WorldWideScience

Sample records for surface periodic interchange

  1. Essential role of copper in the activity and regular periodicity of a recombinant, tumor-associated, cell surface, growth-related and time-keeping hydroquinone (NADH) oxidase with protein disulfide-thiol interchange activity (ENOX2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaoyu; Chueh, P-J; Jiang, Ziying; Layman, Sara; Martin, Berdine; Kim, Chinpal; Morré, Dorothy M; Morré, D James

    2010-10-01

    ECTO-NOX proteins are growth-related cell surface proteins that catalyze both hydroquinone or NADH oxidation and protein disulfide interchange and exhibit time-keeping and prion-like properties. A bacterially expressed truncated recombinant 46 kDa ENOX2 with full ENOX2 activity bound ca 2 moles copper and 2 moles of zinc per mole of protein. Unfolding of the protein in trifluoroacetic acid in the presence of the copper chelator bathocuproine resulted in reversible loss of both enzymatic activities and of a characteristic pattern in the Amide I to Amide II ratios determined by FTIR with restoration by added copper. The H546-V-H together with His 562 form one copper binding site and H582 represents a second copper site as determined from site-directed mutagenesis. Bound copper emerges as having an essential role in ENOX2 both for enzymatic activity and for the structural changes that underly the periodic alternations in activity that define the time-keeping cycle of the protein.

  2. Electron density in reasonably real metallic surfaces, including interchange and correlation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraga, L.A.; Martinez, G.

    1981-01-01

    By means of a new method, the electron density in a jellium surface is calculated taking in account interchange and correlation effects; reproducing, in this way, the Lang and Kohn results. The new method is self-consistent but not iterative and hence is possible extend it to the solution of the same problem in more reasonably real metallic surfaces. (L.C.) [pt

  3. Symmetric road interchanges

    OpenAIRE

    Kurauskas, Valentas; Šiurienė, Ugnė

    2018-01-01

    A road interchange where $n$ roads meet and in which the drivers are not allowed to change lanes can be modelled as an embedding of a 2-coloured (hence bipartite) multigraph $G$ with equal-sized colour classes into an orientable surface such that there is a face bounded by a Hamiltonian cycle (Kurauskas, 2017). The case of $G$ a complete bipartite graph $K_{n,n}$ corresponds to a complete $n$-way interchange where drivers approaching from each of $n$ directions can exit to any other direction...

  4. Robust topology design of periodic grating surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Kasper Storgaard; Sigmund, Ole

    2012-01-01

    Modern nanoscale manufacturing techniques allow for a high degree of flexibility in designing surface microstructures and nanostructures. Injection molding of nanosized features allows for mass production of plastic components with a tailored nanostructure producing specific optical effects...... depending on the purpose. This work details the use of topology optimization for designing periodic polymer grating surfaces with complex optical properties. A method based on robust topology optimization is formulated for designing the nanostructure of plastic surfaces with extreme reflection...

  5. Periodic diffeomorphisms on homotopy E (4) surfaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Volume 124; Issue 3. Periodic Diffeomorphisms on Homotopy (4) Surfaces. Hongxia Li. Volume 124 Issue 3 August 2014 pp 437-445. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/pmsc/124/03/0437-0445 ...

  6. Periodic diffeomorphisms on homotopy E(4) surfaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In [9], there is an open problem proposed by Allan Edmonds: Question 1.1. Do K3 surfaces admit a periodic diffeomorphism of prime .... complex multiplication. Using compactness of the moduli space, Furuta showed the ..... ind1DX = k0 + k1 + k2 = 4. Solving these equations, we obtain k0 = 1. 9. {12 + 2(m+ − m−)} , k1 = k2 =.

  7. Reconstruction of local perturbations in periodic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechleiter, Armin; Zhang, Ruming

    2018-03-01

    This paper concerns the inverse scattering problem to reconstruct a local perturbation in a periodic structure. Unlike the periodic problems, the periodicity for the scattered field no longer holds, thus classical methods, which reduce quasi-periodic fields in one periodic cell, are no longer available. Based on the Floquet–Bloch transform, a numerical method has been developed to solve the direct problem, that leads to a possibility to design an algorithm for the inverse problem. The numerical method introduced in this paper contains two steps. The first step is initialization, that is to locate the support of the perturbation by a simple method. This step reduces the inverse problem in an infinite domain into one periodic cell. The second step is to apply the Newton-CG method to solve the associated optimization problem. The perturbation is then approximated by a finite spline basis. Numerical examples are given at the end of this paper, showing the efficiency of the numerical method.

  8. Nonlinear Interchange Modes in 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagaipo, Jupiter; Hassam, Adil

    2012-10-01

    We have shown previously that, in 2D, the ideal magnetohydrodynamic interchange mode stabilized by a constant transverse magnetic field is nonlinearly unstable if near marginal conditions. This study is extended to a 3D system where the mode is marginally stabilized by allowing for wavenumbers weakly transverse to an axial field. Two different boundary conditions are studied: periodic and line-tied in the axial direction. Periodic boundary conditions have applications in toroidal fusion devices while line-tied systems are common in the solar corona. We use reduced equations for a strong axial field to find an analytic solution as a function of the deviation from marginality. Using a systematic perturbation analysis we show that, to lowest order, there exists a secondary, quasistatic equilibrium with a critical field strength. Allowing for deviations from criticality yield a nonlinear time-evolution equation for the perturbation amplitude. The periodic case allows for two types of modes, and it is shown that the mode isomorphic to the earlier 2D problem is nonlinearly unstable, while the ``sausage''-type mode is nonlinearly stable. These modes are modes along a rational surface and ballooning type modes, respectively. The line-tied case is shown to always be nonlinearly stable.

  9. EMP protection technology interchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, L.C.

    1977-01-01

    Investigation and assessment of the potential degrading and destructive effects associated with the nuclear electromagnetic (EMP) phenomena has created a large technological base. This base is indeed quite broad owing to the unique and system-pervasive character of the EMP. One of the aims of an emerging discipline, such as that associated with EMP, is to provide for adequate transfer and integration of the developing technology into the overall engineering community. The needs of the community and how EMP hardening and protection information can be transferred or exchanged are reviewed. Many of the current and generally available sources of information are listed, examples of interchange methods are provided, and problems of developing specifications, standards, and suitable guidelines for design and incorporation of protection are also discussed

  10. Modeling laser-induced periodic surface structures: an electromagnetic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skolski, J.Z.P.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis presents and discusses laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSSs), as well as a model explaining their formation. LIPSSs are regular wavy surface structures with dimensions usually in the submicrometer range, which can develop on the surface of many materials exposed to laser

  11. Pseudo-periodic maps and degeneration of Riemann surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Matsumoto, Yukio

    2011-01-01

    The first part of the book studies pseudo-periodic maps of a closed surface of genus greater than or equal to two. This class of homeomorphisms was originally introduced by J. Nielsen in 1944 as an extension of periodic maps. In this book, the conjugacy classes of the (chiral) pseudo-periodic mapping classes are completely classified, and Nielsen’s incomplete classification is corrected. The second part applies the results of the first part to the topology of degeneration of Riemann surfaces. It is shown that the set of topological types of all the singular fibers appearing in one-parameter holomorphic families of Riemann surfaces is in a bijective correspondence with the set of conjugacy classes of the pseudo-periodic maps of negative twists. The correspondence is given by the topological monodromy.

  12. Performance of alternative diamond interchange forms : Volume II--guidelines for selecting alternative diamond interchanges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Service interchanges connect freeways to arterial roads and are the backbone of the U.S. road network. Improving the operations of service interchanges is possible by applying one of several new solutions: diverging diamond, single point interchanges...

  13. Nonlinear Tamm states and surface effects in periodic photonic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kivshar, Yu S

    2008-01-01

    We present a brief overview of the basic concepts and important experimental observations of the effect of light localization near the surfaces of truncated periodic photonic structures. In particular, we discuss the formation of nonlinear localized modes and discrete surface solitons near the edges of nonlinear optical waveguide arrays and two-dimensional photonic lattices. We draw an analogy between the nonlinear surface optical modes and the surface Tamm states known in the electronic theory. We discuss the crossover between discrete solitons in the array and surface solitons at the edge of the array by analyzing the families of even and odd nonlinear localized modes located at finite distances from the edge of a waveguide array. We discuss various generalization of this concept including surface solitons in chirped lattices, multi-gap vector surface solitons, polychromatic surface states generated by a supercontinuum source, surface modes in two-dimensional photonic lattices, and spatiotemporal surface solitons. Finally, we discuss briefly several other related concepts including the enhanced beaming of light from subwavelength waveguides in photonic crystals

  14. Interchange stability of noncircular reversed field pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, D.A.; Prager, S.C.; Todd, A.M.M.

    1987-08-01

    Interchange (Mercier) stability of toroidal reversed-field-pinch plasmas with noncircular cross-section is evaluated numerically. Marginally stable pressure profiles and beta values are produced. Most shapes, such as indented or vertically elongated, reduce stability by making the net magnetic curvature of the poloidal-field-dominated plasmas yet worse than that of the circle. Horizontally elongated plasmas slightly enhance stability beyond that of the circle as a result of increased shear produced by toroidicity. Such shear enhancement by the toroidal shift of magnetic surfaces might be exploited for future, more comprehensive studies

  15. Terahertz surface plasmon polariton waveguiding with periodic metallic cylinders

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Ying

    2017-06-15

    We demonstrated a structure with periodic cylinders arranged bilaterally and a thin dielectric layer covered inside that supports bound modes of surface plasmon polaritons at terahertz frequencies. This structure can confine the surface plasmon polaritons in the lateral direction, and at the same time reduce the field expansion into space. We examined and explored the characteristics of several different structures using scanning near-field terahertz microscopy. The proposed designs pave a novel way to terahertz waveguiding and may have important applications in the development of flexible, wideband and compact photonic circuits operating at terahertz frequencies.

  16. Spoof surface plasmons propagating along a periodically corrugated coaxial waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talebi, Nahid; Shahabadi, Mahmoud

    2010-01-01

    Using the rigorous mode-matching technique, we have investigated a periodically corrugated perfectly conducting coaxial waveguide for the possibility of propagation of localized spoof surface plasmons. To verify our results, the computed band diagram of the structure has been compared with the one obtained using the body-of-revolution finite-difference time-domain method. The obtained spoof surface plasmon modes have been shown to be highly localized and slowly propagating. Variations of the obtained modal frequencies and mode profiles as a function of the depth and width of the grooves have also been investigated.

  17. Spoof surface plasmons propagating along a periodically corrugated coaxial waveguide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talebi, Nahid; Shahabadi, Mahmoud, E-mail: n.talebi@ece.ut.ac.i [Photonics Research Laboratory, Center of Excellence for Applied Electromagnetic Systems, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Tehran, North Kargar Ave., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-04-07

    Using the rigorous mode-matching technique, we have investigated a periodically corrugated perfectly conducting coaxial waveguide for the possibility of propagation of localized spoof surface plasmons. To verify our results, the computed band diagram of the structure has been compared with the one obtained using the body-of-revolution finite-difference time-domain method. The obtained spoof surface plasmon modes have been shown to be highly localized and slowly propagating. Variations of the obtained modal frequencies and mode profiles as a function of the depth and width of the grooves have also been investigated.

  18. INTERCHANGE RECONNECTION AND CORONAL HOLE DYNAMICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edmondson, J. K.; Antiochos, S. K.; DeVore, C. R.; Lynch, B. J.; Zurbuchen, T. H.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the effect of magnetic reconnection between open and closed fields, often referred to as 'interchange' reconnection, on the dynamics and topology of coronal hole boundaries. The most important and most prevalent three-dimensional topology of the interchange process is that of a small-scale bipolar magnetic field interacting with a large-scale background field. We determine the evolution of such a magnetic topology by numerical solution of the fully three-dimensional MHD equations in spherical coordinates. First, we calculate the evolution of a small-scale bipole that initially is completely inside an open field region and then is driven across a coronal hole boundary by photospheric motions. Next the reverse situation is calculated in which the bipole is initially inside the closed region and driven toward the coronal hole boundary. In both cases, we find that the stress imparted by the photospheric motions results in deformation of the separatrix surface between the closed field of the bipole and the background field, leading to rapid current sheet formation and to efficient reconnection. When the bipole is inside the open field region, the reconnection is of the interchange type in that it exchanges open and closed fields. We examine, in detail, the topology of the field as the bipole moves across the coronal hole boundary and find that the field remains well connected throughout this process. Our results, therefore, provide essential support for the quasi-steady models of the open field, because in these models the open and closed flux are assumed to remain topologically distinct as the photosphere evolves. Our results also support the uniqueness hypothesis for open field regions as postulated by Antiochos et al. On the other hand, the results argue against models in which open flux is assumed to diffusively penetrate deeply inside the closed field region under a helmet streamer. We discuss the implications of this work for coronal observations.

  19. Interchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reading Teacher, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Presents suggestions from five contributors including how to develop middle school students' library skills, teaching early reading through materials from a fast food restaurant chain, and ways to conduct student evaluation of teachers. (FL)

  20. Interchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reading Teacher, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Suggestions from five contributors deal with the following topics: (1) helping the child who stutters to read fluently, (2) the vowel-consonant-vowel controversy, (3) motivating the reluctant reader, (4) building self-concept through a story wall, and (5) dictionary study. (FL)

  1. Cell size increased in tissues from transgenic mice overexpressing a cell surface growth-related and cancer-specific hydroquinone oxidase, tNOX, with protein disulfide-thiol interchange activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagiz, Kader; Snyder, Paul W; Morré, D James; Morré, Dorothy M

    2008-12-15

    tNOX (ENOX2), a cancer-specific and growth-related cell surface protein with protein disulfide-thiol interchange and hydroquinone (NADH) oxidase activities was overexpressed in a transgenic mouse model. Female transgenic mice grew faster than wild type as did embryonic fibroblast cells prepared from the transgenic mice. The tissue expression of tNOX mRNA was greatest in heart, lung and liver. When these tissues were analyzed for cell size, the cells from the tissues of transgenic animals were, on average, 20% larger in surface area than cells from corresponding wild-type tissues. Also analyzed were cells of intestine, spleen and kidney in which tNOX overexpression was observed but to a lesser extent. Cell size was increased as well with intestine and kidney but less so with spleen. At the end of the study, carcass weights of the transgenic animals were greater than those of wild type. This increase in carcass weight was reflected in an increase in femur weight and thickness in both male and female transgenic mice but not in femur length. Other carcass parameters such as skin weight and body fat or body fluids were unchanged or changes were insufficient to account for the increased carcass weight. The findings are consistent with the property of tNOX observed in studies with cultured cells as contributing to the enlargement phase of cell growth.

  2. Refining femtosecond laser induced periodical surface structures with liquid assist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao, L.S.; Ng, E.Y.K.; Zheng, H.Y.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► LIPSS on silicon wafer was made in air and in ethanol environment. ► Ethanol environment produce cleaner surface ripples. ► Ethanol environment decrease spatial wavelength of the LIPSS by 30%. ► More number of pulses produce smaller spatial wavelength in air. ► Number of pulses do not influence spatial wavelength in ethanol environment. - Abstract: Laser induced periodic surface structures were generated on silicon wafer using femtosecond laser. The medium used in this study is both air and ethanol. The laser process parameters such as wavelength, number of pulse, laser fluence were kept constant for both the mediums. The focus of the study is to analyze spatial wavelength. When generating surface structures with air as a medium and same process parameter of the laser, spatial wavelength results showed a 30% increase compared to ethanol. The cleanliness of the surface generated using ethanol showed considerably less debris than in air. The results observed from the above investigation showed that the medium plays a predominant role in the generation of surface structures.

  3. Interchange Recognition Method Based on CNN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HE Haiwei

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The identification and classification of interchange structures in OSM data can provide important information for the construction of multi-scale model, navigation and location services, congestion analysis, etc. The traditional method of interchange identification relies on the low-level characteristics of artificial design, and cannot distinguish the complex interchange structure with interference section effectively. In this paper, a new method based on convolutional neural network for identification of the interchange is proposed. The method combines vector data with raster image, and uses neural network to learn the fuzzy characteristics of the interchange, and classifies the complex interchange structure in OSM. Experiments show that this method has strong anti-interference, and has achieved good results in the classification of complex interchange shape, and there is room for further improvement with the expansion of the case base and the optimization of neural network model.

  4. Picosecond laser induced periodic surface structure on copper thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huynh, Thi Trang Dai; Petit, Agnès; Semmar, Nadjib

    2014-01-01

    LIPSS (Laser Induced Periodic Surface Structure) formation on copper thin films induced by a picosecond laser beam (Nd:YAG laser at 266 nm, 42 ps and 10 Hz) was studied experimentally. Copper thin films were deposited on glass and silicon substrates by magnetron sputtering. The surface modifications of irradiated zones were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Two distinct types of LIPSS were identified with respect to the laser fluence (F), number of laser shots (N) and substrate material. Namely, with a number of laser shots (1000 2 2 ), Low Spatial Frequency LIPSS (LSFL with a spatial period of Λ ∼ 260 nm and an orientation perpendicular to polarization) and High Spatial Frequency LIPSS (HSFL with a spatial period of Λ ∼ 130 nm and an orientation parallel to the polarization) were observed. The regime of regular spikes formation was determined for N ≥ 1000. Moreover, the 2D-map of the relationship among LIPSS formation, laser fluence and number of laser shots on copper thin film with two different substrates was established. A physics interpretation of regular spikes and LIPSS formation on copper thin film induced by ps laser with overlapping multi-shots is proposed based on experimental data and the theory of Plateau-Rayleigh instability.

  5. Comparison of Pinavia Interchange Vs Interchange's All Directional and Nano of Traffic Operation and Safety with Traffic simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Abolfazl samadi Heidar Abadi; Ali Abdi

    2016-01-01

    in this study, one of the newest types of interchange, which has recently attracted the attention of researchers and designers, i.e. Pinnavia and one of most recent interchange, i.e. the nano interchange and one of the world's most popular interchange, ie the all directional interchange are thoroughly investigated and the reasons for using it will be expressed. In this research, replacement of the Pinnavia interchange with the nano interchange, the all directional interchange with the input v...

  6. Simultaneous excitation of the snake-like oscillations and the m/n = 1/1 resistive interchange modes around the iota = 1 rational surface just after hydrogen pellet injections in LHD plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bando, T.; Ohdachi, S.; Suzuki, Y.; Sakamoto, R.; Narushima, Y.; Takemura, Y.; Watanabe, K. Y.; Sakakibara, S.; Du, X. D.; Motojima, G.; Tanaka, K.; Morisaki, T.; LHD Experiment Group

    2018-01-01

    Two types of oscillation phenomena are found just after hydrogen ice pellet injections in the Large Helical Device (LHD). Oscillation phenomena appear when the deposition profile of a hydrogen ice pellet is localized around the rotational transform ι = 1 rational surface. At first, damping oscillations (type-I) appear only in the soft X-ray (SX) emission. They are followed by the second type of oscillations (type-II) where the magnetic fluctuations and density fluctuations synchronized to the SX fluctuations are observed. Both oscillations have poloidal/toroidal mode number, m/n = 1/1. Since the type-II oscillations appear when the local pressure is large and/or the local magnetic Reynold's number is small, it is reasonable that type-II oscillations are caused by the resistive interchange modes. Because both types of oscillations appear simultaneously at slightly different locations and with slightly different frequencies, it is certain that type-I oscillations are different from type-II oscillations, which we believe is the MHD instability. It is possible that type-I oscillations are caused by the asymmetric concentration of the impurities. The type-I oscillations are similar to the impurity snake phenomena observed in tokamaks though type-I oscillations survive only several tens of milliseconds in LHD.

  7. Period Matrices of Real Riemann Surfaces and Fundamental Domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Giavedoni

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available For some positive integers g and n we consider a subgroup G_{g,n} of the 2g-dimensional modular group keeping invariant a certain locus W_{g,n} in the Siegel upper half plane of degree g. We address the problem of describing a fundamental domain for the modular action of the subgroup on W_{g,n}. Our motivation comes from geometry: g and n represent the genus and the number of ovals of a generic real Riemann surface of separated type; the locus W_{g,n} contains the corresponding period matrix computed with respect to some specific basis in the homology. In this paper we formulate a general procedure to solve the problem when g is even and n equals one. For g equal to two or four the explicit calculations are worked out in full detail.

  8. Performance of Alternative Diamond Interchange Forms: Volume 2—Guidelines for Selecting Alternative Diamond Interchanges

    OpenAIRE

    Tarko, Andrew P.; Romero, Mario A.; Sultana, Afia

    2017-01-01

    Service interchanges connect freeways to arterial roads and are the backbone of the U.S. road network. Improving the operations of service interchanges is possible by applying one of several new solutions: diverging diamond, single point interchanges, and double or single roundabout diamonds. VISSIM was used to perform 13,500 experiments to simulate the traffic performance of the studied alternative interchanges during a typical day for a wide range of geometry and traffic scenarios. Five ...

  9. [The equivalence and interchangeability of medical articles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonov, V S

    2013-11-01

    The information concerning the interchangeability of medical articles is highly valuable because it makes it possible to correlate most precisely medical articles with medical technologies and medical care standards and to optimize budget costs under public purchasing. The proposed procedure of determination of interchangeability is based on criteria of equivalence of prescriptions, functional technical and technological characteristics and effectiveness of functioning of medical articles.

  10. Geoscience terminology for data interchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Stephen

    2013-04-01

    Workgroups formed by the Commission for the Management and Application of Geoscience Information (CGI), a Commission of the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) have been developing vocabulary resources to promote geoscience information exchange. The Multilingual Thesaurus Working Group (MLT) was formed in 2003 to continue work of the Multhes working group of the 1990s. The Concept Definition Task Group was formed by the CGI Interoperability Working Group in 2007 to develop concept vocabularies for populating GeoSciML interchange documents. The CGI council has determined that it will be more efficient and effective to merge the efforts of these groups and has formed a new Geoscience Terminology Working Group (GTWG, http://www.cgi-iugs.org/tech_collaboration/geoscience_terminology_working_group.html). Each GTWG member will be expected to shepherd one or more vocabularies. There are currently 31 vocabularies in the CGI portfolio, developed for GeoSciML interchange documents (e.g. see http://resource.geosciml.org/ 201202/). Vocabulary development in both groups has been conducted first by gathering candidate terms in Excel spreadsheets because these are easy for text editing and review. When the vocabulary is mature, it is migrated into SKOS, an RDF application for encoding concepts with identifiers, definitions, source information, standard thesaurus type relationships, and language-localized labels. Currently there are 30 vocabularies still required for GeoSciML v3, and 38 proposed vocabularies for use with EarthResourceML (https://www.seegrid.csiro.au/wiki/CGIModel/EarthResourceML). In addition, a project to develop a lithogenetic map unit vocabulary to use for regional geologic map integration using OGC web map services is underway. Considerable work remains to be done to integrate multilingual geoscience terms developed by the MLT Working Group with existing CGI vocabularies to provide multilingual support, and to make the thesaurus compiled by the

  11. Performance of alternative diamond interchange forms : volume I -- research report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Service interchanges connect freeways to arterial roads and are the backbone of the U.S. road network. Improving the operations of service interchanges is possible by applying one of several new solutions: diverging diamond, single point interchanges...

  12. Limit Interchange and L'Hopital's Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, Michael W.

    2011-01-01

    Conventional application of these two calculus staples is stretched here, somewhat recreationally, but also to raise solid questions about the role of limit interchange in analysis--without, however, delving any deeper than first-year Calculus.

  13. Bibliographic information interchange with data independence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macedo, L.F.P. de

    1980-01-01

    A technique for bibliographic information processing, at the standardized interchange format ISO 2709 or ANSI Z39.2, which allows to obtain programs with data independence is developed. A format definition language and manipulation commands which enable data storage and retrieval at the logical level are specified. With this technique it is possible to implement programs which can accept data from any information system, reducing, therefore, the requirements of a common bibliographic information interchange format. (Author) [pt

  14. Reduction of Friction of Metals Using Laser-Induced Periodic Surface Nanostructures

    OpenAIRE

    Zhuo Wang; Quanzhong Zhao; Chengwei Wang

    2015-01-01

    We report on the effect of femtosecond-laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) on the tribological properties of stainless steel. Uniform periodic nanostructures were produced on AISI 304L (American Iron and Steel Institute steel grade) steel surfaces using an 800-nm femtosecond laser. The spatial periods of LIPSS measured by field emission scanning electron microscopy ranged from 530 to 570 nm. The tribological properties of smooth and textured surfaces with periodic nanostructures...

  15. Laser-induced periodic surface structures: fingerprints of light localization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skolski, J.Z.P.; Römer, G.R.B.E.; Obona, J.V.; Ocelik, V.; Huis in 't Veld, A.J.; Hosson, J.Th.M. de

    2012-01-01

    The finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method is used to study the inhomogeneous absorption of linearly polarized laser radiation below a rough surface. The results are first analyzed in the frequency domain and compared to the efficacy factor theory of Sipe and coworkers. Both approaches show

  16. Detection of a periodic structure embedded in surface roughness, for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 77; Issue 4. Detection of a periodic structure embedded ... Author Affiliations. V C Vani1 S Chatterjee2. Department of Instrumentation and Applied Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India; Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bangalore 560 034, India ...

  17. Surface alloys as interfacial layers between quasicrystalline and periodic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duguet, T.; Ledieu, J.; Dubois, J. M.; Fournée, V.

    2008-08-01

    Low adhesion with normal metals is an intrinsic property of many quasicrystalline surfaces. Although this property could be useful to develop low friction or non-stick coatings, it is also responsible for the poor adhesion of quasicrystalline coatings on metal substrates. Here we investigate the possibility of using complex metallic surface alloys as interface layers to enhance the adhesion between quasicrystals and simple metal substrates. We first review some examples where such complex phases are formed as an overlayer. Then we study the formation of such surface alloys in a controlled way by annealing a thin film deposited on a quasicrystalline substrate. We demonstrate that a coherent buffer layer consisting of the γ-Al4Cu9 approximant can be grown between pure Al and the i-Al-Cu-Fe quasicrystal. The interfacial relationships between the different layers are defined by [111]_{\\mathrm {Al}}\\parallel [110]_{\\mathrm {Al_4Cu_9}}\\parallel [5\\mathrm {f}]_{i\\mbox {-}\\mathrm {Al\\mbox {--}Cu \\mbox {--}Fe}} .

  18. Surface alloys as interfacial layers between quasicrystalline and periodic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duguet, T; Ledieu, J; Dubois, J M; Fournee, V [Laboratoire de Science et Genie des Materiaux et de Metallurgie, UMR 7584 CNRS-Nancy Universite, Ecole des Mines de Nancy, Parc de Saurupt, F-54042 Nancy (France)], E-mail: fournee@lsg2m.org

    2008-08-06

    Low adhesion with normal metals is an intrinsic property of many quasicrystalline surfaces. Although this property could be useful to develop low friction or non-stick coatings, it is also responsible for the poor adhesion of quasicrystalline coatings on metal substrates. Here we investigate the possibility of using complex metallic surface alloys as interface layers to enhance the adhesion between quasicrystals and simple metal substrates. We first review some examples where such complex phases are formed as an overlayer. Then we study the formation of such surface alloys in a controlled way by annealing a thin film deposited on a quasicrystalline substrate. We demonstrate that a coherent buffer layer consisting of the {gamma}-Al{sub 4}Cu{sub 9} approximant can be grown between pure Al and the i-Al-Cu-Fe quasicrystal. The interfacial relationships between the different layers are defined by [111]{sub Al} parallel [110]{sub Al4Cu9} parallel [5f]{sub i-Al-}C{sub u-Fe}.

  19. Finite-difference Time-domain Modeling of Laser-induced Periodic Surface Structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Römer, Gerardus Richardus, Bernardus, Engelina; Skolski, J.Z.P.; Vincenc Obona, J.; Huis in 't Veld, Bert

    2014-01-01

    Laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSSs) consist of regular wavy surface structures with amplitudes the (sub)micrometer range and periodicities in the (sub)wavelength range. It is thought that periodically modulated absorbed laser energy is initiating the growth of LIPSSs. The “Sipe

  20. Formation of periodic structures by surface treatments of polyamide fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yip, Joanne; Chan, Kwong; Sin, Kwan Moon; Lau, Kai Shui

    2006-01-01

    The processes of UV excimer laser irradiation (both high- and low-fluence) of polyamide fiber were systemically studied, including the surface temperature of the material during the treatment and possible mechanisms for the structure formation. The fluence applied in the high-fluence laser irradiation was above the ablation threshold of the material. The ablation of polymer can be described on the basis of photo-thermal bond breaking within the bulk material. The fluence applied in the low-fluence laser irradiation was far below the ablation threshold of the material. The development of low-fluence laser-induced structures is closely related to the absorption coefficient of the material, the laser fluence used, the polarization of the laser beam, the angle of incidence, and the number of laser pulses applied

  1. Reduction of Friction of Metals Using Laser-Induced Periodic Surface Nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuo Wang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We report on the effect of femtosecond-laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS on the tribological properties of stainless steel. Uniform periodic nanostructures were produced on AISI 304L (American Iron and Steel Institute steel grade steel surfaces using an 800-nm femtosecond laser. The spatial periods of LIPSS measured by field emission scanning electron microscopy ranged from 530 to 570 nm. The tribological properties of smooth and textured surfaces with periodic nanostructures were investigated using reciprocating ball-on-flat tests against AISI 440C balls under both dry and starved oil lubricated conditions. The friction coefficient of LIPSS covered surfaces has shown a lower value than that of the smooth surface. The induced periodic nanostructures demonstrated marked potential for reducing the friction coefficient compared with the smooth surface.

  2. science, technology and environment: interchange workshops ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    education' and opened discussions on how the three developing concerns emerged as differing disciplines, environmental education, science education and technology education, amongst specialist curriculum development initiatives. After introductory remarks on the interchange theme by Rob O'Donoghue (Natal Parks ...

  3. Focus on Nutrition. MCH Program Interchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Education in Maternal and Child Health, Washington, DC.

    This issue of the "MCH Program Interchange" describes selected materials and publications in maternal and child health (MCH) nutrition services and programs. The materials were developed by or are available from federal agencies, state and local public health agencies, and voluntary and professional organizations. The information is intended to…

  4. science, technology and environment: interchange workshops ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The workshop interchange reported here were funded with a grant from the Foundation for Research. Development (FRD). Two workshops were convened by the Master of Education students of the interacting universities. The theme of science, technology and environment was introduced as a cluster of priorities that has ...

  5. Interchangeable Bearings for Profile and Weight Trade Studies Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Air-Lock, Incorporated is proposing to design fully sealed shoulder and arm bearings with interchangeable bearing housings. The interchangeable housings shall be...

  6. Financing mechanisms for capital improvements : interchanges : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    This report examines the use of alternative local financing mechanisms for interchange and interchange area infrastructure improvements. The financing mechanisms covered include transportation impact fees, tax increment financing, value capture finan...

  7. Financing mechanisms for capital improvements : interchanges, final report, March 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    This report examines the use of alternative local financing mechanisms for interchange and interchange area infrastructure improvements. The financing mechanisms covered include transportation impact fees, tax increment financing, value capture finan...

  8. Understanding SOL plasma turbulence by interchange motions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horáček, Jan; Pitts, R. A.; Nielsen, A.H.; Garcia, O.E.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 16 (2007), s. 192-193 ISSN 0003-0503. [Annual meeting of the division of plasma physics/49th./. Orlando , 12.11.2007-16.11.2007] Grant - others:-(XE) European Training fellowships and Grants (Euratom), EDGETURB Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : tokamak * plasma * scrape-off layer * turbulence * interchange instability Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics http://meetings.aps.org/Meeting/DPP07/Event/70125

  9. Femtosecond laser-induced periodic nanostructure creation on PET surface for controlling of cell spreading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yuji; Tsukamoto, Masahiro; Shinonaga, Togo; Kawa, Takuya

    2016-03-01

    A new method of periodic nanostructure formation on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) surface has been developed, employing a femtosecond laser with a wavelength of 1045 nm. To generate structured films, the PET was placed in contact with a silicon (Si) wafer, followed by irradiation with the laser focused on the Si wafer, passing through the PET film. In order to evaluate the surface morphology, atomic force microscopy analysis was conducted on both treated and untreated PET surfaces. From the results, nanostructures with a period of 600 nm and height of 100 nm were formed on the PET film surface by laser treatment. A cell cultivation test was carried out on PET films with and without periodic nanostructures, showing that for nanostructured films, the cells (MG-63) were spread along the periodic grooves; in contrast, random cell spreading was observed for cultures grown on the untreated PET film.

  10. Hydrology of surface waters and thermohaline circulation during the last glacial period; Hydrologie des eaux de surface et circulation thermohaline au cours de la derniere periode glaciaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidal, L.

    1996-03-27

    Sedimentological studies on oceanic cores from the north Atlantic have revealed, over the last glacial period, abrupt climatic changes with a periodicity of several thousand years which contrasts strongly with the glacial-interglacial periodicity (several tens of thousand years). These periods of abrupt climate changes correspond to massive icebergs discharges into the north Atlantic. The aim of this work was to study the evolution of the thermohaline circulation in relation to these episodic iceberg discharges which punctuated the last 60 ka. To reconstruct the oceanic circulation in the past, we have analysed oxygen and carbon stable isotopes on benthic foraminifera from north Atlantic deep-sea cores. First of all, the higher temporal resolution of sedimentary records has enabled us to establish a precise chrono-stratigraphy for the different cores. Then, we have shown the close linkage between surface water hydrology and deep circulation, giving evidence of the sensibility of thermohaline circulation to melt water input in the north Atlantic ocean. Indeed, changes in deep circulation are synchronous from those identified in surface waters and are recorded on a period which lasted {approx} 1500 years. Deep circulation reconstructions, before and during a typical iceberg discharge reveal several modes of circulation linked to different convection sites at the high latitudes of the Atlantic basin. Moreover, the study of the last glacial period gives the opportunity to differentiate circulation changes due to the external forcing (variations of the orbital parameters) and those linked to a more local forcing (icebergs discharges). 105 refs., 50 figs., 14 tabs., 4 appends.

  11. Feasibility of automated foundational ontology interchangeability

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Khan, ZC

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available by the domain entities in the tO. The full algorithm can be accessed at the ROMULUS repository at the afore- mentioned URL, and it is illustrated in the next example. Example 1. The BFO-aligned Subcellular Anatomy Ontology (SAO) is linked to DOLCE by SUGOI... mapping files, for interchanging between DOLCE↔BFO, BFO↔GFO, GFO↔DOLCE, DOLCE↔GFOBasic, and GFOBasic↔BFO. The sample size was 16 source ontologies covering various subject domains, such as data mining, animals, dermatology, and spatial scenes, of which 5...

  12. Laser-induced generation of surface periodic structures in media with nonlinear diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuravlev, V. M.; Zolotovskii, I. O.; Korobko, D. A.; Morozov, V. M.; Svetukhin, V. V.; Yavtushenko, I. O.; Yavtushenko, M. S.

    2017-12-01

    A model of fast formation of high-contrast periodic structure appearing on a semiconductor surface under action of laser radiation is proposed. The process of growing a surface structure due to the interaction surface plasmon- polaritons excited on nonequilibrium electrons with incident laser radiation are considered in the framework of a medium with nonlinear diffusion of nonequilibrium carriers (defects). A resonance effect of superfast pico- and subpicosecond amplification of the plasmon-polariton structure generated on the surface, the realization of which can result in a high-contrast defect lattice.

  13. Surface topography measurements over the 1 meter to 10 micrometer spatial period bandwidth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takacs, P.Z.; Furenlid, K.; DeBiasse, R.A.; Church, E.L.

    1989-09-01

    A recently-developed long-trace surface profiling instrument (LTP) is now in operation in our laboratory measuring surface profiles on grazing incidence aspheres and also conventional optical surface. The LTP characterizes surface height profiles in a non-contact manner over spatial periods ranging from 1 meter (the maximum scan length) to 2 mm (the Nyquist period for 1 mm sampling period) and complements the range of our WYKO NCP-1000 2.5X surface roughness profiler (5 mm to 9.8 μm). Using these two instruments, we can fully characterize both figure and finish of an optical surface in the same way that we normally characterize surface finish, e.g., by means of the power spectral density function in the spatial frequency domain. A great deal of information about the distribution of figure errors over various spatial frequency ranges is available from this data, which is useful for process control and predicting performance at the desired wavelength and incidence angle. In addition, the LTP is able to measure the absolute radius of curvature on long-radius optics with high precision and accuracy. Angular errors in the optical head are measured in real time by an electronic autocollimator as the head traverses the linear air bearing slide. Measurements of kilometer radius optics can be made very quickly and the data analyzed in a format that is very easy to understand. 17 refs., 10 figs

  14. Metal surface coloration by oxide periodic structures formed with nanosecond laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiko, Vadim; Karlagina, Yulia; Moskvin, Mikhail; Mikhailovskii, Vladimir; Odintsova, Galina; Olshin, Pavel; Pankin, Dmitry; Romanov, Valery; Yatsuk, Roman

    2017-09-01

    In this work, we studied a method of laser-induced coloration of metals, where small-scale spatially periodic structures play a key role in the process of color formation. The formation of such structures on a surface of AISI 304 stainless steel was demonstrated for the 1.06 μm fiber laser with nanosecond duration of pulses and random (elliptical) polarization. The color of the surface depends on the period, height and orientation of periodic surface structures. Adjustment of the polarization of the laser radiation or change of laser incidence angle can be used to control the orientation of the structures. The formation of markings that change their color under the different viewing angles becomes possible. The potential application of the method is metal product protection against falsification.

  15. Grazing angle X-ray fluorescence from periodic structures on silicon and silica surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, S.H., E-mail: nowak@ifg-adlershof.de [Physics Department, University of Fribourg, CH-1700 Fribourg (Switzerland); Banaś, D. [Institute of Physics, Jan Kochanowski University, 25-406 Kielce (Poland); Błchucki, W.; Cao, W.; Dousse, J.-Cl. [Physics Department, University of Fribourg, CH-1700 Fribourg (Switzerland); Hönicke, P. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), D-10587 Berlin (Germany); Hoszowska, J. [Physics Department, University of Fribourg, CH-1700 Fribourg (Switzerland); Jabłoński, Ł. [Institute of Physics, Jan Kochanowski University, 25-406 Kielce (Poland); Kayser, Y. [Physics Department, University of Fribourg, CH-1700 Fribourg (Switzerland); Kubala-Kukuś, A.; Pajek, M. [Institute of Physics, Jan Kochanowski University, 25-406 Kielce (Poland); Reinhardt, F. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), D-10587 Berlin (Germany); Savu, A.V. [Microsystems Laboratory (LMIS1), Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Szlachetko, J. [Institute of Physics, Jan Kochanowski University, 25-406 Kielce (Poland); Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2014-08-01

    Various 3-dimensional nano-scaled periodic structures with different configurations and periods deposited on the surface of silicon and silica substrates were investigated by means of the grazing incidence and grazing emission X-ray fluorescence techniques. Apart from the characteristics which are typical for particle- and layer-like samples, the measured angular intensity profiles show additional periodicity-related features. The latter could be explained by a novel theoretical approach based on simple geometrical optics (GO) considerations. The new GO-based calculations were found to yield results in good agreement with experiment, also in cases where other theoretical approaches are not valid, e.g., periodic particle distributions with an increased surface coverage.

  16. Grazing angle X-ray fluorescence from periodic structures on silicon and silica surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, S.H.; Banaś, D.; Błchucki, W.; Cao, W.; Dousse, J.-Cl.; Hönicke, P.; Hoszowska, J.; Jabłoński, Ł.; Kayser, Y.; Kubala-Kukuś, A.; Pajek, M.; Reinhardt, F.; Savu, A.V.; Szlachetko, J.

    2014-01-01

    Various 3-dimensional nano-scaled periodic structures with different configurations and periods deposited on the surface of silicon and silica substrates were investigated by means of the grazing incidence and grazing emission X-ray fluorescence techniques. Apart from the characteristics which are typical for particle- and layer-like samples, the measured angular intensity profiles show additional periodicity-related features. The latter could be explained by a novel theoretical approach based on simple geometrical optics (GO) considerations. The new GO-based calculations were found to yield results in good agreement with experiment, also in cases where other theoretical approaches are not valid, e.g., periodic particle distributions with an increased surface coverage

  17. Upper-Mantle Shear Velocities beneath Southern California Determined from Long-Period Surface Waves

    OpenAIRE

    Polet, J.; Kanamori, H.

    1997-01-01

    We used long-period surface waves from teleseismic earthquakes recorded by the TERRAscope network to determine phase velocity dispersion of Rayleigh waves up to periods of about 170 sec and of Love waves up to about 150 sec. This enabled us to investigate the upper-mantle velocity structure beneath southern California to a depth of about 250 km. Ten and five earthquakes were used for Rayleigh and Love waves, respectively. The observed surface-wave dispersion shows a clear Love/Rayleigh-wave d...

  18. Surface-enhanced Raman imaging of fractal shaped periodic metal nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beermann, Jonas; Novikov, Sergey Mikhailovich; Albrektsen, Ole

    2009-01-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) from Rhodamine 6G (R6G) homogenously adsorbed on fractal shaped 170-nm-period square arrays formed by 50-nm-high gold nanoparticles (diameters of 80, 100, or 120 nm are constant within each array), fabricated on a smooth gold film by electron-beam lithogra......Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) from Rhodamine 6G (R6G) homogenously adsorbed on fractal shaped 170-nm-period square arrays formed by 50-nm-high gold nanoparticles (diameters of 80, 100, or 120 nm are constant within each array), fabricated on a smooth gold film by electron...

  19. Snow cover as a source of technogenic pollution of surface water during the snow melting period

    OpenAIRE

    Labuzova Olga; Noskova Tatyana; Lysenko Maria; Ovcharenko Elena; Papina Tatyana

    2016-01-01

    The study of pollutants in melt water of snow cover and snow disposal sites in the city of Barnaul showed that during the snow melting period the surface water is not subjected to significant technogenic impact according to a number of studied indices. The oils content is an exception: it can exceed MAC more than 20 times in river- water due to the melting of city disposal sites. Environmental damage due to an oils input into water resources during the snow melting period...

  20. Achieving robust interchangeability of test assets in ATE systems

    CERN Document Server

    Oblad, R P

    1999-01-01

    This paper identities the key issues that have made if so difficult to achieve asset interchangeability. Several of the historical attempts to solve the problem of asset interchangeability are described, along with an analysis of the reasons that they did not achieve the expected results. Specific topics that are covered are SCPI, VXIplug&play, IVI, ATLAS, and Measurement Subsystems. Principles associated with the ownership of interfaces will be outlined. Finally, a set of rules and principles will be discussed that must be applied to achieve robust asset interchangeability. Robust is defined as interchangeability that can be "guaranteed" without testing all TPSs against the modified test system. (9 refs).

  1. Automatic 3D high-fidelity traffic interchange modeling using 2D road GIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Shen, Yuzhong

    2011-03-01

    3D road models are widely used in many computer applications such as racing games and driving simulations. However, almost all high-fidelity 3D road models were generated manually by professional artists at the expense of intensive labor. There are very few existing methods for automatically generating 3D high-fidelity road networks, especially for those existing in the real world. Real road network contains various elements such as road segments, road intersections and traffic interchanges. Among them, traffic interchanges present the most challenges to model due to their complexity and the lack of height information (vertical position) of traffic interchanges in existing road GIS data. This paper proposes a novel approach that can automatically produce 3D high-fidelity road network models, including traffic interchange models, from real 2D road GIS data that mainly contain road centerline information. The proposed method consists of several steps. The raw road GIS data are first preprocessed to extract road network topology, merge redundant links, and classify road types. Then overlapped points in the interchanges are detected and their elevations are determined based on a set of level estimation rules. Parametric representations of the road centerlines are then generated through link segmentation and fitting, and they have the advantages of arbitrary levels of detail with reduced memory usage. Finally a set of civil engineering rules for road design (e.g., cross slope, superelevation) are selected and used to generate realistic road surfaces. In addition to traffic interchange modeling, the proposed method also applies to other more general road elements. Preliminary results show that the proposed method is highly effective and useful in many applications.

  2. Ultraviolet and infrared femtosecond laser induced periodic surface structures on thin polymer films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebollar, Esther; Castillejo, Marta [Instituto de Quimica Fisica Rocasolano, CSIC, Serrano 119, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Vazquez de Aldana, Javier R.; Moreno, Pablo [Grupo de Investigacion en Microprocesado de Materiales con Laser, Universidad de Salamanca, Plaza de la Merced s/n, 37008 Salamanca (Spain); Perez-Hernandez, Jose A. [Centro de Laseres Pulsados Ultracortos Ultraintensos, CLPU, Plaza de la Merced s/n, 37008 Salamanca (Spain); Ezquerra, Tiberio A. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, IEM-CSIC, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-01-23

    This work demonstrates the formation of femtosecond laser induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) by multipulse irradiation with the fundamental and 3rd harmonic of a linearly polarized Ti:sapphire laser (795 and 265 nm) on thin films of the polymers poly (ethylene terephthalate), poly (trimethylene terephthalate), and poly (carbonate bisphenol A) prepared by spin-coating. LIPSS, inspected by atomic force microscopy, are formed upon multiple pulse UV and IR irradiation with wavelength-sized period in a narrow range of fluences below the ablation threshold. Control and tunability of the size and morphology of the periodic structures become thus possible ensuring photochemical integrity of polymer films.

  3. Submicrometre periodic surface structures in InP induced by nanosecond UV laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Brijesh; Soni, R K

    2008-01-01

    We report fabrication of submicrometre size laser-induced periodic surface structures (ripples) on single crystalline InP by nanosecond (ns) pulsed Nd : YAG laser beam irradiation of fourth harmonic wavelength (266 nm) in HF electrolyte. The ripples are orientated parallel to the laser polarization direction and power spectral density analysis reveals reduction in the spatial period of the ripples with increasing number of laser shots. The formation of periodic structures in the presence of electrolyte is empirically explained on the basis of photoelectrochemical etching and variation of periodicity with refractive index change on laser energy and number of laser pulses. From the analysis of energy dispersive x-ray, photoluminescence (PL) and micro-Raman spectroscopy measurements on the rippled surface we conclude that the ripple structures are capped with a thin layer of In 2 O 3 . Further, a blue shift of 0.328 eV compared with the band-edge luminescence of InP is estimated from the PL spectrum of the structure fabricated with 200 laser shots. The blue shift of the PL peak is attributed to the quantum confinement effect in the nanometre size structures in the rippled surface. Micro-Raman spectra show good crystalline quality of the surface at lower number of laser shots and its degradation caused by oxidation at the higher number of shots

  4. Surface N Balances in Agricultural Crop production systems in China for the period 1980-2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, B.; Shen, R.P.; Bouwman, A.F.

    2008-01-01

    Surface nitrogen (N) balances for China's crop production systems were estimated using statistical data collected from 1980 to 2004 at the national and provincial scale and from 1994 to 1999 at the county level. There was a surplus N balance throughout these periods, but the surplus was nearly

  5. Analysis of irradiation processes for laser-induced periodic surface structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eichstädt, J.; Huis In 't Veld, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    The influence of errors on the irradiation process for laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) was studied theoretically with energy density simulations. Therefore an irradiation model has been extended by a selection of technical variations. The influence of errors has been found in a

  6. Guiding of long-range surface plasmon polaritons along channels in periodic arrays of scatterers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boltasseva, Alexandra; Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Nikolajsen, T.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate waveguiding of long-range surface plasmon polaritons in periodic arrays of scatterers at telecommunication wavelengths. A propagation loss of approximately 6 dB/mm and a coupling loss of 0.5 dB is reported for 8-ìm-wide channels....

  7. Internet-based data interchange with XML

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuerst, Karl; Schmidt, Thomas

    2000-12-01

    In this paper, a complete concept for Internet Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) - a well-known buzzword in the area of logistics and supply chain management to enable the automation of the interactions between companies and their partners - using XML (eXtensible Markup Language) will be proposed. This approach is based on Internet and XML, because the implementation of traditional EDI (e.g. EDIFACT, ANSI X.12) is mostly too costly for small and medium sized enterprises, which want to integrate their suppliers and customers in a supply chain. The paper will also present the results of the implementation of a prototype for such a system, which has been developed for an industrial partner to improve the current situation of parts delivery. The main functions of this system are an early warning system to detect problems during the parts delivery process as early as possible, and a transport following system to pursue the transportation.

  8. Large-area electromagnetic enhancement by a resonant excitation of surface waves on a metallic surface with periodic subwavelength patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Liu, Haitao; Zhong, Ying

    2013-10-07

    We theoretically investigate the electromagnetic enhancement on a metallic surface patterned with periodic subwavelength structures. Fully-vectorial calculations show a large-area electromagnetic enhancement (LAEE) on the surface, which strongly contrasts with the previously reported "hot spots" that occur in specific tiny regions and which relieves the rigorous requirement of the nano-scale location of sample molecules. The LAEE allows for designing more practicable substrates for many enhanced-spectra applications. By building up microscopic models, the LAEE is shown due to a resonant excitation of surface waves that include both the surface plasmon polariton (SPP) and a quasi-cylindrical wave (QCW). The surface waves propagate on the substrate over a long distance and thus greatly enlarge the area of electromagnetic enhancement compared to the nano-sized hot spots caused by localized modes. Gain medium is introduced to further strengthen the large-area surface-wave resonance, with which an enhancement factor (EF) of electric-field intensity up to a few thousands is achieved.

  9. Interchangeability among therapeutic equivalents of lamotrigine: evaluation of quality of life

    OpenAIRE

    Girolineto,Beatriz Maria Pereira; Junior,Veriano Alexandre; Sakamoto,Américo Ceiki; Pereira,Leonardo Régis Leira

    2012-01-01

    Epilepsy is the most common serious neurological disorder worldwide. Approximately 70% of patients with epilepsy have their seizures controlled by clinical and pharmacological treatment. This research evaluated the possible influence of interchangeability among therapeutic equivalents of LTG on the clinical condition and quality of life of refractory epileptic patients. The study was divided into three periods of 42 days, and an equivalent therapeutic LTG randomly dispensed for each period (t...

  10. Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures on titanium nitride coatings for tribological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonse, J.; Kirner, S. V.; Koter, R.; Pentzien, S.; Spaltmann, D.; Krüger, J.

    2017-10-01

    Titanium nitride (TiN) was coated on different substrate materials, namely pure titanium (Ti), titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) and steel (100Cr6), generating 2.5 μm thick TiN layers. Using femtosecond laser pulses (30 fs, 790 nm, 1 kHz pulse repetition rate), large surface areas (5 mm × 5 mm) of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) with sub-wavelength periods ranging between 470 nm and 600 nm were generated and characterized by optical microscopy (OM), white light interference microscopy (WLIM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In tribological tests, coefficients of friction (COF) of the nanostructured surfaces were determined under reciprocating sliding conditions (1 Hz, 1.0 N normal load) against a 10-mm diameter ball of hardened 100Cr6 steel during 1000 cycles using two different lubricants, namely paraffin oil and engine oil. It turned out that the substrate material, the laser fluence and the lubricant are crucial for the tribological performance. However, friction and wear could not be significantly reduced by LIPSS on TiN layers in comparison to unstructured TiN surfaces. Finally, the resulting wear tracks on the nanostructured surfaces were investigated with respect to their morphology (OM, SEM), depth (WLIM) and chemical composition by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and, on one hand, compared with each other, on the other hand, with non-structured TiN surfaces.

  11. The role of original surface roughness in laser-induced periodic surface structure formation process on poly-carbonate films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csete, M.; Hild, S.; Plettl, A.; Ziemann, P.; Bor, Zs.; Marti, O.

    2004-01-01

    Poly-carbonate films containing different types of original surface roughness were illuminated by a polarized ArF excimer laser beam having a fluence of 4 mJ/cm 2 . Atomic force microscopy was applied to study the laser-induced periodic surface structure formation process at 0 deg. , 30 deg. and 45 deg. angles of incidence. The effect of initial surface structures on the intensity distribution was investigated in cases of: (a) grains on oriented and amorphous thick films; (b) holes on thin spin-coated films; and (c) nanoparticles arranged along micrometer long sides of hexagons below the spin-coated films. The presence of the scattering objects caused symmetry breaking, if the samples were illuminated by oblique incident 's' polarized beam. The Fourier analysis of the AFM pictures has shown the competition of structures having different periods. The characteristic of the permanent surface patterns proved that the interference of the incoming beam and the beams scattered on previously existing structures is the LIPSS generating feedback process. Ring-shaped structures having 228 nm diameter were produced

  12. Energy storage and dispersion of surface acoustic waves trapped in a periodic array of mechanical resonators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dühring, Maria Bayard; Laude, Vincent; Khelif, Abdelkrim

    2009-01-01

    confined to the electrode as compared to the total mechanical energy is calculated and is found to be increasing for increasing aspect ratio and to tend to a definite limit for the two families of surface waves. This observation is in support of the interpretation that high aspect ratio electrodes act......It has been shown previously that surface acoustic waves can be efficiently trapped and slowed by steep ridges on a piezoelectric substrate, giving rise to two families of shear-horizontal and vertically polarized surface waves. The mechanisms of energy storage and dispersion are explored by using...... the finite element method to model surface acoustic waves generated by high aspect ratio electrodes. A periodic model is proposed including a perfectly matched layer to simulate radiation conditions away from the sources, from which the modal distributions are found. The ratio of the mechanical energy...

  13. Nanometer-resolved chemical analyses of femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures on titanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirner, Sabrina V.; Wirth, Thomas; Sturm, Heinz; Krüger, Jörg; Bonse, Jörn

    2017-09-01

    The chemical characteristics of two different types of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS), so-called high and low spatial frequency LIPSS (HSFL and LSFL), formed upon irradiation of titanium surfaces by multiple femtosecond laser pulses in air (30 fs, 790 nm, 1 kHz), are analyzed by various optical and electron beam based surface analytical techniques, including micro-Raman spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Auger electron spectroscopy. The latter method was employed in a high-resolution mode being capable of spatially resolving even the smallest HSFL structures featuring spatial periods below 100 nm. In combination with an ion sputtering technique, depths-resolved chemical information of superficial oxidation processes was obtained, revealing characteristic differences between the two different types of LIPSS. Our results indicate that a few tens of nanometer shallow HSFL are formed on top of a ˜150 nm thick graded superficial oxide layer without sharp interfaces, consisting of amorphous TiO2 and partially crystallized Ti2O3. The larger LSFL structures with periods close to the irradiation wavelength originate from the laser-interaction with metallic titanium. They are covered by a ˜200 nm thick amorphous oxide layer, which consists mainly of TiO2 (at the surface) and other titanium oxide species of lower oxidation states underneath.

  14. Missouri's experience with a diverging diamond interchange : lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    The first DDI in the nation opened to traffic on June 21, 2009, in Springfield, Missouri. The interchange in : Springfield where the Kansas Expressway (MO-13) passes over I-44 is a huge success. A diverging diamond : interchange (DDI), sometimes refe...

  15. Complex patterning by vertical interchange atom manipulation using atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Yoshiaki; Pou, Pablo; Custance, Oscar; Jelinek, Pavel; Abe, Masayuki; Perez, Ruben; Morita, Seizo

    2008-10-17

    The ability to incorporate individual atoms in a surface following predetermined arrangements may bring future atom-based technological enterprises closer to reality. Here, we report the assembling of complex atomic patterns at room temperature by the vertical interchange of atoms between the tip apex of an atomic force microscope and a semiconductor surface. At variance with previous methods, these manipulations were produced by exploring the repulsive part of the short-range chemical interaction between the closest tip-surface atoms. By using first-principles calculations, we clarified the basic mechanisms behind the vertical interchange of atoms, characterizing the key atomistic processes involved and estimating the magnitude of the energy barriers between the relevant atomic configurations that leads to these manipulations.

  16. Snow cover as a source of technogenic pollution of surface water during the snow melting period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labuzova Olga

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The study of pollutants in melt water of snow cover and snow disposal sites in the city of Barnaul showed that during the snow melting period the surface water is not subjected to significant technogenic impact according to a number of studied indices. The oils content is an exception: it can exceed MAC more than 20 times in river- water due to the melting of city disposal sites. Environmental damage due to an oils input into water resources during the snow melting period can be more than 300000 thousand rubles.

  17. Factors That Influence Running Intensity in Interchange Players in Professional Rugby League.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Jace A; Thornton, Heidi R; Duthie, Grant M; Dascombe, Ben J

    2016-11-01

    Rugby league coaches adopt replacement strategies for their interchange players to maximize running intensity; however, it is important to understand the factors that may influence match performance. To assess the independent factors affecting running intensity sustained by interchange players during professional rugby league. Global positioning system (GPS) data were collected from all interchanged players (starters and nonstarters) in a professional rugby league squad across 24 matches of a National Rugby League season. A multilevel mixed-model approach was employed to establish the effect of various technical (attacking and defensive involvements), temporal (bout duration, time in possession, etc), and situational (season phase, recovery cycle, etc) factors on the relative distance covered and average metabolic power (P met ) during competition. Significant effects were standardized using correlation coefficients, and the likelihood of the effect was described using magnitude-based inferences. Superior intermittent running ability resulted in very likely large increases in both relative distance and P met . As the length of a bout increased, both measures of running intensity exhibited a small decrease. There were at least likely small increases in running intensity for matches played after short recovery cycles and against strong opposition. During a bout, the number of collision-based involvements increased running intensity, whereas time in possession and ball time out of play decreased demands. These data demonstrate a complex interaction of individual- and match-based factors that require consideration when developing interchange strategies, and the manipulation of training loads during shorter recovery periods and against stronger opponents may be beneficial.

  18. Investigations on a nano-scale periodical waveguide structure taking surface plasmon polaritons into consideration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Weihao; Zhong Renbin; Zhou Jun; Zhang Yaxin; Hu Min; Liu Shenggang

    2012-01-01

    Detailed theoretical analysis and computer simulations on the electromagnetic characteristics of a nano-scale periodical waveguide structure, taking surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) into consideration, are carried out in this paper. The results show that SPPs will significantly influence the electromagnetic characteristics of the structure. When the operation frequency is in a certain band—the ‘radial confinement band’, neither radial surface plasmon waves nor guided waves, which both will lead to radial energy loss, can be excited in the structure. And the electromagnetic waves are completely confined within the longitudinal waveguide and propagate along it with little attenuation. The radial energy loss is then significantly reduced. These results are of great significance not only for increasing the efficiency of the radiation sources based on the nano-scale periodical waveguide structure but also for the development of high-efficiency waveguides and wide-band filters in the infrared and visible light regimes. (paper)

  19. Bioinspired periodic pinecone-shaped Si subwavelength nanostructures for broadband and omnidirectional antireflective surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leem, Jung Woo; Yu, Jae Su

    2012-10-01

    We reported the bioinspired periodic pinecone-shaped silicon (Si) subwavelength nanostructures, which were fabricated by laser interference lithography and inductively coupled plasma etching using thermally dewetted gold (Au) nanoparticles in SiCl4 plasma, on Si substrates for broadband and wide-angle antireflective surface. For the fabricated pinecone-like Si subwavelength nanostructures, antireflection characteristics and wetting behaviors were investigated. The pinecone-shaped Si subwavelength nanostructure with a period of 320 nm for 7 nm of Au film exhibited a relatively low solar weighted reflectance value of 3.5% over a wide wavelength range of 300-1030 nm, maintaining the reflectance values of < 9.9% at a wavelength of 550 nm up to a high incident angle of theta(i) = 70 degrees for non-polarized light. This structure also showed a hydrophobic surface with a water contact angle of theta(c) approximately 102 degrees.

  20. Periodic morphological modification developed on the surface of polyethersulfone by XeCl excimer laser photoablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niino, H.; Nakano, M.; Nagano, S.; Yabe, A.; Miki, T.; Center for Structure Analyses, Teijin Limited, Asahigaoka, Hino, Tokyo, 191 Japan)

    1989-01-01

    Periodic and stable micropatterns appeared on the surface of amorphous polyethersulfone etched with an excimer laser at 308 nm in ambient air and a vacuum. The control of such radiative conditions as fluence and incident angle enables us to modify the spacing and pattern of the microstructures. A topographical investigation with scanning electron microscopy and an experiment with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to determine its composition is reported

  1. Investigating the wetting behavior of a surface with periodic reentrant structures using integrated microresonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingel, S.; Oesterschulze, E.

    2017-08-01

    The apparent contact angle is frequently used as an indicator of the wetting state of a surface in contact with a liquid. However, the apparent contact angle is subject to hysteresis that depends furthermore strongly on both the material properties and the roughness and structure of the sample surface. In this work, we show that integrated microresonators can be exploited to determine the wetting state by measuring both the frequency shift caused by the hydrodynamic mass of the liquid and the change in the quality factor as a result of damping. For this, we integrated electrically driven hybrid bridge resonators (HBRs) into a periodically structured surface intended for wetting experiments. We could clearly differentiate between the Wenzel state and the Cassie-Baxter state because the resonant frequency and quality factor of the HBR changed by over 35% and 40%, respectively. This offers the capability to unambiguously distinguish between the different wetting states.

  2. Hydrology of surface waters and thermohaline circulation during the last glacial period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidal, L.

    1996-01-01

    Sedimentological studies on oceanic cores from the north Atlantic have revealed, over the last glacial period, abrupt climatic changes with a periodicity of several thousand years which contrasts strongly with the glacial-interglacial periodicity (several tens of thousand years). These periods of abrupt climate changes correspond to massive icebergs discharges into the north Atlantic. The aim of this work was to study the evolution of the thermohaline circulation in relation to these episodic iceberg discharges which punctuated the last 60 ka. To reconstruct the oceanic circulation in the past, we have analysed oxygen and carbon stable isotopes on benthic foraminifera from north Atlantic deep-sea cores. First of all, the higher temporal resolution of sedimentary records has enabled us to establish a precise chrono-stratigraphy for the different cores. Then, we have shown the close linkage between surface water hydrology and deep circulation, giving evidence of the sensibility of thermohaline circulation to melt water input in the north Atlantic ocean. Indeed, changes in deep circulation are synchronous from those identified in surface waters and are recorded on a period which lasted ∼ 1500 years. Deep circulation reconstructions, before and during a typical iceberg discharge reveal several modes of circulation linked to different convection sites at the high latitudes of the Atlantic basin. Moreover, the study of the last glacial period gives the opportunity to differentiate circulation changes due to the external forcing (variations of the orbital parameters) and those linked to a more local forcing (icebergs discharges). 105 refs., 50 figs., 14 tabs., 4 appends

  3. Quark interchange model of baryon interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maslow, J.N.

    1983-01-01

    The strong interactions at low energy are traditionally described by meson field theories treating hadrons as point-like particles. Here a mesonic quark interchange model (QIM) is presented which takes into account the finite size of the baryons and the internal quark structure of hadrons. The model incorporates the basic quark-gluon coupling of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and the MIT bag model for color confinement. Because the quark-gluon coupling constant is large and it is assumed that confinement excludes overlap of hadronic quark bags except at high momenta, a non-perturbative method of nuclear interactions is presented. The QIM allows for exchange of quark quantum numbers at the bag boundary between colliding hadrons mediated at short distances by a gluon exchange between two quarks within the hadronic interior. This generates, via a Fierz transformation, an effective space-like t channel exchange of color singlet (q anti-q) states that can be identified with the low lying meson multiplets. Thus, a one boson exchange (OBE) model is obtained that allows for comparison with traditional phenomenological models of nuclear scattering. Inclusion of strange quarks enables calculation of YN scattering. The NN and YN coupling constants and the nucleon form factors show good agreement with experimental values as do the deuteron low energy data and the NN low energy phase shifts. Thus, the QIM provides a simple model of strong interactions that is chirally invariant, includes confinement and allows for an OBE form of hadronic interaction at low energies and momentum transfers

  4. Quark interchange model of baryon interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maslow, J.N.

    1983-01-01

    The strong interactions at low energy are traditionally described by meson field theories treating hadrons as point-like particles. Here a mesonic quark interchange model (QIM) is presented which takes into account the finite size of the baryons and the internal quark structure of hadrons. The model incorporates the basic quark-gluon coupling of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and the MIT bag model for color confinement. Because the quark-gluon coupling constant is large and it is assumed that confinement excludes overlap of hadronic quark bags except at high momenta, a non-perturbative method of nuclear interactions is presented. The QIM allows for exchange of quark quantum numbers at the bag boundary between colliding hadrons mediated at short distances by a gluon exchange between two quarks within the hadronic interior. This generates, via a Fierz transformation, an effective space-like t channel exchange of color singlet (q anti-q) states that can be identified with the low lying meson multiplets. Thus, a one boson exchange (OBE) model is obtained that allows for comparison with traditional phenomenological models of nuclear scattering. Inclusion of strange quarks enables calculation of YN scattering. The NN and YN coupling constants and the nucleon form factors show good agreement with experimental values as do the deuteron low energy data and the NN low energy phase shifts. Thus, the QIM provides a simple model of strong interactions that is chirally invariant, includes confinement and allows for an OBE form of hadronic interaction at low energies and momentum transfers.

  5. Periodic density functional theory calculations of bulk and the (010 surface of goethite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sparks Donald L

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Goethite is a common and reactive mineral in the environment. The transport of contaminants and anaerobic respiration of microbes are significantly affected by adsorption and reduction reactions involving goethite. An understanding of the mineral-water interface of goethite is critical for determining the molecular-scale mechanisms of adsorption and reduction reactions. In this study, periodic density functional theory (DFT calculations were performed on the mineral goethite and its (010 surface, using the Vienna Ab Initio Simulation Package (VASP. Results Calculations of the bulk mineral structure accurately reproduced the observed crystal structure and vibrational frequencies, suggesting that this computational methodology was suitable for modeling the goethite-water interface. Energy-minimized structures of bare, hydrated (one H2O layer and solvated (three H2O layers (010 surfaces were calculated for 1 × 1 and 3 × 3 unit cell slabs. A good correlation between the calculated and observed vibrational frequencies was found for the 1 × 1 solvated surface. However, differences between the 1 × 1 and 3 × 3 slab calculations indicated that larger models may be necessary to simulate the relaxation of water at the interface. Comparison of two hydrated surfaces with molecularly and dissociatively adsorbed H2O showed a significantly lower potential energy for the former. Conclusion Surface Fe-O and (FeO-H bond lengths are reported that may be useful in surface complexation models (SCM of the goethite (010 surface. These bond lengths were found to change significantly as a function of solvation (i.e., addition of two extra H2O layers above the surface, indicating that this parameter should be carefully considered in future SCM studies of metal oxide-water interfaces.

  6. Computational Modeling of Bloch Surface Waves in One-Dimensional Periodic and Aperiodic Multilayer Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koju, Vijay

    Photonic crystals and their use in exciting Bloch surface waves have received immense attention over the past few decades. This interest is mainly due to their applications in bio-sensing, wave-guiding, and other optical phenomena such as surface field enhanced Raman spectroscopy. Improvement in numerical modeling techniques, state of the art computing resources, and advances in fabrication techniques have also assisted in growing interest in this field. The ability to model photonic crystals computationally has benefited both the theoretical as well as experimental communities. It helps the theoretical physicists in solving complex problems which cannot be solved analytically and helps to acquire useful insights that cannot be obtained otherwise. Experimentalists, on the other hand, can test different variants of their devices by changing device parameters to optimize performance before fabrication. In this dissertation, we develop two commonly used numerical techniques, namely transfer matrix method, and rigorous coupled wave analysis, in C++ and MATLAB, and use two additional software packages, one open-source and another commercial, to model one-dimensional photonic crystals. Different variants of one-dimensional multilayered structures such as perfectly periodic dielectric multilayers, quasicrystals, aperiodic multilayer are modeled, along with one-dimensional photonic crystals with gratings on the top layer. Applications of Bloch surface waves, along with new and novel aperiodic dielectric multilayer structures that support Bloch surface waves are explored in this dissertation. We demonstrate a slow light configuration that makes use of Bloch Surface Waves as an intermediate excitation in a double-prism tunneling configuration. This method is simple compared to the more usual techniques for slowing light using the phenomenon of electromagnetically induced transparency in atomic gases or doped ionic crystals operated at temperatures below 4K. Using a semi

  7. Elastic waves at periodically-structured surfaces and interfaces of solids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Every

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a simple treatment of elastic wave scattering at periodically structured surfaces and interfaces of solids, and the existence and nature of surface acoustic waves (SAW and interfacial (IW waves at such structures. Our treatment is embodied in phenomenological models in which the periodicity resides in the boundary conditions. These yield zone folding and band gaps at the boundary of, and within the Brillouin zone. Above the transverse bulk wave threshold, there occur leaky or pseudo-SAW and pseudo-IW, which are attenuated via radiation into the bulk wave continuum. These have a pronounced effect on the transmission and reflection of bulk waves. We provide examples of pseudo-SAW and pseudo-IW for which the coupling to the bulk wave continuum vanishes at isloated points in the dispersion relation. These supersonic guided waves correspond to embedded discrete eigenvalues within a radiation continuum. We stress the generality of the phenomena that are exhibited at widely different scales of length and frequency, and their relevance to situations as diverse as the guiding of seismic waves in mine stopes, the metrology of periodic metal interconnect structures in the semiconductor industry, and elastic wave scattering by an array of coplanar cracks in a solid.

  8. Drift dives and prolonged surfacing periods in Baikal seals: resting strategies in open waters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yuuki Y; Baranov, Eugene A; Miyazaki, Nobuyuki

    2015-09-01

    Many pinnipeds frequently rest on land or ice, but some species remain in open waters for weeks or months, raising the question of how they rest. A unique type of dive, called drift dives, has been reported for several pinnipeds with suggested functions of rest, food processing and predator avoidance. Prolonged surfacing periods have also been observed in captive seals and are thought to aid food processing. However, information from other species in a different environment would be required to better understand the nature and function of this behavior. In this study, we attached multi-sensor tags to Baikal seals Pusa sibirica, a rare, freshwater species that has no aquatic predators and few resting grounds during the ice-free season. The seals exhibited repeated drift dives (mean depth, 116 m; duration, 10.1 min) in the daytime and prolonged periods at the surface (mean duration, 1.3 h) mainly around dawn. Drift dives and prolonged surfacing periods were temporally associated and observed between a series of foraging dives, suggesting a similar function, i.e. a combination of resting and food processing. The maximum durations of both drift and foraging dives were 15.4 min, close to the aerobic dive limit of this species; therefore, metabolic rates might not be significantly depressed during drift dives, further supporting the function of food processing rather than purely resting. Our results also show that drift diving can occur in a predator-free environment, and thus predator avoidance is not a general explanation of drift dives in pinnipeds. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. Periodic Mesoporous Organosilica Nanocubes with Ultrahigh Surface Areas for Efficient CO2 Adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yong; Li, Xiaomin; Zhang, Renyuan; Liu, Yong; Wang, Wenxing; Ling, Yun; El-Toni, Ahmed Mohamed; Zhao, Dongyuan

    2016-02-01

    Ultrahigh surface area single-crystals of periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMOs) with uniform cubic or truncated-cubic morphology and organic/inorganic components homogeneously distributed over the whole frameworks have successfully been prepared by a sol-gel surfactant-templating method. By tuning the porous feature and polymerization degree, the surface areas of the obtained PMO nanocubes can reach as high as 2370 m2/g, which is the highest for silica-based mesoporous materials. The ultrahigh surface area of the obtained PMO single crystals is mainly resulted from abundant micropores in the mesoporous frameworks. Furthermore, the diameter of the nanocubes can also be well controlled from 150 to 600 nm. The materials show ultrahigh CO2 adsorption capacity (up to 1.42 mmol/g at 273 K) which is much higher than other porous silica materials and comparable to some carbonaceous materials. The adsorption of CO2 into the PMO nanocubes is mainly in physical interaction, therefore the adsorption-desorption process is highly reversible and the adsorption capacity is much dependent on the surface area of the materials. Moreover, the selectivity is also very high (~11 times to N2) towards CO2 adsorption.

  10. Surface Acoustic WaveAmmonia Sensors Based on ST-cut Quartz under Periodic Al Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Yau Su

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Surface acoustic wave (SAW devices are key components for sensing applications. SAW propagation under a periodic grating was investigated in this work. The theoretical method used here is the space harmonic method. We also applied the results of SAW propagation studied in this work to design a two-port resonator with an Al grating on ST-cut quartz. The measured frequency responses of the resonator were similar to the simulation ones. Then, the chemical interface of polyaniline/WO3 composites was coated on the SAW sensor for ammonia detection. The SAW sensor responded to ammonia gas and could be regenerated using dry nitrogen.

  11. Towards harmonized data interchange in food consumption data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pakkala, H.; Christensen, Tue; Presser, K.

    2014-01-01

    with other data such as food composition data. In the field of food composition, successful harmonization has recently been achieved by the European Food Information Resource Network, which is now the basis of a standard draft by the European Committee for Standardization. We present an XML-based data...... interchange format for food consumption based on work and experiences related to food composition.The aim is that the data interchange format will provide a basis for wider harmonization in the future.......Food consumption data are collected and used in several fields of science. The data are often combined from various sources and interchanged between different systems. There is, however, no harmonized and widely used data interchange format. In addition, food consumption data are often combined...

  12. Good Security Practices for Electronic Commerce, Including Electronic Data Interchange

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Saltman, Roy

    1993-01-01

    Electronic commerce (EC) is the use of documents in electronic form, rather than paper, for carrying out functions of business or government that require interchange of information, obligations, or monetary value between organizations...

  13. Dataflow Interchange Format and a Framework for Processing Dataflow Graphs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Keceli, Fuat

    2004-01-01

    .... In this work, we present the dataflow interchange format (DIF), a platform-independent textual language that is geared towards capturing the semantics of graphical design tools for DSP system design...

  14. UDOT diverging diamond interchange (DDI) observations and experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    This report presents the results of a functionality evaluation, by the I-15 Utah County Corridor Expansion (CORE) traffic team, of the first Diverging Diamond Interchange (DDI) in Utah, located at the intersection of American Fork Main Street (Pionee...

  15. Improvement Possibilities of City Transportation System by Using PINAVIA Interchange

    OpenAIRE

    Aušrius Juozapavičius; Stanislovas Buteliauskas; Rimvydas Krasauskas

    2010-01-01

    The article analyzes transportation system problems of a common city by taking an example of Vilnius city and reveals drawbacks of street infrastructure and traffic organization which are responsible for traffic congestion and its consequences in many cities including Vilnius. A new high capacity Pinavia road interchange is presented. Mathematical model of the new interchange is described enabling transport specialists to optimize and adapt it to a given location. Unique features of the new P...

  16. Periodic array-based substrates for surface-enhanced infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayerhöfer Thomas G.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning of the 1980s, the first reports of surface-enhanced infrared spectroscopy (SEIRS surfaced. Probably due to signal-enhancement factors of only 101 to 103, which are modest compared to those of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS, SEIRS did not reach the same significance up to date. However, taking the compared to Raman scattering much larger cross-sections of infrared absorptions and the enhancement factors together, SEIRS reaches about the same sensitivity for molecular species on a surface in terms of the cross-sections as SERS and, due to the complementary nature of both techniques, can valuably augment information gained by SERS. For the first 20 years since its discovery, SEIRS relied completely on metal island films, fabricated by either vapor or electrochemical deposition. The resulting films showed a strong variance concerning their structure, which was essentially random. Therefore, the increase in the corresponding signal-enhancement factors of these structures stagnated in the last years. In the very same years, however, the development of periodic array-based substrates helped SEIRS to gather momentum. This development was supported by technological progress concerning electromagnetic field solvers, which help to understand plasmonic properties and allow targeted design. In addition, the strong progress concerning modern fabrication methods allowed to implement these designs into practice. The aim of this contribution is to critically review the development of these engineered surfaces for SEIRS, to compare the different approaches with regard to their performance where possible, and report further gain of knowledge around and in relation to these structures.

  17. Changes in Energy Imbalance at the Ocean Surface during the "hiatus" period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, L.

    2016-02-01

    Despite the recent slowdown in the rate of surface warming, a general consensus exists, that is, the Earth continues to gain energy and almost all the energy added to the Earth system is accumulated in the oceans. Nevertheless, key issues remain unaddressed regarding the actual energy imbalance at the top-of-atmosphere and the Earth surface, their changes over time, and their storage and distribution in the oceans. Quantifying and tracking the energy flow through the Earth System require consistent and accurate record of observations, but existing observation platforms contain various degrees of uncertainty. There is a need to cross-validate the energy budget estimates from different resources and from different approaches. In this study, we conducted an assessment of net energy budget at the ocean surface estimated from three general sources, the satellite-based analysis (WHOI OAFlux and NASA CERES), an ocean state estimator (MIT ECCO), and the atmospheric reanalysis products. For the "hiatus" period (2001-2010) in study, all products show that the oceans have been on net energy gain, but the magnitude varies and the differences in the rate of the decadal change in energy imbalance are large. While the reanalysis products show either upward or downward trends, ECCO and OAFlux/CERES indicate that the energy imbalance remains near constant. The downward trend in ERA-Interim started from 2006, driven by a peculiar pattern change in the Pacific. ECCO, which used ERA-Interim as initial surface forcing, corrected the pattern and maintained a near steady rate. ECCO assimilates observations from oceanographic satellites and Argo profiles, while the OAFlux/CERES Qnet were obtained from satellite atmospheric and near-surface observations using no dynamical models but the state-of-the-art flux algorithms and statistical approaches. Given the differences in input data sources and approaches, the agreement between ECCO and OAFlux/CERES is encouraging and instructive.

  18. Tribological performance of sub-100-nm femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures on titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonse, J., E-mail: joern.bonse@bam.de [BAM Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung, Unter den Eichen 87, D-12205 Berlin (Germany); Höhm, S. [Max-Born-Institut für Nichtlineare Optik und Kurzzeitspektroskopie (MBI), Max-Born-Straße 2A, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Koter, R.; Hartelt, M.; Spaltmann, D.; Pentzien, S. [BAM Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung, Unter den Eichen 87, D-12205 Berlin (Germany); Rosenfeld, A. [Max-Born-Institut für Nichtlineare Optik und Kurzzeitspektroskopie (MBI), Max-Born-Straße 2A, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Krüger, J. [BAM Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung, Unter den Eichen 87, D-12205 Berlin (Germany)

    2016-06-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Large areas covered with sub-100 nm LIPSS (HSFL) were manufactured by fs-laser irradiation on titanium surfaces. • Tribological performance of HSFL covered areas was qualified in reciprocal sliding tests in two different lubricating oils. • HSFL on titanium do not endure the tribological tests. • For a beneficial tribological performance, the tribological sample deformation must be smaller than the LIPSS modulation depth. - Abstract: Sub-100-nm laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) were processed on bulk titanium (Ti) surfaces by femtosecond laser pulse irradiation in air (30 fs pulse duration, 790 nm wavelength). The laser peak fluence, the spatial spot overlap, and the number of overscans were optimized in a sample-scanning geometry in order to obtain large surface areas (5 mm × 5 mm) covered homogeneously by the LIPSS. The laser-processed regions were characterized by optical microscopy (OM), white light interference microscopy (WLIM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The friction coefficient of the nanostructured surfaces was tested during 1000 cycles under reciprocal sliding conditions (1 Hz, 1.0 N normal load) against a 10-mm diameter ball of hardened 100Cr6 steel, both in paraffin oil and in engine oil used as lubricants. Subsequently, the corresponding wear tracks were qualified by OM, SEM, and energy dispersive X-ray analyses (EDX). The results of the tribological tests are discussed and compared to that obtained for near wavelength-sized fs-LIPSS, processed under somewhat different irradiation conditions. Some constraints for a beneficial effect of LIPSS on the tribological performance are provided.

  19. Influence of substrate microcrystallinity on the orientation of laser-induced periodic surface structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nürnberger, P.; Reinhardt, H.; Kim, H-C.; Yang, F. [Department of Chemistry, Philipps-University Marburg, Hans-Meerwein-Straße 4, 35032 Marburg (Germany); Peppler, K.; Janek, J. [Department of Physical-Chemistry, Justus-Liebig-University Gießen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 58, 35392 Gießen (Germany); Hampp, N. [Department of Chemistry, Philipps-University Marburg, Hans-Meerwein-Straße 4, 35032 Marburg (Germany); Materials Science Center, 35032 Marburg (Germany)

    2015-10-07

    The research in this paper deals with the angular dependence of the formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) by linearly polarized nanosecond laser pulses on polycrystalline austenitic stainless steel. Incident angles ranging from 45° to 70° lead to the generation of superimposed merely perpendicular oriented LIPSS on steel as well as on monocrystalline (100) silicon which was used as a reference material. Additional extraordinary orientations of superimposing LIPSS along with significantly different periodicities are found on polycrystalline steel but not on (100) silicon. Electron backscatter diffraction measurements indicate that the expansion of these LIPSS is limited to the grain size and affected by the crystal orientation of the individual grains. Atomic force microscopy imaging shows that LIPSS fringe heights are in good agreement with the theoretically predicted penetration depths of surface plasmon polaritons into stainless steel. These results indicate that optical anisotropies must be taken into account to fully describe the theory of light-matter interaction leading to LIPSS formation.

  20. Interchange turbulence simulations for JET relevant parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, A.H.; Garcia, O.E.; Naulin, V.; Rasmussen, J.J.; Fundamenski, J.W.

    2007-01-01

    Mach probe measurements. On the basis of the reasonable agreement between simulation and experiment we conclude that the SOL radial transport in JET ohmic plasmas is dominated by electrostatic interchange turbulence. (author)

  1. Contact-angle hysteresis on periodic microtextured surfaces: Strongly corrugated liquid interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliev, Stanimir; Pesheva, Nina

    2016-06-01

    We study numerically the shapes of a liquid meniscus in contact with ultrahydrophobic pillar surfaces in Cassie's wetting regime, when the surface is covered with identical and periodically distributed micropillars. Using the full capillary model we obtain the advancing and the receding equilibrium meniscus shapes when the cross-sections of the pillars are both of square and circular shapes, for a broad interval of pillar concentrations. The bending of the liquid interface in the area between the pillars is studied in the framework of the full capillary model and compared to the results of the heterogeneous approximation model. The contact angle hysteresis is obtained when the three-phase contact line is located on one row (block case) or several rows (kink case) of pillars. It is found that the contact angle hysteresis is proportional to the line fraction of the contact line on pillars tops in the block case and to the surface fraction for pillar concentrations 0.1 -0.5 in the kink case. The contact angle hysteresis does not depend on the shape (circular or square) of the pillars cross-section. The expression for the proportionality of the receding contact angle to the line fraction [Raj et al., Langmuir 28, 15777 (2012), 10.1021/la303070s] in the case of block depinning is theoretically substantiated through the capillary force, acting on the solid plate at the meniscus contact line.

  2. Short-period surface-wave phase velocities across the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekström, G.

    2017-09-01

    Surface-wave phase-velocity maps for the full footprint of the USArray Transportable Array (TA) across the conterminous United States are developed and tested. Three-component, long-period continuous seismograms recorded on more than 1800 seismometers, most of which were deployed for 18 months or longer, are processed using a noise cross-correlation technique to derive inter-station Love and Rayleigh dispersion curves at periods between 5 and 40 s. The phase-velocity measurements are quality controlled using an automated algorithm and then used in inversions for Love and Rayleigh phase-velocity models at discrete periods on a 0.25°-by-0.25° pixel grid. The robustness of the results is examined using comparisons of maps derived from subsets of the data. A winter-summer division of the cross-correlation data results in small model differences, indicating relatively minor sensitivity of the results to seasonal variations in the distribution of noise sources. Division of the dispersion data based on inter-station azimuth does not result in geographically coherent model differences, suggesting that azimuthal anisotropy at the regional scale is weak compared with variations in isotropic velocities and does not substantially influence the results for isotropic velocities. The phase-velocity maps and dispersion measurements are documented and made available as data products of the 10-year-long USArray TA deployment.

  3. Microbes and associated soluble and volatile chemicals on periodically wet household surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Rachel I; Lymperopoulou, Despoina S; Misztal, Pawel K; De Cassia Pessotti, Rita; Behie, Scott W; Tian, Yilin; Goldstein, Allen H; Lindow, Steven E; Nazaroff, William W; Taylor, John W; Traxler, Matt F; Bruns, Thomas D

    2017-09-26

    Microorganisms influence the chemical milieu of their environment, and chemical metabolites can affect ecological processes. In built environments, where people spend the majority of their time, very little is known about how surface-borne microorganisms influence the chemistry of the indoor spaces. Here, we applied multidisciplinary approaches to investigate aspects of chemical microbiology in a house. We characterized the microbial and chemical composition of two common and frequently wet surfaces in a residential setting: kitchen sink and bathroom shower. Microbial communities were studied using culture-dependent and independent techniques, including targeting RNA for amplicon sequencing. Volatile and soluble chemicals from paired samples were analyzed using state-of-the-art techniques to explore the links between the observed microbiota and chemical exudates. Microbial analysis revealed a rich biological presence on the surfaces exposed in kitchen sinks and bathroom shower stalls. Microbial composition, matched for DNA and RNA targets, varied by surface type and sampling period. Bacteria were found to have an average of 25× more gene copies than fungi. Biomass estimates based on qPCR were well correlated with measured total volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. Abundant VOCs included products associated with fatty acid production. Molecular networking revealed a diversity of surface-borne compounds that likely originate from microbes and from household products. Microbes played a role in structuring the chemical profiles on and emitted from kitchen sinks and shower stalls. Microbial VOCs (mVOCs) were predominately associated with the processing of fatty acids. The mVOC composition may be more stable than that of microbial communities, which can show temporal and spatial variation in their responses to changing environmental conditions. The mVOC output from microbial metabolism on kitchen sinks and bathroom showers should be apparent through careful

  4. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering on periodic metal nanotips with tunable sharpness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linn, Nicholas C; Sun, C-H; Arya, Ajay; Jiang Peng; Jiang Bin

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a scalable bottom-up technology for producing periodic gold nanotips with tunable sharpness as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates. Inverted silicon pyramidal pits, which are templated from non-close-packed colloidal crystals prepared by a spin-coating technology, are used as structural templates to replicate arrays of polymer nanopyramids with nanoscale sharp tips. The deposition of a thin layer of gold on the polymer nanopyramids leads to the formation of SERS-active substrates with a high enhancement factor (up to 10 8 ). The thickness of the deposited metal determines the sharpness of the nanotips and the resulting Raman enhancement factor. Finite-element electromagnetic modeling shows that the nanotips can significantly enhance the local electromagnetic field and the sharpness of nanotips greatly affects the SERS enhancement.

  5. Conduction-radiation effects on periodic magnetohydrodynamic natural convection boundary layer flow along a vertical surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqa, Sadia; Hossain, M.A.; Gorla, Rama Subba Reddy

    2012-01-01

    The problem of magnetohydrodynamic natural convection periodic boundary layer flow of an electrically conducting and optically dense gray viscous fluid along a heated vertical plate is analyzed. Here, magnetic field is considered in the transverse direction and taken as a sinusoidal function of x-bar. In the analysis radiative heat flux is examined by assuming optically thick radiation limit. Attempt is being made to obtain the solutions valid for liquid metals by taking Pr d and the surface temperature parameter, θw, on the numerical values thus obtained for local skin friction coefficient and local Nusselt number coefficient as well as on the streamlines and isotherm lines are shown graphically for large values of X. (authors)

  6. Combining periodic hydraulic tests and surface tilt measurements to explore in situ fracture hydromechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuite, Jonathan; Longuevergne, Laurent; Bour, Olivier; Guihéneuf, Nicolas; Becker, Matthew W.; Cole, Matthew; Burbey, Thomas J.; Lavenant, Nicolas; Boudin, Frédéric

    2017-08-01

    Fractured bedrock reservoirs are of socio-economical importance, as they may be used for storage or retrieval of fluids and energy. In particular, the hydromechanical behavior of fractures needs to be understood as it has implications on flow and governs stability issues (e.g., microseismicity). Laboratory, numerical, or field experiments have brought considerable insights to this topic. Nevertheless, in situ hydromechanical experiments are relatively uncommon, mainly because of technical and instrumental limitations. Here we present the early stage development and validation of a novel approach aiming at capturing the integrated hydromechanical behavior of natural fractures. It combines the use of surface tiltmeters to monitor the deformation associated with the periodic pressurization of fractures at depth in crystalline rocks. Periodic injection and withdrawal advantageously avoids mobilizing or extracting significant amounts of fluid, and it hinders any risk of reservoir failure. The oscillatory perturbation is intended to (1) facilitate the recognition of its signature in tilt measurements and (2) vary the hydraulic penetration depth in order to sample different volumes of the fractured bedrock around the inlet and thereby assess scale effects typical of fractured systems. By stacking tilt signals, we managed to recover small tilt amplitudes associated with pressure-derived fracture deformation. Therewith, we distinguish differences in mechanical properties between the three tested fractures, but we show that tilt amplitudes are weakly dependent on pressure penetration depth. Using an elastic model, we obtain fracture stiffness estimates that are consistent with published data. Our results should encourage further improvement of the method.

  7. Effect of Magnetic Shear and Plasma Compressibility on Ideal Interchange Mode Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirnov, V. V.; Hegna, C. C.

    2003-10-01

    We analyze the stability of a localized ideal interchange mode in a cylindrical screw pinch equilibrium. In the general case, the screw pinch magnetic configuration has magnetic shear. From the Energy Principle, it follows that the most dangerous interchange perturbations, k_||=0, are incompressible, and marginal stability is given by Suydam's criterion. In the particular case of a screw pinch without axial field (Z-pinch), the magnetic configuration is shear free and, correspondingly, the stabilizing effect of shear vanishes. In this case, the magnetic field is pure poloidal, and the resonance condition of interchange modes, k_||=0, corresponds to m=0 "sausage"-like perturbations. For these modes, the effect of plasma compressibility becomes important and, in some sense, it replaces the stabilizing effect of magnetic shear. We investigate the transition between these two stabilizing mechanisms as the equilibrium changes from one with magnetic shear to a magnetic shear free configuration. This is of interest for closed systems with rational surfaces where dq/dr arrow 0 as well as for non paraxial open traps and magnetic dipoles where the effect of plasma compression plays important role.

  8. Nuclear medicine image and data interchange through e-mail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyra, M.; Skouroliakou, K.; Perris, A.; Georgossopoulos, C.; Pappas, D.; Stefanides, C.

    1998-01-01

    Prosperity of easy interchange in every day practice of Nuclear Medicine found its application through the INTERNET media. We use a simple and safe way to interchange images and diagnostic information between the scintigraphic acquisition and processing location and the clinical department in order to improve patient's health care and young doctor's education. images and patient reports are transferred and saved through dedicated software to a workstation that transforms y-camera scintigraphic images in a PC readable format. Diagnosis reports and scintigraphic images are incorporated to a database directory in hypertext form. Usual WWW connection gives the possibility of patients' examinations transfer by email attachments as well as interchange of relative comments towards both directions. Cost effective solution has been achieved using standard hard- and soft-ware. Furthermore, both educational files can be downloaded from our department ftp location, by a unique password. (authors)

  9. Interchange Slip-Running Reconnection and Sweeping SEP-Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, S.; Aulanier, G.; Pariat, E.; Klein, K.-L.

    2011-01-01

    We present a new model to explain how particles, accelerated at a reconnection site that is not magnetically connected to the Earth, could eventually propagate along the well-connected open flux tube. Our model is based on the results of a low-beta resistive magnetohydrodynamics simulation of a three-dimensional line-tied and initially current-free bipole, that is embedded in a non-uniform open potential field. The topology of this configuration is that of an asymmetric coronal null-point, with a closed fan surface and an open outer spine. When driven by slow photospheric shearing motions, field lines, initially fully anchored below the fan dome, reconnect at the null point, and jump to the open magnetic domain. This is the standard interchange mode as sketched and calculated in 2D. The key result in 3D is that, reconnected open field lines located in the vicinity of the outer spine, keep reconnecting continuously, across an open quasi-separatrix layer, as previously identified for non-open-null-point reconnection. The apparent slipping motion of these field lines leads to form an extended narrow magnetic flux tube at high altitude. Because of the slip-running reconnection, we conjecture that if energetic particles would be travelling through, or be accelerated inside, the diffusion region, they would be successively injected along continuously reconnecting field lines that are connected farther and farther from the spine. At the scale of the full Sun, owing to the super-radial expansion of field lines below 3 solar radius, such energetic particles could easily be injected in field lines slipping over significant distances, and could eventually reach the distant flux tube that is well-connected to the Earth.

  10. Interchange Instability and Transport in Matter-Antimatter Plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendl, Alexander; Danler, Gregor; Wiesenberger, Matthias; Held, Markus

    2017-06-09

    Symmetric electron-positron plasmas in inhomogeneous magnetic fields are intrinsically subject to interchange instability and transport. Scaling relations for the propagation velocity of density perturbations relevant to transport in isothermal magnetically confined electron-positron plasmas are deduced, including damping effects when Debye lengths are large compared to Larmor radii. The relations are verified by nonlinear full-F gyrofluid computations. Results are analyzed with respect to planned magnetically confined electron-positron plasma experiments. The model is generalized to other matter-antimatter plasmas. Magnetized electron-positron-proton-antiproton plasmas are susceptible to interchange-driven local matter-antimatter separation, which can impede sustained laboratory magnetic confinement.

  11. Search for Trends and Periodicities in Inter-hemispheric Sea Surface Temperature Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajesh, R.; Tiwari, R. K.

    2018-02-01

    Understanding the role of coupled solar and internal ocean dynamics on hemispheric climate variability is critical to climate modelling. We have analysed here 165 year long annual northern hemispheric (NH) and southern hemispheric (SH) sea surface temperature (SST) data employing spectral and statistical techniques to identify the imprints of solar and ocean-atmospheric processes, if any. We reconstructed the eigen modes of NH-SST and SH-SST to reveal non-linear oscillations superimposed on the monotonic trend. Our analysis reveals that the first eigen mode of NH-SST and SH-SST representing long-term trend of SST variability accounts for 15-23% variance. Interestingly, these components are matching with first eigen mode (99% variance) of the total solar irradiance (TSI) suggesting possible impact of solar activity on long-term SST variation. Furthermore, spectral analysis of SSA reconstructed signal revealed statistically significant periodicities of 63 ± 5, 22 ± 2, 10 ± 1, 7.6, 6.3, 5.2, 4.7, and 4.2 years in both NH-SST and SH-SST data. The major harmonics centred at 63 ± 5, 22 ± 2, and 10 ± 1 years are similar to solar periodicities and hence may represent solar forcing, while the components peaking at around 7.6, 6.3, 5.2, 4.7, and 4.2 years apparently falls in the frequency bands of El-Nino-Southern Oscillations linked to the oceanic internal processes. Our analyses also suggest evidence for the amplitude modulation of 9-11 and 21-22 year solar cycles, respectively, by 104 and 163 years in northern and southern hemispheric SST data. The absence of the above periodic oscillations in CO2 fails to suggest its role on observed inter-hemispheric SST difference. The cross-plot analysis also revealed strong influence of solar activity on linear trend of NH- and SH-SST in addition to small contribution from CO2. Our study concludes that (1) the long-term trends in northern and southern hemispheric SST variability show considerable synchronicity with cyclic

  12. Radiation of fast positrons interacting with periodic microstructure on the surface of a crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epp, V., E-mail: epp@tspu.edu.ru [Tomsk State Pedagogical University, ul. Kievskaya 60, 634061 Tomsk (Russian Federation); Tomsk State University, pr. Lenina 36, 634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation); Janz, J.G., E-mail: Yanc@tpu.ru [Tomsk Polytechnic University, pr. Lenina 34, 634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation); Kaplin, V.V., E-mail: kaplin@tpu.ru [Tomsk Polytechnic University, pr. Lenina 34, 634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • New tunable crystalline source of X-ray radiation is described. • Radiation is emitted by the channeling relativistic particles. • A set of crystal plates offers more effective monitoring of the photon energy. • Formulae describing the radiation properties are obtained. - Abstract: Radiation of positrons passing through a set of equidistant crystal plates is calculated. Each plate is of thickness of half of the particle trajectory period at planar channeling in a thick crystal. Positively charged particle entering the first plate at an angle smaller than the critical channeling angle is captured into channeling mode and changes the direction of its transversal velocity to reversed. Between the half-wave plates the particle moves along a straight line. The proposed setup can be realized as a set of equidistant ridges on the surface of a single crystal. Passing through such set of half-wave crystal plates the particle moves on quasi-undulator trajectories. Properties of the particle radiation emitted during their passage through such “multicrystal undulator” are calculated. The radiation spectrum in each particular direction is discrete, and the frequency of the first harmonic and the number of harmonics in the spectrum depend on the distance between the plates, on energy of the particles and on the averaged potential energy of atomic planes of the crystal. The radiation is bound to a narrow cone in the direction of the average particle velocity and polarized essentially in a plane orthogonal to the atomic planes in the crystal.

  13. Polarization controlled deep sub-wavelength periodic features written by femtosecond laser on nanodiamond thin film surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar Kuntumalla, Mohan; Srikanth, Vadali V. S. S., E-mail: vvsssse@uohyd.ernet.in [School of Engineering Sciences and Technology, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500046 (India); Rajamudili, Kuladeep; Rao Desai, Narayana [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500046 (India)

    2014-04-21

    Deep sub-wavelength (Λ/λ = ∼0.22) periodic features are induced uniformly on a nanodiamond (ND) thin film surface using femtosecond (fs) laser irradiation (pulse duration = ∼110 fs and central wavelength of ∼800 nm). The topography of the surface features is controlled by the laser polarization. Orientation of features is perpendicular to laser polarization. Periodicity (spatial periodicity of < λ/4) of the surface features is less than the laser wavelength. This work gives an experimental proof of polarization controlled surface plasmon-fs laser coupling mechanism prompting the interaction between fs laser and solid matter (here ND thin film) which in turn is resulting in the periodic surface features. Scanning electron microscopy in conjunction with micro Raman scattering, X-ray diffraction, and atomic force microscopy are carried out to extract surface morphology and phase information of the laser irradiated regions. This work demonstrates an easy and efficient surface fabrication technique.

  14. MAIN DIRECTIONS OF EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT OF TRANSPORT INTERCHANGES FUNCTIONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Naumov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the areas of study concerning transport interchanges. It has been determined that the most perspective directions for the future research is synchronization of the schedule that allous reducing the wating time, preventing the public transport congestion at bus stops and stations, and by doing this to ensure their sustainable development.

  15. Pivalolactone, 2. Copolyester synthesis via interchange reactions with polypivalolactone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijsma, Edze Jan; Tijsma, E.J.; van der Does, L.; Bantjes, A.; Bantjes, Adriaan; Vulic, Ivan; Werumeus Buning, Gerard Hidde

    1993-01-01

    The synthesis of copolyesters via interchange reactions of polypivalolactone (PPVL) with several compounds was studied. The synthetical procedures are two-stage melt processes: in the first stage ester bonds in the polymer chain are cleaved and new groups are incorporated in the polymer chain, while

  16. Modernizing Public Transport Interchanges : Rotterdam Centraal Case Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Hoeven, F.D.

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the aims, topics, findings and main deliverables of the EU-funded NODES project. The NODES project investigates and evaluates tools that support the innovative design and operation of new or upgraded efficient urban transport interchanges. The key topics that are

  17. Performance of Alternative Diamond Interchange Forms: Volume 1—Research Report

    OpenAIRE

    Tarko, Andrew P.; Romero, Mario A.; Sultana, Afia

    2017-01-01

    Service interchanges connect freeways to arterial roads and are the backbone of the U.S. road network. Improving the operations of service interchanges is possible by applying one of several new solutions: diverging diamond, single point interchanges, and double or single roundabout diamonds. VISSIM was used to perform 13,500 experiments to simulate the traffic performance of the studied alternative interchanges during a typical day for a wide range of geometry and traffic scenarios. Five ...

  18. An interchangeable-cathode vacuum arc plasma source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, David K.; Peterson, Bryan G.; Hart, Grant W.

    2010-01-01

    A simplified vacuum arc design [based on metal vapor vacuum arc (MeVVA) concepts] is employed as a plasma source for a study of a B7e non-neutral plasma. The design includes a mechanism for interchanging the cathode source. Testing of the plasma source showed that it is capable of producing on the order of 1012 charges at confinable energies using a boron-carbide disk as the cathode target. The design is simplified from typical designs for lower energy and lower density applications by using only the trigger spark rather than the full vacuum arc in high current ion beam designs. The interchangeability of the cathode design gives the source the ability to replace only the source sample, simplifying use of radioactive materials in the plasma source. The sample can also be replaced with a completely different conductive material. The design can be easily modified for use in other plasma confinement or full MeVVA applications.

  19. Pulse-analysis-pulse investigation of femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures on silicon in air

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vincenc Obona, J.; Skolski, J.Z.P.; Römer, Gerardus Richardus, Bernardus, Engelina; Huis in 't Veld, Bert

    2014-01-01

    A new approach to experimentally investigate laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSSs) is introduced. Silicon was iteratively exposed to femtosecond laser pulses at λ = 800 nm and normal incidence in ambient air and at a fluence slightly over the single-pulse modification threshold. After

  20. Electronic data interchange in the Canadian natural gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheinfield, J.

    1995-01-01

    The concept of electronic data interchange (EDI) in the gas industry was discussed. EDI as a champion of costumer service and as a powerful management tool was defined, and the process of electronic information transfer was explained. EDI was then placed in the context of the business process, and its benefits in providing efficient service and product improvement were enumerated. North American Gas EDI standards, and industry initiatives were explored in detail

  1. XML-Based SHINE Knowledge Base Interchange Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Mark; Mackey, Ryan; Tikidjian, Raffi

    2008-01-01

    The SHINE Knowledge Base Interchange Language software has been designed to more efficiently send new knowledge bases to spacecraft that have been embedded with the Spacecraft Health Inference Engine (SHINE) tool. The intention of the behavioral model is to capture most of the information generally associated with a spacecraft functional model, while specifically addressing the needs of execution within SHINE and Livingstone. As such, it has some constructs that are based on one or the other.

  2. Theory of semicollisional drift-interchange modes in cylindrical plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahm, T.S.; Chen, L.

    1985-01-01

    Resistive interchange instabilities in cylindrical plasmas are studied, including the effects of electron diamagnetic drift, perpendicular resistivity, and plasma compression. The analyses are pertinent to the semicollisional regime where the effective ion gyro-radius is larger than the resistive layer width. Both analytical and numerical results show that the modes can be completely stabilized by the perpendicular plasma transport. Ion sound effects, meanwhile, are found to be negligible in the semicollisional regime

  3. NN interaction from bag-model quark interchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakker, B.L.G.; Bozoian, M.; Maslow, J.N.; Weber, H.J.

    1982-01-01

    A partial-wave helicity-state analysis of elastic nucleon-nucleon scattering is carried out in momentum space. Its basis is a one- and two-boson exchange amplitude from a bag-model quark interchange mechanism. The resulting phase shifts and bound-state parameters of the deuteron are compared with other meson theoretic potentials and data up to laboratory energies of approx.350 MeV

  4. NN interaction from bag-model quark interchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakker, B.L.G.; Bozoian, M.; Maslow, J.N.; Weber, H.J.

    1982-03-01

    A partial-wave helicity-state analysis of elastic nucleon-nucleon scattering is carried out in momentum space. Its basis is a one- and two-boson exchange amplitude from a bag-model quark interchange mechanism. The resulting phase shifts and bound-state parameters of the deuteron are compared with other meson theoretic potentials and data up to laboratory energies of approx.350 MeV.

  5. Large-area homogeneous periodic surface structures generated on the surface of sputtered boron carbide thin films by femtosecond laser processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serra, R.; Oliveira, V.; Oliveira, J.C.; Kubart, T.; Vilar, R.; Cavaleiro, A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Large-area LIPSS were formed by femtosecond laser processing B-C films surface. • The LIPSS spatial period increases with laser fluence (140–200 nm). • Stress-related sinusoidal-like undulations were formed on the B-C films surface. • The undulations amplitude (down to a few nanometres) increases with laser fluence. • Laser radiation absorption increases with surface roughness. - Abstract: Amorphous and crystalline sputtered boron carbide thin films have a very high hardness even surpassing that of bulk crystalline boron carbide (≈41 GPa). However, magnetron sputtered B-C films have high friction coefficients (C.o.F) which limit their industrial application. Nanopatterning of materials surfaces has been proposed as a solution to decrease the C.o.F. The contact area of the nanopatterned surfaces is decreased due to the nanometre size of the asperities which results in a significant reduction of adhesion and friction. In the present work, the surface of amorphous and polycrystalline B-C thin films deposited by magnetron sputtering was nanopatterned using infrared femtosecond laser radiation. Successive parallel laser tracks 10 μm apart were overlapped in order to obtain a processed area of about 3 mm 2 . Sinusoidal-like undulations with the same spatial period as the laser tracks were formed on the surface of the amorphous boron carbide films after laser processing. The undulations amplitude increases with increasing laser fluence. The formation of undulations with a 10 μm period was also observed on the surface of the crystalline boron carbide film processed with a pulse energy of 72 μJ. The amplitude of the undulations is about 10 times higher than in the amorphous films processed at the same pulse energy due to the higher roughness of the films and consequent increase in laser radiation absorption. LIPSS formation on the surface of the films was achieved for the three B-C films under study. However, LIPSS are formed under different

  6. Large-area homogeneous periodic surface structures generated on the surface of sputtered boron carbide thin films by femtosecond laser processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serra, R., E-mail: ricardo.serra@dem.uc.pt [SEG-CEMUC, Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Coimbra, Rua Luís Reis Santos, 3030-788 Coimbra (Portugal); Oliveira, V. [ICEMS-Instituto de Ciência e Engenharia de Materiais e Superfícies, Avenida Rovisco Pais no 1, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa, Avenida Conselheiro Emídio Navarro no 1, 1959-007 Lisbon (Portugal); Oliveira, J.C. [SEG-CEMUC, Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Coimbra, Rua Luís Reis Santos, 3030-788 Coimbra (Portugal); Kubart, T. [The Ångström Laboratory, Solid State Electronics, P.O. Box 534, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Vilar, R. [Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa, Avenida Conselheiro Emídio Navarro no 1, 1959-007 Lisbon (Portugal); Instituto Superior Técnico, Avenida Rovisco Pais no 1, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Cavaleiro, A. [SEG-CEMUC, Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Coimbra, Rua Luís Reis Santos, 3030-788 Coimbra (Portugal)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Large-area LIPSS were formed by femtosecond laser processing B-C films surface. • The LIPSS spatial period increases with laser fluence (140–200 nm). • Stress-related sinusoidal-like undulations were formed on the B-C films surface. • The undulations amplitude (down to a few nanometres) increases with laser fluence. • Laser radiation absorption increases with surface roughness. - Abstract: Amorphous and crystalline sputtered boron carbide thin films have a very high hardness even surpassing that of bulk crystalline boron carbide (≈41 GPa). However, magnetron sputtered B-C films have high friction coefficients (C.o.F) which limit their industrial application. Nanopatterning of materials surfaces has been proposed as a solution to decrease the C.o.F. The contact area of the nanopatterned surfaces is decreased due to the nanometre size of the asperities which results in a significant reduction of adhesion and friction. In the present work, the surface of amorphous and polycrystalline B-C thin films deposited by magnetron sputtering was nanopatterned using infrared femtosecond laser radiation. Successive parallel laser tracks 10 μm apart were overlapped in order to obtain a processed area of about 3 mm{sup 2}. Sinusoidal-like undulations with the same spatial period as the laser tracks were formed on the surface of the amorphous boron carbide films after laser processing. The undulations amplitude increases with increasing laser fluence. The formation of undulations with a 10 μm period was also observed on the surface of the crystalline boron carbide film processed with a pulse energy of 72 μJ. The amplitude of the undulations is about 10 times higher than in the amorphous films processed at the same pulse energy due to the higher roughness of the films and consequent increase in laser radiation absorption. LIPSS formation on the surface of the films was achieved for the three B-C films under study. However, LIPSS are formed under

  7. A Ten-year Period of Daily Sea Surface Temperature at a Coastal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In summer, the tropical cyclones are the major cause of short term variability, with sudden drops of SST than can exceed 2°C within a few hours. The annual cycle of SST is closely associated with that of wind stress, with a lagged response of about 2 months of SST to wind forcing. Throughout the 'ten-year period' covered ...

  8. Performance enhancement in a-Si:H/μc-Si:H tandem solar cells with periodic microstructured surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiangqian; Wang, Qingkang; Wangyang, Peihua; Huang, Kun; Chen, Le; Liu, Daiming

    2015-04-01

    Here we report on an efficient light-coupling scheme with a periodic microstructured surface to enhance the performance of thin film silicon solar cells. The centerpiece of the surface structure is the hemispherical pit arrays (HPAs), which are fabricated using an inexpensive and scalable process. The integration of HPAs into micromorph tandem thin film silicon solar cells leads to superior broadband reflection suppression properties. With this design, the reflection losses of the tandem cell are reduced to only 1.5%. We demonstrate an efficiency increase from 11.67% to 12.23% compared to a conventional cell with a flat surface, with a 4.6% increase in short circuit current density. The surface microstructures reported here can be applied to a variety of photovoltaic devices to further improve their performance.

  9. A Green's function based analytical method for forward and inverse modeling of quasi-periodic nanostructured surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abass, A.; Zilk, M.; Nanz, S.; Fasold, S.; Ehrhardt, S.; Pertsch, T.; Rockstuhl, C.

    2017-11-01

    We present an efficient Green's function based analytical method for forward but particularly also for the inverse modeling of light scattering by quasi-periodic and aperiodic surface nanostructures. In the forward modeling, good agreement over an important texture amplitude range is achieved between the developed formalism and exact rigorous calculations on the one hand and angle resolved light scattering measurements of complex quasi-periodic SiO2-Au nanopatterned interfaces on the other hand. Exploiting our formalism, we demonstrate for the first time how the inverse problem of quasi-periodic surface textures for a desired multiresonant absorption response can be expressed in terms of coupled systems of multivariate polynomial equations of the height profile's Fourier amplitudes. A good estimate of the required surface profile can thus be obtained in a computationally cheap manner via solving the multivariate polynomial equations. In principle, the inverse modeling formalism introduced here can be implemented in conjunction with any scattering model that provides expressions of the coupling coefficients between different modes in terms of the surface texture height profile.

  10. Selective generation of laser-induced periodic surface structures on Al2O3-ZrO2-Nb composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Clemens; Bartolomé, José F.; Gnecco, Enrico; Müller, Frank A.; Gräf, Stephan

    2018-03-01

    Laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) were selectively fabricated on the metal phase of Al2O3-nZrO2-Nb (78.3-1.7-20 vol.%) ceramic matrix composites. For this purpose, sample surfaces were irradiated with fs-laser pulses (τ = 300 fs, λ = 1025 nm) of different laser peak fluences ranging from 0.23 to 0.40 J/cm2. The structured surfaces were characterised by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), and by measuring the water contact angle. Well-pronounced LIPSS with a period of Λ ≈ 750 nm and a height of h ≈ 263 nm were found solely on the metal phase of the composite when applying the highest fluence whereas no structural and chemical modifications were found on the surface of the ceramic matrix. This can be explained by the different light absorption behaviour of both phases, which results in different ablation thresholds. The water contact angle of composite surfaces was successfully reduced from 68.4° for untreated samples to 40.9° for structured samples. Selectively structured composites with adjustable wettability are of particular interest for biomedical and tribological applications.

  11. Femtosecond laser fabrication of large-area periodic surface ripple structure on Si substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, L.; Rusli; Wang, X.C.; Zheng, H.Y.; Wang, H.; Yu, H.Y.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we report the fabrication of a large area uniformly distributed periodic nano-ripple structure on silicon substrate through the proper scanning of a line-shaped femtosecond laser beam. The fabricated nano-ripple structure has a periodicity of ∼600 nm and a ripple depth of ∼300 nm. The modulation depth is much deeper than the one previously reported. The developed structure is demonstrated to be able to substantially reduce light reflection due to the effective optical coupling between the incident sunlight with the nano-ripple structure and exhibit an absorption enhancement of ∼41% compared with planar silicon wafer. The physics underlying the formation of the nano-ripple structure is also discussed

  12. Surface plasmon enhanced absorption and suppressed transmission in periodic arrays of graphene ribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, A. Yu.; Guinea, F.; Garcia-Vidal, F. J.; Martin-Moreno, L.

    2012-02-01

    Resonance diffraction in the periodic array of graphene microribbons is theoretically studied following a recent experiment [L. Ju , Nature Nanotech.1748-338710.1038/nnano.2011.146 6, 630 (2011)]. Systematic studies over a wide range of parameters are presented. It is shown that a much richer resonant picture would be observable for higher relaxation times of charge carriers: More resonances appear and transmission can be totally suppressed. The comparison with the absorption cross-section of a single ribbon shows that the resonant features of the periodic array are associated with leaky plasmonic modes. The longest-wavelength resonance provides the highest visibility of the transmission dip and has the strongest spectral shift and broadening with respect to the single-ribbon resonance, due to collective effects.

  13. Microbes and associated soluble and volatile chemicals on periodically wet household surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Rachel I.; Lymperopoulou, Despoina S.; Misztal, Pawel K.; De Cassia Pessotti, Rita; Behie, Scott W.; Tian, Yilin; Goldstein, Allen H.; Lindow, Steven E.; Nazaroff, William W.; Taylor, John W.; Traxler, Matt F.; Bruns, Thomas D.

    2017-01-01

    Background Microorganisms influence the chemical milieu of their environment, and chemical metabolites can affect ecological processes. In built environments, where people spend the majority of their time, very little is known about how surface-borne microorganisms influence the chemistry of the indoor spaces. Here, we applied multidisciplinary approaches to investigate aspects of chemical microbiology in a house. Methods We characterized the microbial and chemical composition of two common a...

  14. Mechanism for self-formation of periodic grating structures on a metal surface by a femtosecond laser pulse

    OpenAIRE

    Sakabe, Shuji; Hashida, Masaki; Tokita, Shigeki; Namba, Shin; Okamuro, Kiminori

    2009-01-01

    Periodic grating structures self-formed on a metal surface under the irradiation of a femtosecond laser pulse are characterized by grating spaces which are shorter than the laser wavelength, as well as by dependence on the laser fluence. This Brief Report presents a different interpretation of these features in terms of the process of parametric decay of laser light to surface plasma waves. Depending on the electron density, grating spaces with lengths of 680 nm to as short as 400 nm can be p...

  15. Surface Thermal Insulation and Pipe Cooling of Spillways during Concrete Construction Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zhenhong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Given that spillways adopt a hydraulic thin concrete plate structure, this structure is difficult to protect from cracks. The mechanism of the cracks in spillways shows that temperature stress is the major reason for cracks. Therefore, an effective way of preventing cracks is a timely and reasonable temperature-control program. Studies show that one effective prevention method is surface thermal insulation combined with internal pipe cooling. The major factors influencing temperature control effects are the time of performing thermal insulation and the ways of internal pipe cooling. To solve this problem, a spillway is taken as an example and a three-dimensional finite element program and pipe cooling calculation method are adopted to conduct simulation calculation and analysis on the temperature fields and stress fields of concretes subject to different temperature-control programs. The temperature-control effects are then compared. Optimization results show that timely and reasonable surface thermal insulation and water-flowing mode can ensure good temperature-control and anticrack effects. The method has reference value for similar projects.

  16. 2D fluid simulations of interchange turbulence with ion dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders Henry; Madsen, Jens; Xu, G. S.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present a first principle global two-dimensional fluid model. The HESEL (Hot Edge SOL Electrostatic) model is a 2D numerical fluid code, based on interchange dynamics and includes besides electron also the ion pressure dynamic. In the limit of cold ions the model almost reduces...... to the so-called ESEL model, which has successfully modeled profiles in JET [1], and profiles and fluctuations in MAST [2], EAST [3] and TCV [4]. It is a four-field Braginskii model including generalized vorticity, density, electron and ion pressure equations. The generalized vorticity consist of an Ex...

  17. Line-focus probe excitation of Scholte acoustic waves at the liquid-loaded surfaces of periodic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Every, A.G.; Vines, R.E.; Wolfe, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    A model is introduced to explain our observation of Scholte-like ultrasonic waves traveling at the water-loaded surfaces of solids with periodically varying properties. The observations pertain to two two-dimensional superlattices: a laminated solid of alternating 0.5-mm-thick layers of aluminum and a polymer, and a hexagonal array of polymer rods of lattice spacing 1 mm in an aluminum matrix. The surface waves are generated and detected by line focus acoustic lenses aligned parallel to each other, and separated by varying distances. The acoustic fields of these lenses may be considered a superposition of plain bulk waves with wave normals contained within the angular apertures of the lenses. For homogeneous solids, phase matching constraints do not allow the Scholte wave to be coupled into with an experimental configuration of this type. This is not true for a spatially periodic solid, where coupling between bulk waves and the Scholte surface wave takes place through Umklapp processes involving a change in the wave-vector component parallel to the surface by a reciprocal lattice vector. In the experiments, the source pulse is broadband, extending up to about 6 MHz, whereas the spectrum of the observed Scholte wave is peaked at around 4 and 4.5 MHz for the layered solid and hexagonal lattice, respectively. We attribute this to a resonance in the surface response of the solid, possibly associated with a critical point in the dispersion relation of the superlattice. On rotating the solid about its surface normal, the Scholte wave displays dramatic variation in phase arrival time and, to a lesser extent, also group arrival time. This variation is well accounted for by our model. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  18. Multimodel simulations of Arctic Ocean sea surface height variability in the period 1970-2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koldunov, Nikolay V.; Serra, Nuno; Koehl, Armin

    2014-01-01

    is in reasonable agreement with available measurements. Focusing on results from one of the models for a detailed analysis, it is shown that the decadal-scale SSH variability over shelf areas and deep parts of the Arctic Ocean have pronounced differences that are determined mostly by salinity variations. A further......The performance of several numerical ocean models is assessed with respect to their simulation of sea surface height (SSH) in the Arctic Ocean, and the main patterns of SSH variability and their causes over the past 40 years (1970-2009) are analyzed. In comparison to observations, all tested models...... of low-salinity shelf water. Overall, we show that present-day models can be used for investigating the reasons for low-frequency SSH variability in the region....

  19. Physisorption of helium on a TiO{sub 2}(110) surface: Periodic and finite cluster approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lara-Castells, Maria Pilar de, E-mail: Pilar.deLara.Castells@csic.es [Instituto de Fisica Fundamental (C.S.I.C.), Serrano 123, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Aguirre, Nestor F. [Instituto de Fisica Fundamental (C.S.I.C.), Serrano 123, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Mitrushchenkov, Alexander O. [Universite Paris-Est, Laboratoire Modelisation et Simulation Multi Echelle, MSME UMR 8208 CNRS, 5 bd Descartes, 77454 Marne-la-Vallee (France)

    2012-05-03

    Graphical abstract: The physisorption of helium on the TiO{sub 2}(110) surface is explored by using finite cluster and periodic approaches (see left panel). Once the basis set is specifically tailored to minimize the BSSE (rigth panel), DFT periodic calculations using the PBE functional (left panel) yield interaction potentials in good agreement with those obtained using post-HF methods as the LMP2 treatment (see left panel). Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer He/TiO{sub 2}(110) is a simplest example of physisorption on transition-metal oxide surfaces. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optimized basis sets that minimize the BSSE are better suited for physisorption problems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FCI benchmarks on the He{sub 2} bound-state assess the Counterpoise scheme reliability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Periodic DFT-PBE and post-HF results on H-saturated clusters compare satisfactorily. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Correlation energies by using embedded and H-saturated clusters agree well. - Abstract: As a proto-typical case of physisorption on an extended transition-metal oxide surface, the interaction of a helium atom with a TiO{sub 2}(110) - (1 Multiplication-Sign 1) surface is studied here by using finite cluster and periodic approaches and both wave-function-based (post-Hartree-Fock) quantum chemistry methods and density functional theory. Both classical and advanced finite cluster approaches, based on localized Wannier orbitals combined with one-particle embedding potentials, are applied to provide (reference) coupled-cluster and second-order Moeller-Plesset interaction energies. It is shown that, once the basis set is specifically tailored to minimize the basis set superposition error, periodic calculations using the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof functional yield short and medium-range interaction potentials in very reasonable agreement with those obtained using the correlated wave-function-based methods, while small long-range dispersion corrections

  20. Far Eastern Pacific Fresh Pool surface salinity variability observed by SMOS and Aquarius sensors over the period 2010-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reul, Nicolas; Alory, Gael; Maes, Christophe; Illig, Serena; Chapron, Bertrand

    2013-04-01

    The seasonal and interannual variability of the Sea Surface Salinity (SSS) deduced from SMOS and Aquarius/SAC-D satellite missions are analyzed over the period 2010-2012 in the Far Eastern Pacific Fresh Pool. The lowest values of salinity in surface layers (migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) over Central America (Alory et al., 2012). During the boreal winter, as the ITCZ moves southward, the north-easterly Panama gap wind creates a south-westward jet-like current in its path with a dipole of Ekman pumping/eddies on its flanks. As a result, upwelling in the Panama Bight brings cold and salty waters to the surface which erode the fresh pool on its eastern side while surface currents stretch the pool westward. The present study focuses on the fresh pool patterns ranging from the seasonal and interannual variability over the last 3 year period. Each year, satellite SSS products reveal the erosion of the fresh pool by the Panama upwelling. Compared to the SSS climatology from the World Ocean Atlas, satellite SSS data systematically exhibit fresher surface water (by ~0.5 to 1 unit in SSS) just after the occurrence of the maximum SSS reached in the region during the Panama upwelling events (April-May). Using Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) data, we found that these fresh anomalies coincide with local excess precipitation. Moreover, except during the boreal winter 2011, saltier surface waters than in the climatology were observed during the intensification phase of the Panama upwelling events (Fev-March). Using ASCAT sensor surface winds, TRMM data, surface current deduced from altimeter data combined with the satellite SSS, the study will analyze how these observed SSS anomalies could be related to the interannual variability in the dominant physical mechanisms involved in the freshpool dynamics. A particular focus will be set on the consistency between SMOS and Aquarius observations and on the potential role of the surface freshwater

  1. Moment Tensor Inversion of the 1998 Aiquile Earthquake Using Long-period surface waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H.

    2016-12-01

    On 22nd May 1998 at 04:49(GMT), an earthquake of magnitude Mw = 6.6 struck the Aiquile region of Bolivia, causing 105 deaths and significant damage to the nearby towns of Hoyadas and Pampa Grande. This was the largest shallow earthquake (15 km depth) in Bolivia in over 50 years, and was felt as far Sucre, approximately 100 km away. In this report, a centroid moment tensor (CMT) inversion is carried using body waves and surface waves from 1998 Aiquile earthquake with 1-D and 3-D earth models to obtain the source model parameters and moment tensor, which are the values will be subsequently compared against the Global Centroid Moment Tensor Catalog(GCMT). Also, the excitation kernels could be gained and synthetic data can be created with different earth models. The two method for calculating synthetic seismograms are SPECFEM3D Globe which is based on shear wave mantle model S40RTS and crustal model CRUST 2.0, and AxiSEM which is based on PREM 1-D earth Model. Within the report, the theory behind the CMT inversion was explained and the source parameters gained from the inversion can be used to reveal the tectonics of the source of this earthquake, these information could be helpful in assessing seismic hazard and overall tectonic regime of this region. Furthermore, results of synthetic seismograms and the solution of inversion are going to be used to assess two models.

  2. Mechanical properties of ceramic structures based on Triply Periodic Minimal Surface (TPMS) processed by 3D printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, S.; Ocampo, S.; Ramírez, J. A.; Paucar, C.; García, C.

    2017-12-01

    Repairing tissues and organs has been the main goal of surgical procedures. Since the 1990s, the main goal of tissue engineering has been reparation, using porous scaffolds that serve as a three-dimensional template for the initial fixation of cells and subsequent tissue formation both in vitro and in vivo. A scaffold must have specific characteristics of porosity, interconnectivity, surface area, pore volume, surface tortuosity, permeability and mechanical properties, which makes its design, manufacturing and characterization a complex process. Inspired by nature, triply periodic minimal surfaces (TPMS) have emerged as an alternative for the manufacture of porous pieces with design requirements, such as scaffolds for tissue repair. In the present work, we used the technique of 3D printing to obtain ceramic structures with Gyroid, Schwarz Primitive and Schwarz Diamond Surfaces shapes, three TPMS that fulfil the geometric requirements of a bone tissue scaffold. The main objective of this work is to compare the mechanical properties of ceramic pieces of three different forms of TPMS printed in 3D using a commercial ceramic paste. In this way it will be possible to clarify which is the TPMS with appropriate characteristics to construct scaffolds of ceramic materials for bone repair. A dependence of the mechanical properties with the geometry was found being the Primitive Surface which shows the highest mechanical properties.

  3. 2014 Trans-Atlantic Research and Development Interchange ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Trans-Atlantic Research and Development Interchange on Sustainability (TARDIS) has been bringing together a select group of scientists and engineers for in-depth discussions on sustainability on a bi-annual basis since 2004. TARDIS 2014 included twenty eight individuals from across the globe discussing issues related to progress towards sustainability. The discussion included policies, technologies, societal structure and norms, business practices and culture, and time-frames. As discussed later, the focus was on four questions: (1) what progress has been accomplished in sustainability? (2) why has there not been more progress in moving societies towards sustainability? (3) what are the road-blocks to progress towards sustainability? (4) what are the policies, technologies, and other changes that are needed to make further progress towards sustainability? One salient conclusion from TARDIS 2014 is that while sustainability has entered mainstream thinking, significant social, economic, technological, and business barriers remain to further progress towards a sustainable path as discussed throughout this report. The Trans-Atlantic Research and Development Interchange on Sustainability is a bi-annual workshop alternatively held in the United States and Austria. The purpose is to bring the best thinkers from across the globe to discuss, explore, and clarify major issues related to sustainability. A report summarizing teh finding and discussions is prepared and d

  4. Importance of moisture determination in studies of infiltration and surface runoff for long periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Fulginiti

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The determination of the natural soil moisture is essential to solve problems related to irrigation water requirements, environmental considerations, and determination of surplus water. For the determination of runoff one can adopt models that consider exclusively the infiltration as a loss or one could use computational models of infiltration to model the infiltrated water. Models based on the infiltration calculation consider well the interaction between infiltration - runoff processes and provide additional information on the phenomenon of infiltration which establishes the existing conditions of moisture in the soil before the occurrence of a new event (simulation for long periods. These models require solving Richards’s equation and for this purpose it is necessary to determine the relation between the soil moisture - suction and hydraulic conductivity - suction which require the determination of the hydraulic properties that can be obtained by measuring the water content by moisture profiles. The aim of this study was the verification of these moisture curves in loessic soils in the south of the city of Cordoba, Argentina. To do this, measurements were done and compared with results of infiltration models based on the determined hydraulic functions. The measurements were done using three probes installed at different depths. The results showed that the values obtained with NETRAIN adequately represent the behavior of wetting and drying conditions of the studied soil.The determination of these curves provided a basis for future studies that include the advancement of agricultural chemicals in the soil and its potential capacity to pollute groundwater, fundamental issue to define environmental management policies.

  5. Interchange with the Asian area; Ajia chiiki tono koryu sokushin wo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinohara, Takakazu. [Toyo Engineering Corp., Chiba (Japan)

    1999-01-15

    International interchange activities are being done with APCCC around the international interchange committee with the United States, Europe, Asia, the Middle East area, the old Soviet Union, and so on. The United States and various European countries are technical advanced countries as to the learning, and Asia and that circumference country show remarkable economic development recently. The inside of such conditions is compared with interchange with the West, and development is late for the interchange with the Asian area. (A special committee as to the Asian interchange promotion) is established in 1998, and it thinks with the thing which interchange in the technological side with the various Asian countries and so on proceeds around this through. (translated by NEDO)

  6. ANALYSIS OF PERIODIC NANOSTRUCTURES FORMATION ON A GOLD SURFACE UNDER EXPOSURE TO ULTRASHORT LASER PULSES NEAR THE MELTING THRESHOLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Ivanov

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Study. The mechanism of surface restructuring by ultrashort laser pulses involves a lot of fast, non-equilibrium, and interrelated processes while the solid is in a transient state. As a result, the analysis of the experimental data cannot cover all the mechanisms of nanostructuring. We present a direct comparison of a simulation and experimental results of surface nanomodification induced by a single laser pulse. Method. The experimental results were obtained by using a mask projection setup with a laser wavelength equal to 248 nm and a pulse length equal to 1.6 ps. This setup is used to produce an intensity grating on a gold surface with a sinusoidal shape and a period of 500 nm. The formed structures were analyzed by a scanning and transmission electron microscope, respectively. Then a hybrid atomistic-continuum model capable of capturing the essential mechanisms responsible for the nanostructuring process was used for modeling the interaction of the laser pulse with a thick gold target. Main Results. A good agreement between simulation and experimental data justifies the proposed approach as a powerful tool revealing the physics behind the nanostructuring process at a gold surface and providing a microscopic insight into the dynamics of the structuring processes of metals in general. The presented model, therefore, is an important step towards a new computational tool in predicting materials response to an ultrashort laser pulse on the atomic scale and properties of the modified surfaces. Practical Relevance. This detailed understanding of the dynamics of the process will pave the way towards pre-designed topologies for functionalized surfaces on the nano- and micro-scales.

  7. Additive manufacturing and mechanical characterization of graded porosity scaffolds designed based on triply periodic minimal surface architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshar, M; Anaraki, A Pourkamali; Montazerian, H; Kadkhodapour, J

    2016-09-01

    Since the advent of additive manufacturing techniques, triply periodic minimal surfaces have emerged as a novel tool for designing porous scaffolds. Whereas scaffolds are expected to provide multifunctional performance, spatially changing pore patterns have been a promising approach to integrate mechanical characteristics of different architectures into a unique scaffold. Smooth morphological variations are also frequently seen in nature particularly in bone and cartilage structures and can be inspiring for designing of artificial tissues. In this study, we carried out experimental and numerical procedures to uncover the mechanical properties and deformation mechanisms of linearly graded porosity scaffolds for two different mathematically defined pore structures. Among TPMS-based scaffolds, P and D surfaces were subjected to gradient modeling to explore the mechanical responses for stretching and bending dominated deformations, respectively. Moreover, the results were compared to their corresponding uniform porosity structures. Mechanical properties were found to be by far greater for the stretching dominated structure (P-Surface). For bending dominated architecture (D-Surface), although there was no global fracture for uniform structures, graded structure showed a brittle fracture at 0.08 strain. A layer by layer deformation mechanism for stretching dominated structure was observed. For bending dominated scaffolds, deformation was accompanied by development of 45° shearing bands. Finite element simulations were also performed and the results showed a good agreement with the experimental observations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Delimitation of the warm and cold period of the year based on the variation of the Aegean sea surface temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. MAVRAKIS

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the warm and cold season onset is important for the living conditions and the occupational activities of the inhabitants of a given area, and especially for agriculture and tourism. This paper presents a way to estimate the onset/end of the cold and warm period of the year, based on the sinusoidal annual variation of the Sea Surface Temperature. The method was applied on data from 8 stations of the Hellenic Navy Hydrographic Service, covering the period from 1965-1995. The results showed that the warm period starts sometime between April 28th and May 21st while it ends between October 27th and November 19th in accordance with the findings of other studies. Characteristic of the nature of the parameter used is the very low variance per station – 15 days at maximum. The average date of warm period onset is statistically the same for the largest part of the Aegean, with only one differentiation, that between Kavala and the southern stations ( Thira and Heraklion.

  9. Comparison between instrumental sunshine duration and surface solar radiation trends for Italy over the period 1959-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manara, Veronica; Brunetti, Michele; Maugeri, Maurizio; Sanchez-Lorenzo, Arturo; Wild, Martin

    2016-04-01

    A dataset of quality checked and homogenized Italian instrumental sunshine duration (SD) and surface solar radiation (SSR) records has been set up collecting data from different sources, and the regional records for North and South Italy are obtained for both the variables. The trends refer to the period 1936-2013 for SD and to the period 1959-2013 for SSR. The SD records show an increasing tendency starting at the beginning of 1980s (i.e. brightening) and a decreasing tendency (i.e., dimming) in the previous period, which is, however, less evident than the more recent brightening, especially in northern Italy [Manara et al., 2015]. The SSR series show a decrease until the mid of 1980s and a following increase until the end of the series in all seasons with the only exception of summer in the North where the dimming period is very weak and winter and autumn in the South where the brightening periods is not significant. The comparison between the two variables over the common period (1959-2013) shows some discrepancies in the magnitude of the trends, especially during the dimming period with a more intense and significant tendency for SSR than for SD. Another peculiarity of the SSR trends with respect to the ones obtained from SD is a shift of the trend reversal from the mid of 1980s to the beginning of 1980s. The correlations between the two variables for the annual mean are 0.65 and 0.50 for the North and the South respectively. At seasonal scale they range between 0.71 (autumn) and 0.88 (spring) in the North and between 0.58 (autumn) and 0.75 (spring) in the South. A more detailed understanding of differences highlighted by the comparison between SD and SSR records needs further research, based as an example on the comparison of the trends obtained also under clear-sky conditions. Nevertheless, the obtained results are in agreement with those reported in literature where the discrepancies observed during the dimming period are supposed to be caused by a different

  10. EDI (electronic data interchange): the best in business partner cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirelli, T

    1989-10-01

    This is the first of a three-part series on electronic data interchange (EDI) applications in the materials management and accounts payable departments, especially as they relate to transactions with outside vendors. Part Two will cover EDI applications within a hospital, from one computer system to another. The article will illustrate how the new HL7 standards will make "seamless" interfaces an economic reality for the first time. Part Three will focus on the paperwork reduction aspects of EDI, and the resultant cost savings. Through the use of permanent CD-ROM storage, the day will come when a hospital's business transactions (purchase orders, invoices, checks) as well as medical records, will never be generated on paper.

  11. Guidelines for Provision and Interchange of Geothermal Data Assets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-07-03

    The US Department of Energy Office of Geothermal Technologies (OGT) is funding and overseeing the development of the National Geothermal Data System (NGDS), a distributed information system providing access to integrated data in support of, and generated in, all phases of geothermal development. NGDS is being built in an open paradigm and will employ state-of-the-art informatics approaches and capabilities to advance the state of geothermal knowledge in the US. This document presents guidelines related to provision and interchange of data assets in the context of the National Geothermal Data System. It identifies general specifications for NGDS catalog metadata and data content, and provides specific instructions for preparation and submission of data assets by OGT-funded projects.

  12. Interchange of electronic design through VHDL and EIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Richard M.

    1987-01-01

    The need for both robust and unambiguous electronic designs is a direct requirement of the astonishing growth in design and manufacturing capability during recent years. In order to manage the plethora of designs, and have the design data both interchangeable and interoperable, the Very High Speed Integrated Circuits (VHSIC) program is developing two major standards for the electronic design community. The VHSIC Hardware Description Language (VHDL) is designed to be the lingua franca for transmission of design data between designers and their environments. The Engineering Information System (EIS) is designed to ease the integration of data betweeen diverse design automation systems. This paper describes the rationale for the necessity for these two standards and how they provide a synergistic expressive capability across the macrocosm of design environments.

  13. Formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) on tool steel by multiple picosecond laser pulses of different polarizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregorčič, Peter, E-mail: peter.gregorcic@fs.uni-lj.si [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Aškerčeva 6, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Sedlaček, Marko; Podgornik, Bojan [Institute of Metals and Technology, Lepi pot 11, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Reif, Jürgen [Brandenburgische Technische Universitaet – BTU Cottbus-Senftenberg, Platz der Deutschen Einheit 1, 03046 Cottbus (Germany)

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • Low number of differently polarized ps laser pulses is superimposed on tool steel. • Last pulses determine the ripples orientation for single spot and coherent traces. • Previously formed structures are overridden by later incident pulses. • Ripples contrast depends on total exposure, independent on pulses’ polarization. • Weak role of pre-formed structures makes interference scenarios questionable. - Abstract: Laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) are produced on cold work tool steel by irradiation with a low number of picosecond laser pulses. As expected, the ripples, with a period of about 90% of the laser wavelength, are oriented perpendicular to the laser polarization. Subsequent irradiation with the polarization rotated by 45° or 90° results in a corresponding rotation of the ripples. This is visible already with the first pulse and becomes almost complete – erasing the previous orientation – after as few as three pulses. The phenomenon is not only observed for single-spot irradiation but also for writing long coherent traces. The experimental results strongly defy the role of surface plasmon-polaritons as the predominant key to LIPSS formation.

  14. Rapid Fabrication of Periodic Patterns on Poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile Surfaces Using Direct Laser Interference Patterning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin F. Broglia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodic microstructures in styrene-acrylonitrile (SAN copolymers are fabricated by two-beam direct laser interference patterning using a nanosecond pulsed laser operating at a wavelength of 266 nm. The SAN copolymers are synthesized using different molar ratios (styrene to acrylonitrile by a free radical polymerization process. The chemical composition of the copolymers and their properties are determined using Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. Depending on the composition of the irradiated copolymer films, with weight ratios ranging from 58 to 96.5% of styrene to acrylonitrile, different ablation behaviors are observed. The laser fluence necessary to locally ablate the copolymer is found to be dependent on the copolymer composition. Unlike other dielectric polymers, the laser irradiation produced both direct ablation of the irradiated material and collapse of the surface. It is shown that, by varying the laser fluence and the copolymer composition, the surface structure can be changed from a periodic pattern with a swelled topography to an ablated-like structure. The number of holes does not depend monotonically on the amount of PS or PAN units but shows a more complex behavior which depends on the copolymer composition and the laser fluence.

  15. Roles of transition metals interchanging with lithium in electrode materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Tomoya; Fukuda, Katsutoshi; Tokuda, Kazuya; Sakaida, Masashi; Ichitsubo, Tetsu; Oishi, Masatsugu; Mizuki, Jun'ichiro; Matsubara, Eiichiro

    2015-06-07

    Roles of antisite transition metals interchanging with Li atoms in electrode materials of Li transition-metal complex oxides were clarified using a newly developed direct labeling method, termed powder diffraction anomalous fine structure (P-DAFS) near the Ni K-edge. We site-selectively investigated the valence states and local structures of Ni in Li0.89Ni1.11O2, where Ni atoms occupy mainly the NiO2 host-layer sites and partially the interlayer Li sites in-between the host layers, during electrochemical Li insertion/extraction in a lithium-ion battery (LIB). The site-selective X-ray near edge structure evaluated via the P-DAFS method revealed that the interlayer Ni atoms exhibited much lower electrochemical activity as compared to those at the host-layer site. Furthermore, the present analyses of site-selective extended X-ray absorption fine structure performed using the P-DAFS method indicates local structural changes around the residual Ni atoms at the interlayer space during the initial charge; it tends to gather to form rock-salt NiO-like domains around the interlayer Ni. The presence of the NiO-like domains in the interlayer space locally diminishes the interlayer distance and would yield strain energy because of the lattice mismatch, which retards the subsequent Li insertion both thermodynamically and kinetically. Such restrictions on the Li insertion inevitably make the NiO-like domains electrochemically inactive, resulting in an appreciable irreversible capacity after the initial charge but an achievement of robust linkage of neighboring NiO2 layers that tend to be dissociated without the Li occupation. The P-DAFS characterization of antisite transition metals interchanging with Li atoms complements the understanding of the detailed charge-compensation and degradation mechanisms in the electrode materials.

  16. Simulation of the interchange instability in a magnetospheric substorm site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Mingalev

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available We perform modeling of the interchange instability driven by longitudinal pressure asymmetry in the region of the pressure buildup that forms in the inner magnetosphere at the substorm growth phase. The simulation refers to the dawnward side of the Harang discontinuity and times after Bz IMF turning northward. The solution for the equilibrium state indicates tailward flows associated with vortices, which is in agreement with a previous finding of Ashour-Abdalla et al. (1999, 2002. We show that in the regions of equilibrium field-aligned currents (FACs, small initial perturbations in pVγ (p is the isotropic plasma pressure, V is the unit magnetic flux tube volume, γ=5/3 the adiabatic exponent, set up as ripples inclined to azimuth, grow in time. For the background FAC of ~10-6 A/m2, the linear growth rate of the instability is ~6 min. Starting from the 12th min of evolution, the perturbations exhibit nonlinear deformations, develop undulations and front steepening. An interesting peculiarity in the distribution of the associated small-scale FACs is that they become asymmetric with time. Specifically, the downward currents are more localised, reaching densities up to 15×10-6 A/m2 at the nonlinear stage. The upward FACs are more dispersed. When large enough, these currents are likely to produce the aurora. We also run our simulation for the initial perturbations of large transverse scales in order to demonstrate that the interchange instability can be responsible for pressure and cross-tail current spatial variations of great extent.

  17. Transport intermodal interchanges: Socio-economic impacts at Lille European metropolis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heddebaut, O.; Ciommo, F. di

    2016-07-01

    Within the framework of the “City-HUB” FP7 European research project 27 interchanges were studied in nine European countries. It investigated how transport interchanges work from the point of view of governance and the organization of facilities. On this basis a typology of interchanges has been defined for classifying the interchanges and selecting the key elements for improving the interchanges location, construction, and organization of an interchange. The paper focus on the implementation of the City-HUB interchange typology to the case study of Lille European Metropolis (MEL) where two contingent railways stations Lille Flandres and Lille Europe were analysed as a potential unique interchange. Indeed, the article is related to the creation of a joint interchanges able to attract more public transport users than private users such as it is now the case. These two main railways interchanges have different territorial and transport functions (i.e. one is oriented to regional traffic and the other one to national and international traffic). Urban planners and transport authorities would like to connect both stations creating a unique interchange. A key point of the Lille’s City-HUB analysis is related to the involvement of the stakeholders. Their involvement is at the origin of the interactions between City-HUB and its socio-economic and urban context. We demonstrate that combining transport and land use planning policies could boost commercial development, new business offices or housing. The urban City-Hub overcomes its role of transport infrastructure for being a “place”. (Author)

  18. Comparison between the classical interaction energy and periodic Hartree-Fock binding energies for the interaction between molecules and surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chacon-Taylor, M.R.; McCarthy, M.I.

    1995-01-01

    The energetics of the H 2 O/MgO(001), HCl/MgO(001), and NH 3 /MgO(001) interface were investigated using the ab initio periodic Hartree-Fock LCAO method and a classical interaction energy model. The QM calculations treated a system that was periodic in two dimensions with the adsorbate approaching a three-layer slab of MgO(001). The authors used an approximation to the classical interaction energy, where the surface is represented by its potential, electric field, and electric field derivatives at the positions of the molecule center of mass, and the molecule is described by its charge, electric dipole, electric quadrupole and polarizability. The potential, electric field and electric field gradient are obtained for the clean three-layer slab using the ab initio periodic Hartree-Fock LCAO method (CRYSTAL) and an optimized split valence basis 8-61G on Mg and 8-51G on O. The charge, electric dipole, and electric quadrupole are calculated using ab initio Hartree-Fock theory (GAUSSIAN-92) with a 6-31G* basis set while the SCF polarizability is determined analytically using the same basis set

  19. Microstructural and surface modifications and hydroxyapatite coating of Ti-6Al-4V triply periodic minimal surface lattices fabricated by selective laser melting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Chunze; Hao, Liang; Hussein, Ahmed; Wei, Qingsong; Shi, Yusheng

    2017-06-01

    Ti-6Al-4V Gyroid triply periodic minimal surface (TPMS) lattices were manufactured by selective laser melting (SLM). The as-built Ti-6Al-4V lattices exhibit an out-of-equilibrium microstructure with very fine α' martensitic laths. When subjected to the heat treatment of 1050°C for 4h followed by furnace cooling, the lattices show a homogenous and equilibrium lamellar α+β microstructure with less dislocation and crystallographic defects compared with the as-built α' martensite. The as-built lattices present very rough strut surfaces bonded with plenty of partially melted metal particles. The sand blasting nearly removed all the bonded metal particles, but created many tiny cracks. The HCl etching eliminated these tiny cracks, and subsequent NaOH etching resulted in many small and shallow micro-pits and develops a sodium titanate hydrogel layer on the surfaces of the lattices. When soaked in simulated body fluid (SBF), the Ti-6Al-4V TPMS lattices were covered with a compact and homogeneous biomimetic hydroxyapatite (HA) layer. This work proposes a new method for making Ti-6Al-4V TPMS lattices with a homogenous and equilibrium microstructure and biomimetic HA coating, which show both tough and bioactive characteristics and can be promising materials usable as bone substitutes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. 32 CFR 644.409 - Procedures for Interchange of National Forest Lands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Department of the Army may result from land requirements generated by newly authorized civil works or... the Department of Agriculture pertaining to a civil works project or a military installation, it will... of an interchange, an interchange planning report will be developed by the DE, in coordination with...

  1. Laser-Induced Periodic Surface Structures on P3HT and on Its Photovoltaic Blend with PC71BM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jing; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Álvaro; Hernández, Margarita; García-Gutiérrez, Mari-Cruz; Nogales, Aurora; Castillejo, Marta; Moseguí González, Daniel; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter; Ezquerra, Tiberio A; Rebollar, Esther

    2016-11-23

    We describe the conditions for optimal formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) over poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) spin-coated films. Optimal LIPSS on P3HT are observed within a particular range of thicknesses and laser fluences. These conditions can be translated to the photovoltaic blend formed by the 1:1 mixture of P3HT and [6,6]-phenyl C 71 -butyric acid methyl ester (PC 71 BM) when deposited on an indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode coated with (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS). Solar cells formed by using either a bilayer of P3HT structured by LIPSS covered by PC 71 BM or a bulk heterojunction with a P3HT:PC 71 BM blend structured by LIPSS exhibit generation of electrical photocurrent under light illumination. These results suggest that LIPSS could be a compatible technology with organic photovoltaic devices.

  2. Topological valley transport of plate-mode waves in a homogenous thin plate with periodic stubbed surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiu-Jiu; Huo, Shao-Yong; Geng, Zhi-Guo; Huang, Hong-Bo; Zhu, Xue-Feng

    2017-11-01

    The study for exotic topological effects of sound has attracted uprising interests in fundamental physics and practical applications. Based on the concept of valley pseudospin, we demonstrate the topological valley transport of plate-mode waves in a homogenous thin plate with periodic stubbed surface, where a deterministic two-fold Dirac degeneracy is form by two plate modes. We show that the topological property can be controlled by the height of stubs deposited on the plate. By adjusting the relative heights of adjacent stubs, the valley vortex chirality and band inversion are induced, giving rise to a phononic analog of valley Hall phase transition. We further numerically demonstrate the valley states of plate-mode waves with robust topological protection. Our results provide a new route to design unconventional elastic topological insulators and will significantly broaden its practical application in the engineering field.

  3. Surface water/groundwater relationship in Chaj Doab. Final report for the period November 1985 - December 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, S.D.

    1989-01-01

    In order to understand the relationship between surface water and groundwater in Chaj Doab area, isotopic and chemical studies were undertaken. Seven sets of water samples from hand pumps, tube wells, rivers and canals were collected during the period November 1985 to October 1988 and all the samples were analysed for environmental isotopes such as 2 H, 3 H, 18 O and the dissolved chemical constituents like Na + , K + , Ca ++ , Mg ++ , Cl - , NO 3 - , SO 4 -- and TIC. Some of the water samples having very low tritium concentrations were analysed for 14 C content. Analysis for 13 C values for two sets of samples was also carried out. 8 refs, 13 figs, 6 tabs

  4. Topological valley transport of plate-mode waves in a homogenous thin plate with periodic stubbed surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiu-Jiu Chen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The study for exotic topological effects of sound has attracted uprising interests in fundamental physics and practical applications. Based on the concept of valley pseudospin, we demonstrate the topological valley transport of plate-mode waves in a homogenous thin plate with periodic stubbed surface, where a deterministic two-fold Dirac degeneracy is form by two plate modes. We show that the topological property can be controlled by the height of stubs deposited on the plate. By adjusting the relative heights of adjacent stubs, the valley vortex chirality and band inversion are induced, giving rise to a phononic analog of valley Hall phase transition. We further numerically demonstrate the valley states of plate-mode waves with robust topological protection. Our results provide a new route to design unconventional elastic topological insulators and will significantly broaden its practical application in the engineering field.

  5. Modelling of deformation process for the layer of elastoviscoplastic media under surface action of periodic force of arbitrary type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikheyev, V. V.; Saveliev, S. V.

    2018-01-01

    Description of deflected mode for different types of materials under action of external force plays special role for wide variety of applications - from construction mechanics to circuits engineering. This article con-siders the problem of plastic deformation of the layer of elastoviscolastic soil under surface periodic force. The problem was solved with use of the modified lumped parameters approach which takes into account close to real distribution of normal stress in the depth of the layer along with changes in local mechanical properties of the material taking place during plastic deformation. Special numeric algorithm was worked out for computer modeling of the process. As an example of application suggested algorithm was realized for the deformation of the layer of elasoviscoplastic material by the source of external lateral force with the parameters of real technological process of soil compaction.

  6. Effect of therapeutic interchange on medication reconciliation during hospitalization and upon discharge in a geriatric population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica S Wang

    Full Text Available Therapeutic interchange of a same class medication for an outpatient medication is a widespread practice during hospitalization in response to limited hospital formularies. However, therapeutic interchange may increase risk of medication errors. The objective was to characterize the prevalence and safety of therapeutic interchange.Secondary analysis of a transitions of care study. We included patients over age 64 admitted to a tertiary care hospital between 2009-2010 with heart failure, pneumonia, or acute coronary syndrome who were taking a medication in any of six commonly-interchanged classes on admission: proton pump inhibitors (PPIs, histamine H2-receptor antagonists (H2 blockers, hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA reductase inhibitors (statins, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs, and inhaled corticosteroids (ICS. There was limited electronic medication reconciliation support available. Main measures were presence and accuracy of therapeutic interchange during hospitalization, and rate of medication reconciliation errors on discharge. We examined charts of 303 patients taking 555 medications at time of admission in the six medication classes of interest. A total of 244 (44.0% of medications were therapeutically interchanged to an approved formulary drug at admission, affecting 64% of the study patients. Among the therapeutically interchanged drugs, we identified 78 (32.0% suspected medication conversion errors. The discharge medication reconciliation error rate was 11.5% among the 244 therapeutically interchanged medications, compared with 4.2% among the 311 unchanged medications (relative risk [RR] 2.75, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.45-5.19.Therapeutic interchange was prevalent among hospitalized patients in this study and elevates the risk for potential medication errors during and after hospitalization. Improved electronic systems for managing therapeutic interchange and medication reconciliation

  7. Low-coverage surface diffusion in complex periodic energy landscapes. II. Analytical solution for systems with asymmetric hops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosálvez, Miguel A.; Otrokov, Mikhail M.; Ferrando, Nestor; Ryabishchenkova, Anastasia G.; Ayuela, Andres; Echenique, Pedro M.; Chulkov, Evgueni V.

    2016-05-01

    This is part II in a series of two papers that introduce a general expression for the tracer diffusivity in complex, periodic energy landscapes with M distinct hop rates in one-, two-, and three-dimensional diluted systems (low coverage, single-tracer limit). While Part I [Gosálvez et al., Phys. Rev. B 93, 075429 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevB.93.075429] focuses on the analysis of diffusion in systems where the end sites of the hops are located symmetrically with respect to the hop origins (symmetric hops), as encountered in many ideal surfaces and bulk materials, this report (Part II) presents a more general approach to determining the tracer diffusivity in systems where the end sites can be located asymmetrically with respect to the hop origins (asymmetric hops), as observed in reconstructed and/or chemically modified surfaces and/or bulk materials. The obtained diffusivity formulas for numerous systems are validated against kinetic Monte Carlo simulations and previously reported analytical expressions based on the continuous-time random walk (CTRW) method. The proposed method corrects some of the CTRW formulas and provides new expressions for difficult cases that have not been solved earlier. This demonstrates the ability of the proposed formalism to describe tracer diffusion.

  8. Surface-micromachined magnetic undulator with period length between 10μm and 1 mm for advanced light sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Jere; Joshi, Abhijeet; Lake, Jonathan; Candler, Rob; Musumeci, Pietro

    2012-07-01

    A technological gap exists between the μm-scale wiggling periods achieved using electromagnetic waves of high intensity laser pulses and the mm scale of permanent-magnet and superconducting undulators. In the sub-mm range, surface-micromachined soft-magnetic micro-electro-mechanical system inductors with integrated solenoidal coils have already experimentally demonstrated 100 to 500 mT field amplitude across air gaps as large as 15μm. Simulations indicate that magnetic fields as large as 1.5 T across 50μm inductor gaps are feasible. A simple rearranging of the yoke and pole geometry allows for fabrication of 10+ cm long undulator structures with period lengths between 12.5μm and 1 mm. Such undulators find application both in high average power spontaneous emission sources and, if used in combination with ultrahigh-brightness electron beams, could lead to the realization of low energy compact free-electron lasers. Challenges include electron energy broadening due to wakefields and Joule heating in the electromagnet.

  9. Quasi-periodic oscillations of aerosol backscatter profiles and surface meteorological parameters during winter nights over a tropical station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Manoj

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric gravity waves, which are a manifestation of the fluctuations in buoyancy of the air parcels, are well known for their direct influence on concentration of atmospheric trace gases and aerosols, and also on oscillations of meteorological variables such as temperature, wind speed, visibility and so on. The present paper reports quasi-periodic oscillations in the lidar backscatter signal strength due to aerosol fluctuations in the nocturnal boundary layer, studied with a high space-time resolution polarimetric micro pulse lidar and concurrent meteorological parameters over a tropical station in India. The results of the spectral analysis of the data, archived on some typical clear-sky conditions during winter months of 2008 and 2009, exhibit a prominent periodicity of 20–40 min in lidar-observed aerosol variability and show close association with those observed in the near-surface temperature and wind at 5% statistical significance. Moreover, the lidar aerosol backscatter signal strength variations at different altitudes, which have been generated from the height-time series of the one-minute interval profiles at 2.4 m vertical resolution, indicate vertical propagation of these waves, exchanging energy between lower and higher height levels. Such oscillations are favoured by the stable atmospheric background condition and peculiar topography of the experimental site. Accurate representation of these buoyancy waves is essential in predicting the sporadic fluctuations of weather in the tropics.

  10. Use of data description languages in the interchange of data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignede, M.; Real-Planells, B.; Smith, S. R.

    1994-01-01

    The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) is developing Standards for the interchange of information between systems, including those operating under different environments. The objective is to perform the interchange automatically, i.e. in a computer interpretable manner. One aspect of the concept developed by CCSDS is the use of a separate data description to specify the data being transferred. Using the description, data can then be automatically parsed by the receiving computer. With a suitably expressive Data Description Language (DDL), data formats of arbitrary complexity can be handled. The advantages of this approach are: (1) that the description need only be written and distributed once to all users, and (2) new software does not need to be written for each new format, provided generic tools are available to support writing and interpretation of descriptions and the associated data instances. Consequently, the effort of 'hard coding' each new format is avoided and problems of integrating multiple implementations of a given format by different users are avoided. The approach is applicable in any context where computer parsable description of data could enhance efficiency (e.g. within a spacecraft control system, a data delivery system or an archive). The CCSDS have identified several candidate DDL's: EAST (Extended Ada Subset), TSDN (Transfer Syntax Data Notation) and MADEL (Modified ASN.1 as a Data Description Language -- a DDL based on the Abstract Syntax Notation One - ASN.1 - specified in the ISO/IEC 8824). This paper concentrates on ESA's development of MADEL. ESA have also developed a 'proof of concept' prototype of the required support tools, implemented on a PC under MS-DOS, which has successfully demonstrated the feasibility of the approach, including the capability within an application of retrieving and displaying particular data elements, given its MADEL description (i.e. a data description written in MADEL). This paper outlines

  11. A new integrated and homogenized global monthly land surface air temperature dataset for the period since 1900

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenhui; Li, Qingxiang; Jones, Phil; Wang, Xiaolan L.; Trewin, Blair; Yang, Su; Zhu, Chen; Zhai, Panmao; Wang, Jinfeng; Vincent, Lucie; Dai, Aiguo; Gao, Yun; Ding, Yihui

    2018-04-01

    A new dataset of integrated and homogenized monthly surface air temperature over global land for the period since 1900 [China Meteorological Administration global Land Surface Air Temperature (CMA-LSAT)] is developed. In total, 14 sources have been collected and integrated into the newly developed dataset, including three global (CRUTEM4, GHCN, and BEST), three regional and eight national sources. Duplicate stations are identified, and those with the higher priority are chosen or spliced. Then, a consistency test and a climate outlier test are conducted to ensure that each station series is quality controlled. Next, two steps are adopted to assure the homogeneity of the station series: (1) homogenized station series in existing national datasets (by National Meteorological Services) are directly integrated into the dataset without any changes (50% of all stations), and (2) the inhomogeneities are detected and adjusted for in the remaining data series using a penalized maximal t test (50% of all stations). Based on the dataset, we re-assess the temperature changes in global and regional areas compared with GHCN-V3 and CRUTEM4, as well as the temperature changes during the three periods of 1900-2014, 1979-2014 and 1998-2014. The best estimates of warming trends and there 95% confidence ranges for 1900-2014 are approximately 0.102 ± 0.006 °C/decade for the whole year, and 0.104 ± 0.009, 0.112 ± 0.007, 0.090 ± 0.006, and 0.092 ± 0.007 °C/decade for the DJF (December, January, February), MAM, JJA, and SON seasons, respectively. MAM saw the most significant warming trend in both 1900-2014 and 1979-2014. For an even shorter and more recent period (1998-2014), MAM, JJA and SON show similar warming trends, while DJF shows opposite trends. The results show that the ability of CMA-LAST for describing the global temperature changes is similar with other existing products, while there are some differences when describing regional temperature changes.

  12. An harmonised vocabulary for communicating and interchanging biofilms experimental results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Ana Margarida; Pereira, Maria Olívia; Azevedo, Nuno F; Lourenço, Anália

    2014-10-23

    Biofilm studies are at the crossroads of Biology, Chemistry, Medicine, Material Science and Engineering, among other fields. Data harmonisation in Biofilms is therefore crucial to allow for researchers to collaborate, interchange, understand, and replicate studies at an inter-laboratory and inter-domain scale. The international Minimum Information About a Biofilms Experiment initiative has prepared a set of guidelines for documenting biofilms experiments and data, namely the minimum information checklist. This paper goes a step forward and describes a new ontology for the broad description of biofilm experiments and data. In such an interdisciplinary context we chose to rely on a common integration framework provided by a foundational ontology that facilitates the addition and extension of various sub-domain modules, and the consistent integration of terminology extracted from several existing ontologies, e.g. EXPO and ChEBI. The community is participating actively in the production of this resource, and it is already used by public biofilms-centred databases, such as BiofOmics, and bioinformatics tools, such as the Biofilms Experiment Workbench. This practical validation serves the purpose of disseminating the controlled vocabulary among researchers and identifying current limitations, glitches, and inconsistencies. Information branches will be added, extended or refactored according to user feedback and group discussions.

  13. Stabilization of numerical interchange in spectral-element magnetohydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sovinec, C. R.

    2016-08-01

    Auxiliary numerical projections of the divergence of flow velocity and vorticity parallel to magnetic field are developed and tested for the purpose of suppressing unphysical interchange instability in magnetohydrodynamic simulations. The numerical instability arises with equal-order C0 finite- and spectral-element expansions of the flow velocity, magnetic field, and pressure and is sensitive to behavior at the limit of resolution. The auxiliary projections are motivated by physical field-line bending, and coercive responses to the projections are added to the flow-velocity equation. Their incomplete expansions are limited to the highest-order orthogonal polynomial in at least one coordinate of the spectral elements. Cylindrical eigenmode computations show that the projections induce convergence from the stable side with first-order ideal-MHD equations during h-refinement and p-refinement. Hyperbolic and parabolic projections and responses are compared, together with different methods for avoiding magnetic divergence error. The projections are also shown to be effective in linear and nonlinear time-dependent computations with the NIMROD code Sovinec et al. [17], provided that the projections introduce numerical dissipation.

  14. Turbulent interchange in simulated rod bundle geometries for Genetron-12 flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrunik, K.

    1973-01-01

    Turbulent interchange data between subchannel arrays simulating an infinite triangular array in a rod bundle fuel cluster were obtained for two-phase Genetron-12 (dichlorodifluoromethane), single phase subcooled Genetron-12 and single phase water flows at gap spacings of 0.025, 0.052 and 0.100 inches. Single phase turbulent interchange rates were relatively independent of the pitch to diameter ratio for the larger two gaps studied but increased for the smallest gap spacing. Two-phase Genetron-12 interchange data were obtained under conditions of unequal qualities and mass fluxes and essentially zero radial pressure gradient along the interconnection region between subchannels. Vapour transport occurred primarily by a diffusional type mechanism and was qualitatively similar to single phase behaviour. For annular flow conditions liquid interchange occurred through a dual mechanism via the film flow and entrained droplets. Vapour interchange was significantly suppressed at the smallest gap spacing due to the presence of the liquid film. Liquid interchange under two-phase conditions increased with gap spacing from 0.025 to 0.052 inches and levelled off slightly at 0.100 inches. Data obtained with heat addition in one test channel indicated negligible effects on the vapour transfer rates but a slight reduction in the magnitude of liquid interchange. (O.T.)

  15. 76 FR 45649 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on I-5: Fern Valley Interchange Project: Jackson County, OR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ... the OR99/Fern Valley intersection will be improved. East of the interchange, North Phoenix Road will... on I-5: Fern Valley Interchange Project: Jackson County, OR AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration... proposed highway project, I-5: Fern Valley Interchange in Jackson County, Oregon. This action grants...

  16. 75 FR 62919 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on the Route 250 Bypass Interchange at McIntire Road...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ... on the Route 250 Bypass Interchange at McIntire Road Project in Virginia AGENCY: Federal Highway.... 139(l)(1). The actions relate to the Route 250 Bypass Interchange at McIntire Road project in the City... Virginia: Route 250 Bypass Interchange at McIntire Road. The project would involve construction of a grade...

  17. Construction of a surface air temperature series for Qingdao in China for the period 1899 to 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Tinz, Birger; von Storch, Hans; Wang, Qingyuan; Zhou, Qingliang; Zhu, Yani

    2018-03-01

    We present a homogenized surface air temperature (SAT) time series at 2 m height for the city of Qingdao in China from 1899 to 2014. This series is derived from three data sources: newly digitized and homogenized observations of the German National Meteorological Service from 1899 to 1913, homogenized observation data of the China Meteorological Administration (CMA) from 1961 to 2014 and a gridded dataset of Willmott and Matsuura (2012) in Delaware to fill the gap from 1914 to 1960. Based on this new series, long-term trends are described. The SAT in Qingdao has a significant warming trend of 0.11 ± 0.03 °C decade-1 during 1899-2014. The coldest period occurred during 1909-1918 and the warmest period occurred during 1999-2008. For the seasonal mean SAT, the most significant warming can be found in spring, followed by winter. The homogenized time series of Qingdao is provided and archived by the Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD) web page under overseas stations of the Deutsche Seewarte (http://www.dwd.de/EN/ourservices/overseas_stations/ueberseedoku/doi_qingdao.html" target="_blank">http://www.dwd.de/EN/ourservices/overseas_stations/ueberseedoku/doi_qingdao.html) in ASCII format. Users can also freely obtain a short description of the data at https://doi.org/https://dx.doi.org/10.5676/DWD/Qing_v1. And the data can be downloaded at http://dwd.de/EN/ourservices/overseas_stations/ueberseedoku/data_qingdao.txt" target="_blank">http://dwd.de/EN/ourservices/overseas_stations/ueberseedoku/data_qingdao.txt.

  18. Interchangeability among therapeutic equivalents of lamotrigine: evaluation of quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Maria Pereira Girolineto

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is the most common serious neurological disorder worldwide. Approximately 70% of patients with epilepsy have their seizures controlled by clinical and pharmacological treatment. This research evaluated the possible influence of interchangeability among therapeutic equivalents of LTG on the clinical condition and quality of life of refractory epileptic patients. The study was divided into three periods of 42 days, and an equivalent therapeutic LTG randomly dispensed for each period (two similars - formulations A and B, and the reference product - formulation C. The mean dose of LTG was 5.5 mg/kg/day. The presence of side effects tends to have a greater deleterious effect on quality of life of refractory epileptics compared to variations in number of seizures or changes in plasma concentrations. The results showed that independently of the drug prescribed, interchangeability among therapeutic equivalents can negatively impact epilepsy control.Epilepsia é o distúrbio neurológico grave mais comum no mundo todo. Aproximadamente 70% dos pacientes com epilepsia têm suas crises controladas com tratamento clínico e farmacológico. Esta pesquisa avaliou a possível interferência da intercambialidade entre equivalentes terapêuticos da lamotrigina na condição clínica e na qualidade de vida dos pacientes com epilepsia refratária. O estudo foi dividido em três períodos de 42 dias e em cada período foi dispensado um equivalente terapêutico, aleatoriamente (dois similares - formulação A e B e o medicamento de referência - formulação C. A dose média de lamotrigina foi de 5,5 mg/kg/dia. A ocorrência de efeitos colaterais tende a ser mais decisiva para a redução da qualidade de vida em epilepsia refratária em relação às variações no número de crises ou alterações nas concentrações plasmáticas. Os resultados demonstram que, independentemente do medicamento prescrito, a intercambialidade entre equivalentes terap

  19. Development of the right colon and the peritoneal surface during the human fetal period: human ontogeny of the right colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigoard, Philippe; Haustein, Silke V; Doucet, Carole; Scepi, Michel; Richer, Jean Pierre; Faure, Jean Pierre

    2009-10-01

    Development of the digestive tract during the human fetal period has been the subject of many studies, but there are no works that study the ontogeny of both the right colon and the peritoneum. Based on the dissections of adult male cadavers and human fetuses, the aim of this anatomical study was to demonstrate the rules of the morpho-functional group, consisting of the right colon and its peritoneum surface, in human ontogeny. The morphology of the right colon results from a rotational motion, inducting the migration of the cecum in the right iliac fossa and formation of the hepatic flexure. This intestinal migration is based on the axis of rotation of the spreading area of the colon at the ventral side of the lower pole of the right kidney, which becomes visible after the 17th week. Our different observations plead in favor of the peritoneal fusion theory. A few variations of this fusion can explain all the disorders in the position of the cecum-appendix that are encountered in current surgery, as well as the possibility of internal hernias.

  20. Formation of periodic mesoscale structures arranged in a circular symmetry at the silicon surface exposed to radiation of a single femtosecond laser pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romashevskiy, S.A.; Ashitkov, S.I.; Ovchinnikov, A.V.; Kondratenko, P.S.; Agranat, M.B.

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Single pulse irradiation of silicon gave rise to the periodic mesoscale structures. • The number of the periodic structures depends on the incident laser fluence. • The theory of periodically modulated absorption of laser energy is proposed. - Abstract: The periodic mesoscale structures arranged in a circular symmetry were found at the silicon surface exposed to radiation of the single femtosecond laser pulse with a Gaussian intensity profile in the ambient air conditions. These peculiar structures have the appearance of the protrusions of ∼10 nm height and of ∼600 nm width (at a FWHM) separately located inside the ablated region with a period of the incident laser wavelength. It was found that their position at the surface corresponds to the specified laser intensity slightly above the ablation threshold. The number of the formed periodic structures varies with the fluence of the incident laser pulse and in our experiments it was found to have changed from one to eleven. We suppose that formation of these mesoscale structures is caused by heating of a microscale volume to the strongly defined temperature. The theoretical model was proposed to explain the obtained data. It assumes that the interference of incident laser radiation with laser-induced surface electromagnetic waves results in generation of periodic distribution of electron temperature. Thus formation of the periodic structures at the specified laser intensity is attributed to periodically modulated absorption of laser energy at a focal laser spot.

  1. Interchangeability of the Wii Balance Board for Bipedal Balance Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Bart; Omelina, Lubos; Rooze, Marcel; Van Sint Jan, Serge

    2015-01-01

    Background Since 2010, an increasing interest in more portable and flexible hardware for balance and posture assessment led to previously published studies determining whether or not the Wii Balance Board could be used to assess balance and posture, both scientifically and clinically. However, no previous studies aimed at comparing results from different Wii Balance Boards for clinical balance evaluation exist. Objective The objective of this crossover study is to assess the interchangeability of the Wii Balance Board. Methods A total of 6 subjects participated in the study and their balance was assessed using 4 different Wii Balance Boards. Trials were recorded simultaneously with Wii Balance Boards and with a laboratory force plate. Nine relevant clinical parameters were derived from center of pressure displacement data obtained from Wii Balance Board and force plate systems. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), F tests, and Friedman tests were computed to assess the agreement between trials and to compare the Wii Balance Board and force plate results. Results Excellent correlations were found between the Wii Balance Board and force plate (mean ρ =.83). With the exception of 2 parameters, strong to excellent agreements were found for the 7 remaining parameters (ICC=.96). No significant differences were found between trials recorded with different Wii Balance Boards. Conclusions Our results indicate that for most of the parameters analyzed, balance and posture assessed with one Wii Balance Board were statistically similar to results obtained from another. Furthermore, the good correlation between the Wii Balance Board and force plate results shows that Wii Balance Boards can be reliably used for scientific assessment using most of the parameters analyzed in this study. These results also suggest that the Wii Balance Board could be used in multicenter studies and therefore, would allow for the creation of larger populations for clinical studies. Trial

  2. Nonlinear simulation of electromagnetic current diffusive interchange mode turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, M.; Itoh, S.I.; Fukuyama, A.

    1998-01-01

    The anomalous transport in toroidal plasmas has been investigated extensively. It is pointed out that the nonlinear instability is important in driving the microturbulence[1], i.e., the self-sustained plasma turbulence. This concept is explained as follows; when the electron motion along the magnetic field line is resisted by the background turbulence, it gives rise to the effective resistivity and enhances the level of the turbulence. The nonlinear simulation of the electrostatic current diffusive interchange mode (CDIM) in the two dimensional sheared slab geometry has been performed as an example. The occurrence of the nonlinear instability and the self-sustainment of the plasma turbulence were confirmed by this simulation[2]. On the other hand, the electromagnetic turbulence is sustained in the high pressure limit. The possibility of the self-organization with more variety has been pointed out[3]. It is important to study the electromagnetic turbulence based on the nonlinear simulation. In this paper, the model equation for the electrostatic CDIM turbulence[2] is extended for both electrostatic and electromagnetic turbulence. (1) Not only E x B convective nonlinearity but also the electromagnetic nonlinearity which is related to the parallel flow are incorporated into the model equation. (2) The electron and ion pressure evolution equations are solved separately, making it possible to distinguish the electron and ion thermal diffusivities. The two dimensional nonlinear simulation of the electromagnetic CDIM is performed based on the extended fluid model. This paper is organized as follows. The model equation is explained in section II. The result of simulation is shown in section III. The conclusion and discussion are given in section IV. (author)

  3. Developing A Priority-Based Decision Making Mod To Evaluate Geometric Configuration Of Urban Interchanges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naeimi, M.; Alimoradi, Z.; Razi, M.; Monajjem, S.

    2014-01-01

    The present article involves in evaluation and engineering judgment of various geometric configurations for highway interchanges by considering substantial parameters over the discretion process. The geometric, economical and architectural criteria as the fundamental indicators are divided into

  4. Lane assignment traffic control devices on frontage roads and conventional roads at interchanges : technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    The intersection and mandatory movement lane control signs placed on intersection approaches are critical to : safe and efficient intersection operations. Ramp, frontage road, and cross-street approaches to interchanges : often widen at intersections...

  5. Complete intersections : a guide to reconstructing intersections and interchanges for bicyclists and pedestrians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Intersections and interchanges are major points of conflict for road users and are the frequent site of injuries and fatalities. In California, nearly 20 percent of pedestrian fatalities, and nearly a quarter of bicyclist fatalities occur at intersec...

  6. Implementation and transition of data interchange for geotechnical and geoenvironmental specialists (DIGGS v2.0).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Data Interchange for Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Specialists (DIGGS) is an XML-based system : developed under a Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) State Pooled Funding Study led by the : Ohio Department of Transportation (ODOT) from 2005 to ...

  7. Interchanges in popcorn (Zea mays L. involving the nucleolus organizer chromosome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Suely Pagliarini

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of microsporogenesis in endogamous plants of popcorn (S5 to S7 showed several and distinctinterchanges which involve the nucleolus organizer (chromosome 6. The detection of cells with interchanges was facilitatedby the presence of two nucleoli of different sizes in contrast to normal ones with a single big nucleolus. Interchange points donot always seem to be at the same place. Whereas in several situations the interchange point clearly involved more than twochromosome pairs, a simple terminal translocation seemed to occur in others. During diplotene, a cross-shaped configurationconnected with the nucleoli was observed in some meiocytes. Some heteromorphic bivalents were found during diakinesis,after which meiosis progressed normally to the end and gave rise to apparently normal tetrads with one normal nucleolus ineach microspore. Tests of pollen viability in fixed pollen grains showed 100% stainability in normal and in affected plants.This is the first report on chromosome interchanges in popcorn.

  8. Controls for the Electronic Data Interchange at the Defense Finance and Accounting Service Columbus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    .... The Electronic Data Interchange sends and receives contract payment information from computer to computer in a standard format, thus allowing documents to be received, validated, accepted, and immediately processed...

  9. Computer Analysis of Air Pollution from Highways, Streets, and Complex Interchanges

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-03-01

    A detailed computer analysis of air quality for a complex highway interchange was prepared, using an in-house version of the Environmental Protection Agency's Gaussian Highway Line Source Model. This analysis showed that the levels of air pollution n...

  10. Geothermal Energy and the Eastern US: Technical Information Interchange Meeting, Minutes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-12-01

    The technical interchange meeting documented here is the fourth meeting where people interested in geothermal energy in the Eastern US have met to interchange technical information. These meetings are intended to assist all in the difficult task of balancing time and effort in doing their assigned jobs and keeping track of what others are doing in similar or related tasks. All of the aforementioned meetings have served their intended purpose and further regional and national meetings are sure to follow.

  11. Geothermal Energy and the Eastern US: Fifth technical information interchange meeting, Minutes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-12-01

    The technical interchange meeting documented here is the fifth meeting where people interested in geothermal energy in the Eastern US have met to interchange technical information. These meetings are intended to assist all in the difficult task of balancing time and effort in doing their assigned jobs and keeping track of what others are doing in similar or related tasks. All of the aforementioned meetings have served their intended purpose and further regional and national meetings are sure to follow.

  12. Determination of the interchangeable heavy-metal fraction in soils by isotope dilution mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaebler, H.E.; Bahr, A.; Mieke, B.

    1999-01-01

    An isotope dilution technique using enriched stable isotopes is applied to determine the interchangeable heavy-metal fraction in soils. Metals in two soil samples are extracted at constant pH, with water, NH 4 NO 3 , and EDTA. A spike of enriched stable isotopes is added to the suspension of sample and eluant at the beginning of the extraction. The heavy-metal fraction which exchanges with the added spike during the extraction is called the interchangeable fraction. The extractable heavy-metal fractions are obtained from the heavy-metal concentrations in the eluates. Isotope ratios and concentrations are determined by HR-ICP-MS. The isotope dilution technique described enables both the extractable and the interchangeable heavy-metal fractions to be determined in the same experiment. The combination of both results gives additional information on elemental availability under different conditions that cannot be obtained by analyzing the extractable heavy-metal fractions alone. It is demonstrated that in some cases different eluants just shift the distribution of the interchangeable fraction of an element between the solid and liquid phases (e.g., Pb and Cd in a topsoil sample) while the amount of the interchangeable fraction itself remains constant. For other elements, as Ni, Zn, and Cr, the use of different eluants (different pH, complexing agents) sometimes enlarges the interchangeable fraction. (orig.)

  13. Analytical and numerical study of natural convection in a stably stratified fluid along vertical plates and cylinders with temporally-periodic surface temperature variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, A.; Fedorovich, E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes one-dimensional (parallel) laminar and transitional regimes of natural convection in a viscous stably stratified fluid due to temporally-periodic variations in the surface temperature of infinite vertical plates and cylinders. Analytical solutions are obtained for the periodic laminar regime for arbitrary values of stratification, Prandtl number and forcing frequency. The solutions for plates and cylinders are qualitatively similar and show that (i) the flows are composed of two waves that decay exponentially with distance from the surface; a fast long wave and a slow short wave, (ii) for forcing frequencies less than the natural frequency, both waves propagate away from the surface, while (iii) for forcing frequencies less than this natural frequency, the short wave propagates away from the surface while the long wave propagates toward the surface. The analytical results are complemented, for the plate problem, with three-dimensional numerical simulations of flows that start from rest and are suddenly subjected to a periodic thermal forcing. The numerical results depict the transient (start-up) stage of the laminar flow and the approach to the periodicity, and confirm that the analytical solutions provide the appropriate description of the periodic regime for the laminar convection case. Preliminary numerical data are presented for transition from the laminar to turbulent convection. (authors)

  14. Assessing safety and immunogenicity of post-exposure prophylaxis following interchangeability of rabies vaccines in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravish, Hardanahalli S; Sudarshan, Mysore K; Madhusudana, Shampur N; Annadani, Rachana R; Narayana, Doddabele H Ashwath; Belludi, Ashwin Y; Anandaiah, Gangaboraiah; Vijayashankar, Veena

    2014-01-01

    Rabies post exposure prophylaxis with cell culture vaccines by either intramuscular route or intradermal route spans over a period of one month. World Health Organization recommends completing post exposure prophylaxis against rabies with the same cell culture or embryonated egg rabies vaccine and with same route of administration and any deviation from this shall be an exception. In the present study, the safety and immunogenicity of rabies post-exposure prophylaxis was studied prospectively in 90 animal bite cases that had interchangeability of rabies vaccines either by route of administration or brand/type and such changes had occurred due to logistical/financial problems. Among them, 47 had change in route of administration from intramuscular to intradermal or vice versa and 43 had change in the brand/type of cell culture rabies vaccine. All of them had category III rabies exposure and received equine rabies immunoglobulin along with the rabies vaccine. None of the study subjects had any adverse reactions. The rabies virus neutralizing antibody titers was assessed by rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test and all the vaccinees had titers ≥0.5 IU per mL on day 14 which is considered as adequate for protection against rabies. Thus, the present study showed that, rabies post-exposure prophylaxis was safe and immunogenic despite changes in the route of administration and brand/type of rabies vaccine.

  15. Observations of kinetic ballooning/interchange instability signatures in the magnetotail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panov, E. V.; Sergeev, V. A.; Pritchett, P. L.; Coroniti, F. V.; Nakamura, R.; Baumjohann, W.; Angelopoulos, V.; Auster, H. U.; McFadden, J. P.

    2012-04-01

    Stimulated by a recent study of a kinetic ballooning/interchange instability by Pritchett and Coroniti (2010), we present THEMIS events that confirm the predictions of this mechanism. In these events the probes were situated in the plasma sheet at 11 Re, near the presumed location of a B minimum. Prior to substorm onset, they observed strong magnetic oscillations with periods 20-100 s and δBX about 10-20 nT. Associated with these were oscillations of the electric field δEY ˜ 1 mV/m and the field-aligned electron velocity of several hundreds of km/s. No comparable perturbations in the ion velocity were observed. For two cases cross-correlation analyses proved duskward propagation of the elongated spatial structures with a cross-tail width of a few ion gyroradii and a propagation velocity of about the ion drift velocity. In one case THEMIS probes confirmed a sausage-like geometry of the structures.

  16. The effect of the fodder species over the interchangeable bases of sulfated acid soil in municipality of Paipa (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Angélica Bernal Figueroa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the limitations on acid sulphated soils (SSA is related to the inhibition in the absorption of interchangeable bases generated mainly by excesses of aluminum oxide of change; this affects its productivity and limits the availability of nutrients for plants. This research evaluated in greenhouse, the effect of fodder beet (Beta vulgaris L., forage turnip (Brassica rapa L. and fodder radish (Raphanus sativus L. on the interchangeable bases of an SSA, contrasted with a not sulfated ground, in order to identify species for management and rehabilitation of these soils in Paipa (Boyacá. An experimental design was implemented with 6 treatments and 3 repetitions in which the basis measurement was made in the ground before and after the species plating and the measured leaf area and plants height when their vegetative period ended. Several significative statistic differences were found (P<0.01 in the basis concentration, as well as in the variables in the leaf area and height of the plant. The results indicated that the growth of the turnip (B. rapa and horseradish (R. sativus fodder, along with the complementary use of calcareous amendments as a corrective, led to an increase in the concentrations of Ca, Mg, K, and Na in the SSA, and presented a better growth and resistance to them. Similarly, the planting of fodder beet (B. vulgaris generated positive effects in the soil; however, the height and leaf area of this species were affected in the SSA, which limits their productivity.

  17. A small-world methodology of analysis of interchange energy-networks: The European behaviour in the economical crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dassisti, M.; Carnimeo, L.

    2013-01-01

    European energy policy pursues the objective of a sustainable, competitive and reliable supply of energy. In 2007, the European Commission adopted a proper energy policy for Europe supported by several documents and included an action plan to meet the major energy challenges Europe has to face. A farsighted diversified yearly mix of energies was suggested to countries, aiming at increasing security of supply and efficiency, but a wide and systemic view of energy interchanges between states was missing. In this paper, a Small-World methodology of analysis of Interchange Energy-Networks (IENs) is presented, with the aim of providing a useful tool for planning sustainable energy policies. A proof case is presented to validate the methodology by considering the European IEN behaviour in the period of economical crisis. This network is approached as a Small World Net from a modelling point of view, by supposing that connections between States are characterised by a probability value depending on economic/political relations between countries. - Highlights: • Different view of the imports and exports of electric energy flows between European for potential use in ruling exchanges. • Panel data from 1996 to 2010 as part of a network of exchanges was considered from Eurostat official database. • The European import/export energy flows modelled as a network with Small World phenomena, interpreting the evolution over the years. • Interesting systemic tool for ruling and governing energy flows between countries

  18. Reciprocation and interchange of grooming, agonistic support, feeding tolerance, and aggression in semi-free-ranging Barbary macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carne, Charlotte; Wiper, Sue; Semple, Stuart

    2011-11-01

    Evidence from a range of primate species indicates that grooming can be exchanged either for itself or for other rank-related "commodities," such as agonistic support, feeding tolerance, or reduced aggression. Patterns of exchange behavior have been found to vary considerably between species, and understanding the causes of this variation is central to the study of the evolution of primate social systems. It is, therefore, essential that exchange behavior is examined in a wide range of species and settings. This article is the first to explore the reciprocation and interchange of grooming in the Barbary macaque (Macaca sylvanus). We collected focal data on semi-free-ranging adult female Barbary macaques at Trentham Monkey Forest, England, and analyzed dyadic data using Generalized Linear Mixed Models. We found evidence for the reciprocal exchange of grooming and for the interchange of grooming for agonistic support and tolerance while feeding. There was no evidence that grooming was traded for a reduction in aggression; indeed, we found a positive relationship between aggression given and grooming received. This may reflect the "extortion" of grooming from subordinates by dominant animals. These results will facilitate comparative analyses of exchange behavior by adding to the current database a new species, characterized by a different social style from those macaque species previously investigated. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Interchangeability of the Wii Balance Board for Bipedal Balance Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnechère, Bruno; Jansen, Bart; Omelina, Lubos; Rooze, Marcel; Van Sint Jan, Serge

    2015-08-27

    Since 2010, an increasing interest in more portable and flexible hardware for balance and posture assessment led to previously published studies determining whether or not the Wii Balance Board could be used to assess balance and posture, both scientifically and clinically. However, no previous studies aimed at comparing results from different Wii Balance Boards for clinical balance evaluation exist. The objective of this crossover study is to assess the interchangeability of the Wii Balance Board. A total of 6 subjects participated in the study and their balance was assessed using 4 different Wii Balance Boards. Trials were recorded simultaneously with Wii Balance Boards and with a laboratory force plate. Nine relevant clinical parameters were derived from center of pressure displacement data obtained from Wii Balance Board and force plate systems. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), F tests, and Friedman tests were computed to assess the agreement between trials and to compare the Wii Balance Board and force plate results. Excellent correlations were found between the Wii Balance Board and force plate (mean ρ =.83). With the exception of 2 parameters, strong to excellent agreements were found for the 7 remaining parameters (ICC=.96). No significant differences were found between trials recorded with different Wii Balance Boards. Our results indicate that for most of the parameters analyzed, balance and posture assessed with one Wii Balance Board were statistically similar to results obtained from another. Furthermore, the good correlation between the Wii Balance Board and force plate results shows that Wii Balance Boards can be reliably used for scientific assessment using most of the parameters analyzed in this study. These results also suggest that the Wii Balance Board could be used in multicenter studies and therefore, would allow for the creation of larger populations for clinical studies. Ethical Committee of the Erasme Hospital (CCB B406201215142

  20. The investigations of nanoclusters and micron-sized periodic structures created at the surface of the crystal and amorphous silica by resonant CO2 laser irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhamedgalieva A.F.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The creation of nanoclasters and micrometer sized periodical structures at the surface of silica (crystal quartz and fused quartz by action of pulsed CO2 laser radiation (pulse energy of 1 J, pulse time of 70 ns have been investigated. The laser action on the surface of samples lead to appearance of two kind of structures – periodical micron-sized structures with the period length close to wave length of CO2 laser irradiation and nanoclusters with size close to 50-100 nanometers. This creation connects with the intensive ablation of matter at the maxima of standing waves which are a results of the interference of falling and surfaces waves. This connects with the resonant absorption of infrared laser radiation by silicate minerals.

  1. Ti-6Al-4V triply periodic minimal surface structures for bone implants fabricated via selective laser melting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Chunze; Hao, Liang; Hussein, Ahmed; Young, Philippe

    2015-11-01

    Triply periodic minimal surface (TPMS) structures have already been shown to be a versatile source of biomorphic scaffold designs. Therefore, in this work, Ti-6Al-4V Gyroid and Diamond TPMS lattices having an interconnected high porosity of 80-95% and pore sizes in the range of 560-1600 μm and 480-1450 μm respectively were manufactured by selective laser melting (SLM) for bone implants. The manufacturability, microstructure and mechanical properties of the Ti-6Al-4V TPMS lattices were evaluated. Comparison between 3D micro-CT reconstructed models and original CAD models of the Ti-6Al-4V TPMS lattices shows excellent reproduction of the designs. The as-built Ti-6Al-4V struts exhibit the microstructure of columnar grains filled with very fine and orthogonally oriented α' martensitic laths with the width of 100-300 nm and have the microhardness of 4.01 ± 0.34 GPa. After heat treatment at 680°C for 4h, the α' martensite was converted to a mixture of α and β, in which the α phase being the dominant fraction is present as fine laths with the width of 500-800 nm and separated by a small amount of narrow, interphase regions of dark β phase. Also, the microhardness is decreased to 3.71 ± 0.35 GPa due to the coarsening of the microstructure. The 80-95% porosity TPMS lattices exhibit a comparable porosity with trabecular bone, and the modulus is in the range of 0.12-1.25 GPa and thus can be adjusted to the modulus of trabecular bone. At the same range of porosity of 5-10%, the moduli of cortical bone and of the Ti-6Al-4V TPMS lattices are in a similar range. Therefore, the modulus and porosity of Ti-6Al-4V TPMS lattices can be tailored to the levels of human bones and thus reduce or avoid "stress shielding" and increase longevity of implants. Due to the biomorphic designs, and high interconnected porosity and stiffness comparable to human bones, SLM-made Ti-6Al-4V TPMS lattices can be a promising material for load bearing bone implants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier

  2. An Asymptotic Expansion for Bloch Functions on Riemann Surfaces of Infinite Genus and Almost Periodicity of the Kadomcev-Petviashvilli Flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merkl, Franz

    1999-01-01

    This article describes the solution of the Kadomcev-Petviashvilli equation with C 10 real periodic initial data in terms of an asymptotic expansion of Bloch functions. The Bloch functions are parametrized by the spectral variety of a heat equation (heat curves) with an external potential. The mentioned spectral variety is a Riemann surface of in general infinite genus; the Kadomcev-Petviashvilli flow is represented by a one-parameter-subgroup in the real part of the Jacobi variety of this Riemann surface. It is shown that the KP-I flow with these initial data propagates almost periodically

  3. Fabrication of multi-scale periodic surface structures on Ti-6Al-4V by direct laser writing and direct laser interference patterning for modified wettability applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta-Murillo, D.; Aguilar-Morales, A. I.; Alamri, S.; Cardoso, J. T.; Jagdheesh, R.; Lasagni, A. F.; Ocaña, J. L.

    2017-11-01

    In this work, hierarchical surface patterns fabricated on Ti-6Al-4V alloy combining two laser micro-machining techniques are presented. The used technologies are based on nanosecond Direct Laser Writing and picosecond Direct Laser Interference Patterning. Squared shape micro-cells with different hatch distances were produced by Direct Laser Writing with depths values in the micro-scale, forming a well-defined closed packet. Subsequently, cross-like periodic patterns were fabricated by means of Direct Laser Interference Patterning using a two-beam configuration, generating a dual-scale periodic surface structure in both micro- and nano-scale due to the formation of Laser-Induced Periodic Surface Structure after the picosecond process. As a result a triple hierarchical periodic surface structure was generated. The surface morphology of the irradiated area was characterized with scanning electron microscopy and confocal microscopy. Additionally, static contact angle measurements were made to analyze the wettability behavior of the structures, showing a hydrophobic behavior for the hierarchical structures.

  4. The color enhancement and collimation features of the multi-colored LEDs with different periodic microstructure on the top surface of TIR lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Shang-Ping; Fu, Han-Kuei

    2017-09-01

    Due to the advantages, such as high efficiency, power consumption reduction, no mercury, pure saturated color, high reliability and long lifetime, the solid-state lighting based on light-emitting diodes (LEDs) has become very popular at this stage. In the lighting applications such as spot lighting, downlighting, architectural and show lighting, the colortunable properties with collimating beam of LEDs are highly demanded. The color-tunable lighting is easily achieved using multi-colored LEDs instead of inefficient color filters. However, the applications of multi-colored LEDs usually appear the undesirable light patterns such as color separation or color fringes. At the meantime, the use of TIR (total internal reflection) lens for multi-colored LEDs to collimate the light from the LEDs with different color will introduce seriously undesirable artifacts. Thus, a periodic microstructure surface on the top surface of the TIR lens would be used to reshape the light from the different colored LED chips in the multi-colored LEDs, and then decrease the color separation and color nonuniformity. In this study, the TIR lens with periodic microstructure surface on the top surface would be used to collimate the light from multi-colored LEDs with low color separation or color fringes. The analysis of color enhancement and collimation features of the multi-colored LEDs with different periodic microstructure on the top surface of the TIR lens is presented.

  5. Kinetic modeling for thermal dehydration of ferrous oxalate dihydrate polymorphs: a combined model for induction period-surface reaction-phase boundary reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogasawara, Haruka; Koga, Nobuyoshi

    2014-04-03

    In this study, ferrous oxalate dihydrate polymorph particles, α- and β-phases, with square bipyramidal and quadratic prismatic shapes, respectively, were synthesized. Thermal dehydration of the samples was subjected to kinetic study as a typical reaction that indicates a significant induction period and a sigmoidal mass-loss behavior. On the basis of the formal kinetic analysis of the mass-loss traces recorded under isothermal, nonisothermal, and constant transformation rate conditions and the morphological observations of the surface textures of the partially reacted sample particles, a combined kinetic model for the induction period-surface reaction-phase boundary reaction was developed. The sigmoidal mass-loss behavior after the significant induction period under isothermal conditions was satisfactorily simulated by the combined kinetic model. The kinetic parameters for the component processes of induction period, surface reaction, and phase boundary reaction were separately determined from the kinetic simulation. The differences in the kinetic behaviors of the induction period and the phase boundary reaction between α- and β-phase samples were well described by the kinetic parameters. The applicability of the combined kinetic model to practical systems was demonstrated through characterizing the physicogeometrical kinetics of the thermal dehydration of ferrous oxalate dihydrate polymorphs.

  6. Contrasting variations in the surface layer structure between the convective and non-convective periods in the summer monsoon season for Bangalore location during PRWONAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, N. Narendra; Rao, Kusuma G.

    2018-01-01

    An attempt has been made here to examine the contrasting variations in mean surface layer parameters including surface fluxes, and in surface layer stability between the convective and non-convective periods in the southwest monsoon season for the Bangalore experiment location (12.54° N, 77.22° E). The micrometeorological measurements analysed during 2009 and 2010 are from the instrumentation network established during the programme, "Prediction of Regional Weather using Observational meso-Network and Atmospheric Modelling (PRWONAM)". The Short Wave (SW) radiative flux at the surface is observed to be respectively at 799 ± 188 Wm-2 (772 ± 195 Wm-2) and 436 ± 113 Wm-2 (257 ± 101 Wm-2) at 12:00 LT (Local Time, UTC+05:30) during the non-convective and convective periods in 2009 (2010). The significant difference in SW radiative flux is due to the difference of cloud cover between the non-convective and convective periods. This significant reduction of 515 W m-2 at 12:00 LT in SW radiative flux caused maximum cooling in skin temperature (air temperature) by 6.2 °C (3.8 °C) at 12:00 LT (18:30 LT) from 30.8 ± 3.9 °C (27.1 ± 1.4 °C) in the non-convective period. The impact of convection on soil temperature is observed up to 0.2 m deep. The diurnal amplitudes in composites of air temperature are 8.4 °C (8.4 °C) and 5.7 °C (4.7 °C) during the non-convective and convective periods respectively in 2009 (2010); and the amplitudes in relative humidity are 41.5% (39.7%) and 29% (22.8%). Low wind speeds prevailed 63.4% of the time, all through the day and night, in the monsoon season. The diurnal variations in wind speed during the convective period showed higher variability than in non-convective period. The momentum flux varied in accordance with the strength of the wind speed during the monsoon seasons of both the years 2009 and 2010. The peak sensible heat flux in the convective period is noted to be smaller than that in the non-convective period by 128 W m-2

  7. [Characteristics of CO2 flux before and in the heating period at urban complex underlying surface area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Qing-yu; Zhou, Guang-sheng; Wang, Yu; Liu, Xiao-mei

    2010-04-01

    Urban areas were significant contributors to global carbon dioxide emissions. The eddy covariance (EC) was used to measure carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration and flux data at urban area in Shenyang. This research analyzed the characteristics of atmospheric CO2 concentration and flux in October 2008 to November 2008 period before and in the heating period. The results showed that the daily variation of CO2 concentration was two-peak curve. The first peak time appeared as same as sunrise time, while the second peak time impacted by vehicles and heating. The result of CO2 flux showed that urban atmospheric CO2 was net emissions, vegetation photosynthesis absorbed CO2 of traffic, the CO2 flux peak appeared at 17:15-18:15 in the heating period, CO2 emission increased 29.37 g x (m2 x d)(-1) in the heating period than that before the heating period; there was corresponding relationship between CO2 flux and the time when temperature peak and sensible heating flux (Hc) turn positive. The results also indicated that atmospheric CO2 concentration and its flux were affected seriously by both wind direction and carbon sources.

  8. Theory of energetic trapped particle-induced resistive interchange-ballooning modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biglari, H.; Chen, L.

    1986-02-01

    A theory describing the influence of energetic trapped particles on resistive interchange-ballooning modes in tokamaks is presented. It is shown that a population of hot particles trapped in the region of adverse curvature can resonantly interact with and destabilize the resistive interchange mode, which is stable in their absence because of favorable average curvature. The mode is different from the usual resistive interchange mode not only in its destabilization mechanism, but also in that it has a real component to its frequency comparable to the precessional drift frequency of the rapidly circulating energetic species. Corresponding growth rate and threshold conditions for this trapped-particle-driven instability are derived and finite banana width effects are shown to have a stabilizing effect on the mode. Finally, the ballooning/tearing dispersion relation is generalized to include hot particles, so that both the ideal and the resistive modes are derivable in the appropriate limits. 23 refs., 7 figs

  9. A Cross-Classified CFA-MTMM Model for Structurally Different and Nonindependent Interchangeable Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Tobias; Schultze, Martin; Jeon, Minjeong; Nussbeck, Fridtjof W; Praetorius, Anna-Katharina; Eid, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Multirater (multimethod, multisource) studies are increasingly applied in psychology. Eid and colleagues (2008) proposed a multilevel confirmatory factor model for multitrait-multimethod (MTMM) data combining structurally different and multiple independent interchangeable methods (raters). In many studies, however, different interchangeable raters (e.g., peers, subordinates) are asked to rate different targets (students, supervisors), leading to violations of the independence assumption and to cross-classified data structures. In the present work, we extend the ML-CFA-MTMM model by Eid and colleagues (2008) to cross-classified multirater designs. The new C4 model (Cross-Classified CTC[M-1] Combination of Methods) accounts for nonindependent interchangeable raters and enables researchers to explicitly model the interaction between targets and raters as a latent variable. Using a real data application, it is shown how credibility intervals of model parameters and different variance components can be obtained using Bayesian estimation techniques.

  10. “Book-pilferage Is Not Banditry”──Information Interchange Across Cultural Boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Lo

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available

    頁次:25-30

    Recent advance in information technology has enhanced information interchange all over the world. The paper uses a Chinese saying of "book-pilferage is not banditry" to illustrate that technology is only one of many factors in information interchange. Economic, political, legal and any of many other factors could censor information flow. Technology alone cannot mandate information flow. However, technology has the power to moderate the economic, political, legal and other cultural biases to enable the society to become more open to information interchange as a result.

  11. ePrescribing: Reducing Costs through In-Class Therapeutic Interchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenner, Shane P; Chakravarthy, Rohini; Johnson, Kevin B; Miller, William L; Olson, Julie; Wickizer, Marleen; Johnson, Nate N; Ohmer, Rick; Uskavitch, David R; Bernard, Gordon R; Neal, Erin B; Lehmann, Christoph U

    2016-12-14

    Spending on pharmaceuticals in the US reached $373.9 billion in 2014. Therapeutic interchange offers potential medication cost savings by replacing a prescribed drug for an equally efficacious therapeutic alternative. Hard-stop therapeutic interchange recommendation alerts were developed for four medication classes (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, serotonin receptor agonists, intranasal steroid sprays, and proton-pump inhibitors) in an electronic prescription-writing tool for outpatient prescriptions. Using prescription data from January 2012 to June 2015, the Compliance Ratio (CR) was calculated by dividing the number of prescriptions with recommended therapeutic interchange medications by the number of prescriptions with non-recommended medications to measure effectiveness. To explore potential cost savings, prescription data and medication costs were analyzed for the 45,000 Vanderbilt Employee Health Plan members. For all medication classes, significant improvements were demonstrated - the CR improved (proton-pump inhibitors 2.8 to 5.32, nasal steroids 2.44 to 8.16, statins 2.06 to 5.51, and serotonin receptor agonists 0.8 to 1.52). Quarterly savings through the four therapeutic interchange interventions combined exceeded $200,000 with an estimated annual savings for the health plan of $800,000, or more than $17 per member. A therapeutic interchange clinical decision support tool at the point of prescribing resulted in increased compliance with recommendations for outpatient prescriptions while producing substantial cost savings to the Vanderbilt Employee Health Plan - $17.77 per member per year. Therapeutic interchange rules require rational targeting, appropriate governance, and vigilant content updates.

  12. Periodic DFT+U investigation of the bulk and surface properties of marcasite (FeS2)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dzade, Nelson Y.; de Leeuw, Nora H.

    2017-01-01

    Marcasite FeS2 and its surface properties have been investigated by Hubbard-corrected Density Functional Theory (DFT+U) calculations. The calculated structural parameters, interatomic bond distances, elastic constants and electronic properties of the bulk mineral were determined and compared with

  13. On the choice of a phase interchange strategy for a multiscale DEM-VOF method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzetti, Gabriele; Peters, Bernhard

    2017-07-01

    In this work a novel Multiscale DEM-VOF method is adopted to study three phase flows. It consists in solving the fluid momentum, mass conservation and the phase advection at a different scale with respect to the fluid-particle coupling problem. This allows the VOF scheme to resolve smaller fluid structures than a classic DEM-VOF method, and opens the possibility of adopting different volume interchange techniques. Two different volume interchange techniques are here described and compared with reference to high and low particle concentration scenarios. Considerations about the respective computational costs are also proposed.

  14. Freezing vibrational energy flow: a fitness function for interchangeable computational and experimental control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidinger, D; Engel, M F; Gruebele, M

    2009-04-23

    We develop a fitness functional for freezing molecular energy flow that relies only on experimental observables. The functional allows us to implement a modular control algorithm where simulation data and experimental data can be used interchangeably. This interchangeability could be useful as a spectroscopic tool and for reactive control because the controllability of the experimental system and its model can be compared directly. The fitness functional performs as well as functionals based on complete knowledge of the wave function. We compare our simulation results with an analytical theory of control, and find good agreement between the simulated and predicted times over which the system can be controlled.

  15. Interchange on the Civitavecchia Railway Line- Capranica Scalo - Capranica resort Orte Scalo

    OpenAIRE

    Elisa Pulvirenti

    2014-01-01

    The project is an interchange in the territory of Tuscia, in the small town of Capranica Scalo (VT), Italy. It is where two railway lines intersect, the Roma-Viterbo FR3 line and Civitavecchia-Orte line. The latter has been inserted within the TEN -T recognised as an important link for the European freight transport. It is currently subject to a restoration project. Based on the results from the analysis it has been designed a central space, the interchange, for an area larger than the single...

  16. Arctic warming will promote Atlantic-Pacific fish interchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisz, Mary; Broennimann, O.; Grønkjær, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Throughout much of the Quaternary Period, inhospitable environmental conditions above the Arctic Circle have been a formidable barrier separating most marine organisms in the North Atlantic from those in the North Pacific. Rapid warming has begun to lift this barrier, potentially facilitating...... to ecosystems that at present contribute 39% to global marine fish landings...

  17. Unexpected Covariant Behavior of the Aegean and Ionian Seas in the Period 1987-2008 by Means of a Nondimensional Sea Surface Height Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reale, M.; Salon, S.; Crise, A.; Farneti, R.; Mosetti, R.; Sannino, G.

    2017-10-01

    In this work, we use a set of recent multiyear simulations to develop a simplified sea surface height index (SSH). The index characterizes the dynamics of Ionian upper layer circulation and its links with sea surface height and salinity in the Southern Adriatic and Aegean Seas during the period 1987-2008. The analysis highlights a covariant behavior between Ionian Sea and Aegean Sea associated with a mutual zonal exchange of water masses with different salinity characteristics. Our analysis confirms that the variability observed in the period 1987-2008 in the upper layer circulation of the Ionian was driven by the salinity variability in the Southern Adriatic and Aegean Sea. This study supports and reinforces the hypothesis that two observed BiOS-like reversals reflect the existence of multiple equilibrium states in the Mediterranean Thermohaline circulation in the Eastern Mediterranean and that a complete characterization of observed variability needs to take into account a fully coupled Adriatic-Ionian-Aegean System.

  18. Surface hardness evaluation of different composite resin materials: influence of sports and energy drinks immersion after a short-term period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugur Erdemir

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study evaluated the effect of sports and energy drinks on the surface hardness of different composite resin restorative materials over a 1-month period. Material and Methods: A total of 168 specimens: Compoglass F, Filtek Z250, Filtek Supreme, and Premise were prepared using a customized cylindrical metal mould and they were divided into six groups (N=42; n=7 per group. For the control groups, the specimens were stored in distilled water for 24 hours at 37°C and the water was renewed daily. For the experimental groups, the specimens were immersed in 5 mL of one of the following test solutions: Powerade, Gatorade, X-IR, Burn, and Red Bull, for two minutes daily for up to a 1-month test period and all the solutions were refreshed daily. Surface hardness was measured using a Vickers hardness measuring instrument at baseline, after 1-week and 1-month. Data were statistically analyzed using Multivariate repeated measure ANOVA and Bonferroni's multiple comparison tests (α=0.05. Results: Multivariate repeated measures ANOVA revealed that there were statistically significant differences in the hardness of the restorative materials in different immersion times (p<0.001 in different solutions (p<0.001. The effect of different solutions on the surface hardness values of the restorative materials was tested using Bonferroni's multiple comparison tests, and it was observed that specimens stored in distilled water demonstrated statistically significant lower mean surface hardness reductions when compared to the specimens immersed in sports and energy drinks after a 1-month evaluation period (p<0.001. The compomer was the most affected by an acidic environment, whereas the composite resin materials were the least affected materials. Conclusions: The effect of sports and energy drinks on the surface hardness of a restorative material depends on the duration of exposure time, and the composition of the material.

  19. SEM and Raman spectroscopy analyses of laser-induced periodic surface structures grown by ethanol-assisted femtosecond laser ablation of chromium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Shazia; Shahid Rafique, M.; Nathala, Chandra S. R.; Ajami, Ali; Husinsky, Wolfgang

    2015-05-01

    The effect of fluence and pulse duration on the growth of nanostructures on chromium (Cr) surfaces has been investigated upon irradiation of femtosecond (fs) laser pulses in a liquid confined environment of ethanol. In order to explore the effect of fluence, targets were exposed to 1000 pulses at various peak fluences ranging from 4.7 to 11.8 J cm-2 for pulse duration of ∼25 fs. In order to explore the effect of pulse duration, targets were exposed to fs laser pulses of various pulse durations ranging from 25 to 100 fs, for a constant fluence of 11.8 J cm-2. Surface morphology and structural transformations have been analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy, respectively. After laser irradiation, disordered sputtered surface with intense melting and cracking is obtained at the central ablated areas, which are augmented with increasing laser fluence due to enhanced thermal effects. At the peripheral ablated areas, where local fluence is approximately in the range of 1.4-4 mJ cm-2, very well-defined laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) with periodicity ranging from 270 to 370 nm along with dot-like structures are formed. As far as the pulse duration is concerned, a significant effect on the surface modification of Cr has been revealed. In the central ablated areas, for the shortest pulse duration (25 fs), only melting has been observed. However, LIPSS with dot-like structures and droplets have been grown for longer pulse durations. The periodicity of LIPSS increases and density of dot-like structures decreases with increasing pulse duration. The chemical and structural modifications of irradiated Cr have been revealed by Raman spectroscopy. It confirms the formation of new bands of chromium oxides and enol complexes or Cr-carbonyl compounds. The peak intensities of identified bands are dependent upon laser fluence and pulse duration.

  20. Commercial Recordings and Cultural Interchanges: Studying Great Britain and the United States, 1943-1967.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, B. Lee; Cooper, Laura E.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses popular music as a vehicle for cultural interchange between the United States and Great Britain between 1943 and 1967. Highlights include the early domination of U.S. record business interests and artistic styles established through the U.S. wartime and post-war military presence in England, and the later domination by British recording…

  1. 2002 Defense Modeling and Simulation Office (DMSO) Laboratory for Human Behavior Model Interchange Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-07-01

    among Human Behavior Modeling (HEM) -related models in the Department of Defense (DoD), Industry, Academia, and other Government simulations by...establishing a Laboratory for the Study of Human Behavior Representation Interchange Standard. With experience, expertise, and technologies of the

  2. 78 FR 54589 - Information Required in Notices and Petitions Containing Interchange Commitments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ..., including the use of automated collection techniques or other forms of information technology, when... a third-party connecting carrier, whether by outright prohibition, per-car penalty, adjustment in... future interchange with a third-party connecting carrier, whether by outright prohibition, per-car...

  3. Evaluation of Use of Graphics Interchange Format (GIF) Animations in Mathematics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altintas, Esra; Iigun, Sukru; Kucuk, Soner

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates opinions of Grade 12 students about the use of Graphics Interchange Format (GIF) animations in mathematics lessons. It explores the ways of making mathematics easier and more understandable for students by demonstrating whether or not GIF animations that emerged from the integration of technology into mathematics education…

  4. Surface hardness evaluation of different composite resin materials: influence of sports and energy drinks immersion after a short-term period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdemir, Ugur; Yildiz, Esra; Eren, Meltem Mert; Ozel, Sevda

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of sports and energy drinks on the surface hardness of different composite resin restorative materials over a 1-month period. A total of 168 specimens: Compoglass F, Filtek Z250, Filtek Supreme, and Premise were prepared using a customized cylindrical metal mould and they were divided into six groups (N=42; n=7 per group). For the control groups, the specimens were stored in distilled water for 24 hours at 37°C and the water was renewed daily. For the experimental groups, the specimens were immersed in 5 mL of one of the following test solutions: Powerade, Gatorade, X-IR, Burn, and Red Bull, for two minutes daily for up to a 1-month test period and all the solutions were refreshed daily. Surface hardness was measured using a Vickers hardness measuring instrument at baseline, after 1-week and 1-month. Data were statistically analyzed using Multivariate repeated measure ANOVA and Bonferroni's multiple comparison tests (α=0.05). Multivariate repeated measures ANOVA revealed that there were statistically significant differences in the hardness of the restorative materials in different immersion times (psports and energy drinks after a 1-month evaluation period (psports and energy drinks on the surface hardness of a restorative material depends on the duration of exposure time, and the composition of the material.

  5. Femtosecond-laser-induced periodic surface structures on magnetic layer targets: The roles of femtosecond-laser interaction and of magnetization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czajkowski, Klaus; Ratzke, Markus; Varlamova, Olga; Reif, Juergen

    2017-09-01

    We investigate femtosecond laser induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) on a complex multilayer target, namely a 20-GB computer hard disk (HD), consisting of a metallic substrate, a magnetic layer, and a thin polymeric protective layer. Depending on the dose (fluence × number of pulses) first the polymeric cover layer is completely removed, revealing a periodic surface modulation of the magnetic layer which seems not to be induced by the laser action. At higher dose, the magnetic layer morphology is strongly modified by laser-induced periodic structures (LIPS) and, finally, kind of an etch stop is reached at the bottom of the magnetic layer. The LIPS shows very high modulation depth below and above the original surface level. In the present work, the role of magnetization and magneto-mechanic forces in the structure formation process is studied by monitoring the bit-wise magnetization of the HD with a magnetic force microscope. It is shown that the structures at low laser dose are reflecting the magnetic bits. At higher dose the magnetic influence appears to be extinguished on the account of LIPS. This suggests a transient overcoming the Curie temperature and an associated loss of magnetic order. The results compare well with our model of LIPS/LIPSS formation by self-organized relaxation from a laser-induced thermodynamic instability.

  6. 75 FR 10015 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on the Interchange of State Loop 1604 and United States...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ... on the Interchange of State Loop 1604 and United States Highway 281 in Texas AGENCY: Federal Highway... project, the interchange of Texas State Loop 1604 (LP 1604) with United States Highway 281 (US 281). Project limits on LP 1604 are from Bitters Road to Redland Road and on US 281 are from LP 1604 to Bitters...

  7. The influence of steepness of dominance hierarchies on reciprocity and interchange in captive groups of bonobos (Pan paniscus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, J.M.G.; Vervaecke, H.; Vries, Han de; Elsacker, L. van

    2005-01-01

    Biological market models explain variability in reciprocity and interchange between groups. In groups with a shallow dominance gradient, grooming will be mostly exchanged for itself (i.e. exchange will occur). In groups with steep dominance hierarchies, interchange is expected: individuals will

  8. Direct Measurements of Bedrock Incision Rates on the Surface of a Large Dip-slope Landslide by Multi-Period Airborne Laser Scanning DEMs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chung Hsieh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study uses three periods of airborne laser scanning (ALS digital elevation model (DEM data to analyze the short-term erosional features of the Tsaoling landslide triggered by the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake in Taiwan. Two methods for calculating the bedrock incision rate, the equal-interval cross section selection method and the continuous swath profiles selection method, were used in the study after nearly ten years of gully incision following the earthquake-triggered dip-slope landslide. Multi-temporal gully incision rates were obtained using the continuous swath profiles selection method, which is considered a practical and convenient approach in terrain change studies. After error estimation and comparison of the multi-period ALS DEMs, the terrain change in different periods can be directly calculated, reducing time-consuming fieldwork such as installation of erosion pins and measurement of topographic cross sections on site. The gully bedrock incision rate calculated by the three periods of ALS DEMs on the surface of the Tsaoling landslide ranged from 0.23 m/year to 3.98 m/year. The local gully incision rate in the lower part of the landslide surface was found to be remarkably faster than that of the other regions, suggesting that the fast incision of the toe area possibly contributes to the occurrence of repeated landslides in the Tsaoling area.

  9. High-speed manufacturing of highly regular femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures: physical origin of regularity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gnilitskyi, I.; Derrien, Thibault; Levy, Yoann; Bulgakova, Nadezhda M.; Mocek, Tomáš; Orazi, L.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, Aug (2017), s. 1-11, č. článku 8485. ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1602; GA MŠk LM2015086; GA MŠk EF15_003/0000445 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 657424 - QuantumLaP Grant - others:OP VVV - BIATRI(XE) CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/15_003/0000445 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : nanostructured surfaces * single-pulse * thin-films * large-area * ripples * silicon * metal * Al * lithography * titanium Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers OBOR OECD: Optics (including laser optics and quantum optics) Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  10. Analysis of satisfaction factors at urban transport interchanges: Measuring travelers’ attitudes to information, security and waiting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lois Garcia, D.; Monzon de Caceres, A.; Hernandez del Olmo, S.

    2016-07-01

    Transport interchanges can be considered as a node, where people transfer from one mode to another, and as a place to stay, using facilities and services as well as waiting areas. Reducing disruption of transfer in multimodal trips is a key element for assuring seamless mobility in big cities. Based on previous research (Hernández & Monzón, 2016) this paper aims to explore the predictive capacity of attitudes towards several service factors on general satisfaction with transport interchange. Complementary, it was analyzing how personal and trip characteristics are related to evaluation of some variables, and examining the influence of waiting time on the perceived quality. To that end, a two steps methodology was conducted (personal and on-line interview) in a representative sample of 740 users (54% female, 55% work purpose trip). We performed path analysis to test the model showing a satisfactory statistical fit. The model developed show good performance for predicting general satisfaction at Moncloa Transport Interchange (Madrid, Spain). The outputs of the model indicate that Information and Safety and Security factors predicted 49% of general satisfaction. Furthermore, the results showed also a strong association between evaluation of Design and Environmental quality, factors that not affect directly general satisfaction but do so through Information and Safety & Security perception, acting the last as mediator variables. Nevertheless, spending time queuing inside the interchange show a negative influence on Information and Safety & Security, while age of participants affect negatively to Information, which mean that elder have some cognitive accessibility problems. Moreover, our data shows gender differences in safety perception, since women feel less safe (particularity the youngest) inside the interchange. The results indicate a number of priority measures to enhance. (Author)

  11. Interstellar H adsorption and H₂ formation on the crystalline (010) forsterite surface: a B3LYP-D2* periodic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Ruiz, Javier; Sodupe, Mariona; Ugliengo, Piero; Rimola, Albert

    2014-09-07

    The physisorption/chemisorption of atomic hydrogen on a slab model of the Mg2SiO4 forsterite (010) surface mimicking the interstellar dust particle surface has been modeled using a quantum mechanical approach based on periodic B3LYP-D2* density functional calculations (DFT) combined with flexible polarized Gaussian type basis sets, which allows a balanced description of the hydrogen/surface interactions for both minima and activated complexes. Physisorption of hydrogen is barrierless, very weak and occurs either close to surface oxygen atoms or on Mg surface ions. The contribution of dispersion interactions accounts for almost half of the adsorption energy. Both the hydrogen adsorption energy and barrier to hydrogen jump between equivalent surface sites are overestimated compared to experimental results meant to simulate the interstellar conditions in the laboratory. The hydrogen atom exclusively chemisorbs at the oxygen site of the forsterite (010) surface, forming a SiOH surface group and its spin density being entirely transferred to the neighboring Mg ion. Barrier for chemisorption allows rapid attachment of H at the surface at 100 K, but prevents the same process from occurring at 10 K. From this H-chemisorbed state, the second hydrogen chemisorption mainly occurs on the neighboring Mg ion, thus forming a Mg-H surface group, giving rise to a surface species stabilized by favorable electrostatic interactions between the OHH-Mg pair. The formation of molecular hydrogen at the (010) forsterite surface adopting a Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism takes place either starting from two physisorbed H atoms with an almost negligible kinetic barrier through a spin-spin coupling driven reaction or from two chemisorbed H atoms with a barrier surmountable even at T higher than 10 K. We also suggest that a nanosized model of the interstellar dust built from a replica of the forsterite unit cell is able to adsorb half the energy released by the H2 formation by increasing its

  12. Field observation on secondary organic aerosols during Asian dust storm periods: Formation mechanism of oxalic acid and related compounds on dust surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gehui; Cheng, Chunlei; Meng, Jingjing; Huang, Yao; Li, Jianjun; Ren, Yanqin

    2015-07-01

    Chemical evolution of East Asian dust during transpacific transport has been given much attention for inorganic species such as sulfate, nitrate and ammonium. However, the role of organic species during the transport has almost entirely been ignored. To understand the formation mechanism of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) on dust surfaces, this study investigated the concentrations and compositions of dicarboxylic acids, keto-carboxylic acids, α-dicarbonyls and inorganic ions in size-segregated aerosols (9-stages) collected in Xi'an, central China during the two dust storm episodes in the springs of 2009 and 2011 and compared with those in nondust storm periods. During the events the ambient particulate dicarboxylic acids were 932-2240 ng m-3, which are comparable and even higher than those in nondust periods. Molecular compositions of the above SOA are similar to those in nondust periods with oxalic acid being the leading species. In the presence of the dust storms, all the above mentioned SOA species in Xi'an were predominantly enriched on the coarse particles (>2.1 μm), and oxalic acid well correlated with NO3- (R2 = 0.72, p fine mode and a strong correlation of oxalic acid with SO42-. We propose a formation pathway to explain these observations, in which nitric acid and/or nitrogen oxides react with dust to produce Ca(NO3)2 and form a liquid phase on the surface of dust aerosols via water vapor-absorption of Ca(NO3)2, followed by a partitioning of the gas-phase water-soluble organic precursors (e.g.,glyoxal and methylglyoxal) into the aqueous-phase and a subsequent oxidation into oxalic acid. To the best of our knowledge, we found for the first time the enrichment of glyoxal and methylglyoxal on dust surface. Our data suggest an important role of nitrate in the heterogeneous formation process of SOA on the surface of dust.

  13. The effects of one period of exercise walking program on textured surface on balance in Multiple sclerosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asadi Ghaleni M

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic progressive disease of the central nervous system with signs and symptoms such as fatigue and balance that are disable. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of training which instructions focus of attention on postural sway of multiple sclerosis patients. Materials and Methods: The present quasi-experimental study used a pretest-posttest design. The subjects with the age of 27-42, expanded disability status scale 1-4 and were purposefully and voluntarily selected and randomly allocated to the experimental and control groups. Training program for groups was carried out in 3 weeks, five sessions per week, and each session lasted about one hour. Berg Balance Scale was used to measure balance. The data was analyzed by using analysis of independent and dependent sample t-test at a significance level of p≤0.05. Results: The results showed that significant improvements observed in balance (p≤0/05. Also significant differences observed between post hoc scores in the experimental and control groups (p≥0/05. Conclusion: According to research findings, the exercise walking program on textured surface resulted in considerable improvements in balance in multiple sclerosis. Also, the respective specialists can use these exercies as a complementary treatment along with the drug therapy for patiens with multiple sclerosis.

  14. Evaluation of MODIS Albedo Product (MCD43A) over Grassland, Agriculture and Forest Surface Types During Dormant and Snow-Covered Periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhousen; Schaaf, Crystal B.; Strahler, Alan H.; Chopping, Mark J.; Roman, Miguel O.; Shuai, Yanmin; Woodcock, Curtis E.; Hollinger, David Y.; Fitzjarrald, David R.

    2013-01-01

    This study assesses the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) BRDF/albedo 8 day standard product and products from the daily Direct Broadcast BRDF/albedo algorithm, and shows that these products agree well with ground-based albedo measurements during the more difficult periods of vegetation dormancy and snow cover. Cropland, grassland, deciduous and coniferous forests are considered. Using an integrated validation strategy, analyses of the representativeness of the surface heterogeneity under both dormant and snow-covered situations are performed to decide whether direct comparisons between ground measurements and 500-m satellite observations can be made or whether finer spatial resolution airborne or spaceborne data are required to scale the results at each location. Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM +) data are used to generate finer scale representations of albedo at each location to fully link ground data with satellite data. In general, results indicate the root mean square errors (RMSEs) are less than 0.030 over spatially representative sites of agriculture/grassland during the dormant periods and less than 0.050 during the snow-covered periods for MCD43A albedo products. For forest, the RMSEs are less than 0.020 during the dormant period and 0.025 during the snow-covered periods. However, a daily retrieval strategy is necessary to capture ephemeral snow events or rapidly changing situations such as the spring snow melt.

  15. Onset and evolution of laser induced periodic surface structures on indium tin oxide thin films for clean ablation using a repetitively pulsed picosecond laser at low fluence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farid, N.; Dasgupta, P.; O’Connor, G. M.

    2018-04-01

    The onset and evolution of laser induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) is of key importance to obtain clean ablated features on indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films at low fluences. The evolution of subwavelength periodic nanostructures on a 175 nm thick ITO film, using 10 ps laser pulses at a wavelength of 1032 nm, operating at 400 kHz, is investigated. Initially nanoblisters are observed when a single pulse is applied below the damage threshold fluence (0.45 J cm‑2) the size and distribution of nanoblisters are found to depend on fluence. Finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations support the hypothesis that conductive nanoblisters can enhance the local intensity of the applied electromagnetic field. The LIPSS are observed to evolve from regions where the electric field enhancement has occurred; LIPSS has a perpendicular orientation relative to the laser polarization for a small number (pulses. The LIPSS periodicity depends on nanoblister size and distribution; a periodicity down to 100 nm is observed at the lower fluence periphery of the Gaussian irradiated area where nanoblisters are smallest and more closely arranged. Upon irradiation with successive (>5) pulses, the orientation of the periodic structures appears to rotate and evolve to become aligned in parallel with the laser polarization at approximately the same periodicity. These orientation effects are not observed at higher fluence—due to the absence of the nanoblister-like structures; this apparent rotation is interpreted to be due to stress-induced fragmentation of the LIPSS structure. The application of subsequent pulses leads to clean ablation. LIPSS are further modified into features of a shorter period when laser scanning is used. Results provide evidence that the formation of conductive nanoblisters leads to the enhancement of the applied electromagnetic field and thereby can be used to precisely control laser ablation on ITO thin films.

  16. Polarimetry of light scattered by surface roughness and textured films and periodic structures in nanotechnologies: a new challenge in instrumentation and modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrieu. F.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Exhaustive studies in the literature detail the Mueller matrices properties through decomposition, optical entropy and depolarization formalism. It has been applied for many years in rather different fields. In radar polarimetry, mathematical basis of depolarizing systems, have been first developed. In the visible range optics, standard diattenuation and retardance, decomposition is currently used in turbid organic media. The optical entropy concept, developed by S.R. Cloude, provides a very powerful analysis technique yielding important surface parameters such as depolarization, correlation and roughness. Complementary applications exist in scatterometry, for thin periodic grating films. With high capability polarimeters, such as the next generation of angle resolved polarimeters instruments, Polarimetry opens new fields of investigation for nanotechnologies materials as well as for gratings and photonics structures analysis: a program presently developed through a national consortium ANR08-NANO-020-03. With this instrumentation progress, simulation remains a key point to overpass as a challenge between future instruments. The theories for surfaces spectral power density (PSD and the random coupled wave approximation (RCWA in periodic structures are widely described in the literature. The implementation of some of these codes is described here for surface analysis and lithography scatterometry structures: grating overlay or double patterning.

  17. Surface hardness evaluation of different composite resin materials: influence of sports and energy drinks immersion after a short-term period

    Science.gov (United States)

    ERDEMİR, Ugur; YİLDİZ, Esra; EREN, Meltem Mert; OZEL, Sevda

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This study evaluated the effect of sports and energy drinks on the surface hardness of different composite resin restorative materials over a 1-month period. Material and Methods: A total of 168 specimens: Compoglass F, Filtek Z250, Filtek Supreme, and Premise were prepared using a customized cylindrical metal mould and they were divided into six groups (N=42; n=7 per group). For the control groups, the specimens were stored in distilled water for 24 hours at 37º C and the water was renewed daily. For the experimental groups, the specimens were immersed in 5 mL of one of the following test solutions: Powerade, Gatorade, X-IR, Burn, and Red Bull, for two minutes daily for up to a 1-month test period and all the solutions were refreshed daily. Surface hardness was measured using a Vickers hardness measuring instrument at baseline, after 1-week and 1-month. Data were statistically analyzed using Multivariate repeated measure ANOVA and Bonferroni's multiple comparison tests (α=0.05). Results: Multivariate repeated measures ANOVA revealed that there were statistically significant differences in the hardness of the restorative materials in different immersion times (phardness values of the restorative materials was tested using Bonferroni's multiple comparison tests, and it was observed that specimens stored in distilled water demonstrated statistically significant lower mean surface hardness reductions when compared to the specimens immersed in sports and energy drinks after a 1-month evaluation period (phardness of a restorative material depends on the duration of exposure time, and the composition of the material. PMID:23739850

  18. Effect of Reynolds Number and Periodic Unsteady Wake Flow Condition on Boundary Layer Development, Separation, and Intermittency Behavior Along the Suction Surface of a Low Pressure Turbine Blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schobeiri, M. T.; Ozturk, B.; Ashpis, David E.

    2007-01-01

    The paper experimentally studies the effects of periodic unsteady wake flow and different Reynolds numbers on boundary layer development, separation and re-attachment along the suction surface of a low pressure turbine blade. The experimental investigations were performed on a large scale, subsonic unsteady turbine cascade research facility at Turbomachinery Performance and Flow Research Laboratory (TPFL) of Texas A&M University. The experiments were carried out at Reynolds numbers of 110,000 and 150,000 (based on suction surface length and exit velocity). One steady and two different unsteady inlet flow conditions with the corresponding passing frequencies, wake velocities, and turbulence intensities were investigated. The reduced frequencies chosen cover the operating range of LP turbines. In addition to the unsteady boundary layer measurements, surface pressure measurements were performed. The inception, onset, and the extent of the separation bubble information collected from the pressure measurements were compared with the hot wire measurements. The results presented in ensemble-averaged, and the contour plot forms help to understand the physics of the separation phenomenon under periodic unsteady wake flow and different Reynolds number. It was found that the suction surface displayed a strong separation bubble for these three different reduced frequencies. For each condition, the locations defining the separation bubble were determined carefully analyzing and examining the pressure and mean velocity profile data. The location of the boundary layer separation was dependent of the Reynolds number. It is observed that starting point of the separation bubble and the re-attachment point move further downstream by increasing Reynolds number from 110,000 to 150,000. Also, the size of the separation bubble is smaller when compared to that for Re=110,000.

  19. Determining Adequate Averaging Periods and Reference Coordinates for Eddy Covariance Measurements of Surface Heat and Water Vapor Fluxes over Mountainous Terrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ying Chen Ming-Hsu Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Two coordinate rotation approaches (double and planar-fit rotations and no rotation, in association with averaging periods of 15 - 480 min, were applied to compute surface heat and water vapor fluxes using the eddy covariance approach. Measurements were conducted in an experimental watershed, the Lien-Hua-Chih (LHC watershed, located in central Taiwan. For no rotation and double rotation approaches, an adequate averaging period of 15 or 30 min was suggested for better energy closure and small variations on energy closure fractions. For the planar-fit rotation approach, an adequate averaging period of 60 or 120 min was recommended, and a typical averaging period of 30 min is not superior to that of 60 or 120 min in terms of better energy closure and small variations on energy closure fractions. The Ogive function analysis revealed that the energy closure was improved with the increase of averaging time by capturing sensible heat fluxes at low-frequency ranges during certain midday hours at LHC site. Seasonal variations of daily energy closure fractions, high in dry season and low in wet season, were found to be associated with the surface dryness and strength of turbulent development. The mismatching of flux footprint areas among flux sensors was suggested as the cause of larger CF variations during the dry seasons as that indicated by the footprint analysis showing scattered source areas. During the wet season, the underestimation of turbulent fluxes by EC observations at the LHC site was attributed to weak turbulence developments as the source area identified by the footprint analysis was closer to the flux tower than those scattered in dry season.

  20. Assessment of interchangeability rate between 2 methods of measurements: An example with a cardiac output comparison study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorne, Emmanuel; Diouf, Momar; de Wilde, Robert B P; Fischer, Marc-Olivier

    2018-02-01

    The Bland-Altman (BA) and percentage error (PE) methods have been previously described to assess the agreement between 2 methods of medical or laboratory measurements. This type of approach raises several problems: the BA methodology constitutes a subjective approach to interchangeability, whereas the PE approach does not take into account the distribution of values over a range. We describe a new methodology that defines an interchangeability rate between 2 methods of measurement and cutoff values that determine the range of interchangeable values. We used a simulated data and a previously published data set to demonstrate the concept of the method. The interchangeability rate of 5 different cardiac output (CO) pulse contour techniques (Wesseling method, LiDCO, PiCCO, Hemac method, and Modelflow) was calculated, in comparison with the reference pulmonary artery thermodilution CO using our new method. In our example, Modelflow with a good interchangeability rate of 93% and a cutoff value of 4.8 L min, was found to be interchangeable with the thermodilution method for >95% of measurements. Modelflow had a higher interchangeability rate compared to Hemac (93% vs 86%; P = .022) or other monitors (Wesseling cZ = 76%, LiDCO = 73%, and PiCCO = 62%; P < .0001). Simulated data and reanalysis of a data set comparing 5 CO monitors against thermodilution CO showed that, depending on the repeatability of the reference method, the interchangeability rate combined with a cutoff value could be used to define the range of values over which interchangeability remains acceptable.

  1. Fast detection of genetic information by an optimized PCR in an interchangeable chip.

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Jinbo

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, we report the construction of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) device for fast amplification and detection of DNA. This device consists of an interchangeable PCR chamber, a temperature control component as well as an optical detection system. The DNA amplification happens on an interchangeable chip with the volumes as low as 1.25 μl, while the heating and cooling rate was as fast as 12.7°C/second ensuring that the total time needed of only 25 min to complete the 35 cycle PCR amplification. An optimized PCR with two-temperature approach for denaturing and annealing (Td and Ta) of DNA was also formulated with the PCR chip, with which the amplification of male-specific sex determining region Y (SRY) gene marker by utilizing raw saliva was successfully achieved and the genetic identification was in-situ detected right after PCR by the optical detection system.

  2. Apparatus, System and Method for Fast Detection of Genetic Information by PCR in an Interchangeable Chip

    KAUST Repository

    Wen, Weijia

    2011-03-03

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) device for fast amplification and detection of DNA includes an interchangeable PCR chamber, a temperature control component, and an optical detection system. The DNA amplification is performed on an interchangeable chip with volumes as small as 1.25 µl, while the heating and cooling rate may be as fast as 12.7 °C/second ensuring that the total time needed of only 25 minutes to complete the 35 cycle PCR amplification. The PCR may be performed according to a two-temperature approach for denaturing and annealing (Td and Ta) of DNA with the PCR chip, with which the amplification of male-specific SRY gene marker by utilizing raw saliva may be achieved. The genetic identification may be in-situ detected after PCR by the optical detection system.

  3. Interchange on the Civitavecchia Railway Line- Capranica Scalo - Capranica resort Orte Scalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Pulvirenti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The project is an interchange in the territory of Tuscia, in the small town of Capranica Scalo (VT, Italy. It is where two railway lines intersect, the Roma-Viterbo FR3 line and Civitavecchia-Orte line. The latter has been inserted within the TEN -T recognised as an important link for the European freight transport. It is currently subject to a restoration project. Based on the results from the analysis it has been designed a central space, the interchange, for an area larger than the single city centre. It will not only improve the integration between different modes of transport and enhance the traveling and waiting times, but it is proposed as a condenser of entertainment activities, representing also a showroom for the promotion of the territory and enhancement of its resources.

  4. Mechanism of interchange between the reflections in a channel of communications with the power spectral density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Cárdenas

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical limit given by the Shannon Capacity equation has been the origin of communications systems based on the interchange between bandwidth and power. This article explores the interchange between the power spectral density and the reflections that can be generated in a communications channel, with the ultimate aim of being able to decrease the power spectral density for the same capacity. The reflections can be expressed as a number of controlled reflections or by a reflection coefficient. The channels studied show that this exchange is possible. A new model based on feedback circuits was found to represent a transmission line, which was useful to study the MISO channel formed by several transmission lines of different length. A geometric elliptic dispersion model to represent a SISO channel was studied too.

  5. Impacts of Large Vehicles on Traffic Safety in Freeway Interchange Merging Areas and Improvement Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Yifan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to work out the characteristics of traffic operation on freeway interchange merging areas under different ratio of large vehicles, aerial photography technique based on unmanned aircraft and other observation device were used to investigate the merge section traffic data firstly. Based on survey data and actual traffic characteristics, the paper then established simulation models with VI SSIM with calibrated car-following and lane changing behaviour models. Next, the paper analysed the influence of traffic volume and acceleration lane length under various traffic compositions to evaluate safety status of interchange merge sections by traffic conflict technique and speed consistency index. Finally, two kinds of safety promotion strategies, speed limit and setting forbidden line, were evaluated and the results indicated these measures can raise safety level by about 10%∼15% under certain conditions, which were determined as the best applicable conditions.

  6. Comparison and interchangeability of macular thickness measured with Cirrus OCT and Stratus OCT in myopic eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Geng; Qiu, Kun-Liang; Lu, Xue-Hui; Zhang, Ming-Zhi

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the difference of macular thickness measurements between stratus optical coherence tomography (OCT) and Cirrus OCT (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA, USA) in the same myopic patient and to develop a conversion equation to interchange macular thickness obtained with these two OCT devices. Eighty-nine healthy Chinese adults with spherical equivalent (SE) ranging from -1.13 D to -9.63 D were recruited. The macular thickness was measured by Cirrus OCT and Stratus OCT. The correlation between macular thickness and axial length and the agreement between two OCT measurements were evaluated. A formula was generated to interchange macular thickness obtained with two OCT devices. Average macular thickness measured with Stratus OCT (r=-0.280, P=0.008) and Cirrus OCT (r=-0.224, P=0.034) were found to be negatively correlated with axial length. No statistically significant correlation was found between axial length and central subfield macular thickness (CMT) measured with Stratus OCT (r=0.191, P=0.073) and Cirrus OCT (r=0.169, P=0.113). The mean CMT measured with Cirrus OCT was 53.63±7.94 µm thicker than with Stratus OCT. The formula CMTCirrus OCT=78.328+0.874×CMTStratus OCT was generated to interchange macular thickness obtained with two OCT devices. Macular thickness measured with Cirrus OCT were thicker than with Stratus OCT in myopic eyes. A formula can be used to interchange macular thickness measured with two OCT devices in myopic eyes. Studies with different OCT devices and larger samples are warranted to enable the comparison of macular values measured with different OCT devices.

  7. Low-dimensional model of resistive interchange convection in magnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazdenkov, S.; Sato, Tetsuya

    1997-09-01

    Self-organization and generation of large shear flow component in turbulent resistive interchange convection in magnetized plasma is considered. The effect of plasma density-electrostatic potential coupling via the inertialess electron dynamics along the magnetic field is shown to play significant role in the onset of shear component. The results of large-scale numerical simulation and low-dimensional (reduced) model are presented and compared. (author)

  8. Regulation of toxin and bacteriocin gene expression in Clostridium by interchangeable RNA polymerase sigma factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuy, Bruno; Raffestin, Stéphanie; Matamouros, Susana; Mani, Nagraj; Popoff, Michel R; Sonenshein, Abraham L

    2006-05-01

    The production of major extracellular toxins by pathogenic strains of Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium tetani and Clostridium difficile, and a bacteriocin by Clostridium perfringens is dependent on a related group of RNA polymerase sigma-factors. These sigma-factors (BotR, TetR, TcdR and UviA) were shown to be sufficiently similar that they could substitute for one another in in vitro DNA binding and run-off transcription experiments. In cells, however, the sigma-factors fell into two subclasses. BotR and TetR were able to direct transcription of their target genes in a fully reciprocal manner. Similarly, UviA and TcdR were fully interchangeable. Neither BotR nor TetR could substitute for UviA or TcdR, however, and neither UviA nor TcdR could direct transcription of the natural targets of BotR or TetR. The extent of functional interchangeability of the sigma-factors was attributed to the strong conservation of their subregion 4.2 sequences and the conserved -35 sequences of their target promoters, while restrictions on interchangeability were attributed to variations in their subregion 2.4 sequences and the target site -10 sequences. The four sigma-factors have been assigned to group 5 of the sigma(70) family and seem to have arisen from a common ancestral protein that may have co-evolved with the genes whose transcription they direct. A fifth Clostridiumsigma-factor, sigma(Y) of Clostridium acetobutylicum, resembles the TcdR family, but was not functionally interchangeable with members of this family.

  9. Nonbioequivalent prescription drug interchangeability, concerns on patient safety and drug market dynamics in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paumgartten, Francisco José Roma; Oliveira, Ana Cecilia Amado Xavier de

    2017-08-01

    Since the enforcement of Generics Act (1999), three types of pharmaceutically equivalent products are marketed in Brazil: innovative reference (REF), "similar" (S) and generic (G) drugs. The S (brand name) and G (generic name) borrow from REF (brand name) clinical data on safety and efficacy and dosage regimen. G (but not S) is bioequivalent to and interchangeable with REF. Starting in 2003, Brazilian Sanitary Surveillance Agency (Anvisa) has required data on relative bioavailability tests (with REF) to approve (or renew registration of) S drugs. In 2014, Anvisa extended interchangeability notion to similar drugs with a "comparable" bioavailability, i.e., an "equivalent" similar drug (EQ). Drugs for chronic diseases and "critical dose medicines" are listed among the EQ drugs approved. Interchangeability of nonbioequivalent medicines raises deep concerns regarding therapeutic failures and adverse events. Concerns are even more worrisome if patients switch from one drug to another during an ongoing treatment for illnesses such as epilepsy, congestive heart failure, hypertension, diabetes and/or substitutable drugs have a narrow therapeutic index.

  10. A standardized SOA for clinical data interchange in a cardiac telemonitoring environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazzarata, Roberta; Vergari, Fabio; Cinotti, Tullio Salmon; Giacomini, Mauro

    2014-11-01

    Care of chronic cardiac patients requires information interchange between patients' homes, clinical environments, and the electronic health record. Standards are emerging to support clinical information collection, exchange and management and to overcome information fragmentation and actors delocalization. Heterogeneity of information sources at patients' homes calls for open solutions to collect and accommodate multidomain information, including environmental data. Based on the experience gained in a European Research Program, this paper presents an integrated and open approach for clinical data interchange in cardiac telemonitoring applications. This interchange is supported by the use of standards following the indications provided by the national authorities of the countries involved. Taking into account the requirements provided by the medical staff involved in the project, the authors designed and implemented a prototypal middleware, based on a service-oriented architecture approach, to give a structured and robust tool to congestive heart failure patients for their personalized telemonitoring. The middleware is represented by a health record management service, whose interface is compliant to the healthcare services specification project Retrieve, Locate and Update Service standard (Level 0), which allows communication between the agents involved through the exchange of Clinical Document Architecture Release 2 documents. Three performance tests were carried out and showed that the prototype completely fulfilled all requirements indicated by the medical staff; however, certain aspects, such as authentication, security and scalability, should be deeply analyzed within a future engineering phase.

  11. Nonbioequivalent prescription drug interchangeability, concerns on patient safety and drug market dynamics in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Roma Paumgartten

    Full Text Available Abstract Since the enforcement of Generics Act (1999, three types of pharmaceutically equivalent products are marketed in Brazil: innovative reference (REF, “similar” (S and generic (G drugs. The S (brand name and G (generic name borrow from REF (brand name clinical data on safety and efficacy and dosage regimen. G (but not S is bioequivalent to and interchangeable with REF. Starting in 2003, Brazilian Sanitary Surveillance Agency (Anvisa has required data on relative bioavailability tests (with REF to approve (or renew registration of S drugs. In 2014, Anvisa extended interchangeability notion to similar drugs with a “comparable” bioavailability, i.e., an “equivalent” similar drug (EQ. Drugs for chronic diseases and “critical dose medicines” are listed among the EQ drugs approved. Interchangeability of nonbioequivalent medicines raises deep concerns regarding therapeutic failures and adverse events. Concerns are even more worrisome if patients switch from one drug to another during an ongoing treatment for illnesses such as epilepsy, congestive heart failure, hypertension, diabetes and/or substitutable drugs have a narrow therapeutic index.

  12. Bicoherence Analysis of Electrostatic Interchange Mode Coupling in a Turbulent Laboratory Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abler, M. C.; Mauel, M. E.; Saperstein, A.

    2017-12-01

    Plasmas confined by a strong dipole field exhibit interchange and entropy mode turbulence, which previous experiments have shown respond locally to active feedback [1]. On the Collisionless Terrella Experiment (CTX), this turbulence is characterized by low frequency, low order, quasi-coherent modes with complex spectral dynamics. We apply bicoherence analysis [2] to study nonlinear phase coupling in a variety of scenarios. First, we study the self-interaction of the naturally occurring interchange turbulence; this analysis is then expanded to include the effects of single or multiple driven modes in the frequency range of the background turbulent oscillations. Initial measurements of coupling coefficients are presented in both cases. Driven low frequency interchange modes are observed to generate multiple harmonics which persist throughout the plasma, becoming weaker as they propagate away from the actuator in the direction of the electron magnetic drift. Future work is also discussed, including application of wavelet bicoherence analysis and applications to planetary magnetospheres. [1] Roberts, Mauel, and Worstell, Phys Plasmas (2015). [2] Grierson, Worstell, and Mauel, Phys Plasmas (2009). Supported by NSF-DOE Partnership for Plasma Science Grants DOE-DE-FG02-00ER54585 and NSF-PHY-1201896.

  13. Parameter-space survey of linear G-mode and interchange in extended magnetohydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, E. C.; Sovinec, C. R.

    2017-10-01

    The extended magnetohydrodynamic stability of interchange modes is studied in two configurations. In slab geometry, a local dispersion relation for the gravitational interchange mode (g-mode) with three different extensions of the MHD model [Zhu et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 085005 (2008)] is analyzed. Our results delineate where drifts stablize the g-mode with gyroviscosity alone and with a two-fluid Ohm's law alone. The two-fluid Ohm's law produces an ion drift wave that interacts with the g-mode. This interaction gives rise to a second instability at finite ky. A second instability is also observed in numerical extended MHD computations of linear interchange in cylindrical screw-pinch equilibria, the second configuration. Particularly with incomplete models, this mode limits the regions of stability for physically realistic conditions. However, applying a consistent two-temperature extended MHD model that includes the diamagnetic heat flux density ( q→ * ) makes the onset of the second mode occur at a larger Hall parameter. For conditions relevant to the SSPX experiment [E. B. Hooper, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 54, 113001 (2012)], significant stabilization is observed for Suydam parameters as large as unity ( Ds ≲ 1 ).

  14. Analysis of the Driver’s Behavior Characteristics in Low Volume Freeway Interchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronghua Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Drivers’ behavior characteristics cannot be ignored in designing freeway interchange facilities in order to improve traffic safety. This paper conducted a field experiment in Qingyin expressway. Four freeway interchanges from K571+538 to K614+932 with relatively low volume were selected, and 12 qualified drivers, 6 car test drivers and 6 truck test drivers, were driving vehicles according to the driving program. GPS and eye-tracking instrument were employed to record running speed, real-time, running track, fixation point, and so forth. Box-plot graphs and Student’s t-test were used to analyze the 12 data sets of driver’s fixation on exit guide signs. Speed-distance curves of effective 11 data sets were plotted to examine the test drivers’ behavior in diverging area and merging area. The results indicated that (1 drivers recognize the exit direction signs in 170 m–180 m advanced distance; (2 the diverging influence area is 1000 m upstream of the diverge point, and the merging influence area is 350 m downstream of the merge point; (3 NO OVERTAKING sign is recommended to be placed at 350 m upstream of the diverge point. The results can provide guidance for the design of freeway interchange facilities and management in order to improve traffic safety.

  15. Novel non-periodic spoof surface plasmon polaritons with H-shaped cells and its application to high selectivity wideband bandpass filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xin; Che, Wenquan; Feng, Wenjie

    2018-02-06

    In this paper, one kind of novel non-periodic spoof surface plasmon polaritons (SSPPs) with H-shaped cells is proposed. As we all know, the cutoff frequency exists inherently for the conventional comb-shaped SSPPs, which is a kind of periodic groove shape structures and fed by a conventional coplanar waveguide (CPW). In this work, instead of increasing the depth of all the grooves, two H-shaped cells are introduced to effectively reduce the cutoff frequency of the conventional comb-shaped SSPPs (about 12 GHz) for compact design. More importantly, the guide waves can be gradually transformed to SSPP waves with high efficiency, and better impedance matching from 50 Ω to the novel SSPP strip is achieved. Based on the proposed non-periodic SSPPs with H-shaped cells, a wideband bandpass filter (the 3-dB fractional bandwidths 68%) is realized by integrating the spiral-shaped defected ground structure (DGS) etched on CPW. Specifically, the filter shows high passband selectivity (Δf 3 dB /Δf 20 dB  = 0.91) and wide upper stopband with -20 dB rejection. A prototype is fabricated for demonstration. Good agreements can be observed between the measured and simulated results, indicating potential applications in the integrated plasmonic devices and circuits at microwave and even THz frequencies.

  16. FDA Guidance on Biosimilar Interchangeability Elicits Diverse Views: Current and Potential Marketers Complain About Too-High Hurdles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlas, Stephen

    2017-08-01

    Pharmaceutical industry sectors are at odds as the Food and Drug Administration seeks to define "interchangeability" for biosimilars. The battle lines vary by topic, but biosimilar marketers, health plans, and drugstores are generally urging lower hurdles.

  17. Generation of X-rays by 850 MeV electrons in a novel periodic multicrystal structure on a GaAs plate surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplin, V.V.; Uglov, S.R.; Zabaev, V.N.; Kanaev, V.G.; Litvin, S.V.; Timchenko, N.A.

    2000-01-01

    A novel type of a periodical crystalline target for the generation of coherent X-rays by relativistic electrons is described. The target has been done on the surface of a GaAs crystal plate by means of microlitography. The etched microstructure is a system of about 300 stripes 14 μm thick, 100 μm high and the gaps between the stripes are 29 μm. The measured spectra and orientational dependences of the X-rays emitted at an angle of 19 deg. to the 850 MeV electron beam of the Tomsk synchrotron are discussed. The generated 63 keV radiation consists of parametric X-ray radiation (PXR) and diffracted X-ray transition radiation (DTR). It has been shown that the intensity of the DTR component of the generated X-rays is much more great than that of the PXR

  18. Generation of X-rays by 850 MeV electrons in a novel periodic multicrystal structure on a GaAs plate surface

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplin, V V; Zabaev, V N; Kanaev, V G; Litvin, S V; Timchenko, N A

    2000-01-01

    A novel type of a periodical crystalline target for the generation of coherent X-rays by relativistic electrons is described. The target has been done on the surface of a GaAs crystal plate by means of microlitography. The etched microstructure is a system of about 300 stripes 14 mu m thick, 100 mu m high and the gaps between the stripes are 29 mu m. The measured spectra and orientational dependences of the X-rays emitted at an angle of 19 deg. to the 850 MeV electron beam of the Tomsk synchrotron are discussed. The generated 63 keV radiation consists of parametric X-ray radiation (PXR) and diffracted X-ray transition radiation (DTR). It has been shown that the intensity of the DTR component of the generated X-rays is much more great than that of the PXR.

  19. Assessment of work-related muscle strain by using surface EMG during test contractions interposed between work periods of simulateted mushroom picking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohashi, Jun-Ya; Blangsted, Anne Katrine; Nielsen, Pernille Kofoed

    2010-01-01

    Surface electromyograms(EMG) during test contractions (TCs) were studied to assess the muscle strain in simulated mushroom picking. Additionally, the duration of the TC for the effective assessment was investigated. Nine female subjects performed standardized shoulder abduction and a stooped...... minutes in the rest periods. EMGs were recorded from the trapezius, infraspinatus, deltoid, and erector spinae muscles. The amplitude of EMG (AEMG) and mean power frequency (MPF) of EMG were calculated. Each TC was divided equally into three parts. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) in the neck, shoulder...... during the TCs. AEMG and MPF fluctuated before W1 although the changes of RPE were small. Averaging several TCs was recommended to get stable results from TCs. EMG changes and appropriate TC conditions were discussed in relation to the adaptation in fatiguing contractions....

  20. Surface-micromachined magnetic undulator with period length between 10  μm and 1 mm for advanced light sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jere Harrison

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A technological gap exists between the μm-scale wiggling periods achieved using electromagnetic waves of high intensity laser pulses and the mm scale of permanent-magnet and superconducting undulators. In the sub-mm range, surface-micromachined soft-magnetic micro-electro-mechanical system inductors with integrated solenoidal coils have already experimentally demonstrated 100 to 500 mT field amplitude across air gaps as large as 15  μm. Simulations indicate that magnetic fields as large as 1.5 T across 50  μm inductor gaps are feasible. A simple rearranging of the yoke and pole geometry allows for fabrication of 10+ cm long undulator structures with period lengths between 12.5  μm and 1 mm. Such undulators find application both in high average power spontaneous emission sources and, if used in combination with ultrahigh-brightness electron beams, could lead to the realization of low energy compact free-electron lasers. Challenges include electron energy broadening due to wakefields and Joule heating in the electromagnet.

  1. Evaluation of surface and upper air fine scale WRF meteorological modeling of the May and June 2010 CalNex period in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Kirk R.; Misenis, Chris; Obland, Michael D.; Ferrare, Richard A.; Scarino, Amy J.; Kelly, James T.

    2013-12-01

    Prognostic meteorological models such as Mesoscale Model (MM5) and Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) are often used to supply inputs for retrospective air quality modeling done to support ozone and PM2.5 emission control demonstrations. In this study, multiple configurations of the WRF model are applied at 4 km grid resolution and compared to routine meteorological measurements and special study measurements taken in California during May-June 2010. One configuration is routinely used by US EPA to generate meteorological inputs for regulatory air quality modeling and another that is used by research scientists for evaluating meteorology and air quality. Mixing layer heights estimated from airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) measurements of aerosol backscatter are compared with WRF modeled planetary boundary layer (PBL) height estimates. Both WRF configurations generally capture the variability in HSRL mixing height between days, hour-to-hour, and between surface features such as terrain and land-water interfaces. Fractional bias over all flights and both model configurations range from -38% to 32% and fractional error ranges from 22% to 58%. Surface and upper level measurements of temperature, water mixing ratio, and winds are generally well characterized by both WRF model configurations, often more closely matching surface observations than the input analysis data (12-NAM). The WRF model generally captures orographic and mesoscale meteorological features in the central Valley (bifurcation of wind flow from the San Francisco bay into the Sacramento and San Joaquin valleys) and Los Angeles air basin (ocean-land flows) during this summer period.

  2. Botulinum toxin type A products are not interchangeable: a review of the evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brin MF

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Mitchell F Brin,1,2 Charmaine James,3 John Maltman1 1Allergan, Inc., Irvine, CA, USA; 2Department of Neurology, University of California, Irvine, CA, USA; 3Allergan, Marlow, UKAbstract: Botulinum toxin type A (BoNTA products are injectable biologic medications derived from Clostridium botulinum bacteria. Several different BoNTA products are marketed in various countries, and they are not interchangeable. Differences between products include manufacturing processes, formulations, and the assay methods used to determine units of biological activity. These differences result in a specific set of interactions between each BoNTA product and the tissue injected. Consequently, the products show differences in their in vivo profiles, including preclinical dose response curves and clinical dosing, efficacy, duration, and safety/adverse events. Most, but not all, published studies document these differences, suggesting that individual BoNTA products act differently depending on experimental and clinical conditions, and these differences may not always be predictable. Differentiation through regulatory approvals provides a measure of confidence in safety and efficacy at the specified doses for each approved indication. Moreover, the products differ in the amount of study to which they have been subjected, as evidenced by the number of publications in the peer-reviewed literature and the quantity and quality of clinical studies. Given that BoNTAs are potent biological products that meet important clinical needs, it is critical to recognize that their dosing and product performance are not interchangeable and each product should be used according to manufacturer guidelines.Keywords: onabotulinumtoxinA, abobotulinumtoxinA, incobotulinumtoxinA, glabellar lines, non-interchangeability

  3. Rancang Bangun Aplikasi Transaksi Elektronik Ritel Pupuk Dengan Metode Electronic Data Interchange (EDI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly Oktavia Adiwijaya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Fertilizer distribution from distributor to agents, are required to be responsive in addressing the demand for fertilizers. Distributors are also required to be able to manage inventory in the warehouse, to avoid overstocking of fertilizer. Design and implementation of a fertilizer retail electronic commerce applications using electronic data interchange (EDI method is applied in this study. The system is built to help distributors to control the existence of the stock of fertilizer so no excess stock. In addition, the use of EDI can provide information quickly (real-time without having to go directly to the warehouse locations.

  4. Chemical and nuclear emergencies: Interchanging lessons learned from planning and accident experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, V.; Sorensen, J.H.; Rogers, G.O.

    1989-01-01

    Because the goal of emergency preparedness for both chemical and nuclear hazards is to reduce human exposure to hazardous materials, this paper examines the interchange of lessons learned from emergency planning and accident experience in both industries. While the concerns are slightly different, sufficient similarity is found for each to draw implications from the others experience. Principally the chemical industry can learn from the dominant planning experience associated with nuclear power plants, while the nuclear industry can chiefly learn from the chemical industry's accident experience. 23 refs

  5. Second NASA Technical Interchange Meeting (TIM): Advanced Technology Lifecycle Analysis System (ATLAS) Technology Tool Box (TTB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ONeil, D. A.; Mankins, J. C.; Christensen, C. B.; Gresham, E. C.

    2005-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Lifecycle Analysis System (ATLAS), a spreadsheet analysis tool suite, applies parametric equations for sizing and lifecycle cost estimation. Performance, operation, and programmatic data used by the equations come from a Technology Tool Box (TTB) database. In this second TTB Technical Interchange Meeting (TIM), technologists, system model developers, and architecture analysts discussed methods for modeling technology decisions in spreadsheet models, identified specific technology parameters, and defined detailed development requirements. This Conference Publication captures the consensus of the discussions and provides narrative explanations of the tool suite, the database, and applications of ATLAS within NASA s changing environment.

  6. NASA Technical Interchange Meeting (TIM): Advanced Technology Lifecycle Analysis System (ATLAS) Technology Tool Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    ONeil, D. A.; Craig, D. A.; Christensen, C. B.; Gresham, E. C.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this Technical Interchange Meeting was to increase the quantity and quality of technical, cost, and programmatic data used to model the impact of investing in different technologies. The focus of this meeting was the Technology Tool Box (TTB), a database of performance, operations, and programmatic parameters provided by technologists and used by systems engineers. The TTB is the data repository used by a system of models known as the Advanced Technology Lifecycle Analysis System (ATLAS). This report describes the result of the November meeting, and also provides background information on ATLAS and the TTB.

  7. Multi-scale modeling study of the source contributions to near-surface ozone and sulfur oxides levels over California during the ARCTAS-CARB period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Huang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic high surface ozone (O3 levels and the increasing sulfur oxides (SOx = SO2+SO4 ambient concentrations over South Coast (SC and other areas of California (CA are affected by both local emissions and long-range transport. In this paper, multi-scale tracer, full-chemistry and adjoint simulations using the STEM atmospheric chemistry model are conducted to assess the contribution of local emission sourcesto SC O3 and to evaluate the impacts of transported sulfur and local emissions on the SC sulfur budgetduring the ARCTAS-CARB experiment period in 2008. Sensitivity simulations quantify contributions of biogenic and fire emissions to SC O3 levels. California biogenic and fire emissions contribute 3–4 ppb to near-surface O3 over SC, with larger contributions to other regions in CA. During a long-range transport event from Asia starting from 22 June, high SOx levels (up to ~0.7 ppb of SO2 and ~1.3 ppb of SO4 is observed above ~6 km, but they did not affect CA surface air quality. The elevated SOx observed at 1–4 km is estimated to enhance surface SOx over SC by ~0.25 ppb (upper limit on ~24 June. The near-surface SOx levels over SC during the flight week are attributed mostly to local emissions. Two anthropogenic SOx emission inventories (EIs from the California Air Resources Board (CARB and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA are compared and applied in 60 km and 12 km chemical transport simulations, and the results are compared withobservations. The CARB EI shows improvements over the National Emission Inventory (NEI by EPA, but generally underestimates surface SC SOx by about a factor of two. Adjoint sensitivity analysis indicated that SO2 levels at 00:00 UTC (17:00 local time at six SC surface sites were influenced by previous day maritime emissions over the

  8. Calcium Hypochlorite Solutions: Evaluation of Surface Tension and Effect of Different Storage Conditions and Time Periods over pH and Available Chlorine Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardo, Natália Gomes e Silva; Carlotto, Israel Bangel; Luisi, Simone Bonato; Kopper, Patrícia Maria Poli; Grecca, Fabiana Soares; Montagner, Francisco

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the pH and the available chlorine content from sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and calcium hypochlorite (Ca[OCl]2) solutions stored in different conditions and time periods and the surface tension of Ca(OCl)2 solutions in comparison with NaOCl. Solutions at 0.5%, 1%, 2.5%, and 5.25% concentrations were prepared. The pH level and the available chlorine content of freshly prepared solutions and solutions stored for 30, 60, and 90 days at 25°C, 4°C, or 37°C were evaluated in a digital pH meter and by titration, respectively. Surface tension was tested using a Du Nouy tensiometer (Sigma 702, Force Tensiometer; Attension, Espoo, Finland). Descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were performed. A precipitate formed by 2.5% and 5.25% Ca(OCl)2 solutions was observed. Ca(OCl)2 showed a higher concentration of available chlorine than NaOCl. Both 2.5% and 5.25% NaOCl and Ca(OCl)2 had a decrease in the available chlorine content when compared with freshly prepared solutions; 0.5% and 1% NaOCl tend to have a lower pH compared with 0.5% and 1% Ca(OCl)2. NaOCl, 5.25%, showed higher pH compared with 5.25% Ca(OCl)2. NaOCl and Ca(OCl)2 in 0.5% and 1% concentrations tend to show a reduced pH level, whereas 2.5% and 5.25% solutions showed an increase in pH. The heat contributed to the instability of the solutions. NaOCl showed lower surface tension values than Ca(OCl)2. Ca(OCl)2 solutions are extremely alkaline and tend to have more available chlorine content than NaOCl but have a higher surface tension than NaOCl. Regarding the available chlorine content, these solutions tend to be stable to 30 days of storage when kept at 4°C or at 25°C. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. [The requirements of standard and conditions of interchangeability of medical articles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Men'shikov, V V; Lukicheva, T I

    2013-11-01

    The article deals with possibility to apply specific approaches under evaluation of interchangeability of medical articles for laboratory analysis. The development of standardized analytical technologies of laboratory medicine and formulation of requirements of standards addressed to manufacturers of medical articles the clinically validated requirements are to be followed. These requirements include sensitivity and specificity of techniques, accuracy and precision of research results, stability of reagents' quality in particular conditions of their transportation and storage. The validity of requirements formulated in standards and addressed to manufacturers of medical articles can be proved using reference system, which includes master forms and standard samples, reference techniques and reference laboratories. This approach is supported by data of evaluation of testing systems for measurement of level of thyrotrophic hormone, thyroid hormones and glycated hemoglobin HB A1c. The versions of testing systems can be considered as interchangeable only in case of results corresponding to the results of reference technique and comparable with them. In case of absence of functioning reference system the possibilities of the Joined committee of traceability in laboratory medicine make it possible for manufacturers of reagent sets to apply the certified reference materials under development of manufacturing of sets for large listing of analytes.

  10. A longitudinal multilevel CFA-MTMM model for interchangeable and structurally different methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Tobias; Schultze, Martin; Eid, Michael; Geiser, Christian

    2014-01-01

    One of the key interests in the social sciences is the investigation of change and stability of a given attribute. Although numerous models have been proposed in the past for analyzing longitudinal data including multilevel and/or latent variable modeling approaches, only few modeling approaches have been developed for studying the construct validity in longitudinal multitrait-multimethod (MTMM) measurement designs. The aim of the present study was to extend the spectrum of current longitudinal modeling approaches for MTMM analysis. Specifically, a new longitudinal multilevel CFA-MTMM model for measurement designs with structurally different and interchangeable methods (called Latent-State-Combination-Of-Methods model, LS-COM) is presented. Interchangeable methods are methods that are randomly sampled from a set of equivalent methods (e.g., multiple student ratings for teaching quality), whereas structurally different methods are methods that cannot be easily replaced by one another (e.g., teacher, self-ratings, principle ratings). Results of a simulation study indicate that the parameters and standard errors in the LS-COM model are well recovered even in conditions with only five observations per estimated model parameter. The advantages and limitations of the LS-COM model relative to other longitudinal MTMM modeling approaches are discussed. PMID:24860515

  11. Random Walk on a Perturbation of the Infinitely-Fast Mixing Interchange Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvi, Michele; Simenhaus, François

    2018-03-01

    We consider a random walk in dimension d≥1 in a dynamic random environment evolving as an interchange process with rate γ >0 . We prove that, if we choose γ large enough, almost surely the empirical velocity of the walker X_t/t eventually lies in an arbitrary small ball around the annealed drift. This statement is thus a perturbation of the case γ =+∞ where the environment is refreshed between each step of the walker. We extend three-way part of the results of Huveneers and Simenhaus (Electron J Probab 20(105):42, 2015), where the environment was given by the 1-dimensional exclusion process: (i) We deal with any dimension d≥1 ; (ii) We treat the much more general interchange process, where each particle carries a transition vector chosen according to an arbitrary law μ ; (iii) We show that X_t/t is not only in the same direction of the annealed drift, but that it is also close to it.

  12. A longitudinal multilevel CFA-MTMM model for interchangeable and structurally different methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Tobias; Schultze, Martin; Eid, Michael; Geiser, Christian

    2014-01-01

    One of the key interests in the social sciences is the investigation of change and stability of a given attribute. Although numerous models have been proposed in the past for analyzing longitudinal data including multilevel and/or latent variable modeling approaches, only few modeling approaches have been developed for studying the construct validity in longitudinal multitrait-multimethod (MTMM) measurement designs. The aim of the present study was to extend the spectrum of current longitudinal modeling approaches for MTMM analysis. Specifically, a new longitudinal multilevel CFA-MTMM model for measurement designs with structurally different and interchangeable methods (called Latent-State-Combination-Of-Methods model, LS-COM) is presented. Interchangeable methods are methods that are randomly sampled from a set of equivalent methods (e.g., multiple student ratings for teaching quality), whereas structurally different methods are methods that cannot be easily replaced by one another (e.g., teacher, self-ratings, principle ratings). Results of a simulation study indicate that the parameters and standard errors in the LS-COM model are well recovered even in conditions with only five observations per estimated model parameter. The advantages and limitations of the LS-COM model relative to other longitudinal MTMM modeling approaches are discussed.

  13. Collisionless interchange instability 1. Numerical simulations of intermediate-scale irregularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zargham, S.; Seyler, C.E.

    1987-01-01

    Numerical simulations of the generalized Rayleigh-Taylor instability are presented. The model and simulations are applicable to bottomside and topside spread F, unstable barium cloud dynamics, and collisional interchange instability in general. The principal result is that the evolution of the effective electric field, and shocklike structures propagating perpendicular to E eff along the extrema of the quasiperiodic structures. The spectral properties of the nonlinear state are analyzed using one-dimensional power spectra calculated along spatial trajectories for selected angles to E eff . In this way a direct comparison to in situ probe data can be made. The inherent anisotropy of the nonlinear state is reflected in major qualitative differences between the spectra taken parallel to and perpendicular to E eff . The fundamental finding of the present work is that anisotropy in interchange dynamics is much greater than had been previously reported. This strong anisotropy can explain much of the spectral and spatial structural characteristics of both bottomside and topside spread F. In a companion paper a comparison of the simulation results to various in situ data sets is given

  14. Disappearing Arctic tundra ponds: Fine-scale analysis of surface hydrology in drained thaw lake basins over a 65 year period (1948-2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, Christian G.; Lougheed, Vanessa L.

    2015-03-01

    Long-term fine-scale dynamics of surface hydrology in Arctic tundra ponds (less than 1 ha) are largely unknown; however, these small water bodies may contribute substantially to carbon fluxes, energy balance, and biodiversity in the Arctic system. Change in pond area and abundance across the upper Barrow Peninsula, Alaska, was assessed by comparing historic aerial imagery (1948) and modern submeter resolution satellite imagery (2002, 2008, and 2010). This was complemented by photogrammetric analysis of low-altitude kite-borne imagery in combination with field observations (2010-2013) of pond water and thaw depth transects in seven ponds of the International Biological Program historic research site. Over 2800 ponds in 22 drained thaw lake basins (DTLB) with different geological ages were analyzed. We observed a net decrease of 30.3% in area and 17.1% in number of ponds over the 62 year period. The inclusion of field observations of pond areas in 1972 from a historic research site confirms the linear downward trend in area. Pond area and number were dependent on the age of DTLB; however, changes through time were independent of DTLB age, with potential long-term implications for the hypothesized geomorphologic landscape succession of the thaw lake cycle. These losses were coincident with increases in air temperature, active layer, and density and cover of aquatic emergent plants in ponds. Increased evaporation due to warmer and longer summers, permafrost degradation, and transpiration from encroaching aquatic emergent macrophytes are likely the factors contributing to the decline in surface area and number of ponds.

  15. Relationships between aerosol optical depth and surface-layer extinction in the central part of the Upper Silesia industrial region over the period of 1983-1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sztyler, Apoloniusz

    The subject of analysis is the aerosol optical depth (AOD) in the visible part of the solar spectrum (τ) (wavelength λ=0.295-0.695μ m). Calculation of τ-values was based on pyrheliometric observation data performed from 1983 to 1994 at IEIA's station (Katowice-Załęże). This paper examines the dependence of τ and its relation to surface-layer extinction coefficient σ (Koschmider quotient of 3.912 and visibility V) on meteorological and anthropological factors during the observation period. Knowledge of the relationship between columnar aerosol turbidity (which can be expressed by τ) and σ allows a more precise and accurate estimation of the aerosol effect on the radiative composition of climate. This work offers some contributions to solving this problem. Therefore, the relations have been described in the form of mathematical/statistical models of AOD (based on "momentary" and mean seasonal values), in which meteorological (and astronomical) parameters as well as the amount of industry dust emission were used as independent variables to improve exactness and credibility in the models.

  16. Modeling glacier-surface albedo across Svalbard for the 1979-2015 period: The HiRSvaC500-α data set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Marco; Möller, Rebecca

    2017-03-01

    Albedo is an important quantity for determining the energy balance of snow and ice surfaces and thus also for the mass balance of glaciers. It is especially important in polar regions where shortwave radiation fluxes typically provide most of the energy input to a glacier. In order to use albedo data in any spatially distributed glaciological modeling, it is vital that the albedo fields are not only of high accuracy but also available on sufficiently high spatial resolution and in a manner that is consistent over time. This article presents the newly developed data set HiRSvaC500-α, which provides daily updated, gapless albedo fields for all glacierized areas of the Arctic archipelago Svalbard on a 500 m resolution over the period 1979-2015. Albedo modeling for creation of the data set is done using a multistep geostatistical approach on the basis of remotely sensed Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) albedo data and gridded ERA-Interim climate data. Validation of the modeled HiRSvaC500-α albedo fields against in situ albedo measurements at automatic weather stations operated on two different glaciers suggests that the accuracy of the newly developed data set lies close to that of remotely sensed MODIS albedo data. An analysis of the HiRSvaC500-α albedo data set yields a mean annual-average albedo of 0.754 across all glaciers of Svalbard over 1979-2015. A decrease of albedo with time is found, following a highly significant (95% level) trend of -0.010 per decade. For certain subregions, this trend even reaches up to -0.014 per decade.

  17. Luminol/CdTe quantum dots/sodium periodate system in conjunction with response-surface methodology for chemiluminometric determination of some tetracyclines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imani-Nabiyyi, Amin; Sorouraddin, Mohammad H.; Amjadi, Mohammad; Naseri, Abdolhossein

    2014-01-01

    A simple and sensitive chemiluminometric method is described for the determination of tetracycline (TC) and oxytetracycline (OTC) in their hydrochloride form on the basis of drastic enhancement of the chemiluminescence (CL) from the luminol/L-cysteine-capped CdTe quantum dots (QDs)/sodium periodate system, caused by the presence of TC and OTC hydrochloride. The method uses pH value at which tetracyclines have proven to be stable. Response surface methodology was exploited for optimizing the experimental conditions. The synthesized QDs were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV–vis spectroscopy, and photoluminescence spectroscopy. A possible mechanism of the CL system was proposed based on the CL spectra and the effect of some specific radical-scavengers on the system. Under the optimum conditions linear dynamic ranges of 5.0×10 −8 –6.0×10 −6 mol L −1 and 5.0×10 −8 –8.0×10 −6 mol L −1 were observed for TC and OTC, respectively with corresponding detection limits of 2.2×10 −8 mol L −1 and 3.0×10 −8 mol L −1 . The precision (RSD%) for five replicate determinations of TC and OTC were respectively no more than 3.4% and 4.0%. The method was satisfactorily applied to the determination of TC.HCl and OTC.HCl in water samples, pharmaceutical formulations, and honey. - Highlights: • A simple, rapid, and sensitive method for determination of some tetracyclines. • Enhancement of CL of luminol/Cys-capped CdTe QDs/NaIO 4 with TC.HCl and OTC.HCl. • No need to chemical, photochemical, or any peculiar pretreatment of the samples. • Measuring the analytes in conditions at which they are stable. • Capable of measuring TCs in pharmaceutical, water, and honey samples

  18. Two-dimensional convection and interchange motions in fluids and magnetized plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, O.E.; Bian, N.H.; Naulin, V.

    2006-01-01

    In this contribution some recent investigations of two- dimensional thermal convection relevant to ordinary fluids as well as magnetized plasmas are reviewed. An introductory discussion is given of the physical mechanism for baroclinic vorticity generation and convective motions in stratified...... fluids, emphasizing its relation to interchange motions of non- uniformly magnetized plasmas. This is followed by a review of the theories for the onset of convection and quasi-linear saturation in driven-dissipative systems. Non-linear numerical simulations which result in stationary convective states...... reveal the process of laminar scalar gradient expulsion, leading to the formation of temperature plumes and vorticity sheets. These dissipative structures are demonstrated to result in temperature profile consistency and power law transport scaling far from the threshold. The last part of this paper...

  19. Interchange turbulence model for the edge plasma in SOLEDGE2D-EIRENE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bufferand, H.; Marandet, Y. [Aix-Marseille Universite, CNRS, PIIM, Marseille (France); Ciraolo, G.; Ghendrih, P.; Bucalossi, J.; Fedorczak, N.; Gunn, J.; Tamain, P. [CEA, IRFM, Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Colin, C.; Galassi, D.; Leybros, R.; Serre, E. [Aix-Marseille Universite, CNRS, M2P2, Marseille (France)

    2016-08-15

    Cross-field transport in edge tokamak plasmas is known to be dominated by turbulent transport. A dedicated effort has been made to simulate this turbulent transport from first principle models but the numerical cost to run these simulations on the ITER scale remains prohibitive. Edge plasma transport study relies mostly nowadays on so-called transport codes where the turbulent transport is taken into account using effective ad-hoc diffusion coefficients. In this contribution, we propose to introduce a transport equation for the turbulence intensity in SOLEDGE2D-EIRENE to describe the interchange turbulence properties. Going beyond the empirical diffusive model, this system automatically generates profiles for the turbulent transport and hence reduces the number of degrees of freedom for edge plasma transport codes. We draw inspiration from the k-epsilon model widely used in the neutral fluid community. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Carnivorans at the Great American Biotic Interchange: new discoveries from the northern neotropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forasiepi, Analia M; Soibelzon, Leopoldo H; Gomez, Catalina Suarez; Sánchez, Rodolfo; Quiroz, Luis I; Jaramillo, Carlos; Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R

    2014-11-01

    We report two fossil procyonids, Cyonasua sp. and Chapalmalania sp., from the late Pliocene of Venezuela (Vergel Member, San Gregorio Formation) and Colombia (Ware Formation), respectively. The occurrence of these pre-Holocene procyonids outside Argentina and in the north of South America provides further information about the Great American Biotic Interchange (GABI). The new specimens are recognized in the same monophyletic group as procyonids found in the southern part of the continent, the "Cyonasua group," formed by species of Cyonasua and Chapalmalania. The phylogenetic analysis that includes the two new findings support the view that procyonids dispersed from North America in two separate events (initially, previous to the first major migration wave-GABI 1-and then within the last major migration wave-GABI 4-). This involved reciprocal lineage migrations from North to South America, and included the evolution of South American endemic forms.

  1. Spaces of phylogenetic networks from generalized nearest-neighbor interchange operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Katharina T; Linz, Simone; Moulton, Vincent; Wu, Taoyang

    2016-02-01

    Phylogenetic networks are a generalization of evolutionary or phylogenetic trees that are used to represent the evolution of species which have undergone reticulate evolution. In this paper we consider spaces of such networks defined by some novel local operations that we introduce for converting one phylogenetic network into another. These operations are modeled on the well-studied nearest-neighbor interchange operations on phylogenetic trees, and lead to natural generalizations of the tree spaces that have been previously associated to such operations. We present several results on spaces of some relatively simple networks, called level-1 networks, including the size of the neighborhood of a fixed network, and bounds on the diameter of the metric defined by taking the smallest number of operations required to convert one network into another. We expect that our results will be useful in the development of methods for systematically searching for optimal phylogenetic networks using, for example, likelihood and Bayesian approaches.

  2. Interchanges et tarification des systèmes de paiement par carte.

    OpenAIRE

    Verdier, Marianne

    2008-01-01

    La détention et l'usage des instruments de paiement se sont considérablement développés dans les pays industrialisés. Le succès des cartes de paiement peut s'expliquer par la présence de systèmes de paiement interbancaires, comme "Visa" ou "MasterCard", organisant les interactions entre la banque du porteur, l'émetteur, et la banque du commerçant, l'acquéreur. Cette thèse s'intéresse à un mécanisme d'allocation des coûts particulier pratiqué par les plates-formes de paiement: les interchanges...

  3. An XXX male resulting from paternal X-Y interchange and maternal X-X nondisjunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annerén, G; Andersson, M; Page, D C; Brown, L G; Berg, M; Läckgren, G; Gustavson, K H; de la Chapelle, A

    1987-01-01

    A 2-year-old boy was found to have a 47,XXX karyotype. Restriction-fragment-length-polymorphism analysis showed that, of his three X chromosomes, one is of paternal and two are of maternal origin. The results of Y-DNA hybridization were reminiscent of those in XX males in two respects. First, hybridization to Southern transfers revealed the presence in this XXX male of sequences derived from the Y-chromosomal short arm. Second, in situ hybridization showed that this Y DNA was located on the tip of the X-chromosomal short arm. We conclude that this XXX male resulted from the coincidence of X-X nondisjunction during maternal meiosis and aberrant X-Y interchange either during or prior to paternal meiosis. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:2889356

  4. Bioanalyzer chips can be used interchangeably for many analyses of DNA or RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Jessica; Denyer, Tom; Hadfield, James

    2016-04-01

    The Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer enables small-scale gel electrophoretic separation of nucleic acids on a microfluidic chip; however, a shortage of chips and an excess of reagents are common issues. Here we explore the compatibility of two commonly used Bioanalyzer reagents with three Bioanalyzer chip types. Microfluidic electrophoretic separation of DNA and RNA using DNA High Sensitivity and RNA 6000 Nano reagents, respectively, was successfully performed on multiple chip types following the assay-specific protocols. For RNA quality and next-generation sequencing (NGS) library length estimation, the Bioanalyzer chips we tested can be used interchangeably. These findings will be valuable for any laboratory using the Agilent Bioanalyzer in a shared facility.

  5. [Atomic beam studies of the interaction of hydrogen with transition metal surfaces]: Technical progress report for the period August 1, 1985--September 1, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses the interactions of helium beams with metal surfaces. Particular topics covered are: improvement in He scattering facilities; spin polarized metastable He beam---a new probe of surface magnetism; and molecular dynamics simulations of the structure and dynamical properties of Cu, Ag and Au surfaces. 6 figs

  6. Period Cramps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Period Cramps KidsHealth / For Kids / Period Cramps Print en español ... a girl who gets them. What Are Period Cramps? Lots of girls experience cramps before or during ...

  7. Racism, the Left and Twenty-First-Century Socialism: Some Observations on the Gur-Ze'ev/McLaren Interchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Mike

    2013-01-01

    The Gur-Ze'ev/McLaren interchange covered a wide range of issues that are important for twenty-first century socialists. In this article, the author concentrates on two of them: first, Gur-Ze'ev's charge that critical pedagogy is part of the "new anti-Semitism"; second, his critique of McLaren's support for Hugo Chavez and the Bolivarian…

  8. An O([Formula: see text]) algorithm for sorting signed genomes by reversals, transpositions, transreversals and block-interchanges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shuzhi; Hao, Fanchang; Leong, Hon Wai

    2016-02-01

    We consider the problem of sorting signed permutations by reversals, transpositions, transreversals, and block-interchanges. The problem arises in the study of species evolution via large-scale genome rearrangement operations. Recently, Hao et al. gave a 2-approximation scheme called genome sorting by bridges (GSB) for solving this problem. Their result extended and unified the results of (i) He and Chen - a 2-approximation algorithm allowing reversals, transpositions, and block-interchanges (by also allowing transversals) and (ii) Hartman and Sharan - a 1.5-approximation algorithm allowing reversals, transpositions, and transversals (by also allowing block-interchanges). The GSB result is based on introduction of three bridge structures in the breakpoint graph, the L-bridge, T-bridge, and X-bridge that models goodreversal, transposition/transreversal, and block-interchange, respectively. However, the paper by Hao et al. focused on proving the 2-approximation GSB scheme and only mention a straightforward [Formula: see text] algorithm. In this paper, we give an [Formula: see text] algorithm for implementing the GSB scheme. The key idea behind our faster GSB algorithm is to represent cycles in the breakpoint graph by their canonical sequences, which greatly simplifies the search for these bridge structures. We also give some comparison results (running time and computed distances) against the original GSB implementation.

  9. Boiling eXperiment Facility (BXF) Fluid Toxicity Technical Interchange Meeting (TIM) with the Payload Safety Review Panel (PSRP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheredy, William A.

    2012-01-01

    A Technical Interchange meeting was held between the payload developers for the Boiling eXperiment Facility (BXF) and the NASA Safety Review Panel concerning operational anomaly that resulted in overheating one of the fluid heaters, shorted a 24VDC power supply and generated Perfluoroisobutylene (PFiB) from Perfluorohexane.

  10. Interchangeability of biosimilar and biological reference product: updated regulatory positions and pre- and post-marketing evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifirò, Gianluca; Marcianò, Ilaria; Ingrasciotta, Ylenia

    2018-03-01

    Since 2006, biosimilars have been available in several countries worldwide, thus allowing for potential savings in pharmaceutical expenditure. However, there have been numerous debates about the interchangeability of biosimilars and reference products based on concerns of immunogenicity by switching between biological products, which may cause lack of effect and toxicity. Areas covered: The authors provide the reader with an overview of the different positions of regulatory authorities on the interchangeability and automatic substitution of biosimilars and reference products. Presently, the FDA allows automatic substitution without prescriber intervention if the biosimilar is interchangeable with reference products, while the European Medicines Agency delegate to each single EU member state. Expert opinion: Different approaches in defining interchangeability and automatic substitution call for harmonization to increase confidence of healthcare professionals and patients about the clinical impact of switching. Networks of electronic healthcare records and administrative databases, potentially linkable to clinical charts and registries may rapidly assess frequency and benefit-risk profile of different switching patterns in routine care at different levels, thus integrating and strengthening pre-marketing evidence.

  11. An Assessment of Clinical Interchangeability of TEG (R) and RoTEM (R) Thromboelastographic Variables in Cardiac Surgical Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venema, L.F.; Post, W.J.; Hendriks, H.G.D.; Huet, R.C.G.; de Wolf, J.T.W.; de Vries, A.J.

    BACKGROUND: Bedside thromboelastography is increasingly used, but an assessment of the clinical interchangeability of the 2 major systems, TEG (R) (Hemoscope) and RoTEM (R) (Pentapharm), has not been performed. METHODS: We measured blood samples from 46 cardiac surgical patients after induction of

  12. Air Quality Analysis of a Multilevel Complex Interchange : Case Study Using the Improved TSC/EPA Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-12-01

    This report describes a case study of an air quality analysis prepared by the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT), Transportation Systems Center (TSC). The site analyzed was the proposed I-83/I-95 interchange in Baltimore, Maryland. This intercha...

  13. Luminol/CdTe quantum dots/sodium periodate system in conjunction with response-surface methodology for chemiluminometric determination of some tetracyclines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imani-Nabiyyi, Amin; Sorouraddin, Mohammad H., E-mail: soruraddin@tabrizu.ac.ir; Amjadi, Mohammad; Naseri, Abdolhossein

    2014-07-01

    A simple and sensitive chemiluminometric method is described for the determination of tetracycline (TC) and oxytetracycline (OTC) in their hydrochloride form on the basis of drastic enhancement of the chemiluminescence (CL) from the luminol/L-cysteine-capped CdTe quantum dots (QDs)/sodium periodate system, caused by the presence of TC and OTC hydrochloride. The method uses pH value at which tetracyclines have proven to be stable. Response surface methodology was exploited for optimizing the experimental conditions. The synthesized QDs were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV–vis spectroscopy, and photoluminescence spectroscopy. A possible mechanism of the CL system was proposed based on the CL spectra and the effect of some specific radical-scavengers on the system. Under the optimum conditions linear dynamic ranges of 5.0×10{sup −8}–6.0×10{sup −6} mol L{sup −1} and 5.0×10{sup −8}–8.0×10{sup −6} mol L{sup −1} were observed for TC and OTC, respectively with corresponding detection limits of 2.2×10{sup −8} mol L{sup −1} and 3.0×10{sup −8} mol L{sup −1}. The precision (RSD%) for five replicate determinations of TC and OTC were respectively no more than 3.4% and 4.0%. The method was satisfactorily applied to the determination of TC.HCl and OTC.HCl in water samples, pharmaceutical formulations, and honey. - Highlights: • A simple, rapid, and sensitive method for determination of some tetracyclines. • Enhancement of CL of luminol/Cys-capped CdTe QDs/NaIO{sub 4} with TC.HCl and OTC.HCl. • No need to chemical, photochemical, or any peculiar pretreatment of the samples. • Measuring the analytes in conditions at which they are stable. • Capable of measuring TCs in pharmaceutical, water, and honey samples.

  14. Problem Periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... during your menstrual cycle Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) Problem periods Getting enough sleep Looking and feeling your best Fighting germs Your sexuality What are STDs and STIs? Seeing the doctor Quizzes Links to more information on girls' bodies girlshealth glossary girlshealth.gov home http://www.girlshealth.gov/ Home ... Problem periods It’s common to have ...

  15. Small portable interchangeable imager of fluorescence for fluorescence guided surgery and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okusanya, Olugbenga T; Madajewski, Brian; Segal, Erin; Judy, Brendan F; Venegas, Ollin G; Judy, Ryan P; Quatromoni, Jon G; Wang, May D; Nie, Shuming; Singhal, Sunil

    2015-04-01

    Fluorescence guided surgery (FGS) is a developing field of surgical and oncologic research. Practically, FGS has shown useful applications in urologic surgery, benign biliary surgery, colorectal cancer liver metastasis resection, and ovarian cancer debulking. Most notably in in cancer surgery, FGS allows for the clear delineation of cancerous tissue from benign tissue. FGS requires the utilization of a fluorescent contrast agent and an intraoperative fluorescence imaging device (IFID). Currently available IFIDs are expensive, unable to work with multiple fluorophores, and can be cumbersome. This study aims to describe the development and utility of a small, cost-efficient, and interchangeable IFID made from commercially available components. Extensive research was done to design and construct a light-weight, portable, and cost-effective IFID. We researched the capabilities, size, and cost of several camera types and eventually decided on a near-infrared (NIR) charged couple device (CCD) camera for its overall profile. The small portable interchangeable imager of fluorescence (SPIIF) is a "scout" IFID system for FGS. The main components of the SPIIF are a NIR CCD camera with an articulating light filter. These components and a LED light source with an attached heat sink are mounted on a small metal platform. The system is connected to a laptop by a USB 2.0 cable. Pixielink © software on the laptop runs the system by controlling exposure time, gain, and image capture. After developing the system, we evaluated its utility as an IFID. The system weighs less than two pounds and can cover a large area. Due to its small size, it is easily made sterile by covering it with any sterile plastic sheet. To determine the system's ability to detect fluorescent signal, we used the SPIIF to detect indocyanine green under ex and in-vivo conditions and fluorescein under ex-vivo conditions. We found the SPIIF was able to detect both ICG and fluorescein under different depths of a

  16. Historiske perioder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    For at forstå fortiden og fortællingerne om den, må vi skabe en form for orden og systematik. Her spiller inddelingen af fortiden i historiske perioder en afgørende rolle – og historiske perioder er da også et kompetencemål efter 6. klasse. Videoen diskuterer forskellige principper...... for periodisering. Kronologi og sammenhænge hænger naturligt sammen med historiske perioder. Videoen handler også om forståelser og brug af synkrone og diakrone sammenhænge i faget....

  17. Development of Discrimination, Detection, and Location Capabilities in Central and Southern Asia Using Middle-Period Surface Waves Recorded by a Regional Array

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Levshin, Anatoli

    1997-01-01

    .... We present group velocity maps from 10 s to 40 s period for both Rayleigh and Love waves. Broadband waveform data from about 600 events from 1988 - 1995 recorded at 83 individual stations from several global and regional networks...

  18. DOD Electronic Commerce (EC)/Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) in contracting report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Use of Electronic Commerce (EC)/Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) to support Department of Defense (DoD) procurement processes has been under consideration for some time. A 1988 Deputy Secretary of Defense memo calls for maximum use of EDI, based on 10 years of DoD EDI investigation and experiments. In 1990, Defense Management Review Decision 941 stated, 'The strategic goal of DoD's current efforts is to provide the department with the capability to initiate, conduct, and maintain its external business related transactions and internal logistics, contracting, and financial activities without requiring the use of hard copy media.' The EC in Contracting PAT membership reflected a broad cross section of Military Services and Defense Agencies working on a full-time basis for 60 days. The diversity of the EC in Contracting PAT ensured that the needs and concerns of all DoD components were addressed during the creation of the report. The resultant plan, therefore, represents a comprehensive approach for implementing EC throughout the DoD.

  19. Calibration of the great American interchange. [/sup 40/K, /sup 40/Ar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, L.G. (Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL); Butler, R.F.; Drake, R.E.; Curtis, G.H.; Tedford, R.H.

    1979-04-20

    From radioisotopic (potassium-argon) age determinations of tuffs and magnetostratigraphy of Late Tertiary mammal-bearing beds in Catamarca Province, northwest Argentina, refined estimates have been obtained for the durations and boundaries of beds of Chasicoan (Middle Miocene) through Chapadmalalan (Pliocene) age. An age of 9.0 million years is tentatively accepted for the Chasicoan-Huayquerian boundary, 5.0 million years for the Huayquerian-Montehermosan boundary, and 3.0 million years for the Montehermosan-Chapadmalalan boundary. Procyonids (raccoons and their allies), a group of North American origin, are first recorded in South America in a level immediately below a unit dated at 6.0 million years. Cricetine rodents of the tribe Sigmodontini are first recorded in South America in beds of Montehermosan age in Argentina. Ground sloths, a group of South American origin, first appear in North America in Early Hemphillian time in beds dated between 9.5 and 9.0 million years. The Panamanian land bridge was established by 3.0 million years ago, and an interchange of the terrestrial faunas was well under way by Late Blancan time (around 2.5 million years before present) in North America and by Chapadmalalan time in South America.

  20. The interchange of disease and health between the Old and New Worlds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlinguer, G

    1992-10-01

    A review of the five centuries since Columbus discovered America helps us understand the mutual contributions of the Old and the New Worlds to the history of diseases and their treatment. It also shows the consequences of this "mutual discovery" as they are currently emerging in the fields of health, culture, and the environment. To evaluate the multiple aspects of the interchange between the Old and New Worlds, this paper discusses the following: the causes of the rapid decline of the original American populations; the diffusion of communicable diseases between the two civilizations; the health consequences of nutritional changes on both sides of the Atlantic; drug addictions, as they developed through the centuries and as they exist today; the ways diseases were and are evaluated, prevented, diagnosed, and treated; and the mutual impact of different models of health services. Arguing that a major global change following the discovery of America was the transition from isolation of the two worlds to communication, and, more recently, to global interdependence, the paper also discusses some problems of bioethical relevance and the possible impact of new epidemics. Finally, it suggests that a critical analysis of the past may help stimulate future cooperation and solidarity.

  1. The interchange of disease and health between the Old and New Worlds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlinguer, G

    1992-01-01

    A review of the five centuries since Columbus discovered America helps us understand the mutual contributions of the Old and the New Worlds to the history of diseases and their treatment. It also shows the consequences of this "mutual discovery" as they are currently emerging in the fields of health, culture, and the environment. To evaluate the multiple aspects of the interchange between the Old and New Worlds, this paper discusses the following: the causes of the rapid decline of the original American populations; the diffusion of communicable diseases between the two civilizations; the health consequences of nutritional changes on both sides of the Atlantic; drug addictions, as they developed through the centuries and as they exist today; the ways diseases were and are evaluated, prevented, diagnosed, and treated; and the mutual impact of different models of health services. Arguing that a major global change following the discovery of America was the transition from isolation of the two worlds to communication, and, more recently, to global interdependence, the paper also discusses some problems of bioethical relevance and the possible impact of new epidemics. Finally, it suggests that a critical analysis of the past may help stimulate future cooperation and solidarity. PMID:1384365

  2. Evaluation of TEG(®) and RoTEM(®) inter-changeability in trauma patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagemo, Jostein S; Næss, Paal A; Johansson, Pär

    2013-01-01

    using. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. Agreement was evaluated by Bland-Altman plots and calculation of limits of agreement. RESULTS: The mean ISS in the total population was 17, and the mortality was 16.5%. Mean base excess was -2.8 (SD: 4.2). The correlation coefficient for corresponding...... values for the two devices was 0.24 for the R-time vs CT in all centres combined. For the K-time vs CFT the correlation was 0.48, for the α-angle(TEG) vs α-angle(RoTEM) 0.44, and for MA vs MCF 0.76. Limits of agreement exceeded the preset clinically acceptable deviation of 10% for all variables in all...... centres except for MA/MCF in one centre (Copenhagen). Generally, correlation coefficients were lower and agreement poorer in the one centre (Oslo) where measurements were performed bedside by clinicians. CONCLUSION: Inter-changeability between TEG(®) and RoTEM(®) is limited in the trauma setting...

  3. Amazonian magnetostratigraphy: Dating the first pulse of the Great American Faunal Interchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Kenneth E., Jr.; Prothero, Donald R.; Romero-Pittman, Lidia; Hertel, Fritz; Rivera, Nadia

    2010-04-01

    The chronostratigraphy of the youngest Neogene deposits of the Amazon Basin, which comprise the Madre de Dios Formation in eastern Peru, remains unresolved. Although 40Ar/ 39Ar dates on two volcanic ashes from this formation in Peru provide critical baseline data points, stratigraphic correlations among scattered riverine outcrops in adjacent drainage basins remain problematic. To refine the chronostratigraphy of the Madre de Dios Formation, we report here the magnetostratigraphy of an outcrop on the Madre de Dios River in southeastern Peru. A total of 18 polarity zones was obtained in the ˜65-m-thick Cerro Colorado section, which we correlate to magnetozones Chrons C4Ar to C2An (9.5-3.0 Ma) based on the prior 40Ar/ 39Ar dates. These results confirm the late Miocene age of a gomphothere recovered from the Ipururo Formation, which underlies the late Miocene Ucayali Unconformity at the base of the Cerro Colorado outcrop. The results also support earlier interpretations of a late Miocene age for other fossils of North American mammals recovered from basal conglomeratic deposits of the Madre de Dios Formation immediately above the Ucayali Unconformity. These mammals include other gomphotheres, peccaries, and tapirs, and their presence in South America in the late Miocene is recognized as part of the first pulse of the Great American Faunal Interchange.

  4. Summary of Work for Joint Research Interchanges with DARWIN Integrated Product Team 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesselink, Lambertus

    1999-01-01

    The intent of Stanford University's SciVis group is to develop technologies that enabled comparative analysis and visualization techniques for simulated and experimental flow fields. These techniques would then be made available under the Joint Research Interchange for potential injection into the DARWIN Workspace Environment (DWE). In the past, we have focused on techniques that exploited feature based comparisons such as shock and vortex extractions. Our current research effort focuses on finding a quantitative comparison of general vector fields based on topological features. Since the method relies on topological information, grid matching and vector alignment is not needed in the comparison. This is often a problem with many data comparison techniques. In addition, since only topology based information is stored and compared for each field, there is a significant compression of information that enables large databases to be quickly searched. This report will briefly (1) describe current technologies in the area of comparison techniques, (2) will describe the theory of our new method and finally (3) summarize a few of the results.

  5. Summary of Work for Joint Research Interchanges with DARWIN Integrated Product Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesselink, Lambertus

    1999-01-01

    The intent of Stanford University's SciVis group is to develop technologies that enabled comparative analysis and visualization techniques for simulated and experimental flow fields. These techniques would then be made available un- der the Joint Research Interchange for potential injection into the DARWIN Workspace Environment (DWE). In the past, we have focused on techniques that exploited feature based comparisons such as shock and vortex extractions. Our current research effort focuses on finding a quantitative comparison of general vector fields based on topological features. Since the method relies on topological information, grid matching an@ vector alignment is not needed in the comparison. This is often a problem with many data comparison techniques. In addition, since only topology based information is stored and compared for each field, there is a significant compression of information that enables large databases to be quickly searched. This report will briefly (1) describe current technologies in the area of comparison techniques, (2) will describe the theory of our new method and finally (3) summarize a few of the results.

  6. Halite as a Methane Sequestration Host: A Possible Explanation for Periodic Methane Release on Mars, and a Surface-accessible Source of Ancient Martian Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, M. D.; Steele, Andrew; Hynek, B. M.

    2015-01-01

    We present the hypothesis that halite may play a role in methane sequestration on the martian surface. In terrestrial examples, halite deposits sequester large volumes of methane and chloromethane. Also, examples of chloromethane-bearing, approximately 4.5 Ga old halite from the Monahans meteorite show that this system is very stable unless the halite is damaged. On Mars, methane may be generated from carbonaceous material trapped in ancient halite deposits and sequestered. The methane may be released by damaging its halite host; either by aqueous alteration, aeolian abrasion, heating, or impact shock. Such a scenario may help to explain the appearance of short-lived releases of methane on the martian surface. The methane may be of either biogenic or abiogenic origin. If this scenario plays a significant role on Mars, then martian halite deposits may contain samples of organic compounds dating to the ancient desiccation of the planet, accessible at the surface for future sample return missions.

  7. Match intensity and pacing strategies in rugby league: an examination of whole-game and interchanged players, and winning and losing teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Georgia M; Gabbett, Tim J

    2014-06-01

    There is currently limited information on whether pacing occurs during rugby league match play. In addition, to date no research has investigated whether pacing strategies differ between winning and losing teams. This study investigated the pacing strategies of whole-game and interchanged rugby league players. Furthermore, we investigated the pacing strategies of winning and losing teams. Fifty-two rugby league players, from a sample of 11 teams competing in a semi-elite competition, underwent global positioning system analysis. Performances were divided into match quartiles for whole-game and interchanged players. Total distance, including low- and high-speed distances, and repeated high-intensity effort bouts were recorded. The total distance and low-speed distance covered across all quartiles of the match, but specifically quartiles 1 and 8, were greater for interchanged players than whole-game players. The match outcome differentially affected the pacing strategies of whole-game and interchanged players. Whole-game players from winning teams set a higher pacing strategy than whole-game players from losing teams (effect size [ES] = 1.03 ± 0.77, 96%, very likely), whereas interchanged players from losing teams demonstrated a greater "end-spurt" than interchanged players from winning teams (ES = 0.60 ± 0.52, 96%, very likely). The pacing strategies of interchanged players were higher than whole-game players, irrespective of playing position. The results of this study suggest that pacing strategies differ between interchanged and whole-game rugby league players. Furthermore, our results demonstrate a different pacing strategy between winning and losing teams. These findings suggest that physical preparation for rugby league matches, and recovery from these matches, should be individualized for whole-game and interchanged players. Finally, performing physically intense training on a regular basis is likely to develop the physical and mental qualities required to

  8. Induction period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Land, C.E.; Tokunaga, M.

    1984-01-01

    Induction period is the temporal aspect of the excess cancer risk that follows an exposure to ionizing radiation. Operationally, it can be thought of as the time from an exposure of brief duration to the diagnosis of any resultant cancer. Whereas the magnitude of excess risk can be described by a single number, such as the average yearly excess risk over some fixed time interval after exposure, the temporal distribution requires a histogram or a curve, that is, an array or continuum of numbers. The study of induction period involves a search for a simple way of describing the temporal distribution of risk, that is, a way of describing a continuum by using only one or two numbers. In other words, the goal is to describe induction period probabilistically, using a parametric model with a few parameters

  9. Electron surface states in short-period superlattices: (GaAs).sub.2./sub./(AlAs).sub.2./sub.(100)-c(4x4)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jiříček, Petr; Cukr, Miroslav; Bartoš, Igor; Adell, M.; Strasser, T.; Schattke, W.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 600, - (2006), s. 3646-3649 ISSN 0039-6028 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA1010108 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : molecular beam epitaxy * synchrotron radiation * photoelectron spectroscopy * semiconductor superlattices * surface states * gallium arsenide Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.880, year: 2006

  10. Assessment of work-related muscle strain by using surface EMG during test contractions interposed between work periods of simulateted mushroom picking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohashi, Jun-Ya; Blangsted, Anne Katrine; Nielsen, Pernille Kofoed

    2010-01-01

    Surface electromyograms(EMG) during test contractions (TCs) were studied to assess the muscle strain in simulated mushroom picking. Additionally, the duration of the TC for the effective assessment was investigated. Nine female subjects performed standardized shoulder abduction and a stooped...

  11. Response of land surface phenology to variation in tree cover during green-up and senescence periods in the semi-arid savanna of Southern Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cho, Moses A

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the spatio-temporal dynamics of land surface phenology is important to understanding changes in landscape ecological processes of semi-arid savannas in Southern Africa. The aim of the study was to determine the influence of variation...

  12. Evaluation of MODIS albedo product (MCD43A) over grassland, agriculture and forest surface types during dormant and snow-covered periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuosen Wang; Crystal B. Schaaf; Alan H. Strahler; Mark J. Chopping; Miguel O. Román; Yanmin Shuai; Curtis E. Woodcock; David Y. Hollinger; David R. Fitzjarrald

    2014-01-01

    This study assesses the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) BRDF/albedo 8 day standard product and products from the daily Direct Broadcast BRDF/albedo algorithm, and shows that these products agree well with ground-based albedo measurements during the more difficult periods of vegetation dormancy and snow cover. Cropland, grassland, deciduous and...

  13. Seasonal sea surface temperature contrast between the Holocene and last glacial period in the western Arabian Sea (Ocean Drilling Project Site 723A): Modulated by monsoon upwelling

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naidu, P.D.; Malmgren, B.A.

    were noticed within the Holocene period, which is attributed to the intense upwelling during the summer monsoon. This causes a lowering of SST to values similar to those of the winter season in analogy with the present day. A 3 degrees C rise in winter...

  14. PERIODIC BEHAVIORS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Napp, Diego; Put, Marius van der; Shankar, Shiva

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies behaviors that are defined on a torus, or equivalently, behaviors defined in spaces of periodic functions, and establishes their basic properties analogous to classical results of Malgrange, Palamodov, Oberst et al. for behaviors on R(n). These properties-in particular the

  15. Periodical Economics

    OpenAIRE

    King, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    This is the first overview of the economics of nineteenth-century periodicals and newspapers. While media economics is an established field in business studies, the chapter redefines economics by looking at value systems including capitalist ones but no confined to them. Original case studies are offered as models for research into the economics of nineteenth-century print culture.

  16. The export systems of type 1 and F1C fimbriae are interchangeable but work in parental pairs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemm, P; Jørgensen, BJ; Kreft, B

    1995-01-01

    , specialized two-component assembly systems. The organization of the fim and foc gene clusters encoding these fimbriae, as well as the structure of the organelles, is very similar; however, the actual sequence homology of the structural elements is not remarkable (34 to 60%). Both gene clusters encode...... systems of the two organelle systems are reciprocally interchangeable; however, they seem to function only in parental pairs....

  17. Diagnostic consistency and interchangeability of schizophrenic disorders and bipolar disorders: A 7-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Yen-Ni; Yang, Shu-Yu; Kuo, Chian-Jue; Lin, Shih-Ku

    2018-03-01

    The change in psychiatric diagnoses in clinical practice is not an unusual phenomenon. The interchange between the diagnoses of schizophrenic disorders and bipolar disorders is a major clinical issue because of the differences in treatment regimens and long-term prognoses. In this study, we used a nationwide population-based sample to compare the diagnostic consistency and interchange rate between schizophrenic disorders and bipolar disorders. In total, 25 711 and 11 261 patients newly diagnosed as having schizophrenic disorder and bipolar disorder, respectively, were retrospectively enrolled from the Psychiatric Inpatient Medical Claims database between 2001 and 2005. We followed these two cohorts for 7 years to determine whether their diagnoses were consistent throughout subsequent hospitalizations. The interchange between the two diagnoses was analyzed. In the schizophrenic disorder cohort, the overall diagnostic consistency rate was 87.3% and the rate of change to bipolar disorder was 3.0% during the 7-year follow-up. Additional analyses of subtypes revealed that the change rate from schizoaffective disorder to bipolar disorder was 12.0%. In the bipolar disorder cohort, the overall diagnostic consistency rate was 71.9% and the rate of change to schizophrenic disorder was 8.3%. Changes in the diagnosis of a major psychosis are not uncommon. The interchange between the diagnoses of schizophrenic disorders and bipolar disorders might be attributed to the evolution of clinical symptoms and the observation of preserved social functions that contradict the original diagnosis. While making a psychotic diagnosis, clinicians should be aware of the possibility of the change in diagnosis in the future. © 2017 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2017 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  18. Immunogenicity, safety, and interchangeability of two inactivated hepatitis A vaccines in Chilean children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abarca, Katia; Ibánez, Isabel; Perret, Cecilia; Vial, Pablo; Zinsou, Jean-Antoine

    2008-05-01

    To compare the immunogenicity, safety, and interchangeability of two pediatric hepatitis A vaccines, Avaxim 80U-Pediatric and Havrix 720, in Chilean children. In this randomized trial, 332 hepatitis A virus (HAV) seronegative children from 1 to 15 years of age received two doses of Avaxim, two doses of Havrix, or Havrix followed by Avaxim, 6 months apart. Anti-HAV antibody titers were measured before and 14 days after the first dose of vaccine, and before and 28 days after the second dose of vaccine. Immediate reactions were monitored; reactogenicity was evaluated from parental reports. Seroconversion rates after the first vaccination were 99.4% and 100% for Avaxim and Havrix, respectively. Anti-HAV geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) were 138 mIU/ml for Havrix (95% confidence interval (CI): 120; 159) and 311 mIU/ml for Avaxim (95% CI: 274; 353). GMCs increased to 4008 mIU/ml after two doses of Havrix, 8537 mIU/ml following two doses of Avaxim, and 7144 mIU/ml in children who received Havrix with Avaxim as the second dose. Following the first injection, 36% of subjects given Avaxim and 44% given Havrix reported local reactions; 38% of subjects in the Avaxim group and 40% in the Havrix group reported systemic reactions related to vaccination. Solicited reactions were less frequent after the second dose of Avaxim or Havrix, occurring in 27% to 37% of subjects. No significant difference in seroconversion rates was seen 14 days after a single dose of vaccine. A two-dose schedule with either vaccine or with Havrix/Avaxim provided a strong booster response. Both vaccines were well tolerated and can be recommended for routine vaccination of Chilean children. Avaxim 80 may be used to complete a vaccine schedule begun with Havrix 720.

  19. An interchangeable Mapleson A-E breathing system is practical and cost effective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, M; Lighthall, G K

    2006-01-01

    In locations where oxygen and anesthesia gas supplies are limited, and where circle systems are not practical, means to reduce fresh gas flow during maintenance of inhalational anesthesia are of potential value. We investigated whether a common transport breathing apparatus could be modified to allow interchange between Mapleson D (Map-D) and Mapleson A (Map A) configurations. A common Map-D transport system was converted to a Map-A system by switching positions of the exhaust valve and the elbow connector where fresh gas is delivered; these two breathing systems were compared in this study. The key question was whether rebreathing of CO2 could be eliminated at a lower fresh gas flow rate (FGF) with the Map-A design. A structured protocol was followed. A mean decrease in FGF of 2.8 l/min was seen with the Map-A apparatus when compared with the Map-D (P=0.003). With no significant differences in physiologic or anesthetic variables, FGF/V(E) was significantly lower with the Mapleson A configuration than with the Mapleson D system design (1.1 vs. 1.8; P=0.007). The extent to which FGF could be lowered when switching between Mapleson D and A systems correlated strongly with the patients' respiratory rate while under anesthesia (r=0.45, P<0.01). Cost and resource savings can be realized through the use of a breathing system modification that achieves appropriate ventilation at lower fresh gas flows.

  20. Transcriptional activity of the giant barrel sponge, Xestospongia muta Holobiont: molecular evidence for metabolic interchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, Cara L; Labrie, Micheline; Jarett, Jessica K; Lesser, Michael P

    2015-01-01

    Compared to our understanding of the taxonomic composition of the symbiotic microbes in marine sponges, the functional diversity of these symbionts is largely unknown. Furthermore, the application of genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic techniques to functional questions on sponge host-symbiont interactions is in its infancy. In this study, we generated a transcriptome for the host and a metatranscriptome of its microbial symbionts for the giant barrel sponge, Xestospongia muta, from the Caribbean. In combination with a gene-specific approach, our goals were to (1) characterize genetic evidence for nitrogen cycling in X. muta, an important limiting nutrient on coral reefs (2) identify which prokaryotic symbiont lineages are metabolically active and, (3) characterize the metabolic potential of the prokaryotic community. Xestospongia muta expresses genes from multiple nitrogen transformation pathways that when combined with the abundance of this sponge, and previous data on dissolved inorganic nitrogen fluxes, shows that this sponge is an important contributor to nitrogen cycling biogeochemistry on coral reefs. Additionally, we observed significant differences in gene expression of the archaeal amoA gene, which is involved in ammonia oxidation, between coral reef locations consistent with differences in the fluxes of dissolved inorganic nitrogen previously reported. In regards to symbiont metabolic potential, the genes in the biosynthetic pathways of several amino acids were present in the prokaryotic metatranscriptome dataset but in the host-derived transcripts only the catabolic reactions for these amino acids were present. A similar pattern was observed for the B vitamins (riboflavin, biotin, thiamin, cobalamin). These results expand our understanding of biogeochemical cycling in sponges, and the metabolic interchange highlighted here advances the field of symbiont physiology by elucidating specific metabolic pathways where there is high potential for host

  1. Transcriptional activity of the giant barrel sponge, Xestospongia muta Holobiont: Molecular Evidence for Metabolic Interchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cara L Fiore

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Compared to our understanding of the taxonomic composition of the symbiotic microbes in marine sponges, the functional diversity of these symbionts is largely unknown. Furthermore, the application of genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic techniques to functional questions on sponge host-symbiont interactions is in its infancy. In this study, we generated a transcriptome for the host and a metatranscriptome of its microbial symbionts for the giant barrel sponge, Xestospongia muta, from the Caribbean. In combination with a gene-specific approach, our goals were to 1 characterize genetic evidence for nitrogen cycling in X. muta, an important limiting nutrient on coral reefs 2 identify which prokaryotic symbiont lineages are metabolically active and, 3 characterize the metabolic potential of the prokaryotic community. Xestospongia muta expresses genes from multiple nitrogen transformation pathways that when combined with the abundance of this sponge, and previous data on dissolved inorganic nitrogen fluxes, shows that this sponge is an important contributor to nitrogen cycling on coral reefs. Additionally, we observed significant differences in gene expression of the archaeal amoA gene, which is involved in ammonia oxidation, between coral reef locations consistent with differences in the fluxes of dissolved inorganic nitrogen previously reported. In regards to symbiont metabolic potential, the genes in the biosynthetic pathways of several amino acids were present in the prokaryotic metatranscriptome dataset but in the host-derived transcripts only the catabolic reactions for these amino acids were present. A similar pattern was observed for the B vitamins (riboflavin, biotin, thiamin, cobalamin. These results expand our understanding of biogeochemical cycling in sponges, and the metabolic interchange highlighted here advances the field of symbiont physiology by elucidating specific metabolic pathways where there is high potential for host

  2. Sustainable Regulation of Information Sharing with Electronic Data Interchange by a Trust-Embedded Contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanghua Han

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the risks in demand information sharing applications by electronic soft-orders using electronic data interchange (EDI systems in e-commerce and aims to suggest a sustainable regulation mechanism with a trust-embedded contract. In a supply chain with one retailer and one supplier, the retailer solicits private forecasted demand and places soft-orders via EDI to the supplier. To ensure abundant supply, the retailer has an incentive to inflate her soft-orders, which potentially harms the credible information sharing and sustainability of business cooperation. Normally, the degree to which the supplier relies on the retailer’s order information is specified by trust, which is evaluated according to the retailer’s reputation and supplier’s intuition in this study. Based on standard game theory, we find that both the retailer’s order and the quantity of supplier prepared materials are independent of the retailer’s forecast. Therefore, EDI based information sharing in e-commerce without a regulation mechanism leads to inefficient demand information sharing. Since both the supplier and retailer are proved to faces huge of potential profit losses due to the failure of information sharing, the commerce by EDI based information sharing is full of risk and unsustainable. Therefore, a regulation mechanism that leaded by the retailer is proposed to establish ‘win-win’ sustainable cooperation. Numerical experiments highlight the value of trust, the impact of reputation and intuition in decisions, and the effectiveness of the regulation mechanism by a cost-sharing contract.

  3. A numerical investigation into the performance of the soil nail wall and pile foundation at the Swift Delta I-5 Interchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Finite Difference Methods (FDM) and Finite Element Methods (FEM) studies are reported studying the soil nail wall construction at the Swift Delta I-5 Interchange bridge reconstruction in North Portland, Oregon. Five layers of soil nails were installe...

  4. Assessment of work-related muscle strain by using surface EMG during test contractions interposed between work periods of simulateted mushroom picking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohashi, Jun-Ya; Blangsted, Anne Katrine; Nielsen, Pernille Kofoed

    2010-01-01

    Surface electromyograms(EMG) during test contractions (TCs) were studied to assess the muscle strain in simulated mushroom picking. Additionally, the duration of the TC for the effective assessment was investigated. Nine female subjects performed standardized shoulder abduction and a stooped post...... during the TCs. AEMG and MPF fluctuated before W1 although the changes of RPE were small. Averaging several TCs was recommended to get stable results from TCs. EMG changes and appropriate TC conditions were discussed in relation to the adaptation in fatiguing contractions....

  5. Linkage between seasonal insolation gradient in the tropical northern hemisphere and the sea surface salinity of the equatorial Indian Ocean during the last glacial period

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Saraswat, R.; Nigam, R.; Mackensen, A.; Weldeab, S.

    oxygen isotopic composition to estimate the local seawater oxygen isotopic composition (δ18Osw-ivc). The change in δ18Osw-ivc relative to the present day value (∆δ18Osw-ivc) was then calculated by subtracting the modern surface seawater oxygen isotopic... the modern measurement (Fig. 5), match very well with the Levitus 7 annual SSS over the core site, showing values of 34.7 and 34.8, respectively. Delaygue et al (2001) also developed a seawater oxygen isotope/salinity relationship for the Bay of Bengal...

  6. Broad tunable photonic microwave generation based on period-one dynamics of optical injection vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Songkun; Hong, Yanhua; Spencer, Paul S; Benedikt, Johannes; Davies, Iwan

    2017-08-21

    Photonic microwave generation based on period-one dynamics of an optically injected VCSEL has been study experimentally. The results have shown that the frequency of the generated microwave signal can be broadly tunable through the adjustment of the injection power and the frequency detuning. Strong optical injection power and higher frequency detuning are favorable for obtaining a high frequency microwave signal. These results are similar to those found in systems based on distributed feedback lasers and quantum dot lasers. The variation of the microwave power at the fundamental frequency and the second-harmonic distortion have also been characterized.

  7. EFFECTS OF LASER RADIATION ON MATTER: Efficient surface-erosion plasma formation in air due to the action of pulse-periodic laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min'ko, L. Ya; Chumakou, A. N.; Bosak, N. A.

    1990-11-01

    A study was made of the interaction of a series of periodic laser (λ = 1.06 μm) pulses with a number of materials (aluminum, copper, graphite, ebonite) in air at laser radiation power densities q = 107-109 W/cm2 and repetition frequencies flaser erosion (q > 2 × 108 W/cm2, f>=5 kHz) was observed. A screening layer of an air plasma created by the first pulse of the series was expelled from the interaction zone and this was followed by erosion plasma formation under conditions of slight screening of the target during the action of the subsequent laser pulses.

  8. Periodic paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fialho, Doreen; Griggs, Robert C; Matthews, Emma

    2018-01-01

    The periodic paralyses are a group of skeletal muscle channelopathies characterizeed by intermittent attacks of muscle weakness often associated with altered serum potassium levels. The underlying genetic defects include mutations in genes encoding the skeletal muscle calcium channel Ca v 1.1, sodium channel Na v 1.4, and potassium channels K ir 2.1, K ir 3.4, and possibly K ir 2.6. Our increasing knowledge of how mutant channels affect muscle excitability has resulted in better understanding of many clinical phenomena which have been known for decades and sheds light on some of the factors that trigger attacks. Insights into the pathophysiology are also leading to new therapeutic approaches. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Calibration and digital correction of aberrations in combined optical systems with interchangeable parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milde, T.

    2017-06-01

    calibration process at the customer's location. In addition, the manufacturing and calibration of objectives and tube lenses may take place at different locations. Furthermore, the optical design can benefit from the digital aberration correction although it is made up of interchangeable components.

  10. Optimization of flow cytometric detection and cell sorting of transgenic Plasmodium parasites using interchangeable optical filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorobjev, Ivan A; Buchholz, Kathrin; Prabhat, Prashant; Ketman, Kenneth; Egan, Elizabeth S; Marti, Matthias; Duraisingh, Manoj T; Barteneva, Natasha S

    2012-09-05

    Malaria remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Flow cytometry-based assays that take advantage of fluorescent protein (FP)-expressing malaria parasites have proven to be valuable tools for quantification and sorting of specific subpopulations of parasite-infected red blood cells. However, identification of rare subpopulations of parasites using green fluorescent protein (GFP) labelling is complicated by autofluorescence (AF) of red blood cells and low signal from transgenic parasites. It has been suggested that cell sorting yield could be improved by using filters that precisely match the emission spectrum of GFP. Detection of transgenic Plasmodium falciparum parasites expressing either tdTomato or GFP was performed using a flow cytometer with interchangeable optical filters. Parasitaemia was evaluated using different optical filters and, after optimization of optics, the GFP-expressing parasites were sorted and analysed by microscopy after cytospin preparation and by imaging cytometry. A new approach to evaluate filter performance in flow cytometry using two-dimensional dot blot was developed. By selecting optical filters with narrow bandpass (BP) and maximum position of filter emission close to GFP maximum emission in the FL1 channel (510/20, 512/20 and 517/20; dichroics 502LP and 466LP), AF was markedly decreased and signal-background improve dramatically. Sorting of GFP-expressing parasite populations in infected red blood cells at 90 or 95% purity with these filters resulted in 50-150% increased yield when compared to the standard filter set-up. The purity of the sorted population was confirmed using imaging cytometry and microscopy of cytospin preparations of sorted red blood cells infected with transgenic malaria parasites. Filter optimization is particularly important for applications where the FP signal and percentage of positive events are relatively low, such as analysis of parasite-infected samples with in the intention of gene

  11. Geoscience terminology for data interchange: the CGI Geoscience Terminology Work Group (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, S. M.; Gtwg, G.

    2013-12-01

    . Petersburg, Russia in June, 2013. The group decided on workflow procedures and discussed technology for vocabulary accessibility, which is still a problem. Eleven new vocabularies were adopted to add to the current portfolio of 31 vocabularies developed for GeoSciML interchange documents. Additional vocabularies are under development for GeoSciML v3, and EarthResourceML https://www.seegrid.csiro.au/wiki/CGIModel/EarthResourceML. Other outstanding work items include integrating multilingual geoscience terms developed by the MLT Working Group with existing CGI vocabularies to provide multilingual support, establishing existing vocabularies in a permanent repository under stewardship of the GTWG, and documenting policies for vocabulary management.

  12. Optimization of flow cytometric detection and cell sorting of transgenic Plasmodium parasites using interchangeable optical filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vorobjev Ivan A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Flow cytometry-based assays that take advantage of fluorescent protein (FP-expressing malaria parasites have proven to be valuable tools for quantification and sorting of specific subpopulations of parasite-infected red blood cells. However, identification of rare subpopulations of parasites using green fluorescent protein (GFP labelling is complicated by autofluorescence (AF of red blood cells and low signal from transgenic parasites. It has been suggested that cell sorting yield could be improved by using filters that precisely match the emission spectrum of GFP. Methods Detection of transgenic Plasmodium falciparum parasites expressing either tdTomato or GFP was performed using a flow cytometer with interchangeable optical filters. Parasitaemia was evaluated using different optical filters and, after optimization of optics, the GFP-expressing parasites were sorted and analysed by microscopy after cytospin preparation and by imaging cytometry. Results A new approach to evaluate filter performance in flow cytometry using two-dimensional dot blot was developed. By selecting optical filters with narrow bandpass (BP and maximum position of filter emission close to GFP maximum emission in the FL1 channel (510/20, 512/20 and 517/20; dichroics 502LP and 466LP, AF was markedly decreased and signal-background improve dramatically. Sorting of GFP-expressing parasite populations in infected red blood cells at 90 or 95% purity with these filters resulted in 50-150% increased yield when compared to the standard filter set-up. The purity of the sorted population was confirmed using imaging cytometry and microscopy of cytospin preparations of sorted red blood cells infected with transgenic malaria parasites. Discussion Filter optimization is particularly important for applications where the FP signal and percentage of positive events are relatively low, such as analysis

  13. Heating and reconnection of the emerging magnetic flux-tubes and the role of the interchange instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Y.; Sakurai, T.

    1977-01-01

    In this paper it is proposed that the basic behaviors of newly-emerged magnetic regions (NEMR) as seen in EUV and soft X-rays from space are interpreted by the interchange instability of the magnetic field of NEMR in the global situation surrounding it. It is shown that the situation with the NEMR is unstable against the interchange instability, and a continual relaxation to the lower energy state, or a continual invasion of the magnetic flux of the NEMR to the ambient region in the form of fine bundles or thin sheets, will take place in a short time scale of tau 1 approximately L/Vsub(A) following the change in the boundary condition at the photosphere. The second and the final relaxation is shown to be the enhanced Joule dissipation in a time scale of hours to several days occurring in the thin current sheets on the interface of this intermingled structure which is distributed in a large volume. This hypothesis may provide an explanation for the heating of NEMR to an X-ray emitting temperature, which is otherwise rather difficult to explain. The observed fast reconnection without appreciable flares (except for some smaller brightenings) is another aspect which can be explained in the present hypothesis. Namely, since the situation with the NEMR is unstable for the interchange from the beginning, the stressed configuration is relaxed before storing appreciable energy in the form of magnetic stress and therefore without a drastic release of a large amount of stored stress energy in the form of a flare. (Auth.)

  14. Determination of the interchange of air within the space under protective clothing, resulting from design looseness, using radioactive aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shcherbakova, V.L.; Rajkhman, S.P.; Cherednichenko, V.A.; Raginskij, B.L.

    1987-01-01

    The technique providing the use of the clothes' model is proposed for the investigation of the principles of the interchange of air between the space under protective coating and environment. The model completely fitting the clothing design and its air permeability was made of filtering material practically impermeable for aerosols. In this case for those exposed to radioactive aerosols the contamination of the space under protective clothing measured with a radiometre, can be attributed only to the air penetrating the design looseness of the clothes

  15. Methods of determining incremental energy costs for economic dispatch and inter-utility interchange in Canadian utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Hawary, M.E.; El-Hawary, F.; Mbamalu, G.A.N.

    1991-01-01

    A questionnaire was mailed to ten Canadian utilities to determine the methods the utilities use in determining the incremental cost of delivering energy at any time. The questionnaire was divided into three parts: generation, transmission and general. The generation section dealt with heat rates, fuel, operation and maintenance, startup and shutdown, and method of prioritizing and economic evaluation of interchange transactions. Transmission dealt with inclusion of transmission system incremental maintenance costs, and transmission losses determination. The general section dealt with incremental costs aspects, and various other economic considerations. A summary is presented of responses to the questionnaire

  16. Meta-analysis for bioequivalence studies: interchangeability of generic drugs and similar containing Hydrochlorothiazide is possible but not with Enalapril Maleate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Renato Almeida; Neves, Francisco de Assis Rocha

    2010-01-01

    The generic drugs program provided a better population's access to medicines. To ensure interchangeability between a brand-name and generic or similar drugs is necessary that they are bioequivalent. With the growing number of generic drugs, it is common for patients to replace a generic to another or one similar. However, this exchange can not guarantee the maintenance of bioequivalence. To evaluate the safety interchangeability between different generic and similar drugs with Hydrochlorothiazide and Enalapril Maleate, a meta-analysis was carried out with several bioequivalence studies with these drugs. Data from bioequivalence of generic and similar drugs approved by the National Health Surveillance Agency (Anvisa) (drug regulatory agency in Brazil) were used. The compatibility of data from each study was analyzed and the determination of a confidence interval for the differences between the means of pharmacokinetic parameters, area under the curve (ASC0-t) and maximum plasma concentration (Cmax), was made for each study by meta-analysis. The interchangeability between the combinations of the three products with Hydrochlorothiazide was confirmed based on the obtained confidence intervals. For the drugs studied with Enalapril Maleate interchangeability has not been confirmed for 50% of the product comparisons. The exchange was established between the three products with hydrochlorothiazide. However, for the Enalapril Maleate half of the products studied are not interchangeable, considering they do not match the established intervals for bioequivalence tests, so the pharmacokinetics behavior and thus the effectiveness of the product may be changed.

  17. Periodic diffeomorphisms on homotopy E(4) surfaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    College of Arts and Sciences, Shanghai Maritime University, Shanghai 201306, China. E-mail: lihongxia_2002@163.com. MS received 16 February 2013. Abstract. In this paper, we .... restriction of F0 onto Uλ ⊕ Vλ, we obtain a map. Fλ : Uλ ⊕ Vλ → Uλ ⊕ Vλ. Note that Fλ is a S1-equivariant map, where S1 acts on i trivially ...

  18. Effect of fast electrons on the stability of resistive interchange modes in the TJ-II stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García, L.; Ochando, M. A.; Hidalgo, C.; Milligen, B. Ph. van; Carreras, B. A.; Carralero, D.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we report on electromagnetic phenomena in low-β plasmas at the TJ-II stellarator, controlled by external heating. To understand the observations qualitatively, we introduce a simple modification of the standard resistive MHD equations, to include the potential impact of fast electrons on instabilities. The dominant instabilities of the modeling regime are resistive interchange modes, and calculations are performed in a configuration with similar characteristics as the TJ-II stellarator. The main effect of the trapping of fast electrons by magnetic islands induced by MHD instabilities is to increase the magnetic component of the fluctuations, changing the character of the instability to tearing-like and modifying the frequency of the modes. These effects seem to be consistent with some of the experimental observations.

  19. Observations of temporal and spatial behaviour of plasmas in relation to the interchange stability boundary scaling in GAMMA 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minami, R.; Cho, T.; Kohagura, J.

    2002-01-01

    Observations of internal core plasma structural behaviour during the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) destabilization of the central cell plasmas are carried out by the use of our developed semiconductor x-ray detector arrays installed in both central cell and anchor regions of the GAMMA 10 tandem mirror. In the present paper, it is found from the developed x-ray diagnostics that the bulk plasmas rotate without a change in its shape and structure with an ExB velocity during the destabilization. The onset of the off-axis rotation is identified to be closely related to a scaling of the MHD stability boundary (i.e. the anchor beta requirements for stabilizing central cell hot ion plasmas). These data confirm pressure driven interchange instability in tandem mirror plasmas, and reveal the rigid rotational bulk plasma structure as the first demonstrated interior plasma property during the destabilization. (author)

  20. The Interchangeability of Plasma and Whole Blood Metal Ion Measurement in the Monitoring of Metal on Metal Hips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim A. Malek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and twenty six paired samples of plasma and whole blood were measured with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry technique for metal ions analysis to determine a relationship between them. There was a significant difference between the mean plasma and whole blood concentrations of both cobalt (Co and chromium (Cr (p<0.0001 for both Co and Cr. The mean ratio between plasma and whole blood Cr and Co was 1.56 (range: 0.39–3.85 and 1.54 (range: 0.64–18.26, respectively, but Bland and Altman analysis illustrated that this relationship was not universal throughout the range of concentrations. There was higher variability at high concentrations for both ions. We conclude that both these concentrations should not be used interchangeably and conversion factors are unreliable due to concentration dependent variability.

  1. Ethnoecology of the interchange of wild and weedy plants and mushrooms in Phurépecha markets of Mexico: economic motives of biotic resources management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farfán-Heredia, Berenice; Casas, Alejandro; Moreno-Calles, Ana I; García-Frapolli, Eduardo; Castilleja, Aída

    2018-01-15

    Interactions between societies and nature are regulated by complex systems of beliefs, symbolism, customs, and worldviews (kosmos), ecological knowledge (corpus), and management strategies and practices (praxis), which are constructed as product of experiences and communication of people throughout time. These aspects influence social relations, life strategies, and cultural identity, and all of them in turn influence and are influenced by local and regional patterns of interchange. In this study, we analyze the interchange of wild and weedy plants and mushrooms in traditional markets of the Phurépecha region of Mexico. Particularly, the social relations constructed around the interchange of these products; how knowledge, cultural values, and ecological factors influence and are influenced by interchange; and how all these factors influence the type and intensity of biotic resources management. We studied three main traditional markets of the Phurépecha region of Michoacán, Mexico, through 140 visits to markets and 60 semi-structured interviews to sellers of wild and weedy plants and mushrooms. In nearly 2 years, we carried out 80 visits and 30 interviews in the "Barter Market", 20 visits and 15 interviews in the "Phurépecha Tiánguis", and 40 visits and 15 interviews to the "Municipal Market". We documented information about the spaces of interchange that form the markets, the types of interchange occurring there, the cultural and economic values of the resources studied, the environmental units that are sources of such resources, the activities associated to resources harvesting and, particularly, the management techniques practiced to ensure or increase their availability. We analyzed the relations between the amounts of products interchanged, considered as pressures on the resources; the perception of their abundance or scarcity, considered as the magnitude of risk in relation to the pressures referred to; and the management types as response to pressures

  2. Communication: A combined periodic density functional and incremental wave-function-based approach for the dispersion-accounting time-resolved dynamics of {sup 4}He nanodroplets on surfaces: {sup 4}He/graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lara-Castells, María Pilar de, E-mail: Pilar.deLara.Castells@csic.es [Instituto de Física Fundamental (C.S.I.C.), Serrano 123, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Stoll, Hermann [Institut für Theoretische Chemie, Universität Stuttgart, D-70550 Stuttgart (Germany); Civalleri, Bartolomeo [Dipartimento di Chimica e Centro Interdipartimentale NIS, Universitá di Torino, Via P. Giuria 7, 10125 Torino (Italy); Causà, Mauro [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, dei Materiali e delle Produzioni Industriali, Universiá di Napoli Federico II, Piazzale Tecchio, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Voloshina, Elena [Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Institut für Chemie, Brook-Taylor-Str. 2, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Mitrushchenkov, Alexander O. [Université Paris-Est, Laboratoire Modélisation et Simulation Multi Echelle, MSME UMR 8208 CNRS, 5 bd Descartes, 77454 Marne-la-Vallée (France); Pi, Martí [Department ECM, Facultat de Física, and IN" 2UB, Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 645, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-10-21

    In this work we propose a general strategy to calculate accurate He–surface interaction potentials. It extends the dispersionless density functional approach recently developed by Pernal et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 263201 (2009)] to adsorbate-surface interactions by including periodic boundary conditions. We also introduce a scheme to parametrize the dispersion interaction by calculating two- and three-body dispersion terms at coupled cluster singles and doubles and perturbative triples (CCSD(T)) level via the method of increments [H. Stoll, J. Chem. Phys. 97, 8449 (1992)]. The performance of the composite approach is tested on {sup 4}He/graphene by determining the energies of the low-lying selective adsorption states, finding an excellent agreement with the best available theoretical data. Second, the capability of the approach to describe dispersionless correlation effects realistically is used to extract dispersion effects in time-dependent density functional simulations on the collision of {sup 4}He droplets with a single graphene sheet. It is found that dispersion effects play a key role in the fast spreading of the {sup 4}He nanodroplet, the evaporation-like process of helium atoms, and the formation of solid-like helium structures. These characteristics are expected to be quite general and highly relevant to explain experimental measurements with the newly developed helium droplet mediated deposition technique.

  3. Teacher Mobility and Transnational, "British World" Space: The League of the Empire's "Interchange of Home and Dominion Teachers", 1907-1931

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutchley, Jody

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the experiences of teachers who participated in the League of the Empire's "Interchange of Home and Dominion Teachers" scheme through a tripartite approach to "British World" space. First, it identifies the mechanisms through which exchanges were established. It analyses the patterns of teacher mobility…

  4. Nonparametric Inference for Periodic Sequences

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Ying

    2012-02-01

    This article proposes a nonparametric method for estimating the period and values of a periodic sequence when the data are evenly spaced in time. The period is estimated by a "leave-out-one-cycle" version of cross-validation (CV) and complements the periodogram, a widely used tool for period estimation. The CV method is computationally simple and implicitly penalizes multiples of the smallest period, leading to a "virtually" consistent estimator of integer periods. This estimator is investigated both theoretically and by simulation.We also propose a nonparametric test of the null hypothesis that the data have constantmean against the alternative that the sequence of means is periodic. Finally, our methodology is demonstrated on three well-known time series: the sunspots and lynx trapping data, and the El Niño series of sea surface temperatures. © 2012 American Statistical Association and the American Society for Quality.

  5. The Long Term Effects of Electronic Commerce and Data Interchange on Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Bergeron

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to identify the determinants of electronic commerce effectiveness, as well as the variation over time of their effect. A two-phased study was undertaken for this purpose, using EDI as a specific form of electronic commerce. Sixty-five organisations were surveyed twice over a three-year period. In Phase 1, determining factors were found to be the level of organisational support, the rigour of the implementation process, the presence of control procedures, and the level of internal integration, external integration and imposition of EDI. Imposition also has a negative effect on the organisational context of EDI. In Phase 2, the implementation process, internal integration and imposition lost their importance, whereas the effect of imposition on the organisational context became positive. In the future, we expect the security and external integration to be the most important success factors of electronic commerce.

  6. NADH oxidase activity (NOX) and enlargement of HeLa cells oscillate with two different temperature-compensated period lengths of 22 and 24 minutes corresponding to different NOX forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S.; Pogue, R.; Morre, D. M.; Morre, D. J.

    2001-01-01

    NOX proteins are cell surface-associated and growth-related hydroquinone (NADH) oxidases with protein disulfide-thiol interchange activity. A defining characteristic of NOX proteins is that the two enzymatic activities alternate to generate a regular period length of about 24 min. HeLa cells exhibit at least two forms of NOX. One is tumor-associated (tNOX) and is inhibited by putative quinone site inhibitors (e.g., capsaicin or the antitumor sulfonylurea, LY181984). Another is constitutive (CNOX) and refractory to inhibition. The periodic alternation of activities and drug sensitivity of the NADH oxidase activity observed with intact HeLa cells was retained in isolated plasma membranes and with the solubilized and partially purified enzyme. At least two activities were present. One had a period length of 24 min and the other had a period length of 22 min. The lengths of both the 22 and the 24 min periods were temperature compensated (approximately the same when measured at 17, 27 or 37 degrees C) whereas the rate of NADH oxidation approximately doubled with each 10 degrees C rise in temperature. The rate of increase in cell area of HeLa cells when measured by video-enhanced light microscopy also exhibited a complex period of oscillations reflective of both 22 and 24 min period lengths. The findings demonstrate the presence of a novel oscillating NOX activity at the surface of cancer cells with a period length of 22 min in addition to the constitutive NOX of non-cancer cells and tissues with a period length of 24 min.

  7. Dysmenorrhea: Painful Periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search FAQs Dysmenorrhea: Painful Periods Page Navigation ▼ ACOG Pregnancy Book Dysmenorrhea: Painful Periods Patient Education FAQs Dysmenorrhea: Painful Periods Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish ...

  8. Analytical Validation of a Portable Mass Spectrometer Featuring Interchangeable, Ambient Ionization Sources for High Throughput Forensic Evidence Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Zachary E.; Traub, Angelica; Fatigante, William L.; Mancias, Jose; O'Leary, Adam E.; Hall, Seth E.; Wieland, Jamie R.; Oberacher, Herbert; Gizzi, Michael C.; Mulligan, Christopher C.

    2017-06-01

    Forensic evidentiary backlogs are indicative of the growing need for cost-effective, high-throughput instrumental methods. One such emerging technology that shows high promise in meeting this demand while also allowing on-site forensic investigation is portable mass spectrometric (MS) instrumentation, particularly that which enables the coupling to ambient ionization techniques. While the benefits of rapid, on-site screening of contraband can be anticipated, the inherent legal implications of field-collected data necessitates that the analytical performance of technology employed be commensurate with accepted techniques. To this end, comprehensive analytical validation studies are required before broad incorporation by forensic practitioners can be considered, and are the focus of this work. Pertinent performance characteristics such as throughput, selectivity, accuracy/precision, method robustness, and ruggedness have been investigated. Reliability in the form of false positive/negative response rates is also assessed, examining the effect of variables such as user training and experience level. To provide flexibility toward broad chemical evidence analysis, a suite of rapidly-interchangeable ion sources has been developed and characterized through the analysis of common illicit chemicals and emerging threats like substituted phenethylamines. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  9. Neotropical mammal diversity and the Great American Biotic Interchange: spatial and temporal variation in South America's fossil record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Juan D.; Forasiepi, Analía; Jaramillo, Carlos; Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R.

    2015-01-01

    The vast mammal diversity of the Neotropics is the result of a long evolutionary history. During most of the Cenozoic, South America was an island continent with an endemic mammalian fauna. This isolation ceased during the late Neogene after the formation of the Isthmus of Panama, resulting in an event known as the Great American Biotic Interchange (GABI). In this study, we investigate biogeographic patterns in South America, just before or when the first immigrants are recorded and we review the temporal and geographical distribution of fossil mammals during the GABI. We performed a dissimilarity analysis which grouped the faunal assemblages according to their age and their geographic distribution. Our data support the differentiation between tropical and temperate assemblages in South America during the middle and late Miocene. The GABI begins during the late Miocene (~10–7 Ma) and the putative oldest migrations are recorded in the temperate region, where the number of GABI participants rapidly increases after ~5 Ma and this trend continues during the Pleistocene. A sampling bias toward higher latitudes and younger records challenges the study of the temporal and geographic patterns of the GABI. PMID:25601879

  10. The acquiring of flexible chip transportation system based on interchangeable containers; Vaihtolavatekniikkaan perustuvan kasettihakekontti- ja vetokaluston hankinta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kokko, P. [Muhoksen Biokuljetus Oy, Muhos (Finland)

    1998-12-01

    The waiting time of chip truck is highly reduced when interchangeable containers are used. The truck has not to wait for the chipper while chipping, if there are two container sets. The chipper can fill the empty containers while the truck is transporting full containers to the power plant. To make this possible, there has to be, for example, six containers, if the truck can take three containers at one load. The problem is that the truck must first take the six containers to the felling place in two separate loads. The solution for this is developed in this project. There are two sets of containers, the smaller ones and the bigger ones. The smaller container can be placed inside the bigger one so that all the six containers can be transported in one load. It is estimated that, when the one way transporting distance is 100 km, by using this method it is achieved about 10 % savings in transport costs, compared to the conventional method, where the container sets are transported separately. (orig.)

  11. Impact of a radio-frequency identification system and information interchange on clearance processes for cargo at border posts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Bhero

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Improved operational efficiency is important to role players in cross-border logistics and trade corridors. Cargo owners and cargo forwarders have been particularly concerned about long delays in the processing and clearing of cargo at border posts. Field studies suggest that these delays are due to a combination of factors, such as a lack of optimum system configurations and non-optimised human-dependent operations, which make the operations prone to corruption and other malpractices.Objectives: This article presents possible strategies for improving some of the operations in this sector. The research hinges on two key questions: (1 what is the impact of information interchange between stakeholders on the cargo transit time and (2 how will cargo transit time be impacted upon by automatic identification of cargo and the status of cargo seals on arriving vehicles at the border?Method: The use of information communication systems enabled by automatic identification systems (incorporating radio-frequency identification technology is suggested.Results: Results obtained by the described simulation model indicate that improvements of up to 82% with regard to transit time are possible using these techniques.Conclusion: The findings therefore demonstrate how operations at border posts can be improved through the use of appropriate technology and configuration of the operations.

  12. Impact of a radio-frequency identification system and information interchange on clearance processes for cargo at border posts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Bhero

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Improved operational efficiency is important to role players in cross-border logistics and trade corridors. Cargo owners and cargo forwarders have been particularly concerned about long delays in the processing and clearing of cargo at border posts. Field studies suggest that these delays are due to a combination of factors, such as a lack of optimum system configurations and non-optimised human-dependent operations, which make the operations prone to corruption and other malpractices. Objectives: This article presents possible strategies for improving some of the operations in this sector. The research hinges on two key questions: (1 what is the impact of information interchange between stakeholders on the cargo transit time and (2 how will cargo transit time be impacted upon by automatic identification of cargo and the status of cargo seals on arriving vehicles at the border? Method: The use of information communication systems enabled by automatic identification systems (incorporating radio-frequency identification technology is suggested. Results: Results obtained by the described simulation model indicate that improvements of up to 82% with regard to transit time are possible using these techniques. Conclusion: The findings therefore demonstrate how operations at border posts can be improved through the use of appropriate technology and configuration of the operations.

  13. Analytical Validation of a Portable Mass Spectrometer Featuring Interchangeable, Ambient Ionization Sources for High Throughput Forensic Evidence Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Zachary E; Traub, Angelica; Fatigante, William L; Mancias, Jose; O'Leary, Adam E; Hall, Seth E; Wieland, Jamie R; Oberacher, Herbert; Gizzi, Michael C; Mulligan, Christopher C

    2017-06-01

    Forensic evidentiary backlogs are indicative of the growing need for cost-effective, high-throughput instrumental methods. One such emerging technology that shows high promise in meeting this demand while also allowing on-site forensic investigation is portable mass spectrometric (MS) instrumentation, particularly that which enables the coupling to ambient ionization techniques. While the benefits of rapid, on-site screening of contraband can be anticipated, the inherent legal implications of field-collected data necessitates that the analytical performance of technology employed be commensurate with accepted techniques. To this end, comprehensive analytical validation studies are required before broad incorporation by forensic practitioners can be considered, and are the focus of this work. Pertinent performance characteristics such as throughput, selectivity, accuracy/precision, method robustness, and ruggedness have been investigated. Reliability in the form of false positive/negative response rates is also assessed, examining the effect of variables such as user training and experience level. To provide flexibility toward broad chemical evidence analysis, a suite of rapidly-interchangeable ion sources has been developed and characterized through the analysis of common illicit chemicals and emerging threats like substituted phenethylamines. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  14. Reciprocal translocations in grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.): pattern of transmission, detection of multiple interchanges and their independence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukdar, Dibyendu

    2010-01-01

    Grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) is a diploid crop having 2n = 14 chromosomes. Four different plant types, heterozygous for reciprocal translocation (RT), RT-1, RT-2, RT-3, and RT-4 showing pollen semisterility, were isolated in induced mutant population of three varieties of grass pea. Transmission rate of these 4 translocations was studied in advanced selfed and intercrossed progenies, whereas multiple chromosomal interchanges were detected by the pattern of chromosomal ring formation at meiosis I in the F(1) progeny of RTxRT. RT transmitted at an average of 48.89% in selfed progeny and along with normal plants, RT and translocation homozygotes produced some trisomic plants in the segregation progeny. RT-3 showing maximum frequency (68.20%) of zig-zag or alternate chromosome orientation exhibited highest transmission (55.20%). Presence of a ring of 6 or 2 rings of 4 chromosomes in F(1) double heterozygotes obtained from RTxRT suggested involvement of one common chromosome in translocations of RT-1, RT-2, and RT-4 but a different one in common between RT-2 and RT-3. No common chromosome, however, was shared by RT-3 and RT-4. Thus, 5 out of 7 chromosomes are involved in the present RTs, and one of the translocated chromosomes in RT-1 line was always associated with nucleolar organizing region.

  15. Cassini MIMI Close-Up of Saturn Energetic Particles: Low Altitude Trapped Radiation, Auroral Ion Acceleration, and Interchange Flow Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, D. G.; Krimigis, S. M.; Krupp, N.; Paranicas, C.; Roussos, E.; Kollmann, P.

    2017-12-01

    We present observations from the final orbits of the Cassini Mission at Saturn by the Magnetospheric Imaging Instrument (MIMI). Crossing inside the D-Ring at the equator and just above Saturn's atmosphere, these orbits covered regions never visited previously in the mission. Highlights include the confirmation of an inner radiation belt analogous to the inner radiation belt at Earth by the Low Energy Magnetospheric Measurement System (LEMMS), with surprising twists—Saturn's D-ring material appears to be a source for these particles. Details will be presented in another session. The Grand Finale orbits also afforded a close-up view of the auroral ion acceleration regions by the Ion and Neutral Camera (INCA). Ionospheric ions at the base of auroral field lines are accelerated perpendicular to the magnetic field to 10's and 100's of keV, and charge exchange with exospheric neutrals to be emitted as energetic neutral atoms and images by INCA. We show that this acceleration region lies at about 0.1 Rs. Another feature seen previously in the mission but imaged with greater resolution is a flow channel associated with interchange motion in the middle magnetosphere. We show this feature to extend over several Saturn radii in the radial direction, and over about 2 Saturn radii azimuthally. Additional data have been received since the writing of this abstract and before Cassini's plunge into the atmosphere on September 15, so additional features may be presented.

  16. Thermoset recycling via high-pressure high-temperature sintering: Revisiting the effect of interchange chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Jeremy Edward

    In 1844 Charles Goodyear obtained U.S. Patent #3,633 for his "Gum Elastic Composition". In a published circular, which describes his patent for the sulfur vulcanization of gum elastic composition, he stated: "No degree of heat, without blaze, can melt it (rubber)... It resists the most powerful chemical reagents. Aquafortis (nitric acid), sulphuric acid, essential and common oils, turpentine and other solvents... ..." Goodyear's sulfur vulcanization of rubber fueled much of the industrial revolution and made transportation possible, as it exists today. In doing so, Goodyear created one of the most difficult materials to recycle. Rubber will not melt, dissolve, or lend itself to the usual methods of chemical decomposition. Ironically, Goodyear recognized this problem and in 1853 he patented the process of adding ground rubber to virgin material, now currently known as regrind blending. Today, scrap tires represent one of the most serious sources of pollution in the world. Studies estimate that there are roughly 2 billion scrap tires in U.S. landfills and more are being added at a rate of over 273 million tires per year. Current methods of recycling waste tires are crude, ineffective, and use rubber powder as a low cost filler instead of a new rubber. The groundwork for a very simple and effective method of producing high-quality rubber goods using 100% scrap rubber was discovered in 1944 by A. V. Tobolsky et al. This application, however, was not recognized until recently in our laboratory. The process as studied to date represents a method of creating quality, high-value added rubber goods with nothing other than heat and pressure. High pressure is required to obtain a void-free compaction of the rubber particles by forcing all of the free surfaces into intimate contact. High temperature then activates the chemical rearrangement, scission, and reformation of the chemical bonds thus providing new bridges between the once fractured interfaces. This occurs both within

  17. Periodic Bursts of Jovian Non-Io Decametric Radio Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchenko, M.; Rucker, H O.; Farrell, W. M.

    2013-01-01

    During the years 2000-2011 the radio instruments onboard Cassini, Wind and STEREO spacecraft have Recorded a large amount of the Jovian decametric radio emission (DAM). In this paper we report on the analysis of the new type of Jovian periodic radio bursts recently revealed in the decametric frequency range. These bursts, which are non-Io component of DAM, are characterized by a strong periodic reoccurrence over several Jovian days with a period approx. = 1:5% longer than the rotation rate of the planet's magnetosphere (System III). The bursts are typically observed between 4 and 12 MHz and their occurrence probability has been found to be significantly higher in the sector of Jovian Central Meridian Longitude between 300 deg. and 60 deg. (via 360 deg.). The stereoscopic multispacecraft observations have shown that the radio sources of the periodic bursts radiate in a non-axisymmetric hollow cone-like pattern and sub-corotate with Jupiter remaining active during several planet's rotations. The occurrence of the periodic non-Io DAM bursts is strongly correlated with pulses of the solar wind ram pressure at Jupiter. Moreover the periodic bursts exhibit a tendency to occur in groups every approx. 25 days. The polarization measurements have shown that the periodic bursts are right hand polarized radio emission associated with the Northern magnetic hemisphere of Jupiter. We suggest that periodic non-Io DAM bursts may be connected with the interchange instability in Io plasma torus triggered by the solar wind.

  18. 6 CFR 37.17 - Requirements for the surface of the driver's license or identification card.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for the surface of the driver's license or identification card. 37.17 Section 37.17 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... specifically ISO/IEC 19794-5:2005(E) Information technology—Biometric Data Interchange Formats—Part 5: Face...

  19. Determination of heavy metals and human health risk assessment of road dust on the Tema motor way and Tetteh Quarshie interchange in Accra, Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atiemo, S.M.; Ofosu, F.G.; Aboh, I.J.K.; Yeboah, P.O.

    2010-01-01

    Street dust samples were collected from Tema Motor way (near Ashiaman overhead) and Tetteh Quarshie interchange in Accra. The samples were segregated into two groups of grain sizes between 100 um - 250 um and the other being less than 100 um. Energy dispersive X-ray florescence technique was used to determine their elemental compositions. In all twenty (20) elements were identified: K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Ge, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr and Pb. The results show significant concentrations levels of K, Ca, Ti, Pb, Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr and Cr in all the samples. Enrichment factors determined for the elements show high enrichment of V, Zn, Cu, Zr, Cr, Br and Pb from the sample sites. There was no indication of significant anthropogenic contribution of manganese (Mn) which gave average enrichment factor values of 0.60 and 0.78 in the road dust at the Tema motor way and Tetteh Quarshie Interchange respectively. Risk assessment of selected heavy metal contaminants from both sites indicate that Pb gave Hazard Index (HI) values of 0.56 and 0.62 which falls below the safe level of one (1). It was also observed that ingestion which gave HI values of 2.1 and 2.3 was the highest risk of exposure pathway. Tetteh Quarshie Interchange gave the highest cumulative risk of exposure. (author)

  20. Trend of digital camera and interchangeable zoom lenses with high ratio based on patent application over the past 10 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensui, Takayuki

    2012-10-01

    Although digitalization has tripled consumer-class camera market scale, extreme reductions in prices of fixed-lens cameras has reduced profitability. As a result, a number of manufacturers have entered the market of the System DSC i.e. digital still camera with interchangeable lens, where large profit margins are possible, and many high ratio zoom lenses with image stabilization functions have been released. Quiet actuators are another indispensable component. Design with which there is little degradation in performance due to all types of errors is preferred for good balance in terms of size, lens performance, and the rate of quality to sub-standard products. Decentering, such as that caused by tilting, sensitivity of moving groups is especially important. In addition, image stabilization mechanisms actively shift lens groups. Development of high ratio zoom lenses with vibration reduction mechanism is confronted by the challenge of reduced performance due to decentering, making control over decentering sensitivity between lens groups everything. While there are a number of ways to align lenses (axial alignment), shock resistance and ability to stand up to environmental conditions must also be considered. Naturally, it is very difficult, if not impossible, to make lenses smaller and achieve a low decentering sensitivity at the same time. 4-group zoom construction is beneficial in making lenses smaller, but decentering sensitivity is greater. 5-group zoom configuration makes smaller lenses more difficult, but it enables lower decentering sensitivities. At Nikon, the most advantageous construction is selected for each lens based on specifications. The AF-S DX NIKKOR 18-200mm f/3.5-5.6G ED VR II and AF-S NIKKOR 28-300mm f/3.5-5.6G ED VR are excellent examples of this.

  1. SUGOI: automated ontology interchangeability

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Khan, ZC

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A foundational ontology can solve interoperability issues among the domain ontologies aligned to it. However, several foundational ontologies have been developed, hence such interoperability issues exist among domain ontologies. The novel SUGOI tool...

  2. Electronic document interchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Jim

    1993-01-01

    The operational impact of various storage formats related to electronic publishing of documents in the NASA Scientific and Technical Information (STI) Program is discussed. Questions are raised about the development of full text, surrogate, and hybrid storage formats. It appears that the eventual configuration will contain a mix of storage formats based on user demand.

  3. Mr Huidong LI Deputy Chairman and Secretary-General, Rev. Committee of Chinese Nationalist Party Vice President, Sun Yat-Sen Culture Interchange Association of China Member, Committee for Internal and Judicial Affairs of the National People's Congress of China

    CERN Multimedia

    Bennett, Sophia Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Mr Huidong LI Deputy Chairman and Secretary-General, Rev. Committee of Chinese Nationalist Party Vice President, Sun Yat-Sen Culture Interchange Association of China Member, Committee for Internal and Judicial Affairs of the National People's Congress of China

  4. Absent menstrual periods - secondary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amenorrhea - secondary; No periods - secondary; Absent periods - secondary; Absent menses - secondary; Absence of periods - secondary ... Secondary amenorrhea can occur due to natural changes in the body. For example, the most common cause of secondary ...

  5. Low endemism, continued deep-shallow interchanges, and evidence for cosmopolitan distributions in free-living marine nematodes (order Enoplida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas W Kelley

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nematodes represent the most abundant benthic metazoa in one of the largest habitats on earth, the deep sea. Characterizing major patterns of biodiversity within this dominant group is a critical step towards understanding evolutionary patterns across this vast ecosystem. The present study has aimed to place deep-sea nematode species into a phylogenetic framework, investigate relationships between shallow water and deep-sea taxa, and elucidate phylogeographic patterns amongst the deep-sea fauna. Results Molecular data (18 S and 28 S rRNA confirms a high diversity amongst deep-sea Enoplids. There is no evidence for endemic deep-sea lineages in Maximum Likelihood or Bayesian phylogenies, and Enoplids do not cluster according to depth or geographic location. Tree topologies suggest frequent interchanges between deep-sea and shallow water habitats, as well as a mixture of early radiations and more recently derived lineages amongst deep-sea taxa. This study also provides convincing evidence of cosmopolitan marine species, recovering a subset of Oncholaimid nematodes with identical gene sequences (18 S, 28 S and cox1 at trans-Atlantic sample sites. Conclusions The complex clade structures recovered within the Enoplida support a high global species richness for marine nematodes, with phylogeographic patterns suggesting the existence of closely related, globally distributed species complexes in the deep sea. True cosmopolitan species may additionally exist within this group, potentially driven by specific life history traits of Enoplids. Although this investigation aimed to intensively sample nematodes from the order Enoplida, specimens were only identified down to genus (at best and our sampling regime focused on an infinitesimal small fraction of the deep-sea floor. Future nematode studies should incorporate an extended sample set covering a wide depth range (shelf, bathyal, and abyssal sites, utilize additional genetic loci (e

  6. Once-daily dose regimen of ribavirin is interchangeable with a twice-daily dose regimen: randomized open clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balk JM

    2015-08-01

    .05. No significant differences in the hematological profile were observed (P>0.05. Conclusion: The standard twice-daily RBV regimen is interchangeable with the once-daily regimen. The once-daily regimen will improve compliance and opens the opportunity to combine RBV with other drugs dosed once a day, in a single pill. Keywords: hepatitis C, dose regimen, ribavirin, pegylated interferon

  7. Interchangeability of meningococcal group C conjugate vaccines with different carrier proteins in the United Kingdom infant immunisation schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladhani, Shamez N; Andrews, Nick J; Waight, Pauline; Hallis, Bassam; Matheson, Mary; England, Anna; Findlow, Helen; Bai, Xilian; Borrow, Ray; Burbidge, Polly; Pearce, Emma; Goldblatt, David; Miller, Elizabeth

    2015-01-29

    An open, non-randomised study was undertaken in England during 2011-12 to evaluate vaccine antibody responses in infants after completion of the routine primary infant immunisation schedule, which included two doses of meningococcal group C (MenC) conjugate (MCC) vaccine at 3 and 4 months. Any of the three licensed MCC vaccines could be used for either dose, depending on local availability. Healthy term infants registered at participating general practices (GPs) in Hertfordshire and Gloucestershire, UK, were recruited prospectively to provide a single blood sample four weeks after primary immunisation, which was administered by the GP surgery. Vaccination history was obtained at blood sampling. MenC serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) and IgG antibodies against Haemophilus influenzae b (Hib), pertussis toxin (PT), diphtheria toxoid (DT), tetanus toxoid (TT) and thirteen pneumococcal serotypes were analysed according to MCC vaccines received. MenC SBA responses differed significantly (Pvaccine schedule as follows: MenC SBA geometric mean titres (GMTs) were significantly lower in infants receiving a diphtheria cross-reacting material-conjugated MCC (MCC-CRM) vaccine followed by TT-conjugated MCC (MCC-TT) vaccine (82.0; 95% CI, 39-173; n=14) compared to those receiving two MCC-CRM (418; 95% CI, 325-537; n=82), two MCC-TT (277; 95% CI, 223-344; n=79) or MCC-TT followed by MCC-CRM (553; 95% CI, 322-949; n=18). The same group also had the lowest Hib geometric mean concentrations (0.60 μg/mL, 0.27-1.34) compared to 1.85 μg/mL (1.23-2.78), 2.86 μg/mL (2.02-4.05) and 4.26 μg/mL (1.94-9.36), respectively. Our results indicate that MCC vaccines with different carrier proteins are not interchangeable. When several MCC vaccines are available, children requiring more than one dose should receive MCC vaccines with the same carrier protein or, alternatively, receive MCC-TT first wherever possible. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Statistical Review of surface dose in the period 1995-2010, measured by different types of TLD dosimeters; Revision estadistica de las dosis superficiales, en el periodo 1995-2010, medidas mediante distintos tipos de dosimetros TLD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastor Antolin, S.; Munoz Blasco, J.; Llansana Arnalot, J.; Gultresa Colomer, J.

    2011-07-01

    We analyzed the evolution of the number of special controls over the period 1985 to 2010 and the evolution of the doses in the period 1995 to 2010. Comparing the standard dose extremities respect to whole body in cases where users use both types of control in the same installation.

  9. Electronic structure of bulk AnO{sub 2} (An = U, Np, Pu) and water adsorption on the (111) and (110) surfaces of UO{sub 2} and PuO{sub 2} from hybrid density functional theory within the periodic electrostatic embedded cluster method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellington, Joseph P.W. [Department of Chemistry, University College London, 20 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom); Kerridge, Andrew [Department of Chemistry, Lancaster University, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4YP (United Kingdom); Austin, Jonathan [National Nuclear Laboratory, Chadwick House, Warrington Road, Birchwood Park, Warrington WA3 6AE (United Kingdom); Kaltsoyannis, Nikolas, E-mail: nikolas.kaltsoyannis@manchester.ac.uk [School of Chemistry, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2016-12-15

    Generalised gradient approximation (PBE) and hybrid (PBE0) density functional theory (DFT) within the periodic electrostatic embedded cluster method have been used to study AnO{sub 2} bulk and surfaces (An = U, Np, Pu). The electronic structure has been investigated by examining the projected density of states (PDOS). While PBE incorrectly predicts these systems to be metallic, PBE0 finds them to be insulators, with the composition of the valence and conduction levels agreeing well with experiment. Molecular and dissociative water adsorption on the (111) and (110) surfaces of UO{sub 2} and PuO{sub 2} has been investigated, with that on the (110) surface being stronger than on the (111). Similar energies are found for molecular and dissociative adsorption on the (111) surfaces, while on the (110) there is a clear preference for dissociative adsorption. Adsorption energies and geometries on the (111) surface of UO{sub 2} are in good agreement with recent periodic DFT studies using the GGA+U approach, and our data for dissociative adsorption on the (110) surface of PuO{sub 2} match experiment rather well, especially when dispersion corrections are included. - Graphical abstract: The electronic structures of AnO{sub 2} (An = U, Np, Pu) are studied computationally with hybrid density functional theory, and the geometries and energetics of water adsorption on the low index surfaces are presented.

  10. Comprendre les Commissions multilatérales d’interchange (CMI) et pourquoi ce serait une erreur de les réguler

    OpenAIRE

    Pierre Garello

    2013-01-01

    Dans de nombreuses juridictions les autorités de la concurrence et de la régulation des marchés remettent en cause le principe des commissions d'interchange ; commissions que l'on retrouve pourtant dans la quasi-totalité des plateformes interbancaires de paiements par carte. Il semblerait même que la Commission européenne désire abolir entièrement ces commissions, non seulement dans les plateformes existantes (comme Groupement bancaire CB, Visa ou MasterCard) mais aussi dans les plateformes q...

  11. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have a family history of periodic paralysis or thyroid disorders. Emergency symptoms include: Difficulty breathing, speaking, or swallowing ... Prevention Genetic counseling may be advised. Treating the thyroid disorder prevents attacks of weakness. Alternative Names Periodic paralysis - ...

  12. Your First Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on your abdomen or lower back. What is amenorrhea? Amenorrhea means not having a period. It is normal ... or less often than every 45 days. Glossary Amenorrhea: The absence of menstrual periods. Egg: The female ...

  13. A Gravity-Responsive Time-Keeping Protein of the Plant and Animal Cell Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morre, D. James

    2003-01-01

    The hypothesis under investigation was that a ubiquinol (NADH) oxidase protein of the cell surface with protein disulfide-thiol interchange activity (= NOX protein) is a plant and animal time-keeping ultradian (period of less than 24 h) driver of both cell enlargement and the biological clock that responds to gravity. Despite considerable work in a large number of laboratories spanning several decades, this is, to my knowledge, our work is the first demonstration of a time-keeping biochemical reaction that is both gravity-responsive and growth-related and that has been shown to determine circadian periodicity. As such, the NOX protein may represent both the long-sought biological gravity receptor and the core oscillator of the cellular biological clock. Completed studies have resulted in 12 publications and two issued NASA-owned patents of the clock activity. The gravity response and autoentrainment were characterized in cultured mammalian cells and in two plant systems together with entrainment by light and small molecules (melatonin). The molecular basis of the oscillatory behavior was investigated using spectroscopic methods (Fourier transform infrared and circular dichroism) and high resolution electron microscopy. We have also applied these findings to an understanding of the response to hypergravity. Statistical methods for analysis of time series phenomena were developed (Foster et al., 2003).

  14. Book Reviews in Periodicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettelt, Harold J.

    All recent issues of periodicals found which contain indexed book reviews are listed in this compilation from Drake Memorial Library at the New York State University at Brockport. The periodicals are listed by 29 subject headings in this informal guide designed to be used at Drake Library. The number of reviews in the periodical in a recent year…

  15. The Periodic Pyramid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennigan, Jennifer N.; Grubbs, W. Tandy

    2013-01-01

    The chemical elements present in the modern periodic table are arranged in terms of atomic numbers and chemical periodicity. Periodicity arises from quantum mechanical limitations on how many electrons can occupy various shells and subshells of an atom. The shell model of the atom predicts that a maximum of 2, 8, 18, and 32 electrons can occupy…

  16. Design and fabrication of a PET/PTFE-based piezoelectric squeeze mode drop-on-demand inkjet printhead with interchangeable nozzle

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Erqiang

    2010-09-01

    A PET/PTFE-based piezoelectric squeeze mode drop-on-demand inkjet printhead with interchangeable nozzles is designed and fabricated. The printhead chamber is comprised of PET (polyethylene terephthalate) tubing or PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene, or Teflon) tubing, which of a much softer material, than the conventionally used glass tubing. Applying the same electrical voltage, PET/PTFE-based printhead will generate a larger volume change in the material to be dispensed. The novel printhead fabricated herein has successfully dispensed liquids with viscosities up to 100 cps, as compared to 20 cps for the commercial printheads. Furthermore, PTFE-based printhead provides excellent anti-corrosive property when strongly corrosive inks are involved. The interchangeable nozzle design enables the same printhead to be fitted with nozzles of different orifice size, thus a clogged nozzle can be easily removed for cleaning or replacement. The characteristics of this novel printhead are also studied by dispensing glycerin-water solutions. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Conversion of Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status (ECOG) to Palliative Performance Scale (PPS), and the interchangeability of PPS and KPS in prognostic tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kock, Ingrid; Mirhosseini, Mehrnoush; Lau, Francis; Thai, Vincent; Downing, Michael; Quan, Hue; Lesperance, Mary; Yang, Ju

    2013-01-01

    The aim of our study was to assess whether the Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS), the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) Performance Status, and the Palliative Performance Scale (PPS) are interchangeable individually or within two prognostic tools: the Palliative Prognostic Score (PaP) and the Palliative Prognostic Index (PPI). We performed a subset analysis of a prospective comparative study of functional and prognostic tools and clinician prediction of survival. We studied 955 patients with advanced life-limiting illnesses (cancer and noncancer) in the acute care and community settings. We used a descriptive statistical model and Spearman's rank correlation to assess these interchangeabilities. There is a direct positive linear relationship between the KPS and the PPS, and a direct negative linear relationship between these tools and the ECOG. Exchange of the KPS and the PPS was possible within the PaP and the PPI. The PPS and the KPS can be used interchangeably as functional tools and within prognostic tools. The ECOG is interchangeable with the PPS and the KPS, but this interchangeability is population-specific.

  18. Middle Helladic Period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarri, Kalliopi

    1999-01-01

    administration, e.g. the administrative buildings and the sealing of products, were abandoned. The economic decline of the Middle Bronze Age affected the social stratification as well. The changes in social stratification appear in a series of completely new burial customs which show the prevalence of social......The Middle Bronze Age on Mainland Greece is also known as the Middle Helladic period. The chronological framework of this period extends from the beginnings of the second millenium - roughly 1900 - until 1550 BC, that is until the beginnings of the Mycenaean period. The Middle Helladic period...... is considered as the dark period of the cultural decline. The remains of the material culture reveal a clear retrogression while the information available on the social stratification and economy are so few and problematic in interpretation that this period is considered as the "Middle Age of Greek Prehistory...

  19. [Scientific periodicals: quality criteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Maria Cecilia Gonzaga; Krzyzanowski, Rosaly Favero

    2003-05-01

    This paper presents a historical literature review on the evaluation of periodicals and the methodology employed for their evaluation. It emphasizes the attention that should be given to the contents of the periodicals and their format based on technical standards in order to reach a global quality of the publications. This paper includes a summary of the most important aspects of the technical standards for periodicals and scientific articles.

  20. Painful menstrual periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menstruation - painful; Dysmenorrhea; Periods - painful; Cramps - menstrual; Menstrual cramps ... related activities for a few days during each menstrual cycle. Painful menstruation is the leading cause of ...

  1. Second Period Access Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maisondieu, Christophe; Giebhardt, Jochen; Tetu, Amelie

    The work described in this publication has received support from the European Community - Research Infrastructure Action under the FP7 “Capacities” Specific Programme through grant agreement number 262552, MaRINET. Project Periodic Report. 2nd Period: October 2012 – March 2014 inclusive....

  2. The Living Periodic Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahlik, Mary Schrodt

    2005-01-01

    To help make the abstract world of chemistry more concrete eighth-grade students, the author has them create a living periodic table that can be displayed in the classroom or hallway. This display includes information about the elements arranged in the traditional periodic table format, but also includes visual real-world representations of the…

  3. On some periodicity effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorokin, Sergey V.

    2015-01-01

    The talk is concerned with the modelling of wave propagation in and vibration of periodic elastic structures. Although analysis of wave-guide properties of infinite periodic structures is a well establish research subject, some issues have not yet been fully addressed in the literature. The aim...... of the talk is to illustrate these issues in simple examples and to discuss possible applications and generalisations. First, the eigenfrequency spectra of finite periodic structures are compared with the location of stop-bands for their infinite counterparts for a hierarchy of four mathematical models....... In each case, special attention is paid to eigenfrequencies and eigenmodes of a single periodicity cell with appropriate boundary conditions. The influence of the amount of periodicity cells in a finite compound structure on its eigenfrequency spectrum is analyzed. Several features common...

  4. Periods and Nori motives

    CERN Document Server

    Huber, Annette

    2017-01-01

    This book casts the theory of periods of algebraic varieties in the natural setting of Madhav Nori’s abelian category of mixed motives. It develops Nori’s approach to mixed motives from scratch, thereby filling an important gap in the literature, and then explains the connection of mixed motives to periods, including a detailed account of the theory of period numbers in the sense of Kontsevich-Zagier and their structural properties. Period numbers are central to number theory and algebraic geometry, and also play an important role in other fields such as mathematical physics. There are long-standing conjectures about their transcendence properties, best understood in the language of cohomology of algebraic varieties or, more generally, motives. Readers of this book will discover that Nori’s unconditional construction of an abelian category of motives (over fields embeddable into the complex numbers) is particularly well suited for this purpose. Notably, Kontsevich's formal period algebra represents a to...

  5. Comparison of two recombinant hepatitis B vaccines and their interchangeability in Argentine infants Comparación de dos vacunas recombinantes contra la hepatitis B y su intercambiabilidad en lactantes argentinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Tregnaghi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare two pediatric recombinant hepatitis B vaccines-the Engerix-B reference vaccine and the Euvax-B vaccine-in terms of immunogenicity and reactogenicity, and also to investigate their interchangeability, that is, whether a three-dose hepatitis B vaccination schedule begun with a first dose of Engerix-B could be completed with two doses of Euvax-B. METHODS: This study was conducted in the city of Córdoba, Argentina, from March 1999 through February 2000. Three groups of Argentine newborns (100 per group were vaccinated at 0, 1, and 6 months of age with hepatitis B vaccine: group A, three doses of Euvax-B; group B, three doses of Engerix-B; and group C, one dose of Engerix-B followed by two doses of Euvax-B. Reactogenicity was evaluated based on parental reporting of any solicited local or systemic event occurring during the 7-day period following vaccination. Whether Euvax-B and Engerix-B were clinically identical was assessed in terms of the seroprotection rates (antibodies to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBsAg >10 milli-international units per mL (mIU/mL 2 months after the third vaccination. RESULTS: Reactogenicity was low in all three groups. Five months after the second dose (that is, immediately prior to the third vaccination, seroprotection rates were 95.9%, 94.7%, and 90.2% for groups A, B, and C, respectively. Two months after the third dose all subjects were seroprotected, with geometric mean concentrations of anti-HBsAg of 2 468.1, 1 714.8, and 2 075.3 mIU/mL for groups A, B, and C, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Both of the recombinant hepatitis B vaccines that we studied were well tolerated and highly immunogenic. Euvax-B was clinically identical (not inferior to the Engerix-B reference vaccine, and either vaccine could be used to achieve the World Health Organization goal of immunizing all infants against hepatitis B. Further, Euvax-B can be safely used in infants given an initial dose of either Euvax-B or Engerix

  6. THE ENSURING FUNCTIONAL INTERCHANGEABILITY WHEN FORMING THE CONTROL COMPLEX OF INDICATORS OF THE INITIAL CONDITION OF THE CONSUMER OF SPORTS AND IMPROVING SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Khorloohiyn

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of key elements of an engineering component quality management system of process of provision of sports and improving services in gyms is the subsystem of diagnostics of physical client state. The aim of the study was to increase in efficiency of functioning of a quality management system of process of provision of sports and improving services in gyms due to development of techniques of incorrect estimation of the initial client state.The task of formation of a complex of indices of the initial status by criterion of necessary informtiveness is formulated. The principle of the functional interchangeability as a methodological basis for its decision is reasonable. The hierarchical structure of an integral assessment of the initial client state of gym is offered. On its basis the hierarchical model of rating of informtiveness of a complex of the single (measured indices, the providing objectivity of an integral assessment of the initial status is developed. The correctness of model is provided at the expense of a formulation of a complex of assumptions and original technology of application of different methods of expert estimation.The result of simulation of informtiveness of an integral assessment of the initial client state for a specific type of service and the purposes of physical enhancement includes: 1 library of sets of single indices, for each of which the technique and a monitoring aid, and also an informtiveness assessment in points, 2 the rules of support of the functional interchangeability of alternative complexes of indices by criterion of sufficiency of informtiveness of a complex based on additive models and the accepted restrictions is defined.The concept of a technique of formation of a complex of the measured and (or evaluated indices of the initial client state for the specific type of sports and improving service adapted under material opportunities of gym on the one hand, and responding to criterion of necessary

  7. Historically defined autobiographical periods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Norman R.; Hansen, Tia G. B.; Lee, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    over time and theoretical implications are discussed, notably by introducing a new approach to autobiographical memory, Transition Theory, which assumes that autobiographical memory is organized by transitional events that can be selfinitiated or externally imposed - historically defined......The chapter reviews a research programme that has demonstrated the existence of historically defined autobiographical periods and identified the conditions that bring them about. Data from four samples of World War II-generation adults show that historically defined autobiographical periods endure...... autobiographical periods are the latter....

  8. Hypokalemic periodic paralysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Rott K, Rudel R, Lehmann-Horn F. Muscle channelopathies: myotor and periodic paralyses. In: Darras BT, Jones ... Elsevier; 2015:chap 38. Kerchner GA, Ptacek LJ. Channelopathies. In: Daroff RB, Jankovic J, Mazziotta JC, Pomeroy ...

  9. Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Rott K, Rudel R, Lehmann-Horn F. Muscle channelopathies: myotonias and periodic paralyses. In: Darras BT, Jones ... Elsevier; 2015:chap 38. Kerchner GA, Ptacek LJ. Channelopathies: episodic and electrical disorders of nervous system. In: ...

  10. The Periodic Table CD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Alton J.; Holmes, Jon L.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the characteristics of the digitized version of The Periodic Table Videodisc. Provides details about the organization of information and access to the data via Macintosh and Windows computers. (DDR)

  11. Setting the Periodic Table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saturnelli, Annette

    1985-01-01

    Examines problems resulting from different forms of the periodic table, indicating that New York State schools use a form reflecting the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry's 1984 recommendations. Other formats used and reasons for standardization are discussed. (DH)

  12. Establishing contract periods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huffman, F.C.

    1978-01-01

    The lead time for executing the Adjustable Fixed-Commitment (AFC) contract and exceptions which may be considered are discussed. The initial delivery period is also discussed. Delays, deferrals, and schedule adjustment charges are finally considered

  13. Familial Periodic Paralyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hypokalemic form. Muscle spasms are common. View Full Definition Treatment Treatment of the periodic paralyses focuses on preventing further attacks and relieving acute symptoms. Avoiding carbohydrate-rich meals and strenuous exercise, and taking acetazolamide daily may ...

  14. Super periodic potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Mohammd; Mandal, Bhabani Prasad

    2018-04-01

    In this paper we introduce the concept of super periodic potential (SPP) of arbitrary order n, n ∈I+, in one dimension. General theory of wave propagation through SPP of order n is presented and the reflection and transmission coefficients are derived in their closed analytical form by transfer matrix formulation. We present scattering features of super periodic rectangular potential and super periodic delta potential as special cases of SPP. It is found that the symmetric self-similarity is the special case of super periodicity. Thus by identifying a symmetric fractal potential as special cases of SPP, one can obtain the tunnelling amplitude for a particle from such fractal potential. By using the formalism of SPP we obtain the close form expression of tunnelling amplitude of a particle for general Cantor and Smith-Volterra-Cantor potentials.

  15. Biosynthetic studies on the tropane alkaloid hyoscyamine in Datura stramonium; hyoscyamine is stable to in vivo oxidation and is not derived from littorine via a vicinal interchange process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Stephen; O'Hagan, David

    2002-10-01

    The conversion of littorine to hyoscyamine has been investigated by feeding deuterium labelled (RS)-[2-(2)H]-, [3, 3-(2)H(2)]-, [2, 3, 3-(2)H(3)]- phenyllactic acids to transformed root cultures of Datura stramonium. Isolation and GC-MS analyses of the isotope incorporation into the resultant hyoscyamine does not support the involvement of a vicinal interchange process operating during the isomerisation of littorine to hyoscyamine. Additionally a metabolism study with [1'-13C, 3', 3'-(2)H(2)]-hyoscyamine has established that the alkaloid is metabolically stable at C-3' with no evidence for a reversible in vivo oxidation process to the corresponding aldehyde. The data do not support an S-adenosy-L-methionine (SAM 5)/co-enzyme-B(12) mediated process for the isomerisation of littorine to hyoscyamine.

  16. Numerical Study of Velocity Shear Stabilization of 3D and Theoretical Considerations for Centrifugally Confined Plasmas and Other Interchange-Limited Fusion Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassam, Adil [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    2015-09-21

    We studied the feasibility of resonantly driving GAMs in tokamaks. A numerical simulation was carried out and showed the essential features and limitations. It was shown further that GAMs can damp by phase-mixing, from temperature gradients, or nonlinear detuning, thus broadening the resonance. Experimental implications of this were quantified. Theoretical support was provided for the Maryland Centrifugal Experiment, funded in a separate grant by DOE. Plasma diamagnetism from supersonic rotation was established. A theoretical model was built to match the data. Additional support to the experiment in terms of numerical simulation of the interchange turbulence was provided. Spectra from residual turbulence on account of velocity shear suppression were obtained and compared favorably to experiment. A new drift wave, driven solely by the thermal force, was identified.

  17. The Great American Biotic Interchange in frogs: multiple and early colonization of Central America by the South American genus Pristimantis (Anura: Craugastoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto-Sánchez, Nelsy Rocío; Ibáñez, Roberto; Madriñán, Santiago; Sanjur, Oris I; Bermingham, Eldredge; Crawford, Andrew J

    2012-03-01

    The completion of the land bridge between North and South America approximately 3.5-3.1 million years ago (Ma) initiated a tremendous biogeographic event called the Great American Biotic Interchange (GABI), described principally from the mammalian fossil record. The history of biotic interchange between continents for taxonomic groups with poor fossil records, however, is not well understood. Molecular and fossil data suggest that a number of plant and animal lineages crossed the Isthmus of Panama well before 3.5 Ma, leading biologists to speculate about trans-oceanic dispersal mechanisms. Here we present a molecular phylogenetic analysis of the frog genus Pristimantis based on 189 individuals of 137 species, including 71 individuals of 31 species from Panama and Colombia. DNA sequence data were obtained from three mitochondrial (COI, 12S, 16S) and two nuclear (RAG-1 and Tyr) genes, for a total of 4074 base pairs. The resulting phylogenetic hypothesis showed statistically significant conflict with most recognized taxonomic groups within Pristimantis, supporting only the rubicundus Species Series, and the Pristimantis myersi and Pristimantis pardalis Species Groups as monophyletic. Inference of ancestral areas based on a likelihood model of geographic range evolution via dispersal, local extinction, and cladogenesis (DEC) suggested that the colonization of Central America by South American Pristimantis involved at least 11 independent events. Relaxed-clock analyses of divergence times suggested that at least eight of these invasions into Central America took place prior to 4 Ma, mainly in the Miocene. These findings contribute to a growing list of molecular-based biogeographic studies presenting apparent temporal conflicts with the traditional GABI model. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Testing parent dyad interchangeability in the parent proxy-report of PedsQL™ 4.0: a differential item functioning analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doostfatemeh, Marziyeh; Ayatollahi, Seyyed Mohammad Taghi; Jafari, Peyman

    2015-08-01

    In child-parent agreement studies in the field of paediatric health-related quality of life (HRQoL), little attention has been paid to the effect of gender in parental proxy rating of children's HRQoL. This study aims to test the potential interchangeability of parent dyads in reporting children's HRQoL on both item and scale levels of the PedsQL™ 4.0 instrument, using the approach of differential item functioning (DIF). The PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales were completed by 576 father-and-mother dyads. A polytomous item response theory model, graded response model, was used to detect DIF across fathers and mothers. Assessment at item level showed that fathers and mothers perceived the meaning of items of the PedsQL™ 4.0 consistently. Regarding the scale level, a moderate to high level of agreement was observed between mothers' and fathers' reports on all similar subscales. Although the significant mean score differences in total, physical and emotional functioning indicated that fathers gave higher scores to their children, the small effect size implied that this difference may not be practically meaningful. Our findings revealed that discrepancy in parent dyads in rating children's HRQoL is a "real" difference and not an artefact due to measurement non-invariance. Fathers were seen to have slightly different insights into their children, especially for emotional functioning, but overall the results were not all that different. This suggests that paternal proxy-reports can be included in studies along with maternal proxy-reports, and the two may be combined when looking at parent-child agreement. Parent-child agreement studies in Iran are not affected by parents' gender, and therefore, researchers may rely on the assumption of the interchangeability of fathers and mothers in these studies.

  19. A review of the literature analyzing benefits and concerns of infliximab biosimilar CT-P13 for the treatment of rheumatologic diseases: focus on interchangeability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becciolini A

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Andrea Becciolini,1 Maria Gabriella Raimondo,2 Chiara Crotti,2 Elena Agape,2 Martina Biggioggero,2 Ennio Giulio Favalli1 1Department of Rheumatology, 2Department of Clinical Sciences and Health Community, University of Milan, Division of Rheumatology, Gaetano Pini Institute, Milan, Italy Abstract: The introduction of biological agents drastically changed the treatment paradigm of inflammatory arthritides, ameliorating the natural history of the diseases but concomitantly increasing the drug costs due to the manufacturing process. On this concern, biosimilar drugs may represent a valid option for reducing this elevated cost and increasing the availability of these highly effective treatments. Recently, CT-P13, the first biosimilar of infliximab, has been approved with the same indications established for the reference product (RP, and its daily use is progressively increasing. However, the experience with biosimilar drugs in the field of rheumatology is still limited, raising potential doubts and concerns on their correct management in real-life settings. Comparability analysis between CT-P13 and its RP was evaluated in equivalence randomized controlled trials (RCTs – PLANETRA and PLANETAS – performed on patients with rheumatoid arthritis and axial spondylitis, respectively. CT-P13 and RP showed similar profile in terms of quality, biological activity, safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy. However, the interchangeability between infliximab RP and its biosimilar still represents the most challenging issue because of a lack of a long-lasting experience. To date, reassuring preliminary data on this topic were reported in open-label extensions of PLANETRA and PLANETAS RCTs and in ongoing real-life observational studies. These findings, taken all together, significantly affect the landscape of biosimilar regulatory pathways and strongly support CT-P13 introduction as a great opportunity for expanding the accessibility to these very effective and

  20. Periodic safety analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouffon, A.; Zermizoglou, R.

    1990-12-01

    The IAEA Safety Guide 50-SG-S8 devoted to 'Safety Aspects of Foundations of Nuclear Power Plants' indicates that operator of a NPP should establish a program for inspection of safe operation during construction, start-up and service life of the plant for obtaining data needed for estimating the life time of structures and components. At the same time the program should ensure that the safety margins are appropriate. Periodic safety analysis are an important part of the safety inspection program. Periodic safety reports is a method for testing the whole system or a part of the safety system following the precise criteria. Periodic safety analyses are not meant for qualification of the plant components. Separate analyses are devoted to: start-up, qualification of components and materials, and aging. All these analyses are described in this presentation. The last chapter describes the experience obtained for PWR-900 and PWR-1300 units from 1986-1989

  1. Periodic table of elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluck, E.; Heumann, K.G.

    1985-01-01

    Following a recommendation by the International Union for Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC), the groups of the periodic table shall be numbered from 1 to 18, instead of I to VIII as before. The recommendations has been approved of by the Committee on Nomenclature of the American Chemical Society. The new system abandons the distinction between main groups (a) and auxiliary groups (b), which in the past frequently has been the reason for misunderstandings between European and American chemists, due to different handling. The publishing house VCH Verlagsgesellschaft recently produced a new periodic table that shows the old and the new numbering system together at a glance, so that chemists will have time to get familiar with the new system. In addition the new periodic table represents an extensive data compilation arranged by elements. The front page lists the chemical properties of elements, the back page their physical properties. (orig./EF) [de

  2. Periodic Table of Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mike

    1998-01-01

    Presents an exercise in which an eighth-grade science teacher decorated the classroom with a periodic table of students. Student photographs were arranged according to similarities into vertical columns. Students were each assigned an atomic number according to their placement in the table. The table is then used to teach students about…

  3. A Modern Periodic Table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrenden-Harker, B. D.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a modern Periodic Table based on the electron distribution in the outermost shell and the order of filling of the sublevels within the shells. Enables a student to read off directly the electronic configuration of the element and the order in which filling occurs. (JRH)

  4. Hereditary periodic fever syndromes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McDermott, MF; Frenkel, J

    Hereditary periodic fever syndromes are defined by recurrent attacks of generalised inflammation for which no infectious or auto-immune cause can be identified. For most of these disorders, the molecular basis has recently been elucidated. This has opened the prospect of novel therapeutic

  5. Almost periodic Schroedinger operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellissard, J.; Lima, R.

    1984-01-01

    These lectures are devoted to recent developments in the theory of almost-periodic Schroedinger Operators. We specially describe the algebraic point of view, with applications to gap-labelling theorems. Particular models are also presented which exhibit various spectral properties. (orig.)

  6. Description of adenine and cytosine on Au(111) nano surface using different DFT functionals (PW91PW91, wB97XD, M06-2X, M06-L and CAM-B3LYP) in the framework of ONIOM scheme: Non-periodic calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrokhpour, Hossein; Jouypazadeh, Hamidreza

    2017-05-01

    In this work, the adsorption of the adenine (AD) and cytosine (CY) on the Au(111) nano surface (AD@Au and CY@Au) have been examined in the framework of combined quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) methodology using two-layer ONIOM method and different density functional theory (DFT) functionals in the absence of periodic boundary conditions (PBC). It was found by selecting an appropriate size for the Au surface, the results obtained using QM/MM method were in good agreement with those obtained via the periodic DFT calculations with the same functional. The calculated adsorption energies (Ead) using M06-2X and M06-L functional were in good agreement with those, recently, obtained using periodic DFT calculations considering PBC and employing van der Waals (vdW) DFT functionals. The correlation diagram between the molecular orbitals of isolated deformed AD (AD-D) and CY (CY-D) and their molecular orbitals in AD@Au and CY@Au systems have also been investigated in this work.

  7. Periodic mesoporous silica gels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, M.T.; Martin, J.E.; Odinek, J.G. [and others

    1996-06-01

    We have synthesized monolithic particulate gels of periodic mesoporous silica by adding tetramethoxysilane to a homogeneous alkaline micellar precursor solution. The gels exhibit 5 characteristic length scales over 4 orders of magnitude: fractal domains larger than the particle size (>500 nm), particles that are {approximately}150 to 500 nm in diameter, interparticle pores that are on the order of the particle size, a feature in the gas adsorption measurements that indicates pores {approximately}10-50 nm, and periodic hexagonal arrays of {approximately}3 nm channels within each particle. The wet gel monoliths exhibit calculated densities as low as {approximately}0.02 g/cc; the dried and calcined gels have bulk densities that range from {approximately}0.3-0.5 g/cc. The materials possess large interparticle ({approximately}1.0-2.3 cc/g) and intraparticle ({approximately}0.6 cc/g) porosities.

  8. ACTIVIDAD MICROBIANA EN SEDIMENTOS SUPERFICIALES DEL BOSQUE DE MANGLAR (Rhizophora mangle DE LA BAHÍA DE PERTIGALETE (ANZOÁTEGUI, VENEZUELA, DURANTE LOS PERÍODOS DE SURGENCIA Y TRANSICIÓN | MICROBIAL ACTIVITY IN SURFACE SEDIMENTS OF MANGROVE FOREST OF PERTIGALETE BAY (ANZOÁTEGUI, VENEZUELA, DURING THE UP WELLING AND TRANSITION PERIODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meximara Rodríguez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Pertigalete Bay is bordered by an extensive mangrove zone and it is affected by an intense boating and sailing traffic, the pouring of the waste water coming from the nearing population and effluent from the company Cements of Venezuela. The objective of this research was to determinate the microbial activity and the possible anthropogenic impact in surface sediments of mangrove zones in the Pertigalete Bay during the up welling and transition periods. The microbial biomass (Cmic, the basal respiration (RB, dehydrogenases activity (DHS, fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis (HDAF and the metabolic quotient (qCO2 were used in the determination of the microbial activity. In three zones of the bay three transects of 30 m of length were established with a separation of 10 m among them. In each transect, three sampling points were placed and triplicate samples of the surface sediments were taken from each. The results showed that during the up welling period there is a higher Cmic in the three selected zones: 851.01; 539.87 and 533.66 mg Cmic kg-1 sediment in zones I, II and III, respectively. The DHS indicated that there is a predominance of the anaerobic heterotrophic population during this period. The HDAF confirmed that there is a higher heterotrophic activity during the up welling and the qCO2 indicated a greater efficiency in the use of carbon by the microorganism present in the sediments. The results showed that the predominance of the microbial flora and its activity in the sediments is mainly determined by the up welling and transition periods, especially in the zone I, which is less exposed to the anthropogenic action.

  9. Polysheroidal periodic functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truskova, N.F.

    1985-01-01

    Separation of variables in the Helmholtz N-dimensional (N≥4) equation in polyspheroidal coordinate systems leads to the necessity of solving equations going over into equations for polyspheroidal periodic functions used for solving the two-centre problem in quantum mechanics, the three-body problem with Coulomb interaction, etc. For these functions the expansions are derived in terms of the Jacobi polynomials and Bessel functions. Their basic properties, asymptotics are considered. The algorithm of their computer calculations is developed. The results of numerical calculations are given

  10. Using periodicity to mitigate ground vibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard

    2015-01-01

    of energy transmission can be obtained within the medium and high frequency ranges, barriers are a poor solution at low frequencies. As an alternative, a periodic change in the properties of the soil can be introduced—to the geometry and/or to the material. Periodic structures are known to act as filters...... for wave propagation, effectively reducing the transmission of energy in certain frequency bands known as stop bands or band gaps, thus only allowing propagation in the so-called pass bands. In this paper, a stratified ground with two soil layers is considered and two types of periodicity is analysed......: A soil with periodic stiffening (ground improvement) and a ground with periodic changes in the surface elevation obtained by artificial landscaping. By means of a two-dimensional finite-element model, the stiffness and mass matrices are determined for a single cell of the ground with horizonal...

  11. Area balance method for calculation of air interchange in fire-resesistance testing laboratory for building products and constructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sargsyan Samvel Volodyaevich

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Fire-resistance testing laboratory for building products and constructions is a production room with a substantial excess heat (over 23 W/m . Significant sources of heat inside the aforementioned laboratory are firing furnace, designed to simulate high temperature effects on structures and products of various types in case of fire development. The excess heat production in the laboratory during the tests is due to firing furnaces. The laboratory room is considered as an object consisting of two control volumes (CV, in each of which there may be air intake and air removal, pollutant absorption or emission. In modeling air exchange conditions the following processes are being considered: the processes connected with air movement in the laboratory room: the jet stream in a confined space, distribution of air parameters, air motion and impurity diffusion in the ventilated room. General upward ventilation seems to be the most rational due to impossibility of using local exhaust ventilation. It is connected with the peculiarities of technological processes in the laboratory. Air jets spouted through large-perforated surface mounted at the height of 2 m from the floor level, "flood" the lower control volume, entrained by natural convective currents from heat sources upward and removed from the upper area. In order to take advantage of the proposed method of the required air exchange calculation, you must enter additional conditions, taking into account the provision of sanitary-hygienic characteristics of the current at the entrance of the service (work area. Exhaust air containing pollutants (combustion products, is expelled into the atmosphere by vertical jet discharge. Dividing ventilated rooms into two control volumes allows describing the research process in a ventilated room more accurately and finding the air exchange in the lab room during the tests on a more reasonable basis, allowing to provide safe working conditions for the staff without

  12. The trade interchange between Latin America and South Korea: The impact of technological development in the trade integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Merritt Tapia

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Trade relations between Latin America and the Republic of Korea started in the early sixties, but only after the beginning of the new century have become more dynamic, especially for the Asian nation. Behind the Korean export boom is the governmental thrust to science and technology, which has resulted in the production of goods with higher added value. The pattern of trade specialization followed by South Korea has allowed it to become one of the leading exporting nations of high technology goods in the world. On the other hand, Latin American nations have also enjoyed a remarkable growth in exports in the last decade, although their exporting profile contrast with that of Korea because their exports tend to be mainly primary products with low added value and some semi-finished goods . The pattern of specialization in Latin America is explained by its provision of vast natural resources, giving it a comparative advantage in world commodity markets. Unfortunately these advantages have not translated into sustained industrial developments throughout the region. In this context, the purpose of this paper is to illustrate the trade trends between South Korea and Latin America in the last ten years in an attempt to understand the reasons behind the asymmetries in trade flows that have been set in this period. The underlying assumption is that the commercial relationship between both parties depends on the pattern of specialization emerged in recent times and responds to the institutional policies implemented by both South Korea and by Latin American nations. The case of Mexico is highlighted because it is getting historic deficits with the Asian nation.

  13. Micro- and nano-volume samples by electrothermal, near-torch vaporization sample introduction using removable, interchangeable and portable rhenium coiled-filament assemblies and axially-viewed inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiei, Hamid R.; Lai, Bryant; Karanassios, Vassili

    2012-11-01

    An electrothermal, near-torch vaporization (NTV) sample introduction for micro- or nano-volume samples is described. Samples were pipetted onto coiled-filament assemblies that were purposely developed to be removable and interchangeable and were dried and vaporized into a small-volume vaporization chamber that clips onto any ICP torch with a ball joint. Interchangeable assemblies were also constructed to be small-size (e.g., less than 3 cm long with max diameter of 0.65 cm) and light-weight (1.4 g) so that they can be portable. Interchangeable assemblies with volume-capacities in three ranges (i.e., inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry) system and NTV was optimized using ICP-AES and 8 elements (Pb, Cd, Zn, V, Ba, Mg, Be and Ca). Precision was 1.0-2.3% (peak height) and 1.1-2.4% (peak area). Detection limits (obtained using 5 μL volumes) expressed in absolute-amounts ranged between 4 pg for Pb to 0.3 fg (~ 5 million atoms) for Ca. Detection limits expressed in concentration units (obtained using 100 μL volumes of diluted, single-element standard solutions) were: 50 pg/mL for Pb; 10 pg/mL for Cd; 9 pg/mL for Zn; 1 pg/mL for V; 0.9 pg/mL for Ba; 0.5 pg/mL for Mg; 50 fg/mL for Be; and 3 fg/mL for Ca. Analytical capability and utility was demonstrated using the determination of Pb in pg/mL levels of diluted natural water Certified Reference Material (CRM) and the determination of Zn in 80 nL volumes of the liquid extracted from an individual vesicle. It is shown that portable and interchangeable assemblies with dried sample residues on them can be transported without analyte loss (for the concentrations tested), thus opening up the possibility for "taking part of the lab to the sample" applications, such as testing for Cu concentration-compliance with the lead-copper rule of the Environmental Protection Agency. It is also shown that interchangeable assemblies with volume-capacities in the ranges mentioned above can be used interchangeably in the

  14. Redes de participación e intercambios en la radio pública: los podcasting Networks of Participation and Communicative Interchanges in Public Radio: Podcasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Salgado Santamaría

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available El desarrollo de los podcasting, como sistema añadido de la ciberradio, impulsa a las redes de participación e intercambios comunicativos de interés social, que exhiben numerosas ventajas frente a las prácticas radiofónicas conocidas. La difusión que la radio pública realiza de los podcasts, la colocan en el actual proceso de convergencia tecnológica, y la sitúan en una sociedad de la información y del conocimiento, capaz de ofrecer diferentes servicios al alcance de todos los ciudadanos. Sólo la introducción de nuevos contenidos y servicios que aporten valor añadido a los existentes y satisfagan las necesidades de sus usuarios, procurarán la rentabilidad de este sistema. The development of podcasting as an additional system of cyberradio stimulates the appearance of networks of participation and communicative interchanges of social interest, and has numerous advantages over conventional radio practices. The spreading of podcasts through public radio situates it within the process of technological convergence and in an Information and Knowledge society which is able to offer different services within reach of all citizens. Only the introduction of new contents and services that contribute added value to the existing ones and satisfy the needs of users will make this system profitable.

  15. Effect of the helically-trapped energetic-ion-driven resistive interchange modes on energetic ion confinement in the Large Helical Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, K.; Isobe, M.; Kawase, H.; Nishitani, T.; Seki, R.; Osakabe, M.; LHD Experiment Group

    2018-04-01

    The effect of the helically-trapped energetic-ion-driven resistive interchange modes (EICs) on energetic ion confinement is studied in the Large Helical Device deuterium plasmas. Neutron diagnostics such as the neutron flux monitor and the vertical neutron camera (VNC) are used in order to measure neutrons mainly created by beam-plasma reactions. The line-integrated neutron profiles are obtained by VNC in magnetohydrodynamic-quiet plasma with various neutral beam (NB) injection patterns. The profiles are consistent with that expected by the beam ion density calculated using orbit-following simulations. Significant decreases of the total neutron emission rate (S n) and the neutron counting rate of the VNC (C n) in central cords are observed to be synchronized with EIC bursts with perpendicular-NB injection. The drop rates of both S n and C n increase with EIC amplitude and reach around 50%. The line-integrated neutron profiles before and after EIC burst show that in the central cords, C n decrease due to EIC burst whereas there is almost no change in the other cords. The experimental results suggests that the effect of EIC on helically-trapped beam ion is substantial, however the effect of passing beam ion is not significant.

  16. A Low-Cost, Simplified Platform of Interchangeable, Ambient Ionization Sources for Rapid, Forensic Evidence Screening on Portable Mass Spectrometric Instrumentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick W. Fedick

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Portable mass spectrometers (MS are becoming more prevalent due to improved instrumentation, commercialization, and the robustness of new ionization methodologies. To increase utility towards diverse field-based applications, there is an inherent need for rugged ionization source platforms that are simple, yet robust towards analytical scenarios that may arise. Ambient ionization methodologies have evolved to target specific real-world problems and fulfill requirements of the analysis at hand. Ambient ionization techniques continue to advance towards higher performance, with specific sources showing variable proficiency depending on application area. To realize the full potential and applicability of ambient ionization methods, a selection of sources may be more prudent, showing a need for a low-cost, flexible ionization source platform. This manuscript describes a centralized system that was developed for portable MS systems that incorporates modular, rapidly-interchangeable ionization sources comprised of low-cost, commercially-available parts. Herein, design considerations are reported for a suite of ambient ionization sources that can be crafted with minimal machining or customization. Representative spectral data is included to demonstrate applicability towards field processing of forensic evidence. While this platform is demonstrated on portable instrumentation, retrofitting to lab-scale MS systems is anticipated.

  17. What Do Language Teachers Think about Interchange and American English File? Teacher’s Evaluation of Two ESL Textbooks in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Soleimani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Materials evaluation is a critically significant feature of a coherent curriculum to achieve the objectives of pedagogy. To this end, two EFL textbooks commonly taught in language institutes in Iran, namely Interchange series and American English File, were selected for evaluation, seeking teachers’ viewpoints on the effectiveness of the two textbooks. Thirty EFL teachers who had used these two textbooks in their teaching experience participated in the study. A modified version of Litz’s (2005 teacher textbook evaluation form was used to collect data. Analysis of the collected data showed that the teachers were satisfied with the two materials. Moreover, it was found that the difference between the two textbooks was not significant in four features including practical considerations, layout and design, activities, and skills but this difference was significant in two features including language type as well as subject and content. The authors of the two textbooks, the administrators of language institutes, curriculum and material developers, and also students interested in learning EFL can benefit from the findings of this study.

  18. NEW GUN CAPABILITY WITH INTERCHANGABLE BARRELS TO INVESTIGATE LOW VELOCITY IMPACT REGIMES AT THE LAWRENCE LIVERMORE NATIONAL LABORATORY HIGH EXPLOSIVES APPLICATIONS FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandersall, K S; Behn, A; Gresshoff, M; Jr., L F; Chiao, P I

    2009-09-16

    A new gas gun capability is being activated at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories located in the High Explosives Applications Facility (HEAF). The single stage light gas (dry air, nitrogen, or helium) gun has interchangeable barrels ranging from 25.4 mm to 76.2 mm in diameter with 1.8 meters in length and is being fabricated by Physics Applications, Inc. Because it is being used for safety studies involving explosives, the gun is planned for operation inside a large enclosed firing tank, with typical velocities planned in the range of 10-300 m/s. Three applications planned for this gun include: low velocity impact of detonator or detonator/booster assemblies with various projectile shapes, the Steven Impact test that involves impact initiation of a cased explosive target, and the Taylor impact test using a cylindrical explosive sample impacted onto a rigid anvil for fracture studies of energetic materials. A highlight of the gun features, outline on work in progress for implementing this capability, and discussion of the planned areas of research will be included.

  19. Interchange Reconnection Associated with a Confined Filament Eruption: Implications for the Source of Transient Cold-dense Plasma in Solar Winds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Ruisheng; Chen, Yao; Wang, Bing; Li, Gang; Xiang, Yongyuan

    2017-01-01

    The cold-dense plasma is occasionally detected in the solar wind with in situ data, but the source of the cold-dense plasma remains illusive. Interchange reconnections (IRs) between closed fields and nearby open fields are known to contribute to the formation of solar winds. We present a confined filament eruption associated with a puff-like coronal mass ejection (CME) on 2014 December 24. The filament underwent successive activations and finally erupted, due to continuous magnetic flux cancelations and emergences. The confined erupting filament showed a clear untwist motion, and most of the filament material fell back. During the eruption, some tiny blobs escaped from the confined filament body, along newly formed open field lines rooted around the south end of the filament, and some bright plasma flowed from the north end of the filament to remote sites at nearby open fields. The newly formed open field lines shifted southward with multiple branches. The puff-like CME also showed multiple bright fronts and a clear southward shift. All the results indicate an intermittent IR existed between closed fields of the confined erupting filament and nearby open fields, which released a portion of filament material (blobs) to form the puff-like CME. We suggest that the IR provides a possible source of cold-dense plasma in the solar wind.

  20. Interchange Reconnection Associated with a Confined Filament Eruption: Implications for the Source of Transient Cold-dense Plasma in Solar Winds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Ruisheng; Chen, Yao; Wang, Bing [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy and Solar-Terrestrial Environment, and Institute of Space Sciences, Shandong University, Weihai 264209 (China); Li, Gang [Department of Physics and CSPAR, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Xiang, Yongyuan, E-mail: ruishengzheng@sdu.edu.cn [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650216 (China)

    2017-05-01

    The cold-dense plasma is occasionally detected in the solar wind with in situ data, but the source of the cold-dense plasma remains illusive. Interchange reconnections (IRs) between closed fields and nearby open fields are known to contribute to the formation of solar winds. We present a confined filament eruption associated with a puff-like coronal mass ejection (CME) on 2014 December 24. The filament underwent successive activations and finally erupted, due to continuous magnetic flux cancelations and emergences. The confined erupting filament showed a clear untwist motion, and most of the filament material fell back. During the eruption, some tiny blobs escaped from the confined filament body, along newly formed open field lines rooted around the south end of the filament, and some bright plasma flowed from the north end of the filament to remote sites at nearby open fields. The newly formed open field lines shifted southward with multiple branches. The puff-like CME also showed multiple bright fronts and a clear southward shift. All the results indicate an intermittent IR existed between closed fields of the confined erupting filament and nearby open fields, which released a portion of filament material (blobs) to form the puff-like CME. We suggest that the IR provides a possible source of cold-dense plasma in the solar wind.

  1. Design, Construction and Evaluation of an Interchangeable Digital System to Measure Slip and Ground Speed of Existing 2WD Tractors in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Khosravi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The majority of existing tractors in Iran are not equipped with any tools to measure and display slip and ground speed. This is mainly due to the lack of national standards for measuring tools and instruments of tractors. In current research, an interchangeable system for two wheel drive tractors has been designed. Furthermore, it has been assessed after construction. To measure actual and theoretical ground speed, four rotary encoders for sensing the rotation of front and rear wheels have been utilized. Slip and ground speed were measured by means of software which has been developed in an ATmega16PU microprocessor. The measured slip and speed are digitally displayed on tractor dashboard. To evaluate the performance of the system, the measured values of ground speed and slip were compared with their calculated values obtained from conventional method. The Micro-controller has been programmed in such a way that the effect of front wheel sliding on slip is eliminated. In all evaluation conditions (in field and on asphalt, the maximum difference between system measurements for slip and speed and calculated slip and speed via conventional method was 2.4% and 0.2 km h-1, respectively. With slight alteration this system can be fitted on any kind of exiting two wheel drive tractors in the country.

  2. Uruguay - Surface Weather Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surface weather observation forms for 26 stations in Uruguay. Period of record 1896-2005, with two to eight observations per day. Files created through a...

  3. Surface Weather Observations Monthly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surface Weather Observation 1001 Forms is a set of historical manuscript records for the period 1893-1948. The collection includes two very similar form types: Form...

  4. Periodically modulated dark states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yingying; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Wenxian

    2018-04-01

    Phenomena of electromagnetically induced transparency (PEIT) may be interpreted by the Autler-Townes Splitting (ATS), where the coupled states are split by the coupling laser field, or by the quantum destructive interference (QDI), where the atomic phases caused by the coupling laser and the probe laser field cancel. We propose modulated experiments to explore the PEIT in an alternative way by periodically modulating the coupling and the probe fields in a Λ-type three-level system initially in a dark state. Our analytical and numerical results rule out the ATS interpretation and show that the QDI interpretation is more appropriate for the modulated experiments. Interestingly, dark state persists in the double-modulation situation where control and probe fields never occur simultaneously, which is significant difference from the traditional dark state condition. The proposed experiments are readily implemented in atomic gases, artificial atoms in superconducting quantum devices, or three-level meta-atoms in meta-materials.

  5. Ejecta from periodic grooved Sn surface under unsupported shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen-Bin; Ma, Dong-Jun; He, An-Min; Wang, Pei

    2018-01-01

    Not Available Project supported by the Joint Fund of the National Natural Science Foundation of China and the China Academy of Engineering Physics (Grant No. U1530261), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11402032 and 11502030), and the Science Challenge Project, China (Grant No. TZ2016001).

  6. Mitigating ground vibration by periodic inclusions and surface structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard; Bucinskas, Paulius; Persson, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Ground vibration from traffic is a source of nuisance in urbanized areas. Trenches and wave barriers can provide mitigation of vibrations, but single barriers need to have a large depth to be effective-especially in the low-frequency range relevant to traffic-induced vibration. Alternatively...

  7. Detection of a periodic structure embedded in surface roughness, for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . In figures 6c and d, where the exponent takes the value 0.5 and 0.8, the reproduction is fair. The fact that for smaller values of y, detection becomes difficult, results from the behaviour in the tail of f (vx ) as y is made smaller. When y reduces ...

  8. Detection of a periodic structure embedded in surface roughness, for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Intensities for different roughness situations. For strong roughness, we have g ≫ 1 and we can thus approximate exp(−g[1 − p (r)]) ≈ exp[− (r/r0)β],. (10) where r0 = l/g1/β. This indicates that for the same values of l and g the correlation length r0 is smaller for larger β, for g ≫ 1. It can be seen that on using the approximation, ...

  9. Opinions of 'JNC monitor Ibaraki'. The 1st period (fiscal 1999) to the 3rd period (fiscal 2001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyaji, Noriko; Senda, Masaki; Kanno, Hideo

    2002-06-01

    To reflect the opinions of inhabitants of the district to the business management of JNC (Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute), it charged local residents with monitor of J NC monitor Ibaraki . Their tenures of office are one year. The meetings are held for three periods from fiscal 1999 to fiscal 2001. Abstract of monitor's opinions and consciousness change are reported. On JNC, 1) many monitors wish to give safety the highest priority. 2) Many monitors demand easy explanation without the technical terms. 3) Many monitors think that the JNC staffs do not react to the accident for their parts and not to open information. 4) Many monitors wish to continue the monitor system, because it is good system for an interchange of opinions between local resident and the staff. On consciousness change of monitor, the impression on JNC was changed by experience of monitor. Almost monitor think nuclear power is needed, but about 80% of them felt unrest after experience of monitor. It consists of ten chapters as followings; introduction, JNC monitors Ibaraki, abstract of meetings, main opinions from monitors, an attitude survey on JNC accident and before and after of experience of monitor, results of the questionnaire, discussion of each question, determination of JCO, conclusions and data. (S.Y.)

  10. Molecular cloning and characterization of a tumor-associated, growth-related, and time-keeping hydroquinone (NADH) oxidase (tNOX) of the HeLa cell surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chueh, Pin-Ju; Kim, Chinpal; Cho, NaMi; Morre, Dorothy M.; Morre, D. James

    2002-01-01

    NOX proteins are growth-related cell surface proteins that catalyze both hydroquinone or NADH oxidation and protein disulfide interchange and exhibit prion-like properties. The two enzymatic activities alternate to generate a regular period length of about 24 min. Here we report the expression, cloning, and characterization of a tumor-associated NADH oxidase (tNOX). The cDNA sequence of 1830 bp is located on gene Xq25-26 with an open reading frame encoding 610 amino acids. The activities of the bacterially expressed tNOX oscillate with a period length of 22 min as is characteristic of tNOX activities in situ. The activities are inhibited completely by capsaicin, which represents a defining characteristic of tNOX activity. Functional motifs identified by site-directed mutagenesis within the C-terminal portion of the tNOX protein corresponding to the processed plasma membrane-associated form include quinone (capsaicin), copper and adenine nucleotide binding domains, and two cysteines essential for catalytic activity. Four of the six cysteine to alanine replacements retained enzymatic activity, but the period lengths of the oscillations were increased. A single protein with two alternating enzymatic activities indicative of a time-keeping function is unprecedented in the biochemical literature.

  11. Effects of an Ice Plate Formed by Inundation before the Continuous Snow Cover on Surface Soil Water after Disappearance of the Snow Cover at a Rotational Paddy in a Snowy Cold Region in the Period from Autumn of 2007 to Spring of 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Shuh; Mukai, Hiroyuki; Sato, Yoshikazu

    When melt water remains on the soil surface for a long time in rotational paddies in Hokkaido, a snowy cold region of Japan, machine work in the early spring is delayed, resulting in growth delay of crops and decrease in income. Ice plates can be made in paddies in Hokkaido by filling the paddies with water before the continuous snow cover, and melt water flows from the edges of the ice plate. It is expected that the surface soil water after disappearance of the snow cover can be reduced if melt water can flow to an underdrain through open channels along the levees in the paddy. In this study, the effects of an ice plate formed by inundation before the continuous snow cover on surface soil water after disappearance of the snow cover at a rotational paddy in the period from autumn of 2007 to spring of 2008 were examined. It was found that the volumetric water content in the ice plate area was lower than that in the conventional area after disappearance of the snow cover.

  12. [Childhood periodic syndromes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuvellier, J-C; Lépine, A

    2010-01-01

    This review focuses on the so-called "periodic syndromes of childhood that are precursors to migraine", as included in the Second Edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders. Three periodic syndromes of childhood are included in the Second Edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders: abdominal migraine, cyclic vomiting syndrome and benign paroxysmal vertigo, and a fourth, benign paroxysmal torticollis is presented in the Appendix. The key clinical features of this group of disorders are the episodic pattern and intervals of complete health. Episodes of benign paroxysmal torticollis begin between 2 and 8 months of age. Attacks are characterized by an abnormal inclination and/or rotation of the head to one side, due to cervical dystonia. They usually resolve by 5 years. Benign paroxysmal vertigo presents as sudden attacks of vertigo, accompanied by inability to stand without support, and lasting seconds to minutes. Age at onset is between 2 and 4 years, and the symptoms disappear by the age of 5. Cyclic vomiting syndrome is characterized in young infants and children by repeated stereotyped episodes of pernicious vomiting, at times to the point of dehydration, and impacting quality of life. Mean age of onset is 5 years. Abdominal migraine remains a controversial issue and presents in childhood with repeated stereotyped episodes of unexplained abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting occurring in the absence of headache. Mean age of onset is 7 years. Both cyclic vomiting syndrome and abdominal migraine are noted for the absence of pathognomonic clinical features but also for the large number of other conditions to be considered in their differential diagnoses. Diagnostic criteria, such as those of the Second Edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders and the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, have made diagnostic approach and management easier. Their diagnosis

  13. Periods of ZZ Ceti variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, A.N.; Hodson, S.W.; Starrfield, S.G.

    1979-01-01

    White dwarf pulsators (ZZ Ceti variables) osub solar acccur in the extension of the radial pulsation envelope ionization instability strip to the observed luminosities of 3 x 10 -3 L sub solar according to van Horn. Investigations were underway to see if the driving mechanisms of hydrogen and helium ionization can cause radial pulsations as they do for the Cepheids, the RR Lyrae variables, and the delta Scuti variables. Masses used in this study are 0.60 and 0.75 M sub solar for T/sub e/ between 10,000 K and 14,000 K, the observed range in T/sub e/. Helium rich surface compositions like Y = 0.78,, Z = 0.02 as well as Y = 0.28, Z = 0.02 were used in spite of observations showing only hydrogen lines in the spectrum. The deep layers are pure carbon, and several transition compositions are included. The models show radial pulsation instabilities for many overtone modes at periods between about 0.3 and 3 seconds. The driving mechanism is mostly helium ionization at 40,000 and 150,000 K. The blue edge at about 14,000 K is probably due to the driving region becoming too shallow, and the red edge at 10,000 K is due to so much convection in the pulsation deriving region that no radiative luminosity is available for modulation by the γ and kappa effects. It is speculated that the very long observed periods (100 to 1000 sec) of ZZ Ceti variables are not due to nonradial pulsations, but are possibly aliases due to data undersampling. 4 references

  14. Standardizing data exchange for clinical research protocols and case report forms: An assessment of the suitability of the Clinical Data Interchange Standards Consortium (CDISC) Operational Data Model (ODM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huser, Vojtech; Sastry, Chandan; Breymaier, Matthew; Idriss, Asma; Cimino, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Efficient communication of a clinical study protocol and case report forms during all stages of a human clinical study is important for many stakeholders. An electronic and structured study representation format that can be used throughout the whole study life-span can improve such communication and potentially lower total study costs. The most relevant standard for representing clinical study data, applicable to unregulated as well as regulated studies, is the Operational Data Model (ODM) in development since 1999 by the Clinical Data Interchange Standards Consortium (CDISC). ODM's initial objective was exchange of case report forms data but it is increasingly utilized in other contexts. An ODM extension called Study Design Model, introduced in 2011, provides additional protocol representation elements. Using a case study approach, we evaluated ODM's ability to capture all necessary protocol elements during a complete clinical study lifecycle in the Intramural Research Program of the National Institutes of Health. ODM offers the advantage of a single format for institutions that deal with hundreds or thousands of concurrent clinical studies and maintain a data warehouse for these studies. For each study stage, we present a list of gaps in the ODM standard and identify necessary vendor or institutional extensions that can compensate for such gaps. The current version of ODM (1.3.2) has only partial support for study protocol and study registration data mainly because it is outside the original development goal. ODM provides comprehensive support for representation of case report forms (in both the design stage and with patient level data). Inclusion of requirements of observational, non-regulated or investigator-initiated studies (outside Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulation) can further improve future revisions of the standard. PMID:26188274

  15. Summary Report for the Technical Interchange Meeting on Development of Baseline Material Properties and Design Guidelines for In-Space Manufacturing Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prater, T. J.; Bean, Q. A.; Werkheiser, N. J.; Johnston, M. M.; Ordonez, E. A.; Ledbetter, F. E.; Risdon, D. L.; Stockman, T. J.; Sandridge, S. K. R.; Nelson, G. M.

    2016-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and the Agency as a whole are currently engaged in a number of in-space manufacturing (ISM) activities that have the potential to reduce launch costs, enhance crew safety, and provide the capabilities needed to undertake long-duration spaceflight. The recent 3D Printing in Zero-G experiment conducted on board the International Space Station (ISS) demonstrated that parts of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) plastic can be manufactured in microgravity using fused deposition modeling (FDM). This project represents the beginning of the development of a capability that is critical to future NASA missions. Current and future ISM activities will require the development of baseline material properties to facilitate design, analysis, and certification of materials manufactured using in-space techniques. The purpose of this technical interchange meeting (TIM) was to bring together MSFC practitioners and experts in materials characterization and development of baseline material properties for emerging technologies to advise the ISM team as we progress toward the development of material design values, standards, and acceptance criteria for materials manufactured in space. The overall objective of the TIM was to leverage MSFC's shared experiences and collective knowledge in advanced manufacturing and materials development to construct a path forward for the establishment of baseline material properties, standards development, and certification activities related to ISM. Participants were asked to help identify research and development activities that will (1) accelerate acceptance and adoption of ISM techniques among the aerospace design community; (2) benefit future NASA programs, commercial technology developments, and national needs; and (3) provide opportunities and avenues for further collaboration.

  16. Standardizing data exchange for clinical research protocols and case report forms: An assessment of the suitability of the Clinical Data Interchange Standards Consortium (CDISC) Operational Data Model (ODM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huser, Vojtech; Sastry, Chandan; Breymaier, Matthew; Idriss, Asma; Cimino, James J

    2015-10-01

    Efficient communication of a clinical study protocol and case report forms during all stages of a human clinical study is important for many stakeholders. An electronic and structured study representation format that can be used throughout the whole study life-span can improve such communication and potentially lower total study costs. The most relevant standard for representing clinical study data, applicable to unregulated as well as regulated studies, is the Operational Data Model (ODM) in development since 1999 by the Clinical Data Interchange Standards Consortium (CDISC). ODM's initial objective was exchange of case report forms data but it is increasingly utilized in other contexts. An ODM extension called Study Design Model, introduced in 2011, provides additional protocol representation elements. Using a case study approach, we evaluated ODM's ability to capture all necessary protocol elements during a complete clinical study lifecycle in the Intramural Research Program of the National Institutes of Health. ODM offers the advantage of a single format for institutions that deal with hundreds or thousands of concurrent clinical studies and maintain a data warehouse for these studies. For each study stage, we present a list of gaps in the ODM standard and identify necessary vendor or institutional extensions that can compensate for such gaps. The current version of ODM (1.3.2) has only partial support for study protocol and study registration data mainly because it is outside the original development goal. ODM provides comprehensive support for representation of case report forms (in both the design stage and with patient level data). Inclusion of requirements of observational, non-regulated or investigator-initiated studies (outside Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulation) can further improve future revisions of the standard. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Interchange core/shell assembly of diluted magnetic semiconductor CeO2 and ferromagnetic ferrite Fe3O4 for microwave absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaheng Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Core/shell-structured CeO2/Fe3O4 and Fe3O4/CeO2 nanocapsules are prepared by interchange assembly of diluted magnetic semiconductor CeO2 and ferromagnetic ferrite Fe3O4 as the core and the shell, and vice versa, using a facile two-step polar solvothermal method in order to utilize the room-temperature ferromagnetism and abundant O-vacancies in CeO2, the large natural resonance in Fe3O4, and the O-vacancy-enhanced interfacial polarization between CeO2 and Fe3O4 for new generation microwave absorbers. Comparing to Fe3O4/CeO2 nanocapsules, the CeO2/Fe3O4 nanocapsules show an improved real permittivity of 3–10% and an enhanced dielectric resonance of 1.5 times at 15.3 GHz due to the increased O-vacancy concentration in the CeO2 cores of larger grains as well as the O-vacancy-induced enhancement in interfacial polarization between the CeO2 cores and the Fe3O4 shells, respectively. Both nanocapsules exhibit relatively high permeability in the low-frequency S and C microwave bands as a result of the bi-magnetic core/shell combination of CeO2 and Fe3O4. The CeO2/Fe3O4 nanocapsules effectively enhance permittivity and permeability in the high-frequency Ku band with interfacial polarization and natural resonance at ∼15 GHz, thereby improving absorption with a large reflection loss of -28.9 dB at 15.3 GHz. Experimental and theoretical comparisons with CeO2 and Fe3O4 nanoparticles are also made.

  18. Role of Helium-Hydrogen ratio on energetic interchange mode behaviour and its effect on ion temperature and micro-turbulence in LHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, C. A.; Tanaka, K.; Akiyama, T.; Ozaki, T.; Osakabe, M.; Sakakibara, S.; Yamaguchi, H.; Murakami, S.; Yokoyama, M.; Shoji, M.; Vyacheslavov, L. N.; LHD Experimental Group

    2018-04-01

    In the Large helical device, a change of energetic particle mode is observed as He concentration is varied in ion-ITB type experiments, having constant electron density and input heating power but with a clear increase of central ion temperature in He rich discharges. This activity consists of bursty, but damped energetic interchange modes (EICs, Du et al 2015 Phys. Rev. Lett. 114 155003), whose occurrence rate is dramatically lower in the He-rich discharges. Mechanisms are discussed for the changes in drive and damping of the modes with He concentration. These EIC bursts consist of marked changes in the radial electric field, which is derived from the phase velocity of turbulence measured with the 2D phase contrast imaging (PCI) system. Similar bursts are detected in edge fast ion diagnostics. Ion thermal transport by gyro-Bohm scaling is recognised as a contribution to the change in ion temperature, though fast ion losses by these EIC modes may also contribute to the ion temperature dependence on He concentration, most particularly controlling the height of an ‘edge-pedestal’ in the Ti profile. The steady-state level of fast ions is shown to be larger in helium rich discharges on the basis of a compact neutral particle analyser (CNPA), and the fast-ion component of the diamagnetic stored energy. These events also have an influence on turbulence and transport. The large velocity shear induced produced during these events transiently improves confinement and suppresses turbulence, and has a larger net effect when bursts are more frequent in hydrogen discharges. This exactly offsets the increased gyro-Bohm related turbulence drive in hydrogen which results in the same time-averaged turbulence level in hydrogen as in helium.

  19. Periodic subsystem density-functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genova, Alessandro; Ceresoli, Davide; Pavanello, Michele

    2014-11-01

    By partitioning the electron density into subsystem contributions, the Frozen Density Embedding (FDE) formulation of subsystem Density Functional Theory (DFT) has recently emerged as a powerful tool for reducing the computational scaling of Kohn-Sham DFT. To date, however, FDE has been employed to molecular systems only. Periodic systems, such as metals, semiconductors, and other crystalline solids have been outside the applicability of FDE, mostly because of the lack of a periodic FDE implementation. To fill this gap, in this work we aim at extending FDE to treat subsystems of molecular and periodic character. This goal is achieved by a dual approach. On one side, the development of a theoretical framework for periodic subsystem DFT. On the other, the realization of the method into a parallel computer code. We find that periodic FDE is capable of reproducing total electron densities and (to a lesser extent) also interaction energies of molecular systems weakly interacting with metallic surfaces. In the pilot calculations considered, we find that FDE fails in those cases where there is appreciable density overlap between the subsystems. Conversely, we find FDE to be in semiquantitative agreement with Kohn-Sham DFT when the inter-subsystem density overlap is low. We also conclude that to make FDE a suitable method for describing molecular adsorption at surfaces, kinetic energy density functionals that go beyond the GGA level must be employed.

  20. Periodic Boundary Motion in Thermal Turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jun; Libchaber, Albert

    2000-01-01

    A free-floating plate is introduced in a Benard convection cell with an open surface. It partially covers the cell and distorts the local heat flux, inducing a coherent flow that in turn moves the plate. Remarkably, the plate can be driven to a periodic motion even under the action of a turbulent fluid. The period of the oscillation depends on the coverage ratio, and on the Rayleigh number of the convective system. The plate oscillatory behavior observed in this experiment may be related to a geological model, in which continents drift in a quasiperiodic fashion. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  1. The super period matrix with Ramond punctures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witten, Edward

    2015-06-01

    We generalize the super period matrix of a super Riemann surface to the case that Ramond punctures are present. For a super Riemann surface of genus g with 2 r Ramond punctures, we define, modulo certain choices that generalize those in the classical theory (and assuming a certain generic condition is satisfied), a g | r × g | r period matrix that is symmetric in the Z2-graded sense. As an application, we analyze the genus 2 vacuum amplitude in string theory compactifications to four dimensions that are supersymmetric at tree level. We find an explanation for a result that has been found in orbifold examples in explicit computations by D'Hoker and Phong: with their integration procedure, the genus 2 vacuum amplitude always vanishes "pointwise" after summing over spin structures, and hence is given entirely by a boundary contribution.

  2. Period doubling in period-one steady states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Reuben R. W.; Xing, Bo; Carlo, Gabriel G.; Poletti, Dario

    2018-02-01

    Nonlinear classical dissipative systems present a rich phenomenology in their "route to chaos," including period doubling, i.e., the system evolves with a period which is twice that of the driving. However, typically the attractor of a periodically driven quantum open system evolves with a period which exactly matches that of the driving. Here, we analyze a periodically driven many-body open quantum system whose classical correspondent presents period doubling. We show that by studying the dynamical correlations, it is possible to show the occurrence of period doubling in the quantum (period-one) steady state. We also discuss that such systems are natural candidates for clean and intrinsically robust Floquet time crystals.

  3. Photolysis of Periodate and Periodic Acid in Aqueous Solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehested, Knud; Kläning, U. K.

    1978-01-01

    The photochemistry of periodate and periodic acid in aqueous solution was studied (i) by quantum yield measurements at low light intensity (ii) by flash photolysis, and (iii) by photolysis of glassy samples at 77 K. The photochemical studies were supplemented with pulse radiolysis studies...... of aqueous periodate solutions and with kinetic studies using stopped-flow technique. In strongly alkaline solution the photodecomposition of periodate proceeds via formation of O– and IVI. At pH

  4. The long period seismic system of Gauribidanur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suryavanshi, M.P.

    1981-01-01

    This report describes the seismic long-period data acquisition system at Gauribidanur. The field electronics was designed to achieve a configuration of improved stability and dynamic range in the pass band of 0.025-0.1 hz. Some typical records obtained by the system are shown. Surface wave magnitudes estimated at the Gauribidanur Seismic Array are found to be in general agreement with those of international estimates. (author)

  5. Periodic feedback stabilization for linear periodic evolution equations

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Gengsheng

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces a number of recent advances regarding periodic feedback stabilization for linear and time periodic evolution equations. First, it presents selected connections between linear quadratic optimal control theory and feedback stabilization theory for linear periodic evolution equations. Secondly, it identifies several criteria for the periodic feedback stabilization from the perspective of geometry, algebra and analyses respectively. Next, it describes several ways to design periodic feedback laws. Lastly, the book introduces readers to key methods for designing the control machines. Given its coverage and scope, it offers a helpful guide for graduate students and researchers in the areas of control theory and applied mathematics.

  6. 76 FR 8325 - Periodic Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-14

    ... End-to-End Periodicals. Request at 1. The Request includes proposals for interim service performance... Periodicals, non-retail Media Mail, Library Mail, Bound Printed Matter Parcels, and Stamp Fulfillment Services...

  7. 76 FR 80312 - Periodic Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ...) automation and Area Distribution Center (ADC) automation flats in First-Class Mail, Periodicals, and Standard... pallet bundle sortation in the cost model for Periodicals flats. Currently, cells for the coverage of...

  8. The redoubtable ecological periodic table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecological periodic tables are repositories of reliable information on quantitative, predictably recurring (periodic) habitat–community patterns and their uncertainty, scaling and transferability. Their reliability derives from their grounding in sound ecological principle...

  9. Fiscal 1997 achievement report on international standard creation type research and development. Key technology for color image management (Research and development project on standard data for diversification of international information interchange); 1997 nendo color gazo management kiban gijutsu seika hokokusho. Kokusaiteki joho kokan no tayoka ni muketa hyojun data no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Activities were conducted for (1) proposing that some items in software comply with a standard format to be commonly used by plural personal computer programs in the field of the key technology of color image management and for (2) placing before ISO (International Organization for Standardization) a standardization proposal and a standard format proposal involving characters and character baselines in the field of research and development of standard data for diversification of international information interchange. Under Item (1), submission of a proposal was adjourned because the standard of color expression in Asian countries was insufficient and involved many problems requiring careful attention. The problems were whether the color names were suitable for the users, that the color names other than those specified by JIS (Japanese Industrial Standard) Z8102 were equivocal and needed proper notations, and whether color names to use with displays or the like were to be defined independently from JIS. Under Item (2), the problem of metric information standardization surfaced because it was supposed that mixing JIS fonts with other countries' fonts would give rise to problems. As for the character size, it is 10 points, more or less, in all the countries and therefore it does not make difficult the exchange of information under the Web environments. The results will be reported and explained to the departments concerned and to the Asian countries. (NEDO)

  10. Betelgeuse Period Analysis Using VSTAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, F.

    2015-06-01

    (Abstract only) Betelgeuse was studied using the VSTAR software package and analysis of the observations in the AAVSO database. Period analysis derived a period of 376 days, in comparison with literature periods of 420 days using satellite UV data but significantly different from the VSX period of 2,335 days. The unique set of PEP observations of this star is also shown and advantage of PEP Johnson V observations is shown in comparison with the visual observations.

  11. 76 FR 296 - Periodic Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ... 39 CFR Part 3050 Periodic Reporting AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of proposed... consider a proposed change in certain analytical methods used in periodic reporting. The proposed change... rulemaking proceeding to consider changes in the analytical methods approved for use in periodic reporting.\\1...

  12. 76 FR 20906 - Periodic Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-14

    ... 39 CFR Part 3050 Periodic Reporting AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of proposed... a proposed change in certain analytical methods used in periodic reporting. This action responds to... periodic reporting.\\1\\ \\1\\ Petition of the United States Postal Service Requesting Initiation of a...

  13. 75 FR 1301 - Periodic Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-11

    ... 39 CFR Part 3050 Periodic Reporting AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule... rulemaking proceeding to consider changes in the analytical methods approved for use in periodic reporting.\\1... Docket No. RM2009-10, Order on Analytical Principles Used in Periodic Reporting (Proposals Three through...

  14. 76 FR 71498 - Periodic Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-18

    ... 39 CFR Part 3050 Periodic Reporting AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of proposed... informal rulemaking on proposed changes in certain analytical methods used in periodic reporting. The... consider changes in the analytical methods approved for use in periodic reporting.\\1\\ These changes are...

  15. 75 FR 65593 - Periodic Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... 39 CFR Part 3020 Periodic Reporting AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of temporary... that a transition period likely would be needed before full compliance with new reporting rules could... Service filed a request for temporary waivers from periodic reporting of service performance measurement...

  16. Using Compliance Analysis for PPP to bridge the gap between SEA and EIA: Lessons from the Turcot Interchange reconstruction in Montréal, Québec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, Undiné-Celeste; Marsan, Jean-François; Fournier-Peyresblanques, Bastien; Forgues, Chantal; Ogaa, Anita; Jaeger, Jochen A.G.

    2013-01-01

    concrete projects “on the ground”. CAPPP can be used as a tool for comparative analysis in decision-making situations at various scales. CAPPP is a fairly straight-forward method that can be used by policy makers, EIA experts, and members of the general public alike. Highlights: ► We investigated the level of harmonization between SEA, plans, policies and programmes and EIA projects. ► We created a new methodology: the goal compliance analysis (GCA). ► We tested it on an ongoing project, the Turcot Interchange in Montreal, Canada. ► The method is straight-forward and can be used by policy makers, EIA experts, and members of the general public alike

  17. Reference Avionics Architecture for Lunar Surface Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somervill, Kevin M.; Lapin, Jonathan C.; Schmidt, Oron L.

    2010-01-01

    Developing and delivering infrastructure capable of supporting long-term manned operations to the lunar surface has been a primary objective of the Constellation Program in the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate. Several concepts have been developed related to development and deployment lunar exploration vehicles and assets that provide critical functionality such as transportation, habitation, and communication, to name a few. Together, these systems perform complex safety-critical functions, largely dependent on avionics for control and behavior of system functions. These functions are implemented using interchangeable, modular avionics designed for lunar transit and lunar surface deployment. Systems are optimized towards reuse and commonality of form and interface and can be configured via software or component integration for special purpose applications. There are two core concepts in the reference avionics architecture described in this report. The first concept uses distributed, smart systems to manage complexity, simplify integration, and facilitate commonality. The second core concept is to employ extensive commonality between elements and subsystems. These two concepts are used in the context of developing reference designs for many lunar surface exploration vehicles and elements. These concepts are repeated constantly as architectural patterns in a conceptual architectural framework. This report describes the use of these architectural patterns in a reference avionics architecture for Lunar surface systems elements.

  18. Periodic waves in nonlinear metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Wen-Jun; Xiao, Jing-Hua; Yan, Jie-Yun; Tian, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Periodic waves are presented in this Letter. With symbolic computation, equations for monochromatic waves are studied, and analytic periodic waves are obtained. Factors affecting properties of periodic waves are analyzed. Nonlinear metamaterials, with the continuous distribution of the dielectric permittivity obtained, are different from the ones with the discrete distribution. -- Highlights: ► Equations for the monochromatic waves in transverse magnetic polarization have been studied. ► Analytic periodic waves for the equations have been obtained. ► Periodic waves are theoretically presented and studied in the nonlinear metamaterials.

  19. The surface energy of metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vitos, Levente; Ruban, Andrei; Skriver, Hans Lomholt

    1998-01-01

    We have used density functional theory to establish a database of surface energies for low index surfaces of 60 metals in the periodic table. The data may be used as a consistent starting point for models of surface science phenomena. The accuracy of the database is established in a comparison...

  20. Surface magnetic structures in amorphous ferromagnetic microwires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usov, N.A.; Serebryakova, O.N.; Gudoshnikov, S.A.; Tarasov, V.P.

    2017-01-01

    The spatial period of magnetization perturbations that occur near the surface of magnetic nanotube or nanowire under the influence of surface magnetic anisotropy is determined by means of numerical simulation as a function of the sample geometry and material parameters. The surface magnetization distribution obtained is then used to estimate the period of the surface magnetic texture in amorphous microwire of several micrometers in diameter by means of appropriate variational procedure. The period of the surface magnetic texture in amorphous microwire is found to be significantly smaller than the wire diameter. - Highlights: • Magnetic structure may arise near the magnetic nanotube surface under the influence of surface magnetic anisotropy. • The period of the surface magnetization pattern is calculated as a function of the sample geometry. • Similar magnetic structure may exist in amorphous microwire of several micrometers in diameter. • The period of the surface magnetic structure in amorphous wire is found to be significantly smaller than the wire diameter.

  1. Surface magnetic structures in amorphous ferromagnetic microwires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usov, N.A., E-mail: usov@obninsk.ru [National University of Science and Technology «MISIS», 119049 Moscow (Russian Federation); Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation, Russian Academy of Sciences, IZMIRAN, 108840 Troitsk, Moscow (Russian Federation); Serebryakova, O.N.; Gudoshnikov, S.A. [National University of Science and Technology «MISIS», 119049 Moscow (Russian Federation); Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation, Russian Academy of Sciences, IZMIRAN, 108840 Troitsk, Moscow (Russian Federation); Tarasov, V.P. [National University of Science and Technology «MISIS», 119049 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-05-01

    The spatial period of magnetization perturbations that occur near the surface of magnetic nanotube or nanowire under the influence of surface magnetic anisotropy is determined by means of numerical simulation as a function of the sample geometry and material parameters. The surface magnetization distribution obtained is then used to estimate the period of the surface magnetic texture in amorphous microwire of several micrometers in diameter by means of appropriate variational procedure. The period of the surface magnetic texture in amorphous microwire is found to be significantly smaller than the wire diameter. - Highlights: • Magnetic structure may arise near the magnetic nanotube surface under the influence of surface magnetic anisotropy. • The period of the surface magnetization pattern is calculated as a function of the sample geometry. • Similar magnetic structure may exist in amorphous microwire of several micrometers in diameter. • The period of the surface magnetic structure in amorphous wire is found to be significantly smaller than the wire diameter.

  2. Micro- and nano-volume samples by electrothermal, near-torch vaporization sample introduction using removable, interchangeable and portable rhenium coiled-filament assemblies and axially-viewed inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badiei, Hamid R.; Lai, Bryant; Karanassios, Vassili

    2012-11-15

    An electrothermal, near-torch vaporization (NTV) sample introduction for micro- or nano-volume samples is described. Samples were pipetted onto coiled-filament assemblies that were purposely developed to be removable and interchangeable and were dried and vaporized into a small-volume vaporization chamber that clips onto any ICP torch with a ball joint. Interchangeable assemblies were also constructed to be small-size (e.g., less than 3 cm long with max diameter of 0.65 cm) and light-weight (1.4 g) so that they can be portable. Interchangeable assemblies with volume-capacities in three ranges (i.e., < 1 {mu}L, 1-10 {mu}L and 10-100 {mu}L) were fabricated and used. The horizontally-operated NTV sample introduction was interfaced to an axially-viewed ICP-AES (inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry) system and NTV was optimized using ICP-AES and 8 elements (Pb, Cd, Zn, V, Ba, Mg, Be and Ca). Precision was 1.0-2.3% (peak height) and 1.1-2.4% (peak area). Detection limits (obtained using 5 {mu}L volumes) expressed in absolute-amounts ranged between 4 pg for Pb to 0.3 fg ({approx} 5 million atoms) for Ca. Detection limits expressed in concentration units (obtained using 100 {mu}L volumes of diluted, single-element standard solutions) were: 50 pg/mL for Pb; 10 pg/mL for Cd; 9 pg/mL for Zn; 1 pg/mL for V; 0.9 pg/mL for Ba; 0.5 pg/mL for Mg; 50 fg/mL for Be; and 3 fg/mL for Ca. Analytical capability and utility was demonstrated using the determination of Pb in pg/mL levels of diluted natural water Certified Reference Material (CRM) and the determination of Zn in 80 nL volumes of the liquid extracted from an individual vesicle. It is shown that portable and interchangeable assemblies with dried sample residues on them can be transported without analyte loss (for the concentrations tested), thus opening up the possibility for 'taking part of the lab to the sample' applications, such as testing for Cu concentration-compliance with the lead

  3. Periodicity of DNA in exons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinghorn Brian

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The periodic pattern of DNA in exons is a known phenomenon. It was suggested that one of the initial causes of periodicity could be the universal (RNYnpattern (R = A or G, Y = C or U, N = any base of ancient RNA. Two major questions were addressed in this paper. Firstly, the cause of DNA periodicity, which was investigated by comparisons between real and simulated coding sequences. Secondly, quantification of DNA periodicity was made using an evolutionary algorithm, which was not previously used for such purposes. Results We have shown that simulated coding sequences, which were composed using codon usage frequencies only, demonstrate DNA periodicity very similar to the observed in real exons. It was also found that DNA periodicity disappears in the simulated sequences, when the frequencies of codons become equal. Frequencies of the nucleotides (and the dinucleotide AG at each location along phase 0 exons were calculated for C. elegans, D. melanogaster and H. sapiens. Two models were used to fit these data, with the key objective of describing periodicity. Both of the models showed that the best-fit curves closely matched the actual data points. The first dynamic period determination model consistently generated a value, which was very close to the period equal to 3 nucleotides. The second fixed period model, as expected, kept the period exactly equal to 3 and did not detract from its goodness of fit. Conclusions Conclusion can be drawn that DNA periodicity in exons is determined by codon usage frequencies. It is essential to differentiate between DNA periodicity itself, and the length of the period equal to 3. Periodicity itself is a result of certain combinations of codons with different frequencies typical for a species. The length of period equal to 3, instead, is caused by the triplet nature of genetic code. The models and evolutionary algorithm used for characterising DNA periodicity are proven to be an effective tool

  4. Quasi-periodic solutions of the Boomeron equation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martini, Ruud; Wesselius, W.

    1985-01-01

    The quasi-periodic solutions for the Boomeron equation are determined by means of function-theoretical methods related to Riemann surfaces and theta functions. Also determined are the so-called Boomerons as degenerations of the quasi-periodic solutions. Moreover it is indicated that there are no

  5. Quantum coherent switch utilizing commensurate nanoelectrode and charge density periodicities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Neil [Santa Fe, NM; Singleton, John [Los Alamos, NM; Migliori, Albert [Santa Fe, NM

    2008-08-05

    A quantum coherent switch having a substrate formed from a density wave (DW) material capable of having a periodic electron density modulation or spin density modulation, a dielectric layer formed onto a surface of the substrate that is orthogonal to an intrinsic wave vector of the DW material; and structure for applying an external spatially periodic electrostatic potential over the dielectric layer.

  6. From Periodic Properties to a Periodic Table Arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besalú, Emili

    2013-01-01

    A periodic table is constructed from the consideration of periodic properties and the application of the principal components analysis technique. This procedure is useful for objects classification and data reduction and has been used in the field of chemistry for many applications, such as lanthanides, molecules, or conformers classification.…

  7. Periodic instantons and scattering amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khlebnikov, S.Yu.; Rubakov, V.A.; Tinyakov, P.G.

    1991-04-01

    We discuss the role of periodic euclidean solutions with two turning points and zero winding number (periodic instantons) in instanton induced processes below the sphaleron energy E sph . We find that the periodic instantons describe certain multiparticle scattering events leading to the transitions between topologically distinct vacua. Both the semiclassical amplitudes and inital and final states of these transitions are determined by the periodic instantons. Furthermore, the corresponding probabilities are maximal among all states of given energy. We show that at E ≤ E sph , the periodic instantons can be approximated by infinite chains of ordinary instantons and anti-instantons, and they naturally emerge as deformations of the zero energy instanton. In the framework of 2d abelian Higgs model and 4d electroweak theory we show, however, that there is not obvious relation between periodic instantons and two-particle scattering amplitudes. (orig.)

  8. Scaling limits of periodic monopoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maldonado, Rafael [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics,Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Department of Mathematical Sciences,South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-13

    The purpose of this note is to explore the structure of singly periodic monopoles for different values of the size to period ratio. The transition between a chain of small monopoles and the approximately two dimensional chain of large monopoles takes us through a region with an unintuitive dependence on the periodic direction. The focus is mainly on the smooth SU(2) monopole of charge 2.

  9. Flux surface shape and current profile optimization in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrott, D.R.; Miller, R.L.

    1977-01-01

    Axisymmetric tokamak equilibria of noncircular cross section are analyzed numerically to study the effects of flux surface shape and current profile on ideal and resistive interchange stability. Various current profiles are examined for circles, ellipses, dees, and doublets. A numerical code separately analyzes stability in the neighborhood of the magnetic axis and in the remainder of the plasma using the criteria of Mercier and Glasser, Greene, and Johnson. Results are interpreted in terms of flux surface averaged quantities such as magnetic well, shear, and the spatial variation in the magnetic field energy density over the cross section. The maximum stable β is found to vary significantly with shape and current profile. For current profiles varying linearly with poloidal flux, the highest β's found were for doublets. Finally, an algorithm is presented which optimizes the current profile for circles and dees by making the plasma everywhere marginally stable

  10. Forward Period Analysis Method of the Periodic Hamiltonian System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Wang

    Full Text Available Using the forward period analysis (FPA, we obtain the period of a Morse oscillator and mathematical pendulum system, with the accuracy of 100 significant digits. From these results, the long-term [0, 1060] (time unit solutions, ranging from the Planck time to the age of the universe, are computed reliably and quickly with a parallel multiple-precision Taylor series (PMT scheme. The application of FPA to periodic systems can greatly reduce the computation time of long-term reliable simulations. This scheme provides an efficient way to generate reference solutions, against which long-term simulations using other schemes can be tested.

  11. Forward Period Analysis Method of the Periodic Hamiltonian System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pengfei

    2016-01-01

    Using the forward period analysis (FPA), we obtain the period of a Morse oscillator and mathematical pendulum system, with the accuracy of 100 significant digits. From these results, the long-term [0, 1060] (time unit) solutions, ranging from the Planck time to the age of the universe, are computed reliably and quickly with a parallel multiple-precision Taylor series (PMT) scheme. The application of FPA to periodic systems can greatly reduce the computation time of long-term reliable simulations. This scheme provides an efficient way to generate reference solutions, against which long-term simulations using other schemes can be tested.

  12. Detecting periodicities with Gaussian processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Durrande

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of detecting and quantifying the periodic component of a function given noise-corrupted observations of a limited number of input/output tuples. Our approach is based on Gaussian process regression, which provides a flexible non-parametric framework for modelling periodic data. We introduce a novel decomposition of the covariance function as the sum of periodic and aperiodic kernels. This decomposition allows for the creation of sub-models which capture the periodic nature of the signal and its complement. To quantify the periodicity of the signal, we derive a periodicity ratio which reflects the uncertainty in the fitted sub-models. Although the method can be applied to many kernels, we give a special emphasis to the Matérn family, from the expression of the reproducing kernel Hilbert space inner product to the implementation of the associated periodic kernels in a Gaussian process toolkit. The proposed method is illustrated by considering the detection of periodically expressed genes in the arabidopsis genome.

  13. Atomic spectroscopy in periodic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yudin, V I; Yu Basalaev, M; Taichenachev, A V

    2017-01-01

    Using the density matrix formalism, we prove the existence of the periodic steady-state for an arbitrary periodically driven system described by linear dynamic equations. The presented derivation simultaneously contains a simple and effective computational algorithm, which automatically guarantees a full account of all frequency components. (paper)

  14. 76 FR 30893 - Periodic Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION 39 CFR Part 3050 Periodic Reporting AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of proposed... proceeding to consider changes in the analytical methods approved for use in periodic reporting.\\1\\ Proposal...

  15. 76 FR 28696 - Periodic Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION 39 CFR Part 3050 Periodic Reporting AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of proposed... approved for use in periodic reporting.\\1\\ Proposal Two is a set of four changes that the Postal Service...

  16. 75 FR 7426 - Periodic Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ... 39 CFR Part 3050 Periodic Reporting AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Advance notice of... approved for use in periodic reporting.\\1\\ The Postal Service labels its proposal ``Proposal One'' because it intends that it relate to the FY 2010 rather than the FY 2009 compliance reporting cycle. Proposal...

  17. Quasi Periodic Oscillations in Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... Home; Journals; Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy; Volume 35; Issue 3. Quasi Periodic Oscillations in Blazars ... Here we report our recent discoveries of Quasi-Periodic Oscillations (QPOs) in blazars time series data in X-ray and optical electromagnetic bands. Any such detection can give important ...

  18. Interchange of the active and silent S-layer protein genes of Lactobacillus acidophilus by inversion of the chromosomal sip segment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, H.J.; Kolen, C.P.A.M.; Pouwels, P.H.

    1996-01-01

    The most-dominant surface-exposed protein in many bacterial species is the S-protein. This protein crystallises into a regular monolayer on the outside surface of the bacteria: the S-layer. Lactobacillus acidophilus harbours two S-protein-encoding genes, slpA and slpB, only one of which (slpA) is

  19. Rationalization of Comet Halley's periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belton, Michael J. S.

    1990-01-01

    The sense of long axis orientation of Comet Halley during the Vega 1 encounter must be reversed from that deduced by Sagdeev et al. (1986) in order to harmonize the comet nucleus' Vega/Giotto-observed orientations with periodicities extracted from time-series brightness data. It is also demonstrated that Vega/Giotto observations can be satisfied by either a 2.2- or 3.7-day long-axis free precession period. A novel Fourier algorithm is used to reanalyze five independent data sets; strong evidence is adduced for periods harmonically related to a 7.4-day period. The preferred candidate models for Halley's nuclear rotation are characterized by a long-axis precession period of 3.7 days.

  20. Molecular cloning and characterization of a candidate human growth-related and time-keeping constitutive cell surface hydroquinone (NADH) oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ziying; Gorenstein, Nina M; Morré, Dorothy M; Morré, D James

    2008-12-30

    ENOX (ECTO-NOX) proteins are growth-related cell surface proteins that catalyze both hydroquinone or NADH oxidation and protein disulfide-thiol interchange and exhibit both prion-like and time-keeping (clock) properties. The two enzymatic activities they catalyze alternate to generate a regular period of 24 min in length. Here we report the cloning, expression, and characterization of a human candidate constitutive ENOX (CNOX or ENOX1) protein. The gene encoding this 643 amino acid long protein is located on chromosome 13 (13q 14.11). Functional motifs previously identified by site-directed mutagenesis in a cancer-associated ENOX (tNOX or ENOX2) as adenine nucleotide or copper binding along with essential cysteines are present, but the drug-binding motif (EEMTE) sequence of ENOX2 is absent. The activities of the recombinant protein expressed in Escherichia coli were not affected by capsaicin, EGCg, and other ENOX2-inhibiting substances. The purified recombinant protein bound ca. 2 mol of copper/mol of protein. Bound copper was necessary for activity. H260 and H579 were required for copper binding as confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis, loss of copper-binding capacity, and resultant loss of enzymatic activity. Addition of melatonin phased the 24 min period such that the next complete period began exactly 24 min after the melatonin addition as appears to be characteristic of ENOX1 activities in general. Oxidative activity was exhibited with both NAD(P)H and reduced coenzyme Q as substrate. Concentrated solutions of the purified candidate ENOX1 protein irreversibly formed insoluble aggregates, devoid of enzymatic activity, resembling amyloid.

  1. Incorporating Spectra Into Periodic Timing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, Alanna; Hong, J.; Protopapas, P.; Kashyap, V.

    2011-09-01

    The Chandra surveys have resulted in a wealth of data on low-luminosity X-ray sources (Lx 1030-34 erg/s) of Galactic scales beyond the local solar neighborhood. Many of these are compact binaries, in particular, cataclysmic variables, often identified by their periodic X-ray variability and spectra. Hong et al. (2009, 2011) have used energy quantiles (Hong, Schlegel & Grindlay, 2004) as a fast, robust indicator of spectral hardness and absorption of the X-ray sources. Energy quantiles also enable a simple but effective illustration of spectral changes with phase in these periodic systems: e.g. absorption by the accreting material is understood to drive the periodic light-curves. An interesting question is how to best make use of the information encapsulated in the periodic change in energy spectrum, along with the periodic change in intensity, especially for cases of ambiguous period determination? And, how to do it computationally efficiently? A first approach is to do the period search in intensity, as is standard; and then use a criterion of spectral variation to verify possible periods. Huijse, Zegers & Protopapas (2011) recently demonstrated a powerful period estimation technique using information potential and correntropy embedded in the light curve. Similar quantities based on energies (or energy quantiles) of X-ray photons can serve as criteria of spectral variation. A different approach treats the spectrum variations and intensity variations completely independently, searching through period-space in each, and then combining the results. A more general method would include both at the same time, looking for statistically significant variations above what is expected for a constant (in intensity and spectrum).

  2. Optical Periodicity Analysis of 3C 446 using Period04

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... All the data of the blazar 3C446 at 8, 4.8, 14 and 22 GHz, presented in publications from 1977 to 2006, have been compiled to generate light curves. The light curves show violent activity of 3C446. Using Period04 analysis method, we have found that there is a period of 7.2 yr, which is consistent with the ...

  3. Theory of Periodic Conjugate Heat Transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Zudin, Yuri B

    2012-01-01

    This book presents the theory of periodic conjugate heat transfer in a detailed way. The effects of thermophysical properties and geometry of a solid body on the commonly used and experimentally determined heat transfer coefficient are analytically presented from a general point of view. The main objective of the book is a simplified description of the interaction between a solid body and a fluid as a boundary value problem of the heat conduction equation for the solid body. At the body surface, the true heat transfer coefficient is composed of two parts: the true mean value resulting from the solution of the steady state heat transfer problem and a periodically variable part, the periodic time and length to describe the oscillatory hydrodynamic effects. The second edition is extended by (i) the analysis of stability boundaries in helium flow at supercritical conditions in a heated channel with respect to the interaction between a solid body and a fluid; (ii) a periodic model and a method of heat transfer sim...

  4. Minimal surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Dierkes, Ulrich; Sauvigny, Friedrich; Jakob, Ruben; Kuster, Albrecht

    2010-01-01

    Minimal Surfaces is the first volume of a three volume treatise on minimal surfaces (Grundlehren Nr. 339-341). Each volume can be read and studied independently of the others. The central theme is boundary value problems for minimal surfaces. The treatise is a substantially revised and extended version of the monograph Minimal Surfaces I, II (Grundlehren Nr. 295 & 296). The first volume begins with an exposition of basic ideas of the theory of surfaces in three-dimensional Euclidean space, followed by an introduction of minimal surfaces as stationary points of area, or equivalently

  5. Surface Loving and Surface Avoiding modes

    OpenAIRE

    Combe, Nicolas; Huntzinger, Jean Roch; Morillo, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    International audience; We theoretically study the propagation of sound waves in GaAs/AlAs superlattices focussing on periodic modes in the vicinity of the band gaps. Based on analytical and numerical calculations, we show that these modes are the product of a quickly oscillating function times a slowly varying envelope function. We carefully study the phase of the envelope function compared to the surface of a semi-infinite superlattice. Especially, the dephasing of the superlattice compared...

  6. The Periodic Table in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raos, N.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Croatian (Yugoslav Academy of Sciences and Arts was the first academy to elect D. I. Mendeleev as its honorary member (1882, whereas the periodic table of the elements has been taught regularly at the Zagreb University since 1888. The early interest of Croatian chemists in the periodic table should be attributed primarily to their pan-Slavic attitude, particularly as proof that Slavic people were able to produce "their own Newtons" (M. V. Lomonosov and D. I. Mendeleev. Such enthusiastic views, however, did not help in analyzing the contribution of Mendeleev and other scientists to the discovery and development of the periodic table of the elements.

  7. Rumble surfaces

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    National Institute for Transport and Road

    1977-01-01

    Full Text Available Rumble surfaces are intermittent short lengths of coarse-textured road surfacings on which vehicle tyres produce a rumbling sound. used in conjunction with appropriate roadsigns and markings, they can reduce accidents on rural roads by alerting...

  8. Epigenetics in the perioperative period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lirk, P.; Fiegl, H.; Weber, N. C.; Hollmann, M. W.

    2015-01-01

    The perioperative period is characterized by profound changes in the body's homoeostatic processes. This review seeks to address whether epigenetic mechanisms may influence an individual's reaction to surgery and anaesthesia. Evidence from animal and human studies suggests that epigenetic mechanisms

  9. Surface thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Moliner, F.

    1975-01-01

    Basic thermodynamics of a system consisting of two bulk phases with an interface. Solid surfaces: general. Discussion of experimental data on surface tension and related concepts. Adsorption thermodynamics in the Gibbsian scheme. Adsorption on inert solid adsorbents. Systems with electrical charges: chemistry and thermodynamics of imperfect crystals. Thermodynamics of charged surfaces. Simple models of charge transfer chemisorption. Adsorption heat and related concepts. Surface phase transitions

  10. Topological imprint for periodic orbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martín, Jesús San; Moscoso, Ma José; Gómez, A González

    2012-01-01

    The more self-crossing points an orbit has the more complex it is. We introduce the topological imprint to characterize crossing points and focus on the period-doubling cascade. The period-doubling cascade topological imprint determines the topological imprint for orbits in chaotic bands. In addition, there is a closer link between this concept and the braids studied by Lettelier et al (2000 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 33 1809–25). (paper)

  11. Glass Waveguides for Periodic Poling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fage-Pedersen, Jacob; Jacobsen, Rune Shim; Kristensen, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Planar silica-based waveguide devices have been developed for second-harmonic generation by poling with periodic electrodes. We show that detrimental charge transport can occur along interfaces, but with proper choice of fabrication, high-quality devices are obtained.......Planar silica-based waveguide devices have been developed for second-harmonic generation by poling with periodic electrodes. We show that detrimental charge transport can occur along interfaces, but with proper choice of fabrication, high-quality devices are obtained....

  12. Periodic progress report, 6 months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Thomas Winther; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    This is the first progress report of the BriteEuram project named "High Power Laser Cutting for Heavy Industry" ("Powercut"). The report contains a summary of the objectives of the first period, an overview of the technical progress, a comparison between the planed and the accomplished work......, a description of the planned activities for the next period, and last comments on management and coordination....

  13. Minimum period and the gap in periods of Cataclysmic binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paczynski, B.; Sienkiewicz, R.

    1983-01-01

    The 81 minute cutoff to the orbital periods of hydrogen-rich cataclysmic binaries is consistent with evolution of those systems being dominated by angular momentum losses due to gravitational radiation. Unfortunately, many uncertainties, mainly poorly known atmospheric opacities below 2000 K, make is physically impossible to verify the quadrupole formula for gravitational radiation by using the observed cutoff at 81 minutes. The upper boundary of the gap in orbital periods observed at about 3 hours is almost certainly due to enhanced angular momentum losses from cataclysmic binaries which have longer periods. The physical mechanism of those losses is not identified, but a possible importance of stellar winds is pointed out. The lower boundary of the gap may be explained with the oldest cataclysmic binaries, whose periods evolved past the minimum at 81 minutes and reached the value of 2 hours within about 12 x 10 9 years after the binary had formed. Those binaries should have secondary components of only 0.02 solar masses, and their periods could be used to estimate ages of the oldest cataclysmic stars, and presumably the age of Galaxy. An alternative explanation for the gap requires that binaries should be detached while crossing the gap. A possible mechanism for this phenomenon is discussed. It requires the secondary components to be about 0.2 solar masses in the binaries just below the gap

  14. Special Features In Turbulent Mixing. Comparison between Periodic and Non Periodic Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Costescu

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available After hundreds of years of stability study, the problems of flow kinematics are far from complete solving. A modern theory appears in this field: the mixing theory. Its mathematical methods and techniques developed the significant relation between turbulence and chaos. The turbulence is an important feature of dynamic systems with few freedom degrees, the so-called far from equilibrium systems. These are widespread between the models of excitable media.Studying a mixing for a flow implies the analysis of successive stretching and folding phenomena for its particles, the influence of parameters and initial conditions. In the previous works, the study of the 3D non-periodic models exhibited a quite complicated behavior, involving some significant events - the so-called rare events. The variation of parameters had a great influence on the length and surface deformations. The 2D (periodic case is simpler, but significant events can also issue for irrational values of the length and surface versors, as was the situation in 3D case.The comparison between 2D and 3D case revealed interesting properties; therefore a modified 2D (periodic model is tested. The numerical simulations were realized in MapleVI, for searching special mathematical events. Continuing this work both from analytical and numeric standpoint would relieve useful properties for the turbulent mixing. A proximal target is to test some special functions for the periodic model, and to study the behavior of the structures realized by the model.

  15. Periodic testing in operative action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larm, T.

    2005-01-01

    Periodic testing forms a remarkable part of the regular work tasks of the shift crew. Testing is generally carried out beside the daily monitoring and control work. Even remarkable plant related differences may occur in the procedures and routines used in periodic testing. The goal is still always the same, to regularly ensure that the systems and equipment are in working order according to their design. This presentation studies with examples the execution and scope of periodic testing as well as the routines and procedures used in the testing in Loviisa power plant. The presentation is based on the testing procedures of Loviisa power plant and the aim is not to compare them to the procedures of other plants. The scope of periodic testing has increased and the routines and procedures have been developed as the operation experience has increased. The assessment of the need of periodic testing and the consideration of the practical execution possibilities should be a part of the plant's planning phase as a part of the planning process. (orig.)

  16. Inferring probabilistic stellar rotation periods using Gaussian processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angus, Ruth; Morton, Timothy; Aigrain, Suzanne; Foreman-Mackey, Daniel; Rajpaul, Vinesh

    2018-02-01

    Variability in the light curves of spotted, rotating stars is often non-sinusoidal and quasi-periodic - spots move on the stellar surface and have finite lifetimes, causing stellar flux variations to slowly shift in phase. A strictly periodic sinusoid therefore cannot accurately model a rotationally modulated stellar light curve. Physical models of stellar surfaces have many drawbacks preventing effective inference, such as highly degenerate or high-dimensional parameter spaces. In this work, we test an appropriate effective model: a Gaussian Process with a quasi-periodic covariance kernel function. This highly flexible model allows sampling of the posterior probability density function of the periodic parameter, marginalizing over the other kernel hyperparameters using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo approach. To test the effectiveness of this method, we infer rotation periods from 333 simulated stellar light curves, demonstrating that the Gaussian process method produces periods that are more accurate than both a sine-fitting periodogram and an autocorrelation function method. We also demonstrate that it works well on real data, by inferring rotation periods for 275 Kepler stars with previously measured periods. We provide a table of rotation periods for these and many more, altogether 1102 Kepler objects of interest, and their posterior probability density function samples. Because this method delivers posterior probability density functions, it will enable hierarchical studies involving stellar rotation, particularly those involving population modelling, such as inferring stellar ages, obliquities in exoplanet systems, or characterizing star-planet interactions. The code used to implement this method is available online.

  17. ECTO-NOX (ENOX) proteins of the cell surface lack thioredoxin reductase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosneaga, Elena; Kim, Chinpal; Shen, Bernard; Watanabe, Takahiro; Morre, Dorothy M; Morré, D James

    2008-01-01

    This study was to determine if ENOX proteins of the cell surface act as cell surface thioredoxin reductases. To measure formation of thiols a turbimetric insulin assay was used. No turbidity was observed with insulin alone or with insulin plus DTT. However, the combination of insulin +DTT + recombinant his-tagged ENOX2 (tNOX) did result in increased turbidity. An ENOX1 (CNOX) preparation also resulted in turbidity changes. In contrast, we were unable to demonstrate ENOX2-dependent insulin reduction by high density SDS-PAGE. Inclusion of reduced serum albumin as a source of free thiols for the protein disulfide interchange activity catalyzed by ENOX2 failed to result in insulin reduction in the presence of ENOX2. A direct effect of ENOX2 on thioredoxin reduction in the presence of NADPH also was not observed. The DTNB assay for thioredoxin reductase activity also failed to reveal activity. Thus, ENOX proteins appear not to function as thioredoxin reductases at the cell surface nor do they appear to recognize reduced insulin as a substrate for protein disulfide-thiol interchange. The enhanced turbidity of insulin solutions resulting from ENOX presence was traced to ENOX-catalyzed insulin fibrillation either through nucleation enhancement or some other mechanism. Fibrillation was determined using Thioflavin T fluorescence which paralleled the turbimetric results and the formation of multimers (polymerization) observed on SDS-PAGE.

  18. Periodicity, the Canon and Sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas F. Scanlon

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The topic according to this title is admittedly a broad one, embracing two very general concepts of time and of the cultural valuation of artistic products. Both phenomena are, in the present view, largely constructed by their contemporary cultures, and given authority to a great extent from the prestige of the past. The antiquity of tradition brings with it a certain cachet. Even though there may be peripheral debates in any given society which question the specifics of periodization or canonicity, individuals generally accept the consensus designation of a sequence of historical periods and they accept a list of highly valued artistic works as canonical or authoritative. We will first examine some of the processes of periodization and of canon-formation, after which we will discuss some specific examples of how these processes have worked in the sport of two ancient cultures, namely Greece and Mesoamerica.

  19. Five period measures of longevity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Bongaarts

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available This study provides a summary of recently proposed alternatives period measures of "longevity" and assesses whether empirical differences between these measures are consistent with predictions from analytic studies. Particular attention is given to the tempo effect. Three of the five period measures are virtually equal to one another in a simulated population in which mortality follows a Gompertz model with a constant rate of improvement. Similar results are observed among females in Denmark, England and Wales and Sweden in the last quarter century. However, these three measures differ substantially from the conventional period life expectancy when mortality changes over time. These findings are consistent with theoretical analysis by Bongaarts and Feeney (2002, 2003, 2005 which demonstrated that this deviation is caused by a tempo effect whose size varies with the rate of change in mortality.

  20. Vibration Control in Periodic Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgsberg, Jan Becker

    2017-01-01

    Within the framework of periodic structures, the calibration of RL shunted piezoelectric inclusions is investigated with respect to maximum damping of a particular wave form. A finite element setting is assumed, with local shunted inclusions inside the unit cell. The effect of the shunts is repre......Within the framework of periodic structures, the calibration of RL shunted piezoelectric inclusions is investigated with respect to maximum damping of a particular wave form. A finite element setting is assumed, with local shunted inclusions inside the unit cell. The effect of the shunts....... The presentation contains dispersion diagrams and vibration amplitude curves for the optimally calibrated RL shunt system in a 1-D periodic structure with local piezoelectric inclusions....