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Sample records for surface patch code

  1. A User’s Manual for: Electromagnetic Surface Patch Code (ESP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    common e equivalent to say physical contact, that the two (or The parameter IOVL thi 5 code intersect ove rlap, ce contin dge Inse ing...cross polarizations is shown. The phase of field field is also shown (the incident wave at the origon). For backscattering STPM = both are printed...scattered fields phi polarized. STPM = scattering cross section with incident field theta polarized and scattered field phi polarized. SPTM

  2. Optimal patch code design via device characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wencheng; Dalal, Edul N.

    2012-01-01

    In many color measurement applications, such as those for color calibration and profiling, "patch code" has been used successfully for job identification and automation to reduce operator errors. A patch code is similar to a barcode, but is intended primarily for use in measurement devices that cannot read barcodes due to limited spatial resolution, such as spectrophotometers. There is an inherent tradeoff between decoding robustness and the number of code levels available for encoding. Previous methods have attempted to address this tradeoff, but those solutions have been sub-optimal. In this paper, we propose a method to design optimal patch codes via device characterization. The tradeoff between decoding robustness and the number of available code levels is optimized in terms of printing and measurement efforts, and decoding robustness against noises from the printing and measurement devices. Effort is drastically reduced relative to previous methods because print-and-measure is minimized through modeling and the use of existing printer profiles. Decoding robustness is improved by distributing the code levels in CIE Lab space rather than in CMYK space.

  3. Smooth surfaces from rational bilinear patches

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Ling; Wang, Jun; Pottmann, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    Smooth freeform skins from simple panels constitute a challenging topic arising in contemporary architecture. We contribute to this problem area by showing how to approximate a negatively curved surface by smoothly joined rational bilinear patches

  4. Smooth surfaces from bilinear patches: Discrete affine minimal surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Kä ferbö ck, Florian; Pottmann, Helmut

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by applications in freeform architecture, we study surfaces which are composed of smoothly joined bilinear patches. These surfaces turn out to be discrete versions of negatively curved affine minimal surfaces and share many properties

  5. Hydrophobic patches on protein surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lijnzaad, P.

    2007-01-01

    Hydrophobicity is a prime determinant of the structure and function of proteins. It is the driving force behind the folding of soluble proteins, and when exposed on the surface, it is frequently involved in recognition and binding of ligands and other proteins. The energetic cost of

  6. Smooth surfaces from rational bilinear patches

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Ling

    2014-01-01

    Smooth freeform skins from simple panels constitute a challenging topic arising in contemporary architecture. We contribute to this problem area by showing how to approximate a negatively curved surface by smoothly joined rational bilinear patches. The approximation problem is solved with help of a new computational approach to the hyperbolic nets of Huhnen-Venedey and Rörig and optimization algorithms based on it. We also discuss its limits which lie in the topology of the input surface. Finally, freeform deformations based on Darboux transformations are used to generate smooth surfaces from smoothly joined Darboux cyclide patches; in this way we eliminate the restriction to surfaces with negative Gaussian curvature. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  7. Smooth surfaces from bilinear patches: Discrete affine minimal surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Käferböck, Florian

    2013-06-01

    Motivated by applications in freeform architecture, we study surfaces which are composed of smoothly joined bilinear patches. These surfaces turn out to be discrete versions of negatively curved affine minimal surfaces and share many properties with their classical smooth counterparts. We present computational design approaches and study special cases which should be interesting for the architectural application. 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  8. Surface contact potential patches and Casimir force measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, W. J.; Sushkov, A. O.; Lamoreaux, S. K.; Dalvit, D. A. R.

    2010-01-01

    We present calculations of contact potential surface patch effects that simplify previous treatments. It is shown that, because of the linearity of Laplace's equation, the presence of patch potentials does not affect an electrostatic calibration of a two-plate Casimir measurement apparatus. Using models that include long-range variations in the contact potential across the plate surfaces, a number of experimental observations can be reproduced and explained. For these models, numerical calculations show that if a voltage is applied between the plates which minimizes the force, a residual electrostatic force persists, and that the minimizing potential varies with distance. The residual force can be described by a fit to a simple two-parameter function involving the minimizing potential and its variation with distance. We show the origin of this residual force by use of a simple parallel capacitor model. Finally, the implications of a residual force that varies in a manner different from 1/d on the accuracy of previous Casimir measurements is discussed.

  9. Patched bimetallic surfaces are active catalysts for ammonia decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei; Vlachos, Dionisios G

    2015-10-07

    Ammonia decomposition is often used as an archetypical reaction for predicting new catalytic materials and understanding the very reason of why some reactions are sensitive on material's structure. Core-shell or surface-segregated bimetallic nanoparticles expose outstanding activity for many heterogeneously catalysed reactions but the reasons remain elusive owing to the difficulties in experimentally characterizing active sites. Here by performing multiscale simulations in ammonia decomposition on various nickel loadings on platinum (111), we show that the very high activity of core-shell structures requires patches of the guest metal to create and sustain dual active sites: nickel terraces catalyse N-H bond breaking and nickel edge sites drive atomic nitrogen association. The structure sensitivity on these active catalysts depends profoundly on reaction conditions due to kinetically competing relevant elementary reaction steps. We expose a remarkable difference in active sites between transient and steady-state studies and provide insights into optimal material design.

  10. lnvestigation of Patch Coatings lnfluence on the Stress lntensity Factor for Surface Cracks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambertsen, Søren Heide; Jepsen, Michael S.; Damkilde, Lars

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, it is investigated how a surface layer of epoxy glue will affect the crack propagation of a surface crack. The intension is to reduce or even stop the crack propagation by means of patch layer coating. When adding a patch layer to the surface with small cracks, the layer will attem...

  11. Treating voxel geometries in radiation protection dosimetry with a patched version of the Monte Carlo codes MCNP and MCNPX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burn, K W; Daffara, C; Gualdrini, G; Pierantoni, M; Ferrari, P

    2007-01-01

    The question of Monte Carlo simulation of radiation transport in voxel geometries is addressed. Patched versions of the MCNP and MCNPX codes are developed aimed at transporting radiation both in the standard geometry mode and in the voxel geometry treatment. The patched code reads an unformatted FORTRAN file derived from DICOM format data and uses special subroutines to handle voxel-to-voxel radiation transport. The various phases of the development of the methodology are discussed together with the new input options. Examples are given of employment of the code in internal and external dosimetry and comparisons with results from other groups are reported.

  12. Interactive object modelling based on piecewise planar surface patches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prankl, Johann; Zillich, Michael; Vincze, Markus

    2013-06-01

    Detecting elements such as planes in 3D is essential to describe objects for applications such as robotics and augmented reality. While plane estimation is well studied, table-top scenes exhibit a large number of planes and methods often lock onto a dominant plane or do not estimate 3D object structure but only homographies of individual planes. In this paper we introduce MDL to the problem of incrementally detecting multiple planar patches in a scene using tracked interest points in image sequences. Planar patches are reconstructed and stored in a keyframe-based graph structure. In case different motions occur, separate object hypotheses are modelled from currently visible patches and patches seen in previous frames. We evaluate our approach on a standard data set published by the Visual Geometry Group at the University of Oxford [24] and on our own data set containing table-top scenes. Results indicate that our approach significantly improves over the state-of-the-art algorithms.

  13. Detecting Local Ligand-Binding Site Similarity in Non-Homologous Proteins by Surface Patch Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sael, Lee; Kihara, Daisuke

    2012-01-01

    Functional elucidation of proteins is one of the essential tasks in biology. Function of a protein, specifically, small ligand molecules that bind to a protein, can be predicted by finding similar local surface regions in binding sites of known proteins. Here, we developed an alignment free local surface comparison method for predicting a ligand molecule which binds to a query protein. The algorithm, named Patch-Surfer, represents a binding pocket as a combination of segmented surface patches, each of which is characterized by its geometrical shape, the electrostatic potential, the hydrophobicity, and the concaveness. Representing a pocket by a set of patches is effective to absorb difference of global pocket shape while capturing local similarity of pockets. The shape and the physicochemical properties of surface patches are represented using the 3D Zernike descriptor, which is a series expansion of mathematical 3D function. Two pockets are compared using a modified weighted bipartite matching algorithm, which matches similar patches from the two pockets. Patch-Surfer was benchmarked on three datasets, which consist in total of 390 proteins that bind to one of 21 ligands. Patch-Surfer showed superior performance to existing methods including a global pocket comparison method, Pocket-Surfer, which we have previously introduced. Particularly, as intended, the accuracy showed large improvement for flexible ligand molecules, which bind to pockets in different conformations. PMID:22275074

  14. Detecting local ligand-binding site similarity in nonhomologous proteins by surface patch comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sael, Lee; Kihara, Daisuke

    2012-04-01

    Functional elucidation of proteins is one of the essential tasks in biology. Function of a protein, specifically, small ligand molecules that bind to a protein, can be predicted by finding similar local surface regions in binding sites of known proteins. Here, we developed an alignment free local surface comparison method for predicting a ligand molecule which binds to a query protein. The algorithm, named Patch-Surfer, represents a binding pocket as a combination of segmented surface patches, each of which is characterized by its geometrical shape, the electrostatic potential, the hydrophobicity, and the concaveness. Representing a pocket by a set of patches is effective to absorb difference of global pocket shape while capturing local similarity of pockets. The shape and the physicochemical properties of surface patches are represented using the 3D Zernike descriptor, which is a series expansion of mathematical 3D function. Two pockets are compared using a modified weighted bipartite matching algorithm, which matches similar patches from the two pockets. Patch-Surfer was benchmarked on three datasets, which consist in total of 390 proteins that bind to one of 21 ligands. Patch-Surfer showed superior performance to existing methods including a global pocket comparison method, Pocket-Surfer, which we have previously introduced. Particularly, as intended, the accuracy showed large improvement for flexible ligand molecules, which bind to pockets in different conformations. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Surface acoustic wave coding for orthogonal frequency coded devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malocha, Donald (Inventor); Kozlovski, Nikolai (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Methods and systems for coding SAW OFC devices to mitigate code collisions in a wireless multi-tag system. Each device producing plural stepped frequencies as an OFC signal with a chip offset delay to increase code diversity. A method for assigning a different OCF to each device includes using a matrix based on the number of OFCs needed and the number chips per code, populating each matrix cell with OFC chip, and assigning the codes from the matrix to the devices. The asynchronous passive multi-tag system includes plural surface acoustic wave devices each producing a different OFC signal having the same number of chips and including a chip offset time delay, an algorithm for assigning OFCs to each device, and a transceiver to transmit an interrogation signal and receive OFC signals in response with minimal code collisions during transmission.

  16. Binding Ligand Prediction for Proteins Using Partial Matching of Local Surface Patches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Sael

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Functional elucidation of uncharacterized protein structures is an important task in bioinformatics. We report our new approach for structure-based function prediction which captures local surface features of ligand binding pockets. Function of proteins, specifically, binding ligands of proteins, can be predicted by finding similar local surface regions of known proteins. To enable partial comparison of binding sites in proteins, a weighted bipartite matching algorithm is used to match pairs of surface patches. The surface patches are encoded with the 3D Zernike descriptors. Unlike the existing methods which compare global characteristics of the protein fold or the global pocket shape, the local surface patch method can find functional similarity between non-homologous proteins and binding pockets for flexible ligand molecules. The proposed method improves prediction results over global pocket shape-based method which was previously developed by our group.

  17. Binding ligand prediction for proteins using partial matching of local surface patches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sael, Lee; Kihara, Daisuke

    2010-01-01

    Functional elucidation of uncharacterized protein structures is an important task in bioinformatics. We report our new approach for structure-based function prediction which captures local surface features of ligand binding pockets. Function of proteins, specifically, binding ligands of proteins, can be predicted by finding similar local surface regions of known proteins. To enable partial comparison of binding sites in proteins, a weighted bipartite matching algorithm is used to match pairs of surface patches. The surface patches are encoded with the 3D Zernike descriptors. Unlike the existing methods which compare global characteristics of the protein fold or the global pocket shape, the local surface patch method can find functional similarity between non-homologous proteins and binding pockets for flexible ligand molecules. The proposed method improves prediction results over global pocket shape-based method which was previously developed by our group.

  18. Laminar boundary layer response to rotation of a finite diameter surface patch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klewicki, J.C.; Hill, R.B.

    2003-01-01

    The responses of the flat plate laminar boundary layer to perturbations generated by rotating a finite patch of the bounding surface are explored experimentally. The size of the surface patch was of the same order as the boundary layer thickness. The displacement thickness Reynolds number range of the boundary layers explored was 72-527. The rotation rates of the surface patch ranged from 2.14 to 62.8 s-1. Qualitative flow visualizations and quantitative molecular tagging velocimetry measurements revealed that rotation of a finite surface patch generates an asymmetric loop-like vortex. Significant features of this vortex include that, (i) the sign of the vorticity in the vortex head is opposite that of the boundary layer vorticity regardless of the sign of the input rotation, (ii) one leg of the vortex exhibits motion akin to solid body rotation while the other leg is best characterized as a spanwise shear layer, (iii) the vortex leg exhibiting near solid body rotation lifts more rapidly from the surface than the leg more like a shear layer, and (iv) the vortex leg exhibiting near solid body rotation always occurs on the side of the surface patch experiencing downstream motion. These asymmetries switch sides depending on the sign of the input rotation. The present results are interpreted and discussed relative to analytical solutions for infinite geometries. By way of analogy, plausible connections are drawn between the present results and the influences of wall normal vortices in turbulent boundary layer flows

  19. PL-PatchSurfer: a novel molecular local surface-based method for exploring protein-ligand interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bingjie; Zhu, Xiaolei; Monroe, Lyman; Bures, Mark G; Kihara, Daisuke

    2014-08-27

    Structure-based computational methods have been widely used in exploring protein-ligand interactions, including predicting the binding ligands of a given protein based on their structural complementarity. Compared to other protein and ligand representations, the advantages of a surface representation include reduced sensitivity to subtle changes in the pocket and ligand conformation and fast search speed. Here we developed a novel method named PL-PatchSurfer (Protein-Ligand PatchSurfer). PL-PatchSurfer represents the protein binding pocket and the ligand molecular surface as a combination of segmented surface patches. Each patch is characterized by its geometrical shape and the electrostatic potential, which are represented using the 3D Zernike descriptor (3DZD). We first tested PL-PatchSurfer on binding ligand prediction and found it outperformed the pocket-similarity based ligand prediction program. We then optimized the search algorithm of PL-PatchSurfer using the PDBbind dataset. Finally, we explored the utility of applying PL-PatchSurfer to a larger and more diverse dataset and showed that PL-PatchSurfer was able to provide a high early enrichment for most of the targets. To the best of our knowledge, PL-PatchSurfer is the first surface patch-based method that treats ligand complementarity at protein binding sites. We believe that using a surface patch approach to better understand protein-ligand interactions has the potential to significantly enhance the design of new ligands for a wide array of drug-targets.

  20. Origin, dynamics and evolution of ocean garbage patches from observed surface drifters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Sebille, Erik; England, Matthew H; Froyland, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Much of the debris in the near-surface ocean collects in so-called garbage patches where, due to convergence of the surface flow, the debris is trapped for decades to millennia. Until now, studies modelling the pathways of surface marine debris have not included release from coasts or factored in the possibilities that release concentrations vary with region or that pathways may include seasonal cycles. Here, we use observational data from the Global Drifter Program in a particle-trajectory tracer approach that includes the seasonal cycle to study the fate of marine debris in the open ocean from coastal regions around the world on interannual to centennial timescales. We find that six major garbage patches emerge, one in each of the five subtropical basins and one previously unreported patch in the Barents Sea. The evolution of each of the six patches is markedly different. With the exception of the North Pacific, all patches are much more dispersive than expected from linear ocean circulation theory, suggesting that on centennial timescales the different basins are much better connected than previously thought and that inter-ocean exchanges play a large role in the spreading of marine debris. This study suggests that, over multi-millennial timescales, a significant amount of the debris released outside of the North Atlantic will eventually end up in the North Pacific patch, the main attractor of global marine debris. (letter)

  1. Deep linear autoencoder and patch clustering-based unified one-dimensional coding of image and video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Honggui

    2017-09-01

    This paper proposes a unified one-dimensional (1-D) coding framework of image and video, which depends on deep learning neural network and image patch clustering. First, an improved K-means clustering algorithm for image patches is employed to obtain the compact inputs of deep artificial neural network. Second, for the purpose of best reconstructing original image patches, deep linear autoencoder (DLA), a linear version of the classical deep nonlinear autoencoder, is introduced to achieve the 1-D representation of image blocks. Under the circumstances of 1-D representation, DLA is capable of attaining zero reconstruction error, which is impossible for the classical nonlinear dimensionality reduction methods. Third, a unified 1-D coding infrastructure for image, intraframe, interframe, multiview video, three-dimensional (3-D) video, and multiview 3-D video is built by incorporating different categories of videos into the inputs of patch clustering algorithm. Finally, it is shown in the results of simulation experiments that the proposed methods can simultaneously gain higher compression ratio and peak signal-to-noise ratio than those of the state-of-the-art methods in the situation of low bitrate transmission.

  2. Formulation and optimization of mucoadhesive buccal patches of losartan potassium by using response surface methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikram, Md.; Gilhotra, Neeraj; Gilhotra, Ritu Mehra

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study was undertaken with an aim to systematically design a model of factors that would yield an optimized sustained release dosage form of an anti-hypertensive agent, losartan potassium, using response surface methodology (RSM) by employing 32 full factorial design. Materials and Methods: Mucoadhesive buccal patches were prepared using different grades of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) (K4M and K100M) and polyvinylpyrrolidone-K30 by solvent casting method. The amount of the release retardant polymers – HPMC K4M (X1) and HPMC K100M (X2) was taken as an independent variable. The dependent variables were the burst release in 30 min (Y1), cumulative percentage release of drug after 8 h (Y2) and swelling index (Y3) of the patches. In vitro release and swelling studies were carried out and the data were fitted to kinetic equations. Results: The physicochemical, bioadhesive, and swelling properties of patches were found to vary significantly depending on the viscosity of the polymers and their combination. Patches showed an initial burst release preceding a more gradual sustained release phase following a nonfickian diffusion process. Discussion: The results indicate that suitable bioadhesive buccal patches with desired permeability could be prepared, facilitated with the RSM. PMID:26682205

  3. PL-PatchSurfer: A Novel Molecular Local Surface-Based Method for Exploring Protein-Ligand Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingjie Hu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Structure-based computational methods have been widely used in exploring protein-ligand interactions, including predicting the binding ligands of a given protein based on their structural complementarity. Compared to other protein and ligand representations, the advantages of a surface representation include reduced sensitivity to subtle changes in the pocket and ligand conformation and fast search speed. Here we developed a novel method named PL-PatchSurfer (Protein-Ligand PatchSurfer. PL-PatchSurfer represents the protein binding pocket and the ligand molecular surface as a combination of segmented surface patches. Each patch is characterized by its geometrical shape and the electrostatic potential, which are represented using the 3D Zernike descriptor (3DZD. We first tested PL-PatchSurfer on binding ligand prediction and found it outperformed the pocket-similarity based ligand prediction program. We then optimized the search algorithm of PL-PatchSurfer using the PDBbind dataset. Finally, we explored the utility of applying PL-PatchSurfer to a larger and more diverse dataset and showed that PL-PatchSurfer was able to provide a high early enrichment for most of the targets. To the best of our knowledge, PL-PatchSurfer is the first surface patch-based method that treats ligand complementarity at protein binding sites. We believe that using a surface patch approach to better understand protein-ligand interactions has the potential to significantly enhance the design of new ligands for a wide array of drug-targets.

  4. Bright patches on chernozems - from space to surface and soil properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetanova, Anna; Burian, Libor; Holec, Juraj; Minár, Jozef

    2016-04-01

    located in areas with slope gradient between 3 and 6°, which is consider as the higher slope in this part of the hilly land. In 1949 the distribution of bright patches was more strongly related to higher slope gradient, the convex forms of profile curvature, and upslope position than in 2004. In the studied catchment, 34 soil profiles were described in the bright patches (identified in 2004), and 73% of them were situated on the convex forms of profile curvature. The most of the profiles were eroded (88%), the mean soil loss was 0.36 m (in the comparison with the reference soil profile), and in 55% of described soil profiles the entire mollic horizon was removed. The typical surface horizon contained 2.3% of humus and 21% of carbonates. The soil profiles were further compared with these situated in the areas neighbouring with the bright patches, and soil profiles on two valley cross-sections, in order to understand the soil redistribution in the catchment, and describe the differences between the bright and black patches in the chernozem landscape. This work was supported by the Slovak Research and Development Agency under the contract ESF-EC-0006-07 and APVV-0625-11; Anna Smetanová has received the support of the AgreenSkills fellowship (under grant agreement n°267196).

  5. Correlated Errors in the Surface Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Daniel; Mucciolo, E. R.; Novais, E.

    2012-02-01

    A milestone step into the development of quantum information technology would be the ability to design and operate a reliable quantum memory. The greatest obstacle to create such a device has been decoherence due to the unavoidable interaction between the quantum system and its environment. Quantum Error Correction is therefore an essential ingredient to any quantum computing information device. A great deal of attention has been given to surface codes, since it has very good scaling properties. In this seminar, we discuss the time evolution of a qubit encoded in the logical basis of a surface code. The system is interacting with a bosonic environment at zero temperature. Our results show how much spatial and time correlations can be detrimental to the efficiency of the code.

  6. Clinical analysis of amniotic membrane patches and grafts for acute ocular surface burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the effect and value of amniotic membrane patches and grafts for acute ocular surface burn at different degrees.METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 28 cases(28 eyesaffected by ocular chemical or thermal burn with different degree were included in our hospital from March 2007 to March 2012. Amniotic membrane patched was undergone in 13 eyes with fresh amnion that the patients corneal burns degree Ⅱ or Ⅲ with partial limbal buns at degree Ⅳ. Amniotic membrane grafts was performed in 15 eyes with fresh amnion that the patients all corneal burns at degree Ⅲ with the whole limbal necrosis without severe eyelid defect. The follow-up time ranged 6~24mo. The postoperative visual acuity, the condition of amniotic membrane transplant, renovation of cornea and complications were observed. RESULTS: Postoperative corrected visual acuity was improved in 20 eyes(71%, it was not changed in 5 eyes(18%, the visual acuity declined in 3 eyes(11%. The amniotic membrane survived in 23 eyes and the survival rate was up to 82%. The cornea of 4 eyes recovered to transparent, nebula emceed in 8 eyes eventually, corneal macula emerged in 10 eyes, 4 eyes ended up with leukoma, 2 eyes developed corneal melting after therapy, then received lamellar keratoplasty. Corneal surface become epithelization after amnion patches or grafts, but any of them have recurrent epithelial erosion, and become stable epithalization after repeat operation.CONCLUSION: Amniotic membrane patches and grafts is an effective method to deal with acute ocular surface burn.

  7. Self assembled temperature responsive surfaces for generation of cell patches for bone tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valmikinathan, Chandra M; ChangWei; Xu Jiahua; Yu Xiaojun

    2012-01-01

    One of the major challenges in the fabrication of tissue engineered scaffolds is the ability of the scaffold to biologically mimic autograft-like tissues. One of the alternate approaches to achieve this is by the application of cell seeded scaffolds with optimal porosity and mechanical properties. However, the current approaches for seeding cells on scaffolds are not optimal in terms of seeding efficiencies, cell penetration into the scaffold and more importantly uniform distribution of cells on the scaffold. Also, recent developments in scaffold geometries to enhance surface areas, pore sizes and porosities tend to further complicate the scenario. Cell sheet-based approaches for cell seeding have demonstrated a successful approach to generate scaffold-free tissue engineering approaches. However, the method of generating the temperature responsive surface is quite challenging and requires carcinogenic reagents and gamma rays. Therefore, here, we have developed temperature responsive substrates by layer-by-layer self assembly of smart polymers. Multilayer thin films prepared from tannic acid and poly N-isopropylacrylamide were fabricated based on their electrostatic and hydrogen bonding interactions. Cell attachment and proliferation studies on these thin films showed uniform cell attachment on the substrate, matching tissue culture plates. Also, the cells could be harvested as cell patches and sheets from the scaffolds, by reducing the temperature for a short period of time, and seeded onto porous scaffolds for tissue engineering applications. An enhanced cell seeding efficiency on scaffolds was observed using the cell patch-based technique as compared to seeding cells in suspension. Owing to the already pre-existent cell–cell and cell–extracellular matrix interactions, the cell patch showed the ability to reattach rapidly onto scaffolds and showed enhanced ability to proliferate and differentiate into a bone-like matrix. (paper)

  8. A surface code quantum computer in silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Charles D.; Peretz, Eldad; Hile, Samuel J.; House, Matthew G.; Fuechsle, Martin; Rogge, Sven; Simmons, Michelle Y.; Hollenberg, Lloyd C. L.

    2015-01-01

    The exceptionally long quantum coherence times of phosphorus donor nuclear spin qubits in silicon, coupled with the proven scalability of silicon-based nano-electronics, make them attractive candidates for large-scale quantum computing. However, the high threshold of topological quantum error correction can only be captured in a two-dimensional array of qubits operating synchronously and in parallel—posing formidable fabrication and control challenges. We present an architecture that addresses these problems through a novel shared-control paradigm that is particularly suited to the natural uniformity of the phosphorus donor nuclear spin qubit states and electronic confinement. The architecture comprises a two-dimensional lattice of donor qubits sandwiched between two vertically separated control layers forming a mutually perpendicular crisscross gate array. Shared-control lines facilitate loading/unloading of single electrons to specific donors, thereby activating multiple qubits in parallel across the array on which the required operations for surface code quantum error correction are carried out by global spin control. The complexities of independent qubit control, wave function engineering, and ad hoc quantum interconnects are explicitly avoided. With many of the basic elements of fabrication and control based on demonstrated techniques and with simulated quantum operation below the surface code error threshold, the architecture represents a new pathway for large-scale quantum information processing in silicon and potentially in other qubit systems where uniformity can be exploited. PMID:26601310

  9. A surface code quantum computer in silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Charles D; Peretz, Eldad; Hile, Samuel J; House, Matthew G; Fuechsle, Martin; Rogge, Sven; Simmons, Michelle Y; Hollenberg, Lloyd C L

    2015-10-01

    The exceptionally long quantum coherence times of phosphorus donor nuclear spin qubits in silicon, coupled with the proven scalability of silicon-based nano-electronics, make them attractive candidates for large-scale quantum computing. However, the high threshold of topological quantum error correction can only be captured in a two-dimensional array of qubits operating synchronously and in parallel-posing formidable fabrication and control challenges. We present an architecture that addresses these problems through a novel shared-control paradigm that is particularly suited to the natural uniformity of the phosphorus donor nuclear spin qubit states and electronic confinement. The architecture comprises a two-dimensional lattice of donor qubits sandwiched between two vertically separated control layers forming a mutually perpendicular crisscross gate array. Shared-control lines facilitate loading/unloading of single electrons to specific donors, thereby activating multiple qubits in parallel across the array on which the required operations for surface code quantum error correction are carried out by global spin control. The complexities of independent qubit control, wave function engineering, and ad hoc quantum interconnects are explicitly avoided. With many of the basic elements of fabrication and control based on demonstrated techniques and with simulated quantum operation below the surface code error threshold, the architecture represents a new pathway for large-scale quantum information processing in silicon and potentially in other qubit systems where uniformity can be exploited.

  10. A Comparison Between Jerusalem Cross and Square Patch Frequency Selective Surfaces for Low Profile Antenna Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cure, David; Weller, Thomas; Miranda, Felix A.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a comparison between Jerusalem Cross (JC) and Square Patch (SP) based Frequency Selected Surfaces (FSS) for low profile antenna applications is presented. The comparison is aimed at understanding the performance of low profile antennas backed by high impedance surfaces. In particular, an end loaded planar open sleeve dipole (ELPOSD) antenna is examined due to the various parameters within its configuration, offering significant design flexibility and a wide operating bandwidth. Measured data of the antennas demonstrate that increasing the number of unit cells improves the fractional bandwidth. The antenna bandwidth increased from 0.8% to 1.8% and from 0.8% to 2.7% for the JC and SP structures, respectively. The number of unit cells was increased from 48 to 80 for the JC-FSS and from 24 to 48 for the SP-FSS.

  11. Localized surface plasmon resonances in gold nano-patches on a gallium nitride substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D’Antonio, Palma; Vincenzo Inchingolo, Alessio; Perna, Giuseppe; Capozzi, Vito; Stomeo, Tiziana; De Vittorio, Massimo; Magno, Giovanni; Grande, Marco; Petruzzelli, Vincenzo; D’Orazio, Antonella

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we describe the design, fabrication and characterization of gold nano-patches, deposited on gallium nitride substrate, acting as optical nanoantennas able to efficiently localize the electric field at the metal–dielectric interface. We analyse the performance of the proposed device, evaluating the transmission and the electric field localization by means of a three-dimensional finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. We detail the fabrication protocol and show the morphological characterization. We also investigate the near-field optical transmission by means of scanning near-field optical microscope measurements, which reveal the excitation of a localized surface plasmon resonance at a wavelength of 633 nm, as expected by the FDTD calculations. Such results highlight how the final device can pave the way for the realization of a single optical platform where the active material and the metal nanostructures are integrated together on the same chip. (paper)

  12. Hierarchical surface code for network quantum computing with modules of arbitrary size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Benjamin, Simon C.

    2016-10-01

    The network paradigm for quantum computing involves interconnecting many modules to form a scalable machine. Typically it is assumed that the links between modules are prone to noise while operations within modules have a significantly higher fidelity. To optimize fault tolerance in such architectures we introduce a hierarchical generalization of the surface code: a small "patch" of the code exists within each module and constitutes a single effective qubit of the logic-level surface code. Errors primarily occur in a two-dimensional subspace, i.e., patch perimeters extruded over time, and the resulting noise threshold for intermodule links can exceed ˜10 % even in the absence of purification. Increasing the number of qubits within each module decreases the number of qubits necessary for encoding a logical qubit. But this advantage is relatively modest, and broadly speaking, a "fine-grained" network of small modules containing only about eight qubits is competitive in total qubit count versus a "course" network with modules containing many hundreds of qubits.

  13. Virtual Ligand Screening Using PL-PatchSurfer2, a Molecular Surface-Based Protein-Ligand Docking Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Woong-Hee; Kihara, Daisuke

    2018-01-01

    Virtual screening is a computational technique for predicting a potent binding compound for a receptor protein from a ligand library. It has been a widely used in the drug discovery field to reduce the efforts of medicinal chemists to find hit compounds by experiments.Here, we introduce our novel structure-based virtual screening program, PL-PatchSurfer, which uses molecular surface representation with the three-dimensional Zernike descriptors, which is an effective mathematical representation for identifying physicochemical complementarities between local surfaces of a target protein and a ligand. The advantage of the surface-patch description is its tolerance on a receptor and compound structure variation. PL-PatchSurfer2 achieves higher accuracy on apo form and computationally modeled receptor structures than conventional structure-based virtual screening programs. Thus, PL-PatchSurfer2 opens up an opportunity for targets that do not have their crystal structures. The program is provided as a stand-alone program at http://kiharalab.org/plps2 . We also provide files for two ligand libraries, ChEMBL and ZINC Drug-like.

  14. Hepatitis B surface antigen incorporated in dissolvable microneedle array patch is antigenic and thermostable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, Danielle; Renaud, Frédéric; Dewar, Vincent; Strodiot, Laurent; Wauters, Florence; Janimak, Jim; Shimada, Toshio; Nomura, Tatsuya; Kabata, Koki; Kuruma, Koji; Kusano, Takayuki; Sakai, Masaki; Nagasaki, Hideo; Oyamada, Takayoshi

    2017-11-01

    Alternatives to syringe-based administration are considered for vaccines. Intradermal vaccination with dissolvable microneedle arrays (MNA) appears promising in this respect, as an easy-to-use and painless method. In this work, we have developed an MNA patch (MNAP) made of hydroxyethyl starch (HES) and chondroitin sulphate (CS). In swines, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) formulated with the saponin QS-21 as adjuvant, both incorporated in HES-based MNAP, demonstrated the same level of immunogenicity as a commercially available aluminum-adjuvanted HBsAg vaccine, after two immunizations 28 days apart. MNAP application was associated with transient skin reactions (erythema, lump, scab), particularly evident when the antigen was delivered with the adjuvant. The thermostability of the adjuvanted antigen when incorporated in the HES-based matrix was also assessed by storing MNAP at 37, 45 or 50 °C for up to 6 months. We could demonstrate that antigenicity was retained at 37 and 45 °C and only a 10% loss was observed after 6 months at 50 °C. Our results are supportive of MNAP as an attractive alternative to classical syringe-based vaccination. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. A Multigroup diffusion solver using pseudo transient continuation for a radiation-hydrodynamic code with patch-based AMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shestakov, A I; Offner, S R

    2006-09-21

    We present a scheme to solve the nonlinear multigroup radiation diffusion (MGD) equations. The method is incorporated into a massively parallel, multidimensional, Eulerian radiation-hydrodynamic code with adaptive mesh refinement (AMR). The patch-based AMR algorithm refines in both space and time creating a hierarchy of levels, coarsest to finest. The physics modules are time-advanced using operator splitting. On each level, separate 'level-solve' packages advance the modules. Our multigroup level-solve adapts an implicit procedure which leads to a two-step iterative scheme that alternates between elliptic solves for each group with intra-cell group coupling. For robustness, we introduce pseudo transient continuation ({Psi}tc). We analyze the magnitude of the {Psi}tc parameter to ensure positivity of the resulting linear system, diagonal dominance and convergence of the two-step scheme. For AMR, a level defines a subdomain for refinement. For diffusive processes such as MGD, the refined level uses Dirichet boundary data at the coarse-fine interface and the data is derived from the coarse level solution. After advancing on the fine level, an additional procedure, the sync-solve (SS), is required in order to enforce conservation. The MGD SS reduces to an elliptic solve on a combined grid for a system of G equations, where G is the number of groups. We adapt the 'partial temperature' scheme for the SS; hence, we reuse the infrastructure developed for scalar equations. Results are presented. We consider a multigroup test problem with a known analytic solution. We demonstrate utility of {Psi}tc by running with increasingly larger timesteps. Lastly, we simulate the sudden release of energy Y inside an Al sphere (r = 15 cm) suspended in air at STP. For Y = 11 kT, we find that gray radiation diffusion and MGD produce similar results. However, if Y = 1 MT, the two packages yield different results. Our large Y simulation contradicts a long-standing theory

  16. A Multigroup diffusion Solver Using Pseudo Transient Continuation for a Radiaiton-Hydrodynamic Code with Patch-Based AMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shestakov, A I; Offner, S R

    2007-03-02

    We present a scheme to solve the nonlinear multigroup radiation diffusion (MGD) equations. The method is incorporated into a massively parallel, multidimensional, Eulerian radiation-hydrodynamic code with adaptive mesh refinement (AMR). The patch-based AMR algorithm refines in both space and time creating a hierarchy of levels, coarsest to finest. The physics modules are time-advanced using operator splitting. On each level, separate 'level-solve' packages advance the modules. Our multigroup level-solve adapts an implicit procedure which leads to a two-step iterative scheme that alternates between elliptic solves for each group with intra-cell group coupling. For robustness, we introduce pseudo transient continuation ({Psi}tc). We analyze the magnitude of the {Psi}tc parameter to ensure positivity of the resulting linear system, diagonal dominance and convergence of the two-step scheme. For AMR, a level defines a subdomain for refinement. For diffusive processes such as MGD, the refined level uses Dirichet boundary data at the coarse-fine interface and the data is derived from the coarse level solution. After advancing on the fine level, an additional procedure, the sync-solve (SS), is required in order to enforce conservation. The MGD SS reduces to an elliptic solve on a combined grid for a system of G equations, where G is the number of groups. We adapt the 'partial temperature' scheme for the SS; hence, we reuse the infrastructure developed for scalar equations. Results are presented. We consider a multigroup test problem with a known analytic solution. We demonstrate utility of {Psi}tc by running with increasingly larger timesteps. Lastly, we simulate the sudden release of energy Y inside an Al sphere (r = 15 cm) suspended in air at STP. For Y = 11 kT, we find that gray radiation diffusion and MGD produce similar results. However, if Y = 1 MT, the two packages yield different results. Our large Y simulation contradicts a long-standing theory

  17. Holonomic surface codes for fault-tolerant quantum computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiang; Devitt, Simon J.; You, J. Q.; Nori, Franco

    2018-02-01

    Surface codes can protect quantum information stored in qubits from local errors as long as the per-operation error rate is below a certain threshold. Here we propose holonomic surface codes by harnessing the quantum holonomy of the system. In our scheme, the holonomic gates are built via auxiliary qubits rather than the auxiliary levels in multilevel systems used in conventional holonomic quantum computation. The key advantage of our approach is that the auxiliary qubits are in their ground state before and after each gate operation, so they are not involved in the operation cycles of surface codes. This provides an advantageous way to implement surface codes for fault-tolerant quantum computation.

  18. Finite element modelling to assess the effect of surface mounted piezoelectric patch size on vibration response of a hybrid beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, N.; Alam, M. N.

    2018-02-01

    Vibration response analysis of a hybrid beam with surface mounted patch piezoelectric layer is presented in this work. A one dimensional finite element (1D-FE) model based on efficient layerwise (zigzag) theory is used for the analysis. The beam element has eight mechanical and a variable number of electrical degrees of freedom. The beams are also modelled in 2D-FE (ABAQUS) using a plane stress piezoelectric quadrilateral element for piezo layers and a plane stress quadrilateral element for the elastic layers of hybrid beams. Results are presented to assess the effect of size of piezoelectric patch layer on the free and forced vibration responses of thin and moderately thick beams under clamped-free and clamped-clamped configurations. The beams are subjected to unit step loading and harmonic loading to obtain the forced vibration responses. The vibration control using in phase actuation potential on piezoelectric patches is also studied. The 1D-FE results are compared with the 2D-FE results.

  19. Cyclical and patch-like GDNF distribution along the basal surface of Sertoli cells in mouse and hamster testes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Sato

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In mammalian spermatogenesis, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF is one of the major Sertoli cell-derived factors which regulates the maintenance of undifferentiated spermatogonia including spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs through GDNF family receptor α1 (GFRα1. It remains unclear as to when, where and how GDNF molecules are produced and exposed to the GFRα1-positive spermatogonia in vivo. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we show the cyclical and patch-like distribution of immunoreactive GDNF-positive signals and their close co-localization with a subpopulation of GFRα1-positive spermatogonia along the basal surface of Sertoli cells in mice and hamsters. Anti-GDNF section immunostaining revealed that GDNF-positive signals are mainly cytoplasmic and observed specifically in the Sertoli cells in a species-specific as well as a seminiferous cycle- and spermatogenic activity-dependent manner. In contrast to the ubiquitous GDNF signals in mouse testes, high levels of its signals were cyclically observed in hamster testes prior to spermiation. Whole-mount anti-GDNF staining of the seminiferous tubules successfully visualized the cyclical and patch-like extracellular distribution of GDNF-positive granular deposits along the basal surface of Sertoli cells in both species. Double-staining of GDNF and GFRα1 demonstrated the close co-localization of GDNF deposits and a subpopulation of GFRα1-positive spermatogonia. In both species, GFRα1-positive cells showed a slender bipolar shape as well as a tendency for increased cell numbers in the GDNF-enriched area, as compared with those in the GDNF-low/negative area of the seminiferous tubules. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data provide direct evidence of regionally defined patch-like GDNF-positive signal site in which GFRα1-positive spermatogonia possibly interact with GDNF in the basal compartment of the seminiferous tubules.

  20. Fractal Image Coding Based on a Fitting Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Bi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A no-search fractal image coding method based on a fitting surface is proposed. In our research, an improved gray-level transform with a fitting surface is introduced. One advantage of this method is that the fitting surface is used for both the range and domain blocks and one set of parameters can be saved. Another advantage is that the fitting surface can approximate the range and domain blocks better than the previous fitting planes; this can result in smaller block matching errors and better decoded image quality. Since the no-search and quadtree techniques are adopted, smaller matching errors also imply less number of blocks matching which results in a faster encoding process. Moreover, by combining all the fitting surfaces, a fitting surface image (FSI is also proposed to speed up the fractal decoding. Experiments show that our proposed method can yield superior performance over the other three methods. Relative to range-averaged image, FSI can provide faster fractal decoding process. Finally, by combining the proposed fractal coding method with JPEG, a hybrid coding method is designed which can provide higher PSNR than JPEG while maintaining the same Bpp.

  1. Decoding small surface codes with feedforward neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varsamopoulos, Savvas; Criger, Ben; Bertels, Koen

    2018-01-01

    Surface codes reach high error thresholds when decoded with known algorithms, but the decoding time will likely exceed the available time budget, especially for near-term implementations. To decrease the decoding time, we reduce the decoding problem to a classification problem that a feedforward neural network can solve. We investigate quantum error correction and fault tolerance at small code distances using neural network-based decoders, demonstrating that the neural network can generalize to inputs that were not provided during training and that they can reach similar or better decoding performance compared to previous algorithms. We conclude by discussing the time required by a feedforward neural network decoder in hardware.

  2. Effect of photonic crystal and frequency selective surface implementation on gain enhancement in the microstrip patch antenna at terahertz frequency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nejati, Ameneh, E-mail: ameneh.nejati@gmail.com [Department of Electrical Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadeghzadeh, Ramezan Ali [Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, K.N Toosi University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Geran, Fatemeh [Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    In this paper, microstrip patch antenna with frequency selective surface (FSS) and photonic band gap (PBG) structures in the frequency range of 0.5–0.7 THz is presented for wireless communications. Proposed patch antenna is designed on a substrate with uniform and non-uniform PBG structures. Here, the effects of substrate thickness, various radii and arrangement of holes on antenna resonance in both PBG forms are studied. Near zero characteristic on uniform and non-uniform PBG substrate is compared and the results show that along with increase in hole radius, antenna operating frequency and bandwidth are increased. Also, the FSS structure is designed as a perfect absorber. Finally, by using FSS and PBG structures simultaneously, gain enhancement, increase in directivity and pattern shaping are studied at THz field. The antenna gain in final structure is increased by 2 dBi (32%) in comparison to simple form and Half-Power beam width is reduced from 100°×80° in simple form to 72°×48° by using FSS and PBG. All simulations and designs are done by Ansoft HFSS and CST Microwave Studio simulation tools with different full wave methods.

  3. Finite-time compressibility as an agent of frequent spontaneous patch formation in the surface layer: A case study for the Gulf of Finland, the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giudici, Andrea; Soomere, Tarmo

    2014-12-15

    We explore the possibilities for spontaneous formation of surface patches with high concentrations of contaminants through time correlations of the convergence field and the Lagrangian transport. The test area is the Gulf of Finland, the Baltic Sea, where surface velocity fields show extensive convergence. The flow properties are extracted from 3D velocity fields simulated for 1987-1991 using the OAAS model with a resolution of 1 mile. The focus is on the spatial distribution of the areas in which the values of finite-time flow compressibility of surface velocity fields exceed the threshold for clustering of floats. The distribution of such areas is asymmetric, with likely areas of patch formation located predominantly in the southern and eastern regions of the gulf. Out of nine areas of likely patch formation, six are located along the coast in regions of frequent downwelling, while three are identified in the central region of the gulf. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Ultrahigh Error Threshold for Surface Codes with Biased Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuckett, David K.; Bartlett, Stephen D.; Flammia, Steven T.

    2018-02-01

    We show that a simple modification of the surface code can exhibit an enormous gain in the error correction threshold for a noise model in which Pauli Z errors occur more frequently than X or Y errors. Such biased noise, where dephasing dominates, is ubiquitous in many quantum architectures. In the limit of pure dephasing noise we find a threshold of 43.7(1)% using a tensor network decoder proposed by Bravyi, Suchara, and Vargo. The threshold remains surprisingly large in the regime of realistic noise bias ratios, for example 28.2(2)% at a bias of 10. The performance is, in fact, at or near the hashing bound for all values of the bias. The modified surface code still uses only weight-4 stabilizers on a square lattice, but merely requires measuring products of Y instead of Z around the faces, as this doubles the number of useful syndrome bits associated with the dominant Z errors. Our results demonstrate that large efficiency gains can be found by appropriately tailoring codes and decoders to realistic noise models, even under the locality constraints of topological codes.

  5. Tactile detection of slip: surface microgeometry and peripheral neural codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, M A; Whitehouse, J M; LaMotte, R H

    1990-06-01

    1. The role of the microgeometry of planar surfaces in the detection of sliding of the surfaces on human and monkey fingerpads was investigated. By the use of a servo-controlled tactile stimulator to press and stroke glass plates on passive fingerpads of human subjects, the ability of humans to discriminate the direction of skin stretch caused by friction and to detect the sliding motion (slip) of the plates with or without micrometer-sized surface features was determined. To identify the associated peripheral neural codes, evoked responses to the same stimuli were recorded from single, low-threshold mechanoreceptive afferent fibers innervating the fingerpads of anesthetized macaque monkeys. 2. Humans could not detect the slip of a smooth glass plate on the fingerpad. However, the direction of skin stretch was perceived based on the information conveyed by the slowly adapting afferents that respond differentially to the stretch directions. Whereas the direction of skin stretch signaled the direction of impending slip, the perception of relative motion between the plate and the finger required the existence of detectable surface features. 3. Barely detectable micrometer-sized protrusions on smooth surfaces led to the detection of slip of these surfaces, because of the exclusive activation of rapidly adapting fibers of either the Meissner (RA) or the Pacinian (PC) type to specific geometries of the microfeatures. The motion of a smooth plate with a very small single raised dot (4 microns high, 550 microns diam) caused the sequential activation of neighboring RAs along the dot path, thus providing a reliable spatiotemporal code. The stroking of the plate with a fine homogeneous texture composed of a matrix of dots (1 microns high, 50 microns diam, and spaced at 100 microns center-to-center) induced vibrations in the fingerpad that activated only the PCs and resulted in an intensive code. 4. The results show that surprisingly small features on smooth surfaces are

  6. Patch layout generation by detecting feature networks

    KAUST Repository

    Cao, Yuanhao; Yan, Dongming; Wonka, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The patch layout of 3D surfaces reveals the high-level geometric and topological structures. In this paper, we study the patch layout computation by detecting and enclosing feature loops on surfaces. We present a hybrid framework which combines

  7. Local equivalence, surface-code states, and matroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarvepalli, Pradeep; Raussendorf, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Recently, Ji et al. disproved the local-unitary-local Clifford (LU-LC) conjecture and showed that the local unitary (LU) and local Clifford (LC) equivalence classes of the stabilizer states are not always the same. Despite the fact that this settles the LU-LC conjecture, a sufficient condition for stabilizer states that violate the LU-LC conjecture is not known. In this paper, we investigate further the properties of stabilizer states with respect to local equivalence. Our first result shows that there exist infinitely many stabilizer states that violate the LU-LC conjecture. In particular, we show that for all numbers of qubits n≥28, there exist distance-two stabilizer states which are counterexamples to the LU-LC conjecture. We prove that, for all odd n≥195, there exist stabilizer states with distance greater than two that are LU equivalent but not LC equivalent. Two important classes of stabilizer states that are of great interest in quantum computation are the cluster states and stabilizer states of the surface codes. We show that, under some minimal restrictions, both these classes of states preclude any counterexamples. In this context, we also show that the associated surface codes do not have any encoded non-Clifford transversal gates. We characterize the Calderbank-Shor-Steane (CSS) surface-code states in terms of a class of minor closed binary matroids. In addition to making a connection to an important open problem in binary matroid theory, this characterization does in some cases provide an efficient test for CSS states that are not counterexamples.

  8. Linear-time general decoding algorithm for the surface code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmawan, Andrew S.; Poulin, David

    2018-05-01

    A quantum error correcting protocol can be substantially improved by taking into account features of the physical noise process. We present an efficient decoder for the surface code which can account for general noise features, including coherences and correlations. We demonstrate that the decoder significantly outperforms the conventional matching algorithm on a variety of noise models, including non-Pauli noise and spatially correlated noise. The algorithm is based on an approximate calculation of the logical channel using a tensor-network description of the noisy state.

  9. Efficient algorithms for maximum likelihood decoding in the surface code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravyi, Sergey; Suchara, Martin; Vargo, Alexander

    2014-09-01

    We describe two implementations of the optimal error correction algorithm known as the maximum likelihood decoder (MLD) for the two-dimensional surface code with a noiseless syndrome extraction. First, we show how to implement MLD exactly in time O (n2), where n is the number of code qubits. Our implementation uses a reduction from MLD to simulation of matchgate quantum circuits. This reduction however requires a special noise model with independent bit-flip and phase-flip errors. Secondly, we show how to implement MLD approximately for more general noise models using matrix product states (MPS). Our implementation has running time O (nχ3), where χ is a parameter that controls the approximation precision. The key step of our algorithm, borrowed from the density matrix renormalization-group method, is a subroutine for contracting a tensor network on the two-dimensional grid. The subroutine uses MPS with a bond dimension χ to approximate the sequence of tensors arising in the course of contraction. We benchmark the MPS-based decoder against the standard minimum weight matching decoder observing a significant reduction of the logical error probability for χ ≥4.

  10. Terahertz wave manipulation based on multi-bit coding artificial electromagnetic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiu-Sheng; Zhao, Ze-Jiang; Yao, Jian-Quan

    2018-05-01

    A polarization insensitive multi-bit coding artificial electromagnetic surface is proposed for terahertz wave manipulation. The coding artificial electromagnetic surfaces composed of four-arrow-shaped particles with certain coding sequences can generate multi-bit coding in the terahertz frequencies and manipulate the reflected terahertz waves to the numerous directions by using of different coding distributions. Furthermore, we demonstrate that our coding artificial electromagnetic surfaces have strong abilities to reduce the radar cross section with polarization insensitive for TE and TM incident terahertz waves as well as linear-polarized and circular-polarized terahertz waves. This work offers an effectively strategy to realize more powerful manipulation of terahertz wave.

  11. Sums of residues on algebraic surfaces and application to coding theory

    OpenAIRE

    Couvreur , Alain

    2009-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we study residues of differential 2-forms on a smooth algebraic surface over an arbitrary field and give several statements about sums of residues. Afterwards, using these results we give a new construction of algebraic-geometric codes which can be regarded as an extension to surfaces of the well-known construction of differential codes on curves. We also study some properties of these codes and extend to them some known properties for codes on curves.; ...

  12. Black-hole excision with multiple grid patches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornburg, Jonathan

    2004-01-01

    When using black-hole excision to numerically evolve a black-hole spacetime with no continuous symmetries, most 3 + 1 finite differencing codes use a Cartesian grid. It is difficult to do excision on such a grid because the natural r = constant excision surface must be approximated either by a very different shape such as a contained cube, or by an irregular and non-smooth 'LEGO 1 sphere' which may introduce numerical instabilities into the evolution. In this paper I describe an alternate scheme which uses multiple {r x (angular coordinates)} grid patches, each patch using a different (nonsingular) choice of angular coordinates. This allows excision on a smooth r = constant 2-sphere. I discuss the key design choices in such a multiple-patch scheme, including the choice of ghost-zone versus internal-boundary treatment of the interpatch boundaries (I use a ghost-zone scheme), the number and shape of the patches (I use a 6-patch 'inflated-cube' scheme), the details of how the ghost zones are 'synchronized' by interpolation from neighbouring patches, the tensor basis for the Einstein equations in each patch, and the handling of non-tensor field variables such as the BSSN Γ-tilde i (I use a scheme which requires ghost zones which are twice as wide for the BSSN conformal factor φ as for Γ-tilde i and the other BSSN field variables). I present sample numerical results from a prototype implementation of this scheme. This code simulates the time evolution of the (asymptotically flat) spacetime around a single (excised) black hole, using fourth-order finite differencing in space and time. Using Kerr initial data with J/m 2 = 0.6, I present evolutions to t ∼> 1500m. The lifetime of these evolutions appears to be limited only by outer boundary instabilities, not by any excision instabilities or by any problems inherent to the multiple-patch scheme

  13. Polarization optics of the Brewster's dark patch visible on water surfaces versus solar height and sky conditions: theory, computer modeling, photography, and painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takács, Péter; Barta, András; Pye, David; Horváth, Gábor

    2017-10-20

    When the sun is near the horizon, a circular band with approximately vertically polarized skylight is formed at 90° from the sun, and this skylight is only weakly reflected from the region of the water surface around the Brewster's angle (53° from the nadir). Thus, at low solar heights under a clear sky, an extended dark patch is visible on the water surface when one looks toward the north or south quarter perpendicular to the solar vertical. In this work, we study the radiance distribution of this so-called Brewster's dark patch (BDP) in still water as functions of the solar height and sky conditions. We calculate the pattern of reflectivity R of a water surface for a clear sky and obtain from this idealized situation the shape of the BDP. From three full-sky polarimetric pictures taken about a clear, a partly cloudy, and an overcast sky, we determine the R pattern and compose from that synthetic color pictures showing how the radiance distribution of skylight reflected at the water surface and the BDPs would look under these sky conditions. We also present photographs taken without a linearly polarizing filter about the BDP. Finally, we show a 19th century painting on which a river is seen with a dark region of the water surface, which can be interpreted as an artistic illustration of the BDP.

  14. Characteristic evolutions in numerical relativity using six angular patches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reisswig, Christian; Bishop, Nigel T; Lai, Chi Wai; Thornburg, Jonathan; Szilagyi, Bela

    2007-01-01

    The characteristic approach to numerical relativity is a useful tool in evolving gravitational systems. In the past this has been implemented using two patches of stereographic angular coordinates. In other applications, a six-patch angular coordinate system has proved effective. Here we investigate the use of a six-patch system in characteristic numerical relativity, by comparing an existing two-patch implementation (using second-order finite differencing throughout) with a new six-patch implementation (using either second- or fourth-order finite differencing for the angular derivatives). We compare these different codes by monitoring the Einstein constraint equations, numerically evaluated independently from the evolution. We find that, compared to the (second-order) two-patch code at equivalent resolutions, the errors of the second-order six-patch code are smaller by a factor of about 2, and the errors of the fourth-order six-patch code are smaller by a factor of nearly 50

  15. Characteristic evolutions in numerical relativity using six angular patches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reisswig, Christian [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut, Am Muehlenberg 1, D-14476 Golm (Germany); Bishop, Nigel T [Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of South Africa, PO Box 392, Unisa 0003, South Africa (South Africa); Lai, Chi Wai [Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of South Africa, PO Box 392, Unisa 0003, South Africa (South Africa); Thornburg, Jonathan [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut, Am Muehlenberg 1, D-14476 Golm (Germany); Szilagyi, Bela [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut, Am Muehlenberg 1, D-14476 Golm (Germany)

    2007-06-21

    The characteristic approach to numerical relativity is a useful tool in evolving gravitational systems. In the past this has been implemented using two patches of stereographic angular coordinates. In other applications, a six-patch angular coordinate system has proved effective. Here we investigate the use of a six-patch system in characteristic numerical relativity, by comparing an existing two-patch implementation (using second-order finite differencing throughout) with a new six-patch implementation (using either second- or fourth-order finite differencing for the angular derivatives). We compare these different codes by monitoring the Einstein constraint equations, numerically evaluated independently from the evolution. We find that, compared to the (second-order) two-patch code at equivalent resolutions, the errors of the second-order six-patch code are smaller by a factor of about 2, and the errors of the fourth-order six-patch code are smaller by a factor of nearly 50.

  16. Thresholds of surface codes on the general lattice structures suffering biased error and loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, Yuuki; Fujii, Keisuke

    2014-01-01

    A family of surface codes with general lattice structures is proposed. We can control the error tolerances against bit and phase errors asymmetrically by changing the underlying lattice geometries. The surface codes on various lattices are found to be efficient in the sense that their threshold values universally approach the quantum Gilbert-Varshamov bound. We find that the error tolerance of the surface codes depends on the connectivity of the underlying lattices; the error chains on a lattice of lower connectivity are easier to correct. On the other hand, the loss tolerance of the surface codes exhibits an opposite behavior; the logical information on a lattice of higher connectivity has more robustness against qubit loss. As a result, we come upon a fundamental trade-off between error and loss tolerances in the family of surface codes with different lattice geometries

  17. Thresholds of surface codes on the general lattice structures suffering biased error and loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokunaga, Yuuki [NTT Secure Platform Laboratories, NTT Corporation, 3-9-11 Midori-cho, Musashino, Tokyo 180-8585, Japan and Japan Science and Technology Agency, CREST, 5 Sanban-cho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0075 (Japan); Fujii, Keisuke [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan)

    2014-12-04

    A family of surface codes with general lattice structures is proposed. We can control the error tolerances against bit and phase errors asymmetrically by changing the underlying lattice geometries. The surface codes on various lattices are found to be efficient in the sense that their threshold values universally approach the quantum Gilbert-Varshamov bound. We find that the error tolerance of the surface codes depends on the connectivity of the underlying lattices; the error chains on a lattice of lower connectivity are easier to correct. On the other hand, the loss tolerance of the surface codes exhibits an opposite behavior; the logical information on a lattice of higher connectivity has more robustness against qubit loss. As a result, we come upon a fundamental trade-off between error and loss tolerances in the family of surface codes with different lattice geometries.

  18. Intelligent Patching of Conceptual Geometry for CFD Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wu

    2010-01-01

    The iPatch computer code for intelligently patching surface grids was developed to convert conceptual geometry to computational fluid dynamics (CFD) geometry (see figure). It automatically uses bicubic B-splines to extrapolate (if necessary) each surface in a conceptual geometry so that all the independently defined geometric components (such as wing and fuselage) can be intersected to form a watertight CFD geometry. The software also computes the intersection curves of surface patches at any resolution (up to 10.4 accuracy) specified by the user, and it writes the B-spline surface patches, and the corresponding boundary points, for the watertight CFD geometry in the format that can be directly used by the grid generation tool VGRID. iPatch requires that input geometry be in PLOT3D format where each component surface is defined by a rectangular grid {(x(i,j), y(i,j), z(i,j)):1less than or equal to i less than or equal to m, 1 less than or equal to j less than or equal to n} that represents a smooth B-spline surface. All surfaces in the PLOT3D file conceptually represent a watertight geometry of components of an aircraft on the half-space y greater than or equal to 0. Overlapping surfaces are not allowed, but could be fixed by a utility code "fixp3d". The fixp3d utility code first finds the two grid lines on the two surface grids that are closest to each other in Hausdorff distance (a metric to measure the discrepancies of two sets); then uses one of the grid lines as the transition line, extending grid lines on one grid to the other grid to form a merged grid. Any two connecting surfaces shall have a "visually" common boundary curve, or can be described by an intersection relationship defined in a geometry specification file. The intersection of two surfaces can be at a conceptual level. However, the intersection is directional (along either i or j index direction), and each intersecting grid line (or its spine extrapolation) on the first surface should intersect

  19. The FLUFF code for calculating finned surface heat transfer -description and user's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, C.J.

    1985-08-01

    FLUFF is a computer code for calculating heat transfer from finned surfaces by convection and radiation. It can also represent heat transfer by radiation to a partially emitting and absorbing medium within the fin cavity. The FLUFF code is useful not only for studying the behaviour of finned surfaces but also for deriving heat fluxes which can be applied as boundary conditions to other heat transfer codes. In this way models of bodies with finned surfaces may be greatly simplified since the fins need not be explicitly represented. (author)

  20. Patch layout generation by detecting feature networks

    KAUST Repository

    Cao, Yuanhao

    2015-02-01

    The patch layout of 3D surfaces reveals the high-level geometric and topological structures. In this paper, we study the patch layout computation by detecting and enclosing feature loops on surfaces. We present a hybrid framework which combines several key ingredients, including feature detection, feature filtering, feature curve extension, patch subdivision and boundary smoothing. Our framework is able to compute patch layouts through concave features as previous approaches, but also able to generate nice layouts through smoothing regions. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our framework by comparing with the state-of-the-art methods.

  1. Experimental and computational laser tissue welding using a protein patch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, W; Heredia, N J; Maitland, D J; Eder, D C; Celliers, P M; Da Silva, L B; London, R A; Matthews, D L

    1998-01-01

    An in vitro study of laser tissue welding mediated with a dye-enhanced protein patch was conducted. Fresh sections of porcine aorta were used for the experiments. Arteriotomies were treated using an indocyanine green dye-enhanced collagen patch activated by an 805-nm continuous-wave fiber-delivered diode laser. Temperature histories of the surface of the weld site were obtained using a hollow glass optical fiber-based two-color infrared thermometer. The experimental effort was complemented by simulations with the LATIS (LAser-TISsue) computer code, which uses coupled Monte Carlo, thermal transport, and mass transport models. Comparison of simulated and experimental thermal data indicated that evaporative cooling clamped the surface temperature of the weld site below 100 °C. For fluences of approximately 200 J/cm2, peak surface temperatures averaged 74°C and acute burst strengths consistently exceeded 0.14×106 dyn/cm (hoop tension). The combination of experimental and simulation results showed that the inclusion of water transport and evaporative losses in the computer code has a significant impact on the thermal distributions and hydration levels throughout the tissue volume. The solid-matrix protein patch provided a means of controllable energy delivery and yielded consistently strong welds. © 1998 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.

  2. Black-hole excision with multiple grid patches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornburg, Jonathan [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut, Am Muehlenberg 1, D-14476 Golm (Germany)

    2004-08-07

    When using black-hole excision to numerically evolve a black-hole spacetime with no continuous symmetries, most 3 + 1 finite differencing codes use a Cartesian grid. It is difficult to do excision on such a grid because the natural r = constant excision surface must be approximated either by a very different shape such as a contained cube, or by an irregular and non-smooth 'LEGO{sup 1} sphere' which may introduce numerical instabilities into the evolution. In this paper I describe an alternate scheme which uses multiple {l_brace}r x (angular coordinates){r_brace} grid patches, each patch using a different (nonsingular) choice of angular coordinates. This allows excision on a smooth r = constant 2-sphere. I discuss the key design choices in such a multiple-patch scheme, including the choice of ghost-zone versus internal-boundary treatment of the interpatch boundaries (I use a ghost-zone scheme), the number and shape of the patches (I use a 6-patch 'inflated-cube' scheme), the details of how the ghost zones are 'synchronized' by interpolation from neighbouring patches, the tensor basis for the Einstein equations in each patch, and the handling of non-tensor field variables such as the BSSN {gamma}-tilde{sup i} (I use a scheme which requires ghost zones which are twice as wide for the BSSN conformal factor {phi} as for {gamma}-tilde{sup i} and the other BSSN field variables). I present sample numerical results from a prototype implementation of this scheme. This code simulates the time evolution of the (asymptotically flat) spacetime around a single (excised) black hole, using fourth-order finite differencing in space and time. Using Kerr initial data with J/m{sup 2} = 0.6, I present evolutions to t {approx}> 1500m. The lifetime of these evolutions appears to be limited only by outer boundary instabilities, not by any excision instabilities or by any problems inherent to the multiple-patch scheme.

  3. Birth Control Patch

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Birth Control Patch KidsHealth / For Teens / Birth Control Patch What's ...

  4. Sleep Sleeping Patch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The Sleep Sleeping Patch is a new kind of external patch based on modern sleep medicine research achievements, which uses the internationally advanced transdermal therapeutic system (TTS). The Sleep Sleeping Patch transmits natural sleep inducers such as peppermint and liquorice extracts and melatonin through the skin to induce sleep. Clinical research proves that the Sleep Sleeping Patch can effectively improve insomnia and the quality of sleep. Highly effective: With the modern TTS therapy,

  5. Temporal code in the vibrissal system-Part II: Roughness surface discrimination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, F D [Departamento de BioingenierIa, FACET, Universidad Nacional de Tucuman, INSIBIO - CONICET, CC 327, Postal Code CP 4000 (Argentina); AlbarracIn, A L [Catedra de Neurociencias, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional de Tucuman (Argentina); Felice, C J [Departamento de BioingenierIa, FACET, Universidad Nacional de Tucuman, INSIBIO - CONICET, CC 327, Postal Code CP 4000 (Argentina)

    2007-11-15

    Previous works have purposed hypotheses about the neural code of the tactile system in the rat. One of them is based on the physical characteristics of vibrissae, such as frequency of resonance; another is based on discharge patterns on the trigeminal ganglion. In this work, the purpose is to find a temporal code analyzing the afferent signals of two vibrissal nerves while vibrissae sweep surfaces of different roughness. Two levels of pressure were used between the vibrissa and the contact surface. We analyzed the afferent discharge of DELTA and GAMMA vibrissal nerves. The vibrissae movements were produced using electrical stimulation of the facial nerve. The afferent signals were analyzed using an event detection algorithm based on Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT). The algorithm was able to detect events of different duration. The inter-event times detected were calculated for each situation and represented in box plot. This work allowed establishing the existence of a temporal code at peripheral level.

  6. Temporal code in the vibrissal system-Part II: Roughness surface discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farfan, F D; AlbarracIn, A L; Felice, C J

    2007-01-01

    Previous works have purposed hypotheses about the neural code of the tactile system in the rat. One of them is based on the physical characteristics of vibrissae, such as frequency of resonance; another is based on discharge patterns on the trigeminal ganglion. In this work, the purpose is to find a temporal code analyzing the afferent signals of two vibrissal nerves while vibrissae sweep surfaces of different roughness. Two levels of pressure were used between the vibrissa and the contact surface. We analyzed the afferent discharge of DELTA and GAMMA vibrissal nerves. The vibrissae movements were produced using electrical stimulation of the facial nerve. The afferent signals were analyzed using an event detection algorithm based on Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT). The algorithm was able to detect events of different duration. The inter-event times detected were calculated for each situation and represented in box plot. This work allowed establishing the existence of a temporal code at peripheral level

  7. SurfKin: an ab initio kinetic code for modeling surface reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Thong Nguyen-Minh; Liu, Bin; Huynh, Lam K

    2014-10-05

    In this article, we describe a C/C++ program called SurfKin (Surface Kinetics) to construct microkinetic mechanisms for modeling gas-surface reactions. Thermodynamic properties of reaction species are estimated based on density functional theory calculations and statistical mechanics. Rate constants for elementary steps (including adsorption, desorption, and chemical reactions on surfaces) are calculated using the classical collision theory and transition state theory. Methane decomposition and water-gas shift reaction on Ni(111) surface were chosen as test cases to validate the code implementations. The good agreement with literature data suggests this is a powerful tool to facilitate the analysis of complex reactions on surfaces, and thus it helps to effectively construct detailed microkinetic mechanisms for such surface reactions. SurfKin also opens a possibility for designing nanoscale model catalysts. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. APPLYING SPARSE CODING TO SURFACE MULTIVARIATE TENSOR-BASED MORPHOMETRY TO PREDICT FUTURE COGNITIVE DECLINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Stonnington, Cynthia; Li, Qingyang; Shi, Jie; Bauer, Robert J; Gutman, Boris A; Chen, Kewei; Reiman, Eric M; Thompson, Paul M; Ye, Jieping; Wang, Yalin

    2016-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive brain disease. Accurate diagnosis of AD and its prodromal stage, mild cognitive impairment, is crucial for clinical trial design. There is also growing interests in identifying brain imaging biomarkers that help evaluate AD risk presymptomatically. Here, we applied a recently developed multivariate tensor-based morphometry (mTBM) method to extract features from hippocampal surfaces, derived from anatomical brain MRI. For such surface-based features, the feature dimension is usually much larger than the number of subjects. We used dictionary learning and sparse coding to effectively reduce the feature dimensions. With the new features, an Adaboost classifier was employed for binary group classification. In tests on publicly available data from the Alzheimers Disease Neuroimaging Initiative, the new framework outperformed several standard imaging measures in classifying different stages of AD. The new approach combines the efficiency of sparse coding with the sensitivity of surface mTBM, and boosts classification performance.

  9. Modification of the ASME code z-factor for circumferential surface crack in nuclear ferritic pipings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Young Hwan; Chung, Yon Ki; Koh, Wan Young; Lee, Joung Bae

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to modify the ASME Code Z-Factor, which is used in the evaluation of circumferential surface crack in nuclear ferritic pipings. The ASME Code Z-Factor is a load multiplier to compensate plastic load with elasto-plastic load. The current ASME Code Z-Factor underestimates pipe maximum load. In this study, the original SC. TNP method is modified first because the original SC. TNP method has a problem that the maximum allowable load predicted from the original SC. TNP method is slightly higher than that measured from the experiment. Then the new Z-Factor is developed using the modified SC. TNP method. The desirability of both the modified SC. TNP method and the new Z-Factor is examined using the experimental results for the circumferential surface crack in pipings. The results show that (1) the modified SC. TNP method is good for predicting the circumferential surface crack behavior in pipings, and (2) the Z-Factor obtained from the modified SC. TNP method well predicts the behavior of circumferential surface crack in ferritic pipings. 30 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs. (author)

  10. A free surface algorithm in the N3S finite element code for turbulent flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitrosso, B.; Pot, G.; Abbes, B.; Bidot, T.

    1995-08-01

    In this paper, we present a free surface algorithm which was implemented in the N3S code. Free surfaces are represented by marker particles which move through a mesh. It is assumed that the free surface is located inside each element that contains markers and surrounded by at least one element with no marker inside. The mesh is then locally adjusted in order to coincide with the free surface which is well defined by the forefront marker particles. After describing the governing equations and the N3S solving methods, we present the free surface algorithm. Results obtained for two-dimensional and three-dimensional industrial problems of mould filling are presented. (authors). 5 refs., 2 figs

  11. Weight-4 Parity Checks on a Surface Code Sublattice with Superconducting Qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takita, Maika; Corcoles, Antonio; Magesan, Easwar; Bronn, Nicholas; Hertzberg, Jared; Gambetta, Jay; Steffen, Matthias; Chow, Jerry

    We present a superconducting qubit quantum processor design amenable to the surface code architecture. In such architecture, parity checks on the data qubits, performed by measuring their X- and Z- syndrome qubits, constitute a critical aspect. Here we show fidelities and outcomes of X- and Z-parity measurements done on a syndrome qubit in a full plaquette consisting of one syndrome qubit coupled via bus resonators to four code qubits. Parities are measured after four code qubits are prepared into sixteen initial states in each basis. Results show strong dependence on ZZ between qubits on the same bus resonators. This work is supported by IARPA under Contract W911NF-10-1-0324.

  12. use of the RESRAD-BUILD code to calculate building surface contamination limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faillace, E.R.; LePoire, D.; Yu, C.

    1996-01-01

    Surface contamination limits in buildings were calculated for 226 Ra, 230 Th, 232 Th, and natural uranium on the basis of 1 mSv y -1 (100 mrem y -1 ) dose limit. The RESRAD-BUILD computer code was used to calculate these limits for two scenarios: building occupancy and building renovation. RESRAD-BUILD is a pathway analysis model designed to evaluate the potential radiological dose incurred by individuals working or living inside a building contaminated with radioactive material. Six exposure pathways are considered in the RESRAD-BUILD code: (1) external exposure directly from the source; (2) external exposure from materials deposited on the floor; (3) external exposure due to air submersion; (4) inhalation of airborne radioactive particles; (5) inhalation of aerosol indoor radon progeny; and (6) inadvertent ingestion of radioactive material, either directly from the sources or from materials deposited on the surfaces. The code models point, line, area, and volume sources and calculates the effects of radiation shielding, building ventilation, and ingrowth of radioactive decay products. A sensitivity analysis was performed to determine how variations in input parameters would affect the surface contamination limits. In most cases considered, inhalation of airborne radioactive particles was the primary exposure pathway. However, the direct external exposure contribution from surfaces contaminated with 226 Ra was in some cases the dominant pathway for building occupancy depending on the room size, ventilation rates, and surface release fractions. The surface contamination limits are most restrictive for 232 Th, followed by 230 Th, natural uranium, and 226 Ra. The results are compared with the surface contamination limits in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Regulatory Guide 1.86, which are most restrictive for 226 Ra and 230 Th, followed by 232 Th, and are least restrictive for natural uranium

  13. Is It Safe to Uplift This Patch? An Empirical Study on Mozilla Firefox

    OpenAIRE

    Castelluccio, Marco; An, Le; Khomh, Foutse

    2017-01-01

    In rapid release development processes, patches that fix critical issues, or implement high-value features are often promoted directly from the development channel to a stabilization channel, potentially skipping one or more stabilization channels. This practice is called patch uplift. Patch uplift is risky, because patches that are rushed through the stabilization phase can end up introducing regressions in the code. This paper examines patch uplift operations at Mozilla, with the aim to ide...

  14. Granisetron Transdermal Patch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granisetron transdermal patches are used to prevent nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy. Granisetron is in a class of medications called 5HT3 ... Granisetron transdermal comes as a patch to apply to the skin. It is usually applied 24 to ...

  15. A method for detecting hydrophobic patches protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lijnzaad, P.; Berendsen, H.J.C.; Argos, P.

    1996-01-01

    A method for the detection of hydrophobic patches on the surfaces of protein tertiary structures is presented, it delineates explicit contiguous pieces of surface of arbitrary size and shape that consist solely of carbon and sulphur atoms using a dot representation of the solvent-accessible surface,

  16. Fabrication of Circuit QED Quantum Processors, Part 1: Extensible Footprint for a Superconducting Surface Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, A.; Michalak, D. J.; Poletto, S.; Clarke, J. S.; Dicarlo, L.

    Large-scale quantum computation hinges on the ability to preserve and process quantum information with higher fidelity by increasing redundancy in a quantum error correction code. We present the realization of a scalable footprint for superconducting surface code based on planar circuit QED. We developed a tileable unit cell for surface code with all I/O routed vertically by means of superconducting through-silicon vias (TSVs). We address some of the challenges encountered during the fabrication and assembly of these chips, such as the quality of etch of the TSV, the uniformity of the ALD TiN coating conformal to the TSV, and the reliability of superconducting indium contact between the chips and PCB. We compare measured performance to a detailed list of specifications required for the realization of quantum fault tolerance. Our demonstration using centimeter-scale chips can accommodate the 50 qubits needed to target the experimental demonstration of small-distance logical qubits. Research funded by Intel Corporation and IARPA.

  17. KS 20322007 Near-Surface Disposal Radioactive Waste - Code Of Practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omondi, C.

    2017-01-01

    To provide a basis for the near-surface disposal of solid radioactive waste to ensures that there is no unacceptable risk to humans, other biota or the environment. Near-Surface Disposal is the disposal of radioactive waste in below or above the natural ground surface, within app. 30 m. The code deals with management aspects associated with radioactive waste disposal only, and is not intended to cover issues related to the production and use of radionuclides. The objective of waste disposal is to isolate radioactive waste in order to ensure that there is no unacceptable health risk to humans and no long-term unacceptable effect to the environment. Radiation protection annual effective dose for exposure of members of the public should not exceed 1 mSv/year and occupational exposure of 20 mSv/year

  18. Structured Light Based 3d Scanning for Specular Surface by the Combination of Gray Code and Phase Shifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yujia; Yilmaz, Alper

    2016-06-01

    Surface reconstruction using coded structured light is considered one of the most reliable techniques for high-quality 3D scanning. With a calibrated projector-camera stereo system, a light pattern is projected onto the scene and imaged by the camera. Correspondences between projected and recovered patterns are computed in the decoding process, which is used to generate 3D point cloud of the surface. However, the indirect illumination effects on the surface, such as subsurface scattering and interreflections, will raise the difficulties in reconstruction. In this paper, we apply maximum min-SW gray code to reduce the indirect illumination effects of the specular surface. We also analysis the errors when comparing the maximum min-SW gray code and the conventional gray code, which justifies that the maximum min-SW gray code has significant superiority to reduce the indirect illumination effects. To achieve sub-pixel accuracy, we project high frequency sinusoidal patterns onto the scene simultaneously. But for specular surface, the high frequency patterns are susceptible to decoding errors. Incorrect decoding of high frequency patterns will result in a loss of depth resolution. Our method to resolve this problem is combining the low frequency maximum min-SW gray code and the high frequency phase shifting code, which achieves dense 3D reconstruction for specular surface. Our contributions include: (i) A complete setup of the structured light based 3D scanning system; (ii) A novel combination technique of the maximum min-SW gray code and phase shifting code. First, phase shifting decoding with sub-pixel accuracy. Then, the maximum min-SW gray code is used to resolve the ambiguity resolution. According to the experimental results and data analysis, our structured light based 3D scanning system enables high quality dense reconstruction of scenes with a small number of images. Qualitative and quantitative comparisons are performed to extract the advantages of our new

  19. Simulating the performance of a distance-3 surface code in a linear ion trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trout, Colin J.; Li, Muyuan; Gutiérrez, Mauricio; Wu, Yukai; Wang, Sheng-Tao; Duan, Luming; Brown, Kenneth R.

    2018-04-01

    We explore the feasibility of implementing a small surface code with 9 data qubits and 8 ancilla qubits, commonly referred to as surface-17, using a linear chain of 171Yb+ ions. Two-qubit gates can be performed between any two ions in the chain with gate time increasing linearly with ion distance. Measurement of the ion state by fluorescence requires that the ancilla qubits be physically separated from the data qubits to avoid errors on the data due to scattered photons. We minimize the time required to measure one round of stabilizers by optimizing the mapping of the two-dimensional surface code to the linear chain of ions. We develop a physically motivated Pauli error model that allows for fast simulation and captures the key sources of noise in an ion trap quantum computer including gate imperfections and ion heating. Our simulations showed a consistent requirement of a two-qubit gate fidelity of ≥99.9% for the logical memory to have a better fidelity than physical two-qubit operations. Finally, we perform an analysis of the error subsets from the importance sampling method used to bound the logical error rates to gain insight into which error sources are particularly detrimental to error correction.

  20. Quantum computing with Majorana fermion codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litinski, Daniel; von Oppen, Felix

    2018-05-01

    We establish a unified framework for Majorana-based fault-tolerant quantum computation with Majorana surface codes and Majorana color codes. All logical Clifford gates are implemented with zero-time overhead. This is done by introducing a protocol for Pauli product measurements with tetrons and hexons which only requires local 4-Majorana parity measurements. An analogous protocol is used in the fault-tolerant setting, where tetrons and hexons are replaced by Majorana surface code patches, and parity measurements are replaced by lattice surgery, still only requiring local few-Majorana parity measurements. To this end, we discuss twist defects in Majorana fermion surface codes and adapt the technique of twist-based lattice surgery to fermionic codes. Moreover, we propose a family of codes that we refer to as Majorana color codes, which are obtained by concatenating Majorana surface codes with small Majorana fermion codes. Majorana surface and color codes can be used to decrease the space overhead and stabilizer weight compared to their bosonic counterparts.

  1. Estradiol Transdermal Patch

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... menopause (change of life; the end of monthly menstrual periods). Transdermal estradiol is also used to prevent ... patch. Ask your pharmacist or doctor for a copy of the manufacturer's information for the patient.

  2. Fentanyl Transdermal Patch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fentanyl patches are used to relieve severe pain in people who are expected to need pain medication ... and who cannot be treated with other medications. Fentanyl is in a class of medications called opiate ( ...

  3. Selegiline Transdermal Patch

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... patch from direct heat such as heating pads, electric blankets, heat lamps, saunas, hot tubs, and heated ... may make you drowsy. Do not drive a car or operate machinery until you know how this ...

  4. Testosterone Transdermal Patch

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... one else can use it accidentally or on purpose. Keep track of how many patches are left ... to your pharmacist or contact your local garbage/recycling department to learn about take-back programs in ...

  5. Rotigotine Transdermal Patch

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... physical activity. If the edges of the patch lift, use a bandage tape to re-secure it ... burns on your skin if you are having magnetic resonance imaging (MRI; a radiology technique designed to ...

  6. Methylphenidate Transdermal Patch

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for ADHD, which may include counseling and special education. Make sure to follow all of your doctor's ... that was covered by the patch seizures motion tics or verbal tics believing things that are not ...

  7. Windows Security patch required

    CERN Multimedia

    3004-01-01

    This concerns Windows PCs (XP, 2000, NT) which are NOT centrally managed at CERN for security patches, e.g. home PCs, experiment PCs, portables,... A security hole which can give full privileges on Windows systems needs to be URGENTLY patched. Details of the security hole and hotfix are at: http://cern.ch/it-div/news/hotfix-MS03-026.asp http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/bulletin/MS03-026.asp

  8. Kirchhoff plate theory-based electromechanically-coupled analytical model considering inertia and stiffness effects of a surface-bonded piezoelectric patch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Heonjun; Youn, Byeng D; Kim, Heung Soo

    2016-01-01

    As a compact and durable design concept, piezoelectric energy harvesting skin (PEH skin) has been recently proposed for self-powered electronic device applications. This study aims to develop an electromechanically-coupled analytical model of PEH skin considering the inertia and stiffness effects of a piezoelectric patch. Based on Kirchhoff plate theory, Hamilton’s principle is used to derive the electromechanically-coupled differential equation of motion. Due to the geometric discontinuity of the piezoelectric patch, the Rayleigh–Ritz method is applied to calculate the natural frequency and corresponding mode shapes. The electrical circuit equation is derived from Gauss’s law. Output voltage is estimated by solving the equation of motion and electrical circuit equation, simultaneously. For the purpose of evaluating the predictive capability, the results of the electromechanically-coupled analytical model are compared with those of the finite element method in a hierarchical manner. The outstanding merits of the electromechanically-coupled analytical model of PEH skin are three-fold: (1) consideration of the inertia and stiffness effects of the piezoelectric patches; (2) physical parameterization between the two-dimensional mechanical configuration and piezoelectric transduction; (3) manipulability of the twisting modes of a cantilever plate with a small aspect ratio. (paper)

  9. Fault-patch stress-transfer efficiency in presence of sub-patch geometric complexity

    KAUST Repository

    Zielke, Olaf

    2015-04-01

    It is well known that faults are not planar surfaces. Instead they exhibit self-similar or self-affine properties that span a wide range of spatial (sub-micrometer to tens-of-kilometer). This geometric fault roughness has a distinct impact on amount and distribution of stresses/strains induced in the medium and on other portions of the fault. However, when numerically simulated (for example in multi-cycle EQ rupture simulations or Coulomb failure stress calculations) this roughness is largely ignored: individual fault patches --the incremental elements that build the fault surface in the respective computer models-- are planar and fault roughness at this and lower spatial scales is not considered. As a result, the fault-patch stress-transfer efficiency may be systematically too large in those numerical simulations with respect to the "actual" efficiency level. Here, we investigate the effect of sub-patch geometric complexity on fault-patch stress-transfer efficiency. For that, we sub-divide a fault patch (e.g., 1x1km) into a large number of sub-patches (e.g., 20x20m) and determine amount of induced stresses at selected positions around that patch for different levels and realizations of fault roughness. For each fault roughness level, we compute mean and standard deviation of the induced stresses, enabling us to compute the coefficient of variation. We normalize those values with stresses from the corresponding single (planar) fault patch, providing scaling factors and their variability for stress transfer efficiency. Given a certain fault roughness that is assumed for a fault, this work provides the means to implement the sub-patch fault roughness into investigations based on fault-patch interaction schemes.

  10. Biocide patch tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Veien, Niels

    1985-01-01

    Routine patch testing with a series of 6 industrial biocides containing methylene-bis-thiocyanate (Cytox 3522), benzisothiazolin-3-one (BIT), chlorocresol (Preventol CMK), 2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (Kathon 893), polyhydroxymethylene monobenzylether (Preventol D2) or 1,3,5-tris (hydroxy......-ethyl) hexahydrotriazine (Grotan BK) was carried out in 6 Danish out-patient clinics to evaluate guinea pig allergy test results with the same compounds. A total of 1652 consecutive patients with dermatitis were tested. The usefulness of this patch test battery was limited. There were a few positive reactions to Cytox...... of male patients and atopics, but significant differences in the frequencies of occupational cases, hand eczemas, and leg ulcers/stasis dermatitis, indicating possible variations in referral patterns, use of patch tests, and/or environmental factors....

  11. MLSOIL and DFSOIL - computer codes to estimate effective ground surface concentrations for dose computations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoreen, A.L.; Kocher, D.C.; Killough, G.G.; Miller, C.W.

    1984-11-01

    This report is a user's manual for MLSOIL (Multiple Layer SOIL model) and DFSOIL (Dose Factors for MLSOIL) and a documentation of the computational methods used in those two computer codes. MLSOIL calculates an effective ground surface concentration to be used in computations of external doses. This effective ground surface concentration is equal to (the computed dose in air from the concentration in the soil layers)/(the dose factor for computing dose in air from a plane). MLSOIL implements a five compartment linear-transfer model to calculate the concentrations of radionuclides in the soil following deposition on the ground surface from the atmosphere. The model considers leaching through the soil as well as radioactive decay and buildup. The element-specific transfer coefficients used in this model are a function of the k/sub d/ and environmental parameters. DFSOIL calculates the dose in air per unit concentration at 1 m above the ground from each of the five soil layers used in MLSOIL and the dose per unit concentration from an infinite plane source. MLSOIL and DFSOIL have been written to be part of the Computerized Radiological Risk Investigation System (CRRIS) which is designed for assessments of the health effects of airborne releases of radionuclides. 31 references, 3 figures, 4 tables

  12. Generic patch inference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper; Lawall, Julia

    2010-01-01

    A key issue in maintaining Linux device drivers is the need to keep them up to date with respect to evolutions in Linux internal libraries. Currently, there is little tool support for performing and documenting such changes. In this paper we present a tool, spdiff, that identifies common changes...... developers can use it to extract an abstract representation of the set of changes that others have made. Our experiments on recent changes in Linux show that the inferred generic patches are more concise than the corresponding patches found in commits to the Linux source tree while being safe with respect...

  13. Impact of thermoplastic mask on X-ray surface dose calculated with Monte Carlo code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yanqun; Li Jie; Wu Liping; Wang Pei; Lang Jinyi; Wu Dake; Xiao Mingyong

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To calculate the effects of thermoplastic mask on X-ray surface dose. Methods: The BEAMnrc Monte Carlo Code system, designed especially for computer simulation of radioactive sources, was performed to evaluate the effects of thermoplastic mask on X-ray surface dose.Thermoplastic mask came from our center with a material density of 1.12 g/cm 2 . The masks without holes, with holes size of 0.1 cm x 0.1 cm, and with holes size of 0. 1 cm x 0.2 cm, and masks with different depth (0.12 cm and 0.24 cm) were evaluated separately. For those with holes, the material width between adjacent holes was 0.1 cm. Virtual masks with a material density of 1.38 g/cm 3 without holes with two different depths were also evaluated. Results: Thermoplastic mask affected X-rays surface dose. When using a thermoplastic mask with the depth of 0.24 cm without holes, the surface dose was 74. 9% and 57.0% for those with the density of 1.38 g/cm 3 and 1.12 g/cm 3 respectively. When focusing on the masks with the density of 1.12 g/cm 3 , the surface dose was 41.2% for those with 0.12 cm depth without holes; 57.0% for those with 0. 24 cm depth without holes; 44.5% for those with 0.24 cm depth with holes size of 0.1 cm x 0.2 cm;and 54.1% for those with 0.24 cm depths with holes size of 0.1 cm x 0.1 cm.Conclusions: Using thermoplastic mask during the radiation increases patient surface dose. The severity is relative to the hole size and the depth of thermoplastic mask. The surface dose change should be considered in radiation planning to avoid severe skin reaction. (authors)

  14. [Patch testing: historical aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachapelle, J-M

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the key points in the history of patch testing, which spans more than a century, starting with the first description of the method by J. Jadassohn in 1895. Special attention is paid to the contribution of French schools in this field, which led to the foundation of the Groupe d'études et de recherches en dermato-allergologie (GERDA).

  15. Validation of One-Dimensional Module of MARS-KS1.2 Computer Code By Comparison with the RELAP5/MOD3.3/patch3 Developmental Assessment Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, S. W.; Chung, B. D.

    2010-07-01

    This report records the results of the code validation for the one-dimensional module of the MARS-KS thermal hydraulics analysis code by means of result-comparison with the RELAP5/MOD3.3 computer code. For the validation calculations, simulations of the RELAP5 Code Developmental Assessment Problem, which consists of 22 simulation problems in 3 categories, have been selected. The results of the 3 categories of simulations demonstrate that the one-dimensional module of the MARS code and the RELAP5/MOD3.3 code are essentially the same code. This is expected as the two codes have basically the same set of field equations, constitutive equations and main thermal hydraulic models. The result suggests that the high level of code validity of the RELAP5/MOD3.3 can be directly applied to the MARS one-dimensional module

  16. Phosphorus leaching from cow manure patches on soil columns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chardon, W.J.; Aalderink, G.H.; Salm, van der C.

    2007-01-01

    The loss of P in overland flow or leachate from manure patches can impair surface water quality. We studied leaching of P from 10-cmhigh lysimeters filled with intact grassland soil or with acid-washed sand. A manure patch was created on two grassland and two sandfilled lysimeters, and an additional

  17. Surface 3D nanostructuring by tightly focused laser pulse: simulations by Lagrangian code and molecular dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inogamov, Nail A.; Zhakhovsky, Vasily V.

    2016-02-01

    There are many important applications in which the ultrashort diffraction-limited and therefore tightly focused laser pulses irradiates metal films mounted on dielectric substrate. Here we present the detailed picture of laser peeling and 3D structure formation of the thin (relative to a depth of a heat affected zone in the bulk targets) gold films on glass substrate. The underlying physics of such diffraction-limited laser peeling was not well understood previously. Our approach is based on a physical model which takes into consideration the new calculations of the two-temperature (2T) equation of state (2T EoS) and the two-temperature transport coefficients together with the coupling parameter between electron and ion subsystems. The usage of the 2T EoS and the kinetic coefficients is required because absorption of an ultrashort pulse with duration of 10-1000 fs excites electron subsystem of metal and transfers substance into the 2T state with hot electrons (typical electron temperatures 1-3 eV) and much colder ions. It is shown that formation of submicrometer-sized 3D structures is a result of the electron-ion energy transfer, melting, and delamination of film from substrate under combined action of electron and ion pressures, capillary deceleration of the delaminated liquid metal or semiconductor, and ultrafast freezing of molten material. We found that the freezing is going in non-equilibrium regime with strongly overcooled liquid phase. In this case the Stefan approximation is non-applicable because the solidification front speed is limited by the diffusion rate of atoms in the molten material. To solve the problem we have developed the 2T Lagrangian code including all this reach physics in. We also used the high-performance combined Monte- Carlo and molecular dynamics code for simulation of surface 3D nanostructuring at later times after completion of electron-ion relaxation.

  18. Patch Test Negative Generalized Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiker, Alison; Mowad, Christen

    2016-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a common condition in dermatology. Patch testing is the criterion standard for diagnosis. However, dermatitis is not always caused by an allergen, and patch testing does not identify a culprit in every patient. Generalized dermatitis, defined as eczematous dermatitis affecting greater than 3 body sites, is often encountered in dermatology practice, especially patch test referral centers. Management for patients with generalized dermatitis who are patch test negative is challenging. The purpose of this article is to outline an approach to this challenging scenario and summarize the paucity of existing literature on patch test negative generalized dermatitis.

  19. Evaporation over sump surface in containment studies: code validation on TOSQAN tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malet, J.; Gelain, T.; Degrees du Lou, O.; Daru, V.

    2011-01-01

    During the course of a severe accident in a Nuclear Power Plant, water can be collected in the sump containment through steam condensation on walls and spray systems activation. The objective of this paper is to present code validation on evaporative sump tests performed on the TOSQAN facility. The ASTEC-CPA code is used as a lumped-parameter code and specific user-defined-functions are developed for the TONUS-CFD code. The tests are air-steam tests, as well as tests with other non-condensable gases (He, CO 2 and SF 6 ) under steady and transient conditions. The results show a good agreement between codes and experiments, indicating a good behaviour of the sump models in both codes. (author)

  20. Review of the margins for ASME code fatigue design curve - effects of surface roughness and material variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chopra, O. K.; Shack, W. J.

    2003-01-01

    The ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code provides rules for the construction of nuclear power plant components. The Code specifies fatigue design curves for structural materials. However, the effects of light water reactor (LWR) coolant environments are not explicitly addressed by the Code design curves. Existing fatigue strain-vs.-life ((var e psilon)-N) data illustrate potentially significant effects of LWR coolant environments on the fatigue resistance of pressure vessel and piping steels. This report provides an overview of the existing fatigue (var e psilon)-N data for carbon and low-alloy steels and wrought and cast austenitic SSs to define the effects of key material, loading, and environmental parameters on the fatigue lives of the steels. Experimental data are presented on the effects of surface roughness on the fatigue life of these steels in air and LWR environments. Statistical models are presented for estimating the fatigue (var e psilon)-N curves as a function of the material, loading, and environmental parameters. Two methods for incorporating environmental effects into the ASME Code fatigue evaluations are discussed. Data available in the literature have been reviewed to evaluate the conservatism in the existing ASME Code fatigue evaluations. A critical review of the margins for ASME Code fatigue design curves is presented

  1. Review of the margins for ASME code fatigue design curve - effects of surface roughness and material variability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chopra, O. K.; Shack, W. J.; Energy Technology

    2003-10-03

    The ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code provides rules for the construction of nuclear power plant components. The Code specifies fatigue design curves for structural materials. However, the effects of light water reactor (LWR) coolant environments are not explicitly addressed by the Code design curves. Existing fatigue strain-vs.-life ({var_epsilon}-N) data illustrate potentially significant effects of LWR coolant environments on the fatigue resistance of pressure vessel and piping steels. This report provides an overview of the existing fatigue {var_epsilon}-N data for carbon and low-alloy steels and wrought and cast austenitic SSs to define the effects of key material, loading, and environmental parameters on the fatigue lives of the steels. Experimental data are presented on the effects of surface roughness on the fatigue life of these steels in air and LWR environments. Statistical models are presented for estimating the fatigue {var_epsilon}-N curves as a function of the material, loading, and environmental parameters. Two methods for incorporating environmental effects into the ASME Code fatigue evaluations are discussed. Data available in the literature have been reviewed to evaluate the conservatism in the existing ASME Code fatigue evaluations. A critical review of the margins for ASME Code fatigue design curves is presented.

  2. Summary of ground water and surface water flow and contaminant transport computer codes used at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandy, P.J.; Hall, L.F.

    1993-03-01

    This report presents information on computer codes for numerical and analytical models that have been used at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to model ground water and surface water flow and contaminant transport. Organizations conducting modeling at the INEL include: EG ampersand G Idaho, Inc., US Geological Survey, and Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company. Information concerning computer codes included in this report are: agency responsible for the modeling effort, name of the computer code, proprietor of the code (copyright holder or original author), validation and verification studies, applications of the model at INEL, the prime user of the model, computer code description, computing environment requirements, and documentation and references for the computer code

  3. Global hydroelastic model for springing and whipping based on a free-surface CFD code (OpenFOAM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seng, Sopheak; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Malenica, Sime

    2014-01-01

    The theoretical background and a numerical solution procedure for a time domain hydroelastic code are presented in this paper The code combines a VOF-based free surface flow solver with a flexible body motion solver where the body linear elastic deformation is described by a modal superposition...... of dry mode shapes expressed in a local floating frame of reference. These mode shapes can be obtained from any finite element code. The floating frame undergoes a pseudo rigid-body motion which allows for a large rigid body translation and rotation and fully preserves the coupling with the local...... structural deformation. The formulation relies on the ability of the flow solver to provide the total fluid action on the body including e.g. the viscous forces, hydrostatic and hydrodynamic forces, slamming forces and the fluid damping. A numerical simulation of a flexible barge is provided and compared...

  4. Method optimization of ocular patches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamalesh Upreti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The intraocular patches were prepared using gelatin as the polymer. Ocular patch were prepared by solvent casting method. The patches were prepared for six formulations GP1, GP2, GP3, GP4, GP5 and GP6. Petri dishes were used for formulation of ocular patch. Gelatin was used as a polymer of choice. Glutaraldehyde used as cross linking agent and (DMSO dimethylsulfoxide used as solubility enhancer. The elasticity depends upon the concentration of gelatin. 400 mg amount of polymer i.e gelatin gave the required elasticity for the formulation.

  5. Non-standard patch test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astri Adelia

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In managing contact dermatitis, identification of the causative agent is essential to prevent recurrent complaints. Patch test is the gold standard to identify the causative agent. Nowadays, there are many patch test standard materials available in the market, but do not include all the materials that potentially cause contact dermatitis. Patch test using patient’s own products or later we refer to as non-standard materials, is very helpful in identifying the causative agents of contact dermatitis. Guidance is needed in producing non-standard patch test materials in order to avoid test results discrepancy.

  6. Piper betle LEAVES EXTRACT PATCH: EVALUATION OF ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY, RELEASE PROFILE OF EUGENOL, AND LOCAL TOLERANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mufrod Mufrod

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Piper betle leaf in extract form is more effective than crude drug. Eugenol is a component in the extract that has antibacterial activity but irritate. Patch of piper betle leaf extract was used on the mucosa to make oral cavity hygiene. Antibacterial activity was influenced by the release of eugenol from the patch. Release enhancer substances (RES such as glycerin, propylen glicol and tween 80 were added in patch formulation to increase the release of active substances. The aim of the research was to investigate the physicochemical properties, eugenol release profiles, and local tolerance test of the patch. Extract of piper betle leaf was made using infundation method. Patch was made according to the variation concentration of extract (1, 2 and 4% and RES (glycerine, propylen glycol and tween 80 using chitosan as vehicle. Patch produced solvent casting method. Patch obtained was tested for swelling index, folding endurance, surface pH, antibacterial activity, release of eugenol, and local tolerance. Data obtained were analyzed descriptively. The result showed that the addition of RES did not affect the surface pH but increase the water absorption with in inconsistent way except patch with tween 80. The flexibility (folding endurance value increased, and the highest amount of eugenol released was achieved by patch using propylen glicol. Patch with tween 80 and glycerin for all extract concentration and patch with 1% extract concentration using propylen glycol showed medium sensation (local tolerance, and patch with 2 and 4% extract using propylen glycol showed severe sensation.

  7. Prediction of surface cracks from thick-walled pressurized vessels with ASME code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thieme, W.

    1983-01-01

    The ASME-Code, Section XI, Appendix A 'Analysis of flow indications' is still non-mandatory for the pressure components of nuclear power plants. It is certainly difficult to take realistic account of the many factors influencing crack propagation while making life predictions. The accuracy of the US guideline is analysed, and its possible applications are roughly outlined. (orig./IHOE) [de

  8. Global hydroelastic model for springing and whipping based on a free-surface CFD code (OpenFOAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sopheak Seng

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical background and a numerical solution procedure for a time domain hydroelastic code are presented in this paper. The code combines a VOF-based free surface flow solver with a flexible body motion solver where the body linear elastic deformation is described by a modal superposition of dry mode shapes expressed in a local floating frame of reference. These mode shapes can be obtained from any finite element code. The floating frame undergoes a pseudo rigid-body motion which allows for a large rigid body translation and rotation and fully preserves the coupling with the local structural deformation. The formulation relies on the ability of the flow solver to provide the total fluid action on the body including e.g. the viscous forces, hydrostatic and hydrodynamic forces, slamming forces and the fluid damping. A numerical simulation of a flexible barge is provided and compared to experiments to show that the VOF-based flow solver has this ability and the code has the potential to predict the global hydroelastic responses accurately.

  9. Reconstruction of Magnetic Field Surfaces of the NOVILLO Tokamak by means of the 3D-MAPTOR Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavez-Alarcon, Esteban; Herrera-Velazquez, J. Julio E.

    2008-01-01

    A 3-D code has been developed in order to simulate the magnetic field lines in circular cross-section tokamaks. The toroidal magnetic field can be obtained from the individual fields of circular coils arranged around the torus, or alternatively, as a ripple-less field, as well as the vertical field coils, and divertor-like coils. The poloidal field is provided by a given toroidal current density profile. Proposing initial conditions for a magnetic filed line, it is integrated along the toroidal angle coordinate, and the Poincare maps can be obtained at any desired cross section plane along the torus. Following this procedure, the code allows to explore the necessary current values for the existence of magnetic field surfaces, allowing for deviations from axial symmetry, such as ripple effects. Therefore it is a good design instrument, in which different parameters and arrangements of coils can be tested. On the other hand, the current signals from experimental devices can be used in order to reconstruct the behaviour of the magnetic field surfaces, including the q(r) profiles. The reconstruction properties of the code are shown in this work

  10. Edge of polar cap patches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, K.; Taguchi, S.; Ogawa, Y.

    2016-04-01

    On the night of 4 December 2013, a sequence of polar cap patches was captured by an all-sky airglow imager (ASI) in Longyearbyen, Norway (78.1°N, 15.5°E). The 630.0 nm airglow images from the ASI of 4 second exposure time, oversampled the emission of natural lifetime (with quenching) of at least ˜30 sec, introduce no observational blurring effects. By using such high-quality ASI images, we succeeded in visualizing an asymmetry in the gradients between the leading/trailing edges of the patches in a 2-D fashion. The gradient in the leading edge was found to be 2-3 times steeper than that in the trailing edge. We also identified fingerlike structures, appearing only along the trailing edge of the patches, whose horizontal scale size ranged from 55 to 210 km. These fingers are considered to be manifestations of plasma structuring through the gradient-drift instability (GDI), which is known to occur only along the trailing edge of patches. That is, the current 2-D observations visualized, for the first time, how GDI stirs the patch plasma and such a mixing process makes the trailing edge more gradual. This result strongly implies a close connection between the GDI-driven plasma stirring and the asymmetry in the large-scale shape of patches and then suggests that the fingerlike structures can be used as markers to estimate the fine-scale structure in the plasma flow within patches.

  11. A new Monte Carlo code for simulation of the effect of irregular surfaces on X-ray spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunetti, Antonio, E-mail: brunetti@uniss.it; Golosio, Bruno

    2014-04-01

    Generally, quantitative X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis estimates the content of chemical elements in a sample based on the areas of the fluorescence peaks in the energy spectrum. Besides the concentration of the elements, the peak areas depend also on the geometrical conditions. In fact, the estimate of the peak areas is simple if the sample surface is smooth and if the spectrum shows a good statistic (large-area peaks). For this reason often the sample is prepared as a pellet. However, this approach is not always feasible, for instance when cultural heritage or valuable samples must be analyzed. In this case, the sample surface cannot be smoothed. In order to address this problem, several works have been reported in the literature, based on experimental measurements on a few sets of specific samples or on Monte Carlo simulations. The results obtained with the first approach are limited by the specific class of samples analyzed, while the second approach cannot be applied to arbitrarily irregular surfaces. The present work describes a more general analysis tool based on a new fast Monte Carlo algorithm, which is virtually able to simulate any kind of surface. At the best of our knowledge, it is the first Monte Carlo code with this option. A study of the influence of surface irregularities on the measured spectrum is performed and some results reported. - Highlights: • We present a fast Monte Carlo code with the possibility to simulate any irregularly rough surfaces. • We show applications to multilayer measurements. • Real time simulations are available.

  12. Comparing Zeeman qubits to hyperfine qubits in the context of the surface code: +174Yb and +171Yb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Natalie C.; Brown, Kenneth R.

    2018-05-01

    Many systems used for quantum computing possess additional states beyond those defining the qubit. Leakage out of the qubit subspace must be considered when designing quantum error correction codes. Here we consider trapped ion qubits manipulated by Raman transitions. Zeeman qubits do not suffer from leakage errors but are sensitive to magnetic fields to first order. Hyperfine qubits can be encoded in clock states that are insensitive to magnetic fields to first order, but spontaneous scattering during the Raman transition can lead to leakage. Here we compare a Zeeman qubit (+174Yb) to a hyperfine qubit (+171Yb) in the context of the surface code. We find that the number of physical qubits required to reach a specific logical qubit error can be reduced by using +174Yb if the magnetic field can be stabilized with fluctuations smaller than 10 μ G .

  13. *New* CRITICAL Windows Security patch

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On 10 September 2003, Microsoft issued a new CRITICAL security patch, MS03-039. It must be URGENTLY applied on ALL WINDOWS systems, which are not centrally managed for security patches. This includes Experiment computers, Home computers and Windows Portable and Desktop systems not running NICE. Details of the security hole and patch for MS03-039 (which also includes MS03-026) are at: http://cern.ch/it-div/news/hotfix-MS03-039.asp http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/bulletin/MS03-039.asp

  14. *New*: CRITICAL Windows Security patch

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On 10 September 2003, Microsoft issued a new CRITICAL security patch, MS03-039. It must be URGENTLY applied on ALL WINDOWS systems, which are not centrally managed for security patches. This includes Experiment computers, Home computers and Windows Portable and Desktop systems not running NICE. Details of the security hole and patch for MS03-039 (which also includes MS03-026) are at: http://cern.ch/it-div/news/hotfix-MS03-039.asp http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/bulletin/MS03-039.asp

  15. DEA deformed stretchable patch antenna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, X-J; Jalali Mazlouman, S; Menon, C; Mahanfar, A; Vaughan, R G

    2012-01-01

    A stretchable patch antenna (SPA) whose frequency is tuned by a planar dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA) is presented in this paper. This mechanically reconfigurable antenna system has a configuration resembling a pre-stretched silicone belt. Part of the belt is embedded with a layer of conductive liquid metal to form the patch antenna. Part of the belt is sandwiched between conductive electrodes to form the DEA. Electrical activation of the DEA results in a contraction of the patch antenna, and as a result, in a variation of its resonance frequency. Design and fabrication steps of this system are presented. Measurement results for deformation, resonance frequency variation and efficiency of the patch antenna are also presented. (paper)

  16. Flu Vaccine Skin Patch Tested

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Subscribe September 2017 Print this issue Health Capsule Flu Vaccine Skin Patch Tested En español Send us ... Each year, millions of people nationwide catch the flu. The best way to protect yourself is to ...

  17. Effect of novel mucoadhesive buccal patches of carvedilol on isoprenaline-induced tachycardia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navneet Verma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the study was designed to develop bioadhesive buccal patches of carvedilol (CR and evaluate for isoprenaline-induced tachycardia. Buccal patches of carvedilol were prepared by using chitosan (CH, sodium salt of carboxy methyl cellulose (NaCMC, and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA as mucoadhesive polymers. The solvent evaporation method was used for the preparation of buccal patches. The patches were evaluated for their physical characteristics like patch thickness, weight variation, content uniformity, folding endurance, surface pH, residence time, in vitro drug release, and in vivo pharmacodynamic study. The swelling index of the patches was found to be proportional to the polymer concentration, whereas surface pH of all the formulated bioadhesive patches was found to lie between neutral ranges. In-vitro release study shows that 94.75% drug was release in 8 hours from the patch, which containing 2% w/v chitosan. The folding endurance result shows good elasticity in all the patches.Application of buccal patches on buccal mucosa of rabbit shows a significant result in % inhibition of isoprenaline-induced tachycardia. Prepared buccal patches of chitosan, NaCMC, and PVA containing Carvedilol meet the ideal requirement for the delivery of cardiovascular drugs and inhibit the isoprenaline tachycardia.

  18. User's guide for SLWDN9, a code for calculating flux-surfaced-averaging of alpha densities, currents, and heating in non-circular tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hively, L.M.; Miley, G.M.

    1980-03-01

    The code calculates flux-surfaced-averaged values of alpha density, current, and electron/ion heating profiles in realistic, non-circular tokamak plasmas. The code is written in FORTRAN and execute on the CRAY-1 machine at the Magnetic Fusion Energy Computer Center

  19. PC-version of RAM6-code for calculation of parameters of the effective logarithmic boundary condition at the absorbent rod surface in reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Van Ngoc; Ngo Dang Nhan

    1990-01-01

    The RAM-6 code for calculation of parameters of the effective logarithmic boundary condition at the absorbent rod surface in reactor is suitably modofied to work on IBM PC, the instructions for its usage are presented and capabilities of the personal cpmputer oriented RAM-6 code are demonstrated. (author). 4 refs, 5 tabs, 2 figs

  20. Patch photopatch test at Manipal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panja Arindrajit

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Patch and photopatch testing was performed on 55 patients with history of photosensitivity using Scandanavian photo patch test antigens obtained from Chemotechnique Diagnostics AB Sweden. The commonest reactions were seen to perfume mix 4 (21.0%, PABA 3 (15.78%, promethazine hydrochloride 3 (15.78%, chlorpromazine hydrochloride 3 (15.78%, balsam of peru 2 (10.52%, usnic acid, hexachlorophane, musk ambrette and 6 methyl coumarin showed 1 positive reaction each (5.26% suggesting either phototoxicity or photo sensitization. Patch and photo patch test positive reaction suggesting allergic sensitisation was seen to balsam of peru 3 (23.0% perfume mix 3 (23.0% promethazine hydrochloride 2 (15.3% and PABA, 6 methyl coumarin, tribromosalicylanilide, atranorin and wood mix showed positive reaction in one case each (7.69%. We conclude that photoxic or photo allergic reaction is a problem in India and patch photo patch test should be performed in all cases of idiopathic light eruptions to rule out photo sensitisation and in cases where photo sensitivity of exogenous origin is suspected.

  1. Validation and application of help code used for design and review of cover of low and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal in near-surface facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Zhiwen; Gu Cunli; Zhang Jinsheng; Liu Xiuzhen

    1996-01-01

    The authors describes validation and application of HELP code used by the United States Environmental Protective Agency for design and review of cover of low and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal in near-surface facilities. The HELP code was validated using data of field aerated moisture movement test by China Institute for Radiation Protection. The results show that simulation of HELP code is reasonable. Effects of surface layer thickness and surface treatment on moisture distribution in a cover was simulated with HELP code in the conditions of south-west China. The simulation results demonstrated that surface plantation of a cover plays very important role in moisture distribution in the cover. Special attention should be paid in cover design. In humid area, radioactive waste disposal safety should take full consideration with functions of chemical barrier. It was recommended that engineering economy should be added in future cover research so as to achieve optimization of cover design

  2. A Novel Phonology- and Radical-Coded Chinese Sign Language Recognition Framework Using Accelerometer and Surface Electromyography Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Juan; Chen, Xun; Liu, Aiping; Peng, Hu

    2015-09-15

    Sign language recognition (SLR) is an important communication tool between the deaf and the external world. It is highly necessary to develop a worldwide continuous and large-vocabulary-scale SLR system for practical usage. In this paper, we propose a novel phonology- and radical-coded Chinese SLR framework to demonstrate the feasibility of continuous SLR using accelerometer (ACC) and surface electromyography (sEMG) sensors. The continuous Chinese characters, consisting of coded sign gestures, are first segmented into active segments using EMG signals by means of moving average algorithm. Then, features of each component are extracted from both ACC and sEMG signals of active segments (i.e., palm orientation represented by the mean and variance of ACC signals, hand movement represented by the fixed-point ACC sequence, and hand shape represented by both the mean absolute value (MAV) and autoregressive model coefficients (ARs)). Afterwards, palm orientation is first classified, distinguishing "Palm Downward" sign gestures from "Palm Inward" ones. Only the "Palm Inward" gestures are sent for further hand movement and hand shape recognition by dynamic time warping (DTW) algorithm and hidden Markov models (HMM) respectively. Finally, component recognition results are integrated to identify one certain coded gesture. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed SLR framework with a vocabulary scale of 223 characters can achieve an averaged recognition accuracy of 96.01% ± 0.83% for coded gesture recognition tasks and 92.73% ± 1.47% for character recognition tasks. Besides, it demonstrats that sEMG signals are rather consistent for a given hand shape independent of hand movements. Hence, the number of training samples will not be significantly increased when the vocabulary scale increases, since not only the number of the completely new proposed coded gestures is constant and limited, but also the transition movement which connects successive signs needs no

  3. Focused Application Software for Ferrite Patch Antennas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Trott, Keith

    1999-01-01

    ... (brick and tetrahedral elements) are combined by MRC via a graphical user interface (GUI) into a user friendly code capable of modeling conformal antennas with ferrite sub and superstrates recessed in planar surfaces.

  4. RGB color coded images in scanning electron microscopy of biological surfaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kofroňová, Olga; Benada, Oldřich

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 3 (2017), s. 349-352 ISSN 0001-723X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1509; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-20229S Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Biological surfaces * Color image s * Scanning electron microscopy Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 0.673, year: 2016

  5. Study on the electrostatic and piezoelectric properties of positive polypropylene electret cyclosporine A patch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, X; Liang, Y Y; Jiang, J; Liu, H Y; Cui, L L

    2013-01-01

    Corona charged electrets at voltages of +500 V, +1000 V and +1500 V were prepared for manufacturing polypropylene (PP) electret blank patches and PP electret drug patches. The stability of external electrostatic field of the electret patch and the polarization of the drug in patch under the internal electrostatic field of the electret were studied. The results indicate that all the electret drug patches had good charge storage stabilities. However, the non-electrode coated electret drug patch had better stability in the external electrostatic field than that of the electrode coated electret drug patch. The higher the charging voltage of the electret, the faster the surface potential of the electret drug patch decayed, and the worse the stability of the external electrostatic field. All the electrets used in this study could result in the polarization of the model drug in patch. The piezoelectric properties of non-electrode coated electret drug patch increased with the charging voltage of the electret. However, excessively higher charging voltage could result in the decreased polarization of the drug in patch. Both the stability of the external electrostatic field of electret and the polarization of drug were the key factors for controlled drug release and skin permeation.

  6. Biomaterials for drug delivery patches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Lúcia F; Correia, Ilídio J; Silva, A Sofia; Mano, João F

    2018-06-15

    The limited efficiency of conventional drugs has been instigated the development of new and more effective drug delivery systems (DDS). Transdermal DDS, are associated with numerous advantages such its painless application and less frequent replacement and greater flexibility of dosing, features that triggered the research and development of such devices. Such systems have been produced using either biopolymer; or synthetic polymers. Although the first ones are safer, biocompatible and present a controlled degradation by human enzymes or water, the second ones are the most currently available in the market due to their greater mechanical resistance and flexibility, and non-degradation over time. This review highlights the most recent advances (mainly in the last five years) of patches aimed for transdermal drug delivery, focusing on the different materials (natural, synthetic and blends) and latest designs for the development of such devices, emphasizing also their combination with drug carriers that enable enhanced drug solubility and a more controlled release of the drug over the time. The benefits and limitations of different patches formulations are considered with reference to their appliance to transdermal drug delivery. Furthermore, a record of the currently available patches on the market is given, featuring their most relevant characteristics. Finally, a list of most recent/ongoing clinical trials regarding the use of patches for skin disorders is detailed and critical insights on the current state of patches for transdermal drug delivery are also provided. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. *NEW* CRITICAL Windows Security patches

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On 3 October and 10 September 2003, Microsoft issued new CRITICAL security patches MS03-040 and MS03-039. They must be URGENTLY applied on ALL WINDOWS systems, which are not centrally managed for security patches. This includes Experiment computers, Home computers and Windows Portable and Desktop systems not running NICE. Details of the security holes and patches are at: MS03-039: http://cern.ch/it-div/news/hotfix-MS03-039.asp http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/bulletin/MS03-039.asp MS03-040: http://cern.ch/it-div/news/hotfix-MS03-040.asp http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/bulletin/MS03-040.asp

  8. NSURE code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rattan, D.S.

    1993-11-01

    NSURE stands for Near-Surface Repository code. NSURE is a performance assessment code. developed for the safety assessment of near-surface disposal facilities for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW). Part one of this report documents the NSURE model, governing equations and formulation of the mathematical models, and their implementation under the SYVAC3 executive. The NSURE model simulates the release of nuclides from an engineered vault, their subsequent transport via the groundwater and surface water pathways tot he biosphere, and predicts the resulting dose rate to a critical individual. Part two of this report consists of a User's manual, describing simulation procedures, input data preparation, output and example test cases

  9. An evaluation of calculation parameters in the EGSnrc/BEAMnrc Monte Carlo codes and their effect on surface dose calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jung-Ha; Hill, Robin; Kuncic, Zdenka

    2012-01-01

    The Monte Carlo (MC) method has proven invaluable for radiation transport simulations to accurately determine radiation doses and is widely considered a reliable computational measure that can substitute a physical experiment where direct measurements are not possible or feasible. In the EGSnrc/BEAMnrc MC codes, there are several user-specified parameters and customized transport algorithms, which may affect the calculation results. In order to fully utilize the MC methods available in these codes, it is essential to understand all these options and to use them appropriately. In this study, the effects of the electron transport algorithms in EGSnrc/BEAMnrc, which are often a trade-off between calculation accuracy and efficiency, were investigated in the buildup region of a homogeneous water phantom and also in a heterogeneous phantom using the DOSRZnrc user code. The algorithms and parameters investigated include: boundary crossing algorithm (BCA), skin depth, electron step algorithm (ESA), global electron cutoff energy (ECUT) and electron production cutoff energy (AE). The variations in calculated buildup doses were found to be larger than 10% for different user-specified transport parameters. We found that using BCA = EXACT gave the best results in terms of accuracy and efficiency in calculating buildup doses using DOSRZnrc. In addition, using the ESA = PRESTA-I option was found to be the best way of reducing the total calculation time without losing accuracy in the results at high energies (few keV ∼ MeV). We also found that although choosing a higher ECUT/AE value in the beam modelling can dramatically improve computation efficiency, there is a significant trade-off in surface dose uncertainty. Our study demonstrates that a careful choice of user-specified transport parameters is required when conducting similar MC calculations. (note)

  10. Large-scale binding ligand prediction by improved patch-based method Patch-Surfer2.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaolei; Xiong, Yi; Kihara, Daisuke

    2015-03-01

    Ligand binding is a key aspect of the function of many proteins. Thus, binding ligand prediction provides important insight in understanding the biological function of proteins. Binding ligand prediction is also useful for drug design and examining potential drug side effects. We present a computational method named Patch-Surfer2.0, which predicts binding ligands for a protein pocket. By representing and comparing pockets at the level of small local surface patches that characterize physicochemical properties of the local regions, the method can identify binding pockets of the same ligand even if they do not share globally similar shapes. Properties of local patches are represented by an efficient mathematical representation, 3D Zernike Descriptor. Patch-Surfer2.0 has significant technical improvements over our previous prototype, which includes a new feature that captures approximate patch position with a geodesic distance histogram. Moreover, we constructed a large comprehensive database of ligand binding pockets that will be searched against by a query. The benchmark shows better performance of Patch-Surfer2.0 over existing methods. http://kiharalab.org/patchsurfer2.0/ CONTACT: dkihara@purdue.edu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Surface Water Modeling Using an EPA Computer Code for Tritiated Waste Water Discharge from the heavy Water Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, K.F.

    1998-06-01

    Tritium releases from the D-Area Heavy Water Facilities to the Savannah River have been analyzed. The U.S. EPA WASP5 computer code was used to simulate surface water transport for tritium releases from the D-Area Drum Wash, Rework, and DW facilities. The WASP5 model was qualified with the 1993 tritium measurements at U.S. Highway 301. At the maximum tritiated waste water concentrations, the calculated tritium concentration in the Savannah River at U.S. Highway 301 due to concurrent releases from D-Area Heavy Water Facilities varies from 5.9 to 18.0 pCi/ml as a function of the operation conditions of these facilities. The calculated concentration becomes the lowest when the batch releases method for the Drum Wash Waste Tanks is adopted

  12. Definition and coding of surface catchment areas: problems and solutions; Ausgrenzung und Verschluesselung oberirdischer Einzugsgebiete: Probleme und Loesungsansaetze

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, A.; Mehl, D. [biota - Institut fuer Oekologische Forschung und Planung GmbH, Guestrow (Germany); Klitzsch, S. [Landesamt fuer Umwelt, Naturschutz und Geologie Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Guestrow (Germany). Abt. Wasser und Boden

    2000-12-01

    Due to certain hydrographic situations there are some difficulties in application of the LAWA-directive 'Coding of catchment areas and streams'. In this paper, solutions are shown by means of examples from the federal state of Mecklenburg-Pomerania. Priorities of streams influenced by lakes and the Baltic Sea, branched and linked streams, urban streams and catchment areas without surface run-off were discussed. (orig.) [German] Die Anwendung der LAWA-Richtlinie zur Gebietsbezeichnung und Verschluesselung von Fliessgewaessern stoesst bei Vorliegen bestimmter hydrographischer Konstellationen auf Schwierigkeiten. Anhand von Fallbeispielen aus Mecklenburg-Vorpommern werden Loesungswege zur entsprechenden Problembehandlung aufgezeigt. Wesentliche Schwerpunkte sind daher durchflossene Seen, verzweigte und vernetzte Fliessgewaesser, Fliessgewaesser im staedtischen Bereich, die Problematik der Binnenentwaesserungsgebiete sowie Gewaesser im Ostseerueckstau. (orig.)

  13. Use of a commercial heat transfer code to predict horizontally oriented spent fuel rod surface temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wix, S.D.; Koski, J.A.

    1993-03-01

    Radioactive spent fuel assemblies are a source of hazardous waste that will have to be dealt with in the near future. It is anticipated that the spent fuel assemblies will be transported to disposal sites in spent fuel transportation casks. In order to design a reliable and safe transportation cask, the maximum cladding temperature of the spent fuel rod arrays must be calculated. A comparison between numerical calculations using commercial thermal analysis software packages and experimental data simulating a horizontally oriented spent fuel rod array was performed. Twelve cases were analyzed using air and helium for the fill gas, with three different heat dissipation levels. The numerically predicted temperatures are higher than the experimental data for all levels of heat dissipation with air as the fill gas. The temperature differences are 4 degree C and 23 degree C for the low heat dissipation and high heat dissipation, respectively. The temperature predictions using helium as a fill gas are lower for the low and medium heat dissipation levels, but higher at the high heat dissipation. The temperature differences are 1 degree C and 6 degree C for the low and medium heat dissipation, respectively. For the high heat dissipation level, the temperature predictions are 16 degree C higher than the experimental data. Differences between the predicted and experimental temperatures can be attributed to several factors. These factors include experimental uncertainty in the temperature and heat dissipation measurements, actual convection effects not included in the model, and axial heat flow in the experimental data. This work demonstrates that horizontally oriented spent fuel rod surface temperature predictions can be made using existing commercial software packages. This work also shows that end effects will be increasingly important as the amount of dissipated heat increases

  14. Flexible and Stretchable Microneedle Patches with Integrated Rigid Stainless Steel Microneedles for Transdermal Biointerfacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabi, Mina; Roxhed, Niclas; Shafagh, Reza Zandi; Haraldson, Tommy; Fischer, Andreas Christin; Wijngaart, Wouter van der; Stemme, Göran; Niklaus, Frank

    2016-01-01

    This paper demonstrates flexible and stretchable microneedle patches that combine soft and flexible base substrates with hard and sharp stainless steel microneedles. An elastomeric polymer base enables conformal contact between the microneedle patch and the complex topography and texture of the underlying skin, while robust and sharp stainless steel microneedles reliably pierce the outer layers of the skin. The flexible microneedle patches have been realized by magnetically assembling short stainless steel microneedles into a flexible polymer supporting base. In our experimental investigation, the microneedle patches were applied to human skin and an excellent adaptation of the patch to the wrinkles and deformations of the skin was verified, while at the same time the microneedles reliably penetrate the surface of the skin. The unobtrusive flexible and stretchable microneedle patches have great potential for transdermal biointerfacing in a variety of emerging applications such as transdermal drug delivery, bioelectric treatments and wearable bio-electronics for health and fitness monitoring.

  15. Evaluation of concrete pavement patching techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    This final report presents the results of a study undertaken to improve in concrete pavement patching techniques. Activities included an evaluation of the suitability of the impact hammer and maturity calculations for determining when a patch is read...

  16. Long-term analysis of ionospheric polar patches based on CHAMP TEC data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noja, M.; Stolle, Claudia; Park, J.

    2013-01-01

    Total electron content (TEC) from LEO satellites offers great possibility to sound the upper ionosphere and plasmasphere. This paper describes a method to derive absolute TEC observations aboard CHAMP considering multipath effects and receiver differential code bias. The long-term data set of 9...... years GPS observations is used to investigate the climatological behavior of high-latitude plasma patches in both hemispheres. The occurrence of polar patches has a clear correlation with the solar cycle, which is less pronounced in the Southern Hemisphere (SH). Summed over all years, we observed...... a higher number of patches in the SH. The maximum occurrence rate of patches has been found at the dayside polar cusp during 12:00-18:00 MLT (magnetic local time) supporting the mechanisms for patch creation by local particle precipitation and by intrusion of subauroral plasma into the polar cap through...

  17. Correlation of open cell-attached and excised patch clamp techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipovic, D; Hayslett, J P

    1995-11-01

    The excised patch clamp configuration provides a unique technique for some types of single channel analyses, but maintenance of stable, long-lasting preparations may be confounded by rundown and/or rapid loss of seal. Studies were performed on the amiloride-sensitive Na+ channel, located on the apical surface of A6 cells, to determine whether the nystatin-induced open cell-attached patch could serve as an alternative configuration. Compared to excised inside-out patches, stable preparations were achieved more readily with the open cell-attached patch (9% vs. 56% of attempts). In both preparations, the current voltage (I-V) relation was linear, current amplitudes were equal at opposite equivalent clamped voltages, and Erev was zero in symmetrical Na+ solutions, indicating similar Na+ activities on the cytosolic and external surfaces of the patch. Moreover, there was no evidence that nystatin altered channel activity in the patch because slope conductance (3-4pS) and Erev (75 mV), when the bath was perfused with a high K:low Na solution (ENa = 80 mV), were nearly equal in both patch configurations. Our results therefore indicate that the nystatin-induced open cell-attached patch can serve as an alternative approach to the excised inside-out patch when experiments require modulation of univalent ions in the cytosol.

  18. CESARR V.2 manual: Computer code for the evaluation of surface storage of low and medium level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moya Rivera, J.A.; Bolado Lavin, R.

    1997-01-01

    CESARR (Code for the safety evaluation of low and medium level radioactive waste storage). This code was developed for the safety probabilistic evaluations in the facilities of low-and medium level radioactive waste storage

  19. U Patch Antenna for RFID and Wireless Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abi Saad, R.; Melhem, Z.; Nader, C.; Zaatar, Y.; Zaouk, D.

    2011-01-01

    in this paper, we propose a new multi-band patch antenna structure for embedded RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) readers and wireless communications. The proposed antenna is a dual band microstrip patch antenna using U-slot geometry. The operating frequencies of the proposed antenna are chosen as 2.4 and 0.9 (GHz), obtained by optimizing the physical dimensions of the U-slot. Several parameters have been investigated using Ansoft Designer software. The antenna is fed through a quarter wavelength transformer for impedance matching. An additional layer of alumina is added above the surface of the conductors to increase the performance of the antenna. (author)

  20. Streamlining of plant patches in streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kaj Sand; Pedersen, Morten Lauge

    2008-01-01

    . Sediment elevation within patches (avg. 4.1 cm) increased significantly with patch length, but did not differ between unstable sand or more stable coarse sediment for the same patch length. Shape of canopy and root area did not change significantly with sediment type. 4. Pressure drag on the canopy...

  1. Capacitance of circular patch resonator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miano, G.; Verolino, L.; Naples Univ.; Panariello, G.; Vaccaro, V.G.; Naples Univ.

    1995-11-01

    In this paper the capacitance of the circular microstrip patch resonator is computed. It is shown that the electrostatic problem can be formulated as a system of dual integral equations, and the most interesting techniques of solutions of these systems are reviewed. Some useful approximated formulas for the capacitance are derived and plots of the capacitance are finally given in a wide range of dielectric constants

  2. Experimental patch testing with chromium-coated materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregnbak, David; Thyssen, Jacob P; Jellesen, Morten S; Zachariae, Claus; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2017-06-01

    Chromium coatings on metal alloys can be decorative, and prevent corrosion and metal ion release. We recently showed that handling of a chromium-containing disc resulted in chromium deposition on the skin. To examine patch test reactivity to chromium-coated discs. We included 15 patients: 10 chromium-allergic patients, and 5 patients without chromium allergy. All were patch tested with potassium dichromate, cobalt chloride, nickel sulfate, and nine different metallic discs. The chromium-allergic patients were also patch tested with serial dilutions of potassium dichromate. Positive/weaker reactions were observed to disc B (1 of 10), disc C (1 of 10), and disc D, disc E, and disc I (4 of 10 each). As no controls reacted to any of the discs, the weak reactions indicate allergic reactions. Positive patch test reactions to 1770 ppm chromium(VI) in the serial dilutions of potassium dichromate were observed in 7 of 10 patients. When the case group was narrowed down to include only the patients with a current positive patch test reaction to potassium dichromate, elicitation of dermatitis by both chromium(III) and chromium(VI) discs was observed in 4 of 7 of patients. Many of the patients reacted to both chromium(III) and chromium(VI) surfaces. Our results indicate that both chromium(VI) and chromium(III) pose a risk to chromium-allergic patients. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. PROXY-BASED PATCHING STREAM TRANSMISSION STRATEGY IN MOBILE STREAMING MEDIA SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liao Jianxin; Lei Zhengxiong; Ma Xutao; Zhu Xiaomin

    2006-01-01

    A mobile transmission strategy, PMPatching (Proxy-based Mobile Patching) transmission strategy is proposed, it applies to the proxy-based mobile streaming media system in Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (WCDMA) network. Performance of the whole system can be improved by using patching stream to transmit anterior part of the suffix that had been played back, and by batching all the demands for the suffix arrived in prefix period and patching stream transmission threshold period. Experimental results show that this strategy can efficiently reduce average network transmission cost and number of channels consumed in central streaming media server.

  4. Patching. Restitching business portfolios in dynamic markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhardt, K M; Brown, S L

    1999-01-01

    In turbulent markets, businesses and opportunities are constantly falling out of alignment. New technologies and emerging markets create fresh opportunities. Converging markets produce more. And of course, some markets fade. In this landscape of continuous flux, it's more important to build corporate-level strategic processes that enable dynamic repositioning than it is to build any particular defensible position. That's why smart corporate strategists use patching, a process of mapping and remapping business units to create a shifting mix of highly focused, tightly aligned businesses that can respond to changing market opportunities. Patching is not just another name for reorganizing; patchers have a distinctive mindset. Traditional managers see structure as stable; patching managers believe structure is inherently temporary. Traditional managers set corporate strategy first, but patching managers keep the organization focused on the right set of business opportunities and let strategy emerge from individual businesses. Although the focus of patching is flexibility, the process itself follows a pattern. Patching changes are usually small in scale and made frequently. Patching should be done quickly; the emphasis is on getting the patch about right and fixing problems later. Patches should have a test drive before they're formalized but then be tightly scripted after they've been announced. And patching won't work without the right infrastructure: modular business units, fine-grained and complete unit-level metrics, and companywide compensation parity. The authors illustrate how patching works and point out some common stumbling blocks.

  5. Patching It Up, Pulling It Forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon E. Pierce

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available An important reason for making any software open source is to encourage code and other community contributions, resulting in more diverse developer communities coalescing around valuable software efforts. We believe the full picture of open developer communities is underappreciated by scientific and cyberinfrastructure open source software efforts. Free and open source licensing is popular in scientific and cyberinfrastructure software, and Web-based tools for source code management (such as GitHub and Bitbucket are in common use, but community building efforts and associated governance models that foster these communities need improvement. We propose here a simple mechanism to address this problem: developers should be given incentives to submit patches and to make other measurable contributions to code bases that they use but are not otherwise connected to, and projects should be given incentives to accept these outside contributions. As an example implementation, we outline a contest system with small monetary rewards for individuals and recognition for both individuals and projects. The goal is to change the mindset of scientific and cyberinfrastructure developers, converting them from passive downstream users to active contributors. We hypothesize that this easily measurable concrete action will contribute to the sustainability of many projects and also create a more flexible scientific workforce. Building this effort on currently available, federally funded software will establish a foundation of public data that can be used to verify our hypothesis. More broadly, the effort will demonstrate the benefits for scientific and cyberinfrastructure projects that adopt workable governance models that are already well established in the broader open source software ecosystem.

  6. Water evaporation over sump surface in nuclear containment studies: CFD and LP codes validation on TOSQAN tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malet, J., E-mail: jeanne.malet@irsn.fr [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), PSN-RES/SCA BP 68, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Degrees du Lou, O. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), PSN-RES/SCA BP 68, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Arts et Métiers ParisTech, DynFluid Lab. EA92, 151, boulevard de l’Hôpital, 75013 Paris (France); Gelain, T. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), PSN-RES/SCA BP 68, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Simulations of evaporative TOSQAN sump tests are performed. • These tests are under air–steam gas conditions with addition of He, CO{sub 2} and SF{sub 6}. • ASTEC-CPA LP and TONUS-CFD codes with UDF for sump model are used. • Validation of sump models of both codes show good results. • The code–experiment differences are attributed to turbulent gas mixing modeling. -- Abstract: During the course of a severe accident in a Nuclear Power Plant, water can be collected in the sump containment through steam condensation on walls and spray systems activation. The objective of this paper is to present code validation on evaporative sump tests performed on TOSQAN facility. The ASTEC-CPA code is used as a lumped-parameter code and specific user-defined-functions are developed for the TONUS-CFD code. The seven tests are air–steam tests, as well as tests with other non-condensable gases (He, CO{sub 2} and SF{sub 6}) under steady and transient conditions (two depressurization tests). The results show a good agreement between codes and experiments, indicating a good behavior of the sump models in both codes. The sump model developed as User-Defined Functions (UDF) for TONUS is considered as well validated and is ‘ready-to-use’ for all CFD codes in which such UDF can be added. The remaining discrepancies between codes and experiments are caused by turbulent transport and gas mixing, especially in the presence of non-condensable gases other than air, so that code validation on this important topic for hydrogen safety analysis is still recommended.

  7. Investigation of likely causes of white patch formation on irradiated WWER fuel rod claddings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibilashvili, Yu.K.; Velioukhanov, V.P.; Ioltoukhovski, A.Y.; Pogodin, V.P.

    1999-01-01

    The information concerning white patches observed on fuel cladding surfaces has been analytically treated. The analysis shows at least three kinds of the white patch appearance: bright white spots which appear to be loose corrosion product deposits disclosing corrosion pits upon spalling; indistinct streaks with separate pronounced spots 1-2 in dia. The spots seem to be thin superficial deposits; light-coloured dense uniform crud distributed over the surface of fuel claddings and fuel assembly jackets. (author)

  8. Smart thermal patch for adaptive thermotherapy

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2015-11-12

    A smart thermal patch for adaptive thermotherapy is provided. In an embodiment, the patch can be a stretchable, non-polymeric, conductive thin film flexible and non-invasive body integrated mobile thermal heater with wireless control capabilities that can be used to provide adaptive thermotherapy. The patch can be geometrically and spatially tunable on various pain locations. Adaptability allows the amount of heating to be tuned based on the temperature of the treated portion.

  9. Evaluations of dielectric property and drug release profile of 5-FU patches based on plasma charged electrets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, YUAN; Hejuan, LIANG; Ping, HUANG; Xiaoqiang, AN; Jian, JIANG; Lili, CUI

    2018-05-01

    In the present study, the electret 5-fluorouracil patch was developed, the effective surface potential, piezoelectric coefficient d 33, open-circuit thermally stimulated discharge (TSD) current spectra and shear adhesion of the patch were measured. The drug release profile of the patch was determined by using high performance liquid chromatography method. A stable potential difference which was positively dependent on the surface potential of the electret was generated on two sides of the patch. The measurements of d 33 coefficient, TSD current spectra and adhesion performance showed that the electrostatic field of the electret could cause polarization and cohesive strength decreasing of the matrix molecules, change the distribution and interaction of the drug molecules in patch, therefore to increase the release of drug from the transdermal patch.

  10. Cell patch seeding and functional analysis of cellularized scaffolds for tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, P R Anil [Division of Implant Biology, Biomedical Technology Wing, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695012 (India); Varma, H K [Bioceramics Laboratory, Biomedical Technology Wing, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695012 (India); Kumary, T V [Division of Implant Biology, Biomedical Technology Wing, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695012 (India)

    2007-03-01

    Cell seeding has a direct impact on the final structure and function of tissue constructs, especially for applications like tissue engineering and regeneration. In this study seeding cell patches retrieved from the thermoresponsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) surface were used to generate in vitro tissue constructs. Porous and dense bone substitute materials were cellularized using osteoblast cells by a patch transfer and a trypsin method. The function and proliferation of cells was analyzed after 7 days of culture. The relative cell growth rate was found to be higher in cellularized porous hydroxyapatite (PHA) than in dense hydroxyapatite. Live-dead staining confirmed viable cells inside the pores of PHA. Increased alkaline phosphatase activity of cells transferred by the cell patch over the trypsin method revealed the significance of cell patch seeding. This novel method of generating tissue constructs by cell patch seeding was successful in cellularizing scaffolds with intact cell function.

  11. Patch near-field acoustic holography: The influence of acoustic contributions from outside the source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez Grande, Efren; Jacobsen, Finn; Zhang, Yong-Bin

    2009-01-01

    It is a requirement of conventional Near-field Acoustic Holography that the measurement area covers the entire surface of the source. In the case of Patch Near-field Acoustic Holography (patch NAH), the measurement area can be reduced to cover only a specific area of the source which...... is of particular interest (known as the “patch” or “source patch”). The area of the source beyond this patch is not of interest in the analysis. However, its acoustic output may nevertheless contribute to the total sound field in the measurement plane, and influence the reconstruction of the field close...... to the patch. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how the acoustic radiation from outside the patch area influences the reconstruction of the sound field close to the source. The reconstruction is based on simulated measurements of sound pressure and particle velocity. The methods used in this paper...

  12. Cell patch seeding and functional analysis of cellularized scaffolds for tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, P R Anil; Varma, H K; Kumary, T V

    2007-01-01

    Cell seeding has a direct impact on the final structure and function of tissue constructs, especially for applications like tissue engineering and regeneration. In this study seeding cell patches retrieved from the thermoresponsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) surface were used to generate in vitro tissue constructs. Porous and dense bone substitute materials were cellularized using osteoblast cells by a patch transfer and a trypsin method. The function and proliferation of cells was analyzed after 7 days of culture. The relative cell growth rate was found to be higher in cellularized porous hydroxyapatite (PHA) than in dense hydroxyapatite. Live-dead staining confirmed viable cells inside the pores of PHA. Increased alkaline phosphatase activity of cells transferred by the cell patch over the trypsin method revealed the significance of cell patch seeding. This novel method of generating tissue constructs by cell patch seeding was successful in cellularizing scaffolds with intact cell function

  13. Collection of analytes from microneedle patches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanyuk, Andrey V; Zvezdin, Vasiliy N; Samant, Pradnya; Grenader, Mark I; Zemlyanova, Marina; Prausnitz, Mark R

    2014-11-04

    Clinical medicine and public health would benefit from simplified acquisition of biological samples from patients that can be easily obtained at point of care, in the field, and by patients themselves. Microneedle patches are designed to serve this need by collecting dermal interstitial fluid containing biomarkers without the dangers, pain, or expertise needed to collect blood. This study presents novel methods to collect biomarker analytes from microneedle patches for analysis by integration into conventional analytical laboratory microtubes and microplates. Microneedle patches were made out of cross-linked hydrogel composed of poly(methyl vinyl ether-alt-maleic acid) and poly(ethylene glycol) prepared by micromolding. Microneedle patches were shown to swell with water up to 50-fold in volume, depending on degree of polymer cross-linking, and to collect interstitial fluid from the skin of rats. To collect analytes from microneedle patches, the patches were mounted within the cap of microcentrifuge tubes or formed the top of V-bottom multiwell microplates, and fluid was collected in the bottom of the tubes under gentle centrifugation. In another method, microneedle patches were attached to form the bottom of multiwell microplates, thereby enabling in situ analysis. The simplicity of biological sample acquisition using microneedle patches coupled with the simplicity of analyte collection from microneedles patches integrated into conventional analytical equipment could broaden the reach of future screening, diagnosis, and monitoring of biomarkers in healthcare and environmental/workplace settings.

  14. PATIENTS' KNOWLEDGE OF MEDICAL PATCHES IN HUNGARY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, Orsolya; Zelko, Romana

    2016-11-01

    Transdermal therapy with medical patches is a simple possibility in home medication. As the correct use of patches has a decisive impact from the point of its modulator effect.A questionnaire survey was developed to explore level of patients' knowledge of the correct use of transdermal patches. A survey was administered in thirteen Hungarian community pharmacies from October of 2012 to May of 2015. Most of the participants, men and women over 18 years of age (n = 233), used major analgesic patches (fentanyl); the remainder were given nitroglycerin, NSAID analgesics patches during the survey. For the hypothesis testing it was assumed that men were more likely to use a razor for skin depilation before patch application than women as their denser pelage hinders patch adhesion. The hypothesis testing showed no significant gender difference in razor use (X² = 0.201; p = 0.654). Pharmacists should direct patients to avoid using soap for skin cleansing before patch application because only 22 percent of the participants always avoided its use. Since only 9 tests were flawless from 233 completed questionnaires. Many patients do not understand how to correctly apply a transdermal dosage patch. Pharmacists should teach their correct application based on results.

  15. Evaluation for the effects of a ring plate device to eliminate free surface gradients in liquid metal fast breeder reactor vessel using multi-dimensional thermohydraulics computer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Ming Qing.

    1997-02-01

    There is a free surface at the upper plenum in a reactor vessel of LMFBR. The free surface has spatial gradient caused by the internal coolant flow. This is a disadvantageous factor to engineering from the view point of gas entrainment into coolant. To eliminate the free surface gradients, ring plates about 20 cm wide are fitted at about 1 meter under the free surface. They interfere fluid flow, and decrease the component velocity in vertical direction. To investigate the efficiency of the ring plates, analyses with the AQUA-VOF code were carried out. For contrast, three conditions were given: Case-1: Without ring plates. Case-2: Ring plates, fitted at 1.125 m under the free surface. Case-3: Ring plates, fitted at 1.5 m under the free surface. The results shown that the ring plates have a sufficiently high potential to eliminate the free surface gradients due to disperse the momentum along reactor vessel axis to radial direction. In the calculations with ring plate (Cases-2 and -3), the maximum free surface height differences and the maximum gradients of free surface were decreased to less than 15% and 64% compared with the case without ring plates, respectively. (author)

  16. Transdermal patches: history, development and pharmacology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastore, Michael N; Kalia, Yogeshvar N; Horstmann, Michael; Roberts, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    Transdermal patches are now widely used as cosmetic, topical and transdermal delivery systems. These patches represent a key outcome from the growth in skin science, technology and expertise developed through trial and error, clinical observation and evidence-based studies that date back to the first existing human records. This review begins with the earliest topical therapies and traces topical delivery to the present-day transdermal patches, describing along the way the initial trials, devices and drug delivery systems that underpin current transdermal patches and their actives. This is followed by consideration of the evolution in the various patch designs and their limitations as well as requirements for actives to be used for transdermal delivery. The properties of and issues associated with the use of currently marketed products, such as variability, safety and regulatory aspects, are then described. The review concludes by examining future prospects for transdermal patches and drug delivery systems, such as the combination of active delivery systems with patches, minimally invasive microneedle patches and cutaneous solutions, including metered-dose systems. PMID:25560046

  17. Formaldehyde concentration in diagnostic patch testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trattner, A; Johansen, J D; Menné, T

    1998-01-01

    Exposure to formaldehyde is common from both consumer products and industry. The reliability of the patch test is essential for the diagnosis of formaldehyde allergy as it is difficult to suspect from the patient's history. The recommended formaldehyde patch test concentration has been reduced over...

  18. Immunoisolation Patch System for Cellular Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Taylor G. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An immunoisolation patch system, and particularly a patch system comprising multiple immunoisolation microcapsules, each encapsulating biological material such as cells for transplantation, which can be used in the prophylactic and therapeutic treatment of disease in large animals and humans without the need for immunosuppression.

  19. Code Cactus; Code Cactus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fajeau, M; Nguyen, L T; Saunier, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1966-09-01

    This code handles the following problems: -1) Analysis of thermal experiments on a water loop at high or low pressure; steady state or transient behavior; -2) Analysis of thermal and hydrodynamic behavior of water-cooled and moderated reactors, at either high or low pressure, with boiling permitted; fuel elements are assumed to be flat plates: - Flowrate in parallel channels coupled or not by conduction across plates, with conditions of pressure drops or flowrate, variable or not with respect to time is given; the power can be coupled to reactor kinetics calculation or supplied by the code user. The code, containing a schematic representation of safety rod behavior, is a one dimensional, multi-channel code, and has as its complement (FLID), a one-channel, two-dimensional code. (authors) [French] Ce code permet de traiter les problemes ci-dessous: 1. Depouillement d'essais thermiques sur boucle a eau, haute ou basse pression, en regime permanent ou transitoire; 2. Etudes thermiques et hydrauliques de reacteurs a eau, a plaques, a haute ou basse pression, ebullition permise: - repartition entre canaux paralleles, couples on non par conduction a travers plaques, pour des conditions de debit ou de pertes de charge imposees, variables ou non dans le temps; - la puissance peut etre couplee a la neutronique et une representation schematique des actions de securite est prevue. Ce code (Cactus) a une dimension d'espace et plusieurs canaux, a pour complement Flid qui traite l'etude d'un seul canal a deux dimensions. (auteurs)

  20. Image quality assessment based on inter-patch and intra-patch similarity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Zhou

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a full-reference (FR image quality assessment (IQA scheme, which evaluates image fidelity from two aspects: the inter-patch similarity and the intra-patch similarity. The scheme is performed in a patch-wise fashion so that a quality map can be obtained. On one hand, we investigate the disparity between one image patch and its adjacent ones. This disparity is visually described by an inter-patch feature, where the hybrid effect of luminance masking and contrast masking is taken into account. The inter-patch similarity is further measured by modifying the normalized correlation coefficient (NCC. On the other hand, we also attach importance to the impact of image contents within one patch on the IQA problem. For the intra-patch feature, we consider image curvature as an important complement of image gradient. According to local image contents, the intra-patch similarity is measured by adaptively comparing image curvature and gradient. Besides, a nonlinear integration of the inter-patch and intra-patch similarity is presented to obtain an overall score of image quality. The experiments conducted on six publicly available image databases show that our scheme achieves better performance in comparison with several state-of-the-art schemes.

  1. A new version of the full wave ICRH code FISIC for plasmas with non-circular flux surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruecken, T.

    1988-12-01

    A user's manual for a new version of the FISIC code which is now applicable to arbitrary (toroidal) geometry is presented. It contains a description of the input parameters and quantities as well of all subroutines and a list of all common blocks. (orig.)

  2. Riverine Landscape Patch Heterogeneity Drives Riparian Ant Assemblages in the Scioto River Basin, USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paradzayi Tagwireyi

    Full Text Available Although the principles of landscape ecology are increasingly extended to include riverine landscapes, explicit applications are few. We investigated associations between patch heterogeneity and riparian ant assemblages at 12 riverine landscapes of the Scioto River, Ohio, USA, that represent urban/developed, agricultural, and mixed (primarily forested, but also wetland, grassland/fallow, and exurban land-use settings. Using remotely-sensed and ground-collected data, we delineated riverine landscape patch types (crop, grass/herbaceous, gravel, lawn, mudflat, open water, shrub, swamp, and woody vegetation, computed patch metrics (area, density, edge, richness, and shape, and conducted coordinated sampling of surface-active Formicidae assemblages. Ant density and species richness was lower in agricultural riverine landscapes than at mixed or developed reaches (measured using S [total number of species], but not using Menhinick's Index [DM], whereas ant diversity (using the Berger-Park Index [DBP] was highest in agricultural reaches. We found no differences in ant density, richness, or diversity among internal riverine landscape patches. However, certain characteristics of patches influenced ant communities. Patch shape and density were significant predictors of richness (S: R2 = 0.72; DM: R2=0.57. Patch area, edge, and shape emerged as important predictors of DBP (R2 = 0.62 whereas patch area, edge, and density were strongly related to ant density (R2 = 0.65. Non-metric multidimensional scaling and analysis of similarities distinguished ant assemblage composition in grass and swamp patches from crop, gravel, lawn, and shrub as well as ant assemblages in woody vegetation patches from crop, lawn, and gravel (stress = 0.18, R2 = 0.64. These findings lend insight into the utility of landscape ecology to river science by providing evidence that spatial habitat patterns within riverine landscapes can influence assemblage characteristics of riparian

  3. OCA-II, a code for calculating the behavior of 2-D and 3-D surface flaws in a pressure vessel subjected to temperature and pressure transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, D.G.; Drake, J.B.; Cheverton, R.D.; Iskander, S.K.

    1984-02-01

    The OCA-II computer code, like its predecessor OCA-I, performs the thermal, stress, and linear elastic fracture-mechanics analysis for long flaws on the surface of a cylinder that is subjected to thermal and pressure transients. OCA-II represents a revised and expanded version of OCA-I and includes as new features (1) cladding as a discrete region, (2) a finite-element subroutine for calculating the stresses, and (3) the ability to calculate stress intensity factors for certain three-dimensional flaws, for two-dimensional circumferential flaws on the inner surface, and for both axial and circumferential flaws on the outer surface. OCA-I considered only inner-surface flaws. An option is included in OCA-II that permits a search for critical values of fluence or nil-ductility reference temperature corresponding to a specified failure criterion. These and other features of OCA-II are described in the report, which also includes user instructions for the code

  4. Early identification of hERG liability in drug discovery programs by automated patch clamp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timm eDanker

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Blockade of the cardiac ion channel coded by hERG can lead to cardiac arrhythmia, which has become a major concern in drug discovery and development. Automated electrophysiological patch clamp allows assessment of hERG channel effects early in drug development to aid medicinal chemistry programs and has become routine in pharmaceutical companies. However, a number of potential sources of errors in setting up hERG channel assays by automated patch clamp can lead to misinterpretation of data or false effects being reported. This article describes protocols for automated electrophysiology screening of compound effects on the hERG channel current. Protocol details and the translation of criteria known from manual patch clamp experiments to automated patch clamp experiments to achieve good quality data are emphasized. Typical pitfalls and artifacts that may lead to misinterpretation of data are discussed. While this article focuses on hERG channel recordings using the QPatch (Sophion A/S, Copenhagen, Denmark technology, many of the assay and protocol details given in this article can be transferred for setting up different ion channel assays by automated patch clamp and are similar on other planar patch clamp platforms.

  5. Use of rivastigmine transdermal patch in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winblad, Bengt; Machado, João Carlos

    2008-12-01

    Cholinesterase inhibitors such as rivastigmine and donepezil exhibit a dose-response relationship, with higher doses of the drugs demonstrating greater efficacy. Transdermal patches provide smooth continuous drug delivery, with the potential to offer efficacious levels of drug exposure while avoiding the peaks and troughs associated with side effects. As a small, lipophilic and hydrophilic molecule, rivastigmine (C14H22N2O2) is chemically well-suited to transdermal delivery. The technology underlying the rivastigmine patch allows it to be discreetly small and thin. The target dose 9.5 mg/24 h rivastigmine patch has a diameter of just 3.5 cm and a surface area of 10 cm2. A large randomized controlled trial has demonstrated that the target dose 9.5 mg/24 h rivastigmine patch provided similar efficacy to the highest rivastigmine capsule doses, yet with three times fewer reports of nausea and vomiting. Thus, the rivastigmine patch enables quick and easy access to high dose efficacy. The skin tolerability profile is good, and the patch has demonstrated excellent adhesion. The apparent success of rivastigmine patch, in terms of clinical utility and patient acceptability, suggests that it may mark the next generation of dementia treatment.

  6. PatchSurfers: Two methods for local molecular property-based binding ligand prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Woong-Hee; Bures, Mark Gregory; Kihara, Daisuke

    2016-01-15

    Protein function prediction is an active area of research in computational biology. Function prediction can help biologists make hypotheses for characterization of genes and help interpret biological assays, and thus is a productive area for collaboration between experimental and computational biologists. Among various function prediction methods, predicting binding ligand molecules for a target protein is an important class because ligand binding events for a protein are usually closely intertwined with the proteins' biological function, and also because predicted binding ligands can often be directly tested by biochemical assays. Binding ligand prediction methods can be classified into two types: those which are based on protein-protein (or pocket-pocket) comparison, and those that compare a target pocket directly to ligands. Recently, our group proposed two computational binding ligand prediction methods, Patch-Surfer, which is a pocket-pocket comparison method, and PL-PatchSurfer, which compares a pocket to ligand molecules. The two programs apply surface patch-based descriptions to calculate similarity or complementarity between molecules. A surface patch is characterized by physicochemical properties such as shape, hydrophobicity, and electrostatic potentials. These properties on the surface are represented using three-dimensional Zernike descriptors (3DZD), which are based on a series expansion of a 3 dimensional function. Utilizing 3DZD for describing the physicochemical properties has two main advantages: (1) rotational invariance and (2) fast comparison. Here, we introduce Patch-Surfer and PL-PatchSurfer with an emphasis on PL-PatchSurfer, which is more recently developed. Illustrative examples of PL-PatchSurfer performance on binding ligand prediction as well as virtual drug screening are also provided. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A detailed chemistry model for transient hydrogen and carbon monoxide catalytic recombination on parallel flat Pt surfaces implemented in an integral code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez, Miguel A.; Martin-Valdepenas, Juan M.; Martin-Fuertes, Francisco; Fernandez, Jose A.

    2007-01-01

    A detailed chemistry model has been adapted and developed for surface chemistry, heat and mass transfer between H 2 /CO/air/steam/CO 2 mixtures and vertical parallel Pt-coated surfaces. This model is based onto a simplified Deutschmann reaction scheme for methane surface combustion and the analysis by Elenbaas for buoyancy-induced heat transfer between parallel plates. Mass transfer is treated by the heat and mass transfer analogy. The proposed model is able to simulate the H 2 /CO recombination phenomena characteristic of parallel-plate Passive Autocatalytic Recombiners (PARs), which have been proposed and implemented as a promising hydrogen-control strategy in the safety of nuclear power stations or other industries. The transient model is able to approach the warm-up phase of the PAR and its shut-down as well as the dynamic changes within the surrounding atmosphere. The model has been implemented within the MELCOR code and assessed against results of the Battelle Model Containment tests of the Zx series. Results show accurate predictions and a better performance than traditional methods in integral codes, i.e. empirical correlations, which are also much case-specific. Influence of CO present in the mixture on the PAR performance is also addressed in this paper

  8. Development of radiolabelled compound using reactor produced RI - Development of Ho-166 skin patch for treatment of skin cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kyung Bae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea); Ryu, Jei Man [Dong Wha Pharm. Ind. Co., Ltd., Seoul (Korea)

    1999-04-01

    A radioactive patch which can be treat the skin cancer by direct irradiation was prepared by blending Ho(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}, 5H{sub 2}O and polyurethane(PU) and then irradiating with neutron in the nuclear reactor. The blend formation of the film was fonfirmed by FT-IR. Degree of the distribution of holmium and solvent in remaining in the film was determined. Physical properties of the film by thermal analysis, mechanical measurement and surface analysis were characterized, respectively. To evaluate efficacy of the patch, it was applied to the tumor surface of the hairlessmous. Until 6 weeks of the patch treatment 7 mice with skin tumor were cured totally (7/13). And the other nuclear except for holmium was in patch was not detected. Furthermore, the patch was stable at room temperature, 40 deg C and 60 deg C. (author). 17 refs., 13 figs., 9 tabs.

  9. Analyzing the Safeguarding Our Communities Act: Patch for Patch Return Policy in Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo-Min Kim

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Fentanyl is prescribed to patients suffering from severe chronic pain. Transdermal patches are the best mode of delivery for patients who have developed tolerance for opioids. However, used patches still contain fentanyl that can be extracted and misused, with potentially severe consequences. To address this issue, patients who are prescribed fentanyl patches in Ontario are now required to return previously dispensed patches to receive new patches under the Safeguarding Our Communities Act: Patch for Patch (P4P Return Policy. The problem is significant in Ontario because the province has the largest annual dispense rate of high-dose prescription fentanyl (112 units per 1,000 population in Canada even though the prevalence rate of chronic pain is lower than the national reported range (16.6% in Ontario versus 19.6 to 21.9% in other provinces, according to Gomes et al. 2014. The primary goal of this reform is to instill responsible use of fentanyl patches, and to improve safety for patients and the public by having a central disposal process. The reform was modeled after a community initiative that was pioneered in North Bay after receiving great support from health professional colleges and communities that voluntarily integrated the program prior to the introduction of Bill 33. Preliminary data suggest that the P4P policy is positively received by health professionals, although ongoing evaluation is needed to assess the effectiveness of the policy in reducing misuse and abuse of prescribed fentanyl patches.

  10. Debonding Patch Detection in FRP-Strengthened Materials with Fiber-Optic Interferometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Ying; Wang Dexiang; Tang Tianyou; Lu Miaomiao

    2017-01-01

    The interfacial debonding in fiber-reinforced plastic(FRP) strengthened repair material will affect the bonding strength and lead to failure of the repair without warning.Unfortunately the interfacial damage is normally invisible and often in the form of a patch rather than a through-width crack.Therefore,a debonding patch detection technique based on fiber optic interferometry is proposed.A quasi impulse loading is applied with a rubberhead hammer and the total elongation of a surface mounted optical fiber along the length of the repair material is measured as a function of load position.When a debonding patch is present,the induced sudden slope or sign change on the plot of fiber integral strain v.s.load position will reveal the extent and the location of the debonded area.The results of the study indicate that the proposed technique is applicable for debonding patch detection in repaired members under various support conditions.

  11. Physicochemical characterization and evaluation of buccal adhesive patches containing propranolol hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, V M; Prajapati, B G; Patel, J K; Patel, M M

    2006-07-01

    Buccal adhesive patches containing 20 mg of propranolol hydrochloride were prepared using solvent casting method. Chitosan was used as a natural bioadhesive polymer. Patches were prepared at different ratios of PVP K-30 and evaluated for various physicochemical characteristics such as weight variation, drug content uniformity, folding endurance, surface pH, ex-vivo mucoadhesive strength, ex-vivo residence time, in vitro drug release and in vitro buccal permeation study. Patches exhibited sustained release over a period of 7 hours. The mechanism of drug release was found to be Non-Fickian diffusion. Addition of PVP K-30 generally enhanced the releasing rate. The ex-vivo mucoadhesive strength was performed using sheep buccal mucosa on modified physical balance. Optimized patches (batch F4) showed satisfactory bioadhesive strength (9.6 degrees 2.0 gram) and ex vivo residence time (272 degrees 0.25 minutes). Swelling index was proportional to PVP K-30. The surface pH of all batches was within satisfactory limit (7.0+/-1.5) and hence patches would not cause irritation in the buccal cavity. Good correlation was observed between in vitro drug release and in vitro drug permeation with correlation coefficient of 0.9364. Stability of optimized patches was performed in natural human saliva showed that both drug and dosage forms were stable in human saliva.

  12. A New Prime Code for Synchronous Optical Code Division Multiple-Access Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huda Saleh Abbas

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A new spreading code based on a prime code for synchronous optical code-division multiple-access networks that can be used in monitoring applications has been proposed. The new code is referred to as “extended grouped new modified prime code.” This new code has the ability to support more terminal devices than other prime codes. In addition, it patches subsequences with “0s” leading to lower power consumption. The proposed code has an improved cross-correlation resulting in enhanced BER performance. The code construction and parameters are provided. The operating performance, using incoherent on-off keying modulation and incoherent pulse position modulation systems, has been analyzed. The performance of the code was compared with other prime codes. The results demonstrate an improved performance, and a BER floor of 10−9 was achieved.

  13. Formulation of Bilayer Benzydamine HCl Patch Targeted For Gingivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyush Sanghai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study bilayer patch of benzydamine HCl was developed using solvent casting method. Different substrates were attempted like Petri dish, glass-and-ring, and teflon-and-ring for selection of the proper option to formulate patch that should give easily peelable film with adequate mechanical properties. HPMC E15 LV was used in different concentrations for obtaining proper viscosity of solution for pouring on to surface and ring, that it should not leak from ring. The second layer was optimized by using different polymer like eudragit RSPO, eudragit RSPO + EC, and eudragit NE30 D for efficient layer bonding. The minimum release from backing membrane was established by diffusion study as compared to from drug loaded layer. The optimized batches were evaluated for folding endurance, weight variation, thickness, drug content, drug release, tensile strength, layer separation, mucoadhesion, moisture uptake, and layer bonding. The novel gingival patch of benzydamine HCl developed would be beneficial in optimizing the therapy.

  14. Serial number coding and decoding by laser interference direct patterning on the original product surface for anti-counterfeiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, In-Yong; Ahn, Sanghoon; Kim, Youngduk; Bae, Han-Sung; Kang, Hee-Shin; Yoo, Jason; Noh, Jiwhan

    2017-06-26

    Here, we investigate a method to distinguish the counterfeits by patterning multiple reflective type grating directly on the surface of the original product and analyze the serial number from its rotation angles of diffracted fringes. The micro-sized gratings were fabricated on the surface of the material at high speeds by illuminating the interference fringe generated by passing a high-energy pulse laser through the Fresnel biprism. In addition, analysis of the grating's diffraction fringes was performed using a continuous wave laser.

  15. Travelling-wave similarity solutions for a steadily translating slender dry patch in a thin fluid film

    KAUST Repository

    Yatim, Y. M.; Duffy, B. R.; Wilson, S. K.

    2013-01-01

    A novel family of three-dimensional travelling-wave similarity solutions describing a steadily translating slender dry patch in an infinitely wide thin fluid film on an inclined planar substrate when surface-tension effects are negligible

  16. Coevolution of patch-type dependent emigration and patch-type dependent immigration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigang, Helene C

    2017-08-07

    The three phases of dispersal - emigration, transfer and immigration - are affecting each other and the former and latter decisions may depend on patch types. Despite the inevitable fact of the complexity of the dispersal process, patch-type dependencies of dispersal decisions modelled as emigration and immigration are usually missing in theoretical dispersal models. Here, I investigate the coevolution of patch-type dependent emigration and patch-type dependent immigration in an extended Hamilton-May model. The dispersing population inhabits a landscape structured into many patches of two types and disperses during a continuous-time season. The trait under consideration is a four dimensional vector consisting of two values for emigration probability from the patches and two values for immigration probability into the patches of each type. Using the adaptive dynamics approach I show that four qualitatively different dispersal strategies may evolve in different parameter regions, including a counterintuitive strategy, where patches of one type are fully dispersed from (emigration probability is one) but individuals nevertheless always immigrate into them during the dispersal season (immigration probability is one). I present examples of evolutionary branching in a wide parameter range, when the patches with high local death rate during the dispersal season guarantee a high expected disperser output. I find that two dispersal strategies can coexist after evolutionary branching: a strategy with full immigration only into the patches with high expected disperser output coexists with a strategy that immigrates into any patch. Stochastic simulations agree with the numerical predictions. Since evolutionary branching is also found when immigration evolves alone, the present study is adding coevolutionary constraints on the emigration traits and hence finds that the coevolution of a higher dimensional trait sometimes hinders evolutionary diversification. Copyright © 2017

  17. Patch near field acoustic holography based on particle velocity measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yong-Bin; Jacobsen, Finn; Bi, Chuan-Xing

    2009-01-01

    Patch near field acoustic holography (PNAH) based on sound pressure measurements makes it possible to reconstruct the source field near a source by measuring the sound pressure at positions on a surface. that is comparable in size to the source region of concern. Particle velocity is an alternative...... examines the use of particle velocity as the input of PNAH. Because the particle velocity decays faster toward the edges of the measurement aperture than the pressure does and because the wave number ratio that enters into the inverse propagator from pressure to velocity amplifies high spatial frequencies...

  18. Diurnal and seasonal occurrence of polar patches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Rodger

    1996-05-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the diurnal and seasonal variation of polar patches, as identified in two years of HF-radar data from Halley, Antarctica during a period near sunspot maximum, shows that there is a broad maximum in occurrence centred about magnetic noon, not local noon. There are minima in occurrence near midsummer and midwinter, with maxima in occurrence between equinox and winter. There are no significant correlations between the occurrence of polar patches and the corresponding hourly averages of the solar wind and IMF parameters, except that patches usually occur when the interplanetary magnetic field has a southward component. The results can be understood in terms of UT and seasonal differences in the plasma concentration being convected from the dayside ionosphere into the polar cap. In summer and winter the electron concentrations in the polar cap are high and low, respectively, but relatively unstructured. About equinox, a tongue of enhanced ionisation is convected into the polar cap; this tongue is then structured by the effects of the interplanetary magnetic field, but these Halley data cannot be used to separate the various competing mechanisms for patch formation. The observed diurnal and seasonal variation in the occurrence of polar patches are largely consistent with predictions of Sojka et al. (1994 when their results are translated into the southern hemisphere. However, the ionospheric effects of flux transfer events are still considered essential in their formation, a feature not yet included in the Sojka et al. model.

  19. Dermoscopy of shagreen patch: A first report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivanand Gundalli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The name is derived from French phrase peau chagrinee which is usually found on lower back, buttock and thigh. The major manifestations of Tuberous sclerosis include skin lesions in more than 95%, mental retardation in approximately 50%, autism, seizures in approximately 85%. The incidence at birth is estimated to be 1 in 5800. We report case of shagreen patch in a 27 year female which is present since birth. However there is no history of seizures or consanginous marriage in our case. Associated features are naevus comedonicus and naevus collagenosis, facial angiofibroma. Shagreen patch are present in mandibular area of face. Although, diagnosis is easy, it can be mistaken for inflammatory verrucous epidermal nevus, plaques of other inflammatory skin conditions. Diagnosis is usually on clinical background. Sometimes biopsy is necessary to confirm the diagnosis. Dermoscopy, a non-invasive, in vivo technique for the microscopic examination of pigmented skin lesions, has the potential to improve the diagnostic accuracy. Dermoscopy of Shagreen patch showed reddish-brown strands with white dots giving a cobblestone appearance It can be utilized as a diagnostic aide in the diagnosis of Shagreen patch. Authors evaluated the dermoscopic patterns of Shagreen patch and hence, it is useful in diagnosis.

  20. Microneedle patches for vaccination in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Jaya; Prausnitz, Mark R

    2016-10-28

    Millions of people die of infectious diseases each year, mostly in developing countries, which could largely be prevented by the use of vaccines. While immunization rates have risen since the introduction of the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI), there remain major challenges to more effective vaccination in developing countries. As a possible solution, microneedle patches containing an array of micron-sized needles on an adhesive backing have been developed to be used for vaccine delivery to the skin. These microneedle patches can be easily and painlessly applied by pressing against the skin and, in some designs, do not leave behind sharps waste. The patches are single-dose, do not require reconstitution, are easy to administer, have reduced size to simplify storage, transportation and waste disposal, and offer the possibility of improved vaccine immunogenicity, dose sparing and thermostability. This review summarizes vaccination challenges in developing countries and discusses advantages that microneedle patches offer for vaccination to address these challenges. We conclude that microneedle patches offer a powerful new technology that can enable more effective vaccination in developing countries. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Patch-augmented rotator cuff repair: influence of the patch fixation technique on primary biomechanical stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Christian; Spreiter, Gregor; Audigé, Laurent; Ferguson, Stephen J; Flury, Matthias

    2016-05-01

    There is an ongoing debate about the potential of patch augmentation to improve biomechanical stability and healing associated with rotator cuff repair. The biomechanical properties of three different patch-augmented rotator cuff repair techniques were assessed in vitro and compared with a standard repair. Dermal collagen patch augmentation may increase the primary stability and strength of the repaired tendon in vitro, depending on the technique used for patch application. Forty cadaveric sheep shoulders with dissected infraspinatus tendons were randomized into four groups (n = 10/group) for tendon repair using a knotless double-row suture anchor technique. A xenologous dermal extracellular matrix patch was used for augmentation in the three test groups using an "integrated", "cover", or "hybrid" technique. Tendons were preconditioned, cyclically loaded from 10 to 30 N at 1 Hz, and then loaded monotonically to failure. Biomechanical properties and the mode of failure were evaluated. Patch augmentation significantly increased the maximum load at failure by 61 % in the "cover" technique test group (225.8 N) and 51 % in the "hybrid" technique test group (211.4 N) compared with the non-augmented control group (140.2 N) (P ≤ 0.015). For the test group with "integrated" patch augmentation, the load at failure was 28 % lower (101.6 N) compared with the control group (P = 0.043). There was no significant difference in initial and linear stiffness among the four experimental groups. The most common mode of failure was tendon pullout. No anchor dislocation, patch disruption or knot breakage was observed. Additional patch augmentation with a collagen patch influences the biomechanical properties of a rotator cuff repair in a cadaveric sheep model. Primary repair stability can be significantly improved depending on the augmentation technique.

  2. Dynamic 3D shape of the plantar surface of the foot using coded structured light: a technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thabet, Ali K; Trucco, Emanuele; Salvi, Joaquim; Wang, Weijie; Abboud, Rami J

    2014-01-23

    The foot provides a crucial contribution to the balance and stability of the musculoskeletal system, and accurate foot measurements are important in applications such as designing custom insoles/footwear. With better understanding of the dynamic behavior of the foot, dynamic foot reconstruction techniques are surfacing as useful ways to properly measure the shape of the foot. This paper presents a novel design and implementation of a structured-light prototype system providing dense three dimensional (3D) measurements of the foot in motion. The input to the system is a video sequence of a foot during a single step; the output is a 3D reconstruction of the plantar surface of the foot for each frame of the input. Engineering and clinical tests were carried out to test the accuracy and repeatability of the system. Accuracy experiments involved imaging a planar surface from different orientations and elevations and measuring the fitting errors of the data to a plane. Repeatability experiments were done using reconstructions from 27 different subjects, where for each one both right and left feet were reconstructed in static and dynamic conditions over two different days. The static accuracy of the system was found to be 0.3 mm with planar test objects. In tests with real feet, the system proved repeatable, with reconstruction differences between trials one week apart averaging 2.4 mm (static case) and 2.8 mm (dynamic case). The results obtained in the experiments show positive accuracy and repeatability results when compared to current literature. The design also shows to be superior to the systems available in the literature in several factors. Further studies need to be done to quantify the reliability of the system in clinical environments.

  3. Dynamic 3D shape of the plantar surface of the foot using coded structured light: a technical report

    KAUST Repository

    Thabet, Ali Kassem

    2014-01-23

    Background The foot provides a crucial contribution to the balance and stability of the musculoskeletal system, and accurate foot measurements are important in applications such as designing custom insoles/footwear. With better understanding of the dynamic behavior of the foot, dynamic foot reconstruction techniques are surfacing as useful ways to properly measure the shape of the foot. This paper presents a novel design and implementation of a structured-light prototype system providing dense three dimensional (3D) measurements of the foot in motion. The input to the system is a video sequence of a foot during a single step; the output is a 3D reconstruction of the plantar surface of the foot for each frame of the input. Methods Engineering and clinical tests were carried out to test the accuracy and repeatability of the system. Accuracy experiments involved imaging a planar surface from different orientations and elevations and measuring the fitting errors of the data to a plane. Repeatability experiments were done using reconstructions from 27 different subjects, where for each one both right and left feet were reconstructed in static and dynamic conditions over two different days. Results The static accuracy of the system was found to be 0.3 mm with planar test objects. In tests with real feet, the system proved repeatable, with reconstruction differences between trials one week apart averaging 2.4 mm (static case) and 2.8 mm (dynamic case). Conclusion The results obtained in the experiments show positive accuracy and repeatability results when compared to current literature. The design also shows to be superior to the systems available in the literature in several factors. Further studies need to be done to quantify the reliability of the system in clinical environments.

  4. Design and in vivo evaluation of a patch system based on thiolated polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyer, Herbert; Greindl, Melanie; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2009-02-01

    A new oral patch delivery system has been designed to increase the overall oral bioavailability of drugs within the gastrointestinal tract. The patch system consists of four layered films: a mucoadhesive matrix layer, a water insoluble backing layer, a middle layer and an enteric surface layer. The separation layer between the two matrix layers contained lactose, starch and confectioners' sugar. The matrix layer, exhibiting a diameter of 2.5 mm and a weight of 5 mg, comprised Polycarbophil-cysteine conjugate (49%), fluoresceine isothiocyanate-dextran (26%), glutathione (5%), and mannitol (20%). A standard tablet formulation consisting of the same matrix served as control. Entire fluoresceine isothiocyanate-dextran (FD(4)) was released from the delivery system within 2 h. For in vivo studies patch systems were administered orally to male Sprague-Dawley rats. Maximum FD(4) concentration in blood of the patch system was 46.1 +/- 8.9 ng/mL and was reached 3 h after administration. In contrast c(max) of control tablets displayed 50.5 +/- 14.9 ng/mL after 2 h and the absorption of FD(4) after administration in oral solution was negligible. The absolute bioavailability of orally administered patch systems and control tablets was 0.54% and 0.32% respectively. Results of this study indicate that a prolonged and higher oral bioavailability of FD(4) is obtained with patches than with tablets.

  5. Boolean Operations with Prism Algebraic Patches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Chandrajit; Paoluzzi, Alberto; Portuesi, Simone; Lei, Na; Zhao, Wenqi

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we discuss a symbolic-numeric algorithm for Boolean operations, closed in the algebra of curved polyhedra whose boundary is triangulated with algebraic patches (A-patches). This approach uses a linear polyhedron as a first approximation of both the arguments and the result. On each triangle of a boundary representation of such linear approximation, a piecewise cubic algebraic interpolant is built, using a C1-continuous prism algebraic patch (prism A-patch) that interpolates the three triangle vertices, with given normal vectors. The boundary representation only stores the vertices of the initial triangulation and their external vertex normals. In order to represent also flat and/or sharp local features, the corresponding normal-per-face and/or normal-per-edge may be also given, respectively. The topology is described by storing, for each curved triangle, the two triples of pointers to incident vertices and to adjacent triangles. For each triangle, a scaffolding prism is built, produced by its extreme vertices and normals, which provides a containment volume for the curved interpolating A-patch. When looking for the result of a regularized Boolean operation, the 0-set of a tri-variate polynomial within each such prism is generated, and intersected with the analogous 0-sets of the other curved polyhedron, when two prisms have non-empty intersection. The intersection curves of the boundaries are traced and used to decompose each boundary into the 3 standard classes of subpatches, denoted in, out and on. While tracing the intersection curves, the locally refined triangulation of intersecting patches is produced, and added to the boundary representation. PMID:21516262

  6. Design of a Composite Membrane with Patches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuccu, Fabrizio; Emamizadeh, Behrouz; Porru, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    This paper is concerned with minimization and maximization problems of eigenvalues. The principal eigenvalue of a differential operator is minimized or maximized over a set which is formed by intersecting a rearrangement class with an affine subspace of finite co-dimension. A solution represents an optimal design of a 2-dimensional composite membrane Ω, fixed at the boundary, built out of two different materials, where certain prescribed regions (patches) in Ω are occupied by both materials. We prove existence results, and present some features of optimal solutions. The special case of one patch is treated in detail.

  7. Generic Patch Inference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper; Lawall, Julia Laetitia

    2008-01-01

    A key issue in maintaining Linux device drivers is the need to update drivers in response to evolutions in Linux internal libraries. Currently, there is little tool support for performing and documenting such changes. In this paper we present a tool, spfind, that identifies common changes made...... developers can use it to extract an abstract representation of the set of changes that others have made. Our experiments on recent changes in Linux show that the inferred generic patches are more concise than the corresponding patches found in commits to the Linux source tree while being safe with respect...

  8. Direct Profiling the Post-Translational Modification Codes of a Single Protein Immobilized on a Surface Using Cu-free Click Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Lock; Park, Kyeng Min; Murray, James; Kim, Kimoon; Ryu, Sung Ho

    2018-05-23

    Combinatorial post-translational modifications (PTMs), which can serve as dynamic "molecular barcodes", have been proposed to regulate distinct protein functions. However, studies of combinatorial PTMs on single protein molecules have been hindered by a lack of suitable analytical methods. Here, we describe erasable single-molecule blotting (eSiMBlot) for combinatorial PTM profiling. This assay is performed in a highly multiplexed manner and leverages the benefits of covalent protein immobilization, cyclic probing with different antibodies, and single molecule fluorescence imaging. Especially, facile and efficient covalent immobilization on a surface using Cu-free click chemistry permits multiple rounds (>10) of antibody erasing/reprobing without loss of antigenicity. Moreover, cumulative detection of coregistered multiple data sets for immobilized single-epitope molecules, such as HA peptide, can be used to increase the antibody detection rate. Finally, eSiMBlot enables direct visualization and quantitative profiling of combinatorial PTM codes at the single-molecule level, as we demonstrate by revealing the novel phospho-codes of ligand-induced epidermal growth factor receptor. Thus, eSiMBlot provides an unprecedentedly simple, rapid, and versatile platform for analyzing the vast number of combinatorial PTMs in biological pathways.

  9. Local mesh refinement for incompressible fluid flow with free surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terasaka, H.; Kajiwara, H.; Ogura, K. [Tokyo Electric Power Company (Japan)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    A new local mesh refinement (LMR) technique has been developed and applied to incompressible fluid flows with free surface boundaries. The LMR method embeds patches of fine grid in arbitrary regions of interest. Hence, more accurate solutions can be obtained with a lower number of computational cells. This method is very suitable for the simulation of free surface movements because free surface flow problems generally require a finer computational grid to obtain adequate results. By using this technique, one can place finer grids only near the surfaces, and therefore greatly reduce the total number of cells and computational costs. This paper introduces LMR3D, a three-dimensional incompressible flow analysis code. Numerical examples calculated with the code demonstrate well the advantages of the LMR method.

  10. Development and characterization of mucoadhesive buccal patches of salbutamol sulphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rajesh Singh; Poddar, S S

    2009-01-01

    Mucoadhesive patch releasing the drug in the oral cavity at predetermined rate may present distinct advantages over traditional dosage forms such as tablets, gels and solutions. The present study was concerned with the preparation and evaluation of mucoadhesive buccal patches for the controlled systemic delivery of Salbutamol sulphate to avoid first pass hepatic metabolism. The developed patches were evaluated for the physicochemical, mechanical and drug release characteristics. The patches showed desired mechanical and physicochemical properties to withstand environment of oral cavity. The in-vitro release study showed that patches could deliver drug to the oral mucosa for a period of 7 h. the patches exhibited adequate stability when tested under accelerated conditions.

  11. Evaluation of winter pothole patching methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate the performance and cost-effectiveness of the tow-behind combination : infrared asphalt heater/reclaimer patching method and compare it to the throw and roll and spray injection methods. To : achieve t...

  12. Active patch antennas for transponder applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biffi Gentili, G; Avitabile, G; Bonifacio, F; Salvador, C [Florence Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Ingegneria Elettronica

    1996-01-01

    The paper deals with two patch antenna structures that are mainly taught for short range link and non-contact identification system (RFID). The proposed antennas were developed by starting from an original concept of cross-polarization usefully applicable, in compliance with european for transponder applications are described and experimental results are reported.

  13. Planar patch clamp: advances in electrophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüggemann, Andrea; Farre, Cecilia; Haarmann, Claudia; Haythornthwaite, Ali; Kreir, Mohamed; Stoelzle, Sonja; George, Michael; Fertig, Niels

    2008-01-01

    Ion channels have gained increased interest as therapeutic targets over recent years, since a growing number of human and animal diseases have been attributed to defects in ion channel function. Potassium channels are the largest and most diverse family of ion channels. Pharmaceutical agents such as Glibenclamide, an inhibitor of K(ATP) channel activity which promotes insulin release, have been successfully sold on the market for many years. So far, only a small group of the known ion channels have been addressed as potential drug targets. The functional testing of drugs on these ion channels has always been the bottleneck in the development of these types of pharmaceutical compounds.New generations of automated patch clamp screening platforms allow a higher throughput for drug testing and widen this bottleneck. Due to their planar chip design not only is a higher throughput achieved, but new applications have also become possible. One of the advantages of planar patch clamp is the possibility of perfusing the intracellular side of the membrane during a patch clamp experiment in the whole-cell configuration. Furthermore, the extracellular membrane remains accessible for compound application during the experiment.Internal perfusion can be used not only for patch clamp experiments with cell membranes, but also for those with artificial lipid bilayers. In this chapter we describe how internal perfusion can be applied to potassium channels expressed in Jurkat cells, and to Gramicidin channels reconstituted in a lipid bilayer.

  14. Perturbation analysis for patch occupancy dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Julien; Nichols, James D.; McIntyre, Carol L.; Ferraz, Goncalo; Hines, James E.

    2009-01-01

    Perturbation analysis is a powerful tool to study population and community dynamics. This article describes expressions for sensitivity metrics reflecting changes in equilibrium occupancy resulting from small changes in the vital rates of patch occupancy dynamics (i.e., probabilities of local patch colonization and extinction). We illustrate our approach with a case study of occupancy dynamics of Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) nesting territories. Examination of the hypothesis of system equilibrium suggests that the system satisfies equilibrium conditions. Estimates of vital rates obtained using patch occupancy models are used to estimate equilibrium patch occupancy of eagles. We then compute estimates of sensitivity metrics and discuss their implications for eagle population ecology and management. Finally, we discuss the intuition underlying our sensitivity metrics and then provide examples of ecological questions that can be addressed using perturbation analyses. For instance, the sensitivity metrics lead to predictions about the relative importance of local colonization and local extinction probabilities in influencing equilibrium occupancy for rare and common species.

  15. Patch testing with the "sesquiterpene lactone mix"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ducombs, G; Benezra, C; Talaga, P

    1990-01-01

    6278 patients were patch tested with a sesquiterpene lactone mix (SL-mix) in 10 European clinics. 4011 patients were tested only with 0.1% SL-mix, 63 (approximately 1.5%) of whom were positive, with 26 (41%) of these cases being considered clinically relevant. There were no cases of active...

  16. Analgesic Microneedle Patch for Neuropathic Pain Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xi; Pascual, Conrado; Lieu, Christopher; Oh, Seajin; Wang, Ji; Zou, Bende; Xie, Julian; Li, Zhaohui; Xie, James; Yeomans, David C; Wu, Mei X; Xie, Xinmin Simon

    2017-01-24

    Neuropathic pain caused by nerve injury is debilitating and difficult to treat. Current systemic pharmacological therapeutics for neuropathic pain produce limited pain relief and have undesirable side effects, while current local anesthetics tend to nonspecifically block both sensory and motor functions. Calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP), a neuropeptide released from sensory nerve endings, appears to play a significant role in chronic neuropathic pain. In this study, an analgesic microneedle (AMN) patch was developed using dissolvable microneedles to transdermally deliver selective CGRP antagonist peptide in a painless manner for the treatment of localized neuropathic pain. Local analgesic effects were evaluated in rats by testing behavioral pain sensitivity in response to thermal and mechanical stimuli using neuropathic pain models such as spared-nerve injury and diabetic neuropathy pain, as well as neurogenic inflammatory pain model induced by ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation. Unlike several conventional therapies, the AMN patches produced effective analgesia on neuropathic pain without disturbing the normal nociception and motor function of the rat, resulting from the high specificity of the delivered peptide against CGRP receptors. The AMN patches did not cause skin irritation or systemic side effects. These results demonstrate that dissolvable microneedle patches delivering CGRP antagonist peptide provide an effective, safe, and simple approach to mitigate neuropathic pain with significant advantages over current treatments.

  17. Soil, Seeds, and the Pumpkin Patch!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Marianne; Vowell, Julie

    2013-01-01

    "Soil, Seeds, and the Pumpkin Patch!" is an integrated unit designed to provide elementary school teachers with ideas for using hands-on activities, fostering inquiry and valuable discussion, and using technology as a learning tool. This unit integrates science with language arts, mathematics, literature, and technology. During this unit, students…

  18. Volatility of fragrance chemicals: patch testing implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilpin, Sarah J; Hui, Xiaoying; Maibach, Howard I

    2009-01-01

    Diagnostic and predictive patch testing to determine contact allergy due to fragrance materials requires applying a fixed dose of material to the skin. This dose can be affected by the volatile nature of fragrances; little data exist on how the loss of fragrance dose due to volatility affects patch testing. (1) To evaluate pH dependence and evaporation rates of two fragrance chemicals, geraniol, citronellol, and a common fragrance solvent, diethyl phthalate (DEP) and (2) Assess implications for predictive patch-testing methods for fragrances. pH analysis of each material at 1% for three values (4.0, 5.0, 7.0) was done over 40 hours. Volatility experiments for each material, nonradiolabeled and radiolabeled, were conducted over a 24-hour period, taking readings at six time points (5 minutes, 15 minutes, 40 minutes, 1 hour, 3 hours, and 24 hours). Evaporation rates were not sensitive to pH shifts from 4.0 to 7.0. Evaporation rates for nonradiolabeled materials were low: after 24 hours, geraniol lost 8.9%, citronellol 27.0% and DEP 14.5%. The volatility data for radiolabeled materials demonstrated that geraniol loses up to 39% of its dose, citronellol loses up to 26%, and DEP up to 14% within 40 minutes. The tendency of fragrance materials to evaporate can impact the dose being applied to the patch and therefore the result of the patch and ultimately the decision-making process regarding that fragrance material's safety. These data, developed with DEP, utilized in a predictive sensitization assay cannot be generalized.

  19. Light transmission and preference of eye patches for occlusion treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwan Heo

    Full Text Available To investigate light transmission and preference for six eye patches for occlusion therapy.Six patches were examined, including; Ortopad Fun Pack, Ortopad Flesh, Kawamoto A-1, Kawamoto A-2, 3M Opticlude, and Everade Eye Guard. The size and the presence of a light blocking pad of patches were investigated. The amount of light transmitted through the patches was evaluated, using a digital light meter and a model eye, in three different environments; indoors with fluorescent light, outdoors on a sunny day, and strong light from illuminator. After patching the normal eye, the flash visual evoked potential (VEP was measured. Thirty patients with amblyopia or horizontal strabismus, who received occlusion therapy as initial treatment, were included. After using all six patches, patients completed a 7-item questionnaire regarding the patch preference for size, color and shape, adhesive power, pain with removal, skin irritation after removing patch, parent's preference and overall opinion.All patches had a light-blocking pad, except the 3M Nexcare. Ortopad had the strongest light blocking power in the three environments, and the 3M Nexcare had the weakest power. In flash VEP, Ortopad and Kawamoto patches showed flat, but 3M Nexcare and Everade Eye Guard showed normal response. There were significant preferential differences among the patches in all the items of the questionnaire (P<0.05. In comparison between the patches respectively, 3M Nexcare received the lowest satisfaction in pain when removing a patch and skin irritation after removing a patch. Kawamoto A-2 received the lowest score in the overall satisfaction.We found differences in the light-blocking power and in the preference of the various patches for the occlusion treatment. This is a pilot study regarding only characteristics and preferences of patches. Further clinical studies regarding the relationship between characteristics or preferences of patches and outcomes of occlusion treatment

  20. Selective binding and transcytosis of Ulex europaeus 1 lectin by mouse Peyer's patch M-cells in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, M A; Jepson, M A; Simmons, N L; Hirst, B H

    1995-12-01

    The in vivo interaction of the lectin Ulex europaeus agglutinin 1 with mouse Peyer's patch follicle-associated epithelial cells was studied in the mouse Peyer's patch gut loop model by immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. The lectin targets to mouse Peyer's patch M-cells and is rapidly endocytosed and transcytosed. These processes are accompanied by morphological changes in the M-cell microvilli and by redistribution of polymerised actin. The demonstration of selective binding and uptake of a lectin by intestinal M-cells in vivo suggests that M-cell-specific surface glycoconjugates might act as receptors for the selective adhesion/uptake of microorganisms.

  1. Coding Partitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Burderi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the study of decipherability conditions for codes weaker than Unique Decipherability (UD, we introduce the notion of coding partition. Such a notion generalizes that of UD code and, for codes that are not UD, allows to recover the ``unique decipherability" at the level of the classes of the partition. By tacking into account the natural order between the partitions, we define the characteristic partition of a code X as the finest coding partition of X. This leads to introduce the canonical decomposition of a code in at most one unambiguouscomponent and other (if any totally ambiguouscomponents. In the case the code is finite, we give an algorithm for computing its canonical partition. This, in particular, allows to decide whether a given partition of a finite code X is a coding partition. This last problem is then approached in the case the code is a rational set. We prove its decidability under the hypothesis that the partition contains a finite number of classes and each class is a rational set. Moreover we conjecture that the canonical partition satisfies such a hypothesis. Finally we consider also some relationships between coding partitions and varieties of codes.

  2. Reporting Recommended Patch Density from Vehicle Panel Vibration Convergence Studies using both DAF and TBL Fits of the Spatial Correlation Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew M.; Davis, Robert Ben; LaVerde, Bruce T.; Jones, Douglas C.; Band, Jonathon L.

    2012-01-01

    Using the patch method to represent the continuous spatial correlation function of a phased pressure field over a structural surface is an approximation. The approximation approaches the continuous function as patches become smaller. Plotting comparisons of the approximation vs the continuous function may provide insight revealing: (1) For what patch size/density should the approximation be very good? (2) What the approximation looks like when it begins to break down? (3) What the approximation looks like when the patch size is grossly too large. Following these observations with a convergence study using one FEM may allow us to see the importance of patch density. We may develop insights that help us to predict sufficient patch density to provide adequate convergence for the intended purpose frequency range of interest

  3. Continued evaluation of pothole patching equipment, materials, and processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-14

    After the deaths of two Caltrans workers who were patching potholes in 2006-2007, Caltrans tasked the Advanced Highway Maintenance and Construction Technology (AHMCT) Research Center with developing a safer and more efficient means of patching pothol...

  4. Transparent Patch Antenna on a-Si Thin Film Glass Solar Module

    OpenAIRE

    Roo Ons, Maria; Shynu, S.; Ammann, Max; McCormack, Sarah; Norton, Brian

    2011-01-01

    An optically transparent microstrip patch mounted on the surface of a commercially available solar module is proposed. The patch comprises a thin sheet of clear polyester with a conductive coating. The amorphous silicon solar cells in the module are used as both photovoltaic generator and antenna ground plane. The proposed structure provides a peak gain of 3.96 dBi in the 3.4-3.8 GHz range without significantly compromising the light transmission in the module. A comparison between copper and...

  5. Corridor Length and Patch Colonization by a Butterfly Junonia coenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nick Haddad

    2000-06-01

    Habitat corridors have been proposed to reduce patch isolation and increase population persistence in fragmented landscapes. This study tested whether patch colonization was increased by the presence and various length corridors. The specific butterfly species tested has been shown to use corridors, however, the results indicate that neither the distance between patches or the presence of a corridor influenced colonization.

  6. Using an index of habitat patch proximity for landscape design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric J. Gustafson; George R. Parker

    1994-01-01

    A proximity index (PX) inspired by island biogeography theory is described which quantifies the spatial context of a habitat patch in relation to its neighbors. The index distinguishes sparse distributions of small habitat patches from clusters of large patches. An evaluation of the relationship between PX and variation in the spatial characteristics of clusters of...

  7. Super wideband characteristics of monopolar patch antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Chen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A simple method of acquiring super wideband characteristics for monopolar patch antenna is proposed. Through adopting a modified cone as feeding and radiating structure, the monopolar patch antenna can reach the impedance bandwidth of more than 1:23.4 for voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR ≤ 2. In the whole operating band, the antenna has the like-monopole omnidirectional radiation patterns and the peak gains of 3.8–8.7 dB. Meanwhile, the height of the antenna is just 0.074λ(c, and the diameter of the radiated body is 0.205λ(c, which is smaller than other ultra-wideband omnidirectional antenna.

  8. Bilaterally Weighted Patches for Disparity Map Computation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Fernández Julià

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Visual correspondence is the key for 3D reconstruction in binocular stereovision. Local methods perform block-matching to compute the disparity, or apparent motion, of pixels between images. The simplest approach computes the distance of patches, usually square windows, and assumes that all pixels in the patch have the same disparity. A prominent artifact of the method is the "foreground fattening effet" near depth discontinuities. In order to find a more appropriate support, Yoon and Kweon introduced the use of weights based on color similarity and spatial distance, analogous to those used in the bilateral filter. This paper presents the theory of this method and the implementation we have developed. Moreover, some variants are discussed and improvements are used in the final implementation. Several examples and tests are presented and the parameters and performance of the method are analyzed.

  9. Metamaterial Embedded Wearable Rectangular Microstrip Patch Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. Joshi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an indigenous low-cost metamaterial embedded wearable rectangular microstrip patch antenna using polyester substrate for IEEE 802.11a WLAN applications. The proposed antenna resonates at 5.10 GHz with a bandwidth and gain of 97 MHz and 4.92 dBi, respectively. The electrical size of this antenna is 0.254λ×0.5λ. The slots are cut in rectangular patch to reduce the bending effect. This leads to mismatch the impedance at WLAN frequency band; hence, a metamaterial square SRR is embedded inside the slot. A prototype antenna has been fabricated and tested, and the measured results are presented in this paper. The simulated and measured results of the proposed antenna are found to be in good agreement. The bending effect on the performance of this antenna is experimentally verified.

  10. Use of environmental isotopes in studying surface and groundwaters in the Upper Orontes basin: A case study of modeling elements and pollutants transport using the code PHREEQM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kattan, Z.

    2001-06-01

    This report evaluate the chemical and isotopic characteristics of surface and groundwater in the upper Orontes basin, together with a study of the precipitation behavior of Bloudan, Homs and Tartous stations. It presents also the so far obtained results throughout the application of the geochemical code PHREEQM in studying the elements and pollutant as transport in the groundwater of this basin. The results show that the rainfall chemistry was a moderate dissolved content, and, and accompanied with how ph values and high sulfate contents, as a result of domestic and industrial pollution. the altitude effect is shown up by a depletion of heavy stable isotopes of about -0.18 % and -1.39% per 100 m elevation of δ 18 O and δ D, respectively. surface water in the Orontes River, up to Qattineh Lake, was characterized by a low solute content, high ph values (higher than 8), high dissolved oxygen content, depleted concentration in heavy stable isotopes and natural mineralization in 15 N and organic pollutants (N and P). Un the opposite, the water of this river was more saline and more enriched in organic pollutants such as nitrogen and phosphorous, after its getting out of the Qattineh Lake. The river water was also characterized by low ph values and low concentration in dissolved oxygen, as a consequence of organic matter oxidation. The depleted concentration of heavy stable isotopes in the Cenomanian Turonian aquifer system reveals that the altitude of recharge zone is rather higher than 1000 m, which corresponds to an exposure of these rocks in Lebanon, the altitude of recharge zones for the continental and volcanic pliocene aquifers is not lower than 500 m. The mean turnover time (residence time) of groundwater in the Cenomanian-Turonian aquifer was evaluated to be about 40-50 years. On the basis of this evaluation, a value of about 0.8 billion cubic m was obtained for the maximum groundwater reservoir size. The results of geochemical modeling of elements and

  11. Sound insulation performance of plates with interconnected distributed piezoelectric patches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Kaijun

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the sound insulation performance of a thin plate with interconnected distributed piezoelectric patches. Piezoelectric patches are periodically bonded on the surfaces of the plate in a collocated fashion, and are interconnected via an inductive circuit network. This piezoelectric system is termed as piezo-electromechanical (PEM plate in the paper. Homogenization methods are involved under a sub-wavelength assumption to analytically develop the dynamical equations for the PEM plate. The dispersion relationships and energy densities of the wave modes propagating in the PEM plate are studied; the sub-wavelength assumption is verified for the simulations in this paper. The coincidence frequency of the PEM plate is researched, and results show that the coincidence frequency of the PEM plate will disappear at certain circumstances; mathematical and physical explanations are made for this phenomenon. The disappearance of the coincidence frequency is used to optimize the value of inductance, for the purpose of improving the sound transmission loss of the PEM plate.

  12. Measurement of stress distributions in truck tyre contact patch in real rolling conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghelache, Gabriel; Moisescu, Raluca

    2012-12-01

    Stress distributions on three orthogonal directions have been measured across the contact patch of truck tyres using the complex measuring system that contains a transducer assembly with 30 sensing elements placed in the road surface. The measurements have been performed in straight line, in real rolling conditions. Software applications for calibration, data acquisition, and data processing were developed. The influence of changes in inflation pressure and rolling speed on the shapes and sizes of truck tyre contact patch has been shown. The shapes and magnitudes of normal, longitudinal, and lateral stress distributions, measured at low speed, have been presented and commented. The effect of wheel toe-in and camber on the stress distribution results was observed. The paper highlights the impact of the longitudinal tread ribs on the shear stress distributions. The ratios of stress distributions in the truck tyre contact patch have been computed and discussed.

  13. A new method in the management of skin neoplasm using a flexible radioactive patch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Doo; Park, Sang Gun; Lee, Min Geol [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Gwi Eon; Chung, Yae Lee [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eun Hee [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Kyung Bae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    We have developed a flexible radioactive polyurethane patch incorporating {beta}-emitting radionuclide (166Ho) to treat malignant skin lesions. We covered the tumor surface (n=133) with the radioactive patch for 33.58 {+-} 5.33 minutes. Radiation dose delivered was 35 Gy for Bowen's disease (n=78), Kaposi sarcoma (n=25), actinic keratosis (n=5), and 50 Gy for BCC (n=17) and squamous carcinoma (n=8). Complete response was observed in 91.7% after the first therapeutic trial, 96.2% after 2nd and 97.7% after 4th trial with excellent cosmetic outcome for 31.15{+-}13.88 months of follow-up. Radioactive patch therapy is effective for superficial skin cancers that are impractical for surgery.

  14. A new method in the management of skin neoplasm using a flexible radioactive patch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Doo; Park, Sang Gun; Lee, Min Geol; Kim, Gwi Eon; Chung, Yae Lee; Kim, Eun Hee; Park, Kyung Bae

    2005-01-01

    We have developed a flexible radioactive polyurethane patch incorporating β-emitting radionuclide (166Ho) to treat malignant skin lesions. We covered the tumor surface (n=133) with the radioactive patch for 33.58 ± 5.33 minutes. Radiation dose delivered was 35 Gy for Bowen's disease (n=78), Kaposi sarcoma (n=25), actinic keratosis (n=5), and 50 Gy for BCC (n=17) and squamous carcinoma (n=8). Complete response was observed in 91.7% after the first therapeutic trial, 96.2% after 2nd and 97.7% after 4th trial with excellent cosmetic outcome for 31.15±13.88 months of follow-up. Radioactive patch therapy is effective for superficial skin cancers that are impractical for surgery

  15. Microstrip Patch Sensor for Salinity Determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kibae; Hassan, Arshad; Lee, Chong Hyun; Bae, Jinho

    2017-12-18

    In this paper, a compact microstrip feed inset patch sensor is proposed for measuring the salinities in seawater. The working principle of the proposed sensor depends on the fact that different salinities in liquid have different relative permittivities and cause different resonance frequencies. The proposed sensor can obtain better sensitivity to salinity changes than common sensors using conductivity change, since the relative permittivity change to salinity is 2.5 times more sensitive than the conductivity change. The patch and ground plane of the proposed sensor are fabricated by conductive copper spray coating on the masks made by 3D printer. The fabricated patch and the ground plane are bonded to a commercial silicon substrate and then attached to 5 mm-high chamber made by 3D printer so that it contains only 1 mL seawater. For easy fabrication and testing, the maximum resonance frequency was selected under 3 GHz and to cover salinities in real seawater, it was assumed that the salinity changes from 20 to 35 ppt. The sensor was designed by the finite element method-based ANSYS high-frequency structure simulator (HFSS), and it can detect the salinity with 0.01 ppt resolution. The designed sensor has a resonance frequency separation of 37.9 kHz and reflection coefficients under -20 dB at the resonant frequencies. The fabricated sensor showed better performance with average frequency separation of 48 kHz and maximum reflection coefficient of -35 dB. By comparing with the existing sensors, the proposed compact and low-cost sensor showed a better detection capability. Therefore, the proposed patch sensor can be utilized in radio frequency (RF) tunable sensors for salinity determination.

  16. Microstrip Patch Sensor for Salinity Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kibae Lee

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a compact microstrip feed inset patch sensor is proposed for measuring the salinities in seawater. The working principle of the proposed sensor depends on the fact that different salinities in liquid have different relative permittivities and cause different resonance frequencies. The proposed sensor can obtain better sensitivity to salinity changes than common sensors using conductivity change, since the relative permittivity change to salinity is 2.5 times more sensitive than the conductivity change. The patch and ground plane of the proposed sensor are fabricated by conductive copper spray coating on the masks made by 3D printer. The fabricated patch and the ground plane are bonded to a commercial silicon substrate and then attached to 5 mm-high chamber made by 3D printer so that it contains only 1 mL seawater. For easy fabrication and testing, the maximum resonance frequency was selected under 3 GHz and to cover salinities in real seawater, it was assumed that the salinity changes from 20 to 35 ppt. The sensor was designed by the finite element method-based ANSYS high-frequency structure simulator (HFSS, and it can detect the salinity with 0.01 ppt resolution. The designed sensor has a resonance frequency separation of 37.9 kHz and reflection coefficients under −20 dB at the resonant frequencies. The fabricated sensor showed better performance with average frequency separation of 48 kHz and maximum reflection coefficient of −35 dB. By comparing with the existing sensors, the proposed compact and low-cost sensor showed a better detection capability. Therefore, the proposed patch sensor can be utilized in radio frequency (RF tunable sensors for salinity determination.

  17. Efficiency of small scale carbon mitigation by patch iron fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento, J. L.; Slater, R. D.; Dunne, J.; Gnanadesikan, A.; Hiscock, M. R.

    2010-11-01

    While nutrient depletion scenarios have long shown that the high-latitude High Nutrient Low Chlorophyll (HNLC) regions are the most effective for sequestering atmospheric carbon dioxide, recent simulations with prognostic biogeochemical models have suggested that only a fraction of the potential drawdown can be realized. We use a global ocean biogeochemical general circulation model developed at GFDL and Princeton to examine this and related issues. We fertilize two patches in the North and Equatorial Pacific, and two additional patches in the Southern Ocean HNLC region north of the biogeochemical divide and in the Ross Sea south of the biogeochemical divide. We evaluate the simulations using observations from both artificial and natural iron fertilization experiments at nearby locations. We obtain by far the greatest response to iron fertilization at the Ross Sea site, where sea ice prevents escape of sequestered CO2 during the wintertime, and the CO2 removed from the surface ocean by the biological pump is carried into the deep ocean by the circulation. As a consequence, CO2 remains sequestered on century time-scales and the efficiency of fertilization remains almost constant no matter how frequently iron is applied as long as it is confined to the growing season. The second most efficient site is in the Southern Ocean. The North Pacific site has lower initial nutrients and thus a lower efficiency. Fertilization of the Equatorial Pacific leads to an expansion of the suboxic zone and a striking increase in denitrification that causes a sharp reduction in overall surface biological export production and CO2 uptake. The impacts on the oxygen distribution and surface biological export are less prominent at other sites, but nevertheless still a source of concern. The century time scale retention of iron in this model greatly increases the long-term biological response to iron addition as compared with simulations in which the added iron is rapidly scavenged from the

  18. Reinforcement of a plate weakened by multiple holes with several patches for different types of plate-patch attachment

    KAUST Repository

    Zemlyanova, A.

    2014-01-01

    the boundary of the patch or both along the boundary of the patch and the boundaries of the holes which this patch covers. The unattached boundaries of the holes may be loaded with given in-plane stresses. The mechanical problem is reduced to a system

  19. Miniaturization of Multiple-Layer Folded Patch Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jiaying; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2009-01-01

    A new folded patch antenna with multiple layers was developed in this paper, by folding the patch in a proper way, and a highly miniaturized antenna can be realized. The multiple layer patch with 4-layer and 6-layer are designed and evaluated at 2.4 GHz, 915 MHz, and 415 MHz respectively. Then a 4...... layer patch is fabricated and measured to validate the design method. The theoretical analysis, design and simulations, fabrications, as well as the measurements are presented in this paper. All the results show that the folded patch antenna is a good candidate in making a highly miniaturized compact...

  20. Sub-Patch Roughness in Earthquake Rupture Investigations

    KAUST Repository

    Zielke, Olaf; Mai, Paul Martin

    2016-01-01

    Fault geometric complexities exhibit fractal characteristics over a wide range of spatial scales (<µm to >km) and strongly affect the rupture process at corresponding scales. Numerical rupture simulations provide a framework to quantitatively investigate the relationship between a fault's roughness and its seismic characteristics. Fault discretization however introduces an artificial lower limit to roughness. Individual fault patches are planar and sub-patch roughness –roughness at spatial scales below fault-patch size– is not incorporated. Does negligence of sub-patch roughness measurably affect the outcome of earthquake rupture simulations? We approach this question with a numerical parameter space investigation and demonstrate that sub-patch roughness significantly modifies the slip-strain relationship –a fundamental aspect of dislocation theory. Faults with sub-patch roughness induce less strain than their planar-fault equivalents at distances beyond the length of a slipping fault. We further provide regression functions that characterize the stochastic effect sub-patch roughness.

  1. Discrete Sparse Coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exarchakis, Georgios; Lücke, Jörg

    2017-11-01

    Sparse coding algorithms with continuous latent variables have been the subject of a large number of studies. However, discrete latent spaces for sparse coding have been largely ignored. In this work, we study sparse coding with latents described by discrete instead of continuous prior distributions. We consider the general case in which the latents (while being sparse) can take on any value of a finite set of possible values and in which we learn the prior probability of any value from data. This approach can be applied to any data generated by discrete causes, and it can be applied as an approximation of continuous causes. As the prior probabilities are learned, the approach then allows for estimating the prior shape without assuming specific functional forms. To efficiently train the parameters of our probabilistic generative model, we apply a truncated expectation-maximization approach (expectation truncation) that we modify to work with a general discrete prior. We evaluate the performance of the algorithm by applying it to a variety of tasks: (1) we use artificial data to verify that the algorithm can recover the generating parameters from a random initialization, (2) use image patches of natural images and discuss the role of the prior for the extraction of image components, (3) use extracellular recordings of neurons to present a novel method of analysis for spiking neurons that includes an intuitive discretization strategy, and (4) apply the algorithm on the task of encoding audio waveforms of human speech. The diverse set of numerical experiments presented in this letter suggests that discrete sparse coding algorithms can scale efficiently to work with realistic data sets and provide novel statistical quantities to describe the structure of the data.

  2. Reinforcement of a plate weakened by multiple holes with several patches for different types of plate-patch attachment

    KAUST Repository

    Zemlyanova, A.

    2014-01-24

    The most general situation of the reinforcement of a plate with multiple holes by several patches is considered. There is no restriction on the number and the location of the patches. Two types of patch attachment are considered: only along the boundary of the patch or both along the boundary of the patch and the boundaries of the holes which this patch covers. The unattached boundaries of the holes may be loaded with given in-plane stresses. The mechanical problem is reduced to a system of singular integral equations which can be further reduced to a system of Fredholm equations. A new numerical procedure for the solution of the system of singular integral equations is proposed in this paper. It is demonstrated on numerical examples that this procedure has advantages in the case of multiple patches and holes and allows achievement of better numerical convergence with less computational effort.

  3. Fine-Tuning on the Effective Patch Radius Expression of the Circular Microstrip Patch Antennas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Yilmaz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effective patch radius expression for the circular microstrip antennas is improved by means of several manipulations. Departing from previously proposed equations in the literature, one of the most accurate equations is picked up, and this equation is fine-tuned by means of Particle Swarm Optimization technique. Throughout the study, impacts of other parameters (such as the definition of the fitness/objective function, the degree-of-freedom in the proposed effective patch radius expression, the number of measured resonant frequency values are observed in a controlled manner. Finally, about 3% additional improvement is achieved over a very accurate formula, which was proposed earlier.

  4. Speaking Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, Geoff

    Speaking Code begins by invoking the “Hello World” convention used by programmers when learning a new language, helping to establish the interplay of text and code that runs through the book. Interweaving the voice of critical writing from the humanities with the tradition of computing and software...

  5. Learning Dictionaries of Discriminative Image Patches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Anders Lindbjerg; Larsen, Rasmus

    2011-01-01

    using dictionaries of image patches with associated label data. The approach is based on ideas from sparse generative image models and texton based texture modeling. The intensity and label dictionaries are learned from training images with associated label information of (a subset) of the pixels based...... on a modified vector quantization approach. For new images the intensity dictionary is used to encode the image data and the label dictionary is used to build a segmentation of the image. We demonstrate the algorithm on composite and real texture images and show how successful training is possible even...

  6. Biological cell controllable patch-clamp microchip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penmetsa, Siva; Nagrajan, Krithika; Gong, Zhongcheng; Mills, David; Que, Long

    2010-12-01

    A patch-clamp (PC) microchip with cell sorting and positioning functions is reported, which can avoid drawbacks of random cell selection or positioning for a PC microchip. The cell sorting and positioning are enabled by air bubble (AB) actuators. AB actuators are pneumatic actuators, in which air pressure is generated by microheaters within sealed microchambers. The sorting, positioning, and capturing of 3T3 cells by this type of microchip have been demonstrated. Using human breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231 as the model, experiments have been demonstrated by this microchip as a label-free technical platform for real-time monitoring of the cell viability.

  7. A decision algorithm for patch spraying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Svend; Heisel, Torben; Walter, Mette

    2003-01-01

    method that estimates an economic optimal herbicide dose according to site-specific weed composition and density is presented in this paper. The method was termed a ‘decision algorithm for patch spraying’ (DAPS) and was evaluated in a 5-year experiment, in Denmark. DAPS consists of a competition model......, a herbicide dose–response model and an algorithm that estimates the economically optimal doses. The experiment was designed to compare herbicide treatments with DAPS recommendations and the Danish decision support system PC-Plant Protection. The results did not show any significant grain yield difference...

  8. Patch testing with Indian standard series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra G

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Hundred patients (61 males, 39 females suspected to have allergic contact dermatitis were patch tested with Indian standard series (ISS. Forty four showed one or more positive reactions. The frequent sensitizers observed were nickel sulphate-12 (15%, potassium dichromate-11 (13.75%, cobalt chloride and colophony-7 (8.75% each, fragrance mix and thiuram mix-6 (7.5% each. The ISS differs from the European Standard Series by inclusion of propylene glycol, nitrofurazone, gentamicin, chlorocresol, PEG-400 and ethylenediamine chloride where assesquiterpene lactone mix and primin allergens are excluded.

  9. Lidocaine patches reduce pain in trauma patients with rib fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, Karen A; Mayberry, John C; Peck, Ellen G; Schreiber, Martin A

    2011-04-01

    Rib fracture pain is notoriously difficult to manage. The lidocaine patch is effective in other pain scenarios with an excellent safety profile. This study assesses the efficacy of lidocaine patches for treating rib fracture pain. A prospectively gathered cohort of patients with rib fracture was retrospectively analyzed for use of lidocaine patches. Patients treated with lidocaine patches were matched to control subjects treated without patches. Subjective pain reports and narcotic use before and after patch placement, or equivalent time points for control subjects, were gathered from the chart. All patients underwent long-term follow-up, including a McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ). Twenty-nine patients with lidocaine patches (LP) and 29 matched control subjects (C) were analyzed. During the 24 hours before patch placement, pain scores and narcotic use were similar (LP 5.3, C 4.6, P = 0.19 and LP 51, C 32 mg morphine, P = 0.17). In the 24 hours after patch placement, LP patients had a greater decrease in pain scores (LP 1.2, C 0.0, P = 0.01) with no change in narcotic use (LP -8.4, C 0.5-mg change in morphine, P = 0.25). At 60 days, LP patients had a lower MPQ pain score (LP 7.7, C 12.2, P rib fracture pain. Lidocaine patches resulted in a sustained reduction in pain, outlasting the duration of therapy.

  10. Comparison of estrus synchronization by controlled internal drug release device (CIDR) and adhesive transdermal progestin patch in postpartum beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajaysri, Jatuporn; Chumchoung, Chaiwat; Wutthiwitthayaphong, Supphathat; Suthikrai, Wanvipa; Sangkamanee, Praphai

    2017-09-15

    Estrous synchronization with progesterone based protocols has been essentially used in cattle industry. Although intravaginal devices have been commonly used, this technique may induce vaginitis. This study aimed at examining the efficiency of novel transdermal progestin patch on follicle development and comparing the progestin patch versus CIDR device on estrous synchronization, complication at treated site and pregnancy in beef cattle. In experiment 1, seven beef cows were treated with an adhesive transdermal progestin patch on the ventral surface of the proximal part of the tail for 7 days. The cows were daily examined the follicular development using ultrasonography starting on Day 0 till 3 days after hormone removal. Experiment 2, forty beef cows were divided into two equal groups (20 cows per group). The cows randomly allocated to received either vaginal insertion of CIDR (n = 20) or treated with an adhesive transdermal progestin patch (n = 20). The levels of plasma progesterone during the experiment and the numbers of standing estrous cows were recorded. Timed artificial inseminated (TAI) was performed at 60 h after CIDR or patch termination. Pregnancy rates were determined at 60 days after TAI. Experiment 1 revealed that the novel transdermal progestin patch could efficiently control follicular growth. All the seven treated cows had dominant follicle upon dermal patch removal indicating the effectiveness of the progestin patch. In experiment 2, the percentages of cows exhibited standing estrus were similar between transdermal patch (72.22%) and CIDR (70.00%). The levels of plasma progesterone during CIDR treatment were significantly higher (4.06 ± 1.65 ng/mL on Day 1 and 3.62 ± 1.60 ng/mL on Day 7) compared with transdermal patch (2.60 ± 1.43 ng/mL on Day 1 and 1.81 ± 1.57 ng/mL on Day 7). Three cows treated with CIDR (15%) developed vaginitis while none of cows had physically dermal reaction at adhesive site. Cows synchronized with

  11. Comparison of safety assessment codes for near-surface disposal of LILW with the compartment model: SAGE and VR-KHNP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H. J.; Park, J. W.; Park, J. B.; Kim, C. L.

    2004-01-01

    Safety Assessment Groundwater Evaluation and Virtual Repository for KHNP codes for performance assessment of the LILW disposal repository were developed by joint collaboration between KHNP and foreign consulting organizations. In both code, the disposal facility consists of a series of compartments that represent the waste form, the engineered barrier system, the unsaturated and saturated zone

  12. Patch size has no effect on insect visitation rate per unit area in garden-scale flower patches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbuzov, Mihail; Madsen, Andy; Ratnieks, Francis L. W.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies investigating the effect of flower patch size on insect flower visitation rate have compared relatively large patches (10-1000s m2) and have generally found a negative relationship per unit area or per flower. Here, we investigate the effects of patch size on insect visitation in patches of smaller area (range c. 0.1-3.1 m2), which are of particular relevance to ornamental flower beds in parks and gardens. We studied two common garden plant species in full bloom with 6 patch sizes each: borage (Borago officinalis) and lavender (Lavandula × intermedia 'Grosso'). We quantified flower visitation by insects by making repeated counts of the insects foraging at each patch. On borage, all insects were honey bees (Apis mellifera, n = 5506 counts). On lavender, insects (n = 737 counts) were bumble bees (Bombus spp., 76.9%), flies (Diptera, 22.4%), and butterflies (Lepidoptera, 0.7%). On both plant species we found positive linear effects of patch size on insect numbers. However, there was no effect of patch size on the number of insects per unit area or per flower and, on lavender, for all insects combined or only bumble bees. The results show that it is possible to make unbiased comparisons of the attractiveness of plant species or varieties to flower-visiting insects using patches of different size within the small scale range studied and make possible projects aimed at comparing ornamental plant varieties using existing garden flower patches of variable area.

  13. Patching DFT, T-duality and gerbes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howe, P.S.; Papadopoulos, G. [Department of Mathematics, King’s College London,Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom)

    2017-04-12

    We clarify the role of the dual coordinates as described from the perspectives of the Buscher T-duality rules and Double Field Theory. We show that the T-duality angular dual coordinates cannot be identified with Double Field Theory dual coordinates in any of the proposals that have been made in the literature for patching the doubled spaces. In particular, we show with explicit examples that the T-duality angular dual coordinates can have non-trivial transition functions over a spacetime and that their identification with the Double Field Theory dual coordinates is in conflict with proposals in which the latter remain inert under the patching of the B-field. We then demonstrate that the Double Field Theory coordinates can be identified with some C-space coordinates and that the T-dual spaces of a spacetime are subspaces of the gerbe in C-space. The construction provides a description of both the local O(d,d) symmetry and the T-dual spaces of spacetime.

  14. Patching DFT, T-duality and gerbes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, P.S.; Papadopoulos, G.

    2017-01-01

    We clarify the role of the dual coordinates as described from the perspectives of the Buscher T-duality rules and Double Field Theory. We show that the T-duality angular dual coordinates cannot be identified with Double Field Theory dual coordinates in any of the proposals that have been made in the literature for patching the doubled spaces. In particular, we show with explicit examples that the T-duality angular dual coordinates can have non-trivial transition functions over a spacetime and that their identification with the Double Field Theory dual coordinates is in conflict with proposals in which the latter remain inert under the patching of the B-field. We then demonstrate that the Double Field Theory coordinates can be identified with some C-space coordinates and that the T-dual spaces of a spacetime are subspaces of the gerbe in C-space. The construction provides a description of both the local O(d,d) symmetry and the T-dual spaces of spacetime.

  15. Influence of habitat quality, population size, patch size, and connectivity on patch-occupancy dynamics of the middle spotted woodpecker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Hugo; Ciudad, Carlos

    2012-04-01

    Despite extensive research on the effects of habitat fragmentation, the ecological mechanisms underlying colonization and extinction processes are poorly known, but knowledge of these mechanisms is essential to understanding the distribution and persistence of populations in fragmented habitats. We examined these mechanisms through multiseason occupancy models that elucidated patch-occupancy dynamics of Middle Spotted Woodpeckers (Dendrocopos medius) in northwestern Spain. The number of occupied patches was relatively stable from 2000 to 2010 (15-24% of 101 patches occupied every year) because extinction was balanced by recolonization. Larger and higher quality patches (i.e., higher density of oaks >37 cm dbh [diameter at breast height]) were more likely to be occupied. Habitat quality (i.e., density of large oaks) explained more variation in patch colonization and extinction than did patch size and connectivity, which were both weakly associated with probabilities of turnover. Patches of higher quality were more likely to be colonized than patches of lower quality. Populations in high-quality patches were less likely to become extinct. In addition, extinction in a patch was strongly associated with local population size but not with patch size, which means the latter may not be a good surrogate of population size in assessments of extinction probability. Our results suggest that habitat quality may be a primary driver of patch-occupancy dynamics and may increase the accuracy of models of population survival. We encourage comparisons of competing models that assess occupancy, colonization, and extinction probabilities in a single analytical framework (e.g., dynamic occupancy models) so as to shed light on the association of habitat quality and patch geometry with colonization and extinction processes in different settings and species. ©2012 Society for Conservation Biology.

  16. FuncPatch: a web server for the fast Bayesian inference of conserved functional patches in protein 3D structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi-Fei; Golding, G Brian

    2015-02-15

    A number of statistical phylogenetic methods have been developed to infer conserved functional sites or regions in proteins. Many methods, e.g. Rate4Site, apply the standard phylogenetic models to infer site-specific substitution rates and totally ignore the spatial correlation of substitution rates in protein tertiary structures, which may reduce their power to identify conserved functional patches in protein tertiary structures when the sequences used in the analysis are highly similar. The 3D sliding window method has been proposed to infer conserved functional patches in protein tertiary structures, but the window size, which reflects the strength of the spatial correlation, must be predefined and is not inferred from data. We recently developed GP4Rate to solve these problems under the Bayesian framework. Unfortunately, GP4Rate is computationally slow. Here, we present an intuitive web server, FuncPatch, to perform a fast approximate Bayesian inference of conserved functional patches in protein tertiary structures. Both simulations and four case studies based on empirical data suggest that FuncPatch is a good approximation to GP4Rate. However, FuncPatch is orders of magnitudes faster than GP4Rate. In addition, simulations suggest that FuncPatch is potentially a useful tool complementary to Rate4Site, but the 3D sliding window method is less powerful than FuncPatch and Rate4Site. The functional patches predicted by FuncPatch in the four case studies are supported by experimental evidence, which corroborates the usefulness of FuncPatch. The software FuncPatch is freely available at the web site, http://info.mcmaster.ca/yifei/FuncPatch golding@mcmaster.ca Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Improving Saliency Models by Predicting Human Fixation Patches

    KAUST Repository

    Dubey, Rachit

    2015-04-16

    There is growing interest in studying the Human Visual System (HVS) to supplement and improve the performance of computer vision tasks. A major challenge for current visual saliency models is predicting saliency in cluttered scenes (i.e. high false positive rate). In this paper, we propose a fixation patch detector that predicts image patches that contain human fixations with high probability. Our proposed model detects sparse fixation patches with an accuracy of 84 % and eliminates non-fixation patches with an accuracy of 84 % demonstrating that low-level image features can indeed be used to short-list and identify human fixation patches. We then show how these detected fixation patches can be used as saliency priors for popular saliency models, thus, reducing false positives while maintaining true positives. Extensive experimental results show that our proposed approach allows state-of-the-art saliency methods to achieve better prediction performance on benchmark datasets.

  18. Improving Saliency Models by Predicting Human Fixation Patches

    KAUST Repository

    Dubey, Rachit; Dave, Akshat; Ghanem, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    There is growing interest in studying the Human Visual System (HVS) to supplement and improve the performance of computer vision tasks. A major challenge for current visual saliency models is predicting saliency in cluttered scenes (i.e. high false positive rate). In this paper, we propose a fixation patch detector that predicts image patches that contain human fixations with high probability. Our proposed model detects sparse fixation patches with an accuracy of 84 % and eliminates non-fixation patches with an accuracy of 84 % demonstrating that low-level image features can indeed be used to short-list and identify human fixation patches. We then show how these detected fixation patches can be used as saliency priors for popular saliency models, thus, reducing false positives while maintaining true positives. Extensive experimental results show that our proposed approach allows state-of-the-art saliency methods to achieve better prediction performance on benchmark datasets.

  19. The hedgehog receptor patched is involved in cholesterol transport.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Bidet

    Full Text Available Sonic hedgehog (Shh signaling plays a crucial role in growth and patterning during embryonic development, and also in stem cell maintenance and tissue regeneration in adults. Aberrant Shh pathway activation is involved in the development of many tumors, and one of the most affected Shh signaling steps found in these tumors is the regulation of the signaling receptor Smoothened by the Shh receptor Patched. In the present work, we investigated Patched activity and the mechanism by which Patched inhibits Smoothened.Using the well-known Shh-responding cell line of mouse fibroblasts NIH 3T3, we first observed that enhancement of the intracellular cholesterol concentration induces Smoothened enrichment in the plasma membrane, which is a crucial step for the signaling activation. We found that binding of Shh protein to its receptor Patched, which involves Patched internalization, increases the intracellular concentration of cholesterol and decreases the efflux of a fluorescent cholesterol derivative (BODIPY-cholesterol from these cells. Treatment of fibroblasts with cyclopamine, an antagonist of Shh signaling, inhibits Patched expression and reduces BODIPY-cholesterol efflux, while treatment with the Shh pathway agonist SAG enhances Patched protein expression and BODIPY-cholesterol efflux. We also show that over-expression of human Patched in the yeast S. cerevisiae results in a significant boost of BODIPY-cholesterol efflux. Furthermore, we demonstrate that purified Patched binds to cholesterol, and that the interaction of Shh with Patched inhibits the binding of Patched to cholesterol.Our results suggest that Patched may contribute to cholesterol efflux from cells, and to modulation of the intracellular cholesterol concentration. This activity is likely responsible for the inhibition of the enrichment of Smoothened in the plasma membrane, which is an important step in Shh pathway activation.

  20. Coding Labour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony McCosker

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available As well as introducing the Coding Labour section, the authors explore the diffusion of code across the material contexts of everyday life, through the objects and tools of mediation, the systems and practices of cultural production and organisational management, and in the material conditions of labour. Taking code beyond computation and software, their specific focus is on the increasingly familiar connections between code and labour with a focus on the codification and modulation of affect through technologies and practices of management within the contemporary work organisation. In the grey literature of spreadsheets, minutes, workload models, email and the like they identify a violence of forms through which workplace affect, in its constant flux of crisis and ‘prodromal’ modes, is regulated and governed.

  1. Circularly Polarized Slotted Microstrip Patch Antenna with Finite Ground Plane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanyog Rawat

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a new geometry of circularly polarized patch antenna is proposed with improved bandwidth. The radiation performance of proposed patch antenna is investigated using IE3D simulation software and its performance is compared with that of conventional rectangular patch antenna. The simulated return loss, axial ratio and impedance with frequency for the proposed antenna are reported in this paper. It is shown that by selecting suitable ground-plane dimensions, air gap and location of the slots, the impedance bandwidth can be enhanced upto 10.15% as compared to conventional rectangular patch (4.24% with an axial ratio bandwidth of 4.05%.

  2. Composite GPS Patch Antenna for the AR Bandwidth Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minkil Park

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A composite Global Positioning System (GPS patch antenna with a quadrature 3 dB hybrid coupler was designed and implemented for working RHCP and had a broadband axial ratio (AR bandwidth. We designed two patches as a FR-4 patch and 1.5 mm thickness thin ceramic patch with a quadrature 3 dB hybrid coupler. A CP radiation pattern was achieved, and the AR bandwidth improved by incorporating a quadrature 3 dB hybrid coupler feed structure in a micro-strip patch antenna. SMD by chip elements was applied to the quadrature 3 dB hybrid coupler. For the composite FR-4 and ceramic patch antennas, the VSWR measurement showed a 2 : 1 ratio over the entire design band, and the 3 dB AR bandwidth was 295 and 580 MHz for the FR-4 patch and ceramic patch antennas, respectively. The antenna gains for the composite FR-4 and ceramic patch antennas were measured as 1.36–2.75 and 1.47–2.71 dBi with 15.11–25.3% and 19.25–28.45% efficiency, respectively.

  3. Patch Type Granuloma Annulare Imitating Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şeval Doğruk Kaçar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Granuloma annulare (GA is a benign inflammatory skin disease with distinct clinical and histopathological findings. Patch type GA is described with erythematous patches beyond the classical clinical appearance and an interstitial pattern is observed without histopathologically granulomas with disseminated histiocytes among collagen bundles and vessels. Here we report 46 year old woman diagnosed as patch type GA after a punch biopsy performed from the annular bordered patches in belly area, which is a classical area for mycosis fungoides (MF evolution, and lesions increasingly spreading out within a 2 year period.

  4. Laparoscopic repair of perforated peptic ulcer: patch versus simple closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd Ellatif, M E; Salama, A F; Elezaby, A F; El-Kaffas, H F; Hassan, A; Magdy, A; Abdallah, E; El-Morsy, G

    2013-01-01

    Laparoscopic correction of perforated peptic ulcer (PPU) has become an accepted way of management. Patch omentoplasty stayed for decades the main method of repair. The goal of the present study was to evaluate whether laparoscopic simple repair of PPU is as safe as patch omentoplasty. Since June 2005, 179 consecutive patients of PPU were treated by laparoscopic repair at our centers. We conducted a retrospective chart review in December 2012. Group I (patch group) included patients who were treated with standard patch omentoplasty. Group II (non-patch group) included patients who received simple repair without patch. From June 2007 to Dec. 2012, 179 consecutive patients of PPU who were treated by laparoscopic repair at our centers were enrolled in this multi-center retrospective study. 108 patients belong to patch group. While 71 patients were treated with laparoscopic simple repair. Operative time was significantly shorter in group II (non patch) (p = 0.01). No patient was converted to laparotomy. There was no difference in age, gender, ASA score, surgical risk (Boey's) score, and incidence of co-morbidities. Both groups were comparable in terms of hospital stay, time to resume oral intake, postoperative complications and surgical outcomes. Laparoscopic simple repair of PPU is a safe procedure compared with the traditional patch omentoplasty in presence of certain selection criteria. Copyright © 2013 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Quantitative Analysis of Range Image Patches by NEB Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Wen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze sampled high dimensional data with the NEB method from a range image database. Select a large random sample of log-valued, high contrast, normalized, 8×8 range image patches from the Brown database. We make a density estimator and we establish 1-dimensional cell complexes from the range image patch data. We find topological properties of 8×8 range image patches, prove that there exist two types of subsets of 8×8 range image patches modelled as a circle.

  6. Dry patch formed boiling and burnout in potassium pool boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michiyoshi, I.; Takenaka, N.; Takahashi, O.

    1986-01-01

    Experimental results are presented on dry patch formed boiling and burnout in saturated potassium pool boiling on a horizontal plane heater for system pressures from 30 to 760 torr and liquid levels from 5 to 50 mm. The dry patch formation occurs in the intermittent boiling which is often encountered when liquid alkali metals are used under relatively low pressure conditions. Burnout is caused from both continuous nucleate and dry patch formed boiling. The burnout heat flux together with nucleate boiling heat transfer coefficients are empirically correlated with system pressures. A model is also proposed to predict the minimum heat flux to form the dry patch. (author)

  7. The use of biodegradable microneedle patches to increase penetration of topical steroid for prurigo nodularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jung U; Kim, Jung Dong; Kim, Hong Kee; Kang, Hong Kyu; Joo, Chulmin; Lee, Ju Hee; Jeong, Do Hyeon; Song, Seungri; Chu, Howard; Lee, Jung Soo; Lee, Hemin; Lee, Kwang Hoon

    2018-02-01

    The stratum corneum is an almost impermeable barrier. Recently, microneedles have been used to increase drug delivery passing the stratum corneum by incorporating the drug within the microneedle or by coating the surface of the microneedle with the drug. This study was performed to investigate whether applying a biodegradable microneedle patch after topical steroid application increases penetration of the steroid in vitro, as well as treatment efficacy in patients with prurigo nodularis. In vitro penetration of topical steroids after biodegradable microneedle patch application was measured using a 3D skin model. To evaluate the treatment efficacy of the combination of biodegradable microneedle and topical steroids, a split-body clinical study was performed. Penetration of topical steroid in the in vitro skin model was significantly greater in the microneedle-applied skin. In a split-body clinical study with prurigo nodularis patients, the area and height of skin lesions decreased after four weeks of treatment on both sides, however, the microneedle patch side exhibited a significantly greater decrease in both area and height, compared to the control side. The pruritus visual analogue scale was also significantly lower on the microneedle side. We suggest that simply applying a microneedle patch after topical steroid application could be a useful strategy for treating refractory skin diseases such as prurigo nodularis.

  8. Reef Development on Artificial Patch Reefs in Shallow Water of Panjang Island, Central Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munasik; Sugiyanto; Sugianto, Denny N.; Sabdono, Agus

    2018-02-01

    Reef restoration methods are generally developed by propagation of coral fragments, coral recruits and provide substrate for coral attachment using artificial reefs (ARs). ARs have been widely applied as a tool for reef restoration in degraded natural reefs. Successful of coral restoration is determined by reef development such as increasing coral biomass, natural of coral recruits and fauna associated. Artificial Patch Reefs (APRs) is designed by combined of artificial reefs and coral transplantation and constructed by modular circular structures in shape, were deployed from small boats by scuba divers, and are suitable near natural reefs for shallow water with low visibility of Panjang Island, Central Java. Branching corals of Acropora aspera, Montipora digitata and Porites cylindrica fragments were transplanted on to each module of two units of artificial patch reefs in different periods. Coral fragments of Acropora evolved high survival and high growth, Porites fragments have moderate survival and low growth, while fragment of Montipora show in low survival and moderate growth. Within 19 to 22 months of APRs deployment, scleractinian corals were recruited on the surface of artificial patch reef substrates. The most recruits abundant was Montastrea, followed by Poritids, Pocilloporids, and Acroporids. We conclude that artificial patch reefs with developed by coral fragments and natural coral recruitment is one of an alternative rehabilitation method in shallow reef with low visibility.

  9. Models for Patch-Based Image Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrovic Nemanja

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We present a supervised learning approach for object-category specific restoration, recognition, and segmentation of images which are blurred using an unknown kernel. The novelty of this work is a multilayer graphical model which unifies the low-level vision task of restoration and the high-level vision task of recognition in a cooperative framework. The graphical model is an interconnected two-layer Markov random field. The restoration layer accounts for the compatibility between sharp and blurred images and models the association between adjacent patches in the sharp image. The recognition layer encodes the entity class and its location in the underlying scene. The potentials are represented using nonparametric kernel densities and are learnt from training data. Inference is performed using nonparametric belief propagation. Experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of our model for the restoration and recognition of blurred license plates as well as face images.

  10. Models for Patch-Based Image Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mithun Das Gupta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a supervised learning approach for object-category specific restoration, recognition, and segmentation of images which are blurred using an unknown kernel. The novelty of this work is a multilayer graphical model which unifies the low-level vision task of restoration and the high-level vision task of recognition in a cooperative framework. The graphical model is an interconnected two-layer Markov random field. The restoration layer accounts for the compatibility between sharp and blurred images and models the association between adjacent patches in the sharp image. The recognition layer encodes the entity class and its location in the underlying scene. The potentials are represented using nonparametric kernel densities and are learnt from training data. Inference is performed using nonparametric belief propagation. Experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of our model for the restoration and recognition of blurred license plates as well as face images.

  11. Dissolving Microneedle Patches for Dermal Vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, M; Mönkäre, J; Bouwstra, J A; Kersten, G

    2017-11-01

    The dermal route is an attractive route for vaccine delivery due to the easy skin accessibility and a dense network of immune cells in the skin. The development of microneedles is crucial to take advantage of the skin immunization and simultaneously to overcome problems related to vaccination by conventional needles (e.g. pain, needle-stick injuries or needle re-use). This review focuses on dissolving microneedles that after penetration into the skin dissolve releasing the encapsulated antigen. The microneedle patch fabrication techniques and their challenges are discussed as well as the microneedle characterization methods and antigen stability aspects. The immunogenicity of antigens formulated in dissolving microneedles are addressed. Finally, the early clinical development is discussed.

  12. Microwave response of hole and patch arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Melita C.; Edmunds, James D.; Hendry, Euan; Hibbins, Alastair P.; Sambles, J. Roy

    2010-10-01

    The electromagnetic response of two-dimensional square arrays of perfectly conducting square patches, and their complementary structures, is modeled utilizing a modal matching technique and employing Babinet’s principle. This method allows for the introduction of progressively higher diffracted orders and waveguide modes to be included in the calculation, hence aiding understanding of the underlying causal mechanism for the observed response. At frequencies close to, but below, the onset of diffraction, a near-complete reflection condition is predicted, even for low filling fractions: conversely, for high filling fractions a near-complete transmission condition results. These resonance phenomena are associated with evanescent diffraction, which is sufficiently strong to reverse the step change in transmission upon establishment of electrical continuity; i.e., the connected structure demonstrates increased transmission with increasing filling fraction.

  13. Patch testing in Australia: Is it adequate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tizi, Stephanie; Nixon, Rosemary L

    2016-08-01

    Patch testing (PT) is essential for making the diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). However, the extent of PT undertaken by Australian dermatologists is unknown. The objectives of this study were to determine the rate and type of PT in Australia, the perceived obstacles to PT, and to explore the exposure to PT in dermatology training. Data were collected on private PT (analysing Medicare item numbers) and public hospital-based PT (estimated via verbal reports). An online survey on PT was sent to Fellows of the Australasian College of Dermatologists. It was found that total PT numbers, combining Medicare item number and public hospital data, were below the suggested optimum in all states and in Australia overall. Of the 173 respondents to the survey, 61% reported they patch tested and 78% reported they referred for PT. TrueTest was the most commonly used PT system, although it is known to be inadequate. Dermatologists who PT as registrars were significantly more likely to PT as consultants (P value = 0.0029). Cost, expertise required and staffing were considered major obstacles to performing PT. Accessibility and cost to the patient were common obstacles to referral. The combination of suboptimal PT rates and inadequate PT means that patients are missing out on being diagnosed with ACD in Australia. Increasing the exposure of registrars to PT, supporting specialised centres, the development of the Australian Baseline Series and the Contact Allergen Bank will, it is hoped, improve the rates of comprehensive PT in Australia. © 2015 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  14. Efficiency of small scale carbon mitigation by patch iron fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Sarmiento

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available While nutrient depletion scenarios have long shown that the high-latitude High Nutrient Low Chlorophyll (HNLC regions are the most effective for sequestering atmospheric carbon dioxide, recent simulations with prognostic biogeochemical models have suggested that only a fraction of the potential drawdown can be realized. We use a global ocean biogeochemical general circulation model developed at GFDL and Princeton to examine this and related issues. We fertilize two patches in the North and Equatorial Pacific, and two additional patches in the Southern Ocean HNLC region north of the biogeochemical divide and in the Ross Sea south of the biogeochemical divide. We evaluate the simulations using observations from both artificial and natural iron fertilization experiments at nearby locations. We obtain by far the greatest response to iron fertilization at the Ross Sea site, where sea ice prevents escape of sequestered CO2 during the wintertime, and the CO2 removed from the surface ocean by the biological pump is carried into the deep ocean by the circulation. As a consequence, CO2 remains sequestered on century time-scales and the efficiency of fertilization remains almost constant no matter how frequently iron is applied as long as it is confined to the growing season. The second most efficient site is in the Southern Ocean. The North Pacific site has lower initial nutrients and thus a lower efficiency. Fertilization of the Equatorial Pacific leads to an expansion of the suboxic zone and a striking increase in denitrification that causes a sharp reduction in overall surface biological export production and CO2 uptake. The impacts on the oxygen distribution and surface biological export are less prominent at other sites, but nevertheless still a source of concern. The century time scale retention of iron in this model greatly increases the long-term biological response to iron addition as compared with

  15. Speech coding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravishankar, C., Hughes Network Systems, Germantown, MD

    1998-05-08

    Speech is the predominant means of communication between human beings and since the invention of the telephone by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876, speech services have remained to be the core service in almost all telecommunication systems. Original analog methods of telephony had the disadvantage of speech signal getting corrupted by noise, cross-talk and distortion Long haul transmissions which use repeaters to compensate for the loss in signal strength on transmission links also increase the associated noise and distortion. On the other hand digital transmission is relatively immune to noise, cross-talk and distortion primarily because of the capability to faithfully regenerate digital signal at each repeater purely based on a binary decision. Hence end-to-end performance of the digital link essentially becomes independent of the length and operating frequency bands of the link Hence from a transmission point of view digital transmission has been the preferred approach due to its higher immunity to noise. The need to carry digital speech became extremely important from a service provision point of view as well. Modem requirements have introduced the need for robust, flexible and secure services that can carry a multitude of signal types (such as voice, data and video) without a fundamental change in infrastructure. Such a requirement could not have been easily met without the advent of digital transmission systems, thereby requiring speech to be coded digitally. The term Speech Coding is often referred to techniques that represent or code speech signals either directly as a waveform or as a set of parameters by analyzing the speech signal. In either case, the codes are transmitted to the distant end where speech is reconstructed or synthesized using the received set of codes. A more generic term that is applicable to these techniques that is often interchangeably used with speech coding is the term voice coding. This term is more generic in the sense that the

  16. Optimal codes as Tanner codes with cyclic component codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høholdt, Tom; Pinero, Fernando; Zeng, Peng

    2014-01-01

    In this article we study a class of graph codes with cyclic code component codes as affine variety codes. Within this class of Tanner codes we find some optimal binary codes. We use a particular subgraph of the point-line incidence plane of A(2,q) as the Tanner graph, and we are able to describe ...

  17. Aztheca Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quezada G, S.; Espinosa P, G.; Centeno P, J.; Sanchez M, H.

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents the Aztheca code, which is formed by the mathematical models of neutron kinetics, power generation, heat transfer, core thermo-hydraulics, recirculation systems, dynamic pressure and level models and control system. The Aztheca code is validated with plant data, as well as with predictions from the manufacturer when the reactor operates in a stationary state. On the other hand, to demonstrate that the model is applicable during a transient, an event occurred in a nuclear power plant with a BWR reactor is selected. The plant data are compared with the results obtained with RELAP-5 and the Aztheca model. The results show that both RELAP-5 and the Aztheca code have the ability to adequately predict the behavior of the reactor. (Author)

  18. Results of patch testing in 10 patients with peristomal dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Megan N; Keeling, James H; Yiannias, James A; Richardson, Donna M; Nordberg Linehan, Diane L; Davis, Mark D P

    2012-09-01

    Peristomal dermatitis is a common problem in patients with ostomies that is a source of considerable morbidity. Irritant contact dermatitis is most common, but allergic contact dermatitis can also occur. Because of the lack of published reports on patch testing for this indication, we undertook a retrospective study of patch testing results in patients with suspected peristomal allergic contact dermatitis. We sought to describe our patch testing experience with patients referred with peristomal dermatitis. This was a retrospective review of medical records of patients with ostomies and peristomal dermatitis who underwent patch testing in the Mayo Clinic Departments of Dermatology in Jacksonville, FL; Rochester, MN; and Scottsdale, AZ, during a 10-year period (2000-2010). Ten patients with peristomal dermatitis were referred for patch testing (6 in Minnesota, 2 in Florida, and 2 in Arizona). Patients were patch tested to the materials used in their stoma devices, to the standard series, and in some cases to supplemental series. All 10 had at least one allergic patch test reaction, most commonly to stoma paste (3 of 10 patients). Retrospective nature of study via chart review is a limitation. Patch testing is a useful tool for identification of allergens in patients with peristomal dermatitis. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. FDTD Analysis of U-Slot Rectangular Patch Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, K. M.; Tong, K. F.; Shum, S. M.; Lee, K. F.; Lee, R. Q.

    1997-01-01

    The U-slot rectangular patch antenna (Figure I) has been found experimentally to provide impedance and gain bandwidths of about 300 without the need of stacked or coplanar parasitic elements [1,2]. In this paper, simulation results of the U-slot patch using FDTD analysis are presented. Comparison with measured results are given.

  20. Pharmacokinetic Evaluation of Two Nicotine Patches in Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Scott; Horkan, Kathleen Halabuk; Kotler, Mitchell

    2018-02-02

    Smoking continues to be a major preventable cause of early mortality worldwide, and nicotine replacement therapy has been demonstrated to increase rates of abstinence among smokers attempting to quit. Nicotine transdermal systems (also known as nicotine patches) attach to the skin via an adhesive layer composed of a mixture of different-molecular-weight polyisobutylenes (PIBs) in a specific ratio. This randomized, single-dose, 2-treatment, crossover pharmacokinetic (PK) trial assessed the bioequivalence of nicotine patches including a replacement PIB adhesive (test) compared with the PIB adhesive historically used on marketed patches (reference). The test and reference patches were bioequivalent, as determined by the PK parameters of C max and AUC 0-t . In addition, the parameters T max and t 1/2 did not significantly differ between the 2 patches, supporting the bioequivalence finding from the primary analysis. The tolerability profiles of the patches containing the replacement and previously used PIB adhesives were similar; application-site adverse events did not significantly differ between test and reference patches. Overall, these data establish the bioequivalence of the nicotine patch with the replacement PIB adhesive formulation and the previously utilized PIB adhesive formulation. © 2018 The Authors. Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  1. Rabies vaccination in dogs using a dissolving microneedle patch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Jaya M; Dewitt, Kristopher; Scott-Garrard, Maya; Chiang, Yu-Wei; Prausnitz, Mark R

    2016-10-10

    Because humans get rabies primarily through dog bites, stray dog population control and mass or mandatory vaccination of domestic dogs and other animals has virtually eliminated human rabies in industrialized countries. However, thousands of people in developing countries die of rabies each year due to the inability to control dog populations and implement mass vaccination because of financial, logistical and other challenges. The availability of an easier-to-administer and more cost-effective vaccine may help to address some of these issues. Here, we propose the use of dissolving microneedle patches for simple and potentially cost-effective rabies vaccination, and assess the safety and immunogenicity of microneedle patch vaccination using a rabies DNA vaccine in dogs. The vaccine was stable upon formulation and storage for at least 3weeks at 4°C in a microneedle patch. For vaccination, the patches were applied to the inner ear by hand without an applicator. Microneedle patches were well tolerated in the skin, with mild erythema, minimal wheal formation and complete resolution of skin reactions within 7days, and generated no systemic adverse events. Microneedle patches were at least as immunogenic as intramuscular injection at the same dose, as demonstrated by similar serum neutralizing antibody titers. A ten-fold lower vaccine dose administered by microneedle patch generated a weaker immune response compared to full-dose intramuscular vaccination. We conclude that dissolving microneedle patches may provide an innovative approach to mass vaccination of dogs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Preparation of Mucoadhesive Patches for Buccal Administration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop mucoadhesive patches for buccal administration of metoprolol succinate and to evaluate their in vitro and in vivo bioadhesion. Methods: The mucoadhesive buccal patches were prepared by solvent casting technique using two different mucoadhesive polymers. The formulations were tested for in vitro ...

  3. Vocable Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soon, Winnie; Cox, Geoff

    2018-01-01

    a computational and poetic composition for two screens: on one of these, texts and voices are repeated and disrupted by mathematical chaos, together exploring the performativity of code and language; on the other, is a mix of a computer programming syntax and human language. In this sense queer code can...... be understood as both an object and subject of study that intervenes in the world’s ‘becoming' and how material bodies are produced via human and nonhuman practices. Through mixing the natural and computer language, this article presents a script in six parts from a performative lecture for two persons...

  4. Rock Outcrops Redistribute Organic Carbon and Nutrients to Nearby Soil Patches in Three Karst Ecosystems in SW China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianjie Wang

    Full Text Available Emergent rock outcrops are common in terrestrial ecosystems. However, little research has been conducted regarding their surface function in redistributing organic carbon and nutrient fluxes to soils nearby. Water that fell on and ran off 10 individual rock outcrops was collected in three 100 × 100 m plots within a rock desertification ecosystem, an anthropogenic forest ecosystem, and a secondary forest ecosystem between June 2013 and June 2014 in Shilin, SW China. The concentrations of total organic carbon (TOC, total nitrogen (N, total phosphorus (P, and potassium (K in the water samples were determined during three seasons, and the total amounts received by and flowing out from the outcrops were calculated. In all three ecosystems, TOC and N, P, and K were found throughout the year in both the water received by and delivered to nearby soil patches. Their concentrations and amounts were generally greater in forested ecosystems than in the rock desertification ecosystem. When rock outcrops constituted a high percentage (≥ 30% of the ground surface, the annual export of rock outcrop runoff contributed a large amount of organic carbon and N, P, and K nutrients to soil patches nearby by comparison to the amount soil patches received via atmospheric deposition. These contributions may increase the spatial heterogeneity of soil fertility within patches, as rock outcrops of different sizes, morphologies, and emergence ratios may surround each soil patch.

  5. Cell-Detection Technique for Automated Patch Clamping

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Mark; Gray, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    A unique and customizable machinevision and image-data-processing technique has been developed for use in automated identification of cells that are optimal for patch clamping. [Patch clamping (in which patch electrodes are pressed against cell membranes) is an electrophysiological technique widely applied for the study of ion channels, and of membrane proteins that regulate the flow of ions across the membranes. Patch clamping is used in many biological research fields such as neurobiology, pharmacology, and molecular biology.] While there exist several hardware techniques for automated patch clamping of cells, very few of those techniques incorporate machine vision for locating cells that are ideal subjects for patch clamping. In contrast, the present technique is embodied in a machine-vision algorithm that, in practical application, enables the user to identify good and bad cells for patch clamping in an image captured by a charge-coupled-device (CCD) camera attached to a microscope, within a processing time of one second. Hence, the present technique can save time, thereby increasing efficiency and reducing cost. The present technique involves the utilization of cell-feature metrics to accurately make decisions on the degree to which individual cells are "good" or "bad" candidates for patch clamping. These metrics include position coordinates (x,y) in the image plane, major-axis length, minor-axis length, area, elongation, roundness, smoothness, angle of orientation, and degree of inclusion in the field of view. The present technique does not require any special hardware beyond commercially available, off-the-shelf patch-clamping hardware: A standard patchclamping microscope system with an attached CCD camera, a personal computer with an imagedata- processing board, and some experience in utilizing imagedata- processing software are all that are needed. A cell image is first captured by the microscope CCD camera and image-data-processing board, then the image

  6. Physically Connected Stacked Patch Antenna Design with 100% Bandwidth

    KAUST Repository

    Klionovski, Kirill; Shamim, Atif

    2017-01-01

    Typically, stacked patch antennas are parasitically coupled and provide larger bandwidth than a single patch antenna. Here, we show a stacked patch antenna design where square patches with semi-circular cutouts are physically connected to each other. This arrangement provides 100% bandwidth from 23.9–72.2 GHz with consistent high gain (5 dBi or more) across the entire bandwidth. In another variation, a single patch loaded with a superstrate provides 83.5% bandwidth from 25.6–62.3 GHz. The mechanism of bandwidth enhancement is explained through electromagnetic simulations. Measured reflection coefficient, radiation patterns and gain results confirm the extremely wideband performance of the design.

  7. Recent and relict topography of Boo Bee patch reef, Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halley, R.B.; Shinn, E.A.; Hudson, J.H.; Lidz, B.; Taylor, D.L.

    1977-01-01

    Five core borings were taken on and around Boo Bee Patch Reef to better understand the origin of such shelf lagoon reefs. The cores reveal 4 stages of development: (1) subaerial exposure of a Pleistocene "high" having about 8 meters of relief, possibly a Pleistocene patch reef; (2) deposition of peat and impermeable terrigenous clay 3 meters thick around the high; (3) initiation of carbonate sediment production by corals and algae on the remaining 5 meters of hard Pleistocene topography and carbonate mud on the surrounding terrigenous clay; and (4) accelerated organic accumulation on the patch reef. Estimates of patch reef sedimentation rates (1.6 m/1000 years) are 3 to 4 times greater than off-reef sedimentation rates (0.4-0.5 m/1000 years). During periods of Pleistocene sedimentation on the Belize shelf, lagoon patch reefs may have grown above one another, stacking up to form reef accumulation of considerable thickness.

  8. Physically Connected Stacked Patch Antenna Design with 100% Bandwidth

    KAUST Repository

    Klionovski, Kirill

    2017-11-01

    Typically, stacked patch antennas are parasitically coupled and provide larger bandwidth than a single patch antenna. Here, we show a stacked patch antenna design where square patches with semi-circular cutouts are physically connected to each other. This arrangement provides 100% bandwidth from 23.9–72.2 GHz with consistent high gain (5 dBi or more) across the entire bandwidth. In another variation, a single patch loaded with a superstrate provides 83.5% bandwidth from 25.6–62.3 GHz. The mechanism of bandwidth enhancement is explained through electromagnetic simulations. Measured reflection coefficient, radiation patterns and gain results confirm the extremely wideband performance of the design.

  9. The Aster code; Code Aster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delbecq, J.M

    1999-07-01

    The Aster code is a 2D or 3D finite-element calculation code for structures developed by the R and D direction of Electricite de France (EdF). This dossier presents a complete overview of the characteristics and uses of the Aster code: introduction of version 4; the context of Aster (organisation of the code development, versions, systems and interfaces, development tools, quality assurance, independent validation); static mechanics (linear thermo-elasticity, Euler buckling, cables, Zarka-Casier method); non-linear mechanics (materials behaviour, big deformations, specific loads, unloading and loss of load proportionality indicators, global algorithm, contact and friction); rupture mechanics (G energy restitution level, restitution level in thermo-elasto-plasticity, 3D local energy restitution level, KI and KII stress intensity factors, calculation of limit loads for structures), specific treatments (fatigue, rupture, wear, error estimation); meshes and models (mesh generation, modeling, loads and boundary conditions, links between different modeling processes, resolution of linear systems, display of results etc..); vibration mechanics (modal and harmonic analysis, dynamics with shocks, direct transient dynamics, seismic analysis and aleatory dynamics, non-linear dynamics, dynamical sub-structuring); fluid-structure interactions (internal acoustics, mass, rigidity and damping); linear and non-linear thermal analysis; steels and metal industry (structure transformations); coupled problems (internal chaining, internal thermo-hydro-mechanical coupling, chaining with other codes); products and services. (J.S.)

  10. Characterization of available light for seagrass and patch reef productivity in Sugarloaf Key, Lower Florida Keys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro-Farmer, Gerardo; Muller-Karger, Frank E.; Vega-Rodriguez, Maria; Melo, Nelson; Yates, Kimberly K.; Johns, Elizabeth; Cerdeira-Estrada, Sergio; Herwitz, Stan R.

    2016-01-01

    Light availability is an important factor driving primary productivity in benthic ecosystems, but in situ and remote sensing measurements of light quality are limited for coral reefs and seagrass beds. We evaluated the productivity responses of a patch reef and a seagrass site in the Lower Florida Keys to ambient light availability and spectral quality. In situ optical properties were characterized utilizing moored and water column bio-optical and hydrographic measurements. Net ecosystem productivity (NEP) was also estimated for these study sites using benthic productivity chambers. Our results show higher spectral light attenuation and absorption, and lower irradiance during low tide in the patch reef, tracking the influx of materials from shallower coastal areas. In contrast, the intrusion of clearer surface Atlantic Ocean water caused lower values of spectral attenuation and absorption, and higher irradiance in the patch reef during high tide. Storms during the studied period, with winds >10 m·s−1, caused higher spectral attenuation values. A spatial gradient of NEP was observed, from high productivity in the shallow seagrass area, to lower productivity in deeper patch reefs. The highest daytime NEP was observed in the seagrass, with values of almost 0.4 g·O2·m−2·h−1. Productivity at the patch reef area was lower in May than during October 2012 (mean = 0.137 and 0.177 g·O2·m−2·h−1, respectively). Higher photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) levels measured above water and lower light attenuation in the red region of the visible spectrum (~666 to ~699 nm) had a positive correlation with NEP. Our results indicate that changes in light availability and quality by suspended or resuspended particles limit benthic productivity in the Florida Keys.

  11. Characterization of Available Light for Seagrass and Patch Reef Productivity in Sugarloaf Key, Lower Florida Keys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Toro-Farmer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Light availability is an important factor driving primary productivity in benthic ecosystems, but in situ and remote sensing measurements of light quality are limited for coral reefs and seagrass beds. We evaluated the productivity responses of a patch reef and a seagrass site in the Lower Florida Keys to ambient light availability and spectral quality. In situ optical properties were characterized utilizing moored and water column bio-optical and hydrographic measurements. Net ecosystem productivity (NEP was also estimated for these study sites using benthic productivity chambers. Our results show higher spectral light attenuation and absorption, and lower irradiance during low tide in the patch reef, tracking the influx of materials from shallower coastal areas. In contrast, the intrusion of clearer surface Atlantic Ocean water caused lower values of spectral attenuation and absorption, and higher irradiance in the patch reef during high tide. Storms during the studied period, with winds >10 m·s−1, caused higher spectral attenuation values. A spatial gradient of NEP was observed, from high productivity in the shallow seagrass area, to lower productivity in deeper patch reefs. The highest daytime NEP was observed in the seagrass, with values of almost 0.4 g·O2·m−2·h−1. Productivity at the patch reef area was lower in May than during October 2012 (mean = 0.137 and 0.177 g·O2·m−2·h−1, respectively. Higher photosynthetic active radiation (PAR levels measured above water and lower light attenuation in the red region of the visible spectrum (~666 to ~699 nm had a positive correlation with NEP. Our results indicate that changes in light availability and quality by suspended or resuspended particles limit benthic productivity in the Florida Keys.

  12. Coding Class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing-Duun, Stine; Hansbøl, Mikala

    Denne rapport rummer evaluering og dokumentation af Coding Class projektet1. Coding Class projektet blev igangsat i skoleåret 2016/2017 af IT-Branchen i samarbejde med en række medlemsvirksomheder, Københavns kommune, Vejle Kommune, Styrelsen for IT- og Læring (STIL) og den frivillige forening...... Coding Pirates2. Rapporten er forfattet af Docent i digitale læringsressourcer og forskningskoordinator for forsknings- og udviklingsmiljøet Digitalisering i Skolen (DiS), Mikala Hansbøl, fra Institut for Skole og Læring ved Professionshøjskolen Metropol; og Lektor i læringsteknologi, interaktionsdesign......, design tænkning og design-pædagogik, Stine Ejsing-Duun fra Forskningslab: It og Læringsdesign (ILD-LAB) ved Institut for kommunikation og psykologi, Aalborg Universitet i København. Vi har fulgt og gennemført evaluering og dokumentation af Coding Class projektet i perioden november 2016 til maj 2017...

  13. Uplink Coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Ken; Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Sam; Moision, Bruce; Hamkins, Jon; Pollara, Fabrizio

    2007-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the objectives, meeting goals and overall NASA goals for the NASA Data Standards Working Group. The presentation includes information on the technical progress surrounding the objective, short LDPC codes, and the general results on the Pu-Pw tradeoff.

  14. ANIMAL code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindemuth, I.R.

    1979-01-01

    This report describes ANIMAL, a two-dimensional Eulerian magnetohydrodynamic computer code. ANIMAL's physical model also appears. Formulated are temporal and spatial finite-difference equations in a manner that facilitates implementation of the algorithm. Outlined are the functions of the algorithm's FORTRAN subroutines and variables

  15. Network Coding

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 15; Issue 7. Network Coding. K V Rashmi Nihar B Shah P Vijay Kumar. General Article Volume 15 Issue 7 July 2010 pp 604-621. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/015/07/0604-0621 ...

  16. MCNP code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, S.N.

    1984-01-01

    The MCNP code is the major Monte Carlo coupled neutron-photon transport research tool at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, and it represents the most extensive Monte Carlo development program in the United States which is available in the public domain. The present code is the direct descendent of the original Monte Carlo work of Fermi, von Neumaum, and Ulam at Los Alamos in the 1940s. Development has continued uninterrupted since that time, and the current version of MCNP (or its predecessors) has always included state-of-the-art methods in the Monte Carlo simulation of radiation transport, basic cross section data, geometry capability, variance reduction, and estimation procedures. The authors of the present code have oriented its development toward general user application. The documentation, though extensive, is presented in a clear and simple manner with many examples, illustrations, and sample problems. In addition to providing the desired results, the output listings give a a wealth of detailed information (some optional) concerning each state of the calculation. The code system is continually updated to take advantage of advances in computer hardware and software, including interactive modes of operation, diagnostic interrupts and restarts, and a variety of graphical and video aids

  17. Expander Codes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 1. Expander Codes - The Sipser–Spielman Construction. Priti Shankar. General Article Volume 10 ... Author Affiliations. Priti Shankar1. Department of Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science Bangalore 560 012, India.

  18. Prior knowledge about spatial pattern affects patch assessment rather than movement between patches in tactile-feeding Mallard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, R.H.G.; Nolet, B.A.; Van Leeuwen, C.H.A.

    2007-01-01

    1. Heterogeneity in food abundance allows a forager to concentrate foraging effort in patches that are rich in food. This might be problematic when food is cryptic, as the content of patches is unknown prior to foraging. In such case knowledge about the spatial pattern in the distribution of food

  19. European model code of safe practice for the prevention of ground and surface water pollution by oil from storage tanks and during the transport of oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-01-01

    The code outlines general requirements for pollution prevention and provides guidelines for corrosion protection of mild steel tanks, pipe and fitting assemblies, and for storage tank installations. The transportation and delivery of petroleum fuels are discussed, and operating procedures are suggested.

  20. Autologous patch graft in tube shunt surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslanides, I M; Spaeth, G L; Schmidt, C M; Lanzl, I M; Gandham, S B

    1999-10-01

    To evaluate an alternate method of covering the subconjunctival portion of the tube in aqueous shunt surgery. Evidence of tube erosion, graft-related infection, graft melting, or other associated intraocular complications were evaluated. A retrospective study of 16 patients (17 eyes) who underwent tube shunt surgery at Wills Eye Hospital between July 1991 and October 1996 was conducted. An autologous either "free" or "rotating" scleral lamellar graft was created to cover the subconjunctival portion of the tube shunt. All patients were evaluated for at least 6 months, with a mean follow-up of 14.8 months (range 6-62 months). All eyes tolerated the autologous graft well, with no clinical evidence of tube erosion, or graft-related or intraocular complications. Autologous patch graft in tube shunt surgery appears--in selected cases--to be an effective, safe and inexpensive surgical alternative to allogenic graft materials. It also offers ease of availability, and eliminates the risk of transmitting infectious disease.

  1. Patch testing with constituents of Compositae mixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Evy; Andersen, Klaus E

    2012-05-01

    The development of mixes containing Compositae plant extracts has improved the diagnosis of Compositae contact allergy, but none of them has fulfilled the criteria for an ideal European plant mix. To evaluate which constituents of two commercial Compositae mixes were most useful as screening agents. These comprised 76 patients testing positive to Compositae mix 6% in petrolatum and 29 patients testing positive to Compositae mix 5% pet., all of whom were tested with constituents of the respective mixes. The majority of patients tested positive to parthenolide or parthenolide-containing extracts, followed by German chamomile, yarrow, and arnica. As German chamomile is a weak sensitizer, the results suggest cross-reactions or reactions to unknown allergens. No one was positive to Roman chamomile. Even though parthenolide seems to be a suitable supplement to the baseline series, the results emphasize that it is important to patch test with extracts of native or locally grown plants, not only because of the geographical variation, but also because of the potential unknown allergens contained in short ether preparations and the variability in the individual patient's exposure and cross-reaction patterns. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  2. Multiband Patch Antenna for Femtocell Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Zaman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A microstrip patch antenna for multiple LTE (long term evaluation frequency bands for femtocell application is proposed in this paper. Distributed antenna solution (DAS has been introduced in cellular network to achieve homogenous indoor coverage. Femtocell is the latest extension to these solutions. It is a smart solution to both coverage and capacity scales. Femtocell operation in LTE band is occupied by higher frequency bands. For multiband femtocell application, miniature antenna design is quite essential. The antenna proposed here is composed of basic monopole structure with two parasitic elements at both sides of the active element. A rectangular slot is introduced at the ground plane of the proposed antenna. The antenna is designed using ElnoS HK light CCL substrate material of relative permittivity of 9.4, dielectric loss-tangent of 0.003 and thickness of 3 mm. The S11 response of the antenna is shown to have a bandwidth of 1.01 GHz starting from 1.79 GHz to 2.8 GHz. The characteristics of the antenna are analysed using Ansoft HFSS software.

  3. Panda code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altomare, S.; Minton, G.

    1975-02-01

    PANDA is a new two-group one-dimensional (slab/cylinder) neutron diffusion code designed to replace and extend the FAB series. PANDA allows for the nonlinear effects of xenon, enthalpy and Doppler. Fuel depletion is allowed. PANDA has a completely general search facility which will seek criticality, maximize reactivity, or minimize peaking. Any single parameter may be varied in a search. PANDA is written in FORTRAN IV, and as such is nearly machine independent. However, PANDA has been written with the present limitations of the Westinghouse CDC-6600 system in mind. Most computation loops are very short, and the code is less than half the useful 6600 memory size so that two jobs can reside in the core at once. (auth)

  4. Estimation of vertical load on a tire from contact patch length and its use in vehicle stability control

    OpenAIRE

    Dhasarathy, Deepak

    2010-01-01

    The vertical load on a moving tire was estimated by using accelerometers attached to the inner liner of a tire. The acceleration signal was processed to obtain the contact patch length created by the tire on the road surface. Then an appropriate equation relating the patch length to the vertical load is used to calculate the load. In order to obtain the needed data, tests were performed on a flat-track test machine at the Goodyear Innovation Center in Akron, Ohio; tests were also conducted on...

  5. Sub-Patch Roughness in Earthquake Rupture Investigations

    KAUST Repository

    Zielke, Olaf

    2016-02-13

    Fault geometric complexities exhibit fractal characteristics over a wide range of spatial scales (<µm to >km) and strongly affect the rupture process at corresponding scales. Numerical rupture simulations provide a framework to quantitatively investigate the relationship between a fault\\'s roughness and its seismic characteristics. Fault discretization however introduces an artificial lower limit to roughness. Individual fault patches are planar and sub-patch roughness –roughness at spatial scales below fault-patch size– is not incorporated. Does negligence of sub-patch roughness measurably affect the outcome of earthquake rupture simulations? We approach this question with a numerical parameter space investigation and demonstrate that sub-patch roughness significantly modifies the slip-strain relationship –a fundamental aspect of dislocation theory. Faults with sub-patch roughness induce less strain than their planar-fault equivalents at distances beyond the length of a slipping fault. We further provide regression functions that characterize the stochastic effect sub-patch roughness.

  6. Patch dynamics and metapopulation theory: the case of successional species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasekare, P; Possingham, H

    2001-04-07

    We present a mathematical framework that combines extinction-colonization dynamics with the dynamics of patch succession. We draw an analogy between the epidemiological categorization of individuals (infected, susceptible, latent and resistant) and the patch structure of a spatially heterogeneous landscape (occupied-suitable, empty-suitable, occupied-unsuitable and empty-unsuitable). This approach allows one to consider life-history attributes that influence persistence in patchy environments (e.g., longevity, colonization ability) in concert with extrinsic processes (e.g., disturbances, succession) that lead to spatial heterogeneity in patch suitability. It also allows the incorporation of seed banks and other dormant life forms, thus broadening patch occupancy dynamics to include sink habitats. We use the model to investigate how equilibrium patch occupancy is influenced by four critical parameters: colonization rate, extinction rate, disturbance frequency and the rate of habitat succession. This analysis leads to general predictions about how the temporal scaling of patch succession and extinction-colonization dynamics influences long-term persistence. We apply the model to herbaceous, early-successional species that inhabit open patches created by periodic disturbances. We predict the minimum disturbance frequency required for viable management of such species in the Florida scrub ecosystem. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  7. Nickel patch test reactivity and the menstrual cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohold, A E; Halkier-Sørensen, L; Thestrup-Pedersen, K

    1994-01-01

    Premenstrual exacerbation of allergic contact dermatitis and varying allergic patch test responses have been reported at different points of the period. Using a dilution series of nickel sulphate, we studied the variation in patch test reactivity in nickel allergic women in relation to the menstr......Premenstrual exacerbation of allergic contact dermatitis and varying allergic patch test responses have been reported at different points of the period. Using a dilution series of nickel sulphate, we studied the variation in patch test reactivity in nickel allergic women in relation...... were tested first on day 7-10 and the other half first on day 20-24. There was no difference in the degree of patch test reactivity, when the results from day 7-10 and day 20-24 were compared (p > 0.4). However, when we compared the patch test results from the first and second test procedure, we found...... of positive patch tests led to an increased skin reactivity towards the same allergen, when the patients were retested weeks later....

  8. CANAL code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gara, P.; Martin, E.

    1983-01-01

    The CANAL code presented here optimizes a realistic iron free extraction channel which has to provide a given transversal magnetic field law in the median plane: the current bars may be curved, have finite lengths and cooling ducts and move in a restricted transversal area; terminal connectors may be added, images of the bars in pole pieces may be included. A special option optimizes a real set of circular coils [fr

  9. Investigation of the homogeneity of methacrylate allergens in commercially available patch test preparations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mose, Kristian Fredløv; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Christensen, Lars Porskjaer

    2013-01-01

    The homogeneity of methacrylates in commercial patch test preparations has not yet been investigated. Inhomogeneous patch test preparations may give rise to false-negative or false-positive patch test results in patients suspected of having methacrylate allergy.......The homogeneity of methacrylates in commercial patch test preparations has not yet been investigated. Inhomogeneous patch test preparations may give rise to false-negative or false-positive patch test results in patients suspected of having methacrylate allergy....

  10. Standard practice for infrared flash thermography of composite panels and repair patches used in aerospace applications

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This practice describes a procedure for detecting subsurface flaws in composite panels and repair patches using Flash Thermography (FT), in which an infrared (IR) camera is used to detect anomalous cooling behavior of a sample surface after it has been heated with a spatially uniform light pulse from a flash lamp array. 1.2 This practice describes established FT test methods that are currently used by industry, and have demonstrated utility in quality assurance of composite structures during post-manufacturing and in-service examinations. 1.3 This practice has utility for testing of polymer composite panels and repair patches containing, but not limited to, bismaleimide, epoxy, phenolic, poly(amide imide), polybenzimidazole, polyester (thermosetting and thermoplastic), poly(ether ether ketone), poly(ether imide), polyimide (thermosetting and thermoplastic), poly(phenylene sulfide), or polysulfone matrices; and alumina, aramid, boron, carbon, glass, quartz, or silicon carbide fibers. Typical as-fabricate...

  11. Diclofenac Potassium Transdermal Patches Using Natural Rubber Latex Biomembranes as Carrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natan Roberto de Barros

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to design a compound transdermal patch containing diclofenac potassium (Dic-K using natural rubber latex (NRL biomembrane. The NRL from Hevea brasiliensis is easily manipulated and low cost and presents high mechanical resistance. It is a biocompatible material which can stimulate natural angiogenesis and is capable of adhering cells on its surface. Recent researches have used the NRL for Transdermal Drug Delivery Systems (TDDSs. Dic-K is used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis and pain relief for postoperative and posttraumatic cases, as well as inflammation and edema. Results showed that the biomembrane can release Dic-K for up to 216 hours. The kinetics of the Dic-K release could be fitted with double exponential function. X-ray diffraction and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR spectroscopy show some interaction by hydrogen bound. The results indicated the potential of the compound patch.

  12. The influence of tyre contact patch and on the stopping distance of automotive vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selig, M.; Ball, A.; Ash, J.; Schmidt, K.

    2012-05-01

    This contribution presents the experimental tests results about the influence of the tyre contact patch on the stopping distance of automotive vehicles. The objective of the performed tests is the evaluation of the effect of tyre inflation pressure, hence the resulting tyre contact patch on the braking system and the brake distance. The conditions of the experiment are a dry and level road surface without steering inputs. To record scientific results, a brake robot system is used. The benefit of a robotic system is the elimination of the interfering variable driver, who is not able to apply the brake system at the same time with the same force. State-of-the-art data acquisition tools are used to log the data.

  13. The influence of tyre contact patch and on the stopping distance of automotive vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selig, M; Ball, A; Ash, J; Schmidt, K

    2012-01-01

    This contribution presents the experimental tests results about the influence of the tyre contact patch on the stopping distance of automotive vehicles. The objective of the performed tests is the evaluation of the effect of tyre inflation pressure, hence the resulting tyre contact patch on the braking system and the brake distance. The conditions of the experiment are a dry and level road surface without steering inputs. To record scientific results, a brake robot system is used. The benefit of a robotic system is the elimination of the interfering variable driver, who is not able to apply the brake system at the same time with the same force. State-of-the-art data acquisition tools are used to log the data.

  14. Patch testing in non-immediate cutaneous adverse drug reactions: value of extemporaneous patch tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assier, Haudrey; Valeyrie-Allanore, Laurence; Gener, Gwendeline; Verlinde Carvalh, Muriel; Chosidow, Olivier; Wolkenstein, Pierre

    2017-11-01

    Patch testing following a standardized protocol is reliable for identifying the culprit drug in cutaneous adverse drug reactions (CADRs). However, these patch tests (PTs) require pharmaceutical material and staff, which are not always easily available. To evaluate an extemporaneous PT method in CADRs. We retrospectively analysed data for all patients referred to our department between March 2009 and June 2013 for patch testing after a non-immediate CADR. The patients who supplied their own suspected drugs were tested both with extemporaneous PTs and with conventional PTs. Extemporaneous PTs involved a nurse crushing and diluting the drug in pet. in a ratio of approximately one-third to two-thirds. Standardized PTs were performed according to guidelines, with commercial drugs diluted to 30% or with active ingredients diluted to 10%. We analysed the data for the two PT methods in terms of the number of positive test reactions, drugs tested, and type of CADR for patients in whom the two PT methods were used. In total, 75 of 156 patients underwent the two PT procedures, including 91 double tests. Overall, 21 tests gave positive reactions with the two methods, and 69 other tests gave negative results with the two methods. Our series yielded results similar to those of published series concerning the types of CADR and the drugs responsible. Our results suggest that, for CADRs, if a patient supplies a suspected drug but if the pharmaceutical material and staff are not available for conventional PTs, extemporaneous PTs performed by the nurse with the commercial drug used by the patient can be useful and reliable. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. A Fully Inkjet Printed 3D Honeycomb Inspired Patch Antenna

    KAUST Repository

    McKerricher, Garret

    2015-07-16

    The ability to inkjet print three-dimensional objects with integrated conductive metal provides many opportunities for fabrication of radio frequency electronics and electronics in general. Both a plastic material and silver conductor are deposited by inkjet printing in this work. This is the first demonstration of a fully 3D Multijet printing process with integrated polymer and metal. A 2.4 GHz patch antenna is successfully fabricated with good performance proving the viability of the process. The inkjet printed plastic surface is very smooth, with less than 100 nm root mean square roughness. The printed silver nanoparticles are laser sintered to achieve adequate conductivity of 1e6 S/m while keeping the process below 80oC and avoiding damage to the polymer. The antenna is designed with a honeycomb substrate which minimizes material consumption. This reduces the weight, dielectric constant and dielectric loss which are all around beneficial. The antenna is entirely inkjet printed including the ground plane conductor and achieves an impressive 81% efficiency. The honeycomb substrate weighs twenty times less than a solid substrate. For comparison the honeycomb antenna provides an efficiency nearly 15% greater than a similarly fabricated antenna with a solid substrate.

  16. Experimental patch testing with chromium-coated materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnbak, David; Thyssen, Jacob P; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl

    2017-01-01

    Chromium coatings on metal alloys can be decorative, and prevent corrosion and metal ion release. We recently showed that handling of a chromium-containing disc resulted in chromium deposition on the skin. To examine patch test reactivity to chromium-coated discs. We included 15 patients: 10...... chromium-allergic patients, and 5 patients without chromium allergy. All were patch tested with potassium dichromate, cobalt chloride, nickel sulfate, and nine different metallic discs. The chromium-allergic patients were also patch tested with serial dilutions of potassium dichromate. Positive...

  17. Fever following an Epidural Blood Patch in a Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes I. Hunyady

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that children suffer from the consequences of spontaneous or iatrogenic intracranial hypotension. Pediatric epidural blood patch is gaining popularity because of its ability to alter cerebrospinal fluid dynamics and to alleviate headaches attributed to low cerebrospinal fluid pressure. There is, however, still not enough data to document the safety profile of an epidural blood patch. Here we describe a case of a fever in a child temporally related to the administration of an epidural blood patch. This case depicts the dilemmas in making the diagnosis and instituting treatment for complications of this procedure in the pediatric population.

  18. Design and fabrication of a microstrip patch antenna with a low radar cross section in the X-band

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Hong-Kyu; Lee, Won-Jun; Kim, Chun-Gon

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the authors developed a radar absorbing method to reduce the antenna radar cross section (RCS) without any loss of antenna performance. The new method was based upon an electromagnetic bandgap (EBG) absorber using conducting polymer (CP). First, a microstrip patch antenna was made by using a copper film and glass/epoxy composite materials, which are typically used for load-bearing structures, such as aircraft and other vehicles. Then, CP EBG patterns were also designed that had a 90% electromagnetic (EM) wave absorbing performance within the X-band (8.2–12.4 GHz). Finally, the CP EBG patterns were printed on the top surface of the microstrip patch antenna. The measured radar absorbing performance of the fabricated patch antenna showed that the frontal RCS of the antenna declined by nearly 95% at 10 GHz frequency while the CP EBG patterns had almost no effect on the antenna's performance

  19. Impedance spectra of patch clamp scenarios for single cells immobilized on a lab-on-a-chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alberti, Massimo; Snakenborg, Detlef; Lopacinska, Joanna M.

    2014-01-01

    and simulated impedance spectra proved that the presented method could distinguish between a cell-attached mode and a whole-cell mode even with low-quality seals. In physiological conditions, the capacitance of HeLa cells was measured to *38 pF. The first gigaseal was recorded and maintained for 40 min. Once...... membrane. After incubating the chip for 24 h, HeLa cells adhered and grew on the chip surface but did not survive when trapped on the microapertures. The microfluidic system proved to work as a micro electrophysiological analysis system, and the IS-based method can be used for further studies on the post......A simple method based on impedance spectroscopy (IS) was developed to distinguish between different patch clamp modes for single cells trapped on microapertures in a patch clamp microchannel array designed for patch clamping on cultured cells. The method allows detecting via impedance analysis...

  20. An optimal approach to active damping of nonlinear vibrations in composite plates using piezoelectric patches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saviz, M R

    2015-01-01

    In this paper a nonlinear approach to studying the vibration characteristic of laminated composite plate with surface-bonded piezoelectric layer/patch is formulated, based on the Green Lagrange type of strain–displacements relations, by incorporating higher-order terms arising from nonlinear relations of kinematics into mathematical formulations. The equations of motion are obtained through the energy method, based on Lagrange equations and by using higher-order shear deformation theories with von Karman–type nonlinearities, so that transverse shear strains vanish at the top and bottom surfaces of the plate. An isoparametric finite element model is provided to model the nonlinear dynamics of the smart plate with piezoelectric layer/ patch. Different boundary conditions are investigated. Optimal locations of piezoelectric patches are found using a genetic algorithm to maximize spatial controllability/observability and considering the effect of residual modes to reduce spillover effect. Active attenuation of vibration of laminated composite plate is achieved through an optimal control law with inequality constraint, which is related to the maximum and minimum values of allowable voltage in the piezoelectric elements. To keep the voltages of actuator pairs in an allowable limit, the Pontryagin’s minimum principle is implemented in a system with multi-inequality constraint of control inputs. The results are compared with similar ones, proving the accuracy of the model especially for the structures undergoing large deformations. The convergence is studied and nonlinear frequencies are obtained for different thickness ratios. The structural coupling between plate and piezoelectric actuators is analyzed. Some examples with new features are presented, indicating that the piezo-patches significantly improve the damping characteristics of the plate for suppressing the geometrically nonlinear transient vibrations. (paper)

  1. Statistical study of auroral fragmentation into patches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Ayumi; Shiokawa, Kazuo; Otsuka, Yuichi; Oyama, Shin-ichiro; Nozawa, Satonori; Hori, Tomoaki; Lester, Mark; Johnsen, Magnar Gullikstad

    2015-08-01

    The study of auroral dynamics is important when considering disturbances of the magnetosphere. Shiokawa et al. (2010, 2014) reported observations of finger-like auroral structures that cause auroral fragmentation. Those structures are probably produced by macroscopic instabilities in the magnetosphere, mainly of the Rayleigh-Taylor type. However, the statistical characteristics of these structures have not yet been investigated. Here based on observations by an all-sky imager at Tromsø (magnetic latitude = 67.1°N), Norway, over three winter seasons, we statistically analyzed the occurrence conditions of 14 large-scale finger-like structures that developed from large-scale auroral regions including arcs and 6 small-scale finger-like structures that developed in auroral patches. The large-scale structures were seen from midnight to dawn local time and usually appeared at the beginning of the substorm recovery phase, near the low-latitude boundary of the auroral region. The small-scale structures were primarily seen at dawn and mainly occurred in the late recovery phase of substorms. The sizes of these large- and small-scale structures mapped in the magnetospheric equatorial plane are usually larger than the gyroradius of 10 keV protons, indicating that the finger-like structures could be caused by magnetohydrodynamic instabilities. However, the scale of small structures is only twice the gyroradius of 10 keV protons, suggesting that finite Larmor radius effects may contribute to the formation of small-scale structures. The eastward propagation velocities of the structures are -40 to +200 m/s and are comparable with those of plasma drift velocities measured by the colocating Super Dual Auroral Radar Network radar.

  2. Role of collector alternating charged patches on transport of Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst in a patchwise charged heterogeneous micromodel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Changyong; Hu, Dehong; Kuhlenschmidt, Mark S.; Kuhlenschmidt, Theresa B.; Mylon, Steven E.; Kong, Rong; Bhargava, Rohit; Nguyen, Thanh H.

    2013-02-04

    The role of collector surface charge heterogeneity on transport of Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst and carboxylate microsphere in 2-dimensional micromodels was studied. The cylindrical silica collectors within the micromodels were coated with 0, 10, 20, 50 and 100% Fe2O3 patches. The experimental values of average single collector removal efficiencies (η) of the Fe2O3 patches and on the entire collectors were determined. In the presence of significant (>3500 kT) Derjaguin–Landau–Verwey–Overbeek (DLVO) energy barrier between the microspheres and the silica collectors at pH 5.8 and 8.1, the values of η determined for Fe2O3 patches were significantly less (p < 0.05, t-test) than that obtained for collectors coated entirely with Fe2O3. However, η on Fe2O3 patches for microspheres at pH 4.4 and for oocysts at pH 5.8 and 8.1, where the DLVO energy barrier was relatively small (ca. 200-360 kT), were significantly greater (p < 0.05, t-test) than that on the collectors coated entirely with Fe2O3. The dependence of η determined for Fe2O3 patches on the DLVO energy barrier indicated the importance of periodic favorable and unfavorable electrostatic interactions between colloids and collectors with alternating Fe2O3 and silica patches. Differences between experimentally determined η and that predicted by a patchwise geochemical heterogeneous model was observed, but can be explained by the model’s lack of consideration for the spatial distribution of charge heterogeneity on the collector surface and colloid migration on patchwise heterogeneous collectors.

  3. Erythema-index of clinical patch test reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jemec, G B; Johansen, J D

    1995-01-01

    that the method could be used for the grading of eczematous reactions in a clinical setting as well. OBJECTIVE: To assess the usefulness of the erythema index for the quantification of eczematous reactions using the Derma-Spectrometer (Cortex technology, Hadsund, Denmark) in a clinical setting. METHOD......: The erythema index of 56 patch test reactions ranging from +? to +++, was compared to regional controls and negative patch tests (189). The effects of intrumental application pressure was studied in 5 volunteers. Statistical analysis was carried out using Mann-Whitney and Jonckheere-Terpstra tests. RESULTS......: The erythema-index was significantly higher in all degrees of patch test reactions than in uninvolved regional skin or negative patch tests. It also showed a significant positive trend for higher values in +, ++ and +++ reactions (P

  4. Excitation of waves in elastic waveguides by piezoelectric patch actuators

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Loveday, PW

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available for waveguides excited by piezoelectric patch actuators. The waveguide is modelled using specially developed waveguide finite elements. These elements are formulated using a complex exponential to describe the wave propagation along the structure and finite...

  5. Smart Patches for Monitoring Fatigue Crack Growth in Aircraft Structures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ihn, Jeong-Beom

    2001-01-01

    A built-in cost-effective diagnostic system for monitoring crack growth in aircraft structures was developed, particularly for riveted fuselage joints and cracked aircraft parts with composite bonded patches...

  6. Disorganized Cortical Patches Suggest Prenatal Origin of Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2014 Disorganized cortical patches suggest prenatal origin of autism NIH-funded study shows disrupted cell layering process ... study suggests that brain irregularities in children with autism can be traced back to prenatal development. “While ...

  7. Okeanos Explorer (EX1601): Transit and Mission Patch Test

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Normal underway operations and mapping patch testing. Bathymetric mapping of either the Murray or Molokai Fracture Zones during the transit to Hawaii is planned, as...

  8. Preparation of Mucoadhesive Patches for Buccal Administration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Methods: The mucoadhesive buccal patches were prepared by solvent casting technique ... buccal absorption, in vitro drug release studies, moisture absorption as well as for in vitro and in vivo ... recovery time after exposure to stress and.

  9. Histological distinction between early allergic and irritant patch test reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, L; Clemmensen, Ole; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    1999-01-01

    Comparative light microscopic studies have revealed subtle differences between allergic and irritant reactions in the skin. In the search for specific differences, we focussed on the early inflammatory response. This pilot study was conducted to test the hypothesis that follicular spongiosis can...... differentiate between early allergic and irritant patch test reactions. 8 patients with known contact allergy to either colophony or quarternium-15 participated in the study. In each patient, allergic and irritant patch tests reactions were elicited, and 4-mm punch biopsies were taken after 6 8 h from...... clinically equipotent reactions. Paired sets of slides were assessed blindly by 2 pathologists. 1 patient showing a pityrosporum folliculitis was excluded from the study. All biopsies from allergic patch tests were characterized by follicular spongiosis, while biopsies from irritant patch tests showed...

  10. Investigation of a nanostrip patch antenna in optical frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, Nitesh; Wani, Zamir Ahmad; Jain, Rishi; Khusboo; Dinesh Kumar, V.

    2014-08-01

    This is the first report and investigation of a patch antenna in optical frequency range. Variety of plasmonic nanoantenna reported so far is good at enhancing the local field intensity of light by orders of magnitude. However, their far-field radiation efficiency is very poor. The proposed patch antenna emits a directional beam with high efficacy in addition to enhancing the intensity of near field. The nano-patch antenna (NPA) consists of a square patch of gold film of dimension 480 nm2, placed on a substrate of dielectric constant \\varepsilon_{{r}} = 3.9 and thickness 150 nm with a ground plane of gold film of dimension 1,080 nm2. The NPA resonates at 210 THz and has gain nearly 2 dB and radiation efficiency 45.18 %. The NPA might be useful in variety of applications such as optical communication, nano-photonics, biosensing, and spectroscopy.

  11. Wireless OAM transmission system based on elliptical microstrip patch antenna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jia Jia; Lu, Qian Nan; Dong, Fei Fei; Yang, Jing Jing; Huang, Ming

    2016-05-30

    The multiplexing transmission has always been a focus of attention for communication technology. In this paper, the radiation characteristics of circular microstrip patch antenna was firstly analyzed based on cavity model theory, and then spiral beams carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) were generated, using elliptical microstrip patch antenna, with a single feed probe instead of a standard circular patch with two feedpoints. Moreover, by combining the proposed elliptic microstrip patch antenna with Universal Software Radio Peripheral (USRP), a wireless OAM transmission system was established and the real-time transmission of text, image and video in a real channel environment was realized. Since the wireless OAM transmission has the advantage of good safety and high spectrum utilization efficiency, this work has theoretical significance and potential application.

  12. Isoplanatic patch of the human eye for arbitrary wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Guoqing; Cao, Zhaoliang; Mu, Quanquan; Wang, Yukun; Li, Dayu; Wang, Shaoxin; Xu, Zihao; Wu, Daosheng; Hu, Lifa; Xuan, Li

    2018-03-01

    The isoplanatic patch of the human eye is a key parameter for the adaptive optics system (AOS) designed for retinal imaging. The field of view (FOV) usually sets to the same size as the isoplanatic patch to obtain high resolution images. However, it has only been measured at a specific wavelength. Here we investigate the wavelength dependence of this important parameter. An optical setup is initially designed and established in a laboratory to measure the isoplanatic patch at various wavelengths (655 nm, 730 nm and 808 nm). We established the Navarro wide-angle eye model in Zemax software to further validate our results, which suggested high consistency between the two. The isoplanatic patch as a function of wavelength was obtained within the range of visible to near-infrared, which can be expressed as: θ=0.0028 λ - 0 . 74. This work is beneficial for the AOS design for retinal imaging.

  13. Development of a thermostable microneedle patch for influenza vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistilis, Matthew; Bommarius, Andreas S; Prausnitz, Mark R.

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this study is to develop thermostable microneedle patch formulations for influenza vaccine that can be partially or completely removed from the cold chain. During vaccine drying associated with microneedle patch manufacturing, ammonium acetate and HEPES buffer salts stabilized influenza vaccine, surfactants had little effect during drying, drying temperature had weak effects on vaccine stability, and drying on polydimethylsiloxane led to increased stability compared to drying on stainless steel. A number of excipients, mostly polysaccharides and some amino acids, further stabilized the influenza vaccine during drying. Over longer time scales of storage, combinations of stabilizers preserved the most vaccine activity. Finally, dissolving microneedle patches formulated with arginine and calcium heptagluconate had no significant activity loss for all three strains of seasonal influenza vaccine during storage at room temperature for six months. We conclude that appropriately formulated microneedle patches can exhibit remarkable thermostability that could enable storage and distribution of influenza vaccine outside the cold chain. PMID:25448542

  14. Spotlight on Psoriasis: Preventing Patches of Itchy, Sore Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Subscribe August 2016 Print this issue Spotlight on Psoriasis Preventing Patches of Itchy, Sore Skin En español ... Sun Damage Sun and Skin Wise Choices Avoid Psoriasis Triggers Factors that may trigger psoriasis or make ...

  15. From concatenated codes to graph codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jørn; Høholdt, Tom

    2004-01-01

    We consider codes based on simple bipartite expander graphs. These codes may be seen as the first step leading from product type concatenated codes to more complex graph codes. We emphasize constructions of specific codes of realistic lengths, and study the details of decoding by message passing...

  16. Microneedle Patches as Drug and Vaccine Delivery Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junwei; Zeng, Mingtao; Shan, Hu; Tong, Chunyi

    2017-01-01

    Transcutaneous delivery is the ideal method for delivering therapeutic reagents or vaccines into skin. With their promise of self-administration, cost-effective and high efficiency, microneedle patches have been studied intensively as therapeutic and vaccination delivery platform that replaces injection by syringe. This review aims to summarize the recent advancements of microneedle patches in application for drugs and vaccine delivery. We reviewed the most of recently published papers on microneedle patches, summarized their evolution, classification, state-of the-art capabilities and discussed promising application in drugs and vaccine delivery. With the rapid development of nanotechnology, microneedle patches have been improved by switching from undissolving to dissolving microneedles, and their safety has also improved dramatically. As a drug delivery tool, microneedle patches can deliver bioactive molecular of different physical size. Additionally, microneedle patches can be coated or encapsulate with DNA vaccine, subunit antigen, inactivated or live virus vaccine. Combining clinical results with the results of patient interview, microneedle patches are found to be feasible and are predicated to soon be acceptable for the medical service. In this review, we summarized the evolution, current and future application of microneedle patches as delivery vehicle for drugs and vaccines. Compared with traditional delivery tools, microneedle patches have many advantages, such as providing pain-free, non-invasive, convenient route for reagent administration and delivery, with no cold chain required for storage and transportation as well as decreasing sharp medical waste, needle-caused injury and transmission of blood-borne infectious disease in rural area. However, even though there are dramatic progress in preclinical investigation of microneedle patches, further testing will be required for clinical application. Further research should be implemented in multiple fields

  17. Stress-intensity factors for surface cracks in pipes: a computer code for evaluation by use of influence functions. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dedhia, D.D.; Harris, D.O.

    1982-06-01

    A user-oriented computer program for the evaluation of stress intensity factors for cracks in pipes is presented. Stress intensity factors for semi-elliptical, complete circumferential and long longitudinal cracks can be obtained using this computer program. The code is based on the method of influence functions which makes it possible to treat arbitrary stresses on the plane of the crack. The stresses on the crack plane can be entered as a mathematical or tabulated function. A user's manual is included in this report. Background information is also included

  18. SURF: a subroutine code to draw the axonometric projection of a surface generated by a scalar function over a discretized plane domain using finite element computations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giuliani, Giovanni; Giuliani, Silvano.

    1980-01-01

    The FORTRAN IV subroutine SURF has been designed to help visualising the results of Finite Element computations. It drawns the axonometric projection of a surface generated in 3-dimensional space by a scalar function over a discretized plane domain. The most important characteristic of the routine is to remove the hidden lines and in this way it enables a clear vision of the details of the generated surface

  19. Force-controlled patch clamp of beating cardiac cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossola, Dario; Amarouch, Mohamed-Yassine; Behr, Pascal; Vörös, János; Abriel, Hugues; Zambelli, Tomaso

    2015-03-11

    From its invention in the 1970s, the patch clamp technique is the gold standard in electrophysiology research and drug screening because it is the only tool enabling accurate investigation of voltage-gated ion channels, which are responsible for action potentials. Because of its key role in drug screening, innovation efforts are being made to reduce its complexity toward more automated systems. While some of these new approaches are being adopted in pharmaceutical companies, conventional patch-clamp remains unmatched in fundamental research due to its versatility. Here, we merged the patch clamp and atomic force microscope (AFM) techniques, thus equipping the patch-clamp with the sensitive AFM force control. This was possible using the FluidFM, a force-controlled nanopipette based on microchanneled AFM cantilevers. First, the compatibility of the system with patch-clamp electronics and its ability to record the activity of voltage-gated ion channels in whole-cell configuration was demonstrated with sodium (NaV1.5) channels. Second, we showed the feasibility of simultaneous recording of membrane current and force development during contraction of isolated cardiomyocytes. Force feedback allowed for a gentle and stable contact between AFM tip and cell membrane enabling serial patch clamping and injection without apparent cell damage.

  20. Scale-adaptive Local Patches for Robust Visual Object Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Sun

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the problem of robustly tracking objects which undergo rapid and dramatic scale changes. To remove the weakness of global appearance models, we present a novel scheme that combines object’s global and local appearance features. The local feature is a set of local patches that geometrically constrain the changes in the target’s appearance. In order to adapt to the object’s geometric deformation, the local patches could be removed and added online. The addition of these patches is constrained by the global features such as color, texture and motion. The global visual features are updated via the stable local patches during tracking. To deal with scale changes, we adapt the scale of patches in addition to adapting the object bound box. We evaluate our method by comparing it to several state-of-the-art trackers on publicly available datasets. The experimental results on challenging sequences confirm that, by using this scale-adaptive local patches and global properties, our tracker outperforms the related trackers in many cases by having smaller failure rate as well as better accuracy.

  1. Relevance of positive patch-test reactions to fragrance mix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devos, Steven A; Constandt, Lieve; Tupker, Ron A; Noz, Kathy C; Lucker, Georges P H; Bruynzeel, Derk P; Schuttelaar, Marie-Louise A; Kruyswijk, Mente R J; van Zuuren, Esther J; Vink, Jaqueline; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan; Kiemeney, Lambertus A L M; van der Valk, Pieter G M

    2008-01-01

    Fragrances are an important cause of allergic contact dermatitis. We presume that the traditional fragrance mix (FM) detects 70 to 80% of fragrance-allergic patients. FM has an irritant potential. Weak positive reactions may have a greater chance of being irrelevant than strong reactions. To improve the appraisal of FM patch-test reactions, we studied the relevance of reactions of different strength. We also studied the predictive value of the following on the relevance of the initial FM patch-test results: patch-test results of a repeated FM test; results of patch tests with balsam of Peru, colophony, and ingredients of the mix; and (history of) atopic dermatitis. One hundred thirty-eight patients who had doubtful positive (?+) or positive (+ to +++) reactions were included in the study. We determined relevance by history taking, location and course of the dermatitis, and additional patch testing. Patients were retested with FM and with each ingredient separately. The relevance of reactions to FM increases with the strength of the reactions. Predictors of relevance are the results of retesting with FM, the results of tests with the ingredients, and a history and/or present symptoms of atopic dermatitis. Retesting with FM and its ingredients may add to the benefit of patch testing.

  2. Living cardiac patch: the elixir for cardiac regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmanan, Rajesh; Krishnan, Uma Maheswari; Sethuraman, Swaminathan

    2012-12-01

    A thorough understanding of the cellular and muscle fiber orientation in left ventricular cardiac tissue is of paramount importance for the generation of artificial cardiac patches to treat the ischemic myocardium. The major challenge faced during cardiac patch engineering is to choose a perfect combination of three entities; cells, scaffolds and signaling molecules comprising the tissue engineering triad for repair and regeneration. This review provides an overview of various scaffold materials, their mechanical properties and fabrication methods utilized in cardiac patch engineering. Stem cell therapies in clinical trials and the commercially available cardiac patch materials were summarized in an attempt to provide a recent perspective in the treatment of heart failure. Various tissue engineering strategies employed thus far to construct viable thick cardiac patches is schematically illustrated. Though many strategies have been proposed for fabrication of various cardiac scaffold materials, the stage and severity of the disease condition demands the incorporation of additional cues in a suitable scaffold material. The scaffold may be nanofibrous patch, hydrogel or custom designed films. Integration of stem cells and biomolecular cues along with the scaffold may provide the right microenvironment for the repair of unhealthy left ventricular tissue as well as promote its regeneration.

  3. Successful application of large microneedle patches by human volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripolin, Anastasia; Quinn, James; Larrañeta, Eneko; Vicente-Perez, Eva Maria; Barry, Johanne; Donnelly, Ryan F

    2017-04-15

    We describe, for the first time, the design, production and evaluation of large microneedle patches. Such systems, based on 16 individual microneedle arrays (needle height 600μm), were prepared from aqueous blends of 15% w/w Gantrez ® S97 and 7.5% w/w poly(ethyleneglycol) 10,000Da. Ester-based crosslinking was confirmed by FTIR and mechanical strength was good. Insertion depths in a validated skin model were approximately 500μm. Ten human volunteers successfully self-inserted the microneedles of these larger patches in their skin, following appropriate instruction, as confirmed by transepidermal water loss measurements. The mean insertion depth ranged between 300 and 450μm over the area of the large patches. That this was not significantly different to a single unit MN patch self-applied by the same volunteers is encouraging. Microneedle patch sizes much larger than the 1-2cm 2 will be required if this technology is to be successfully translated to clinic for delivery of drug substances. The work described here suggests that use of such larger patches by patients can be successful, potentially opening up the possibility for a significant expansion of the size of the market for transdermal drug delivery. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluating Structural and Functional Characteristics of Various Ecological Patches in Different Range Conditions (Case Study: Semi -Steppe Rangeland of Aghche-Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Jafari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Rangeland condition assessment plays an important role in determining range health and applying appropriate management programs. This study aimed to evaluate the structure and function of a semi-steppe rangeland using Landscape Function Analysis technique (LFA in different land conditions in western Isfahan province, Iran. For this purpose, 4, 3 and 7 sites in different rangeland condition classes including very poor, poor, and moderate were selected respectively. In each site, a 30-meter transect was established and all kinds of patches and inter patches were identified and their lengths and widths were recorded. Also, in each ecological patch, 11 indicators of soil surface characteristics with three replications were measured, and their status was scored according to LFA method. The functionality indices of all the sites including soil stability, infiltration and nutrient cycling were measured. According to the statistical analysis results, most of the structural characteristics (number of patches, patch length, patch area index, landscape organization index and functional indices (infiltration, stability and nutrient cycling status varied significantly (α= 5% between rangeland sites with moderate and very poor condition. The changes of these structural and functional characteristics were not significant between range sites with moderate and poor, and also poor and very poor range conditions. According to the findings of this study, patch types' functionalities did not vary significantly in both rangeland sites with moderate and very poor conditions. The nutrient cycling index in patches formed by ‘forb, shrub and grass’ with poor range condition was significantly more than ‘forb’ and ‘grass’ patches. The study of range site functionality can assist managers in identifying possible ecological thresholds and prioritizing the sub-catchments and vegetation types for implementing range improvement practices.

  5. Whale sharks target dense prey patches of sergestid shrimp off Tanzania

    KAUST Repository

    Rohner, C. A.; Armstrong, A. J.; Pierce, S. J.; Prebble, C. E. M.; Cagua, E. F.; Cochran, J. E. M.; Berumen, Michael L.; Richardson, A. J.

    2015-01-01

    Large planktivores require high-density prey patches to make feeding energetically viable. This is a major challenge for species living in tropical and subtropical seas, such as whale sharks Rhincodon typus. Here, we characterize zooplankton biomass, size structure and taxonomic composition from whale shark feeding events and background samples at Mafia Island, Tanzania. The majority of whale sharks were feeding (73%, 380 of 524 observations), with the most common behaviour being active surface feeding (87%). We used 20 samples collected from immediately adjacent to feeding sharks and an additional 202 background samples for comparison to show that plankton biomass was ∼10 times higher in patches where whale sharks were feeding (25 vs. 2.6 mg m-3). Taxonomic analyses of samples showed that the large sergestid Lucifer hanseni (∼10 mm) dominated while sharks were feeding, accounting for ∼50% of identified items, while copepods (<2 mm) dominated background samples. The size structure was skewed towards larger animals representative of L.hanseni in feeding samples. Thus, whale sharks at Mafia Island target patches of dense, large, zooplankton dominated by sergestids. Large planktivores, such as whale sharks, which generally inhabit warm oligotrophic waters, aggregate in areas where they can feed on dense prey to obtain sufficient energy. © 2015 © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  6. Daytime pelagic schooling behaviour and relationships with plankton patch distribution in the Sicily Strait (Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Patti

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, hydroacoustic data collected with a scientific echosounder working at two frequencies (38 and 120 kHz over the continental shelf off the southern Sicilian coast were used in order to investigate the relationship between fish schools and plankton patches. Specifically, image analysis algorithms were applied to raw echograms in order to detect and characterise pelagic fish schools and plankton aggregations, considered as a proxy of food availability. The relationship was first investigated using estimated total plankton biomass over the whole water column and, second, by dividing the study area into three sub-regions and further distinguishing plankton patches between the surface and the bottom. In the relatively lower plankton abundance areas of Zone 1 (northern sector of the study area, results showed an inverse relationship between the biomass (and density of fish schools and the biomass of co-occurring plankton patches located close to the bottom. Instead, over the Sicilian-Maltese shelf (Zone 3, characterised by higher plankton abundances, a direct relationship was found when using plankton data from the whole water column. The observed difference between Zones 1 and 3 is probably due to diverse dominant fish species in the two sub-regions.

  7. Sutureless closure of scleral wounds in animal models by the use of laser welded biocompatible patches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Francesca; Matteini, Paolo; Menabuoni, Luca; Lenzetti, Ivo; Pini, Roberto

    2011-03-01

    The common procedures used to seal the scleral or conjunctival injuries are based on the traditional suturing techniques, that may induce foreign body reaction during the follow up, with subsequent inflammation and distress for the patient. In this work we present an experimental study on the laser welding of biocompatible patches onto ocular tissues, for the closure of surgical or trauma wounds. The study was performed ex vivo in animal models (porcine eyes). A penetrating perforation of the ocular tissue was performed with a surgical knife. The wound walls were approximated, and a biocompatible patch was put onto the outer surface of the tissue, in order to completely cover the wound as a plaster. The patches were prepared with a biocompatible and biodegradable polymer, showing high mechanical strength, good elasticity, high permeability for vapour and gases and rather low biodegradation. During preparation, Indocyanine Green (ICG) was included in the biopolymeric matrix, so that the films presented high absorption at 810 nm. Effective adhesion of the membranes to the ocular tissues was obtained by using diode laser light emitted from an 810 nm diode laser and delivered by means of a 300 μm core diameter optical fiber, to produce spots of local film/tissue adhesion, due to the photothermal effect at the interface. The result is an immediate closure of the wound, thus reducing post-operative complications due to inflammation.

  8. Population pharmacokinetic model of transdermal nicotine delivered from a matrix-type patch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linakis, Matthew W; Rower, Joseph E; Roberts, Jessica K; Miller, Eleanor I; Wilkins, Diana G; Sherwin, Catherine M T

    2017-12-01

    Nicotine addiction is an issue faced by millions of individuals worldwide. As a result, nicotine replacement therapies, such as transdermal nicotine patches, have become widely distributed and used. While the pharmacokinetics of transdermal nicotine have been extensively described using noncompartmental methods, there are few data available describing the between-subject variability in transdermal nicotine pharmacokinetics. The aim of this investigation was to use population pharmacokinetic techniques to describe this variability, particularly as it pertains to the absorption of nicotine from the transdermal patch. A population pharmacokinetic parent-metabolite model was developed using plasma concentrations from 25 participants treated with transdermal nicotine. Covariates tested in this model included: body weight, body mass index, body surface area (calculated using the Mosteller equation) and sex. Nicotine pharmacokinetics were best described with a one-compartment model with absorption based on a Weibull distribution and first-order elimination and a single compartment for the major metabolite, cotinine. Body weight was a significant covariate on apparent volume of distribution of nicotine (exponential scaling factor 1.42). After the inclusion of body weight in the model, no other covariates were significant. This is the first population pharmacokinetic model to describe the absorption and disposition of transdermal nicotine and its metabolism to cotinine and the pharmacokinetic variability between individuals who were administered the patch. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  9. Whale sharks target dense prey patches of sergestid shrimp off Tanzania

    KAUST Repository

    Rohner, C. A.

    2015-03-17

    Large planktivores require high-density prey patches to make feeding energetically viable. This is a major challenge for species living in tropical and subtropical seas, such as whale sharks Rhincodon typus. Here, we characterize zooplankton biomass, size structure and taxonomic composition from whale shark feeding events and background samples at Mafia Island, Tanzania. The majority of whale sharks were feeding (73%, 380 of 524 observations), with the most common behaviour being active surface feeding (87%). We used 20 samples collected from immediately adjacent to feeding sharks and an additional 202 background samples for comparison to show that plankton biomass was ∼10 times higher in patches where whale sharks were feeding (25 vs. 2.6 mg m-3). Taxonomic analyses of samples showed that the large sergestid Lucifer hanseni (∼10 mm) dominated while sharks were feeding, accounting for ∼50% of identified items, while copepods (<2 mm) dominated background samples. The size structure was skewed towards larger animals representative of L.hanseni in feeding samples. Thus, whale sharks at Mafia Island target patches of dense, large, zooplankton dominated by sergestids. Large planktivores, such as whale sharks, which generally inhabit warm oligotrophic waters, aggregate in areas where they can feed on dense prey to obtain sufficient energy. © 2015 © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  10. Novel Wearable Device for Blood Leakage Detection during Hemodialysis Using an Array Sensing Patch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yi-Chun; Lim, Bee-Yen; Ciou, Wei-Siang; Wu, Ming-Jui

    2016-06-09

    Hemodialysis (HD) is a clinical treatment that requires the puncturing of the body surface. However, needle dislodgement can cause a high risk of blood leakage and can be fatal to patients. Previous studies proposed several devices for blood leakage detection using optical or electrical techniques. Nonetheless, these methods used single-point detection and the design was not suitable for multi-bed monitoring. This study proposed a novel wearable device for blood leakage monitoring during HD using an array sensing patch. The array sensing patch combined with a mapping circuit and a wireless module could measure and transmit risk levels. The different risk levels could improve the working process of healthcare workers, and enhance their work efficiency and reduce inconvenience due to false alarms. Experimental results showed that each point of the sensing array could detect up to 0.1 mL of blood leakage and the array sensing patch supports a risk level monitoring system up to 8 h to alert healthcare personnel of pertinent danger to the patients.

  11. Novel Wearable Device for Blood Leakage Detection during Hemodialysis Using an Array Sensing Patch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chun Du

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hemodialysis (HD is a clinical treatment that requires the puncturing of the body surface. However, needle dislodgement can cause a high risk of blood leakage and can be fatal to patients. Previous studies proposed several devices for blood leakage detection using optical or electrical techniques. Nonetheless, these methods used single-point detection and the design was not suitable for multi-bed monitoring. This study proposed a novel wearable device for blood leakage monitoring during HD using an array sensing patch. The array sensing patch combined with a mapping circuit and a wireless module could measure and transmit risk levels. The different risk levels could improve the working process of healthcare workers, and enhance their work efficiency and reduce inconvenience due to false alarms. Experimental results showed that each point of the sensing array could detect up to 0.1 mL of blood leakage and the array sensing patch supports a risk level monitoring system up to 8 h to alert healthcare personnel of pertinent danger to the patients.

  12. Improved image registration by sparse patch-based deformation estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minjeong; Wu, Guorong; Wang, Qian; Lee, Seong-Whan; Shen, Dinggang

    2015-01-15

    Despite intensive efforts for decades, deformable image registration is still a challenging problem due to the potential large anatomical differences across individual images, which limits the registration performance. Fortunately, this issue could be alleviated if a good initial deformation can be provided for the two images under registration, which are often termed as the moving subject and the fixed template, respectively. In this work, we present a novel patch-based initial deformation prediction framework for improving the performance of existing registration algorithms. Our main idea is to estimate the initial deformation between subject and template in a patch-wise fashion by using the sparse representation technique. We argue that two image patches should follow the same deformation toward the template image if their patch-wise appearance patterns are similar. To this end, our framework consists of two stages, i.e., the training stage and the application stage. In the training stage, we register all training images to the pre-selected template, such that the deformation of each training image with respect to the template is known. In the application stage, we apply the following four steps to efficiently calculate the initial deformation field for the new test subject: (1) We pick a small number of key points in the distinctive regions of the test subject; (2) for each key point, we extract a local patch and form a coupled appearance-deformation dictionary from training images where each dictionary atom consists of the image intensity patch as well as their respective local deformations; (3) a small set of training image patches in the coupled dictionary are selected to represent the image patch of each subject key point by sparse representation. Then, we can predict the initial deformation for each subject key point by propagating the pre-estimated deformations on the selected training patches with the same sparse representation coefficients; and (4) we

  13. Maxwell's equations in axisymmetrical geometry: coupling H(curl) finite element in volume and H(div) finite element in surface. The numerical code FuMel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cambon, S.; Lacoste, P.

    2011-01-01

    We propose a finite element method to solve the axisymmetric scattering problem posed on a regular bounded domain. Here we shall show how to reduce the initial 3D problem into a truncated sum of 2D independent problems posed into a meridian plane of the object. Each of these problem results in the coupling of a partial differential equation into the interior domain and an integral equation on the surface simulating the free space. Then variational volume and boundary integral formulations of Maxwell's equation on regular surfaces are derived. We introduce some general finite element adapted to cylindrical coordinates and constructed from nodal and mixed finite element both for the interior (volume) and for the integral equation (surface). (authors)

  14. Patch Transporter: Incentivized, Decentralized Software Patch System for WSN and IoT Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, JongHyup

    2018-01-01

    In the complicated settings of WSN (Wireless Sensor Networks) and IoT (Internet of Things) environments, keeping a number of heterogeneous devices updated is a challenging job, especially with respect to effectively discovering target devices and rapidly delivering the software updates. In this paper, we convert the traditional software update process to a distributed service. We set an incentive system for faithfully transporting the patches to the recipient devices. The incentive system motivates independent, self-interested transporters for helping the devices to be updated. To ensure the system correctly operates, we employ the blockchain system that enforces the commitment in a decentralized manner. We also present a detailed specification for the proposed protocol and validate it by model checking and simulations for correctness. PMID:29438337

  15. Patch Transporter: Incentivized, Decentralized Software Patch System for WSN and IoT Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, JongHyup

    2018-02-13

    [-12]In the complicated settings of WSN (Wireless Sensor Networks) and IoT (Internet of Things) environments, keeping a number of heterogeneous devices updated is a challenging job, especially with respect to effectively discovering target devices and rapidly delivering the software updates. In this paper, we convert the traditional software update process to a distributed service. We set an incentive system for faithfully transporting the patches to the recipient devices. The incentive system motivates independent, self-interested transporters for helping the devices to be updated. To ensure the system correctly operates, we employ the blockchain system that enforces the commitment in a decentralized manner. We also present a detailed specification for the proposed protocol and validate it by model checking and simulations for correctness.

  16. Patch Transporter: Incentivized, Decentralized Software Patch System for WSN and IoT Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JongHyup Lee

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In the complicated settings of WSN (Wireless Sensor Networks and IoT (Internet of Things environments, keeping a number of heterogeneous devices updated is a challenging job, especially with respect to effectively discovering target devices and rapidly delivering the software updates. In this paper, we convert the traditional software update process to a distributed service. We set an incentive system for faithfully transporting the patches to the recipient devices. The incentive system motivates independent, self-interested transporters for helping the devices to be updated. To ensure the system correctly operates, we employ the blockchain system that enforces the commitment in a decentralized manner. We also present a detailed specification for the proposed protocol and validate it by model checking and simulations for correctness.

  17. Travelling-wave similarity solutions for a steadily translating slender dry patch in a thin fluid film

    KAUST Repository

    Yatim, Y. M.

    2013-01-01

    A novel family of three-dimensional travelling-wave similarity solutions describing a steadily translating slender dry patch in an infinitely wide thin fluid film on an inclined planar substrate when surface-tension effects are negligible is obtained, the flow being driven by gravity and/or a prescribed constant shear stress on the free surface of the film. For both driving mechanisms, the dry patch has a parabolic shape (which may be concave up or concave down the substrate), and the film thickness increases monotonically away from the contact lines to its uniform far-field value. The two most practically important cases of purely gravity-driven flow and of purely surface-shear-stress-driven flow are analysed separately. © 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.

  18. CRUCIB: an axisymmetric convection code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertram, L.A.

    1975-03-01

    The CRUCIB code was written in support of an experimental program aimed at measurement of thermal diffusivities of refractory liquids. Precise values of diffusivity are necessary to realistic analysis of reactor safety problems, nuclear waste disposal procedures, and fundamental metal forming processes. The code calculates the axisymmetric transient convective motions produced in a right circular cylindrical crucible, which is surface heated by an annular heat pulse. Emphasis of this report is placed on the input-output options of the CRUCIB code, which are tailored to assess the importance of the convective heat transfer in determining the surface temperature distribution. Use is limited to Prandtl numbers less than unity; larger values can be accommodated by replacement of a single block of the code, if desired. (U.S.)

  19. QUIL: a chemical equilibrium code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunsford, J.L.

    1977-02-01

    A chemical equilibrium code QUIL is described, along with two support codes FENG and SURF. QUIL is designed to allow calculations on a wide range of chemical environments, which may include surface phases. QUIL was written specifically to calculate distributions associated with complex equilibria involving fission products in the primary coolant loop of the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor. QUIL depends upon an energy-data library called ELIB. This library is maintained by FENG and SURF. FENG enters into the library all reactions having standard free energies of reaction that are independent of concentration. SURF enters all surface reactions into ELIB. All three codes are interactive codes written to be used from a remote terminal, with paging control provided. Plotted output is also available

  20. Patch dynamics of a foraging assemblage of bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, David Hamilton

    1985-03-01

    The composition and dynamics of foraging assemblages of bees were examined from the standpoint of species-level arrival and departure processes in patches of flowers. Experiments with bees visiting 4 different species of flowers in subalpine meadows in Colorado gave the following results: 1) In enriched patches the rates of departure of bees were reduced, resulting in increases in both the number of bees per species and the average number of species present. 2) The reduction in bee departure rates from enriched patches was due to mechanical factors-increased flower handling time, and to behavioral factors-an increase in the number of flowers visited per inflorescence and in the number of inflorescences visited per patch. Bees foraging in enriched patches could collect nectar 30-45% faster than those foraging in control patches. 3) The quantitative changes in foraging assemblages due to enrichment, in terms of means and variances of species population sizes, fraction of time a species was present in a patch, and in mean and variance of the number of species present, were in reasonable agreement with predictions drawn from queuing theory and studies in island biogeography. 4) Experiments performed with 2 species of flowers with different corolla tube lengths demonstrated that manipulation of resources of differing availability had unequal effects on particular subsets of the larger foraging community. The arrival-departure process of bees on flowers and the immigration-extinction process of species on islands are contrasted, and the value of the stochastic, species-level approach to community composition is briefly discussed.

  1. Odd man in the oil patch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Oil companies are taking a serious look at ways to cut exploration costs. Conventional hydrocarbon finding technologies is based on geological and seismic work. Geological data can cost thousands of dollars. A new method being reviewed is that of surface technology that tests soil and rock for signs of hydrocarbons that have migrated from underground pools to or near the surface. The techniques range from testing for the presence of microbes that consume hydrocarbons to radioactive imprints. Members of the oil industry are looking for the competitive edge by reducing exploration costs, using new surface technology to reduce the cost of a barrel of oil, and by increasing the success rate in finding economically feasible hydrocarbons

  2. Automatic coding method of the ACR Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kwi Ae; Ihm, Jong Sool; Ahn, Woo Hyun; Baik, Seung Kook; Choi, Han Yong; Kim, Bong Gi

    1993-01-01

    The authors developed a computer program for automatic coding of ACR(American College of Radiology) code. The automatic coding of the ACR code is essential for computerization of the data in the department of radiology. This program was written in foxbase language and has been used for automatic coding of diagnosis in the Department of Radiology, Wallace Memorial Baptist since May 1992. The ACR dictionary files consisted of 11 files, one for the organ code and the others for the pathology code. The organ code was obtained by typing organ name or code number itself among the upper and lower level codes of the selected one that were simultaneous displayed on the screen. According to the first number of the selected organ code, the corresponding pathology code file was chosen automatically. By the similar fashion of organ code selection, the proper pathologic dode was obtained. An example of obtained ACR code is '131.3661'. This procedure was reproducible regardless of the number of fields of data. Because this program was written in 'User's Defined Function' from, decoding of the stored ACR code was achieved by this same program and incorporation of this program into program in to another data processing was possible. This program had merits of simple operation, accurate and detail coding, and easy adjustment for another program. Therefore, this program can be used for automation of routine work in the department of radiology

  3. Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS): Imagery of near-surface phytoplankton pigment concentrations from the first coastal ocean dynamics experiment (CODE-1), March - July 1981

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, M. R.; Zion, P. M.

    1984-01-01

    As part of the first Coastal Ocean Dynamics Experiment, images of ocean color were collected from late March until late July, 1981, by the Coastal Zone Color Scanner aboard Nimbus-7. Images that had sufficient cloud-free area to be of interest were processed to yield near-surface phytoplankton pigment concentrations. These images were then remapped to a fixed equal-area grid. This report contains photographs of the digital images and a brief description of the processing methods.

  4. Error-correction coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinds, Erold W. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the progress made towards the completion of a specific task on error-correcting coding. The proposed research consisted of investigating the use of modulation block codes as the inner code of a concatenated coding system in order to improve the overall space link communications performance. The study proposed to identify and analyze candidate codes that will complement the performance of the overall coding system which uses the interleaved RS (255,223) code as the outer code.

  5. Rotigotine transdermal patch for the treatment of Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Lloret, Santiago; Rey, María Verónica; Ratti, Pietro Lucca; Rascol, Olivier

    2013-02-01

    Rotigotine, a non-ergot dopamine agonist, has been developed as a novel transdermal formulation. The rotigotine transdermal patch has received EMEA marketing authorization for the treatment of adult patients with early or advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) or with moderate to severe restless legs syndrome (RLS). FDA originally granted a marketing authorization for early PD, which was later suspended, and is now studying the authorization for RLS. The aim of this review is to review the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics as well as the clinical efficacy and tolerability of the rotigotine transdermal patch in PD. Source material was identified using a PubMed search for the term 'rotigotine' and PD. Articles published up to January 2011 or abstract submitted to most relevant international neurology congresses were reviewed. The rotigotine transdermal patch is efficacious for the treatment of PD. Tolerability profile appears to be well within the range of that observed with other non-ergot dopamine agonists in PD. Application-site reactions were the most frequent adverse event, and they were considered mild to moderate in the majority of cases. The rotigotine transdermal patch offers a safe and efficacious alternative for the treatment of PD. Further studies should focus on the possibility that continuous dopamine stimulation by means of the transdermal patch has any influence on levodopa-related motor complications. © 2012 The Authors Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology © 2012 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  6. Results of patch testing with lavender oil in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, M; Hayakawa, R; Kato, Y; Sugiura, K; Hashimoto, R

    2000-09-01

    We report the annual results of patch testing with lavender oil for a 9-year period from 1990 to 1998 in Japan. Using Finn Chambers and Scanpor tape, we performed 2-day closed patch testing with lavender oil 20% pet. on the upper back of each patient suspected of having cosmetic contact dermatitis. We compared the frequency of positive patch tests to lavender oil each year with those to other fragrances. We diagnosed contact allergy when patch test reactions were + or Japan, there has been a trend for aromatherapy using lavender oil. With this trend, placing dried lavender flowers in pillows, drawers, cabinets, or rooms has become a new fashion. We asked patients who showed a positive reaction to lavender oil about their use of dried lavender flowers. We confirmed the use of dried lavender flowers in 5 cases out of 11 positive cases in 1997 and 8 out of 15 positive cases in 1998. We concluded that the increase in patch test positivity rates to lavender oil in 1997 and 1998 was due to the above fashion, rather than due to fragrances in cosmetic products.

  7. Bilateral patching in retinal detachment: fluid mechanics and retinal "settling".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, William J

    2011-07-20

    When a patient suffers a retinal detachment and surgery is delayed, it is known clinically that bilaterally patching the patient may allow the retina to partially reattach or "settle." Although this procedure has been performed since the 1860s, there is still debate as to how such a maneuver facilitates the reattachment of the retina. Finite element calculations using commercially available analysis software are used to elucidate the influence of reduction in eye movement caused by bilateral patching on the flow of subretinal fluid in a physical model of retinal detachment. It was found that by coupling fluid mechanics with structural mechanics, a physically consistent explanation of increased retinal detachment with eye movements can be found in the case of traction on the retinal hole. Large eye movements increase vitreous traction and detachment forces on the edge of the retinal hole, creating a subretinal vacuum and facilitating increased subretinal fluid. Alternative models, in which intraocular fluid flow is redirected into the subretinal space, are not consistent with these simulations. The results of these simulations explain the physical principles behind bilateral patching and provide insight that can be used clinically. In particular, as is known clinically, bilateral patching may facilitate a decrease in the height of a retinal detachment. The results described here provide a description of a physical mechanism underlying this technique. The findings of this study may aid in deciding whether to bilaterally patch patients and in counseling patients on pre- and postoperative care.

  8. A DOUBLE E SHAPED MICROSTRIP PATCH ANTENNA FOR MULTIBAND APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pristin K Mathew

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a dual band Compact double E shaped Microstrip Patch antenna with enhanced gain for Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WI-MAX, Universal Mobile Telecommunication Systems (UMTS and Satellite applications. The modified E shaped patch antenna is designed using CADFEKO and the results of return loss, Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR, gain of the proposed antenna are compared with a conventional E shaped patch antenna. The results show that the double E shaped wideband patch antenna has an impedance bandwidth of 10.7 % with a return loss of -13.6dB, -12.4 dB, -12.1dB and -14.2dB at resonant frequencies of 1.96 GHz, 3.62 GHz, 5.76 GHz and 6.82 GHz, whereas a conventional E shaped patch antenna operates at 2.5 GHz, 3.4 GHz and 5.5 GHz with a return loss of -16 dB each and impedance bandwidth of 10.6 %. Both the antennas uses Coaxial Probe feeding technique and Flame Retardant 4 (FR-4 as the substrate material with a thickness of 2.87 mm. A parametric study has been done so as to understand the effect of each parameter to obtain a better performance and optimised results.

  9. Modeling of endovascular patch welding using the computer program LATIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glinsky, M.E.; London, R.A.; Zimmerman, G.B.; Jacques, S.L.

    1995-01-01

    A new computer program, LATIS, being developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is used to study the effect of pulsed laser irradiation on endovascular patch welding. Various physical and biophysical effects are included in these simulations: laser light scattering and absorption, tissue heating and heat conduction, vascular cooling, and tissue thermal damage. The geometry of a patch being held against the inner vessel wall (500 μm inner diameter) by a balloon is considered. The system is exposed to light pulsed from an optical fiber inside the balloon. A minimum in the depth of damage into the vessel wall is found. The minimum damage zone is about the thickness of the patch material that is heated by the laser. The more ordered the tissue the thinner the minimum zone of damage. The pulse length which minimizes the zone of damage is found to be the time for energy to diffuse across the layer. The delay time between the pulses is determined by the time for the heated layer to cool down. An optimal pulse length exists which minimizes the total time needed to weld the patch to the wall while keeping the thickness of the damaged tissue to less than 100 μm. For the case that is considered, a patch dyed with light absorbing ICG on the side next to the vessel (thickness of the dyed layer is 60 μm), the best protocol is found to be 65-200 ms pulses applied over 2 min

  10. Patching the Exchange-Correlation Potential in Density Functional Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chen

    2016-05-10

    A method for directly patching exchange-correlation (XC) potentials in materials is derived. The electron density of a system is partitioned into subsystem densities by dividing its Kohn-Sham (KS) potential among the subsystems. Inside each subsystem, its projected KS potential is required to become the total system's KS potential. This requirement, together with the nearsightedness principle of electronic matters, ensures that the electronic structures inside subsystems can be good approximations to the total system's electronic structure. The nearsightedness principle also ensures that subsystem densities could be well localized in their regions, making it possible to use high-level methods to invert the XC potentials for subsystem densities. Two XC patching methods are developed. In the local XC patching method, the total system's XC potential is improved in the cluster region. We show that the coupling between a cluster and its environment is important for achieving a fast convergence of the electronic structure in the cluster region. In the global XC patching method, we discuss how to patch the subsystem XC potentials to construct the XC potential in the total system, aiming to scale up high-level quantum mechanics simulations of materials. Proof-of-principle examples are given.

  11. Foraging decisions, patch use, and seasonality in egrets (Aves: ciconiiformes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, R.M.

    1985-01-01

    Feeding snowy (Egretta thula) and great (Casmerodius albus) egrets were observed during 2 breeding seasons in coastal New Jersey and 2 brief winter periods in northeast Florida (USA). A number of tests based on assumptions of foraging models, predictions from foraging theory, and earlier empirical tests concerning time allocation and movement in foraging patches was made. Few of the expectations based on foraging theory and/or assumptions were supported by the empirical evidence. Snowy egrets fed with greater intensity and efficiency during the breeding season (when young were being fed) than during winter. They also showed some tendency to leave patches when their capture rate declined, and they spent more time foraging in patches when other birds were present nearby. Great egrets showed few of these tendencies, although they did leave patches when their intercapture intervals increased. Satiation differences had some influence on feeding rates in snowy egrets, but only at the end of feeding bouts. Some individuals of both species revisited areas in patches that had recently been exploited, and success rates were usually higher after the 2nd visit. Apparently, for predators of active prey, short-term changes in resource availability ('resource depression') may be more important than resource depletion, a common assumption in most optimal foraging theory models.

  12. Robust Tracking with Discriminative Ranking Middle-Level Patches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Liu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The appearance model has been shown to be essential for robust visual tracking since it is the basic criterion to locating targets in video sequences. Though existing tracking-by-detection algorithms have shown to be greatly promising, they still suffer from the drift problem, which is caused by updating appearance models. In this paper, we propose a new appearance model composed of ranking middle-level patches to capture more object distinctiveness than traditional tracking-by-detection models. Targets and backgrounds are represented by both low-level bottom-up features and high-level top-down patches, which can compensate each other. Bottom-up features are defined at the pixel level, and each feature gets its discrimination score through selective feature attention mechanism. In top-down feature extraction, rectangular patches are ranked according to their bottom-up discrimination scores, by which all of them are clustered into irregular patches, named ranking middle-level patches. In addition, at the stage of classifier training, the online random forests algorithm is specially refined to reduce drifting problems. Experiments on challenging public datasets and our test videos demonstrate that our approach can effectively prevent the tracker drifting problem and obtain competitive performance in visual tracking.

  13. Dissolving Microneedle Patch for Transdermal Delivery of Human Growth Hormone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong Woo; Choi, Seong-O; Felner, Eric I.

    2014-01-01

    Clinical impact of biotechnology has been constrained by the limitations of traditional hypodermic injection of biopharmaceuticals. Microneedle patches have been proposed as a minimally invasive alternative. In this study, we assess the translation of a dissolving microneedle patch designed for simple, painless self-administration of biopharmacetucials that generates no sharp biohazardous waste. To study pharmacokinetics and safety of this approach, human growth hormone (hGH) was encapsulated in 600 μm long dissolving microneedles composed of carboxymethylcellulose and trehalose using an aqueous, moderate-temperature process that maintained complete hGH activity after encapsulation and retained most activity after storage for up to 15 months at room temperature and humidity. After manual insertion into the skin of hairless rats, hGH pharmacokinetics were similar to conventional subcutaneous injection. After patch removal, the microneedles had almost completely dissolved, leaving behind only blunt stubs. The dissolving microneedle patch was well tolerated, causing only slight, transient erythema. This study suggests that a dissolving microneedle patch can deliver hGH and other biopharmaceuticals in a manner suitable for self-administration without sharp biohazardous waste. PMID:21360810

  14. The effect of transdermal nicotine patches on sleep and dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, F; Coleman, G; Conduit, R

    2006-07-30

    This study was undertaken to determine the effect of 24-h transdermal nicotine patches on sleep and dream mentation in 15 smokers aged 20 to 33. Utilising a repeated measures design, it was found that more time awake and more ASDA micro-arousals occurred while wearing the nicotine patch compared to placebo. Also, the percentage of REM sleep decreased, but REM latency and the proportion of time spent in NREM sleep stages did not change significantly. Dream reports containing visual imagery, visual imagery ratings and the number of visualizable nouns were significantly greater from REM compared to Stage 2 awakenings, regardless of patch condition. However, a general interaction effect was observed. Stage 2 dream variables remained equivalent across nicotine and placebo conditions. Within REM sleep, more dream reports containing visual imagery occurred while wearing the nicotine patch, and these were rated as more vivid. The greater frequency of visual imagery reports and higher imagery ratings specifically from REM sleep suggests that previously reported dreaming side effects from 24-h nicotine patches may be specific to REM sleep. Combined with previous animal studies showing that transdermally delivered nicotine blocks PGO activity in REM sleep, the current results do no appear consistent with PGO-based hypotheses of dreaming, such as the Activation-Synthesis (AS) or Activation, Input and Modulation (AIM) models.

  15. Dynamic Shannon Coding

    OpenAIRE

    Gagie, Travis

    2005-01-01

    We present a new algorithm for dynamic prefix-free coding, based on Shannon coding. We give a simple analysis and prove a better upper bound on the length of the encoding produced than the corresponding bound for dynamic Huffman coding. We show how our algorithm can be modified for efficient length-restricted coding, alphabetic coding and coding with unequal letter costs.

  16. Fundamentals of convolutional coding

    CERN Document Server

    Johannesson, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Fundamentals of Convolutional Coding, Second Edition, regarded as a bible of convolutional coding brings you a clear and comprehensive discussion of the basic principles of this field * Two new chapters on low-density parity-check (LDPC) convolutional codes and iterative coding * Viterbi, BCJR, BEAST, list, and sequential decoding of convolutional codes * Distance properties of convolutional codes * Includes a downloadable solutions manual

  17. Codes Over Hyperfields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atamewoue Surdive

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we define linear codes and cyclic codes over a finite Krasner hyperfield and we characterize these codes by their generator matrices and parity check matrices. We also demonstrate that codes over finite Krasner hyperfields are more interesting for code theory than codes over classical finite fields.

  18. Paneling architectural freeform surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Eigensatz, Michael; Kilian, Martin; Schiftner, Alexander; Mitra, Niloy J.; Pottmann, Helmut; Pauly, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The emergence of large-scale freeform shapes in architecture poses big challenges to the fabrication of such structures. A key problem is the approximation of the design surface by a union of patches, socalled panels, that can be manufactured with a

  19. Ulex europaeus 1 lectin targets microspheres to mouse Peyer's patch M-cells in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, N; Clark, M A; Jepson, M A; Hirst, B H

    1998-03-01

    The interaction of latex microspheres with mouse Peyer's patch membranous M-cells was studied in a mouse gut loop model after the microspheres were coated with a variety of agents. Carboxylated microspheres (diameter 0.5 micron) were covalently coated with lectins Ulex europaeus 1, Concanavalin A, Euonymus europaeus and Bandeiraea simplicifolia 1 isolectin-B4, human immunoglobulin A or bovine serum albumin. Of the treatments examined, only Ulex europaeus (UEA1) resulted in significant selective binding of microspheres to M-cells. UEA1-coated microspheres bound to M-cells at a level 100-fold greater than BSA-coated microspheres, but binding to enterocytes was unaffected. Incubation of UEA1-coated microspheres with alpha-L-fucose reduced M-cell binding to a level comparable with BSA-coated microspheres. This indicated that targeting by UEA1 was via a carbohydrate receptor on the M-cell surface. Adherence of UEA1-coated microspheres to M-cells occurred within 10 min of inoculation into mouse gut loops and UEA1-coated microspheres were transported to 10 microns below the apical surface of M-cells within 60 min of inoculation. UEA1-coated microspheres also targeted mouse Peyer's patch M-cells after intragastric administration. These results demonstrated that altering the surface chemistry of carboxylated polystyrene microspheres increased M-cell targeting, suggesting a strategy to enhance delivery of vaccine antigens to the mucosal immune system.

  20. Structure-aware Local Sparse Coding for Visual Tracking

    KAUST Repository

    Qi, Yuankai

    2018-01-24

    Sparse coding has been applied to visual tracking and related vision problems with demonstrated success in recent years. Existing tracking methods based on local sparse coding sample patches from a target candidate and sparsely encode these using a dictionary consisting of patches sampled from target template images. The discriminative strength of existing methods based on local sparse coding is limited as spatial structure constraints among the template patches are not exploited. To address this problem, we propose a structure-aware local sparse coding algorithm which encodes a target candidate using templates with both global and local sparsity constraints. For robust tracking, we show local regions of a candidate region should be encoded only with the corresponding local regions of the target templates that are the most similar from the global view. Thus, a more precise and discriminative sparse representation is obtained to account for appearance changes. To alleviate the issues with tracking drifts, we design an effective template update scheme. Extensive experiments on challenging image sequences demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm against numerous stateof- the-art methods.

  1. Electrostatic attraction between overall neutral surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adar, Ram M; Andelman, David; Diamant, Haim

    2016-08-01

    Two overall neutral surfaces with positively and negatively charged domains ("patches") have been shown in recent experiments to exhibit long-range attraction when immersed in an ionic solution. Motivated by the experiments, we calculate analytically the osmotic pressure between such surfaces within the Poisson-Boltzmann framework, using a variational principle for the surface-averaged free energy. The electrostatic potential, calculated beyond the linear Debye-Hückel theory, yields an overall attraction at large intersurface separations, over a wide range of the system's controlled length scales. In particular, the attraction is stronger and occurs at smaller separations for surface patches of larger size and charge density. In this large patch limit, we find that the attraction-repulsion crossover separation is inversely proportional to the square of the patch-charge density and to the Debye screening length.

  2. A Patch Density Recommendation based on Convergence Studies for Vehicle Panel Vibration Response resulting from Excitation by a Diffuse Acoustic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew; LaVerde, Bruce; Jones, Douglas; Towner, Robert; Waldon, James; Hunt, Ron

    2013-01-01

    Producing fluid structural interaction estimates of panel vibration from an applied pressure field excitation are quite dependent on the spatial correlation of the pressure field. There is a danger of either over estimating a low frequency response or under predicting broad band panel response in the more modally dense bands if the pressure field spatial correlation is not accounted for adequately. It is a useful practice to simulate the spatial correlation of the applied pressure field over a 2d surface using a matrix of small patch area regions on a finite element model (FEM). Use of a fitted function for the spatial correlation between patch centers can result in an error if the choice of patch density is not fine enough to represent the more continuous spatial correlation function throughout the intended frequency range of interest. Several patch density assumptions to approximate the fitted spatial correlation function are first evaluated using both qualitative and quantitative illustrations. The actual response of a typical vehicle panel system FEM is then examined in a convergence study where the patch density assumptions are varied over the same model. The convergence study results illustrate the impacts possible from a poor choice of patch density on the analytical response estimate. The fitted correlation function used in this study represents a diffuse acoustic field (DAF) excitation of the panel to produce vibration response.

  3. Evaluation of Desensol As a Standard Patch Test Kit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K C Shah

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available In a study undertaken to find out the usefulness of ′Desensol′ patch test kit to detect contact allergens, in 200 cases revealed 24 cases with negative patch test with all the antigens and 55 cases reacted to even the Vaseline control. -Excluding these 79 cases, the common contact allergens were potassium bichr6ma,te, (40.49%, TMTD(28.92%, PPD(24.79%, epoxy resin (23.14%, colophony (19.0%, nickel sulfate (19.0%, Framycetin (19.0% and nitrofurazone (19.0%. Desensol patch test kit is lacking in certain antigens while in our country due to varied environmental factors and social customs, a person is exposed to a large number of natural and man-made contact allergens. So usefulness of such a kit like. Desensol is limited.

  4. Recommended Practice for Patch Management of Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Tom; Dale Christiansen; Dan Berrett

    2008-12-01

    A key component in protecting a nation’s critical infrastructure and key resources is the security of control systems. The term industrial control system refers to supervisory control and data acquisition, process control, distributed control, and any other systems that control, monitor, and manage the nation’s critical infrastructure. Critical Infrastructure and Key Resources (CIKR) consists of electric power generators, transmission systems, transportation systems, dam and water systems, communication systems, chemical and petroleum systems, and other critical systems that cannot tolerate sudden interruptions in service. Simply stated, a control system gathers information and then performs a function based on its established parameters and the information it receives. The patch management of industrial control systems software used in CIKR is inconsistent at best and nonexistent at worst. Patches are important to resolve security vulnerabilities and functional issues. This report recommends patch management practices for consideration and deployment by industrial control systems owners.

  5. Image superresolution of cytology images using wavelet based patch search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Carlos; García-Arteaga, Juan D.; Romero, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Telecytology is a new research area that holds the potential of significantly reducing the number of deaths due to cervical cancer in developing countries. This work presents a novel super-resolution technique that couples high and low frequency information in order to reduce the bandwidth consumption of cervical image transmission. The proposed approach starts by decomposing into wavelets the high resolution images and transmitting only the lower frequency coefficients. The transmitted coefficients are used to reconstruct an image of the original size. Additional details are added by iteratively replacing patches of the wavelet reconstructed image with equivalent high resolution patches from a previously acquired image database. Finally, the original transmitted low frequency coefficients are used to correct the final image. Results show a higher signal to noise ratio in the proposed method over simply discarding high frequency wavelet coefficients or replacing directly down-sampled patches from the image-database.

  6. Retrospective evaluation of the consequence of alleged patch test sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Charlotte D; Paulsen, Evy; Andersen, Klaus E

    2006-01-01

    The risk of actively sensitizing a patient in connection with diagnostic patch tests exists. This risk, however, is extremely low, especially from standard allergens, and if the test is carried out according to internationally accepted guidelines. This retrospective study investigates the clinical...... or available for the follow-up investigation and 3 patients were not traceable. Among the 14 remaining patients 1 had a reaction to gold sodium thiosulphate, which was assessed to be a persistent reaction and not a late reaction, and in 2 patients a clear relevance for the late reacting allergen was found....... For the remaining 11 patients we could not rule out that they were patch test sensitized, and they were investigated further. 1 was diseased and 10 were interviewed regarding the possible consequences of the alleged patch test sensitization. 9 had not experienced any dermatitis problems, and 1 could not exclude...

  7. Patch models and their applications to multivehicle command and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Venkatesh G; D'Andrea, Raffaello

    2007-06-01

    We introduce patch models, a computational modeling formalism for multivehicle combat domains, based on spatiotemporal abstraction methods developed in the computer science community. The framework yields models that are expressive enough to accommodate nontrivial controlled vehicle dynamics while being within the representational capabilities of common artificial intelligence techniques used in the construction of autonomous systems. The framework allows several key design requirements of next-generation network-centric command and control systems, such as maintenance of shared situation awareness, to be achieved. Major features include support for multiple situation models at each decision node and rapid mission plan adaptation. We describe the formal specification of patch models and our prototype implementation, i.e., Patchworks. The capabilities of patch models are validated through a combat mission simulation in Patchworks, which involves two defending teams protecting a camp from an enemy attacking team.

  8. Clinical effect of 1g/L anthocyanin eye-patch for mild and moderate dry eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke-Hua Wang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To evaluate the clinic efficacy of 1g/L anthocyanin eye-patch for mild and moderate dry eye. METHODS: In this prospective and multicenter study, a total of 320 cases(640 eyeswith mild and moderate dry eye were enrolled from 8 Aier Eye Hospitals in Changsha, Chongqing, Wuhan and so on from October 2016 to April 2017. The patients were assigned to eye patch group(160 casesand artificial tears group(160 casesbased on random number table. The patients in eye-patch group used 1g/L of anthocyanin eye-patch for more than 6h during night sleep, while the patients in artificial tears group used polyvinyl alcohol eye drops for 4 times per day. The evaluation of symptoms and signs were conducted on 1d before the treatment and 14d after the treatment. The evaluation of symptoms adopted the Ocular Surface Disease Index(OSDI, while the observation of signs included tear secretion test(Schirmer Ⅰ test, SⅠt, first noninvasive tear breakup time(NITBUTfas well as average noninvasive tear breakup time(NITBUTavmeasured by Oculus ocular surface analyser. RESULTS: OSDI score, NITBUTf and NITBUTav in the two groups after treatment were significantly improved compared with that before treatment, and the difference had a statistical significance(PP>0.05. There was no significant difference in OSDI score, NITBUTf, NITBUTav and SⅠt between the two groups after treatment(P>0.05.CONCLUSION: The 1g/L anthocyanin eye-patch has similar efficacy with artificial tears for mild and moderate dry eye, which can effectively improve the symptoms and tear film stability.

  9. SPRAY code user's report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shire, P.R.

    1977-03-01

    The SPRAY computer code has been developed to model the effects of postulated sodium spray release from LMFBR piping within containment chambers. The calculation method utilizes gas convection, heat transfer and droplet combustion theory to calculate the pressure and temperature effects within the enclosure. The applicable range is 0-21 mol percent oxygen and .02-.30 inch droplets with or without humidity. Droplet motion and large sodium surface area combine to produce rapid heat release and pressure rise within the enclosed volume

  10. Hydrological heterogeneity in Mediterranean reclaimed slopes: runoff and sediment yield at the patch and slope scales along a gradient of overland flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Merino-Martín

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Hydrological heterogeneity is recognized as a fundamental ecosystem attribute in drylands controlling the flux of water and energy through landscapes. Therefore, mosaics of runoff and sediment source patches and sinks are frequently identified in these dry environments. There is a remarkable scarcity of studies about hydrological spatial heterogeneity in restored slopes, where ecological succession and overland flow are interacting. We conducted field research to study the hydrological role of patches and slopes along an "overland flow gradient" (gradient of overland flow routing through the slopes caused by different amounts of run-on coming from upslope in three reclaimed mining slopes of Mediterranean-continental climate. We found that runoff generation and routing in non-rilled slopes showed a pattern of source and sink areas of runoff. Such hydrological microenvironments were associated with seven vegetation patches (characterized by plant community types and cover. Two types of sink patches were identified: shrub Genista scorpius patches could be considered as "deep sinks", while patches where the graminoids Brachypodium retusum and Lolium perenne dominate were classified as "surface sinks" or "runoff splays". A variety of source patches were also identified spanning from "extreme sources" (Medicago sativa patches; equivalent to bare soil to "poor sources" (areas scattered by dwarf-shrubs of Thymus vulgaris or herbaceous tussocks of Dactylis glomerata. Finally, we identified the volume of overland flow routing along the slope as a major controlling factor of "hydrological diversity" (heterogeneity of hydrological behaviours quantified as Shannon diversity index: when overland flow increases at the slope scale hydrological diversity diminishes.

  11. Investigation of contact allergy to dental materials by patch testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reena Rai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental products are widely used by patients and dental personnel alike and may cause problems for both. Dental materials could cause contact allergy with varying manifestations such as burning, pain, stomatitis, cheilitis, ulcers, lichenoid reactions localized to the oral mucosa in patients, and hand dermatitis in dental personnel. Patch testing with the dental series comprising commonly used materials can be used to detect contact allergies to dental materials. Aim: This study aimed to identify contact allergy among patients who have oral mucosal lesions after dental treatment and among dental personnel who came in contact with these materials. Materials and Methods: Twenty patients who had undergone dental procedures with symptoms of oral lichen planus, oral stomatitis, burning mouth, and recurrent aphthosis, were included in the study. Dental personnel with history of hand dermatitis were also included in the study. Patch testing was performed using Chemotechnique Dental Series and results interpreted as recommended by the International Contact Dermatitis Research Group (ICDRG. Results: Out of 13 patients who had undergone dental treatment/with oral symptoms, six patients with stomatitis, lichenoid lesions, and oral ulcers showed positive patch tests to a variety of dental materials, seven patients with ulcers had negative patch tests, seven dental personnel with hand dermatitis showed multiple allergies to various dental materials, and most had multiple positivities. Conclusion: The patch test is a useful, simple, noninvasive method to detect contact allergies among patients and among dental personnel dealing with these products. Long term studies are necessary to establish the relevance of these positive patch tests by eliminating the allergic substances, identifying clinical improvement, and substituting with nonallergenic materials.

  12. Novel Wideband Metallic Patch Antennas with Low Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-Xiang Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Two planar metallic patch (MP antennas with low profiles are investigated and compared in this paper. The MP of each antenna consists of metallic patch cells and it is centrally fed by a rectangular slot. Two modes with close resonance frequencies are excited, providing a quite wide bandwidth. The antenna principle is explained clearly through a parametric study. Simulated and measured results show that the MP antennas with profile of 0.06λ0 can obtain a 10 dB impedance bandwidth of ~32% and an average gain of ~10 dBi.

  13. Rebootless Linux Kernel Patching with Ksplice Uptrack at BNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollowell, Christopher; Pryor, James; Smith, Jason

    2012-01-01

    Ksplice/Oracle Uptrack is a software tool and update subscription service which allows system administrators to apply security and bug fix patches to the Linux kernel running on servers/workstations without rebooting them. The RHIC/ATLAS Computing Facility (RACF) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has deployed Uptrack on nearly 2,000 hosts running Scientific Linux and Red Hat Enterprise Linux. The use of this software has minimized downtime, and increased our security posture. In this paper, we provide an overview of Ksplice's rebootless kernel patch creation/insertion mechanism, and our experiences with Uptrack.

  14. Transparent biocompatible sensor patches for touch sensitive prosthetic limbs

    KAUST Repository

    Nag, Anindya

    2016-12-26

    The paper presents the fabrication of transparent, flexible sensor patches developed using a casting technique with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) as substrate and a nanocomposite of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and PDMS as interdigital electrodes. The electrodes act as strain sensitive capacitor. The prototypes were used as touch sensitive sensors attached to the limbs. Experiments results show the sensitivity of the patches towards tactile sensing. The results are very promising and can play a key role in the development of a cost efficient sensing system attached to prosthetic limbs.

  15. Transparent biocompatible sensor patches for touch sensitive prosthetic limbs

    KAUST Repository

    Nag, Anindya; Mukhopadhyay, Subhas; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents the fabrication of transparent, flexible sensor patches developed using a casting technique with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) as substrate and a nanocomposite of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and PDMS as interdigital electrodes. The electrodes act as strain sensitive capacitor. The prototypes were used as touch sensitive sensors attached to the limbs. Experiments results show the sensitivity of the patches towards tactile sensing. The results are very promising and can play a key role in the development of a cost efficient sensing system attached to prosthetic limbs.

  16. Flow characterization and patch clamp dose responses using jet microfluidics in a tubeless microfluidic device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resto, Pedro J; Bhat, Abhishek; Stava, Eric; Lor, Chong; Merriam, Elliot; Diaz-Rivera, Ruben E; Pearce, Robert; Blick, Robert; Williams, Justin C

    2017-11-01

    Surface tension passive pumping is a way to actuate flow without the need for pumps, tubing or valves by using the pressure inside small drop to move liquid via a microfluidic channel. These types of tubeless devices have typically been used in cell biology. Herein we present the use of tubeless devices as a fluid exchange platform for patch clamp electrophysiology. Inertia from high-speed droplets and jets is used to create flow and perform on-the-fly mixing of solutions. These are then flowed over GABA transfected HEK cells under patch in order to perform a dose response analysis. TIRF imaging and electrical recordings are used to study the fluid exchange properties of the microfluidic device, resulting in 0-90% fluid exchange times of hundreds of milliseconds. COMSOL is used to model flow and fluid exchange within the device. Patch-clamping experiments show the ability to use high-speed passive pumping and its derivatives for studying peak dose responses, but not for studying ion channel kinetics. Our system results in fluid exchange times slower than when using a standard 12-barrel application system and is not as stable as traditional methods, but it offers a new platform with added functionality. Surface tension passive pumping and tubeless devices can be used in a limited fashion for electrophysiology. Users may obtain peak dose responses but the system, in its current form, is not capable of fluid exchange fast enough to study the kinetics of most ion channels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of patch size on feeding associations in muriquis (Brachyteles arachnoides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strier, K B

    1989-01-01

    Data were collected on one group of muriquis, or woolly spider monkeys (Brachyteles arachnoides) during a 14-month study at Fazenda Montes Claros, Minas Gerais, Brazil to examine the effects of food patch size on muriqui feeding associations. Muriqui food patches were larger than expected from the availability of patch sizes in the forest; fruit patches were significantly larger than leaf patches. Feeding aggregate size, the maximum number of simultaneous occupants, and patch occupancy time were positively related to the size of fruit patches. However, a greater number of individuals fed at leaf sources than expected from the size of these patches. Adult females tended to feed alone in patches more often than males, whereas males tended to feed in single-sexed groups more often than females. Yet in neither case were these differences statistically significant.

  18. Necrotic patches affect Acropora palmata (Scleractinia: Acroporidae) in the Mexican Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Martínez, R E; Banaszak, A T; Jordán-Dahlgren, E

    2001-12-05

    An outbreak of necrotic patches was observed affecting Acropora palmata in the Mexican Caribbean in the summer of 1999. This study documents the tissue loss produced by these patches. Following a marked initial increase in the number of patches, there was a decrease in the appearance of new patches but the size of the patches increased throughout the study. In some cases patches expanded but in most cases they enlarged due to fusion of 2 or more patches. Patches recovered but not sufficiently to overcome damage in most colonies surveyed. Percentage tissue loss does not appear to be directly related to temperature but may be related to a combination of factors associated with prolonged summer doldrum-like conditions. The necrotic patch syndrome can have a substantial impact in tissue loss in affected A. palmata colonies.

  19. Vector Network Coding Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahimi, Javad; Fragouli, Christina

    2010-01-01

    We develop new algebraic algorithms for scalar and vector network coding. In vector network coding, the source multicasts information by transmitting vectors of length L, while intermediate nodes process and combine their incoming packets by multiplying them with L x L coding matrices that play a similar role as coding c in scalar coding. Our algorithms for scalar network jointly optimize the employed field size while selecting the coding coefficients. Similarly, for vector coding, our algori...

  20. Homological stabilizer codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Jonas T., E-mail: jonastyleranderson@gmail.com

    2013-03-15

    In this paper we define homological stabilizer codes on qubits which encompass codes such as Kitaev's toric code and the topological color codes. These codes are defined solely by the graphs they reside on. This feature allows us to use properties of topological graph theory to determine the graphs which are suitable as homological stabilizer codes. We then show that all toric codes are equivalent to homological stabilizer codes on 4-valent graphs. We show that the topological color codes and toric codes correspond to two distinct classes of graphs. We define the notion of label set equivalencies and show that under a small set of constraints the only homological stabilizer codes without local logical operators are equivalent to Kitaev's toric code or to the topological color codes. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We show that Kitaev's toric codes are equivalent to homological stabilizer codes on 4-valent graphs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We show that toric codes and color codes correspond to homological stabilizer codes on distinct graphs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We find and classify all 2D homological stabilizer codes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We find optimal codes among the homological stabilizer codes.

  1. A nucleation theory of cell surface capping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutsias, E.A.; Wester, M.J.; Perelson, A.S.

    1997-01-01

    We propose a new theory of cell surface capping based on the principles of nucleation. When antibody interacts with cell surface molecules, the molecules initially form small aggregates called patches that later coalesce into a large aggregate called a cap. While a cap can form by patches being pulled together by action of the cell''s cytoskeleton, in the case of some molecules, disruption of the cytoskeleton does not prevent cap formation. Diffusion of large aggregates on a cell surface is slow, and thus we propose that a cap can form solely through the diffusion of small aggregates containing just one or a few cell surface molecules. Here we consider the extreme case in which single molecules are mobile, but aggregates of all larger sizes are immobile. We show that a set of patches in equilibrium with a open-quotes seaclose quotes of free cell surface molecules can undergo a nucleation-type phase transition in which the largest patch will bind free cell surface molecules, deplete the concentration of such molecules in the open-quotes seaclose quotes and thus cause the other patches to shrink in size. We therefore show that a cap can form without patches having to move, collide with each other, and aggregate

  2. AAA and PBC calculation accuracy in the surface build-up region in tangential beam treatments. Phantom and breast case study with the Monte Carlo code PENELOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panettieri, Vanessa; Barsoum, Pierre; Westermark, Mathias; Brualla, Lorenzo; Lax, Ingmar

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: In tangential beam treatments accurate dose calculation of the absorbed dose in the build-up region is of major importance, in particular when the target has superficial extension close to the skin. In most analytical treatment planning systems (TPSs) calculations depend on the experimental measurements introduced by the user in which accuracy might be limited by the type of detector employed to perform them. To quantify the discrepancy between analytically calculated and delivered dose in the build-up region, near the skin of a patient, independent Monte Carlo (MC) simulations using the PENELOPE code were performed. Dose distributions obtained with MC simulations were compared with those given by the Pencil Beam Convolution (PBC) algorithm and the Analytical Anisotropic Algorithm (AAA) implemented in the commercial TPS Eclipse. Material and methods: A cylindrical phantom was used to approximate the breast contour of a patient for MC simulations and the TPS. Calculations of the absorbed doses were performed for 6 and 18 MV beams for four different angles of incidence: 15 deg., 30 deg., 45 deg. and 75 deg. and different field sizes: 3 x 3 cm 2 , 10 x 10 cm 2 and 40 x 40 cm 2 . Absorbed doses along the phantom central axis were obtained with both the PBC algorithm and the AAA and compared to those estimated by the MC simulations. Additionally, a breast patient case was calculated with two opposed 6 MV photon beams using all the aforementioned analytical and stochastic algorithms. Results: For the 6 MV photon beam in the phantom case, both the PBC algorithm and the AAA tend to underestimate the absorbed dose in the build-up region in comparison to MC results. These differences are clinically irrelevant and are included in a 1 mm range. This tendency is also confirmed in the breast patient case. For the 18 MV beam the PBC algorithm underestimates the absorbed dose with respect to the AAA. In comparison to MC simulations the PBC algorithm tends

  3. Influence of very short patch mismatch repair on SOS inducing lesions after aminoglycoside treatment in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baharoglu, Zeynep; Mazel, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Low concentrations of aminoglycosides induce the SOS response in Vibrio cholerae but not in Escherichia coli. In order to determine whether a specific factor present in E. coli prevents this induction, we developed a genetic screen where only SOS inducing mutants are viable. We identified the vsr gene coding for the Vsr protein of the very short patch mismatch repair (VSPR) pathway. The effect of mismatch repair (MMR) mutants was also studied. We propose that lesions formed upon aminoglycoside treatment are preferentially repaired by VSPR without SOS induction in E. coli and by MMR when VSPR is impaired. Copyright © 2014 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. The intercomparison of aerosol codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunbar, I.H.; Fermandjian, J.; Gauvain, J.

    1988-01-01

    The behavior of aerosols in a reactor containment vessel following a severe accident could be an important determinant of the accident source term to the environment. Various processes result in the deposition of the aerosol onto surfaces within the containment, from where they are much less likely to be released. Some of these processes are very sensitive to particle size, so it is important to model the aerosol growth processes: agglomeration and condensation. A number of computer codes have been written to model growth and deposition processes. They have been tested against each other in a series of code comparison exercises. These exercises have investigated sensitivities to physical and numerical assumptions and have also proved a useful means of quality control for the codes. Various exercises in which code predictions are compared with experimental results are now under way

  5. Impacts of feedlot floor condition, deposition frequency, and inhibitors on N2O and CH4 emissions from feedlot dung and urine patches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wenhua; Liu, Chunjing; Gao, Zhiling

    2018-04-09

    Patches of dung and urine are major contributors to the feedlot gas emissions. This study investigated the impacts of dung deposition frequency (partly reflecting animal stocking density of a feedlot), dairy feedlot floor conditions (old floor indicated with the presence of consolidated manure pad [CMP] vs. new floor with the absence of consolidated manure pad [CMPn]), and application of dicyandiamide (DCD) and hydroquinone (HQ) on nitrous oxide (N 2 O) and methane (CH 4 ) emissions from patches in the laboratory, and the integrative impacts were expressed in terms of global warming potential (CO 2 -equivalent). Dung deposition frequency, feedlot floor condition, and application of inhibitors showed inverse impacts on N 2 O and CH 4 emissions from patches. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the dung, urine, and dung+urine patches on the CMP feedlot surface were approximately 7.48, 87.35, and 7.10 times those on the CMPn feedlot surface (P emissions from CMP and CMPn feedlot surfaces under high deposition frequency condition were approximately 10 and 1.7 times those under low-frequency condition. Moreover, application of HQ slightly reduced the GHG emission from urine patches, by 14.9% (P > 0.05), while applying DCD or DCD+HQ significantly reduced the GHG, by 60.3% and 65.0%, respectively (P emission factors for feedlots. In the future, field measurements to quantitatively evaluate the relative contribution of nitrification and denitrification to the N 2 O emissions of feedlot surfaces are highly required for effective N 2 O control. This study shows that feedlot CH 4 and N 2 O emissions inversely respond to the dicyandiamide (DCD) application. Applying DCD significantly reduces GHG emissions of feedlot urine patches. Feedlot floor condition and stocking density strongly impact feedlot GHG emissions. Including feedlot floor condition and stocking density in the feedlot EF determining process is necessary.

  6. Diagnostic Coding for Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Korwyn; Nuwer, Marc R; Buchhalter, Jeffrey R

    2016-02-01

    Accurate coding is an important function of neurologic practice. This contribution to Continuum is part of an ongoing series that presents helpful coding information along with examples related to the issue topic. Tips for diagnosis coding, Evaluation and Management coding, procedure coding, or a combination are presented, depending on which is most applicable to the subject area of the issue.

  7. Coding of Neuroinfectious Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkley, Gregory L

    2015-12-01

    Accurate coding is an important function of neurologic practice. This contribution to Continuum is part of an ongoing series that presents helpful coding information along with examples related to the issue topic. Tips for diagnosis coding, Evaluation and Management coding, procedure coding, or a combination are presented, depending on which is most applicable to the subject area of the issue.

  8. Multi-patch matching for person re-identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labidi, Hocine; Luo, Sen-Lin; Boubekeur, Mohamed B.; Benlefki, Tarek

    2015-08-01

    Recognizing a target object across non-overlapping distributed cameras is known in the computer vision community as the problem of person re-identification. In this paper, a multi-patch matching method for person reidentification is presented. Starting from the assumption that: the appearance (clothes) of a person does not change during the time of passing in different cameras field of view , which means the regions with the same color in target image will be identical while crossing cameras. First, we extract distinctive features in the training procedure, where each image target is devised into small patches, the SIFT features and LAB color histograms are computed for each patch. Then we use the KNN approach to detect group of patches with high similarity in the target image and then we use a bi-directional weighted group matching mechanism for the re-identification. Experiments on a challenging VIPeR dataset show that the performances of the proposed method outperform several baselines and state of the art approaches.

  9. Microstrip patch antenna for simultaneous strain and temperature sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbanya Tchafa, F.; Huang, H.

    2018-06-01

    A patch antenna, consisting of a radiation patch, a dielectric substrate, and a ground plane, resonates at distinct fundamental frequencies that depend on the substrate dielectric constant and the dimensions of the radiation patch. Since these parameters change with the applied strain and temperature, this study investigates simultaneous strain and temperature sensing using a single antenna that has two fundamental resonant frequencies. The theoretical relationship between the antenna resonant frequency shifts, the temperature, and the applied strain was first established to guide the selection of the dielectric substrate, based on which an antenna sensor with a rectangular radiation patch was designed and fabricated. A tensile test specimen instrumented with the antenna sensor was subjected to thermo-mechanical tests. Experiment results validated the theoretical predictions that the normalized antenna resonant frequency shifts are linearly proportional to the applied strain and temperature changes. An inverse method was developed to determine the strain and temperature changes from the normalized antenna resonant frequency shifts, yielding measurement uncertainty of 0.4 °C and 17.22 μ \\varepsilon for temperature and strain measurement, respectively.

  10. Assessing the Army’s Software Patch Management Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-04

    software maker or to antivirus vendors (Zetter, 2014). Fixing such a vulnerability within the zero-day period requires teamwork across multiple...Assessing the Army’s Software Patch Management Process Benjamin Alan Pryor March 4, 2016 PUBLISHED...19 Commercial-Off-the-Shelf Software

  11. Patch testing of 490 patients in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T Y; Lam, T H

    1996-07-01

    Patch testing, using European standard allergens and suspected causative substances brought in by patients, was carried out in 490 patients with eczema in Hong Kong and 437 completed the test. Before patch testing, 244, 141 and 105 patients were diagnosed as having contact dermatitis, endogenous eczema and unclassified eczema, respectively. After patch testing, the diagnosis of the causal agent was changed in 54 contact dermatitis patients, and 18% of endogenous eczema patients and 34% of unclassified eczema patients were re-diagnosed as contact dermatitis. In the patients with a final diagnosis of contact dermatitis, 19.5% were positive to fragrance mix, followed by nickel sulfate (16.4%) and cobalt chloride (11.3%). The commonest causative agents for contact dermatitis were soap or detergent (22.0%) and traditional Chinese medicine (17.3%); the latter was a more common cause of contact dermatitis than Western medicine (9.0%) or metals (13.4%). The prevalence of allergic reaction to fragrance in Hong Kong was higher than among Chinese in Beijing, Shanghai, Taipei or Singapore (78% ethnic Chinese). Dermatologists should have a high index of suspicion about traditional medications and should patch test with the suspected substance when patients give a history of use.

  12. SIMULATED CHARACTERISTICS OF PATCH ANTENNA LOADED WITH SRRs

    OpenAIRE

    Debasis Mishra; G. Arun Kumar; D. R. Poddar; R. K. Mishra

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates, from electromagnetic simulation, the effects on gain and efficiency of a patch antenna loaded with split ring resonators. It is observed that it leads to lowering of resonant frequency; some mismatch resulting in a slight degradation of the impedance bandwidth and improvement of gain and efficiency.

  13. A Fully Inkjet Printed 3D Honeycomb Inspired Patch Antenna

    KAUST Repository

    McKerricher, Garret; Titterington, Don; Shamim, Atif

    2015-01-01

    by inkjet printing in this work. This is the first demonstration of a fully 3D Multijet printing process with integrated polymer and metal. A 2.4 GHz patch antenna is successfully fabricated with good performance proving the viability of the process

  14. Wearable Inset-Fed FR4 Microstrip Patch Antenna Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaini, S. R. Mohd; Rani, K. N. Abdul

    2018-03-01

    This project proposes the design of a wireless body area network (WBAN) microstrip patch antenna covered by the jeans fabric as the outer layer operating at the center frequency, fc of 2.40 GHz. Precisely, the microstrip patch antenna with the inset-fed edge technique is designed and simulated systematically by using the Keysight Advanced Design System (ADS) software where the FR4 board with the dielectric constant, ɛr of 4.70, dissipation factor or loss tangent, tan δ of 0.02 and height, h of 1.60 mm is the chosen dielectric substrate. The wearable microstrip patch antenna design is then fabricated using the FR4 printed circuit board (PCB) material, hidden inside the jeans fabric, and attached to clothing, such as a jacket accordingly. Simulation and fabrication measurement results show that the designed microstrip patch antenna characteristics can be applied significantly within the industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) radio band, which is at fc = 2.40 GHz.

  15. Constraint Patch Matching for Faster Person Re-identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lejbølle, Aske Rasch; Nasrollahi, Kamal; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2017-01-01

    In person re-identification, it is of great importance toextract very discriminative features in order to distinguishbetween images of different persons captured in differentcamera views. Features can be extracted globally from theentire or parts of the image, or locally from patches. Inaddition......36ms to compute per person....

  16. Diagnosis of Broiler Livers by Classifying Image Patches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anders; Fagertun, Jens; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2017-01-01

    The manual health inspection are becoming the bottleneck at poultry processing plants. We present a computer vision method for automatic diagnosis of broiler livers. The non-rigid livers, of varying shape and sizes, are classified in patches by a convolutional neural network, outputting maps...

  17. The sensitivity of patch test in patients with psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavuz Yeşilova

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Allergic diseases play an important role in the natural course of psoriasis. Atopic sensitization and con-tact dermatitis are common in patients with psoriasis. Since the symptoms are prolonged in patients who are resistant to therapy and exposure to itchy and external factors are common among these patients, the effects of contact aller-gens on triggering psoriasis are investigated. Contact allergens have an important role in activation and remission of psoriasis. We aimed to investigate contact sensitization rates in patients with psoriasis in the study.Material and Methods: Contact sensitization was investigated with the application of European standard series in twenty patients with psoriasis, twenty patients with contact dermatitis, and twenty healthy persons. Results: Among the whole study cases, positivity rate of patch test against one allergen at least was 25%. rate of patch test was 25% in patients with psoriasis, 35% in patients with contact dermatitis, and 15% in healthy persons. There were no significant differences between the groups according to sensitization to one or more allergens (p>0.05. There were no significant difference in clinical subgroup of psoriatic patients according to contact sensitiza-tion (p>0.05. The allergens in patients with psoriasis on patch test were as the followings: phenyldiamine, potassium dichromat, nickel, and cobalt.Conclusion: We think that the patch test has a major role in the diagnosis and elimination of allergens in patients with the chronic and resistant diseases and palmoplantar and flexural psoriasis.

  18. Evaluation of UAV imagery for mapping Silybum marianum weed patches

    Science.gov (United States)

    The invasive weed, milk thistle (Silybum marianum), has the tendency to grow in patches. In order to perform site-specific weed management, determining the spatial distribution of weeds is important for its eradication. Remote sensing has been used to perform species discrimination, and it offers pr...

  19. The Jejunal Serosal Patch Procedure: A Successful Technique for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The selection of the most appropriate technique for the repair of peptic ulcer perforations, especially when the initial attempt of closure has failed have been the concern of many surgeons. Since the experimental report regarding the jejunal serosal patch procedure by Koboldin in 1963, authors have reported its ...

  20. Ruptured peroneal aneurysm after infrapopliteal prosthetic bypass with Taylor patch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Enzmann

    Full Text Available Introduction: A 45-year-old mailman underwent an implantation of a femoro-peroneal polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE bypass with a distal Taylor patch six years prior to admission after two failed autologous reconstructions and extensive fasciotomy. The initial pathology was an acute ischemia due to popliteal entrapment with subsequent popliteal thrombectomy. Report: The patient was examined because of pain, reduction of walking distance and development of a palpable mass at the medial fasciotomy site. A 6-cm pseudoaneurysm with complete disruption of the suture line of the vein patch was discovered and resected. Arterial continuity with a vein interposition graft was established using non-reversed cephalic vein. Conclusion: The etiology of the aneurysm is not entirely clear. One may argue that the fourth revascularization could have been performed with an arm vein instead of a prosthetic graft with the probability of a better long term patency in a young patient. 15 months after the procedure the bypass is patent and the patient is without any symptoms. This complication of a Taylor patch has not been reported before. Keywords: Taylor patch, Pseudoaneurysm, Infrapopliteal bypass

  1. Designing and testing a wearable, wireless fNIRS patch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abtahi, Mohammadreza; Cay, Gozde; Saikia, Manob Jyoti; Mankodiya, Kunal

    2016-08-01

    Optical brain monitoring using near infrared (NIR) light has got a lot of attention in order to study the complexity of the brain due to several advantages as oppose to other methods such as EEG, fMRI and PET. There are a few commercially available functional NIR spectroscopy (fNIRS) brain monitoring systems, but they are still non-wearable and pose difficulties in scanning the brain while the participants are in motion. In this work, we present our endeavors to design and test a low-cost, wireless fNIRS patch using NIR light sources at wavelengths of 770 and 830nm, photodetectors and a microcontroller to trigger the light sources, read photodetector's output and transfer data wirelessly (via Bluetooth) to a smart-phone. The patch is essentially a 3-D printed wearable system, recording and displaying the brain hemodynamic responses on smartphone, also eliminates the need for complicated wiring of the electrodes. We have performed rigorous lab experiments on the presented system for its functionality. In a proof of concept experiment, the patch detected the NIR absorption on the arm. Another experiment revealed that the patch's battery could last up to several hours with continuous fNIRS recording with and without wireless data transfer.

  2. Isogeometric shape optimization of photonic crystals via Coons patches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qian, Xiaoping; Sigmund, Ole

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present an approach that extends isogeometric shape optimization from optimization of rectangular-like NURBS patches to the optimization of topologically complex geometries. We have successfully applied this approach in designing photonic crystals where complex geometries have...

  3. Performance of shcc with bacteria for concrete patch repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierra Beltran, M.G.; Jonkers, H.M.; Schlangen, E.

    2014-01-01

    The overall performance of concrete patch repair systems depends on the durability of and compatibility between the concrete substrate and the repair material. This paper investigates the performance of a new type of SHCC material with embedded bacteria as a repair material. The bacteria are a

  4. A multiresolution remeshed Vortex-In-Cell algorithm using patches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Johannes Tophøj; Cottet, Georges-Henri; Walther, Jens Honore

    2011-01-01

    We present a novel multiresolution Vortex-In-Cell algorithm using patches of varying resolution. The Poisson equation relating the fluid vorticity and velocity is solved using Fast Fourier Transforms subject to free space boundary conditions. Solid boundaries are implemented using the semi...

  5. Temporary patching of damaged UF{sub 6} cylinders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardenas, A.L. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., OH (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Patching techniques based on application of epoxy resins have been developed for temporarily repairing UF{sub 6} cylinders which have sustained relatively minor damage and must be safely emptied. The method is considerably faster and simpler than metallurgical weld repairs. Laboratory tests, detailed operational procedures, and case histories of experience at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant are described.

  6. Our experience with atopy patch tests with aeroallergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celakovská, Jarmila; Ettlerová, Kvetuse; Ettler, Karel; Vanecková, Jaroslava

    2013-01-01

    Aim of our study was to evaluate the importance of atopy patch testing with aeroallergens as a diagnostic method in patients suffering from atopic dermatitis. The complet dermatological and allergological examinations were performed in 29 patients; 10 men, 19 women with the average age of 27.8 years, min. 17, max. 57 years; with the median SCORAD 24.2 points, s.d. 13.3 points. Wormwood, grass, dog dander, cat dander, dermatophagoides pharinae, dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and birch pollen were examined in diagnostic procedures. Skin prick tests, specific IgE were examined; the atopy patch tests were performed with aeroallergens for skin prick tests in concentration 1 x skin prick tests. Specific IgE and skin prick tests to one or more tested aeroallergens were positive altogether in 27 patients; atopy patch tests were positive only in one of these patients. For atopy patch testing with aeroallergens the concentration of 1 x skin prick tests is low to confirme the eczematic reaction in patients suffering from allergy to inhallant allergens.

  7. An improved broadband E patch microstrip antenna for wireless communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bzeih, Amer; Chahine, Soubhi Abou; Kabalan, Karim Y.; El-Hajj, Ali; Chehab, Ali

    2007-12-01

    A broadband probe-fed microstrip antenna with E-shaped patch on a single-layer air substrate is investigated. Bandwidth enhancement of the antenna is achieved by inserting two parallel slots into its radiating patch. The effects of the antenna parameters are analyzed, and their optimal values for broadband operation are obtained. The design parameters are formulated as a function of the center frequency, and the empirical equations are validated by simulation. A 51.5% enhanced E patch antenna for modern wireless communications (Personal Communications Service, Digital Cellular System, Universal Mobile Telecommunications System, Wireless Local Area Network 802.11 b/g, and Bluetooth) is designed, simulated, fabricated, and measured. A comparison between simulated and measured results is presented, and it showed satisfactory agreement. Moreover, the effect of incorporating more parallel slots into the radiating patch is investigated. The antenna is designed and simulated for different scenarios (four slots, six slots, and eight slots), where a bandwidth of 57% is achieved in the eight-slot design.

  8. Photopatch and UV-irradiated patch testing in photosensitive dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reena Rai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The photopatch test is used to detect photoallergic reactions to various antigens such as sunscreens and drugs. Photosensitive dermatitis can be caused due to antigens like parthenium, fragrances, rubbers and metals. The photopatch test does not contain these antigens. Therefore, the Indian Standard Series (ISS along with the Standard photopatch series from Chemotechnique Diagnostics, Sweden was used to detect light induced antigens. Aim: To detect light induced antigens in patients with photosensitive dermatitis. Methods: This study was done in a descriptive, observer blinded manner. Photopatch test and ISS were applied in duplicate on the patient's back by the standard method. After 24 hours, readings were recorded according to ICDRG criteria. One side was closed and other side irradiated with 14 J/cm2 of UVA and a second set of readings were recorded after 48 hrs. Result: The highest positivity was obtained with parthenium, with 18 out of 35 (51% patients showing a positive patch test reaction with both photoallergic contact dermatitis and photoaggravation. Four patients (11% showed positive patch test reaction suggestive of contact dermatitis to potassium dichromate and fragrance mix. Six patients had contact dermatitis to numerous antigens such as nickel, cobalt, chinoform and para-phenylenediamine. None of these patients showed photoaggravation on patch testing. Conclusion: Parthenium was found to cause photoallergy, contact dermatitis with photoaggravation and contact allergy. Hence, photopatch test and UV irradiated patch test can be an important tool to detect light induced antigens in patients with photosensitive dermatitis.

  9. Patch testing for food-associated allergies in orofacial granulomatosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzpatrick, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Food-associated allergies, especially to benzoates and cinnamon-related compounds, have been associated with orofacial granulomatosis and both standard and urticarial patch testing have been used to detect such allergies. Elimination diets have also been shown to be effective in some patients.

  10. Limonene hydroperoxide analogues show specific patch test reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensson, Johanna Bråred; Hellsén, Staffan; Börje, Anna; Karlberg, Ann-Therese

    2014-05-01

    The fragrance terpene R-limonene is a very weak sensitizer, but forms allergenic oxidation products upon contact with air. The primary oxidation products of oxidized limonene, the hydroperoxides, have an important impact on the sensitizing potency of the oxidation mixture. One analogue, limonene-1-hydroperoxide, was experimentally shown to be a significantly more potent sensitizer than limonene-2-hydroperoxide in the local lymph node assay with non-pooled lymph nodes. To investigate the pattern of reactivity among consecutive dermatitis patients to two structurally closely related limonene hydroperoxides, limonene-1-hydroperoxide and limonene-2-hydroperoxide. Limonene-1-hydroperoxide, limonene-2-hydroperoxide, at 0.5% in petrolatum, and oxidized limonene 3.0% pet. were tested in 763 consecutive dermatitis patients. Of the tested materials, limonene-1-hydroperoxide gave most reactions, with 2.4% of the patients showing positive patch test reactions. Limonene-2-hydroperoxide and oxidized R-limonene gave 1.7% and 1.2% positive patch test reactions, respectively. Concomitant positive patch test reactions to other fragrance markers in the baseline series were frequently noted. The results are in accordance with the experimental studies, as limonene-1-hydroperoxide gave more positive patch test reactions in the tested patients than limonene-2-hydroperoxide. Furthermore, the results support the specificity of the allergenic activity of the limonene hydroperoxide analogues and the importance of oxidized limonene as a cause of contact allergy. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Diagnostic accuracy of patch test in children with food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caglayan Sozmen, Sule; Povesi Dascola, Carlotta; Gioia, Edoardo; Mastrorilli, Carla; Rizzuti, Laura; Caffarelli, Carlo

    2015-08-01

    The gold standard test for confirming whether a child has clinical hypersensitivity reactions to foods is the oral food challenge. Therefore, there is increasing interest in simpler diagnostic markers of food allergy, especially in children, to avoid oral food challenge. The goal of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of atopy patch test in comparison with oral food challenge. We investigated 243 children (mean age, 51 months) referred for evaluation of suspected egg or cow's milk allergy. Skin prick test and atopy patch test were carried out, and after a 2 weeks elimination diet, oral food challenge was performed. Two hundred and forty-three children underwent OFC to the suspected food. We found clinically relevant food allergies in 40 (65%) children to egg and in 22 (35%) to cow's milk. The sensitivity of skin prick test for both milk and egg was 92%, specificity 91%, positive predictive value 35%, and negative predictive value of 93%. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of atopy patch test for both milk and egg were 21%, 73%, 20%, and 74%, respectively. Our study suggests that there is insufficient evidence for the routine use of atopy patch test for the evaluation of egg and cow's milk allergy. OFC remains gold standard for the diagnosis of egg and milk allergy even in the presence of high costs in terms of both time and risks during application. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Patched Green's function techniques for two-dimensional systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Settnes, Mikkel; Power, Stephen; Lin, Jun

    2015-01-01

    We present a numerically efficient technique to evaluate the Green's function for extended two-dimensional systems without relying on periodic boundary conditions. Different regions of interest, or “patches,” are connected using self-energy terms which encode the information of the extended parts...

  13. Variation in aluminium patch test reactivity over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemund, Ingrid; Mowitz, Martin; Zimerson, Erik; Bruze, Magnus; Hindsén, Monica

    2017-11-01

    Contact allergy to aluminium has been reported more frequently in recent years. It has been pointed out that positive patch test reactions to aluminium may not be reproducible on retesting. To investigate possible variations in patch test reactivity to aluminium over time. Twenty-one adults, who had previously reacted positively to aluminium, were patch tested with equimolar dilution series in pet. of aluminium chloride hexahydrate and aluminium lactate, four times over a period of 8 months. Thirty-six of 84 (43%) serial dilution tests with aluminium chloride hexahydrate and 49 of 84 (58%) serial dilution tests with aluminium lactate gave negative results. The range of reactivity varied between a negative reaction to aluminium chloride hexahydrate at 10% and/or to aluminium lactate at 12%, and a positive reaction to aluminium chloride hexahydrate at 0.1% and/or to aluminium lactate at 0.12%. The highest individual difference in test reactivity noticed was 320-fold when the two most divergent minimal eliciting concentrations were compared. The patch test reactivity to aluminium varies over time. Aluminium-allergic individuals may have false-negative reactions. Therefore, retesting with aluminium should be considered when there is a strong suspicion of aluminium contact allergy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Study of LCP based flexible patch antenna array

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffar, Farhan A.; Shamim, Atif; Roy, Langis

    2012-01-01

    Wrapping of a two element LCP based patch antenna array is studied in this work. For the first time, the designed array is bent in both E and H planes to observe the effect on the radiation and impedance performance of the antenna. The 38 GHz

  15. Transdermal fentanyl matrix patches Matrifen and Durogesic DTrans are bioequivalent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kress, Hans G; Boss, Hildegard; Delvin, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    AIM: The pharmacokinetic profiles of the two commercially available transdermal fentanyl patches Matrifen (100 microg/h) and Durogesic DTrans (100 microg/h), used to manage severe chronic pain, were compared regarding their systemic exposure, rate of absorption, and safety. METHODS: Transdermal m...

  16. Satellite image based quantification of invasion and patch dynamics ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    dynamics of mesquite (Prosopis juliflora) in Great Rann ... The present study was conducted in the Great Rann of Kachchh, part of Kachchh ... The process of Prosopis invasion shows high patch initiation, followed by .... formed by determining the percentage relationship .... poor women in northwestern India benefit from the.

  17. Patch Pd para Nih-Nik de Chico Mello

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Montechiari e Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This Pure Data patch was commissioned by the Ensemble Nih-Nik for the premier of the homonymous 1993 piece by Brazilian composer Chico Mello at the SiMN 2014 + matrix14 on tour festival (Curitiba, Brazil.

  18. Diversity of Sarcocystis spp shed by opossums in Brazil inferred with phylogenetic analysis of DNA coding ITS1, cytochrome B, and surface antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valadas, Samantha Y O B; da Silva, Juliana I G; Lopes, Estela Gallucci; Keid, Lara B; Zwarg, Ticiana; de Oliveira, Alice S; Sanches, Thaís C; Joppert, Adriana M; Pena, Hilda F J; Oliveira, Tricia M F S; Ferreira, Helena L; Soares, Rodrigo M

    2016-05-01

    Although few species of Sarcocystis are known to use marsupials of the genus Didelphis as definitive host, an extensive diversity of alleles of surface antigen genes (sag2, sag3, and sag4) has been described in samples of didelphid opossums in Brazil. In this work, we studied 25 samples of Sarcocystis derived from gastrointestinal tract of opossums of the genus Didelphis by accessing the variability of sag2, sag3, sag4, gene encoding cytochrome b (cytB) and first internal transcribed spacer (ITS1). Reference samples of Sarcocystis neurona (SN138) and Sarcocystis falcatula (SF1) maintained in cell culture were also analyzed. We found four allele variants of cytB, seven allele variants of ITS1, 10 allele variants of sag2, 13 allele variants of sag3, and 6 allele variants of sag4. None of the sporocyst-derived sequences obtained from Brazilian opossums revealed 100% identity to SN138 at cytB gene, nor to SN138 or SF1 at ITS1 locus. In addition, none of the sag alleles were found identical to either SF1 or SN138 homologous sequences, and a high number of new sag allele types were found other than those previously described in Brazil. Out of ten sag2 alleles, four are novel, while eight out of 13 sag3 alleles are novel and one out of six sag4 alleles is novel. Further studies are needed to clarify if such a vast repertoire of allele variants of Sarcocystis is the consequence of re-assortments driven by sexual exchange, in order to form individuals with highly diverse characteristics, such as pathogenicity, host spectrum, among others or if it only represents allele variants of different species with different biological traits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of Changes in Morphology and Function of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Derived Cardiomyocytes (HiPSC-CMs) Cultured on an Aligned-Nanofiber Cardiac Patch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mahmood; Xu, Yanyi; Hua, Serena; Johnson, Jed; Belevych, Andriy; Janssen, Paul M L; Gyorke, Sandor; Guan, Jianjun; Angelos, Mark G

    2015-01-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy is a major cause of progressive heart failure. Utilization of stem cell therapy offers a potential means of regenerating viable cardiac tissue. However, a major obstacle to stem cell therapy is the delivery and survival of implanted stem cells in the ischemic heart. To address this issue, we have developed a biomimetic aligned nanofibrous cardiac patch and characterized the alignment and function of human inducible pluripotent stem cell derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) cultured on this cardiac patch. This hiPSC-CMs seeded patch was compared with hiPSC-CMs cultured on standard flat cell culture plates. hiPSC-CMs were cultured on; 1) a highly aligned polylactide-co-glycolide (PLGA) nanofiber scaffold (~50 microns thick) and 2) on a standard flat culture plate. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to determine alignment of PLGA nanofibers and orientation of the cells on the respective surfaces. Analysis of gap junctions (Connexin-43) was performed by confocal imaging in both the groups. Calcium cycling and patch-clamp technique were performed to measure calcium transients and electrical coupling properties of cardiomyocytes. SEM demonstrated >90% alignment of the nanofibers in the patch which is similar to the extracellular matrix of decellularized rat myocardium. Confocal imaging of the cardiomyocytes demonstrated symmetrical alignment in the same direction on the aligned nanofiber patch in sharp contrast to the random appearance of cardiomyocytes cultured on a tissue culture plate. The hiPSC-CMs cultured on aligned nanofiber cardiac patches showed more efficient calcium cycling compared with cells cultured on standard flat surface culture plates. Quantification of mRNA with qRT-PCR confirmed that these cardiomyocytes expressed α-actinin, troponin-T and connexin-43 in-vitro. Overall, our results demonstrated changes in morphology and function of human induced pluripotent derived cardiomyocytes cultured in an anisotropic environment

  20. Mating success of males with and without wing patch in Drosophila biarmipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, S N; Chethan, B K; Krishna, M S

    2005-10-01

    Some males of D. biarmipes--synonym of D. rajasekari and D. raychaudhuri have a black patch on the wing. The patch extends from the apical margin of wing to the third longitudinal vein. Field and laboratory studies have been carried out in D. biarmipes to study role of male's wing patch in mating success. The field study shows that nature favors D. biarmipes males with patch. Although males without patch mated, males with patch have higher mating success suggesting the role of wing patch during courtship. Further, among mating males, males with patch had longer wings than males without patch. During courtship, males with patch oriented and mated faster; performed courtship acts such as tapping, scissoring, vibration, licking and twist dance more times than males without patch in both competitive and non-competitive situations. The results indicate that there is a casual relationship between the presence of wing patch, mating speed and success. Also there is a correlation between presence of wing patch, size of the flies and mating success.

  1. Grassland Fire and Cattle Grazing Regulate Reptile and Amphibian Assembly Among Patches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Danelle M.

    2014-12-01

    Fire and grazing are common management schemes of grasslands globally and are potential drivers of reptilian and amphibian (herpetofauna) metacommunity dynamics. Few studies have assessed the impacts of fire and cattle grazing on herpetofauna assemblages in grasslands. A patch-burn grazing study at Osage Prairie, MO, USA in 2011-2012 created landscape patches with treatments of grazing, fire, and such legacies. Response variables were measured before and after the application of treatments, and I used robust-design occupancy modeling to estimate patch occupancy and detection rate within patches, and recolonization and extinction (i.e., dispersal) across patches. I conducted redundancy analysis and a permuted multivariate analysis of variance to determine if patch type and the associated environmental factors explained herpetofauna assemblage. Estimates for reptiles indicate that occupancy was seasonally constant in Control patches ( ψ ~ 0.5), but declined to ψ ~ 0.15 in patches following the applications of fire and grazing. Local extinctions for reptiles were higher in patches with fire or light grazing ( ɛ ~ 0.7) compared to the controls. For the riparian herpetofaunal community, patch type and grass height were important predictors of abundance; further, the turtles, lizards, snakes, and adult amphibians used different patch types. The aquatic amphibian community was predicted by watershed and in-stream characteristics, irrespective of fire or grazing. The varying responses from taxonomic groups demonstrate habitat partitioning across multiple patch types undergoing fire, cattle grazing, and legacy effects. Prairies will need an array of patch types to accommodate multiple herpetofauna species.

  2. Odorant responses of olfactory sensory neurons expressing the odorant receptor MOR23: A patch clamp analysis in gene-targeted mice

    OpenAIRE

    Grosmaitre, Xavier; Vassalli, Anne; Mombaerts, Peter; Shepherd, Gordon M.; Ma, Minghong

    2006-01-01

    A glomerulus in the mammalian olfactory bulb receives axonal inputs from olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) that express the same odorant receptor (OR). Glomeruli are generally thought to represent functional units of olfactory coding, but there are no data on the electrophysiological properties of OSNs that express the same endogenous OR. Here, using patch clamp recordings in an intact epithelial preparation, we directly measured the transduction currents and receptor potentials from the dendr...

  3. Vector Network Coding

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahimi, Javad; Fragouli, Christina

    2010-01-01

    We develop new algebraic algorithms for scalar and vector network coding. In vector network coding, the source multicasts information by transmitting vectors of length L, while intermediate nodes process and combine their incoming packets by multiplying them with L X L coding matrices that play a similar role as coding coefficients in scalar coding. Our algorithms for scalar network jointly optimize the employed field size while selecting the coding coefficients. Similarly, for vector co...

  4. Entropy Coding in HEVC

    OpenAIRE

    Sze, Vivienne; Marpe, Detlev

    2014-01-01

    Context-Based Adaptive Binary Arithmetic Coding (CABAC) is a method of entropy coding first introduced in H.264/AVC and now used in the latest High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) standard. While it provides high coding efficiency, the data dependencies in H.264/AVC CABAC make it challenging to parallelize and thus limit its throughput. Accordingly, during the standardization of entropy coding for HEVC, both aspects of coding efficiency and throughput were considered. This chapter describes th...

  5. Generalized concatenated quantum codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grassl, Markus; Shor, Peter; Smith, Graeme; Smolin, John; Zeng Bei

    2009-01-01

    We discuss the concept of generalized concatenated quantum codes. This generalized concatenation method provides a systematical way for constructing good quantum codes, both stabilizer codes and nonadditive codes. Using this method, we construct families of single-error-correcting nonadditive quantum codes, in both binary and nonbinary cases, which not only outperform any stabilizer codes for finite block length but also asymptotically meet the quantum Hamming bound for large block length.

  6. Rateless feedback codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Hemming; Koike-Akino, Toshiaki; Orlik, Philip

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a concept called rateless feedback coding. We redesign the existing LT and Raptor codes, by introducing new degree distributions for the case when a few feedback opportunities are available. We show that incorporating feedback to LT codes can significantly decrease both...... the coding overhead and the encoding/decoding complexity. Moreover, we show that, at the price of a slight increase in the coding overhead, linear complexity is achieved with Raptor feedback coding....

  7. Rapid establishment of a regular distribution of adult tropical Drosophila parasitoids in a multi-patch environment by patch defence behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Peter W; Hemerik, Lia; Gort, Gerrit; van Alphen, Jacques J M

    2011-01-01

    Females of the larval parasitoid of Drosophila, Asobara citri, from sub-Saharan Africa, defend patches with hosts by fighting and chasing conspecific females upon encounter. Females of the closely related, palearctic species Asobara tabida do not defend patches and often search simultaneously in the same patch. The effect of patch defence by A. citri females on their distribution in a multi-patch environment was investigated, and their distributions were compared with those of A. tabida. For both species 20 females were released from two release-points in replicate experiments. Females of A. citri quickly reached a regular distribution across 16 patches, with a small variance/mean ratio per patch. Conversely, A. tabida females initially showed a clumped distribution, and after gradual dispersion, a more Poisson-like distribution across patches resulted (variance/mean ratio was closer to 1 and higher than for A. citri). The dispersion of A. tabida was most probably an effect of exploitation: these parasitoids increasingly made shorter visits to already exploited patches. We briefly discuss hypotheses on the adaptive significance of patch defence behaviour or its absence in the light of differences in the natural history of both parasitoid species, notably the spatial distribution of their hosts.

  8. Use of social information in seabirds: compass rafts indicate the heading of food patches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimerskirch, Henri; Bertrand, Sophie; Silva, Jaime; Marques, Jose Carlos; Goya, Elisa

    2010-03-29

    Ward and Zahavi suggested in 1973 that colonies could serve as information centres, through a transfer of information on the location of food resources between unrelated individuals (Information Centre Hypothesis). Using GPS tracking and observations on group movements, we studied the search strategy and information transfer in two of the most colonial seabirds, Guanay cormorants (Phalacrocorax bougainvillii) and Peruvian boobies (Sula variegata). Both species breed together and feed on the same prey. They do return to the same feeding zone from one trip to the next indicating high unpredictability in the location of food resources. We found that the Guanay cormorants use social information to select their bearing when departing the colony. They form a raft at the sea surface whose position is continuously adjusted to the bearing of the largest returning columns of cormorants. As such, the raft serves as a compass signal that gives an indication on the location of the food patches. Conversely, Peruvian boobies rely mainly on personal information based on memory to take heading at departure. They search for food patches solitarily or in small groups through network foraging by detecting the white plumage of congeners visible at long distance. Our results show that information transfer does occur and we propose a new mechanism of information transfer based on the use of rafts off colonies. The use of rafts for information transfer may be common in central place foraging colonial seabirds that exploit short lasting and/or unpredictably distributed food patches. Over the past decades Guanay cormorants have declined ten times whereas Peruvian boobies have remained relatively stable. We suggest that the decline of the cormorants could be related to reduced social information opportunities and that social behaviour and search strategies have the potential to play an important role in the population dynamics of colonial animals.

  9. Use of social information in seabirds: compass rafts indicate the heading of food patches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henri Weimerskirch

    Full Text Available Ward and Zahavi suggested in 1973 that colonies could serve as information centres, through a transfer of information on the location of food resources between unrelated individuals (Information Centre Hypothesis. Using GPS tracking and observations on group movements, we studied the search strategy and information transfer in two of the most colonial seabirds, Guanay cormorants (Phalacrocorax bougainvillii and Peruvian boobies (Sula variegata. Both species breed together and feed on the same prey. They do return to the same feeding zone from one trip to the next indicating high unpredictability in the location of food resources. We found that the Guanay cormorants use social information to select their bearing when departing the colony. They form a raft at the sea surface whose position is continuously adjusted to the bearing of the largest returning columns of cormorants. As such, the raft serves as a compass signal that gives an indication on the location of the food patches. Conversely, Peruvian boobies rely mainly on personal information based on memory to take heading at departure. They search for food patches solitarily or in small groups through network foraging by detecting the white plumage of congeners visible at long distance. Our results show that information transfer does occur and we propose a new mechanism of information transfer based on the use of rafts off colonies. The use of rafts for information transfer may be common in central place foraging colonial seabirds that exploit short lasting and/or unpredictably distributed food patches. Over the past decades Guanay cormorants have declined ten times whereas Peruvian boobies have remained relatively stable. We suggest that the decline of the cormorants could be related to reduced social information opportunities and that social behaviour and search strategies have the potential to play an important role in the population dynamics of colonial animals.

  10. Thoracoscopic patch insulation to correct phrenic nerve stimulation secondary to cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mediratta, Neeraj; Barker, Diane; McKevith, James; Davies, Peter; Belchambers, Sandra; Rao, Archana

    2012-07-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy is an established therapy for heart failure, improving quality of life and prognosis. Despite advances in technique, available leads and delivery systems, trans-venous left ventricular (LV) lead positioning remains dependent on the patient's underlying venous anatomy. The left phrenic nerve courses over the surface of the pericardium laterally and may be stimulated by the LV pacing lead, causing uncomfortable diaphragmatic twitch. This paper describes a video-assisted thoracoscopic (VATS) procedure to correct phrenic nerve stimulation secondary to cardiac resynchronization therapy. Most current ways of avoiding phrenic stimulation involve either electronic reprogramming to distance the phrenic nerve from the stimulation circuit or repositioning the lead. We describe a case where the phrenic nerve was surgically insulated from the stimulating current by insinuating a patch of bovine pericardium between the epicardium and native pericardium of the heart thus completely resolving previously intolerable and incessant diaphragmatic twitch. The procedure was performed under general anaesthesia with single-lung ventilation and minimal use of neuromuscular blocking agents. Surgical patch insulation of the phrenic nerve was performed using minimally invasive VATS surgery, as a short-stay procedure, with no complications. No diaphragmatic twitch occurred post-surgery and the patient continued to gain symptomatic benefit from cardiac synchronization therapy (New York Heart Association Class III to II), enabling return to work. In cases where the trans-venous position of a LV lead is limited by troublesome phrenic nerve stimulation, thoracoscopic surgical patch insulation of the phrenic nerve could be considered to allow beneficial cardiac resynchronization therapy.

  11. [Amelioration of secondary bare alkali-saline patches in Songnen Plain through inserting cornstalk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Nianpeng; Wu, Ling; Jiang, Shicheng; Zhou, Daowei

    2004-06-01

    Based on the field experiment on Songnen grassland, a new method was established to ameliorate the secondary bare alkali-saline patches (SAP) through inserting cornstalk. The experiment was rested on the assumption that through inserting cornstalk in the secondary bare alkali-saline patches (SAP) to retain seeds moving over its surface, the necessary seed source could be gained; and these seeds should be able to germinate and survive successfully on the cornstalk itself or in its neighborhood, where should be more fit to grow than other sites in SAP, due to the decomposition of cornstalk and its special role, so that, the aim to restore vegetation of SAP could be achieved at a pretty low cost and rapid speed. The results showed that the seed bank in soil was increased significantly, owing to the inserted cornstalk and its operating processes. The seed number in ameliorated soil was 4020.0 +/- 1773.6 seeds x m(-2), while that in the secondary bare alkali-saline patches (SAP) was only 10.0 +/- 31.6 seeds x m(-2). Although the soil chemical and physical characters in ameliorated zone were improved to some extent, the overall situation of soil was still bad for plant growth, as the pH, soluble saline ion and organic matter were concerned. Most of Chloris virgata grew around or on the cornstalk, the plants around each cornstalk being 3.9 +/- 2.2, and the total being 48.64 +/- 38.72 g x m(-2). Therefore, this method demanded a few resources, and needed simple technology and low cost, which is potentially deserved to popularize.

  12. Advanced video coding systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Wen

    2015-01-01

    This comprehensive and accessible text/reference presents an overview of the state of the art in video coding technology. Specifically, the book introduces the tools of the AVS2 standard, describing how AVS2 can help to achieve a significant improvement in coding efficiency for future video networks and applications by incorporating smarter coding tools such as scene video coding. Topics and features: introduces the basic concepts in video coding, and presents a short history of video coding technology and standards; reviews the coding framework, main coding tools, and syntax structure of AV

  13. Coding for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Abraham, Nikhil

    2015-01-01

    Hands-on exercises help you learn to code like a pro No coding experience is required for Coding For Dummies,your one-stop guide to building a foundation of knowledge inwriting computer code for web, application, and softwaredevelopment. It doesn't matter if you've dabbled in coding or neverwritten a line of code, this book guides you through the basics.Using foundational web development languages like HTML, CSS, andJavaScript, it explains in plain English how coding works and whyit's needed. Online exercises developed by Codecademy, a leading online codetraining site, help hone coding skill

  14. A Patch to MCNP5 for Multiplication Inference: Description and User Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, Jr., Clell J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-05-05

    A patch to MCNP5 has been written to allow generation of multiple neutrons from a spontaneous-fission event and generate list-mode output. This report documents the implementation and usage of this patch.

  15. Measured Leak Rate of Ammonia Through an Epoxy/Stainless-Steel Patch

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brady, B. B; Desain, J. D; Curtiss, T. J

    2007-01-01

    .... To assess the lifetime of the patch and sensitivity to manufacturing variation, simulated leaks in circular aluminum discs were patched with several different variants on the same epoxy-stainless materials system...

  16. Patch Test Results of 775 Patients with Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simin Ada

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: The allergens responsible for allergic contact dermatitis vary among countries and even between different geographical regions within the same country over time. It is of great importance to perform the patch test at certain intervals, to evaluate the results in different centers and to compare them afterwards. Our aim was to evaluate the patch test results in our patients with allergic contact dermatitis.Material and Method: The records of the patients with allergic contact dermatitis, who had been patch tested between May 1997 and March 2009, were analyzed retrospectively. The demographic features such as age and sex, localization of the contact dermatitis, and the patch test results were recorded. Results: Of the 775 patients, 581 (75.2% were females and 194 (25% males. Of all patients, 735 were patch tested with the European Standard Series, 318 - with both the European Standard Series and cosmetic series, and 40-with cosmetic series alone. Of the patients tested with the European Standard Series, 255 (34.7% had at least one positive reaction. The most frequent allergen in the European Standard Series was nickel sulfate (17.3%, followed by cobalt chloride (7.2%, potassium dichromate (3%, fragrance mix (2.9%, and p-phenylenediamine base (2.6%. Of the 358 patients tested with cosmetic series, 82 (22.9% had at least one positive reaction. The 5 most frequently observed cosmetic series allergens were octyl gallate (3.9%, thimerosal (2.2%, sorbitan sesquioleate (2%, Euxyl K 400 (2% and methyldibromo glutaronitrile (1.4%. Conclusion: Our study shows the contact allergen profile of our center over 12 years. The most common allergens and their frequency differ between centers in various cities in Turkey. Those geographical differences should be re-evaluated by further studies performed in the certain time period. The high frequency of reactions to octyl gallate is an important finding in patients suspected of cosmetic allergy

  17. Comprehensive field evaluation of asphalt patching methods and development of simple decision trees and a best practices manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    The long-term performance of pothole patches largely depends on the selection of the patching method. A number of pothole patching methods are in practice in Minnesota and other nearby states. However, pavement maintenance crews often encounter probl...

  18. Investigation of the use of uniaxial comb-shaped Galfenol patches for a guided wave-based magnetostrictive phased array sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Byungseok; Pines, Darryll J.

    2018-05-01

    This paper investigates the use of uniaxial comb-shaped Fe-Ga alloy (Galfenol) patches in the development of a Magnetostrictive Phased Array Sensor (MPAS) for the Guided Wave (GW) damage inspection technique. The MPAS consists of six highly-textured Galfenol patches with a preferred orientation and a Hexagonal Magnetic Circuit Device (HMCD). The Galfenol patches individually aligned to distinct azimuthal directions were permanently attached to a thin aluminum plate specimen. The detachable HMCD encloses a biasing magnet and six sensing coils with unique directional sensing preferences, equivalent to the specific orientation of the discrete Galfenol patches. The preliminary experimental tests validated that the GW sensing performance and directional sensitivity of the Galfenol-based sensor were significantly improved by the magnetic shape anisotropy effect on the fabrication of uniaxial comb fingers to a Galfenol disc patch. We employed a series of uniaxial comb-shaped Galfenol patches to form an MPAS with a hexagonal sensor configuration, uniformly arranged within a diameter of 1". The Galfenol MPAS was utilized to identify structural damage simulated by loosening joint bolts used to fasten the plate specimen to a frame structure. We compared the damage detection results of the MPAS with those of a PZT Phased Array Sensor (PPAS) collocated to the back surface of the plate. The directional filtering characteristic of the Galfenol MPAS led to acquiring less complicated GW signals than the PPAS using omnidirectional PZT discs. However, due to the detection limit of the standard hexagonal patterned array, the two array sensors apparently identified only the loosened bolts located along one of the preferred orientations of the array configuration. The use of the fixed number of the Galfenol patches for the MPAS construction constrained the capability of sensing point multiplication of the HMCD by altering its rotational orientation, resulting in such damage detection

  19. Fuel performance analysis code 'FAIR'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swami Prasad, P.; Dutta, B.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.; Mahajan, S.C.; Kakodkar, A.

    1994-01-01

    For modelling nuclear reactor fuel rod behaviour of water cooled reactors under severe power maneuvering and high burnups, a mechanistic fuel performance analysis code FAIR has been developed. The code incorporates finite element based thermomechanical module, physically based fission gas release module and relevant models for modelling fuel related phenomena, such as, pellet cracking, densification and swelling, radial flux redistribution across the pellet due to the build up of plutonium near the pellet surface, pellet clad mechanical interaction/stress corrosion cracking (PCMI/SSC) failure of sheath etc. The code follows the established principles of fuel rod analysis programmes, such as coupling of thermal and mechanical solutions along with the fission gas release calculations, analysing different axial segments of fuel rod simultaneously, providing means for performing local analysis such as clad ridging analysis etc. The modular nature of the code offers flexibility in affecting modifications easily to the code for modelling MOX fuels and thorium based fuels. For performing analysis of fuel rods subjected to very long power histories within a reasonable amount of time, the code has been parallelised and is commissioned on the ANUPAM parallel processing system developed at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC). (author). 37 refs

  20. Efficacy of a single dose of a transdermal diclofenac patch as pre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: We compared the analgesic efficacy of a transdermal diclofenac patch 100 mg (NuPatch® 100, Zydus Cadila, Ahmedabad, India) and intramuscular diclofenac sodium 75 mg (Voveran®, Novartis, India) for postoperative analgesia, and the associated side-effects of the transdermal diclofenac patch. Method: ...

  1. A New Low-Complexity Patch-based Super-Resolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasti, Pejman; Nasrollahi, Kamal; Orlova, Olga

    2017-01-01

    through an illumination enhancement process resulting in consistency of illumination between neigh- bour patches. This process is applied to all patches of the LR image. Finally, in order to remove the blocking effect caused by merging the patches, an average of the obtained HR image and the interpolated...

  2. A new low-complexity patch-based image super-resolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasti, Pejman; Nasrollahi, Kamal; Orlova, Olga

    2017-01-01

    through an illumination enhancement process resulting in consistency of illumination between neigh- bour patches. This process is applied to all patches of the LR image. Finally, in order to remove the blocking effect caused by merging the patches, an average of the obtained HR image and the interpolated...

  3. Use of an autologous leucocyte and platelet-rich fibrin patch on hard-to-heal DFUs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löndahl, M; Tarnow, L.; Karlsmark, T

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Leucopatch is a leukocyte and platelet-rich fibrin patch that provides concentrated blood cells and signal substances to the surface of an ulcer. It is produced by centrifugation of the patient's own venous blood. The aim of this pilot multicentre cohort study was to evaluate effects...... was applied once a week for up to 19 treatments or until the foot ulcer was completely epithelialised. The primary endpoint was healing within 20 weeks. RESULTS: Of the 60 patients who gave consent 16 were excluded during run-in period, 44 patients initiated study treatment and 39 were included in the per...... compared to non-healers. Adverse events were mild and rare. CONCLUSION: The leucocyte patch is well-tolerated, easy to use and has potential in the armamentarium of the DFU treatment, provided this outcome is confirmed in an appropriately powered randomised clinical trial....

  4. Discussion on LDPC Codes and Uplink Coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Ken; Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Sam; Moision, Bruce; Hamkins, Jon; Pollara, Fabrizio

    2007-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the progress that the workgroup on Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC) for space link coding. The workgroup is tasked with developing and recommending new error correcting codes for near-Earth, Lunar, and deep space applications. Included in the presentation is a summary of the technical progress of the workgroup. Charts that show the LDPC decoder sensitivity to symbol scaling errors are reviewed, as well as a chart showing the performance of several frame synchronizer algorithms compared to that of some good codes and LDPC decoder tests at ESTL. Also reviewed is a study on Coding, Modulation, and Link Protocol (CMLP), and the recommended codes. A design for the Pseudo-Randomizer with LDPC Decoder and CRC is also reviewed. A chart that summarizes the three proposed coding systems is also presented.

  5. The EGS5 Code System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirayama, Hideo; Namito, Yoshihito; /KEK, Tsukuba; Bielajew, Alex F.; Wilderman, Scott J.; U., Michigan; Nelson, Walter R.; /SLAC

    2005-12-20

    In the nineteen years since EGS4 was released, it has been used in a wide variety of applications, particularly in medical physics, radiation measurement studies, and industrial development. Every new user and every new application bring new challenges for Monte Carlo code designers, and code refinements and bug fixes eventually result in a code that becomes difficult to maintain. Several of the code modifications represented significant advances in electron and photon transport physics, and required a more substantial invocation than code patching. Moreover, the arcane MORTRAN3[48] computer language of EGS4, was highest on the complaint list of the users of EGS4. The size of the EGS4 user base is difficult to measure, as there never existed a formal user registration process. However, some idea of the numbers may be gleaned from the number of EGS4 manuals that were produced and distributed at SLAC: almost three thousand. Consequently, the EGS5 project was undertaken. It was decided to employ the FORTRAN 77 compiler, yet include as much as possible, the structural beauty and power of MORTRAN3. This report consists of four chapters and several appendices. Chapter 1 is an introduction to EGS5 and to this report in general. We suggest that you read it. Chapter 2 is a major update of similar chapters in the old EGS4 report[126] (SLAC-265) and the old EGS3 report[61] (SLAC-210), in which all the details of the old physics (i.e., models which were carried over from EGS4) and the new physics are gathered together. The descriptions of the new physics are extensive, and not for the faint of heart. Detailed knowledge of the contents of Chapter 2 is not essential in order to use EGS, but sophisticated users should be aware of its contents. In particular, details of the restrictions on the range of applicability of EGS are dispersed throughout the chapter. First-time users of EGS should skip Chapter 2 and come back to it later if necessary. With the release of the EGS4 version

  6. Histological distinction between early allergic and irritant patch test reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, L; Clemmensen, Ole; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    1999-01-01

    no recognizable changes except a slight follicular spongiosis in 1 patient. The 2 pathologists agreed independently on the correct classification in 6 out of 7 cases (p=0.0156). We tested an optimized model, selecting non-irritant allergens and a well-known irritant. Further investigations are needed to elucidate......Comparative light microscopic studies have revealed subtle differences between allergic and irritant reactions in the skin. In the search for specific differences, we focussed on the early inflammatory response. This pilot study was conducted to test the hypothesis that follicular spongiosis can...... differentiate between early allergic and irritant patch test reactions. 8 patients with known contact allergy to either colophony or quarternium-15 participated in the study. In each patient, allergic and irritant patch tests reactions were elicited, and 4-mm punch biopsies were taken after 6 8 h from...

  7. Patch test dose-response study of p-phenylenediamine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sosted, Heidi; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2006-01-01

    The elicitation response in allergic contact dermatitis for the hair dye substance p-phenylenediamine (PPD) is dose dependent, but threshold concentrations have not previously been investigated. 15 PPD-sensitive patients participated in a serial dilution 48-hr patch test with PPD using 8...... concentrations of PPD ranging from 1 to 10 000 on the upper back. Petrolatum was applied as control. Three concentrations (50, 100 and 500 p.p.m. PPD) were also applied to the retroauricular area and on the lateral aspects of the upper arms. 14 of the 15 participants reacted to one or more of the test samples....... The threshold value for 10% of the tested persons (ED10) based on+or stronger reactions for PPD on the back was 38 p.p.m. (CI: 4.3-100). There were no statistically significant differences in the sensitivity of the three anatomical regions. The upper back is a suitable region for patch testing patients...

  8. Vibration suppression of composite laminated beams using distributed piezoelectric patches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foda, M A; Almajed, A A; ElMadany, M M

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to develop an analytical and straightforward approach to suppress the steady state transverse vibration of a symmetric cross-ply laminated composite beam that is excited by an external harmonic force. This is achieved by bonding patches of piezoelectric material at selected locations along the beam. The governing equations for the system are formulated and the dynamic Green's functions are used to obtain an exact solution for the problem. A scheme is proposed for determining the values of the driving voltages, the dimensions of the PZT patches and their locations along the beam, in order to confine the vibration in a certain chosen region where the vibration is not harmful and leave the other chosen region stationary or vibrating with very small amplitudes. Beams with different boundary conditions are considered. Numerical case studies are presented to verify the utility of the proposed scheme

  9. Performance Enhancement of the Patch Antennas Applying Micromachining Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed N. Azermanesh

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the application of micromachining technology for performance enhancement of two types of compact antennas which are becoming a common practice in microsystems. Shorted patch antennas (SPA and folded shorted patch antennas operating in the 5-6 GHz ISM band, with intended application in short-range wireless communications, are considered. The electrical length of antennas are modified by etching the substrate of the antennas, thus providing a new degree of freedom to control the antenna operating properties, which is the main novelty of our work. The gain and bandwidth of the antennas are increased by increasing the etching depth. However, etching the substrate affects the operating frequency as well. To keep the operating frequency at a pre-specified value, the dimension of the antennas must be increased by deepening the etching depth. Therefore, a trade off between the performance enhancement of the antennas and the dimensional enlargement is required.

  10. Comparison of shrinkage related properties of various patch repair materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiawan, S. A.; Fitrianto, R. S.

    2017-02-01

    A patch repair material has been developed in the form of unsaturated polyester resin (UPR)-mortar. The performance and durability of this material are governed by its compatibility with the concrete being repaired. One of the compatibility issue that should be tackled is the dimensional compatibility as a result of differential shrinkage between the repair material and the concrete substrate. This research aims to evaluate such shrinkage related properties of UPR-mortar and to compare with those of other patch repair materials. The investigation includes the following aspects: free shrinkage, resistance to delamination and cracking. The results indicate that UPR-mortar poses a lower free shrinkage, lower risk of both delamination and cracking tendency in comparison to other repair materials.

  11. Analysis of Microstrip Line Fed Patch Antenna for Wireless Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Ashish

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, theoretical analysis of microstrip line fed rectangular patch antenna loaded with parasitic element and split-ring resonator is presented. The proposed antenna shows that the dualband operation depends on gap between parasitic element, split-ring resonator, length and width of microstrip line. It is found that antenna resonates at two distinct resonating modes i.e., 0.9 GHz and 1.8 GHz for lower and upper resonance frequencies respectively. The antenna shows dual frequency nature with frequency ratio 2.0. The characteristics of microstrip line fed rectangular patch antenna loaded with parasitic element and split-ring resonator antenna is compared with other prototype microstrip line fed antennas. Further, the theoretical results are compared with simulated and reported experimental results, they are in close agreement.

  12. Software approach to automatic patching of analog computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The Automatic Patching Verification program (APV) is described which provides the hybrid computer programmer with a convenient method of performing a static check of the analog portion of his study. The static check insures that the program is patched as specified, and that the computing components being used are operating correctly. The APV language the programmer uses to specify his conditions and interconnections is similar to the FORTRAN language in syntax. The APV control program reads APV source program statements from an assigned input device. Each source program statement is processed immediately after it is read. A statement may select an analog console, set an analog mode, set a potentiometer or DAC, or read from the analog console and perform a test. Statements are read and processed sequentially. If an error condition is detected, an output occurs on an assigned output device. When an end statement is read, the test is terminated.

  13. Epidural blood patch for refractory low CSF pressure headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Søren Aalbæk; Fomsgaard, Jonna Storm; Jensen, Rigmor

    2011-01-01

    primary effect parameter was total headache burden defined as area under the curve (AUC: intensity × duration) and as secondary effect parameters we identified: intensity (VAS 0-10), frequency (days per month), duration in hours (total hours/month) and also medication days (days on medication...... of non-invasive/conservative measures and invasive measures with epidural blood patch providing the cornerstone of the invasive measures. In the present pilot study we therefore aimed to evaluate the treatment efficacy of epidural blood patch (EBP) in treatment-refractory low-pressure headache. Our......Once believed an exceedingly rare disorder, recent evidence suggests that low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure headache has to be considered an important cause of new daily persistent headaches, particularly among young and middle-aged individuals. Treatment of low CSF pressure headache consists...

  14. Epidural blood patch for refractory low CSF pressure headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Søren Aalbæk; Fomsgaard, Jonna Storm; Jensen, Rigmor

    2011-01-01

    of non-invasive/conservative measures and invasive measures with epidural blood patch providing the cornerstone of the invasive measures. In the present pilot study we therefore aimed to evaluate the treatment efficacy of epidural blood patch (EBP) in treatment-refractory low-pressure headache. Our......Once believed an exceedingly rare disorder, recent evidence suggests that low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure headache has to be considered an important cause of new daily persistent headaches, particularly among young and middle-aged individuals. Treatment of low CSF pressure headache consists...... primary effect parameter was total headache burden defined as area under the curve (AUC: intensity × duration) and as secondary effect parameters we identified: intensity (VAS 0-10), frequency (days per month), duration in hours (total hours/month) and also medication days (days on medication...

  15. Effect of ionizing radiation on apoptosis in mouse Peyer's patches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jiamei; Chen Dong; Liu Shuzheng

    1999-01-01

    The relationship of time-effect and dose-effect of apoptosis in mouse Peyer's patches after whole body irradiation (WBI) with different doses of X-rays was studied by the method of TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL). The results showed that the number of TUNEL positive cells in mouse Peyer's patches were significantly increased following WBI with 2 Gy irradiation, While the number of TUNEL positive cells were decreased after WBI with doses of 0.05 Gy and 0.075 Gy X-rays. the results support the view that 2 Gy irradiation promote the apoptosis of immune cells and the low doses of radiation suppress the apoptosis of immune cells

  16. Gigaseal formation in patch clamping with applications of nanotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Malboubi, Majid

    2014-01-01

    This book presents an investigation of gigaseal formation using micro/nanotechnology. The aims of the book are twofold. First, it explains the mechanisms of gigaseal formation using the latest discoveries. Second, it provides practical techniques for frequent formation of high resistance seals. The formation of a high-resistance electrical seal, also known as a gigaseal, between a cell membrane and a glass micropipette tip is essential in patch-clamp experiments. Even though four decades have passed since the introduction of the patch-clamping technique by Neher and Sakmann, gigaseal formation remains an obstacle in developing the high-throughput ion channel screening systems required by the pharmaceutical industry. Here the authors share their latest methods for achieving gigaseal formation and describe techniques that are highly desirable at both research and industrial levels. Nanotechnology has been found to be a powerful tool for studying and modifying glass micropipettes and in tackling the problem of g...

  17. A patch in the pectoral position lowers defibrillation threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasik, P; Solomon, A; Verdino, R; Moore, H; Rodak, D; Hannan, R; Fletcher, R

    1997-06-01

    Implantable pacemaker cardioverter defibrillators are now available with biphasic waveforms, which have been shown to markedly improve defibrillation thresholds (DFTs). However, in a number of patients the DFT remains high. Also, DFT may increase after implantation, especially if antiarrhythmic drugs are added. We report on the use of a subcutaneous patch in the pectoral position in 15 patients receiving a transvenous defibrillator as a method of easily reducing the DFT. A 660-mm2 patch electrode was placed beneath the generator in a pocket created on the pectoral fascia. The energy required for defibrillation was lowered by 56% on average, and the system impedance was lowered by a mean of 25%. This maneuver allowed all patients to undergo a successful implant with adequate safety margin.

  18. Toxicity of sediments from a mangrove forest patch in an urban area in Pernambuco (Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, D D; Souza-Santos, L P; Silva, H K P; Macedo, S J

    2014-06-01

    Industrial and urban residues are discharged every day to the rivers and may arrive at the mangrove forest and prejudice the quality of the environment and the organisms present there. The mangrove forest patch studied is encircled by an urban area of the city of Recife (Brazil) that has approximate 1.5 million inhabitants and is one of the most industrialized centers in Northeast Brazil. The aim of this study was to assess the quality of the sediments of this mangrove patch in terms of metal contamination and ecotoxicology. Samples of surface sediment were collected in six stations for toxicological tests and trace metal determination (Cr, Zn, Mn, Fe, Cu, Pb, Co and Ni), in July and August, 2006 (rainy season); and in January and February 2007 (dry season). Toxicity tests with solid-phase sediments were carried out with the copepod Tisbe biminiensis in order to observe lethal and sub-lethal endpoints and correlate them with chemical data. In June, there were no observed lethal effect, but two stations presented sub-lethal effects. In January, lethal effect occurred in three stations and sub-lethal in one station. The levels for Zn and Cr were at higher levels than international proposed guidelines (NOAA). There was a negative significant correlation between the copepods׳ fecundity, and Zn and Cr concentrations. Therefore, the studied sediments can be considered to have potential toxic to benthos due to the high content of Zn and Cr. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A versatile model for soft patchy particles with various patch arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhan-Wei; Zhu, You-Liang; Lu, Zhong-Yuan; Sun, Zhao-Yan

    2016-01-21

    We propose a simple and general mesoscale soft patchy particle model, which can felicitously describe the deformable and surface-anisotropic characteristics of soft patchy particles. This model can be used in dynamics simulations to investigate the aggregation behavior and mechanism of various types of soft patchy particles with tunable number, size, direction, and geometrical arrangement of the patches. To improve the computational efficiency of this mesoscale model in dynamics simulations, we give the simulation algorithm that fits the compute unified device architecture (CUDA) framework of NVIDIA graphics processing units (GPUs). The validation of the model and the performance of the simulations using GPUs are demonstrated by simulating several benchmark systems of soft patchy particles with 1 to 4 patches in a regular geometrical arrangement. Because of its simplicity and computational efficiency, the soft patchy particle model will provide a powerful tool to investigate the aggregation behavior of soft patchy particles, such as patchy micelles, patchy microgels, and patchy dendrimers, over larger spatial and temporal scales.

  20. Development of Buccal Patches for Delivery of Darifenacin from Beta-Cyclodextrin Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati C. Jagdale

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug-cyclodextrin complexes improve aqueous solubility and dissolution rate of poorly water-soluble drugs. Solubilisation followed by buccal delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs can be advantageous for increasing drug absorption. Darifenacin is an antispasmodic used against urinary incontinence and specifically blocks M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in smooth muscle. M3 receptors are mainly located in exocrine glands, smooth muscle and vascular endothelium. The oral absorption of darifenacin is poor owing to its low solubility. It also has poor bioavailability (15-19% due to a high rate of first-pass metabolism. Complexation with beta-cyclodextrin was carried out to enhance solubility. The best results were obtained by co-grinding in a 1:1 molar ratio of drug: β-cyclodextrin. The solid inclusion complexes were characterized by DSC, X-ray diffractometry and FTIR. Inclusion complexes showed higher dissolution rates than the pure drug. Controlledrelease mucoadhesive patches were prepared with two hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC polymers, K100M CR and K15. The patches were assessed for surface pH, folding endurance, swelling, mucoadhesive properties, in-vitro residence time, vapor transmission test and in-vitro (cellophane, egg membrane and exvivo (goat buccal mucosa release. Formulations Ha2 (2% HPMC K100M CR and Pa4 (4% HPMC K15 showed good mucoadhesive strength, in-vitro and exvivo residence times, with controlled release for 10 hours.

  1. Locally orderless registration code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    This is code for the TPAMI paper "Locally Orderless Registration". The code requires intel threadding building blocks installed and is provided for 64 bit on mac, linux and windows.......This is code for the TPAMI paper "Locally Orderless Registration". The code requires intel threadding building blocks installed and is provided for 64 bit on mac, linux and windows....

  2. Decoding Codes on Graphs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shannon limit of the channel. Among the earliest discovered codes that approach the. Shannon limit were the low density parity check (LDPC) codes. The term low density arises from the property of the parity check matrix defining the code. We will now define this matrix and the role that it plays in decoding. 2. Linear Codes.

  3. Manually operated coded switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnette, J.H.

    1978-01-01

    The disclosure related to a manually operated recodable coded switch in which a code may be inserted, tried and used to actuate a lever controlling an external device. After attempting a code, the switch's code wheels must be returned to their zero positions before another try is made

  4. Uncertainty analysis of the FRAP code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peck, S.O.

    1978-01-01

    A user oriented, automated uncertainty analysis capability has been built into the FRAP code (Fuel Rod Analysis Program) and applied to a PWR fuel rod undergoing a LOCA. The method of uncertainty analysis is the Response Surface Method (RSM). (author)

  5. How to Patch Active Plasma and Collisionless Sheath: Practical Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaganovich, Igor D.

    2002-01-01

    Most plasmas have a very thin sheath compared with the plasma dimension. This necessitates separate calculations of the plasma and sheath. The Bohm criterion provides the boundary condition for calculation of plasma profiles. To calculate sheath properties, a value of electric field at the plasma-sheath interface has to be specified in addition to the Bohm criterion. The value of the boundary electric field and robust procedure to approximately patch plasma and collisionless sheath with a very good accuracy are reported

  6. Patch-up system on GEC 4080 computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryden, A.D.

    1978-02-01

    The patch-up system for the rescue of events on bubble chamber film was described in Rutherford Laboratory Report RHEL-R-190 (1970). The present report highlights the changes that have had to be made to the system in the transfer from IBM 360/195 to the GEC 4080 computer and should be used in conjuction with the earlier report. (U.K.)

  7. Lateral spread affects nitrogen leaching from urine patches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichota, Rogerio; Vogeler, Iris; Snow, Val; Shepherd, Mark; McAuliffe, Russell; Welten, Brendon

    2018-09-01

    Nitrate leaching from urine deposited by grazing animals is a critical constraint for sustainable dairy farming in New Zealand. While considerable progress has been made to understand the fate of nitrogen (N) under urine patches, little consideration has been given to the spread of urinary N beyond the wetted area. In this study, we modelled the lateral spread of nitrogen from the wetted area of a urine patch to the soil outside the patch using a combination of two process-based models (HYDRUS and APSIM). The simulations provided insights on the extent and temporal pattern for the redistribution of N in the soil following a urine deposition and enabled investigating the effect of lateral spread of urinary N on plant growth and N leaching. The APSIM simulation, using an implementation of a dispersion-diffusion function, was tested against experimental data from a field experiment conducted in spring on a well-drained soil. Depending on the geometry considered for the dispersion-diffusion function (plate or cylindrical) the area-averaged N leaching decreased by 8 and 37% compared with simulations without lateral N spread; this was due to additional N uptake from pasture on the edge area. A sensitivity analysis showed that area-averaged pasture growth was not greatly affected by the value of the dispersion factor used in the model, whereas N leaching was very sensitive. Thus, the need to account for the edge effect may depend on the objective of the simulations. The modelling results also showed that considering lateral spread of urinary N was sufficient to describe the experimental data, but plant root uptake across urine patch zones may still be relevant in other conditions. Although further work is needed for improving accuracy, the simulated and experimental results demonstrate that accounting for the edge effect is important for determining N leaching from urine-affected areas. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. An Efficient Patch Dissemination Strategy for Mobile Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Dawei; Peng, Haipeng; Li, Lixiang; Yang, Yixian; Li, Shudong

    2013-01-01

    Mobile phones and personal digital assistants are becoming increasingly important in our daily life since they enable us to access a large variety of ubiquitous services. Mobile networks, formed by the connection of mobile devices following some relationships among mobile users, provide good platforms for mobile virus spread. Quick and efficient security patch dissemination strategy is necessary for the update of antivirus software so that it can detect mobile virus, especially the new vir...

  9. Patch test with ether extracts in salicaceae allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawhney M

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 23 cases suggestive of airborne contact dermatitis were patch tested with ether extracts of flowers and leaves of populus sp. and salix sp. in a study conducted in Ladakh at an altitude of 3445 meters above sea level. Overall positivity was found in 12 (52.17%, with populus sp. alone in 7 (30. 43%, salix sp. alone in 4 17.39% and to both in one (8.33%.

  10. Reconfigurable Patch Antenna Radiations Using Plasma Faraday Shield Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Barro , Oumar Alassane; Himdi , Mohamed; Lafond , Olivier

    2016-01-01

    International audience; This letter presents a new reconfigurable antenna associated with a plasma Faraday shield effect. The Faraday shield effect is realized by using a fluorescent lamp. A patch antenna operating at 2.45 GHz is placed inside the lamp. The performance of the reconfigurable system is observed in terms of S11, gain and radiation patterns by simulation and measurement. It is shown that by switching ON the fluorescent lamp, the gain of the antenna decreases and the antenna syste...

  11. Diclofenac epolamine topical patch relieves pain associated with ankle sprain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R Lionberger

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available David R Lionberger1, Eric Joussellin2, Arturo Lanzarotti3, Jillmarie Yanchick4, Merrell Magelli5 1Southwest Orthopedic Group, LLP, Houston, Texas, USA; 2Institut National du Sport, Paris, France; 3Institut Biochimique SA, Pambionoranco, Switzerland; 4Alpharma Pharmaceuticals LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of King Pharmaceuticals®, Inc, Piscataway, New Jersey, USA; 5GTx, Inc, Memphis, Tennessee, USABackground: Sports-related injuries, such as sprains and strains, commonly occur during exercise and athletic events. Current therapy includes nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, which have a high incidence of upper gastrointestinal side effects. The present study assessed the efficacy and safety of the diclofenac epolamine topical patch (DETP, 1.3%, a topical NSAID for the treatment of acute minor sprains and strains.Methods: This multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical study enrolled adult patients (n = 134 with acute ankle pain (due to a minor sprain occurring less than 48 hours prior to entering the study. Patients were treated with either the DETP or a placebo topical patch daily for seven days. Pain intensity was evaluated during the first six hours after application of the patch, and on treatment days 1, 2, 3, and 7.Results: Patients treated with the DETP experienced a significantly greater reduction in pain associated with their ankle injury compared with placebo, beginning four hours after the first patch application (P = 0.02. The DETP was well tolerated and was comparable with placebo in terms of safety.Conclusion: Overall, the results of this study demonstrate that the DETP is an effective analgesic for local treatment of pain in mild acute ankle sprain.Keywords: soft tissue injury, acute pain, visual analog scale, efficacy, tolerability 

  12. Sutureless human sclera donor patch graft for Ahmed glaucoma valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeppa, Lucio; Romano, Mario R; Capasso, Luigi; Tortori, Achille; Majorana, Mara A; Costagliola, Ciro

    2010-01-01

    To report the safety and effectiveness of a sutureless human sclera donor patch graft covering the subconjunctival portion of glaucoma drainage implant tube to prevent its erosion throughout the overlying conjunctiva. This was a prospective pilot study. Fifteen eyes of 15 consecutive patients not responsive to medical and to not-implant surgical glaucoma treatment underwent Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) implant surgery with sutureless human sclera donor patch graft. The surgical procedure included AVG implant placed 8 mm behind the corneal limbus and fixed to the sclera with two 9-0 black nylon sutures. The tube was passed through the scleral tunnel, parallel to the corneal limbus, and shortened at the desired length. The anterior part of the tube was covered with human donor scleral graft and kept in place with fibrin glue (Tissue Coll) under the conjunctiva. Examinations were scheduled at baseline and then at 1 week and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery. At 12-month follow-up, the best-corrected visual acuity did not significantly improve from baseline 0.78+/-1.2 logMAR, whereas mean intraocular pressure significantly decreased from preoperative values of 29.8 (SD 8.4) mmHg. In all cases, the scleral patch was found in place at each check during the follow-up period. No conjunctival erosion over the AGV tube nor sign of endophthalmitis was recorded at any time during the follow-up period. AVG implant surgery with sutureless human sclera donor patch graft represents an effective and relatively safe surgical procedure for complicated glaucomas, avoiding conjunctival erosions over the AGV tube.

  13. Coding in Muscle Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lyell K; Ney, John P

    2016-12-01

    Accurate coding is critically important for clinical practice and research. Ongoing changes to diagnostic and billing codes require the clinician to stay abreast of coding updates. Payment for health care services, data sets for health services research, and reporting for medical quality improvement all require accurate administrative coding. This article provides an overview of administrative coding for patients with muscle disease and includes a case-based review of diagnostic and Evaluation and Management (E/M) coding principles in patients with myopathy. Procedural coding for electrodiagnostic studies and neuromuscular ultrasound is also reviewed.

  14. Testing a solar coronal magnetic field extrapolation code with the Titov–Démoulin magnetic flux rope model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Chao-Wei; Feng, Xue-Shang

    2016-01-01

    In the solar corona, the magnetic flux rope is believed to be a fundamental structure that accounts for magnetic free energy storage and solar eruptions. Up to the present, the extrapolation of the magnetic field from boundary data has been the primary way to obtain fully three-dimensional magnetic information about the corona. As a result, the ability to reliably recover the coronal magnetic flux rope is important for coronal field extrapolation. In this paper, our coronal field extrapolation code is examined with an analytical magnetic flux rope model proposed by Titov and Démoulin, which consists of a bipolar magnetic configuration holding a semi-circular line-tied flux rope in force-free equilibrium. By only using the vector field at the bottom boundary as input, we test our code with the model in a representative range of parameter space and find that the model field can be reconstructed with high accuracy. In particular, the magnetic topological interfaces formed between the flux rope and the surrounding arcade, i.e., the “hyperbolic flux tube” and “bald patch separatrix surface,” are also reliably reproduced. By this test, we demonstrate that our CESE–MHD–NLFFF code can be applied to recovering the magnetic flux rope in the solar corona as long as the vector magnetogram satisfies the force-free constraints. (paper)

  15. A multiresolution remeshed particle vortex method using patches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Johannes Tophøj; Cottet, George-Henri; Walther, Jens Honore

    vortex particle-mesh VIC algorithm interpolates particle vorticity to a mesh, solves a Poisson equation for the stream function using FFTs and calculates velocities as the curl of the stream function. With both vorticity and velocity available on the mesh, values of the substantial derivative of particle...... implementation with patches of varying resolution, is applied to the two-dimensional flow past a cylinder. The vorticity field can be divided into two regions, an arbitrary patch of vorticity and the remaining exterior vorticity field. Due to the linearity of the Poisson equation the velocity field corresponding...... to the total vorticity field is the sum of the free space solutions to the Poisson equation to each region. Hereby the flow on the patch can be simulated at a higher resolution, while including the influence from the coarser exterior region. Particles are remeshed and interpolated only to the region from which...

  16. Patch-based visual tracking with online representative sample selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Weihua; Yuan, Di; Li, Donghao; Liu, Bin; Xia, Daoxun; Zeng, Wu

    2017-05-01

    Occlusion is one of the most challenging problems in visual object tracking. Recently, a lot of discriminative methods have been proposed to deal with this problem. For the discriminative methods, it is difficult to select the representative samples for the target template updating. In general, the holistic bounding boxes that contain tracked results are selected as the positive samples. However, when the objects are occluded, this simple strategy easily introduces the noises into the training data set and the target template and then leads the tracker to drift away from the target seriously. To address this problem, we propose a robust patch-based visual tracker with online representative sample selection. Different from previous works, we divide the object and the candidates into several patches uniformly and propose a score function to calculate the score of each patch independently. Then, the average score is adopted to determine the optimal candidate. Finally, we utilize the non-negative least square method to find the representative samples, which are used to update the target template. The experimental results on the object tracking benchmark 2013 and on the 13 challenging sequences show that the proposed method is robust to the occlusion and achieves promising results.

  17. Self-Replication of Localized Vegetation Patches in Scarce Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordeu, Ignacio; Clerc, Marcel G.; Couteron, Piere; Lefever, René; Tlidi, Mustapha

    2016-09-01

    Desertification due to climate change and increasing drought periods is a worldwide problem for both ecology and economy. Our ability to understand how vegetation manages to survive and propagate through arid and semiarid ecosystems may be useful in the development of future strategies to prevent desertification, preserve flora—and fauna within—or even make use of scarce resources soils. In this paper, we study a robust phenomena observed in semi-arid ecosystems, by which localized vegetation patches split in a process called self-replication. Localized patches of vegetation are visible in nature at various spatial scales. Even though they have been described in literature, their growth mechanisms remain largely unexplored. Here, we develop an innovative statistical analysis based on real field observations to show that patches may exhibit deformation and splitting. This growth mechanism is opposite to the desertification since it allows to repopulate territories devoid of vegetation. We investigate these aspects by characterizing quantitatively, with a simple mathematical model, a new class of instabilities that lead to the self-replication phenomenon observed.

  18. Parametric study on patch repaired CFRP laminates using FEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashfuddoja, M.; Ramji, M. [Indian Institute of Technology. Engineering Optics Lab. Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Hyderabad (India)

    2012-07-01

    Carbon fibre reinforced plastic (CFRP) composite laminates have become popular for structural applications as they are lighter, stronger and tougher. Composite structures are also susceptible to damage while in service. For improved service life, the damage needs to be repaired so that repair structure integrity is enhanced. Various parameters like patch size and shape, it's layup sequence and adhesive thickness would influence the performance of the repaired structure. In present work, a parametric study is carried out using finite element analysis (FEA) to investigate the influence of various parameters involved in composite repair. The panel is made of carbon / epoxy composite laminate with stacking sequence of (0/{+-}45/900)s and is subjected to tensile load. Damaged CFRP laminates is repaired by symmetrical patch adhesively bonded over the damaged area. Circular patch of different stacking sequence and size is considered. Influence of adhesive material and it's thickness on repair efficiency is also investigated. The influence of various repair parameters on peel stress is also analysed. (Author)

  19. Bandwidth-Enhanced Low-Profile Antenna with Parasitic Patches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Son Xuat Ta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents low-profile broadband antennas, which are composed of four parasitic patches placed between planar radiators and a perfect electric conductor ground plane. Two types of planar radiators, a conventional dipole and a crossed dipole, are employed to produce linearly polarized (LP and circularly polarized (CP radiations, respectively. The radiator and parasitic patches are realized on thin substrates to lower the cost. Owing to the presence of parasitic patches, the antenna performance improves in terms of profile reduction, resonant frequency decrease, and bandwidth enhancement. These improvements are discussed and confirmed computationally and experimentally. The LP design with the overall dimensions of 120 mm × 120 mm × 16.3 mm (0.64λ0 × 0.64λ0 × 0.087λ0 at 1.6 GHz has a |S11|  96%. The CP design, which has the same physical size as the LP case, has a |S11|  90%.

  20. Exploring Potential Foreshocks on Highly Compressed Patches in a Rate-and-State Fault Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, N.; Lapusta, N.

    2015-12-01

    On both natural and laboratory faults, some mainshocks are preceded by foreshocks. Such foreshocks may be triggered by aseismic processes of the mainshock nucleation at fault heterogeneities such as bumps, as inferred in some laboratory experiments. We explore a rate-and-state fault model in which potential foreshocks occur on patches of elevated normal compression (by a factor of 5 to 10) within a larger velocity-weakening (VW) region, using 3D numerical simulations of long-term earthquake sequences and aseismic slip. We find that this model produces isolated microseismicity during the nucleation of a larger-scale seismic event, under the following conditions: (i) Patch diameter D is comparable to or larger than the patch nucleation size h*patch; (ii) D is much smaller than the nucleation size h*main for the larger-scale VW region; otherwise, a patch-hosted event simply starts the larger-scale event; (iii) the patches are sufficiently separated to prevent them triggering each other nearly instantaneously. Hence the nucleation sizes h*main and h*patch need to be substantially different, by a factor of around 10 in our simulations so far, and potentially much more. The aforementioned separation of scales can be achieved by assigning high levels of compression on the patches. However, one would expect unrealistically large stress drops for events on such patches. Remarkably, in this model, we find that the stress drops of the patch-hosted events are reasonable and roughly constant, despite a wide variation in the patch compression, due to patch ruptures extending into the surrounding VW region. Furthermore, for D close to h*patch, a substantial part of the stress change on the patch occurs aseismically. Our current work is directed towards quantifying and explaining these trends, as well as exploring whether the microseismicity occurring on highly compressed patches due to nucleation-induced creep has any observable differences from other events.

  1. QR Codes 101

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crompton, Helen; LaFrance, Jason; van 't Hooft, Mark

    2012-01-01

    A QR (quick-response) code is a two-dimensional scannable code, similar in function to a traditional bar code that one might find on a product at the supermarket. The main difference between the two is that, while a traditional bar code can hold a maximum of only 20 digits, a QR code can hold up to 7,089 characters, so it can contain much more…

  2. Effect of weed patch size on seed removal by harvester ants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westermann, Paula R.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In dryland cereals in North-eastern Spain, the harvester ant, Messor barbarus L., is responsible for removal of a large proportion of the newly produced weed seeds (40-100%. The probability that seeds will be found by the ants may be influenced by weed patch size. To investigate this source of variability, 30 seed patches were created in each of three, 50 × 50 m, blocks in a cereal field after harvest, by sequentially seeding (10, 16 and 17 August 2010 with 2000 seeds m-2 of Avena sativa L.. Patch size varied from 0.25 to 9 m2. Twenty four hours after seeding, the remaining seeds were collected and seed removal rates estimated. Average seed removal rate was lowest in the smallest (78-94% and highest in the largest patches (99-100%. Differences were mainly caused by the fact that some of the smaller patches (9.7% were not found. However, when patches were found, they were exploited at equal rates (98-100%. As predicted, the probability of finding a patch increased slightly, but significantly, with increasing patch size. When a patch was found, it was almost always fully exploited, resulting in very high seed removal rates, irrespective of patch size. These results indicate that the size of the seed patch is only a minor source of variation influencing this form of biological control of weeds.

  3. Departure mechanisms for host search on high-density patches by the Meteorus pulchricornis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Sheng; Feng, Sufang; Meng, Ling; Li, Baoping

    2014-01-01

    Less attention has been paid to the parasitoid-host system in which the host occurs in considerably high density with a hierarchical patch structure in studies on time allocation strategies of parasitoids. This study used the parasitoid Meteorus pulchricornis (Wesmael) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and the Oriental leafworm, Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) as the parasitoids-host model system to investigate patch-leaving mechanisms as affected by the high-host density, hierarchical patch structure, and foraging behaviors on both former and current patches. The results showed that three out of eight covariates tested had significant effects on the patch-leaving tendency, including the host density, ovipositor insertion, and host rejection on the current patch. The parasitoid paid more visits to the patch with high-density hosts. While the patch with higher host densities decreased the leaving tendency, the spatial distribution of hosts examined had no effect on the leaving tendency. Both oviposition and host rejection decreased the patch-leaving tendency. The variables associated with the former patch, such as the host density and number of ovipositor insertions, however, did not have an effect on the leaving tendency. Our study suggested that M. pulchricornis females may use an incremental mechanism to exploit high-density patches to the fullest. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  4. Modeling the effects of size on patch dynamics of an inert tracer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Xiu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Mesoscale iron enrichment experiments have revealed that additional iron affects the phytoplankton productivity and carbon cycle. However, the role of initial size of fertilized patch in determining the patch evolution is poorly quantified due to the limited observational capability and complex of physical processes. Using a three-dimensional ocean circulation model, we simulated different sizes of inert tracer patches that were only regulated by physical circulation and diffusion. Model results showed that during the first few days since release of inert tracer, the calculated dilution rate was found to be a linear function with time, which was sensitive to the initial patch size with steeper slope for smaller size patch. After the initial phase of rapid decay, the relationship between dilution rate and time became an exponential function, which was also size dependent. Therefore, larger initial size patches can usually last longer and ultimately affect biogeochemical processes much stronger than smaller patches.

  5. Engineered hybrid cardiac patches with multifunctional electronics for online monitoring and regulation of tissue function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiner, Ron; Engel, Leeya; Fleischer, Sharon; Malki, Maayan; Gal, Idan; Shapira, Assaf; Shacham-Diamand, Yosi; Dvir, Tal

    2016-06-01

    In cardiac tissue engineering approaches to treat myocardial infarction, cardiac cells are seeded within three-dimensional porous scaffolds to create functional cardiac patches. However, current cardiac patches do not allow for online monitoring and reporting of engineered-tissue performance, and do not interfere to deliver signals for patch activation or to enable its integration with the host. Here, we report an engineered cardiac patch that integrates cardiac cells with flexible, freestanding electronics and a 3D nanocomposite scaffold. The patch exhibited robust electronic properties, enabling the recording of cellular electrical activities and the on-demand provision of electrical stimulation for synchronizing cell contraction. We also show that electroactive polymers containing biological factors can be deposited on designated electrodes to release drugs in the patch microenvironment on demand. We expect that the integration of complex electronics within cardiac patches will eventually provide therapeutic control and regulation of cardiac function.

  6. Engineered hybrid cardiac patches with multifunctional electronics for online monitoring and regulation of tissue function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiner, Ron; Engel, Leeya; Fleischer, Sharon; Malki, Maayan; Gal, Idan; Shapira, Assaf; Shacham-Diamand, Yosi; Dvir, Tal

    2016-01-01

    In cardiac tissue engineering approaches to treat myocardial infarction, cardiac cells are seeded within three-dimensional porous scaffolds to create functional cardiac patches. However, current cardiac patches do not allow for online monitoring and reporting of engineered-tissue performance, and do not interfere to deliver signals for patch activation or to enable its integration with the host. Here, we report an engineered cardiac patch that integrates cardiac cells with flexible, free-standing electronics and a 3D nanocomposite scaffold. The patch exhibited robust electronic properties, enabling the recording of cellular electrical activities and the on-demand provision of electrical stimulation for synchronizing cell contraction. We also show that electroactive polymers containing biological factors can be deposited on designated electrodes to release drugs in the patch microenvironment on-demand. We expect that the integration of complex electronics within cardiac patches will eventually provide therapeutic control and regulation of cardiac function. PMID:26974408

  7. Codes and curves

    CERN Document Server

    Walker, Judy L

    2000-01-01

    When information is transmitted, errors are likely to occur. Coding theory examines efficient ways of packaging data so that these errors can be detected, or even corrected. The traditional tools of coding theory have come from combinatorics and group theory. Lately, however, coding theorists have added techniques from algebraic geometry to their toolboxes. In particular, by re-interpreting the Reed-Solomon codes, one can see how to define new codes based on divisors on algebraic curves. For instance, using modular curves over finite fields, Tsfasman, Vladut, and Zink showed that one can define a sequence of codes with asymptotically better parameters than any previously known codes. This monograph is based on a series of lectures the author gave as part of the IAS/PCMI program on arithmetic algebraic geometry. Here, the reader is introduced to the exciting field of algebraic geometric coding theory. Presenting the material in the same conversational tone of the lectures, the author covers linear codes, inclu...

  8. Nanocrystal cellulose as drug excipient in transdermal patch for wound healing: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuki, S. A. Mohd; Rahman, N. Abd; Abu Bakar, N. F.

    2018-03-01

    Wound must be carefully treated to avoid serious infection that needs costly treatment. Method to enhance the recovery of the wound is crucial to have effective wound treatment. One of the technologies in wound treatment is transdermal patch that has the benefits of being non-invasive, easy to handle and permits constant drug dosage. In order to obtain a good controlled drug release, drug excipient needs to be investigated. Recently, natural Nanocrystal Cellulose (NCC) which can be synthesized from animal, algae, microorganism or plant has been actively used in drug delivery system as excipient. The application of NCC is advantageous due to its large surface area, biodegradable, non-toxic and abundance source.

  9. Multichannel noninvasive human-machine interface via stretchable µm thick sEMG patches for robot manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ying; Wang, Youhua; Liu, Runfeng; Xiao, Lin; Zhang, Qin; Huang, YongAn

    2018-01-01

    Epidermal electronics (e-skin) emerging in recent years offer the opportunity to noninvasively and wearably extract biosignals from human bodies. The conventional processes of e-skin based on standard microelectronic fabrication processes and a variety of transfer printing methods, nevertheless, unquestionably constrains the size of the devices, posing a serious challenge to collecting signals via skin, the largest organ in the human body. Herein we propose a multichannel noninvasive human-machine interface (HMI) using stretchable surface electromyography (sEMG) patches to realize a robot hand mimicking human gestures. Time-efficient processes are first developed to manufacture µm thick large-scale stretchable devices. With micron thickness, the stretchable µm thick sEMG patches show excellent conformability with human skin and consequently comparable electrical performance with conventional gel electrodes. Combined with the large-scale size, the multichannel noninvasive HMI via stretchable µm thick sEMG patches successfully manipulates the robot hand with eight different gestures, whose precision is as high as conventional gel electrodes array.

  10. Superstrate loading effects on the resonant characteristics of high Tc superconducting circular patch printed on anisotropic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedra, Sami; Bedra, Randa; Benkouda, Siham; Fortaki, Tarek

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, the effects of both anisotropies in the substrate and superstrate loading on the resonant frequency and bandwidth of high-Tc superconducting circular microstrip patch in a substrate-superstrate configuration are investigated. A rigorous analysis is performed using a dyadic Galerkin's method in the vector Hankel transform domain. Galerkin's procedure is employed in the spectral domain where the TM and TE modes of the cylindrical cavity with magnetic side walls are used in the expansion of the disk current. The effect of the superconductivity of the patch is taken into account using the concept of the complex resistive boundary condition. London's equations and the two-fluid model of Gorter and Casimir are used in the calculation of the complex surface impedance of the superconducting circular disc. The accuracy of the analysis is tested by comparing the computed results with previously published data for several anisotropic substrate-superstrate materials. Good agreement is found among all sets of results. The numerical results obtained show that important errors can be made in the computation of the resonant frequencies and bandwidths of the superconducting resonators when substrate dielectric anisotropy, and/or superstrate anisotropy are ignored. Other theoretical results obtained show that the superconducting circular microstrip patch on anisotropic substrate-superstrate with properly selected permittivity values along the optical and the non-optical axes combined with optimally chosen structural parameters is more advantageous than the one on isotropic substrate-superstrate by exhibiting wider bandwidth characteristic.

  11. Patch time allocation and oviposition behavior in response to patch quality and the presence of a generalist predator in Meteorus pulchricornis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Sheng; Ling, Meng; Fu-An, Wu; Baoping, Li

    2015-01-01

    Foraging parasitoids often must estimate local risk of predation just as they must estimate local patch value. Here, we investigate the effects a generalist predator Chlaenius bioculatus (Coleoptera: Carabidae), has on the oviposition behavior and the patch residence decisions of a solitary parasitoid Meteorus pulchricornis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in response to the varying host quality of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae (L2 and L4). M. pulchricornis attacked more L4 than on L2 hosts, with the difference in attack rate varying depending on predation treatments, greater in the presence (either actively feeding or not) of the predator than in the absence of it. The parasitoid attacked fewer L2 and L4 hosts when the predator was actively feeding than when it was not feeding or not present in the patch. M. pulchricornis decreased the patch leaving tendency with increasing rejections of hosts, but increased the tendency in response to the presence of the predator as compared with the absence of it, and furthermore, increased the patch leaving tendency when the predator was actively feeding as compared with when it was not. Our study suggests that M. pulchricornis can exploit high quality patches while minimizing predation risk, by attacking more hosts in high quality patches while reducing total patch time in response to risk of predation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  12. The Outlet Patch: Gastric Heterotopia of the Colo-rectum and Anus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannan, Abul Ala Syed Rifat; Vieth, Michael; Khararjian, Armen; Khandakar, Binny; Lam-Himlin, Dora; Heydt, David; Bhaijee, Feriyl; Venbrux, Henry J; Byrnes, Kathleen; Voltaggio, Lysandra; Barker, Norman; Yuan, Songyang; Montgomery, Elizabeth

    2018-04-18

    Gastric heterotopia (GH) has been described throughout the gastrointestinal tract. However, the colorectal region is an extremely rare location for it. We describe the clinicopathologic features of GH of the colon, rectum, and anus. We identified 33 cases in 20 males and 13 females (median age 54 years; range, 4 months to 73 years). Sites included the rectum (N=26), anus (N=4), ileocecal junction (N=1), ascending colon (N=1) and descending colon (N=1). Presenting symptoms(N=27) included hematochezia (41%) and altered bowel habits (4%); 15 patients (55%) were asymptomatic. On colonoscopy (N=31), all appeared as solitary lesions, (median size 6.5 mm, range 2 mm - 55 mm), either as polyps (61%), raised erythematous patches (23%), an ulcer(10%), within a rectal diverticulum (3%), or a hemorrhoid (3%). Patients were managed by polypectomy. One with an associated carcinoma in the area of GH underwent resection. No morbidity related to GH itself was reported following excision. Histologically, heterotopic gastric mucosa was oxyntic type (85%), mixed oxyntic and non-oxyntic type (12%), and not specified (3%). In 5 patients a pyloric gland adenoma (PGA) arose from heterotopic gastric mucosa, two of which contained a focus of invasive adenocarcinoma. One case had associated surface foveolar type low-grade dysplasia. Another had associated adenocarcinoma arising from the heterotopic mucosa. One example harbored Helicobacter pylori organisms. We highlight the features of GH in the distal GIT - the 'outlet patch'. Association with PGA, surface dysplasia and adenocarcinoma suggests that lower tract GH can undergo neoplastic transformation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. The materiality of Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soon, Winnie

    2014-01-01

    This essay studies the source code of an artwork from a software studies perspective. By examining code that come close to the approach of critical code studies (Marino, 2006), I trace the network artwork, Pupufu (Lin, 2009) to understand various real-time approaches to social media platforms (MSN......, Twitter and Facebook). The focus is not to investigate the functionalities and efficiencies of the code, but to study and interpret the program level of code in order to trace the use of various technological methods such as third-party libraries and platforms’ interfaces. These are important...... to understand the socio-technical side of a changing network environment. Through the study of code, including but not limited to source code, technical specifications and other materials in relation to the artwork production, I would like to explore the materiality of code that goes beyond technical...

  14. Coding for optical channels

    CERN Document Server

    Djordjevic, Ivan; Vasic, Bane

    2010-01-01

    This unique book provides a coherent and comprehensive introduction to the fundamentals of optical communications, signal processing and coding for optical channels. It is the first to integrate the fundamentals of coding theory and optical communication.

  15. SEVERO code - user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacramento, A.M. do.

    1989-01-01

    This user's manual contains all the necessary information concerning the use of SEVERO code. This computer code is related to the statistics of extremes = extreme winds, extreme precipitation and flooding hazard risk analysis. (A.C.A.S.)

  16. Non-IgE-related diagnostic methods (LST, patch test).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Although most food allergy patients have immediate-type reactions, some have delayed-type reactions. Unlike for the detection of food-specific IgE antibody in immediate-type (IgE-mediated) food allergies, only a few tests are currently available to aid in the diagnosis of delayed-type (non-IgE-mediated) food allergies. This chapter summarizes our current understanding of one in vitro test and one in vivo test for non-IgE-mediated food allergies: the lymphocyte stimulation test (LST) and the atopy patch test (APT). Although the LST is not yet standardized, a food protein-specific LST might be a useful tool for diagnosing delayed-type food allergies, and especially those manifesting with gastrointestinal symptoms but not skin symptoms. Various remaining issues - including basophil contamination of the peripheral blood mononuclear cell fraction and lipopolysaccharide contamination of food antigen preparations - are also discussed. The APT uses an epicutaneous patch technique to occlusively apply food antigens to the skin to induce inflammatory reactions at the patch application site. Because the APT shows modest sensitivity and specificity, the clinical benefit of the APT in the diagnosis of food allergies in patients with atopic dermatitis is limited. A position paper on the APT issued by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology/Global Allergy and Asthma European Network in 2006 is briefly summarized, and several recent APT-related topics, including APT use for the diagnosis of food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome, are discussed. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Stability of fragrance patch test preparations applied in test chambers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowitz, M; Zimerson, E; Svedman, C; Bruze, M

    2012-10-01

    Petrolatum patch test preparations are for practical reasons often applied in test chambers in advance, several hours or even days before the patient is tested. As many fragrance compounds are volatile it may be suspected that petrolatum preparations applied in test chambers are not stable over time. To investigate the stability of petrolatum preparations of the seven chemically defined components in the fragrance mix (FM I) when stored in test chambers. Samples of petrolatum preparations applied in test chambers stored at room temperature and in a refrigerator for between 4 and 144 h were analysed using liquid chromatographic methods. The concentration decreased by ≥ 20% within 8 h in four of seven preparations stored in Finn chambers at room temperature. When stored in a refrigerator only the preparation of cinnamal had decreased by ≥ 20% within 24 h. The stability of preparations of cinnamal stored in IQ chambers with a plastic cover was slightly better, but like the preparations applied in Finn chambers, the concentration decreased by ≥ 20% within 4 h at room temperature and within 24 h in a refrigerator. Cinnamal and cinnamyl alcohol were found to be more stable when analysed as ingredients in FM I compared with when analysed in individual preparations. Within a couple of hours several fragrance allergens evaporate from test chambers to an extent that may affect the outcome of the patch test. Application to the test chambers should be performed as close to the patch test occasion as possible and storage in a refrigerator is recommended. © 2012 The Authors. BJD © 2012 British Association of Dermatologists.

  18. Emergent properties of patch shapes affect edge permeability to animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilis O Nams

    Full Text Available Animal travel between habitat patches affects populations, communities and ecosystems. There are three levels of organization of edge properties, and each of these can affect animals. At the lowest level are the different habitats on each side of an edge, then there is the edge itself, and finally, at the highest level of organization, is the geometry or structure of the edge. This study used computer simulations to (1 find out whether effects of edge shapes on animal behavior can arise as emergent properties solely due to reactions to edges in general, without the animals reacting to the shapes of the edges, and to (2 generate predictions to allow field and experimental studies to test mechanisms of edge shape response. Individual animals were modeled traveling inside a habitat patch that had different kinds of edge shapes (convex, concave and straight. When animals responded edges of patches, this created an emergent property of responding to the shape of the edge. The response was mostly to absolute width of the shapes, and not the narrowness of them. When animals were attracted to edges, then they tended to collect in convexities and disperse from concavities, and the opposite happened when animals avoided edges. Most of the responses occurred within a distance of 40% of the perceptual range from the tip of the shapes. Predictions were produced for directionality at various locations and combinations of treatments, to be used for testing edge behavior mechanisms. These results suggest that edge shapes tend to either concentrate or disperse animals, simply because the animals are either attracted to or avoid edges, with an effect as great as 3 times the normal density. Thus edge shape could affect processes like pollination, seed predation and dispersal and predator abundance.

  19. Smooth causal patches for AdS black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, Suvrat

    2017-06-01

    We review the paradox of low energy excitations of a black hole in anti-de Sitter space (AdS). An appropriately chosen unitary operator in the boundary theory can create a locally strong excitation near the black hole horizon, whose global energy is small as a result of the gravitational redshift. The paradox is that this seems to violate a general rule of statistical mechanics, which states that an operator with energy parametrically smaller than k T cannot create a significant excitation in a thermal system. When we carefully examine the position dependence of the boundary unitary operator that produces the excitation and the bulk observable necessary to detect the anomalously large effect, we find that they do not both fit in a single causal patch. This follows from a remarkable property of position-space AdS correlators that we establish explicitly and resolves the paradox in a generic state of the system, since no combination of observers can both create the excitation and observe its effect. As a special case of our analysis, we show how this resolves the "Born rule" paradox of Marolf and Polchinski [J. High Energy Phys. 01 (2016) 008, 10.1007/JHEP01(2016)008] and we verify our solution using an independent calculation. We then consider boundary states that are finely tuned to display a spontaneous excitation outside the causal patch of the infalling observer, and we propose a version of causal patch complementarity in AdS/CFT that resolves the paradox for such states as well.

  20. Inference-Based Surface Reconstruction of Cluttered Environments

    KAUST Repository

    Biggers, K.; Keyser, J.

    2012-01-01

    guided by rules for fitting high-quality surface patches obtained from these prior models. We demonstrate the application of this algorithm on several example data sets containing heavy clutter and occlusion. © 2012 IEEE.