulse of a generic symmetric shape and for several sequences of π and π/2 pulses. While, in general, the performance of soft pulses in decoupling sequences in the presence of Markovian decoherence is worse than that of the ideal δ pulses, it can be substantially improved by shaping.

  8. A closer look at non-decoupling D-terms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Staub

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Non-decoupling D-terms are an attractive possibility to enhance the tree-level mass of the standard model like Higgs boson in supersymmetric models. We discuss here for the case of a new Abelian gauge group two effects usually neglected in literature: (i the size of the additional radiative corrections to the Higgs mass due to the presence of the new gauge coupling, and (ii the impact of gauge kinetic mixing. It is shown that both effects reduce to some extent the positive effect of the non-decoupling D-terms on the Higgs mass.

  9. Simple and Efficient Decoupling of Compact Arrays With Parasitic Scatterers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lau, B.K.; Andersen, Jørgen Bach

    2012-01-01

    Compact arrays such as multiple antennas on a mobile terminal suffer from low efficiency and high correlation between antenna signals. In the present paper, a simple and rigorous procedure for decoupling two closely coupled antennas with a parasitic scatterer is proposed. The parasitic scatterer...... for other decoupling methods as well. Simulation and experimental results are used to substantiate the effectiveness of the proposed design approach on a two-monopole array with an antenna spacing of 0.1 wavelength. Finally, several practical considerations of the proposal are also presented, including...

  10. Dynamically Decoupled 13C Spins in Hyperpolarized Nanodiamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rej, Ewa; Gaebel, Torsten; Boele, Thomas; Waddington, David; Reilly, David

    The spin-spin relaxation time, T2, which determines how long a quantum state remains coherent, is an important factor for many applications ranging from MRI to quantum computing. A common technique used in quantum information technology to extend the T2, involves averaging out certain noise spectra via dynamical decoupling sequences. Depending on the nature of the noise in the system, specific sequences, such as CPMG, UDD or KDD, can be tailored to optimize T2. Here we combine hyperpolarization techniques and dynamical decoupling sequences to extend the T2 of 13C nuclear spins in nanodiamond by three orders of magnitude.

  11. (Non-)decoupled supersymmetric field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietro, Lorenzo Di; Dine, Michael; Komargodski, Zohar

    2014-01-01

    We study some consequences of coupling supersymmetric theories to (super)gravity. To linear order, the couplings are determined by the energy-momentum supermultiplet. At higher orders, the couplings are determined by contact terms in correlation functions of the energy-momentum supermultiplet. We focus on the couplings of one particular field in the supergravity multiplet, the auxiliary field M. We discuss its linear and quadratic (seagull) couplings in various supersymmetric theories. In analogy to the local renormalization group formalism (http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0370-2693(89)90729-6; http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0550-3213(90)90584-Z; http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0550-3213(91)80030-P), we provide a prescription for how to fix the quadratic couplings. They generally arise at two-loops in perturbation theory. We check our prescription by explicitly computing these couplings in several examples such as mass-deformed N=4 and in the Coulomb phase of some theories. These couplings affect the Lagrangians of rigid supersymmetric theories in curved space. In addition, our analysis leads to a transparent derivation of the phenomenon known as Anomaly Mediation. In contrast to previous approaches, we obtain both the gaugino and scalar masses of Anomaly Mediation by relying just on classical, minimal supergravity and a manifestly local and supersymmetric Wilsonian point of view. Our discussion naturally incorporates the connection between Anomaly Mediation and supersymmetric AdS 4 Lagrangians. This note can be read without prior familiarity with Anomaly Mediated Supersymmetry Breaking (AMSB)

  12. Soliton Perturbations, Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Russell Leland

    Starting with an 'integrable' nonlinear evolution equation, we are investigating perturbations about a one soliton solution, through the inversion of a linear equation for the first order correction. This differs from the methods based on the perturbation of certain 'scattering data', as the proposed method takes place in coordinate space, and not spectral space. The method is tested on several perturbed Korteweg -DeVries equations. The damped KdV equation is studied in detail, resulting in the resolution of the controversy over the shift in the center of the soliton in favor of the results of Karpman and Maslov. Using a finite difference scheme, a numerically induced shift in the damped soliton's position is predicted through the use of perturbation theory. We extend the results of Ott and Sudan for other damped KdV equations, giving expressions for the shift in soliton position and the asymptotic form of the first order correction to the solution. Next we investigate Menyuk's case of a solution consisting of a soliton plus arbitrary initial radiation, which is subject to a Hamiltonian perturbation; and we show that the radiation must start out small. After these preliminary investigations, we turn to the stochastic KdV equation with external Gaussian white noise, zeta(x,t). For the cases of damping and no damping, the averaged soliton asymptotically becomes a Gaussian wave packet, which decays and broadens according to the same power laws as found by Wadati and Akutsu for the noise zeta(t). Next, we investigate the propagation of a modulated KP soliton and compare our results to the work of Chang. We find that singular perturbation theory cannot explain the evolution of this profile, but we can obtain good qualitative results from the solution of the Cauchy problem for the linearized KP equation. The modulations travel away from the soliton peak and decay in time, leaving a stable planar soliton behind. Finally, we discuss the application of the method to the

  13. Computing Decoupled Residuals for Compact Disc Players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob; Andersen, Palle

    2006-01-01

    In order to improve Compact Disc Players playability regarding playing Compact Discs with surface faults, like scratches and fingerprints etc, the attention has been put on fault tolerant control schemes. Almost every of those methods are based on fault detection. The standard approach is to use...

  14. Capillary and viscous perturbations to Helmholtz flows

    KAUST Repository

    Moore, M. R.

    2014-02-21

    Inspired by recent calculations by Thoraval et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 108, 2012, p. 264506) relating to droplet impact, this paper presents an analysis of the perturbations to the free surface caused by small surface tension and viscosity in steady Helmholtz flows. In particular, we identify the regimes in which appreciable vorticity can be shed from the boundary layer to the bulk flow. © 2014 Cambridge University Press.

  15. LOCALIZATION OF POINT VORTICES UNDER CURVATURE PERTURBATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto, Garra

    2013-01-01

    International audience; We discuss the effect of curvature on the dynamics of a two-dimensional inviscid incompressible fluid with initial vorticity concentrated in N small disjoint regions, that is, the classical point vortex system. We recall some results about point vortex dynamics on simply connected surfaces with constant curvature K, that is, plane, spherical, and hyperbolic surfaces. We show that the effect of curvature can be treated as a smooth perturbation to the Green's function of...

  16. Degenerate asymptotic perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunziker, W.; Pillet, C.A.

    1983-01-01

    Asymptotic Rayleigh-Schroedinger perturbation theory for discrete eigenvalues is developed systematically in the general degenerate case. For this purpose we study the spectral properties of mxm - matrix functions A(kappa) of a complex variable kappa which have an asymptotic expansion ΣAsub(k)kappasup(k) as kappa->0. We show that asymptotic expansions for groups of eigenvalues and for the corresponding spectral projections of A(kappa) can be obtained from the set [Asub(k)] by analytic perturbation theory. Special attention is given to the case where A(kappa) is Borel-summable in some sector originating from kappa=0 with opening angle >π. Here we prove that the asymptotic series describe individual eigenvalues and eigenprojections of A(kappa) which are shown to be holomorphic in S near kappa=0 and Borel summable if Asub(k)sup(*)=Asub(k) for all k. We then fit these results into the scheme of Rayleigh-Schroedinger perturbation theory and we give some examples of asymptotic estimates for Schroedinger operators. (orig.)

  17. Twisting perturbed parafermions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Belitsky

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The near-collinear expansion of scattering amplitudes in maximally supersymmetric Yang–Mills theory at strong coupling is governed by the dynamics of stings propagating on the five sphere. The pentagon transitions in the operator product expansion which systematize the series get reformulated in terms of matrix elements of branch-point twist operators in the two-dimensional O(6 nonlinear sigma model. The facts that the latter is an asymptotically free field theory and that there exists no local realization of twist fields prevents one from explicit calculation of their scaling dimensions and operator product expansion coefficients. This complication is bypassed making use of the equivalence of the sigma model to the infinite-level limit of WZNW models perturbed by current–current interactions, such that one can use conformal symmetry and conformal perturbation theory for systematic calculations. Presently, to set up the formalism, we consider the O(3 sigma model which is reformulated as perturbed parafermions.

  18. Non-perturbative measurement of evanescent fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawata, Yoshimasa; Okamoto, Taihei; Inami, Wataru

    2018-03-01

    Evanescent electromagnetic fields that decay exponentially with distance from a substrate surface are challenging to measure accurately because the experimental procedure usually perturbs the distribution. We propose a non-perturbative method of characterizing an evanescent field by scanning a particle that is illuminated by a second wavefront that creates a controlled interference pattern. Because it can always be located in a dark region of the interference fringes, the particle does not scatter light and distort the evanescent field. We demonstrate the measurement principle with Finite-difference time-domain numerical simulations.

  19. State policy change: Revenue decoupling in the electricity market

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Kytson L.

    The study seeks to answer the question, why are states adopting revenue decoupling in the electricity market, by investigating the relationship between policy adoption and attributes of the electricity market, the structure of the state utility commissions, and the political climate of the state. The study examines the period 1978-2008. Two econometric models, the marginal risk set model and the conditional risk set model, are estimated to predict the influence of covariates on the probability of the state adopting revenue decoupling in the electricity market. The models are both variants of the Cox proportional hazard model and use different underlying assumptions about the nature of adoption of revenue decoupling and when the states are considered to be at risk of adoption. Results suggest that market attributes, such as the source of electricity generation in the state, state energy intensity, and the distribution of non-public and public utilities, significantly influence the adoption of the policy. Also, the method of selecting commissioners and the party affiliation of elected officials in the state are important factors. The study concludes by suggestions to improve the implementation and evaluation of revenue decoupling in the electricity markets.

  20. Decoupled systems on trial: Eliminating bottlenecks to improve aquaponic processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik Monsees

    Full Text Available In classical aquaponics (coupled aquaponic systems, 1-loop systems the production of fish in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS and plants in hydroponics are combined in a single loop, entailing systemic compromises on the optimal production parameters (e.g. pH. Recently presented decoupled aquaponics (2-loop systems have been awarded for eliminating major bottlenecks. In a pilot study, production in an innovative decoupled aquaponic system was compared with a coupled system and, as a control, a conventional RAS, assessing growth parameters of fish (FCR, SGR and plants over an experimental period of 5 months. Soluble nutrients (NO3--N, NO2--N, NH4+-N, PO43-, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, SO42-, Cl2- and Fe2+, elemental composition of plants, fish and sludge (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, C, abiotic factors (temperature, pH, oxygen, and conductivity, fertilizer and water consumption were determined. Fruit yield was 36% higher in decoupled aquaponics and pH and fertilizer management was more effective, whereas fish production was comparable in both systems. The results of this pilot study clearly illustrate the main advantages of decoupled, two-loop aquaponics and demonstrate how bottlenecks commonly encountered in coupled aquaponics can be managed to promote application in aquaculture.

  1. Do 'green' taxes work? Decoupling environmental pressures and economic growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2005-01-01

    This essay intends to shed light on whether environmental taxation can help to decouple environmental pressures from economic growth, a policy outcome widely desired and particularly pressing in the context of climate change where radical measures are needed to curb CO2 build up....

  2. The Convergence Characteristic of the Fast Decoupled Load Flow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Fortran program is written using matrix sparsity for the inversion of the coefficient matrix and two aspects of the convergence characteristic of the fast decoupled load flow technique are investigated. These are, effects of the starting values and effects of R/X ratio of transmission lines. The analysis is based on computational ...

  3. Analytical Methods of Decoupling the Automotive Engine Torque Roll Axis

    Science.gov (United States)

    JEONG, TAESEOK; SINGH, RAJENDRA

    2000-06-01

    This paper analytically examines the multi-dimensional mounting schemes of an automotive engine-gearbox system when excited by oscillating torques. In particular, the issue of torque roll axis decoupling is analyzed in significant detail since it is poorly understood. New dynamic decoupling axioms are presented an d compared with the conventional elastic axis mounting and focalization methods. A linear time-invariant system assumption is made in addition to a proportionally damped system. Only rigid-body modes of the powertrain are considered and the chassis elements are assumed to be rigid. Several simplified physical systems are considered and new closed-form solutions for symmetric and asymmetric engine-mounting systems are developed. These clearly explain the design concepts for the 4-point mounting scheme. Our analytical solutions match with the existing design formulations that are only applicable to symmetric geometries. Spectra for all six rigid-body motions are predicted using the alternate decoupling methods and the closed-form solutions are verified. Also, our method is validated by comparing modal solutions with prior experimental and analytical studies. Parametric design studies are carried out to illustrate the methodology. Chief contributions of this research include the development of new or refined analytical models and closed-form solutions along with improved design strategies for the torque roll axis decoupling.

  4. Active power decoupling with reduced converter stress for single ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SUJATA BHOWMICK

    The analysis and the simulation results are shown to prove the effectiveness of the topology. Keywords. Single phase; double-frequency ripple; active power decoupling; reduced stress; reliability. 1. Introduction. The single-phase power electronic converters interfacing a. DC storage system or a DC source have the inherent.

  5. Decoupling among CSR policies, programs, and impacts : An empirical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graafland, Johan; Smid, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    There are relatively few empirical studies on the impacts of corporate social responsibility (CSR) policies and programs. This article addresses the research gap by analyzing the incidence of, and the conditions that affect, decoupling (defined as divergence) among CSR policies, implementation of

  6. Decoupled systems on trial: Eliminating bottlenecks to improve aquaponic processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsees, Hendrik; Kloas, Werner; Wuertz, Sven

    2017-01-01

    In classical aquaponics (coupled aquaponic systems, 1-loop systems) the production of fish in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) and plants in hydroponics are combined in a single loop, entailing systemic compromises on the optimal production parameters (e.g. pH). Recently presented decoupled aquaponics (2-loop systems) have been awarded for eliminating major bottlenecks. In a pilot study, production in an innovative decoupled aquaponic system was compared with a coupled system and, as a control, a conventional RAS, assessing growth parameters of fish (FCR, SGR) and plants over an experimental period of 5 months. Soluble nutrients (NO3--N, NO2--N, NH4+-N, PO43-, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, SO42-, Cl2- and Fe2+), elemental composition of plants, fish and sludge (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, C), abiotic factors (temperature, pH, oxygen, and conductivity), fertilizer and water consumption were determined. Fruit yield was 36% higher in decoupled aquaponics and pH and fertilizer management was more effective, whereas fish production was comparable in both systems. The results of this pilot study clearly illustrate the main advantages of decoupled, two-loop aquaponics and demonstrate how bottlenecks commonly encountered in coupled aquaponics can be managed to promote application in aquaculture.

  7. Unmasking decoupling: Redefining the Resource Intensity of the Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bithas, Kostas; Kalimeris, Panos

    2018-04-01

    Interest in investigating the complex link between resources and developments has revived recently following studies which support striking "dematerialized" growth over the last hundred years or so. This so-called decoupling effect is defined as the declining quantity of resources required for producing one unit of GDP. Decoupling studies adopt aggregate GDP as the measure of the outcome of the economy. However, this outcome is contributed by the total population which differs over time and between countries. A valid comparison should use a comparable, standardized indicator that adjusts for population size. GDP per capita, the income index, defines in monetary terms the ultimate outcome of the economy and is adopted by international organizations as the standard index for comparing economies. The income index approximates, in monetary terms, the welfare produced by the economic system and enjoyed by individuals. Recently developed alternative indexes of welfare lack broad data coverage and have limited empirical application as yet. For this reason and for ensuring direct comparison with the standard decoupling estimates, our study remains within the monetary context. The present paper re-evaluates the resources-economy link from the perspective of "the resources required for the production of one unit of GDP per capita (Income)" and hence evaluates the efficiency of turning resources into the actual outcome of the economic system. Our estimates suggest that the dependence of global economic growth on natural resources has increased by over 60% in the last 110years (1900-2009), contrasting with the prevailing decoupling estimates which suggest a reduction by 63%. We find that the actual decoupling, which began in the mid-1970s in post-industrial economies, is counterbalanced by the intensified resource intensity of several developing economies. Accordingly, in the pursuit of sustainability, the dematerialization target needs to be more clearly incorporated into

  8. Refocused continuous-wave decoupling: A new approach to heteronuclear dipolar decoupling in solid-state NMR spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Joachim Møllesøe; Nielsen, Anders B.; Bjerring, Morten

    2012-01-01

    A novel strategy for heteronuclear dipolar decoupling in magic-angle spinning solid-state NMR spectroscopy is presented, which eliminates residual static high-order terms in the effective Hamiltonian originating from interactions between oscillating dipolar and anisotropic shielding tensors. The ...

  9. Decoupling the structure from the ground motion during earthquakes by employing friction pendulums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillich, G. R.; Iancu, V.; Gillich, N.; Korka, Z. I.; Chioncel, C. P.; Hatiegan, C.

    2018-01-01

    Avoiding dynamic loads on structures during earthquakes is an actual issue since seismic actions can harm or destroy the built environment. Several attempts to prevent this are possible, the essence being to decouple the structure from the ground motion during earthquakes and preventing in this way large deflections and high accelerations. A common approach is the use of friction pendulums, with cylindrical or spherical surfaces but not limited to that, inserted between the ground and the structure, respectively between the pillar and the superstructure. This type of bearings permits small pendulum motion and in this way, earthquake-induced displacements that occur in the bearings are not integrally transmitted to the structure. The consequence is that the structure is subject to greatly reduced lateral loads and shaking movements. In the experiments, conducted to prove the efficiency of the friction pendulums, we made use of an own designed and manufactured shaking table. Two types of sliding surfaces are analyzed, one polynomial of second order (i.e. circular) and one of a superior order. For both pendulum types, analytical models were developed. The results have shown that the structure is really decoupled from the ground motion and has a similar behaviour as that described by the analytic model.

  10. Perturbative quantum chromodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    1989-01-01

    This book will be of great interest to advanced students and researchers in the area of high energy theoretical physics. Being the most complete and updated review volume on Perturbative QCD, it serves as an extremely useful textbook or reference book. Some of the reviews in this volume are the best that have been written on the subject anywhere. Contents: Factorization of Hard Processes in QCD (J C Collins, D E Soper & G Sterman); Exclusive Processes in Quantum Chromodynamics (S J Brodsky & G P Lepage); Coherence and Physics of QCD Jets (Yu L Dokshitzer, V A Khoze & S I Troyan); Pomeron in Qu

  11. Critical points of a perturbed Otha-Kawasaki functional

    OpenAIRE

    Rizzi, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    In the paper, we consider a small perturbation of the Otha-Kawasaki functional and we construct at least four critical points close to suitable translations of the Schwarz P surface with fixed volume.

  12. Adsorption and electronic properties of pentacene on thin dielectric decoupling layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Koslowski

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing use of thin dielectric decoupling layers to study the electronic properties of organic molecules on metal surfaces, comparative studies are needed in order to generalize findings and formulate practical rules. In this paper we study the adsorption and electronic properties of pentacene deposited onto h-BN/Rh(111 and compare them with those of pentacene deposited onto KCl on various metal surfaces. When deposited onto KCl, the HOMO and LUMO energies of the pentacene molecules scale with the work functions of the combined KCl/metal surface. The magnitude of the variation between the respective KCl/metal systems indicates the degree of interaction of the frontier orbitals with the underlying metal. The results confirm that the so-called IDIS model developed by Willenbockel et al. applies not only to molecular layers on bare metal surfaces, but also to individual molecules on thin electronically decoupling layers. Depositing pentacene onto h-BN/Rh(111 results in significantly different adsorption characteristics, due to the topographic corrugation of the surface as well as the lateral electric fields it presents. These properties are reflected in the divergence from the aforementioned trend for the orbital energies of pentacene deposited onto h-BN/Rh(111, as well as in the different adsorption geometry. Thus, the highly desirable capacity of h-BN to trap molecules comes at the price of enhanced metal–molecule interaction, which decreases the HOMO–LUMO gap of the molecules. In spite of the enhanced interaction, the molecular orbitals are evident in scanning tunnelling spectroscopy (STS and their shapes can be resolved by spectroscopic mapping.

  13. Reliability-based optimal structural design by the decoupling approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royset, J.O.; Der Kiureghian, A.; Polak, E.

    2001-01-01

    A decoupling approach for solving optimal structural design problems involving reliability terms in the objective function, the constraint set or both is discussed and extended. The approach employs a reformulation of each problem, in which reliability terms are replaced by deterministic functions. The reformulated problems can be solved by existing semi-infinite optimization algorithms and computational reliability methods. It is shown that the reformulated problems produce solutions that are identical to those of the original problems when the limit-state functions defining the reliability problem are affine. For nonaffine limit-state functions, approximate solutions are obtained by solving series of reformulated problems. An important advantage of the approach is that the required reliability and optimization calculations are completely decoupled, thus allowing flexibility in the choice of the optimization algorithm and the reliability computation method

  14. A Fully Symmetric and Completely Decoupled MEMS-SOI Gyroscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhameed SHARAF

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a novel MEMS gyroscope that is capable of exciting the drive mode differentially. The structure also decouples the drive and sense modes via an intermediate mass and decoupling beams. Both drive and sense modes are fully differential enabling control over the zero-rate-output for the former and maximizing output sensitivity using a bridge circuit for the latter. Further, the structure is fully symmetric about the x- and y- axes which results in minimizing the temperature sensitivity problem. Complete analytical analysis based on the equations of motion was performed and verified using two commercially available finite element software packages. Results from both methods are in good agreement. The analysis of the sensor shows an electrical sensitivity of 1.14 (mV/(º/s. The gyroscope was fabricated using single mask and deep reactive ion etching. The measurement of the resonance frequency performed showing a good agreement with the analytical and numerical analysis.

  15. Principle of Global Decoupling with Coupling Angle Modulation

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Yun; Pilat, Fulvia Caterina; Roser, Thomas; Trbojevic, Dejan

    2005-01-01

    The global betatron decoupling on the ramp is an important issue for the operation of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). A new scheme coupling phase modulation is found. It introduces a rotating extra coupling into the coupled machine to detect the residual coupling. The eigentune responses are measured with a high resolution phase lock loop (PLL) system. From the minimum and maximum tune splits, the correction strengths are given. The time period occupied by one coupling phase modulation is less than 10 seconds. So it is a very promising solution for the global decoupling on the ramp. In this article the principle of the coupling phase modulation is given. The simulation with the smooth accelerator model is also done. The practical issues concerning its applications are discussed.

  16. A geometrical approach to dynamical decoupling with smooth pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Junkai; Deng, Xiuhao; Barnes, Edwin

    In order to perform high-fidelity quantum information processing, reducing the effects of noise is an essential task. It is well known that a system can be decoupled from noise dynamically by using carefully designed pulse sequences based on delta-function or square waveforms such as spin echo or CPMG. However, such ideal pulses are often challenging to implement experimentally with high fidelity. We present an analytical approach that enables one to generate an unlimited number of smooth, experimentally feasible pulses that perform dynamical decoupling or dynamically corrected gates. Our method is based on a simple geometric picture that facilitates the identification of driving fields that cancel errors in the single-qubit evolution operator to second order or beyond. We demonstrate that this scheme can significantly enhance the fidelity of single-qubit gates in the case of noise with a 1/f power spectrum.

  17. Adaptive decoupled power control method for inverter connected DG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Xiaofeng; Tian, Yanjun; Chen, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    an adaptive droop control method based on online evaluation of power decouple matrix for inverter connected distributed generations in distribution system. Traditional decoupled power control is simply based on line impedance parameter, but the load characteristics also cause the power coupling, and alter......The integration of renewable energy technology is making the power distribution system more flexible, but also introducing challenges for traditional technology. With the nature of intermittent and less inertial, renewable energy-based generations need effective control methods to cooperate...... with other devices, such as storage, loads and the utility grid. The widely used power frequency (P–f) droop control is based on the precondition of inductive line impedance, but the low-voltage system is mainly resistive, and also the different load character needs to be considered. This study presents...

  18. Power decoupling method for single phase differential buck converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yao, Wenli; Tang, Yi; Zhang, Xiaobin

    2015-01-01

    inverter to improve the dc link power quality, and an improved active power decoupling method is proposed to achieve ripple power reduction for both AC-DC and DC-AC conversions. The ripple energy storage is realized by the filter capacitors, which are connected between the output terminal and the negative...... generation technique is proposed to provide accurate ripple power compensation, and closed-loop controllers are also designed based on small signal models. The effectiveness of this power decoupling method is verified by detailed simulation studies as well as laboratory prototype experimental results....... dc bus. By properly controlling the differential mode voltage of the capacitors, it is possible to transfer desired energy between the DC port and AC port. The common mode voltage is controlled in such a way that the ripple power on the dc side will be reduced. Furthermore, an autonomous reference...

  19. General solution to inhomogeneous dephasing and smooth pulse dynamical decoupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Junkai; Deng, Xiu-Hao; Russo, Antonio; Barnes, Edwin

    2018-03-01

    In order to achieve the high-fidelity quantum control needed for a broad range of quantum information technologies, reducing the effects of noise and system inhomogeneities is an essential task. It is well known that a system can be decoupled from noise or made insensitive to inhomogeneous dephasing dynamically by using carefully designed pulse sequences based on square or delta-function waveforms such as Hahn spin echo or CPMG. However, such ideal pulses are often challenging to implement experimentally with high fidelity. Here, we uncover a new geometrical framework for visualizing all possible driving fields, which enables one to generate an unlimited number of smooth, experimentally feasible pulses that perform dynamical decoupling or dynamically corrected gates to arbitrarily high order. We demonstrate that this scheme can significantly enhance the fidelity of single-qubit operations in the presence of noise and when realistic limitations on pulse rise times and amplitudes are taken into account.

  20. Power corrections from decoupling of the charm quark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knechtli, Francesco; Korzec, Tomasz; Leder, Björn; Moir, Graham; Alpha Collaboration

    2017-11-01

    Decoupling of heavy quarks at low energies can be described by means of an effective theory as shown by S. Weinberg in Ref. [1]. We study the decoupling of the charm quark by lattice simulations. We simulate a model, QCD with two degenerate charm quarks. In this case the leading order term in the effective theory is a pure gauge theory. The higher order terms are proportional to inverse powers of the charm quark mass M starting at M-2. Ratios of hadronic scales are equal to their value in the pure gauge theory up to power corrections. We show, by precise measurements of ratios of scales defined from the Wilson flow, that these corrections are very small and that they can be described by a term proportional to M-2 down to masses in the region of the charm quark mass.

  1. Cladding technique for development of Ag-In-Cd decoupler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teshigawara, M.; Harada, M.; Saito, S.; Kikuchi, K.; Kogawa, H.; Ikeda, Y.; Kawai, M.; Kurishita, H.; Konashi, K.

    2005-01-01

    To develop a Ag (silver)-In (indium)-Cd (cadmium) alloy decoupler, a method is needed to bond the decoupler between two plates of the Al alloy (A6061-T6). We found that a better HIP condition was temperature, pressure and holding time at 803 K, 100 MPa and 1 h, respectively, for small test pieces (φ 22 mm in diam. x 5 mm in height). Especially, a sandwich case (a Ag-In plate with thickness of 0.5 mm between two Ag-Cd plates with thickness of 1.25 mm) gave easier (or better) bonding results. Though a hardened layer is found in the bonding layer, the rupture strength of the bonding layer is more than 30 MPa, which is higher than the design stress in our application

  2. Perturbative and Non-Perturbative Aspects of N=8 Supergravity

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrara, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    Some aspects of quantum properties of N=8 supergravity in four dimensions are discussed for non-practitioners. At perturbative level, they include the Weyl trace anomaly as well as composite duality anomalies, the latter being relevant for perturbative finiteness. At non-perturbative level, we briefly review some facts about extremal black holes, their Bekenstein-Hawking entropy and attractor flows for single- and two-centered solutions.

  3. Advanced control functions of decoupled electro-hydraulic brake system

    OpenAIRE

    Savitski, Dzmitry; Ivanov, Valentin; Schleinin, Dmitrij; Augsburg, Klaus; Pütz, Thomas; Lee, Chih Feng

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents results of analytical and experimental investigations on advanced control functions of decoupled electro-hydraulic brake system. These functions address continuous wheel slip control, variation of the brake pedal feel, and brake judder compensation. The performed study demonstrates that the electro-hydraulic brake system has improved performance by relevant criteria of safety and driving comfort both for conventional and electric vehicles.

  4. Decoupled control for internal combustion engines research test beds

    OpenAIRE

    López Hincapié, José David; Espinosa Oviedo, Jairo José; Agudelo Santamaría, John Ramiro

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a solid and robust automation model which has been developed and implemented in two different research engine test beds which were instrumented, one for diesel and the other one for spark ignition engines. The model, programmed in Matlab, is based on transfer functions with a decoupled (two single input single output systems) independent proportional and integral action controller that allows setting the desired engine speed and torque under stationary operation conditio...

  5. Development of a Theoretical Decoupled Stirling Cycle Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Cullen, Barry; McGovern, Jim

    2009-01-01

    The Stirling cycle engine is gaining increasing attention in the current energy market as a clean, quiet and versatile prime mover for use in such situations as solar thermal generation, micro cogeneration and other micro distributed generation situations. A theoretical Stirling cycle engine model is developed. Using a theoretical decoupled engine configuration in which working space swept volume, volume variation, phase angle and dead space ratio are controlled via a black-box electronic con...

  6. Decoupling analysis and socioeconomic drivers of environmental pressure in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Sai; Liu, Zhu; Crawford-Brown, Douglas; Wang, Yafei; Xu, Ming

    2014-01-21

    China's unprecedented change offers a unique opportunity for uncovering relationships between economic growth and environmental pressure. Here we show the trajectories of China's environmental pressure and reveal underlying socioeconomic drivers during 1992-2010. Mining and manufacturing industries are the main contributors to increasing environmental pressure from the producer perspective. Changes in urban household consumption, fixed capital formation, and exports are the main drivers from the consumer perspective. While absolute decoupling is not realized, China has in general achieved relative decoupling between economic growth and environmental pressure. China's decoupling performance has four distinguishable periods, closely aligning with nation-wide major policy adjustments, which indicates significant impact of China's national socioeconomic policies on its environmental pressure. Material intensity change is the main contributor to the mitigation of environmental pressure, except for ammonia nitrogen, solid wastes, aquatic Cu, and aquatic Zn. Production structure change is the largest contributor to mitigate ammonia nitrogen emissions, and final demand structure change is the largest contributor to mitigate emissions of solid wastes, aquatic Cu, and aquatic Zn. We observe materialization trends for China's production structure and final demand structure during 2002-2007. Environmental sustainability can only be achieved by timely technology innovation and changes of production structure and consumption pattern.

  7. Current Decoupling Control Strategy of Medium Voltage Cascaded Multilevel STATCOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Xuehua

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available As one of effective regulation methods, static synchronous compensator (STATCOM has been widespread used to regulate dynamic reactive power and solve dynamic voltage stability problems into power-grid. Through the analysis of mathematical model, cascaded STATCOM, which is constructed by several cascaded H-bridges, is a nonlinear, multivariable, strongly coupled system. It will make difficulties in the design and practical application of controller. In this paper, mathematical models of cascaded STATCOM in a -b- c and d-q coordinates are deduced. Based on the theory of internal model control and PI control strategy, the internal decoupling control algorithm is introduced to realize independent control of active current and reactive current. At the same time, decoupling control algorithms are designed and decoupling control models are given and simulated. From the combined circuit topology and control with multi-FPGA, the simulation and experimental platform of cascaded SVG, which use the control algorithms of double-loop control with the current inner loop and capacitor voltage outer loop. Both in a-b-c coordinates and d-q-0 coordinates, experiment and simulation results show that three-phase current of STATCOM has good tracking performance and control precision, which show the regulator design method and parameters setting are feasible and effective.

  8. Inflationary perturbations with Lifshitz scaling arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Arai, Shun; Urakawa, Yuko

    Instead of Lorentz invariance, gravitational degrees of freedom may obey Lifshitz scaling at high energies, as it happens in Ho\\v{r}ava's proposal for quantum gravity. We study consequences of this proposal for the spectra of primordial perturbations generated at inflation. Breaking of 4D diffeomorphism (Diff) invariance down to the foliation-preserving Diff in Ho\\v{r}ava-Lifshitz (HL) gravity leads to appearance of a scalar degree of freedom in the gravity sector, khronon, which describes dynamics of the time foliation. One can naively expect that mixing between inflaton and khronon will jeopardize conservation of adiabatic perturbations at super Hubble scales. This indeed happens in the projectable version of the theory. By contrast, we find that in the non-projectable version of HL gravity, khronon acquires an effective mass which is much larger than the Hubble scale well before the Hubble crossing time and decouples from the adiabatic curvature perturbation $\\zeta$ sourced by the inflaton fluctuations. As...

  9. Perturbative Noncommutative Regularization

    CERN Document Server

    Hawkins, E J

    1999-01-01

    I propose a nonperturbative regularization of quantum field theories with contact interactions (primarily, scalar field theories). This is given by the geometric quantization of compact Kähler manifolds and generalizes what has already been proposed by Madore, Grosse, Klimčík, and Prešnajder for the two-sphere. I discuss the perturbation theory derived from this regularized model and propose an approximation technique for evaluating the Feynman diagrams. This amounts to a momentum cutoff combined with phase factors at vertices. To illustrate the exact and approximate calculations, I present, as examples, the simplest diagrams for the lf4 model on the spaces S2,S 2×S2 , and CP2 . This regularization fails for noncompact spaces. I give a brief dimensional analysis argument as to why this is so. I also discuss the relevance of the topology of Feynman diagrams to their ultra-violet and infra-red divergence behavior in this model.

  10. Perturbation theory with instantons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carruthers, P.; Pinsky, S.S.; Zachariasen, F.

    1977-05-01

    ''Perturbation theory'' rules are developed for calculating the effect of instantons in a pure Yang-Mills theory with no fermions, in the ''dilute gas'' approximation in which the N-instanton solution is assumed to be the sum of N widely separated one-instanton solutions. These rules are then used to compute the gluon propagator and proper vertex function including all orders of the instanton interaction but only to lowest order in the gluon coupling. It is to be expected that such an approximation is valid only for momenta q larger than the physical mass μ. The result is that in this regime instantons cause variations in the propagator and vertex of the form (μ 2 /q 2 )/sup -8π 2 b/ where b is the coefficient in the expansion of the β function: β = bg 3 +...

  11. Decoupling of elastic parameters with iterative linearized inversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anikiev, D.; Kashtan, B.; Mulder, W.A.

    2013-01-01

    Three model parameters as a function of position describe wave propagation in an isotropic elastic medium. Ideally, imaging of data for a point scatterer that consists of a perturbation in one of the elastic parameters should only provide a reconstruction of that perturbation, without cross-talk

  12. Cosmological perturbations in massive bigravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagos, Macarena; Ferreira, Pedro G.

    2014-01-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of classical scalar, vector and tensor cosmological perturbations in ghost-free massive bigravity. In particular, we find the full evolution equations and analytical solutions in a wide range of regimes. We show that there are viable cosmological backgrounds but, as has been found in the literature, these models generally have exponential instabilities in linear perturbation theory. However, it is possible to find stable scalar cosmological perturbations for a very particular choice of parameters. For this stable subclass of models we find that vector and tensor perturbations have growing solutions. We argue that special initial conditions are needed for tensor modes in order to have a viable model

  13. Oncogenic K-Ras decouples glucose and glutamine metabolism to support cancer cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaglio, Daniela; Metallo, Christian M; Gameiro, Paulo A; Hiller, Karsten; Danna, Lara Sala; Balestrieri, Chiara; Alberghina, Lilia; Stephanopoulos, Gregory; Chiaradonna, Ferdinando

    2011-08-16

    Oncogenes such as K-ras mediate cellular and metabolic transformation during tumorigenesis. To analyze K-Ras-dependent metabolic alterations, we employed ¹³C metabolic flux analysis (MFA), non-targeted tracer fate detection (NTFD) of ¹⁵N-labeled glutamine, and transcriptomic profiling in mouse fibroblast and human carcinoma cell lines. Stable isotope-labeled glucose and glutamine tracers and computational determination of intracellular fluxes indicated that cells expressing oncogenic K-Ras exhibited enhanced glycolytic activity, decreased oxidative flux through the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, and increased utilization of glutamine for anabolic synthesis. Surprisingly, a non-canonical labeling of TCA cycle-associated metabolites was detected in both transformed cell lines. Transcriptional profiling detected elevated expression of several genes associated with glycolysis, glutamine metabolism, and nucleotide biosynthesis upon transformation with oncogenic K-Ras. Chemical perturbation of enzymes along these pathways further supports the decoupling of glycolysis and TCA metabolism, with glutamine supplying increased carbon to drive the TCA cycle. These results provide evidence for a role of oncogenic K-Ras in the metabolic reprogramming of cancer cells.

  14. Perturbative quantum chromodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1979-12-01

    The application of QCD to hadron dynamics at short distances, where asymptotic freedom allows a systematic perturbative approach, is addressed. The main theme of the approach is to incorporate systematically the effects of the hadronic wave function in large momentum transfer exclusive and inclusive reactions. Although it is conventional to treat the hadron as a classical source of on-shell quarks, there are important dynamical effects due to hadronic constituent structure which lead to a broader testing ground for QCD. QCD predictions are discussed for exclusive processes and form factors at large momentum transfer in which the short-distance behavior and the finite compositeness of the hadronic wave functions play crucial roles. Many of the standard tests of QCD are reviewed including the predictions for R = sigma/sub e + e - →had//sigma/sub e + e - →μ + μ - /, the structure functions of hadrons and photons, jet phenomena, and the QCD corrections to deep inelastic processes. The exclusive-inclusive connection in QCD, the effects of power-law scale-breaking contributions, and the important role of the available energy in controlling logarithmic scale violations are also discussed. 150 references, 44 figures

  15. Perturbative quantum chromodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1979-12-01

    The application of QCD to hadron dynamics at short distances, where asymptotic freedom allows a systematic perturbative approach, is addressed. The main theme of the approach is to incorporate systematically the effects of the hadronic wave function in large momentum transfer exclusive and inclusive reactions. Although it is conventional to treat the hadron as a classical source of on-shell quarks, there are important dynamical effects due to hadronic constituent structure which lead to a broader testing ground for QCD. QCD predictions are discussed for exclusive processes and form factors at large momentum transfer in which the short-distance behavior and the finite compositeness of the hadronic wave functions play crucial roles. Many of the standard tests of QCD are reviewed including the predictions for R = sigma/sub e/sup +/e/sup -/..-->..had//sigma/sub e/sup +/e/sup -/..--> mu../sup +/..mu../sup -//, the structure functions of hadrons and photons, jet phenomena, and the QCD corrections to deep inelastic processes. The exclusive-inclusive connection in QCD, the effects of power-law scale-breaking contributions, and the important role of the available energy in controlling logarithmic scale violations are also discussed. 150 references, 44 figures. (RWR)

  16. Propagation of Ion Acoustic Perturbations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécseli, Hans

    1975-01-01

    Equations describing the propagation of ion acoustic perturbations are considered, using the assumption that the electrons are Boltzman distributed and isothermal at all times. Quasi-neutrality is also considered.......Equations describing the propagation of ion acoustic perturbations are considered, using the assumption that the electrons are Boltzman distributed and isothermal at all times. Quasi-neutrality is also considered....

  17. Review of chiral perturbation theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    41] which will be measured to high accuracy at Jefferson Laboratory at the experiment PrimEx. 4. Baryon chiral perturbation theory. Baryon chiral perturbation theory in the modern era was first formulated in [6]. This was a relativistic formulation ...

  18. On summation of perturbation expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horzela, A.

    1985-04-01

    The problem of the restoration of physical quantities defined by divergent perturbation expansions is analysed. The Pad'e and Borel summability is proved for alternating perturbation expansions with factorially growing coefficients. The proof is based on the methods of the classical moments theory. 17 refs. (author)

  19. Continual integral in perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavnov, A.A.

    1975-01-01

    It is shown that all results obtained by means of continual integration within the framework of perturbation theory are completely equivalent to those obtained by the usual diagram technique and are therfore just as rigorous. A rigorous justification is given for the rules for operating with continual integrals in perturbation theory. (author)

  20. Resumming the string perturbation series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grassi, Alba; Mariño, Marcos; Zakany, Szabolcs [Département de Physique Théorique et section de Mathématiques,Université de Genève, Genève, CH-1211 (Switzerland)

    2015-05-07

    We use the AdS/CFT correspondence to study the resummation of a perturbative genus expansion appearing in the type II superstring dual of ABJM theory. Although the series is Borel summable, its Borel resummation does not agree with the exact non-perturbative answer due to the presence of complex instantons. The same type of behavior appears in the WKB quantization of the quartic oscillator in Quantum Mechanics, which we analyze in detail as a toy model for the string perturbation series. We conclude that, in these examples, Borel summability is not enough for extracting non-perturbative information, due to non-perturbative effects associated to complex instantons. We also analyze the resummation of the genus expansion for topological string theory on local ℙ{sup 1}×ℙ{sup 1}, which is closely related to ABJM theory. In this case, the non-perturbative answer involves membrane instantons computed by the refined topological string, which are crucial to produce a well-defined result. We give evidence that the Borel resummation of the perturbative series requires such a non-perturbative sector.

  1. Perturbative QCD (1/3)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    Perturbative QCD is the general theoretical framework for describing hard scattering processes yielding multiparticle production at hadron colliders. In these lectures, we shall introduce fundamental features of perturbative QCD and describe its application to several high energy collider processes, including jet production in electron-positron annihilation, deep inelastic scattering, Higgs boson and gauge boson production at the LHC.

  2. Dynamics of a single ion in a perturbed Penning trap: Octupolar perturbation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lara, Martin; Salas, J. Pablo

    2004-01-01

    Imperfections in the design or implementation of Penning traps may give rise to electrostatic perturbations that introduce nonlinearities in the dynamics. In this paper we investigate, from the point of view of classical mechanics, the dynamics of a single ion trapped in a Penning trap perturbed by an octupolar perturbation. Because of the axial symmetry of the problem, the system has two degrees of freedom. Hence, this model is ideal to be managed by numerical techniques like continuation of families of periodic orbits and Poincare surfaces of section. We find that, through the variation of the two parameters controlling the dynamics, several periodic orbits emanate from two fundamental periodic orbits. This process produces important changes (bifurcations) in the phase space structure leading to chaotic behavior

  3. Lensed Density Perturbations in Braneworlds An Alternative to Perturbations from Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Chung, D J H; Chung, Daniel J. H.; Freese, Katherine

    2003-01-01

    We consider a scenario in which our observable universe is a 3-dimensional surface (3-brane) living in extra dimensions with a warped geometry. We show that ``lensed'' density perturbations from other branes serve as possible seeds for structure formation on our observable brane (without inflation), and, in addition, provide constraints on braneworld scenarios with warped bulk geometry. Due to the warped bulk metric, any perturbation generated on one brane (or in the bulk matter) appears to an observer on a second brane to have a significantly different amplitude. We analyze lensed perturbations in the Randall-Sundrum type scenarios and the ``shortcut metric'' scenarios. For Lorentz violating metrics in the bulk, we find the attractive possibility that large density fluctuations that are causally produced elsewhere can lead to small density fluctuations on our brane on superhorizon (acausal) length scales, as required by structure formation. Our most interesting result is that the ``shortcut metrics'' in whic...

  4. Method for decoupling error correction from privacy amplification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2003-01-01

    In a standard quantum key distribution (QKD) scheme such as BB84, two procedures, error correction and privacy amplification, are applied to extract a final secure key from a raw key generated from quantum transmission. To simplify the study of protocols, it is commonly assumed that the two procedures can be decoupled from each other. While such a decoupling assumption may be valid for individual attacks, it is actually unproven in the context of ultimate or unconditional security, which is the Holy Grail of quantum cryptography. In particular, this means that the application of standard efficient two-way error-correction protocols like Cascade is not proven to be unconditionally secure. Here, I provide the first proof of such a decoupling principle in the context of unconditional security. The method requires Alice and Bob to share some initial secret string and use it to encrypt their communications in the error correction stage using one-time-pad encryption. Consequently, I prove the unconditional security of the interactive Cascade protocol proposed by Brassard and Salvail for error correction and modified by one-time-pad encryption of the error syndrome, followed by the random matrix protocol for privacy amplification. This is an efficient protocol in terms of both computational power and key generation rate. My proof uses the entanglement purification approach to security proofs of QKD. The proof applies to all adaptive symmetric methods for error correction, which cover all existing methods proposed for BB84. In terms of the net key generation rate, the new method is as efficient as the standard Shor-Preskill proof

  5. Supercritical water gasification with decoupled pressure and heat transfer modules

    KAUST Repository

    Dibble, Robert

    2017-09-14

    The present invention discloses a system and method for supercritical water gasification (SCWG) of biomass materials wherein the system includes a SCWG reactor and a plurality of heat exchangers located within a shared pressurized vessel, which decouples the function of containing high pressure from the high temperature function. The present invention allows the heat transfer function to be conducted independently from the pressure transfer function such that the system equipment can be designed and fabricated in manner that would support commercial scaled-up SCWG operations. By using heat exchangers coupled to the reactor in a series configuration, significant efficiencies are achieved by the present invention SCWG system over prior known SCWG systems.

  6. Apparatus for decoupled thermo-photocatalytic pollution control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaie-Raissi, Ali; Muradov, Nazim Z.; Martin, Eric

    2003-04-22

    A new method for design and scale-up of photocatalytic and thermocatalytic processes is disclosed. The method is based on optimizing photoprocess energetics by decoupling of the process energy efficiency from the DRE for target contaminants. The technique is applicable to photo-thermocatalytic reactor design and scale-up. At low irradiance levels, the method is based on the implementation of low pressure drop biopolymeric and synthetic polymeric support for titanium dioxide and other band-gap media. At high irradiance levels, the method utilizes multifunctional metal oxide aerogels and other media within a novel rotating fluidized particle bed reactor.

  7. Decoupling interrelated parameters for designing high performance thermoelectric materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Chong; Li, Zhou; Li, Kun; Huang, Pengcheng; Xie, Yi

    2014-04-15

    The world's supply of fossil fuels is quickly being exhausted, and the impact of their overuse is contributing to both climate change and global political unrest. In order to help solve these escalating problems, scientists must find a way to either replace combustion engines or reduce their use. Thermoelectric materials have attracted widespread research interest because of their potential applications as clean and renewable energy sources. They are reliable, lightweight, robust, and environmentally friendly and can reversibly convert between heat and electricity. However, after decades of development, the energy conversion efficiency of thermoelectric devices has been hovering around 10%. This is far below the theoretical predictions, mainly due to the interdependence and coupling between electrical and thermal parameters, which are strongly interrelated through the electronic structure of the materials. Therefore, any strategy that balances or decouples these parameters, in addition to optimizing the materials' intrinsic electronic structure, should be critical to the development of thermoelectric technology. In this Account, we discuss our recently developed strategies to decouple thermoelectric parameters for the synergistic optimization of electrical and thermal transport. We first highlight the phase transition, which is accompanied by an abrupt change of electrical transport, such as with a metal-insulator and semiconductor-superionic conductor transition. This should be a universal and effective strategy to optimize the thermoelectric performance, which takes advantage of modulated electronic structure and critical scattering across phase transitions to decouple the power factor and thermal conductivity. We propose that solid-solution homojunction nanoplates with disordered lattices are promising thermoelectric materials to meet the "phonon glass electron crystal" approach. The formation of a solid solution, coupled with homojunctions, allows for

  8. DQ reference frame modeling and control of single-phase active power decoupling circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Yi; Qin, Zian; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    Power decoupling circuits can compensate the inherent double line frequency ripple power in single-phase systems and greatly facilitate their dc-link capacitor design. Example applications of power decoupling circuit include photovoltaic, light-emitting diode, fuel cell, and motor drive systems....... This paper presents the dq synchronous reference frame modeling of single-phase power decoupling circuits and a complete model describing the dynamics of dc-link ripple voltage is presented. The proposed model is universal and valid for both inductive and capacitive decoupling circuits, and the input...... of decoupling circuits can be either dependent or independent of its front-end converters. Based on this model, a dq synchronous reference frame controller is designed which allows the decoupling circuit to operate in two different modes because of the circuit symmetry. Simulation and experimental results...

  9. Discontinuous Galerkin Time-Domain Analysis of Power-Ground Planes Taking Into Account Decoupling Capacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ping

    2017-03-22

    In this paper, a discontinuous Galerkin time-domain (DGTD) method is developed to analyze the power-ground planes taking into account the decoupling capacitors. In the presence of decoupling capacitors, the whole physical system can be split into two subsystems: 1) the field subsystem that is governed by Maxwell\\'s equations that will be solved by the DGTD method, and 2) the circuit subsystem including the capacitor and its parasitic inductor and resistor, which is going to be characterized by the modified nodal analysis algorithm constructed circuit equations. With the aim to couple the two subsystems together, a lumped port is defined over a coaxial surface between the via barrel and the ground plane. To reach the coupling from the field to the circuit subsystem, a lumped voltage source calculated by the integration of electric field along the radial direction is introduced. On the other hand, to facilitate the coupling from the circuit to field subsystem, a lumped port current source calculated from the circuit equation is introduced, which serves as an impressed current source for the field subsystem. With these two auxiliary terms, a hybrid field-circuit matrix equation is established, which enables the field and circuit subsystems are solved in a synchronous scheme. Furthermore, the arbitrarily shaped antipads are considered by enforcing the proper wave port excitation using the magnetic surface current source derived from the antipads supported electric eigenmodes. In this way, the S-parameters corresponding to different modes can be conveniently extracted. To further improve the efficiency of the proposed algorithm in handling multiscale meshes, the local time-stepping marching scheme is applied. The proposed algorithm is verified by several representative examples.

  10. Infrared problems in field perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, Francois.

    1982-12-01

    The work presented mainly covers questions related to the presence of ''infrared'' divergences in perturbation expansions of the Green functions of certain massless field theories. It is important to determine the mathematical status of perturbation expansions in field theory in order to define the region in which they are valid. Renormalization and the symmetry of a theory are important factors in infrared problems. The main object of this thesis resides in the mathematical techniques employed: integral representations of the Feynman amplitudes; methods for desingularization, regularization and dimensional renormalization. Nonlinear two dimensional space-time sigma models describing Goldstone's low energy boson dynamics associated with a breaking of continuous symmetry are studied. Random surface models are then investigated followed by infrared divergences in super-renormalizable theories. Finally, nonperturbation effects in massless theories are studied by expanding the two-dimensional nonlinear sigma model in 1/N [fr

  11. Variational nodal transport perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurin-Kovitz, K.F.; Lewis, E.E.

    1996-01-01

    A perturbation method based on the variational nodal method for solving the neutron transport equation is developed for multidimensional geometries. The method utilizes the solution of the corresponding adjoint transport equation to calculate changes in the critical eigenvalue due to cross-section changes. Both first-order and exact perturbation theory expressions are derived. The adjoint solution algorithm has been formulated and incorporated into the variational nodal option of the Argonne National Laboratory DIF3D production code. To demonstrate the efficacy of the methods, perturbation calculations are performed on the three-dimensional Takeda benchmark problems in both Cartesian and hexagonal geometries. The resulting changes in eigenvalue are also obtained by direct calculation with the variational nodal method and compared with the change approximated by the first-order and exact theory expressions from the perturbation method. Exact perturbation results are in excellent agreement with the actual eigenvalue differences calculated in VARIANT. First-order theory holds well for sufficiently small perturbations. The times required for the perturbation calculations are small compared with those expended for the base-forward and adjoint calculations

  12. Disformal transformation of cosmological perturbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato Minamitsuji

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the gauge-invariant cosmological perturbations in the gravity and matter frames in the general scalar–tensor theory where two frames are related by the disformal transformation. The gravity and matter frames are the extensions of the Einstein and Jordan frames in the scalar–tensor theory where two frames are related by the conformal transformation, respectively. First, it is shown that the curvature perturbation in the comoving gauge to the scalar field is disformally invariant as well as conformally invariant, which gives the predictions from the cosmological model where the scalar field is responsible both for inflation and cosmological perturbations. Second, in case that the disformally coupled matter sector also contributes to curvature perturbations, we derive the evolution equations of the curvature perturbation in the uniform matter energy density gauge from the energy (nonconservation in the matter sector, which are independent of the choice of the gravity sector. While in the matter frame the curvature perturbation in the uniform matter energy density gauge is conserved on superhorizon scales for the vanishing nonadiabatic pressure, in the gravity frame it is not conserved even if the nonadiabatic pressure vanishes. The formula relating two frames gives the amplitude of the curvature perturbation in the matter frame, once it is evaluated in the gravity frame.

  13. A generalized theoretical framework for the description of spin decoupling in solid-state MAS NMR: Offset effect on decoupling performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Kong Ooi; Agarwal, Vipin; Meier, Beat H; Ernst, Matthias

    2016-09-07

    We present a generalized theoretical framework that allows the approximate but rapid analysis of residual couplings of arbitrary decoupling sequences in solid-state NMR under magic-angle spinning conditions. It is a generalization of the tri-modal Floquet analysis of TPPM decoupling [Scholz et al., J. Chem. Phys. 130, 114510 (2009)] where three characteristic frequencies are used to describe the pulse sequence. Such an approach can be used to describe arbitrary periodic decoupling sequences that differ only in the magnitude of the Fourier coefficients of the interaction-frame transformation. It allows a ∼100 times faster calculation of second-order residual couplings as a function of pulse sequence parameters than full spin-dynamics simulations. By comparing the theoretical calculations with full numerical simulations, we show the potential of the new approach to examine the performance of decoupling sequences. We exemplify the usefulness of this framework by analyzing the performance of commonly used high-power decoupling sequences and low-power decoupling sequences such as amplitude-modulated XiX (AM-XiX) and its super-cycled variant SC-AM-XiX. In addition, the effect of chemical-shift offset is examined for both high- and low-power decoupling sequences. The results show that the cross-terms between the dipolar couplings are the main contributions to the line broadening when offset is present. We also show that the SC-AM-XIX shows a better offset compensation.

  14. Perturbation theory of effective Hamiltonians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandow, B.H.

    1975-01-01

    This paper constitutes a review of the many papers which have used perturbation theory to derive ''effective'' or ''model'' Hamiltonians. It begins with a brief review of nondegenerate and non-many-body perturbation theory, and then considers the degenerate but non-many-body problem in some detail. It turns out that the degenerate perturbation problem is not uniquely defined, but there are some practical criteria for choosing among the various possibilities. Finally, the literature dealing with the linked-cluster aspects of open-shell many-body systems is reviewed. (U.S.)

  15. Inflationary Perturbations from Deformed CFT

    CERN Document Server

    Van der Schaar, J P

    2004-01-01

    We present a new method to calculate the spectrum of (slow-roll) inflationary perturbations, inspired by the conjectured dS/CFT correspondence. We show how the standard result for the spectrum of inflationary perturbations can be obtained from deformed CFT correlators, whose behavior is determined by the Callan-Symanzik equation. We discuss the possible advantages of this approach and end with some comments on the role of holography in dS/CFT and its relation to the universal nature of the spectrum of inflationary perturbations.

  16. The theory of singular perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    De Jager, E M

    1996-01-01

    The subject of this textbook is the mathematical theory of singular perturbations, which despite its respectable history is still in a state of vigorous development. Singular perturbations of cumulative and of boundary layer type are presented. Attention has been given to composite expansions of solutions of initial and boundary value problems for ordinary and partial differential equations, linear as well as quasilinear; also turning points are discussed. The main emphasis lies on several methods of approximation for solutions of singularly perturbed differential equations and on the mathemat

  17. Cosmological perturbations beyond linear order

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    Cosmological perturbation theory is the standard tool to understand the formation of the large scale structure in the Universe. However, its degree of applicability is limited by the growth of the amplitude of the matter perturbations with time. This problem can be tackled with by using N-body simulations or analytical techniques that go beyond the linear calculation. In my talk, I'll summarise some recent efforts in the latter that ameliorate the bad convergence of the standard perturbative expansion. The new techniques allow better analytical control on observables (as the matter power spectrum) over scales very relevant to understand the expansion history and formation of structure in the Universe.

  18. Decoupled Scheme for Time-Dependent Natural Convection Problem II: Time Semidiscreteness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Zhang

    2014-01-01

    stability and the corresponding optimal error estimates are presented. Furthermore, a decoupled numerical scheme is proposed by decoupling the nonlinear terms via temporal extrapolation; optimal error estimates are established. Finally, some numerical results are provided to verify the performances of the developed algorithms. Compared with the coupled numerical scheme, the decoupled algorithm not only keeps good accuracy but also saves a lot of computational cost. Both theoretical analysis and numerical experiments show the efficiency and effectiveness of the decoupled method for time-dependent natural convection problem.

  19. Accuracy of dynamical-decoupling-based spectroscopy of Gaussian noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szańkowski, Piotr; Cywiński, Łukasz

    2018-03-01

    The fundamental assumption of dynamical-decoupling-based noise spectroscopy is that the coherence decay rate of qubit (or qubits) driven with a sequence of many pulses, is well approximated by the environmental noise spectrum spanned on frequency comb defined by the sequence. Here we investigate the precise conditions under which this commonly used spectroscopic approach is quantitatively correct. To this end we focus on two representative examples of spectral densities: the long-tailed Lorentzian, and finite-ranged Gaussian—both expected to be encountered when using the qubit for nanoscale nuclear resonance imaging. We have found that, in contrast to Lorentz spectrum, for which the corrections to the standard spectroscopic formulas can easily be made negligible, the spectra with finite range are more challenging to reconstruct accurately. For Gaussian line shape of environmental spectral density, direct application of the standard dynamical-decoupling-based spectroscopy leads to erroneous attribution of long-tail behavior to the reconstructed spectrum. Fortunately, artifacts such as this, can be completely avoided with the simple extension to standard reconstruction method.

  20. Anthropocene Dialogues: Decoupling Economic Prosperity from Carbon Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewksbury, J.; Kohm, K.

    2017-12-01

    Anthropocene magazine is a new science magazine produced by Future Earth. Its mission is to bring together the world's leading scientists, technologists, and creatives to explore on-the-ground stories of sustainability science in action. For AGU 2017, Anthropocene magazine will stage an "Anthropocene Dialogue" based on its July 2017 issue. Anthropocene Dialogues are panel discussions about the successes and challenges of transformative science-policy collaborations by leading science journalists, researchers, and practitioners. The focus of this dialogue is: What are the scientific and technological innovations that drive the decarbonization of economies—from plugging artificial intelligence into electrical grids to new experiments in solar geoengineering. Panelist include: Robert Jackson of the Global Carbon Project discussing the historic decoupling of carbon emissions from GDP, Oliver Morton of The Economist speaking on how geoengineering can be a key element of a decoupling process; Robinson Meyer of The Atlantic outlining a coal "retirement plan" based on supply side economics; Wayt Gibbs of Scientific American tackling the quintessential question, How much energy will the world need? and Mark Harris of IEEE Spectrum looking at new experiments in artificial intelligence that could pull fossil fuels out of electrical grids, factories, data centers, and transit systems. For more information on these stories, visit: anthropocenemagazine.org/in-print/. Free sample copies of the magazine will be available at the session.

  1. Decoupling - past trends and prospects for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azar, Christian; Holmberg, John; Karlsson, Sten

    2002-05-01

    There are widespread demands in society for a de materialization or decoupling of economic growth from environmental impact. Calls are being made for eco-efficiency and/or an improvement of resource efficiency by a factor of 10. At the same time, some analysts claim there is an environmental Kuznet's curve that supposedly implies a fall in environmental pressure, as we get richer. An improvement in the environmental situation has already been observed in many cases, but there are also many areas where the situation is deteriorating. The purpose of this report is to summarize some key trends of energy and material use over time in both developing and developed countries. We have focused on Sweden, the EU, Japan and the USA as well as China, India and Brazil. The main findings in this paper can be summarized as follows: Absolute emissions of CO 2 have been increasing in most countries and periods studied. Some countries have experienced periods with constant or even falling emissions, but this is the exception rather than the rule, and it has been triggered by oil crises or economic recessions. In order to stabilize atmospheric CO 2 concentrations, CO 2 emissions have to be decoupled much more rapidly than has been the case in the past, and it is extremely unlikely that this will happen by itself. There was some decoupling of CO 2 emissions from GDP in the major economies of the world from 1970 to 1998 in the EU, Japan and the US as well as in some major developing countries such as China, although India actually increased its emissions over GDP by 1.4 per cent/yr over this period. The drop in CO 2 intensity has been prompted by some decoupling of energy from GDP and CO 2 from energy, the latter being a consequence of an increased use of natural gas and nuclear power. In the South, fossil CO 2 per energy tends to increase from rather low levels. With industrialization, the proportion of biomass drops and the proportion of fossil energy rises in the energy supply mix

  2. Decoupled tracking and thermal monitoring of non-stationary targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Kok Kiong; Zhang, Yi; Huang, Sunan; Wong, Yoke San; Lee, Tong Heng

    2009-10-01

    Fault diagnosis and predictive maintenance address pertinent economic issues relating to production systems as an efficient technique can continuously monitor key health parameters and trigger alerts when critical changes in these variables are detected, before they lead to system failures and production shutdowns. In this paper, we present a decoupled tracking and thermal monitoring system which can be used on non-stationary targets of closed systems such as machine tools. There are three main contributions from the paper. First, a vision component is developed to track moving targets under a monitor. Image processing techniques are used to resolve the target location to be tracked. Thus, the system is decoupled and applicable to closed systems without the need for a physical integration. Second, an infrared temperature sensor with a built-in laser for locating the measurement spot is deployed for non-contact temperature measurement of the moving target. Third, a predictive motion control system holds the thermal sensor and follows the moving target efficiently to enable continuous temperature measurement and monitoring.

  3. Private quantum decoupling and secure disposal of information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buscemi, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    Given a bipartite system, correlations between its subsystems can be understood as the information that each one carries about the other. In order to give a model-independent description of secure information disposal, we propose the paradigm of private quantum decoupling, corresponding to locally reducing correlations in a given bipartite quantum state without transferring them to the environment. In this framework, the concept of private local randomness naturally arises as a resource, and total correlations are divided into eliminable and ineliminable ones. We prove upper and lower bounds on the quantity of ineliminable correlations present in an arbitrary bipartite state, and show that, in tripartite pure states, ineliminable correlations satisfy a monogamy constraint, making apparent their quantum nature. A relation with entanglement theory is provided by showing that ineliminable correlations constitute an entanglement parameter. In the limit of infinitely many copies of the initial state provided, we compute the regularized ineliminable correlations to be measured by the coherent information, which is thus equipped with a new operational interpretation. In particular, our results imply that two subsystems can be privately decoupled if their joint state is separable.

  4. Bruker AMX Y Channel Heteronuclear Decoupling Using a Linear Amplifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, Todd M.; Lang, David P.

    1999-08-02

    Under both static and common MAS conditions (< 15 kHz) the question of residual X-Y heteronuclear decoupling can become a complicating factor in the analysis of various NMR results. In our lab the impact of {sup 31}P-{sup 23}Na dipolar coupling on the observed {sup 23}Na M{sub 2} relaxation for a series of sodium phosphate glasses was recently investigated by employing continuous wave {sup 31}P decoupling during the entire pulse sequence. Initially these efforts were complicate by the inability to provide a gating pulse during the data acquisition using the standard Bruker nomenclature, go=2, for the acquisition loop. A pulse sequence to overcome these restrictions is given below. Our AMX400 instrument is configured with a 3 channel MCI, but utilizes a linear AMT amplifier on the 3rd channel (requiring gating pulse via the C4 program call during the entire time it is on). The standard acquisition loop has been replaced by direct adc and aq commands for data acquisition. Unlike the go=2 statement which does not allow a C4 gating command to be included, these individual acquisition commands can all include distinct C4 gating.

  5. Design and Simulation of a New Decoupled Micromachined Gyroscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharaf, Abdelhameed [NCRRT, EAEA, 3 Ahmed Elzomer Street, Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt); STRC, AUC, 113 Kasr El Eini Street, 11215, Cairo (Egypt); Sedky, Sherif [STRC, AUC, 113 Kasr El Eini Street, 11215, Cairo (Egypt); Physics Department, AUC, 113 Kasr El Eini Street, 11215, Cairo (Egypt); Habib, S E-D [Electronics and Communication Department, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, 12613, Giza (Egypt)

    2006-04-01

    This paper reports on a new decoupled micromachined gyroscope. The proposed sensor is a dual mass type, electrostatically driven to primary mode oscillation and senses, capacitively, the output signal. Full decoupling between drive and sense modes minimizes the mechanical crosstalk. Three different designs are introduced in this work. Drive and sense amplitudes, mechanical and electrical sensitivities, quality factors and approximate bandwidths are extracted analytically and the results are confirmed using finite element analysis. The first design shows drive and sense modes resonance frequencies of 4077 Hz and 4081 Hz respectively; with a frequency mismatch lower than 0.1%. The drive and sense capacitance are 0.213 pF and 0.142 pF respectively. The mechanical and electrical sensitivities are 0.011 {mu}m/ ({sup 0}/s) and 2.75 mV/ ({sup 0}/s) respectively. The third design shows significantly improved mechanical and electrical sensitivities of 0.027 {mu}m/ ({sup 0}/s) and 6.85 mV/ ({sup 0}/s) respectively.

  6. Perturbation Theory of Embedded Eigenvalues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelmann, Matthias

    We study problems connected to perturbation theory of embedded eigenvalues in two different setups. The first part deals with second order perturbation theory of mass shells in massive translation invariant Nelson type models. To this end an expansion of the eigenvalues w.r.t. fiber parameter up...... project gives a general and systematic approach to analytic perturbation theory of embedded eigenvalues. The spectral deformation technique originally developed in the theory of dilation analytic potentials in the context of Schrödinger operators is systematized by the use of Mourre theory. The group...... of dilations is thereby replaced by the unitary group generated y the conjugate operator. This then allows to treat the perturbation problem with the usual Kato theory....

  7. Perturbation theory of quantum resonances

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Durand, P.; Paidarová, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 135, č. 7 (2016), s. 159 ISSN 1432-2234 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : Partitioning technique * Analytic continuation * Perturbative expansion Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  8. Review of chiral perturbation theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A review of chiral perturbation theory and recent developments on the comparison of its predictions with experiment is presented. Some interesting topics with scope for further elaboration are touched upon.

  9. Non-perturbative scalar potential inspired by type IIA strings on rigid CY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexandrov, Sergei [Laboratoire Charles Coulomb (L2C), UMR 5221, CNRS-Université de Montpellier,F-34095, Montpellier (France); Ketov, Sergei V. [Department of Physics, Tokyo Metropolitan University,1-1 Minami-ohsawa, Hachioji-shi, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (IPMU), The University of Tokyo,Chiba 277-8568 (Japan); Institute of Physics and Technology, Tomsk Polytechnic University,30 Lenin Ave., Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Wakimoto, Yuki [Department of Physics, Tokyo Metropolitan University,1-1 Minami-ohsawa, Hachioji-shi, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan)

    2016-11-10

    Motivated by a class of flux compactifications of type IIA strings on rigid Calabi-Yau manifolds, preserving N=2 local supersymmetry in four dimensions, we derive a non-perturbative potential of all scalar fields from the exact D-instanton corrected metric on the hypermultiplet moduli space. Applying this potential to moduli stabilization, we find a discrete set of exact vacua for axions. At these critical points, the stability problem is decoupled into two subspaces spanned by the axions and the other fields (dilaton and Kähler moduli), respectively. Whereas the stability of the axions is easily achieved, numerical analysis shows instabilities in the second subspace.

  10. Comparison of spatially and temporally distributed recharge simulated using coupled and decoupled watershed hydrology models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hevesi, J. A.; Woolfenden, L. R.; Niswonger, R. G.; Nishikawa, T.

    2011-12-01

    Estimation of the temporal and spatial distribution of watershed-scale recharge is often required for the development of transient groundwater-flow models and for quantifying water budgets. The temporal distribution of recharge has often been empirically estimated by scaling precipitation distributions. For larger watersheds, however, temporal change in the spatial distribution of recharge is affected by spatial and temporal variability in precipitation and air temperature, combined with the effects of heterogeneity in the physical characteristics of the watershed; these factors make it difficult to represent transient recharge using empirical scaling methods. Precipitation-runoff models, calibrated to available streamflow records, have been used to simulate the changing distribution and magnitude of recharge, but the uncertainty in simulated recharge estimates usually is high due to the uncertainty in input data and other components of the water balance. In this study, GSFLOW, an integrated hydrologic model, was used to evaluate differences in simulated water balances and the magnitude and distribution of transient recharge using decoupled and coupled simulations of surface-water and groundwater flow in the Santa Rosa Plain watershed (SRPW), California, USA. GSFLOW is an integration of the precipitation-runoff model PRMS and the groundwater flow model MODFLOW. GSFLOW was run as a decoupled (PRMS-only) precipitation-runoff model, independent of the MODFLOW, to develop a preliminary ensemble of estimated water balances and recharge simulations. The ensemble consisted of a set of 60-year (water years 1950 through 2010) daily simulation results, all of which provided satisfactory calibration results to available daily streamflow records at 12 gaging sites within the SRPW. The PRMs parameter files developed for the calibrated PRMS-only simulations were used as input for the coupled GSFLOW simulations that were calibrated to available well hydrographs for water years

  11. Implementation of a low-activation Au-In-Cd decoupler into the J-PARC 1 MW short pulsed spallation neutron source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Teshigawara

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A silver-indium-cadmium (Ag-In-Cd, or AIC alloy with a 1 eV high neutron cut-off energy was originaly developed as a decoupler to provide a narrow neutron pulse width with a short tail for the J-PARC 1-MW short-pulsed spallation neutron source. As a result of later studies, gold (Au was chosen as a substitute for Ag for the production of spare decoupled moderators and reflector in order to reduce residual radioactivity thus easing handling and disposal of the spent moderator and reflector. The decoupler material Au-In-Cd (AuIC was therefore investigated and developed. To implement it into an actual moderator-reflector assembly many critical engineering issues needed to be resolved with regard to large-sized bonding between AuIC and aluminum alloy A5083 by the hot isostatic pressing process (HIP. The HIP process for AuIC and aluminum was investigated in terms of surface condition, size, and heat capacity. Implementation of an AuIC decoupler into a spare reflector assembly was successfuly achieved and will result in a remarkable reduction of radioactivity compared to AIC without sacrificing neutronic performance.

  12. Unexpected decoupling of stretching and bending modes in protein gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibaud, Thomas; Zaccone, Alessio; Del Gado, Emanuela; Trappe, Véronique; Schurtenberger, Peter

    2013-02-01

    We show that gels formed by arrested spinodal decomposition of protein solutions exhibit elastic properties in two distinct frequency domains, both elastic moduli exhibiting a remarkably strong dependence on volume fraction. Considering the large difference between the protein size and the characteristic length of the network we model the gels as porous media and show that the high and low frequency elastic moduli can be respectively attributed to stretching and bending modes. The unexpected decoupling of the two modes in the frequency domain is attributed to the length scale involved: while stretching mainly relates to the relative displacement of two particles, bending involves the deformation of a strand with a thickness of the order of a thousand particle diameters.

  13. Performance of thin-film ferroelectric capacitors for EMC decoupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huadong; Subramanyam, Guru

    2008-12-01

    This paper studied the effects of thin-film ferroelectrics as decoupling capacitors for electromagnetic compatibility applications. The impedance and insertion loss of PZT capacitors were measured and compared with the results from commercial off-the-shelf capacitors. An equivalent circuit model was extracted from the experimental results, and a considerable series resistance was found to exist in ferroelectric capacitors. This resistance gives rise to the observed performance difference around series resonance between ferroelectric PZT capacitors and normal capacitors. Measurements on paraelectric (Ba,Sr)TiO(3)-based integrated varactors do not show this significant resistance. Some analyses were made to investigate the mechanisms, and it was found that it can be due to the hysteresis in the ferroelectric thin films.

  14. Magnetic decoupling of ferromagnetic metals through a graphene spacer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimaldi, I.; Papagno, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universitá della Calabria, Arcavacata di Rende (CS), 87036 (Italy); Ferrari, L. [Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Roma I-00133 (Italy); Istituto di Struttura della Materia, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Trieste (Italy); Sheverdyaeva, P.M.; Mahatha, S.K. [Istituto di Struttura della Materia, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Trieste (Italy); Pacilé, D., E-mail: daniela.pacile@fis.unical.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universitá della Calabria, Arcavacata di Rende (CS), 87036 (Italy); Istituto di Struttura della Materia, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Trieste (Italy); Carbone, C. [Istituto di Struttura della Materia, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Trieste (Italy)

    2017-03-15

    We study the magnetic coupling between different ferromagnetic metals (FMs) across a graphene (G) layer, and the role of graphene as a thin covalent spacer. Starting with G grown on a FM substrate (Ni or Co), we deposited on top at room temperature several FM metals (Fe, Ni, Co). By measuring the dichroic effect of 3p photoemission lines we detect the magnetization of the substrate and the sign of the exchange coupling in FM overlayer at room temperature. We show that the G layer magnetically decouples the FM metals. - Highlights: • The magnetic coupling between ferromagnets mediated by graphene is studied. • To this end, the linear dichroic effect in 3p photoemission lines is employed. • For selected junctions no magnetic coupling is attained through graphene. • Graphene inhibits the magnetic alignment that normally occurs between ferromagnets.

  15. Decoupling, re-Engaging: managing trust relationships in implementation projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jeremy; Schlichter, Bjarne Rerup

    2012-01-01

    An important aspect of the successful implementation of large information systems (such as ERP systems) is trust. These implementations impact the legitimate interests of many groups of stakeholders, and trust is a critical factor for success. Trust in the project is contingent upon many factors......, and the complex demands of managing those fluctuations. We investigate evolving trust relationships in a longitudinal case analysis of a large Integrated Hospital System implementation for the Faroe Islands. Trust relationships suffered various breakdowns, but the project was able to recover and eventually meet...... its goals. Based on concepts from Giddens’ later work on modernity, we develop two approaches for managing dynamic trust relationships in implementation projects: decoupling and re-engaging....

  16. Improved Decoupling for 13C coil Arrays Using Non-Conventional Matching and Preamplifier Impedance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchez, Juan Diego; Johansen, Daniel Højrup; Hansen, Rie Beck

    In this study, we describe a method to obtain improved preamplifier decoupling for receive-only coils. The method relies on the better decoupling obtained when coils are matched to an impedance higher than 50 . Preamplifiers with inductive imaginary impedance and low real impedance, increase...

  17. Optimized dynamical decoupling in a model quantum memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biercuk, Michael J; Uys, Hermann; VanDevender, Aaron P; Shiga, Nobuyasu; Itano, Wayne M; Bollinger, John J

    2009-04-23

    Any quantum system, such as those used in quantum information or magnetic resonance, is subject to random phase errors that can dramatically affect the fidelity of a desired quantum operation or measurement. In the context of quantum information, quantum error correction techniques have been developed to correct these errors, but resource requirements are extraordinary. The realization of a physically tractable quantum information system will therefore be facilitated if qubit (quantum bit) error rates are far below the so-called fault-tolerance error threshold, predicted to be of the order of 10(-3)-10(-6). The need to realize such low error rates motivates a search for alternative strategies to suppress dephasing in quantum systems. Here we experimentally demonstrate massive suppression of qubit error rates by the application of optimized dynamical decoupling pulse sequences, using a model quantum system capable of simulating a variety of qubit technologies. We demonstrate an analytically derived pulse sequence, UDD, and find novel sequences through active, real-time experimental feedback. The latter sequences are tailored to maximize error suppression without the need for a priori knowledge of the ambient noise environment, and are capable of suppressing errors by orders of magnitude compared to other existing sequences (including the benchmark multi-pulse spin echo). Our work includes the extension of a treatment to predict qubit decoherence under realistic conditions, yielding strong agreement between experimental data and theory for arbitrary pulse sequences incorporating nonidealized control pulses. These results demonstrate the robustness of qubit memory error suppression through dynamical decoupling techniques across a variety of qubit technologies.

  18. Decoupling peroxyacetyl nitrate from ozone in Chinese outflows observed at Gosan Climate Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jihyun; Lee, Meehye; Shang, Xiaona; Lee, Gangwoong; Emmons, Louisa K.

    2017-09-01

    We measured peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) and other reactive species such as O3, NO2, CO, and SO2 with aerosols including mass, organic carbon (OC), and elemental carbon (EC) in PM2. 5 and K+ in PM1. 0 at Gosan Climate Observatory in Korea (33.17° N, 126.10° E) during 19 October-6 November 2010. PAN was determined through fast gas chromatography with luminol chemiluminescence detection at 425 nm every 2 min. The PAN mixing ratios ranged from 0.1 (detection limit) to 2.4 ppbv with a mean of 0.6 ppbv. For all measurements, PAN was unusually better correlated with PM2. 5 (Pearson correlation coefficient, γ = 0.79) than with O3 (γ = 0.67). In particular, the O3 level was highly elevated with SO2 at midnight, along with a typical midday peak when air was transported rapidly from the Beijing areas. The PAN enhancement was most noticeable during the occurrence of haze under stagnant conditions. In Chinese outflows slowly transported over the Yellow Sea, PAN gradually increased up to 2.4 ppbv at night, in excellent correlation with a concentration increase in PM2. 5 OC and EC, PM2. 5 mass, and PM1. 0 K+. The high K+ concentration and OC / EC ratio indicated that the air mass was impacted by biomass combustion. This study highlights PAN decoupling with O3 in Chinese outflows and suggests PAN as a useful indicator for diagnosing continental outflows and assessing their perturbation of regional air quality in northeast Asia.

  19. Decoupling peroxyacetyl nitrate from ozone in Chinese outflows observed at Gosan Climate Observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Han

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We measured peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN and other reactive species such as O3, NO2, CO, and SO2 with aerosols including mass, organic carbon (OC, and elemental carbon (EC in PM2. 5 and K+ in PM1. 0 at Gosan Climate Observatory in Korea (33.17° N, 126.10° E during 19 October–6 November 2010. PAN was determined through fast gas chromatography with luminol chemiluminescence detection at 425 nm every 2 min. The PAN mixing ratios ranged from 0.1 (detection limit to 2.4 ppbv with a mean of 0.6 ppbv. For all measurements, PAN was unusually better correlated with PM2. 5 (Pearson correlation coefficient, γ =  0.79 than with O3 (γ =  0.67. In particular, the O3 level was highly elevated with SO2 at midnight, along with a typical midday peak when air was transported rapidly from the Beijing areas. The PAN enhancement was most noticeable during the occurrence of haze under stagnant conditions. In Chinese outflows slowly transported over the Yellow Sea, PAN gradually increased up to 2.4 ppbv at night, in excellent correlation with a concentration increase in PM2. 5 OC and EC, PM2. 5 mass, and PM1. 0 K+. The high K+ concentration and OC ∕ EC ratio indicated that the air mass was impacted by biomass combustion. This study highlights PAN decoupling with O3 in Chinese outflows and suggests PAN as a useful indicator for diagnosing continental outflows and assessing their perturbation of regional air quality in northeast Asia.

  20. Perturbation theory in large order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, C.M.

    1978-01-01

    For many quantum mechanical models, the behavior of perturbation theory in large order is strikingly simple. For example, in the quantum anharmonic oscillator, which is defined by -y'' + (x 2 /4 + ex 4 /4 - E) y = 0, y ( +- infinity) = 0, the perturbation coefficients, A/sub n/, in the expansion for the ground-state energy, E(ground state) approx. EPSILON/sub n = 0//sup infinity/ A/sub n/epsilon/sup n/, simplify dramatically as n → infinity: A/sub n/ approx. (6/π 3 )/sup 1/2/(-3)/sup n/GAMMA(n + 1/2). Methods of applied mathematics are used to investigate the nature of perturbation theory in quantum mechanics and show that its large-order behavior is determined by the semiclassical content of the theory. In quantum field theory the perturbation coefficients are computed by summing Feynman graphs. A statistical procedure in a simple lambda phi 4 model for summing the set of all graphs as the number of vertices → infinity is presented. Finally, the connection between the large-order behavior of perturbation theory in quantum electrodynamics and the value of α, the charge on the electron, is discussed. 7 figures

  1. Decoupling the link between economic growth, transport growth and transport energy consumption in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stead, Dominic [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands). OTB Research Inst.; Banister, David [Univ. College London (United Kingdom). Bartlett School of Planning

    2003-07-01

    In the past, it has always been assumed that there is a close relationship between the growth in freight and passenger transport, transport energy consumption and economic growth, at least as measured by Gross Domestic Product (GDP). This raises questions about the underlying rationale for this statistical relationship (if it exists) and, more importantly for sustainable development, whether the relationship will (or should) continue into the future. The strong premise in this paper is that decoupling economic growth from transport growth is a necessary condition for sustainable development - we need to encourage economic growth (in the widest sense), but with less transport (at least in terms of resource use and environmental impacts). This requirement has now been recognised in a series of policy documents. In the UK, for example, the Standing Advisory Committee on Trunk Road Assessment have examined the issue of transport intensity, the prospects for future improvements and the potential for decoupling transport volumes and economic activity. At the European level, the 2001 White Paper on Transport states that breaking the link between economic growth and transport growth is central in its proposals, and the EU's sustainable development strategy identifies decoupling transport growth from the growth in Gross Domestic Product as one of its main objectives. We begin by examining transport and economic trends in Europe and looking at EU policy statements on decoupling. We then discuss the nature of travel and how decoupling can usefully be measured through volumes, distance and efficiency. Possible approaches and strategies for decoupling are then presented, together with a discussion of how these measures might help to decouple transport growth and economic growth. We conclude that, whilst there are a number of strategies which are likely to help to decouple transport growth and economic growth, there are also a number of factors which are hindering the

  2. Perturbations of the Friedmann universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novello, M.; Salim, J.M.; Heintzmann, H.

    1982-01-01

    Correcting and extending previous work by Hawking (1966) and Olson (1976) the complete set of perturbation equations of a Friedmann Universe in the quasi-Maxwellian form is derived and analized. The formalism is then applied to scalar, vector and tensor perturbations of a phenomenological fluid, which is modelled such as to comprise shear and heat flux. Depending on the equation of state of the background it is found that there exist unstable (growing) modes of purely rotational character. It is further found that (to linear order at least) any vortex perturbation is equivalent to a certain heat flux vector. The equation for the gravitational waves are derived in a completely equivalent method as in case of the propagation, in a curved space-time, of electromagnetic waves in a plasma endowed with some definite constitutive relations. (Author) [pt

  3. Analytic continuation in perturbative QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caprini, Irinel

    2002-01-01

    We discuss some attempts to improve standard perturbative expansion in QCD by using the analytic continuation in the momentum and the Borel complex planes. We first analyse the momentum-plane analyticity properties of the Borel-summed Green functions in perturbative QCD and the connection between the Landau singularities and the infrared renormalons. By using the analytic continuation in the Borel complex plane, we propose a new perturbative series replacing the standard expansion in powers of the normalized coupling constant a. The new expansion functions have branch point and essential singularities at the origin of the complex a-plane and divergent Taylor expansions in powers of a. On the other hand the modified expansion of the QCD correlators is convergent under rather conservative conditions. (author)

  4. Historical developments in singular perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    O'Malley, Robert E

    2014-01-01

    This engaging text describes the development of singular perturbations, including its history, accumulating literature, and its current status. While the approach of the text is sophisticated, the literature is accessible to a broad audience. A particularly valuable bonus are the historical remarks. These remarks are found throughout the manuscript. They demonstrate the growth of mathematical thinking on this topic by engineers and mathematicians. The book focuses on detailing how the various methods are to be applied. These are illustrated by a  number and variety of examples. Readers are expected to have a working knowledge of elementary ordinary differential equations, including some familiarity with power series techniques, and of some advanced calculus. Dr. O'Malley  has written a number of books on singular perturbations.  This book has developed from many of his works in the field of perturbation theory.

  5. Perturbative coherence in field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldrovandi, R.; Kraenkel, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    A general condition for coherent quantization by perturbative methods is given, because the basic field equations of a fild theory are not always derivable from a Lagrangian. It's seen that non-lagrangian models way have well defined vertices, provided they satisfy what they call the 'coherence condition', which is less stringent than the condition for the existence of a Lagrangian. They note that Lagrangian theories are perturbatively coherent, in the sense that they have well defined vertices, and that they satisfy automatically that condition. (G.D.F.) [pt

  6. The Decoupling of Resource Consumption and Environmental Impact from Economic Growth in China: Spatial Pattern and Temporal Trend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zilong Zhang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Unprecedented economic achievement in China has occurred along with rising resource consumption and waste productions levels. The goal of sustainability requires the decoupling of economic growth from resource consumption (resource decoupling and environmental degradation (impact decoupling. For this paper, the performances of resource decoupling (energy and water and impact decoupling (wastewater, SO2 and CO2 in China were evaluated, and the spatial pattern and temporal trend of decoupling performance were investigated by using the rescaled range analysis (R/S. The results indicate the following. (1 The performance of resource decoupling during the investigated period is worse than that of traditional impact (SO2 and wastewater decoupling, but better than that of the CO2 emission. Additionally, the decoupling performances of energy consumption and related pollutant emission (except CO2 are better than that of water usage and wastewater discharge; (2 The decoupling performance of energy consumption, SO2 and CO2, has substantially improved from the 10th Five-Year Planning Period (FYP (2001–2005 to the 11th FYP (2006–2010, which indicates that the decoupling performance is highly related the environmental policy; (3 The spatial disparities of the performance of resource and impact decoupling are declining, which indicates the existence of cross-province convergence in decoupling performance; (4 The decoupling performance of SO2 and water usage in most of regions shows an improving trend. Inversely, the decoupling performance of energy consumption, CO2 emission, and wastewater discharge in most regions show a decreasing trend; (5 China needs more stringent water-saving targets and wastewater discharge standards; better policy efforts to improve the water recycling level both in agricultural, industrial and municipal level are required to prevent the decreasing trend of the decoupling performance.

  7. Moisture and dynamical interactions maintaining decoupled Arctic mixed-phase stratocumulus in the presence of a humidity inversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Solomon

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Observations suggest that processes maintaining subtropical and Arctic stratocumulus differ, due to the different environments in which they occur. For example, specific humidity inversions (specific humidity increasing with height are frequently observed to occur near cloud top coincident with temperature inversions in the Arctic, while they do not occur in the subtropics. In this study we use nested LES simulations of decoupled Arctic Mixed-Phase Stratocumulus (AMPS clouds observed during the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program's Indirect and SemiDirect Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC to analyze budgets of water components, potential temperature, and turbulent kinetic energy. These analyses quantify the processes that maintain decoupled AMPS, including the role of humidity inversions. Key structural features include a shallow upper entrainment zone at cloud top that is located within the temperature and humidity inversions, a mixed layer driven by cloud-top cooling that extends from the base of the upper entrainment zone to below cloud base, and a lower entrainment zone at the base of the mixed layer. The surface layer below the lower entrainment zone is decoupled from the cloud mixed-layer system. Budget results show that cloud liquid water is maintained in the upper entrainment zone near cloud top (within a temperature and humidity inversion due to a down gradient transport of water vapor by turbulent fluxes into the cloud layer from above and direct condensation forced by radiative cooling. Liquid water is generated in the updraft portions of the mixed-layer eddies below cloud top by buoyant destabilization. These processes cause at least 20% of the cloud liquid water to extend into the inversion. The redistribution of water vapor from the top of the humidity inversion to its base maintains the cloud layer, while the mixed layer-entrainment zone system is continually losing total water. In this decoupled system, the humidity inversion is

  8. Cosmological perturbation theory and quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunetti, Romeo; Fredenhagen, Klaus; Hack, Thomas-Paul; Pinamonti, Nicola; Rejzner, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    It is shown how cosmological perturbation theory arises from a fully quantized perturbative theory of quantum gravity. Central for the derivation is a non-perturbative concept of gauge-invariant local observables by means of which perturbative invariant expressions of arbitrary order are generated. In particular, in the linearised theory, first order gauge-invariant observables familiar from cosmological perturbation theory are recovered. Explicit expressions of second order quantities are presented as well.

  9. Cosmological perturbation theory and quantum gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunetti, Romeo [Dipartimento di Matematica, Università di Trento,Via Sommarive 14, 38123 Povo TN (Italy); Fredenhagen, Klaus [II Institute für Theoretische Physik, Universität Hamburg,Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Hack, Thomas-Paul [Institute für Theoretische Physik, Universität Leipzig,Brüderstr. 16, 04103 Leipzig (Germany); Pinamonti, Nicola [Dipartimento di Matematica, Università di Genova,Via Dodecaneso 35, 16146 Genova (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Genova,Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); Rejzner, Katarzyna [Department of Mathematics, University of York,Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-04

    It is shown how cosmological perturbation theory arises from a fully quantized perturbative theory of quantum gravity. Central for the derivation is a non-perturbative concept of gauge-invariant local observables by means of which perturbative invariant expressions of arbitrary order are generated. In particular, in the linearised theory, first order gauge-invariant observables familiar from cosmological perturbation theory are recovered. Explicit expressions of second order quantities are presented as well.

  10. Chaotic inflation with metric and matter perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, H.A.; Brandenberger, R.H.

    1989-01-01

    A perturbative scheme to analyze the evolution of both metric and scalar field perturbations in an expanding universe is developed. The scheme is applied to study chaotic inflation with initial metric and scalar field perturbations present. It is shown that initial gravitational perturbations with wavelength smaller than the Hubble radius rapidly decay. The metric simultaneously picks up small perturbations determined by the matter inhomogeneities. Both are frozen in once the wavelength exceeds the Hubble radius. (orig.)

  11. Odd-parity perturbations of the self-similar LTB spacetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffy, Emily M; Nolan, Brien C, E-mail: emilymargaret.duffy27@mail.dcu.ie, E-mail: brien.nolan@dcu.ie [School of Mathematical Sciences, Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9 (Ireland)

    2011-05-21

    We consider the behaviour of odd-parity perturbations of those self-similar LemaItre-Tolman-Bondi spacetimes which admit a naked singularity. We find that a perturbation which evolves from initially regular data remains finite on the Cauchy horizon. Finiteness is demonstrated by considering the behaviour of suitable energy norms of the perturbation (and pointwise values of these quantities) on natural spacelike hypersurfaces. This result holds for a general choice of initial data and initial data surface. Finally, we examine the perturbed Weyl scalars in order to provide a physical interpretation of our results. Taken on its own, this result does not support cosmic censorship; however, a full perturbation of this spacetime would include even-parity perturbations, so we cannot conclude that this spacetime is stable to all linear perturbations.

  12. Designing perturbative metamaterials from discrete models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matlack, Kathryn H; Serra-Garcia, Marc; Palermo, Antonio; Huber, Sebastian D; Daraio, Chiara

    2018-04-01

    Identifying material geometries that lead to metamaterials with desired functionalities presents a challenge for the field. Discrete, or reduced-order, models provide a concise description of complex phenomena, such as negative refraction, or topological surface states; therefore, the combination of geometric building blocks to replicate discrete models presenting the desired features represents a promising approach. However, there is no reliable way to solve such an inverse problem. Here, we introduce 'perturbative metamaterials', a class of metamaterials consisting of weakly interacting unit cells. The weak interaction allows us to associate each element of the discrete model with individual geometric features of the metamaterial, thereby enabling a systematic design process. We demonstrate our approach by designing two-dimensional elastic metamaterials that realize Veselago lenses, zero-dispersion bands and topological surface phonons. While our selected examples are within the mechanical domain, the same design principle can be applied to acoustic, thermal and photonic metamaterials composed of weakly interacting unit cells.

  13. Boundary layer structure and decoupling from synoptic scale flow during NAMBLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Norton

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of the meteorology and planetary boundary layer structure observed during the NAMBLEX field campaign to aid interpretation of the chemical and aerosol measurements. The campaign has been separated into five periods corresponding to the prevailing synoptic condition. Comparisons between meteorological measurements (UHF wind profiler, Doppler sodar, sonic aneometers mounted on a tower at varying heights and a standard anemometer and the ECMWF analysis at 10m and 1100 m identified days when the internal boundary layer was decoupled from the synoptic flow aloft. Generally the agreement was remarkably good apart from during period one and on a few days during period four when the diurnal swing in wind direction implies a sea/land breeze circulation near the surface. During these periods the origin of air sampled at Mace Head would not be accurately represented by back trajectories following the winds resolved in ECMWF analyses. The wind profiler observations give a detailed record of boundary layer structure including an indication of its depth, average wind speed and direction. Turbulence statistics have been used to assess the height to which the developing internal boundary layer, caused by the increased surface drag at the coast, reaches the sampling location under a wide range of marine conditions. Sampling conducted below 10 m will be impacted by emission sources at the shoreline in all wind directions and tidal conditions, whereas sampling above 15 m is unlikely to be affected in any of the wind directions and tidal heights sampled during the experiment.

  14. Brain Emotional Learning Based Intelligent Decoupler for Nonlinear Multi-Input Multi-Output Distillation Columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. El-Saify

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The distillation process is vital in many fields of chemical industries, such as the two-coupled distillation columns that are usually highly nonlinear Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO coupled processes. The control of MIMO process is usually implemented via a decentralized approach using a set of Single-Input Single-Output (SISO loop controllers. Decoupling the MIMO process into group of single loops requires proper input-output pairing and development of decoupling compensator unit. This paper proposes a novel intelligent decoupling approach for MIMO processes based on new MIMO brain emotional learning architecture. A MIMO architecture of Brain Emotional Learning Based Intelligent Controller (BELBIC is developed and applied as a decoupler for 4 input/4 output highly nonlinear coupled distillation columns process. Moreover, the performance of the proposed Brain Emotional Learning Based Intelligent Decoupler (BELBID is enhanced using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO technique. The performance is compared with the PSO optimized steady state decoupling compensation matrix. Mathematical models of the distillation columns and the decouplers are built and tested in simulation environment by applying the same inputs. The results prove remarkable success of the BELBID in minimizing the loops interactions without degrading the output that every input has been paired with.

  15. A Decoupling Control Algorithm for Unwinding Tension System Based on Active Disturbance Rejection Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanhui Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new control methodology based on active disturbance rejection control (ADRC for designing the tension decoupling controller of the unwinding system in a gravure printing machine. The dynamic coupling can be actively estimated and compensated in real time, which makes feedback control an ideal approach to designing the decoupling controller of the unwinding system. This feature is unique to ADRC. In this study, a nonlinear mathematical model is established according to the working principle of the unwinding system. A decoupling model is also constructed to determine the order and decoupling plant of the unwinding system. Based on the order and decoupling plant, an ADRC decoupling control methodology is designed to enhance the tension stability in the unwinding system. The effectiveness and capability of the proposed methodology are verified through simulation and experiments. The results show that the proposed strategy not only realises a decoupling control for the unwinding system but also has an effective antidisturbance capability and is robust.

  16. Evidence of Absolute Decoupling from Real World Policy Mixes in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doreen Fedrigo-Fazio

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In resource economics, decoupling from environmental impacts is assumed to be beneficial. However, the success of efforts to increase resource productivity should be placed within the context of the earth’s resources and ecosystems as theoretically finite and contingent on a number of threshold values. Thus far relatively few analyses exist of policies which have successfully implemented strategies for decoupling within these limits. Through ex-post evaluation of a number of real world policy mixes from European Union member states, this paper further develops definitions of the concept of decoupling. Beyond absolute (and relative decoupling, “absolute decoupling within limits” is proposed as an appropriate term for defining resource-productivity at any scale which respects the existing real world limits on resources and ecosystems and as such, contributes to meeting sustainability objectives. Policy mixes presented here cover a range of resources such as fish stocks, fertilizers, aggregates and fossil based materials (plastics. Policy mixes demonstrating absolute decoupling and at least one where absolute decoupling within limits has occurred, provide insights on developing resource efficiency policies in Europe and beyond.

  17. A critical overview of industrial energy decoupling programs in six developing countries in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luken, Ralph A.; Piras, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    In reviewing the journal literature on the decoupling of energy use and industrial output in the Asian region, particularly with respect to developing countries, we found little information about most country programs other than for China and India and only one article that compared the programs of these two countries. For this reason, we used diverse sources to identify the key programmatic features that have contributed, but clearly are not totally responsible for, decoupling achievements of two countries ( China and Thailand) and then, on the basis of these findings, reviewed emerging industrial energy decoupling programs in four other countries (India, Indonesia, Malaysia and Vietnam). We found that the design of the two successful on-going decoupling programs have common features, which are setting an explicit target for decoupling of energy use and industrial output, a government program that offers financial incentives and imposes specific auditing and reporting requirements and involvement of the manufacturing sector in designing and implementing targets as they apply to individual enterprises. We also found that the emerging programs in the other four countries lack some or all of these essential programmatic features. - Highlights: → We reviewed two on-going and four emerging industrial energy decoupling programs. → These six Asian developing countries have very different rates of decoupling. → The two successful on-going programs share three common features. → These are quantitative targets, supportive programs and industry involvement. → The four emerging programs lack some or all of these features.

  18. Basics of QCD perturbation theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soper, D.E. [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States). Inst. of Theoretical Science

    1997-06-01

    This is an introduction to the use of QCD perturbation theory, emphasizing generic features of the theory that enable one to separate short-time and long-time effects. The author also covers some important classes of applications: electron-positron annihilation to hadrons, deeply inelastic scattering, and hard processes in hadron-hadron collisions. 31 refs., 38 figs.

  19. Basics of QCD perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soper, D.E.

    1997-01-01

    This is an introduction to the use of QCD perturbation theory, emphasizing generic features of the theory that enable one to separate short-time and long-time effects. The author also covers some important classes of applications: electron-positron annihilation to hadrons, deeply inelastic scattering, and hard processes in hadron-hadron collisions. 31 refs., 38 figs

  20. Current issues in perturbative QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinchliffe, I.

    1994-12-01

    This review talk discusses some issues of active research in perturbative QCD. The following topics are discussed: (1) current value of αs; (2) heavy quark production in hadron collisions; (3) production of Ψ and Υ in p anti p collisions; (4) prompt photon production; (5) small-x and related phenomena; and (6) particle multiplicity in heavy quark jets

  1. Principles of chiral perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leutwyler, H.

    1995-01-01

    An elementary discussion of the main concepts used in chiral perturbation theory is given in textbooks and a more detailed picture of the applications may be obtained from the reviews. Concerning the foundations of the method, the literature is comparatively scarce. So, I will concentrate on the basic concepts and explain why the method works. (author)

  2. Perturbation theory from stochastic quantization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueffel, H.

    1984-01-01

    By using a diagrammatical method it is shown that in scalar theories the stochastic quantization method of Parisi and Wu gives the usual perturbation series in Feynman diagrams. It is further explained how to apply the diagrammatical method to gauge theories, discussing the origin of ghost effects. (Author)

  3. Review of chiral perturbation theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A review of chiral perturbation theory and recent developments on the comparison of its predictions with .... terms of the effective Lagrangian at two-loop or O(p6) order is now available [12]. The formidable task of ... and straightforward manner for the system and are of great importance for the analysis of experimental ...

  4. Unusual Low-frequency Magnetic Perturbations in TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, H.; Fredrickson, E.D.; Chance, M.S.

    2001-01-01

    Low-frequency magnetic perturbations (less than or equal to 30 kHz) observed in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) tokamak do not always conform to expectations from Magneto-Hydro-Dynamic (MHD) modes. The discrepancy between observations and expectations arises from the existence of three classes of magnetic perturbations in TFTR: (1) 'Edge Originated Magnetic Perturbations' (EOMP's), (2) 'Kink-like Modes' (KLM's), and (3) Tearing Modes (TM's). The EOMP class has unusual magnetic phenomenon including up/down asymmetry in poloidal intensity variation that MHD modes alone cannot generate. The contributions of MHD modes in plasma edge regions are too small to explain the magnitude of observed EOMP perturbations. At least two-thirds, possibly nearly all, of magnetic perturbations in a typical EOMP originate from sources other than MHD modes. An EOMP has a unity toroidal harmonic number and a poloidal harmonic number close to a discharge's edge q-value. It produces little temperature fluctuations, except possibly in edge regions. The KLM class produces temperature fluctuations, mostly confined within the q=1 surface with an ideal-mode-like structure, but generates little external magnetic perturbations. The TM class conforms generally to expectations from MHD modes. We propose that current flowing in the Scrape-off-layer (SOL) plasma is a possible origin of EOMP's

  5. Unusual Low-frequency Magnetic Perturbations in TFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. Takahashi; E.D. Fredrickson; M.S. Chance

    2001-02-12

    Low-frequency magnetic perturbations (less than or equal to 30 kHz) observed in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) tokamak do not always conform to expectations from Magneto-Hydro-Dynamic (MHD) modes. The discrepancy between observations and expectations arises from the existence of three classes of magnetic perturbations in TFTR: (1) 'Edge Originated Magnetic Perturbations' (EOMP's), (2) 'Kink-like Modes' (KLM's), and (3) Tearing Modes (TM's). The EOMP class has unusual magnetic phenomenon including up/down asymmetry in poloidal intensity variation that MHD modes alone cannot generate. The contributions of MHD modes in plasma edge regions are too small to explain the magnitude of observed EOMP perturbations. At least two-thirds, possibly nearly all, of magnetic perturbations in a typical EOMP originate from sources other than MHD modes. An EOMP has a unity toroidal harmonic number and a poloidal harmonic number close to a discharge's edge q-value. It produces little temperature fluctuations, except possibly in edge regions. The KLM class produces temperature fluctuations, mostly confined within the q=1 surface with an ideal-mode-like structure, but generates little external magnetic perturbations. The TM class conforms generally to expectations from MHD modes. We propose that current flowing in the Scrape-off-layer (SOL) plasma is a possible origin of EOMP's.

  6. Ion Motion Stability in Asymmetric Surface Electrode Ion Traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Fayaz; Ozakin, Arkadas

    2010-03-01

    Many recently developed designs of the surface electrode ion traps for quantum information processing have asymmetry built into their geometries. The asymmetry helps rotate the trap axes to angles with respect to electrode surface that facilitate laser cooling of ions but introduces a relative angle between the RF and DC fields and invalidates the classical stability analysis of the symmetric case for which the equations of motion are decoupled. For asymmetric case the classical motion of a single ion is given by a coupled, multi-dimensional version of Mathieu's equation. In this poster we discuss the stability diagram of asymmetric surface traps by performing an approximate multiple scale perturbation analysis of the coupled Mathieu equations, and validate the results with numerical simulations. After obtaining the stability diagram for the linear fields, we simulate the motion of an ion in a given asymmetric surface trap, utilizing a method-of-moments calculation of the electrode fields. We obtain the stability diagram and compare it with the ideal case to find the region of validity. Finally, we compare the results of our stability analysis to experiments conducted on a microfabricated asymmetric surface trap.

  7. Gravitational decoupling and the Picard-Lefschetz approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jon; Cole, Alex; Shiu, Gary; Cottrell, William

    2018-01-01

    In this work, we consider tunneling between nonmetastable states in gravitational theories. Such processes arise in various contexts, e.g., in inflationary scenarios where the inflaton potential involves multiple fields or multiple branches. They are also relevant for bubble wall nucleation in some cosmological settings. However, we show that the transition amplitudes computed using the Euclidean method generally do not approach the corresponding field theory limit as Mp→∞ . This implies that in the Euclidean framework, there is no systematic expansion in powers of GN for such processes. Such considerations also carry over directly to no-boundary scenarios involving Hawking-Turok instantons. In this note, we illustrate this failure of decoupling in the Euclidean approach with a simple model of axion monodromy and then argue that the situation can be remedied with a Lorentzian prescription such as the Picard-Lefschetz theory. As a proof of concept, we illustrate with a simple model how tunneling transition amplitudes can be calculated using the Picard-Lefschetz approach.

  8. Decoupling Transport from Economic Growth. Towards Transport Sustainability in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tight, M.R.; Site, P. Delle; Meyer-Ruehle, O.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports on a research project that aimed to identify and assess measures which could be used to reduce travel demand while maintaining economic growth and enhancing environmental quality. The research methodology involved a detailed review of past research; contact with over 600 experts from around Europe and elsewhere for ideas on potential measures; detailed questionnaires from over 100 of these experts; and a series of three panel sessions held in different parts of Europe, each of which involved around 16 experts debating the merits of different measures and identifying case study evidence of their effectiveness. The end result was a short list of 13 measures, indicative of broad types, which are considered to be effective, and an indication of their effectiveness if applied across the European Union. Seven illustrative measures are discussed which stand out from the results as having proven potential (though not necessarily at a European scale) to influence transport intensity and/or unit environmental load whilst not having large detrimental effects on GDP. These are the areas where it is felt that European transport policy could most usefully be focussed in terms of decoupling of transport demand and economic growth

  9. Dynamical-Decoupling-Based Quantum Sensing: Floquet Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Lang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sensing the internal dynamics of individual nuclear spins or clusters of nuclear spins has recently become possible by observing the coherence decay of a nearby electronic spin: the weak magnetic noise is amplified by a periodic, multipulse decoupling sequence. However, it remains challenging to robustly infer underlying atomic-scale structure from decoherence traces in all but the simplest cases. We introduce Floquet spectroscopy as a versatile paradigm for analysis of these experiments and argue that it offers a number of general advantages. In particular, this technique generalizes to more complex situations, offering physical insight in regimes of many-body dynamics, strong coupling, and pulses of finite duration. As there is no requirement for resonant driving, the proposed spectroscopic approach permits physical interpretation of striking, but overlooked, coherence decay features in terms of the form of the avoided crossings of the underlying quasienergy eigenspectrum. This is exemplified by a set of “diamond-shaped” features arising for transverse-field scans in the case of single-spin sensing by nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond. We also investigate applications for donors in silicon, showing that the resulting tunable interaction strengths offer highly promising future sensors.

  10. Enhanced coupling and decoupling of underground nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terhune, R.W.; Snell, C.M.; Rodean, H.C.

    1979-09-04

    The seismic coupling efficiency of nuclear explosions was studied in granite by means of computer calculations as a function of scaled explosion source radius. The scaled source radii were varied from 0.1 m/kt/sup 1/3/ (point source) to 20 m/kt/sup 1/3/ (representing a nearly full decoupling cavity). It was found that seismic coupling efficiency is at a maximum when the scaled source radius is approximately 2 m/kt/sup 1/3/. The primary cause of this maximum in seismic wave source strength is the effect of initial source radius on peak particle velocity and pulse duration of the outgoing elastic wave. A secondary cause is that rock vaporization (an energy sink) does not occur for scaled source radii somewhat greater than 1 m/kt/sup 1/3/. Therefore, for scaled source radii greater than 1 m/kt/sup 1/3/, there is additional energy available for seismic wave generations. Available data for some nuclear explosions at the Nevada Test Site do not provide sufficient evidence to either support or negate the enhanced coupling that is indicated by calculations at scaled source radii of 1-2 m/kt/sup 1/3/.

  11. Decoupled overlapping grids for the numerical modeling of oil wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbonna, Nneoma; Duncan, Dugald B.

    2012-01-01

    Accurate computation of time-dependent well bore pressure is important in well test analysis - a branch of petroleum engineering where reservoir properties are estimated by comparing measured pressure responses at an oil well to results from a mathematical model. Similar methods are also used in groundwater engineering. In this paper we present the new approach of decoupled overlapping grids for accurately computing time-dependent pressure at the oil well. Our method is implemented in two stages: a global stage with a simple point or line source well approximation, and a local post-process stage with the well modeled correctly as an internal boundary. We investigate the accuracy of our method for a representative 2D problem in both homogeneous and heterogeneous isotropic domains, and compare our results with the widely used Peaceman well index solution (in the homogeneous case), and the approximate solution on locally refined grids. We also present a theoretical analysis that explains the observed O(h2) behavior of the error in our method for the homogeneous case.

  12. Engineered superlattices with crossover from decoupled to synthetic ferromagnetic behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopdekar, Rajesh V.; Malik, Vivek K.; Kane, Alexander M.; Mehta, Apurva; Arenholz, Elke; Takamura, Yayoi

    2018-01-01

    The extent of interfacial charge transfer and the resulting impact on magnetic interactions were investigated as a function of sublayer thickness in La0.7Sr0.3MnO3/La0.7Sr0.3CoO3 ferromagnetic superlattices. Element-specific soft x-ray magnetic spectroscopy reveals that the electronic structure is altered within 5–6 unit cells of the chemical interface, and can lead to a synthetic ferromagnet with strong magnetic coupling between the sublayers. The saturation magnetization and coercivity depends sensitively on the sublayer thickness due to the length scale of this interfacial effect. For larger sublayer thicknesses, the La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 and La0.7Sr0.3CoO3 sublayers are magnetically decoupled, displaying two independent magnetic transitions with little sublayer thickness dependence. These results demonstrate how interfacial phenomena at perovskite oxide interfaces can be used to tailor their functional properties at the atomic scale.

  13. Impersonating the Standard Model Higgs boson: alignment without decoupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carena, Marcela; Low, Ian; Shah, Nausheen R.; Wagner, Carlos E.M.

    2014-01-01

    In models with an extended Higgs sector there exists an alignment limit, in which the lightest CP-even Higgs boson mimics the Standard Model Higgs. The alignment limit is commonly associated with the decoupling limit, where all non-standard scalars are significantly heavier than the Z boson. However, alignment can occur irrespective of the mass scale of the rest of the Higgs sector. In this work we discuss the general conditions that lead to “alignment without decoupling”, therefore allowing for the existence of additional non-standard Higgs bosons at the weak scale. The values of tan β for which this happens are derived in terms of the effective Higgs quartic couplings in general two-Higgs-doublet models as well as in supersymmetric theories, including the MSSM and the NMSSM. Moreover, we study the information encoded in the variations of the SM Higgs-fermion couplings to explore regions in the m A −tan β parameter space

  14. Neurovascular coupling and decoupling in the cortex during voluntary locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Bing-Xing; Smith, Jared B; Drew, Patrick J

    2014-08-13

    Hemodynamic signals are widely used to infer neural activity in the brain. We tested the hypothesis that hemodynamic signals faithfully report neural activity during voluntary behaviors by measuring cerebral blood volume (CBV) and neural activity in the somatosensory cortex and frontal cortex of head-fixed mice during locomotion. Locomotion induced a large and robust increase in firing rate and gamma-band (40-100 Hz) power in the local field potential in the limb representations in somatosensory cortex, and was accompanied by increases in CBV, demonstrating that hemodynamic signals are coupled with neural activity in this region. However, in the frontal cortex, CBV did not change during locomotion, but firing rate and gamma-band power both increased, indicating a decoupling of neural activity from the hemodynamic signal. These results show that hemodynamic signals are not faithful indicators of the mean neural activity in the frontal cortex during locomotion; thus, the results from fMRI and other hemodynamic imaging methodologies for studying neural processes must be interpreted with caution. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3410975-07$15.00/0.

  15. Progressive hypoxia decouples activity and aerobic performance of skate embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Santo, Valentina; Tran, Anna H.; Svendsen, Jon C.

    2016-01-01

    Although fish population size is strongly affected by survival during embryonic stages, our understanding of physiological responses to environmental stressors is based primarily on studies of post-hatch fishes. Embryonic responses to acute exposure to changes in abiotic conditions, including increase in hypoxia, could be particularly important in species exhibiting long developmental time, as embryos are unable to select a different environment behaviourally. Given that oxygen is key to metabolic processes in fishes and aquatic hypoxia is becoming more severe and frequent worldwide, organisms are expected to reduce their aerobic performance. Here, we examined the metabolic and behavioural responses of embryos of a benthic elasmobranch fish, the little skate (Leucoraja erinacea), to acute progressive hypoxia, by measuring oxygen consumption and movement (tail-beat) rates inside the egg case. Oxygen consumption rates were not significantly affected by ambient oxygen levels until reaching 45% air saturation (critical oxygen saturation, Scrit). Below Scrit, oxygen consumption rates declined rapidly, revealing an oxygen conformity response. Surprisingly, we observed a decoupling of aerobic performance and activity, as tail-beat rates increased, rather than matching the declining metabolic rates, at air saturation levels of 55% and below. These results suggest a significantly divergent response at the physiological and behavioural levels. While skate embryos depressed their metabolic rates in response to progressive hypoxia, they increased water circulation inside the egg case, presumably to restore normoxic conditions, until activity ceased abruptly around 9.8% air saturation. PMID:27293746

  16. Navigating towards Decoupled Aquaponic Systems: A System Dynamics Design Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Goddek

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The classical working principle of aquaponics is to provide nutrient-rich aquacultural water to a hydroponic plant culture unit, which in turn depurates the water that is returned to the aquaculture tanks. A known drawback is that a compromise away from optimal growing conditions for plants and fish must be achieved to produce both crops and fish in the same environmental conditions. The objective of this study was to develop a theoretical concept of a decoupled aquaponic system (DAPS, and predict water, nutrient (N and P, fish, sludge, and plant levels. This has been approached by developing a dynamic aquaponic system model, using inputs from data found in literature covering the fields of aquaculture, hydroponics, and sludge treatment. The outputs from the model showed the dependency of aquacultural water quality on the hydroponic evapotranspiration rate. This result can be explained by the fact that DAPS is based on one-way flows. These one-way flows results in accumulations of remineralized nutrients in the hydroponic component ensuring optimal conditions for the plants. The study also suggests to size the cultivation area based on P availability in the hydroponic component as P is an exhaustible resource and has been identified one of the main limiting factors for plant growth.

  17. An analysis of the expected eccentricity perturbations for the second Radio Astronomy Explorer (RAE B)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, J. P.

    1972-01-01

    Analytical prediction of expected eccentricity perturbations for the RAE 2 lunar orbit shows that the eccentricity will grow linearly in time. Parametric inclination studies and analysis of perturbation equations establish a critical retrograde inclination of 116.565 at which the positive perturbation slope vanishes for a circular orbit about 1100 m above the lunar surface with an eccentricity constraint of less than 0.005 during a period of about one year.

  18. Travelling waves in a singularly perturbed sine-Gordon equation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derks, Gianne; Doelman, Arjen; van Gils, Stephanus A.; Visser, T.P.P.

    2003-01-01

    We determine the linearised stability of travelling front solutions of a perturbed sine-Gordon equation. This equation models the long Josephson junction using the RCSJ model for currents across the junction and includes surface resistance for currents along the junction. The travelling waves

  19. Travelling waves in a singularly perturbed sine-Gordon equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derks, G.L.A.; Derks, Gianne; Doelman, Arjen; van Gils, Stephanus A.; Visser, T.P.P.

    2003-01-01

    We determine the linearised stability of travelling front solutions of a perturbed sine-Gordon equation. This equation models the long Josephson junction using the RCSJ model for currents across the junction and includes surface resistance for currents along the junction. The travelling waves

  20. Nonlinear vibration analysis of axially moving strings based on gyroscopic modes decoupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao-Dong; Wu, Hang; Qian, Ying-Jing; Zhang, Wei; Lim, C. W.

    2017-04-01

    A novel idea that applies the multiple scale analysis to a discretized decoupled system of gyroscopic continua is introduced and an axial moving string is treated as an example. First, the invariant manifold method is applied to the discretized ordinary differential equations of the axially moving string. Complex gyroscopic mode functions that agree well with true analytical results are obtained. The gyroscopic modes are subsequently used for the discretized ordinary differential equations with gyroscopic and nonlinear coupling terms that yield a gyroscopically decoupled system. Further the method of multiple scales is used to obtain the equations at a slow scale. This novel procedure is compared to solutions obtained by directly applying the classical multiple scale analysis to the gyroscopically coupled system without decoupling. The modal decoupled system analysis yields better frequency with comparing to the classic method. The proposed methodology provides a novel alternative for nonlinear dynamic analysis of gyroscopic continua.

  1. PI controller design for indirect vector controlled induction motor: A decoupling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Jitendra Kr; Ghosh, Sandip; Maity, Somnath; Dworak, Pawel

    2017-09-01

    Decoupling of the stator currents is important for smoother torque response of indirect vector controlled induction motors. Typically, feedforward decoupling is used to take care of current coupling that requires exact knowledge of motor parameters, additional circuitry and signal processing. In this paper, a method is proposed to design the regulating proportional-integral gains that minimize coupling without any requirement of the additional decoupler. The variation of the coupling terms for change in load torque is considered as the performance measure. An iterative linear matrix inequality based H ∞ control design approach is used to obtain the controller gains. A comparison between the feedforward and the proposed decoupling schemes is presented through simulation and experimental results. The results show that the proposed scheme is simple yet effective even without additional block or burden on signal processing. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Decoupling Control for Dual-Winding Bearingless Switched Reluctance Motor Based on Improved Inverse System Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiying Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dual-winding bearingless switched reluctance motor (BSRM is a multivariable high-nonlinear system characterized by strong coupling, and it is not completely reversible. In this paper, a new decoupling control strategy based on improved inverse system method is proposed. Robust servo regulator is adopted for the decoupled plants to guarantee control performances and robustness. A phase dynamic compensation filter is also designed to improve system stability at high-speed. In order to explain the advantages of the proposed method, traditional methods are compared. The tracking and decoupling characteristics as well as disturbance rejection and robustness are deeply analyzed. Simulation and experiments results show that the decoupling control of dual-winding BSRM in both reversible and irreversible domains can be successfully resolved with the improved inverse system method. The stability and robustness problems induced by inverse controller can be effectively solved by introducing robust servo regulator and dynamic compensation filter.

  3. NMR Artefacts Caused by Decoupling of Multiple-Spin Coherences: Improved SLAP Experiment.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blechta, Vratislav; Schraml, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 6 (2015), s. 460-466 ISSN 0749-1581 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : composite decoupling * SLAP * BIRD Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.226, year: 2015

  4. The status of perturbative QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, R.K.

    1988-10-01

    The advances in perturbative QCD are reviewed. The status of determinations of the coupling constant α/sub S/ and the parton distribution functions is presented. New theoretical results on the spin dependent structure functions of the proton are also reviewed. The theoretical description of the production of vector bosons, jets and heavy quarks is outlined with special emphasis on new results. Expected rates for top quark production at hadronic colliders are presented. 111 refs., 8 figs

  5. Perturbative QCD at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altherr, T.

    1989-03-01

    We discuss an application of finite temperature QCD to lepton-pair production in a quark-gluon plasma. The perturbative calculation is performed within the realtime formalism. After cancellation of infrared and mass singularities, the corrections at O (α s ) are found to be very small in the region where the mass of the Drell-Yan pair is much larger than the temperature of the plasma. Interesting effects, however, appear at the annihilation threshold of the thermalized quarks

  6. Neutronic performance of decoupled poisoned and unpoisoned composite moderators for high resolution experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kai, Tetsuya; Harada, Masahide; Watanabe, Noboru; Teshigawara, Makoto; Sakata, Hideaki; Ikeda, Yujiro

    2001-01-01

    We studied decoupled poisoned and un-poisoned composite moderators consisting of 20 mm thick hydrogen and 30 mm thick light water. The neutron pulses from un-poisoned one were much broader with longer decay times than a simple decoupled hydrogen moderator in 50 mm thickness. It was also found that the poisoned composite moderator provides higher pulse peak intensities relative to the hydrogen moderator (poisoned at 20 mm) below several tens meV with no penalty of pulse width. (author)

  7. A Decoupled MPC for Motion Control in Robotino Using a Geometric Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straßberger, Daniel; Mercorelli, Paolo; Sergiyenko, Oleg

    2015-11-01

    This paper proposes a controller for motion control of the Robotino. The proposed controller considers a functional decoupling control strategy realized using a geometric approach and the invertibility property of the DC-drives with which the Robotino is equipped. Horizontal, Vertical and Angular motions are considered and once the decoupling between these motions is obtained, a Model Predictive Control (MPC) strategy is used in combination with the inverse DC-drive model. Simulation results using real data of Robotino are shown.

  8. Viscous Decoupling Transitions for Individually Dragged Particles in Systems with Quenched Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Reichhardt, C. J. Olson; Reichhardt, C.

    2008-01-01

    We show that when an individual particle is dragged through an assembly of other particles in the presence of quenched disorder, a viscous decoupling transition occurs between the dragged particle and the surrounding particles which is controlled by the quenched disorder. A counterintuitive consequence of this transition is that the velocity of the dragged particle can be increased by increasing the strength or density of the quenched disorder. The decoupling transition can also occur when th...

  9. Accretion Disks Around Binary Black Holes of Unequal Mass: GRMHD Simulations Near Decoupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Roman; Paschalidis, Vasileios; Etienne, Zachariah B.; Shapiro, Stuart L.; Pfeiffer, Harald, P.

    2013-01-01

    We report on simulations in general relativity of magnetized disks onto black hole binaries. We vary the binary mass ratio from 1:1 to 1:10 and evolve the systems when they orbit near the binary disk decoupling radius. We compare (surface) density profiles, accretion rates (relative to a single, non-spinning black hole), variability, effective alpha-stress levels and luminosities as functions of the mass ratio. We treat the disks in two limiting regimes: rapid radiative cooling and no radiative cooling. The magnetic field lines clearly reveal jets emerging from both black hole horizons and merging into one common jet at large distances. The magnetic fields give rise to much stronger shock heating than the pure hydrodynamic flows, completely alter the disk structure, and boost accretion rates and luminosities. Accretion streams near the horizons are among the densest structures; in fact, the 1:10 no-cooling evolution results in a refilling of the cavity. The typical effective temperature in the bulk of the disk is approx. 10(exp5) (M / 10(exp 8)M solar mass (exp -1/4(L/L(sub edd) (exp 1/4K) yielding characteristic thermal frequencies approx. 10 (exp 15) (M /10(exp 8)M solar mass) (exp -1/4(L/L (sub edd) (1+z) (exp -1)Hz. These systems are thus promising targets for many extragalactic optical surveys, such as LSST, WFIRST, and PanSTARRS.

  10. Investigation of feet functions of large ruminants with a decoupled model of equivalent mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qun Zhang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cloven hooves of ruminants adapt to diverse terrain, provide propulsive force and support the whole body during movement in natural environments. To reveal how the feet ensure terrain adaptability by choosing the proper configurations and terrain conditions, we model the feet of ruminants as an equivalent mechanism with flexion-extension and lateral movement decoupled. The upper part of the equivalent mechanism can flex and extend, while the lower part performs the lateral movement. Combination of the two parts can adapt to longitudinal slope (anterior-posterior and transverse slope (medial-lateral, respectively. When one of two digits closes laterally, the workspace of the other decreases. The distal interdigital ligament between two digits limits their motion by elastic force and stores energy during movement. Differences in elastic energy variation of the ligament on different transverse slopes are characterized based on the configurations of two digits and the elastic energy between them. If the upper one of two symmetric digits is fixed, the foot landing on the grade surface (2° shows greater capacity for absorbing energy; otherwise, level ground is the best choice for ruminants. As for the asymmetric digits, longer lateral digits enhance the optimal adaptive lateral angle. The asymmetry predisposes the feet to damage on the hard ground, which indicates soft ground is more suitable.

  11. Decoupling electrochemical reaction and diffusion processes in ionically-conductive solids on the nanometer scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balke, Nina; Jesse, Stephen; Kim, Yoongu; Adamczyk, Leslie; Ivanov, Ilia N; Dudney, Nancy J; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2010-12-28

    We have developed a scanning probe microscopy approach to explore voltage-controlled ion dynamics in ionically conductive solids and decouple transport and local electrochemical reactivity on the nanometer scale. Electrochemical strain microscopy allows detection of bias-induced ionic motion through the dynamic (0.1-1 MHz) local strain. Spectroscopic modes based on low-frequency (∼1 Hz) voltage sweeps allow local ion dynamics to be probed locally. The bias dependence of the hysteretic strain response accessed through first-order reversal curve (FORC) measurements demonstrates that the process is activated at a certain critical voltage and is linear above this voltage everywhere on the surface. This suggests that FORC spectroscopic ESM data separates local electrochemical reaction and transport processes. The relevant parameters such as critical voltage and effective mobility can be extracted for each location and correlated with the microstructure. The evolution of these behaviors with the charging of the amorphous Si anode in a thin-film Li-ion battery is explored. A broad applicability of this method to other ionically conductive systems is predicted.

  12. Perturbation of an exact strong gravity solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baran, S.A.

    1982-10-01

    Perturbations of an exact strong gravity solution are investigated. It is shown, by using the new multipole expansions previously presented, that this exact and static spherically symmetric solution is stable under odd parity perturbations. (author)

  13. Myological variability in a decoupled skeletal system: batoid cranial anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolmann, Matthew A; Huber, Daniel R; Dean, Mason N; Grubbs, R Dean

    2014-08-01

    Chondrichthyans (sharks, batoids, and chimaeras) have simple feeding mechanisms owing to their relatively few cranial skeletal elements. However, the indirect association of the jaws to the cranium (euhyostylic jaw suspension) has resulted in myriad cranial muscle rearrangements of both the hyoid and mandibular elements. We examined the cranial musculature of an abbreviated phylogenetic representation of batoid fishes, including skates, guitarfishes and with a particular focus on stingrays. We identified homologous muscle groups across these taxa and describe changes in gross morphology across developmental and functional muscle groups, with the goal of exploring how decoupling of the jaws from the skull has effected muscular arrangement. In particular, we focus on the cranial anatomy of durophagous and nondurophagous batoids, as the former display marked differences in morphology compared to the latter. Durophagous stingrays are characterized by hypertrophied jaw adductors, reliance on pennate versus fusiform muscle fiber architecture, tendinous rather than aponeurotic muscle insertions, and an overall reduction in mandibular kinesis. Nondurophagous stingrays have muscles that rely on aponeurotic insertions onto the skeletal structure, and display musculoskeletal specialization for jaw protrusion and independent lower jaw kinesis, relative to durophagous stingrays. We find that among extant chondrichthyans, considerable variation exists in the hyoid and mandibular muscles, slightly less so in hypaxial muscles, whereas branchial muscles are overwhelmingly conserved. As chondrichthyans occupy a position sister to all other living gnathostomes, our understanding of the structure and function of early vertebrate feeding systems rests heavily on understanding chondrichthyan cranial anatomy. Our findings highlight the incredible variation in muscular complexity across chondrichthyans in general and batoids in particular. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Group-decoupled multi-group pin power reconstruction utilizing nodal solution 1D flux profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Lulin; Lu, Dong; Zhang, Shaohong; Wang, Dezhong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A direct fitting multi-group pin power reconstruction method is developed. • The 1D nodal solution flux profiles are used as the condition. • The least square fit problem is analytically solved. • A slowing down source improvement method is applied. • The method shows good accuracy for even challenging problems. - Abstract: A group-decoupled direct fitting method is developed for multi-group pin power reconstruction, which avoids both the complication of obtaining 2D analytic multi-group flux solution and any group-coupled iteration. A unique feature of the method is that in addition to nodal volume and surface average fluxes and corner fluxes, transversely-integrated 1D nodal solution flux profiles are also used as the condition to determine the 2D intra-nodal flux distribution. For each energy group, a two-dimensional expansion with a nine-term polynomial and eight hyperbolic functions is used to perform a constrained least square fit to the 1D intra-nodal flux solution profiles. The constraints are on the conservation of nodal volume and surface average fluxes and corner fluxes. Instead of solving the constrained least square fit problem numerically, we solve it analytically by fully utilizing the symmetry property of the expansion functions. Each of the 17 unknown expansion coefficients is expressed in terms of nodal volume and surface average fluxes, corner fluxes and transversely-integrated flux values. To determine the unknown corner fluxes, a set of linear algebraic equations involving corner fluxes is established via using the current conservation condition on all corners. Moreover, an optional slowing down source improvement method is also developed to further enhance the accuracy of the reconstructed flux distribution if needed. Two test examples are shown with very good results. One is a four-group BWR mini-core problem with all control blades inserted and the other is the seven-group OECD NEA MOX benchmark, C5G7

  15. Decoupling Control Design for the Module Suspension Control System in Maglev Train

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang He

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An engineering oriented decoupling control method for the module suspension system is proposed to solve the coupling issues of the two levitation units of the module in magnetic levitation (maglev train. According to the format of the system transfer matrix, a modified adjoint transfer matrix based decoupler is designed. Then, a compensated controller is obtained in the light of a desired close loop system performance. Optimization between the performance index and robustness index is also carried out to determine the controller parameters. However, due to the high orders and complexity of the obtained resultant controller, model reduction method is adopted to get a simplified controller with PID structure. Considering the modeling errors of the module suspension system as the uncertainties, experiments have been performed to obtain the weighting function of the system uncertainties. By using this, the robust stability of the decoupled module suspension control system is checked. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed decoupling design method is validated by simulations and physical experiments. The results illustrate that the presented decoupling design can result in a satisfactory decoupling and better dynamic performance, especially promoting the reliability of the suspension control system in practical engineering application.

  16. Tilted microstrip phased arrays with improved electromagnetic decoupling for ultrahigh-field magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yong; Wu, Bing; Jiang, Xiaohua; Vigneron, Daniel B; Zhang, Xiaoliang

    2014-12-01

    One of the technical challenges in designing a dedicated transceiver radio frequency (RF) array for MR imaging in humans at ultrahigh magnetic fields is how to effectively decouple the resonant elements of the array. In this work, we propose a new approach using tilted microstrip array elements for improving the decoupling performance and potentially parallel imaging capability. To investigate and validate the proposed design technique, an 8-channel volume array with tilted straight-type microstrip elements was designed, capable for human imaging at the ultrahigh field of 7 Tesla. In this volume transceiver array, its electromagnetic decoupling behavior among resonant elements, RF field penetration to biological samples, and parallel imaging performance were studied through bench tests and in vivo MR imaging experiments. In this specific tilted element array design, decoupling among array elements changes with the tilted angle of the elements and the best decoupling can be achieved at certain tilted angle. In vivo human knee MR images were acquired using the tilted volume array at 7 Tesla for method validation. Results of this study demonstrated that the electromagnetic decoupling between array elements and the B1 field strength can be improved by using the tilted element method in microstrip RF coil array designs at the ultrahigh field of 7T.

  17. Decoupling economic growth from CO2 emissions: A decomposition analysis of China's household energy consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Wei Ma

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes Chinese household CO2 emissions in 1994–2012 based on the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI structure decomposition model, and discusses the relationship between household CO2 emissions and economic growth based on a decoupling indicator. The results show that in 1994–2012, household CO2 emissions grew in general and displayed an accelerated growth trend during the early 21st century. Economic growth leading to an increase in energy consumption is the main driving factor of CO2 emission growth (an increase of 1.078 Gt CO2 with cumulative contribution rate of 55.92%, while the decline in energy intensity is the main cause of CO2 emission growth inhibition (0.723 Gt CO2 emission reduction with cumulative contribution rate of 38.27%. Meanwhile, household CO2 emissions are in a weak state of decoupling in general. The change in CO2 emissions caused by population and economic growth shows a weak decoupling and expansive decoupling state, respectively. The CO2 emission change caused by energy intensity is in a state of strong decoupling, and the change caused by energy consumption structure fluctuates between a weak and a strong decoupling state.

  18. Decomposing the Decoupling of Water Consumption and Economic Growth in China’s Textile Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Unprecedented economic achievement in China’s textile industry (TI has occurred along with rising water consumption. The goal of industrial sustainable development requires the decoupling of economic growth from resource consumption. This paper examines the relationship between water consumption and economic growth, and the internal influence mechanism of China’s TI and its three sub-sectors: the manufacture of textiles (MT sector, the Manufacture of Textile Wearing Apparel, Footwear, and Caps (MTWA sector, and the manufacture of chemical fibers (MCF sector. A decoupling analysis was performed and the Laspeyres decomposition method was applied to the period from 2001 to 2014. We showed that six of the fourteen years analyzed (2003, 2006, 2008, 2009, 2011, and 2013 exhibited a strong decoupling effect and three of the fourteen years (2005, 2007, and 2010 exhibited a weak decoupling effect. Overall, China’s TI experienced a good decoupling between economic growth and water consumption from 2002 to 2014. For the three sub-sectors, the MTWA sector experienced a more significant positive decoupling than the MT and MCF sectors. The decomposition results confirm that the industrial scale factor is the most important driving force of China’s TI water consumption increase, while the water efficiency factor is the most important inhibiting force. The industrial structure adjustment does not significantly affect water consumption. The industrial scale and water use efficiency factors are also the main determinants of change in water consumption for the three sub-sectors.

  19. Decoupling multimode vibrational relaxations in multi-component gas mixtures: Analysis of sound relaxational absorption spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ke-Sheng; Wang Shu; Zhu Ming; Ding Yi; Hu Yi

    2013-01-01

    Decoupling the complicated vibrational—vibrational (V—V) coupling of a multimode vibrational relaxation remains a challenge for analyzing the sound relaxational absorption in multi-component gas mixtures. In our previous work [Acta Phys. Sin. 61 174301 (2012)], an analytical model to predict the sound absorption from vibrational relaxation in a gas medium is proposed. In this paper, we develop the model to decouple the V—V coupled energy to each vibrational—translational deexcitation path, and analyze how the multimode relaxations form the peaks of sound absorption spectra in gas mixtures. We prove that a multimode relaxation is the sum of its decoupled single-relaxation processes, and only the decoupled process with a significant isochoric-molar-heat can be observed as an absorption peak. The decoupling model clarifies the essential processes behind the peaks in spectra arising from the multimode relaxations in multi-component gas mixtures. The simulation validates the proposed decoupling model. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  20. Decoupling as a mechanism of change in mindfulness and acceptance: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Michael E; Luoma, Jason B; Haeger, Jack A

    2015-11-01

    A growing body of research within the acceptance and mindfulness-based therapies suggests that these treatments may function in part by reducing or eliminating (i.e., decoupling) the normative relationships between internal experiences and other internal/overt behavior. Examples of decoupling effects found in this review include reduced relationships between urges to smoke and smoking behavior, between dysphoric mood and depressive cognitions, and between pain intensity and persistence in a painful task. A literature review identified 44 studies on acceptance and mindfulness that demonstrated decoupling effects. Overall, preliminary evidence for decoupling effects were found across a broad range of problem areas, including substance abuse, depression, eating disorders, overeating, chronic pain, anxiety, relationships, anger, avoidance behavior, and self-harm, with the strongest evidence currently available in the area of substance abuse. However, the review also notes a general lack of replication studies on decoupling effects and the need for more well-powered and controlled research testing specific decoupling hypotheses. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Comparative performance of decoupled input-output linearizing controller and linear interpolation PID controller: enhancing biomass and ethanol production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persad, A; Chopda, V R; Rathore, A S; Gomes, J

    2013-02-01

    A decoupled input-output linearizing controller (DIOLC) was designed as an alternative advanced control strategy for controlling bioprocesses. Simulation studies of its implementation were carried out to control ethanol and biomass production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its performance was compared to that of a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller with parameters tuned according to a linear schedule. The overall performance of the DIOLC was better in the test experiments requiring the controllers to respond accurately to simultaneous changes in the trajectories of the substrate and dissolved oxygen concentration. It also exhibited better performance in perturbation experiments of the most significant parameters q (S,max), q (O2,max), and k ( s ), determined through a statistical design of experiments involving 730 simulations. DIOLC exhibited a superior ability of constraining the process when implemented in extreme metabolic regimes of high oxygen demand for maximizing biomass concentration and low oxygen demand for maximizing ethanol concentration.

  2. Description of highly perturbed bands in rare earth nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, P.C.; Sood, P.C.

    1976-01-01

    Recently some highly perturbed positive parity bands have been populated in odd-mass rare earth nuclei. The energy spacings and sometimes even the spin sequences are drastically different from the usual strong coupling rotational model picture. The levels belonging to 'odd and even' I+1/2 are found to make separate groupings. The levels belonging to odd values of I+1/2 are seen to be very much favoured in comparison to the levels for which I+1/2 is even. In some cases only the favoured levels have been identified. These bands have been studied in the frame-work of rotation aligned coupling scheme in which the odd neutron in the unique parity orbital (in this case the isub(13/2) orbital) is strongly decoupled from the body fixed symmetry axis by the Coriolis force so as to make the projection of its angular momentum α on the rotation axis approximately a good quantum number. A description of the energy levels is suggested by assigning the quantum number α-j to the favoured levels and α-j-1 to the unfavoured levels. The intraband transitions of the favoured and unfavoured bands are examined in comparison with those in the adjacent ground state bands in even-even nuclei. (author)

  3. Geometric Hamiltonian structures and perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omohundro, S.

    1984-08-01

    We have been engaged in a program of investigating the Hamiltonian structure of the various perturbation theories used in practice. We describe the geometry of a Hamiltonian structure for non-singular perturbation theory applied to Hamiltonian systems on symplectic manifolds and the connection with singular perturbation techniques based on the method of averaging

  4. Matrix perturbations: bounding and computing eigenvalues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reis da Silva, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the somewhat negative connotation of the word, not every perturbation is a bad perturbation. In fact, while disturbing the matrix entries, many perturbations still preserve useful properties such as the orthonormality of the basis of eigenvectors or the Hermicity of the original matrix. In

  5. FRW Cosmological Perturbations in Massive Bigravity

    CERN Document Server

    Comelli, D; Pilo, L

    2014-01-01

    Cosmological perturbations of FRW solutions in ghost free massive bigravity, including also a second matter sector, are studied in detail. At early time, we find that sub horizon exponential instabilities are unavoidable and they lead to a premature departure from the perturbative regime of cosmological perturbations.

  6. Multiplicative perturbations of local C-semigroups

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... In this paper, we establish some left and right multiplicative perturbation theorems concerning local -semigroups when the generator of a perturbed local -semigroup S(⋅) may not be densely defined and the perturbation operator is a bounded linear operator from ¯D(A) into () such that = ...

  7. Multiplicative perturbations of local C-semigroups

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we establish some left and right multiplicative perturbation theorems concerning local -semigroups when the generator of a perturbed local -semigroup S ( ⋅ ) may not be densely defined and the perturbation operator is a bounded linear operator from D ( A ) ¯ into () such that = on D ( A ) ¯ ...

  8. Jacobian approach to optimal determination of perturbation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work, the optimal determination of the perturbation factor (λ) or perturbation parameter for gradient method is considered. The spectrum analysis of the associated Jacobian of the associated matrix has laid the basis for the judicious selection of the perturbation factor. Numerical work is carried out to prove our ...

  9. Effects of stratospheric perturbations on the solar radiation budget

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luther, F.M.

    1978-04-01

    The changes in solar absorption and in local heating rates due to perturbations to O 3 and NO 2 concentrations caused by stratospheric injection of NO/sub x/ and CFM pollutants are assessed. The changes in species concentration profiles are derived from theoretical calculations using a transport-kinetics model. Because of significant changes in our understanding of stratospheric chemistry during the past year, the assessment of the effect of stratospheric perturbations on the solar radiation budget differs from previous assessments. Previously, a reduction in O 3 due to an NO/sub x/ injection caused a net decrease in the gaseous solar absorption;now the same perturbation leads to a net increase. The implication of these changes on the surface temperature is also discussed

  10. Toroidal Energy Principle (TEP) and perturbed equilibrium code STB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharov, Leonid; Hu, Di

    2016-10-01

    The MHD energy principle TEP is presented in terms of perturbations of the vector potential, rather than plasma displacement. This form makes TEP capable to discribe both the ideal plasmas stability and the perturbed equilibria. The functional is expressed in two terms. The first one represents the energy of magnetic field and is calculated using working equilibrium coordinate system. The second term, containing plasma displacement is expressed in the compact form using Hamada coordinates. This representation uses the same combinations of metric coefficients as in the equilibrium calculations. The STB code implements the TEP for both ideal MHD and perturbed equilibria. In the first case, it uses the matching conditions of the ideal MHD. In the second case, the 2-D equilibrium islands are introduced in order to resolve the singularity and match the solutions across the resonant surfaces Partially by (a) US DoE Contract No. DE-AC02-09-CH11466, (b) General Fusion Inc.

  11. Disturbance and decoupling of belowground carbon and nitrogen cycles in a northern temperate forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nave, L. E.; Nadelhoffer, K.; Le Moine, J.; Hardiman, B. S.; Sparks, J. P.; Strahm, B. D.; Munoz, A.; Gough, C. M.; Vogel, C. S.; Curtis, P.

    2011-12-01

    Belowground carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycles are tightly coupled in many northern temperate forests. However, disturbances that cause tree mortality can decouple linkages between belowground components of these biogeochemical cycles. We measured a suite of belowground processes following a treatment to accelerate the natural senescence of early-successional dominants in a northern temperate forest, hypothesizing that tree mortality would decrease belowground C allocation, increase belowground N availability and cycling rates, and trigger N leaching in this highly N-limited forest. In the Forest Accelerated Succession ExperimenT, we stem girdled >6700 aspen and birch trees (39% of basal area) on 40 ha of forestland at the University of Michigan Biological Station to test these and other hypotheses related to forest development and biogeochemistry. Here, we present the cascade of changes in belowground C and N cycling that occurred in the first two growing seasons following initiation of FASET in April 2008. Aspen and birch mortality decreased stand-level fine root nonstructural carbohydrate contents, accelerating fine root turnover and causing a net reduction in fine root biomass. These decreases in belowground C allocation and root functioning increased forest floor net NH4+ availability, which accelerated nitrification rates, increased net NO3- availability, and led to small NO3- leaching losses. These belowground perturbations were registered by the forest canopy through shifts in foliar 13C and 15N natural abundances, which indicated water stress among girdled aspens and faster, leakier cycling in a source N pool shared by foliage of all tree species. We interpret the results of this initial disturbance phase of the FASET study in the context of our conceptual model of N availability and ecosystem C storage over longer-term (successional) time scales. We predict that, following minor N leaching losses during disturbance, reorganization of belowground N cycling

  12. Acoustic wavefield evolution as a function of source location perturbation

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2010-12-01

    The wavefield is typically simulated for seismic exploration applications through solving the wave equation for a specific seismic source location. The direct relation between the form (or shape) of the wavefield and the source location can provide insights useful for velocity estimation and interpolation. As a result, I derive partial differential equations that relate changes in the wavefield shape to perturbations in the source location, especially along the Earth\\'s surface. These partial differential equations have the same structure as the wave equation with a source function that depends on the background (original source) wavefield. The similarity in form implies that we can use familiar numerical methods to solve the perturbation equations, including finite difference and downward continuation. In fact, we can use the same Green\\'s function to solve the wave equation and its source perturbations by simply incorporating source functions derived from the background field. The solutions of the perturbation equations represent the coefficients of a Taylor\\'s series type expansion of the wavefield as a function of source location. As a result, we can speed up the wavefield calculation as we approximate the wavefield shape for sources in the vicinity of the original source. The new formula introduces changes to the background wavefield only in the presence of lateral velocity variation or in general terms velocity variations in the perturbation direction. The approach is demonstrated on the smoothed Marmousi model.

  13. The bispectrum of matter perturbations from cosmic strings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regan, Donough; Hindmarsh, Mark, E-mail: d.regan@sussex.ac.uk, E-mail: m.b.hindmarsh@sussex.ac.uk [Astronomy Centre, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton, BN1 9QH (United Kingdom)

    2015-03-01

    We present the first calculation of the bispectrum of the matter perturbations induced by cosmic strings. The calculation is performed in two different ways: the first uses the unequal time correlators (UETCs) of the string network - computed using a Gaussian model previously employed for cosmic string power spectra. The second approach uses the wake model, where string density perturbations are concentrated in sheet-like structures whose surface density grows with time. The qualitative and quantitative agreement of the two gives confidence to the results. An essential ingredient in the UETC approach is the inclusion of compensation factors in the integration with the Green's function of the matter and radiation fluids, and we show that these compensation factors must be included in the wake model also. We also present a comparison of the UETCs computed in the Gaussian model, and those computed in the unconnected segment model (USM) used by the standard cosmic string perturbation package CMBACT. We compare numerical estimates for the bispectrum of cosmic strings to those produced by perturbations from an inflationary era, and discover that, despite the intrinsically non-Gaussian nature of string-induced perturbations, the matter bispectrum is unlikely to produce competitive constraints on a population of cosmic strings.

  14. Have Market-oriented Reforms Decoupled China’s CO2 Emissions from Total Electricity Generation? An Empirical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Shang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Achieving the decoupling of electric CO2 emissions from total electricity generation is important in ensuring the sustainable socioeconomic development of China. To realize this, China implemented market-oriented reforms to its electric power industry at the beginning of 2003. This study used the Tapio decoupling index, the Laspeyres decomposition algorithm, and decoupling-related data from 1993 to 2012 to evaluate the effect of these reforms. Several conclusions can be drawn based on the empirical analysis. (1 The reforms changed the developmental trend of the decoupling index and facilitated its progress towards strong decoupling. (2 The results forecasted through fitting the curve to the decoupling index indicate that strong decoupling would be realized by 2030. (3 Limiting the manufacturing development and upgrading the generation equipment of the thermal power plants are essential for China to achieve strong decoupling at an early date. (4 China should enhance regulatory pressures and guidance for appropriate investment in thermal power plants to ensure the stable development of the decoupling index. (5 Transactions between multiple participants and electricity price bidding play active roles in the stable development of the decoupling index.

  15. High Field In Vivo 13C Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of Brain by Random Radiofrequency Heteronuclear Decoupling and Data Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ningzhi; Li, Shizhe; Shen, Jun

    2017-06-01

    In vivo 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is a unique and effective tool for studying dynamic human brain metabolism and the cycling of neurotransmitters. One of the major technical challenges for in vivo 13C-MRS is the high radio frequency (RF) power necessary for heteronuclear decoupling. In the common practice of in vivo 13C-MRS, alkanyl carbons are detected in the spectra range of 10-65ppm. The amplitude of decoupling pulses has to be significantly greater than the large one-bond 1H-13C scalar coupling (1JCH=125-145 Hz). Two main proton decoupling methods have been developed: broadband stochastic decoupling and coherent composite or adiabatic pulse decoupling (e.g., WALTZ); the latter is widely used because of its efficiency and superb performance under inhomogeneous B1 field. Because the RF power required for proton decoupling increases quadratically with field strength, in vivo 13C-MRS using coherent decoupling is often limited to low magnetic fields (Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Alternately, carboxylic/amide carbons are coupled to protons via weak long-range 1H-13C scalar couplings, which can be decoupled using low RF power broadband stochastic decoupling. Recently, the carboxylic/amide 13C-MRS technique using low power random RF heteronuclear decoupling was safely applied to human brain studies at 7T. Here, we review the two major decoupling methods and the carboxylic/amide 13C-MRS with low power decoupling strategy. Further decreases in RF power deposition by frequency-domain windowing and time-domain random under-sampling are also discussed. Low RF power decoupling opens the possibility of performing in vivo 13C experiments of human brain at very high magnetic fields (such as 11.7T), where signal-to-noise ratio as well as spatial and temporal spectral resolution are more favorable than lower fields.

  16. Global Ensemble Generation Using Perturbed Observations in the Navy Coupled Ocean Data Assimilation System (NCODA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, C. D.; Frolov, S.; Stokes, M.; Hogan, P. J.; Wei, M.; Bishop, C. H.

    2016-02-01

    A perturbed-observation analysis capability has been developed for the Navy Coupled Ocean Data Assimilation system (NCODA). The resulting analysis is used to represent analysis error in the initial conditions of a global ocean forecast ensemble using the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM). For cycling with HYCOM, the NCODA system performs a 3D variational analysis of temperature, salinity, geopotential, and vector velocity using remotely-sensed SST, SSH, and sea ice concentration, plus in situ observations of temperature, salinity, and currents from ships, buoys, XBTs, CTDs, profiling floats, and autonomous gliders. Sea surface height is assimilated through synthetic temperature and salinity profiles generated using the Modular Ocean Data Assimilation System (MODAS) historical regression database with surface height and surface temperature as inputs. Perturbations to the surface observations use random samples from a normal distribution scaled by the observation error standard deviation, which combines estimates of instrument and representation error. Perturbations to the synthetic profiles are generated by supplying the perturbed surface inputs to the MODAS system, resulting in correlated profile changes with vertical correlations associated with historical uncertainty about thermocline depth and gradients. For in situ profile observations, representation error is much larger than instrument error, so a technique is implemented to create correlated perturbations associated with large, mesoscale errors. Initial results from a cycling regional analysis show the resulting analysis perturbations have scales and amplitudes consistent with short term forecast error covariances. Results using the perturbed observation analysis in regional and global cycling forecast systems will be presented.

  17. Perturbation calculations with Wilson loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peixoto Junior, L.B.

    1984-01-01

    We present perturbative calculations with the Wilson loop (WL). The dimensional regularization method is used with a special attention concerning to the problem of divergences in the WL expansion in second and fourth orders, in three and four dimensions. We show that the residue in the pole, in 4d, of the fourth order graphs contribution sum is important for the charge renormalization. We compute up to second order the exact expression of the WL, in three-dimensional gauge theories with topological mass as well as its assimptotic behaviour for small and large distances. the author [pt

  18. Smeared quasidistributions in perturbation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, Christopher

    2018-03-01

    Quasi- and pseudodistributions provide a new approach to determining parton distribution functions from first principles' calculations of QCD. Here, I calculate the flavor nonsinglet unpolarized quasidistribution at one loop in perturbation theory, using the gradient flow to remove ultraviolet divergences. I demonstrate that, as expected, the gradient flow does not change the infrared structure of the quasidistribution at one loop and use the results to match the smeared matrix elements to those in the MS ¯ scheme. This matching calculation is required to relate numerical results obtained from nonperturbative lattice QCD computations to light-front parton distribution functions extracted from global analyses of experimental data.

  19. Organic History and Ice-Rock Decoupling on Enceladus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolotov, M. Y.

    2007-12-01

    .) remained unfrozen and decoupled the ice shell from underlying salt deposits and rocks. Even after oil solidification, if it occurred, the organic layer had a lower viscosity than salts and ice. An uneven pressure and/or topography at the ice-salt boundary could have led to preferential oil (and salt?) accumulation below the south polar region. Throughout history (and today), the uneven oil-rich layer could have favored tidal motions and heat generation at the bottom of the ice shell.

  20. Nonlinearly combined impacts of initial perturbation from human activities and parameter perturbation from climate change on the grassland ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sun

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Human activities and climate change are important factors that affect grassland ecosystems. A new optimization approach, the approach of conditional nonlinear optimal perturbation (CNOP related to initial and parameter perturbations, is employed to explore the nonlinearly combined impacts of human activities and climate change on a grassland ecosystem using a theoretical grassland model. In our study, it is assumed that the initial perturbations and parameter perturbations are regarded as human activities and climate change, respectively. Numerical results indicate that the climate changes causing the maximum effect in the grassland ecosystem are different under disparate intensities of human activities. This implies the pattern of climate change is very critical to the maintenance or degradation of grassland ecosystem in light of high intensity of human activities and that the grassland ecosystem should be rationally managed when the moisture index decreases. The grassland ecosystem influenced by the nonlinear combination of human activities and climate change undergoes abrupt change, while the grassland ecosystem affected by other types of human activities and climate change fails to show the abrupt change under a certain range of perturbations with the theoretical model. The further numerical analyses also indicate that the growth of living biomass and the evaporation from soil surface shaded by the wilted biomass may be crucial factors contributing to the abrupt change of the grassland equilibrium state within the theoretical model.

  1. "Phonon" scattering beyond perturbation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, WuJie; Ke, XueZhi; Xi, LiLi; Wu, LiHua; Yang, Jiong; Zhang, WenQing

    2016-02-01

    Searching and designing materials with intrinsically low lattice thermal conductivity (LTC) have attracted extensive consideration in thermoelectrics and thermal management community. The concept of part-crystalline part-liquid state, or even part-crystalline part-amorphous state, has recently been proposed to describe the exotic structure of materials with chemical- bond hierarchy, in which a set of atoms is weakly bonded to the rest species while the other sublattices retain relatively strong rigidity. The whole system inherently manifests the coexistence of rigid crystalline sublattices and fluctuating noncrystalline substructures. Representative materials in the unusual state can be classified into two categories, i.e., caged and non-caged ones. LTCs in both systems deviate from the traditional T -1 relationship ( T, the absolute temperature), which can hardly be described by small-parameter-based perturbation approaches. Beyond the classical perturbation theory, an extra rattling-like scattering should be considered to interpret the liquid-like and sublattice-amorphization-induced heat transport. Such a kind of compounds could be promising high-performance thermoelectric materials, due to the extremely low LTCs. Other physical properties for these part-crystalline substances should also exhibit certain novelty and deserve further exploration.

  2. Decoupling of coral skeletal δ13C and solar irradiance over the past millennium caused by the oceanic Suess effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wenfeng; Chen, Xuefei; Wei, Gangjian; Zeng, Ti; Zhao, Jian-xin

    2017-02-01

    Many factors influence the seasonal changes in δ13C levels in coral skeletons; consequently, the climatic and environmental significance of such changes is complicated and controversial. However, it is widely accepted that the secular declining trend of coral δ13C over the past 200 years reflects the changes in the additional flux of anthropogenic CO2 from the atmosphere into the surface oceans. Even so, the centennial-scale variations, and their significance, of coral δ13C before the Industrial Revolution remain unclear. Based on an annually resolved coral δ13C record from the northern South China Sea, the centennial-scale variations of coral δ13C over the past millennium were studied. The coral δ13C and total solar irradiance (TSI) have a significant positive Pearson correlation and coupled variation during the Medieval Warm Period and Little Ice Age, when natural forcing controlled the climate and environment. This covariation suggests that TSI controls coral δ13C by affecting the photosynthetic activity of the endosymbiotic zooxanthellae over centennial timescales. However, there was a decoupling of the coral skeletal δ13C and TSI during the Current Warm Period, the period in which the climate and environment became linked to anthropogenic factors. Instead, coral δ13C levels have a significant Pearson correlation with both the atmospheric CO2 concentration and δ13C levels in atmospheric CO2. The correlation between coral δ13C and atmospheric CO2 suggests that the oceanic 13C Suess effect, caused by the addition of increasing amounts of anthropogenic 12CO2 to the surface ocean, has led to the decoupling of coral δ13C and TSI at the centennial scale.

  3. Decomposition Analysis in Decoupling Transport Output from Carbon Emissions in Guangdong Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalan Zhao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available With a continuously growing share of the world’s overall energy consumption, the transport sector has been acknowledged as one of the most important contributors to global carbon emissions. This paper applies a complete decomposition and decoupling analysis to investigate and quantitatively analyze the main factors influencing the energy-related carbon emissions of the transport (TCE sector during 1995–2012 in Guangdong, the richest and most populated province in China. Results showed that decoupling level between transport output and TCE was relatively low, especially when compared with year 1995, in which case it remained as expansive coupling. Optimization of tertiary industry structure was the main factor inhibiting TCE increase. However the rapid growth of GDP per capita and population was more powerful at boosting TCE, resulting in elasticity index rising directly. 2005 was a turning point when environmental friendly policies took action, after which decoupling state improved significantly, achieving weak decoupling when comparing adjacent years. By studying TCE and its components, we found that the National 5-Year Plan policy impacts TCE tremendously, which leads to a 5-year periodic pattern of fluctuations. This highlights policy as potentially the most important factor behind Guangdong’s decoupling effort, dwarfing the impact from energy and other inner-drivers.

  4. Decoupling and Decomposition Analysis of Carbon Emissions from Industry: A Case Study from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available China has overtaken the United States as the world’s largest producer of carbon dioxide, with industrial carbon emissions (ICE accounting for approximately 65% of the country’s total emissions. Understanding the ICE decoupling patterns and factors influencing the decoupling status is a prerequisite for balancing economic growth and carbon emissions. This paper provides an overview of ICE based on decoupling elasticity and the Tapio decoupling model. Furthermore, the study identifies the factors contributing to ICE changes in China, using the Kaya identity and Log Mean Divisia Index (LMDI techniques. Based on the effects and contributions of ICE, we close with a number of recommendations. The results revealed a significant upward trend of ICE during the study period 1994 to 2013, with a total amount of 11,147 million tons. Analyzing the decoupling relationship indicates that “weak decoupling” and “expansive decoupling” were the main states during the study period. The decomposition analysis showed that per capita wealth associated with industrial outputs and energy intensity are the main driving force of ICE, while energy intensity of industrial output and energy structure are major determinants for ICE reduction. The largest contributing cumulative effect to ICE is per capita wealth, at 1.23 in 2013. This factor is followed by energy intensity, with a contributing cumulative effect of −0.32. The cumulative effects of energy structure and population are relatively small, at 0.01 and 0.08, respectively.

  5. Deep-subwavelength Decoupling for MIMO Antennas in Mobile Handsets with Singular Medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Su; Zhang, Ming; Wen, Huailin; Wang, Jun

    2017-09-22

    Decreasing the mutual coupling between Multi-input Multi-output (MIMO) antenna elements in a mobile handset and achieving a high data rate is a challenging topic as the 5 th -generation (5G) communication age is coming. Conventional decoupling components for MIMO antennas have to be re-designed when the geometries or frequencies of antennas have any adjustment. In this paper, we report a novel metamaterial-based decoupling strategy for MIMO antennas in mobile handsets with wide applicability. The decoupling component is made of subwavelength metal/air layers, which can be treated as singular medium over a broad frequency band. The flexible applicable property of the decoupling strategy is verified with different antennas over different frequency bands with the same metamaterial decoupling element. Finally, 1/100-wavelength 10-dB isolation is demonstrated for a 24-element MIMO antenna in mobile handsets over the frequency band from 4.55 to 4.75 GHz.

  6. Perturbations i have Known and Loved

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Robert W.

    2011-06-01

    A spectroscopic perturbation is a disruption of a ^1Σ-^1Σ-like regular pattern that can embody level-shifts, extra lines, and intensity anomalies. Once upon a time, when a band was labeled ``perturbed,'' it was considered worthless because it could at best yield molecular constants unsuited for archival tables. Nevertheless, a few brave spectroscopists, notably Albin Lagerqvist and Richard Barrow, collected perturbations because they knew that the pattern of multiple perturbations formed an intricate puzzle that would eventually reveal the presence and electronic symmetry of otherwise unobservable electronic states. There are many kinds of patterns of broken patterns. In my PhD thesis I showed how to determine absolute vibrational assignments for the perturber from patterns among the observed values of perturbation matrix elements. When a ^3Π state is perturbed, its six (Ω, parity) components capture a pattern of level shifts and intensity anomalies that reveals more about the nature of the perturber than a simple perturbation of the single component of a ^1Σ state. In perturbation-facilitated OODR, a perturbed singlet level acts as a spectroscopic doorway through which the entire triplet manifold may be systematically explored. For polyatomic molecule vibrations, a vibrational polyad (a group of mutually perturbing vibrational levels, among which the perturbation matrix elements are expected to follow harmonic oscillator scaling rules) can contain more components than a ^3Π state and intrapolyad patterns can be exquisitely sensitive not merely to the nature of an interloper within the polyad but also to the eigenvector character of the vibronic state from which the polyad is viewed. Variation of scaled polyad interaction parameters from one polyad to the next, a pattern of patterns, can signal proximity to an isomerization barrier. Everything in Rydberg-land seems to scale as N⋆-3, yet a trespassing valence state causes all scaling and propensity rules go

  7. New Methods in Non-Perturbative QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unsal, Mithat [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2017-01-31

    In this work, we investigate the properties of quantum chromodynamics (QCD), by using newly developing mathematics and physics formalisms. Almost all of the mass in the visible universe emerges from a quantum chromodynamics (QCD), which has a completely negligible microscopic mass content. An intimately related issue in QCD is the quark confinement problem. Answers to non-perturbative questions in QCD remained largely elusive despite much effort over the years. It is also believed that the usual perturbation theory is inadequate to address these kinds of problems. Perturbation theory gives a divergent asymptotic series (even when the theory is properly renormalized), and there are non-perturbative phenomena which never appear at any order in perturbation theory. Recently, a fascinating bridge between perturbation theory and non-perturbative effects has been found: a formalism called resurgence theory in mathematics tells us that perturbative data and non-perturbative data are intimately related. Translating this to the language of quantum field theory, it turns out that non-perturbative information is present in a coded form in perturbation theory and it can be decoded. We take advantage of this feature, which is particularly useful to understand some unresolved mysteries of QCD from first principles. In particular, we use: a) Circle compactifications which provide a semi-classical window to study confinement and mass gap problems, and calculable prototypes of the deconfinement phase transition; b) Resurgence theory and transseries which provide a unified framework for perturbative and non-perturbative expansion; c) Analytic continuation of path integrals and Lefschetz thimbles which may be useful to address sign problem in QCD at finite density.

  8. Data-free and data-driven spectral perturbations for RANS UQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edeling, Wouter; Mishra, Aashwin; Iaccarino, Gianluca

    2017-11-01

    Despite recent developments in high-fidelity turbulent flow simulations, RANS modeling is still vastly used by industry, due to its inherent low cost. Since accuracy is a concern in RANS modeling, model-form UQ is an essential tool for assessing the impacts of this uncertainty on quantities of interest. Applying the spectral decomposition to the modeled Reynolds-Stress Tensor (RST) allows for the introduction of decoupled perturbations into the baseline intensity (kinetic energy), shape (eigenvalues), and orientation (eigenvectors). This constitutes a natural methodology to evaluate the model form uncertainty associated to different aspects of RST modeling. In a predictive setting, one frequently encounters an absence of any relevant reference data. To make data-free predictions with quantified uncertainty we employ physical bounds to a-priori define maximum spectral perturbations. When propagated, these perturbations yield intervals of engineering utility. High-fidelity data opens up the possibility of inferring a distribution of uncertainty, by means of various data-driven machine-learning techniques. We will demonstrate our framework on a number of flow problems where RANS models are prone to failure. This research was partially supported by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency under the Enabling Quantification of Uncertainty in Physical Systems (EQUiPS) project (technical monitor: Dr Fariba Fahroo), and the DOE PSAAP-II program.

  9. Perturbativity in the seesaw mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asaka, Takehiko; Tsuyuki, Takanao

    2016-01-01

    We consider the Standard Model extended by right-handed neutrinos to explain massive neutrinos through the seesaw mechanism. The new fermion can be observed when it has a sufficiently small mass and large mixings to left-handed neutrinos. If such a particle is the lightest right-handed neutrino, its contribution to the mass matrix of active neutrinos needs to be canceled by that of a heavier one. Yukawa couplings of the heavier one are then larger than those of the lightest one. We show that the perturbativity condition gives a severe upper bound on the mixing of the lightest right-handed neutrino, depending on the masses of heavier ones. Models of high energy phenomena, such as leptogenesis, can be constrained by low energy experiments.

  10. Perturbativity in the seesaw mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takehiko Asaka

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We consider the Standard Model extended by right-handed neutrinos to explain massive neutrinos through the seesaw mechanism. The new fermion can be observed when it has a sufficiently small mass and large mixings to left-handed neutrinos. If such a particle is the lightest right-handed neutrino, its contribution to the mass matrix of active neutrinos needs to be canceled by that of a heavier one. Yukawa couplings of the heavier one are then larger than those of the lightest one. We show that the perturbativity condition gives a severe upper bound on the mixing of the lightest right-handed neutrino, depending on the masses of heavier ones. Models of high energy phenomena, such as leptogenesis, can be constrained by low energy experiments.

  11. Initial conditions for cosmological perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashtekar, Abhay; Gupt, Brajesh

    2017-02-01

    Penrose proposed that the big bang singularity should be constrained by requiring that the Weyl curvature vanishes there. The idea behind this past hypothesis is attractive because it constrains the initial conditions for the universe in geometric terms and is not confined to a specific early universe paradigm. However, the precise statement of Penrose’s hypothesis is tied to classical space-times and furthermore restricts only the gravitational degrees of freedom. These are encapsulated only in the tensor modes of the commonly used cosmological perturbation theory. Drawing inspiration from the underlying idea, we propose a quantum generalization of Penrose’s hypothesis using the Planck regime in place of the big bang, and simultaneously incorporating tensor as well as scalar modes. Initial conditions selected by this generalization constrain the universe to be as homogeneous and isotropic in the Planck regime as permitted by the Heisenberg uncertainty relations.

  12. Initial conditions for cosmological perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashtekar, Abhay; Gupt, Brajesh

    2017-01-01

    Penrose proposed that the big bang singularity should be constrained by requiring that the Weyl curvature vanishes there. The idea behind this past hypothesis is attractive because it constrains the initial conditions for the universe in geometric terms and is not confined to a specific early universe paradigm. However, the precise statement of Penrose’s hypothesis is tied to classical space-times and furthermore restricts only the gravitational degrees of freedom. These are encapsulated only in the tensor modes of the commonly used cosmological perturbation theory. Drawing inspiration from the underlying idea, we propose a quantum generalization of Penrose’s hypothesis using the Planck regime in place of the big bang, and simultaneously incorporating tensor as well as scalar modes. Initial conditions selected by this generalization constrain the universe to be as homogeneous and isotropic in the Planck regime as permitted by the Heisenberg uncertainty relations . (paper)

  13. One-Shot Decoupling and Page Curves from a Dynamical Model for Black Hole Evaporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brádler, Kamil; Adami, Christoph

    2016-03-11

    One-shot decoupling is a powerful primitive in quantum information theory and was hypothesized to play a role in the black hole information paradox. We study black hole dynamics modeled by a trilinear Hamiltonian whose semiclassical limit gives rise to Hawking radiation. An explicit numerical calculation of the discretized path integral of the S matrix shows that decoupling is exact in the continuous limit, implying that quantum information is perfectly transferred from the black hole to radiation. A striking consequence of decoupling is the emergence of an output radiation entropy profile that follows Page's prediction. We argue that information transfer and the emergence of Page curves is a robust feature of any multilinear interaction Hamiltonian with a bounded spectrum.

  14. D-FNN Based Modeling and BP Neural Network Decoupling Control of PVC Stripping Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-zhi Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available PVC stripping process is a kind of complicated industrial process with characteristics of highly nonlinear and time varying. Aiming at the problem of establishing the accurate mathematics model due to the multivariable coupling and big time delay, the dynamic fuzzy neural network (D-FNN is adopted to establish the PVC stripping process model based on the actual process operation datum. Then, the PVC stripping process is decoupled by the distributed neural network decoupling module to obtain two single-input-single-output (SISO subsystems (slurry flow to top tower temperature and steam flow to bottom tower temperature. Finally, the PID controller based on BP neural networks is used to control the decoupled PVC stripper system. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed integrated intelligent control method.

  15. Efficient dipolar double quantum filtering under magic angle spinning without a (1)H decoupling field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Joseph M; Rienstra, Chad M

    2016-08-01

    We present a systematic study of dipolar double quantum (DQ) filtering in (13)C-labeled organic solids over a range of magic-angle spinning rates, using the SPC-n recoupling sequence element with a range of n symmetry values from 3 to 11. We find that efficient recoupling can be achieved for values n⩾7, provided that the (13)C nutation frequency is on the order of 100kHz or greater. The decoupling-field dependence was investigated and explicit heteronuclear decoupling interference conditions identified. The major determinant of DQ filtering efficiency is the decoupling interference between (13)C and (1)H fields. For (13)C nutation frequencies greater than 75kHz, optimal performance is observed without an applied (1)H field. At spinning rates exceeding 20kHz, symmetry conditions as low as n=3 were found to perform adequately. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Decoupling control of steering and driving system for in-wheel-motor-drive electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Han; Zhao, Wanzhong

    2018-02-01

    To improve the maneuverability and stability of in-wheel-motor-drive electric vehicle, a control strategy based on nonlinear decoupling control method is proposed in this paper, realizing the coordinated control of the steering and driving system. At first, the nonlinear models of the in-wheel-motor-drive electric vehicle and its sub-system are constructed. Then the inverse system decoupling theory is applied to decompose the nonlinear system into several independent subsystems, which makes it possible to realize the coordinated control of each subsystem. Next, the μ-Synthesis theory is applied to eliminate the influence of model uncertainty, improving the stability, robustness and tracking performance of in-wheel-motor-drive electric vehicle. Simulation and experiment results and numerical analyses, based on the electric vehicle actuated by in-wheel-motors, prove that the proposed control method is effective to accomplish the decoupling control of the steering and driving system in both simulation and real practice.

  17. Power decoupling with autonomous reference generation for single-phase differential inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yao, Wenli; Zhang, Xiaobin; Wang, Xiongfei

    2015-01-01

    The second-harmonic power ripple in single-phase inverter may introduce the issue of low reliability and low power density. In order to replace the bulky dc-link capacitor, an alternative approach is to use active power decoupling so that the ripple power can be diverted into other energy storages...... are used for realizing an improved power decoupling control, capacitor voltage and inductor current regulation. By substituting the corresponding parameter into unified model, the proposed control loop can be applied to different inverter types (Buck, Buck-Boost and Boost). Finally, detailed laboratory....... However, the performance of existing active power decoupling methods depends heavily on certain control references, which unfortunately are parameter dependent. In this paper an autonomous reference generation technique is proposed for single phase differential inverter without relying on the system...

  18. Coupling Mechanism and Decoupled Suspension Control Model of a Half Car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailong Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A structure decoupling control strategy of half-car suspension is proposed to fully decouple the system into independent front and rear quarter-car suspensions in this paper. The coupling mechanism of half-car suspension is firstly revealed and formulated with coupled damping force (CDF in a linear function. Moreover, a novel dual dampers-based controllable quarter-car suspension structure is proposed to realize the independent control of pitch and vertical motions of the half car, in which a newly added controllable damper is suggested to be installed between the lower control arm and connection rod in conventional quarter-car suspension structure. The suggested damper constantly regulates the half-car pitch motion posture in a smooth and steady operation condition meantime achieving the expected completely structure decoupled control of the half-car suspension, by compensating the evolved CDF.

  19. Decomposing the decoupling of Danish road freight traffic growth and economic growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kveiborg, Ole; Fosgerau, Mogens

    2007-01-01

    In recent years many European countries have seen a decoupling of the growth in road freight traffic (vehicle kilometres) from economic growth. A similar decoupling has not been observed in road freight transport (tonne kilometres). In this paper the historical growth in national Danish road...... freight traffic and transport is attributed to causes using a Divisia, index decomposition method. It is demonstrated that overall road freight traffic growth is a consequence of often opposite pointing growth effects in the underlying factors. The observed decoupling of road freight traffic growth from...... economic growth is mainly the result of use of larger vehicles, increasing average loads, and less empty running. Growth in road freight transport is primarily caused by growth in production. A decrease in the number of tons lifted per tonne produced (the handling factor) is offset by an increase...

  20. Note: Decoupling design for high frequency piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers with their clamping connections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, F. J., E-mail: wangfujun@tju.edu.cn; Liang, C. M.; Tian, Y. L.; Zhao, X. Y.; Zhang, D. W. [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Equipment Design and Manufacturing Technology, School of Mechanical Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Zhang, H. J. [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Modern Mechatronics Equipment Technology, School of Mechanical Engineering, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China)

    2015-12-15

    This work presents the flexure-mechanism based decoupling design between high frequency piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers and their clamping connections to improve ultrasonic energy transmission efficiency. The ring, prismatic beam, and circular notched hinge based flanges were presented, and the crucial geometric dimensions of the transducers with the flexure decoupling flanges were determined. Finite element analysis (FEA) was carried out to investigate the dynamic characteristics of the transducers. Finally, experiments were conducted to examine and verify the effects of the proposed decoupling flanges. FEA and experimental results show that smaller frequency deviations and larger tip displacement amplitudes have been achieved by using the transducers with the flexure flanges compared with the transducer with a rigid ring-type flange, and thus the ultrasonic transmission efficiency can be improved through the flexure flanges.

  1. A Robust DC-Split-Capacitor Power Decoupling Scheme for Single-Phase Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yao, Wenli; Loh, Poh Chiang; Tang, Yi

    2017-01-01

    , instead of the usual single dc-link capacitor bank. Methods for regulating this power decoupler have earlier been developed, but almost always with equal capacitances assumed for forming the dc-split capacitor, even though it is not realistic in practice. The assumption should, hence, be evaluated more......Instead of bulky electrolytic capacitors, active power decoupling circuit can be introduced to a single-phase converter for diverting second harmonic ripple away from its dc source or load. One possible circuit consists of a half-bridge and two capacitors in series for forming a dc-split capacitor...... thoroughly, especially when it is shown in the paper that even a slight mismatch can render the power decoupling scheme ineffective and the IEEE 1547 standard to be breached. A more robust compensation scheme is, thus, needed for the dc-split capacitor circuit, as proposed and tested experimentally...

  2. Decoupling in order to reduce the negative environmental impact from transport logistics. From theory to reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swahn, Magnus

    2006-04-01

    This report deals with the issue of decoupling from a bottom-up approach and thereby works as a complementary report to 'A closer Look at Road Freight Transport and Economic Growth in Sweden' published by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. The freight transport logistics market is steadily growing in Sweden and the EU. Between 1990 and 2002 the growth in Sweden was 15 % and in EU15 33 %. The increase has primarily occurred within road freight. Economics of scale and low cost for transport logistics services drives centralisation both within trade and manufacturing. This leads to an increase of the transport work. The objective of this report is to describe decoupling from a business perspective. We have therefore focused on industrial sectors that are the largest drivers of transportation demand. In addition we have included the most relevant providers of transport services. In brief this means - Buyers of transport logistics: Clothing, Furniture, Pulp and paper, Oil and energy, Steel, Mechanical industry, Fast moving goods, and Construction. As sellers of transport logistics services we have focused on: Road transport, Rail transport, Sea transport, and Forwarders. During the work we have ended up in a broad perspective when defining decoupling. In general we work with the concept of decoupling defined as 'breaking the connection between the environmentally negative impacts from transport logistics and economic growth'. The negative impacts we include are: Resource use, Climate, Nature, Health, and Accidents. Our focus is a European perspective from a Swedish platform and our time perspective is from relatively narrow to 2020. The business sector raises doubt on the idea of decoupling transport work and GNP. They are however more positive when discussing decoupling economic growth from negative environmental impacts. When analysing the underlying factors for this development we can se a tremendous growth in the global trade. the paper discuses how

  3. Closed form bound-state perturbation theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ollie J. Rose

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available The perturbed Schrödinger eigenvalue problem for bound states is cast into integral form using Green's Functions. A systematic algorithm is developed and applied to the resulting equation giving rise to approximate solutions expressed as functions of the given perturbation parameter. As a by-product, convergence radii for the traditional Rayleigh-Schrödinger and Brillouin-Wigner perturbation theories emerge in a natural way.

  4. Polemic Notes On IR Perturbative Quantum Gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Shapiro, Ilya L.

    2008-01-01

    Quantum gravity is an important and to great extent unsolved problem. There are many different approaches to the quantization of the metric field, both perturbative and non-perturbative. The current situation in the perturbative quantum gravity is characterized by a number of different models, some of them well elaborated but no one perfect nor mathematically neither phenomenologically, mainly because there are no theoretically derived observables which can be experimentally measured. A very ...

  5. The sine Gordon model perturbation theory and cluster Monte Carlo

    CERN Document Server

    Hasenbusch, M; Pinn, K

    1994-01-01

    We study the expansion of the surface thickness in the 2-dimensional lattice Sine Gordon model in powers of the fugacity z. Using the expansion to order z**2, we derive lines of constant physics in the rough phase. We describe and test a VMR cluster algorithm for the Monte Carlo simulation of the model. The algorithm shows nearly no critical slowing down. We apply the algorithm in a comparison of our perturbative results with Monte Carlo data.

  6. Perturbative spacetimes from Yang-Mills theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luna, Andrés [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow,Glasgow G12 8QQ, Scotland (United Kingdom); Monteiro, Ricardo [Theoretical Physics Department, CERN,Geneva (Switzerland); Nicholson, Isobel; Ochirov, Alexander; O’Connell, Donal [Higgs Centre for Theoretical Physics,School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Edinburgh,Edinburgh EH9 3JZ, Scotland (United Kingdom); Westerberg, Niclas [Institute of Photonics and Quantum Sciences,School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University,Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Higgs Centre for Theoretical Physics,School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Edinburgh,Edinburgh EH9 3JZ, Scotland (United Kingdom); White, Chris D. [Centre for Research in String Theory,School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London,327 Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2017-04-12

    The double copy relates scattering amplitudes in gauge and gravity theories. In this paper, we expand the scope of the double copy to construct spacetime metrics through a systematic perturbative expansion. The perturbative procedure is based on direct calculation in Yang-Mills theory, followed by squaring the numerator of certain perturbative diagrams as specified by the double-copy algorithm. The simplest spherically symmetric, stationary spacetime from the point of view of this procedure is a particular member of the Janis-Newman-Winicour family of naked singularities. Our work paves the way for applications of the double copy to physically interesting problems such as perturbative black-hole scattering.

  7. Kato expansion in quantum canonical perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolaev, Andrey

    2016-01-01

    This work establishes a connection between canonical perturbation series in quantum mechanics and a Kato expansion for the resolvent of the Liouville superoperator. Our approach leads to an explicit expression for a generator of a block-diagonalizing Dyson’s ordered exponential in arbitrary perturbation order. Unitary intertwining of perturbed and unperturbed averaging superprojectors allows for a description of ambiguities in the generator and block-diagonalized Hamiltonian. We compare the efficiency of the corresponding computational algorithm with the efficiencies of the Van Vleck and Magnus methods for high perturbative orders.

  8. On adiabatic perturbations in the ekpyrotic scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linde, A.; Mukhanov, V.; Vikman, A.

    2010-01-01

    In a recent paper, Khoury and Steinhardt proposed a way to generate adiabatic cosmological perturbations with a nearly flat spectrum in a contracting Universe. To produce these perturbations they used a regime in which the equation of state exponentially rapidly changed during a short time interval. Leaving aside the singularity problem and the difficult question about the possibility to transmit these perturbations from a contracting Universe to the expanding phase, we will show that the methods used in Khoury are inapplicable for the description of the cosmological evolution and of the process of generation of perturbations in this scenario

  9. A critical realist perspective on decoupling negative environmental impacts from housing sector growth and economic growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xue, Jin

    2012-01-01

    be increased at a rate sufficient to compensate for continual growth in the volume of housing stock. A further elaboration of the topic at an ontological level leads to the conclusion that continual economic growth and long-term environmental sustainability can hardly be combined....... this question from the position of critical realism. An empirical study focusing on the housing sector is conducted, indicating that housing stock growth and economic growth have been, at best, weakly decoupled from environmental impacts. In the long run, it seems implausible that the degree of decoupling can...

  10. Oblique-wing research airplane motion simulation with decoupling control laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempel, Robert W.; Mc Neill, Walter E.; Maine, Trindel A.

    1988-01-01

    A large piloted vertical motion simulator was used to assess the performance of a preliminary decoupling control law for an early version of the F-8 oblique wing research demonstrator airplane. Evaluations were performed for five discrete flight conditions, ranging from low-altitude subsonic Mach numbers to moderate-altitude supersonic Mach numbers. Asymmetric sideforce as a function of angle of attack was found to be the primary cause of both the lateral acceleration noted in pitch and the tendency to roll into left turns and out of right turns. The flight control system was shown to be effective in generally decoupling the airplane and reducing the lateral acceleration in pitch maneuvers.

  11. De-coupling filters for PLC applications; Entkopplungsfilter fuer PLC-Anwendungen. Datensicherheit im Netzwerk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galli, D.; Kull, P. [Schaffner EMV AG, Luterbach (Switzerland)

    2001-04-23

    Where, why and how to use a de-coupling filter for PLC applications in the right way? These are questions which are being asked now and will become even more important in the near future. In this article you will find the answers to these and other questions regarding PLC systems and the use of decoupling filters. (orig.) [German] Im Zusammenhang mit PLC (Power Line Communication) Anwendungen stellen sich immer oefter die Fragen, wo, zu welchem Zweck und wie man ein Entkopplungsfilter richtig einsetzt? Die Verfasser diskutieren diese und andere Fragen rund um PLC-Anwendungen und den Einsatz von Entkopplungsfiltern. (orig.)

  12. Experimentally freezing quantum discord in a dephasing environment using dynamical decoupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harpreet; Arvind; Dorai, Kavita

    2017-06-01

    The discovery of the intriguing phenomenon that certain kinds of quantum correlations remain impervious to noise up to a specific point in time and then suddenly decay, has generated immense recent interest. We exploit dynamical decoupling sequences to prolong the persistence of time-invariant quantum correlations in a system of two NMR qubits decohering in independent dephasing environments. We experimentally prepare two-qubit Bell-diagonal quantum states that interact with individual noise channels and demonstrate that we are able to freeze quantum correlations over long time scales via dynamical decoupling. Our results have important implications for experimental quantum control and for quantum information processing protocols.

  13. Multiple estimation channel decoupling and optimization method based on inverse system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Peng; Mu, Rongjun; Zhang, Xin; Deng, Yanpeng

    2018-03-01

    This paper addressed the intelligent autonomous navigation request of intelligent deformation missile, based on the intelligent deformation missile dynamics and kinematics modeling, navigation subsystem solution method and error modeling, and then focuses on the corresponding data fusion and decision fusion technology, decouples the sensitive channel of the filter input through the inverse system of design dynamics to reduce the influence of sudden change of the measurement information on the filter input. Then carrying out a series of simulation experiments, which verified the feasibility of the inverse system decoupling algorithm effectiveness.

  14. Feedforward Control Strategy for the state-decoupling Stand-alone UPS with LC output filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Jinghang; Savaghebi, Mehdi; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the disturbance rejection performance of the cascaded control strategy for UPS system is investigated. The comparison of closed loop system performance between conventional cascaded control (CCC) strategy and state-decoupling cascaded control (SDCC) strategy are further explored....... In order to further increase the load current disturbance rejection capability of the state-decoupling in UPS system, a feedforward control strategy is proposed. In addition, the design principle for the current and voltage regulators are discussed. Simulation and experimental results are provided...

  15. A low capacitance single-phase AC-DC converter with inherent power ripple decoupling

    OpenAIRE

    Gottardo, Davide; De Lillo, Liliana; Empringham, Lee; Costabeber, Alessando

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a new single-phase AC-DC conversion topology with inherent power ripple decoupling, based on the combination of a PWM H-bridge inverter, an AC side LC filter and a ZVS line commutated H-bridge. A capacitor on the AC side is used as power decoupling element. By appropriate selection of the capacitor voltage, the power ripple at twice the AC frequency can be cancelled from the DC side instantaneous power, achieving negligible DC voltage ripple using a smaller total capacitan...

  16. Viscous decoupling transitions for individually dragged particles in systems with quenched disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson Reichhardt, C J; Reichhardt, C

    2008-07-01

    We show that when an individual particle is dragged through an assembly of other particles in the presence of quenched disorder, a viscous decoupling transition occurs between the dragged particle and the surrounding particles which is controlled by the quenched disorder. A counterintuitive consequence of this transition is that the velocity of the dragged particle can be increased by increasing the strength or density of the quenched disorder. The decoupling transition can also occur when the external drive on the dragged particle is increased and is observable as a clear signature in the velocity-force response.

  17. Use of UPFC device controlled by fuzzy logic controllers for decoupled power flow control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivković Sanja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the possibility of decoupled active and reactive power flow control in a power system using a UPFC device controlled by fuzzy logic controllers. A Brief theoretical review of the operation principles and applications of UPFC devices and design principles of the fuzzy logic controller used are given. A Matlab/Simulink model of the system with UPFC, the fuzzy controller setup, and graphs of the results are presented. Conclusions are drawn regarding the possibility of using this system for decoupled control of the power flow in power systems based on analysis of these graphs.

  18. Sensitivity theory for reactor burnup analysis based on depletion perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Wonsik.

    1989-01-01

    The large computational effort involved in the design and analysis of advanced reactor configurations motivated the development of Depletion Perturbation Theory (DPT) for general fuel cycle analysis. The work here focused on two important advances in the current methods. First, the adjoint equations were developed for using the efficient linear flux approximation to decouple the neutron/nuclide field equations. And second, DPT was extended to the constrained equilibrium cycle which is important for the consistent comparison and evaluation of alternative reactor designs. Practical strategies were formulated for solving the resulting adjoint equations and a computer code was developed for practical applications. In all cases analyzed, the sensitivity coefficients generated by DPT were in excellent agreement with the results of exact calculations. The work here indicates that for a given core response, the sensitivity coefficients to all input parameters can be computed by DPT with a computational effort similar to a single forward depletion calculation

  19. Effects of 3D magnetic perturbations on toroidal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callen, J.D.

    2011-01-01

    Small three-dimensional (3D) magnetic field perturbations have many interesting and possibly useful effects on tokamak and quasi-symmetric stellarator plasmas. Plasma transport equations that include these effects, most notably on diamagnetic-level toroidal plasma flows, have recently been developed. The 3D field perturbations and their plasma effects can be classified according to their toroidal mode number n: low n (say 1-5) resonant (with field line pitch, q = m/n) and non-resonant fields, medium n (∼20, due to toroidal field ripple) and high n (due to microturbulence). Low n non-resonant fields induce a neoclassical toroidal viscosity (NTV) that damps toroidal rotation throughout the plasma towards an offset rotation in the counter-current direction. Recent tokamak experiments have generally confirmed and exploited these predictions by applying external low n non-resonant magnetic perturbations. Medium n toroidal field ripple produces similar effects plus possible ripple-trapping NTV effects and ion direct losses in the edge. A low n (e.g. n = 1) resonant field is mostly shielded by the toroidally rotating plasma at and inside the resonant (rational) surface. If it is large enough it can stop plasma rotation at the rational surface, facilitate magnetic reconnection there and lead to a growing stationary magnetic island (locked mode), which often causes a plasma disruption. Externally applied 3D magnetic perturbations usually have many components. In the plasma their lowest n (e.g. n = 1) externally resonant components can be amplified by kink-type plasma responses, particularly at high β. Low n plasma instabilities (e.g. resistive wall modes, neoclassical tearing modes) cause additional 3D magnetic perturbations in tokamak plasmas. Tearing modes in their nonlinear (Rutherford) regime bifurcate the topology and form magnetic islands. Finally, multiple resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) can, if not shielded by plasma rotation effects, cause local magnetic

  20. Perturbation theory in light-cone quantization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langnau, Alex [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1992-01-01

    A thorough investigation of light-cone properties which are characteristic for higher dimensions is very important. The easiest way of addressing these issues is by analyzing the perturbative structure of light-cone field theories first. Perturbative studies cannot be substituted for an analysis of problems related to a nonperturbative approach. However, in order to lay down groundwork for upcoming nonperturbative studies, it is indispensable to validate the renormalization methods at the perturbative level, i.e., to gain control over the perturbative treatment first. A clear understanding of divergences in perturbation theory, as well as their numerical treatment, is a necessary first step towards formulating such a program. The first objective of this dissertation is to clarify this issue, at least in second and fourth-order in perturbation theory. The work in this dissertation can provide guidance for the choice of counterterms in Discrete Light-Cone Quantization or the Tamm-Dancoff approach. A second objective of this work is the study of light-cone perturbation theory as a competitive tool for conducting perturbative Feynman diagram calculations. Feynman perturbation theory has become the most practical tool for computing cross sections in high energy physics and other physical properties of field theory. Although this standard covariant method has been applied to a great range of problems, computations beyond one-loop corrections are very difficult. Because of the algebraic complexity of the Feynman calculations in higher-order perturbation theory, it is desirable to automatize Feynman diagram calculations so that algebraic manipulation programs can carry out almost the entire calculation. This thesis presents a step in this direction. The technique we are elaborating on here is known as light-cone perturbation theory.

  1. Decoupling the deep: crop rotations, fertilization and soil physico-chemical properties down the profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobley, Eleanor; Honermeier, Bernd; Don, Axel; Amelung, Wulf; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid

    2017-04-01

    Crop fertilization provides vital plant nutrients (e.g. NPK) to ensure yield security but is also associated with negative environmental impacts. In particular, inorganic, mineral nitrogen (Nmin) fertilization leads to emissions during its energy intensive production as well as Nmin leaching to receiving waters. Incorporating legumes into crop rotations can provide organic N to the soil and subsequent crops, reducing the need for mineral N fertilizer and its negative environmental impacts. An added bonus is the potential to enhance soil organic carbon stocks, thereby reducing atmospheric CO2 concentrations. In this study we assessed the effects of legumes in rotation and fertilization regimes on the depth distribution - down to 1 m - of total soil nitrogen (Ntot), soil organic carbon (SOC) as well as isotopic composition (δ13C, δ15N), electrical conductivity and bulk density as well as agricultural yields at a long-term field experiment in Gießen, Germany. Fertilization had significant but small impacts on the soil chemical environment, most particularly the salt content of the soil, with PK fertilization increasing electrical conductivity throughout the soil profile. Similarly, fertilization resulted in a small reduction of soil pH throughout the soil profile. N fertilization, in particular, significantly increased yields, whereas PK fertilizer had only marginal yield effects, indicating that these systems are N limited. This N limitation was confirmed by significant yield benefits with leguminous crops in rotation, even in combination with mineral N fertilizer. The soil was physically and chemically influenced by the choice of crop rotation. Adding clover as a green mulch crop once every 4 years resulted in an enrichment of total N and SOC at the surface compared with fava beans and maize, but only in combination with PK fertilization. In contrast, fava beans and to a lesser extent maize in rotation lowered bulk densities in the subsoil compared with clover

  2. Chiral perturbation theory with nucleons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meissner, U.G.

    1991-09-01

    I review the constraints posed on the interactions of pions, nucleons and photons by the spontaneously broken chiral symmetry of QCD. The framework to perform these calculations, chiral perturbation theory, is briefly discussed in the meson sector. The method is a simultaneous expansion of the Greens functions in powers of external moments and quark masses around the massless case, the chiral limit. To perform this expansion, use is made of a phenomenological Lagrangian which encodes the Ward-identities and pertinent symmetries of QCD. The concept of chiral power counting is introduced. The main part of the lectures of consists in describing how to include baryons (nucleons) and how the chiral structure is modified by the fact that the nucleon mass in the chiral limit does not vanish. Particular emphasis is put on working out applications to show the strengths and limitations of the methods. Some processes which are discussed are threshold photopion production, low-energy compton scattering off nucleons, {pi}N scattering and the {sigma}-term. The implications of the broken chiral symmetry on the nuclear forces are briefly described. An alternative approach, in which the baryons are treated as very heavy fields, is touched upon.

  3. Chiral perturbation theory with nucleons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meissner, U.G.

    1991-09-01

    I review the constraints posed on the interactions of pions, nucleons and photons by the spontaneously broken chiral symmetry of QCD. The framework to perform these calculations, chiral perturbation theory, is briefly discussed in the meson sector. The method is a simultaneous expansion of the Greens functions in powers of external moments and quark masses around the massless case, the chiral limit. To perform this expansion, use is made of a phenomenological Lagrangian which encodes the Ward-identities and pertinent symmetries of QCD. The concept of chiral power counting is introduced. The main part of the lectures of consists in describing how to include baryons (nucleons) and how the chiral structure is modified by the fact that the nucleon mass in the chiral limit does not vanish. Particular emphasis is put on working out applications to show the strengths and limitations of the methods. Some processes which are discussed are threshold photopion production, low-energy compton scattering off nucleons, πN scattering and the σ-term. The implications of the broken chiral symmetry on the nuclear forces are briefly described. An alternative approach, in which the baryons are treated as very heavy fields, is touched upon

  4. Perturbed angular correlations and distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makaryunas, K.

    1976-01-01

    The present index comprises original works and review papers on the perturbed angular correlations (PAC) and distributions (PAD). The articles published in the Soviet and foreign journals as well as the materials of conferences, monographs and collections published in the USSR and abroad, the preprints produced by various institutes and abstracts of disertations are included from 1948 up to 1973. The whole material compiled in this index is divided into three parts. Part one is a bibliographic index. All papers in this part are divided into three sections. Section one comprises the papers devoted to the theoretical works on PAC, review papers, monographs, materials of conferences. Section two deals with the works of methodical character where correlation spectrometers as well as the treatment of experimental data are described. In section three experimental works with concrete nuclei are compiled. Part two gives the characteristic of works performed with concrete nuclei. This part is presented in the form of the table in which the works are systematized according to the chemical elements and isotopes. The table shows the characteristics of the nuclear levels used in the investigations by PAC as well as brief characteristics of experiments and results obtained. Part three - appendix contains alphabetic index of the authors, the list of the used editions with the abbreviations of the titles of these editions. The lists indicating the dynamic of the quantity of works on PAC and the distribution according to the literature sources are also given

  5. Fault Ride-through Capability Implementation in Wind Turbine Converters Using a Decoupled Double Synchronous Reference Frame PLL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez, Pedro; Alloza, Alvaro Luna; Teodorescu, Remus

    2007-01-01

    This work exploits the Decoupled Double Synchronous Reference Frame PLL (DDSRF-PLL) as an effective method for grid synchronization of WT's power converters in the presence of transient faults in the grid. The DDSRF-PLL uses a dual synchronous reference frame and a decoupling network to effective...

  6. A Comparison of Methods for Decoupling Tongue and Lower Lip from Jaw Movements in 3D Articulography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, Rafael Neto; van Lieshout, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: One popular method to study the motion of oral articulators is 3D electromagnetic articulography. For many studies, it is important to use an algorithm to decouple the motion of the tongue and the lower lip from the motion of the mandible. In this article, the authors describe and compare 4 methods for decoupling jaw motion by using 3D…

  7. Discontinuous PWM Modulation Strategy with Circuit-Level Decoupling Concept of Three-Level Neutral-Point Clamped (NPC) Inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhe; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2013-01-01

    inverters, but also reduces the switching loss of the inverter along with an inherent neutral point (NP) voltage control. Based on a circuit-level decoupling concept, the NPC inverter can be decoupled into two three-level Buck converters in every defined operating section, and thereby the controller design...

  8. The Circuit-Level Decoupling Modulation Strategy for Three-Level Neutral-Point-Clamped (TL-NPC) Inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhe; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a circuit-level decoupling modulation strategy is proposed for the three-level (TL) neutral-point-clamped (NPC) inverters. With the proposed modulation scheme, the TL-NPC inverter can be decoupled into two three-level Buck converters in each defined operating section, which makes...

  9. Scalar Quantum Electrodynamics: Perturbation Theory and Beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, A.; Gutierrez-Guerrero, L. X.; Concha-Sanchez, Y.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, we calculate scalar propagator in arbitrary dimensions and gauge and the three-point scalar-photon vertex in arbitrary dimensions and Feynman gauge, both at the one loop level. We also discuss constraints on their non perturbative structure imposed by requirements of gauge invariance and perturbation theory

  10. On the non-perturbative effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manjavidze, J.; Voronyuk, V.

    2004-01-01

    The quantum correspondence principle based on the time reversibility is adopted to take into account the non-Abelian symmetry constrains. The main properties of the new strong-coupling perturbation theory which take into account non-perturbative effects are described. (author)

  11. ELM mitigation via rotating resonant magnetic perturbations on MAST

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Thornton, A.J.; Kirk, A.; Cahyna, Pavel; Chapman, I.T.; Fishpool, G.; Harrison, J.R.; Liu, Y.Q.; Kripner, Lukáš; Peterka, Matěj

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 463, August (2015), s. 723-726 ISSN 0022-3115. [PLASMA-SURFACE INTERACTIONS 21: International Conference on Plasma-Surface Interactions in Controlled Fusion Devices. Kanazawa, 26.05.2014-30.05.2014] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/11/2341 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : edge localised mode * resonant magnetic perturbation * MAST Subject RIV: JF - Nuclear Energetics OBOR OECD: Nuclear related engineering Impact factor: 2.199, year: 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022311514006795

  12. Compactness of the difference between the porous thermoelastic semigroup and its decoupled semigroup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Mustapha Ait Benhassi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Under suitable assumptions, we prove the compactness of the difference between the porous thermoelastic semigroup and its decoupled one. This will be achieved by proving the norm continuity of this difference and the compactness of the difference between the resolvents of their generators. Applications to porous thermoelastic systems are given.

  13. Power decoupling techniques for single-phase power electronics systems — An overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Yi; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    . In this paper, recently proposed state-of-the-art power decoupling techniques for ripple power reduction in these systems are presented and classified into different groups for performance comparison. The pros and cons of these techniques are discussed and identified, and the conclusions drawn will be useful...

  14. Pulse sequences for dynamical decoupling in an optical lattice broadened by temporal frequency drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Christopher R.; Zhuang, Chao; Cruz, Luciano S.; Maneshi, Samansa; Steinberg, Aephraim M.

    2009-05-01

    Despite the very long internal coherence time, transverse drift through an inhomogeneously broadened lattice leads to a rapid decay of a pulse-echo signal. We use higher-order echoes, or dynamical decoupling, to probe and subsequently eliminate the effects of this drift. We study the optimal structure of these pulse sequences for simultaneously canceling out different orders of the effect.

  15. The AUSTRON-target: the neutron flux of decoupled and poisoned moderators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhrer, G.; Ninaus, W.; Schachinger, E.

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses in some detail the time resolution of the thermal neutron flux pulse generated by decoupled, poisoned, ambient temperature water moderators in a flat target configured spallation source. The influence of the reflector material on the time resolution of the neutron pulse is also investigated. (author) 5 figs., 3 refs

  16. Nonlinear Decoupling of Torque and Field Amplitude in an Induction Motor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik; Vadstrup, P.; Børsting, H.

    1997-01-01

    A novel approach to control of induction motors, based on nonlinear state feedback, is presented. The resulting scheme gives a linearized input-output decoupling of the torque and the amplitude of the field. The proposed approach is used to design controllers for the field amplitude and the motor...... torque. The method is tested both by simulation and by experiments on a motor drive....

  17. Optimal pulse spacing for dynamical decoupling in the presence of a purely dephasing spin bath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajoy, Ashok; Alvarez, Gonzalo A.; Suter, Dieter

    2011-01-01

    Maintaining quantum coherence is a crucial requirement for quantum computation; hence protecting quantum systems against their irreversible corruption due to environmental noise is an important open problem. Dynamical decoupling (DD) is an effective method for reducing decoherence with a low control overhead. It also plays an important role in quantum metrology, where, for instance, it is employed in multiparameter estimation. While a sequence of equidistant control pulses [the Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) sequence] has been ubiquitously used for decoupling, Uhrig recently proposed that a nonequidistant pulse sequence [the Uhrig dynamic decoupling (UDD) sequence] may enhance DD performance, especially for systems where the spectral density of the environment has a sharp frequency cutoff. On the other hand, equidistant sequences outperform UDD for soft cutoffs. The relative advantage provided by UDD for intermediate regimes is not clear. In this paper, we analyze the relative DD performance in this regime experimentally, using solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance. Our system qubits are 13 C nuclear spins and the environment consists of a 1 H nuclear spin bath whose spectral density is close to a normal (Gaussian) distribution. We find that in the presence of such a bath, the CPMG sequence outperforms the UDD sequence. An analogy between dynamical decoupling and interference effects in optics provides an intuitive explanation as to why the CPMG sequence performs better than any nonequidistant DD sequence in the presence of this kind of environmental noise.

  18. How decoupled is the Single Farm Payment and does it matter for international trade?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urban, Kirsten; Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Brockmeier, Martina

    2016-01-01

    a comprehensive representation of domestic support. By considering and modeling a range of different assumptions regarding the SFP’s degree of decoupling, we investigate the SFP’s effect on the model’s results. The results of our analysis reveal substantially different effects that depend on the degree...

  19. Analysis of underwater decoupling properties of a locally resonant acoustic metamaterial coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Ling-Zhi; Xiao Yong; Wen Ji-Hong; Yang Hai-Bin; Wen Xi-Sen

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a semi-analytical solution for the vibration and sound radiation of a semi-infinite plate covered by a decoupling layer consisting of locally resonant acoustic metamaterial. Formulations are derived based on a combination use of effective medium theory and the theory of elasticity for the decoupling material. Theoretical results show good agreements between the method developed in this paper and the conventional finite element method (FEM), but the method of this paper is more efficient than FEM. Numerical results also show that system with acoustic metamaterial decoupling layer exhibits significant noise reduction performance at the local resonance frequency of the acoustic metamaterial, and such performance can be ascribed to the vibration suppression of the base plate. It is demonstrated that the effective density of acoustic metamaterial decoupling layer has a great influence on the mechanical impedance of the system. Furthermore, the resonance frequency of locally resonant structure can be effectively predicted by a simple model, and it can be significantly affected by the material properties of the locally resonant structure. (paper)

  20. Perancangan dan Implementasi Kontroler PID dengan Nonlinear Decoupling pada Sistem Kendali UAV Quadcopter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Jadid Anggarjito

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Quadcopter merupakan salah salah satu jenis rotorcraft yang memiliki 4 buah rotor yang harus dikendalikan masing-masing rotornya untuk dapat menggerakkan quadcopter. Gerak lateral merupakan gerak quadcopter secara horizontal pada ketinggian atau gerak translasi, gerakan ini sangat vital untuk memenuhi kebutuhan quadcopter dalam mencapai way-to-way point yang telah ditentukan. Pada tugas akhir ini untuk mengatur gerakan lateral dari quadcopter digunakan sistem kendali PID dengan Decoupling Nonlinear. Ada 2 buah kontroler individual yang digunakan yaitu kontroler PID dengan Nonlinear Decoupling untuk mengatur pitch dan roll gerak rotasi, serta kontroler PD untuk mengatur translasi sumbu X dan sumbu Y. Perancangan sistem kontrol PID Decoupling Nonlinear pada simulasi yang digunakan untuk mempertahankan gerak lateral quadcopter dalam mencapai way-to-way point yang ditentukan. Nilai parameter yang didapatkan dari hasil tuning terstruktur pada simulasi adalah pada kontroler PID dengan Nonlinear Decoupling pitch dan roll Kp=5 Ki=0,01 Kd=10 sedangkan pada kontroler PD sumbu X dan sumbu Y Kp=0,05 Kd=0,2. Respon hasil implementasi pada quadcopter belum sesuai pada hasil simulasi. Pada hasil simulasi masih terdapat koreksi pada translasi sumbu X dan sumbu Y masih terdapat kesalahan sebesar ± 0,02 cm, sedangkan pada implementasi gerak lateral menggunakan remote control sistem dapat bergerak stabil menuju way-to-way point yang ditentukan.

  1. Fast Dynamical Decoupling of the Mølmer-Sørensen Entangling Gate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manovitz, Tom; Rotem, Amit; Shaniv, Ravid; Cohen, Itsik; Shapira, Yotam; Akerman, Nitzan; Retzker, Alex; Ozeri, Roee

    2017-12-01

    Engineering entanglement between quantum systems often involves coupling through a bosonic mediator, which should be disentangled from the systems at the operation's end. The quality of such an operation is generally limited by environmental and control noise. One of the prime techniques for suppressing noise is by dynamical decoupling, where one actively applies pulses at a rate that is faster than the typical time scale of the noise. However, for boson-mediated gates, current dynamical decoupling schemes require executing the pulses only when the boson and the quantum systems are disentangled. This restriction implies an increase of the gate time by a factor of √{N }, with N being the number of pulses applied. Here we propose and realize a method that enables dynamical decoupling in a boson-mediated system where the pulses can be applied while spin-boson entanglement persists, resulting in an increase in time that is at most a factor of π /2 , independently of the number of pulses applied. We experimentally demonstrate the robustness of our entangling gate with fast dynamical decoupling to σz noise using ions in a Paul trap.

  2. Voltage Management in Unbalanced Low Voltage Networks Using a Decoupled Phase-Tap-Changer Transformer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coppo, Massimiliano; Turri, Roberto; Marinelli, Mattia

    2014-01-01

    The paper studies a medium voltage-low voltage transformer with a decoupled on load tap changer capability on each phase. The overall objective is the evaluation of the potential benefits on a low voltage network of such possibility. A realistic Danish low voltage network is used for the analysis...

  3. Structural Decoupling between the VET and the Employment Systems: Challenges Manifested in Assessment of Practical Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umarik, Meril; Loogma, Krista; Hinno, Krista

    2010-01-01

    This article aims to analyse how structural decoupling, which is an especially relevant problem for school-based vocational education and training (VET) systems, reveals itself in the assessment of practical training. Niklas Luhmann's social system theory has been applied to the analysis of assessment practices as a communication act between the…

  4. Resonances in molecular collisions: Importance of mode decoupling in the exit channel of attractive potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulander, K.C.

    1983-01-01

    Two model, collinear triatomic systems are investigated in which the intrafragment vibrational modes are decoupled from the interfragment bond distance in the dissociation channel. Resonances are found in both systems whose amplitudes are predominately outside the interaction region. The consequences of the existence of such resonances on reaction probabilities, dissociation rates, and absorption properties of states near the dissociation limit are discussed

  5. Decoupling Principle Analysis and Development of a Parallel Three-Dimensional Force Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanzhi; Jiao, Leihao; Weng, Dacheng; Zhang, Dan; Zheng, Rencheng

    2016-09-15

    In the development of the multi-dimensional force sensor, dimension coupling is the ubiquitous factor restricting the improvement of the measurement accuracy. To effectively reduce the influence of dimension coupling on the parallel multi-dimensional force sensor, a novel parallel three-dimensional force sensor is proposed using a mechanical decoupling principle, and the influence of the friction on dimension coupling is effectively reduced by making the friction rolling instead of sliding friction. In this paper, the mathematical model is established by combining with the structure model of the parallel three-dimensional force sensor, and the modeling and analysis of mechanical decoupling are carried out. The coupling degree (ε) of the designed sensor is defined and calculated, and the calculation results show that the mechanical decoupling parallel structure of the sensor possesses good decoupling performance. A prototype of the parallel three-dimensional force sensor was developed, and FEM analysis was carried out. The load calibration and data acquisition experiment system are built, and then calibration experiments were done. According to the calibration experiments, the measurement accuracy is less than 2.86% and the coupling accuracy is less than 3.02%. The experimental results show that the sensor system possesses high measuring accuracy, which provides a basis for the applied research of the parallel multi-dimensional force sensor.

  6. Means-ends decoupling and academic identities in Ukrainian university after the Revolution of Dignity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hladchenko, Myroslava; Westerheijden, Don F.

    2017-01-01

    This article aims to explore the academic identities under the conditions of means-ends decoupling at the nation-state level. For empirical evidence we choose Ukraine. In 2014, after the Revolution of Dignity despite the adoption of the policies aimed to construct academic identities like in the

  7. A disturbance decoupling nonlinear control law for variable speed wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Sven Creutz; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a nonlinear control law for controlling variable speed wind turbines using feedback linearization. The novel aspect of the control law is its ability to decouple the effect of wind fluctuations. Furthermore, the transformation to feedback linearizable coordinates is chosen...

  8. Decoupled equations for reverse time migration in tilted transversely isotropic media

    KAUST Repository

    Zhan, Ge

    2012-03-01

    Conventional modeling and migration for tilted transversely isotropic (TTI) media may suffer from numerical instabilities and shear wave artifacts due to the coupling of the P-wave and SV-wave modes in the TTI coupled equations. Starting with the separated P- and SV-phase velocity expressions for vertical transversely isotropic (VTI) media, we extend these decoupled equations for modeling and reverse time migration (RTM) in acoustic TTI media. Compared with the TTI coupled equations published in the geophysical literature, the new TTI decoupled equations provide a more stable solution due to the complete separation of the P-wave and SV-wave modes. The pseudospectral method is the most convenient method to implement these equations due to the form of wavenumber expressions and has the added benefit of being highly accurate and thus avoiding numerical dispersion. The rapid expansion method (REM) in time is employed to produce a broad band numerically stable time evolution of the wavefields. Synthetic results validate the proposed TTI decoupled equations and show that modeling and RTM in TTI media with the decoupled equations remain numerically stable even for models with strong anisotropy and sharp contrasts. © 2012 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  9. Means-Ends Decoupling and Academic Identities in Ukrainian University after the Revolution of Dignity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladchenko, Myroslava; Westerheijden, Don F.

    2018-01-01

    This article aims to explore the academic identities under the conditions of means-ends decoupling at the nation-state level. For empirical evidence we choose Ukraine. In 2014, after the Revolution of Dignity despite the adoption of the policies aimed to construct academic identities like in the Western universities the intended outcomes were not…

  10. Utilization of Spent Resources in Support of Eco-Economic Decoupling in Central Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuril Fikri Aulia

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of the development is often cause adverse environmental impacts. Adverse effects are environmental degradation and decreasing availability of resources. To overcome this, it is necessary that the development can still continue, the environment is not damaged, and the availability of resources is maintained. One effort is through eco - economic decoupling activities with the use of spent resources. The aim of study to determine the potential of spent resources in Central Java, knows the problems in the utilization of spent resources in Central Java, and to determine the impact of the utilization of spent resources in Central Java by a qualitative descriptive method. The results show that in the study have the potential of eco-economic decoupling indicated by the availability of spent resources and had done utilization of spent resources. However, this potential has not been optimally developed, because there are still some problems in its utilization. Problems in the use of spent resources are the lack of knowledge about eco-economic decoupling and spent resources among stakeholder, there is no specific policy on eco - economic decoupling, the lack of Local Government 's role in the utilization of spent resource, and the lack of synergy programs and activities in supporting the utilization of spent resources. Utilization of spent resources have positive impact to reduce pressure on the environment and natural resources, create a new job, and increase incomes for society.

  11. Decomposition and Decoupling Analysis of Energy-Related Carbon Emissions from China Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingchun Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The energy-related carbon emissions of China’s manufacturing increased rapidly, from 36988.97 × 104 tC in 1996 to 74923.45 × 104 tC in 2012. To explore the factors to the change of the energy-related carbon emissions from manufacturing sector and the decoupling relationship between energy-related carbon emissions and economic growth, the empirical research was carried out based on the LMDI method and Tapio decoupling model. We found that the production scale contributed the most to the increase of the total carbon emissions, while the energy intensity was the most inhibiting factor. And the effects of the intrastructure and fuel mix on the change of carbon emissions were relatively weak. At a disaggregative level within manufacturing sector, EI subsector had a greater impact on the change of the total carbon emissions, with much more potentiality of energy conservation and emission reduction. Weak decoupling of manufacturing sector carbon emissions from GDP could be observed in the manufacturing sector and EI subsector, while strong decoupling state appeared in NEI subsector. Several advices were put forward, such as adjusting the fuel structure and optimizing the intrastructure and continuing to improve the energy intensity to realize the manufacturing sustainable development in low carbon pattern.

  12. Decoupling limit and throat geometry of non-susy D3 brane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nayek, Kuntal, E-mail: kuntal.nayek@saha.ac.in; Roy, Shibaji, E-mail: shibaji.roy@saha.ac.in

    2017-03-10

    Recently it has been shown by us that, like BPS Dp branes, bulk gravity gets decoupled from the brane even for the non-susy Dp branes of type II string theories indicating a possible extension of AdS/CFT correspondence for the non-supersymmetric case. In that work, the decoupling of gravity on the non-susy Dp branes has been shown numerically for the general case as well as analytically for some special case. Here we discuss the decoupling limit and the throat geometry of the non-susy D3 brane when the charge associated with the brane is very large. We show that in the decoupling limit the throat geometry of the non-susy D3 brane, under appropriate coordinate change, reduces to the Constable–Myers solution and thus confirming that this solution is indeed the holographic dual of a (non-gravitational) gauge theory discussed there. We also show that when one of the parameters of the solution takes a specific value, it reduces, under another coordinate change, to the five-dimensional solution obtained by Csaki and Reece, again confirming its gauge theory interpretation.

  13. Small-signal model of a decoupled double synchronous reference frame current controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dowlatabadi, Mohammadkazem Bakhshizadeh; Hjerrild, Jester; Kocewiak, Lukasz

    2016-01-01

    the dq signals are not dc anymore, and therefore, linearization cannot be done. In this paper a Decoupled Double Synchronous Frame PLL is used to eliminate the oscillations in the dq frame signals. The small signal model of this PLL including an unbalanced current controller is presented in this paper....

  14. Effect of a static external magnetic perturbation on resistive mode stability in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzpatrick, R.

    1994-03-01

    The influence of a general static external magnetic perturbation on the stability of resistive modes in a tokamak plasma is examined. There are three main parts to this investigation. Firstly, the vacuum perturbation is expanded as a set of well-behaved toroidal ring functions and is, thereafter, specified by the coefficients of this expansion. Secondly, a dispersion relation is derived for resistive plasma instabilities in the presence of a general external perturbation and finally, this dispersion relation is solved for the amplitudes of the tearing and twisting modes driven in the plasma by a specific perturbation. It is found that the amplitudes of driven tearing and twisting modes are negligible until a certain critical perturbation strength is exceeded. Only tearing modes are driven in low-β plasmas with εβ p p ∼>1. For error-field perturbations made up of a large number of different poloidal and toroidal harmonics the critical strength to drive locked modes has a open-quote staircase close-quote variation with edge-q, characterized by strong discontinuities as coupled rational surfaces enter or leave the plasma. For single harmonic perturbations the variation with edge-q is far smoother. Both types of behaviour have been observed experimentally. The critical perturbation strength is found to decrease strongly close to an ideal external kink stability boundary. This is also in agreement with experimental observations

  15. Fast in vivo volume dose reconstruction via reference dose perturbation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Weiguo; Chen, Mingli; Mo, Xiaohu; Parnell, Donald; Olivera, Gustavo; Galmarini, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Accurate on-line reconstruction of in-vivo volume dose that accounts for both machine and patient discrepancy is not clinically available. We present a simple reference-dose-perturbation algorithm that reconstructs in-vivo volume dose fast and accurately. Methods: We modelled the volume dose as a function of the fluence map and density image. Machine (output variation, jaw/leaf position errors, etc.) and patient (setup error, weight loss, etc.) discrepancies between the plan and delivery were modelled as perturbation of the fluence map and density image, respectively. Delivered dose is modelled as perturbation of the reference dose due to change of the fluence map and density image. We used both simulated and clinical data to validate the algorithm. The planned dose was used as the reference. The reconstruction was perturbed from the reference and accounted for output-variations and the registered daily image. The reconstruction was compared with the ground truth via isodose lines and the Gamma Index. Results: For various plans and geometries, the volume doses were reconstructed in few seconds. The reconstruction generally matched well with the ground truth. For the 3%/3mm criteria, the Gamma pass rates were 98% for simulations and 95% for clinical data. The differences mainly appeared on the surface of the phantom/patient. Conclusions: A novel reference-dose-perturbation dose reconstruction model is presented. The model accounts for machine and patient discrepancy from planning. The algorithm is simple, fast, yet accurate, which makes online in-vivo 3D dose reconstruction clinically feasible.

  16. Randomized dynamical decoupling strategies and improved one-way key rates for quantum cryptography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kern, Oliver

    2009-01-01

    The present thesis deals with various methods of quantum error correction. It is divided into two parts. In the first part, dynamical decoupling methods are considered which have the task of suppressing the influence of residual imperfections in a quantum memory. Such imperfections might be given by couplings between the finite dimensional quantum systems (qudits) constituting the quantum memory, for instance. The suppression is achieved by altering the dynamics of an imperfect quantum memory with the help of a sequence of local unitary operations applied to the qudits. Whereas up to now the operations of such decoupling sequences have been constructed in a deterministic fashion, strategies are developed in this thesis which construct the operations by random selection from a suitable set. Formulas are derived which estimate the average performance of such strategies. As it turns out, randomized decoupling strategies offer advantages and disadvantages over deterministic ones. It is possible to benefit from the advantages of both kind of strategies by designing combined strategies. Furthermore, it is investigated if and how the discussed decoupling strategies can be employed to protect a quantum computation running on the quantum memory. It is shown that a purely randomized decoupling strategy may be used by applying the decoupling operations and adjusted gates of the quantum algorithm in an alternating fashion. Again this method can be enhanced by the means of deterministic methods in order to obtain a combined decoupling method for quantum computations analogously to the combining strategies for quantum memories. The second part of the thesis deals with quantum error-correcting codes and protocols for quantum key distribution. The focus is on the BB84 and the 6-state protocol making use of only one-way communication during the error correction and privacy amplification steps. It is shown that by adding additional errors to the preliminary key (a process called

  17. Randomized dynamical decoupling strategies and improved one-way key rates for quantum cryptography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kern, Oliver

    2009-05-25

    The present thesis deals with various methods of quantum error correction. It is divided into two parts. In the first part, dynamical decoupling methods are considered which have the task of suppressing the influence of residual imperfections in a quantum memory. Such imperfections might be given by couplings between the finite dimensional quantum systems (qudits) constituting the quantum memory, for instance. The suppression is achieved by altering the dynamics of an imperfect quantum memory with the help of a sequence of local unitary operations applied to the qudits. Whereas up to now the operations of such decoupling sequences have been constructed in a deterministic fashion, strategies are developed in this thesis which construct the operations by random selection from a suitable set. Formulas are derived which estimate the average performance of such strategies. As it turns out, randomized decoupling strategies offer advantages and disadvantages over deterministic ones. It is possible to benefit from the advantages of both kind of strategies by designing combined strategies. Furthermore, it is investigated if and how the discussed decoupling strategies can be employed to protect a quantum computation running on the quantum memory. It is shown that a purely randomized decoupling strategy may be used by applying the decoupling operations and adjusted gates of the quantum algorithm in an alternating fashion. Again this method can be enhanced by the means of deterministic methods in order to obtain a combined decoupling method for quantum computations analogously to the combining strategies for quantum memories. The second part of the thesis deals with quantum error-correcting codes and protocols for quantum key distribution. The focus is on the BB84 and the 6-state protocol making use of only one-way communication during the error correction and privacy amplification steps. It is shown that by adding additional errors to the preliminary key (a process called

  18. Reverse-time Migration in Tilted Transversely Isotropic Media with Decoupled Equations

    KAUST Repository

    Zhan, Ge

    2012-12-01

    Conventional modeling and migration for tilted transversely isotropic (TTI) media may suffer from numerical instabilities and shear wave artifacts due to the coupling of the P-wave and SV-wave modes in the TTI coupled equations. Starting with the separated P- and SV-phase velocity expressions for vertical transversely isotropic (VTI) media, I extend these decoupled equations for modeling and reverse-time migration (RTM) in acoustic TTI media. Compared with the TTI coupled equations published in the geophysical literature, the new TTI decoupled equations provide a more stable solution due to the complete separation of the P-wave and SV-wave modes. The pseudospectral (PS) method is the most convenient method to implement these equations due to the form of wavenumber expressions and has the added benefit of being highly accurate and thus avoiding numerical dispersion. The rapid expansion method (REM) in time is employed to produce a broad band numerically stable time evolution of the wavefields. Synthetic results validate the proposed TTI decoupled equations and show that modeling and RTM in TTI media with the decoupled P-wave equation remain numerically stable even for models with strong anisotropy and sharp contrasts. The most desirable feature of the TTI decoupled P-wave equation is that it is absolutely free of shear-wave artifacts and the consequent alleviation of numerical instabilities generally suffered by some systems of coupled equations. However, due to several forward-backward Fourier transforms in wavefield extrapolation at each time step, the computational cost is also high, and thereby hampers its prevalence. I hereby propose to use a hybrid pseudospectral and finite-difference (FD) scheme to solve the TTI decoupled P-wave equation. In the hybrid solution, most of the cost-consuming wavenumber terms in the equation are replaced by inexpensive FD operators, which in turn accelerates the computation and reduces the computational cost. To demonstrate the

  19. Cytomegalovirus immune evasion by perturbation of endosomal trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lučin, Pero; Mahmutefendić, Hana; Blagojević Zagorac, Gordana; Ilić Tomaš, Maja

    2015-03-01

    Cytomegaloviruses (CMVs), members of the herpesvirus family, have evolved a variety of mechanisms to evade the immune response to survive in infected hosts and to establish latent infection. They effectively hide infected cells from the effector mechanisms of adaptive immunity by eliminating cellular proteins (major histocompatibility Class I and Class II molecules) from the cell surface that display viral antigens to CD8 and CD4 T lymphocytes. CMVs also successfully escape recognition and elimination of infected cells by natural killer (NK) cells, effector cells of innate immunity, either by mimicking NK cell inhibitory ligands or by downregulating NK cell-activating ligands. To accomplish these immunoevasion functions, CMVs encode several proteins that function in the biosynthetic pathway by inhibiting the assembly and trafficking of cellular proteins that participate in immune recognition and thereby, block their appearance at the cell surface. However, elimination of these proteins from the cell surface can also be achieved by perturbation of their endosomal route and subsequent relocation from the cell surface into intracellular compartments. Namely, the physiological route of every cellular protein, including immune recognition molecules, is characterized by specific features that determine its residence time at the cell surface. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of endocytic trafficking of immune recognition molecules and perturbations of the endosomal system during infection with CMVs and other members of the herpesvirus family that contribute to their immune evasion mechanisms.

  20. Moving Low-Carbon Construction Industry in Jiangsu Province: Evidence from Decomposition and Decoupling Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongrong Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions caused by the global construction industry account for 36% of the world’s total carbon emissions, and 50% of China’s total carbon emissions. The carbon emissions from Jiangsu Province’s construction industry account for approximately 16% of the total emissions of the Chinese construction industry. Taking the construction industry in Jiangsu Province as our study object, therefore, this paper introduces the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC carbon emission accounting method as a means to measure the total CO2 emissions of the Jiangsu Province construction industry. Specifically, we examine the period from 2005 to 2013. Based on the Tapio decoupling model, we analyze the decoupling state between the CO2 emissions of the construction industry in Jiangsu Province and the province’s economic growth. Our paper also employs the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI approach, in order to conduct a decomposition analysis of those factors that influenced the changes in the level of CO2 emissions during the studied period. According to the results of our research, during the period from 2005 to 2013, the CO2 emission levels caused by the construction industry in Jiangsu Province experienced a significant increase. The cumulative total CO2 emissions reached 402.85 million tons. During most of the years covered by our study, an expansive negative decoupling state existed between the level of CO2 emissions and the output value of Jiangsu’s construction industry. These periods were interspersed with either a weak decoupling state in some years or a strong decoupling state in other years. The indirect carbon emission intensity effect and the industry scale effect were the main factors influencing the increases in the construction industry’s CO2 emissions. At the conclusion of our paper, we put forward policy suggestions, with the objective of promoting the de-carbonization of the construction industry

  1. Third-order perturbative lattice and complex Langevin analyses of the finite-temperature equation of state of nonrelativistic fermions in one dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loheac, Andrew C.; Drut, Joaquín E.

    2017-05-01

    We analyze the pressure and density equations of state of unpolarized nonrelativistic fermions at finite temperature in one spatial dimension with contact interactions. For attractively interacting regimes, we perform a third-order lattice perturbation theory calculation, assess its convergence properties by comparing with hybrid Monte Carlo results (there is no sign problem in this regime), and demonstrate agreement with real Langevin calculations. For repulsive interactions, we present lattice perturbation theory results as well as complex Langevin calculations, with a modified action to prevent uncontrolled excursions in the complex plane. Although perturbation theory is a common tool, our implementation of it is unconventional; we use a Hubbard-Stratonovich transformation to decouple the system and automate the application of Wick's theorem, thus generating the diagrammatic expansion, including symmetry factors, at any desired order. We also present an efficient technique to tackle nested Matsubara frequency sums without relying on contour integration, which is independent of dimension and applies to both relativistic and nonrelativistic systems, as well as all energy-independent interactions. We find exceptional agreement between perturbative and nonperturbative results at weak couplings, and furnish predictions based on complex Langevin at strong couplings. We additionally present perturbative calculations of up to the fifth-order virial coefficient for repulsive and attractive couplings. Both the lattice perturbation theory and complex Langevin formalisms can easily be extended to a variety of situations including polarized systems, bosons, and higher dimension.

  2. Difference scheme for a singularly perturbed parabolic convection-diffusion equation in the presence of perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishkin, G. I.

    2015-11-01

    An initial-boundary value problem is considered for a singularly perturbed parabolic convection-diffusion equation with a perturbation parameter ɛ (ɛ ∈ (0, 1]) multiplying the highest order derivative. The stability of a standard difference scheme based on monotone approximations of the problem on a uniform mesh is analyzed, and the behavior of discrete solutions in the presence of perturbations is examined. The scheme does not converge ɛ-uniformly in the maximum norm as the number of its grid nodes is increased. When the solution of the difference scheme converges, which occurs if N -1 ≪ ɛ and N -1 0 ≪ 1, where N and N 0 are the numbers of grid intervals in x and t, respectively, the scheme is not ɛ-uniformly well conditioned or stable to data perturbations in the grid problem and to computer perturbations. For the standard difference scheme in the presence of data perturbations in the grid problem and/or computer perturbations, conditions on the "parameters" of the difference scheme and of the computer (namely, on ɛ, N, N 0, admissible data perturbations in the grid problem, and admissible computer perturbations) are obtained that ensure the convergence of the perturbed solutions. Additionally, the conditions are obtained under which the perturbed numerical solution has the same order of convergence as the solution of the unperturbed standard difference scheme.

  3. Equivalence of two contour prescriptions in superstring perturbation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Ashoke

    2017-04-01

    Conventional superstring perturbation theory based on the world-sheet approach gives divergent results for the S-matrix whenever the total center of mass energy of the incoming particles exceeds the threshold of production of any final state consistent with conservation laws. Two systematic approaches have been suggested for dealing with this difficulty. The first one involves deforming the integration cycles over the moduli space of punctured Riemann surfaces into complexified moduli space. The second one treats the amplitude as a sum of superstring field theory Feynman diagrams and deforms the integration contours over loop energies of the Feynman diagram into the complex plane. In this paper we establish the equivalence of the two prescriptions to all orders in perturbation theory. Since the second approach is known to lead to unitary amplitudes, this establishes the consistency of the first prescription with unitarity.

  4. Equivalence of two contour prescriptions in superstring perturbation theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, Ashoke [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhusi, Allahabad 211019 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai 400085 (India); School of Physics, Korea Institute for Advanced Study,Seoul 130-722 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-05

    Conventional superstring perturbation theory based on the world-sheet approach gives divergent results for the S-matrix whenever the total center of mass energy of the incoming particles exceeds the threshold of production of any final state consistent with conservation laws. Two systematic approaches have been suggested for dealing with this difficulty. The first one involves deforming the integration cycles over the moduli space of punctured Riemann surfaces into complexified moduli space. The second one treats the amplitude as a sum of superstring field theory Feynman diagrams and deforms the integration contours over loop energies of the Feynman diagram into the complex plane. In this paper we establish the equivalence of the two prescriptions to all orders in perturbation theory. Since the second approach is known to lead to unitary amplitudes, this establishes the consistency of the first prescription with unitarity.

  5. Doppler reflectometry for the investigation of poloidally propagating density perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirsch, M.; Baldzuhn, J.; Kurzan, B.; Holzhauer, E.

    1999-01-01

    A modification of microwave reflectometry is discussed where the direction of observation is tilted with respect to the normal onto the reflecting surface. The experiment is similar to scattering where a finite resolution in k-space exists but keeps the radial localization of reflectometry. The observed poloidal wavenumber is chosen by Bragg's condition via the tilt angle and the resolution in k-space is determined by the antenna pattern. From the Doppler shift of the reflected wave the poloidal propagation velocity of density perturbations is obtained. The diagnostic capabilities of Doppler reflectometry are investigated using full wave code calculations. The method offers the possibility to observe changes in the poloidal propagation velocity of density perturbations and their radial shear with a temporal resolution of about 10μs. (authors)

  6. Evidence of a Transition Layer between the Free Surface and the Bulk

    KAUST Repository

    Ogieglo, Wojciech

    2018-02-21

    The free surface, a very thin layer at the interface between polymer and air, is considered the main source of the perturbations in the properties of ultrathin polymer films, i.e., nanoconfinement effects. The structural relaxation of such a layer is decoupled from the molecular dynamics of the bulk. The free surface is, in fact, able to stay liquid even below the temperature where the polymer resides in the glassy state. Importantly, this surface layer is expected to have a very sharp interface with the underlying bulk. Here, by analyzing the penetration of n-hexane into polystyrene films, we report on the existence of a transition region, not observed by previous investigations, extending for 12 nm below the free surface. The presence of such a layer permits reconciling the behavior of interfacial layers with current models and has profound implications on the performance of ultrathin membranes. We show that the expected increase in the flux of the permeating species is actually overruled by nanoconfinement.

  7. The anisotropy of the cosmic background radiation from local dynamic density perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyer, C.C.; Ip, P.S.S.

    1988-01-01

    Contrary to the usual assumption, it is shown here that the anisotropy of the cosmic background radiation need not be dominated by perturbations at the last scattering surface. The results of computer simulations are shown in which local dynamic density perturbations, in the form of Swiss cheese holes with finite, uniform density central lumps, are the main source of anisotropy of the cosmic background radiation. (author)

  8. High Field In vivo13C Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of Brain by Random Radiofrequency Heteronuclear Decoupling and Data Undersampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ningzhi Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In vivo13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS is a unique and effective tool for studying dynamic human brain metabolism and the cycling of neurotransmitters. One of the major technical challenges for in vivo13C-MRS is the high radio frequency (RF power necessary for heteronuclear decoupling. In the common practice of in vivo13C-MRS, alkanyl carbons are detected in the spectra range of 10–65 ppm. The amplitude of decoupling pulses has to be significantly greater than the large one-bond 1H-13C scalar coupling (1JCH = 125–145 Hz. Two main proton decoupling methods have been developed: broadband stochastic decoupling and coherent composite or adiabatic pulse decoupling (e.g., WALTZ; the latter is widely used because of its efficiency and superb performance under inhomogeneous B1 field. Because the RF power required for proton decoupling increases quadratically with field strength, in vivo13C-MRS using coherent decoupling is often limited to low magnetic fields [<=4 Tesla (T] to keep the local and averaged specific absorption rate (SAR under the safety guidelines established by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA. Alternately, carboxylic/amide carbons are coupled to protons via weak long-range 1H-13C scalar couplings, which can be decoupled using low RF power broadband stochastic decoupling. Recently, the carboxylic/amide 13C-MRS technique using low power random RF heteronuclear decoupling was safely applied to human brain studies at 7T. Here, we review the two major decoupling methods and the carboxylic/amide 13C-MRS with low power decoupling strategy. Further decreases in RF power deposition by frequency-domain windowing and time-domain random under-sampling are also discussed. Low RF power decoupling opens the possibility of performing in vivo13C experiments of human brain at very high magnetic fields (such as 11.7T, where signal-to-noise ratio as well as spatial and temporal

  9. Non-perturbative effects in supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veneziano, G.

    1987-01-01

    Some non perturbative aspects of globally supersymmetric (SUSY) gauge theories are discussed. These share with their non-supersymmetric analogues interesting non perturbative features, such as the spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetries via condensates. What is peculiar about supersymmetric theories, however, is that one is able to say a lot about non-perturbative effects even without resorting to elaborate numerical calculations: general arguments, supersymmetric and chiral Ward identities and analytic, dynamical calculations will turn out to effectively determine most of the supersymmetric vacuum properties. 28 references, 5 figures

  10. Critical behaviors of gravity under quantum perturbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Hongsheng

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Phase transition and critical phenomenon is a very interesting topic in thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. Gravity is believed to have deep and inherent relation to thermodynamics. Near the critical point,the perturbation becomes significant. Thus for ordinary matter (governed by interactions besides gravity the critical behavior will become very different if we ignore the perturbations around the critical point,such as mean field theory. We find that the critical exponents for RN-AdS spacetime keep the same values even when we consider the full quantum perturbations. This indicates a key difference between gravity and ordinary thermodynamic system.

  11. Intrinsic entropy perturbations from the dark sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celoria, Marco; Comelli, Denis; Pilo, Luigi

    2018-03-01

    Perfect fluids are modeled by using an effective field theory approach which naturally gives a self-consistent and unambiguous description of the intrinsic non-adiabatic contribution to pressure variations. We study the impact of intrinsic entropy perturbation on the superhorizon dynamics of the curvature perturbation Script R in the dark sector. The dark sector, made of dark matter and dark energy is described as a single perfect fluid. The non-perturbative vorticity's dynamics and the Weinberg theorem violation for perfect fluids are also studied.

  12. Perturbed generalized multicritical one-matrix models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambjørn, J.; Chekhov, L.; Makeenko, Y.

    2018-03-01

    We study perturbations around the generalized Kazakov multicritical one-matrix model. The multicritical matrix model has a potential where the coefficients of zn only fall off as a power 1 /n s + 1. This implies that the potential and its derivatives have a cut along the real axis, leading to technical problems when one performs perturbations away from the generalized Kazakov model. Nevertheless it is possible to relate the perturbed partition function to the tau-function of a KdV hierarchy and solve the model by a genus expansion in the double scaling limit.

  13. Perturbing macroscopic magnetohydrodynamic stability for toroidal plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, Kathryn J.

    We have introduced a new perturbative technique to rapidly explore the dependence of long wavelength ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities on equilibrium profiles, shaping properties, and wall parameters. Traditionally, these relations are studied with numerical parameter scans using computationally intensive stability codes. Our perturbative technique first finds the equilibrium and stability using traditional methods. Subsequent small changes in the original equilibrium parameters change the stability. We quickly find the new stability with an expansion of the energy principle, rather than with another run of the stability codes. We first semi-analytically apply the technique to the screw pinch after eliminating compressional Alfven wave effects. The screw pinch results validate the approach, but also indicate that allowable perturbations to equilibria with certain features may be restricted. Next, we extend the approach to toroidal geometry using experimental equilibria and a simple constructed equilibrium, with the ideal MHD stability code GATO. Stability properties are successfully predicted from perturbed toroidal equilibria when only the vacuum beyond the plasma is perturbed (through wall parameter variations), rather than the plasma itself. Small plasma equilibrium perturbations to both experimental and simple equilibria result in very large errors to the predicted stability, and valid results are found only over a narrow range of most perturbations. Despite the large errors produced when changing plasma parameters, the wall perturbations revealed two useful applications of this technique. Because the calculations are non-iterative matrix multiplications, the convergence issues that can disrupt a full MHD stability code are absent. Marginal stability, therefore, is much easier to find with the perturbative technique. Also, the perturbed results can be input as the initial guess for the eigenvalue for a full stability code, and improve subsequent

  14. Solitonic Integrable Perturbations of Parafermionic Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Fernández-Pousa, C R; Hollowood, Timothy J; Miramontes, J L

    1997-01-01

    The quantum integrability of a class of massive perturbations of the parafermionic conformal field theories associated to compact Lie groups is established by showing that they have quantum conserved densities of scale dimension 2 and 3. These theories are integrable for any value of a continuous vector coupling constant, and they generalize the perturbation of the minimal parafermionic models by their first thermal operator. The classical equations-of-motion of these perturbed theories are the non-abelian affine Toda equations which admit (charged) soliton solutions whose semi-classical quantization is expected to permit the identification of the exact S-matrix of the theory.

  15. Anisotropic Pressure, Transport, and Shielding of Magnetic Perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mynick, H.E.; Boozer, A.H.

    2008-01-01

    We compute the effect on a tokamak of applying a nonaxisymmetric magnetic perturbation (delta)B. An equilibrium with scalar pressure p yields zero net radial current, and therefore zero torque. Thus, the usual approach, which assumes scalar pressure, is not self-consistent, and masks the close connection which exists between that radial current and the in-surface currents, which provide shielding or amplification of (delta)B. Here, we analytically compute the pressure anisotropy, anisotropy, p # parallel#, p # perpendicular# and ≠ p, and from this, both the radial and in-surface currents. The surface-average of the radial current recovers earlier expressions for ripple transport, while the in-surface currents provide an expression for the amount of self-consistent shielding the plasma provides.

  16. A robust static decoupling algorithm for 3-axis force sensors based on coupling error model and ε-SVR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Junqing; Song, Aiguo; Xiao, Jing

    2012-10-29

    Coupling errors are major threats to the accuracy of 3-axis force sensors. Design of decoupling algorithms is a challenging topic due to the uncertainty of coupling errors. The conventional nonlinear decoupling algorithms by a standard Neural Network (NN) are sometimes unstable due to overfitting. In order to avoid overfitting and minimize the negative effect of random noises and gross errors in calibration data, we propose a novel nonlinear static decoupling algorithm based on the establishment of a coupling error model. Instead of regarding the whole system as a black box in conventional algorithm, the coupling error model is designed by the principle of coupling errors, in which the nonlinear relationships between forces and coupling errors in each dimension are calculated separately. Six separate Support Vector Regressions (SVRs) are employed for their ability to perform adaptive, nonlinear data fitting. The decoupling performance of the proposed algorithm is compared with the conventional method by utilizing obtained data from the static calibration experiment of a 3-axis force sensor. Experimental results show that the proposed decoupling algorithm gives more robust performance with high efficiency and decoupling accuracy, and can thus be potentially applied to the decoupling application of 3-axis force sensors.

  17. Deep magmatism alters and erodes lithosphere and facilitates decoupling of Rwenzori crustal block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner, Herbert; Schmeling, Harro

    2013-04-01

    enrichment develop above the anomalies and evolve to narrow low viscous mechanical decoupling zones. Deep rooting dynamic forces then affect the surface, showing a vigorous topography. A geodynamic model, linking magmatism. mantle dynamics and lithospheric extension, qualitatively explains most of observed phenomena. Depending on physical model parameters we cover the whole spectrum from dripping lithospheric base instabilities to the full break off of the mantle lithosphere block below the Rwenzoris.

  18. Element decoupling of 7 T dipole body arrays by EBG metasurface structures: Experimental verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurshkainen, Anna A.; Derzhavskaya, Tatyana A.; Glybovski, Stanislav B.; Voogt, Ingmar J.; Melchakova, Irina V.; van den Berg, Cornelis A. T.; Raaijmakers, Alexander J. E.

    2016-08-01

    Metasurfaces are artificial electromagnetic boundaries or interfaces usually implemented as two-dimensional periodic structures with subwavelength periodicity and engineered properties of constituent unit cells. The electromagnetic bandgap (EBG) effect in metasurfaces prevents all surface modes from propagating in a certain frequency band. While metasurfaces provide a number of important applications in microwave antennas and antenna arrays, their features are also highly suitable for MRI applications. In this work we perform a proof-of-principle experiment to study finite structures based on mushroom-type EBG metasurfaces and employ them for suppression of inter-element coupling in dipole transceive array coils for body imaging at 7 T. We firstly show experimentally that employment of mushroom structures leads to reduction of coupling between adjacent closely-spaced dipole antenna elements of a 7 T transceive body array, which reduces scattering losses in neighboring channels. The studied setup consists of two active fractionated dipole antennas previously designed by the authors for body imaging at 7 T. These are placed on top of a body-mimicking phantom and equipped with the manufactured finite-size periodic structure tuned to have EBG properties at the Larmor frequency of 298 MHz. To improve the detection range of the B1 + field distribution of the top elements, four additional elements were positioned along the bottom side of the phantom. Bench measurements of a scattering matrix showed that coupling between the two top elements can be considerably reduced depending on the distance to the EBG structure. On the other hand, the measurements performed on a 7 T MRI machine indicated redistribution of the B1 + field due to interaction between the dipoles with the structure. When the structure is located just over two closely spaced dipoles, one can reach a very high isolation improvement of -14 dB accompanied by a strong field redistribution. In contrast, when put

  19. Translation-rotation decoupling of tracers of locally favorable structures in glass-forming liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yoonjae; Kim, Jeongmin; Sung, Bong June

    2017-09-01

    Particles in glass-forming liquids may form domains of locally favorable structures (LFSs) upon supercooling. Whether and how the LFS domains would relate to the slow relaxation of the glass-forming liquids have been issues of interest. In this study, we employ tracers of which structures resemble the LFS domains in Wahnström and Kob-Andersen (KA) glass-forming liquids and investigate the translation-rotation decoupling of the tracers. We find that the tracer structure affects how the translation and the rotation of tracers decouple and that information on the local mobility around the LFS domains may be gleaned from the tracer dynamics. According to the Stokes-Einstein relation and the Debye-Stokes-Einstein relation, the ratio of the translational (DT) and rotational (DR) diffusion coefficients is expected to be a constant over a range of T /η , where η and T denote the medium viscosity and temperature, respectively. In supercooled liquids and glasses, however, DT and DR decouple due to dynamic heterogeneity, thus DT/DR not being constant any more. In Wahnström glass-forming liquids, icosahedron LFS domains are the most long-lived ones and the mobility of neighbor particles around the icosahedron LFS domain is suppressed. We find from our simulations that the icosahedron tracers, similar in size and shape to the icosahedron LFS domains, experience drastic translation-rotation decoupling upon cooling. The local mobility of liquid particles around the icosahedron tracers is also suppressed significantly. On the other hand, tracers of FCC and HCP structures do not show translation-rotation decoupling in the Wahnström liquid. In KA glass-forming liquids, bicapped square antiprism LFS domains are the most long-lived LFS domains but are not correlated significantly with the local mobility. We find from our simulations that DT and DR of bicapped square antiprism tracers, also similar in size and shape to the bicapped square antiprism LFS domains, do not decouple

  20. Isocurvature perturbations in the Ekpyrotic Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notari, A.; Riotto, A.

    2002-01-01

    The Ekpyrotic scenario assumes that our visible Universe is a boundary brane in a five-dimensional bulk and that the hot Big Bang occurs when a nearly supersymmetric five-brane travelling along the fifth dimension collides with our visible brane. We show that the generation of isocurvature perturbations is a generic prediction of the Ekpyrotic Universe. This is due to the interactions in the kinetic terms between the brane modulus parameterizing the position of the five-brane in the bulk and the dilaton and volume moduli. We show how to separate explicitly the adiabatic and isocurvature modes by performing a rotation in field space. Our results indicate that adiabatic and isocurvature perturbations might be cross-correlated and that curvature perturbations might be entirely seeded by isocurvature perturbations

  1. 't Hooft loops and perturbation theory

    CERN Document Server

    De Forcrand, Philippe; Noth, D; Forcrand, Philippe de; Lucini, Biagio; Noth, David

    2005-01-01

    We show that high-temperature perturbation theory describes extremely well the area law of SU(N) spatial 't Hooft loops, or equivalently the tension of the interface between different Z_N vacua in the deconfined phase. For SU(2), the disagreement between Monte Carlo data and lattice perturbation theory for sigma(T)/T^2 is less than 2%, down to temperatures O(10) T_c. For SU(N), N>3, the ratios of interface tensions, (sigma_k/sigma_1)(T), agree with perturbation theory, which predicts tiny deviations from the ratio of Casimirs, down to nearly T_c. In contrast, individual tensions differ markedly from the perturbative expression. In all cases, the required precision Monte Carlo measurements are made possible by a simple but powerful modification of the 'snake' algorithm.

  2. Profiling DNA damage response following mitotic perturbations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ronni Sølvhøi; Karemore, Gopal; Gudjonsson, Thorkell

    2016-01-01

    Genome integrity relies on precise coordination between DNA replication and chromosome segregation. Whereas replication stress attracted much attention, the consequences of mitotic perturbations for genome integrity are less understood. Here, we knockdown 47 validated mitotic regulators to show t...

  3. Controlling roll perturbations in fruit flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatus, Tsevi; Guckenheimer, John M; Cohen, Itai

    2015-04-06

    Owing to aerodynamic instabilities, stable flapping flight requires ever-present fast corrective actions. Here, we investigate how flies control perturbations along their body roll angle, which is unstable and their most sensitive degree of freedom. We glue a magnet to each fly and apply a short magnetic pulse that rolls it in mid-air. Fast video shows flies correct perturbations up to 100° within 30 ± 7 ms by applying a stroke-amplitude asymmetry that is well described by a linear proportional-integral controller. For more aggressive perturbations, we show evidence for nonlinear and hierarchical control mechanisms. Flies respond to roll perturbations within 5 ms, making this correction reflex one of the fastest in the animal kingdom. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  4. Simple Perturbation Example for Quantum Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodfriend, P. L.

    1985-01-01

    Presents a simple example that illustrates various aspects of the Rayleigh-Schrodinger perturbation theory. The example is a particularly good one because it is straightforward and can be compared with both the exact solution and with experimental data. (JN)

  5. Existence theory for perturbed hyperbolic differential inclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelkader Belarbi

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the existence of solutions and extremal solutions for a perturbed hyperbolic differential inclusion is proved under the mixed generalized Lipschitz and Caratheodory's conditions.

  6. Stability under persistent perturbation by white noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalyakin, L

    2014-01-01

    Deterministic dynamical system which has an asymptotical stable equilibrium is considered under persistent perturbation by white noise. It is well known that if the perturbation does not vanish in the equilibrium position then there is not Lyapunov's stability. The trajectories of the perturbed system diverge from the equilibrium to arbitrarily large distances with probability 1 in finite time. New concept of stability on a large time interval is discussed. The length of interval agrees the reciprocal quantity of the perturbation parameter. The measure of stability is the expectation of the square distance from the trajectory till the equilibrium position. The method of parabolic equation is applied to both estimate the expectation and prove such stability. The main breakthrough is the barrier function derived for the parabolic equation. The barrier is constructed by using the Lyapunov function of the unperturbed system

  7. Cosmological perturbations in the new Higgs inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Germani, Cristiano [Arnold Sommerfeld Center, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Theresienstr, 37 80333 Muenchen (Germany); Kehagias, Alex, E-mail: cristiano.germani@lmu.de, E-mail: kehagias@central.ntua.gr [Physics Division, National Technical University of Athens, 15780 Zografou Campus, Athens (Greece)

    2010-05-01

    We study the cosmological perturbations created during the New Higgs inflationary phase. In the New Higgs Inflation, the Higgs boson is kinetically coupled to the Einstein tensor and only three perturbative degrees of freedom, a scalar and two tensorial (gravitational waves), propagate during Inflation. Scalar perturbations are found to match the latest WMAP-7yrs data within Standard Model Higgs parameters. Primordial gravitational waves also, although propagating with superluminal speed, are consistent with present data. Finally, we estimate the values of the parameter of the New Higgs Inflation in relation to the Higgs mass, the spectral index and amplitude of the primordial scalar perturbations showing that the unitarity bound of the theory is not violated.

  8. Noise Folding in Completely Perturbed Compressed Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limin Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper first presents a new generally perturbed compressed sensing (CS model y=(A+E(x+u+e, which incorporated a general nonzero perturbation E into sensing matrix A and a noise u into signal x simultaneously based on the standard CS model y=Ax+e and is called noise folding in completely perturbed CS model. Our construction mainly will whiten the new proposed CS model and explore in restricted isometry property (RIP and coherence of the new CS model under some conditions. Finally, we use OMP to give a numerical simulation which shows that our model is feasible although the recovered value of signal is not exact compared with original signal because of measurement noise e, signal noise u, and perturbation E involved.

  9. Inflation and the theory of cosmological perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riotto, A.

    2003-01-01

    These lectures provide a pedagogical introduction to inflation and the theory of cosmological perturbations generated during inflation which are thought to be the origin of structure in the universe. (author)

  10. Alternative perturbation approaches in classical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amore, Paolo; Raya, Alfredo; Fernandez, Francisco M

    2005-01-01

    We discuss two alternative methods, based on the Lindstedt-Poincare technique, for the removal of secular terms from the equations of perturbation theory. We calculate the period of an anharmonic oscillator by means of both approaches and show that one of them is more accurate for all values of the coupling constant. We believe that present discussion and comparison may be a suitable exercise for teaching perturbation theory in advanced undergraduate courses on classical mechanics

  11. Non Borel summable series and perturbative QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, J.

    1994-01-01

    I report a generalization of the Borel method of summation of divergent power series that permits one to define the sum when the analyticity domain has a horn with zero opening angle and the function is expanded around the tip of the horn. The summation is unique only if the expansion coefficients satisfy severe restrictions at large orders. Relevance to perturbative QCD is stressed in relation to current discussions about large-order behaviour of perturbation expansion coefficients. (orig.)

  12. Discrete state perturbation theory via Green's functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubinson, W.

    1975-01-01

    The exposition of stationary-state perturbation theory via the Green's function method in Goldberger and Watson's Collision Theory is reworked in a way that makes explicit its mathematical basis. It is stressed that the theory consists of the construction of, and manipulations on, a mathematical identity. The perturbation series fall out of the identity almost immediately. The logical status of the method is commented on

  13. Primordial magnetic fields from metric perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Maroto, A L

    2001-01-01

    We study the amplification of electromagnetic vacuum fluctuations induced by the evolution of scalar metric perturbations at the end of inflation. Such perturbations break the conformal invariance of Maxwell equations in Friedmann-Robertson-Walker backgrounds and allow the growth of magnetic fields on super-Hubble scales. We estimate the strength of the fields generated by this mechanism on galactic scales and compare the results with the present bounds on the galactic dynamo seed fields.

  14. General decoupling procedure for expectation values of four-operator products in electron–phonon quantum kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teeny, Nicolas; Fähnle, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    In the density-matrix formalism of electron–phonon quantum kinetics, the hierarchy of infinitely many coupled equations of motion for the expectation values of products of electron and phonon creation and annihilation operators of arbitrary order is usually terminated on the level of the equations of motion for the expectation values of three-operator products by using decoupling procedures for the four-operator products occurring in these equations. In the literature, decoupling procedures are discussed for special types of electron and phonon states. In the present paper, generalized decoupling procedures are derived for arbitrary electron and phonon states. (paper)

  15. Light Reflection from Water Surfaces Perturbed by Falling Rain Droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molesini, Giuseppe; Vannoni, Maurizio

    2009-01-01

    An account of peculiar light patterns produced by reflection in a pool under falling rain droplets was recently reported by Molesini and Vannoni (2008 Eur. J. Phys. 29 403-11). The mathematical approach, however, only covered the case of a symmetrical location of a light source and the observer's eyes with respect to the vertical of the falling…

  16. Postural reactions of the trunk muscles to multi-directional perturbations in sitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masani, Kei; Sin, Vivian W; Vette, Albert H; Thrasher, T Adam; Kawashima, Noritaka; Morris, Alan; Preuss, Richard; Popovic, Milos R

    2009-02-01

    The dynamic role of the trunk musculature, with respect to stability, has not been fully explored to date. The purpose of this study was, using a transient and multi-directional perturbation, to: (1) quantify the tonic level of activity in the superficial trunk musculature prior to any perturbation; (2) quantify the phasic activity in those same muscles following application of a transient, horizontally directed load; and (3) quantify the direction-dependent behavior of this phasic response. Twelve healthy individuals were perturbed during sitting via a chest harness in eight horizontal directions. Surface electromyograms were measured bilaterally from the abdominal (rectus abdominis, internal and external obliques) and back musculature (thoracic and lumbar erector spinae) to determine the tonic muscle activity prior to perturbation, and the phasic response following perturbation. A descriptive model was used to characterize the relationship between the phasic response of the muscles due to perturbation and the pulling direction. Tonic activity in the trunk musculature in upright sitting is low, but still above resting levels by at about 1-3% of the MVC for the abdominal muscles, and 4-6% for the back muscles. Each trunk muscle also showed a direction-specific, phasic activation in response to perturbation, above these tonic levels of activation. This phasic activation was accurately modeled using a descriptive model for each muscle. The obtained muscle activation level and the identified descriptive model will be applied in the design of a closed-loop controller for functional electrical stimulation.

  17. An optimized BP neural network based on genetic algorithm for static decoupling of a six-axis force/torque sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Liyue; Song, Aiguo

    2018-02-01

    In order to improve the measurement precision of 6-axis force/torque sensor for robot, BP decoupling algorithm optimized by GA (GA-BP algorithm) is proposed in this paper. The weights and thresholds of a BP neural network with 6-10-6 topology are optimized by GA to develop decouple a six-axis force/torque sensor. By comparison with other traditional decoupling algorithm, calculating the pseudo-inverse matrix of calibration and classical BP algorithm, the decoupling results validate the good decoupling performance of GA-BP algorithm and the coupling errors are reduced.

  18. Voltage and Current Regulators Design of Power Converters in Islanded Microgrids based on State Feedback Decoupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federico, de Bosio; de Sousa Ribeiro, Luiz Antonio; Freijedo Fernandez, Francisco Daniel

    2016-01-01

    In stand-alone microgrids based on voltage source inverters state feedback coupling between the capacitor voltage and inductor current degrades significantly the dynamics performance of voltage and current regulators. The decoupling of the controlled states is proposed, considering the limitation...... introduced by system delays. Moreover, a proportional resonant voltage controller is designed according to Nyquist criterion taking into account application requirements. Experimental tests performed in compliance with the UPS standards verify the theoretical analysis.......In stand-alone microgrids based on voltage source inverters state feedback coupling between the capacitor voltage and inductor current degrades significantly the dynamics performance of voltage and current regulators. The decoupling of the controlled states is proposed, considering the limitations...

  19. Reliability Evaluation of a Single-phase H-bridge Inverter with Integrated Active Power Decoupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Junchaojie; Wang, Haoran; Ma, Siyuan

    2016-01-01

    Various power decoupling methods have been proposed recently to replace the DC-link Electrolytic Capacitors (E-caps) in single-phase conversion system, in order to extend the lifetime and improve the reliability of the DC-link. However, it is still an open question whether the converter level...... reliability becomes better or not, since additional components are introduced and the loading of the existing components may be changed. This paper aims to study the converter level reliability of a single-phase full-bridge inverter with two kinds of active power decoupling module and to compare...... it with the traditional passive DC-link solution. The converter level reliability is obtained by component level electro-thermal stress modeling, lifetime model, Weibull distribution, and Reliability Block Diagram (RBD) method. The results are demonstrated by a 2 kW single-phase inverter application....

  20. Linearly decoupled energy-stable numerical methods for multi-component two-phase compressible flow

    KAUST Repository

    Kou, Jisheng

    2017-12-06

    In this paper, for the first time we propose two linear, decoupled, energy-stable numerical schemes for multi-component two-phase compressible flow with a realistic equation of state (e.g. Peng-Robinson equation of state). The methods are constructed based on the scalar auxiliary variable (SAV) approaches for Helmholtz free energy and the intermediate velocities that are designed to decouple the tight relationship between velocity and molar densities. The intermediate velocities are also involved in the discrete momentum equation to ensure a consistency relationship with the mass balance equations. Moreover, we propose a component-wise SAV approach for a multi-component fluid, which requires solving a sequence of linear, separate mass balance equations. We prove that the methods have the unconditional energy-dissipation feature. Numerical results are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  1. Research on Inverse Kinematics Program Optimization of 6R Decoupled Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daode ZHANG

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available According to complex analytic formula for the six degrees of freedom decoupled robot, a detailed analysis of the six degrees of freedom decoupled robot analytic formula of export process, as well the causes of multiple solutions. The method of increasing the local variables to avoid processor running the same statement repeatedly is proposed. The method to find the most frequency formula appeared in analytic solution replaced with local variables facilitate the use of loop to reduce the amount of code. It effectively reduces the computation time, optimize the computing process. Finally, taking PUMA560-like robot as an example, the calculation result is verified and simulated in Robotics Toolbox of MATLAB.

  2. A Quasi-ARX Model for Multivariable Decoupling Control of Nonlinear MIMO System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a multiinput and multioutput (MIMO quasi-autoregressive eXogenous (ARX model and a multivariable-decoupling proportional integral differential (PID controller for MIMO nonlinear systems based on the proposed model. The proposed MIMO quasi-ARX model improves the performance of ordinary quasi-ARX model. The proposed controller consists of a traditional PID controller with a decoupling compensator and a feed-forward compensator for the nonlinear dynamics based on the MIMO quasi-ARX model. Then an adaptive control algorithm is presented using the MIMO quasi-ARX radial basis function network (RBFN prediction model and some stability analysis of control system is shown. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed control method.

  3. Decoupling the NLO coupled DGLAP evolution equations: an analytic solution to pQCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block, Martin M.; Durand, Loyal; Ha, Phuoc; McKay, Douglas W.

    2010-01-01

    Using repeated Laplace transforms, we turn coupled, integral-differential singlet DGLAP equations into NLO (next-to-leading) coupled algebraic equations, which we then decouple. After two Laplace inversions we find new tools for pQCD: decoupled NLO analytic solutions F s (x,Q 2 )=F s (F s0 (x),G 0 (x)), G(x,Q 2 )=G(F s0 (x), G 0 (x)). F s , G are known NLO functions and F s0 (x)≡F s (x,Q 0 2 ), G 0 (x)≡G(x,Q 0 2 ) are starting functions for evolution beginning at Q 2 =Q 0 2 . We successfully compare our u and d non-singlet valence quark distributions with MSTW results (Martin et al., Eur. Phys. J. C 63:189, 2009). (orig.)

  4. A Geometric Approach to Decouple Robotino Motions and its Functional Controllability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straßberger, Daniel; Mercorelli, Paolo; Sergiyenko, Oleg

    2015-11-01

    This paper analyses a functional control of the Robotino. The proposed control strategy considers a functional decoupling control strategy realized using a geometric approach and the invertibility property of the DC-drives with which the Robotino is equipped. For a given control structure the functional controllability is proven for motion trajectories of class C3, continuous functions with third derivative also being continuous. Horizontal, Vertical and Angular motions are considered and the decoupling between these motions is obtained. Control simulation results using real data of the Robotino are shown. The used control which enables to produce the presented results is a standard Linear Model Predictive Control (LMPC), even though for sake of brevity the standard algorithm is not shown.

  5. Decoupling Design and Verification of a Free-Piston Linear Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Sun

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a decoupling design approach for a free-piston linear generator (FPLG constituted of three key components, including a combustion chamber, a linear generator and a gas spring serving as rebounding device. The approach is based on the distribution of the system power and efficiency, which provides a theoretical design method from the viewpoint of the overall power and efficiency demands. The energy flow and conversion processes of the FPLG are analyzed, and the power and efficiency demands of the thermal-mechanical and mechanical-electrical energy conversion are confirmed. The energy and efficiency distributions of the expansion and compression strokes within a single stable operation cycle are analyzed and determined. Detailed design methodologies of crucial geometric dimensions and operational parameters of each key component are described. The feasibility of the proposed decoupling design approach is validated through several design examples with different output power.

  6. Task definition, decoupling and redundancy resolution by nonlinear feedback in multi-robot object handling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadorai, A. K.; Tarn, T. J.; Bejczy, A. K.

    1992-01-01

    The problem of rigid object handling by multiple robot arms is investigated. The primary goal is to make the object exhibit a prescribed behavior while in contact with a fully known environment. Point contacts are assumed between the object and the arms. The aspect of task definition to achieve decoupling and linearizing control laws is discussed. Control laws are first formulated at the object level to provide decoupled force and position servo loops. It is then used to form control laws for the individual arms. Redundancies exist at the object and arm levels. The object level redundancy is used to achieve secondary goals in object handling. The arm level redundancies are the zero dynamics and can be controlled by redundant inputs. Full use of the available inputs are used to control the system as a whole. Numerical simulations for a dual-arm situation illustrate the validity of the approach.

  7. Fully Decoupled Compliant Parallel Mechanism: a New Solution for the Design of Multidimensional Accelerometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen GAO

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel multidimensional accelerometer is proposed based on fully decoupled compliant parallel mechanism. Three separated chains, which are served as the elastic body, are perpendicular to each other for sensing the kinetic information in different directions without decoupling process. As the crucial part of the whole sensor structure, the revolute and prismatic joints in three pairwise orthogonal branches of the parallel mechanism are manufactured with the alloy aluminium as flexure hinge-based compliant joints. The structure development is first introduced, followed by the comprehensive finite-element analysis including the strain of the sensitive legs, modal analysis for total deformation under different frequency, and the performance of harmonic response. Then, the shape optimization is conducted to reduce the unnecessary parts. Compliance optimization with particle swarm algorithm is implemented to redesign the dimension of the sensitive legs. The research supplies a new viewpoint for the mechanical design of physical sensor, especially acceleration sensor.

  8. Inductor Compensation in Three Phase PFC Control with Decoupling the Input Voltage and Bus Voltage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Guang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As the nonlinear structure of the boost ac/dc topology, the PFC is difficult to be controlled. The average state space theory has revealed that the choke current is determined by duty-ratio coupled with input voltage and bus voltage, which makes the high-performance sine-wave current track control more challenging. To remove disturbing variables and reduce the zero-crossing distortion, the decoupling control strategy is presented. Also, it is shown in this paper that the variable inductance has a great influence on PFC and THDI. As the inductor in boost converter varies with the current, a compensating coefficient of current is also proposed. The decoupling strategy and the inductor compensation strategy are implemented on a UPS with three phase input voltage. Numerical simulation and experimental results has indicated the high-performance of these control strategy.

  9. Development of aluminum (Al5083)-clad ternary Ag-In-Cd alloy for JSNS decoupled moderator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teshigawara, M.; Harada, M.; Saito, S.; Oikawa, K.; Maekawa, F.; Futakawa, M.; Kikuchi, K.; Kato, T.; Ikeda, Y.; Naoe, T.; Koyama, T.; Ooi, T.; Zherebtsov, S.; Kawai, M.; Kurishita, H.; Konashi, K.

    2006-01-01

    To develop Ag (silver)-In (indium)-Cd (cadmium) alloy decoupler, a method is needed to bond the decoupler between Al alloy (Al5083) and the ternary Ag-In-Cd alloy. We found that a better HIP condition was temperature, pressure and holding time at 803 K, 100 MPa and 10 min. for small test pieces (φ22 mm in dia. x 6 mm in height). Hardened layer due to the formation of AlAg 2 was found in the bonding layer, however, the rupture strength of the bonding layer is more than 30 MPa, the calculated design stress. Bonding tests of a large size piece (200 x 200 x 30 mm 3 ), which simulated the real scale, were also performed according to the results of small size tests. The result also gave good bonding and enough required-mechanical-strength

  10. PerturbationAnalyzer: a tool for investigating the effects of concentration perturbation on protein interaction networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei; Li, Peng; Xu, Wenjian; Peng, Yuxing; Bo, Xiaochen; Wang, Shengqi

    2010-01-15

    The propagation of perturbations in protein concentration through a protein interaction network (PIN) can shed light on network dynamics and function. In order to facilitate this type of study, PerturbationAnalyzer, which is an open source plugin for Cytoscape, has been developed. PerturbationAnalyzer can be used in manual mode for simulating user-defined perturbations, as well as in batch mode for evaluating network robustness and identifying significant proteins that cause large propagation effects in the PINs when their concentrations are perturbed. Results from PerturbationAnalyzer can be represented in an intuitive and customizable way and can also be exported for further exploration. PerturbationAnalyzer has great potential in mining the design principles of protein networks, and may be a useful tool for identifying drug targets. PerturbationAnalyzer can be accessed from the Cytoscape web site http://www.cytoscape.org/plugins/index.php or http://biotech.bmi.ac.cn/PerturbationAnalyzer. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  11. A dual voltage control strategy for single-phase PWM converters with power decoupling function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Yi; Qin, Zian; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    converter topology based on a symmetrical half bridge circuit is proposed to decouple the ripple power so that balanced instantaneous power flow is assured between source and load, and the required dc-link capacitance can be dramatically reduced. For proper closed-loop regulation, the small signal modeling...... is therefore very sensitive to step load changes. Comprehensive simulation results and experimental results are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed circuit and control algorithm....

  12. A Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition algorithm for linear economic model predictive control of dynamically decoupled subsystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokoler, Leo Emil; Standardi, Laura; Edlund, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a warm-started Dantzig–Wolfe decomposition algorithm tailored to economic model predictive control of dynamically decoupled subsystems. We formulate the constrained optimal control problem solved at each sampling instant as a linear program with state space constraints, input ....... In the presence of process and measurement noise, such a regularization term is critical for achieving a well-behaved closed-loop performance....

  13. A decoupled control approach for magnetic suspension systems using electromagnets mounted in a planar array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groom, Nelson J.

    1993-01-01

    A decoupled control approach for a Large Gap Magnetic Suspension System (LGMSS) is presented. The control approach is developed for an LGMSS which provides five degree-of-freedom control of a cylindrical suspended element that contains a core composed of permanent magnet material. The suspended element is levitated above five electromagnets mounted in a planar array. Numerical results are obtained by using the parameters of the Large Angle Magnetic Suspension Test Fixture (LAMSTF) which is a small scale laboratory model LGMSS.

  14. A Geometric Approach to Decouple Robotino Motions and its Functional Controllability

    OpenAIRE

    Straßberger, Daniel; Mercorelli, Paolo; Sergiyenko, Oleg Yu

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses a functional control of the Robotino. The proposed controlstrategy considers a functional decoupling control strategy realized using a geometric Approach and the invertibility property of the DC-drives with which the Robotino is equipped. For a given control structure the functional controllability is proven for motion trajectories of class C^3, continuous functions with third derivative also being continuous. Horizontal, Vertical andAngular motions are considered and the ...

  15. Decoupling of Fluctuating Power in Single-Phase Systems Through a Symmetrical Half-Bridge Circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Yi; Blaabjerg, Frede; Loh, Poh Chiang

    2015-01-01

    Single-phase ac/dc or dc/ac systems are inherently subject to the harmonic disturbance that is caused by the well-known double-line frequency ripple power. This issue can be eased through the installation of bulky electrolytic capacitors in the dc link. Unfortunately, such passive filtering...... power decoupling method, and both the input current and output voltage of the converter can be well regulated even when very small dc-link capacitors are employed....

  16. Economy-wide material flow indicators in the Czech Republic: trends, decoupling analysis and uncertainties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kovanda, J.; Hák, T.; Janáček, Jiří

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 1 (2008), s. 25-41 ISSN 0957-4352 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA205/04/0582; GA MŽP(CZ) SM/320/2/03 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : material flow indicators * trends * decoupling analysis Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.568, year: 2008

  17. Nonlinear decoupling of torque and field amplitude in an induction motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, H. [Aalborg University, Aalborg (Denmark); Vadstrup, P.; Boersting, H. [Grundfos A/S, Bjerringbro (Denmark)

    1997-12-31

    A novel approach to control of induction motors, based on nonlinear state feedback, is presented. The resulting scheme gives a linearized input-output decoupling of the torque and the amplitude of the field. The proposed approach is used to design controllers for the field amplitude and the motor torque. The method is tested both by simulation and by experiments on a motor drive. (orig.) 12 refs.

  18. Decoupled deblurring filter and its application to elastic migration and inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Feng, Zongcai

    2017-08-17

    We present a decoupled deblurring filter that approximates the multiparameter Hessian inverse by using local filters to approximate its submatrices for the same and different parameter classes. Numerical tests show that the filter not only reduces the footprint noise, balances the amplitudes and increases the resolution of the elastic migration images, but also mitigates the crosstalk artifacts. When used as a preconditioner, it accelerates the convergence rate for elastic inversion.

  19. Perturbed interaction between vortex shedding and induced vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, L.; Zhou, Y.; Zhang, M. M.

    2003-06-01

    This paper presents a novel technique to perturb interactions between vortex shedding from a bluff body and vortex-induced vibration of the body, with a view to provide a possible control of both flow and structural vibration. The essence of the technique is to create a local perturbation on the surface of a bluff body using piezoelectric ceramic actuators. Experiments were carried out in a wind tunnel. A square cylinder of height /h, flexibly supported on springs at both ends, was allowed to vibrate only in the lift direction. Three actuators were embedded underneath one side, parallel to the flow, of the cylinder. They were simultaneously activated by a sinusoidal wave, thus causing the cylinder surface to oscillate. The structural displacement /Y and flow velocity /u were simultaneously measured using a laser vibrometer and a single hot wire, respectively. When the normalized vortex shedding frequency fs* synchronized with the natural frequency, fn', of the dynamic system, /Y was estimated to be about 0.08/h. This displacement collapsed to 25% once the actuators were excited at a normalized perturbation frequency of fp*=0.1 and amplitude of 0.028/h. Flow visualization captured drastically impaired vortices shed from the cylinder. Spectral analysis of the /Y and /u signals points to the fact that the perturbation has altered the spectral phase φYu at fs between fluid excitation and structural vibration from 0 to /π, and meanwhile decreased the spectral coherence CohYu at fs from 0.65 to 0.15. However, as fp* falls within the possible synchronization range (fp*=0.11-0.26 or 0.8fn'~2fn') where fn'=fs, φYu at fs remains near 0, the maximum CohYu even reaching 0.9. As a result, both vortex shedding and the structural vibration are enhanced. It is expected that the perturbation technique presently investigated will have an important role to play in the flow-induced vibration control, especially with the active control element assimilated into the system.

  20. Mechanical Coupling Error Suppression Technology for an Improved Decoupled Dual-Mass Micro-Gyroscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Yang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents technology for the suppression of the mechanical coupling errors for an improved decoupled dual-mass micro-gyroscope (DDMG. The improved micro-gyroscope structure decreases the moment arm of the drive decoupled torque, which benefits the suppression of the non-ideal decoupled error. Quadrature correction electrodes are added to eliminate the residual quadrature error. The structure principle and the quadrature error suppression means of the DDMG are described in detail. ANSYS software is used to simulate the micro-gyroscope structure to verify the mechanical coupling error suppression effect. Compared with the former structure, simulation results demonstrate that the rotational displacements of the sense frame in the improved structure are substantially suppressed in the drive mode. The improved DDMG structure chip is fabricated by the deep dry silicon on glass (DDSOG process. The feedback control circuits with quadrature control loops are designed to suppress the residual mechanical coupling error. Finally, the system performance of the DDMG prototype is tested. Compared with the former DDMG, the quadrature error in the improved dual-mass micro-gyroscope is decreased 9.66-fold, and the offset error is decreased 6.36-fold. Compared with the open loop sense, the feedback control circuits with quadrature control loop decrease the bias drift by 20.59-fold and the scale factor non-linearity by 2.81-fold in the ±400°/s range.

  1. The impact of perceived similarity on tacit coordination: propensity for matching and aversion to decoupling choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chierchia, Gabriele; Coricelli, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    Homophily, or "love for similar others," has been shown to play a fundamental role in the formation of interpersonal ties and social networks. Yet no study has investigated whether perceived similarities can affect tacit coordination. We had 68 participants attempt to maximize real monetary earnings by choosing between a safe but low paying option (that could be obtained with certainty) and a potentially higher paying but "risky" one, which depended on the choice of a matched counterpart. While making their choices participants were mutually informed of whether their counterparts similarly or dissimilarly identified with three person-descriptive words as themselves. We found that similarity increased the rate of "risky" choices only when the game required counterparts to match their choices (stag hunt games). Conversely, similarity led to decreased risk rates when they were to tacitly decouple their choices (entry games). Notably, though similarity increased coordination in the matching environment, it did not did not increase it in the decoupling game. In spite of this, similarity increased (expected) payoffs across both coordination environments. This could shed light on why homophily is so successful as a social attractor. Finally, this propensity for matching and aversion to decoupling choices was not observed when participants "liked" their counterparts but were dissimilar to them. We thus conclude that the impact of similarity of coordination should not be reduced to "liking" others (i.e., social preferences) but it is also about predicting them.

  2. The Energy Footprint of China’s Textile Industry: Perspectives from Decoupling and Decomposition Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laili Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Energy is the essential input for operations along the industrial manufacturing chain of textiles. China’s textile industry is facing great pressure on energy consumption reduction. This paper presents an analysis of the energy footprint (EFP of China’s textile industry from 1991 to 2015. The relationship between EFP and economic growth in the textile industry was investigated with a decoupling index approach. The logarithmic mean Divisia index approach was applied for decomposition analysis on how changes in key factors influenced the EFP of China’s textile industry. Results showed that the EFP of China’s textile industry increased from 41.1 Mt in 1991 to 99.6 Mt in 2015. EFP increased fastest in the period of 1996–2007, with an average annual increasing rate of 7.7 percent, especially from 2001 to 2007 (8.5 percent. Manufacture of textile sector consumed most (from 58 percent to 76 percent of the energy among the three sub-sectors, as it has lots of energy-intensive procedures. EFP and economic growth were in a relative decoupling state for most years of the researched period. Their relationship showed a clear tendency toward decoupling. Industrial scale was the most important factor that led to the increase of EFP, while decreasing energy intensity contributed significantly to reducing the EFP. The promoting effect of the factors was larger than the inhibiting effect on EFP in most years from 1991 to 2015.

  3. Dynamic decoupling and local atomic order of a model multicomponent metallic glass-former.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeongmin; Sung, Bong June

    2015-06-17

    The dynamics of multicomponent metallic alloys is spatially heterogeneous near glass transition. The diffusion coefficient of one component of the metallic alloys may also decouple from those of other components, i.e., the diffusion coefficient of each component depends differently on the viscosity of metallic alloys. In this work we investigate the dynamic heterogeneity and decoupling of a model system for multicomponent Pd43Cu27Ni10P20 melts by using a hard sphere model that considers the size disparity of alloys but does not take chemical effects into account. We also study how such dynamic behaviors would relate to the local atomic structure of metallic alloys. We find, from molecular dynamics simulations, that the smallest component P of multicomponent Pd43Cu27Ni10P20 melts becomes dynamically heterogeneous at a translational relaxation time scale and that the largest major component Pd forms a slow subsystem, which has been considered mainly responsible for the stabilization of amorphous state of alloys. The heterogeneous dynamics of P atoms accounts for the breakdown of Stokes-Einstein relation and also leads to the dynamic decoupling of P and Pd atoms. The dynamically heterogeneous P atoms decrease the lifetime of the local short-range atomic orders of both icosahedral and close-packed structures by orders of magnitude.

  4. Calculation of the piezoelectric and flexoelectric effects in nanowires using a decoupled finite element analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhiqiang; Geng, Dalong; Wang, Xudong

    2016-01-01

    A simple and effective decoupled finite element analysis method was developed for simulating both the piezoelectric and flexoelectric effects of zinc oxide (ZnO) and barium titanate (BTO) nanowires (NWs). The piezoelectric potential distribution on a ZnO NW was calculated under three deformation conditions (cantilever, three-point, and four-point bending) and compared to the conventional fully coupled method. The discrepancies of the electric potential maximums from these two methods were found very small, validating the accuracy and effectiveness of the decoupled method. Both ZnO and BTO NWs yielded very similar potential distributions. Comparing the potential distributions induced by the piezoelectric and flexoelectric effects, we identified that the middle segment of a four-point bending NW beam is the ideal place for measuring the flexoelectric coefficient, because the uniform parallel plate capacitor-like potential distribution in this region is exclusively induced by the flexoelectric effect. This decoupled method could provide a valuable guideline for experimental measurements of the piezoelectric effects and flexoelectric effects in the nanometer scale.

  5. Design, analysis and testing of a novel decoupled 2-DOF flexure-based micropositioning stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shang; Chen, Weihai; Liu, Jingmeng; Chen, Wenjie

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents the design, analysis and testing of a novel decoupled 2-DOF flexure-based micropositioning stage driven by piezoelectric-actuators (PZTs). In order to enlarge the travel range, a Scott-Russell mechanism and leverage mechanism are arranged in series, constituting a two-grade displacement amplifier to conquer the small displacement of the PZT. The design micropositioning stage is composed of symmetrically distributed flexure modules and each flexure module comprises compound parallelogram flexure beams serving as input decoupling, which allows the output decoupling by employing the tridimensional double compound parallelogram flexure mechanism. Based on the analytical model of both the amplifier and the XY stage established in static and dynamic analysis, the dimensions and performance of the stage has been conducted, which are verified by finite element analysis with ANSYS Workbench and prototype experiment with the fabricated prototype of the designed stage. It can be seen that the workspace of the developed stage is 148.11~μ \\text{m}× 149.73~μ m with the maximum output coupling errors of 0.693% and 0.637% in the y and x directions. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed micropositioning stage possesses good performance in trajectory tracking and can achieve a wide range of precise positioning.

  6. Decoupled Sliding Mode Control for a Novel 3-DOF Parallel Manipulator with Actuation Redundancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niu Xuemei

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a decoupled nonsingular terminal sliding mode controller (DNTSMC for a novel 3-DOF parallel manipulator with actuation redundancy. According to kinematic analysis, the inverse dynamic model for a novel 3-DOF redundantly actuated parallel manipulator is formulated in the task space using Lagrangian formalism and decoupled into three entirely independent subsystems under generalized coordinates to significantly reduce system complexity. Based on the dynamic model, a decoupled sliding mode control strategy is proposed for the parallel manipulator; the idea behind this strategy is to design a nonsingular terminal sliding mode controller for each subsystem, which can drive states of three subsystems to the original equilibrium points simultaneously by two intermediate variables. Additionally, a RBF neural network is used to compensate the cross-coupling force and gravity to enhance the control precision. Simulation and experimental results show that the proposed DNTSMC can achieve better control performances compared with the conventional sliding mode controller (SMC and the DNTSMC without compensator.

  7. Epigenetics decouples mutational from environmental robustness. Did it also facilitate multicellularity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Gombar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of ever increasing complex life forms has required innovations at the molecular level in order to overcome existing barriers. For example, evolving processes for cell differentiation, such as epigenetic mechanisms, facilitated the transition to multicellularity. At the same time, studies using gene regulatory network models, and corroborated in single-celled model organisms, have shown that mutational robustness and environmental robustness are correlated. Such correlation may constitute a barrier to the evolution of multicellularity since cell differentiation requires sensitivity to cues in the internal environment during development. To investigate how this barrier might be overcome, we used a gene regulatory network model which includes epigenetic control based on the mechanism of histone modification via Polycomb Group Proteins, which evolved in tandem with the transition to multicellularity. Incorporating the Polycomb mechanism allowed decoupling of mutational and environmental robustness, thus allowing the system to be simultaneously robust to mutations while increasing sensitivity to the environment. In turn, this decoupling facilitated cell differentiation which we tested by evaluating the capacity of the system for producing novel output states in response to altered initial conditions. In the absence of the Polycomb mechanism, the system was frequently incapable of adding new states, whereas with the Polycomb mechanism successful addition of new states was nearly certain. The Polycomb mechanism, which dynamically reshapes the network structure during development as a function of expression dynamics, decouples mutational and environmental robustness, thus providing a necessary step in the evolution of multicellularity.

  8. Acoustic anisotropic wavefields through perturbation theory

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2013-09-01

    Solving the anisotropic acoustic wave equation numerically using finite-difference methods introduces many problems and media restriction requirements, and it rarely contributes to the ability to resolve the anisotropy parameters. Among these restrictions are the inability to handle media with η<0 and the presence of shear-wave artifacts in the solution. Both limitations do not exist in the solution of the elliptical anisotropic acoustic wave equation. Using perturbation theory in developing the solution of the anisotropic acoustic wave equation allows direct access to the desired limitation-free solutions, that is, solutions perturbed from the elliptical anisotropic background medium. It also provides a platform for parameter estimation because of the ability to isolate the wavefield dependency on the perturbed anisotropy parameters. As a result, I derive partial differential equations that relate changes in the wavefield to perturbations in the anisotropy parameters. The solutions of the perturbation equations represented the coefficients of a Taylor-series-type expansion of the wavefield as a function of the perturbed parameter, which is in this case η or the tilt of the symmetry axis. The expansion with respect to the symmetry axis allows use of an acoustic transversely isotropic media with a vertical symmetry axis (VTI) kernel to estimate the background wavefield and the corresponding perturbation coefficients. The VTI extrapolation kernel is about one-fourth the cost of the transversely isotropic model with a tilt in the symmetry axis kernel. Thus, for a small symmetry axis tilt, the cost of migration using a first-order expansion can be reduced. The effectiveness of the approach was demonstrated on the Marmousi model.

  9. Benchmark of AC and DC active power decoupling circuits for second-order harmonic mitigation in kW-scale single-phase inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Zian; Tang, Yi; Loh, Poh Chiang

    2015-01-01

    studied, where the commercially available film capacitors, circuit topologies, and control strategies for active power decoupling are all taken into account. Then, an adaptive decoupling voltage control method is proposed to further improve the performance of dc decoupling in terms of efficiency...... and reliability. The feasibility and superiority of the identified solution for active power decoupling together with the proposed adaptive decoupling voltage control method are finally verified by both the experimental results obtained on a 2 kW single-phase inverter.......This paper presents the benchmark study of ac and dc active power decoupling circuits for second-order harmonic mitigation in kW-scale single-phase inverters. First of all, the best solutions of active power decoupling to achieve high efficiency and power density are identified and comprehensively...

  10. Benchmark of AC and DC Active Power Decoupling Circuits for Second-Order Harmonic Mitigation in Kilowatt-Scale Single-Phase Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Zian; Tang, Yi; Loh, Poh Chiang

    2016-01-01

    efficiency and high power density is identified and comprehensively studied, and the commercially available film capacitors, the circuit topologies, and the control strategies adopted for active power decoupling are all taken into account. Then, an adaptive decoupling voltage control method is proposed...... to further improve the performance of dc decoupling in terms of efficiency and reliability. The feasibility and superiority of the identified solution for active power decoupling together with the proposed adaptive decoupling voltage control method are finally verified by both the simulation and experimental......This paper presents the benchmark study of ac and dc active power decoupling circuits for second order harmonic mitigation in kW scale single-phase inverters. First of all, a brief comparison of recently reported active power decoupling circuits is given, and the best solution that can achieve high...

  11. Weyl nodal surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türker, Oǧuz; Moroz, Sergej

    2018-02-01

    We consider three-dimensional fermionic band theories that exhibit Weyl nodal surfaces defined as two-band degeneracies that form closed surfaces in the Brillouin zone. We demonstrate that topology ensures robustness of these objects under small perturbations of a Hamiltonian. This topological robustness is illustrated in several four-band models that exhibit nodal surfaces protected by unitary or antiunitary symmetries. Surface states and Nielsen-Ninomiya doubling of nodal surfaces are also investigated.

  12. Simulating propagation of decoupled elastic waves using low-rank approximate mixed-domain integral operators for anisotropic media

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Jiubing

    2016-03-15

    In elastic imaging, the extrapolated vector fields are decoupled into pure wave modes, such that the imaging condition produces interpretable images. Conventionally, mode decoupling in anisotropic media is costly because the operators involved are dependent on the velocity, and thus they are not stationary. We have developed an efficient pseudospectral approach to directly extrapolate the decoupled elastic waves using low-rank approximate mixed-domain integral operators on the basis of the elastic displacement wave equation. We have applied k-space adjustment to the pseudospectral solution to allow for a relatively large extrapolation time step. The low-rank approximation was, thus, applied to the spectral operators that simultaneously extrapolate and decompose the elastic wavefields. Synthetic examples on transversely isotropic and orthorhombic models showed that our approach has the potential to efficiently and accurately simulate the propagations of the decoupled quasi-P and quasi-S modes as well as the total wavefields for elastic wave modeling, imaging, and inversion.

  13. Power Decoupling Method Based on the Diagonal Compensating Matrix for VSG-Controlled Parallel Inverters in the Microgrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The thought of the virtual synchronous generator (VSG for controlling the grid-connected inverters and providing virtual inertia to the microgrid is emerging as a wide extension of the droop control, power coupling that always exists in the low-voltage microgrid, which may deteriorate the dynamic response and the stability of the system. In this paper, the principle of VSG control is introduced first. As an important issue of VSG control, the mechanism of the power coupling in the low-voltage microgrid is analyzed and the small-signal equivalent model of the power transmission loop is established. Subsequently, a power decoupling method based on the diagonal compensating matrix for VSG is proposed, which can realize the power decoupling with no impact on the original control channel. Meanwhile, the feasibility analysis of the decoupling method and the improved approach for reactive power sharing are also discussed. Simulation results verify the effectiveness of the decoupling strategy for VSGs.

  14. Application of linear and higher perturbation theory in reactor physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woerner, D.

    1978-01-01

    For small perturbations in the material composition of a reactor according to the first approximation of perturbation theory the eigenvalue perturbation is proportional to the perturbation of the system. This assumption is true for the neutron flux not influenced by the perturbance. The two-dimensional code LINESTO developed for such problems in this paper on the basis of diffusion theory determines the relative change of the multiplication constant. For perturbations varying the neutron flux in the space of energy and position the eigenvalue perturbation is also influenced by this changed neutron flux. In such cases linear perturbation theory yields larger errors. Starting from the methods of calculus of variations there is additionally developed in this paper a perturbation method of calculation permitting in a quick and simple manner to assess the influence of flux perturbation on the eigenvalue perturbation. While the source of perturbations is evaluated in isotropic approximation of diffusion theory the associated inhomogeneous equation may be used to determine the flux perturbation by means of diffusion or transport theory. Possibilities of application and limitations of this method are studied in further systematic investigations on local perturbations. It is shown that with the integrated code system developed in this paper a number of local perturbations may be checked requiring little computing time. With it flux perturbations in first approximation and perturbations of the multiplication constant in second approximation can be evaluated. (orig./RW) [de

  15. Decoupling internalization, acidification and phagosomal-endosomal/lysosomal fusion during phagocytosis of InlA coated beads in epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig D Blanchette

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Phagocytosis has been extensively examined in 'professional' phagocytic cells using pH sensitive dyes. However, in many of the previous studies, a separation between the end of internalization, beginning of acidification and completion of phagosomal-endosomal/lysosomal fusion was not clearly established. In addition, very little work has been done to systematically examine phagosomal maturation in 'non-professional' phagocytic cells. Therefore, in this study, we developed a simple method to measure and decouple particle internalization, phagosomal acidification and phagosomal-endosomal/lysosomal fusion in Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK and Caco-2 epithelial cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our method was developed using a pathogen mimetic system consisting of polystyrene beads coated with Internalin A (InlA, a membrane surface protein from Listeria monocytogenes known to trigger receptor-mediated phagocytosis. We were able to independently measure the rates of internalization, phagosomal acidification and phagosomal-endosomal/lysosomal fusion in epithelial cells by combining the InlA-coated beads (InlA-beads with antibody quenching, a pH sensitive dye and an endosomal/lysosomal dye. By performing these independent measurements under identical experimental conditions, we were able to decouple the three processes and establish time scales for each. In a separate set of experiments, we exploited the phagosomal acidification process to demonstrate an additional, real-time method for tracking bead binding, internalization and phagosomal acidification. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Using this method, we found that the time scales for internalization, phagosomal acidification and phagosomal-endosomal/lysosomal fusion ranged from 23-32 min, 3-4 min and 74-120 min, respectively, for MDCK and Caco-2 epithelial cells. Both the static and real-time methods developed here are expected to be readily and broadly applicable, as they simply

  16. Effect of tape recording on perturbation measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, J; Lin, E; Hanson, D G

    1998-10-01

    Tape recorders have been shown to affect measures of voice perturbation. Few studies, however, have been conducted to quantitatively justify the use or exclusion of certain types of recorders in voice perturbation studies. This study used sinusoidal and triangular waves and synthesized vowels to compare perturbation measures extracted from directly digitized signals with those recorded and played back through various tape recorders, including 3 models of digital audio tape recorders, 2 models of analog audio cassette tape recorders, and 2 models of video tape recorders. Signal contamination for frequency perturbation values was found to be consistently minimal with digital recorders (percent jitter = 0.01%-0.02%), mildly increased with video recorders (0.05%-0.10%), moderately increased with a high-quality analog audio cassette tape recorder (0.15%), and most prominent with a low-quality analog audio cassette tape recorder (0.24%). Recorder effect on amplitude perturbation measures was lowest in digital recorders (percent shimmer = 0.09%-0.20%), mildly to moderately increased in video recorders and a high-quality analog audio cassette tape recorder (0.25%-0.45%), and most prominent in a low-quality analog audio cassette tape recorder (0.98%). The effect of cassette tape material, length of spooled tape, and duration of analysis were also tested and are discussed.

  17. Cosmological perturbations in teleparallel Loop Quantum Cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haro, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    Cosmological perturbations in Loop Quantum Cosmology (LQC) are usually studied incorporating either holonomy corrections, where the Ashtekar connection is replaced by a suitable sinus function in order to have a well-defined quantum analogue, or inverse-volume corrections coming from the eigenvalues of the inverse-volume operator. In this paper we will develop an alternative approach to calculate cosmological perturbations in LQC based on the fact that, holonomy corrected LQC in the flat Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) geometry could be also obtained as a particular case of teleparallel F(T) gravity (teleparallel LQC). The main idea of our approach is to mix the simple bounce provided by holonomy corrections in LQC with the non-singular perturbation equations given by F(T) gravity, in order to obtain a matter bounce scenario as a viable alternative to slow-roll inflation. In our study, we have obtained an scale invariant power spectrum of cosmological perturbations. However, the ratio of tensor to scalar perturbations is of order 1, which does not agree with the current observations. For this reason, we suggest a model where a transition from the matter domination to a quasi de Sitter phase is produced in order to enhance the scalar power spectrum

  18. Mode coupling of Schwarzschild perturbations: Ringdown frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Enrique; Brizuela, David; Martín-García, José M.; Tiglio, Manuel

    2010-11-01

    Within linearized perturbation theory, black holes decay to their final stationary state through the well-known spectrum of quasinormal modes. Here we numerically study whether nonlinearities change this picture. For that purpose we study the ringdown frequencies of gauge-invariant second-order gravitational perturbations induced by self-coupling of linearized perturbations of Schwarzschild black holes. We do so through high-accuracy simulations in the time domain of first and second-order Regge-Wheeler-Zerilli type equations, for a variety of initial data sets. We consider first-order even-parity (ℓ=2, m=±2) perturbations and odd-parity (ℓ=2, m=0) ones, and all the multipoles that they generate through self-coupling. For all of them and all the initial data sets considered we find that—in contrast to previous predictions in the literature—the numerical decay frequencies of second-order perturbations are the same ones of linearized theory, and we explain the observed behavior. This would indicate, in particular, that when modeling or searching for ringdown gravitational waves, appropriately including the standard quasinormal modes already takes into account nonlinear effects.

  19. An Optically and Electrochemically Decoupled Monolithic Photoelectrochemical Cell for High-Performance Solar-Driven Water Splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Seungtaeg; Song, Hakhyeon; Oh, Jihun

    2017-09-13

    Photoelectrochemical (PEC) cells have attracted much attention as a viable route for storing solar energy and producing value-added chemicals and fuels. However, the competition between light absorption and electrocatalysis at a restrained cocatalyst area on conventional planar-type photoelectrodes could limit their conversion efficiency. Here, we demonstrate a new monolithic photoelectrode architecture that eliminate the optical-electrochemical coupling by forming locally nanostructured cocatalysts on a photoelectrode. As a model study, Ni inverse opal (IO), an ordered three-dimensional porous nanostructure, was used as a surface-area-controlled electrocatalyst locally formed on Si photoanodes. The optical-electrochemical decoupling of our monolithic photoanodes significantly enhances the PEC performance for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) by increasing light absorption and by providing more electrochemically active sites. Our Si photoanode with local Ni IOs maintains an identical photolimiting current density but reduces the overpotential by about 120 mV compared to a Si photoanode with planar Ni cocatalysts with the same footprint under 1 sun illumination. Finally, a highly efficient Si photoanode with an onset potential of 0.94 V vs reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE) and a photocurrent density of 31.2 mA/cm 2 at 1.23 V vs RHE in 1 M KOH under 1 sun illumination is achieved with local NiFe alloy IOs.

  20. Decoupling Water Consumption and Environmental Impact on Textile Industry by Using Water Footprint Method: A Case Study in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Li

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of China’s textile industry has led to consumption and pollution of large volumes of water. Therefore, the textile industry has been the focus of water conservation and waste reduction in China’s 13th Five-Year Plan (2016–2020. The premise of sustainable development is to achieve decoupling of economic growth from water consumption and wastewater discharge. In this work, changes in the blue water footprint, grey water footprint, and the total water footprint of the textile industry from 2001 to 2014 were calculated. The relationship between water footprint and economic growth was then examined using the Tapio decoupling model. Furthermore, factors influencing water footprint were determined through logarithmic mean Divisia index (LMDI method. Results show that the water footprint of China’s textile industry has strongly decoupled for five years (2003, 2006, 2008, 2011, and 2013 and weakly decoupled for four years (2005, 2007, 2009, and 2010. A decoupling trend occurred during 2001–2014, but a steady stage of decoupling had not been achieved yet. Based on the decomposition analysis, the total water footprint mainly increased along with the production scale. On the contrary, technical level is the most important factor in inhibiting the water footprint. In addition, the effect of industrial structure adjustment is relatively weak.

  1. The perturbation paradigm modulates error-based learning in a highly automated task: outcomes in swallowing kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, C; Macrae, P; Taylor-Kamara, I; Serel, S; Vose, A; Humbert, I A

    2015-08-15

    Traditional motor learning studies focus on highly goal-oriented, volitional tasks that often do not readily generalize to real-world movements. The goal of this study was to investigate how different perturbation paradigms alter error-based learning outcomes in a highly automated task. Swallowing was perturbed with neck surface electrical stimulation that opposes hyo-laryngeal elevation in 25 healthy adults (30 swallows: 10 preperturbation, 10 perturbation, and 10 postperturbation). The four study conditions were gradual-masked, gradual-unmasked, abrupt-masked, and abrupt-unmasked. Gradual perturbations increasingly intensified overtime, while abrupt perturbations were sustained at the same high intensity. The masked conditions reduced cues about the presence/absence of the perturbation (pre- and postperturbation periods had low stimulation), but unmasked conditions did not (pre- and postperturbation periods had no stimulation). Only hyo-laryngeal range of motion measures had significant outcomes; no timing measure demonstrated learning. Systematic-error reduction occurred only during the abrupt-masked and abrupt-unmasked perturbations. Only the abrupt-masked perturbation caused aftereffects. In this highly automated task, gradual perturbations did not induce learning similarly to findings of some volitional, goal-oriented adaptation task studies. Furthermore, our subtle and brief adjustment of the stimulation paradigm (masked vs. unmasked) determined whether aftereffects were present. This suggests that, in the unmasked group, sensory predictions of a motor plan were quickly and efficiently modified to disengage error-based learning behaviors. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Gribov ambiguity, perturbation theory, and confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greensite, J.P.

    1978-01-01

    The generating functional proposed for gauge theories by Bender, Eguchi, and Pagels (BEP) is shown to be equivalent to a truncated form of the functional integral, in which only one field configuration from each gauge-equivalent Gribov set contributes to the functional integration. The standard perturbation technique provides a method of realizing this truncation condition. It is shown that any gauge-covariant quantity (such as the quark N-point functions), evaluated by perturbating around a field configuration gauge-equivalent to A = 0, is related by a gauge transformation to the same quantity evaluated perturbatively around the trivial vacuum. It follows that, contrary to the conclusion of BEP, the existence of degeneracies in the Coulomb gauge-fixing condition (the Gribov ambiguity) is not directly related to the physics of confinement

  3. Inhomogeneous Broadening in Perturbed Angular Correlation Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunker, Austin; Adams, Mike; Hodges, Jeffery; Park, Tyler; Stufflebeam, Michael; Evenson, William; Matheson, Phil; Zacate, Matthew

    2009-10-01

    Our research concerns the effect of a static distribution of defects on the net electric field gradient (EFG) within crystal structures. Defects and vacancies perturb the distribution of gamma rays emitted from radioactive probe nuclei within the crystal. These defects and vacancies produce a net EFG at the site of the probe which causes the magnetic quadrupole moment of the nucleus of the probe to precess about the EFG. The net EFG, which is strongly dependent upon the defect concentration, perturbs the angular correlation (PAC) of the gamma rays, and is seen in the damping of the perturbation function, G2(t), in time and broadening of the spectral peaks in the Fourier transform. We have used computer simulations to study the probability distribution of EFG tensor components in order to uncover the concentration dependence of G2(t). This in turn can be used to analyze experimental PAC data and quantitatively describe properties of the crystal.

  4. Covariant perturbations in the gonihedric string model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Efraín

    2017-11-01

    We provide a covariant framework to study classically the stability of small perturbations on the so-called gonihedric string model by making precise use of variational techniques. The local action depends on the square root of the quadratic mean extrinsic curvature of the worldsheet swept out by the string, and is reparametrization invariant. A general expression for the worldsheet perturbations, guided by Jacobi equations without any early gauge fixing, is obtained. This is manifested through a set of highly coupled nonlinear differential partial equations where the perturbations are described by scalar fields, Φi, living in the worldsheet. This model contains, as a special limit, to the linear model in the mean extrinsic curvature. In such a case the Jacobi equations specialize to a single wave-like equation for Φ.

  5. Redshift-space distortions from vector perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonvin, Camille; Durrer, Ruth; Khosravi, Nima; Kunz, Martin; Sawicki, Ignacy

    2018-02-01

    We compute a general expression for the contribution of vector perturbations to the redshift space distortion of galaxy surveys. We show that they contribute to the same multipoles of the correlation function as scalar perturbations and should thus in principle be taken into account in data analysis. We derive constraints for next-generation surveys on the amplitude of two sources of vector perturbations, namely non-linear clustering and topological defects. While topological defects leave a very small imprint on redshift space distortions, we show that the multipoles of the correlation function are sensitive to vorticity induced by non-linear clustering. Therefore future redshift surveys such as DESI or the SKA should be capable of measuring such vector modes, especially with the hexadecapole which appears to be the most sensitive to the presence of vorticity.

  6. Death to perturbative QCD in exclusive processes?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckardt, R.; Hansper, J.; Gari, M.F. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Bochum (Germany)

    1994-04-01

    The authors discuss the question of whether perturbative QCD is applicable in calculations of exclusive processes at available momentum transfers. They show that the currently used method of determining hadronic quark distribution amplitudes from QCD sum rules yields wave functions which are completely undetermined because the polynomial expansion diverges. Because of the indeterminacy of the wave functions no statement can be made at present as to whether perturbative QCD is valid. The authors emphasize the necessity of a rigorous discussion of the subject and the importance of experimental data in the range of interest.

  7. A generalized perturbation program for CANDU reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Do Heon; Kim, Jong Kyung [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hang Bok; Roh, Gyu Hong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Won Sik [Chosun University, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    A generalized perturbation program has been developed for the purpose of estimating zonal power variation of a CANDU reactor upon refueling operation. The forward and adjoint calculation modules of RFSP code were used to construct the generalized perturbation program. The numerical algorithm for the generalized adjoint flux calculation was verified by comparing the zone power estimates upon refueling with those of forward calculation. It was, however, noticed that the truncation error from the iteration process of the generalized adjoint flux is not negligible. 2 refs., 1 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  8. Perturbative approach to Markovian open quantum systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Andy C Y; Petruccione, F; Koch, Jens

    2014-05-08

    The exact treatment of Markovian open quantum systems, when based on numerical diagonalization of the Liouville super-operator or averaging over quantum trajectories, is severely limited by Hilbert space size. Perturbation theory, standard in the investigation of closed quantum systems, has remained much less developed for open quantum systems where a direct application to the Lindblad master equation is desirable. We present such a perturbative treatment which will be useful for an analytical understanding of open quantum systems and for numerical calculation of system observables which would otherwise be impractical.

  9. Understanding Theoretical Uncertainties in Perturbative QCD Computations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jenniches, Laura Katharina

    Abstract To compare theoretical predictions and experimental results, we require not only a precise knowledge of the observables themselves, but also a good understanding of the uncertainty introduced by missing higher orders in perturbative QCD. In this work, we present a method which combines....... The second project focuses on theoretical uncertainties in perturbative QCD. We perform a study of theoretical uncertainties obtained using the traditional scale-variation and the Cacciari-Houdeau approach [1], which uses Bayesian statistics to estimate missing-higher-order uncertainties. In addition, we...

  10. Non-perturbative QCD and hadron physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobos-Martínez, J J

    2016-01-01

    A brief exposition of contemporary non-perturbative methods based on the Schwinger-Dyson (SDE) and Bethe-Salpeter equations (BSE) of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) and their application to hadron physics is given. These equations provide a non-perturbative continuum formulation of QCD and are a powerful and promising tool for the study of hadron physics. Results on some properties of hadrons based on this approach, with particular attention to the pion distribution amplitude, elastic, and transition electromagnetic form factors, and their comparison to experimental data are presented. (paper)

  11. Continuum methods in lattice perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becher, Thomas G

    2002-01-01

    We show how methods of continuum perturbation theory can be used to simplify perturbative lattice calculations. We use the technique of asymptotic expansions to expand lattice loop integrals around the continuum limit. After the expansion, all nontrivial dependence on momenta and masses is encoded in continuum loop integrals and the only genuine lattice integrals left are tadpole integrals. Using integration-by-parts relations all of these can be expressed in terms of a small number of master integrals. Four master integrals are needed for bosonic one loop integrals, sixteen in QCD with Wilson or staggered fermions

  12. Perturbative Chern-Simons theory revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLellan, Brendan Donald Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    We reconsider perturbative Chern-Simons theory on a closed and oriented three-manifold with a choice of contact structure following C. Beasley and E. Witten. Closed three manifolds that admit a Sasakian structure are explicitly computed to first order in perturbation in terms of their Seifert data....... The general problem of extending this work to arbitrary three-manifolds is presented and some initial observations are made. Mathematically, this article is closely related to the work of Rumin and Seshadri and an index type theorem in the contact geometric setting....

  13. Resonances under rank-one perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourget, Olivier; Cortés, Víctor H.; Del Río, Rafael; Fernández, Claudio

    2017-09-01

    We study resonances generated by rank-one perturbations of self-adjoint operators with eigenvalues embedded in the continuous spectrum. Instability of these eigenvalues is analyzed and almost exponential decay for the associated resonant states is exhibited. We show how these results can be applied to Sturm-Liouville operators. Main tools are the Aronszajn-Donoghue theory for rank-one perturbations, a reduction process of the resolvent based on the Feshbach-Livsic formula, the Fermi golden rule, and a careful analysis of the Fourier transform of quasi-Lorentzian functions. We relate these results to sojourn time estimates and spectral concentration phenomena.

  14. Scaling violations and perturbative quantum chromodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbieri, R.; d'Emilio, E.; Caneschi, L.; Curci, G.

    1979-01-01

    The authors try to understand the meaning of the recent data on scaling violations of the moments of the structure function F 3 measured in γ and anti γ deep inelastic scattering, and their relevance as a test of QCD. This is done by reducing to the minimum the theoretical machinery and prejudices and stressing the perturbative nature of the problem. This leads to a definition of the perturbation coupling constant αsub(s) (Q = 2.5 GeV) = 0.61 +- 0.06, in terms of which the corrective terms for all quantities computed so far turn out to be relatively small. (Auth.)

  15. Perturbation methodology for nuclear reactor life problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandini, A.

    1988-01-01

    A perturbation methodology is described by which the reactor behaviour of a reactor system during burnup can be analysed making use of Generalized Perturbation Theory (GPT) codes already available in the linear domain. Typical quantities that can be studied with the proposed methodology are the amount of a specified material at the end of cycle, the fluence in a specified region, the reactor residual reactivity at end of reactor life cycle. The potentiality of the method for fuel shuffling studies is also described [fr

  16. On algebraically special perturbations of black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrasekhar, S.

    1984-01-01

    Algebraically special perturbations of black holes excite gravitational waves that are either purely ingoing or purely outgoing. Solutions, appropriate to such perturbations of the Kerr, the Schwarzschild, and the Reissner-Nordstroem black-holes, are obtained in explicit forms by different methods. The different methods illustrate the remarkable inner relations among different facets of the mathematical theory. In the context of the Kerr black-hole they derive from the different ways in which the explicit value of the Starobinsky constant emerges, and in the context of the Schwarzschild and the Reissner-Nordstroem black-holes they derive from the potential barriers surrounding them belonging to a special class. (author)

  17. Controlling roll perturbations in fruit flies

    OpenAIRE

    Beatus, Tsevi; Guckenheimer, John M.; Cohen, Itai

    2015-01-01

    Owing to aerodynamic instabilities, stable flapping flight requires ever-present fast corrective actions. Here, we investigate how flies control perturbations along their body roll angle, which is unstable and their most sensitive degree of freedom. We glue a magnet to each fly and apply a short magnetic pulse that rolls it in mid-air. Fast video shows flies correct perturbations up to 100° within 30 ± 7 ms by applying a stroke-amplitude asymmetry that is well described by a linear proportion...

  18. A New Robust Decoupled Control of the Stator Active and Reactive Currents for Grid-Connected Doubly-Fed Induction Generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Bashar Ataji

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the grid-connected variable speed doubly-fed induction generator, and proposes a new decoupled control to replace the conventional decoupled active and reactive powers (P-Q control. The proposed decoupled control is based on decoupling the stator active and reactive currents, in contrast with the conventional decoupled P-Q control, which is based on decoupling the stator active and reactive powers by forcing the stator d- or q-voltage to zero. The proposed decoupled control has all the advantages of the conventional decoupled P-Q control such as constant switching frequency and robustness against slip angle inaccuracy, and it has some additional advantages: The proposed control requires less machine parameters; for the controller design, it requires the stator-to-rotor turns ratio only; for the online calculation, it does not requires any machine parameter. The proposed decoupled control is more flexible and robust since the control is independent of the grid voltage orientation. It is robust against variation in the grid voltage amplitude. Several experiments are carried out using a 1.1 kW doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG, and the results support the proposed decoupled control and demonstrate some of its advantages.

  19. The Beauty of Lattice Perturbation Theory: the Role of Lattice Perturbation Theory in B Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, C. J.

    2012-12-01

    As new experimental data arrive from the LHC the prospect of indirectly detecting new physics through precision tests of the Standard Model grows more exciting. Precise experimental and theoretical inputs are required to test the unitarity of the CKM matrix and to search for new physics effects in rare decays. Lattice QCD calculations of non-perturbative inputs have reached a precision at the level of a few percent; in many cases aided by the use of lattice perturbation theory. This review examines the role of lattice perturbation theory in B physics calculations on the lattice in the context of two questions: how is lattice perturbation theory used in the different heavy quark formalisms implemented by the major lattice collaborations? And what role does lattice perturbation theory play in determinations of non-perturbative contributions to the physical processes at the heart of the search for new physics? Framing and addressing these questions reveals that lattice perturbation theory is a tool with a spectrum of applications in lattice B physics.

  20. Privacy Is Become with, Data Perturbation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Er. Niranjan; Singhai, Niky

    2011-06-01

    Privacy is becoming an increasingly important issue in many data mining applications that deal with health care, security, finance, behavior and other types of sensitive data. Is particularly becoming important in counterterrorism and homeland security-related applications. We touch upon several techniques of masking the data, namely random distortion, including the uniform and Gaussian noise, applied to the data in order to protect it. These perturbation schemes are equivalent to additive perturbation after the logarithmic Transformation. Due to the large volume of research in deriving private information from the additive noise perturbed data, the security of these perturbation schemes is questionable Many artificial intelligence and statistical methods exist for data analysis interpretation, Identifying and measuring the interestingness of patterns and rules discovered, or to be discovered is essential for the evaluation of the mined knowledge and the KDD process as a whole. While some concrete measurements exist, assessing the interestingness of discovered knowledge is still an important research issue. As the tool for the algorithm implementations we chose the language of choice in industrial world MATLAB.