WorldWideScience

Sample records for surface oscillating jets

  1. A computational study of heat transfer in a laminar oscillating confined slot jet impinging on an isothermal surface at low Reynolds numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnny ISSA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Heat transfer in a laminar confined oscillating slot jet is numerically investigated. A uniform inlet velocity profile oscillating with an angle φ, having the following sinusoidal shape: φ= φmax*sin(2πft. φ is in radians, φmax is the maximum jet angle, and f is the oscillation frequency. The height-to-jet-width ratio (H/w was fixed to 5 and the fluid’s Prandtl number which is one of the dimensionless governing groups is 0.74. The other dimensionless groups characterizing this problem, which are, Strouhal’s number, St, and Reynolds number, Re, where varied. Re was in the range 100jet hydraulic diameter (2w. Defining φmax is explained later in this paper. For Re=250 and St=0.5, a dim heat transfer enhancement was noticed in the stagnation region, when compared to the steady case. A similar enhancement was observed for Re=400 at St=0.75. At Re=100 no improvements were observed, where the flow showed a high vulnerability to severe oscillations, that drastically reduced heat removal ability. Jet flapping could be triggered at Re=400. But the flapping mode was most stable for St=0.75, in which case, heat transfer enhancement was detected.

  2. Oscillations of a Turbulent Jet Incident Upon an Edge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.C. Lin; D. Rockwell

    2000-09-19

    For the case of a jet originating from a fully turbulent channel flow and impinging upon a sharp edge, the possible onset and nature of coherent oscillations has remained unexplored. In this investigation, high-image-density particle image velocimetry and surface pressure measurements are employed to determine the instantaneous, whole-field characteristics of the turbulent jet-edge interaction in relation to the loading of the edge. It is demonstrated that even in absence of acoustic resonant or fluid-elastic effects, highly coherent, self-sustained oscillations rapidly emerge above the turbulent background. Two clearly identifiable modes of instability are evident. These modes involve large-scale vortices that are phase-locked to the gross undulations of the jet and its interaction with the edge, and small-scale vortices, which are not phase-locked. Time-resolved imaging of instantaneous vorticity and velocity reveals the form, orientation, and strength of the large-scale concentrations of vorticity approaching the edge in relation to rapid agglomeration of small-scale vorticity concentrations. Such vorticity field-edge interactions exhibit rich complexity, relative to the simplified pattern of vortex-edge interaction traditionally employed for the quasi-laminar edgetone. Furthermore, these interactions yield highly nonlinear surface pressure signatures. The origin of this nonlinearity, involving coexistence of multiple frequency components, is interpreted in terms of large- and small-scale vortices embedded in distributed vorticity layers at the edge. Eruption of the surface boundary layer on the edge due to passage of the large-scale vortex does not occur; rather apparent secondary vorticity concentrations are simply due to distension of the oppositely-signed vorticity layer at the tip of the edge. The ensemble-averaged turbulent statistics of the jet quickly take on an identity that is distinct from the statistics of the turbulent boundary layer in the channel

  3. Effects of electromagnetic forcing on self-sustained jet oscillations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalter, R.; Tummers, M.J.; Kenjeres, S.; Righolt, B.W.; Kleijn, C.R.

    2014-01-01

    The influence of electromagnetic forcing on self-sustained oscillations of a jet issuing from a submerged nozzle into a thin vertical cavity (width W much larger than thickness T) has been studied using particle image velocimetry. A permanent Lorentz force is produced by applying an electrical

  4. Electromagnetic control of an oscillating turbulent jet in a confined cavity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Righolt, B.W.; Kenjeres, S.; Kalter, R.; Tummers, M.J.; Kleijn, C.R.

    2016-01-01

    Control of self-sustained jet oscillations in confined cavities is of importance for many industrial applications. It has been shown that the mechanism underlying these oscillations consists of three stages: (i) growth of the oscillation, (ii) amplitude limitation and (iii) delayed destruction of

  5. Flame behavior and thermal structure of combusting plane jets with and without self-excited transverse oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rong Fung; Kivindu, Reuben Mwanza; Hsu, Ching Min

    2017-12-01

    The flame behavior and thermal structure of combusting plane jets with and without self-excited transverse oscillations were investigated experimentally. The transversely-oscillating plane jet was generated by a specially designed fluidic oscillator. Isothermal flow patterns were observed using the laser-assisted smoke flow visualization method. Meanwhile, the flame behaviour was studied using instantaneous and long-exposure photography techniques. Temperature distributions and combustion-product concentrations were measured using a fine-wire type R thermocouple and a gas analyzer, respectively. The results showed that the combusting transversely-oscillating plane jets had distributed turbulent blue flames with plaited-like edges, while the corresponding combusting non-oscillating plane jet had laminar blue-edged flames in the near field. At a high Reynolds number, the transversely-oscillating jet flames were significantly shorter and wider with shorter reaction-dominated zones than those of the non-oscillating plane jet flames. In addition, the transversely-oscillating combusting jets presented larger carbon dioxide and smaller unburned hydrocarbon concentrations, as well as portrayed characteristics of partially premixed flames. The non-oscillating combusting jets presented characteristics of diffusion flames, and the transversely-oscillating jet flame had a combustion performance superior to its non-oscillating plane jet flame counterpart. The high combustion performance of the transversely-oscillating jets was due to the enhanced entrainment, mixing, and lateral spreading of the jet flow, which were induced by the vortical flow structure generated by lateral periodic jet oscillations, as well as the high turbulence created by the breakup of the vortices.

  6. Impact of Oscillation Parameters on Surface Quality of Cast Billets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibulka J.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on impact of different oscillation parameters on surface quality of peritectic steel grades cast into billets 150x150 mm. Hydraulic oscillation used for this purpose was temporarily installed on one strand of the billet caster. Hydraulic oscillation enables, in comparison to ordinary used electromechanical oscillation, flexible set-up of basic parameters of the oscillation cycle (negative strip time and its ratio. Proper oscillation mode is capable to assure regular oscillation marks development, good lubrication in the mould and adequate compression of the solidifying shell. Impact of an oscillation mode providing negative strip time 0.085 s and its ratio -50 % on surface quality of cast billets is compared with standard oscillation mode applied on strands equipped with electromechanical oscillation characterized with variable negative strip time between 0.084 and 0.096 s and fixed negative strip ratio to -14 %.

  7. Unstable relationship between the Arctic Oscillation and East Asian jet stream in winter and possible mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; He, Shengping; Li, Fei; Wang, Huijun; Zhu, Yali

    2017-12-01

    Based on long-term reanalysis datasets, this study revealed that the relationship between the Arctic Oscillation (AO) and the East Asian jet stream (EAJS) is significant negative during 1925-1945 and 1985-2005 (significant periods; hereafter SPs) whereas insignificant during 1900-1920 and 1955-1975 (insignificant periods; ISPs). The unstable AO-EAJS relationship might be related to the interdecadal change of AO's spatial structure. During SPs winters, anomalous positive AO events are characterized by atmospheric negative anomalies in the Arctic with two anomalous positive centers located in the extratropical Atlantic and Pacific, exhibiting a quasi-barotropic structure. By contrast, the anomalous center in the North Pacific is barely observed during ISPs winters. Further analysis indicated that such interdecadal change might be attributed to change of troposphere-stratosphere coupling and the North Pacific air-sea interaction. On the one hand, anomalous AO at surface is closely related to obvious planetary waves downward from the stratosphere during SPs, which favors the subtropics-Arctic teleconnection. On the other hand, the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO) shows warm phase during SPs, which induces larger variance of the Aleutian Low and more intensive divergence anomalies at upper level troposphere. Due to the advection of vorticity induced by stronger divergence is favorable for stronger Rossby wave source, the Rossby wave activity is much stronger and could further propagate eastward to the North Atlantic during SPs, resulting in the Pacific-Atlantic teleconnection. Such a mechanism is supported by the numerical simulations from two individual models that are perturbed by warm/cold IPO sea surface temperature anomalies.

  8. Experimental investigation of a reacting transverse jet in a high pressure oscillating vitiated crossflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fugger, Christopher A.

    Staged combustion is one design approach in a gas turbine engine to reduce pollutant emission levels. In axially staged combustion, portions of the air and fuel are injected downstream of a lean premixed low NOx primary combustion zone. The gas residence time at elevated temperatures is decreased resulting in lower thermal NOx, and the reduced oxygen and high temperature vitiated primary zone flow further help to reduce pollutant emissions and quickly complete combustion. One implementation of axially staged combustion is transverse fuel jet injection. An important consideration for staged combustion systems, though, is how the primary and secondary combustion zones can couple through the acoustic resonances of the chamber. These couplings can lead to additional source terms that pump energy into the resonant acoustic field and help sustain the high-amplitude combustor pressure oscillations. An understanding of these couplings is important so that it may be possible to design a secondary combustion system that provides inherent damping to the combustor system. To systematically characterize the coupling of a reacting jet in unsteady crossflow in detail, the effects of an an unsteady pressure flowfield and an unsteady velocity flowfield are separately investigated. An optically accessible resonant combustion chamber was designed and built as part of this work to generate a standing wave unsteady vitiated crossflow at a chamber pressure of 0.9 MPa. The location of transverse jet injection corresponds to one of two locations, where one location is the pressure node and the other location the pressure anti-node of the resonant chamber acoustic mode. The injection location is optically accessible, and the dynamic interactions between the transverse jet flow and the 1st and 2nd axial combustor modes are measured using 10 kHz OH-PLIF and 2D PIV. This document analyzes five test cases: two non-reacting jets and three reacting jets. All cases correspond to jet injection

  9. Some observations on boiling heat transfer with surface oscillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyashita, H.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of surface oscillation on pool boiling heat transfer are experimentally studied. Experiments were performed in saturated ethanol and distilled water, covering the range from nucleate to film boiling except in the transition region. Two different geometries were employed as the heating surface with the same wetting area, stainless steel pipe and molybdenum ribbon. The results confirm earlier work on the effect of surface oscillation especially in lower heat flux region of nucleate boiling. Interesting boiling behavior during surface oscillation is observed, which was not referred to in previous work. (2 figures) (Author)

  10. Carbon nanotube oscillator surface profiling device and method of use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Adrian [Tampa, FL; Woods, Lilia M [Tampa, FL; Bondarev, Igor V [Fuquay Varina, NC

    2011-11-15

    The proposed device is based on a carbon nanotube oscillator consisting of a finite length outer stationary nanotube and a finite length inner oscillating nanotube. Its main function is to measure changes in the characteristics of the motion of the carbon nanotube oscillating near a sample surface, and profile the roughness of this surface. The device operates in a non-contact mode, thus it can be virtually non-wear and non-fatigued system. It is an alternative to the existing atomic force microscope (AFM) tips used to scan surfaces to determine their roughness.

  11. Direct observation of surface-state thermal oscillations in SmB6 oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Brian; Stern, Alex; Efimkin, Dmitry K.; Fisk, Zachary; Xia, Jing

    2018-01-01

    SmB6 is a mixed valence Kondo insulator that exhibits a sharp increase in resistance following an activated behavior that levels off and saturates below 4 K. This behavior can be explained by the proposal of SmB6 representing a new state of matter, a topological Kondo insulator, in which a Kondo gap is developed, and topologically protected surface conduction dominates low-temperature transport. Exploiting its nonlinear dynamics, a tunable SmB6 oscillator device was recently demonstrated, where a small dc current generates large oscillating voltages at frequencies from a few Hz to hundreds of MHz. This behavior was explained by a theoretical model describing the thermal and electronic dynamics of coupled surface and bulk states. However, a crucial aspect of this model, the predicted temperature oscillation in the surface state, has not been experimentally observed to date. This is largely due to the technical difficulty of detecting an oscillating temperature of the very thin surface state. Here we report direct measurements of the time-dependent surface-state temperature in SmB6 with a RuO2 microthermometer. Our results agree quantitatively with the theoretically simulated temperature waveform, and hence support the validity of the oscillator model, which will provide accurate theoretical guidance for developing future SmB6 oscillators at higher frequencies.

  12. Energetics of oscillating lifting surfaces using integral conservation laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Ali R.; Widnall, Sheila E.

    1987-01-01

    The energetics of oscillating flexible lifting surfaces in two and three dimensions is calculated by the use of integral conservation laws in inviscid incompressible flow for general and harmonic transverse oscillations. Total thrust is calculated from the momentum theorem and energy loss rate due to vortex shedding in the wake from the principle of conservation of mechanical energy. Total power required to maintain the oscillations and hydrodynamic efficiency are also determined. In two dimensions, the results are obtained in closed form. In three dimensions, the distribution of vorticity on the lifting surface is also required as input to the calculations. Thus, unsteady lifting-surface theory must be used as well. The analysis is applicable to oscillating lifting surfaces of arbitrary planform, aspect ratio, and reduced frequency and does not require calculation of the leading-edge thrust.

  13. Surface plasmon oscillations on a quantum plasma half-space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moradi, Afshin, E-mail: a.moradi@kut.ac.ir [Department of Engineering Physics, Kermanshah University of Technology, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Nano Sciences, Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics (IPM), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    We investigate the propagation of surface electrostatic oscillations on a quantum plasma half-space, taking into account the quantum effects. We derive the quantum surface wave frequencies of the system, by means the quantum hydrodynamic theory in conjunction with the Poisson equation and applying the appropriate additional quantum boundary conditions. Numerical results show in the presence of the slow nonlocal variations, plasmon wave energies of the system are significantly modified and plasmonic oscillations with blue-shifted frequencies emerge.

  14. Enhancement of focused jets by using surface microbubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukisada, Ryosuke; Kiyama, Akihito; Zhang, Xuehua; Tagawa, Yoshiyuki

    2017-11-01

    Focused liquid jets are important for various key technologies, such as material deposition and automated pipetting. It has been challenging to create high speed jets of viscous liquids. Our latest work showed that it is possible to generate viscous jets by applying sudden acceleration to the liquid (Onuki et al., J. J. Multi. Flow, 2015). It was observed that under certain conditions cavitation bubbles form in the liquid, making important contribution to the increment of jet velocity (Kiyama et al., JFM, 2016). The increased velocity depends on the maximum size of expanding bubbles. Thus, for controlling the velocity of focused jets, it is crucial to control the bubble expansion. In this study, we investigate the effects of surface microbubbles on the focused jets. Before the impact is performed, the microbubbles are produced on an inner wall of the liquid container by using water-ethanol exchange technique. We experimentally measure the jet velocity and bubble motion utilizing a high-speed camera. It is found that surface microbubbles expand upon the impact, enhancing the increment of jet velocity under the conditions that do not trigger cavitation inception in the bulk liquid. JSPS KAKENHI Grant Numbers 26709007 and 17H01246.

  15. A model combustor for studying a reacting jet in an oscillating crossflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fugger, Christopher A.; Gejji, Rohan M.; Portillo, J. Enrique; Yu, Yen; Lucht, Robert P.; Anderson, William E.

    2017-06-01

    This paper discusses a novel model combustion experiment that was built for studying the structure and dynamics of a reacting jet in an unsteady crossflow. A natural-gas-fired dump combustor is used to generate and sustain an acoustically oscillating vitiated flow that serves as the crossflow for transverse jet injection. Unlike most other techniques that are limited in operating pressure or acoustic amplitude, this method of generating an unsteady flow field is demonstrated at a pressure of 10 atm with peak-to-peak oscillation amplitudes approaching 20% of the mean pressure. An optically accessible test section designed for these conditions provides access for advanced laser and optical diagnostic measurements. Detailed measurements provide insight into the complex acoustic-hydrodynamic-combustion coupling processes and offer high-quality, high-resolution validation data for numerical simulations. Careful instrumentation port design considerations for the higher amplitude acoustics are detailed. As a whole, this paper focuses on select representative segments of the experiment operational space that highlight our strategy of providing an oscillatory flowfield. This includes presenting the acoustic operational space such as acoustic amplitudes, frequencies, and mode shapes. Select imaging results are then reported to support our strategies capability to produce high-fidelity measurements.

  16. A model combustor for studying a reacting jet in an oscillating crossflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fugger, Christopher A; Gejji, Rohan M; Portillo, J Enrique; Yu, Yen; Lucht, Robert P; Anderson, William E

    2017-06-01

    This paper discusses a novel model combustion experiment that was built for studying the structure and dynamics of a reacting jet in an unsteady crossflow. A natural-gas-fired dump combustor is used to generate and sustain an acoustically oscillating vitiated flow that serves as the crossflow for transverse jet injection. Unlike most other techniques that are limited in operating pressure or acoustic amplitude, this method of generating an unsteady flow field is demonstrated at a pressure of 10 atm with peak-to-peak oscillation amplitudes approaching 20% of the mean pressure. An optically accessible test section designed for these conditions provides access for advanced laser and optical diagnostic measurements. Detailed measurements provide insight into the complex acoustic-hydrodynamic-combustion coupling processes and offer high-quality, high-resolution validation data for numerical simulations. Careful instrumentation port design considerations for the higher amplitude acoustics are detailed. As a whole, this paper focuses on select representative segments of the experiment operational space that highlight our strategy of providing an oscillatory flowfield. This includes presenting the acoustic operational space such as acoustic amplitudes, frequencies, and mode shapes. Select imaging results are then reported to support our strategies capability to produce high-fidelity measurements.

  17. Turned trochoidal disturbance on a liquid jet surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadik, Shalom; Kirzhner, Felix; Kramarenko, Denis

    2014-07-01

    This paper shows that a turned trochoidal function disturbance may lead to peripheral drops production. The resulting model is used to describe that a turned trochoidal disturbance leads to peripheral drops production on the liquid jet surface without the necessity for superimposed disturbances. The trochoid is a non-unique parametric function. Only non-unique parametric functions disturbances may lead to peripheral drops production. The trochoidal function disturbance is decomposed to Fourier series. Every Fourier element receives an amplification factor in accordance to the Rayleigh inviscid jet model. Peripheral drops are received on the jet surface. The paper shows that all trochoidal disturbance functions, prolate cycloid, cycloid and curtate cycloid have a capability of peripheral drops producing. A limited capability of peripheral drops production is introduced for the trochoidal curtate cycloid. Produced drops size are reduced for increasing the jet velocity and wave number. Smaller drops are also received by transition from the prolate cycloid to curtate cycloid disturbance.

  18. Effects of pulsating water jet impact on aluminium surface

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Foldyna, Josef; Sitek, Libor; Ščučka, Jiří; Martinec, Petr; Valíček, Jan; Páleníková, K.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 2009, č. 20 (2009), s. 6174-6180 ISSN 0924-0136 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/07/1451; GA ČR GP101/07/P512 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : pulsating water jet * jet impact * material erosion * surface characteristics Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools Impact factor: 1.420, year: 2009 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science

  19. Selective trace gas detection of complex molecules with a continuous wave optical parametric oscillator using a planar jet expansion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngai, A.K.Y.; Persijn, S.T.; Harren, F.J.M.; Verbraak, H.; Linnartz, H.

    2007-01-01

    The authors present a trace gas detection method for complex molecules using continuous cavity ring-down spectroscopy in combination with a continuous wave optical parametric oscillator (tunability wavelength: 2.8-4.8 mu m; power: 1 W) sampling a supersonic planar jet expansion (nozzle dimension: 3

  20. Robust Nonlinear Regulation of Limit Cycle Oscillations in UAVs Using Synthetic Jet Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Ramos Pedroza

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a synthetic jet actuators (SJA-based nonlinear robust controller is developed, which is capable of completely suppressing limit cycle oscillations (LCO in UAV systems with parametric uncertainty in the SJA dynamics and unmodeled external disturbances. Specifically, the control law compensates for uncertainty in an input gain matrix, which results from the unknown airflow dynamics generated by the SJA. Challenges in the control design include compensation for input-multiplicative parametric uncertainty in the actuator dynamic model. The result was achieved via innovative algebraic manipulation in the error system development, along with a Lyapunov-based robust control law. A rigorous Lyapunov-based stability analysis is utilized to prove asymptotic LCO suppression, considering a detailed dynamic model of the pitching and plunging dynamics. Numerical simulation results are provided to demonstrate the robustness and practical performance of the proposed control law.

  1. Aerodynamic Interference between Oscillating Lifting Surfaces and Fuselage Part 2: Some Applications of Oscillating Lifting Surface Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Adrian Jean BUTOESCU

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This is the second article of a series that deals with the calculation of the aerodynamic unsteady forces on lifting surfaces. It presents some new important details on the lifting surface theory that performs oscillations in subsonic flow. These features will be applied to the aerodynamic response to certain kind of gusts and to the flapping wing calculations.

  2. Canard Phenomena in Oscillations of a Surface Oxidation Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Feng; Han, Maoan; Zhang, Weijiang

    2005-12-01

    In this paper we investigate canard phenomena occurring in oscillations of a surface oxidation reaction which can be modeled by a three-dimensional singularly perturbed system of ordinary differential equations with two fast variables. By using asymptotic methods, we prove the existence of the maximal canard of the mentioned model, and provide sufficient conditions for the existence of stable canard cycles.

  3. Dust generation at interaction of plasma jet with surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ticos, Catalin; Toader, Dorina; Banu, Nicoleta; Scurtu, Adrian; Oane, Mihai

    2013-10-01

    Coatings of W and C with widths of a few microns will be exposed to plasma jet for studying the erosion of the surface and detachment of micron size dust particles. A coaxial plasma gun has been built inside a vacuum chamber for producing supersonic plasma jets. Its design is based on a 50 kJ coaxial plasma gun which has been successfully used for accelerating hypervelocity dust. Initial shots were carried out for a capacitor bank with C = 12 μF and charged up to 2 kV. Currents of tens of amps were measured with a Rogowsky coil and plasma flow speeds of 4 km/s were inferred from high-speed images of jet propagation. An upgrade consisting in adding capacitors in parallel will be performed in order to increase the energy up to 2 kJ. A coil will be installed at the gun muzzle to compress the plasma flow and increase the energy density of the jet on the sample surface. A CCD camera with a maximum recording speed of 100 k fps and a maximum resolution of 1024 × 1024 pixels was set for image acquisition of the plasma and dust. A laser system used to illuminate the ejected dust from the surface includes a laser diode emitting at 650 nm with a beam power of 25 mW. The authors acknowledge support from EURATOM WP13-IPH-A03-P2-02-BS22.

  4. Ultrasound-induced oscillations of gas bubbles in contact with gelatin gel surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Sosuke; Ando, Keita

    2017-11-01

    Ultrasound-induced dynamics of gas bubbles in the vicinity of deformable boundaries are studied experimentally, as a simplified model of sonoporation in medicine. In our experiment, 28-kHz underwater ultrasound was irradiated to a gas bubble nuclei (of radius from 60 μm to 200 μm) sitting at gel surfaces (of gelatin concentration from 6 wt% to 16 wt%) and the bubble dynamics were recorded by a high-speed camera. The repeated deformation of the gel surface was found to be in phase with volumetric oscillation of the bubble. A liquid jet, which can appear toward the collapse phase in the bubble oscillation in volume, produced localized surface deformation, which is an important observation in the context of sonoporation. We characterize the maximum displacement of the gel surface with varying the bubble nuclei radius (in comparison to the resonant radius fixed approximately at 117 μm). We also examine the phase difference between the ultrasound and the bubble dynamics under the influence of the deformable boundary. The Research Grant of Keio Leading-edge Laboratory of Science & Technology.

  5. Limit on B$^{0}_{s}$ oscillation using a jet charge method

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Ariztizabal, F; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Gaitan, V; Garrido, L; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Bonvicini, G; Cassel, David G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Engelhardt, A; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Markou, C; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Mattison, T S; Meinhard, H; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Moffeit, K; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wiedenmann, W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Bardadin-Otwinowska, Maria; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Montret, J C; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Saadi, F; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Passalacqua, L; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; ten Have, I; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; Morton, W T; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Smith, M G; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Konstantinidis, N P; Moneta, L; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kneringer, E; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Raab, J; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wanke, R; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Thulasidas, M; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schwarz, A; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Stierlin, U; Saint-Denis, R; Wolf, G; Alemany, R; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Courault, F; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Musolino, G; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Triggiani, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Mir, L M; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Bertin, V; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Duarte, H; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Rosowsky, A; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Si Mohand, D; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Dawson, I; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1995-01-01

    A lower limit is set on the B_{s}^{0} meson oscillation parameter \\Delta m_{s} using data collected from 1991 to 1994 by the ALEPH detector. Events with a high transverse momentum lepton and a reconstructed secondary vertex are used. The high transverse momentum leptons are produced mainly by b hadron decays, and the sign of the lepton indicates the particle/antiparticle final state in decays of neutral B mesons. The initial state is determined by a jet charge technique using both sides of the event. A maximum likelihood method is used to set a lower limit of \\, \\Delta m_{s}. The 95\\% confidence level lower limit on \\Delta m_s ranges between 5.2 and 6.5(\\hbar/c^{2})~ps^{-1} when the fraction of b quarks from Z^0 decays that form B_{s}^{0} mesons is varied from 8\\% to 16\\%. Assuming that the B_{s}^{0} fraction is 12\\%, the lower limit would be \\Delta m_{s} > 6.1(\\hbar/c^{2})~ps^{-1} at 95\\% confidence level. For x_s = \\Delta m_s \\, \\tau_{B_s}, this limit also gives x_s > 8.8 using the B_{s}^{0} lifetime of \\ta...

  6. Plasma surface interactions at the JET X-point tiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinelli, A.P.; Behrisch, R.; Coad, J.P.; Kock, L. de

    1989-01-01

    Operation with a magnetic divertor, which leads to a zero poloidal field inside the volume of the discharge vessel (the X-point) has led to substantial improvements in confinement time in JET. In this mode the diverted plasma is conducted to a large number of graphite tiles (X-point tiles) near the top of the vessel. The power handling capability of these tiles limits the maximum additional heating power to the discharge. The study of the surface modifications of the X-point tiles of JET is therefore of interest both to correlate the magnetic configuration and plasma particle and energy fluxes with the surface modifications, and also to get information about the erosion and deposition at these wall areas. (author) 5 refs., 4 figs

  7. Helium atmospheric pressure plasma jets touching dielectric and metal surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norberg, Seth A.; Johnsen, Eric; Kushner, Mark J.

    2015-07-01

    Atmospheric pressure plasma jets (APPJs) are being investigated in the context plasma medicine and biotechnology applications, and surface functionalization. The composition of the surface being treated ranges from plastics, liquids, and biological tissue, to metals. The dielectric constant of these materials ranges from as low as 1.5 for plastics to near 80 for liquids, and essentially infinite for metals. The electrical properties of the surface are not independent variables as the permittivity of the material being treated has an effect on the dynamics of the incident APPJ. In this paper, results are discussed from a computational investigation of the interaction of an APPJ incident onto materials of varying permittivity, and their impact on the discharge dynamics of the plasma jet. The computer model used in this investigation solves Poisson's equation, transport equations for charged and neutral species, the electron energy equation, and the Navier-Stokes equations for the neutral gas flow. The APPJ is sustained in He/O2 = 99.8/0.2 flowing into humid air, and is directed onto dielectric surfaces in contact with ground with dielectric constants ranging from 2 to 80, and a grounded metal surface. Low values of relative permittivity encourage propagation of the electric field into the treated material and formation and propagation of a surface ionization wave. High values of relative permittivity promote the restrike of the ionization wave and the formation of a conduction channel between the plasma discharge and the treated surface. The distribution of space charge surrounding the APPJ is discussed.

  8. Accelerating recovery from jet lag: prediction from a multi-oscillator model and its experimental confirmation in model animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kori, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Yoshiaki; Okamura, Hitoshi

    2017-04-01

    The endogenous circadian clock drives oscillations that are completely synchronized with the environmental day-night rhythms with a period of approximately 24 hours. Temporal misalignment between one’s internal circadian clock and the external solar time often occurs in shift workers and long-distance travelers; such misalignments are accompanied by sleep disturbances and gastrointestinal distress. Repeated exposure to jet lag and rotating shift work increases the risk of lifestyle-related diseases, such as cardiovascular complaints and metabolic insufficiencies. However, the mechanism behind the disruption of one’s internal clock is not well understood. In this paper, we therefore present a new theoretical concept called “jet lag separatrix” to understand circadian clock disruption and slow recovery from jet lag based on the mathematical model describing the hierarchical structure of the circadian clock. To demonstrate the utility of our theoretical study, we applied it to predict that re-entrainment via a two-step jet lag in which a four-hour shift of the light-dark cycle is given in the span of two successive days requires fewer days than when given as a single eight-hour shift. We experimentally verified the feasibility of our theory in C57BL/6 strain mice, with results indicating that this pre-exposure of jet lag is indeed beneficial.

  9. Surface plasmon oscillations in a semi-bounded semiconductor plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    M, SHAHMANSOURI; A, P. MISRA

    2018-02-01

    We study the dispersion properties of surface plasmon (SP) oscillations in a semi-bounded semiconductor plasma with the effects of the Coulomb exchange (CE) force associated with the spin polarization of electrons and holes as well as the effects of the Fermi degenerate pressure and the quantum Bohm potential. Starting from a quantum hydrodynamic model coupled to the Poisson equation, we derive the general dispersion relation for surface plasma waves. Previous results in this context are recovered. The dispersion properties of the surface waves are analyzed in some particular cases of interest and the relative influence of the quantum forces on these waves are also studied for a nano-sized GaAs semiconductor plasma. It is found that the CE effects significantly modify the behaviors of the SP waves. The present results are applicable to understand the propagation characteristics of surface waves in solid density plasmas.

  10. Including Finite Surface Span Effects in Empirical Jet-Surface Interaction Noise Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Clifford A.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of finite span on the jet-surface interaction noise source and the jet mixing noise shielding and reflection effects is considered using recently acquired experimental data. First, the experimental setup and resulting data are presented with particular attention to the role of surface span on far-field noise. These effects are then included in existing empirical models that have previously assumed that all surfaces are semi-infinite. This extended abstract briefly describes the experimental setup and data leaving the empirical modeling aspects for the final paper.

  11. RF atmospheric plasma jet surface treatment of paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlat, Joanna; Terebun, Piotr; Kwiatkowski, Michał; Diatczyk, Jaroslaw

    2016-09-01

    A radio frequency RF atmospheric pressure plasma jet was used to enhance the wettability of cellulose-based paper of 90 g m-2 and 160 g m-2 grammage as a perspective platform for antibiotic sensitivity tests. Helium and argon were the carrier gases for oxygen and nitrogen; pure water and rapeseed oil were used for goniometric tests. The influence of the flow rate and gas type, the power of the discharge, and distance from the nozzle was examined. The surface structure was observed using an optical microscope. Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectra were investigated in order to determine whether cellulose degradation processes occurred. The RF plasma jet allowed us to decrease the surface contact angle without drastic changes in other features of the tested material. Experiments confirmed the significant influence of the distance between the treated sample and reactor nozzle, especially for treatment times longer than 15 s due to the greater concentration of reactive species at the surface of the sample, which decreases with distance—and their accumulation effect with time. The increase of discharge power plays an important role in decreasing the surface contact angle for times longer than 10 s. Higher power had a positive effect on the amount of generated active particles and facilitated the ignition of discharge. However, a too high value can cause a rise in temperature of the material and heat-caused damage.

  12. Advanced Response Surface Modeling of Ares I Roll Control Jet Aerodynamic Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favaregh, Noah M.

    2010-01-01

    The Ares I rocket uses roll control jets. These jets have aerodynamic implications as they impinge on the surface and protuberances of the vehicle. The jet interaction on the body can cause an amplification or a reduction of the rolling moment produced by the jet itself, either increasing the jet effectiveness or creating an adverse effect. A design of experiments test was planned and carried out using computation fluid dynamics, and a subsequent response surface analysis ensued on the available data to characterize the jet interaction across the ascent portion of the Ares I flight envelope. Four response surface schemes were compared including a single response surface covering the entire design space, separate sector responses that did not overlap, continuously overlapping surfaces, and recursive weighted response surfaces. These surfaces were evaluated on traditional statistical metrics as well as visual inspection. Validation of the recursive weighted response surface was performed using additionally available data at off-design point locations.

  13. Analysis on oscillating actuator frequency influence of the fluid flow characterization for 2D contractile water jet thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaari, M. F.; Abu Bakar, H.; Nordin, N.; Saw, S. K.; Samad, Z.

    2013-12-01

    Contractile body is an alternative mechanism instead of rotating blade propeller to generate water jet for locomotion. The oscillating motion of the actuator at different frequencies varies the pressure and volume of the pressure chamber in time to draw in and jet out the water at a certain mass flow rate. The aim of this research was to analyze the influence of the actuating frequency of the fluid flow in the pressure chamber of the thruster during this inflation-deflation process. A 70mm × 70mm × 18mm (L × W × T) 2D water jet thruster was fabricated for this purpose. The contractile function was driven using two lateral pneumatic actuators where the fluid flow analysis was focused on the X-Y plane vector. Observation was carried out using a video camera and Matlab image measurement technique to determine the volume of the flowing mass. The result demonstrated that the greater actuating frequency decreases the fluid flow rate and the Reynolds number. This observation shows that the higher frequency would give a higher mass flow rate during water jet generation.

  14. Droplet impaction on solid surfaces exposed to impinging jet fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazemi, Zia

    2005-12-15

    The thermal response of hot surfaces exposed to impinging jet fire and subsequent impacting water droplets is investigated. The research was done mainly experimentally by utilizing three different concepts. This included experiments on a laboratory scale steel plate and large outdoor fire tests with a quadratic steel channel and steel plates. Besides the horizontal jet flame itself was characterized in a comprehensive study. As a comparative study, the last three types of the experiment were additionally modeled by the CFD-code Kameleon FireEx for validation of results. The purpose of the experiments done on bench scale steel plate (L x W x T : 300 x 200 x 8 mm) was mainly to map data on wetting temperature, water droplet size, droplet impingement angle, and droplet velocity prior to large scale jet fire tests. The droplet release angle normal to hot surface gives best cooling effect, when the surface is oriented in upright position. The partial wetting begins at about 165 degrees C. When the surface is positioned in horizontal plane, the droplet of about 5 mm in diameter wets the hot surface partially at around 240-250 degrees C within an impaction distance of 20 cm. At about 150 degrees C, the droplet is entirely attached to the surface with almost zero contact angle, and cools down the solid at a critical heat flux equivalent to 1750 kW/m{sup 2}. The cooling effectiveness is about 8 % with a Weber number of 68. Although in the event of horizontal channel (L x W x T : 1000 x 200 x 8 mm) water droplets were not applied, however, the knowledge gained with jet fire tests gave valuable information about temperature progress in solids (steels and insulation) and their response to impinging jet fire during long duration experiments. The temperature of the insulated area of the channel keeps 200 degrees C below that of the exposed surface, as long as the insulation material remained intact. Upon long test fire durations, the insulation either burns or degrades despite

  15. Study on surface modification of polymer films by using atmospheric plasma jet source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takemura, Yuichiro; Hara, Tamio; Yamaguchi, Naohiro

    2008-01-01

    Reactive gas plasma treatments of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) and polyimide (Kapton) have been performed using an atmospheric plasmas jet source. Characteristics of surface modification have been examined by changing the distance between the plasma jet source and the treated sample, and by changing the working gas spaces. Simultaneously, each plasma jet source has been investigated by space-resolving spectroscopy in the UV/visible region. Polymer surfaces have been analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). A marked improvement in the hydrophilicity of the polymer surfaces has been made by using N 2 or O 2 plasma jet source with a very short exposure time of about 0.01 s, whereas the less improvement has been obtained using on air plasma jet source because of NO x compound production. Changes in the chemical states of C of the polymer surfaces have been observed in XPS spectra after N 2 plasma jet spraying. (author)

  16. A 65--70 year oscillation in observed surface temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlesinger, M.E.; Ramankutty, N.

    1994-01-01

    There are three possible sources for the 65--70-year ''global'' oscillation: (1) random forcing of the ocean by the atmosphere, such as by white noise; (2) external oscillatory forcing of the climate system, such as by a variation in the solar irradiance; and (3) an internal oscillation of the atmosphere-ocean system. It is unlikely that putative variations in solar irradiance are the source of the oscillation because solar forcing should generate a global response, but the oscillation is not global. It is also unlikely that white-noise forcing is the source of the oscillation because such forcing should generate an oceanwide response, but the oscillation is not panoceanic. Consequently, the most probable cause of the oscillation is an internal oscillation of the atmosphere-ocean system. This conclusion is supported by a growing body of observational evidence and coupled atmosphere/ocean general circulation model simulation results. Comparison of the regional and global-mean temperature changes caused by the oscillation with those induced by GHG + ASA forcing shows that the rapid rise in global-mean temperature between about 1908 and 1946, and the subsequent reversal of this warming until about 1965 were the result of the oscillation. In the North Atlantic and North American regions, the domination of the GHG + ASA-induced warming by the oscillation has obscured and confounded detection of this warming

  17. Aerosol jet printed, low voltage, electrolyte gated carbon nanotube ring oscillators with sub-5 μs stage delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Mingjing; Seo, Jung-Woo T; Prabhumirashi, Pradyumna L; Zhang, Wei; Geier, Michael L; Renn, Michael J; Kim, Chris H; Hersam, Mark C; Frisbie, C Daniel

    2013-03-13

    A central challenge for printed electronics is to achieve high operating frequencies (short transistor switching times) at low supply biases compatible with thin film batteries. In this report, we demonstrate partially printed five-stage ring oscillators with >20 kHz operating frequencies and stage delays ring oscillator achieved 1.2 μs delay time at 2 V supply. The inverter stages in these ring oscillators were based on ambipolar thin film transistors (TFTs) employing semiconducting, single-walled carbon nanotube (CNT) networks and a high capacitance (∼1 μF/cm(2)) ion gel electrolyte as the gate dielectric. All materials except the source and drain electrodes were aerosol jet printed. The TFTs exhibited high electron and hole mobilities (∼20 cm(2)/(V s)) and ON/OFF current ratios (up to 10(5)). Inverter switching times t were systematically characterized as a function of transistor channel length and ionic conductivity of the gel dielectric, demonstrating that both the semiconductor and the ion gel play a role in switching speed. Quantitative scaling analysis suggests that with suitable optimization low voltage, printed ion gel gated CNT inverters could operate at frequencies on the order of 1 MHz.

  18. Surface Catalysis and Oxidation on Stagnation Point Heat Flux Measurements in High Enthalpy Arc Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Anuscheh; Driver, David M.; Terrazas-Salinas

    2013-01-01

    Heat flux sensors are routinely used in arc jet facilities to determine heat transfer rates from plasma plume. The goal of this study is to assess the impact of surface composition changes on these heat flux sensors. Surface compositions can change due to oxidation and material deposition from the arc jet. Systematic surface analyses of the sensors were conducted before and after exposure to plasma. Currently copper is commonly used as surface material. Other surface materials were studied including nickel, constantan gold, platinum and silicon dioxide. The surfaces were exposed to plasma between 0.3 seconds and 3 seconds. Surface changes due to oxidation as well as copper deposition from the arc jets were observed. Results from changes in measured heat flux as a function of surface catalycity is given, along with a first assessment of enthalpy for these measurements. The use of cupric oxide is recommended for future heat flux measurements, due to its consistent surface composition arc jets.

  19. On the interaction of a submerged turbulent jet with a clean or contaminated free surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Douglas G.; Hirsa, Amir; Willmarth, William W.

    1991-02-01

    The effect of a free surface on the structure of a submerged turbulent jet is investigated experimentally. Three-component LDV measurements beneath a clean free surface show that the mean flow spreads laterally outward in a shallow surface layer much wider than the mean flow well below the surface. As the free surface is approached, velocity fluctuations normal to the surface are diminished while those parallel to the surface are enhanced. Laser-induced fluorescence is used to show that the surface layer contains fluid ejected from the jet. With the addition of surface-active agents, the surface layer is suppressed.

  20. Fluid jet-array parallel machining of optical microstructure array surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunjin; Cheung, Chi Fai; Liu, Mingyu; Lee, Wing Bun

    2017-09-18

    Optical microstructure array surfaces such as micro-lens array surface, micro-groove array surface etc., are being used in more and more optical products, depending on its ability to produce a unique or particular performance. The geometrical complexity of the optical microstructures array surfaces makes them difficult to be fabricated. In this paper, a novel method named fluid jet-array parallel machining (FJAPM) is proposed to provide a new way to generate the microstructure array surfaces with high productivity. In this process, an array of abrasive water jets is pumped out of a nozzle, and each fluid jet simultaneously impinges the target surface to implement material removal independently. The jet-array nozzle was optimally designed firstly to diminish the effect of jet interference based on the experimental investigation on the 2-Jet nozzles with different jet intervals. The material removal and surface generation models were built and validated through the comparison of simulation and experimental results of the generation of several kinds of microstructure array surfaces. Following that, the effect of some factors in the process was discussed, including the fluid pressure, nozzle geometry, tool path, and dwell time. The experimental results and analysis prove that FJAPM process is an effective way to fabricate the optical microstructure array surface together with high productivity.

  1. An Empirical Jet-Surface Interaction Noise Model with Temperature and Nozzle Aspect Ratio Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Cliff

    2015-01-01

    An empirical model for jet-surface interaction (JSI) noise produced by a round jet near a flat plate is described and the resulting model evaluated. The model covers unheated and hot jet conditions (1 less than or equal to jet total temperature ratio less than or equal to 2.7) in the subsonic range (0.5 less than or equal to M(sub a) less than or equal to 0.9), surface lengths 0.6 less than or equal to (axial distance from jet exit to surface trailing edge (inches)/nozzle exit diameter) less than or equal to 10, and surface standoff distances (0 less than or equal to (radial distance from jet lipline to surface (inches)/axial distance from jet exit to surface trailing edge (inches)) less than or equal to 1) using only second-order polynomials to provide predictable behavior. The JSI noise model is combined with an existing jet mixing noise model to produce exhaust noise predictions. Fit quality metrics and comparisons to between the predicted and experimental data indicate that the model is suitable for many system level studies. A first-order correction to the JSI source model that accounts for the effect of nozzle aspect ratio is also explored. This correction is based on changes to the potential core length and frequency scaling associated with rectangular nozzles up to 8:1 aspect ratio. However, more work is needed to refine these findings into a formal model.

  2. Hydrophilic surface modification of coronary stent using an atmospheric pressure plasma jet for endothelialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jae Won; Bae, In-Ho; Park, Dae Sung; Lee, So-Youn; Jang, Eun-Jae; Lim, Kyung-Seob; Park, Jun-Kyu; Kim, Ju Han; Jeong, Myung Ho

    2018-03-01

    The first two authors contributed equally to this study. Bioactivity and cell adhesion properties are major factors for fabricating medical devices such as coronary stents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the advantages of atmospheric-pressure plasma jet in enhancing the biocompatibility and endothelial cell-favorites. The experimental objects were divided into before and after atmospheric-pressure plasma jet treatment with the ratio of nitrogen:argon = 3:1, which is similar to air. The treated surfaces were basically characterized by means of a contact angle analyzer for the activation property on their surfaces. The effect of atmospheric-pressure plasma jet on cellular response was examined by endothelial cell adhesion and XTT analysis. It was difficult to detect any changeable morphology after atmospheric-pressure plasma jet treatment on the surface. The roughness was increased after atmospheric-pressure plasma jet treatment compared to nonatmospheric-pressure plasma jet treatment (86.781 and 7.964 nm, respectively). The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results showed that the surface concentration of the C-O groups increased slightly from 6% to 8% after plasma activation. The contact angle dramatically decreased in the atmospheric-pressure plasma jet treated group (22.6 ± 15.26°) compared to the nonatmospheric-pressure plasma jet treated group (72.4 ± 15.26°) ( n = 10, p atmospheric-pressure plasma jet on endothelial cell migration and proliferation was 85.2% ± 12.01% and 34.2% ± 2.68%, respectively, at 7 days, compared to the nonatmospheric-pressure plasma jet treated group (58.2% ± 11.44% in migration, n = 10, p atmospheric-pressure plasma jet method. Moreover, the atmospheric-pressure plasma jet might affect re-endothelialization after stenting.

  3. Experimental study of curvature effects on jet impingement heat transfer on concave surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhou

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Experimental study of the local and average heat transfer characteristics of a single round jet impinging on the concave surfaces was conducted in this work to gain in-depth knowledge of the curvature effects. The experiments were conducted by employing a piccolo tube with one single jet hole over a wide range of parameters: jet Reynolds number from 27000 to 130000, relative nozzle to surface distance from 3.3 to 30, and relative surface curvature from 0.005 to 0.030. Experimental results indicate that the surface curvature has opposite effects on heat transfer characteristics. On one hand, an increase of relative nozzle to surface distance (increasing jet diameter in fact enhances the average heat transfer around the surface for the same curved surface. On the other hand, the average Nusselt number decreases as relative nozzle to surface distance increases for a fixed jet diameter. Finally, experimental data-based correlations of the average Nusselt number over the curved surface were obtained with consideration of surface curvature effect. This work contributes to a better understanding of the curvature effects on heat transfer of a round jet impingement on concave surfaces, which is of high importance to the design of the aircraft anti-icing system.

  4. Measurement of the B$^{0}_{d}$ oscillation frequency using kaons, leptons and jet charge

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, P; Adye, T; Agasi, E; Ajinenko, I; Aleksan, Roy; Alekseev, G D; Alemany, R; Allport, P P; Almehed, S; Amaldi, Ugo; Amato, S; Andreazza, A; Andrieux, M L; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Arnoud, Y; Åsman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Bambade, P; Barate, R; Barbi, M S; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Baroncelli, A; Bärring, O; Barrio, J A; Bartl, Walter; Bates, M J; Battaglia, Marco; Baubillier, M; Baudot, J; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Beillière, P; Belokopytov, Yu A; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Berggren, M; Bertrand, D; Bianchi, F; Bigi, M; Bilenky, S M; Billoir, P; Bloch, D; Blume, M; Blyth, S; Bolognese, T; Bonesini, M; Bonivento, W; Booth, P S L; Borisov, G; Bosio, C; Bosworth, S; Botner, O; Boudinov, E; Bouquet, B; Bourdarios, C; Bowcock, T J V; Bozzo, M; Branchini, P; Brand, K D; Brenke, T; Brenner, R A; Bricman, C; Brillault, L; Brown, R C A; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Bugge, L; Buran, T; Burgsmüller, T; Buschmann, P; Buys, A; Cabrera, S; Caccia, M; Calvi, M; Camacho-Rozas, A J; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Canepa, M; Cankocak, K; Cao, F; Carena, F; Carroll, L; Caso, Carlo; Castillo-Gimenez, M V; Cattai, A; Cavallo, F R; Cerrito, L; Chabaud, V; Charpentier, P; Chaussard, L; Chauveau, J; Checchia, P; Chelkov, G A; Chen, M; Chierici, R; Chliapnikov, P V; Chochula, P; Chorowicz, V; Chudoba, J; Cindro, V; Collins, P; Contreras, J L; Contri, R; Cortina, E; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Crawley, H B; Crennell, D J; Crosetti, G; Cuevas-Maestro, J; Czellar, S; Dahl-Jensen, Erik; Dahm, J; D'Almagne, B; Dam, M; Damgaard, G; Dauncey, P D; Davenport, Martyn; Da Silva, W; Defoix, C; Deghorain, A; Della Ricca, G; Delpierre, P A; Demaria, N; De Angelis, A; de Boer, Wim; De Brabandere, S; De Clercq, C; La Vaissière, C de; De Lotto, B; De Min, A; De Paula, L S; De Saint-Jean, C; Dijkstra, H; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Djama, F; Dolbeau, J; Dönszelmann, M; Doroba, K; Dracos, M; Drees, J; Drees, K A; Dris, M; Dufour, Y; Edsall, D M; Ehret, R; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ekspong, Gösta; Elsing, M; Engel, J P; Ershaidat, N; Erzen, B; Espirito-Santo, M C; Falk, E; Fassouliotis, D; Feindt, Michael; Fenyuk, A; Ferrer, A; Filippas-Tassos, A; Firestone, A; Fischer, P A; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fontanelli, F; Formenti, F; Franek, B J; Frenkiel, P; Fries, D E C; Frodesen, A G; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J A; Galloni, A; Gamba, D; Gandelman, M; García, C; García, J; Gaspar, C; Gasparini, U; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E N; Gelé, D; Gerber, J P; Gibbs, M; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gopal, Gian P; Gorn, L; Górski, M; Guz, Yu; Gracco, Valerio; Graziani, E; Grosdidier, G; Grzelak, K; Gumenyuk, S A; Gunnarsson, P; Günther, M; Guy, J; Hahn, F; Hahn, S; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Hao, W; Harris, F J; Hedberg, V; Henriques, R P; Hernández, J J; Herquet, P; Herr, H; Hessing, T L; Higón, E; Hilke, Hans Jürgen; Hill, T S; Holmgren, S O; Holt, P J; Holthuizen, D J; Hoorelbeke, S; Houlden, M A; Hrubec, Josef; Huet, K; Hultqvist, K; Jackson, J N; Jacobsson, R; Jalocha, P; Janik, R; Jarlskog, C; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jean-Marie, B; Johansson, E K; Jönsson, L B; Jönsson, P E; Joram, Christian; Juillot, P; Kaiser, M; Kapusta, F; Karafasoulis, K; Karlsson, M; Karvelas, E; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Keränen, R; Khokhlov, Yu A; Khomenko, B A; Khovanskii, N N; King, B J; Kjaer, N J; Klein, H; Klovning, A; Kluit, P M; Köne, B; Kokkinias, P; Koratzinos, M; Korcyl, K; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Kramer, P H; Krammer, Manfred; Kreuter, C; Kronkvist, I J; Krumshtein, Z; Krupinski, W; Kubinec, P; Kucewicz, W; Kurvinen, K L; Lacasta, C; Laktineh, I; Lamblot, S; Lamsa, J; Lanceri, L; Lane, D W; Langefeld, P; Last, I; Laugier, J P; Lauhakangas, R; Leder, Gerhard; Ledroit, F; Lefébure, V; Legan, C K; Leitner, R; Lemoigne, Y; Lemonne, J; Lenzen, Georg; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Liko, D; Lindner, R; Lipniacka, A; Lippi, I; Lörstad, B; Loken, J G; López, J M; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J N; Maehlum, G; Maio, A; Malychev, V; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Marco, R P; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Maron, T; Martínez-Rivero, C; Martínez-Vidal, F; Martí i García, S; Masik, J; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Matthiae, Giorgio; Mazzucato, M; McCubbin, M L; McKay, R; McNulty, R; Medbo, J; Merk, M; Meroni, C; Meyer, S; Meyer, W T; Myagkov, A; Michelotto, M; Migliore, E; Mirabito, L; Mitaroff, Winfried A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Møller, R; Mönig, K; Monge, M R; Morettini, P; Müller, H; Mundim, L M; Murray, W J; Muryn, B; Myatt, Gerald; Naraghi, F; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Navas, S; Nawrocki, K; Negri, P; Neumann, W; Neumeister, N; Nicolaidou, R; Nielsen, B S; Nieuwenhuizen, M; Nikolaenko, V; Niss, P; Nomerotski, A; Normand, Ainsley; Oberschulte-Beckmann, W; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, Risto; Österberg, K; Ouraou, A; Paganini, P; Paganoni, M; Pagès, P; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Papageorgiou, K; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Passeri, A; Pegoraro, M; Peralta, L; Pernegger, H; Pernicka, Manfred; Perrotta, A; Petridou, C; Petrolini, A; Petrovykh, M; Phillips, H T; Piana, G; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Pindo, M; Plaszczynski, S; Podobrin, O; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Poropat, P; Pozdnyakov, V; Prest, M; Privitera, P; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, Antonio; Radojicic, D; Ragazzi, S; Rahmani, H; Rames, J; Ratoff, P N; Read, A L; Reale, M; Rebecchi, P; Redaelli, N G; Regler, Meinhard; Reid, D; Renton, P B; Resvanis, L K; Richard, F; Richardson, J; Rídky, J; Rinaudo, G; Ripp, I; Romero, A; Roncagliolo, I; Ronchese, P; Roos, L; Rosenberg, E I; Rosso, E; Roudeau, Patrick; Rovelli, T; Rückstuhl, W; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ruiz, A; Saarikko, H; Sacquin, Yu; Sadovskii, A; Sajot, G; Salt, J; Sánchez, J; Sannino, M; Schimmelpfennig, M; Schneider, H; Schwickerath, U; Schyns, M A E; Sciolla, G; Scuri, F; Seager, P; Sedykh, Yu; Segar, A M; Seitz, A; Sekulin, R L; Shellard, R C; Siccama, I; Siegrist, P; Simonetti, S; Simonetto, F; Sissakian, A N; Sitár, B; Skaali, T B; Smadja, G; Smirnov, N; Smirnova, O G; Smith, G R; Solovyanov, O; Sosnowski, R; Souza-Santos, D; Spassoff, Tz; Spiriti, E; Sponholz, P; Squarcia, S; Stanescu, C; Stapnes, Steinar; Stavitski, I; Stichelbaut, F; Stocchi, A; Strauss, J; Strub, R; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Tavernet, J P; Chikilev, O G; Tilquin, A; Timmermans, J; Tkatchev, L G; Todorov, T; Toet, D Z; Tomaradze, A G; Tomé, B; Tonazzo, A; Tortora, L; Tranströmer, G; Treille, D; Trischuk, W; Tristram, G; Trombini, A; Troncon, C; Tsirou, A L; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tyndel, M; Tzamarias, S; Überschär, B; Ullaland, O; Uvarov, V; Valenti, G; Vallazza, E; Van der Velde, C; van Apeldoorn, G W; van Dam, P; Van Doninck, W K; Van Eldik, J; Vassilopoulos, N; Vegni, G; Ventura, L; Venus, W A; Verbeure, F; Verlato, M; Vertogradov, L S; Vilanova, D; Vincent, P; Vitale, L; Vlasov, E; Vodopyanov, A S; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Walck, C; Waldner, F; Weierstall, M; Weilhammer, Peter; Weiser, C; Wetherell, Alan M; Wicke, D; Wickens, J H; Wielers, M; Wilkinson, G R; Williams, W S C; Winter, M; Woschnagg, K; Yip, K; Yushchenko, O P; Zach, F; Zaitsev, A; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, Piotr; Zavrtanik, D; Zevgolatakos, E; Zimin, N I; Zito, M; Zontar, D; Zuberi, R; Zucchelli, G C; Zumerle, G; Belokopytov, Yu; Charpentier, Ph; Gavillet, Ph; Gouz, Yu; Jarlskog, Ch; Khokhlov, Yu; Papadopoulou, Th D

    1996-01-01

    A measurement of the mass difference, \\Delta m_d, between the two physical \\mbox{B}^0_d states has been obtained from the analysis of the impact parameter distribution of a lepton emitted at large transverse momentum (p_t) relative to the jet axis and from the analysis of the flight distance distribution of secondary vertices tagged by either a high p_t lepton or an identified kaon. In the opposite hemisphere of the event, the charge of the initial quark has been evaluated using a high p_t lepton, a charged kaon or the mean jet charge. With 1.7 million hadronic Z^0 decays recorded by DELPHI between 1991 and 1993, \\Delta m_d is found to be: \\Delta m_d = 0.531^{+0.050}_{-0.046} ~(stat.) \\pm 0.078 ~(syst.) ~ {\\mathrm{ps}}^{-1} \\, .

  5. Behavior of MeV ions in the presence of sawtooth oscillations in TFTR and JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolesnichenko, Ya.I.; Lutsenko, V.V.; Yakovenko, Yu.V.; White, R.B.; Sweben, S.J.

    1999-01-01

    Flux of alpha particles to the wall induced by sawtooth crashes in TFTR DT shots has been observed to be very inhomogeneous in poloidal direction. A theory is developed, which reveals two main physical mechanisms responsible for the alpha loss in these experiments and describes the observed flux distribution. An interpretation of the ICRF minority heating experiment on JET where the 'hot spot' (a strongly localized gamma ray and neutron emitting region) disappeared after a crash is suggested. (author)

  6. An experimental study on hot round jets impinging a concave surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenot, M.; Dorignac, E.; Vullierme, J.-J.

    2008-01-01

    An experimental investigation of heat transfer due to a row of air jets impinging on a concave semi-cylindrical surface is presented. Heat transfer characteristics are measured using a heat thin foil technique and infrared thermography. Adiabatic wall temperatures and local heat transfer coefficients are determined by means of a linear regression method. The effect of high relative curvature (d/D) is investigated by changing the jet tube diameter (impinging surface diameter remaining constant). Reynolds number, injection temperature, spacing between adjacent jets and jet exit to surface spacing are also made to vary. Curvature has different effects over the adiabatic wall temperature and Nusselt number distributions. First, the curvature increase provokes a small growth of Nusselt number in the impingement region. On the other hand, curvature produces a confinement of the jet's flow that has two consequences: stagnation of the adiabatic wall temperature and decrease of Nusselt number distribution

  7. Surface conductivity dependent dynamic behaviour of an ultrafine atmospheric pressure plasma jet for microscale surface processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abuzairi, Tomy [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan); Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Depok 16424 (Indonesia); Okada, Mitsuru [Department of Engineering, Shizuoka University, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan); Bhattacharjee, Sudeep [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208016 (India); Nagatsu, Masaaki, E-mail: nagatsu.masaaki@shizuoka.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan); Department of Engineering, Shizuoka University, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan); Research Institute of Electronics, Shizuoka University, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • Spatio-temporal behaviors of capillary APPJs are studied for various substrates. • Plasma irradiation area depended on the substrate conductivity and permittivity. • Surface irradiation area was significantly broadened in polymer-like substrate. • Effect of applying a substrate bias on the APPJ irradiation area was investigated. - Abstract: An experimental study on the dynamic behaviour of microcapillary atmospheric pressure plasma jets (APPJs) with 5 μm tip size for surfaces of different conductivity is reported. Electrical and spatio-temporal characteristics of the APPJs are monitored using high voltage probe, current monitor and high speed intensified charge couple device camera. From these experimental results, we presented a simple model to understand the electrical discharge characteristics of the capillary APPJs with double electrodes, and estimated the velocity of the ionization fronts in the jet and the electron density to be 3.5–4.2 km/s and 2–7 × 10{sup 17} m{sup −3}. By analyzing the dynamics of the microcapillary APPJs for different substrate materials, it was found that the surface irradiation area strongly depended on the substrate conductivity and permittivity, especially in the case of polymer-like substrate, surface irradiation area was significantly broadened probably due to the repelling behaviour of the plasma jets from the accumulated electrical charges on the polymer surface. The effect of applying a substrate bias in the range from −900 V to +900 V on the plasma irradiation onto the substrates was also investigated. From the knowledge of the present results, it is helpful for choosing the substrate materials for microscale surface modification.

  8. Measurement of Fine Grain Copper Surface Texture Created by Abrasive Water Jet Cutting

    OpenAIRE

    HLAVÁČEK, Petr; VALÍČEK, Jan; HLOCH, Sergej; GREGER, Miroslav; FOLDYNA, Josef; IVANDIĆ, Željko; SITEK, Libor; KUŠNEROVÁ, Milena; ZELEŃÁK, Michal

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents results of experiments performed on copper with commercial purity to determine the influence of material grain size on both mechanical properties and texture of surface machined by abrasive water jet. An Equal Channel Angular Extrusion technology was used for creation of fine-grain copper samples. Hardness and grain size of fine-grain copper were measured, and, subsequently, surface of prepared copper samples was machined by abrasive water jet technology. Surface irregul...

  9. Observed transition from Richtmyer-Meshkov jet formation through feedout oscillations to Rayleigh-Taylor instability in a laser target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aglitskiy, Y.; Karasik, M.; Velikovich, A. L.; Serlin, V.; Weaver, J. L.; Kessler, T. J.; Schmitt, A. J.; Obenschain, S. P.; Nikitin, S. P.; Oh, J.; Metzler, N.

    2012-01-01

    Experimental study of hydrodynamic perturbation evolution triggered by a laser-driven shock wave breakout at the free rippled rear surface of a plastic target is reported. At sub-megabar shock pressure, planar jets manifesting the development of the Richtmyer-Meshkov-type instability in a non-accelerated target are observed. As the shock pressure exceeds 1 Mbar, an oscillatory rippled expansion wave is observed, followed by the “feedout” of the rear-surface perturbations to the ablation front and the development of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability, which breaks up the accelerated target.

  10. Image analysis of jet structure on electrospinning from free liquid surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kula, Jiri; Linka, Ales; Tunak, Maros; Lukas, David

    2014-01-01

    The work analyses intra-jet distances during electrospinning from a free surface of water based poly(vinyl alcohol) solution confined by two thin metallic plates employed as a spinning electrode. A unique computer vision system and digital image processing were designed in order to track position of every polymer jet. Here, we show that jet position data are in good compliance with theoretically predicted intra-jet distances by linear stability analysis. Jet density is a critical parameter of electrospinning technology, since it determines the process efficiency and homogeneity of produced nanofibrous layer. Achievements made in this research could be used as essential approach to study jetting from two-dimensional spinning electrodes, or as fundamentals for further development of control system related to Nanospider ™ technology.

  11. Image analysis of jet structure on electrospinning from free liquid surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kula, Jiri, E-mail: jiri.kula@tul.cz; Linka, Ales, E-mail: ales.linka@tul.cz; Tunak, Maros, E-mail: maros.tunak@tul.cz [Department of Textile Evaluation, Faculty of Textile Engineering, Technical University of Liberec, Studentska 2, 461 17 Liberec (Czech Republic); Lukas, David, E-mail: david.lukas@tul.cz [Department of Nonwoven and Nanofibrous Materials, Faculty of Textile Engineering, Technical University of Liberec, Studentska 2, 461 17 Liberec (Czech Republic); Centre for Nanomaterials Advanced Technologies and Innovation, Technical University of Liberec, Studentska 2, 461 17 Liberec (Czech Republic)

    2014-06-16

    The work analyses intra-jet distances during electrospinning from a free surface of water based poly(vinyl alcohol) solution confined by two thin metallic plates employed as a spinning electrode. A unique computer vision system and digital image processing were designed in order to track position of every polymer jet. Here, we show that jet position data are in good compliance with theoretically predicted intra-jet distances by linear stability analysis. Jet density is a critical parameter of electrospinning technology, since it determines the process efficiency and homogeneity of produced nanofibrous layer. Achievements made in this research could be used as essential approach to study jetting from two-dimensional spinning electrodes, or as fundamentals for further development of control system related to Nanospider{sup ™} technology.

  12. Instability of non-Newtonian jets with a surface tension gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Zhanjun

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the mechanisms of temporal instability of non-Newtonian liquid jets, more specifically viscoelastic liquid jets, with a surface tension gradient. The dispersion relation between the growth rate and the wave number for a viscoelastic liquid jet is derived. The effects of various parameters on the instability behavior are studied. A number of quantitative conclusions and sensitivities on the instability behavior of viscoelastic jets are investigated. The present work can provide a good foundation for further investigations of the instability and breakup of viscoelastic liquid jets in the situation where the surface tension gradient exists. The applications of such a phenomenon include a microfluidic inkjet printheads with thousands of nozzles that are thermally modulated near the nozzle orifice to produce steady steams of picoliter-sized droplets at kilo-Hertz frequency rates

  13. Quantum oscillations in insulators with neutral Fermi surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodemann, Inti; Chowdhury, Debanjan; Senthil, T.

    2018-02-01

    We develop a theory of quantum oscillations in insulators with an emergent Fermi sea of neutral fermions minimally coupled to an emergent U(1 ) gauge field. As pointed out by Motrunich [Phys. Rev. B 73, 155115 (2006), 10.1103/PhysRevB.73.155115], in the presence of a physical magnetic field the emergent magnetic field develops a nonzero value leading to Landau quantization for the neutral fermions. We focus on the magnetic field and temperature dependence of the analog of the de Haas-van Alphen effect in two and three dimensions. At temperatures above the effective cyclotron energy, the magnetization oscillations behave similarly to those of an ordinary metal, albeit in a field of a strength that differs from the physical magnetic field. At low temperatures, the oscillations evolve into a series of phase transitions. We provide analytical expressions for the amplitude and period of the oscillations in both of these regimes and simple extrapolations that capture well their crossover. We also describe oscillations in the electrical resistivity of these systems that are expected to be superimposed with the activated temperature behavior characteristic of their insulating nature and discuss suitable experimental conditions for the observation of these effects in mixed-valence insulators and triangular lattice organic materials.

  14. Water experiment of high-speed, free-surface, plane jet along concave wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Hideo; Ida, Mizuho; Kato, Yoshio; Maekawa, Hiroshi; Itoh, Kazuhiro; Kukita, Yutaka

    1997-01-01

    In the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF), an intense 14 MeV neutron beam will be generated in the high-speed liquid lithium (Li) plane jet target flowing along concave wall in vacuum. As part of the conceptual design activity (CDA) of the IFMIF, the stability of the plane liquid jet flow was studied experimentally with water in a well-defined channel geometry for non-heating condition. A two-dimensional double-reducer nozzle being newly proposed for the IFMIF target successfully provided a high-speed (≤ 17 m/s) stable water jet with uniform velocity distribution at the nozzle exit without flow separation in the nozzle. The free surface of the jet was covered by two-dimensional and/or three-dimensional waves, the size of which did not change much over the tested jet length of ∼130 mm. The jet velocity profile changed around the nozzle exit from uniform to that of free-vortex flow where the product of the radius of stream line and local velocity is constant in the jet thickness. The jet thickness increased immediately after exiting the nozzle because of the velocity profile change. The predicted jet thickness by a modified one-dimensional momentum model agreed with the data well. (author)

  15. Surface Acoustic Analog of Bloch Oscillations, Wannier-Stark Ladders and Landau-Zener Tunneling

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, M. M.; Kosevich, Yu. A.; Santos, P. V.; Cantarero, A.

    2011-12-01

    In this contribution, we discuss the recent experimental demonstration of Wannier-Stark ladders, Bloch Oscillations and Landau Zener tunneling in a solid by means of surface acoustic waves propagating through perturbed grating structures.

  16. Surface integrity analysis of abrasive water jet-cut surfaces of friction stir welded joints

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kumar, R.; Chattopadhyaya, S.; Dixit, A. R.; Bora, B.; Zeleňák, Michal; Foldyna, Josef; Hloch, Sergej; Hlaváček, Petr; Ščučka, Jiří; Klich, Jiří; Sitek, Libor; Vilaca, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 5 (2017), s. 1687-1701 ISSN 0268-3768 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1406; GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : friction stir welding (FSW) * abrasive water jet (AWJ) * optical profilometer * topography * surface roughness Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools OBOR OECD: Mechanical engineering Impact factor: 2.209, year: 2016 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00170-016-8776-0

  17. Carbon Nanotube Oscillator Surface Profiling Device and Method of Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-15

    system. The carbon nanotube oscillator in accor- dance with the present invention can achieve in-plane reso- lution -1 nm as compared to 20-30 nm in...following phenomenologi - cal expression: (13) where m is the mass of the moving tube and y is the appro- priate friction coefficient. E>(z) is the

  18. Jet-Surface Interaction - High Aspect Ratio Nozzle Test: Test Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Clifford A.

    2016-01-01

    The Jet-Surface Interaction High Aspect Ratio Nozzle Test was conducted in the Aero-Acoustic Propulsion Laboratory at the NASA Glenn Research Center in the fall of 2015. There were four primary goals specified for this test: (1) extend the current noise database for rectangular nozzles to higher aspect ratios, (2) verify data previously acquired at small-scale with data from a larger model, (3) acquired jet-surface interaction noise data suitable for creating verifying empirical noise models and (4) investigate the effect of nozzle septa on the jet-mixing and jet-surface interaction noise. These slides give a summary of the test with representative results for each goal.

  19. Local inertial oscillations in the surface ocean generated by time-varying winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shengli; Polton, Jeff A.; Hu, Jianyu; Xing, Jiuxing

    2015-12-01

    A new relationship is presented to give a review study on the evolution of inertial oscillations in the surface ocean locally generated by time-varying wind stress. The inertial oscillation is expressed as the superposition of a previous oscillation and a newly generated oscillation, which depends upon the time-varying wind stress. This relationship is employed to investigate some idealized wind change events. For a wind series varying temporally with different rates, the induced inertial oscillation is dominated by the wind with the greatest variation. The resonant wind, which rotates anti-cyclonically at the local inertial frequency with time, produces maximal amplitude of inertial oscillations, which grows monotonically. For the wind rotating at non-inertial frequencies, the responses vary periodically, with wind injecting inertial energy when it is in phase with the currents, but removing inertial energy when it is out of phase. The wind rotating anti-cyclonically with time is much more favorable to generate inertial oscillations than the cyclonic rotating wind. The wind with a frequency closer to the inertial frequency generates stronger inertial oscillations. For a diurnal wind, the induced inertial oscillation is dependent on latitude and is most significant at 30 °. This relationship is also applied to examine idealized moving cyclones. The inertial oscillation is much stronger on the right-hand side of the cyclone path than on the left-hand side (in the northern hemisphere). This is due to the wind being anti-cyclonic with time on the right-hand side, but cyclonic on the other side. The inertial oscillation varies with the cyclone translation speed. The optimal translation speed generating the greatest inertial oscillations is 2 m/s at the latitude of 10 ° and gradually increases to 6 m/s at the latitude of 30 °.

  20. Surface Intermediate Zone of Submerged Turbulent Buoyant Jet in Current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, H. B.; Larsen, Torben

    1995-01-01

    This paper deals with the intermediate zone between the jet and plume stages of a submerged buoyant discharge from sea outfall in current. The stability criteria, plume width and height after the intermediate zone and the dilution within the intermediate region have been studied theoretically...

  1. Behavior of a wave-driven buoyant surface jet on a coral reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herdman, Liv; Hench, James L.; Fringer, Oliver; Monismith, Stephen G.

    2017-01-01

    A wave-driven surface buoyant jet exiting a coral reef was studied in order to quantify the amount of water re-entrained over the reef crest. Both moored observations and Lagrangian drifters were used to study the fate of the buoyant jet. To investigate in detail the effects of buoyancy and along-shore flow variations, we developed an idealized numerical model of the system. Consistent with previous work, the ratio of along-shore velocity to jet-velocity and the jet internal Froude number were found to be important determinants of the fate of the jet. In the absence of buoyancy, the entrainment of fluid at the reef crest, creates a significant amount of retention, keeping 60% of water in the reef system. However, when the jet is lighter than the ambient ocean-water, the net effect of buoyancy is to enhance the separation of the jet from shore, leading to a greater export of reef water. Matching observations, our modeling predicts that buoyancy limits retention to 30% of the jet flow for conditions existing on the Moorea reef. Overall, the combination of observations and modeling we present here shows that reef-ocean temperature gradients can play an important role in reef-ocean exchanges.

  2. Advanced Liquid Cooling for a Traction Drive Inverter Using Jet Impingement and Microfinned Enhanced Surfaces: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waye, S. K.; Narumanchi, S.; Mihalic, M.; Moreno, G.; Bennion, K.; Jeffers, J.

    2014-08-01

    Jet impingement on plain and micro-finned enhanced surfaces was compared to a traditional channel flow configuration. The jets provide localized cooling to areas heated by the insulated-gate bipolar transistor and diode devices. Enhanced microfinned surfaces increase surface area and thermal performance. Using lighter materials and designing the fluid path to manage pressure losses increases overall performance while reducing weight, volume, and cost. Powering four diodes in the center power module of the inverter and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling was used to characterize the baseline as well as jet-impingement-based heat exchangers. CFD modeling showed the thermal performance improvements should hold for a fully powered inverter. Increased thermal performance was observed for the jet-impingement configurations when tested at full inverter power (40 to 100 kW output power) on a dynamometer. The reliability of the jets and enhanced surfaces over time was also investigated. Experimentally, the junction-to- coolant thermal resistance was reduced by up to 12.5% for jet impingement on enhanced surfaces s compared to the baseline channel flow configuration. Base plate-to-coolant (convective) resistance was reduced by up to 37.0% for the jet-based configuration compared to the baseline, suggesting that while improvements to the cooling side reduce overall resistance, reducing the passive stack resistance may contribute to lowering overall junction-to-coolant resistance. Full inverter power testing showed reduced thermal resistance from the middle of the module baseplate to coolant of up to 16.5%. Between the improvement in thermal performance and pumping power, the coefficient of performance improved by up to 13% for the jet-based configuration.

  3. External confinement and surface modes in magnetized force-free jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobacchi, E.; Lyubarsky, Y. E.

    2018-01-01

    In the paradigm of magnetic launching of astrophysical jets, instabilities in the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow are a good candidate to convert the Poynting flux into the kinetic energy of the plasma. If the magnetized plasma fills the almost entire space, the jet is unstable to helical perturbations of its body. However, the growth rate of these modes is suppressed when the poloidal component of the magnetic field has a vanishing gradient, which may be the actual case for a realistic configuration. Here we show that, if the magnetized plasma is confined into a limited region by the pressure of some external medium, the velocity shear at the contact surface excites unstable modes which can affect a significant fraction of the jet's body. We find that when the Lorentz factor of the jet is Γ ∼ 10 (Γ ∼ 100), these perturbations typically develop after propagating along the jet for tens (hundreds) of jet's radii. Surface modes may therefore play an important role in converting the energy of the jet from the Poynting flux to the kinetic energy of the plasma, particularly in active galactic nuclei. The scaling of the dispersion relation with (i) the angular velocity of the field lines and (ii) the sound speed in the confining gas is discussed.

  4. Surface Characterization of LMMS Molybdenum Disilicide Coated HTP-8 Using Arc- Jet Hypersonic Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, David A.

    2000-01-01

    Surface properties for an advanced Lockheed Martin Missile and Space (LMMS) molybdenum disilicide coated insulation (HTP-8) were determined using arc-jet flow to simulate Earth entry at hypersonic speeds. The catalytic efficiency (atom recombination coefficients) for this advanced thermal protection system was determined from arc-jet data taken in both oxygen and nitrogen streams at temperatures ranging from 1255 K to roughly 1600 K. In addition, optical and chemical stability data were obtained from these test samples.

  5. Prophy-Jet: Effect on Surface Roughness and Plaque Accumulation on Restorative Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    that, considering the advantages, the Prophy-Jet might be the preferred treatment, especially for orthodontic patients. Mishkin et al.(23) compared the...prophylaxis on orthodontic patients and caused no significant damage to wires or brackets. They recommended the Prophy-Jet for cleaning of occlusal pits...plaque. Schwartz and Phillips(36) found that bacteria accumulated to a greater degree per unit of time on a rough, abraded enamel surface than on a

  6. Nanocapillary Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet: A Tool for Ultrafine Maskless Surface Modification at Atmospheric Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motrescu, Iuliana; Nagatsu, Masaaki

    2016-05-18

    With respect to microsized surface functionalization techniques we proposed the use of a maskless, versatile, simple tool, represented by a nano- or microcapillary atmospheric pressure plasma jet for producing microsized controlled etching, chemical vapor deposition, and chemical modification patterns on polymeric surfaces. In this work we show the possibility of size-controlled surface amination, and we discuss it as a function of different processing parameters. Moreover, we prove the successful connection of labeled sugar chains on the functionalized microscale patterns, indicating the possibility to use ultrafine capillary atmospheric pressure plasma jets as versatile tools for biosensing, tissue engineering, and related biomedical applications.

  7. Force control is related to low-frequency oscillations in force and surface EMG.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwasil Moon

    Full Text Available Force variability during constant force tasks is directly related to oscillations below 0.5 Hz in force. However, it is unknown whether such oscillations exist in muscle activity. The purpose of this paper, therefore, was to determine whether oscillations below 0.5 Hz in force are evident in the activation of muscle. Fourteen young adults (21.07 ± 2.76 years, 7 women performed constant isometric force tasks at 5% and 30% MVC by abducting the left index finger. We recorded the force output from the index finger and surface EMG from the first dorsal interosseous (FDI muscle and quantified the following outcomes: 1 variability of force using the SD of force; 2 power spectrum of force below 2 Hz; 3 EMG bursts; 4 power spectrum of EMG bursts below 2 Hz; and 5 power spectrum of the interference EMG from 10-300 Hz. The SD of force increased significantly from 5 to 30% MVC and this increase was significantly related to the increase in force oscillations below 0.5 Hz (R(2 = 0.82. For both force levels, the power spectrum for force and EMG burst was similar and contained most of the power from 0-0.5 Hz. Force and EMG burst oscillations below 0.5 Hz were highly coherent (coherence = 0.68. The increase in force oscillations below 0.5 Hz from 5 to 30% MVC was related to an increase in EMG burst oscillations below 0.5 Hz (R(2 = 0.51. Finally, there was a strong association between the increase in EMG burst oscillations below 0.5 Hz and the interference EMG from 35-60 Hz (R(2 = 0.95. In conclusion, this finding demonstrates that bursting of the EMG signal contains low-frequency oscillations below 0.5 Hz, which are associated with oscillations in force below 0.5 Hz.

  8. Optical micro-metrology of structured surfaces micro-machined by jet-ECM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quagliotti, Danilo; Tosello, Guido; Islam, Aminul

    2015-01-01

    A procedure for statistical analysis and uncertainty evaluation is presented with regards to measurements of step height and surface texture. Measurements have been performed with a focus-variation microscope over jet electrochemical micro-machined surfaces. Traceability has been achieved using...

  9. Use of Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma Jet for Polymer Surface Modification: An Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuettner, Lindsey A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-16

    Atmospheric-pressure plasma jets (APPJs) are playing an increasingly important role in materials processing procedures. Plasma treatment is a useful tool to modify surface properties of materials, especially polymers. Plasma reacts with polymer surfaces in numerous ways thus the type of process gas and plasma conditions must be explored for chosen substrates and materials to maximize desired properties. This report discusses plasma treatments and looks further into atmospheric-pressure plasma jets and the effects of gases and plasma conditions. Following the short literature review, a general overview of the future work and research at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is discussed.

  10. Forecasting of Machined Surface Waviness on the Basis of Self-oscillations Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belov, E. B.; Leonov, S. L.; Markov, A. M.; Sitnikov, A. A.; Khomenko, V. A.

    2017-01-01

    The paper states a problem of providing quality of geometrical characteristics of machined surfaces, which makes it necessary to forecast the occurrence and amount of oscillations appearing in the course of mechanical treatment. Objectives and tasks of the research are formulated. Sources of oscillation onset are defined: these are coordinate connections and nonlinear dependence of cutting force on the cutting velocity. A mathematical model of forecasting steady-state self-oscillations is investigated. The equation of the cutter tip motion is a system of two second-order nonlinear differential equations. The paper shows an algorithm describing a harmonic linearization method which allows for a significant reduction of the calculation time. In order to do that it is necessary to determine the amplitude of oscillations, frequency and a steady component of the first harmonic. Software which allows obtaining data on surface waviness parameters is described. The paper studies an example of the use of the developed model in semi-finished lathe machining of the shaft made from steel 40H which is a part of the BelAZ wheel electric actuator unit. Recommendations on eliminating self-oscillations in the process of shaft cutting and defect correction of the surface waviness are given.

  11. Simultaneous measurement of surface tension and viscosity using freely decaying oscillations of acoustically levitated droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, J.; Kilzer, A.; Petermann, M.

    2018-01-01

    Oscillations of small liquid drops around a spherical shape have been of great interest to scientists measuring physical properties such as interfacial tension and viscosity, over the last few decades. A powerful tool for contactless positioning is acoustic levitation, which has been used to simultaneously determine the surface tension and viscosity of liquids at ambient pressure. In order to extend this acoustic levitation measurement method to high pressure systems, the method is first evaluated under ambient pressure. To measure surface tension and viscosity using acoustically levitated oscillating drops, an image analysis method has to be developed and factors which may affect measurement, such as sound field or oscillation amplitude, have to be analyzed. In this paper, we describe the simultaneous measurement of surface tension and viscosity using freely decaying shape oscillations of acoustically levitated droplets of different liquids (silicone oils AK 5 and AK 10, squalane, 1-propanol, 1-butanol, 1-pentanol, 1-hexanol, 1-heptanol, and 1-octanol) in air. These liquids vary in viscosity from 2 to about 30 mPa s. An acoustic levitation system, including an optimized standing wave acoustic levitator and a high-speed camera, was used for this study. An image analysis was performed with a self-written Matlab® code. The frequency of oscillation and the damping constant, required for the determination of surface tension and viscosity, respectively, were calculated from the evolution of the equatorial and polar radii. The results and observations are compared to data from the literature in order to analyze the accuracy of surface tension and viscosity determination, as well as the effect of non-spherical drop shape or amplitude of oscillation on measurement.

  12. Simultaneous measurement of surface tension and viscosity using freely decaying oscillations of acoustically levitated droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, J; Kilzer, A; Petermann, M

    2018-01-01

    Oscillations of small liquid drops around a spherical shape have been of great interest to scientists measuring physical properties such as interfacial tension and viscosity, over the last few decades. A powerful tool for contactless positioning is acoustic levitation, which has been used to simultaneously determine the surface tension and viscosity of liquids at ambient pressure. In order to extend this acoustic levitation measurement method to high pressure systems, the method is first evaluated under ambient pressure. To measure surface tension and viscosity using acoustically levitated oscillating drops, an image analysis method has to be developed and factors which may affect measurement, such as sound field or oscillation amplitude, have to be analyzed. In this paper, we describe the simultaneous measurement of surface tension and viscosity using freely decaying shape oscillations of acoustically levitated droplets of different liquids (silicone oils AK 5 and AK 10, squalane, 1-propanol, 1-butanol, 1-pentanol, 1-hexanol, 1-heptanol, and 1-octanol) in air. These liquids vary in viscosity from 2 to about 30 mPa s. An acoustic levitation system, including an optimized standing wave acoustic levitator and a high-speed camera, was used for this study. An image analysis was performed with a self-written Matlab® code. The frequency of oscillation and the damping constant, required for the determination of surface tension and viscosity, respectively, were calculated from the evolution of the equatorial and polar radii. The results and observations are compared to data from the literature in order to analyze the accuracy of surface tension and viscosity determination, as well as the effect of non-spherical drop shape or amplitude of oscillation on measurement.

  13. Surface-Wettability Patterning for Distributing High-Momentum Water Jets on Porous Polymeric Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Uddalok; Chatterjee, Souvick; Sinha Mahapatra, Pallab; Ganguly, Ranjan; Dodge, Richard; Yu, Lisha; Megaridis, Constantine M

    2018-02-07

    Liquid jet impingement on porous materials is particularly important in many applications of heat transfer, filtration, or in incontinence products. Generally, it is desired that the liquid not penetrate the substrate at or near the point of jet impact, but rather be distributed over a wider area before reaching the back side. A facile wettability-patterning technique is presented, whereby a water jet impinging orthogonally on a wettability-patterned nonwoven substrate is distributed on the top surface and through the porous matrix, and ultimately dispensed from prespecified points underneath the sample. A systematic approach is adopted to identify the optimum design that allows for a uniform distribution of the liquid on horizontally mounted substrates of ∼50 cm 2 area, with minimal or no spilling over the sample edges at jet flow rates exceeding 1 L/min. The effect of the location of jet impingement on liquid distribution is also studied, and the design is observed to perform well even under offset jet impact conditions.

  14. NASA Jet Noise Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Brenda

    2016-01-01

    The presentation highlights NASA's jet noise research for 2016. Jet-noise modeling efforts, jet-surface interactions results, acoustic characteristics of multi-stream jets, and N+2 Supersonic Aircraft system studies are presented.

  15. Modelisations des effets de surface sur les jets horizontaux subsoniques d'hydrogene et de methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Luis Fernando

    Le developpement des codes et de normes bases sur une methodologie scientifique requiert la capacite de predire l'etendue inflammable de deversements gazeux d'hydrogene sous differentes conditions. Des etudes anterieures ont deja etabli des modeles bases sur les lois de conservation de la mecanique des fluides basees sur des correlations experimentales qui permettent de predire la decroissance de la concentration et de la vitesse d'un gaz le long de l'axe d'un jet libre vertical. Cette etude s'interesse aux effets de proximite a une surface horizontale parallele sur un jet turbulent. Nous nous interessons a son impact sur l'etendue du champ de la concentration et sur l'enveloppe inflammable en particulier. Cette etude est comparative : l'hydrogene est compare au methane. Ceci permet de degager l'influence des effets de difference de la densite sur le comportement du jet, et de comparer le comportement de l'hydrogene aux correlations experimentales, qui ont ete essentiellement etablies pour le methane. Un modele decrivant l'evolution spatio-temporelle du champ de concentration du gaz dilue est propose, base sur la mecanique des fluides computationnelle. Cette approche permet de varier systematiquement les conditions aux frontieres (proximite du jet a la surface, par exemple) et de connaitre en detail les proprietes de l'ecoulement. Le modele est implemente dans le code de simulations par volumes finis de FLUENT. Les resultats des simulations sont compares avec les lois de similitudes decoulant de la theorie des jets d'ecoulements turbulents libres ainsi qu'avec les resultats experimentaux disponibles. L'effet de la difference des masses molaires des constituantes du jet et des constituantes du milieu de dispersion est egalement etudie dans le contexte du comportement d'echelle de la region developpee du jet.

  16. poincare surface analysis of two coupled quintic oscillators in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    Simonovic, N. S. J., 1997. Classical chaos in the hydrogen atom near a metal Surface, J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 30, L613-L618. Wang, S. and Yu, P., 2005. Bifurcation of limit cycles in a quintic Hamiltonian system under a sixth-order perturbation, Chaos, Solitons and Fractals. 26 pp. 1317-1335. POINCARE SURFACE ...

  17. Experimental Investigation on Surface Quality Processed by Self-Excited Oscillation Pulsed Waterjet Peening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiaolong; Kang, Yong; Li, Deng; Wang, Xiaochuan; Zeng, Dongping

    2017-08-25

    High-speed waterjet peening technology has attracted a lot of interest and is now being widely studied due to its great ability to strengthen metal surfaces. In order to further improve the mechanical properties of metals, self-excited oscillation pulsed waterjets (SOPWs) were used for surface peening with an experimental investigation focused on the surface topography and properties. By impinging the aluminum alloy (5052) specimens with SOPWs issuing from an organ-pipe oscillation nozzle, the hardness and roughness at various inlet pressures and stand-off distances were measured and analyzed, as well as the residual stress. Under the condition of optimum stand-off distances, the microscopic appearances of peened specimens obtained by SEM were displayed and analyzed. Results show that self-excited oscillation pulsed waterjet peening (SOPWP) is capable of improving the surface quality. More specifically, compared with an untreated surface, the hardness and residual stress of the peened surfaces were increased by 61.69% and 148%, respectively. There exists an optimal stand-off distance and operating pressure for creating the highest surface quality. SOPWP can produce almost the same enhancement effect as shot peening and lead to a lower surface roughness. Although such an approach is empirical and qualitative in nature, this procedure also generated information of value in guiding future theoretical and experimental work on the application of SOPWP in the industry practice.

  18. On the surface physics affecting solar oscillation frequencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houdek, G.; Trampedach, R.; Aarslev, M. J.

    2017-01-01

    . In this Letter, we address the physical processes of turbulent convection that are predominantly responsible for the frequency differences between standard models and observations, also called 'surface effects'. We compare measured solar frequencies from the Michelson Doppler Imager instrument on the SOlar...... physics in our model computation, we are able to reproduce the observed solar frequencies to less than or similar to 3 mu Hz without the need of any additional ad hoc functional corrections....

  19. Ice growth and interface oscillation of water droplets impinged on a cooling surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Yoshimichi; Ishikawa, Shoji; Kimura, Ryota; Toyohara, Kazumasa

    2017-06-01

    We focused on the attenuation of air-water interface oscillation for impinged water droplets freezing on a cooling surface. We carried out not only experiments but also two-dimensional numerical simulation on the droplets using a Phase-field method and an immersed boundary method. The Reynolds number and Weber number were in the range of 35-129 and 1.6-22, respectively. The experimental and computational results showed that the height of the impinged droplets on the symmetrical axis started to oscillate as a result of the impact of the collision of droplets with the surfaces in all the cases that we investigated. The measured frequency of the oscillations in the case of the adiabatic droplets was equal to the frequency estimated from the equation for the capillary-gravity waves on sessile droplets (Temperton, 2013) [30]. The oscillations converged rapidly in all impinged water droplets that froze on the cooling surface. This is due partly to the growth of ice shells along the air-water interface and partly to decreases in water volume as a result of the ice growth mainly on the cooling surface. In addition, the thermal field was disturbed not only by the latent heat transfer but also by the upward component of recirculating flow induced by the droplet impingement.

  20. Time-resolved PIV of a turbulent boundary layer over a spanwise-oscillating surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouder, Kevin; Morrison, Jonathan

    2012-11-01

    This work reports measurements of a turbulent boundary layer at Reθ ~ 2500, over a resonant spanwise-oscillating surface driven by a linear electromagnetic motor. Time-resolved PIV measurements of velocity are presented and supplemented by hot-wire measurements of velocity and direct drag measurements of friction drag using a drag balance. A maximum of 16% surface friction reduction, as calculated by the diminution of the wall-normal streamwise velocity gradient was obtained. The PIV laser beam was parallel to the plane of the oscillating surface at a height of y+ ~ 15, hence, top-down views of the near-wall turbulence activity and the effect of the surface oscillation on its evolution were obtained. It has been shown that the imposition of a spanwise Stokes-like layer at a non-dimensional period of T+ =Tuτ2 / ν ~ 100 at peak-peak oscillation amplitudes equal to or larger than the mean streak spacing enabled the direct manipulation of the quasi-streamwise near-wall structures and caused fundamental changes in their evolution leading to reductions, for example, in the near-wall values of the mean-square of the streamwise fluctuating velocity component. This work was supported by Qinetiq, Airbus and EPSRC.

  1. The effect of surface roughness on the turbulence structure of a plane wall jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostamy, N.; Bergstrom, D. J.; Sumner, D.; Bugg, J. D.

    2011-08-01

    In this paper, an experimental investigation of the turbulence characteristics of a plane wall jet over smooth and rough surfaces, using laser Doppler anemometry (LDA), is reported. The Reynolds number based on the slot height and exit velocity of the jet was approximately Re = 7500. A 36-grit sheet was used as the rough surface, creating a transitionally rough flow regime (44surface roughness on the Reynolds stress profiles. Comparisons between the present results and other LDA and hot-wire anemometry studies for a smooth surface indicate a similar behavior for the Reynolds stress profiles. However, the magnitudes of the peak values of the Reynolds stress were higher than in most previous studies due to the lower slot Reynolds number. The present results indicate that surface roughness does not appear to significantly modify the Reynolds stress profiles in the outer region of the jet except for a reduction in the level. In contrast, surface roughness modifies both the shape and magnitudes of the Reynolds stress profiles in the inner layer. Due to the much higher friction velocity for a rough surface, the magnitudes of both the streamwise and wall-normal Reynolds stress decrease in the inner region when normalized using inner scales compared to the smooth-wall values.

  2. Experimental demonstration of Martian soil simulant removal from a surface using a pulsed plasma jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ticoş, C. M.; Scurtu, A.; Toader, D.; Banu, N.

    2015-03-01

    A plasma jet produced in a small coaxial plasma gun operated at voltages up to 2 kV and working in pure carbon dioxide (CO2) at a few Torr is used to remove Martian soil simulant from a surface. A capacitor with 0.5 mF is charged up from a high voltage source and supplies the power to the coaxial electrodes. The muzzle of the coaxial plasma gun is placed at a few millimeters near the dusty surface and the jet is fired parallel with the surface. Removal of dust is imaged in real time with a high speed camera. Mars regolith simulant JSC-Mars-1A with particle sizes up to 5 mm is used on different types of surfaces made of aluminium, cotton fabric, polyethylene, cardboard, and phenolic.

  3. Surface acoustic wave opto-mechanical oscillator and frequency comb generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savchenkov, A A; Matsko, A B; Ilchenko, V S; Seidel, D; Maleki, L

    2011-09-01

    We report on realization of an efficient triply resonant coupling between two long lived optical modes and a high frequency surface acoustic wave (SAW) mode of the same monolithic crystalline whispering gallery mode resonator. The coupling results in an opto-mechanical oscillation and generation of a monochromatic SAW. A strong nonlinear interaction of this mechanical mode with other equidistant SAW modes leads to mechanical hyperparametric oscillation and generation of a SAW pulse train and associated frequency comb in the resonator. We visualized the comb by observing the modulation of the light escaping the resonator.

  4. The Surface Velocity Structure of the Florida Current in a Jet Coordinate Frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Matthew R.; Shay, Lynn K.; Johns, William E.

    2017-11-01

    The structure and variability of the Florida Current between 25° and 26°N are investigated using HF radar ocean current measurements to provide the most detailed view of the surface jet to date. A 2-D jet coordinate analysis is performed to define lateral displacements of the jet in time (meandering), and associated structural variations over a 2 year period (2005-2006). In the jet coordinate frame, core speed has a median value of ˜160 cm s-1 at the central latitude of the array (25.4°N), with a standard deviation (STD) of 35 cm s-1. The jet meanders at timescales of 3-30 days, with a STD of 8 km, and a downstream phase speed of ˜80 km d-1. Meandering accounts for ˜45% of eddy kinetic energy computed in a fixed (geographical) reference frame. Core speed, width, and shear undergo the same dominant 3-30 day variability, plus an annual cycle that matches seasonality of alongshore wind stress. Jet transport at 25.4°N exhibits a different seasonality to volume transport at 27°N, most likely driven by input from the Northwest Providence Channel. Core speed correlates inversely with Miami sea level fluctuations such that a 40 cm s-1 deceleration is associated with a ˜10 cm elevation in sea level, although there is no correlation of sea level to jet meandering or width. Such accurate quantification of the Florida Current's variability is critical to understand and forecast future changes in the climate system of the North Atlantic, as well as local impacts on coastal circulation and sea level variability along south Florida's coastline.

  5. Development of an Organosilicon-Based Superhydrophobic/Icephobic Surface Using an Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadollahi, Siavash

    During the past few decades, plasma-based surface treatment methods have gained a lot of interest in various applications such as thin film deposition, surface etching, surface activation and/or cleaning, etc. Generally, in plasma-based surface treatment methods, high-energy plasma-generated species are utilized to modify the surface structure or the chemical composition of a substrate. Unique physical and chemical characteristics of the plasma along with the high controllability of the process makes plasma treatment approaches very attractive in several industries. Plasma-based treatment methods are currently being used or investigated for a number of practical applications, such as adhesion promotion in auto industry, wound management and cancer treatment in biomedical industry, and coating development in aerospace industry. In this study, a two-step procedure is proposed for the development of superhydrophobic/icephobic coatings based on atmospheric-pressure plasma treatment of aluminum substrates using air and nitrogen plasma. The effects of plasma parameters on various surface properties are studied in order to identify the optimum conditions for maximum coating efficiency against icing and wetting. In the first step, the interactions between air or nitrogen plasma and the aluminum surface are studied. It is shown that by reducing jet-to-substrate distance, air plasma treatment, unlike nitrogen plasma treatment, is capable of creating micro-porous micro-roughened structures on the surface, some of which bear a significant resemblance to the features observed in laser ablation of metals with short and ultra-short laser pulses. The formation of such structures in plasma treatment is attributed to a transportation of energy from the jet to the surface over a very short period of time, in the range of picoseconds to microseconds. This energy transfer is shown to occur through a streamer discharge from the rotating arc source in the jet body to a close proximity of

  6. Experimental studies of the stress state of the surface layer of detailat treatment with submerged jets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олександр Олександрович Анділахай

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the instrument and electrical industry was the use of the method of abrasive machining submerged jet, which is the most promising method for abrasive blasting of small parts of low stiffness. This method eliminates the main drawback сhip plants - abrasion channel nozzles or injection nozzles, but the state of the surface layer of machined parts are poorly understood and to make maximum use of the potential to provide the required quality parameters. The study of the state of the surfaces of parts resulting from abrasive blasting traditional methods, dedicated work, which define quality indicators: microhardness depth residual stress, as well as their nature (compressive, tensile. However, known from the literature values correspond to the conditions of surface treatment of parts in a fixed state with an abrasive material through the feed nozzle, and therefore the dynamics of the interaction of a single abrasive grain and significantly different parts. The process in question, and different modes of processing characteristics of the abrasive grains. In the paper, a series of experimental studies designed to assess the state of machined surfaces of parts as a result of abrasion submerged jets. It is established that during the treatment the non-oriented disorderly traces overlay the abrasive grains on the treated surface, thereby forming a tight skin layer thickness of 4 - 5 micrometers. Processed surface gets cold working, as evidenced by the study of microhardness before and after abrasive machining in a free state submerged jets

  7. The small surface oscillations of the gluon tube: The elongated bag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laperashvili, L.V.

    1986-01-01

    We investigate surface oscillations on a bag tube, inside of which is spanned a longitudinal color electric field, and calculate the masses for such vibrations conceived of as quasi-particles on the string. This represents the bag tube for several suggestive values of the parameters in the bag model. Contrary to similar calculations by Vladimirsky, we consider the case where there is a surface tension and we consider higher than zero angular momentum modes. The nonzero angular momentum modes have zero mass in the case of zero surface tension (when higher quantum corrections are ignored). Our considerations point towards the surface tension not being zero. (orig.)

  8. Rabi oscillations of surface plasmon polaritons in graphene-pair arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Qin, Chengzhi; Wang, Bing; Ke, Shaolin; Long, Hua; Wang, Kai; Lu, Peixiang

    2015-11-30

    We investigate the Bloch mode conversion of surface plasmon polaritons in a periodic array of graphene pairs with each consisting of two separated parallel graphene sheets. The employment of graphene pair as a unit cell in the array yields two Bloch modes belonging to different bands. By periodically modulating the permittivity of dielectrics between graphene along the propagation direction, the interband transitions occur and the modes will alternatively couple to each other, similar to traditional Rabi oscillations in quantum systems. The indirect Rabi oscillations can also be observed through introducing transverse modulation momentum. The period of Rabi oscillations can be optimized by taking advantage of the flexible tunability of graphene. The study suggests that the structure have applications in optical switches and mode converters operating on deep-subwavelength scale.

  9. Mechanical Properties of Laminate Materials: From Surface Waves to Bloch Oscillations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liang, Z.; Willatzen, Morten; Christensen, Johan

    2015-01-01

    for designing Bloch oscillations in classical plate structures and show how mechanical Bloch oscillations can be generated in arrays of solid plates when the modal wavelength is gradually reduced. The design recipe describes how Bloch oscillations in classical structures of arbitrary dimensions can be generated......We propose hitherto unexplored and fully analytical insights into laminate elastic materials in a true condensed-matter-physics spirit. Pure mechanical surface waves that decay as evanescent waves from the interface are discussed, and we demonstrate how these designer Scholte waves are controlled......, and we demonstrate this numerically for structures with millimeter and centimeter dimensions in the kilohertz to megahertz range. Analytical predictions agree entirely with full wave simulations showing how elastodynamics can mimic quantum-mechanical condensed-matter phenomena....

  10. The effect of near-surface convection on oscillation frequencies of stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanasoge, Shravan

    2015-08-01

    Measurements of oscillation frequencies of the Sun and stars can provide important independent constraints on their internal structure and dynamics. Seismic models of these oscillations are used to connect structure and rotation of the star to its resonant frequencies, which are then compared with observations, the goal being that of minimizing the difference between the two. Even in the case of the Sun, for which structure models are highly tuned, observed frequencies show systematic deviations from modelled frequencies, a phenomenon referred to as the “surface term”. The dominant source of this systematic effect is thought to be vigorous near-surface convection, which is not well accounted for in both stellar modelling and mode-oscillation physics. Here we bring to bear the method of homogenization, applicable in the asymptotic limit of large wavelength (in comparison to the correlation scale of convection), to characterize the effect of small-scale surface convection on resonant-mode frequencies in the Sun. We show that the full oscillation equations, in the presence of temporally stationary 3-D flows, can be reduced to an effective “quiet-Sun” wave equation with altered sound speed, Brünt-Väisäla frequency and Lamb frequency. We derive the modified wave equation and relations for the appropriate averaging of three dimensional flows and thermal quantities to obtain the properties of this effective medium. Using flows obtained from three dimensional numerical simulations of near-surface convection, we quantify their effect on solar oscillation frequencies, and find that they are shifted systematically and substantially. We argue therefore that consistent interpretations of resonant frequencies must include modifications to the wave equation that effectively capture the impact of vigorous hydrodynamic convection.

  11. Influences of the cold atmospheric plasma jet treatment on the properties of the demineralized dentin surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoming, ZHU; Heng, GUO; Jianfeng, ZHOU; Xiaofei, ZHANG; Jian, CHEN; Jing, LI; Heping, LI; Jianguo, TAN

    2018-04-01

    Improvement of the bonding strength and durability between the dentin surface and the composite resin is a challenging job in dentistry. In this paper, a radio-frequency atmospheric-pressure glow discharge (RF-APGD) plasma jet is employed for the treatment of the acid-etched dentin surfaces used for the composite restoration. The properties of the plasma treated dentin surfaces and the resin-dentin interfaces are analyzed using the x-ray photoemission spectroscopy, contact angle goniometer, scanning electron microscope and microtensile tester. The experimental results show that, due to the abundant chemically reactive species existing in the RF-APGD plasma jet under a stable and low energy input operating mode, the contact angle of the plasma-treated dentin surfaces decreases to a stable level with the increase of the atomic percentage of oxygen in the specimens; the formation of the long resin tags in the scattered clusters and the hybrid layers at the resin-dentin interfaces significantly improve the bonding strength and durability. These results indicate that the RF-APGD plasma jet is an effective tool for modifying the chemical properties of the dentin surfaces, and for improving the immediate bonding strength and the durability of the resin-dentin bonding in dentistry.

  12. Surface Decontamination of Chemical Agent Surrogates Using an Atmospheric Pressure Air Flow Plasma Jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhanguo; Li, Ying; Cao, Peng; Zhao, Hongjie

    2013-07-01

    An atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma jet generator using air flow as the feedstock gas was applied to decontaminate the chemical agent surrogates on the surface of aluminum, stainless steel or iron plate painted with alkyd or PVC. The experimental results of material decontamination show that the residual chemical agent on the material is lower than the permissible value of the National Military Standard of China. In order to test the corrosion effect of the plasma jet on different material surfaces in the decontamination process, corrosion tests for the materials of polymethyl methacrylate, neoprene, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyethylene (PE), phenolic resin, iron plate painted with alkyd, stainless steel, aluminum, etc. were carried out, and relevant parameters were examined, including etiolation index, chromatism, loss of gloss, corrosion form, etc. The results show that the plasma jet is slightly corrosive for part of the materials, but their performances are not affected. A portable calculator, computer display, mainboard, circuit board of radiogram, and a hygrometer could work normally after being treated by the plasma jet.

  13. Surface Decontamination of Chemical Agent Surrogates Using an Atmospheric Pressure Air Flow Plasma Jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhanguo; Li Ying; Cao Peng; Zhao Hongjie

    2013-01-01

    An atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma jet generator using air flow as the feedstock gas was applied to decontaminate the chemical agent surrogates on the surface of aluminum, stainless steel or iron plate painted with alkyd or PVC. The experimental results of material decontamination show that the residual chemical agent on the material is lower than the permissible value of the National Military Standard of China. In order to test the corrosion effect of the plasma jet on different material surfaces in the decontamination process, corrosion tests for the materials of polymethyl methacrylate, neoprene, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyethylene (PE), phenolic resin, iron plate painted with alkyd, stainless steel, aluminum, etc. were carried out, and relevant parameters were examined, including etiolation index, chromatism, loss of gloss, corrosion form, etc. The results show that the plasma jet is slightly corrosive for part of the materials, but their performances are not affected. A portable calculator, computer display, mainboard, circuit board of radiogram, and a hygrometer could work normally after being treated by the plasma jet

  14. Thermal analysis of protruding surfaces in the JET divertor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Corre, Y.; Bunting, P.; Coenen, J.W.; Gaspar, J.; Iglesias, D.; Matthews, G.F.; Balboa, I.; Coffey, I.; Dejarnac, Renaud; Firdaouss, M.; Gauthier, E.; Jachmich, S.; Krieger, K.; Pitts, R.A.; Rack, M.; Silburn, S.A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 6 (2017), č. článku 066009. ISSN 0029-5515 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 633053 - EUROfusion Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : IR thermography * heat flux * tungsten melting Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 3.307, year: 2016 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1741-4326/aa687e/meta

  15. Coupled slow and fast surface dynamics in an electrocatalytic oscillator: Model and simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, Melke A.; Nagao, Raphael; Eiswirth, Markus; Varela, Hamilton

    2014-01-01

    The co-existence of disparate time scales is pervasive in many systems. In particular for surface reactions, it has been shown that the long-term evolution of the core oscillator is decisively influenced by slow surface changes, such as progressing deactivation. Here we present an in-depth numerical investigation of the coupled slow and fast surface dynamics in an electrocatalytic oscillator. The model consists of four nonlinear coupled ordinary differential equations, investigated over a wide parameter range. Besides the conventional bifurcation analysis, the system was studied by means of high-resolution period and Lyapunov diagrams. It was observed that the bifurcation diagram changes considerably as the irreversible surface poisoning evolves, and the oscillatory region shrinks. The qualitative dynamics changes accordingly and the chaotic oscillations are dramatically suppressed. Nevertheless, periodic cascades are preserved in a confined region of the resistance vs. voltage diagram. Numerical results are compared to experiments published earlier and the latter reinterpreted. Finally, the comprehensive description of the time-evolution in the period and Lyapunov diagrams suggests further experimental studies correlating the evolution of the system's dynamics with changes of the catalyst structure

  16. Coupled slow and fast surface dynamics in an electrocatalytic oscillator: Model and simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Melke A.; Nagao, Raphael; Eiswirth, Markus; Varela, Hamilton

    2014-12-01

    The co-existence of disparate time scales is pervasive in many systems. In particular for surface reactions, it has been shown that the long-term evolution of the core oscillator is decisively influenced by slow surface changes, such as progressing deactivation. Here we present an in-depth numerical investigation of the coupled slow and fast surface dynamics in an electrocatalytic oscillator. The model consists of four nonlinear coupled ordinary differential equations, investigated over a wide parameter range. Besides the conventional bifurcation analysis, the system was studied by means of high-resolution period and Lyapunov diagrams. It was observed that the bifurcation diagram changes considerably as the irreversible surface poisoning evolves, and the oscillatory region shrinks. The qualitative dynamics changes accordingly and the chaotic oscillations are dramatically suppressed. Nevertheless, periodic cascades are preserved in a confined region of the resistance vs. voltage diagram. Numerical results are compared to experiments published earlier and the latter reinterpreted. Finally, the comprehensive description of the time-evolution in the period and Lyapunov diagrams suggests further experimental studies correlating the evolution of the system's dynamics with changes of the catalyst structure.

  17. Effect of driven frequency on flow and heat transfer of an impinging synthetic air jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yao-Hsien; Tsai, Shu-Yao; Wang, Chi-Chuan

    2015-01-01

    In this study, impingement heat transfer from a synthetic air jet on a heated surface was experimentally studied. A synthetic jet provides a high heat transfer coefficient and a compact design, which is suitable for the thermal management of electronic devices. The synthetic jet is produced by the high frequency oscillating motion (200–800 Hz) of a piezoelectric actuator, and a jet Reynolds number ranging from 500 to 1300. The instantaneous and time-averaged velocity profiles of the synthetic jet issuing from the jet hole were measured using a hot wire anemometer. The jet hole diameter was 3 mm and the jet-to-surface spacing (Z/d) ranged from 0 to 25. The excitation frequency effect, jet-to-surface spacing, and jet Reynolds number were tested. The heat transfer enhancement of the synthetic jet was at least double the natural convective heat transfer. At a small jet-to-surface spacing, the warm air circulates inside small spaces, jeopardizing heat transfer. An optimal driven frequency of 600 Hz in this study provided the highest jet flow rates and heat transfer enhancement. - Highlights: • Synthetic air jet flow produced by the piezoelectric actuator operated in 200–800 Hz is reported. • Best performance is obtained at an optimal operating frequency of 600 Hz. • The best jet-to-surface spacing is 15. • Higher driven frequency pushes flow downstream and leads to higher heat transfer coefficient

  18. Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma Jet Surface Treatment for Use in Improving Adhesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuettner, Lindsey Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-06

    Atmospheric-pressure plasma jets (APPJs) are a method of plasma treatment that plays an important role in material processing and modifying surface properties of materials, especially polymers. Gas plasmas react with polymer surfaces in numerous ways such as oxidation, radical formation, degradation, and promotion of cross-linking. Because of this, gas and plasma conditions can be explored for chosen processes to maximize desired properties. The purpose of this study is to investigate plasma parameters in order to modify surface properties for improved adhesion between aluminum and epoxy substrates using two types of adhesives. The background, results to date, and future work will be discussed.

  19. THz wave parametric oscillator with a surface-emitted ring-cavity configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhen; Wang, Yuye; Xu, Degang; Tang, Longhuang; Xu, Wentao; Duan, Pan; Yan, Chao; Yao, Jianquan

    2016-11-01

    A surface-emitted ring-cavity terahertz (THz) wave parametric oscillator has been demonstrated for high-energy THz output and fast frequency tuning. Through the special optical design with a Galvano optical scanner and four-mirror ring-cavity structure, a maximum THz output of 12.9 μJ/pulse is achieved at 1.359 THz under the pump pulse energy of 172.8 mJ with the repetition rate of 10 Hz. A further research on the performance of the SE ring-cavity TPO has done to explore more characteristics of THz output. The THz pulse instability and the influence of cavity loss has analyzed. Moreover, the pump depletion rate of the ring-cavity configuration is much lower than the conventional surface-emitted terahertz wave parametric oscillator at the same experimental conditions.

  20. High-energy terahertz wave parametric oscillator with a surface-emitted ring-cavity configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhen; Wang, Yuye; Xu, Degang; Xu, Wentao; Duan, Pan; Yan, Chao; Tang, Longhuang; Yao, Jianquan

    2016-05-15

    A surface-emitted ring-cavity terahertz (THz) wave parametric oscillator has been demonstrated for high-energy THz output and fast frequency tuning in a wide frequency range. Through the special optical design with a galvano-optical scanner and four-mirror ring-cavity structure, the maximum THz wave output energy of 12.9 μJ/pulse is achieved at 1.359 THz under the pump energy of 172.8 mJ. The fast THz frequency tuning in the range of 0.7-2.8 THz can be accessed with the step response of 600 μs. Moreover, the maximum THz wave output energy from this configuration is 3.29 times as large as that obtained from the conventional surface-emitted THz wave parametric oscillator with the same experimental conditions.

  1. Measurement of Fine Grain Copper Surface Texture Created by Abrasive Water Jet Cutting

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlaváček, Petr; Valíček, Jan; Hloch, S.; Greger, M.; Foldyna, Josef; Ivandič, Ž.; Sitek, Libor; Kušnerová, M.; Zeleňák, M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 4 (2009), s. 273-279 ISSN 0562-1887 Grant - others:GAČR(CZ) GA101/09/0650 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : Equal channel angular pressing * copper * abrasive water jet cutting * fine grain size * surface texture Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools Impact factor: 0.048, year: 2009 http://apps.isiknowledge.com/full_record.do?product

  2. Low-speed aerodynamics of the upper-surface blown jet flap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. L., Jr.; Phelps, A. E., III

    1974-01-01

    Review of the results of recent wind-tunnel investigations conducted to provide fundamental aerodynamic information on the upper-surface blown jet-flap concept incorporating high-bypass-ratio turbofan engines. The results of the investigations have shown the concept to have aerodynamic performance generally comparable to that of other externally blown high-lift systems. Some of the more critical problem areas associated with this concept are covered, and solutions which have been found for these problems are discussed.

  3. Study of the Effect of Material Machinability on Quality of Surface Created by Abrasive Water Jet

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klichová, Dagmar; Klich, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 149, č. 149 (2016), s. 177-182 E-ISSN 1877-7058. [International Conference on Manufacturing Engineering and Materials, ICMEM 2016. Nový Smokovec, 06.06.2016-10.06.2016] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1406 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : machinability * surface roughness * abrasive water jet * study of quality * aluminium alloy * optical profilometer Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877705816311614

  4. The research into the quality of rock surfaces obtained by abrasive water jet cutting

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Młynarczuk, M.; Skiba, M.; Sitek, Libor; Hlaváček, Petr; Kožušníková, Alena

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 4 (2014), s. 925-940 ISSN 0860-7001 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082; GA ČR GAP104/12/1988 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : water jet * rock cutting * surface quality * roughness * variogram Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools Impact factor: 0.608, year: 2013 http:// mining .archives.pl

  5. Magnetohydrodynamic simulation study of plasma jets and plasma-surface contact in coaxial plasma accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Vivek; Raja, Laxminarayan L.

    2017-06-01

    Recent experiments by Loebner et al. [IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 44, 1534 (2016)] studied the effect of a hypervelocity jet emanating from a coaxial plasma accelerator incident on target surfaces in an effort to mimic the transient loading created during edge localized mode disruption events in fusion plasmas. In this paper, we present a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) numerical model to simulate plasma jet formation and plasma-surface contact in this coaxial plasma accelerator experiment. The MHD system of equations is spatially discretized using a cell-centered finite volume formulation. The temporal discretization is performed using a fully implicit backward Euler scheme and the resultant stiff system of nonlinear equations is solved using the Newton method. The numerical model is employed to obtain some key insights into the physical processes responsible for the generation of extreme stagnation conditions on the target surfaces. Simulations of the plume (without the target plate) are performed to isolate and study phenomena such as the magnetic pinch effect that is responsible for launching pressure pulses into the jet free stream. The simulations also yield insights into the incipient conditions responsible for producing the pinch, such as the formation of conductive channels. The jet-target impact studies indicate the existence of two distinct stages involved in the plasma-surface interaction. A fast transient stage characterized by a thin normal shock transitions into a pseudo-steady stage that exhibits an extended oblique shock structure. A quadratic scaling of the pinch and stagnation conditions with the total current discharged between the electrodes is in qualitative agreement with the results obtained in the experiments. This also illustrates the dominant contribution of the magnetic pressure term in determining the magnitude of the quantities of interest.

  6. Low-speed wind tunnel investigation of a semispan STOL jet transport wing body with an upper surface blown jet flap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, A. E., III; Letko, W.; Henderson, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    An investigation of the static longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a semispan STOL jet transport wing-body with an upper-surface blown jet flap for lift augmentation was conducted in a low-speed wind tunnel having a 12-ft octagonal test section. The semispan swept wing had an aspect ratio of 3.92 (7.84 for the full span) and had two simulated turbofan engines mounted ahead of and above the wing in a siamese pod equipped with an exhaust deflector. The purpose of the deflector was to spread the engine exhaust into a jet sheet attached to the upper surface of the wing so that it would turn downward over the flap and provide lift augmentation. The wing also had optional boundary-layer control provided by air blowing through a thin slot over a full-span plain trailing-edge flap.

  7. Buoyancy effects laminar slot jet impinging on a surface with constant heat flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shokouhmand, H.; Esfahanian, V.; Masoodi, R.

    2004-01-01

    The two-dimensional laminar air jet issuing from a nozzle of half which terminates at height above a flat plate normal to the jet is numerically on the flow and thermal structure of the region near impingement. The impinging surface is maintained at a constant heat flux condition. The full Navier-Stocks and energy equations are solved by a finite difference method to evaluate the velocity profiles and temperature distribution. The governing parameters and their ranges are: Reynolds number Re, 10-50, Grashof number Gr, 0-50, Richardson number Ri=Gr/ Re 2 , Non dimensional nozzle height H,2-3. Results of the free streamline, local friction factor and heat transfer coefficient are graphically presented. It is found that enhancement of the heat transfer rate is substantial for high Richardson number conditions. Although the laminar jet impingement for isothermal condition has been already studied, however the constant heat flux has not been studied enough. the present paper will analyze a low velocity air jet, Which can be used for cooling of a simulated electronics package

  8. Investigations on Surface Milling of Hardened AISI 4140 Steel with Pulse Jet MQL Applicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Mahmood Al; Mia, Mozammel; Dhar, Nikhil Ranjan

    2016-06-01

    In this article, an experimental investigation was performed in milling hardened AISI 4140 steel of hardness 40 HRC. The machining was performed in both dry and minimal quantity lubricant (MQL) conditions, as part of neat machining, to make a strong comparison of the undertaken machining environments. The MQL was impinged int the form of pulse jet, by using the specially developed pulse-jet-attachment, to ensure that the cutting fluid can be applied in different timed pulses and quantities at critical zones. The tool wear, cutting force and surface roughness were taken as the quality responses while cutting speed, table feed rate and flow rate of the pulse were considered as influential factors. The depth of cut was kept constant at 1.50 mm because of its less significant effects and the straight oil was adopted as cutting fluid in pulse-jet-MQL. The effects of different factors, on the quality responses, are analyzed using ANOVA. It is observed that MQL applicator system exhibits overall better performance when compared to dry milling by reducing surface roughness, cutting force and prolonging tool life but a flow rate of 150 ml/h has tremendous effects on the responses. This investigation and afterward results are expected to aid the industrial practitioner and researcher to adopt the pulse-MQL in high speed milling to prolong tool life, reduce tool wear, diminish cutting force generation and promote better surface finish.

  9. Specific grinding energy and surface roughness of nanoparticle jet minimum quantity lubrication in grinding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Dongkun

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles with the anti-wear and friction reducing features were applied as cooling lubricant in the grinding fluid. Dry grinding, flood grinding, minimal quantity of lubrication (MQL, and nanoparticle jet MQL were used in the grinding experiments. The specific grinding energy of dry grinding, flood grinding and MQL were 84, 29.8, 45.5 J/mm3, respectively. The specific grinding energy significantly decreased to 32.7 J/mm3 in nanoparticle MQL. Compared with dry grinding, the surface roughness values of flood grinding, MQL, and nanoparticle jet MQL were significantly reduced with the surface topography profile values reduced by 11%, 2.5%, and 10%, respectively, and the ten point height of microcosmic unflatness values reduced by 1.5%, 0.5%, and 1.3%, respectively. These results verified the satisfactory lubrication effects of nanoparticle MQL. MoS2, carbon nanotube (CNT, and ZrO2 nanoparticles were also added in the grinding fluid of nanoparticle jet MQL to analyze their grinding surface lubrication effects. The specific grinding energy of MoS2 nanoparticle was only 32.7 J/mm3, which was 8.22% and 10.39% lower than those of the other two nanoparticles. Moreover, the surface roughness of workpiece was also smaller with MoS2 nanoparticle, which indicated its remarkable lubrication effects. Furthermore, the role of MoS2 particles in the grinding surface lubrication at different nanoparticle volume concentrations was analyzed. MoS2 volume concentrations of 1%, 2%, and 3% were used. Experimental results revealed that the specific grinding energy and the workpiece surface roughness initially increased and then decreased as MoS2 nanoparticle volume concentration increased. Satisfactory grinding surface lubrication effects were obtained with 2% MoS2 nanoparticle volume concentration.

  10. Low temperature atmospheric microplasma jet array for uniform treatment of polymer surface for flexible electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Wang, Xiaolin; Yang, Bin; Chen, Xiang; Yang, Chunsheng; Liu, Jingquan

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, the uniformity of polymer film etching by an atmospheric pressure He/O2 microplasma jet array (μPJA) is first investigated with different applied voltage. Plasma characteristics of μPJA were recorded by optical discharge images. Morphologies and chemical compositions of polymer film etched by μPJA were analyzed by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). By increasing the applied voltage from 8.5 kV to 16.4 kV, the non-uniformity of the luminous intensity of the plasma jets increases. It is interesting that the plasma treated regions are actually composed of an etched region and modification region, with distinct morphologies and chemical compositions. The diameters of the etched parylene-C film show the increase of non-uniformity with higher applied voltage. SEM results show that the non-uniformity of surface morphologies of both the modification regions and etched regions increases with the increase of applied voltage. EDS and XPS results also present the significant effect of higher applied voltage on the non-uniformity of surface chemical compositions of both modification and etched regions. The Coulomb interaction of the streamer heads and the hydrodynamic interaction between the plasma jets and the surrounding air are considered to be responsible for this phenomenon. The results shown in this work can help improve the processing quality of polymer film etched by an atmospheric pressure microplasma jet array and two applications are demonstrated to illustrate the uniform downstream surface treatment.

  11. Overlayer structure of subphthalocyanine derivative deposited on Au (111) surface by a spray-jet technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Hitoshi; Yamada, Toshiki; Miki, Hideki; Mashiko, Shinro

    2006-01-01

    A new spray-jet technique was used to deposit subphthalocyanine derivative (chloro[tri-tert-butyl subphthalocyaninato]boron (TBSubPc)) on Au (111) surface in an ultra-high vacuum (UHV) chamber. The deposited molecular overlayer was observed with UHV scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) at 77 K. The STM images showed that TBSubPc molecules formed a stripe pattern with regular spacing, indicating that they preferentially adsorbed along the herringbone structure of the Au (111) surface. This behavior was very similar to that of TBSubPc molecules deposited by thermal evaporation

  12. A Modular Approach to Model Oscillating Control Surfaces Using Navier Stokes Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guruswamy, Guru P.; Lee, Henry

    2014-01-01

    The use of active controls for rotorcraft is becoming more important for modern aerospace configurations. Efforts to reduce the vibrations of helicopter blades with use of active-controls are in progress. Modeling oscillating control surfaces using the linear aerodynamics theory is well established. However, higher-fidelity methods are needed to account for nonlinear effects, such as those that occur in transonic flow. The aeroelastic responses of a wing with an oscillating control surface, computed using the transonic small perturbation (TSP) theory, have been shown to cause important transonic flow effects such as a reversal of control surface effectiveness that occurs as the shock wave crosses the hinge line. In order to account for flow complexities such as blade-vortex interactions of rotor blades higher-fidelity methods based on the Navier-Stokes equations are used. Reference 6 presents a procedure that uses the Navier-Stokes equations with moving-sheared grids and demonstrates up to 8 degrees of control-surface amplitude, using a single grid. Later, this procedure was extended to accommodate larger amplitudes, based on sliding grid zones. The sheared grid method implemented in EulerlNavier-Stokes-based aeroelastic code ENS AERO was successfully applied to active control design by industry. Recently there are several papers that present results for oscillating control surface using Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. References 9 and 10 report 2-D cases by filling gaps with overset grids. Reference 9 compares integrated forces with the experiment at low oscillating frequencies whereas Ref. 10 reports parametric studies but with no validation. Reference II reports results for a 3D case by modeling the gap region with a deformed grid and compares force results with the experiment only at the mid-span of flap. In Ref. II grid is deformed to match the control surface deflections at the section where the measurements are made. However, there is no

  13. Energetics and optimum motion of oscillating lifting surfaces of finite span

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, A. R.; Widnall, S. E.

    1986-01-01

    In certain modes of animal propulsion in nature, such as bird flight and fish swimming, the efficiency compared to man-made vehicles is very high. In such cases, wing and tail motions are typically associated with relatively high Reynolds numbers, where viscous effects are confined to a thin boundary layer at the surface and a thin trailing wake. The propulsive forces, which are generated primarily by the inertial forces, can be calculated from potential-flow theory using linearized unsteady-wing theory (for small-amplitude oscillations). In the present study, a recently developed linearized, low-frequency, unsteady lifting-line theory is employed to calculate the (sectional and total) energetic quantities and optimum motion of an oscillating wing of finite span.

  14. Roll Damping Derivatives from Generalized Lifting-Surface Theory and Wind Tunnel Forced-Oscillation Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pototzky, Anthony S; Murphy, Patrick C.

    2014-01-01

    Improving aerodynamic models for adverse loss-of-control conditions in flight is an area being researched under the NASA Aviation Safety Program. Aerodynamic models appropriate for loss of control conditions require a more general mathematical representation to predict nonlinear unsteady behaviors. As more general aerodynamic models are studied that include nonlinear higher order effects, the possibility of measurements that confound aerodynamic and structural responses are probable. In this study an initial step is taken to look at including structural flexibility in analysis of rigid-body forced-oscillation testing that accounts for dynamic rig, sting and balance flexibility. Because of the significant testing required and associated costs in a general study, it makes sense to capitalize on low cost analytical methods where possible, especially where structural flexibility can be accounted for by a low cost method. This paper provides an initial look at using linear lifting surface theory applied to rigid-body aircraft roll forced-oscillation tests.

  15. Evaluation of surface integrity of WEDM processed inconel 718 for jet engine application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Priyaranjan; Tripathy, Ashis; Sahoo, Narayan

    2018-03-01

    A unique superalloy, Inconel 718 has been serving for aerospace industries since last two decades. Due to its attractive properties such as high strength at elevated temperature, improved corrosion and oxidation resistance, it is widely employed in the manufacturing of jet engine components. These components require complex shape without affecting the parent material properties. Traditional machining methods seem to be ineffective to fulfil the demand of aircraft industries. Therefore, an advanced feature of wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) has been utilized to improve the surface features of the jet engine components. With the help of trim-offset technology, it became possible to achieve considerable amount of residual stresses, lower peak to valley height, reduced density of craters and micro globules, minimum hardness alteration and negligible recast layer formation.

  16. Cracks and nanodroplets produced on tungsten surface samples by dense plasma jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ticoş, C. M.; Galaţanu, M.; Galaţanu, A.; Luculescu, C.; Scurtu, A.; Udrea, N.; Ticoş, D.; Dumitru, M.

    2018-03-01

    Small samples of 12.5 mm in diameter made from pure tungsten were exposed to a dense plasma jet produced by a coaxial plasma gun operated at 2 kJ. The surface of the samples was analyzed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) before and after applying consecutive plasma shots. Cracks and craters were produced in the surface due to surface tensions during plasma heating. Nanodroplets and micron size droplets could be observed on the samples surface. An energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis revealed that the composition of these droplets coincided with that of the gun electrode material. Four types of samples were prepared by spark plasma sintering from powders with the average particle size ranging from 70 nanometers up to 80 μm. The plasma power load to the sample surface was estimated to be ≈4.7 MJ m-2 s-1/2 per shot. The electron temperature and density in the plasma jet had peak values 17 eV and 1.6 × 1022 m-3, respectively.

  17. Measurement of free-surface of liquid metal lithium jet for IFMIF target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiroo Kondo; Nobuo Yamaoka; Takuji Kanemura; Seiji Miyamoto; Hiroshi Horiike; Mizuho Ida; Hiroo Nakamura; Izuru Matsushita; Takeo Muroga

    2006-01-01

    This reports an experimental study on flow characteristics of a lithium target flow of International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF). Surface shapes of the target were tried to measure by pattern projection method that is a three dimensional image measurement method. Irregularity of the surface shape caused by surface wakes was successfully measured by the method. IFMIF liquid lithium target is formed a flat plane jet of 25 mm in depth and 260 mm in width, and flows in a flow velocity range of 10 to 20 m/s. Aim of this study is to develop measurement techniques for monitoring of the target when IFMIF is in operation. The lithium target flow is high speed jet and the temperature high is more than 500 K. Also, light is not transmitted into liquid metal lithium. Therefore, almost of all flow measurement techniques developed for water are not used for lithium flow. In this study, pattern projection method was employed to measure the surface irregularity of the target. In the method, stripe patterns are projected onto the flow surface. The projected patterns are deformed according the surface shape. Three-dimensional surface shape is measured by analyzing the deformed patterns recorded using a CCD camera. The method uses the property that lithium dose not transmit visible lights. The experiments were carried out using a lithium loop at Osaka University. In this facility, lithium plane jet of 10 mm in depth and 70 mm width is obtained in the velocity range of less than 15 m/s using a two contractions nozzle. The pattern projection method was used to measure the amplitude of surface irregularity caused by surface wakes. The surface wakes were generated from small damaged at the nozzle edge caused by erosion, and those were successfully measured by the method. The measurement results showed the amplitude of the surface wakes were approximately equal to a size of damage of a nozzle. The amplitude was decreasing with distance to down stream and with decreasing

  18. High-resolution hot-film measurement of surface heat flux to an impinging jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donovan, T. S.; Persoons, T.; Murray, D. B.

    2011-10-01

    To investigate the complex coupling between surface heat transfer and local fluid velocity in convective heat transfer, advanced techniques are required to measure the surface heat flux at high spatial and temporal resolution. Several established flow velocity techniques such as laser Doppler anemometry, particle image velocimetry and hot wire anemometry can measure fluid velocities at high spatial resolution (µm) and have a high-frequency response (up to 100 kHz) characteristic. Equivalent advanced surface heat transfer measurement techniques, however, are not available; even the latest advances in high speed thermal imaging do not offer equivalent data capture rates. The current research presents a method of measuring point surface heat flux with a hot film that is flush mounted on a heated flat surface. The film works in conjunction with a constant temperature anemometer which has a bandwidth of 100 kHz. The bandwidth of this technique therefore is likely to be in excess of more established surface heat flux measurement techniques. Although the frequency response of the sensor is not reported here, it is expected to be significantly less than 100 kHz due to its physical size and capacitance. To demonstrate the efficacy of the technique, a cooling impinging air jet is directed at the heated surface, and the power required to maintain the hot-film temperature is related to the local heat flux to the fluid air flow. The technique is validated experimentally using a more established surface heat flux measurement technique. The thermal performance of the sensor is also investigated numerically. It has been shown that, with some limitations, the measurement technique accurately measures the surface heat transfer to an impinging air jet with improved spatial resolution for a wide range of experimental parameters.

  19. Test Cases for the Benchmark Active Controls: Spoiler and Control Surface Oscillations and Flutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Robert M.; Scott, Robert C.; Wieseman, Carol D.

    2000-01-01

    As a portion of the Benchmark Models Program at NASA Langley, a simple generic model was developed for active controls research and was called BACT for Benchmark Active Controls Technology model. This model was based on the previously-tested Benchmark Models rectangular wing with the NACA 0012 airfoil section that was mounted on the Pitch and Plunge Apparatus (PAPA) for flutter testing. The BACT model had an upper surface spoiler, a lower surface spoiler, and a trailing edge control surface for use in flutter suppression and dynamic response excitation. Previous experience with flutter suppression indicated a need for measured control surface aerodynamics for accurate control law design. Three different types of flutter instability boundaries had also been determined for the NACA 0012/PAPA model, a classical flutter boundary, a transonic stall flutter boundary at angle of attack, and a plunge instability near M = 0.9. Therefore an extensive set of steady and control surface oscillation data was generated spanning the range of the three types of instabilities. This information was subsequently used to design control laws to suppress each flutter instability. There have been three tests of the BACT model. The objective of the first test, TDT Test 485, was to generate a data set of steady and unsteady control surface effectiveness data, and to determine the open loop dynamic characteristics of the control systems including the actuators. Unsteady pressures, loads, and transfer functions were measured. The other two tests, TDT Test 502 and TDT Test 5 18, were primarily oriented towards active controls research, but some data supplementary to the first test were obtained. Dynamic response of the flexible system to control surface excitation and open loop flutter characteristics were determined during Test 502. Loads were not measured during the last two tests. During these tests, a database of over 3000 data sets was obtained. A reasonably extensive subset of the data

  20. Fault-tolerant control with mixed aerodynamic surfaces and RCS jets for hypersonic reentry vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing He

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a fault-tolerant strategy for hypersonic reentry vehicles with mixed aerodynamic surfaces and reaction control systems (RCS under external disturbances and subject to actuator faults. Aerodynamic surfaces are treated as the primary actuator in normal situations, and they are driven by a continuous quadratic programming (QP allocator to generate torque commanded by a nonlinear adaptive feedback control law. When aerodynamic surfaces encounter faults, they may not be able to provide sufficient torque as commanded, and RCS jets are activated to augment the aerodynamic surfaces to compensate for insufficient torque. Partial loss of effectiveness and stuck faults are considered in this paper, and observers are designed to detect and identify the faults. Based on the fault identification results, an RCS control allocator using integer linear programming (ILP techniques is designed to determine the optimal combination of activated RCS jets. By treating the RCS control allocator as a quantization element, closed-loop stability with both continuous and quantized inputs is analyzed. Simulation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  1. Numerical Investigation on Jet Impingement Behaviors Affected by a Vertically Rotating Disk Suspended Close to the Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Bo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A simplified physical model is built up to study the swirl flow effect induced by a rotating disk on the jet impingement behaviors, which is adopted to simulate the grinding process. To solve the definition problem of the interface between a rotating disk and a stationary plate in the computational simulation, a tiny gap is set between the rotating disk and the stationary plate. The results show that the rotating disk suspended above the surface adds more complexity to the flow field of jet impingement on a stationary plate. The swirling flow around the rotating disk obstructs the impinging jet flow to penetrate into the interfacial contact zone and forces the wall jet across the rotating disk to flow along transverse directions. For the given jet impinging velocity and nozzle orientation, as the disk rotational speed increases, the effect of the rotating disk on the impinging jet flow behaves more significantly. The impinging jet with small inject velocity is difficult to penetrate through the interfacial contact zone to follow by the disk swirl flows. For smaller jet impinging distance or larger oblique angle, the flow recirculation away from the interfacial contact zone becomes stronger.

  2. An experimental study of two-phase multiple jet cooling on finned surfaces using a dielectric fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chien, Liang-Han; Chang, Chin-Yao

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, a multiple jet-cooling device for electronic components was investigated, using FC-72 as the working fluid. The nozzle plate, located 5 mm above the 12 x 12 mm 2 test surface, had 5 or 9 pores of 0.24 mm in diameter. The test surfaces included a smooth surface, two pin-finned surfaces and two straight-finned surfaces of 400 or 800 μm fin height, 200 or 400 μm fin thickness and gap width. The results showed that the heat transfer performance increased with increasing flow rate or increasing surface area enhancement ratio. The pin-finned surface of 800 μm fin height, 200 μm fin thickness and gap width yielded the best performance, which was about 250% greater than the smooth surface at 150 ml/min. Correlations of two-phase multiple jets, cooling in free and submerged states, are proposed based on the data at 50 o C saturation temperature, in the range of Re = 1655-8960, Bo = 0.024-0.389, area enhancement ratio = 1.0-5.32, jet spacing-diameter ratio (S/d) = 13.7 and 20.6. The root mean square deviation of the prediction is 11.96% for the free jet data, and 9.08% for the submerged jet data. Thermal resistance of the best surface varied between 0.1 and 0.13 K/W at 150 ml/min flow rate in the range of 60-120 W heat input. - Highlights: → We investigated the performance of two-phase FC-72 multiple jet-cooling device. → Smaller jet spacing, larger fin height/width ratio resulted in greater cooling rate. → The pin-fins of 0.8 mm fin height, 0.2 mm thickness yielded the best performance. → The criterion of the submerged jet and free jet is obtained. → Correlations of two-phase jets, cooling in free and submerged states, are provided.

  3. Small leak detection by measuring surface oscillation during sodium-water reaction in steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nei, Hiromichi; Hori, Masao

    1977-01-01

    Small leak sodium-water reaction tests were conducted to develop various kinds of leak detectors for the sodium-heated steam generator in FBR. The super-heated steam was injected into sodium in a reaction vessel having a sodium free surface, simulating the steam generator. The level gauge in the reaction vessel generated the most reliable signal among detectors, as long as the leak rates were relatively high. The level gauge signal was estimated to be the sodium surface oscillation caused by hydrogen bubbles produced in sodium-water reaction. Experimental correlation was derived, predicting the amplitude as a function of leak rate, hydrogen dissolution ratio, bubble rise velocity and other parameters concerned, assuming that the surface oscillation is in proportion to the gas hold-up. The noise amplitude under normal operation without water leak was increased with sodium flow rate and found to be well correlated with Froud number. These two correlations predict that a water leak in a ''MONJU'' class (300 MWe) steam generator could possibly be detected by level gauges at a leak rate above 2 g/sec. (auth.)

  4. Fermi Surface with Dirac Fermions in CaFeAsF Determined via Quantum Oscillation Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terashima, Taichi; Hirose, Hishiro T.; Graf, David; Ma, Yonghui; Mu, Gang; Hu, Tao; Suzuki, Katsuhiro; Uji, Shinya; Ikeda, Hiroaki

    2018-02-01

    Despite the fact that 1111-type iron arsenides hold the record transition temperature of iron-based superconductors, their electronic structures have not been studied much because of the lack of high-quality single crystals. In this study, we comprehensively determine the Fermi surface in the antiferromagnetic state of CaFeAsF, a 1111 iron-arsenide parent compound, by performing quantum oscillation measurements and band-structure calculations. The determined Fermi surface consists of a symmetry-related pair of Dirac electron cylinders and a normal hole cylinder. From analyses of quantum-oscillation phases, we demonstrate that the electron cylinders carry a nontrivial Berry phase π . The carrier density is of the order of 10-3 per Fe. This unusual metallic state with the extremely small carrier density is a consequence of the previously discussed topological feature of the band structure which prevents the antiferromagnetic gap from being a full gap. We also report a nearly linear-in-B magnetoresistance and an anomalous resistivity increase above about 30 T for B ∥c , the latter of which is likely related to the quantum limit of the electron orbit. Intriguingly, the electrical resistivity exhibits a nonmetallic temperature dependence in the paramagnetic tetragonal phase (T >118 K ), which may suggest an incoherent state. Our study provides a detailed knowledge of the Fermi surface in the antiferromagnetic state of 1111 parent compounds and moreover opens up a new possibility to explore Dirac-fermion physics in those compounds.

  5. Influence of Variously Modified Surface of Aluminium Alloy on the Effect of Pulsating Water Jet

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klich, Jiří; Klichová, Dagmar; Foldyna, Vladimír; Hlaváček, Petr; Foldyna, Josef

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 10 (2017), s. 577-582 ISSN 0039-2480 R&D Projects: GA MPO(CZ) FV10446; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1406; GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : pulsating water jet * surface topography * material erosion Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools OBOR OECD: Mechanical engineering Impact factor: 0.914, year: 2016 http://ojs.sv-jme.eu/index.php/sv-jme/article/view/sv-jme.2017.4356

  6. Dynamic Rabi oscillations in a quantum dot embedded in a nanobridge in the presence of surface acoustic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourokh, L.; Wixforth, A.; Beil, F.; Bichler, M.; Wegscheider, W.; Blick, R. H.

    2017-10-01

    A quantum dot is created within a suspended nanobridge containing a two-dimensional electron gas. The electron current through this dot exhibits well-pronounced Coulomb blockade oscillations. When surface acoustic waves (SAW) are driven through the nanobridge, Coulomb blockade peaks are shifted. To explain this feature, we derive the expressions for the quantum dot level populations and electron currents through these levels and show that SAW-induced Rabi oscillations lead to the observed phenomenology.

  7. Enhancement of Nucleate Boiling Heat Flux on Macro/Micro-Structured Surfaces Cooled by Multiple Impinging Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugler, Scott Lee

    1997-01-01

    An experimental investigation of nucleate boiling heat transfer from modified surfaces cooled by multiple in-line impinging circular jets is reported and found to agree with single jet results. A copper block is heated from the back by two electrical arcs, and cooled on the opposite side by three identical liquid jets of distilled water at subcoolings of 25 C 50 C and 77 C and Freon 113 at 24 C subcooling. Liquid flow rates are held constant at 5, 10, and 15 GPH for each of the three jets with jet velocities ranging from 1.4 m/s to 1 1.2 m/s and jet diameters from 0.95 mm to 2.2 mm. To increase the maximum heat flux (CHF) and heat removal rate, the boiling surface was modified by both macro and micro enhancements. Macro modification consists of machined radial grooves in the boiling surface arranged in an optimally designed pattern to allow better liquid distribution along the surface. These grooves also reduce splashing of liquid droplets, and provide 'channels' to sweep away bubbles. Micro modification was achieved by flame spraying metal powder on the boiling surface, creating a porous, sintered surface. With the addition of both micro and macro structured enhancements, maximum heat flux and nucleate boiling can be enhanced by more than 200%. Examination of each surface modification separately and together indicates that at lower superheats, the micro structure provides the enhanced heat transfer by providing more nucleation sites, while for higher superheats the macro structure allows better liquid distribution and bubble removal. A correlation is presented to account for liquid subcoolings and surface enhancements, in addition to the geometrical and fluid properties previously reported in the literature.

  8. The Mechanical of the Small Axisymmetric Oscillations of the Liquid with the Surface Tension Forces in Elastic Tank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Goncharov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate small axisymmetric oscillations of a liquid in an elastic tank. We also take into account the influence of surface tension forces. For this, we turn to the mechanical analogue of the considered mechanical system. To realize the transition to mechanical analogue we use the energy method: postulating the equality of kinetic and potential energy for the investigated mechanical system and the mechanical system analog. Due to this transition we can further investigate the oscillations of a mechanical analogue. As a mechanical analogue, we consider the oscillator in the spring. The mass of the oscillator is calculated as the weight of the fluid to make oscillations. The oscillator spring constant is calculated using the identity of equations, namely, equation of free small oscillations of the oscillator and equation of free small oscillations of the system under investigation: the fluid in the elastic tank. The identity of equations allows us to draw conclusion about the identity of the natural frequencies for the source mechanical system and the system of a mechanical analogue. Next, we take into consideration the action of the surface tension. We record the Laplace condition for excess pressure because of the forces of surface tension. Then we compile the expression for the generalized force, taking into account the phenomenon of the surface tension. Next, we write the equation of oscillations of a mechanical analogue. The surface tension, due to the introduction of the generalized force in the equation for small oscillations of the mechanical analogue will change the natural frequency of the mechanical analogue. The paper presents the appropriate dependencies. The abovementioned allows us to investigate the stability of small motions of fluid in microgravity or low gravity by studying the stability of small motions of mechanical analogue. The latter is especially important due to the design and development of advanced

  9. Surface Acoustic Bloch Oscillations, the Wannier-Stark Ladder, and Landau-Zener Tunneling in a Solid

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, M. M., Jr.; Kosevich, Yu. A.; Santos, P. V.; Cantarero, A.

    2010-04-01

    We present the experimental observation of Bloch oscillations, the Wannier-Stark ladder, and Landau-Zener tunneling of surface acoustic waves in perturbed grating structures on a solid substrate. A model providing a quantitative description of our experimental observations, including multiple Landau-Zener transitions of the anticrossed surface acoustic Wannier-Stark states, is developed. The use of a planar geometry for the realization of the Bloch oscillations and Landau-Zener tunneling allows a direct access to the elastic field distribution. The vertical surface displacement has been measured by interferometry.

  10. Initiation of the Worthington jet on the droplet impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Ken; Motosuke, Masahiro; Ogata, Satoshi

    2018-02-01

    The deformation of liquid droplets upon impact induces Worthington jets for a certain range of impact velocities. Although the growth of such a jet and its tip velocity are predicted from cases similar to droplet impact, the mechanism behind jet formation is yet to be understood. The present study uses high-speed visualization of droplet impact on a superhydrophobic surface to understand jet initiation in terms of the collapse of an air cavity. Water droplets with diameters of 2.0 and 3.0 mm are generated with the droplet Weber number varying from 2 to 20. The jet velocity is measured from the captured images, from which the maximum velocity is found to be We ˜ 7. The jet velocity at We ˜ 7 is approximately 15 times greater than the impact velocity. Moreover, surface waves are generated upon impact with the solid surface, and they induce an oscillation of the droplet cap as they propagate from the solid-liquid contact line to the top portion of the droplet. Furthermore, we find that the phase of the oscillation is related to the Weber number and greatly influences the jet velocity because it determines the initial conditions for jet generation.

  11. On the Development of a Unique Arc Jet Test Apparatus for Control Surface Seal Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkbeiner, Joshua R.; Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr.; Steinetz, Bruce M.; Robbie, Malcolm; Baker, Gus; Erker, Arthur

    2004-01-01

    NASA Glenn has developed a unique test apparatus capable of evaluating control surface seal and flap designs under simulated reentry heating conditions in NASA Johnson's arc jet test facility. The test apparatus is capable of testing a variety of seal designs with a variety of control surface materials and designs using modular components. The flap angle can be varied during testing, allowing modification of the seal environment while testing is in progress. The flap angle is varied using an innovative transmission system which limits heat transfer from the hot flap structure to the motor, all while keeping the components properly aligned regardless of thermal expansion. A combination of active and passive cooling is employed to prevent thermal damage to the test fixture while still obtaining the target seal temperature.

  12. Oscillations of void lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhiezer, A.I.; Davydov, L.N.; Spol'nik, Z.A.

    1976-01-01

    Oscillations of a nonideal crystal are studied, in which macroscopic defects (pores) form a hyperlattice. It is shown that alongside with acoustic and optical phonons (relative to the hyperlattice), in such a crystal oscillations of the third type are possible which are a hydridization of sound oscillations of atoms and surface oscillations of a pore. Oscillation spectra of all three types were obtained

  13. The influence of surface-active agents in gas mixture on the intensity of jet condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yezhov, YV; Okhotin, VS

    2017-11-01

    The report presents: the methodology of calculation of contact condensation of steam from the steam-gas mixture into the stream of water, taking into account: the mass flow of steam through the boundary phase, particularly the change in turbulent transport properties near the interface and their connection to the interface perturbations due to the surface tension of the mixture; the method of calculation of the surface tension at the interface water - a mixture of fluorocarbon vapor and water, based on the previously established analytical methods we calculate the surface tension for simple one - component liquid-vapor systems. The obtained analytical relation to calculate the surface tension of the mixture is a function of temperature and volume concentration of the fluorocarbon gas in the mixture and is true for all sizes of gas molecules. On the newly created experimental stand is made verification of experimental studies to determine the surface tension of pure substances: water, steam, C3F8 pair C3F8, produced the first experimental data on surface tension at the water - a mixture of water vapor and fluorocarbon C3F8. The obtained experimental data allow us to refine the values of the two constants used in the calculated model of the surface tension of the mixture. Experimental study of jet condensation was carried out with the flow in the zone of condensation of different gases. The condensation process was monitored by measurement of consumption of water flowing from the nozzle, and the formed condensate. When submitting C3F8, there was a noticeable, intensification condensation process compared with the condensation of pure water vapor. The calculation results are in satisfactory agreement with the experimental data on surface tension of the mixture and steam condensation from steam-gas mixture. Analysis of calculation results shows that the presence of surfactants in the condensation zone affects the partial vapor pressure on the interfacial surface, and

  14. Highly porous micro-roughened structures developed on aluminum surface using the jet of rotating arc discharges at atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadollahi, Siavash; Farzaneh, Masoud; Stafford, Luc

    2018-02-01

    Aluminum 6061 samples were exposed to the jet of an atmospheric pressure rotating arc discharge operated in either nitrogen or air. After multiple passes of treatment with an air-based plasma jet at very short source-to-substrate distances, scanning electron microscopy combined with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed a highly porous micro-roughened alumina-based structure on the surface of aluminum. Based on optical emission spectroscopy and high-speed optical imaging of the jet interacting with aluminum samples, it was found that the process is mainly driven by the energy transfer from the plasma source to the surface through transient plasma-transferred arcs. The occurrence of multiple arc discharges over very short time scales can induce rapid phase transformations of aluminum with characteristics similar to the ones usually observed during laser ablation of materials with femto- to nanosecond laser pulses or during the formation of cathode spots on the surface of metals.

  15. Fermi Surface with Dirac Fermions in CaFeAsF Determined via Quantum Oscillation Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taichi Terashima

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that 1111-type iron arsenides hold the record transition temperature of iron-based superconductors, their electronic structures have not been studied much because of the lack of high-quality single crystals. In this study, we comprehensively determine the Fermi surface in the antiferromagnetic state of CaFeAsF, a 1111 iron-arsenide parent compound, by performing quantum oscillation measurements and band-structure calculations. The determined Fermi surface consists of a symmetry-related pair of Dirac electron cylinders and a normal hole cylinder. From analyses of quantum-oscillation phases, we demonstrate that the electron cylinders carry a nontrivial Berry phase π. The carrier density is of the order of 10^{-3} per Fe. This unusual metallic state with the extremely small carrier density is a consequence of the previously discussed topological feature of the band structure which prevents the antiferromagnetic gap from being a full gap. We also report a nearly linear-in-B magnetoresistance and an anomalous resistivity increase above about 30 T for B∥c, the latter of which is likely related to the quantum limit of the electron orbit. Intriguingly, the electrical resistivity exhibits a nonmetallic temperature dependence in the paramagnetic tetragonal phase (T>118  K, which may suggest an incoherent state. Our study provides a detailed knowledge of the Fermi surface in the antiferromagnetic state of 1111 parent compounds and moreover opens up a new possibility to explore Dirac-fermion physics in those compounds.

  16. Controlling the Adhesion of Superhydrophobic Surfaces Using Electrolyte Jet Machining Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaolong; Liu, Xin; Lu, Yao; Zhou, Shining; Gao, Mingqian; Song, Jinlong; Xu, Wenji

    2016-04-05

    Patterns with controllable adhesion on superhydrophobic areas have various biomedical and chemical applications. Electrolyte jet machining technique (EJM), an electrochemical machining method, was firstly exploited in constructing dimples with various profiles on the superhydrophobic Al alloy surface using different processing parameters. Sliding angles of water droplets on those dimples firstly increased and then stabilized at a certain value with the increase of the processing time or the applied voltages of the EJM, indicating that surfaces with different adhesion force could be obtained by regulating the processing parameters. The contact angle hysteresis and the adhesion force that restricts the droplet from sliding off were investigated through experiments. The results show that the adhesion force could be well described using the classical Furmidge equation. On account of this controllable adhesion force, water droplets could either be firmly pinned to the surface, forming various patterns or slide off at designed tilting angles at specified positions on a superhydrophobic surface. Such dimples on superhydrophopbic surfaces can be applied in water harvesting, biochemical analysis and lab-on-chip devices.

  17. Controlling the Adhesion of Superhydrophobic Surfaces Using Electrolyte Jet Machining Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaolong; Liu, Xin; Lu, Yao; Zhou, Shining; Gao, Mingqian; Song, Jinlong; Xu, Wenji

    2016-01-01

    Patterns with controllable adhesion on superhydrophobic areas have various biomedical and chemical applications. Electrolyte jet machining technique (EJM), an electrochemical machining method, was firstly exploited in constructing dimples with various profiles on the superhydrophobic Al alloy surface using different processing parameters. Sliding angles of water droplets on those dimples firstly increased and then stabilized at a certain value with the increase of the processing time or the applied voltages of the EJM, indicating that surfaces with different adhesion force could be obtained by regulating the processing parameters. The contact angle hysteresis and the adhesion force that restricts the droplet from sliding off were investigated through experiments. The results show that the adhesion force could be well described using the classical Furmidge equation. On account of this controllable adhesion force, water droplets could either be firmly pinned to the surface, forming various patterns or slide off at designed tilting angles at specified positions on a superhydrophobic surface. Such dimples on superhydrophopbic surfaces can be applied in water harvesting, biochemical analysis and lab-on-chip devices. PMID:27046771

  18. Hydrophilic film polymerized on the inner surface of PMMA tube by an atmospheric pressure plasma jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Mengmeng; Huang, Jun; Yu, Jinsong; Chen, Guangliang; Qu, Shanqing

    2017-07-01

    Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) tube is widely used in biomedical and mechanical engineering fields. However, it is hampered for some special applications as the inner surface of PMMA tube exhibts a hydrophobic characteristic. The aim of this work is to explore the hydrophilic modification of the inner surface of the PMMA tubes using an atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) system that incorporates the acylic acid monomer (AA). Polar groups were grafted onto the inner surface of PMMA tube via the reactive radicals (•OH, •H, •O) generated in the Ar/O2/AA plasma, which were observed by the optical emission spectroscopy (OES). The deposition of the PAA thin layer on the PMMA surface was verified through the ATR-FTIR spectra, which clearly showed the strengthened stretching vibration of the carbonyl group (C=O) at 1700 cm-1. The XPS data show that the carbon ratios of C-OH/R and COOH/R groups increased from 9.50% and 0.07% to 13.49% and 17.07% respectively when a discharge power of 50 W was used in the APPJ system. As a result, the static water contat angle (WCA) of the modified inner surface of PMMA tube decreased from 100° to 48°. Furthermore, the biocompatibility of the APP modified PMMA tubes was illustrated by the study of the adhesion of the cultured MC3T3-E1 osteocyte cells, which exhibted a significantly enhanced adhesion density.

  19. The evolution of the flame surface in turbulent premixed jet flames at high Reynolds number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luca, Stefano; Attili, Antonio; Bisetti, Fabrizio

    2017-11-01

    A set of direct numerical simulations of turbulent premixed flames in a spatially developing turbulent slot burner at four Reynolds number is presented. This configuration is of interest since it displays turbulent production by mean shear as in real combustion devices. The gas phase hydrodynamics are modeled with the reactive, unsteady Navier-Stokes equations in the low Mach number limit, with finite-rate chemistry consisting of 16 species and 73 reactions. For the highest jet Reynolds number of 22 ×103, 22 Billion grid points are employed. The jet consists of a lean methane/air mixture at 4 atm and preheated to 800 K. The analysis of stretch statistics shows that the mean total stretch is close to zero. Mean stretch decreases moving downstream from positive to negative values, suggesting a formation of surface area in the near field and destruction at the tip of the flame; the mean contribution of the tangential strain term is positive, while the mean contribution of the propagative term is always negative. Positive values of stretch are due to the tangential strain rate term, while large negative values are associated with the propagative term. Increasing Reynolds number is found to decrease the correlation between stretch and the single contributions.

  20. Summary of low-speed aerodynamic characteristics of upper-surface-blown jet-flap configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, A. E., III; Johnson, J. L., Jr.; Margason, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    The results of recent wind tunnel investigations to provide fundamental information on the upper surface blown (USB) jet flap concept demonstrated that the USB concept provides good high-lift performance. It is shown that the low speed performance is dependent upon the jet turning angle and turning efficiency and on the use of proper leading and trailing edge treatment to prevent premature flow separation. The best means of achieving good turning performance in any particular USB application must be determined from overall operational considerations in which high speed performance, structures and noise, as well as low speed performance, are evaluated. The large diving moments generated at high lift coefficients can be trimmed satisfactorily with a large, conventional horizontal tail; a high tail position is best from longitudinal stability considerations. Large rolling and yawing moments are introduced with the loss of an engine, but these moments can be trimmed satisfactorily through the use of asymmetrical boundary layer control and through the use of spoiler and rudder deflection as needed.

  1. Effect of corona discharge plasma jet on surface-borne microorganisms and sprouting of broccoli seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Je-Wook; Puligundla, Pradeep; Mok, Chulkyoon

    2017-01-01

    Different pathogenic microorganisms have been reported to cause sprouts-associated outbreaks. In order to sterilise and enhance the germination of seeds, non-thermal plasma has been increasingly investigated in the field of agricultural science as an alternative to the traditional pre-sowing seed treatments. This work aimed to evaluate the effect of corona discharge plasma jet (CDPJ) on disinfection of the natural bio-contaminants of broccoli seed and also studied the plasma effect on sprout seed germination rate and physico-chemical properties of sprouts. Aerobic bacteria, moulds and yeasts, B. cereus, E. coli, Salmonella spp. were detected on the broccoli seed surface. After 0-3 min treatment using CDPJ, the detected microorganisms were reduced in the range of 1.2-2.3 log units. Inactivation patterns were better explained using pseudo-first-order kinetics. The plasma treatment of seeds up to 2 min exhibited a positive effect on germination rate, seedling growth. The physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of sprouts were unaffected due to the CDPJ treatment of their respective seeds. Corona discharge plasma jet can potentially be used for microbial decontamination of broccoli seeds. In addition, the plasma treatment of broccoli sprout seeds has enabled a significant enhancement in their germination rate and seedling growth without compromising physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of their corresponding sprouts. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. In vitro characterization of two different atmospheric plasma jet chemical functionalizations of titanium surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mussano, F., E-mail: federico.mussano@unito.it [CIR Dental School, Department of Surgical Sciences UNITO, via Nizza 230, 10126, Turin (Italy); Genova, T. [CIR Dental School, Department of Surgical Sciences UNITO, via Nizza 230, 10126, Turin (Italy); Department of Life Sciences and Systems Biology, UNITO, via Accademia Albertina 13, 10123, Turin (Italy); Verga Falzacappa, E. [Department of Molecular Science and Nanosystems, UNIVE, Via Torino 155, 30170, Venezia (Italy); Nadir srl, Via Torino 155, 30170 Venezia (Italy); Scopece, P. [Nadir srl, Via Torino 155, 30170 Venezia (Italy); Munaron, L. [Department of Life Sciences and Systems Biology, UNITO, via Accademia Albertina 13, 10123, Turin (Italy); Centre for Nanostructured Interfaces and Surfaces (NIS) (Italy); Rivolo, P.; Mandracci, P. [Politecnico di Torino, Department of Applied Science and Technology, Materials and Microsoystems Laboratory (ChiLab), Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129, Torino (Italy); Benedetti, A. [Department of Molecular Science and Nanosystems, UNIVE, Via Torino 155, 30170, Venezia (Italy); Carossa, S. [CIR Dental School, Department of Surgical Sciences UNITO, via Nizza 230, 10126, Turin (Italy); Patelli, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UNIPD, via Marzolo 8, 35122 Padova (Italy)

    2017-07-01

    Highlights: • NH{sub 2}-Ti and COOH/R-Ti obtained via atmospheric plasma jet RF-APPJ portable equipment. • Higher quantity of adsorbed proteins and improved cell adhesion on treated surfaces. • More tapered and elongated cells on NH{sub 2}-Ti compared to COOH/R-Ti. • Higher osteocalcin expression on NH{sub 2}-Ti. - Abstract: Plasma surface activation and plasma polymers deposition are promising technologies capable to modulate biologically relevant surface features of biomaterials. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biological effects of two different surface modifications, i.e. amine (NH{sub 2}-Ti) and carboxylic/esteric (COOH/R-Ti) functionalities obtained from 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (3-APTES) and methylmethacrylate (MMA) precursors, respectively, through an atmospheric plasma jet RF-APPJ portable equipment. The coatings were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy, XPS and surface energy calculations. Stability in water and after UV sterilization were also verified. The pre-osteoblastic murine cell line MC3T3-E1 was used to perform the in-vitro tests. The treated samples showed a higher quantity of adsorbed proteins and improved osteoblast cells adhesion on the surfaces compared to the pristine titanium, in particular the COOH/R-Ti led to a nearly two-fold improvement. Cell proliferation on coated samples was initially (at 24 h) lower than on titanium control, while, at 48 h, COOH/R-Ti reached the proliferation rate of pristine titanium. Cells grown on NH{sub 2}-Ti were more tapered and elongated in shape with lower areas than on COOH/R-Ti enriched surfaces. Finally, NH{sub 2}-Ti significantly enhanced osteocalcin production, starting from 14 days, while COOH/R-Ti had this effect only from 21 days. Notably, NH{sub 2}-Ti was more efficient than COOH/R-Ti at 21 days. The amine functionality elicited the most relevant osteogenic effect in terms of osteocalcin expression, thus establishing an interesting correlation

  3. The surface expression of Inertial Oscillations in the south shore of Oahu, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Trujillo, A. C.; Flament, P. J.

    2016-12-01

    HF radars are used to analyze the surface expression of Near Inertial Oscillations (NIO) on the south shore of Oahu, Hawaii over a two year period. The spatial coverage and high resolution of HF radars allows us to focus on the spatial structure of the NIOs in relation to the wind forcing and background circulation. Preliminary results show larger NIOs amplitudes in spring months when sporadic southwest wind events are found. These NIOs mostly display a red frequency shift, often associated with anticylonic background vorticity. The characteristics of the observed NIOs will be compared to simulations of the classic slab layer model. We will also present the energy exchange between these NIOs and the background flow.

  4. First results and surface analysis strategy for plasma-facing components after JET operation with the ITER-like wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likonen, J.; Alves, E.; Baron-Wiechec, A.; Brezinsek, S.; Coad, J. P.; Hakola, A.; Heinola, K.; Koivuranta, S.; Matthews, G. F.; Petersson, P.; Rubel, M.; Stan-Sion, C.; Widdowson, A.; Contributors, JET-EFDA

    2014-04-01

    During the carbon wall operations of JET since 2001, an extensive post-mortem analysis programme has been carried out under the JET Task Force Fusion Technology and a similar analysis programme is underway for the JET-ILW tiles removed during the 2012 shutdown. The first post-mortem results from the JET ITER-like wall tiles have shown that the overall amount of deposition on the divertor tiles and on remote divertor areas has been reduced by more than an order of magnitude with respect to JET-C. In addition, the obtained data indicate a possible interaction between Be and W such as the formation of mixed Be-W layers. This could be due to the surface roughness of the tiles, or could be caused by diffusion or even alloying. Ion-beam analyses and secondary ion mass spectrometry techniques give only elemental information, so other techniques such as x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, secondary electron microscopy/energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and nuclear microprobing are required. Since the nature of deposition and erosion has changed during the JET-ILW operations, a change in the post-mortem analysis programme is needed. For example, no cross-sectional samples from the sloping parts of tiles 4 and 6 are required. A strategy for post-mortem analyses of the marker-coated tiles will be presented in this paper.

  5. Zonal surface wind jets across the Red Sea due to mountain gap forcing along both sides of the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Houshuo

    2009-01-01

    [1] Mesoscale atmospheric modeling over the Red Sea, validated by in-situ meteorological buoy data, identifies two types of coastal mountain gap wind jets that frequently blow across the longitudinal axis of the Red Sea: (1) an eastward-blowing summer daily wind jet originating from the Tokar Gap on the Sudanese Red Sea coast, and (2) wintertime westward-blowing wind-jet bands along the northwestern Saudi Arabian coast, which occur every 10-20 days and can last for several days when occurring. Both wind jets can attain wind speeds over 15 m s-1 and contribute significantly to monthly mean surface wind stress, especially in the cross-axis components, which could be of importance to ocean eddy formation in the Red Sea. The wintertime wind jets can cause significant evaporation and ocean heat loss along the northeastern Red Sea coast and may potentially drive deep convection in that region. An initial characterization of these wind jets is presented. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  6. Experimental and numerical investigations of the impingement of an oblique liquid jet onto a superhydrophobic surface: energy transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kibar, Ali, E-mail: alikibar@kocaeli.edu.tr [Department of Mechanical and Material Technologies, Kocaeli University, 41285, Arslanbey Campus, Kocaeli (Turkey)

    2016-02-15

    This study presents the theory of impinging an oblique liquid jet onto a vertical superhydrophobic surface based on both experimental and numerical results. A Brassica oleracea leaf with a 160° apparent contact angle was used for the superhydrophobic surface. Distilled water was sent onto the vertical superhydrophobic surface in the range of 1750–3050 Reynolds number, with an inclination angle of 20°−40°, using a circular glass tube with a 1.75 mm inner diameter. The impinging liquid jet spread onto the surface governed by the inertia of the liquid and then reflected off the superhydrophobic surface due to the surface energy of the spreading liquid. Two different energy approaches, which have time-scale and per-unit length, were performed to determine transformation of the energy. The kinetic energy of the impinging liquid jet was transformed into the surface energy with an increasing interfacial surface area between the liquid and air during spreading. Afterwards, this surface energy of the spreading liquid was transformed into the reflection kinetic energy. (paper)

  7. Investigation of ALEGRA shock hydrocode algorithms using an exact free surface jet flow solution.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanks, Bradley Wright.; Robinson, Allen C

    2014-01-01

    Computational testing of the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian shock physics code, ALEGRA, is presented using an exact solution that is very similar to a shaped charge jet flow. The solution is a steady, isentropic, subsonic free surface flow with significant compression and release and is provided as a steady state initial condition. There should be no shocks and no entropy production throughout the problem. The purpose of this test problem is to present a detailed and challenging computation in order to provide evidence for algorithmic strengths and weaknesses in ALEGRA which should be examined further. The results of this work are intended to be used to guide future algorithmic improvements in the spirit of test-driven development processes.

  8. Jet-Surface Interaction: High Aspect Ratio Nozzle Test, Nozzle Design and Preliminary Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Clifford; Dippold, Vance

    2015-01-01

    The Jet-Surface Interaction High Aspect Ratio (JSI-HAR) nozzle test is part of an ongoing effort to measure and predict the noise created when an aircraft engine exhausts close to an airframe surface. The JSI-HAR test is focused on parameters derived from the Turbo-electric Distributed Propulsion (TeDP) concept aircraft which include a high-aspect ratio mailslot exhaust nozzle, internal septa, and an aft deck. The size and mass flow rate limits of the test rig also limited the test nozzle to a 16:1 aspect ratio, half the approximately 32:1 on the TeDP concept. Also, unlike the aircraft, the test nozzle must transition from a single round duct on the High Flow Jet Exit Rig, located in the AeroAcoustic Propulsion Laboratory at the NASA Glenn Research Center, to the rectangular shape at the nozzle exit. A parametric nozzle design method was developed to design three low noise round-to-rectangular transitions, with 8:1, 12:1, and 16: aspect ratios, that minimizes flow separations and shocks while providing a flat flow profile at the nozzle exit. These designs validated using the WIND-US CFD code. A preliminary analysis of the test data shows that the actual flow profile is close to that predicted and that the noise results appear consistent with data from previous, smaller scale, tests. The JSI-HAR test is ongoing through October 2015. The results shown in the presentation are intended to provide an overview of the test and a first look at the preliminary results.

  9. The instability of nonlinear surface waves in an electrified liquid jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moatimid, Galal M

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the weakly nonlinear stability of surface waves of a liquid jet. In this work, the liquids are uniformly streaming through two porous media and the gravitational effects are neglected. The system is acted upon by a uniform tangential electric field, that is parallel to the jet axis. The equations of motion are linearly treated and solved in the light of nonlinear boundary conditions. Therefore, the boundary-value problem leads to a nonlinear characteristic second-order differential equation. This characterized equation has a complex nature. The nonlinearity is kept up to the third degree. It is used to judge the behavior of the surface evolution. According to the linear stability theory, we derive the dispersion relation that accounts for the growth waves. The stability criterion is discussed analytically and a stability picture is identified for a chosen sample system. Several special cases are recovered upon appropriate data choices. In order to derive the Ginsburg-Landau equation for the general case, in the nonlinear approach, we used the method of multiple timescales with the aid of the Taylor expansion. This equation describes the competition between nonlinearity and the linear dispersion relation. As a special case for non-porous media where there is no streaming, we obtained the well-known nonlinear Schroedinger equation as it has been derived by others. The stability criteria are expressed theoretically in terms of various parameters of the problem. Stability diagrams are obtained for a set of physical parameters. We found new instability regions in the parameter space. These regions are due to the nonlinear effects.

  10. In vitro characterization of two different atmospheric plasma jet chemical functionalizations of titanium surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussano, F.; Genova, T.; Verga Falzacappa, E.; Scopece, P.; Munaron, L.; Rivolo, P.; Mandracci, P.; Benedetti, A.; Carossa, S.; Patelli, A.

    2017-07-01

    Plasma surface activation and plasma polymers deposition are promising technologies capable to modulate biologically relevant surface features of biomaterials. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biological effects of two different surface modifications, i.e. amine (NH2-Ti) and carboxylic/esteric (COOH/R-Ti) functionalities obtained from 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (3-APTES) and methylmethacrylate (MMA) precursors, respectively, through an atmospheric plasma jet RF-APPJ portable equipment. The coatings were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy, XPS and surface energy calculations. Stability in water and after UV sterilization were also verified. The pre-osteoblastic murine cell line MC3T3-E1 was used to perform the in-vitro tests. The treated samples showed a higher quantity of adsorbed proteins and improved osteoblast cells adhesion on the surfaces compared to the pristine titanium, in particular the COOH/R-Ti led to a nearly two-fold improvement. Cell proliferation on coated samples was initially (at 24 h) lower than on titanium control, while, at 48 h, COOH/R-Ti reached the proliferation rate of pristine titanium. Cells grown on NH2-Ti were more tapered and elongated in shape with lower areas than on COOH/R-Ti enriched surfaces. Finally, NH2-Ti significantly enhanced osteocalcin production, starting from 14 days, while COOH/R-Ti had this effect only from 21 days. Notably, NH2-Ti was more efficient than COOH/R-Ti at 21 days. The amine functionality elicited the most relevant osteogenic effect in terms of osteocalcin expression, thus establishing an interesting correlation between early cell morphology and later differentiation stages. Taken together, these data encourage the use of the functionalization procedures here reported in further studies.

  11. Aqueous electrolyte surfaces in strong electric fields: molecular insight into nanoscale jets and bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirsák, Jan; Moučka, Filip; Škvor, Jiří; Nezbeda, Ivo

    2015-04-01

    Exposing aqueous surfaces to a strong electric field gives rise to interesting phenomena, such as formation of a floating water bridge or an eruption of a jet in electrospinning. In an effort to account for the phenomena at the molecular level, we performed molecular dynamics simulations using several protocols on both pure water and aqueous solutions of sodium chloride subjected to an electrostatic field. All simulations consistently point to the same mechanisms which govern the rearrangement of the originally planar surface. The results show that the phenomena are primarily governed by an orientational reordering of the water molecules driven by the applied field. It is demonstrated that, for pure water, a sufficiently strong field yields a columnar structure parallel to the field with an anisotropic arrangement of the water molecules with their dipole moments aligned along the applied field not only in the surface layer but over the entire cross section of the column. Nonetheless, the number of hydrogen bonds per molecule does not seem to be affected by the field regardless of its strength and molecule's orientation. In the electrolyte solutions, the ionic charge is able to overcome the effect of the external field tending to arrange the water molecules radially in the first coordination shell of an ion. The ion-water interaction interferes thus with the water-electric field interaction, and the competition between these two forces (i.e., strength of the field versus concentration) provides the key mechanism determining the stability of the observed structures.

  12. Electromagnetic flow control of a bifurcated jet in a rectangular cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalter, R.; Tummers, M.J.; Kenjereš, S.; Righolt, B.W.; Kleijn, C.R.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Self-sustained oscillations in a thin cavity with submerged nozzle were observed. • The self-sustained oscillations were influenced by applying a Lorentz force. • A POD was applied to study the distribution of kinetic energy. • The large scale fluctuations can be enhanced or suppressed by the Lorentz force. • The turbulence fluctuations are not affected by the Lorentz force. - Abstract: The effect of Lorentz forcing on self-sustained oscillations of turbulent jets (Re = 3.1 × 10 3 ) issuing from a submerged bifurcated nozzle into a thin rectangular liquid filled cavity was investigated using free surface visualization and time-resolved particle image velocimetry (PIV). A Lorentz force is produced by applying an electrical current across the width of the cavity in conjunction with a magnetic field. As a working fluid a saline solution is used. The Lorentz force can be directed downward (F L L >0), to weaken or strengthen the self-sustained jet oscillations. The low frequency self-sustained jet oscillations induce a free surface oscillation. When F L L >0 the free surface oscillation amplitude is enhanced by a factor of 1.5. A large fraction of the turbulence kinetic energy k=1/2 u i ′ u i ′‾ is due to the self-sustained jet oscillations. A triple decomposition of the instantaneous velocity was used to divide the turbulence kinetic energy into a part originating from the self-sustained jet oscillation k osc and a part originating from the higher frequency turbulent fluctuations k turb . It follows that the Lorentz force does not influence k turb in the measurement plane, but the distribution of k osc can be altered significantly. The amount of energy contained in the self-sustained oscillation is three times lower when F L L >0

  13. Computational model of the interaction of a helium atmospheric-pressure jet with a dielectric surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, M. I.; Bradley, J. W.

    2015-11-01

    Using a time-dependent two-dimensional axisymmetric fluid model the interaction of a plasma jet with a dielectric surface has been studied. The model is solved for two consecutive periods of a positive unipolar pulsed waveform. The study concentrates on determining the fluxes of the main oxygen ion species, \\text{O}2+ , \\text{O}2- and the total accumulated charge on the surface. Approaching the dielectric surface, the streamer head is seen to divert its direction of propagation, spreading out radially approximately 0.2 mm above the dielectric surface. For \\text{O}2+ generated near the streamer head, this leads to a maximum in their flux to the surface which moves radially outwards with the streamer propagation, driven by the applied electric field in pulse on-time. In the off-time, the flux of \\text{O}2+ drops by at least two orders of magnitude. As a result, the total number of \\text{O}2+ ions arriving at the surface over one entire pulse period (fluence) has an annular shape limited by the effective contact area of the streamer on the surface. In contrast \\text{O}2- ions generated in the pulse on-time do not reach the surface due to the direction of the applied electric field. In the off-time, \\text{O}2- ions generated at the edges of the deformed streamer are pushed by the accumulated surface charge outwards. As a result, the \\text{O}2- fluence has an annular structure with its maximum being outside the area of the dielectric surface covered by the plasma channel. Solving for the second pulse period shows small changes in the predicted fluences, with largest difference seen with \\text{O}2- . We see that increasing the flow rate (by a factor of three) shifts the position of the maximum fluence of \\text{O}2+ outwards, and decreasing the \\text{O}2- fluence in the second pulse period.

  14. Limits on Surface Gravities of Kepler Planet-candidate Host Stars from Non-detection of Solar-like Oscillations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campante, T.L.; Chaplin, W.J.; Lund, M.N.; Huber, D.; Hekker, S.; García, R.A.; Corsaro, E.; Handberg, R.; Miglio, A.; Arentoft, T.; Basu, S.; Bedding, T.R.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Davies, G.R.; Elsworth, Y.P.; Gilliland, R.L.; Karoff, C.; Kawaler, S.D.; Kjeldsen, H.; Lundkvist, M.; Metcalfe, T.S.; Silva Aguirre, V.; Stello, D.

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel method for estimating lower-limit surface gravities (log g) of Kepler targets whose data do not allow the detection of solar-like oscillations. The method is tested using an ensemble of solar-type stars observed in the context of the Kepler Asteroseismic Science Consortium. We

  15. Effect of abrasive water jet on the structure of the surface layer of Al-Mg alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatchikova, T. I.; Tereshchenko, N. A.; Yakovleva, I. L.; Gudnev, N. Z.

    2017-09-01

    Optical, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy methods, and X-ray diffraction analysis have been used to study the changes in the structure and the microhardness in the surface layer of the Al-Mg (5.8-6.8 wt %) alloy after water jet cutting. The dislocation density, the sizes of coherent scattering regions, and microdistortions have been determined. The transformation of the fine structure has been revealed in the displacement from the alloy volume to the abrasive-waterjet cutting surface.

  16. The Spatiotemporal Oscillations of Order Parameter for Isothermal Model of the Surface-Directed Spinodal Decomposition in Bounded Binary Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor B. Krasnyuk

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The asymptotical behavior of order parameter in confined binary mixture is considered in one-dimensional geometry. The interaction between bulk and surface forces in the mixture is investigated. Its established conditions are when the bulk spinodal decomposition may be ignored and when the main role in the process of formation of the oscillating asymptotic periodic spatiotemporal structures plays the surface-directed spinodal decomposition which is modelled by nonlinear dynamical boundary conditions.

  17. Determination of the maximum recording frequency by the Precision Laser Inclinometer of an earth surface angular oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azaryan, N.; Budagov, J.; Lyablin, M.; Pluzhnikov, A.; Di Girolamo, B.; Gayde, J.-Ch.; Mergelkuhl, D.

    2017-11-01

    For the Precision Laser Inclinometer (FPI) using the I-20A oil, a high-frequency 4 Hz boundary was determined for reliable detection of the earth's surface angular vibrations. The proposed method makes use of the microseismic signal and its processing to expand the PLI working interval for signal reception and allows to record the narrow frequency-band signals originated by the Earth surface angular oscillations caused by industrial sources.

  18. Vapor condensation on the surface of a liquid blanket jet in an inertial-confinement fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Minoru; Inoue, Akira; Fujinuma, Hajime; Tsukui, Jun.

    1991-01-01

    As the fundamental study on lithium jet cooling of an inertial-confinement fusion reactor, the experiment was performed to investigate for the steady condensation of saturated steam on a vertical downward water jet. The experimental parameters were the nozzle diameter of 3 and 5 mm, the jet length of 60∼316 mm, the outlet velocity of 2∼12 m/s, the outlet temperature of 30∼70degC, and the pressure of 0.03∼0.44 MPa, which corresponds to the Reynolds number of 1.35 x 10 4 ∼2.71 x 10 5 and the Prandtl number of 1.0∼5.2. As the Reynolds number or the jet length is increased, the Stanton number decreases and then increases again. As the steam pressure is increased, it increases monotonously. These characteristics of condensation heat transfer have been classical into four regions based on the criteria for jet break-up and surface disturbance, or entrainment. The empirical correlations for the Stanton number have been obtained for these regions, and the validity was confirmed by comparing them with the previous correlations. (author)

  19. Surface analysis of the central and top part of a 1984 JET graphite limiter and of 1984 JET long term samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrenberg, J.; Behrisch, R.; Martinelli, A.P.; Kukral, H.

    1985-05-01

    The JET graphite limiter (top and central part) from octant IV as well as long term samples (LTS) and a bellow protection plate all exposed to plasma discharges during the 1984 experimental period have been investigated by means of surface layer analyses techniques. The limiter tiles show characteristic differences in the deposition of metals compared to the 1983 limiter reflecting the higher power loads from the plasma achieved in 1984. Analysis of the LTS reveals a close correlation between erosion sources at the vessel walls of JET and the redeposition areas. This indicates that a major part of the metals eroded at the limiter surface or the wall during normal discharges may not enter the central plasma, but is immediately redeposited close to the area of erosion. Deuterium was found on the sides of the graphite limiter with concentrations exceeding the amount, which could be deposited by simple implantation by at least an order of magnitude. This incidates a codeposition of carbon and deuterium at those areas. (orig.)

  20. Overmoded subterahertz surface wave oscillator with pure TM01 mode output

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Guangqiang; Zeng, Peng; Wang, Dongyang; Wang, Jianguo; Li, Shuang

    2016-01-01

    Overmoded O-type Cerenkov generators using annular electron beams are facing the problem of multi-modes output due to the inevitable structural discontinuities. A simple but effective method to achieve the pure TM 01 mode output is applied on the 0.14 THz overmoded surface wave oscillator (SWO) in this paper. In spite of still using an overmoded slow wave structure to ensure the easy fabrication, the followed smooth circular waveguide is shrinkingly tapered to the output waveguide with appropriate radius that it cuts off other higher modes except TM 01 mode. Moreover, the modified device here has the same power capacity as the previous one according to the numerical analysis. By optimized lengths of the transition waveguide and tapered waveguide, particle-in-cell simulation results indicate that the subterahertz wave with output power increased 14.2% at the same frequency is obtained from the proposed SWO under the previous input conditions, and importantly, the output power is all carried by TM 01 mode as expected. Further simulation results in the pulse regime confirm the feasibility of the optimized structure in the actual experiments. This simple and viable design is also applicable to overmoded devices in the lower frequency band of subterahertz wave

  1. A new approach to surface activation of porous nanomaterials using non-thermal helium atmospheric pressure plasma jet treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duriyasart, Farkfun; Ohtani, Masataka; Oh, Jun-Seok; Hatta, Akimitsu; Kobiro, Kazuya

    2017-06-20

    Non-thermal helium atmospheric pressure plasma jet treatment is applied to the surface activation of porous TiO 2 nanoparticle assemblies. Treatment conditions such as the working distance of the plasma discharge, helium gas flow rate, and treatment time are optimized for effective removal of contaminants from the assembly surface. Laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LDI-TOF MS) is applied to detect trace amounts of contaminants on assembly surfaces. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations confirm that the nanoparticle assemblies retain their original perfect spherical structures as well as their ultra-fine convex-concave nano-surfaces even after the plasma jet treatment. N 2 adsorption/desorption and X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements show no significant changes in their BET specific surface areas and crystal structures, respectively. The plasma jet-treated TiO 2 nanoparticle assemblies show a 3.8 fold improvement in their reaction rate constants for methylene blue degradation and a 2 fold enhancement of their photocurrents under UV irradiation when compared with untreated TiO 2 .

  2. The North Atlantic Oscillation, Surface Current Velocities, and SST Changes in the Subpolar North Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flatau, Maria K.; Talley, Lynne; Niiler, Pearn P.

    2003-07-01

    Changes in surface circulation in the subpolar North Atlantic are documented for the recent interannual switch in the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index from positive values in the early 1990s to negative values in 1995/96. Data from Lagrangian drifters, which were deployed in the North Atlantic from 1992 to 1998, were used to compute the mean and varying surface currents. NCEP winds were used to calculate the Ekman component, allowing isolation of the geostrophic currents. The mean Ekman velocities are considerably smaller than the mean total velocities that resemble historical analyses. The northeastward flow of the North Atlantic Current is organized into three strong cores associated with topography: along the eastern boundary in Rockall Trough, in the Iceland Basin (the subpolar front), and on the western flank of the Reykjanes Ridge (Irminger Current). The last is isolated in this Eulerian mean from the rest of the North Atlantic Current by a region of weak velocities on the east side of the Reykjanes Ridge.The drifter results during the two different NAO periods are compared with geostrophic flow changes calculated from the NASA/Pathfinder monthly gridded sea surface height (SSH) variability products and the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) SST data. During the positive NAO years the northeastward flow in the North Atlantic Current appeared stronger and the circulation in the cyclonic gyre in the Irminger Basin became more intense. This was consistent with the geostrophic velocities calculated from altimetry data and surface temperature changes from AVHRR SST data, which show that during the positive NAO years, with stronger westerlies, the subpolar front was sharper and located farther east. SST gradients intensified in the North Atlantic Current, Irminger Basin, and east of the Shetland Islands during the positive NAO phase, associated with stronger currents. SST differences between positive and negative NAO years were consistent with

  3. Assembling surface mounted components on ink-jet printed double sided paper circuit board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Henrik A; Manuilskiy, Anatoliy; Haller, Stefan; Sidén, Johan; Nilsson, Hans-Erik; Hummelgård, Magnus; Olin, Håkan; Hummelgård, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Printed electronics is a rapidly developing field where many components can already be manufactured on flexible substrates by printing or by other high speed manufacturing methods. However, the functionality of even the most inexpensive microcontroller or other integrated circuit is, at the present time and for the foreseeable future, out of reach by means of fully printed components. Therefore, it is of interest to investigate hybrid printed electronics, where regular electrical components are mounted on flexible substrates to achieve high functionality at a low cost. Moreover, the use of paper as a substrate for printed electronics is of growing interest because it is an environmentally friendly and renewable material and is, additionally, the main material used for many packages in which electronics functionalities could be integrated. One of the challenges for such hybrid printed electronics is the mounting of the components and the interconnection between layers on flexible substrates with printed conductive tracks that should provide as low a resistance as possible while still being able to be used in a high speed manufacturing process. In this article, several conductive adhesives are evaluated as well as soldering for mounting surface mounted components on a paper circuit board with ink-jet printed tracks and, in addition, a double sided Arduino compatible circuit board is manufactured and programmed. (paper)

  4. Vorticity models of ocean surface diffusion in coastal jets and eddies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, D.; Matulka, A.; Sekula, E.

    2010-05-01

    We present and discuss the use of multi-fractal techniques used to investigete vorticity and jet dynamical state of these features detected in the sea surface as well as to identify possible local parametrizations of turbulent diffusion in complex non-homogeneous flows. We use a combined vorticity/energy equation to parametrize mixing at the Rossby Deformation Radius, which may be used even in non Kolmogorov types of flows. The vorticity cascade is seen to be different to the energy cascade and may have important cnsecuences in pollutant dispersion prediction, both in emergency accidental releases and on a day to day operational basis. We also identify different SAR signatures of river plumes near the coast, which are usefull to provide calibrations for the different local configurations that allow to predict the behaviour of different tracers and tensioactives in the coastal sea surface area by means of as a geometrical characterization of the vorticity and velocity maps which induce local mixing and dilution jet processes. The satellite-borne SAR seems to be a good system for the identification of dynamic. lt is also a convenient tool to investigate the eddy structures of a certain area where the effect of bathymetry and local currents are important in describing the ocean surface behavior. Maximum eddy size agrees remarkably well with the limit imposed by the local Rossby deformation radius using the usual thermocline induced stratification, Redondo and Platonov (2000). The Rossby deformation radius, defined as Rd = (N/f)h, where N is the Brunt-Vaisalla frequency, f is the local Coriolis parameter (f=2Osin(lat), where O is the rotation of the earth as function of the latitude), The role of buoyancy may be also detected by seasonal changes in h, the thermocline depth, with these considerations Rd is ranged between 6 and 30 Km. Bezerra M.O., Diez M., Medeiros C. Rodriguez A., Bahia E., Sanchez Arcilla A and Redondo J.M. (1998) "Study on the influence of waves on

  5. Fabricating a reactive surface on the fibroin film by a room-temperature plasma jet array for biomolecule immobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guang-Liang; Zheng, Xu; Lü, Guo-Hua; Zhang, Zhao-Xia; Sylvain, Massey; Wilson, Smith; Michael, Tatoulian; Yang, Si-Ze

    2012-10-01

    A simple dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) jet array was designed with a liquid electrode and helium gas. The characteristics of the jet array discharge and the preliminary polymerization with acrylic acid (AA) monomer were presented. The plasma reactor can produce a cold jet array with a gas temperature lower than 315 K, using an applied discharge power between 6 W and 30 W (Vdis × Idis). A silk fibroin film (SFF) was modified using the jet array and AA monomer, and the treated SFF samples were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and contact angle (CA). The deposition rate of the poly acrylic acid (PAA) was able to reach 300 nm/min, and the surface roughness and energy increased with the AA flow rate. The FTIR results indicate that the modified SFF had more carboxyl groups (-COOH) than the original SFF. This latter characteristic allowed the modified SFF to immobilize more quantities of antimicrobial peptide (AP, LL-37) which inhibited the Escherichia coli (E. Coli) effectively.

  6. Investigating the Feedback Path in a Jet-Surface Resonant Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Khairul; Fagan, Amy; Bridges, James; Brown, Cliff

    2015-01-01

    A resonant interaction between an 8:1 aspect ratio rectangular jet and flat-plates, placed parallel to the jet, is addressed in this study. For certain relative locations of the plates, the resonance takes place with accompanying audible tones. Even when the tone is not audible the sound pressure level spectra is often marked by conspicuous peaks. The frequencies of the spectral peaks, as functions of the streamwise length of the plate and its relative location to the jet as well as the jet Mach number, are explored in an effort of understand the flow mechanism. It is demonstrated that the tones are not due to a simple feedback between the plates trailing edge and the nozzle exit; the leading edge also comes into play in determining the frequency. An acoustic feedback path, involving diffraction from the leading edge, appears to explain the frequencies of some of the spectral peaks.

  7. Micro-/nano-characterization of the surface structures on the divertor tiles from JET ITER-like wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokitani, M., E-mail: tokitani.masayuki@LHD.nifs.ac.jp [National Institute for Fusion Science, Oroshi, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Miyamoto, M. [Shimane University, Matsue, Shimane 690-8504 (Japan); Masuzaki, S. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Oroshi, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Fujii, Y. [Shimane University, Matsue, Shimane 690-8504 (Japan); Sakamoto, R. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Oroshi, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Oya, Y. [Shizuoka University, Shizuoka 422-8529 (Japan); Hatano, Y. [University of Toyama, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Otsuka, T. [Kindai University, Higashi-Osaka, Osaka, 577-8502 (Japan); Oyaidzu, M.; Kurotaki, H.; Suzuki, T.; Hamaguchi, D.; Isobe, K.; Asakura, N. [National Institute for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology (QST), Rokkasho Aomori 039-3212 (Japan); Widdowson, A. [EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Rubel, M. [Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), 100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • Micro-/nano-characterization of the surface structures on the divertor tiles from JET ITER-like wall were studied. • The stratified mixed-material deposition layer composed by W, C, O, Mo and Be with the thickness of ∼1.5 μm was formed on the apron of Tile 1. • The study revealed the micro- and nano-scale modification of the inner tile surface of the JET ILW. - Abstract: Micro-/nano-characterization of the surface structures on the divertor tiles used in the first campaign (2011–2012) of the JET tokamak with the ITER-like wall (JET ILW) were studied. The analyzed tiles were a single poloidal section of the tile numbers of 1, 3 and 4, i.e., upper, vertical and horizontal targets, respectively. A sample from the apron of Tile 1 was deposition-dominated. Stratified mixed-material layers composed of Be, W, Ni, O and C were deposited on the original W-coating. Their total thickness was ∼1.5 μm. By means of transmission electron microscopy, nano-size bubble-like structures with a size of more than 100 nm were identified in that layer. They could be related to deuterium retention in the layer dominated by Be. The surface microstructure of the sample from Tile 4 also showed deposition: a stratified mixed-material layer with the total thickness of 200–300 nm. The electron diffraction pattern obtained with transmission electron microscope indicated Be was included in the layer. No bubble-like structures have been identified. The surface of Tile 3, originally coated by Mo, was identified as the erosion zone. This is consistent with the fact that the strike point was often located on that tile during the plasma operation. The study revealed the micro- and nano-scale modification of the inner tile surface of the JET ILW. In particular, a complex mixed-material deposition layer could affect hydrogen isotope retention and dust formation.

  8. Metallographic examination of hardened layers after surface treatments by highly concentrated plasma jet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Сергій Савелійович Самотугін

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The microstructure of carbon and alloy steels with various carbon contents before and after the gradient hardening by means of highly concentrated plasma jet have been investigated. It is shown that the resulting structure after the surface hardening has a substantially smaller grain size as compared to the bulk hardening. The steels with different carbon content, that is hypoeutectic steels 45 and 50HN, eutectic steels – M76, U8, hypereutectoid steels – 90HF, U10 have been researched. Processing was carried out under the optimal conditions to ensure the highest hardness of the surface without melting. Metalgraphical studies were carried out using optical and scanning electron microscopes. High-dispersed martensite is the main structural component for hypoeutectic steels. Despite the fact that the heating temperature and the cooling rate in different parts of the plasma exposure zone differ greatly, the structure of the tempered zone is uniform by both the degree of dispersion and by the values of hardness. Plasma treatment of eutectic steels results in fine-grained structure of martensite of mainly lamellar morphology. High-dispersed martensite with microparticles of secondary carbides is characteristic of the hardened zones for hypereutectic steels. But austenite grains do not grow at heating as it usually happens in bulk hardening. The structure of the transition zone corresponds to part-hardened steels. So excess ferrite as well as martensite retains in hypoeutectic steels while excess cementite retains in hypereutectic steels. Eutectic steels are free from the intercritical interval, and the transition zone does not practically develop, there being a very sharp boundary between the zone of full hardening and the parent metal. Due to this structure of the plasma hardening zone of the surface layer there arises 3,5...4,5-fold increase in the hardness of the steel as compared with the normalized condition. This is due to the increase in

  9. Ink-Jet Printing of Gluconobacter oxydans: Micropatterned Coatings As High Surface-to-Volume Ratio Bio-Reactive Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Fidaleo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We formulated a latex ink for ink-jet deposition of viable Gram-negative bacterium Gluconobacter oxydans as a model adhesive, thin, highly bio-reactive microstructured microbial coating. Control of G. oxydans latex-based ink viscosity by dilution with water allowed ink-jet piezoelectric droplet deposition of 30 × 30 arrays of two or three droplets/dot microstructures on a polyester substrate. Profilometry analysis was used to study the resulting dry microstructures. Arrays of individual dots with base diameters of ~233–241 µm were obtained. Ring-shaped dots with dot edges higher than the center, 2.2 and 0.9 µm respectively, were obtained when a one-to-four diluted ink was used. With a less diluted ink (one-to-two diluted, the microstructure became more uniform with an average height of 3.0 µm, but the ink-jet printability was more difficult. Reactivity of the ink-jet deposited microstructures following drying and rehydration was studied in a non-growth medium by oxidation of 50 g/L D-sorbitol to L-sorbose, and a high dot volumetric reaction rate was measured (~435 g·L−1·h−1. These results indicate that latex ink microstructures generated by ink-jet printing may hold considerable potential for 3D fabrication of high surface-to-volume ratio biocoatings for use as microbial biosensors with the aim of coating microbes as reactive biosensors on electronic devices and circuit chips.

  10. One- to two-month oscillations in SSMI surface wind speed in western tropical Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Michael L.; Stanford, John L.; Halpern, David

    1994-01-01

    The 10-m wind speed over the ocean can be estimated from microwave brightness temperature measurements recorded by the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSMI) instrument mounted on a polar-orbiting spacecraft. Four-year (1988-1991) time series of average daily 1 deg x 1 deg SSMI wind speeds were analyzed at selected sites in the western tropical Pacific Ocean. One- to two-month period wind speed oscillations with amplitudes statistically significant at the 95% confidence level were observed near Kanton, Eniwetok, Guam, and Truk. This is the first report of such an oscillation in SSMI wind speeds.

  11. Shubnikov de Haas quantum oscillation of the surface states in the metallic Bismuth Telluride sheets

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Taishi; Han, Junhao; Li, Zhaoguo; Song, Fengqi; Zhao, Bo; Wang, Xuefeng; Wang, Baigeng; Wan, Jianguo; Han, Min; Zhang, Rong; Wang, Guanghou

    2013-01-01

    Metallic Bi2Te3 crystalline sheets with the room-temperature resistivity of above 10 m{\\Omega} cm were prepared and their magnetoresistive transport was measured in a field of up to 9 Tesla. The Shubnikov de Haas oscillations were identified from the secondly-derived magnetoresistance curves. While changing the angle between the field and normal axis of the sheets, we find that the oscillation periods present a cosine dependence on the angle. This indicates a two-dimensional transport due to ...

  12. Fracture-free surfaces of CAD/CAM lithium metasilicate glass-ceramic using micro-slurry jet erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ling; Baba, Takashi; Nakanishi, Yoshitaka

    2018-04-01

    This paper reports the use of micro-slurry jet erosion (MSJE) on CAD/CAM lithium mesilicate glass ceramic (LMGC) that is capable of achieving the fracture-free surface quality. A computer-controlled MSJE process using a low-pressure and low-concentration alumina slurry was applied to diamond-ground LMGC surfaces with surface and subsurface damage. The MSJE processed and diamond-ground LMGC surfaces were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to examine surface morphology, fractures, and residual defects. 3D confocal laser microscopy (CLM) was used to quantitatively characterize all machined surface textures as a function of processing conditions. Our results show that surface and subsurface damage induced in diamond-ground surfaces were significantly diminished after 50-cycle MSJE processing. Fracture-free surfaces were obtained after 100 MSJE cycles. Our measured parameters of the 3D surface topography included the average surface roughness, maximum peak-valley height, highest peak height, lowest valley height, and kurtosis and absolute skewness of height distributions. All these parameters were significantly reduced with the increase of MSJE cycles. This work implies that MSJE promises to be an effective manufacturing technique for the generation of fracture-free LMGC surfaces which are crucial for high-quality monolithic restorations made from the material. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of cooling performance of impinging jet array over various dimpled surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun-Min; Kim, Kwang-Yong

    2016-04-01

    Various configurations of an impinging jet-dimple array cooling system were evaluated in terms of their heat transfer and pressure drop performances. The steady incompressible laminar flow and heat transfer in the cooling system were analyzed using three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations. The obtained numerical results were validated by a comparison with experimental data for the local Nusselt number distribution. The area-averaged Nusselt number on the projected area and the pressure drop through the system were selected as the performance parameters. Among the four tested configurations—inline concave, staggered concave, inline convex, and staggered convex—the staggered convex impinging jet-dimple array showed the best heat transfer performance whereas the staggered-concave configuration showed the lowest pressure drop. A parametric study with two geometric variables, i.e., the height of dimple and the diameter of dimple, was also conducted for the staggered-convex impinging jet-dimple array. As a result, the best heat transfer and pressure drop performances were achieved when the ratio of the height of dimple to the diameter of jet was 0.8. And, the increase in the ratio of the diameter of dimple to the diameter of jet yielded monotonous increase in the heat transfer performance.

  14. Investigation of Sandwich Material Surface Created by Abrasive Water Jet (AWJ) via Vibration Emission

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hreha, P.; Hloch, S.; Monka, P.; Monková, K.; Knapčíková, L.; Hlaváček, Petr; Zeleňák, Michal; Samardžič, I.; Kozak, D.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 1 (2013), s. 29-32 ISSN 0543-5846 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : sandwich material * stainless steel * abrasive water jet cutting Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials Impact factor: 0.755, year: 2013 http://public.carnet.hr/metalurg/Metalurgija/2014_vol_53/No_1/MET_53_1_29-32_Hreha.pdf

  15. The role of the meridional sea surface temperature gradient in controlling the Caribbean low-level jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Tito; Rutgersson, Anna; Caballero, Rodrigo; Pausata, Francesco S. R.; Alfaro, Eric; Amador, Jorge

    2017-06-01

    The Caribbean low-level jet (CLLJ) is an important modulator of regional climate, especially precipitation, in the Caribbean and Central America. Previous work has inferred, due to their semiannual cycle, an association between CLLJ strength and meridional sea surface temperature (SST) gradients in the Caribbean Sea, suggesting that the SST gradients may control the intensity and vertical shear of the CLLJ. In addition, both the horizontal and vertical structure of the jet have been related to topographic effects via interaction with the mountains in Northern South America (NSA), including funneling effects and changes in the meridional geopotential gradient. Here we test these hypotheses, using an atmospheric general circulation model to perform a set of sensitivity experiments to examine the impact of both SST gradients and topography on the CLLJ. In one sensitivity experiment, we remove the meridional SST gradient over the Caribbean Sea and in the other, we flatten the mountains over NSA. Our results show that the SST gradient and topography have little or no impact on the jet intensity, vertical, and horizontal wind shears, contrary to previous works. However, our findings do not discount a possible one-way coupling between the SST and the wind over the Caribbean Sea through friction force. We also examined an alternative approach based on barotropic instability to understand the CLLJ intensity, vertical, and horizontal wind shears. Our results show that the current hypothesis about the CLLJ must be reviewed in order to fully understand the atmospheric dynamics governing the Caribbean region.

  16. Quasi-periodic oscillations of aerosol backscatter profiles and surface meteorological parameters during winter nights over a tropical station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Manoj

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric gravity waves, which are a manifestation of the fluctuations in buoyancy of the air parcels, are well known for their direct influence on concentration of atmospheric trace gases and aerosols, and also on oscillations of meteorological variables such as temperature, wind speed, visibility and so on. The present paper reports quasi-periodic oscillations in the lidar backscatter signal strength due to aerosol fluctuations in the nocturnal boundary layer, studied with a high space-time resolution polarimetric micro pulse lidar and concurrent meteorological parameters over a tropical station in India. The results of the spectral analysis of the data, archived on some typical clear-sky conditions during winter months of 2008 and 2009, exhibit a prominent periodicity of 20–40 min in lidar-observed aerosol variability and show close association with those observed in the near-surface temperature and wind at 5% statistical significance. Moreover, the lidar aerosol backscatter signal strength variations at different altitudes, which have been generated from the height-time series of the one-minute interval profiles at 2.4 m vertical resolution, indicate vertical propagation of these waves, exchanging energy between lower and higher height levels. Such oscillations are favoured by the stable atmospheric background condition and peculiar topography of the experimental site. Accurate representation of these buoyancy waves is essential in predicting the sporadic fluctuations of weather in the tropics.

  17. Ultra-high pressure water jetting for coating removal and surface preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Spencer T.

    1995-01-01

    This paper shall examine the basics of water technology with particular attention paid to systems currently in use and some select new applications. By providing an overview of commercially available water jet systems in the context of recent case histories, potential users may evaluate the process for future applications. With the on going introduction of regulations prohibiting the use of chemical paint strippers, manual scrapping and dry abrasive media blasting, the need for an environmentally compliant coating removal process has been mandated. Water jet cleaning has been a traditional part of many industrial processed for year, although it has only been in the last few years that reliable pumping equipment capable of ultra-high pressure operation have become available. With the advent of water jet pumping equipment capable of sustaining pressures in excess of 36,000 psi. there has been shift away from lower pressure, high water volume systems. One of the major factors in driving industry to seek higher pressures is the ability to offer higher productivity rates while lowering the quantity of water used and subsequently reprocessed. Among benefits of the trend toward higher pressure/lower volume systems is the corresponding reduction in water jet reaction forces making hand held water jetting practical and safe. Other unique applications made possible by these new generation pumping systems include the use of alternative fluids including liquid ammonia for specialized and hazardous material removal applications. A review of the equipment used and the required modifications will be presented along with the conclusions reached reached during this test program.

  18. Energetics and optimum motion of oscillating lifting surfaces. [energy losses of rigid wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, A. R.; Widnall, S. E.

    1983-01-01

    Low-frequency, unsteady, lifting-line theory is used to characterize the energetics and optimum motion of an unswept rigid wing oscillating harmonically in an inviscid, incompressible flow. The energetics calculations account for the leading edge suction force, the power absorbed in the wing oscillations, and the energy loss rate produced by vortex shedding. Optimization is achieved by minimizing the average energy loss rate in relation to a given thrust, and a unique solution is found in the three dimensional case for low, reduced frequencies. The two-dimensional solution is nonunique, a condition which is examined in terms of the normal modes of the energy loss rate matrix. An invisible mode with a hydrodynamic efficiency of 100 pct is obtained in the two-dimensional case, causing the nonuniqueness of the solution by yielding no fixed positive thrust through perfect unsteady feathering.

  19. Elimination or Minimization of Oscillation Marks: A Path To Improved Cast Surface Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Alan W. Cramb

    2007-12-17

    Oscillation marks are the most recognizable feature of continuous casting and can be related to the subsurface defects that can be found on product rolled from continuous cast slabs. The purpose of this work was to develop strategies that can be used on industrial continuous casters to reduce oscillation mark depth and, in particular, to minimize the formation of hook type defects that are prevalent on ultra low carbon grades. The major focus of the work was on developing a technique to allow heat transfer in the meniscus region of the continuous caster to be measured and the effect of mold slag chemistry and chrystallization to be documented. A new experimental technique was developed that allowed the effect of mold flux chemistry and chrystallization on the radiation heat transfer rate to be measured dynamically.

  20. Model polymer etching and surface modification by a time modulated RF plasma jet: role of atomic oxygen and water vapor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luan, P; Knoll, A J; Wang, H; Oehrlein, G S; Kondeti, V S S K; Bruggeman, P J

    2017-01-01

    The surface interaction of a well-characterized time modulated radio frequency (RF) plasma jet with polystyrene, poly(methyl methacrylate) and poly(vinyl alcohol) as model polymers is investigated. The RF plasma jet shows fast polymer etching but mild chemical modification with a characteristic carbonate ester and NO formation on the etched surface. By varying the plasma treatment conditions including feed gas composition, environment gaseous composition, and treatment distance, we find that short lived species, especially atomic O for Ar/1% O 2 and 1% air plasma and OH for Ar/1% H 2 O plasma, play an essential role for polymer etching. For O 2 containing plasma, we find that atomic O initiates polymer etching and the etching depth mirrors the measured decay of O atoms in the gas phase as the nozzle-surface distance increases. The etching reaction probability of an O atom ranging from 10 −4 to 10 −3 is consistent with low pressure plasma research. We also find that adding O 2 and H 2 O simultaneously into Ar feed gas quenches polymer etching compared to adding them separately which suggests the reduction of O and OH density in Ar/O 2 /H 2 O plasma. (letter)

  1. A Model for Jet-Surface Interaction Noise Using Physically Realizable Upstream Turbulence Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsar, Mohammed Z.; Leib, Stewart J.; Bozak, Richard F.

    2016-01-01

    This paper is a continuation of previous work in which a generalized Rapid Distortion Theory (RDT) formulation was used to model low-frequency trailing-edge noise. The research was motivated by proposed next-generation aircraft configurations where the exhaust system is tightly integrated with the airframe. Data from recent experiments at NASA on the interaction between high-Reynolds-number subsonic jet flows and an external flat plate showed that the power spectral density (PSD) of the far-field pressure underwent considerable amplification at low frequencies. For example, at the 90deg observation angle, the low-frequency noise could be as much as 10 dB greater than the jet noise itself. In this paper, we present predictions of the noise generated by the interaction of a rectangular jet with the trailing edge of a semi-infinite flat plate. The calculations are based on a formula for the acoustic spectrum of this noise source derived from an exact formal solution of the linearized Euler equations involving (in this case) one arbitrary convected scalar quantity and a Rayleigh equation Green's function. A low-frequency asymptotic approximation for the Green's function based on a two-dimensional mean flow is used in the calculations along with a physically realizable upstream turbulence spectrum, which includes a finite decorrelation region. Numerical predictions of the sound field, based on three-dimensional RANS solutions to determine the mean flow, turbulent kinetic energy and turbulence length and time scales, for a range of subsonic acoustic Mach number jets and nozzle aspect ratios are compared with experimental data. Comparisons of the RANS results with flow data are also presented for selected cases. We find that a finite decorrelation region in the turbulence spectrum increases the low-frequency algebraic decay (the low frequency "roll-off") of the acoustic spectrum with angular frequency thereby producing much closer agreement with noise data for Strouhal

  2. Directly drawn poly(3-hexylthiophene) field-effect transistors by electrohydrodynamic jet printing: improving performance with surface modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Yong Jin; Lee, Hyungdong; Lee, Byoung-Sun; Park, Seonuk; Yudistira, Hadi Teguh; Choong, Chwee-Lin; Park, Jong-Jin; Park, Chan Eon; Byun, Doyoung

    2014-07-09

    In this study, direct micropatterning lines of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) without any polymer binder were prepared by electrohydrodynamic jet printing to form organic field-effect transistors (OFETs). We controlled the dielectric surface by introducing self-assembled monolayers and polymer thin films to investigate the effect of surface modifications on the characteristics of printed P3HT lines and electrical performances of the OFETs. The morphology of the printed P3HT lines depended on the surface energy and type of substrate. The resulting OFETs exhibited high performance on octadecyltrichlorosilane-modified substrates, which was comparable to that of other printed P3HT OFETs. In order to realize the commercialization of the OFETs, we also fabricated a large-area transistor array, including 100 OFETs and low-operating-voltage flexible OFETs.

  3. Transport Phenomenon in a Third-Grade Fluid Over an Oscillating Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, A.; Saba, S.; Asghar, S.; Khan, D. N.

    2017-11-01

    The heat and mass transfer effects on the flow of a conducting third-grade fluid over an oscillating vertical porous plate with chemical reactions are considered. Highly nonlinear governing equations of the third-grade fluid are solved analytically by using a multi-parameter perturbation technique and compared with the numerical results obtained by the parallel shooting method. The fluid flow velocity, temperature, and concentration are analyzed as functions of the Hartmann number, suction parameter, Prandtl and Schmidt numbers, and chemical reaction parameter.

  4. A neural jet charge tagger for the measurement of the B$0\\atop{s}$-$\\bar{B}$$0\\atop{s}$ oscillation frequency at CDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecci, Claudia [Univ. of Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    A Jet Charge Tagger algorithm for b-flavour tagging for the measurement of Δms at CDF has been presented. The tagger is based on a b-track probability variable and a b-jet probability variable, both obtained by combining the information available in b$\\bar{b}$ events with a Neural Network. The tagging power measured on data is 0.917 ± 0.031% e+SVT sample; 0.938 ± 0.029% μ+SVT sample which is ~30% larger than the cut based Jet Charge Tagger employed for the B$0\\atop{s}$ mixing analysis presented by CDF at the Winter Conferences 2005. The improved power of the tagger is due to the selection of the b-jet with a Neural Network variable, which uses correlated jet variables in an optimal way. The development of the track and jet probability has profited from studies performed on simulated events, which allowed to understand better the features of b$\\bar{b}$ events. For the first time in the CDF B group a Monte Carlo sample comprising flavour creation and additional b$\\bar{b}$ production processes has been examined and compared to Run II data. It has been demonstrated that a Monte Carlo sample with only flavour creation b$\\bar{b}$ production processes is not sufficient to describe b$\\bar{b}$ data collected at CDF. The sample with additional processes introduced in this thesis is thus essential for tagging studies. Although the event description is satisfactory, the flavour information in the Monte Carlo sample differs with respect to data. This difference needs to be clarified by further studies. In addition, the track and the jet probabilities are the first official tools based on Neural Networks for B-Physics at CDF. They have proven that the simulation is understood to such an advanced level that Neural Networks can be employed. Further work is going on in this direction: a Soft Electron and a Soft Muon Tagger based on Neural Networks are under development as of now. Several possible tagger setups have been studied and the Jet Charge Tagger reached

  5. Spatial Patterns of Variability in Antarctic Surface Temperature: Connections to the Southern Hemisphere Annular Mode and the Southern Oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Ron; Comiso, Josefino C.; Koblinsky, Chester J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The 17-year (1982-1998) trend in surface temperature shows a general cooling over the Antarctic continent, warming of the sea ice zone, with moderate changes over the oceans. Warming of the peripheral seas is associated with negative trends in the regional sea ice extent. Effects of the Southern Hemisphere Annular Mode (SAM) and the extrapolar Southern Oscillation (SO) on surface temperature are quantified through regression analysis. Positive polarities of the SAM are associated with cold anomalies over most of Antarctica, with the most notable exception of the Antarctic Peninsula. Positive temperature anomalies and ice edge retreat in the Pacific sector are associated with El Nino episodes. Over the past two decades, the drift towards high polarity in the SAM and negative polarity in the SO indices couple to produce a spatial pattern with warmer temperatures in the Antarctic Peninsula and peripheral seas, and cooler temperatures over much of East Antarctica.

  6. Enhancement of cell growth on honeycomb-structured polylactide surface using atmospheric-pressure plasma jet modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Kuang-Yao; Chang, Chia-Hsing; Yang, Yi-Wei; Liao, Guo-Chun; Liu, Chih-Tung; Wu, Jong-Shinn, E-mail: chongsin@faculty.nctu.edu.tw

    2017-02-01

    Graphical abstract: Atmospheric-pressure plasma enhances cell growth on two different pore sizes of honeycomb pattern on polylactide surface. - Highlights: • Different pore sizes of honeycomb pattern on PLA film are created. • The two-step plasma treatment provided the oxygen- and nitrogen-containing functional groups that had a major impact on cell cultivation. • The plasma treatment had a significant effect for cell proliferation. • The surface structures are the main influence on cell cultivation, while plasma treatment can indeed improve the growth environment. - Abstract: In this paper, we compare the cell growth results of NIH-3T3 and Neuro-2A cells over 72 h on flat and honeycomb structured PLA films without and with a two-step atmospheric-pressure nitrogen-based plasma jet treatment. We developed a fabrication system used for forming of a uniform honeycomb structure on PLA surface, which can produce two different pore sizes, 3–4 μm and 7–8 μm, of honeycomb pattern. We applied a previously developed nitrogen-based atmospheric-pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) jet system to treat the PLA film without and with honeycomb structure. NIH-3T3 and a much smaller Neuro-2A cells were cultivated on the films under various surface conditions. The results show that the two-step plasma treatment in combination with a honeycomb structure can enhance cell growth on PLA film, should the cell size be not too smaller than the pore size of honeycomb structure, e.g., NIH-3T3. Otherwise, cell growth would be better on flat PLA film, e.g., Neuro-2A.

  7. Potential of using water jet peening as a surface treatment process for welded\

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Srivastava, M.; Tripathi, R.; Hloch, Sergej; Chattopadhyaya, S.; Dixit, A. R.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 149, č. 149 (2016), s. 472-480 E-ISSN 1877-7058. [International Conference on Manufacturing Engineering and Materials, ICMEM 2016. Nový Smokovec, 06.06.2016-10.06.2016] R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1406 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : water jet * peening * residual stress Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877705816312097

  8. Modulating flow and aerodynamic characteristics of a square cylinder in crossflow using a rear jet injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rong F.; Hsu, Ching M.; Chen, Yu T.

    2017-01-01

    The temporally evolved flow behaviors around a square cylinder subject to modulation of a planar jet issued from the cylinder's downstream surface into the wake were studied using the laser-assisted smoke flow visualization method and synchronized hot-wire anemometers. The drag force asserted on the square cylinder was obtained by measuring the surface pressures. Four characteristic flow modes (wake-dominated, transitional, critical, and jet-dominated) were observed in different regimes of freestream Reynolds number and jet injection ratio. In the wake-dominated mode, the jet swung periodically back and forth on the downstream surface due to the wake vortex shedding. In the transitional mode, the vortex shedding in the wake vanished so that the flow around the cylinder presented no periodic oscillations. In the critical mode, the wake width became smaller and therefore made the vortex shedding frequency larger than that observed in the wake dominated mode. In the jet-dominated mode, the jet had a large momentum that entrained wake fluids and therefore stabilized the instabilities of the wake, separated boundary layers on lateral surfaces, and stagnation point on the upstream surface. Two standing vortices appeared in the near wake beside the high-momentum jet. The width of the wake was decreased substantially by jet entrainment. The drag coefficient decreased with an increase in the jet injection ratio. The downstream surface jet injection caused the pressure coefficients to decrease at the upstream surface and to increase at the downstream surface. Therefore, the drag coefficients were decreased significantly by 26%, 33%, and 38% at the injection ratios of 0.5, 1.5, and 2.5, respectively.

  9. The Response of African Land Surface Phenology to Large Scale Climate Oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Molly E.; de Beurs, Kirsten; Vrieling, Anton

    2010-01-01

    Variations in agricultural production due to rainfall and temperature fluctuations are a primary cause of food insecurity on the African continent. Analysis of changes in phenology can provide quantitative information on the effect of climate variability on growing seasons in agricultural regions. Using a robust statistical methodology, we describe the relationship between phenology metrics derived from the 26 year AVHRR NDVI record and the North Atlantic Oscillation index (NAO), the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and the Multivariate ENSO Index (MEI). We map the most significant positive and negative correlation for the four climate indices in Eastern, Western and Southern Africa between two phenological metrics and the climate indices. Our objective is to provide evidence of whether climate variability captured in the four indices has had a significant impact on the vegetative productivity of Africa during the past quarter century. We found that the start of season and cumulative NDVI were significantly affected by large scale variations in climate. The particular climate index and the timing showing highest correlation depended heavily on the region examined. In Western Africa the cumulative NDVI correlates with PDO in September-November. In Eastern Africa the start of the June-October season strongly correlates with PDO in March-May, while the PDO in December-February correlates with the start of the February-June season. The cumulative NDVI over this last season relates to the MEI of March-May. For Southern Africa, high correlations exist between SOS and NAO of September-November, and cumulative NDVI and MEI of March-May. The research shows that climate indices can be used to anticipate late start and variable vigor in the growing season of sensitive agricultural regions in Africa.

  10. Hydromagnetic Flow and Heat Transfer over a Porous Oscillating Stretching Surface in a Viscoelastic Fluid with Porous Medium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Ullah Khan

    Full Text Available An analysis is carried out to study the heat transfer in unsteady two-dimensional boundary layer flow of a magnetohydrodynamics (MHD second grade fluid over a porous oscillating stretching surface embedded in porous medium. The flow is induced due to infinite elastic sheet which is stretched periodically. With the help of dimensionless variables, the governing flow equations are reduced to a system of non-linear partial differential equations. This system has been solved numerically using the finite difference scheme, in which a coordinate transformation is used to transform the semi-infinite physical space to a bounded computational domain. The influence of the involved parameters on the flow, the temperature distribution, the skin-friction coefficient and the local Nusselt number is shown and discussed in detail. The study reveals that an oscillatory sheet embedded in a fluid-saturated porous medium generates oscillatory motion in the fluid. The amplitude and phase of oscillations depends on the rheology of the fluid as well as on the other parameters coming through imposed boundary conditions, inclusion of body force term and permeability of the porous medium. It is found that amplitude of flow velocity increases with increasing viscoelastic and mass suction/injection parameters. However, it decreases with increasing the strength of the applied magnetic field. Moreover, the temperature of fluid is a decreasing function of viscoelastic parameter, mass suction/injection parameter and Prandtl number.

  11. Surface Waves and Flow-Induced Oscillations along an Underground Elliptic Cylinder Filled with a Viscous Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuraba, A.

    2015-12-01

    I made a linear analysis of flow-induced oscillations along an underground cylindrical conduit with an elliptical cross section on the basis of the hypothesis that volcanic tremor is a result of magma movement through a conduit. As a first step to understand how the self oscillation occurs because of magma flow, I investigated surface wave propagation and attenuation along an infinitely long fluid-filled elliptic cylinder in an elastic medium. The boundary element method is used to obtain the two-dimensional wave field around the ellipse in the frequency-wavenumber domain. When the major axis is much greater than the minor axis of the ellipse, we obtain the analytic form of the dispersion relation of both the crack-wave mode (Korneev 2008, Lipovsky & Dunham 2015) and the Rayleigh-wave mode with flexural deformation. The crack-wave mode generally has a slower phase speed and a higher attenuation than the Rayleigh-wave mode. In the long-wavelength limit, the crack-wave mode disappears because of fluid viscosity, but the Rayleigh-wave mode exists with a constant Q-value that depends on viscosity. When the aspect ratio of the ellipse is finite, the surface waves can basically be understood as those propagating along a fluid pipe. The flexural mode does exist even when the wavelength is much longer than the major axis, but its phase speed coincides with that of the surrounding S-wave (Randall 1991). As its attenuation is zero in the long-wavelength limit, the flexural mode differs in nature from surface wave. I also obtain a result on linear stability of viscous flow through an elliptic cylinder. In this analysis, I made an assumption that the fluid inertia is so small that the Stokes equation can be used. As suggested by the author's previous study (Sakuraba & Yamauchi 2014), the flexural (Rayleigh-wave) mode is destabilized at a critical flow speed that decreases with the wavelength. However, when the wavelength is much greater than the major axis of the ellipse, the

  12. Optimization of micropipette fabrication by laser micromachining for application in an ultrafine atmospheric pressure plasma jet using response surface methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Tao; Liu, Jingquan; Yang, Bin; Chen, Xiang; Wang, Xiaolin; Yang, Chunsheng

    2016-01-01

    The optimization of the laser micromachining process for special tapered micropipettes was investigated using response surface methodology. Three process parameters for the CO 2 laser-based micropipette puller (P-2000, Sutter Instrument) were chosen as variables, namely heat, velocity and pull. The targeted length L TVS of the tapered variant section with a tip diameter of 10 μ m was taken as a response. The optimum process parameters with L TVS of 7.3 mm were determined by analyzing the response surface three-dimension surface plots. The central composite design was selected to optimize the process variables, and the experimental data were fitted into a reduced cubic polynomial model. The high R 2 value (99.66%) and low coefficient of variation (0.73%) indicated the statistical significance of the model and good precision for the experiment. The optimization result showed that the best parameters were with the heat, velocity and pull values of 850, 53 and 170, respectively. The result was verified by a CO 2 laser-based micropipette puller three times with length L TVS at 7.26 mm, 7.35 mm and 7.36 mm with the same optimized parameters. Then, the application to the ultrafine atmospheric pressure He/O 2 plasma jets was carried out and micro-hole etching of the parylene-C film was realized with length L TVS at 6.29 mm, 7.35 mm and 8.02 mm. The results showed that the micro-plasma jet with an L TVS of 7.35 mm had the minimum applied voltage of 12.7 kV and the minimum micro-etching diameter of 45 μ m with the deepest etching depth of 2.8 μ m. (paper)

  13. Investigation of Self-Sustained Oscillations Along Perforated Surfaces which have Different Hole Sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coşkun ÖZALP

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The shear flow of a fully turbulent boundary layer along a perforated plate, which is bounded by a closed cavity on its backside, can give rise to highly coherent, self-sustained oscillations. These oscillations are characterized in terms of velocity fluctuations and quantitative images of the instantaneous and averaged flow structure using a technique of high-image-density particle image velocimetry (PIV. Variations of the effective length L of the perforated plate show nearly invariant values of dimensionless frequency fL/U; in which f is the predominant frequency of oscillation and U is the freestream velocity. In fact, this relationship holds even when the diameter of the hole pattern is altered. Variation of the hole diameter D does, however, strongly influence the amplitude and degree of organization of the self-sustained oscillation. Four different plates were employed, with whole diameters of D = 6.4 mm, 12.7mm, 19.1mm and 25.4mm. The plate was maintained constant thickness at t =11mm for all experiments. The freestream velocity was maintained at a value U = 240 mm/s and the momentum thickness of the turbulent boundary layer was q =7.5 mm.  [The Reynolds number based on q was Req = 1800.]   It is demonstrated that, as the hole diameter becomes larger relative to the inflow boundary layer thickness, the amplitude of the predominant spectral peak is substantially attenuated and, in a limiting case, undetectable.Keywords: Self-sustained oscillations, Perforated plate, PIV, velocity spectra  Özet. Kapalı bir kavite üzerine yerleştirilmiş gözenekli bir levha boyunca oluşmuş tam türbülanslı sınır tabaka içerisinde kendiliğinden sürekli salınımlar oluşur. Bu çalışmada parçacık görüntülemeli (PIV hız ölçme metodu kullanılarak anlık ve ortalama hız değerleri, girdap çizgileri, Reynolds gerilmeleri ve levha boyunca belli bir zaman aralığında ölçülen hız değerleri ile bu salınımlara ait

  14. Surface and microstructure modifications of Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy cutting by a water jet/high power laser converging coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Laurent; Tazibt, Abdel; Aillerie, Michel; Tidu, Albert

    2018-01-01

    The metallurgical evolution of the Ti-6Al-4V samples is analyzed after an appropriate cutting using a converging water jet/high power laser system. New surface microstructures are obtained on the cutting edge as a result of thermo-mechanical effects of such hybrid fluid-jet-laser tool on the targeted material. The laser beam allows to melt and the water-jet to cool down and to evacuate the material upstream according to a controlled cutting process. The experimental results have shown that a rutile layer can be generated on the surface near the cutting zone. The recorded metallurgical effect is attributed to the chemical reaction between water molecules and titanium, where the laser thermal energy brought onto the surface plays the role of reaction activator. The width of the oxidized zone was found proportional to the cutting speed. During the reaction, hydrogen gas H2 is formed and is absorbed by the metal. The hydrogen atoms trapped into the alloy change the metastable phase formation developing pure β circular grains as a skin at the kerf surface. This result is original so it would lead to innovative converging laser water jet process that could be used to increase the material properties especially for surface treatment, a key value of surface engineering and manufacturing chains.

  15. RF Sheath-Enhanced Plasma Surface Interaction Studies using Beryllium Optical Emission Spectroscopy in JET ITER-Like Wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarici, G. [Fusion for Energy (F4E), Barcelona, Spain; Klepper, C Christopher [ORNL; Colas, L. [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA); Krivska, Alena [Ecole Royale Militaire, Brussels Belgium; Bobkov, V. [Max-Planck-Institut fur Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Garching, Germany; Jacquet, P. [Culham Centre for Fusion Energy (CCFE), Abingdon, UK; Delabie, Ephrem G. [ORNL; Giroud, C. [EURATOM / UKAEA, UK; Kirov, K K. [Association EURATOM-CCFE, Abingdon, UK; Lasa Esquisabel, Ane [ORNL; Lerche, E. [ERM-KMS, Association EURATOM-Belgian State, Brussels, Belgium; Dumortier, P. [ERM-KMS, Association EURATOM-Belgian State, Brussels, Belgium; Durodie, Frederic [Ecole Royale Militaire, Brussels Belgium

    2017-10-01

    A dedicated study on JET-ILW, deploying two types of ICRH antennas and spectroscopic observation spots at two outboard, beryllium limiters, has provided insight on long-range (up to 6m) RFenhanced plasma-surface interactions (RF-PSI) due to near-antenna electric fields. To aid in the interpretation of optical emission measurements of these effects, the antenna near-fields are computed using the TOPICA code, specifically run for the ITER-like antenna (ILA); similar modelling already existed for the standard JET antennas (A2). In the experiment, both antennas were operated in current drive mode, as RF-PSI tends to be higher in this phasing and at similar power (∼0.5 MW). When sweeping the edge magnetic field pitch angle, peaked RF-PSI effects, in the form of 2-4 fold increase in the local Be source,are consistently measured with the observation spots magnetically connect to regions of TOPICAL-calculated high near-fields, particularly at the near-antenna limiters. It is also found that similar RF-PSI effects are produced by the two types of antenna on similarly distant limiters. Although this mapping of calculated near-fields to enhanced RF-PSI gives only qualitative interpretion of the data, the present dataset is expected to provide a sound experimental basis for emerging RF sheath simulation model validation.

  16. RF Sheath-Enhanced Plasma Surface Interaction Studies using Beryllium Optical Emission Spectroscopy in JET ITER-Like Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher Klepper, C.; Colas, Laurent; Křivská, Alena; Bobkov, Volodymyr; Jacquet, Philippe; Delabie, Ephrem; Giroud, Carine; Kirov, Krassimir; Lasa, Ane; Lerche, Ernesto; Dumortier, Pierre; Durodié, Frederic; Firdaouss, Mehdi

    2017-10-01

    A dedicated study on JET-ILW, deploying two types of ICRH antennas and spectroscopic observation spots at two outboard, beryllium limiters, has provided insight on long-range (up to 6m) RFenhanced plasma-surface interactions (RF-PSI) due to near-antenna electric fields. To aid in the interpretation of optical emission measurements of these effects, the antenna near-fields are computed using the TOPICA code, specifically run for the ITER-like antenna (ILA); similar modelling already existed for the standard JET antennas (A2). In the experiment, both antennas were operated in current drive mode, as RF-PSI tends to be higher in this phasing and at similar power (˜0.5 MW). When sweeping the edge magnetic field pitch angle, peaked RF-PSI effects, in the form of 2-4 fold increase in the local Be source,are consistently measured with the observation spots magnetically connect to regions of TOPICAL-calculated high near-fields, particularly at the near-antenna limiters. It is also found that similar RF-PSI effects are produced by the two types of antenna on similarly distant limiters. Although this mapping of calculated near-fields to enhanced RF-PSI gives only qualitative interpretion of the data, the present dataset is expected to provide a sound experimental basis for emerging RF sheath simulation model validation.

  17. Studies on Impingement Effects of Low Density Jets on Surfaces — Determination of Shear Stress and Normal Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathian, Sarith. P.; Kurian, Job

    2005-05-01

    This paper presents the results of the Laser Reflection Method (LRM) for the determination of shear stress due to impingement of low-density free jets on flat plate. For thin oil film moving under the action of aerodynamic boundary layer the shear stress at the air-oil interface is equal to the shear stress between the surface and air. A direct and dynamic measurement of the oil film slope is measured using a position sensing detector (PSD). The thinning rate of oil film is directly measured which is the major advantage of the LRM over LISF method. From the oil film slope history, direct calculation of the shear stress is done using a three-point formula. For the full range of experiment conditions Knudsen numbers varied till the continuum limit of the transition regime. The shear stress values for low-density flows in the transition regime are thus obtained using LRM and the measured values of shear show fair agreement with those obtained by other methods. Results of the normal pressure measurements on a flat plate in low-density jets by using thermistors as pressure sensors are also presented in the paper. The normal pressure profiles obtained show the characteristic features of Newtonian impact theory for hypersonic flows.

  18. Evaluation of sensing and actuation capabilities of piezoelectric composites in the impingement surface of a supersonic jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeborn-Scott, Christopher

    A short takeoff and vertical landing aircraft in hover creates a highly unsteady flowfield dominated by resonance. The supersonic impinging jet created by this aircraft causes damage to the aircraft and nearby structures, lift loss, hot exhaust/debris ingestion by the engine inlet and it is harmful to people in the vicinity. This unsteadiness is caused by a feedback loop, which begins with a disturbance as the nozzle exit that excites the shear layer causing an instability to travel down through the shear layer. As that instability travels downward, it grows and impinges on the ground creating a strong acoustic wave that travels up through the ambient air to the nozzle lip, thus closing the loop. The harmful effects of this flowfield are the motivation for this study. Many flow control techniques have been attempted to reduce the detrimental impact of this flowfield, most notably microjet injection around the periphery of the nozzle exit. This method has been shown to work well; however, this study focuses on implementing ground-based control. Piezoelectric composites have been successful both as frequency sensors and as actuators for vibration suppression. By implementing two piezoelectric composites, the macro-fiber composite and Quick Pack, into the impingement surface of a supersonic jet, an evaluation of the sensing and control capabilities of the devices can be evaluated. Both elements are glued to the underside of a thin, flexible plate, which is placed in the ground, and subjected to a supersonic impinging jet. The jet is ideally expanded at Mach 1.5 with a stagnation temperature equal to the ambient temperature. Narrowband acoustic and unsteady pressure spectra show that at h/d = 4, the presence of a compliant plate causes a shift in the dominant mode, which amounts to a shift in the main impingement tone frequency from 5.7 Hz to 7.1 Hz. Comparison of the power spectral density to the noise and pressure spectra showed that the piezofiber composites are

  19. EXPERIMENTAL MODELLING OF MECHANISMS CAUSING OCCURRENCE OF SEISMIC OSCILLATION SOURCES IN CASE OF INTERACTIONS OF UNEVEN SURFACES IN FAULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Ruzhich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments were carried out using TRIBO, a specially designed testing stand including a concrete plate that can be moved at different rates. In our experiment, the plate served as an artificial allochtonous wing placed at the uneven surface of the segment of the Angarsky fault in Pribaikalie. Tribological effects of contact interaction of the uneven surfaces in the zone of sliding movements of the plate were recorded by strain gauges, linear displacement gauges and four Baikal-7HR seismic stations; such stations are commonly used for earthquake recording. The effect of shocks in initiation of seismic oscillation sources was studied with changes of the regimes of destruction of the uneven surfaces (underneath the base of the plate which differ in size and strength. The study was focused on stages in the process of friction at preparation to transition from quasi-regular decelerated sliding movement of the plate to its breakaway and occurrence of a high-energy seismic impulse.The applied method of large-scale modelling at natural objects in field provides new data that may prove useful for stu­dies of mechanisms causing seismicity, identification of stages in occurrence of earthquakes in fault zones and interpretation of seismic monitoring data. Results of such physical tests can contribute to the development of methods aimed at forecasting of rock shocks and earthquakes and also for the development of new physical models showing formation of earthquake foci of various scales in tectonic faults.

  20. Physical modeling of the impingement of an air jet on a water surface; Modelado fisico de la incidencia de un chorro de aire sobre una superficie de agua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solorzano-Lopez, J.; Ramirez-Argaez, M.A.; Zenit, R.

    2010-07-01

    The use of gas jets (oxygen) plays a key role in several steelmaking processes as in the Basic Oxygen Furnace (BOF) or in the Electric Arc Furnace (EAF). Those jets improve heat, mass and momentum transfer in the liquid metal, mixing of chemical species enhancing and govern the formation of foaming slag. In this work experimental measurements were performed to determine the dimensions of the cavity formed at the liquid free surface caused by a gas jet impinging on it; also velocities vectors were measured in the zone affected by the gas jet. avities were measured from images from high speed camera and the vector maps were obtained with a Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique. Both velocities and cavities were determined as a function of the main process variables: gas flow rate, distance of the nozzle from the free surface and lance angle. Cavity dimensions were statistically processed treated as a function of the process variables and also as a function of the proper dimensionless numbers that govern these phenomena. It was found that Weber and Froude numbers govern the cavity geometry. Liquid flow driven by the jet is mainly affected by the air flow rate, lance height and angle. (Author).

  1. Friction characteristics of the curved sidewall surfaces of a rotary MEMS device in oscillating motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jie; Wang, Shao; Miao, Jianmin

    2009-01-01

    A MEMS device with a configuration similar to that of a micro-bearing was developed to study the friction behavior of the curved sidewall surfaces. This friction-testing device consists of two sets of actuators for normal motion and rotation, respectively. Friction measurements were performed at the curved sidewall surfaces of single-crystal silicon. Two general models were developed to determine the equivalent tangential stiffness of the bush-flexure assembly at the contact point by reducing a matrix equation to a one-dimensional formulation. With this simplification, the motions of the contacting surfaces were analyzed by using a recently developed quasi-static stick-slip model. The measurement results show that the coefficient of static friction exhibits a nonlinear dependence on the normal load. The true coefficient of static friction was determined by fitting the experimental friction curve

  2. Internal oscillating current-sustained RF plasmas: Parameters, stability, and potential for surface engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostrikov, K.; Tsakadze, E.L.; Tsakadze, Z.L.

    2005-01-01

    A new source of low-frequency (0.46 MHz) inductively coupled plasmas sustained by the internal planar "unidirectional" RF current driven through a specially designed internal antenna configuration has been developed. The experimental results of the investigation of the optical and global argon pl...... applications and surface engineering. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  3. Fabrication of Water Jet Resistant and Thermally Stable Superhydrophobic Surfaces by Spray Coating of Candle Soot Dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qahtan, Talal F; Gondal, Mohammed A; Alade, Ibrahim O; Dastageer, Mohammed A

    2017-08-08

    A facile synthesis method for highly stable carbon nanoparticle (CNP) dispersion in acetone by incomplete combustion of paraffin candle flame is presented. The synthesized CNP dispersion is the mixture of graphitic and amorphous carbon nanoparticles of the size range of 20-50 nm and manifested the mesoporosity with an average pore size of 7 nm and a BET surface area of 366 m 2 g -1 . As an application of this material, the carbon nanoparticle dispersion was spray coated (spray-based coating) on a glass surface to fabricate superhydrophobic (water contact angle > 150° and sliding angle fabricated from direct candle flame soot deposition (candle-based coating). This study proved that water jet resistant and thermally stable superhydrophobic surfaces can be easily fabricated by simple spray coating of CNP dispersion gathered from incomplete combustion of paraffin candle flame and this technique can be used for different applications with the potential for the large scale fabrication.

  4. Multiscale evolution of surface air temperature in the arid region of Northwest China and its linkages to ocean oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhongsheng; Chen, Yaning; Bai, Ling; Xu, Jianhua

    2017-05-01

    The global climate has experienced unprecedented warming in the past century. The multiscale evolution of the warming is studied to better understand the spatial and temporal variation patterns of temperature. In this study, based on the yearly surface air temperature from the gridded CRU TS 3.22 dataset and the ensemble empirical mode decomposition method (EEMD), we investigated the multiscale evolution of temperature variability in the arid region of Northwest China (ARNC) from 1901 to 2013. Furthermore, the possible influences on the ARNC temperature change from the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and dipole mode index (DMI) were also discussed. The results indicated that in the past century, the overall temperature in the ARNC has showed a significant non-linear upward trend, and its changes have clearly exhibited an interannual scale (quasi-2-3 and quasi-6-7-year) and an interdecadal scale (quasi-14, quasi-24, and quasi-70-year). Compared with the reconstructed interannual variation, the reconstructed interdecadal variability plays a decisive role in the ARNC warming and reveals the climatic pattern transformation from the cold period to the warm period before and after 1987. Additionally, there were also regional differences in the spatial patterns of change trend in the ARNC temperature at a given time. We also found that the AMO and PDO had significant impacts on the ARNC temperature fluctuation at an interdecadal scale, whereas the DMI had a more important role in warming at the annual scale, which suggests that the importance of oceans cannot be ignored when considering climate change. Our findings deepen the understanding of the temperature changes all over the ARNC in the context of global warming.

  5. Effect of de-correlating turbulence on the low frequency decay of jet-surface interaction noise in sub-sonic unheated air jets using a CFD-based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsar, M. Z.; Leib, S. J.; Bozak, R. F.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we extend the Rapid-distortion theory (RDT)-based model derived by Goldstein, Afsar & Leib (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 736, pp. 532-569, 2013) for the sound generated by the interaction of a large-aspect-ratio rectangular jet with the trailing edge of a flat plate to include a more realistic upstream turbulence spectrum that possess a de-correlation (i.e. negative dip) in its space-time structure and use results from three-dimensional Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) solutions to determine the mean flow, turbulent kinetic energy and turbulence length & time scales. Since the interaction noise dominates the low-frequency portion of the spectrum, we use an appropriate asymptotic approximation for the Rayleigh equation Green's function, which enters the analysis, based on a two-dimensional mean flow representation for the jet. We use the model to predict jet-surface interaction noise for a range of subsonic acoustic Mach number jets, nozzle aspect ratios, streamwise and transverse trailing-edge locations and compare them with experimental data. The RANS meanflow computations are also compared with flow data for selected cases to assess their validity. We find that finite de-correlation in the turbulence spectrum increases the low-frequency algebraic decay (the low-frequency "roll-off") of the acoustic spectrum with angular frequency to give a model that has a pure dipole frequency scaling. This gives better agreement with noise data compared to Goldstein et al. (2013) for Strouhal numbers less than the peak jet-surface interaction noise. For example, through sensitivity analysis we find that there is a difference of 10 dB at the lowest frequency for which data exists (relative to a model without de-correlation effects included) for the highest acoustic Mach number case. Secondly, our results for the planar flow theory provide a first estimate of the low-frequency amplification due to the jet-surface interaction for moderate aspect ratio nozzles when RANS

  6. Simultaneous excitation of the snake-like oscillations and the m/n = 1/1 resistive interchange modes around the iota = 1 rational surface just after hydrogen pellet injections in LHD plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bando, T.; Ohdachi, S.; Suzuki, Y.; Sakamoto, R.; Narushima, Y.; Takemura, Y.; Watanabe, K. Y.; Sakakibara, S.; Du, X. D.; Motojima, G.; Tanaka, K.; Morisaki, T.; LHD Experiment Group

    2018-01-01

    Two types of oscillation phenomena are found just after hydrogen ice pellet injections in the Large Helical Device (LHD). Oscillation phenomena appear when the deposition profile of a hydrogen ice pellet is localized around the rotational transform ι = 1 rational surface. At first, damping oscillations (type-I) appear only in the soft X-ray (SX) emission. They are followed by the second type of oscillations (type-II) where the magnetic fluctuations and density fluctuations synchronized to the SX fluctuations are observed. Both oscillations have poloidal/toroidal mode number, m/n = 1/1. Since the type-II oscillations appear when the local pressure is large and/or the local magnetic Reynold's number is small, it is reasonable that type-II oscillations are caused by the resistive interchange modes. Because both types of oscillations appear simultaneously at slightly different locations and with slightly different frequencies, it is certain that type-I oscillations are different from type-II oscillations, which we believe is the MHD instability. It is possible that type-I oscillations are caused by the asymmetric concentration of the impurities. The type-I oscillations are similar to the impurity snake phenomena observed in tokamaks though type-I oscillations survive only several tens of milliseconds in LHD.

  7. Sheet production apparatus for removing a crystalline sheet from the surface of a melt using gas jets located above and below the crystalline sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellerman, Peter L.; Thronson, Gregory D.

    2017-06-14

    In one embodiment, a sheet production apparatus comprises a vessel configured to hold a melt of a material. A cooling plate is disposed proximate the melt and is configured to form a sheet of the material on the melt. A first gas jet is configured to direct a gas toward an edge of the vessel. A sheet of a material is translated horizontally on a surface of the melt and the sheet is removed from the melt. The first gas jet may be directed at the meniscus and may stabilize this meniscus or increase local pressure within the meniscus.

  8. Grain refinement of commercial pure Al treated by Pulsed Magneto-Oscillation on the top surface of melts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Liang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Commercial pure Al can be refined by Pulsed Magneto-Oscillation (PMO treatment applied via a plate induction coil above the top surface of the melt. The proportion of the equiaxed zone area increases with decreasing Height to Diameter (H/D ratios from 3.5 to1.8 and further to 1.0. Meanwhile, it increases and then decreases with increasing peak current for the three kinds of ingots with H/D ratios of 3.5, 1.8 and 1.0, respectively. However, when the H/D ratio decreases to 0.44, the area proportion of equiaxed zone can reach the maximum value with a lower peak current. FEA software simulation indicates that smaller H/D ratio results in larger current density, electromagnetic force and convection on the top surface of the melt, favoring nucleation and subsequent grain formation. Through evaluating Joule heating effect by PMO, it was found that the proper amount of Joule heating benefits grain refinement. Excessive Joule heating can reduce the size of the equiaxed zone and change the growth morphology of the grains.

  9. Electrified Liquid Jets from Nanostructured Surfaces for Phase Change Heat Transfer Enhancement

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The need exists to dissipate up to 1kW/cm2 with minimum cooling power overhead and a minimum weight. Using micro and nanostructures on hot surfaces recently emerged...

  10. Investigation of sandwich material surface created by abrasive water jet (AWJ via vibration emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Hreha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents research a of abrasive waterjet cutting of heterogeneous “sandwich“ material with different Young modulus of elasticity of the cutted surface geometry by means of vibration emission. In order to confirm hypothetical assumptions about direct relation between vibration emission and surface quality an experiment in heterogeneous material consisting of stainless steel (DIN 1.4006 / AISI 410 and alloy AlCuMg2 has been provided.

  11. Multiple-beam output of a surface-emitted terahertz-wave parametric oscillator by using a slab MgO:LiNbO₃ crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weitao; Zhang, Xingyu; Wang, Qingpu; Cong, Zhenhua; Chen, Xiaohan; Liu, Zhaojun; Qin, Zengguang; Li, Ping; Tang, Guanqi; Li, Ning; Wang, Cong; Li, Yongfu; Cheng, Wenyong

    2014-02-15

    A MgO:LiNbO₃ slab configuration for the surface-emitted terahertz-wave parametric oscillator (TPO) is presented. The pump and the oscillating Stokes beams were totally reflected at the slab surface and propagated zigzaggedly in the slab MgO:LiNbO₃ crystal. Up to five terahertz beams were emitted perpendicularly to the surface of the crystal. The total output energy of the five THz-wave beams was 3.56 times as large as that obtained from the conventional surface-emitted TPO at the same experimental conditions. The intensity distributions of the THz wave beams were measured, and they were unsymmetrical in the horizontal direction while symmetrical in the vertical direction.

  12. Flowfield Behavior of Supersonic Impinging Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, K. G.; Alvi, F. S.

    1998-11-01

    A detailed study is being conducted which examines the behavior of normally impinging, supersonic jets, issuing from axisymmetric a Mach 1.5 C-D and a sonic nozzle. Our goal is to understand the physics of this flowfield (commonly observed in STOVL aircraft) and its influence on the acoustic and aerodynamic loading on the ground plane and the airframe. The airframe is simulated by a circular disc ('lift' plate) with an annular hole from which the jet is issued. Tests are carried out for a wide range of pressure ratios and the ground plane distance is varied from 1.5 to 60 nozzle diameters. Flowfield measurements include Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and schlieren/shadowgraph visualization. Surface measurements on the ground and lift plates include mean and unsteady surface pressure distributions and the surface streamline visualization. Near-field acoustic measurements using a microphone are also obtained. For certain cases, the PIV measurements -- first of their kind, to our knowledge -- clearly show the presence of large-scale coherent turbulent structures which, upon jet impingement, propagate into the resulting wall jet. These structures are believed to generate very high unsteady pressure loads on the ground plane thus leading to ground erosion. They are also suspected to be the source of acoustic waves which lead to a feedback loop causing violent oscillations of the primary jet and can result in increased acoustic loading and subsequent damage to the aircraft. As a result of this detailed study over a wide parametric space, we hope to gain a much better understanding of the physical mechanisms governing this complex flow.

  13. Canard explosion and coherent biresonance in the rate oscillation of CO oxidation on platinum surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Gang; Hou, Zhonghuai; Xin, Houwen

    2005-09-29

    The relationship between canard explosion and coherent biresonance is analyzed by numerically investigating a temporal dynamical model of CO oxidation on Pt surface. Canard explosion, manifesting itself by a dramatic change in the amplitude and period of a periodic orbit within a very narrow interval of a control parameter, is the result of multiple time scales in a dynamical system and is common in excitable systems. Coherent biresonance, namely, two peaks on the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) curve when varying noise intensity, is a novel phenomenon of coherent resonance which is well-known in excitable systems. When the control parameter is varied from a stable fixed point, crossing the supercritical Hopf bifurcation, one of the peaks that corresponds to relatively larger noise intensity, keeps a constant height and position, while the other becomes higher and moves to lower noise level. When we consider the case in which two control parameters are perturbed by independent noise simultaneously, an interesting picture of one valley between two ridges appears on the 3D surface of SNR.

  14. Waste Field Characteristics, Ultimate Mixing and Dilution in Surface Discharge of Dense Jets into Stagnant Water Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Direct discharges of municipal and industrial waste waters into water bodies through marine outfalls are considered as a common way to dispose the generated waste in coastal zones. Marine discharge, intensifying flow mixing and entrainment, decrease the concentration of polutant up to accepted concentration and meet the guideline values and to make possible continues discharge of flow into matine environment. During last years due to quick development of coastal desalination plants, surface discharge of preduced salty water into seas and oceans has increased significantly. In this study, releases of dense jets from surface rectangular channel into stagnant bodies are experimentally studied. The location of flow plunge point, impact point and discharge ultimate dilution were drown out by a digital video technology. In addition, using some conductivity probes located in ambient floor, waste filed dilution in flow impact point and discharge ultimate dilution were identified. Finally the obtained results were plotted and explained along with some diagrams to show flow non-dimensional behavior. The results showed that the properties of flow are changing directly with ambient water depth and discharge initial fluxes.

  15. Coupling of Surface and Volume Dipole Oscillations in C60 Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brack, M.; Winkler, P.; Murthy, M. V. N.

    We first give a short review of the "local-current approximation" (LCA), derived from a general variation principle, which serves as a semiclassical description of strongly collective excitations in finite fermion systems starting from their quantum-mechanical mean-field ground state. We illustrate it for the example of coupled translational and compressional dipole excitations in metal clusters. We then discuss collective electronic dipole excitations in C60 molecules (Buckminster fullerenes). We show that the coupling of the pure translational mode ("surface plasmon") with compressional volume modes in the semiclasscial LCA yields semi-quantitative agreement with microscopic time-dependent density functional (TDLDA) calculations, while both theories yield qualitative agreement with the recent experimental observation of a "volume plasmon".

  16. Coupling of surface and volume dipole oscillations in C60 molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brack, M.; Winkler, P.; Murthy, M.V.N.

    2008-01-01

    We first give a short review of the "local-current approximation" (LCA), derived from a general variation principle, which serves as a semiclassical description of strongly collective excitations in finite fermion systems starting from their quantum-mechanical mean-field ground state. We illustrate it for the example of coupled translational and compressional dipole excitations in metal clusters. We then discuss collective electronic dipole excitations in C 60 molecules (Buckminster fullerenes). We show that the coupling of the pure translational mode ("surface plasmon") with compressional volume modes in the semiclasscial LCA yields semi-quantitative agreement with microscopic time-dependent density functional (TDLDA) calculations, while both theories yield qualitative agreement with the recent experimental observation of a "volume plasmon". (author)

  17. The effect of surface tension on the contraction coefficient of a jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasmi, A; Mekias, H

    2003-01-01

    Two-dimensional free surface potential flow issued from an opening of a container is considered. The flow is assumed to be inviscid and incompressible. The mathematical problem, which is characterized by the nonlinear boundary condition on the free surface of an unknown equation, is solved via a series truncation. We computed solutions for all Weber numbers. Our problem is an extension of the work done by Ackerberg and Liu (1987 Phys. Fluids 30 289-96), the results confirm and extend their results

  18. Jet observables without jet algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertolini, Daniele; Chan, Tucker; Thaler, Jesse [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2014-04-02

    We introduce a new class of event shapes to characterize the jet-like structure of an event. Like traditional event shapes, our observables are infrared/collinear safe and involve a sum over all hadrons in an event, but like a jet clustering algorithm, they incorporate a jet radius parameter and a transverse momentum cut. Three of the ubiquitous jet-based observables — jet multiplicity, summed scalar transverse momentum, and missing transverse momentum — have event shape counterparts that are closely correlated with their jet-based cousins. Due to their “local” computational structure, these jet-like event shapes could potentially be used for trigger-level event selection at the LHC. Intriguingly, the jet multiplicity event shape typically takes on non-integer values, highlighting the inherent ambiguity in defining jets. By inverting jet multiplicity, we show how to characterize the transverse momentum of the n-th hardest jet without actually finding the constituents of that jet. Since many physics applications do require knowledge about the jet constituents, we also build a hybrid event shape that incorporates (local) jet clustering information. As a straightforward application of our general technique, we derive an event-shape version of jet trimming, allowing event-wide jet grooming without explicit jet identification. Finally, we briefly mention possible applications of our method for jet substructure studies.

  19. Quantum oscillations without a Fermi surface. The anomalous de Haas-van Alphen effect and relation to SmB{sub 6}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knolle, Johannes; Cooper, Nigel [T.C.M. Group, Cavendish Laboratory, J. J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-01

    The de Haas-van Alphen effect (dHvAE), describing oscillations of the magnetization as a function of magnetic field, is commonly assumed to be a definite sign for the presence of a Fermi surface (FS). Indeed, the effect forms the basis of a well-established experimental procedure for accurately measuring FS topology and geometry of metallic systems, with parameters commonly extracted by fitting to the Lifshitz-Kosevich (LK) theory based on Fermi liquid theory. Here we show that, in contrast to this canonical situation, there can be quantum oscillations even for band insulators of certain types. We provide simple analytic formulas describing the temperature dependence of the quantum oscillations in this setting, showing strong deviations from LK theory. We draw connections to recent experiments on the tentative topological Kondo insulator SmB{sub 6}.

  20. Intermonsoonal equatorial jets

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Muraleedharan, P.M.

    , respectively. Hydrographic features and transport computations favour a well developed equatorial jet during both seasons. The net surface eastward and subsurface westward flows are well balanced during the premonsoon transition period and appear...

  1. Extensional flow of low-viscosity fluids in capillary bridges formed by pulsed surface acoustic wave jetting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharjee, P K; McDonnell, A G; Prabhakar, R; Yeo, L Y; Friend, J, E-mail: james.friend@monash.edu.au [MicroNanophysics Research Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC 3800 (Australia); Melbourne Centre for Nanofabrication, Melbourne, VIC 3800 (Australia)

    2011-02-15

    Forming capillary bridges of low-viscosity ({approx}<10 mPa s) fluids is difficult, making the study of their capillary-thinning behavior and the measurement of the fluid's extensional viscosity difficult as well. Current techniques require some time to form a liquid bridge from the stretching of a droplet. Rapidly stretching a liquid bridge using these methods can cause its breakup if the viscosity is too low. Stretching more slowly allows the bridge to thin and break up before a suitable bridge geometry can be established to provide reliable and accurate rheological data. Using a pulsed surface acoustic wave to eject a jet from a sessile droplet, a capillary bridge may be formed in about 7.5 ms, about seven times quicker than current methods. With this approach, capillary bridges may be formed from Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids having much lower viscosities-water, 0.04% by weight solution of high-molecular-weight (7 MDa) polystyrene in dioctyl phthalate and 0.25% fibrinogen solution in demineralized water, for example. Details of the relatively simple system used to achieve these results are provided, as are experimental results indicating deviations from a Newtonian response by the low-viscosity non-Newtonian fluids used in our study.

  2. Planetary gyre, time-dependent eddies, torsional waves, and equatorial jets at the Earth's core surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gillet, N.; Jault, D.; Finlay, Chris

    2015-01-01

    We report a calculation of time-dependent quasi-geostrophic core flows for 1940–2010. Inverting recursively for an ensemble of solutions, we evaluate the main source of uncertainties, namely, the model errors arising from interactions between unresolved core surface motions and magnetic fields...... between the magnetic field and subdecadal nonzonal motions within the fluid outer core. Both the zonal and the more energetic nonzonal interannual motions were particularly intense close to the equator (below 10∘ latitude) between 1995 and 2010. We revise down the amplitude of the decade fluctuations...... of the planetary-scale circulation and find that electromagnetic core-mantle coupling is not the main mechanism for angular momentum exchanges on decadal time scales if mantle conductance is 3 × 108 S or lower....

  3. Fuzzy jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackey, Lester [Department of Statistics, Stanford University,Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Nachman, Benjamin [Department of Physics, Stanford University,Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University,2575 Sand Hill Rd, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Schwartzman, Ariel [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University,2575 Sand Hill Rd, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Stansbury, Conrad [Department of Physics, Stanford University,Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Collimated streams of particles produced in high energy physics experiments are organized using clustering algorithms to form jets. To construct jets, the experimental collaborations based at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) primarily use agglomerative hierarchical clustering schemes known as sequential recombination. We propose a new class of algorithms for clustering jets that use infrared and collinear safe mixture models. These new algorithms, known as fuzzy jets, are clustered using maximum likelihood techniques and can dynamically determine various properties of jets like their size. We show that the fuzzy jet size adds additional information to conventional jet tagging variables in boosted topologies. Furthermore, we study the impact of pileup and show that with some slight modifications to the algorithm, fuzzy jets can be stable up to high pileup interaction multiplicities.

  4. Mechanism of equivalent electric dipole oscillation for high-order harmonic generation from grating-structured solid-surface by femtosecond laser pulse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yang; Song, Hai-Ying; Liu, H.Y.; Liu, Shi-Bing, E-mail: sbliu@bjut.edu.cn

    2017-07-12

    Highlights: • Proposed a valid mechanism of high harmonic generation by laser grating target interaction: oscillation of equivalent electric dipole (OEED). • Found that there also exist harmonic emission at large emission angle but not just near-surface direction as the former researches had pointed out. • Show the process of the formation and motion of electron bunches at the grating-target surface irradiating with femtosecond laser pulse. - Abstract: We theoretically study high-order harmonic generation (HHG) from relativistically driven overdense plasma targets with rectangularly grating-structured surfaces by femtosecond laser pulses. Our particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations show that, under the conditions of low laser intensity and plasma density, the harmonics emit principally along small angles deviating from the target surface. Further investigation of the surface electron dynamics reveals that the electron bunches are formed by the interaction between the laser field and the target surface, giving rise to the oscillation of equivalent electric-dipole (OEED), which enhances specific harmonic orders. Our work helps understand the mechanism of harmonic emissions from grating targets and the distinction from the planar harmonic scheme.

  5. Simulations of Solar Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-02-01

    Formation of a coronal jet from twisted field lines that have reconnected with the ambient field. The colors show the radial velocity of the plasma. [Adapted from Szente et al. 2017]How do jets emitted from the Suns surface contribute to its corona and to the solar wind? In a recent study, a team of scientists performed complex three-dimensional simulations of coronal jets to answer these questions.Small ExplosionsCoronal jets are relatively small eruptions from the Suns surface, with heights of roughly 100 to 10,000 km, speeds of 10 to 1,000 km/s, and lifetimes of a few minutes to around ten hours. These jets are constantly present theyre emitted even from the quiet Sun, when activity is otherwise low and weve observed them with a fleet of Sun-watching space telescopes spanning the visible, extreme ultraviolet (EUV), and X-ray wavelength bands.A comparison of simulated observations based on the authors model (left panels) to actual EUV and X-ray observations of jets (right panels). [Szente et al. 2017]Due to their ubiquity, we speculate that these jets might contribute to heating the global solar corona (which is significantly hotter than the surface below it, a curiosity known as the coronal heating problem). We can also wonder what role these jets might play in driving the overall solar wind.Launching a JetLed by Judit Szente (University of Michigan), a team of scientists has explored the impact of coronal jets on the global corona and solar wind with a series of numerical simulations. Szente and collaborators used three-dimensional, magnetohydrodynamic simulations that provide realistic treatment of the solar atmosphere, the solar wind acceleration, and the complexities of heat transfer throughout the corona.In the authors simulations, a jet is initiated as a magnetic dipole rotates at the solar surface, winding up field lines. Magnetic reconnection between the twisted lines and the background field then launches the jet from the dense and hot solar

  6. Calculation of the Induced Charge Distribution on the Surface of a Metallic Nanoparticle Due to an Oscillating Dipole Using Discrete Dipole Approximation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Fallahi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the interaction between an oscillating dipole moment and a Silver nanoparticle has been studied. Our calculations are based on Mie scattering theory and discrete dipole approximation(DDA method.At first, the resonance frequency due to excitingthe localized surface plasmons has been obtained using Mie scattering theory and then by exciting a dipole moment in theclose proximity of the nanoparticle, the induced charge distribution on the nanoparticle surface has been calculated. In our calculations, we have exploited the experimental data obtained by Johnson and Christy for dielectric function.

  7. Surface processing and ageing behavior of silk fabrics treated with atmospheric-pressure plasma for pigment-based ink-jet printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunming; Wang, Libing; Yu, Miao; Qu, Lijun; Men, Yajing; Zhang, Xiangwu

    2018-03-01

    Pigment inkjet printing has highlighted the advantages of cost-effective, short production cycle and environment-friendly. However, patterns directly printed with pigment inks usually have low color yields and blurry images which are caused by bleeding phenomenon. This work presents an atmospheric-pressure plasma method for improving the pigment-based ink-jet printing performance of silk fabrics. The effects of surface changes induced are discussed, with data derived from morphological study by atomic force microscopy (AFM), chemical analysis using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and contact angle measurement. Ink-jet printing experiments were conducted to study the influence of measured changes on anti-bleeding property and color strength of treated and original samples. The ageing experiment indicates that the modified silk fabrics should be printed within 24 h after plasma processing for maximum color yields. This study explores an effective approach for the atmospheric-pressure plasma, which can provide its significant use in improving the surface properties and ink-jet printing performance of fabrics.

  8. Numerical sensitivity study of the nocturnal low-level jet over a forest canopy and implications for nocturnal surface exchange of carbon dioxide and other trace gases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sogachev, Andrey; Leclerc, M.Y.; Duarte, H.F.

    2010-01-01

    and are typically intertwined with other contributing factors, they constitute an important cause of jet formation. This mechanism is the only one that can be simulated by one-dimensional atmospheric boundary-layer model. This mechanism is a strong function of the distribution of surface energy properties which...... in the nocturnal boundary layer, several studies demonstrated the role of nocturnal jets in transporting moisture, ozone, and other trace gases between the biosphere and the lower atmosphere (Mathieu et al., 2005; Karipot et al., 2006; 2007; 2008; 2009). This study suggests that SCADIS, because of its simplicity...... and low computational demand, has potential as a research tool regarding surface–atmosphere gaseous exchange in the nocturnal boundary layer, especially if carbon dioxide, water vapor, ozone and other gases are released or deposited inside the forest canopy....

  9. The stability of large oscillating bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, John; Pearson, Antony

    2002-11-01

    In a most remarkable paper, in October 1942, Penney & Price developed a theory for the stability of large oscillating bubbles; in their case they were interested in underwater explosions. Much of our current understanding on the stability of oscillating bubbles can be traced to the theoretical and experimental insight shown in this paper. While interest in this particular area continues with regard ship survivability to underwater explosions, other newer areas include the oscillatory behaviour of of seismic airgun generated bubbles. Apart from large volume oscillations with a characteristic period, the other dominant parameter is associated with buoyancy. An appropriate parameter is chosen that provides a measure of the distance of migration of a bubble over one period. An analytical and computational analysis of this class of problem reveals that this pressure gradient driven instability, normally observed in the form of a high speed liquid jet threading the bubble, is the most dominant surface instability, a characteristic feature borne out in most experimental and practical applications due to the presence of an incipient pressure gradient associated with hydrostatics, dynamics or boundaries

  10. The Application of the Theory of Synthesis of a Delay Line with a Surface Acoustic Wave for a Single-Mode Oscillator of Electric Signals in Some Sensors of Non-Electrical Quantities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šimko Milan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the issue of constructing delay lines on the basis of surface acoustic waves and their application to single-mode oscillators. As a result of a theoretical analysis concrete delay lines are proposed.

  11. Neurodynamic oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Ismael; Gonzalez, Hortensia; Quiza, Jorge; Gonazalez, J. Jesus; Arroyo, Ruben; Lara, Ritaluz

    1995-01-01

    Oscillation of electrical activity has been found in many nervous systems, from invertebrates to vertebrates including man. There exists experimental evidence of very simple circuits with the capability of oscillation. Neurons with intrinsic oscillation have been found and also neural circuits where oscillation is a property of the network. These two types of oscillations coexist in many instances. It is nowadays hypothesized that behind synchronization and oscillation there is a system of coupled oscillators responsible for activities that range from locomotion and feature binding in vision to control of sleep and circadian rhythms. The huge knowledge that has been acquired on oscillators from the times of Lord Rayleigh has made the simulation of neural oscillators a very active endeavor. This has been enhanced with more recent physiological findings about small neural circuits by means of intracellular and extracellular recordings as well as imaging methods. The future of this interdisciplinary field looks very promising; some researchers are going into quantum mechanics with the idea of trying to provide a quantum description of the brain. In this work we describe some simulations using neuron models by means of which we form simple neural networks that have the capability of oscillation. We analyze the oscillatory activity with root locus method, cross-correlation histograms, and phase planes. In the more complicated neural network models there is the possibility of chaotic oscillatory activity and we study that by means of Lyapunov exponents. The companion paper shows an example of that kind.

  12. Physics of liquid jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggers, Jens; Villermaux, Emmanuel

    2008-01-01

    Jets, i.e. collimated streams of matter, occur from the microscale up to the large-scale structure of the universe. Our focus will be mostly on surface tension effects, which result from the cohesive properties of liquids. Paradoxically, cohesive forces promote the breakup of jets, widely encountered in nature, technology and basic science, for example in nuclear fission, DNA sampling, medical diagnostics, sprays, agricultural irrigation and jet engine technology. Liquid jets thus serve as a paradigm for free-surface motion, hydrodynamic instability and singularity formation leading to drop breakup. In addition to their practical usefulness, jets are an ideal probe for liquid properties, such as surface tension, viscosity or non-Newtonian rheology. They also arise from the last but one topology change of liquid masses bursting into sprays. Jet dynamics are sensitive to the turbulent or thermal excitation of the fluid, as well as to the surrounding gas or fluid medium. The aim of this review is to provide a unified description of the fundamental and the technological aspects of these subjects

  13. Surface modification of epoxy resin using He/CF4 atmospheric pressure plasma jet for flashover withstanding characteristics improvement in vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sile; Wang, Shuai; Wang, Yibo; Guo, Baohong; Li, Guoqiang; Chang, Zhengshi; Zhang, Guan-Jun

    2017-08-01

    For enhancing the surface electric withstanding strength of insulating materials, epoxy resin (EP) samples are treated by atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) with different time interval from 0 to 300s. Helium (He) and tetrafluoromethane (CF4) mixtures are used as working gases with the concentration of CF4 ranging 0%-5%, and when CF4 is ∼3%, the APPJ exhibits an optimal steady state. The flashover withstanding characteristics of modified EP in vacuum are greatly improved under appropriate APPJ treatment conditions. The surface properties of EP samples are evaluated by surface roughness, scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and water contact angle. It is considered that both physical and chemical effects lead to the enhancement of flashover strength. The physical effect is reflected in the increase of surface roughness, while the chemical effect is reflected in the graft of fluorine groups.

  14. Wind-tunnel investigation of aerodynamic performance, steady amd vibratory loads, surface temperatures, and acoustic characteristics of a large-scale twin-engine upper-surface blown jet-flap configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Static and wind-on tests were conducted to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of and the effects of jet impingement on the wing of a large scale upper surface blown configuration powered with an actual turbine engine. The wing and flaps were instrumented with experimental dual-sensing transducer units consisting of a fluctuating pressure gage, a vibratory accelerometer, and a surface mounted alumel thermocouple. Noise directivity and spectral content measurements were obtained for various flap configurations and various engine thrust settings to provide baseline noise data for other upper surface blown configurations.

  15. Numerical investigation of the effect of the configuration of ExoMars landing platform propulsion system on the interaction of supersonic jets with the surface of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagenov, Anuar; Glazunov, Anatoliy; Kostyushin, Kirill; Eremin, Ivan; Shuvarikov, Vladimir

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents the results of numerical investigations of the interaction with the Mars surface of four supersonic jets of ExoMars landing platform propulsion system. The cases of impingement of supersonic jets on a curved surface are considered depending on the values of propulsion system thrust. According to the results of numerical studies are obtained the values of normal stresses on the surface of Mars at altitudes of 1.0, 0.5 and 0.3 meter to the surface of the landing. To define the occurring shear stresses Mohr-Coulomb theory was used. The maximum values of shear stresses were defined for the following types of soil of Mars: drift material, crusty to cloddy material, blocky material, sand and Mojave Mars simulant. The conducted evaluations showed, regardless of the propulsion system configuration, that when the final stage of the controlled landing of the ExoMars landing platform, the erosion of the Mars regolith would be insignificant. The estimates are consistent with the available data from previous Mars missions.

  16. Surface modification of epoxy resin using He/CF{sub 4} atmospheric pressure plasma jet for flashover withstanding characteristics improvement in vacuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Sile; Wang, Shuai; Wang, Yibo; Guo, Baohong; Li, Guoqiang; Chang, Zhengshi; Zhang, Guan-Jun, E-mail: gjzhang@xjtu.edu.cn

    2017-08-31

    Highlights: • Epoxy resin (EP) samples are treated by atmospheric pressures plasma jet (APPJ). • Flashover withstanding characteristics of epoxy resin samples are improved a lot after APPJ treatment. • Appropriate treatment conditions are important to modify EP samples by APPJ. • Both physical and chemical effects lead to the enhancement of flashover strength. - Abstract: For enhancing the surface electric withstanding strength of insulating materials, epoxy resin (EP) samples are treated by atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) with different time interval from 0 to 300s. Helium (He) and tetrafluoromethane (CF{sub 4}) mixtures are used as working gases with the concentration of CF{sub 4} ranging 0%-5%, and when CF{sub 4} is ∼3%, the APPJ exhibits an optimal steady state. The flashover withstanding characteristics of modified EP in vacuum are greatly improved under appropriate APPJ treatment conditions. The surface properties of EP samples are evaluated by surface roughness, scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and water contact angle. It is considered that both physical and chemical effects lead to the enhancement of flashover strength. The physical effect is reflected in the increase of surface roughness, while the chemical effect is reflected in the graft of fluorine groups.

  17. Surface modification of epoxy resin using He/CF4 atmospheric pressure plasma jet for flashover withstanding characteristics improvement in vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Sile; Wang, Shuai; Wang, Yibo; Guo, Baohong; Li, Guoqiang; Chang, Zhengshi; Zhang, Guan-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Epoxy resin (EP) samples are treated by atmospheric pressures plasma jet (APPJ). • Flashover withstanding characteristics of epoxy resin samples are improved a lot after APPJ treatment. • Appropriate treatment conditions are important to modify EP samples by APPJ. • Both physical and chemical effects lead to the enhancement of flashover strength. - Abstract: For enhancing the surface electric withstanding strength of insulating materials, epoxy resin (EP) samples are treated by atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) with different time interval from 0 to 300s. Helium (He) and tetrafluoromethane (CF 4 ) mixtures are used as working gases with the concentration of CF 4 ranging 0%-5%, and when CF 4 is ∼3%, the APPJ exhibits an optimal steady state. The flashover withstanding characteristics of modified EP in vacuum are greatly improved under appropriate APPJ treatment conditions. The surface properties of EP samples are evaluated by surface roughness, scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and water contact angle. It is considered that both physical and chemical effects lead to the enhancement of flashover strength. The physical effect is reflected in the increase of surface roughness, while the chemical effect is reflected in the graft of fluorine groups.

  18. Numerical evaluation of heat flux and surface temperature on a misaligned JET divertor W lamella during ELMs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dejarnac, Renaud; Podolník, Aleš; Komm, Michael; Arnoux, G.; Coenen, J.W.; Devaux, S.; Frassinetti, L.; Gunn, J. P.; Matthews, G. F.; Pitts, R.A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 12 (2014), s. 123011-123011 ISSN 0029-5515 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : PIC simulations * power flux * plasma–wall interactions * JET * divertor Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.062, year: 2014 http://iopscience.iop.org/0029-5515/54/12/123011/pdf/0029-5515_54_12_123011.pdf

  19. Two-phase jet impingement cooling for high heat flux wide band-gap devices using multi-scale porous surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Shailesh N.; Dede, Ercan M.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Jet impingement with phase change on multi-scale porous surfaces is investigated. • Porous coated flat, pin-fin, open tunnel, and closed tunnel structures are studied. • Boiling curve, heat transfer coefficient, and pressure drop metrics are reported. • Flow visualization shows vapor removal from the surface is a key aspect of design. • The porous coated pin-fin surface exhibits superior two-phase cooling performance. - Abstract: In the future, wide band-gap (WBG) devices such as silicon carbide and gallium nitride will be widely used in automotive power electronics due to performance advantages over silicon-based devices. The high heat fluxes dissipated by WBG devices pose extreme cooling challenges that demand the use of advanced thermal management technologies such as two-phase cooling. In this light, we describe the performance of a submerged two-phase jet impingement cooler in combination with porous coated heat spreaders and multi-jet orifices. The cooling performance of four different porous coated structures was evaluated using R-245fa as the coolant at sub-cooling of 5 K. The results show that the boiling performance of a pin-fin heat spreader is the highest followed by that for an open tunnel (OPT), closed tunnel (CLT), and flat heat spreader. Furthermore, the flat heat spreader demonstrated the lowest critical heat flux (CHF), while the pin-fin surface sustained a heat flux of 218 W/cm 2 without reaching CHF. The CHF values of the OPT and CLT surfaces were 202 W/cm 2 and 194 W/cm 2 , respectively. The pin-fin heat spreader has the highest two-phase heat transfer coefficient of 97,800 W/m 2 K, while the CLT surface has the lowest heat transfer coefficient of 69,300 W/m 2 K, both at a heat flux of 165 W/cm 2 . The variation of the pressure drop of all surfaces is similar for the entire range of heat fluxes tested. The flat heat spreader exhibited the least pressure drop, 1.73 kPa, while the CLT surface had the highest, 2.17 kPa at a

  20. Angle-dependent magnetoresistance oscillations and Fermi surface reordering at high magnetic fields in {alpha}-(ET){sub 2}KHg(SCN){sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caulfield, J. [Clarendon Lab. (United Kingdom); Blundell, S.J. [Clarendon Lab. (United Kingdom); Singleton, J. [Clarendon Lab. (United Kingdom); House, A. [Clarendon Lab. (United Kingdom); Du Croo de Jongh, M.S.L. [Clarendon Lab. (United Kingdom); Hendriks, P.T.J. [High Field Magnet Lab. and Research Inst. for Materials, Univ. of Nijmegen (Netherlands); Perenboom, J.A.A.J. [High Field Magnet Lab. and Research Inst. for Materials, Univ. of Nijmegen (Netherlands); Hayes, W. [Clarendon Lab. (United Kingdom); Kurmoo, M. [Clarendon Lab. (United Kingdom)]|[Royal Institution, London (United Kingdom); Day, P. [Royal Institution, London (United Kingdom)

    1995-03-15

    Angle dependent magnetoresistance oscillations (AMRO) have been studied in the charge transfer salt {alpha}-(ET){sub 2}KHg(SCN){sub 4} for magnetic fields in the range 0 - 30 T. This salt exhibits the onset of antiferromagnetic order at temperatures T{sub N} {approx}8-10 K and the presence below this temperature of a region of sharp negative magnetoresistance at a field around 22 T known as the ``kink``. AMRO have been measured in this salt for a wide range of applied fields since the period, amplitude, and nature of the oscillations can be used to directly infer the character of the Fermi surface (FS) as a function of field. The data indicate that a profound change in the band structure occurs at this kink transition; the high field phase is characterised by quasi-2D oscillations from a closed cylindrical FS which is elongated in the c direction; the low field phase appears to be a spin density wave groundstate, with a FS consisting of a sheet (which is quasi-1D in character and tilted at an angle of {approx}21 to the b{sup *}c plane) and small closed 2D pockets. It is suggested that the breakdown orbits between the pockets and the 1D sheets are able to account for the various Shubnikov-de Haas frequencies observed below the kink. (orig.)

  1. Rebounding of a shaped-charge jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proskuryakov, E. V.; Sorokin, M. V.; Fomin, V. M.

    2007-09-01

    The phenomenon of rebounding of a shaped-charge jet from the armour surface with small angles between the jet axis and the target surface is considered. Rebounding angles as a function of jet velocity are obtained in experiments for a copper shaped-charge jet. An engineering calculation technique is developed. The results calculated with the use of this technique are in reasonable agreement with experimental data.

  2. Overstability for surface tension and coupled buoyancy-driven instability in a horizontal liquid layer - Toward the understanding of thermal lens oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouesbet, G.; Maquet, J.

    1987-06-01

    The overstability for surface tension and coupled buoyancy-driven instability in a horizontal liquid layer, with very general conditions, is studied. A linear formulation to compute the critical quantities is established. Numerical results are given and compared with overstability experiments in which a free surface is heated by a controlled hot-wire located near and below it. When correctly presented in terms of well chosen reduced quantities, theoretical and experimental results agree very well, showing that there is an analogy between the theoretical problem (horizontal liquid layer, basic conductive state) and the experimental situation (hot-wire heating, basic convective state). Disagreements are pointed out to stress the limitations of the analogy. The original motivation of the work is the understanding of thermal lens oscillations produced when heating below the free surface is carried out using a laser beam.

  3. Nonlinearity, Viscosity and Air-Compressibility Effects on the Helmholtz Resonant Wave Motion Generated by an Oscillating Twin Body in a Free Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananthakrishnan, Palaniswamy

    2012-11-01

    The problem is of practical relevance in determining the motion response of multi-hull and air-cushion vehicles in high seas and in littoral waters. The linear inviscid problem without surface pressure has been well studied in the past. In the present work, the nonlinear wave-body interaction problem is solved using finite-difference methods based on boundary-fitted coordinates. The inviscid nonlinear problem is tackled using the mixed Eulerian-Lagrangian formulation and the solution of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations governing the viscous problem using a fractional-step method. The pressure variation in the air cushion is modeled using the isentropic gas equation pVγ = Constant. Results show that viscosity and free-surface nonlinearity significantly affect the hydrodynamic force and the wave motion at the resonant Helmholtz frequency (at which the primary wave motion is the vertical oscillation of the mean surface in between the bodies). Air compressibility suppresses the Helmholtz oscillation and enhances the wave radiation. Work supported by the ONR under the grant N00014-98-1-0151.

  4. Neutrino Oscillations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Neutrino Oscillations: New Windows to the Particle World. General Article Volume 21 Issue 10 ... Neutrino oscillation is a quantum mechanicalphenomenon whereby a neutrino created witha specific lepton flavour (electron, muon, or tau) can later bemeasured to have a different flavour. Historical developmentof the field in ...

  5. Chemical Oscillations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The law of mass-action led chemists to the belief that reactions approach equilibrium steadily. So the discovery of chemical oscillations came as a surprise. Now chemists are very familiar with reactions that oscillate in time and/or space. Experimental and theoretical studies of such reac- tions showing temporal and spatial ...

  6. Increased adhesion of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) to acrylic adhesive tape for medical use by surface treatment with an atmospheric pressure rotating plasma jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jofre-Reche, José Antonio; Pulpytel, Jérôme; Arefi-Khonsari, Farzaneh; Martín-Martínez, José Miguel

    2016-08-01

    The surface properties of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) were modified by treatment with an atmospheric pressure rotating plasma jet (APPJ) and the surface modifications were studied to assess its hydrophilicity and adhesion to acrylic adhesive tape intended for medical applications. Furthermore, the extent of hydrophobic recovery under different storage conditions was studied. The surface treatment of PDMS with the APPJ under optimal conditions noticeably increased the oxygen content and most of the surface silicon species were fully oxidized. A brittle silica-like layer on the outermost surface was created showing changes in topography due to the formation of grooves and cracks. A huge improvement in T-peel and the shear adhesive strength of the APPJ-treated PDMS surface/acrylic tape joints was obtained. On the other hand, the hydrophilicity of the PDMS surface increased noticeably after the APPJ treatment, but 24 h after treatment almost 80% hydrophobicity was recovered and the adhesive strength was markedly reduced with time after the APPJ treatment. However, the application of an acrylic adhesive layer on the just-APPJ-treated PDMS surface retained the adhesive strength, limiting the extent of hydrophobic recovery.

  7. Increased adhesion of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) to acrylic adhesive tape for medical use by surface treatment with an atmospheric pressure rotating plasma jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jofre-Reche, José Antonio; Martín-Martínez, José Miguel; Pulpytel, Jérôme; Arefi-Khonsari, Farzaneh

    2016-01-01

    The surface properties of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) were modified by treatment with an atmospheric pressure rotating plasma jet (APPJ) and the surface modifications were studied to assess its hydrophilicity and adhesion to acrylic adhesive tape intended for medical applications. Furthermore, the extent of hydrophobic recovery under different storage conditions was studied. The surface treatment of PDMS with the APPJ under optimal conditions noticeably increased the oxygen content and most of the surface silicon species were fully oxidized. A brittle silica-like layer on the outermost surface was created showing changes in topography due to the formation of grooves and cracks. A huge improvement in T-peel and the shear adhesive strength of the APPJ-treated PDMS surface/acrylic tape joints was obtained. On the other hand, the hydrophilicity of the PDMS surface increased noticeably after the APPJ treatment, but 24 h after treatment almost 80% hydrophobicity was recovered and the adhesive strength was markedly reduced with time after the APPJ treatment. However, the application of an acrylic adhesive layer on the just-APPJ-treated PDMS surface retained the adhesive strength, limiting the extent of hydrophobic recovery. (paper)

  8. Atmospheric plasma surface modifications of electrospun PCL/chitosan/PCL hybrid scaffolds by nozzle type plasma jets for usage of cell cultivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surucu, Seda [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Atilim University, Incek, Golbasi, 06836, Ankara (Turkey); Masur, Kai [Leibniz Institute for Plasma Science and Technology (Germany); Turkoglu Sasmazel, Hilal, E-mail: hilal.sasmazel@atilim.edu.tr [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Atilim University, Incek, Golbasi, 06836, Ankara (Turkey); Von Woedtke, Thomas; Weltmann, Klaus Dieter [Leibniz Institute for Plasma Science and Technology (Germany)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Electrospun PCL/chitosan/PCL scaffolds introduced to the literature by us were modified with atmospheric pressure plasma jets. • Plasma was fed into the system with different gas flow rates, time and distances. • Topographical and functional changes were examined by various characterization methods. • Optimum plasma treatment parameters for enhanced topography and functionality were determined. • Electrospun hybrid plasma surface modified samples showed the increased biocompatibility performance of L929 fibroblast cells. - Abstract: This paper reports Ar gas, Ar + O{sub 2}, Ar + O{sub 2} + N{sub 2} gas mixtures and dry air plasma modifications by atmospheric pressure argon driven kINPen and air driven Diener (PlasmaBeam) plasma jets to alter surface properties of three dimensional (3D), electrospun PCL/Chitosan/PCL layer by layer hybrid scaffolds to improve human fibroblast (MRC5) cell attachment and growth. The characterizations of the samples were done by contact angle (CA) measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-Ray Photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. The results showed that the plasma modification carried out under dry air and Ar + O{sub 2} + N{sub 2} gas mixtures were altered effectively the nanotopography and the functionality of the material surfaces. It was found that the samples treated with Ar + O{sub 2} + N{sub 2} gas mixtures for 1 min and dry air for 9 min have better hydrophilicity 78.9° ± 1.0 and 75.6° ± 0.1, respectively compared to the untreated samples (126.5°). Biocompatibility performance of the scaffolds was determined with alamarBlue (aB) assay and MTT assay methods, Giemsa staining, fluorescence microscope, confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analyses. The results showed that plasma treated samples increased the hydrophilicity and oxygen functionality and topography of the surfaces significantly, thus affecting the cell viability and proliferation on

  9. Phase noise and frequency stability in oscillators

    CERN Document Server

    Rubiola, Enrico

    2009-01-01

    Presenting a comprehensive account of oscillator phase noise and frequency stability, this practical text is both mathematically rigorous and accessible. An in-depth treatment of the noise mechanism is given, describing the oscillator as a physical system, and showing that simple general laws govern the stability of a large variety of oscillators differing in technology and frequency range. Inevitably, special attention is given to amplifiers, resonators, delay lines, feedback, and flicker (1/f) noise. The reverse engineering of oscillators based on phase-noise spectra is also covered, and end-of-chapter exercises are given. Uniquely, numerous practical examples are presented, including case studies taken from laboratory prototypes and commercial oscillators, which allow the oscillator internal design to be understood by analyzing its phase-noise spectrum. Based on tutorials given by the author at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, international IEEE meetings, and in industry, this is a useful reference for acade...

  10. Aging does not affect generalized postural motor learning in response to variable amplitude oscillations of the support surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ooteghem, Karen; Frank, James S; Allard, Fran; Horak, Fay B

    2010-08-01

    Postural motor learning for dynamic balance tasks has been demonstrated in healthy older adults (Van Ooteghem et al. in Exp Brain Res 199(2):185-193, 2009). The purpose of this study was to investigate the type of knowledge (general or specific) obtained with balance training in this age group and to examine whether embedding perturbation regularities within a balance task masks specific learning. Two groups of older adults maintained balance on a translating platform that oscillated with variable amplitude and constant frequency. One group was trained using an embedded-sequence (ES) protocol which contained the same 15-s sequence of variable amplitude oscillations in the middle of each trial. A second group was trained using a looped-sequence (LS) protocol which contained a 15-s sequence repeated three times to form each trial. All trials were 45 s. Participants were not informed of any repetition. To examine learning, participants performed a retention test following a 24-h delay. LS participants also completed a transfer task. Specificity of learning was examined by comparing performance for repeated versus random sequences (ES) and training versus transfer sequences (LS). Performance was measured by deriving spatial and temporal measures of whole body center of mass (COM) and trunk orientation. Both groups improved performance with practice as characterized by reduced COM displacement, improved COM-platform phase relationships, and decreased angular trunk motion. Furthermore, improvements reflected general rather than specific postural motor learning regardless of training protocol (ES or LS). This finding is similar to young adults (Van Ooteghem et al. in Exp Brain Res 187(4):603-611, 2008) and indicates that age does not influence the type of learning which occurs for balance control.

  11. Flow visualization of the wake of a transport aircraft model with lateral-control oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, F. L., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    An exploratory flow visualization study conducted in the Langley Vortex Research Facility to investigate the effectiveness of lateral control surface oscillations as a potential method for wake vortex attenuation on a 0.03 scale model of a wide body jet transport aircraft is described. Effects of both asymmetric surface oscillation (control surfaces move as with normal lateral control inputs) and symmetric surface oscillation (control surfaces move in phase) are presented. The asymmetric case simulated a flight maneuver which was previously investigated on the transport aircraft during NASA/FAA flight tests and which resulted in substantial wake vortex attenuation. Effects on the model wake vortex systems were observed by propelling the model through a two dimensional smoke screen perpendicular to the model flight path. Results are presented as photographic time histories of the wake characteristics recorded with high speed still cameras. Effects of oscillation on the wake roll up are described in some detail, and the amount of vortex attenuation observed is discussed in comparative terms. Findings were consistent with flight test results in that only a small amount of rotation was observed in the wake for the asymmetric case. A possible aerodynamic mechanism contributing to this attenuation is suggested.

  12. Emerging Jets

    CERN Document Server

    Schwaller, Pedro; Weiler, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we propose a novel search strategy for new physics at the LHC that utilizes calorimeter jets that (i) are composed dominantly of displaced tracks and (ii) have many different vertices within the jet cone. Such emerging jet signatures are smoking guns for models with a composite dark sector where a parton shower in the dark sector is followed by displaced decays of dark pions back to SM jets. No current LHC searches are sensitive to this type of phenomenology. We perform a detailed simulation for a benchmark signal with two regular and two emerging jets, and present and implement strategies to suppress QCD backgrounds by up to six orders of magnitude. At the 14 TeV LHC, this signature can be probed with mediator masses as large as 1.5 TeV for a range of dark pion lifetimes, and the reach is increased further at the high-luminosity LHC. The emerging jet search is also sensitive to a broad class of long-lived phenomena, and we show this for a supersymmetric model with R-parity violation. Possibilit...

  13. El Niño-Southern Oscillation-time scale covariation of sea surface salinity and freshwater flux in the western tropical and northern subtropical Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagano, Akira; Hasegawa, Takuya; Ueki, Iwao; Ando, Kentaro

    2017-07-01

    We examined the covariation of sea surface salinity (SSS) and freshwater flux in the western tropical and northern subtropical Pacific on the El Niño-Southern Oscillation time scale, using a canonical correlation analysis of monthly data between 2001 and 2013. The dominant covariation, i.e., the first canonical mode, has large positive and negative amplitudes in regions east of the Philippines and New Guinea, respectively, and reaches peaks in autumn to winter of El Niño years. The positive SSS anomaly east of the Philippines is advected to the Kuroshio Extension region. We found that the second canonical mode is another coupled variation with localized amplitudes of SSS under the atmospheric convergence zones in winter to spring of La Niña years. However, the negative SSS anomaly is annihilated possibly by the evaporation in the subtropical region.

  14. A level set methodology for predicting the effect of mask wear on surface evolution of features in abrasive jet micro-machining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burzynski, T; Papini, M

    2012-01-01

    A previous implementation of narrow-band level set methodology developed by the authors was extended to allow for the modelling of mask erosive wear in abrasive jet micro-machining (AJM). The model permits the prediction of the surface evolution of both the mask and the target simultaneously, by representing them as a hybrid and continuous mask–target surface. The model also accounts for the change in abrasive mass flux incident to both the target surface and, for the first time, the eroding mask edge, that is brought about by the presence of the mask edge itself. The predictions of the channel surface and eroded mask profiles were compared with measurements on channels machined in both glass and poly-methyl-methacrylate (PMMA) targets at both normal and oblique incidence, using tempered steel and elastomeric masks. A much better agreement between the predicted and measured profiles was found when mask wear was taken into account. Mask wear generally resulted in wider and deeper glass target profiles and wider PMMA target profiles, respectively, when compared to cases where no mask wear was present. This work has important implications for the AJM of complex MEMS and microfluidic devices that require longer machining times. (paper)

  15. Separation control with fluidic oscillators in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, H.-J.; Woszidlo, R.; Nayeri, C. N.; Paschereit, C. O.

    2017-08-01

    The present study assesses the applicability of fluidic oscillators for separation control in water. The first part of this work evaluates the properties of the fluidic oscillators including frequency, cavitation effects, and exerted thrust. Derived from the governing internal dynamics, the oscillation frequency is found to scale directly with the jet's exit velocity and the size of the fluidic oscillator independent of the working fluid. Frequency data from various experiments collapse onto a single curve. The occurrence of cavitation is examined by visual inspection and hydrophone measurements. The oscillation frequency is not affected by cavitation because it does not occur inside the oscillators. The spectral information obtained with the hydrophone provide a reliable indicator for the onset of cavitation at the exit. The performance of the fluidic oscillators for separation control on a bluff body does not seem to be affected by the presence of cavitation. The thrust exerted by an array of fluidic oscillators with water as the working fluid is measured to be even larger than theoretically estimated values. The second part of the presented work compares the performance of fluidic oscillators for separation control in water with previous results in air. The array of fluidic oscillators is installed into the rear end of a bluff body model. The drag improvements based on force balance measurements agree well with previous wind tunnel experiments on the same model. The flow field is examined by pressure measurements and with particle image velocimetry. Similar performance and flow field characteristics are observed in both water and air.

  16. Comparison of the influence of acoustically enhanced pulsating water jet on selected surface integrity characteristics of CW004A copper and CW614N brass

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lehocká, D.; Klichová, Dagmar; Foldyna, Josef; Hloch, Sergej; Hvizdoš, P.; Fides, M.; Botko, F.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 110, November 2017 (2017), s. 230-238 ISSN 0263-2241 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1406; GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : pulsating water jet * surface integrity * mass material removal * copper * nanoindentation Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools Impact factor: 2.359, year: 2016 http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0263224117304396/1-s2.0-S0263224117304396-main.pdf?_tid=783a1e88-7d09-11e7-9063-00000aacb362&acdnat=1502286708_794e233dee7c309f6d1566e4775d6ff0

  17. Comparison of the influence of acoustically enhanced pulsating water jet on selected surface integrity characteristics of CW004A copper and CW614N brass

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lehocká, D.; Klichová, Dagmar; Foldyna, Josef; Hloch, Sergej; Hvizdoš, P.; Fides, M.; Botko, F.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 110, November 2017 (2017), s. 230-238 ISSN 0263-2241 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1406; GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : pulsating water jet * surface integrity * mass material removal * copper * nanoindentation Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools OBOR OECD: Mechanical engineering Impact factor: 2.359, year: 2016 http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0263224117304396/1-s2.0-S0263224117304396-main.pdf?_tid=783a1e88-7d09-11e7-9063-00000aacb362&acdnat=1502286708_794e233dee7c309f6d1566e4775d6ff0

  18. Nonlinear oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Nayfeh, Ali Hasan

    1995-01-01

    Nonlinear Oscillations is a self-contained and thorough treatment of the vigorous research that has occurred in nonlinear mechanics since 1970. The book begins with fundamental concepts and techniques of analysis and progresses through recent developments and provides an overview that abstracts and introduces main nonlinear phenomena. It treats systems having a single degree of freedom, introducing basic concepts and analytical methods, and extends concepts and methods to systems having degrees of freedom. Most of this material cannot be found in any other text. Nonlinear Oscillations uses sim

  19. Oscillations in neutron stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeye, Gudrun Kristine

    1999-07-01

    We have studied radial and nonradial oscillations in neutron stars, both in a general relativistic and non-relativistic frame, for several different equilibrium models. Different equations of state were combined, and our results show that it is possible to distinguish between the models based on their oscillation periods. We have particularly focused on the p-, f-, and g-modes. We find oscillation periods of II approx. 0.1 ms for the p-modes, II approx. 0.1 - 0.8 ms for the f-modes and II approx. 10 - 400 ms for the g-modes. For high-order (l (>{sub )} 4) f-modes we were also able to derive a formula that determines II{sub l+1} from II{sub l} and II{sub l-1} to an accuracy of 0.1%. Further, for the radial f-mode we find that the oscillation period goes to infinity as the maximum mass of the star is approached. Both p-, f-, and g-modes are sensitive to changes in the central baryon number density n{sub c}, while the g-modes are also sensitive to variations in the surface temperature. The g-modes are concentrated in the surface layer, while p- and f-modes can be found in all parts of the star. The effects of general relativity were studied, and we find that these are important at high central baryon number densities, especially for the p- and f-modes. General relativistic effects can therefore not be neglected when studying oscillations in neutron stars. We have further developed an improved Cowling approximation in the non-relativistic frame, which eliminates about half of the gap in the oscillation periods that results from use of the ordinary Cowling approximation. We suggest to develop an improved Cowling approximation also in the general relativistic frame. (Author)

  20. Radial flow pulse jet mixer

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanOsdol, John G.

    2013-06-25

    The disclosure provides a pulse jet mixing vessel for mixing a plurality of solid particles. The pulse jet mixing vessel is comprised of a sludge basin, a flow surface surrounding the sludge basin, and a downcoming flow annulus between the flow surface and an inner shroud. The pulse jet mixing vessel is additionally comprised of an upper vessel pressurization volume in fluid communication with the downcoming flow annulus, and an inner shroud surge volume separated from the downcoming flow annulus by the inner shroud. When the solid particles are resting on the sludge basin and a fluid such as water is atop the particles and extending into the downcoming flow annulus and the inner shroud surge volume, mixing occurs by pressurization of the upper vessel pressurization volume, generating an inward radial flow over the flow surface and an upwash jet at the center of the sludge basin.

  1. REVIEW OF WATER JET APPLICATIONS IN MANUFACTURING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk MENDİ

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available Usage of water jets in manufacturing processes, has been known for many decades. A wide range of engineering materials can be cut by water jets with satisfactory results. Enhanced reliability and efficiency of the technique, have yielded the technology greater interest for manufacturing applications. Water jets are used to cut soft materials such as wood, plastics, aluminium and copper. Abrasive water jets are used to cut very hard materials such as titanium, inconel, glass and ceramics. It is impossible to cut these materials with classical cutting technics. A water jet processing system utilises water pressure in the range of 100Mpa-400Mpa, for the different applications. In abrasive water jet milling and abrasive water jet cutting processes, the pressure of the jet is about 400Mpa. In water jet surface penning, the jet pressure is about 100Mpa. The process of abrasives mixing with the water stream is a complex phenomena. Erosion processes involved in cutting not yet fully understood. The lack of understanding the process call for other strategies in finding appropriate ways to obtain a precision depth in cutting operation. In this paper the principles of water jet systems had been explained. Results of experiments that made on cutting process and surface strengthening with water jet had been given.

  2. Contemporary Surface Seasonal Oscillation and Vertical Deformation in Tibetan Plateau and Nepal Derived from the GPS, Leveling and GRACE Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, W.; Pan, Y.; Hwang, C.; Ding, H.

    2015-12-01

    We use 168 Continuous Global Positioning System (CGPS) stations distributed in the Tibetan Plateau (TP) and Nepal from lengths of 2.5 to 14 years to estimate the present-day velocity field in this area, including the horizontal and vertical deformations under the frame ITRF2008. We estimate and remove common mode errors in regional GPS time series using the principal component analysis (PCA), obtaining a time series with high signal to noise ratio. Following the maximum estimation analysis, a power law plus white noise stochastic model are adopted to estimate the velocity field. The highlight of Tibetan region is the crust vertical deformation. GPS vertical time series present seasonal oscillations caused by temporal mass loads, hence GRACE data from CSR are used to study the mass loads change. After removing the mass load deformations from GPS vertical rates, the results are improved. Leveling data about 48 years in this region are also used to estimate the rates of vertical movements. Our study suggests that the boundary of south Nepal is still sinking due to the fact that the India plate is crashing into the Eurasian plate. The uplift rates from south to north of TP reduce gradually. Himalayas region and north Nepal uplift around 6 mm/yr in average. The uplift rate along East TP in Qinhai is around 2.7 mm/yr in average. In contrast, the southeast of Tibetan Plateau, south Yunnan and Tarim in Xinjiang sink with different magnitudes. Our observation results suggest complicated mechanism of the mass migration in TP. This study is supported by National 973 Project China (grant Nos. 2013CB733302 and 2013CB733305), NSFC (grant Nos. 41174011, 41429401, 41210006, 41128003, 41021061).

  3. Chemical Oscillations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    behaviour of a few complex chemical systems. We observed that these chemical oscillators are basically .... Kutta fourth order integration method to solve the Lotka-. Volterra equation as per the Fortran program given in ... This is known as the phase plane represen- tation. We have obtained these plots using the software.

  4. Chemical Oscillations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    relevant species is zero. So, oscillations can appear only if the inhibition step is somehow .... the value of such an experimental parameter can possi- bly move the system between the steady states. Per- ... states for different values of [X], obtained far from equilibrium. Figure 2. System showing. The concentrations [X] ...

  5. Effects of Surface Modification of Nanodiamond Particles for Nucleation Enhancement during Its Film Growth by Microwave Plasma Jet Chemical Vapour Deposition Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chii-Ruey Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The seedings of the substrate with a suspension of nanodiamond particles (NDPs were widely used as nucleation seeds to enhance the growth of nanostructured diamond films. The formation of agglomerates in the suspension of NDPs, however, may have adverse impact on the initial growth period. Therefore, this paper was aimed at the surface modification of the NDPs to enhance the diamond nucleation for the growth of nanocrystalline diamond films which could be used in photovoltaic applications. Hydrogen plasma, thermal, and surfactant treatment techniques were employed to improve the dispersion characteristics of detonation nanodiamond particles in aqueous media. The seeding of silicon substrate was then carried out with an optimized spin-coating method. The results of both Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering measurements demonstrated that plasma treated diamond nanoparticles possessed polar surface functional groups and attained high dispersion in methanol. The nanocrystalline diamond films deposited by microwave plasma jet chemical vapour deposition exhibited extremely fine grain and high smooth surfaces (~6.4 nm rms on the whole film. These results indeed open up a prospect of nanocrystalline diamond films in solar cell applications.

  6. Analysis of a Free Surface Film from a Controlled Liquid Impinging Jet over a Rotating Disk Including Conjugate Effects, with and without Evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaran, Subramanian (Technical Monitor); Rice, Jeremy; Faghri, Amir; Cetegen, Baki M.

    2005-01-01

    A detailed analysis of the liquid film characteristics and the accompanying heat transfer of a free surface controlled liquid impinging jet onto a rotating disk are presented. The computations were run on a two-dimensional axi-symmetric Eulerian mesh while the free surface was calculated with the volume of fluid method. Flow rates between 3 and 15 1pm with rotational speeds between 50 and 200 rpm are analyzed. The effects of inlet temperature on the film thickness and heat transfer are characterized as well as evaporative effects. The conjugate heating effect is modeled, and was found to effect the heat transfer results the most at both the inner and outer edges of the heated surface. The heat transfer was enhanced with both increasing flow rate and increasing rotational speeds. When evaporative effects were modeled, the evaporation was found to increase the heat transfer at the lower flow rates the most because of a fully developed thermal field that was achieved. The evaporative effects did not significantly enhance the heat transfer at the higher flow rates.

  7. Uniform plasma oscillations in ellipsoid of conductive material

    OpenAIRE

    Kornyushin, Yuri

    2007-01-01

    The influence of the shape of a sample on the type of uniform dipole collective electrons oscillations is discussed. In samples of a bulk shape uniform bulk dipole oscillation (Langmuir oscillation) cannot exist. It exists in samples of a thin slab shape only. As uniform bulk dipole oscillations cannot penetrate ellipsoidal samples of conductive material they exist in the surface layer of a sample only (Mie oscillations). Frequencies of Mie oscillations are calculated for a sample of the shap...

  8. Inter-Relationship Between Subtropical Pacific Sea Surface Temperature, Arctic Sea Ice Concentration, and the North Atlantic Oscillation in Recent Summers and Winters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Young-Kwon; Cullather, Richard I.; Nowicki, Sophie M.; Kim, Kyu-Myong

    2017-01-01

    The inter-relationship between subtropical western-central Pacific sea surface temperatures (STWCPSST), sea ice concentration in the Beaufort Sea (SICBS), and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) are investigated for the last 37 summers and winters (1980-2016). Lag-correlation of the STWCPSST×(-1) in spring with the NAO phase and SICBS in summer increases over the last two decades, reaching r = 0.4-0.5 with significance at 5 percent, while winter has strong correlations in approximately 1985-2005. Observational analysis and the atmospheric general circulation model experiments both suggest that STWCPSST warming acts to increase the Arctic geopotential height and temperature in the following season. This atmospheric response extends to Greenland, providing favorable conditions for developing the negative phase of the NAO. SIC and surface albedo tend to decrease over the Beaufort Sea in summer, linked to the positive surface net shortwave flux. Energy balance considering radiative and turbulent fluxes reveal that available energy that can heat surface is larger over the Arctic and Greenland and smaller over the south of Greenland, in response to the STWCPSST warming in spring. XXXX Arctic & Atlantic: Positive upper-level height/T anomaly over the Arctic and Greenland, and a negative anomaly over the central-eastern Atlantic, resembling the (-) phase of the NAO. Pacific: The negative height/T anomaly over the mid-latitudes, along with the positive anomaly over the STWCP, where 1degC warming above climatology is prescribed. Discussion: It is likely that the Arctic gets warm and the NAO is in the negative phase in response to the STWCP warming. But, there are other factors (e.g., internal variability) that contribute to determination of the NAO phase: not always the negative phase of the NAO in the event of STWCP warming (e.g.: recent winters and near neutral NAO in 2017 summer).

  9. Microstructure, microhardness, composition, and corrosive properties of stainless steel 304. I. Laser surface alloying with silicon by beam-oscillating method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isshiki, Y.; Shi, J.; Hashimoto, M.; Nakai, H.

    2000-01-01

    Laser surface alloying (LSA) with silicon was conducted on austenitic stainless steel 304. Silicon slurry composed of silicon particle of 5 μm in average diameter was made and a uniform layer was supplied on the substrate stainless steel. The surface was melted with beam-oscillated carbon dioxide laser and then LSA layers of 0.4-1.2 mm in thickness were obtained. When an impinged energy density was adjusted to be equal to or lower than 100 W mm -2 , LSA layers retained rapidly solidified microstructure with dispersed cracks. In these samples, Fe 3 Si was detected and the concentration of Si in LSA layer was estimated to be 10.5 wt.% maximum. When the energy density was equal to or greater than 147 W mm -2 , cellular grained structure with no crack was formed. No iron silicate was observed and alpha iron content in LSA layers increased. Si concentration within LSA layers was estimated to be 5 to 9 wt.% on average. Crack-free as-deposited samples exhibited no distinct corrosion resistance. The segregation of Si was confirmed along the grain boundaries and inside the grains. The microstructure of these samples changed with solution-annealing and the corrosion resistance was fairly improved with the time period of solution-annealing. (orig.)

  10. Fishbone-like events in jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nave, M.F.F.; Campbell, D.; Joffrin, E.; Pegoraro, F.; Porcelli, F.; Smeulders, P.; Thomsen, K.

    1989-01-01

    A variety of MHD activity has been observed in JET during auxiliary heating experiments. In particular, periodic bursts of oscillations detected in several diagnostics show signatures similar to that of the 'fishbone' instabilities. Here we describe the characteristics of these instabilities, discuss the operating conditions under which they are observed, and compare these with the predictions of theory. (author) 7 refs., 6 figs

  11. Jet Quenching via Jet Collimation

    CERN Document Server

    Casalderrey-Solana, Jorge; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS Collaboration recently reported strong modifications of dijet properties in heavy ion collisions. In this work, we discuss to what extent these first data constrain already the microscopic mechanism underlying jet quenching. Simple kinematic arguments lead us to identify a frequency collimation mechanism via which the medium efficiently trims away the soft components of the jet parton shower. Through this mechanism, the observed dijet asymmetry can be accomodated with values of $\\hat{q}\\, L$ that lie in the expected order of magnitude.

  12. Comparision of Cut Surface Properties Obtained from AISI 1030 Steel by Abresive Water Jet and by Other Methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADNAN AKKURT

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available With the development in cutting operation, the surface properties which get from the the finishing operation and preparation to manifacture applications have a great importance.Generally the variation features of material, the edge cutting deformation, surface properties and the geometry of the canal characterize the processing quality in the cutting methods.In a cutting operation the aim is to get the cut surface in a very short time with high quality.The answer is searching for the question, which technique for which material must be use to get a good efficiency.In this study the aim was to cut the material AISI 1030, which is used very frequently in manifacture industry, with very common methods and to get and evaluate effects of results on mechanic and metallurgic properties of material.So the result of this study is the method in cutting with ASJ is the most efficient and with oxygen is least efficient.

  13. Mid-late Holocene changes in the El Niño Southern Oscillation and Hadley Cell intensity; their effect on sea-surface conditions in the mid-latitude southeast Pacific Ocean (41°S)

    OpenAIRE

    Verleye, T.

    2010-01-01

    The study focuses on the observed effects of changes in the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Hadley Cell intensity on sea-surface water conditions in the SE Pacific (41°S; Site ODP1233) during the last 8.000 years. Recent studies suggest that periods characterised by a negative Southern Oscillation Index (SOI; El Niño) cause positive precipitation anomalies during austral winter (and annually) in Mid-South Chile, while austral summer periods are rather drier. This because El Niño weake...

  14. Transient gas jets into liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jane Ming-Chin

    An experimental investigation of the development of high velocity, impulsively initiated gas jets into liquid was conducted in an effort to understand some of the physical processes that occur for a jet of very light fluid into a dense ambient atmosphere. Four gases, refrigerants 12 and 22, nitrogen, and helium were injected into water at nozzle exit Mach numbers from 1.0 to 2.2.The study showed that a gas jet into water develops in at least three stages: startup, transition, and global steady state. The startup is characterized by bubble growth; the growth rate is well predicted by classical bubble-growth theory. Jet transition is marked by axially directed flow, which penetrates through the startup bubble and which forms a cylindrical protrusion along the axis of symmetry. A combination of strong recirculating flow and liquid entrainment causes the startup bubble to deflate and to lift off and move downstream. In the steady state, instantaneous photographs show small-scale fluctuations of the jet boundary, but time-averaged photographs show the expected conical spreading of the steady jet; the measured spreading angles range from 18-25 degrees.However, the most significant finding of this study is that under some conditions, the gas jet into liquid never reaches the global steady state. Instead, the jet boundary exhibits chugging: large nonlinear oscillations which lead to irregular collapses of the gas column followed by explosive outward bursts of gas. The unsteadiness observed is much more violent than the familiar fluctuations typical of constant-density jets. The length scale of the motion is generally on the order of several jet diameters; the time scale is on the order of the period for bubble collapse.It was found that the amplitude and frequency of chugging are strongly dependent on the ratio of the liquid density to the gas density, the jet Mach number, and the operating pressure ratio. The conditions under which unsteadiness occurs were determined

  15. The Role of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) on Recent Greenland Surface Mass Loss and Mass Partitioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesco, M.; Alexander, P.; Porter, D. F.; Fettweis, X.; Luthcke, S. B.; Mote, T. L.; Rennermalm, A.; Hanna, E.

    2017-12-01

    Despite recent changes in Greenland surface mass losses and atmospheric circulation over the Arctic, little attention has been given to the potential role of large-scale atmospheric processes on the spatial and temporal variability of mass loss and partitioning of the GrIS mass loss. Using a combination of satellite gravimetry measurements, outputs of the MAR regional climate model and reanalysis data, we show that changes in atmospheric patterns since 2013 over the North Atlantic region of the Arctic (NAA) modulate total mass loss trends over Greenland together with the spatial and temporal distribution of mass loss partitioning. For example, during the 2002 - 2012 period, melting persistently increased, especially along the west coast, as a consequence of increased insulation and negative NAO conditions characterizing that period. Starting in 2013, runoff along the west coast decreased while snowfall increased substantially, when NAO turned to a more neutral/positive state. Modeled surface mass balance terms since 1950 indicate that part of the GRACE-period, specifically the period between 2002 and 2012, was exceptional in terms of snowfall over the east and northeast regions. During that period snowfall trend decreased to almost 0 Gt/yr from a long-term increasing trend, which presumed again in 2013. To identify the potential impact of atmospheric patterns on mass balance and its partitioning, we studied the spatial and temporal correlations between NAO and snowfall/runoff. Our results indicate that the correlation between summer snowfall and NAO is not stable during the 1950 - 2015 period. We further looked at changes in patterns of circulation using self organizing maps (SOMs) to identify the atmospheric patterns characterizing snowfall during different periods. We discuss potential implications for past changes and future GCM and RCM simulations.

  16. Interannual variations in length of day and atmospheric angular momentum, and their seasonal associations with El Niño/Southern Oscillation-like sea surface temperature patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuefeng; Xiao, Ziniu; Shi, Wenjing; Zhong, Qi; Wang, Qiguang; Li, Huanlian

    2017-12-01

    This study examines the seasonal connections between the interannual variations in LOD (length of day)/AAMglobe (the relative atmospheric angular momentum for the whole globe) and the ENSO-like SST (El Niño/Southern Oscillation-like sea surface temperature) pattern and corresponding zonal and vertical circulations. Consistent with previous studies, the ENSO-like SST impact the following season LOD/AAMglobe, with the strongest correlations in DJF (December, January, and February), when it is likely to be the peak El Niño/La Niña period. Lag correlations between the interannual variations in LOD/AAMglobe and surface temperature, and the interannual variations in LOD and both zonal circulation and vertical airflow around the equator, consistently indicate that the LOD/AAMglobe reflect the potential impacts of variations in the Earth's rotation rate on the following season's sea surface temperatures (SST) over the tropical central and eastern Pacific (where the ENSO-like SST pattern is located). Moreover, the centers of strongest variation in the AAMcolumn (the relative atmospheric angular momentum for an air column and the unit mass over a square meter) are located over the mid-latitudinal North Pacific in DJF and MAM (March, April, and May), and over the mid-latitudinal South Pacific in JJA (June, July, and August) and SON (September, October, and November). This suggests that the AAMcolumn over the mid-latitudinal Pacific around 30°N (30°S) dominate the modulation of Earth's rotation rate, and then impact the variations in LOD during DJF and MAM (JJA and SON).

  17. Wintertime East Asian Jet Stream and its Association with the Asian-Pacific-American Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Song; Lau, K.-M.; Kim, K.-M.

    1999-01-01

    The wintertime upper-tropospheric westerly jet stream over subtropical East Asia and western Pacific, often referred to as East Asian Jet (EAJ), is an important atmospheric circulation system in the Asian-Pacific-American (APA) region. It is characterized by variabilities on a wide range of time scales and exerts a strong impact on the weather and climate of the region. On the synoptic scale, the jet is closely linked to many phenomena such as cyclogenesis, frontogenesis, blocking, storm track activity, and the development of other atmospheric disturbances. On the seasonal time scale, the variation of the EAJ determines many characteristics of the seasonal transition of the atmospheric circulation over Asia. The variabilities of the jet on these time scales have been relatively well documented (e.g., Yeh et al. 1959, Palmen and Newton 1969; Zeng 1979). It has also been understood that the inter-annual variability of the EAJ is associated with many climate signals in the APA region. These signals include the persistent anomalies of the East Asian winter monsoon and the changes in diabatic heating and in the Hadley circulation (Bjerknes 1966; Chang and Lau 1980; Huang and Gambo 1982; Kang and Held 1986; Tao and Chen 1987; Lau et al. 1988; Yang and Webster 1990; Ding 1992; Webster and Yang 1992; Dong et al. 1999). However, many questions remain for the year-to-year variabilities of the jet and their relation to the APA climate. For example, what is the relationship between the EAJ and El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO)? Will the jet and ENSO play different roles in modulating the APA climate? How is the jet linked to North Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) and the Pacific/North American (PNA) teleconnection pattern? In this study, we address several issues related to the wintertime EAJ with a focus on interannual time scales. We will examine the association between the jet core and ENSO, which has always been overshadowed by the relationship between ENSO and the

  18. The retrospective prediction of El Nino-southern oscillation from 1881 to 2000 by a hybrid coupled model: (I) Sea surface temperature assimilation with ensemble Kalman filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Ziwang; Tang, Youmin; Zhou, Xiaobing [University of Northern British Columbia, Environmental Science and Engineering, Prince George, BC (Canada)

    2009-02-15

    In this study, we assimilated sea surface temperature (SST) data of the past 120 years into an oceanic general circulation model (OGCM) for El Nino-southern oscillation (ENSO) retrospective predictions using ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF). It was found that the ensemble covariance matrix in EnKF can act as a time-variant transfer operator to project the SST corrections onto the subsurface temperatures effectively when initial perturbations of ensemble were constructed using vertically coherent random fields. As such the increments of subsurface temperatures can be obtained via the transfer operator during assimilation cycles. The results show that the SST assimilation improves the model simulation skills significantly, not only for the SST anomalies over the whole assimilated domain, but also for the subsurface temperature anomalies of the upper 100 m over the tropical Pacific off the equator. Along the equator, the improvement of the assimilation is confined within the mixing layer because strong upwelling motions there prevent the downward transfer of SST information. The retrospective prediction skills of ENSO over the past 120 years from 1881 to 2000 were significantly improved by the SST assimilation at all leads of 1-12 months, especially for the 3-6 months leads, compared with those initialized by the control run without assimilation. The skilful predictions by the assimilation allow us to further study ENSO predictability using this coupled model. (orig.)

  19. Attribution of the variability of typhoon landfalls in China coasts to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and sea surface temperature in the tropical Indian Ocean-western Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, L.; Chen, S.; Wang, C.; Wang, D.; Wang, X.

    2017-12-01

    The typhoon (TY) landfall activity along China coasts during July-August-September (JAS) shows significant interdecadal variations during 1965-2010. Three typical episodes for TY landfall activities in JAS along the China coasts during 1965-2010 can be identified, with more TY landfall during 1965-1978 (period I) and 1998-2010 (period III), and less during 1982-1995 (period II). We found that the interdcadal variations might be related to the combined effects of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) phase change and the sea surface temperature (SST) variation in the tropical Indian Ocean and western Pacific (IO-WP). During negative PDO phase of periods I and III, a cyclonic anomaly is located in the western North Pacific (WNP) inducing easterly flow at its north, favoring TY landfall along eastern China coast. Due to Gill-pattern responses, warm SST anomalies over tropical IO-WP induce an anomalous anticyclonic circulation in the WNP, with southeasterly wind dominating in the northern SCS and WNP (10o-20o N), which favors TY reaching along southern China coast. With both landfalling-favorable conditions satisfied, there are significantly more TY landfall during period III than that of period I, which shows SST cooling in tropical IO-WP.

  20. Jet in jet in M87

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sob'yanin, Denis Nikolaevich

    2017-11-01

    New high-resolution Very Long Baseline Interferometer observations of the prominent jet in the M87 radio galaxy show a persistent triple-ridge structure of the transverse 15-GHz profile with a previously unobserved ultra-narrow central ridge. This radio structure can reflect the intrinsic structure of the jet, so that the jet as a whole consists of two embedded coaxial jets. A relativistic magnetohydrodynamic model is considered in which an inner jet is placed inside a hollow outer jet and the electromagnetic fields, pressures and other physical quantities are found. The entire jet is connected to the central engine that plays the role of a unipolar inductor generating voltage between the jets and providing opposite electric currents, and the charge neutrality and current closure together with the electromagnetic fields between the jets can contribute to the jet stabilization. The constant voltage is responsible for the similar widening laws observed for the inner and outer jets. This jet-in-jet structure can indicate simultaneous operation of two different jet-launching mechanisms, one relating to the central supermassive black hole and the other to the surrounding accretion disc. An inferred magnetic field of 80 G at the base is sufficient to provide the observed jet luminosity.

  1. Power oscillation damping controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    A power oscillation damping controller is provided for a power generation device such as a wind turbine device. The power oscillation damping controller receives an oscillation indicating signal indicative of a power oscillation in an electricity network and provides an oscillation damping control...... signal in response to the oscillation indicating signal, by processing the oscillation damping control signal in a signal processing chain. The signal processing chain includes a filter configured for passing only signals within a predetermined frequency range....

  2. Sea Surface Temperatures Mediated by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation Affect Birds Breeding in Temperate Coastal Rain Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony J. Gaston

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We studied the timing of breeding and juvenile/adult ratios among songbirds in temperate rain forests over four years on the Haida Gwaii (Queen Charlotte Islands archipelago, British Columbia. In May 1998, air temperatures in Haida Gwaii were above average, whereas in 1999 they were the lowest in 20 yr: temperatures in the other two years were closer to normal, although 2001 was almost as cold as 1999. Temperatures closely followed the patterns of sea surface temperatures created by the 1997-1998 El Niño, i.e., warm, event and the subsequent strong La Niña, i.e., cool, event. Timing of breeding, as measured by the first capture of juveniles or by direct observations of hatching, varied by approximately 19 d between the earliest (1998 and latest (1999 years. In 1998, the proportion of juveniles among birds trapped increased steeply as soon as young birds began to appear. In other years, the rate of increase was slower. In 1999, the peak proportions of hatching-year individuals among the foliage-gleaning insectivores, i.e., the Orange-crowned Warbler (Vermivora celata, Townsend's Warbler (Dendroica townsendi, and the Golden-crowned Kinglet (Regulus satrapa, were lower than in other years, with almost no young Orange-crowned Warblers captured at all. The pattern of variation in the timing of breeding and in the proportion of hatching-year individuals trapped fitted the temperature data well, although rainfall may also have contributed. We concluded that changes mediated by El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO in sea surface temperatures off northern British Columbia, through their effects on air temperatures, had a strong effect on the breeding of forest birds, to the point of causing nearly complete reproductive failure for one species in 1999. An intensification of the ENSO cycle could lead to more erratic reproduction for some species.

  3. DC-pulse atmospheric-pressure plasma jet and dielectric barrier discharge surface treatments on fluorine-doped tin oxide for perovskite solar cell application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jui-Hsuan; Cheng, I.-Chun; Hsu, Cheng-Che; Chen, Jian-Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Nitrogen DC-pulse atmospheric-pressure plasma jet (APPJ) and nitrogen dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) were applied to pre-treat fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrates for perovskite solar cells (PSCs). Nitrogen DC-pulse APPJ treatment (substrate temperature: ~400 °C) for 10 s can effectively increase the wettability, whereas nitrogen DBD treatment (maximum substrate temperature: ~140 °C) achieved limited improvement in wettability even with increased treatment time of 60 s. XPS results indicate that 10 s APPJ, 60 s DBD, and 15 min UV-ozone treatment of FTO glass substrates can decontaminate the surface. A PSC fabricated on APPJ-treated FTO showed the highest power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 14.90%; by contrast, a PSC with nitrogen DBD-treated FTO shows slightly lower PCE of 12.57% which was comparable to that of a PSC on FTO treated by a 15 min UV-ozone process. Both nitrogen DC-pulse APPJ and nitrogen DBD can decontaminate FTO substrates and can be applied for the substrate cleaning step of PSC.

  4. Modified flapping jet for increased jet spreading using synthetic jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Chiekh, Maher, E-mail: maher.benchiekh@enim.rnu.tn [LESTE, ENIM, University of Monastir, 5000 Monastir (Tunisia); Ferchichi, Mohsen [Royal Military College of Canada, PO Box 17000, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Bera, Jean-Christophe [Centre acoustique, Ecole Centrale de Lyon, 69134 Ecully Cedex (France)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: > The interactions of a rectangular turbulent jet and a pair of co-flowing synthetic jets are examined. > One-sided actuation achieves jet vectoring while simultaneous actuations induce jet spreading. > Further spreading is achieved when the synthetic jets are alternately actuated. > The jet flapping improves mixing. > Optimal forcing conditions for jet spreading are discussed. - Abstract: The present paper is an experimental investigation, using a PIV system, on modified rectangular jet flow co-flowing with a pair of synthetic jets placed symmetrically with respect to the geometric centerline of the main flow. The objective was to determine the optimal forcing conditions that would result in jet spreading beyond what would be obtained in a simple flapped jet. The main jet had an exit Re{sub h} = 36,000, based on the slot height, h. The synthetic jets were operated in a periodic manner with a periodic momentum coefficient of about 3.3% and at a frequency of the main jet preferred mode. A short, wide angle diffuser of half angle of about 45{sup o} was attached to the main jet. Generally for the vectored jet, much of the flow features found here resembled those reported in the literature except that the deflection angle in this study increased with downstream distances inside the diffuser and then remained roughly unchanged thereafter. Larger jet spreading was achieved when the main jet was subjected to simultaneous actuation of the synthetic jets but the flow did not achieve the initial jet spreading that was observed in the vectored jet. Further jet spreading was achieved when the synthetic jets were alternately actuated in which each synthetic jet was actuated for a number of cycles before switching. This technique allowed the jet to flap across the flow between transverse positions larger than what would be obtained in a simple flip-flop jet. Under the present flow geometry and Reynolds number, it was found that when the ratio f{sub s}/f{sub al

  5. Development of a He/CdI$_2$ gas-jet system coupled to a surface-ionization type ion-source in JAEA-ISOL: towards determination of the first ionization potential of Lr (Z = 103)

    CERN Document Server

    Sato, T K; Sato, N; Tsukada, K; Toyoshima, A; Ooe, K; Miyashita, S; Kaneya, Y; Osa, A; Schädel, M; Nagame, Y; Ichikawa, S; Stora, T; Kratz, J V

    2015-01-01

    We report on development of a gas-jet transport system coupled to a surface ionization ion-source in the JAEA-ISOL (Isotope Separator On-Line) system. As a new aerosol material for the gas-jet system, CdI2, which has a low boiling point of 713 °C, is exploited to prevent deposition of the aerosol material on the surface of the ion-source. An additional filament is newly installed in the previous ion-source to provide uniform heating of an ionizer. The present system is applied to the measurement of absolute efficiencies of various short-lived lanthanide isotopes produced in nuclear reactions.

  6. Jet Car Track Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Located in Lakehurst, New Jersey, the Jet Car Track Site supports jet cars with J57 engines and has a maximum jet car thrust of 42,000 pounds with a maximum speed of...

  7. Oscillators - a simple introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Oscillators are kernel components of electrical and electronic circuits. Discussion of history, mechanisms and design based on Barkhausens observation. Discussion of a Wien Bridge oscillator based on the question: Why does this circuit oscillate ?......Oscillators are kernel components of electrical and electronic circuits. Discussion of history, mechanisms and design based on Barkhausens observation. Discussion of a Wien Bridge oscillator based on the question: Why does this circuit oscillate ?...

  8. Application of holography in jet acoustic studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    was focussed on back projection of the sound field on to a cylindrical surface. A jet emanating from 5 mm convergent nozzle was used for the holography exper- iments, assuming axisymmetry. Experimental results were compared with results obtained from holography. Keywords. Acoustic noise; jet noise; source strength ...

  9. Oscillating Permanent Magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelis, M. M.; Haines, C. M.

    1989-01-01

    Describes several ways to partially levitate permanent magnets. Computes field line geometries and oscillation frequencies. Provides several diagrams illustrating the mechanism of the oscillation. (YP)

  10. Visualization of conventional and combusting subsonic jet instabilities

    CERN Document Server

    Kozlov, Victor; Litvinenko, Yury

    2016-01-01

    Based on new information obtained on free microjets, this book explains the latest phenomena in flame evolution in the presence of a transverse acoustic field with round and plane propane microjet combustion. It gives an overview of recent experimental results on instability and dynamics of jets at low Reynolds numbers and provides the reader, step by step, with the milestones and recent advances in jet flow stability and combustion. Readers will also discover a clarification of the differences between top-hat and parabolic round and plane jet instability. Chapters demonstrate features of the interaction between jet and crossflow, and how experimental data testify to similarities of the perturbed flow patterns of laminar and turbulent round jets. A similar response of the jets to external acoustic oscillations is shown, as well as the peculiarities of the effect of a transverse acoustic field on downstream evolution of round and plane macro- and microjets. Basic features of round and plane, macro and micro je...

  11. Greenland plateau jets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George William Kent Moore

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The high ice-covered topography of Greenland represents a significant barrier to atmospheric flow and, as a direct and indirect result, it plays a crucial role in the coupled climate system. The wind field over Greenland is important in diagnosing regional weather and climate, thereby providing information on the mass balance of the ice sheet as well as assisting in the interpretation of ice core data. Here, we identify a number of hitherto unrecognised features of the three-dimensional wind field over Greenland; including a 2500-km-long jet along the central ice sheet's western margin that extends from the surface into the middle-troposphere, as well as a similar but smaller scale and less intense feature along its eastern margin. We refer to these features as Greenland Plateau Jets. The jets are coupled to the downslope katabatic flow and we argue that they are maintained by the zonal temperature gradients associated with the strong temperature inversion over the central ice sheet. Their importance for Greenland's regional climate is discussed.

  12. High pressure water jet mining machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Clark R.

    1981-05-05

    A high pressure water jet mining machine for the longwall mining of coal is described. The machine is generally in the shape of a plowshare and is advanced in the direction in which the coal is cut. The machine has mounted thereon a plurality of nozzle modules each containing a high pressure water jet nozzle disposed to oscillate in a particular plane. The nozzle modules are oriented to cut in vertical and horizontal planes on the leading edge of the machine and the coal so cut is cleaved off by the wedge-shaped body.

  13. Modeling and computation of heat exchanges in the configuration of an impinging jet on a hot plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiler, N.; Mimouni, S. [EDF R and D MFTT I81, 78 - Chatou (France); Simonin, O. [Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse (IMFT), 31 - Toulouse (France); Gardin, P. [IRSID/THEMEF, 57 - Mazieres les Metz (France); Seiler, J.M. [CEA Grenoble, Dept. de Thermohydraulique et de Physique (DTP/SETEX/LTEM), 38 (France)

    2003-07-01

    The knowledge of the metal temperature history is essential, especially when strip leave the rolling mill, to get adequate final mechanical properties of steel. Some experiments have yet been carried out on the heat transfer associated with the impingement of a planar (1*9 mm{sup 2}) subcooled (5-16 K) water jet on a heated plate. Complete boiling curves were then obtained at different locations from the stagnation point and it was observed a phenomenon of 'shoulder of flux' in the transition boiling region near the impingement point. The aim of this work is to compute the heat flux transferred between a very hot plate and a subcooled liquid under a planar impinging jet to obtain the transient temperature distribution in the plate. To achieve this goal, a physical modelling of the phenomenon of 'shoulder of flux' has been carried out. This modelling is based on the assumption that the apparition of periodic bubble oscillations at the wall surface is due to the hydrodynamic fragmentation by the jet. The relation derived from this modelling is validated against experimental results from the literature obtained for a wide range of jet velocity, subcooling and jet diameter. This model is implemented in the new multiphase flow solver developed by EDF 'SATURNE polyphasique'. Numerical results are then compared to experimental heat fluxes obtained on previous experiments. (authors)

  14. Tidal Control of Jet Eruptions Observed by Cassini ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurford, T. A.; Helfenstein, P.; Spitale, J. N.

    2012-01-01

    Observations by Cassini's Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) of Enceladus' south polar region at high phase angles has revealed jets of material venting into space. Observations by Cassini's Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) have also shown that the south polar region is anomalously warm with hotspots associated with geological features called the Tiger Stripes. The Tiger Stripes are large rifts near the south pole of Enceladus, which are typically about 130 km in length, 2 km wide, with a trough 500 m deep, and are l1anked on each side by 100m tall ridges. Preliminary triangulation of jets as viewed at different times and with different viewing geometries in Cassini ISS images taken between 2005 and 2007 have constrained the locations of eight major eruptions of material and found all of them associated with the south polar fractures unofficially the 'Tiger Stripes', and found four of them coincident with the hotspots reported in 2006 by CIRS. While published ISS observations of jet activity suggest that individual eruption sites stay active on the timescale of years, any shorter temporal variability (on timescales of an orbital period, or 1.3 Earth days, for example) is more difficult to establish because of the spotty temporal coverage and the difficulty of visually isolating one jet from the forest of many seen in a typical image. Consequently, it is not known whether individual jets are continuously active, randomly active, or if they erupt on a predictable, periodic schedule. One mechanism that may control the timing of eruptions is diurnal tidal stress, which oscillates between compression/tension as well as right and left lateral shear at any given location throughout Enceladus' orbit and may allow the cracks to open and close regularly. We examine the stresses on the Tiger Stripe regions to see how well diurnal tidal stress caused by Enceladus' orbital eccentricity may possibly correlate with and thus control the observed eruptions. We then identify

  15. Universality of oscillating boiling in Leidenfrost transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khavari, Mohammad; Tran, Tuan

    2017-10-01

    The Leidenfrost transition leads a boiling system to the boiling crisis, a state in which the liquid loses contact with the heated surface due to excessive vapor generation. Here, using experiments of liquid droplets boiling on a heated surface, we report a phenomenon, termed oscillating boiling, at the Leidenfrost transition. We show that oscillating boiling results from the competition between two effects: separation of liquid from the heated surface due to localized boiling and rewetting. We argue theoretically that the Leidenfrost transition can be predicted based on its link with the oscillating boiling phenomenon and verify the prediction experimentally for various liquids.

  16. Experimental study of highly viscous impinging jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomon, M.

    1998-12-01

    The objective of this research is to study the behavior of highly viscous gravity-driven jets filling a container. Matters of interest are the formation of voids in the fluid pool during the filling process and the unstable behavior of the fluid in the landing region which manifests itself as an oscillating motion. The working fluids used in this research are intended to simulate the flow behavior of molten glass. Qualitative and quantitative results are obtained in a parametric study. The fraction of voids present in the fluid pool after the filling of the container is measured for different parameter values of viscosity and mass flow rate. Likewise, frequencies of the oscillating jet are measured. Results are inconclusive with regard to a correlation between parameter settings and void fractions. As for frequencies, power law correlations are established

  17. Observation of multi-scale oscillation of laminar lifted flames with low-frequency AC electric fields

    KAUST Repository

    Ryu, Seol

    2010-01-01

    The oscillation behavior of laminar lifted flames under the influence of low-frequency AC has been investigated experimentally in coflow jets. Various oscillation modes were existed depending on jet velocity and the voltage and frequency of AC, especially when the AC frequency was typically smaller than 30 Hz. Three different oscillation modes were observed: (1) large-scale oscillation with the oscillation frequency of about 0.1 Hz, which was independent of the applied AC frequency, (2) small-scale oscillation synchronized to the applied AC frequency, and (3) doubly-periodic oscillation with small-scale oscillation embedded in large-scale oscillation. As the AC frequency decreased from 30 Hz, the oscillation modes were in the order of the large-scale oscillation, doubly-periodic oscillation, and small-scale oscillation. The onset of the oscillation for the AC frequency smaller than 30 Hz was in close agreement with the delay time scale for the ionic wind effect to occur, that is, the collision response time. Frequency-doubling behavior for the small-scale oscillation has also been observed. Possible mechanisms for the large-scale oscillation and the frequency-doubling behavior have been discussed, although the detailed understanding of the underlying mechanisms will be a future study. © 2009 The Combustion Institute.

  18. Nanoscale relaxation oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettl, Alexander K.; Regan, Brian C.; Aloni, Shaul

    2009-04-07

    A nanoscale oscillation device is disclosed, wherein two nanoscale droplets are altered in size by mass transport, then contact each other and merge through surface tension. The device may also comprise a channel having an actuator responsive to mechanical oscillation caused by expansion and contraction of the droplets. It further has a structure for delivering atoms between droplets, wherein the droplets are nanoparticles. Provided are a first particle and a second particle on the channel member, both being made of a chargeable material, the second particle contacting the actuator portion; and electrodes connected to the channel member for delivering a potential gradient across the channel and traversing the first and second particles. The particles are spaced apart a specified distance so that atoms from one particle are delivered to the other particle by mass transport in response to the potential (e.g. voltage potential) and the first and second particles are liquid and touch at a predetermined point of growth, thereby causing merging of the second particle into the first particle by surface tension forces and reverse movement of the actuator. In a preferred embodiment, the channel comprises a carbon nanotube and the droplets comprise metal nanoparticles, e.g. indium, which is readily made liquid.

  19. Pneumatic pellet injector for JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andelfinger, C.; Buechl, K.; Jacobi, D.; Sandmann, W.; Schiedeck, J.; Schilling, H.B.; Weber, G.

    1983-07-01

    Pellet injection is a useful tool for plasma diagnostics of tokamaks. Pellets can be applied for investigation of particle, energy and impurity transport, fueling efficiency and magnetic surfaces. Design, operation and control of a single shot pneumatic pellet gun is described in detail including all supplies, the vacuum system and the diagnostics of the pellet. The arrangement of this injector in the torus hall and the interfaces to the JET system and CODAS are considered. A guide tube system for pellet injection is discussed but it will not be recommended for JET. (orig.)

  20. Combustion oscillation study in a kerosene fueled rocket-based combined-cycle engine combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhi-Wei; He, Guo-Qiang; Qin, Fei; Xue, Rui; Wei, Xiang-Geng; Shi, Lei

    2016-12-01

    This study reports the combustion oscillation features in a three-dimensional (3D) rocket-based combined-cycle (RBCC) engine combustor under flight Mach number (Mflight) 3.0 conditions both experimentally and numerically. Experiment is performed on a direct-connect ground test facility, which measures the wall pressure along the flow-path. High-speed imaging of the flame luminosity and schlieren is carried out at exit of the primary rocket. Compressible reactive large eddy simulation (LES) with reduced chemical kinetics of a surrogate model for kerosene is performed to further understand the combustion oscillation mechanisms in the combustor. LES results are validated with experimental data by the time-averaged and root mean square (RMS) pressure values, and show acceptable agreement. Effects of the primary rocket jet on pressure oscillation in the combustor are analyzed. Relation of the high speed rocket jet oscillation, which is thought to among the most probable sources of combustion oscillation, with the RBCC combustor is recognized. Results reveal that the unsteady over-expanded rocket jet has significant impacts on the combustion oscillation feature of the RBCC combustor, which is different from a thermo-acoustics type oscillation. The rocket jet/air inflow physical interactions under different rocket jet expansion degrees are experimentally studied.

  1. Sound oscillation of dropwise cluster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shavlov, A.V., E-mail: shavlov@ikz.ru [Institute of the Earth Cryosphere, RAS Siberian Branch, P.O. 1230, 625000 Tyumen (Russian Federation); Dzhumandzhi, V.A.; Romanyuk, S.N. [Institute of the Earth Cryosphere, RAS Siberian Branch, P.O. 1230, 625000 Tyumen (Russian Federation)

    2012-06-04

    There was registered sound oscillation of a dropwise cluster formed over the warmed-up water surface. We have calculated the electrical charge of drops on the basis of experimental data on ion-sound oscillation. It was demonstrated that the charge is proportional to surface area of the drops and does not depend on intensity of their evaporation (condensation) in the range of 60–100 °C. The charge of drops reaches 10{sup 2}–10{sup 3} units of elementary charge and coincides on magnitude order with the literary value of a charge calculated by another method. -- Highlights: ► The present investigation registered short-wave sound oscillations of water drops in a dropwise cluster in the range of 60–100 °C. ► We have found autocorrelation functions and Fourier transforms of time series of interdroplet distance; defined oscillation frequencies. ► Calculated electrical charge of drops and specified that the charge is proportional to the drop surface area.

  2. Sound oscillation of dropwise cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shavlov, A.V.; Dzhumandzhi, V.A.; Romanyuk, S.N.

    2012-01-01

    There was registered sound oscillation of a dropwise cluster formed over the warmed-up water surface. We have calculated the electrical charge of drops on the basis of experimental data on ion-sound oscillation. It was demonstrated that the charge is proportional to surface area of the drops and does not depend on intensity of their evaporation (condensation) in the range of 60–100 °C. The charge of drops reaches 10 2 –10 3 units of elementary charge and coincides on magnitude order with the literary value of a charge calculated by another method. -- Highlights: ► The present investigation registered short-wave sound oscillations of water drops in a dropwise cluster in the range of 60–100 °C. ► We have found autocorrelation functions and Fourier transforms of time series of interdroplet distance; defined oscillation frequencies. ► Calculated electrical charge of drops and specified that the charge is proportional to the drop surface area.

  3. Properties of Supersonic Impinging Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvi, F. S.; Iyer, K. G.; Ladd, J.

    1999-11-01

    A detailed study examining the behavior of axisymmetric supersonic jets impinging on a ground plane is described. Our objective is to better understand the aeroacoustics governing this complex flowfield which commonly occurs in the vicinity of STOVL aircraft. Flow issuing through a Mach 1.5 C-D and a converging sonic nozzle is examined over a wide parametric range. For some cases a large diameter circular 'lift' plate, with an annular hole through which the jet is issued, is attached at the nozzle exit to simulate a generic airframe. The impinging jet flowfield was examined using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), which provides the velocity field for the entire region and shadowgraph visualization techniques. Near-field acoustic, as well as, mean and unsteady pressure measurements on the ground and lift plate surfaces were also obtained. The velocity field data, together with the surface flow measurements have resulted in a much better understanding of this flow from a fundamental standpoint while also identifying critical regions of interest for practical applications. Some of these findings include the presence of a stagnation bubble with recirculating flow; a very high speed (transonic/supersonic) radial wall jet; presence of large, spatially coherent turbulent structures in the primary jet and wall jet and high unsteady loads on the ground plane and lift plates. The results of a companion CFD investigation and its comparison to the experimental data will also be presented. Very good agreement has been found between the computational and experimental results thus providing confidence in the development of computational tools for the study of such flows.

  4. Climate Prediction Center Southern Oscillation Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is one of the CPC?s Monthly Atmospheric and Sea Surface Temperature (SST)Indices. It contains Southern Oscillation Index which is standardized sea level...

  5. Penetration Characteristics of Air, Carbon Dioxide and Helium Transverse Sonic Jets in Mach 5 Cross Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erinc Erdem

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An experimental investigation of sonic air, CO2 and Helium transverse jets in Mach 5 cross flow was carried out over a flat plate. The jet to freestream momentum flux ratio, J, was kept the same for all gases. The unsteady flow topology was examined using high speed schlieren visualisation and PIV. Schlieren visualisation provided information regarding oscillating jet shear layer structures and bow shock, Mach disc and barrel shocks. Two-component PIV measurements at the centreline, provided information regarding jet penetration trajectories. Barrel shocks and Mach disc forming the jet boundary were visualised/quantified also jet penetration boundaries were determined. Even though J is kept the same for all gases, the penetration patterns were found to be remarkably different both at the nearfield and the farfield. Air and CO2 jet resulted similar nearfield and farfield penetration pattern whereas Helium jet spread minimal in the nearfield.

  6. On the Feedback Phenomenon of an Impinging Jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-09-01

    2-1a) Photograph of the Impinging Water Jet Facility (2-1b) Schematic of the Impinging Water Jet Facility (2-2) Jet Noise Research Facilities at VSC ...Naudascher, E., "Self-Sustained Oscillations of Impinging Free Shear Layer," Ann . Rev. Fluid Mech., 11:67-94(1979). i 11. Powell, A., "On the Edgetone," J...Turbulent Mixing Layer," AGARD CP 93, pp. 23.1-23.12 (1971). 18. Laufer, J., "New Trends in Experimental Turbulence Research," Ann . Rev. Fluid Mech., 7:307

  7. Vector boson tagged jets and jet substructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitev Ivan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In these proceedings, we report on recent results related to vector boson-tagged jet production in heavy ion collisions and the related modification of jet substructure, such as jet shapes and jet momentum sharing distributions. Z0-tagging and γ-tagging of jets provides new opportunities to study parton shower formation and propagation in the quark-gluon plasma and has been argued to provide tight constrains on the energy loss of reconstructed jets. We present theoretical predictions for isolated photon-tagged and electroweak boson-tagged jet production in Pb+Pb collisions at √sNN = 5.02 TeV at the LHC, addressing the modification of their transverse momentum and transverse momentum imbalance distributions. Comparison to recent ATLAS and CMS experimental measurements is performed that can shed light on the medium-induced radiative corrections and energy dissipation due to collisional processes of predominantly quark-initiated jets. The modification of parton splitting functions in the QGP further implies that the substructure of jets in heavy ion collisions may differ significantly from the corresponding substructure in proton-proton collisions. Two such observables and the implication of tagging on their evaluation is also discussed.

  8. Very forward jet, Mueller Navelet jets and jet gap jet measurements in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Cerci, Salim

    2018-01-01

    The measurements of very forward jet, Mueller-Navelet jets and jet-gap-jet events are presented for different collision energies. The analyses are based on data collected with the CMS detector at the LHC. Jets are defined through the anti-$k_\\mathrm{t}$ clustering algorithm for different cone sizes. Jet production studies provide stringent tests of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and contribute to tune Monte Carlo (MC) simulations and phenomenological models. The measurements are compared to predictions from various Monte Carlo event generators.

  9. Temperature-concentration oscillations of crystal-solution phase equilibria in the presence of trace impurities of surface-active agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiryanova, E.V. [St. Petersburg State University, Crystallography Dept., 199034, University emb. 9, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2011-04-15

    Using the examples of aqueous salt solutions NaNO{sub 3}, KNO{sub 3}, RbNO{sub 3}, K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, NaBr.2H{sub 2}O, KBr, and NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}, it was experimentally proven that the new phenomena, i.e. temperature-concentration oscillations of crystal-solution phase equilibria detected previously in the range of 15-45 C remain in the presence of trace impurities (10{sup -4}-10{sup -3} wt. %) of ion-active organic matters. The signs of breaks transformation into pair oscillations of ''maximum-minimum'' type are established for the K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, NaBr, KBr solutions. The efficiency of influence of trace impurities on phase equilibria sharply rises in the areas of the temperature-concentration oscillations (the saturation temperature ranges up to 10 K). The impurity efficiency is promoted by the presence of the amides in its content (as compared with the sulphates) and an increase in length of the hydrocarbon radical. The phenomenon is absent in case of an addition of ion-inactive compounds. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  10. Comet Halley: nucleus and jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagdeev, R.Z.; Avanesov, G.A.; Barinov, I.V.

    1986-06-01

    The VEGA-1 and VEGA-2 spacecrafts made their closest approach to Comet Halley on 6 and 9 March, respectively. In this paper results of the onboard imaging experiment are discussed. The nucleus of the comet was clearly identifyable as an irregularly shaped object with overall dimensions of (16+-1)x(8+-1)x(8+-1) km. The nucleus rotates around its axis which is nearly perpendicular to the orbital plane, with a period of 53+-2 hours. Its albedo is only 0.04+-002. Most of the jet features observed during the second fly-by were spatially reconstructed. These sources form a quasi-linear structure on the surface. The dust above the surface is shown to be optically thin except certain specific dust jets. Brightness features on the surface are clearly seen. Correlating the data with other measurements it is concluded that the dirty snow-ball model probably has to be revised. (author)

  11. Oscillating heat pipes

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Hongbin

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the fundamental fluid flow and heat transfer principles occurring in oscillating heat pipes and also provides updated developments and recent innovations in research and applications of heat pipes. Starting with fundamental presentation of heat pipes, the focus is on oscillating motions and its heat transfer enhancement in a two-phase heat transfer system. The book covers thermodynamic analysis, interfacial phenomenon, thin film evaporation,  theoretical models of oscillating motion and heat transfer of single phase and two-phase flows, primary  factors affecting oscillating motions and heat transfer,  neutron imaging study of oscillating motions in an oscillating heat pipes, and nanofluid’s effect on the heat transfer performance in oscillating heat pipes.  The importance of thermally-excited oscillating motion combined with phase change heat transfer to a wide variety of applications is emphasized. This book is an essential resource and learning tool for senior undergraduate, gradua...

  12. Phenomenology of neutrino oscillations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The phenomenology of solar, atmospheric, supernova and laboratory neutrino oscillations is described. Analytical formulae for matter effects are reviewed. The results from oscillations are confronted with neutrinoless double beta decay.

  13. Consolidating NASA's Arc Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balboni, John A.; Gokcen, Tahir; Hui, Frank C. L.; Graube, Peter; Morrissey, Patricia; Lewis, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    The paper describes the consolidation of NASA's high powered arc-jet testing at a single location. The existing plasma arc-jet wind tunnels located at the Johnson Space Center were relocated to Ames Research Center while maintaining NASA's technical capability to ground-test thermal protection system materials under simulated atmospheric entry convective heating. The testing conditions at JSC were reproduced and successfully demonstrated at ARC through close collaboration between the two centers. New equipment was installed at Ames to provide test gases of pure nitrogen mixed with pure oxygen, and for future nitrogen-carbon dioxide mixtures. A new control system was custom designed, installed and tested. Tests demonstrated the capability of the 10 MW constricted-segmented arc heater at Ames meets the requirements of the major customer, NASA's Orion program. Solutions from an advanced computational fluid dynamics code were used to aid in characterizing the properties of the plasma stream and the surface environment on the calorimeters in the supersonic flow stream produced by the arc heater.

  14. Noise generation by ducted combustion systems. [resonant oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, H. H.; Plett, E. G.; Summerfield, M.

    1973-01-01

    Analysis of the interaction between a zone of nonsteady combustion and its confining duct shows that resonant type oscillations occur with resulting noise intensities far greater than from corresponding unconfined flame zones. The blading action on the flow through the compressor and turbine of an engine generates discrete frequency noise which, it is found, is enhanced by the response of the combustion zone in between. Ducted combustor experiments verify the predicted resonant type noise, the amplitude and frequency of which are strongly influenced by the duct dimensions and end impedance. A convergent exit nozzle results in stronger internal resonant noise oscillations but also generates a higher jet velocity, with the attendant jet noise which exceeds noise from inside the duct at jet Mach numbers near unity.-

  15. The colpitts oscillator family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Erik; Murali, K.; Tamasevicius, A.

    A tutorial study of the Colpitts oscillator family defined as all oscillators based on a nonlinear amplifier and a three- terminal linear resonance circuit with one coil and two capacitors. The original patents are investigated. The eigenvalues of the linearized Jacobian for oscillators based...

  16. Jets in Active Galaxies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Carilli & Dreher (Image courtesy of NRAO/AUI; http://images.nrao.edu/AGN/) showing the jet and a weaker counter-jet; (b) A Hubble. Space Telescope image of. HH34 showing the jet at op- tical wavelengths emanating from a protostar in Orion. (http://hubblesite.org/image/. 2870/gallery; image cour- tesy NASA, ESA, and P.

  17. Jet results from CDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wainer, N.

    1991-05-01

    Recent results from CDF in jet physics are presented. Tests of leading order and next to leading order QCD are performed by measuring the dijet invariant mass spectrum, jet shapes and three jet events. Tests the leading logarithm, approximation in QCD are made by comparing the high energy events at CDF with the Herwig Monte Carlo. 10 refs., 7 figs

  18. Jets in Active Galaxies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jets in active galaxies are signatures of energy supply via collimatedbeams of plasma from the galactic nucleus to the extendedregions of emission. These jets, which occur acrossthe electromagnetic spectrum, are powered by supermassiveblack holes in the centres of the host galaxies. Jets are seenon the scale of parsecs ...

  19. Delving into QCD jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, K.

    1980-01-01

    The author discusses, in an introductory fashion, the latest developments in the study of hadronic jets produced in hard processes, based on perturbative QCD. Emphasis is on jet calculus (and its applications and generalizations), and on the appearance of a parton-like consistent, over-all picture of jet evolution in momentum, colour, and real space-time. (Auth.)

  20. Investigation of Combustion Control in a Dump Combustor Using the Feedback Free Fluidic Oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Eric J.; Casiano, Matthew J.; Anderson, William E.; Heister, Stephen D.

    2015-01-01

    A feedback free fluidic oscillator was designed and integrated into a single element rocket combustor with the goal of suppressing longitudinal combustion instabilities. The fluidic oscillator uses internal fluid dynamics to create an unsteady outlet jet at a specific frequency. An array of nine fluidic oscillators was tested to mimic modulated secondary oxidizer injection into the combustor dump plane. The combustor has a coaxial injector that uses gaseous methane and decomposed hydrogen peroxide with an overall O/F ratio of 11.7. A sonic choke plate on an actuator arm allows for continuous adjustment of the oxidizer post acoustics enabling the study of a variety of instability magnitudes. The fluidic oscillator unsteady outlet jet performance is compared against equivalent steady jet injection and a baseline design with no secondary oxidizer injection. At the most unstable operating conditions, the unsteady outlet jet saw a 67% reduction in the instability pressure oscillation magnitude when compared to the steady jet and baseline data. Additionally, computational fluid dynamics analysis of the combustor gives insight into the flow field interaction of the fluidic oscillators. The results indicate that open loop high frequency propellant modulation for combustion control can be achieved through fluidic devices that require no moving parts or electrical power to operate.

  1. Jet spoiler arrangement for wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyrus, Jack D.; Kadlec, Emil G.; Klimas, Paul C.

    1985-01-01

    An air jet spoiler arrangement is provided for a Darrieus-type vertical axis wind-powered turbine. Air is drawn into hollow turbine blades through air inlets at the ends thereof and is ejected in the form of air jets through small holes or openings provided along the lengths of the blades. The air jets create flow separation at the surfaces of the turbine blades, thereby inducing stall conditions and reducing the output power. A feedback control unit senses the power output of the turbine and controls the amount of air drawn into the air inlets accordingly.

  2. A self-focusing mercury jet target

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, C

    2002-01-01

    Mercury jet production targets have been studied in relation to antiproton production and, more recently, pion production for a neutrino factory. There has always been a temptation to include some self-focusing of the secondaries by passing a current through the mercury jet analogous to the already proven lithium lens. However, skin heating of the mercury causes fast vaporization leading to the development of a gliding discharge along the surface of the jet. This external discharge can, nevertheless, provide some useful focusing of the secondaries in the case of the neutrino factory. The technical complications must not be underestimated.

  3. Dynamic characteristics of peripheral jet ACV. II - Pitching motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, T.; Maeda, H.

    The dynamic pitching characteristics of peripheral jet ACV (Air Cushion Vehicle) which have a stability curtain are investigated analytically and experimentally. The measured values of moment, lift and cushion pressure are compared with numerical results noting applicability to the pitching motion. The response of ACV to the sinusoidal pitching oscillation of the ground is also studied.

  4. Nature's Autonomous Oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, H. G.; Yee, J.-H.; Mayr, M.; Schnetzler, R.

    2012-01-01

    Nonlinearity is required to produce autonomous oscillations without external time dependent source, and an example is the pendulum clock. The escapement mechanism of the clock imparts an impulse for each swing direction, which keeps the pendulum oscillating at the resonance frequency. Among nature's observed autonomous oscillators, examples are the quasi-biennial oscillation and bimonthly oscillation of the Earth atmosphere, and the 22-year solar oscillation. The oscillations have been simulated in numerical models without external time dependent source, and in Section 2 we summarize the results. Specifically, we shall discuss the nonlinearities that are involved in generating the oscillations, and the processes that produce the periodicities. In biology, insects have flight muscles, which function autonomously with wing frequencies that far exceed the animals' neural capacity; Stretch-activation of muscle contraction is the mechanism that produces the high frequency oscillation of insect flight, discussed in Section 3. The same mechanism is also invoked to explain the functioning of the cardiac muscle. In Section 4, we present a tutorial review of the cardio-vascular system, heart anatomy, and muscle cell physiology, leading up to Starling's Law of the Heart, which supports our notion that the human heart is also a nonlinear oscillator. In Section 5, we offer a broad perspective of the tenuous links between the fluid dynamical oscillators and the human heart physiology.

  5. Enhanced THz resonance based on the coupling between Fabry–Perot oscillation and dipolar-like resonance in a metamaterial surface cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yaxin; Xu, Gaiqi; Qiao, Shen; Zhou, Yucong; Wu, Zhenhua; Yang, Ziqiang

    2015-01-01

    We presented an enhanced resonance with ultra-wide band in the terahertz (THz) regime in a THz metamaterial system composed of a pair of circular rings arrays which act as two opposite mirrors. The two opposite mirrors, both of which will induce a dipolar-like resonance under the incident wave, together with the gap between them will constitute a Fabry–Perot cavity which contributes to a Fabry–Perot oscillation in the system. These two kinds of resonant modes, the dipolar-like resonance and Fabry–Perot oscillation, can be coupled with each other in an optimized structure, which leads to an enhanced electromagnetic resonance. From the experimental results, it can be found that such coupling leads to a nearly zero transmission zone with 0.12 THz bandwidth which is much better than individual conventional metamaterial system. This coupling mechanism could provide a new way for the realization of strong resonance, which shows great potential for THz pass-band or stop-band filters, THz resonators, THz absorbers, frequency selective devices and so on. (paper)

  6. Jet flow and premixed jet flame control by plasma swirler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Gang, E-mail: ligang@iet.cn [Key laboratory of light duty gas turbine, Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Jiang, Xi [School of Engineering and Materials Science, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Zhao, Yujun [School of Mechanism, Electronic and Control Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Liu, Cunxi [Key laboratory of light duty gas turbine, Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Chen, Qi [School of Mechanism, Electronic and Control Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Xu, Gang; Liu, Fuqiang [Key laboratory of light duty gas turbine, Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2017-04-04

    A swirler based on dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators is designed and its effectiveness in both jet flow and premixed jet flame control is demonstrated. In contrast to traditional spanwise-oriented actuators, plasma actuators are placed along the axial direction of the injector to induce a circumferential velocity to the main flow and create a swirl flow without any insertion or moving part. In the DBD plasma swirl injector, the discharge does not ignite the mixture nor does it induce flashback. Flame visualization is obtained by cameras while velocity profiles are obtained by Laser Doppler Anemometry measurements. The results obtained indicate the effectiveness of the new design. - Highlights: • The discharge does not ignite the mixture nor does it induce flashback. • The prominent advantage of this novel plasma swirler is its swirl number adjustable without any mechanical movement. • The frequency of the plasma swirler is adjustable. • The plasma swirler can be used as an oscillator to the reactants. • The plasma swirler can be used alone or combine with other traditional swirlers.

  7. Deposition of Poly(Ethylene Oxide)-Like Plasma Polymers on Inner Surfaces of Cavities by Means of Atmospheric-Pressure SDBD-Based Jet

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gordeev, Ivan; Šimek, Milan; Prukner, Václav; Artemenko, Anna; Kousal, J.; Nikitin, D.; Choukourov, A.; Biederman, H.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 8 (2016), s. 823-833 ISSN 1612-8850 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD13010 Grant - others:European Cooperation in Science and Technology(XE) COST MP1101 Program:Materials, Physical and Nanosciences COST Action MP1101 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : Atmospheric Pressure Plasma jet * plasma polymerization * non-fouling properties * PEO-like coatings Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics; BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics (FZU-D) Impact factor: 2.846, year: 2016

  8. Jet substructure in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, David W

    2011-01-01

    Measurements are presented of the jet invariant mass and substructure in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 7$ TeV with the ATLAS detector using an integrated luminosity of 37 pb$^{-1}$. These results exercise the tools for distinguishing the signatures of new boosted massive particles in the hadronic final state. Two "fat" jet algorithms are used, along with the filtering jet grooming technique that was pioneered in ATLAS. New jet substructure observables are compared for the first time to data at the LHC. Finally, a sample of candidate boosted top quark events collected in the 2010 data is analyzed in detail for the jet substructure properties of hadronic "top-jets" in the final state. These measurements demonstrate not only our excellent understanding of QCD in a new energy regime but open the path to using complex jet substructure observables in the search for new physics.

  9. Instabilities of continuously stratified zonal equatorial jets in a periodic channel model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Masina

    Full Text Available Several numerical experiments are performed in a nonlinear, multi-level periodic channel model centered on the equator with different zonally uniform background flows which resemble the South Equatorial Current (SEC. Analysis of the simulations focuses on identifying stability criteria for a continuously stratified fluid near the equator. A 90 m deep frontal layer is required to destabilize a zonally uniform, 10° wide, westward surface jet that is symmetric about the equator and has a maximum velocity of 100 cm/s. In this case, the phase velocity of the excited unstable waves is very similar to the phase speed of the Tropical Instability Waves (TIWs observed in the eastern Pacific Ocean. The vertical scale of the baroclinic waves corresponds to the frontal layer depth and their phase speed increases as the vertical shear of the jet is doubled. When the westward surface parabolic jet is made asymmetric about the equator, in order to simulate more realistically the structure of the SEC in the eastern Pacific, two kinds of instability are generated. The oscillations that grow north of the equator have a baroclinic nature, while those generated on and very close to the equator have a barotropic nature. 

    This study shows that the potential for baroclinic instability in the equatorial region can be as large as at mid-latitudes, if the tendency of isotherms to have a smaller slope for a given zonal velocity, when the Coriolis parameter vanishes, is compensated for by the wind effect.

    Key words. Oceanography: general (equatorial oceanography; numerical modeling – Oceanography: physics (fronts and jets

  10. Instabilities of continuously stratified zonal equatorial jets in a periodic channel model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Masina

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Several numerical experiments are performed in a nonlinear, multi-level periodic channel model centered on the equator with different zonally uniform background flows which resemble the South Equatorial Current (SEC. Analysis of the simulations focuses on identifying stability criteria for a continuously stratified fluid near the equator. A 90 m deep frontal layer is required to destabilize a zonally uniform, 10° wide, westward surface jet that is symmetric about the equator and has a maximum velocity of 100 cm/s. In this case, the phase velocity of the excited unstable waves is very similar to the phase speed of the Tropical Instability Waves (TIWs observed in the eastern Pacific Ocean. The vertical scale of the baroclinic waves corresponds to the frontal layer depth and their phase speed increases as the vertical shear of the jet is doubled. When the westward surface parabolic jet is made asymmetric about the equator, in order to simulate more realistically the structure of the SEC in the eastern Pacific, two kinds of instability are generated. The oscillations that grow north of the equator have a baroclinic nature, while those generated on and very close to the equator have a barotropic nature.  This study shows that the potential for baroclinic instability in the equatorial region can be as large as at mid-latitudes, if the tendency of isotherms to have a smaller slope for a given zonal velocity, when the Coriolis parameter vanishes, is compensated for by the wind effect.Key words. Oceanography: general (equatorial oceanography; numerical modeling – Oceanography: physics (fronts and jets

  11. [Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in protostellar jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, James; Hardee, Philip

    1996-01-01

    NASA grant NAG 5 2866, funded by the Astrophysics Theory Program, enabled the study the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in protostellar jets. In collaboration with co-investigator Philip Hardee, the PI derived the analytic dispersion relation for the instability in including a cooling term in the energy equation which was modeled as one of two different power laws. Numerical solutions to this dispersion relation over a wide range of perturbation frequencies, and for a variety of parameter values characterizing the jet (such as Mach number, and density ratio) were found It was found that the growth rates and wavelengths associated with unstable roots of the dispersion relation in cooling jets are significantly different than those associated with adiabatic jets, which have been studied previously. In collaboration with graduate student Jianjun Xu (funded as a research associate under this grant), hydrodynamical simulations were used to follow the growth of the instability into the nonlinear regime. It was found that asymmetric surface waves lead to large amplitude, sinusoidal distortions of the jet, and ultimately to disruption Asymmetric body waves, on the other hand, result in the formation of shocks in the jet beam in the nonlinear regime. In cooling jets, these shocks lead to the formation of dense knots and filaments of gas within the jet. For sufficiently high perturbation frequencies, however, the jet cannot respond and it remains symmetric. Applying these results to observed systems, such as the Herbig-Haro jets HH34, HH111 and HH47 which have been observed with the Hubble Space Telescope, we predicted that some of the asymmetric structures observed in these systems could be attributed to the K-H modes, but that perturbations on timescales associated with the inner disk (about 1 year) would be too rapid to cause disruption. Moreover, it was discovered that weak shock 'spurs' in the ambient gas produced by ripples in the jet surface due to nonlinear, modes of

  12. Electric arc, water jet cutting of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruening, D.

    1991-01-01

    For thermal dismantling and cutting of metallic components, as electric arc, water jet cutting method was developed that can be used for underwater cutting work up to a depth of 20 m. Short-circuiting of a continuously fed electrode wire in contact with the metal generates an electric arc which induces partial melting of the metal, and the water jet surrounding the wire rinses away the molten material, thus making a continuous kerf in the material. The method was also tested and modified to allow larger area, surface cutting and removal of metallic surface coatings. This is achieved by melting parts of the surface with the electric arc and subsequent rinsing by the water jet. The cutting and melting depth for surface removal can be accurately controlled by the operating parameters chosen. (orig./DG) [de

  13. Some experiments on cavitation damage produced by a submerged jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momma, T.; Lichtarowicz, A.

    1993-01-01

    Cavitation erosion produced by a submerged jet can be utilized for cleaning surface contamination. This paper describes some results obtained from experiments at the University of Nottingham conducted on cavitating jets and their effects on surfaces. Some effects of cavitation on submerged jets were examined. High speed photography was used to show the structure of the jet. All stages of damage to soft aluminum specimens from plastically deformed indentations down to large concentric erosion rings were observed. The amount of erosion depended on the configuration of the set up and on the flow parameters. Early stages of erosion can be used for cleaning

  14. Active shunt capacitance cancelling oscillator circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessendorf, Kurt O.

    2003-09-23

    An oscillator circuit is disclosed which can be used to produce oscillation using a piezoelectric crystal, with a frequency of oscillation being largely independent of any shunt capacitance associated with the crystal (i.e. due to electrodes on the surfaces of the crystal and due to packaging and wiring for the crystal). The oscillator circuit is based on a tuned gain stage which operates the crystal at a frequency, f, near a series resonance frequency, f.sub.S. The oscillator circuit further includes a compensation circuit that supplies all the ac current flow through the shunt resistance associated with the crystal so that this ac current need not be supplied by the tuned gain stage. The compensation circuit uses a current mirror to provide the ac current flow based on the current flow through a reference capacitor that is equivalent to the shunt capacitance associated with the crystal. The oscillator circuit has applications for driving piezoelectric crystals for sensing of viscous, fluid or solid media by detecting a change in the frequency of oscillation of the crystal and a resonator loss which occur from contact of an exposed surface of the crystal by the viscous, fluid or solid media.

  15. A memristor-based third-order oscillator: beyond oscillation

    KAUST Repository

    Talukdar, Abdul Hafiz Ibne

    2012-10-06

    This paper demonstrates the first third-order autonomous linear time variant circuit realization that enhances parametric oscillation through the usage of memristor in conventional oscillators. Although the output has sustained oscillation, the linear features of the conventional oscillators become time dependent. The poles oscillate in nonlinear behavior due to the oscillation of memristor resistance. The mathematical formulas as well as SPICE simulations are introduced for the memristor-based phase shift oscillator showing a great matching.

  16. A memristor-based third-order oscillator: beyond oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukdar, A.; Radwan, A. G.; Salama, K. N.

    2011-09-01

    This paper demonstrates the first third-order autonomous linear time variant circuit realization that enhances parametric oscillation through the usage of memristor in conventional oscillators. Although the output has sustained oscillation, the linear features of the conventional oscillators become time dependent. The poles oscillate in nonlinear behavior due to the oscillation of memristor resistance. The mathematical formulas as well as SPICE simulations are introduced for the memristor-based phase shift oscillator showing a great matching.

  17. Summer monsoon rainfall variability over North East regions of India and its association with Eurasian snow, Atlantic Sea Surface temperature and Arctic Oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, Amita; Oh, Jaiho; Kim, In-won; Kripalani, R. H.; Mitra, A. K.; Pandithurai, G.

    2017-10-01

    This observational study during the 29-year period from 1979 to 2007 evaluates the potential role of Eurasian snow in modulating the North East-Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall with a lead time of almost 6 months. This link is manifested by the changes in high-latitude atmospheric winter snow variability over Eurasia associated with Arctic Oscillation (AO). Excessive wintertime Eurasian snow leads to an anomalous cooling of the overlying atmosphere and is associated with the negative mode of AO, inducing a meridional wave-train descending over the tropical north Atlantic and is associated with cooling of this region. Once the cold anomalies are established over the tropical Atlantic, it persists up to the following summer leading to an anomalous zonal wave-train further inducing a descending branch over NE-India resulting in weak summer monsoon rainfall.

  18. Climate Fingerprints of The Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Bo

    The Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO) is a multi-decadal quasi-oscillation seen primarily in tropical and extratropical Pacific sea surface temperatures (SSTs). Interacting with the atmosphere, the IPO has been shown to affect global and regional climate. However, a quantitative global synthesis of the IPO's climate fingerprints and the underlying mechanisms are still lacking. Based on observational and reanalysis data and atmospheric model simulations, this dissertation investigates the IPO's influence on regional climates over the globe, and its interactions with El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and global warming. Since 1920, there are two warm (1924-1944 and 1977-1998) and two cold (1945-1976 and 1999-present) IPO phases. The IPO explains more than half of the interdecadal variations in surface air temperature (T) and precipitation (P) over many regions, such as northeastern Australia, southern Africa and the Southwest U.S. Although the IPO's SST pattern is ENSO-like, its influence on remote regional climate (referred to as teleconnection) differs substantially in spatial and seasonal features from those of ENSO's. In addition, the IPO can modulate ENSO's influence on regional T and P by changing the coupling strength between regional T/P and Nino 3.4 index over different IPO phases. Such modulation effect can be explained by changes in the meridional (local Hadley) and zonal (Walker) overturning circulation at low latitudes, and the Pacific North America (PNA)-type Rossby wave train in the extratropics. Composite analyses show that the IPO's modulation of ENSO's teleconnection varies with both IPO and ENSO phases, as the modulation patterns are neither symmetrically opposite between warm and cold IPO phases, nor between El Nino and La Nina events. A set of numerical experiments using the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) forced with different combinations of the IPO- and ENSO-related SST fields further illustrate IPO's asymmetric modulation

  19. Two-component jets from 3-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic jet simulations of disk winds at sub-parsec scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staff Jan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We explore the effect of large scale magnetic field on the formation of two-component jets in magnetohydrodynamic disk winds simulations. Our simulations show a one-component and two-component jets develop depending on the magnetic field distribution along the surface of the accretion disk. Magnetic field configurations with the least steep gradient along the disk lead to a well defined two-component jet with the self-similar (Blandford-Payne configuration separating the two regimes. Our results have direct implications to jets models of AGN and GRBs if indeed two-component jets emanate directly from the accretion disk. Our findings imply that a three-component jets may exist in AGN jets if one takes into account a Blandford-Znajek component in the innermost, relativistic, regions.

  20. On the Comparison of the Long Penetration Mode (LPM) Supersonic Counterflowing Jet to the Supersonic Screech Jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Rebecca A.; Chang, Chau-Lyan.; Jones, Jess H.; Dougherty, N. Sam

    2015-01-01

    The authors provide a brief overview of the classic tonal screech noise problem created by underexpanded supersonic jets, briefly describing the fluid dynamic-acoustics feedback mechanism that has been long established as the basis for this well-known aeroacoustics problem. This is followed by a description of the Long Penetration Mode (LPM) supersonic underexpanded counterflowing jet phenomenon which has been demonstrated in several wind tunnel tests and modeled in several computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. The authors provide evidence from test and CFD analysis of LPM that indicates that acoustics feedback and fluid interaction seen in LPM are analogous to the aeroacoustics interactions seen in screech jets. Finally, the authors propose applying certain methodologies to LPM which have been developed and successfully demonstrated in the study of screech jets and mechanically induced excitation in fluid oscillators for decades. The authors conclude that the large body of work done on jet screech, other aeroacoustic phenomena, and fluid oscillators can have direct application to the study and applications of LPM counterflowing supersonic cold flow jets.

  1. Visualization of interfacial behavior of liquid jet in pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchiyama, Yuta; Abe, Yutaka; Fujiwara, Akiko; Nariai, Hideki; Matsuo, Eiji; Chitose, Keiko; Koyama, Kazuya; Itoh, Kazuhiro

    2008-01-01

    For the safety design of the Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR), it is strongly required that the post accident heat removal (PAHR) is achieved after a postulated core disruptive accident (CDA). In the PAHR, it is important that the molten core material is quenched (breakup) in sodium coolant. In the previous studies, it is pointed out that the jet breakup behavior is significantly influenced by the fragmentation behavior on the jet surface in the coolant. However, the process from interfacial instability to fragmentation on the jet surface to jet breakup is not elucidated in detail yet. In the present study, the jet breakup behavior is observed to obtain the fragmentation behavior on the jet surface in coolant in detail. The transparent fluid is used as the core material and is injected into the water as the coolant. The velocity distribution of internal flow of the jet is measured by PIV technique and shear stress is calculated from PIV results. From experimental results, unstable interfacial wave is confirmed as upstream and grown up toward downstream. The fragments are torn apart at the end of developed wave. Shear stress is strongly acted on jet surface. From the results, the correlation between the interfacial behavior of the jet and the generation process of fragments are discussed. (author)

  2. Jet Substructure Without Trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jankowiak, Martin; Larkoski, Andrew J.; /SLAC /Stanford U., ITP

    2011-08-19

    We present an alternative approach to identifying and characterizing jet substructure. An angular correlation function is introduced that can be used to extract angular and mass scales within a jet without reference to a clustering algorithm. This procedure gives rise to a number of useful jet observables. As an application, we construct a top quark tagging algorithm that is competitive with existing methods. In preparation for the LHC, the past several years have seen extensive work on various aspects of collider searches. With the excellent resolution of the ATLAS and CMS detectors as a catalyst, one area that has undergone significant development is jet substructure physics. The use of jet substructure techniques, which probe the fine-grained details of how energy is distributed in jets, has two broad goals. First, measuring more than just the bulk properties of jets allows for additional probes of QCD. For example, jet substructure measurements can be compared against precision perturbative QCD calculations or used to tune Monte Carlo event generators. Second, jet substructure allows for additional handles in event discrimination. These handles could play an important role at the LHC in discriminating between signal and background events in a wide variety of particle searches. For example, Monte Carlo studies indicate that jet substructure techniques allow for efficient reconstruction of boosted heavy objects such as the W{sup {+-}} and Z{sup 0} gauge bosons, the top quark, and the Higgs boson.

  3. Oscillations of disks

    CERN Document Server

    Kato, Shoji

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the current state of research on disk oscillation theory, focusing on relativistic disks and tidally deformed disks. Since the launch of the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) in 1996, many high-frequency quasiperiodic oscillations (HFQPOs) have been observed in X-ray binaries. Subsequently, similar quasi-periodic oscillations have been found in such relativistic objects as microquasars, ultra-luminous X-ray sources, and galactic nuclei. One of the most promising explanations of their origin is based on oscillations in relativistic disks, and a new field called discoseismology is currently developing. After reviewing observational aspects, the book presents the basic characteristics of disk oscillations, especially focusing on those in relativistic disks. Relativistic disks are essentially different from Newtonian disks in terms of several basic characteristics of their disk oscillations, including the radial distributions of epicyclic frequencies. In order to understand the basic processes...

  4. Mathematical Modeling of an Oscillating Droplet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, S.; Hyers, R. W.; Racz, L. M.; Abedian, B.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Oscillating droplets are of interest in a number of disciplines. A practical application is the oscillating drop method, which is a technique for measuring surface tension and viscosity of liquid metals. It is especially suited to undercooled and highly reactive metals, because it is performed by electromagnetic levitation. The natural oscillation frequency of the droplets is related to the surface tension of the material, and the decay of oscillations is related to its viscosity. The fluid flow inside the droplet must be laminar in order for this technique to yield good results. Because no experimental method has yet been developed to visualize flow in electromagnetically-levitated oscillating metal droplets, mathematical modeling is required to determine whether or not turbulence occurs. Three mathematical models of the flow: (1) assuming laminar conditions, (2) using the k-epsilon turbulence model, and (3) using the RNG turbulence model, respectively, are compared and contrasted to determine the physical characteristics of the flow. It is concluded that the RNG model is the best suited for describing this problem. The goal of the presented work was to characterize internal flow in an oscillating droplet of liquid metal, and to verify the accuracy of the characterization by comparing calculated surface tension and viscosity.

  5. Self-oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Alejandro

    2013-04-01

    Physicists are very familiar with forced and parametric resonance, but usually not with self-oscillation, a property of certain dynamical systems that gives rise to a great variety of vibrations, both useful and destructive. In a self-oscillator, the driving force is controlled by the oscillation itself so that it acts in phase with the velocity, causing a negative damping that feeds energy into the vibration: no external rate needs to be adjusted to the resonant frequency. The famous collapse of the Tacoma Narrows bridge in 1940, often attributed by introductory physics texts to forced resonance, was actually a self-oscillation, as was the swaying of the London Millennium Footbridge in 2000. Clocks are self-oscillators, as are bowed and wind musical instruments. The heart is a “relaxation oscillator”, i.e., a non-sinusoidal self-oscillator whose period is determined by sudden, nonlinear switching at thresholds. We review the general criterion that determines whether a linear system can self-oscillate. We then describe the limiting cycles of the simplest nonlinear self-oscillators, as well as the ability of two or more coupled self-oscillators to become spontaneously synchronized (“entrained”). We characterize the operation of motors as self-oscillation and prove a theorem about their limit efficiency, of which Carnot’s theorem for heat engines appears as a special case. We briefly discuss how self-oscillation applies to servomechanisms, Cepheid variable stars, lasers, and the macroeconomic business cycle, among other applications. Our emphasis throughout is on the energetics of self-oscillation, often neglected by the literature on nonlinear dynamical systems.

  6. Effect of Nocturnal Low-level Jet on Nighttime CO2 Concentrations and Fluxes: a Numerical Sensitive Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogachev, A.; Jørgensen, H.; Leclerc, M. Y.; Duarte, H. F.; Durden, D.; Pingintha, N.; Zhang, G.

    2009-12-01

    It has been shown recently that net ecosystem exchange is impacted by nocturnal low-level jets (LLJs). The presence of a LLJ impedes vertical gaseous dispersion and facilitates gas accumulation, often to the level of the wind maximum, which can be well below the temperature inversion level (Mathieu et al., 2005; Karipot et al., 2006; 2007; 2008; 2009). The present study uses the numerical atmospheric boundary-layer (ABL) model SCADIS described by Sogachev et al. (2002) in its one-dimensional mode to examine specific effects of the structure of nocturnal jets on nighttime CO2 concentrations and fluxes. From a variety of mechanisms suggested for formation of LLJs, such as inertial oscillations, baroclinicity over sloping terrain, and land-sea breeze effects (Stull, 1988), the one-dimensional ABL model is capable of simulating only the first one. The unique feature of the SCADIS model, based on a two-equation closure approach, is the treatment of buoyancy and plant drag effects in a way that does not require a predefined mixing length (Sogachev, 2009). Although pure inertial oscillations attributed only to the diurnal oscillation of eddy viscosity are rare and are typically intertwined with other contributing factors, they constitute an important cause of jet formation. Sensitive tests were carried out with SCADIS to examine the response of nighttime CO2 concentrations and fluxes to low-level jet structural changes caused by different forcing at the air-forest interface. Results show that the model captures the most prominent features of both the LLJ, including its vertical structure as well as its diurnal phase and amplitude, and the conceptual model for nocturnal accumulation of gases beneath a LLJ suggested by Mathieu et al. (2005). Primarily, that gas accumulation is stronger beneath LLJs that are decoupled from the surface than those that are coupled since the latter allow turbulent mixing down to the surface. Both the structure of the LLJ and CO2 concentration

  7. Structure and dynamics of a wave train along the wintertime Asian jet and its impact on East Asian climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Kaiming; Huang, Gang; Wu, Renguang; Wang, Lin

    2017-04-01

    Based on observational and reanalysis datasets, this study investigates the structure and dynamics of a wave-like atmospheric teleconnection pattern along the wintertime Asian jet and its influence on East Asian climate. Along the jet, the leading empirical orthogonal function (EOF) mode of monthly meridional winds at 250-hPa in winter (December, January, and February) is organized as a wave train with maximum anomalies at upper troposphere. The wave train propagates northeastward from the North Atlantic to Europe, turns southeastward to the Middle East with amplifying amplitude, propagates along the jet to South China, and reaches Japan, which is partly induced by sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the equatorial eastern Pacific and the North Atlantic Oscillation. Over the sector from Europe to the Middle East, the anomalous vortices in the wave train tilt northwestward with height and tilt northeast/southwest in horizontal at 250 hPa, favoring for extracting available potential energy and kinetic energy from mean flows effectively. In addition, there exists a positive feedback between transient eddies and the wave train-related anomalous circulation over the North Atlantic and Europe. These processes help to maintain and amplify the wave train. Moreover, the wave train can exert significant influences on the wintertime climate in East Asia. When it is in the phase with a cyclone (anticyclone) over South China (Japan), rainfall tends to be above normal in South and East China and surface air temperature tends to be above normal around Japan and the Korea peninsula.

  8. JET VELOCITY OF LINEAR SHAPED CHARGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vječislav Bohanek

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Shaped explosive charges with one dimension significantly larger than the other are called linear shaped charges. Linear shaped charges are used in various industries and are applied within specific technologies for metal cutting, such as demolition of steel structures, separating spent rocket fuel tanks, demining, cutting holes in the barriers for fire service, etc. According to existing theories and models efficiency of linear shaped charges depends on the kinetic energy of the jet which is proportional to square of jet velocity. The original method for measuring velocity of linear shaped charge jet is applied in the aforementioned research. Measurements were carried out for two different linear materials, and the results are graphically presented, analysed and compared. Measurement results show a discrepancy in the measured velocity of the jet for different materials with the same ratio between linear and explosive mass (M/C per unit of surface, which is not described by presented models (the paper is published in Croatian.

  9. JET Joint Undertaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keen, B.E.

    1988-03-01

    The paper is a JET progress report 1987, and covers the fourth full year of JET's operation. The report contains an overview summary of the scientific and technical advances during the year, and is supplemented by appendices of detailed contributions of the more important JET articles published during 1987. The document is aimed at specialists and experts engaged in nuclear fusion and plasma physics, as well as the general scientific community. (U.K.)

  10. The hydrogen laminar jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Sanz, M. [Departamento de Motopropulsion y Termofluidomecanica, ETSI Aeronauticos, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Rosales, M. [Department Ingenieria Termica y de Fluidos, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911, Leganes (Spain); Instituto de Innovacion en Mineria y Metalurgia, Avenida del Valle 738, Santiago (Chile); Sanchez, A.L. [Department Ingenieria Termica y de Fluidos, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911, Leganes (Spain)

    2010-04-15

    Numerical and asymptotic methods are used to investigate the structure of the hydrogen jet discharging into a quiescent air atmosphere. The analysis accounts in particular for the variation of the density and transport properties with composition. The Reynolds number of the flow R{sub j}, based on the initial jet radius a, the density {rho}{sub j} and viscosity {mu}{sub j} of the jet and the characteristic jet velocity u{sub j}, is assumed to take moderately large values, so that the jet remains slender and stable, and can be correspondingly described by numerical integration of the continuity, momentum and species conservation equations written in the boundary-layer approximation. The solution for the velocity and composition in the jet development region of planar and round jets, corresponding to streamwise distances of order R{sub j}a, is computed numerically, along with the solutions that emerge both in the near field and in the far field. The small value of the hydrogen-to-air molecular weight ratio is used to simplify the solution by considering the asymptotic limit of vanishing jet density. The development provides at leading-order explicit analytical expressions for the far-field velocity and hydrogen mass fraction that describe accurately the hydrogen jet near the axis. The information provided can be useful in particular to characterize hydrogen discharge processes from holes and cracks. (author)

  11. Psychoacoustic Analysis of Synthesized Jet Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okcu, Selen; Rathsam, Jonathan; Rizzi, Stephen A.

    2013-01-01

    An aircraft noise synthesis capability is being developed so the annoyance caused by proposed aircraft can be assessed during the design stage. To make synthesized signals as realistic as possible, high fidelity simulation is required for source (e.g., engine noise, airframe noise), propagation and receiver effects. This psychoacoustic study tests whether the jet noise component of synthesized aircraft engine noise can be made more realistic using a low frequency oscillator (LFO) technique to simulate fluctuations in level observed in recordings. Jet noise predictions are commonly made in the frequency domain based on models of time-averaged empirical data. The synthesis process involves conversion of the frequency domain prediction into an audible pressure time history. However, because the predictions are time-invariant, the synthesized sound lacks fluctuations observed in recordings. Such fluctuations are hypothesized to be perceptually important. To introduce time-varying characteristics into jet noise synthesis, a method has been developed that modulates measured or predicted 1/3-octave band levels with a (<20Hz) LFO. The LFO characteristics are determined through analysis of laboratory jet noise recordings. For the aft emission angle, results indicate that signals synthesized using a generic LFO are perceived as more similar to recordings than those using no LFO, and signals synthesized with an angle-specific LFO are more similar to recordings than those synthesized with a generic LFO.

  12. Numerical study of the air-flow in an oscillating water column wave energy converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paixao Conde, J.M. [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, New University of Lisbon, Monte de Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); IDMEC, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Gato, L.M.C. [IDMEC, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2008-12-15

    The paper presents a numerical study of the air-flow in a typical pneumatic chamber geometry of an oscillating water column (OWC)-type wave energy converter (WEC), equipped with two vertical-axis air turbines, asymmetrically placed on the top of the chamber. Outwards and inwards, steady and periodic, air-flow calculations were performed to investigate the flow distribution at the turbines' inlet sections, as well as the properties of the air-jet impinging on the water free-surface. The original design of the OWC chamber is likely to be harmful for the operation of the turbines due to the possible air-jet-produced water-spray at the water free-surface subsequently ingested by the turbine. A geometry modification of the air chamber, using a horizontal baffle-plate to deflect the air from the turbines, is proposed and proved to be very effective in reducing the risk of water-spray production from the inwards flow. The flow distribution at the turbines' inlet sections for the outwards flow was found to be fairly uniform for the geometries considered, providing good inlet flow conditions for the turbines. Steady flow was found to be an acceptable model to study the air-flow inside the pneumatic chamber of an OWC-WEC. (author)

  13. Experimental study of hydrogen jet ignition and jet extinguishment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wierman, R.W.

    1979-04-01

    Two phases are described of an experimental study that investigated: (1) the ignition characteristics of hydrogen--sodium jets, (2) the formation of hydrogen in sodium--humid air atmospheres, and (3) the extinguishment characteristics of burning hydrogen--sodium jets. Test conditions were similar to those postulated for highly-improbable breeder reactor core melt-through accidents and included: jet temperature, jet velocity, jet hydrogen concentration, jet sodium concentration, atmospheric oxygen concentration, and atmospheric water vapor concentration

  14. Numerical/Laplace transform analysis for MHD radiating heat/mass transport in a Darcian porous regime bounded by an oscillating vertical surfac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahin Ahmed

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Analytical and numerical solutions of a non-linear MHD flow with heat and mass transfer characteristics of an incompressible, viscous, electrically conducting and Boussinesq’s fluid over a vertical oscillating plate embedded in a Darcian porous medium in the presence of thermal radiation effect have been presented. The fluid considered here is gray, absorbing/emitting radiating, but non-scattering medium. At time t > 0, the plate temperature and concentration near the plate raised linearly with time t. The dimensionless governing coupled, non-linear boundary layer partial differential equations are solved by an efficient, accurate, extensively validated and unconditionally stable finite difference scheme of the Crank–Nicolson type as well as by the Laplace Transform technique. An increase in porosity parameter (K is found to depress fluid velocities and shear stress in the regime. Also it has been found that, when the conduction-radiation (R increased, the fluid velocity and the temperature profiles decreased. Applications of the study arise in materials processing and solar energy collector systems.

  15. Interdecadal Change in the Relationship Between the North Pacific Oscillation and the Pacific Meridional Mode and Its Impact on ENSO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, So-Jung; An, Soon-Il

    2018-02-01

    Two leading but independent modes of Northern Pacific atmospheric circulation: the North Pacific Oscillation (NPO) and the Pacific Meridional Mode (PMM), are known external triggers of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) by the sequential migration of sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies into the tropics possibly by means of wind-evaporation-SST (WES) feedbacks. Because of the similar roles of NPO and PMM, most previous studies have explored them with no separation. Here, we investigate their independent and combined effects in triggering ENSO, and find that when the NPO and PMM occur simultaneously during spring, ENSO or ENSO-like SST anomalies are generated during the following winter; whereas when either the NPO or PMM occur alone, ENSO events rarely occur. Furthermore, the relationship between NPO and PMM shows noticeable interdecadal variability, which is related to decadal changes in the mean upper-level jet stream over the North Pacific. Changes in the upper-level jet stream modify the location of the center of the Aleutian Low, which plays a role in bridging the NPO and PMM processes, especially when it migrates to the southwest. The period when NPO and PMM are well correlated coincides somewhat with the active ENSO period, and vice versa, indicating that a more efficient trigger due to combined NPO-PMM processes results in a higher variation of ENSO. Finally, analysis of the coupled model control simulations strongly supports our observational analysis results.

  16. Jet mass spectra in Higgs+one jet at NNLL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouttenus, Teppo T.; Stewart, Iain W.; Waalewijn, Wouter J.

    2013-02-01

    The invariant mass of a jet is a benchmark variable describing the structure of jets at the LHC. We calculate the jet mass spectrum for Higgs plus one jet at the LHC at next-to-next-to-leading logarithmic (NNLL) order using a factorization formula. At this order, the cross section becomes sensitive to perturbation theory at the soft m 2 jet /p jet T scale. Our calculation is exclusive and uses the 1-jettiness global event shape to implement a veto on additional jets. The dominant dependence on the jet veto is removed by normalizing the spectrum, leaving residual dependence from non-global logarithms depending on the ratio of the jet mass and jet veto variables. For our exclusive jet cross section these non-global logarithms are parametrically smaller than in the inclusive case, allowing us to obtain a complete NNLL result. Results for the dependence of the jet mass spectrum on the kinematics, jet algorithm, and jet size R are given. Using individual partonic channels we illustrate the difference between the jet mass spectra for quark and gluon jets. We also study the effect of hadronization and underlying event on the jet mass in Pythia. To highlight the similarity of inclusive and exclusive jet mass spectra, a comparison to LHC data is presented.

  17. Jet mass spectra in Higgs+one jet at NNLL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jouttenus, Teppo T.; Stewart, Iain W. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States). Center for Theoretical Physics; Tackmann, Frank J. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Waalewijn, Wouter J. [California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    2013-02-15

    The invariant mass of a jet is a benchmark variable describing the structure of jets at the LHC. We calculate the jet mass spectrum for Higgs plus one jet at the LHC at next-to-next-to-leading logarithmic (NNLL) order using a factorization formula. At this order, the cross section becomes sensitive to perturbation theory at the soft m{sup 2}{sub jet}/p{sup jet}{sub T} scale. Our calculation is exclusive and uses the 1-jettiness global event shape to implement a veto on additional jets. The dominant dependence on the jet veto is removed by normalizing the spectrum, leaving residual dependence from non-global logarithms depending on the ratio of the jet mass and jet veto variables. For our exclusive jet cross section these non-global logarithms are parametrically smaller than in the inclusive case, allowing us to obtain a complete NNLL result. Results for the dependence of the jet mass spectrum on the kinematics, jet algorithm, and jet size R are given. Using individual partonic channels we illustrate the difference between the jet mass spectra for quark and gluon jets. We also study the effect of hadronization and underlying event on the jet mass in Pythia. To highlight the similarity of inclusive and exclusive jet mass spectra, a comparison to LHC data is presented.

  18. Phenomenology of neutrino oscillations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this talk, I shall try to give a bird's eye view of the current status of neutrino oscillations. ..... the night effect. An asymmetry between the night and day rates would be an unambiguous signal for neutrino oscillations independent of the details of the solar ... It is particularly important to see the effect of the core of the earth [19].

  19. Active-bridge oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessendorf, Kurt O.

    2001-01-01

    An active bridge oscillator is formed from a differential amplifier where positive feedback is a function of the impedance of one of the gain elements and a relatively low value common emitter resistance. This use of the nonlinear transistor parameter h stabilizes the output and eliminates the need for ALC circuits common to other bridge oscillators.

  20. On the Dirac oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, R. de Lima

    2007-01-01

    In the present work we obtain a new representation for the Dirac oscillator based on the Clifford algebra C 7. The symmetry breaking and the energy eigenvalues for our model of the Dirac oscillator are studied in the non-relativistic limit. (author)

  1. Grazing Impact Oscillations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weger, J.G.; Water, van de W.; Molenaar, J.

    2000-01-01

    An impact oscillator is a periodically driven system that hits a wall when its amplitude exceeds a critical value. We study impact oscillations where collisions with the wall are with near-zero velocity (grazing impacts). A characteristic feature of grazing impact dynamics is a geometrically

  2. Universality of oscillating boiling in Leidenfrost transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Tuan; Khavari, Mohammad

    2017-11-01

    The Leidenfrost transition leads a boiling system to the boiling crisis, a state in which the liquid loses contact with the heated surface due to excessive vapor generation. Here, using experiments of liquid droplets boiling on a heated surface, we report a new phenomenon, termed oscillating boiling, at the Leidenfrost transition. We show that oscillating boiling results from the competition between two effects: separation of liquid from the heated surface due to localized boiling, and rewetting. We argue theoretically that the Leidenfrost transition can be predicted based on its link with the oscillating boiling phenomenon, and verify the prediction experimentally for various liquids. This work was funded by Nanyang Technological University and A*STAR, Singapore.

  3. Development of new model of mold oscillator in continuous casting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, G. P.; Shin, G.; Kang, C. G.

    2007-01-01

    To develop the hydraulic mold oscillator in continuous casting machine, the guiding mechanism of mold was studied. The main topics of this study were to design the guiding mechanism of mold which oscillates to prevent the sticking and to reduce the friction resistant force between the solidified shell and mold on casting. We studied many guiding types to analyze the features of worldwide mold oscillator and developed the new model of hydraulic mold oscillator. On the basis of the mold oscillating experiment, the capability of guiding system was proofed by the position error measuring system. The experiment was carried out up to 50∼500 cpm frequencies and 2∼10 mm stroke in the variable waveform and the casting results was analyzed by the oscillation mark of slab surface which was formed unavoidably by oscillation

  4. Star-shaped oscillations of Leidenfrost drops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaolei; Liétor-Santos, Juan-José; Burton, Justin C.

    2017-03-01

    We experimentally investigate the self-sustained, star-shaped oscillations of Leidenfrost drops. The drops levitate on a cushion of evaporated vapor over a heated, curved surface. We observe modes with n =2 -13 lobes around the drop periphery. We find that the wavelength of the oscillations depends only on the capillary length of the liquid and is independent of the drop radius and substrate temperature. However, the number of observed modes depends sensitively on the liquid viscosity. The dominant frequency of pressure variations in the vapor layer is approximately twice the drop oscillation frequency, consistent with a parametric forcing mechanism. Our results show that the star-shaped oscillations are driven by capillary waves of a characteristic wavelength beneath the drop and that the waves are generated by a large shear stress at the liquid-vapor interface.

  5. Shape oscillations of a viscoelastic drop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khismatullin, Damir B.; Nadim, Ali

    2001-01-01

    Small-amplitude axisymmetric shape deformations of a viscoelastic liquid drop in microgravity are theoretically analyzed. Using the Jeffreys constitutive equation for linear viscoelasticity, the characteristic equation for the frequency and decay factor of the shape oscillations is derived. Asymptotic analysis of this equation is performed in the low- and high-viscosity limits and for the cases of small, moderate, and large elasticities. Elastic effects are shown to give rise to a type of shape oscillation that does not depend on the surface tension. The existence of such oscillations is confirmed by numerical solution of the characteristic equation in various regimes. A method for determining the viscoelastic properties of highly viscous liquids based upon experimental measurements of the frequency and damping rate of such shape oscillations is suggested

  6. FastJet user manual

    CERN Document Server

    Cacciari, Matteo; Soyez, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    FastJet is a C++ package that provides a broad range of jet finding and analysis tools. It includes efficient native implementations of all widely used 2-to-1 sequential recombination jet algorithms for pp and e+e- collisions, as well as access to 3rd party jet algorithms through a plugin mechanism, including all currently used cone algorithms. FastJet also provides means to facilitate the manipulation of jet substructure, including some common boosted heavy-object taggers, as well as tools for estimation of pileup and underlying-event noise levels, determination of jet areas and subtraction or suppression of noise in jets.

  7. Manual of water jet technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momber, A.

    1993-01-01

    The manual is the first of its kind, presenting a systematic review of water jet applications for cutting or otherwise treating concrete. The basic principles of water jet techniques are explained in chapters entitled: Systematic survey of water jets/Generation and characteristics of water jets/Concrete behaviour under water jet treatment/Optimization potentials/Fundamentals of abrasive water jet techniques/Pulsed water jets/Addition of additives/Equipment and tools/Applications (cleaning, roughening, abrasion, cutting, drilling)/Submerged water jet applications/Safety aspects/Evaluation principles and standard tender documents/Costs/Legal provisions and technical codes. (orig.) [de

  8. Jet Calibration at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Camacho, R; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The accurate measurement of jets at high transverse momentum produced in proton proton collision at a centre of mass energy at \\sqrt(s)=7 TeV is important in many physics analysis at LHC. Due to the non-compensating nature of the ATLAS calorimeter, signal losses due to noise thresholds and in dead material the jet energy needs to be calibrated. Presently, the ATLAS experiment derives the jet calibration from Monte Carlo simulation using a simple correction that relates the true and the reconstructed jet energy. The jet energy scale and its uncertainty are derived from in-situ measurements and variation in the Monte Carlo simulation. Other calibration schemes have been also developed, they use hadronic cell calibrations or the topology of the jet constituents to reduce hadronic fluctuations in the jet response, improving in that way the jet resolution. The performances of the various calibration schemes using data and simulation, the evaluation of the modelling of the properties used to derive each calibration...

  9. Bouncy Fluid Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhwa, Navish; Jung, Sunghwan; Vlachos, Pavlos

    2012-11-01

    Contrary to intuition, free fluid jets can sometimes ``bounce'' off each other upon collision, due to an entrained air film that keeps them separated. So far, there have only been a few descriptive studies of bouncing jets, since the first recorded observation by Rayleigh more than a century ago. We present a quantitative investigation of non-coalescence in jets of same fluid upon an oblique collision. Using a simple experimental set-up, we carried out a parametric study of the bouncing jets by varying the jet diameter, velocity, angle of inclination and fluid viscosity. Our results reveal a scaling law for the contact time of bouncing jets. We further investigate the transition of colliding jets from non-coalescence to coalescence, which seems to be caused by instability of the fluid interface. A dimensionless parameter, which is a function of the Normal Weber Number, Normal Reynolds Number and the angle of inclination of the jets, quantitatively dictates the transition. Presently at Department of Physics, Danish Technical University, Denmark.

  10. JET Joint Undertaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keen, B.E.

    1987-03-01

    The paper presents the progress report of the Joint European Torus (JET) Joint Undertaking, 1986. The report contains a survey of the scientific and technical achievements on JET during 1986; the more important articles referred to in this survey are reproduced as appendices to this Report. The last section discusses developments which might improve the overall performance of the machine. (U.K.)

  11. Jet Lag Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... but it can significantly reduce your vacation or business travel comfort. Fortunately, there are steps you can take ... to some symptoms of jet lag, regardless of travel across time zones. In ... attendants and business travelers are most likely to experience jet lag. ...

  12. Jets in Active Galaxies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    referred to as a jet by. Maarten Schmidt in. 1963, who realized that the strong emission lines of 3C273 were the redshifted Balmer lines giving a redshift of 0.158. In the extragalactic context, while studying optical counterparts of radio sources Baade and Minkowski in 1954 noted a “straight jet, extending from the nucleus” of ...

  13. Morning and Evening Oscillators Cooperate to Reset Circadian Behavior in Response to Light Input

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi Lamba

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Light is a crucial input for circadian clocks. In Drosophila, short light exposure can robustly shift the phase of circadian behavior. The model for this resetting posits that circadian photoreception is cell autonomous: CRYPTOCHROME senses light, binds to TIMELESS (TIM, and promotes its degradation, which is mediated by JETLAG (JET. However, it was recently proposed that interactions between circadian neurons are also required for phase resetting. We identify two groups of neurons critical for circadian photoreception: the morning (M and the evening (E oscillators. These neurons work synergistically to reset rhythmic behavior. JET promotes acute TIM degradation cell autonomously in M and E oscillators but also nonautonomously in E oscillators when expressed in M oscillators. Thus, upon light exposure, the M oscillators communicate with the E oscillators. Because the M oscillators drive circadian behavior, they must also receive inputs from the E oscillators. Hence, although photic TIM degradation is largely cell autonomous, neural cooperation between M and E oscillators is critical for circadian behavioral photoresponses.

  14. An analysis of plasma ion toroidal rotation during large amplitude MHD activity in JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snipes, J.A.; Esch, H.P.L. de; Lazzaro, E.; Stork, D.; Hellermann, M. von; Galvao, R.; Hender, T.C.; Zasche, D.

    1989-01-01

    A detailed study of plasma ion toroidal rotation in JET during large amplitude MHD activity has revealed a strong viscous force that couples plasma ions to MHD modes. Depending on the MHD modes present, this force can couple across all of the plasma cross section, across only the central region, roughly within the q=1 surface, or across only the outer region outside the q=1.5 surface. The force acts to flatten the ion toroidal rotation frequency profile, measured by the JET active charge exchange spectroscopy diagnostic, across the coupled region of plasma. The frequency of rotation in this region agrees with the MHD oscillation frequency measured by magnetic pick-up coils at the wall. The strength of the force between the ions and modes becomes evident during high power NBI when the mode locks and drags the ion toroidal rotation frequency to zero, within the errors of the measurements. The present theories of plasma rotation either ignore MHD effects entirely, consider only moderate n toroidal field ripple, or low n ripple effects. (author) 7 refs., 3 figs

  15. Jet Shapes at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Kurt, Pelin

    2008-01-01

    The CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) detector will observe high transverse momentum jets produced in the final state of proton-proton collisions at the center of mass energy of 14 TeV. These data will allow us to measure jet shapes, defined as the fractional transverse momentum distribution as a function of the distance from the jet axis. Since jet shapes are sensitive to parton showering processes they provide a good test of Monte Carlo event simulation programs. In this note we present a study of jet shapes reconstructed using calorimeter energies. We compare the predictions of the Monte Carlo generators PYTHIA and HERWIG++. Presented results are expected for $pp$ collisions at 14 TeV assuming an integrated luminosity of 10 pb$^{-1}$.

  16. Jet physics in ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    Measurements of hadronic jets provide tests of strong interactions which are interesting both in their own right and as backgrounds to many New Physics searches. It is also through tests of Quantum Chromodynamics that new physics may be discovered. The extensive dataset recorded with the ATLAS detector throughout the 7 TeV centre-of-mass LHC operation period allows QCD to be probed at distances never reached before. We present a review of selected ATLAS jet performance and physics measurements, together with results from new physics searches using the 2011 dataset. They include studies of the underlying event and fragmentation models, measurements of the inclusive jet, dijet and multijet cross sections, parton density functions, heavy flavours, jet shape, mass and substructure. Searches for new physics in monojet, dijet and photon-jet final states are also presented.

  17. Development of key fusion technologies at JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The recent operational phase in JET in which Deuterium-Tritium fuel was used (DTE1) resulted in record breaking fusion performance. In addition to important contributions in plasma physics, the JET Team has also made major advances in demonstrating the viability of some of the key technologies required for the realisation of future fusion power. Two of the most important technological areas which have been successfully demonstrated in JET are the ITER scale tritium processing plant and the exchange of the divertor and maintenance of the interior of JET by totally remote means. The experiment also provided the first data on tritium retention and co-deposition in a diverted tokamak. Of the 35g of tritium injected into the JET torus, about 6g remained in the tokamak. The amount resides mainly on cool surfaces at the inboard divertor side. The precise, safe and timely execution of the remote handling shutdown proved that the design, function, performance and operational methodology of the RH equipment prepared over the years at JET are appropriate for the successful and rapid replacement of components in an activated tokamak environment. (author)

  18. Development of key fusion technologies at JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The recent operational phase in JET in which Deuterium-Tritium fuel was used (DTE1) resulted in record breaking fusion performance. In addition to important contributions in plasma physics, the JET Team has also made major advances in demonstrating the viability of some of the key technologies required for the realisation of future fusion power. Two of the most important technological areas which have been successfully demonstrated in JET are the ITER scale tritium processing plant and the exchange of the divertor and maintenance of the interior of JET by totally remote means. The experiment also provided the first data on tritium retention and co-deposition in a diverted tokamak. Of the 35g of tritium injected into the JET torus, about 6g remained in the tokamak. The amount resides mainly on cool surfaces at the inboard divertor side. The precise, safe and timely execution of the remote handling shutdown proved that the design, function, performance and operational methodology of the RH equipment prepared over the years at JET are appropriate for the successful and rapid replacement of components in an activated tokamak environment. (author)

  19. Noise and erosion of self resonating cavitating jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courbiere, P.; Chahine, G.L.

    1986-09-01

    Self resonating jets have been developed which take advantage of the natural tendency of a jet to organize in large structures. Tests have shown that these jets are both highly erosive and a source of a discrete frequency high level noise. The erosion and noise effects are harnessed for improved cutting, drilling, and cleaning, as well as for sound generation. Simultaneous investigations of the noise and erosion of these jets have been conducted and have shown a definite trend toward correlation. For instance, time evolution of volume removal rates of an impacted surface and RSM readings of a transducer have been found to be correlated. Similarly, shifts in the relative importance of the various frequencies have followed the advancement of erosion. These results could be of great advantage in the determination of the evolution of a jet cutting operation in progress. In this paper, jet noise and erosion correlation tests will be described and the results analysed

  20. Harmonic oscillator Green's function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macek, J.H.; Ovchinnikov, S.Yu.; Khrebtukov, D.B.

    2000-01-01

    The Green's function for the harmonic oscillator in three dimensions plays an important role in the theory of atomic collisions. One representation of low-energy ion-atom collisions involves harmonic oscillator potentials. A closed-form expression for the harmonic oscillator Green's function, needed to exploit this representation, is derived. This expression is similar to the expression for the Coulomb Green's function obtained by Hostler and Pratt. Calculations of electron distributions for a model system of ion-atom collisions are reported to illustrate the theory.

  1. Oscillating foil propulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Hauge, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Unsteady foil theory is discussed and applied on several cases of an oscillating foil. The oscillating foil is meant as a propulsion system for a platform supply vessel.Four case studies of foil oscillation have been performed. A thrust coefficient of 0.1 was achieved at an efficiency of 0.75. A thrust coefficient of minimum 0.184 is necessary to overcome the calm water resistance of the foil.Issues connected to coupled vessel-foil models are discussed.

  2. Neutrino Oscillation Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kayser, Boris

    2014-04-10

    To complement the neutrino-physics lectures given at the 2011 International School on Astro Particle Physics devoted to Neutrino Physics and Astrophysics (ISAPP 2011; Varenna, Italy), at the 2011 European School of High Energy Physics (ESHEP 2011; Cheila Gradistei, Romania), and, in modified form, at other summer schools, we present here a written description of the physics of neutrino oscillation. This description is centered on a new way of deriving the oscillation probability. We also provide a brief guide to references relevant to topics other than neutrino oscillation that were covered in the lectures.

  3. Oscillator, neutron modulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agaisse, R.; Leguen, R.; Ombredane, D.

    1960-01-01

    The authors present a mechanical device and an electronic control circuit which have been designed to sinusoidally modulate the reactivity of the Proserpine atomic pile. The mechanical device comprises an oscillator and a mechanism assembly. The oscillator is made of cadmium blades which generate the reactivity oscillation. The mechanism assembly comprises a pulse generator for cycle splitting, a gearbox and an engine. The electronic device comprises or performs pulse detection, an on-off device, cycle pulse shaping, phase separation, a dephasing amplifier, electronic switches, counting scales, and control devices. All these elements are briefly presented

  4. Surface Wind and Upper-Ocean Variability Associated with the Madden-Julian Oscillation Simulated by the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    temperature is observed during the suppressed phase of the MJO because of the weak winds and large shortwave radiation (Weller and Anderson 1996...western PacificOceans (e.g.,Weller andAnderson 1996; Soloviev and Lukas 1997; Bellenger and Duvel 2009). The diurnal cycle of the solar radiation ...the difference in surface shortwave radiation caused by the small-scale cloud variability, which cannot be resolved by the atmospheric model. Also

  5. Overview of JET results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pamela, J.

    2003-01-01

    Scientific and technical activities on JET focus on the issues likely to affect the ITER design and operation. The physics of the ITER reference mode of operation, the ELMy H-mode, has progressed significantly: the extrapolation of ELM size to ITER has been re-evaluated; NTMs have been shown to be metastable in JET, and can be avoided via sawtooth destabilisation by ICRH; α-simulation experiments were carried out by accelerating 4 He beam ions by ICRH, providing a new tool for fast particle and MHD studies with up to 80-90% of plasma heating by fast 4 He ions. With or without impurity seeding, quasi-steady sate high confinement (H 98 =1), high density (n e /n GR = 0.9-1) and high β (β N =2) ELMy H-mode has been achieved by operating near the ITER triangularity (δ∼0.40-0.5) and safety factor (q 95 ∼3), at Z eff ∼1.5-2. In Advanced Tokamak scenarios, internal transport barriers are now characterised in real time with a new criterion ρ* T ; tailoring of the current profile with LHCD provides reliable access to a variety of q profiles, with significantly lowered access power for barrier formation; rational q surfaces appear to be associated with ITB formation; Alfven cascades are observed in RS plasmas, providing an identification of q profile evolution; plasmas with 'current holes' were observed and explained by modelling. Transient high confinement Advanced Tokamak regimes with H89=3.3, β N =2.4 and ITER relevant q<5 are achievable in reversed magnetic shear. Quasistationary internal transport barriers are developed with full non-inductive current drive, including ∼50% bootstrap current. Record duration of ITBs was achieved, up to 11 s, approaching the resistive time. Pressure and current profiles of Advanced Tokamak regimes are controlled by a real time feedback system, in separate experiments. The erosion and co-deposition data base progressed significantly, in particular with a new quartz microbalance diagnostic allowing shot by shot measurements of

  6. Jets and QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Kramer, G. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). II. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2010-12-15

    The observation of quark and gluon jets has played a crucial role in establishing Quantum Chromodynamics [QCD] as the theory of the strong interactions within the Standard Model of particle physics. The jets, narrowly collimated bundles of hadrons, reflect configurations of quarks and gluons at short distances. Thus, by analysing energy and angular distributions of the jets experimentally, the properties of the basic constituents of matter and the strong forces acting between them can be explored. In this review we summarise the properties of quark and gluon jets and the impact of their observation on Quantum Chromodynamics, primarily the discovery of the gluons as the carriers of the strong force. Focusing on these basic points, jets in e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions will be in the foreground of the discussion. In addition we will delineate the role of jets as tools for exploring other particle aspects in ep and pp/p anti p collisions - quark and gluon densities in protons, measurements of the QCD coupling, fundamental 2-2 quark/gluon scattering processes, but also the impact of jet decays of top quarks, and W{sup {+-}},Z bosons on the electroweak sector. The presentation to a large extent is formulated in a non-technical language with the intent to recall the significant steps historically and convey the significance of this field also to communities beyond high energy physics. (orig.)

  7. Oscillating fluid power generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, David C

    2014-02-25

    A system and method for harvesting the kinetic energy of a fluid flow for power generation with a vertically oriented, aerodynamic wing structure comprising one or more airfoil elements pivotably attached to a mast. When activated by the moving fluid stream, the wing structure oscillates back and forth, generating lift first in one direction then in the opposite direction. This oscillating movement is converted to unidirectional rotational movement in order to provide motive power to an electricity generator. Unlike other oscillating devices, this device is designed to harvest the maximum aerodynamic lift forces available for a given oscillation cycle. Because the system is not subjected to the same intense forces and stresses as turbine systems, it can be constructed less expensively, reducing the cost of electricity generation. The system can be grouped in more compact clusters, be less evident in the landscape, and present reduced risk to avian species.

  8. Fluctuations in LC Oscillators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Ondracek

    1994-03-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the phase and amplitude fluctuations in oscillators with simple resonant circuit is presented. Negative feedback is used to minimize effect of the inherent noise produced by bipolar transistor on fluctuation characteristics.

  9. High frequency nanotube oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Haibing [Houston, TX; Zettl, Alexander K [Kensington, TX

    2012-02-21

    A tunable nanostructure such as a nanotube is used to make an electromechanical oscillator. The mechanically oscillating nanotube can be provided with inertial clamps in the form of metal beads. The metal beads serve to clamp the nanotube so that the fundamental resonance frequency is in the microwave range, i.e., greater than at least 1 GHz, and up to 4 GHz and beyond. An electric current can be run through the nanotube to cause the metal beads to move along the nanotube and changing the length of the intervening nanotube segments. The oscillator can operate at ambient temperature and in air without significant loss of resonance quality. The nanotube is can be fabricated in a semiconductor style process and the device can be provided with source, drain, and gate electrodes, which may be connected to appropriate circuitry for driving and measuring the oscillation. Novel driving and measuring circuits are also disclosed.

  10. Effects of velocity profile and inclination on dual-jet-induced pressures on a flat plate in a crosswind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowski, A. L.; Schetz, J. A.; Moore, C. L.; Joag, R.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to determine surface pressure distributions on a flat plate with dual subsonic, circular jets exhausting from the surface into a crossflow. The jets were arranged in both side-by-side and tandem configurations and were injected at 90 deg and 60 deg angles to the plate, with jet-to-crossflow velocity ratio of 2.2 and 4. The major objective of the study was to determine the effect of a nonuniform (vs uniform) jet velocity profile, simulating the exhaust of a turbo-fan engine. Nonuniform jets with a high-velocity outer annulus and a low-velocity core induced stronger negative pressure fields than uniform jets with the same mass flow rate. However, nondimensional lift losses (lift loss/jet thrust lift) due to such nonuniform jets were lower than lift losses due to uniform jets. Changing the injection angle from 90 deg to 60 deg resulted in moderate (for tandem jets) to significant (for side-by-side jets) increases in the induced negative pressures, even though the surface area influenced by the jets tended to reduce as the angle decreased. Jets arranged in the side-by-side configuration led to significant jet-induced lift losses exceeding, in some cases, lift losses reported for single jets.

  11. A dry ice jet system for decontamination of painted metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ye; Zhang Dong; Wang Ping; Li Taowen; Sun Yu; Zhao Dan; Tan Zhaoyi

    2012-01-01

    In this work, decontamination of painting on metal surface by dry ice jet was carried out. The influence of jet parameters on decontamination efficiency was examined. The results showed that the painting weight loss decreased with increasing speed of jet movement. The optimized parameters were target distance of 25 mm, jet angle of 63 degree, and the pressure of 0.6 -0.7 MPa, with a filtration efficiency of over 99% and 5.8-9.0 μm particle sizes of the aerosol. For the painted samples polluted by 137 Cs and 235 U, the decontamination effect is excellent. For the polluted plumbum kettles,this method is effective. Therefore, the dry ice jet is an excellent technology for painting on metal surface. (authors)

  12. Again on neutrino oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilenky, S.M.; Pontecorvo, B.

    1976-01-01

    The general case is treated of a weak interaction theory in which a term violating lepton charges is present. In such a scheme the particles with definite masses are Majorana neutrinos (2N if in the weak interaction participate N four-component neutrinos). Neutrino oscillations are discussed and it is shown that the minimum average intensity at the earth of solar neutrinos is 1/2N of the intensity expected when oscillations are absent

  13. Parametric analyses on dynamic stall control of rotor airfoil via synthetic jet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qijun ZHAO

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of synthetic jet control on unsteady dynamic stall over rotor airfoil are investigated numerically. A moving-embedded grid method and an Unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS solver coupled with k-ω Shear Stress Transport (SST turbulence model are established for predicting the complex flowfields of oscillatory airfoil under jet control. Additionally, a velocity boundary condition modeled by sinusoidal function has been developed to fulfill the perturbation effect of periodic jet. The validity of present CFD method is evaluated by comparisons of the calculated results of baseline dynamic stall case for rotor airfoil and jet control case for VR-7B airfoil with experimental data. Then, parametric analyses are conducted emphatically for an OA212 rotor airfoil to investigate the effects of jet control parameters (jet location, dimensionless frequency, momentum coefficient, jet angle, jet type and dual-jet on dynamic stall characteristics of rotor airfoil. It is demonstrated by the calculated results that efficiency of jet control could be improved with specific momentum coefficient and jet angle when the jet is located near separation point of rotor airfoil. Furthermore, the dual-jet could improve control efficiency more obviously on dynamic stall of rotor airfoil with respect to the unique jet, and the influence laws of dual-jet’s angles and momentum coefficients on control effects are similar to those of the unique jet. Finally, unsteady aerodynamic characteristics of rotor via synthetic jet which is located on the upper surface of rotor blade in forward flight are calculated, and as a result, the aerodynamic characteristics of rotor are improved compared with the baseline. The results indicate that synthetic jet has the capability in improving aerodynamic characteristics of rotor. Keywords: Airfoil, Dynamic stall characteristics, Flow control, Moving-embedded grid methodology, Navier-Stokes equations, Parametric

  14. Neutrino oscillations with LSND

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stancu, Ion

    2000-01-01

    The Liquid Scintillator Neutrino Detector (LSND) at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) has conducted searches for ν-bar μ → ν-bar e oscillations using ν-bar μ from μ + decay at rest (DAR) and for ν μ → ν e oscillations using ν μ from π + decay in flight (DIF). For the 1993-1995 data taking period, significant beam-excess events have been found in both oscillation channels. For the DAR search, a total excess of 51.8 +18.7 -16.9 ± 8.0 events from the ν-bar e p → e + n inverse β-decay reaction is observed, with e + energies between 20-60 MeV. For the DIF search, a total excess of 18.1 ± 6.6 ± 4.0 events from the ν e C → e - X inclusive reaction is observed, with e - energies between 60-200 MeV. If interpreted as neutrino oscillations, these excesses correspond to oscillation probabilities of (3.1±1.2±0.5) x 10 -3 and (2.6 ± 1.0 ± 0.5) x 10 -3 , respectively. Additional data collected during the 1996-1998 runs has been preliminarily analyzed for the DAR channel and yields very good agreement with the previously obtained results, for a combined oscillation probability of (3.3±0.9±0.5) x 10 -3

  15. Liquid Metal Machine Triggered Violin-Like Wire Oscillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Bin; Wang, Lei; Yang, Xiaohu; Ding, Yujie; Tan, Sicong; Yi, Liting; He, Zhizhu; Liu, Jing

    2016-10-01

    The first ever oscillation phenomenon of a copper wire embraced inside a self-powered liquid metal machine is discovered. When contacting a copper wire to liquid metal machine, it would be swallowed inside and then reciprocally moves back and forth, just like a violin bow. Such oscillation could be easily regulated by touching a steel needle on the liquid metal surface.

  16. Power oscillation and stability in water cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Por, G.; Kis, G.

    1998-01-01

    Periodic oscillation in measured temperature fluctuation was observed near to surface of a heated rod in certain heat transfer range. The frequency of the peak found in power spectral density of temperature fluctuation and period estimated from the cross correlation function for two axially placed thermocouples change linearly with linear energy (or surface heat) production. It was concluded that a resonance of such surface (inlet) temperature oscillation with the pole of the reactor transfer function can be responsible for power oscillation in BWR and PWR, thus instability is not solely due to reactor transfer function. (author)

  17. Pulsating jet-like structures in magnetized plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncharov, V. P. [A. M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics RAS, 109017 Moscow (Russian Federation); Pavlov, V. I. [UFR des Mathématiques Pures et Appliquées, Univ. Lille, CNRS FRE 3723 - LML, F-59000 Lille (France)

    2016-08-15

    The formation of pulsating jet-like structures has been studied in the scope of the nonhydrostatic model of a magnetized plasma with horizontally nonuniform density. We discuss two mechanisms which are capable of stopping the gravitational spreading appearing to grace the Rayleigh-Taylor instability and to lead to the formation of stationary or oscillating localized structures. One of them is caused by the Coriolis effect in the rotating frames, and another is connected with the Lorentz effect for magnetized fluids. Magnetized jets/drops with a positive buoyancy must oscillate in transversal size and can manifest themselves as “radio pulsars.” The estimates of their frequencies are made for conditions typical for the neutron star's ocean.

  18. Sweeping jet for convective heat transfer of a flat plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Tongil; Kara, Kursat; Kim, Daegyoum

    2017-11-01

    A fluidic oscillator, which generates unsteady sweeping jet without any actuator and moving parts, has received much attention due to its attractive features: high durability to shock and vibration and no electromagnetic interference. In this work, we apply the fluidic oscillator to improve the performance of convective heat transfer. The sweeping jet impinges vertically on a heated flat plate. By varying Reynolds number and nozzle-to-plate spacing, we experimentally investigate the characteristics of a heat transfer rate of the plate and examine flow fields to find the flow characteristics responsible for enhancing heat transfer. Temperature on the plate was measured with thermocouples, and flow fields were obtained with planar particle image velocimetry. From the flow fields, dominant flow structure is extracted using proper orthogonal decomposition.

  19. Active Control of Supersonic Impinging Jets Using Supersonic Microjets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alvi, Farrukh

    2005-01-01

    .... Supersonic impinging jets occur in many applications including in STOVL aircraft where they lead to a highly oscillatory flow with very high unsteady loads on the nearby aircraft structures and the landing surfaces...

  20. Jet lag prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000719.htm Jet lag prevention To use the sharing features on this page, ... Headache Irritability Stomach upset Sore muscles Tips for Prevention Before your trip: Get plenty of rest, eat ...

  1. Measurements of Jets in ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Nattrass, Christine

    2016-01-01

    The ALICE detector can be used for measurements of jets in pp , p Pb, and Pb–Pb collisions. Measurements of jets in pp collisions are consis- tent with expectations from perturbative calculations and jets in p Pb scale with the number of nucleon–nucleon collisions, indicating that cold nuclear matter effects are not observed for jets. Measurements in Pb–Pb collisions demonstrate suppression of jets relative to expectations from binary scaling to the equivalent number of nucleon–nucleon collisions

  2. Electromagnetic radiation due to nonlinear oscillations of a charged drop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiryaeva, S. O.; Grigor'ev, A. N.; Kolbneva, N. Yu.

    2016-03-01

    The nonlinear oscillations of a spherical charged drop are asymptotically analyzed under the conditions of a multimode initial deformation of its equilibrium shape. It is found that if the spectrum of initially excited modes contains two adjacent modes, the translation mode of oscillations is excited among others. In this case, the center of the drop's charge oscillates about the equilibrium position, generating a dipole electromagnetic radiation. It is shown that the intensity of this radiation is many orders of magnitude higher than the intensity of the drop's radiation, which arises in calculations of the first order of smallness and is related to the drop's charged surface oscillations.

  3. Resonant Excitation of Boundary Layer Instability of DC Arc Plasma Jet by Current Modulation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopecký, Vladimír; Hrabovský, Milan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 6 (2011), s. 827-838 ISSN 0272-4324 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/11/2070 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : dc arc jet * plasma jet oscillations * boundary layer instability * frequency spectra Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.602, year: 2011 http://www.springerlink.com/content/v160841757161758/

  4. Jets in hadronic reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paige, F.E.

    1983-01-01

    Recent experimental data on the properties of jets in hadronic reactions are reviewed and compared with theoretical expectations. Jets are clearly established as the dominant process for high E/sub T/ events in hadronic reactions. The cross section and the other properties of these events are in qualitative and even semiquantitative agreement with expectations based on perturbative QCD. However, we can not yet make precise tests of QCD, primarily because there are substantial uncertainties in the theoretical calculations. 45 references. (WHK)

  5. Pellet injectors for JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andelfinger, C.; Buechl, K.; Lang, R.S.; Schilling, H.B.; Ulrich, M.

    1981-09-01

    Pellet injection for the purpose of refuelling and diagnostic of fusion experiments is considered for the parameters of JET. The feasibility of injectors for single pellets and for quasistationary refuelling is discussed. Model calculations on pellet ablation with JET parameters show the required pellet velocity ( 3 ). For single pellet injection a light gas gun, for refuelling a centrifuge accelerator is proposed. For the latter the mechanical stress problems are discussed. Control and data acquisition systems are outlined. (orig.)

  6. Long term oscillations in Danish rainfall extremes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Ida Bülow; Madsen, Henrik; Rosbjerg, Dan

    with a possible link to different climatic drivers, like sea level pressure and sea surface temperature. Regarding Danish drainage design, the found oscillations have implied a substantial variation in the design intensities over time and are partly responsible for the most recent increase observed from 1979...

  7. Using wavelet decomposition for time event localisation of JET soft-X-ray measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Por, G.

    1999-08-01

    It has been shown that wavelet decomposition can be used to localise the time dependent oscillations in the soft-X-ray time signals, which have a strong stochastic component, trend and transients like bursts. The next step in the future should be the spectrum analysis of the wavelet levels containing the oscillation to find the characteristic frequencies. We recommend to use the Wigner-Ville time-frequency distribution for that in future work at JET. We have developed the IDL package for that, which could be used by JET personnel

  8. Investigation of Transverse Oscillation Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Udesen, Jesper; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2006-01-01

    Conventional ultrasound scanners can only display the axial component of the blood velocity vector, which is a significant limitation when vessels nearly parallel to the skin surface are scanned. The transverse oscillation method (TO) overcomes this limitation by introducing a transverse oscillat......Conventional ultrasound scanners can only display the axial component of the blood velocity vector, which is a significant limitation when vessels nearly parallel to the skin surface are scanned. The transverse oscillation method (TO) overcomes this limitation by introducing a transverse...... II. A virtual linear array transducer with center frequency 7 MHz and 128 active elements is created, and a virtual blood vessel of radius 6.4 mm is simulated. The performance of the TO method is found around an initial point in the parameter space. The parameters varied are: flow angle, transmit...... focus depth, receive apodization, pulse length, transverse wave length, number of emissions, signal to noise ratio, and type of echo canceling filter used. Using the experimental scanner RASMUS, the performance of the TO method is evaluated. An experimental flowrig is used to create laminar parabolic...

  9. Mixing Characteristics of Elliptical Jet Control with Crosswire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manigandan, S.; Vijayaraja, K.

    2018-02-01

    The aerodynamic mixing efficiency of elliptical sonic jet flow with the effect of crosswire is studied computationally and experimentally at different range of nozzle pressure ratio with different orientation along the minor axis of the exit. The cross wire of different orientation is found to reduce the strength of the shock wave formation. Due to the presence of crosswire the pitot pressure oscillation is reduced fast, which weakens the shock cell structure. When the cross wire is placed at center position we see high mixing along the major axis. Similarly, when the cross wire is placed at ¼ and ¾ position we see high mixing promotion along minor axis. It also proves, as the position of the cross wire decreased along minor axis there will be increase in the mixing ratio. In addition to that we also found that, jet spread is high in major axis compared to minor axis due to bifurcation of jet along upstream

  10. Numerical Calculation of Interaction Between Plane Jet and Subsonic Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. O. Moskalenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper makes numerical calculation of interaction between plane jet and subsonic flow. Its aim is to determine the jet trajectory, velocity profiles, distribution of pressure coefficient on the plate surface at different jet angles, namely ωj=45°; 90°; 105° and at low blowing strengths ( ≤1.5 as well as a to make comparison with the experimental data of other authors.To simulate a two-dimensional jet in the subsonic flow the software package “CAD SolidWorks Flow Simulation” has been used. Initially, the test task was solved with its calculation results compared with experimental ones [6.8] in order to improve the convergence; the size of the computational domain and a computational grid within the k-ε turbulence model were selected. As a result of the calculation, were identified and analysed the pressure values, jet trajectories, and velocity profiles. In the graphs the solid lines show calculation results, and dots represent experimental data.From the calculation results it is seen that, with increasing intensity of the reduced mass flow ¯q in the above range, the change of the jet pressure coefficient p¯ distribution behind a slotted nozzle is almost linear and significant. Before the nozzle, with increasing ¯q the pressure coefficient increases slightly.Analysis of results has shown that blowing of jets with ωj>90ω, provides a greater perturbation of the subsonic flow. Thus, the jet penetrates into the flow deeper, forms a dead region of the greater length, and more significantly redistributes the pressure coefficient on the surface of the plate.The calculation results are in good compliance with the experimental data both for the jet axis and for the pressure coefficient distribution on the plate surface. The research results can be used in the designing the jet control of aircrafts.

  11. Biosurface engineering through ink jet printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohidus Samad; Fon, Deniece; Li, Xu; Tian, Junfei; Forsythe, John; Garnier, Gil; Shen, Wei

    2010-02-01

    The feasibility of thermal ink jet printing as a robust process for biosurface engineering was demonstrated. The strategy investigated was to reconstruct a commercial printer and take advantage of its colour management interface. High printing resolution was achieved by formulating bio-inks of viscosity and surface tension similar to those of commercial inks. Protein and enzyme denaturation during thermal ink jet printing was shown to be insignificant. This is because the time spent by the biomolecules in the heating zone of the printer is negligible; in addition, the air and substrate of high heat capacity absorb any residual heat from the droplet. Gradients of trophic/tropic factors can serve as driving force for cell growth or migration for tissue regeneration. Concentration gradients of proteins were printed on scaffolds to show the capability of ink jet printing. The printed proteins did not desorb upon prolonged immersion in aqueous solutions, thus allowing printed scaffold to be used under in vitro and in vivo conditions. Our group portrait was ink jet printed with a protein on paper, illustrating that complex biopatterns can be printed on large area. Finally, patterns of enzymes were ink jet printed within the detection and reaction zones of a paper diagnostic.

  12. Cfd modeling of a synthetic jet actuator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dghim, Marouane; Ben Chiekh, Maher; Ben Nasrallah, Sassi

    2009-01-01

    Synthetic jet actuators show good promise as an enabling technology for innovative boundary layer flow control applied to external surfaces, like airplane wings, and to internal flows, like those occurring in a curved engine inlet. The appealing characteristics of a synthetic jet are zero-net-mass flux operation and an efficient control effect that takes advantages of unsteady fluid phenomena. The formation of a synthetic jet in a quiescent external air flow is only beginning to be understood and a rational understanding of these devices is necessary before they can be applied to the control of flows outside of the laboratory. The synthetic jet flow generated by a planar orifice is investigated here using computational approach. Computations of the 2D synthetic jet are performed with unsteady RANS modeled with the Realizable κ - ε turbulence model available in FLUENT environment. In this present work, the ability of the first order turbulence model, employed in our computations, to model the formation of the counter-rotating-vortex pair (CVP) that appears in the flow-field was investigated. Computational results were in good agreement with experimental measurements. The effectiveness of such control actuator was tested on separated boundary layer. Preliminary investigation were presented and discussed

  13. Etude aerodynamique d'un jet turbulent impactant une paroi concave

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Benoit

    Etant donne la demande croissante de temperatures elevees dans des chambres de combustion de systemes de propulsions en aerospatiale (turbomoteurs, moteur a reaction, etc.), l'interet dans le refroidissement par jets impactant s'est vu croitre. Le refroidissement des aubes de turbine permet une augmentation de temperature de combustion, ce qui se traduit en une augmentation de l'efficacite de combustion et donc une meilleure economie de carburant. Le transfert de chaleur dans les au bages est influence par les aspects aerodynamiques du refroidissement a jet, particulierement dans le cas d'ecoulements turbulents. Un manque de comprehension de l'aerodynamique a l'interieur de ces espaces confinees peut mener a des changements de transfert thermique qui sont inattendus, ce qui augmente le risque de fluage. Il est donc d'interet pour l'industrie aerospatiale et l'academie de poursuivre la recherche dans l'aerodynamique des jets turbulents impactant les parois courbes. Les jets impactant les surfaces courbes ont deja fait l'objet de nombreuses etudes. Par contre des conditions oscillatoires observees en laboratoire se sont averees difficiles a reproduire en numerique, puisque les structures d'ecoulements impactants des parois concaves sont fortement dependantes de la turbulence et des effets instationnaires. Une etude experimentale fut realisee a l'institut PPRIME a l'Universite de Poitiers afin d'observer le phenomene d'oscillation dans le jet. Une serie d'essais ont verifie les conditions d'ecoulement laminaires et turbulentes, toutefois le cout des essais experimentaux a seulement permis d'avoir un apercu du phenomene global. Une deuxieme serie d'essais fut realisee numeriquement a l'Universite de Moncton avec l'outil OpenFOAM pour des conditions d'ecoulement laminaire et bidimensionnel. Cette etude a donc comme but de poursuivre l'enquete de l'aerodynamique oscillatoire des jets impactant des parois courbes, mais pour un regime d'ecoulement transitoire, turbulent

  14. Q-profiles in JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, R.D.; Edwards, A.W.; Keegan, B.; Lazzaro, E.; O'Rourke, J.; Weller, A.; Zasche, D.

    1989-01-01

    Tokamak q-profiles play a central role in the determination of plasma stability and q(r) towards the plasma centre is particularly important for the sawtooth instability. On JET, q(r) has been determined from magnetic measurements and Faraday rotation. Further information about the position of the q=1 surface has been found from the sawtooth inversion radius, the position of the snake and the resonance effect observed on visible light and X-ray emission during pellet injection. In addition the shear at the q=1 surface has been measured from pellet ablation. This result is supported by the movement of the snake caused by a sawtooth crash. A summary of these data will be made after presenting the new results from pellet ablation. (author) 5 refs., 8 figs

  15. Interaction of two-dimensional transverse jet with a supersonic mainstream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, G. O.; Tiwari, S. N.

    1983-01-01

    The interaction of a two dimensional sonic jet injected transversely into a confined main flow was studied. The main flow consisted of air at a Mach number of 2.9. The effects of varying the jet parameters on the flow field were examined using surface pressure and composition data. Also, the downstream flow field was examined using static pressure, pitot pressure, and composition profile data. The jet parameters varied were gapwidth, jet static pressure, and injectant species of either helium or nitrogen. The values of the jet parameters used were 0.039, 0.056, and 0.109 cm for the gapwidth and 5, 10, and 20 for the jet to mainstream static pressure ratios. The features of the flow field produced by the mixing and interaction of the jet with the mainstream were related to the jet momentum. The data were used to demonstrate the validity of an existing two dimensional elliptic flow code.

  16. Evolving the JET virtual reality system for delivering the JET EP2 shutdown remote handling tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Adrian; Sanders, Stephen; Weder, Gerard; Bastow, Roger; Allan, Peter; Hazel, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    The quality, functionality and performance of the virtual reality (VR) system used at JET for preparation and implementation of remote handling (RH) operations has been progressively enhanced since its first use in the original JET remote handling shutdown in 1998. As preparation began for the JET EP2 (Enhanced Performance 2) shutdown it was recognised that the VR system being used was unable to cope with the increased functionality and the large number of 3D models needed to fully represent the JET in-vessel components and tooling planned for EP2. A bespoke VR software application was developed in collaboration with the OEM, which allowed enhancements to be made to the VR system to meet the requirements of JET remote handling in preparation for EP2. Performance improvements required to meet the challenges of EP2 could not be obtained from the development of the new VR software alone. New methodologies were also required to prepare source, CATIA models for use in the VR using a collection of 3D software packages. In collaboration with the JET drawing office, techniques were developed within CATIA using polygon reduction tools to reduce model size, while retaining surface detail at required user limits. This paper will discuss how these developments have played an essential part in facilitating EP2 remote handling task development and examine their impact during the EP2 shutdown.

  17. Oscillating Finite Sums

    KAUST Repository

    Alabdulmohsin, Ibrahim M.

    2018-03-07

    In this chapter, we use the theory of summability of divergent series, presented earlier in Chap. 4, to derive the analogs of the Euler-Maclaurin summation formula for oscillating sums. These formulas will, in turn, be used to perform many remarkable deeds with ease. For instance, they can be used to derive analytic expressions for summable divergent series, obtain asymptotic expressions of oscillating series, and even accelerate the convergence of series by several orders of magnitude. Moreover, we will prove the notable fact that, as far as the foundational rules of summability calculus are concerned, summable divergent series behave exactly as if they were convergent.

  18. Non-linear oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Hagedorn, Peter

    1982-01-01

    Thoroughly revised and updated, the second edition of this concise text provides an engineer's view of non-linear oscillations, explaining the most important phenomena and solution methods. Non-linear descriptions are important because under certain conditions there occur large deviations from the behaviors predicted by linear differential equations. In some cases, completely new phenomena arise that are not possible in purely linear systems. The theory of non-linear oscillations thus has important applications in classical mechanics, electronics, communications, biology, and many other branches of science. In addition to many other changes, this edition has a new section on bifurcation theory, including Hopf's theorem.

  19. Friedel oscillations in graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawlor, J. A.; Power, S. R.; Ferreira, M.S.

    2013-01-01

    Symmetry breaking perturbations in an electronically conducting medium are known to produce Friedel oscillations in various physical quantities of an otherwise pristine material. Here we show in a mathematically transparent fashion that Friedel oscillations in graphene have a strong sublattice...... asymmetry. As a result, the presence of impurities and/or defects may impact the distinct graphene sublattices very differently. Furthermore, such an asymmetry can be used to explain the recent observations that nitrogen atoms and dimers are not randomly distributed in graphene but prefer to occupy one...

  20. Oscillators from nonlinear realizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozyrev, N.; Krivonos, S.

    2018-02-01

    We construct the systems of the harmonic and Pais-Uhlenbeck oscillators, which are invariant with respect to arbitrary noncompact Lie algebras. The equations of motion of these systems can be obtained with the help of the formalism of nonlinear realizations. We prove that it is always possible to choose time and the fields within this formalism in such a way that the equations of motion become linear and, therefore, reduce to ones of ordinary harmonic and Pais-Uhlenbeck oscillators. The first-order actions, that produce these equations, can also be provided. As particular examples of this construction, we discuss the so(2, 3) and G 2(2) algebras.

  1. The impact of the 2015-2016 El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event on greenhouse gas exchange and surface energy budget in an Indonesian oil palm plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiegler, Christian; Meijide, Ana; June, Tania; Knohl, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    The 2015-2016 El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event was one of the strongest observed in the last 20 years. Oil palm plantations cover a large fraction of tropical lowlands in Southeast Asia but despite their growing areal extent, measurements and observations of greenhouse gas exchange and surface energy balance are still scarce. In addition, the effects of extreme events such as ENSO on carbon sequestration and the partitioning of surface energy balance components are widely unknown. In this study, we use micrometeorological measurements located in commercial oil palm plantations in the Jambi province (Sumatra, Indonesia) to assess the impact of the 2015-2016 ENSO event and severe forest fires on greenhouse gas exchange and surface energy budget. Continuous measurements are in operation since July 2013 and we assess turbulent fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2), water vapour and sensible heat using the eddy covariance technique before, during and after the 2015-2016 ENSO event. In the beginning of the ENSO event, the area experienced a strong drought with decreasing soil moisture, increasing air and surface temperatures, and strong atmospheric vapour pressure deficit. During the peak of the drought from August to October 2015, hundreds of forest fires in the area resulted in strong smoke production, decreasing incoming solar radiation by 35% compared to pre-ENSO values and diffuse radiation became almost the sole shortwave radiation flux. During the beginning of the drought, carbon uptake of the oil palm plantation was around 2.1 gC m-2 d-1 and initially increased by 50% due to clear-sky conditions and high incoming photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) but increasing density of smoke turned the oil palm plantation into a source of carbon. The turbulent heat fluxes experienced an increase in sensible heat fluxes due to drought conditions at the cost of latent heat fluxes resulting in an increase in the midday Bowen-ratio from 0.17 to 0.40. Strong smoke

  2. Sweeping Jet Optimization Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, LaTunia Pack; Koklu, Mehti; Andino, Marlyn; Lin, John C.; Edelman, Louis

    2016-01-01

    Progress on experimental efforts to optimize sweeping jet actuators for active flow control (AFC) applications with large adverse pressure gradients is reported. Three sweeping jet actuator configurations, with the same orifice size but di?erent internal geometries, were installed on the flap shoulder of an unswept, NACA 0015 semi-span wing to investigate how the output produced by a sweeping jet interacts with the separated flow and the mechanisms by which the flow separation is controlled. For this experiment, the flow separation was generated by deflecting the wing's 30% chord trailing edge flap to produce an adverse pressure gradient. Steady and unsteady pressure data, Particle Image Velocimetry data, and force and moment data were acquired to assess the performance of the three actuator configurations. The actuator with the largest jet deflection angle, at the pressure ratios investigated, was the most efficient at controlling flow separation on the flap of the model. Oil flow visualization studies revealed that the flow field controlled by the sweeping jets was more three-dimensional than expected. The results presented also show that the actuator spacing was appropriate for the pressure ratios examined.

  3. JET Joint Undertaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keen, B.E.; Kupschus, P.

    1984-09-01

    The report is in sections, as follows. (1) Introduction and summary. (2) A brief description of the origins of the JET Project within the EURATOM fusion programme and the objectives and aims of the device. The basic JET design and the overall philosophy of operation are explained and the first six months of operation of the machine are summarised. The Project Team Structure adopted for the Operation Phase is set out. Finally, in order to set JET's progress in context, other large tokamaks throughout the world and their achievements are briefly described. (3) The activities and progress within the Operation and Development Department are set out; particularly relating to its responsibilities for the operation and maintenance of the tokamak and for developing the necessary engineering equipment to enhance the machine to full performance. (4) The activities and progress within the Scientific Department are described; particularly relating to the specification, procurement and operation of diagnostic equipment; definition and execution of the programme; and the interpretation of experimental results. (5) JET's programme plans for the immediate future and a broad outline of the JET Development Plan to 1990 are given. (author)

  4. Electromagnetic emission of a strongly charged oscillating droplet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigor'ev, A. I.; Kolbneva, N. Yu.; Shiryaeva, S. O.

    2016-08-01

    Analytical expressions for electric field in the vicinity of an oscillating strongly charged droplet of nonviscous conducting liquid and intensity of electromagnetic radiation are derived in the linear approximation with respect to perturbation amplitude of the droplet surface. Order-of-magnitude estimations of the radiation intensity are presented. The intensity of electromagnetic radiation of a ball lightning that can be simulated using a charged droplet is not related to the surface oscillations.

  5. Solar neutrinos and nonradial solar oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zatsepin, G.T.; Gavryuseva, E.A.; Kopysov, Yu.S.

    1980-01-01

    The problem of origin of surface solar oscillations is considered. It is assumed that generation of oscillations is performed by the solar nucleus. The necessary excitation condition for gravitational oscillations of the solar nucleus is a sharp decrease of the oscillation amplitude outside the nucleus, where the nuclear reaction rates are small and only radiation losses are considerable. It is shown that the specific singularities of gravitational wave propagation in solar entrails permit to attain a significant reduction of the oscillation amplitude. The solar entrails can serve as an effective trap for gravitational waves, if the substance of the solar nucleus is close to the state of convectional equilibrium. In order that the g 1 quadrupole mode of the solar nucleus has a period of 2h 40 min and sharply decreases in the solar mantle, it is enough that only the external part of the solar nucleus is close to the state of convectional equilibrium. Closeness of the solar nucleus to the state of convectional equilibrium is an argument in favour of its periodic mixing. Periodic mixing of the solar nucleus can serve as a cause of a low counting rate of solar neutrinos in R.Davis chlorous detector

  6. Aeroacoustic Experiments with Twin Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozak, Richard F.; Henderson, Brenda S.

    2012-01-01

    While the noise produced by a single jet is azimuthally symmetric, multiple jets produce azimuthally varying far-field noise. The ability of one jet to shield another reduces the noise radiated in the plane of the jets, while often increasing the noise radiated out of the plane containing the jets. The present study investigates the shielding potential of twin jet configurations over subsonic and over-expanded supersonic jet conditions with simulated forward flight. The experiments were conducted with 2 in. throat diameter nozzles at four jet spacings from 2.6d to 5.5d in center-to-center distance, where d is the nozzle throat diameter. The current study found a maximum of 3 dB reduction in overall sound pressure level relative to two incoherent jets in the peak jet noise direction in the plane containing the jets. However, an increase of 3 dB was found perpendicular to the plane containing the jets. In the sideline direction, shielding is observed for all jet spacings in this study.

  7. Water jet behavior in center water jet type supersonic steam injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamoto, Y.; Abe, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Next-generation reactor systems have been under development aiming at simplified system and improvement of safety and credibility. A steam injector has a function of a passive pump without large motor or turbo-machinery, and has been investigated as one of the most important component of the next-generation reactor. Its performance as a pump depends on direct contact condensation phenomena between a supersonic steam and a sub-cooled water jet. As previous studies of the steam injector, there are studies about formulation of operating characteristic of steam injector and analysis of jet structure in steam injector by Narabayashi etc. And as previous studies of the direct contact condensation, there is the study about the direct contact condensation in steam atmosphere. However the study about the turbulent heat transfer under the great shear stress is not enough investigated. Therefore it is necessary to examine in detail about the operating characteristic of the steam injector. The present paper reports the observation results of the water jet behavior in the super sonic steam injector by using the video camera and the high-speed video camera. And the measuring results of the temperature and the pressure distribution in the steam injector are reported. From observation results by video camera, it is cleared that the water jet is established at the center of the steam injector right after steam supplied and the operation of the steam injector depends on the throat diameter. And from observation results by high-speed video camera, it is supposed that the columned water jet surface is established in the mixing nozzle and the water jet surface movement exists. Furthermore and effect of the non-condensable gas on the steam injector is investigated by measuring the radial temperature distributions in the water jet. From measuring results, it is supposed the more the air included in the steam, the more the temperature fluctuation of both steam and discharge water

  8. JET Joint Undertaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keen, B.E.

    1986-03-01

    This is an overview summary of the scientific and technical advances at JET during the year 1985, supplemented by appendices of detailed contributions (in preprint form) of eight of the more important JET articles produced during that year. It is aimed not only at specialists and experts but also at a more general scientific community. Thus there is a brief summary of the background to the project, a description of the basic objectives of JET and the principle design features of the machine. The new structure of the Project Team is also explained. Developments and future plans are included. Improvements considered are those which are designed to overcome certain limitations encountered generally on Tokamaks, particularly those concerned with density limits, with plasma MHD behaviour, with impurities and with plasma transport. There is also a complete list of articles, reports and conference papers published in 1985 - there are 167 such items listed. (UK)

  9. Thin film deposition using rarefied gas jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Sahadev, , Dr.

    2017-06-01

    The rarefied gas jet of aluminium is studied at Mach number Ma = (Uj /√{ kbTj / mg }) in the range .01 PVD) process for the development of the highly oriented pure metallic aluminum thin film with uniform thickness and strong adhesion on the surface of the substrate in the form of ionic plasma, so that the substrate can be protected from corrosion and oxidation and thereby enhance the lifetime and safety, and to introduce the desired surface properties for a given application. Here, H is the characteristic dimension, U_j and T_j are the jet velocity and temperature, n_d is the number density of the jet, m and d are the molecular mass and diameter, and kbis the Boltzmann constant. An important finding is that the capture width (cross-section of the gas jet deposited on the substrate) is symmetric around the centerline of the substrate, and decreases with increased Mach number due to an increase in the momentum of the gas molecules. DSMC simulation results reveals that at low Knudsen number ((Kn=0.01); shorter mean free paths), the atoms experience more collisions, which direct them toward the substrate. However, the atoms also move with lower momentum at low Mach number, which allows scattering collisions to rapidly direct the atoms to the substrate.

  10. Relativistic AGN jets I. The delicate interplay between jet structure, cocoon morphology and jet-head propagation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walg, S.; Achterberg, A.; Markoff, S.; Keppens, R.; Meliani, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Astrophysical jets reveal strong signs of radial structure. They suggest that the inner region of the jet, the jet spine, consists of a low-density, fast-moving gas, while the outer region of the jet consists of a more dense and slower moving gas, called the jet sheath. Moreover, if jets carry

  11. Comparison of Vibrations and Emissions of Conventional Jet Fuel with Stressed 100% SPK and Fully Formulated Synthetic Jet Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhupendra Khandelwal

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growth of the aviation sector around the globe has witnessed an overwhelming impact on fossil fuel resources. With the implementation of stricter environmental laws over emissions by conventional jet fuels, growing demand for research on alternative fuels has become imperative. One-hundred percent Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene (SPK and Fully Formulated Synthetic Jet Fuel have surfaced as viable alternatives for gas turbine engines due to their similar properties as that of Jet Fuel. This paper presents results from an experimental study performed on a small gas turbine engine, comparing emissions performance and vibrations for conventional Jet A-1 Fuel, thermally stressed 100% SPK and Fully Formulated Synthetic Jet Fuel. Different vibration frequencies, power spectra were observed for different fuels. Gaseous emissions observed were nearly the same, whereas, significant changes in particulates emissions were observed.

  12. Modeling microtubule oscillations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jobs, E.; Wolf, D.E.; Flyvbjerg, H.

    1997-01-01

    Synchronization of molecular reactions in a macroscopic volume may cause the volume's physical properties to change dynamically and thus reveal much about the reactions. As an example, experimental time series for so-called microtubule oscillations are analyzed in terms of a minimal model for thi...

  13. Neutrino oscillation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camilleri, L.

    1996-01-01

    Neutrino oscillation experiments (ν μ →ν e and ν μ →ν τ ) currently being performed at accelerators are reviewed. Future plans for short and long base-line experiments are summarized. (author) 10 figs., 2 tabs., 29 refs

  14. A simple violin oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R. T.

    1976-01-01

    For acoustic tests the violin is driven laterally at the bridge by a small speaker of the type commonly found in pocket transistor radios. An audio oscillator excites the tone which is picked up by a sound level meter. Gross patterns of vibration modes are obtained by the Chladni method.

  15. The variational spiked oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilera-Navarro, V.C.; Ullah, N.

    1992-08-01

    A variational analysis of the spiked harmonic oscillator Hamiltonian -d 2 / d x 2 + x 2 + δ/ x 5/2 , δ > 0, is reported in this work. A trial function satisfying Dirichlet boundary conditions is suggested. The results are excellent for a large range of values of the coupling parameter. (author)

  16. From excitability to oscillations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postnov, D. E.; Neganova, A. Y.; Jacobsen, J. C. B.

    2013-01-01

    One consequence of cell-to-cell communication is the appearance of synchronized behavior, where many cells cooperate to generate new dynamical patterns. We present a simple functional model of vasomotion based on the concept of a two-mode oscillator with dual interactions: via relatively slow...

  17. Proprioceptive evoked gamma oscillations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnfred, Sidse M; Hansen, Lars Kai; Parnas, Josef

    2007-01-01

    A proprioceptive stimulus consisting of a weight change of a handheld load has recently been shown to elicit an evoked potential. Previously, somatosensory gamma oscillations have only been evoked by electrical stimuli. We conjectured that a natural proprioceptive stimulus also would be able...

  18. Neutrino oscillation experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camilleri, L. [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)

    1996-11-01

    Neutrino oscillation experiments ({nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub e} and {nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub {tau}}) currently being performed at accelerators are reviewed. Future plans for short and long base-line experiments are summarized. (author) 10 figs., 2 tabs., 29 refs.

  19. Nonlinearity in oscillating bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Gazzola

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We first recall several historical oscillating bridges that, in some cases, led to collapses. Some of them are quite recent and show that, nowadays, oscillations in suspension bridges are not yet well understood. Next, we survey some attempts to model bridges with differential equations. Although these equations arise from quite different scientific communities, they display some common features. One of them, which we believe to be incorrect, is the acceptance of the linear Hooke law in elasticity. This law should be used only in presence of small deviations from equilibrium, a situation which does not occur in widely oscillating bridges. Then we discuss a couple of recent models whose solutions exhibit self-excited oscillations, the phenomenon visible in real bridges. This suggests a different point of view in modeling equations and gives a strong hint how to modify the existing models in order to obtain a reliable theory. The purpose of this paper is precisely to highlight the necessity of revisiting the classical models, to introduce reliable models, and to indicate the steps we believe necessary to reach this target.

  20. Solar neutrino oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haxton, W.C.

    1993-01-01

    The special properties of solar neutrinos that render this flux so uniquely important in searches for neutrino masses and flavor mixing are reviewed. The effects of matter, including density fluctuations and turbulence, on solar neutrino oscillations are explained through analogies with more familiar atomic physics phenomena

  1. Charge oscillations in orbitrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porto, M.; Gomes, L.C.

    1981-01-01

    A statistical model for the electron distribution in orbitrons is constructed where the effect of the end plates is considered. A comparison is made with the measured density of charge. The electromagnetic oscillations generated by orbitrons are calculated as pressure waves and the results obtained are compared with the data. (Author) [pt

  2. solar neutrino oscillation phenomenology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sRUBABATI GOsWAMI. Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhusi, Allahabad 211 019, India. Email: sruba@mri.ernet.in. Abstract. This article summarises the status of the solar neutrino oscillation phe- nomenology at the end of 2002 in the light of the SNO and KamLAND results. We first present the allowed ...

  3. The JET belt limiter tiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deksnis, E.

    1988-09-01

    The belt limiter system, comprising two full toroidal rings of limiter tiles, was installed in JET in 1987. In consists of water-cooled fins with the limiter material in form of tile inbetween. The tiles are designed to absorb heat fluxes during irradiation without the surface temperature exceeding 2000 0 C and to radiate this heat between pulses to the water cooled sink whose temperature is lower than that of the vacuum vessel. An important feature of the design is to maximise the area of the radiating surface facing the water cooled fin. This leads to a tile depth much greater than the width of the tile facing the heat flux. Limiter tiles intercept particles flowing out of the plasma through the area between the two belt limiter rings and through remaining surface area of the plasma column. Power deposition to a limiter tile depends strongly on the shape of the plasma, the edge plasma properties as well as on the surface profile of the tiles. This paper will discuss the methodology that was followed in producing an optimized surface profile of the tiles. This shaped profile has the feature that the resulting power deposition profile is roughly similar for a wide range of plasma parameters. (author)

  4. Multichannel discharge between jet electrolyte cathode and jet electrolyte anode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shakirova, E. F.; Gaitsin, Al. F.; Son, E. E.

    We present the results of an experimental study of multichannel discharge between a jet electrolyte cathode and jet electrolyte anode within a wide range of parameters. We pioneer the reveal of the burning particularities and characteristics of multichannel discharge with jet electrolyte and droplet

  5. OPAL Jet Chamber Prototype

    CERN Multimedia

    OPAL was one of the four experiments installed at the LEP particle accelerator from 1989 - 2000. OPAL's central tracking system consists of (in order of increasing radius) a silicon microvertex detector, a vertex detector, a jet chamber, and z-chambers. All the tracking detectors work by observing the ionization of atoms by charged particles passing by: when the atoms are ionized, electrons are knocked out of their atomic orbitals, and are then able to move freely in the detector. These ionization electrons are detected in the dirfferent parts of the tracking system. This piece is a prototype of the jet chambers

  6. Spatial stability of jets - the nonaxisymmetric fundamental and reflection modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardee, P.E.

    1987-01-01

    A spatial stability analysis of the relativistic dispersion relation governing the growth and propagation of harmonic components comprising a perturbation to the surface of a cylindrical jet is performed. The spatial growth of harmonic components associated with the nonaxisymmetric fundamental solution and reflection solutions of several Fourier modes are analyzed. Approximate analytical expressions describing resonant frequencies and wavelengths, and maximum growth rates at resonance applicable to relativistic jets are found from the dispersion relation, and the nature of the resonances is explored. On transonic jets there is only a fundamental solution for each Fourier mode with no resonance or maximum growth rate. On supersonic jets there is a fundamental solution and reflection solutions for each Fourier mode, and each solution contains a resonance at which the growth rate is a maximum. A numerical analysis of the fundamental and first three reflection solutions of the axisymmetric and first three nonaxisymmetric Fourier modes is performed. The numerical analysis is restricted to nonrelativistic flows but otherwise covers a broad range of Mach numbers and jet densities. The numerical results are used along with the analytical results to obtain accurate expressions for resonant frequencies, wavelengths, and growth rates as a function of Mach numnber and jet density. In all cases the fastest spatial growth rate at a given frequency is of harmonic components associated with the fundamental solution of one of the nonaxisymmetric Fourier modes. The application of these results to jet structure and implication of these results for jet structure in extragalactic radio sources are considered. 23 references

  7. Turbulent jet in confined counterflow

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    However, in many engineering applications the jet does not issue into a quies- cent stream but interacts with an external stream. This interaction can be classified as co-flow, crossflow or counterflow depending on the direction of interaction between the jet and the exter- nal stream. Of these interactions, the jet in counterflow ...

  8. Turbulent jet in confined counterflow

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The mean flowfield of a turbulent jet issuing into a confined, uniform counterflow was investigated computationally. Based on dimensional analysis, the jet penetration length was shown to scale with jet-to-counterflow momentum flux ratio. This scaling and the computational results reproduce the well-known correct ...

  9. Turbulent jet in confined counterflow

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The mean flowfield of a turbulent jet issuing into a confined, uniform counterflow was investigated computationally. Based on dimensional analysis, the jet penetration length was shown to scale with jet-to-counterflow momentum flux ratio. This scaling and the computational results reproduce the well-known correct limit of ...

  10. Potential impact of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and sea surface temperature in the tropical Indian Ocean-Western Pacific on the variability of typhoon landfall on the China coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Chen, Sheng; Wang, Chunzai; Wang, Dongxiao; Wang, Xin

    2017-12-01

    The landfall activity of typhoons (TYs) along the coast of China during July-August-September (JAS) shows significant interdecadal variation during 1965-2010. We identify three sub-periods of TY landfall activity in JAS along the China coast in this period, with more TY landfall during 1965-1978 (Period I) and 1998-2010 (Period III), and less during 1982-1995 (Period II). We find that the interdecadal variation might be related to the combined effects of Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) phase changes and sea surface temperature (SST) variation in the tropical Indian Ocean and Western Pacific (IO-WP). During the negative PDO phase in Periods I and III, a cyclonic anomaly is located in the western North Pacific (WNP), inducing easterly flow in its northern part, which favors TY landfall along the eastern China coast. Warm SST anomalies over the tropical IO-WP during Period III induce an anomalous anticyclonic circulation in the WNP through both the Gill-pattern response to the warm SST in the tropical IO and the anomalous meridional circulation induced by the warm SST in the tropical WNP. As a result, the northern South China Sea and WNP (10°-20° N) are dominated by southeasterly flow, which favors TYs making landfall on both the southern and eastern China coast. With both landfalling-favorable conditions satisfied, there are significantly more TYs making landfall along the China coast during Period III than during Period I, which shows cool SST anomalies in the tropical IO-WP.

  11. Multi-jet production and jet correlations at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Veres, Gabor

    2016-01-01

    Hadronic jet production at the LHC is an excellent testing ground for QCD. Essential components of QCD, necessary for the description of the experimental data on hadronic jets, are hard parton radiation and multiple parton interactions. The importance of these components increases for final states including multiple jets. We will show results on observables sensitive to the hard parton radiation, like the azimuthal (de)correlation between jets with small and large rapidity separation. Dijet events with a rapidity gap between them will also be presented and their fraction measured as a function of jet transverse momentum and collision energy.

  12. Bimodal oscillations in nephron autoregulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sosnovtseva, Olga; Pavlov, A N; Mosekilde, E

    2002-01-01

    The individual functional unit of the kidney (the nephron) displays oscillations in its pressure and flow regulation at two different time scales: fast oscillations associated with a myogenic dynamics of the afferent arteriole, and slower oscillations arising from a delay in the tubuloglomerular ...

  13. Optimal oscillation-center transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewar, R.L.

    1984-08-01

    A variational principle is proposed for defining that canonical transformation, continuously connected with the identity transformation, which minimizes the residual, coordinate-dependent part of the new Hamiltonian. The principle is based on minimization of the mean-square generalized force. The transformation reduces to the action-angle transformation in that part of the phase space of an integrable system where the orbit topology is that of the unperturbed system, or on primary KAM surfaces. General arguments in favor of this definition are given, based on Galilean invariance, decay of the Fourier spectrum, and its ability to include external fields or inhomogeneous systems. The optimal oscillation-center transformation for the physical pendulum, or particle in a sinusoidal potential, is constructed

  14. Quantum wormholes and harmonic oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garay, Luis J.

    1993-01-01

    The quantum state of a wormhole can be represented by a path integral over all asymptotically Euclidean four-geometries and all matter fields which have prescribed values, the arguments of the wave function, on a three-surface which divides the space time manifold into two disconnected parts. Minisuperspace models which consist of a homogeneous massless scalar field coupled to a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker space time are considered. Once the path integral over the lapse function is performed, the requirement that the space time be asymptotically Euclidean can be accomplished by fixing the asymptotic gravitational momentum in the remaining path integral. It is argued that there does not exist any wave function which corresponds to asymptotic field configurations such that the effective gravitational constant is negative in the asymptotic region. Then, the wormhole wave functions can be written as linear combinations of harmonic oscillator wave functions.

  15. Oscillating water column structural model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copeland, Guild [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bull, Diana L [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jepsen, Richard Alan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gordon, Margaret Ellen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-09-01

    An oscillating water column (OWC) wave energy converter is a structure with an opening to the ocean below the free surface, i.e. a structure with a moonpool. Two structural models for a non-axisymmetric terminator design OWC, the Backward Bent Duct Buoy (BBDB) are discussed in this report. The results of this structural model design study are intended to inform experiments and modeling underway in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated Reference Model Project (RMP). A detailed design developed by Re Vision Consulting used stiffeners and girders to stabilize the structure against the hydrostatic loads experienced by a BBDB device. Additional support plates were added to this structure to account for loads arising from the mooring line attachment points. A simplified structure was designed in a modular fashion. This simplified design allows easy alterations to the buoyancy chambers and uncomplicated analysis of resulting changes in buoyancy.

  16. Observation and analysis of oscillations in linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeman, J.T.

    1991-11-01

    This report discusses the following on oscillation in linear accelerators: Betatron Oscillations; Betatron Oscillations at High Currents; Transverse Profile Oscillations; Transverse Profile Oscillations at High Currents.; Oscillation and Profile Transient Jitter; and Feedback on Transverse Oscillations

  17. Kuwornu-Adjaottor, JET

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kuwornu-Adjaottor, JET. Vol 33, No 1 (2013) - Articles God and the Suffering of His People Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0855-0395. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News.

  18. Vortex diode jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houck, Edward D.

    1994-01-01

    A fluid transfer system that combines a vortex diode with a jet ejector to transfer liquid from one tank to a second tank by a gas pressurization method having no moving mechanical parts in the fluid system. The vortex diode is a device that has a high resistance to flow in one direction and a low resistance to flow in the other.

  19. Triton burnup in JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chipsham, E.; Jarvis, O.N.; Sadler, G.

    1989-01-01

    Triton burnup measurements have been made at JET using time-integrated copper activation and time-resolved silicon detector techniques. The results confirm the classical nature of both the confinement and the slowing down of the 1 MeV tritons in a plasma. (author) 8 refs., 3 figs

  20. JET joint undertaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-06-01

    JET began operations on 25 June 1983. This annual report contains administrative information and a general review of scientific and technical developments. Among them are vacuum systems, toroidal and poloidal field systems, power supplies, neutral beam heating, radiofrequency heating, remote handling, tritium handling, control and data acquisition systems and diagnostic systems

  1. Dynamic characteristics of peripheral jet ACV. III - Coupling motion of heaving and pitching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, T.; Maeda, H.

    The paper presents the dynamic characteristics of peripheral jet ACV (Air Cushion Vehicle) which has two degrees of freedom, i.e., heaving and pitching motion. The experiments are carried out for an ACV model, noting that the experimental results agree considerably with the analytical values. Furthermore, the response characteristics of ACV induced by the ground board oscillations of various modes are also investigated.

  2. Jet-images: computer vision inspired techniques for jet tagging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cogan, Josh; Kagan, Michael; Strauss, Emanuel; Schwarztman, Ariel

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a novel approach to jet tagging and classification through the use of techniques inspired by computer vision. Drawing parallels to the problem of facial recognition in images, we define a jet-image using calorimeter towers as the elements of the image and establish jet-image preprocessing methods. For the jet-image processing step, we develop a discriminant for classifying the jet-images derived using Fisher discriminant analysis. The effectiveness of the technique is shown within the context of identifying boosted hadronic W boson decays with respect to a background of quark- and gluon-initiated jets. Using Monte Carlo simulation, we demonstrate that the performance of this technique introduces additional discriminating power over other substructure approaches, and gives significant insight into the internal structure of jets.

  3. Jet-images: computer vision inspired techniques for jet tagging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cogan, Josh; Kagan, Michael; Strauss, Emanuel; Schwarztman, Ariel [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory,Menlo Park, CA 94028 (United States)

    2015-02-18

    We introduce a novel approach to jet tagging and classification through the use of techniques inspired by computer vision. Drawing parallels to the problem of facial recognition in images, we define a jet-image using calorimeter towers as the elements of the image and establish jet-image preprocessing methods. For the jet-image processing step, we develop a discriminant for classifying the jet-images derived using Fisher discriminant analysis. The effectiveness of the technique is shown within the context of identifying boosted hadronic W boson decays with respect to a background of quark- and gluon-initiated jets. Using Monte Carlo simulation, we demonstrate that the performance of this technique introduces additional discriminating power over other substructure approaches, and gives significant insight into the internal structure of jets.

  4. The interaction of synthetic jets with turbulent boundary layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jing

    In recent years, a promising approach to the control of wall bounded as well as free shear flows, using synthetic jet (oscillatory jet with zero-net-mass-flux) actuators, has received a great deal of attention. A variety of impressive flow control results have been achieved experimentally by many researchers including the vectoring of conventional propulsive jets, modification of aerodynamic characteristics of bluff bodies, control of lift and drag of airfoils, reduction of skin-friction of a flat plate boundary layer, enhanced mixing in circular jets, and control of external as well as internal flow separation and of cavity oscillations. More recently, attempts have been made to numerically simulate some of these flowfields. Numerically several of the above mentioned flow fields have been simulated primarily by employing the Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier Stokes (URANS) equations with a turbulence model and a limited few by Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS). In simulations, both the simplified boundary conditions at the exit of the jet as well as the details of the cavity and lip have been included. In this dissertation, I describe the results of simulations for several two- and three-dimensional flowfields dealing with the interaction of a synthetic jet with a turbulent boundary layer and control of separation. These simulations have been performed using the URANS equations in conjunction with either one- or a two-equation turbulence model. 2D simulations correspond to the experiments performed by Honohan at Georgia Tech. and 3D simulations correspond to the CFD validation test cases proposed in the NASA Langley Research Center Workshop---"CFD Validation of Synthetic Jets and Turbulent Separation Control" held at Williamsburg VA in March 2004. The sources of uncertainty due to grid resolution, time step, boundary conditions, turbulence modeling etc. have been examined during the computations. Extensive comparisons for various flow variables are made with the

  5. Seasonal predictability of the North Atlantic Oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellinga, Michael; Scaife, Adam

    2015-04-01

    Until recently, long-range forecast systems showed only modest levels of skill in predicting surface winter climate around the Atlantic Basin and associated fluctuations in the North Atlantic Oscillation at seasonal lead times. Here we use a new forecast system to assess seasonal predictability of winter North Atlantic climate. We demonstrate that key aspects of European and North American winter climate and the surface North Atlantic Oscillation are highly predictable months ahead. We demonstrate high levels of prediction skill in retrospective forecasts of the surface North Atlantic Oscillation, winter storminess, near-surface temperature, and wind speed, all of which have high value for planning and adaptation to extreme winter conditions. Analysis of forecast ensembles suggests that while useful levels of seasonal forecast skill have now been achieved, key sources of predictability are still only partially represented and there is further untapped predictability. This work is distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License together with an author copyright. This license does not conflict with the regulations of the Crown Copyright.

  6. Numerical Investigation of Jet Impingement Heat Transfer on a Flat plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asem Nabadavis

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The numerical investigation emphasizes on studying the heat transfer characteristics when a high velocity air jet impinges upon a flat plate having constant heat flux. Numerical analysis has been conducted by solving conservation equations of momentum, mass and energy with two equations based k- ε turbulence model to determine the wall temperature and Nu of the plate considering the flow to be incompressible. It was found from the investigation that the heat transfer rate increases with the increase of Reynolds number of the jet (Rej. It was also found that there is an optimum value for jet distance to nozzle diameter ratio (H/d for maximum heat transfer when all the other parameters were kept fixed. Similar results as above were found when two jets of air were used instead of one jet keeping the mass flow rate constant. For a two jets case it was also found that heat transfer rate over the surface increases when the jets are inclined outward compared to vertical and inward jets and also there exists an optimum angle of jet for maximum heat transfer. Further investigation was carried out for different jetto-jet separation distance for a twin jet impingement model where it was noted that heat transfer is more distributed in case of larger values of L and the rate of heat transfer increases as the separation between the jet increases till a certain point after which the rate of heat transfer decreases.

  7. Acoustic streaming induced by an ultrasonically oscillating endodontic file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaagen, B; Boutsioukis, C; van der Sluis, L W M; Versluis, M

    2014-04-01

    Ultrasonically activated irrigation is an advanced dental technique for irrigation of the root canal system during a root canal treatment. The basic cleaning mechanism is a result of acoustic streaming induced by an oscillating file, leading to mixing of the irrigant and pressure and shear stresses on the walls of the root canal. Here the induced acoustic streaming, pressure, and shear stress are investigated in a two-dimensional cross-section of the root canal, using a combination of theory, numerical predictions, and experimental validation through high-speed particle tracking velocimetry. Acoustic streaming theory describes very well the flow induced by an ultrasonically oscillating endodontic file. It consists of an oscillatory component, which is dominant near the file, and a steady component, or jet, along the axis of oscillation. The importance of the oscillatory component for both the pressure and the shear stress is apparent, as it is two to three orders of magnitude higher than the steady component. A confinement affects the formation of the steady jets; meanwhile the oscillatory velocities and associated pressure and shear stress are increased. Previous work considering only the steady component of the flow therefore, underestimated the hydrodynamic effects induced by ultrasonic files.

  8. Coupled oscillations of flow along a perforated plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celik, E.; Rockwell, D.

    2004-01-01

    Turbulent shear flow past a perforated plate bounded by a closed cavity can give rise to highly coherent oscillations, which have a wavelength of the order of the plate length. The present investigation focuses on the coupling between unsteady events on either side of the plate when the oscillations are self-sustaining. A cinema technique of high-image-density particle image velocimetry, which provides a space-time representation of the unsteadiness at a large number of locations over entire planes, is employed to characterize the distinctively different patterns of flow structure on the back (low-speed) side of the plate relative to those on the front (high-speed) side. Global cross-spectral analysis leads to patterns of spectral peaks and phase variations, along and across the plate. This approach, along with complementary types of image evaluation, delineates the physics of the oscillations, which include downstream propagating disturbances along either side of the plate and a coherent region of unsteadiness at its trailing-edge. On the backside of the plate, a sequence of upstream-oriented, pulsatile jets are formed, and the time-averaged flow pattern is a counterflow wall jet

  9. Acoustics waves and oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Sen, S.N.

    2013-01-01

    Parameters of acoustics presented in a logical and lucid style Physical principles discussed with mathematical formulations Importance of ultrasonic waves highlighted Dispersion of ultrasonic waves in viscous liquids explained This book presents the theory of waves and oscillations and various applications of acoustics in a logical and simple form. The physical principles have been explained with necessary mathematical formulation and supported by experimental layout wherever possible. Incorporating the classical view point all aspects of acoustic waves and oscillations have been discussed together with detailed elaboration of modern technological applications of sound. A separate chapter on ultrasonics emphasizes the importance of this branch of science in fundamental and applied research. In this edition a new chapter ''Hypersonic Velocity in Viscous Liquids as revealed from Brillouin Spectra'' has been added. The book is expected to present to its readers a comprehensive presentation of the subject matter...

  10. Nonlinear (Anharmonic Casimir Oscillator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibollah Razmi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We want to study the dynamics of a simple linear harmonic micro spring which is under the influence of the quantum Casimir force/pressure and thus behaves as a (an nonlinear (anharmonic Casimir oscillator. Generally, the equation of motion of this nonlinear micromechanical Casimir oscillator has no exact solvable (analytical solution and the turning point(s of the system has (have no fixed position(s; however, for particular values of the stiffness of the micro spring and at appropriately well-chosen distance scales and conditions, there is (are approximately sinusoidal solution(s for the problem (the variable turning points are collected in a very small interval of positions. This, as a simple and elementary plan, may be useful in controlling the Casimir stiction problem in micromechanical devices.

  11. Deciphering jet quenching with JEWEL

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    In heavy ion collisions jets arising from the fragmentation of hard quarks and gluons experience strong modifications due to final state re-scattering. This so-called jet quenching is related to the emergence of collectivity and equilibration in QCD. I will give an introduction to jet quenching and its modeling in JEWEL, a Monte Carlo implementation of a dynamical model for jet quenching. I will then discuss examples highlighting how JEWEL can be used to elucidate the physical mechanisms relevant for jet quenching.  

  12. Aeroacoustic Characteristics of Supersonic Impinging Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worden, Theodore James

    High-speed impinging jets are often generated by the propulsive systems of aerospace launch vehicles and tactical aircraft. In many instances, the presence of these impinging jets creates a hazard for flight operations personnel due to the extremely high noise levels and unsteady loads produced by fluid-surface interaction. In order to effectively combat these issues, a fundamental understanding of the flow physics and dominant acoustic behavior is essential. There are inherent challenges in performing such investigations, especially with the need to simulate the flowfield under realistic operational conditions (temperature, Mach number, etc.) and in configurations that are relevant to full-scale application. A state-of-the-art high-temperature flow facility at Florida State University has provided a unique opportunity to experimentally investigate the high-speed impinging jet flowfield at application-relevant conditions. Accordingly, this manuscript reports the findings of several experimental studies on high-temperature supersonic impinging jets in multiple configurations. The overall objective of these studies is to characterize the complex relationship between the hydrodynamic and acoustic fields. A fundamental parametric investigation has been performed to document the flowfield and acoustic characteristics of an ideally-expanded supersonic air jet impinging onto a semi-infinite flat plate at ambient and heated jet conditions. The experimental program has been designed to span a widely-applicable geometric parameter space, and as such, an extensive database of the flow and acoustic fields has been developed for impingement distances in the range 1d to 12d, impingement angles in the range 45 degrees to 90 degrees, and jet stagnation temperatures from 289K to 811K (TTR = 1.0 to 2.8). Measurements include point-wise mean and unsteady pressure on the impingement surface, time-resolved shadowgraphy of the flowfield, and fully three-dimensional near field acoustics

  13. Plasma oscillations in porous samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornyushin Y.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the shape of a sample on the type of uniform dipole collective electrons oscillations is discussed. In samples of a bulk shape uniform bulk dipole oscillations cannot exist. They exist in samples of a thin slab shape only. However in essentially porous materials the electrostatic energy of the oscillation in a sample is considerably larger thus leading to stronger restoring force and higher frequency of the oscillation. When this frequency exceeds the Langmuir frequency, the oscillation becomes of a bulk type. .

  14. Neutrino Masses and Oscillations

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit; Treille, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    This course will not cover its subject in the customary way. The emphasis will be on the simple theoretical concepts (helicity, handedness, chirality, Majorana masses) which are obscure in most of the literature, and on the quantum mechanics of oscillations, that ALL books get wrong. Which, hopefully, will not deter me from discussing some of the most interesting results from the labs and from the cosmos.

  15. Oscillations in quasineutral plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenier, E.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the limit, as the vacuum electric permittivity goes to zero, of a plasma physics system, deduced from the Vlasov-Poisson system for special initial data (distribution functions which are analytic in the space variable, with compact support in velocity), a limit also called open-quotes quasineutral regimeclose quotes of the plasma, and the related oscillations of the electric field, with high frequency in time. 20 refs

  16. Oscillations with laboratory neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saitta, Biagio

    2001-05-01

    The status of searches for oscillations using neutrinos produced in the laboratory is reviewed. The most recent results from experiments approaching completion are reported and the potential capabilities of long baseline projects being developed in USA and Europe are considered and compared. The steps that should naturally follow this new generation of experiments are outlined and the impact of future facilities - such as neutrino factories or conventional superbeams - in precision measurements of elements of the neutrino mixing matrix is discussed.

  17. Synthetic Jet Flow Control in the Indoor Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuillan, Brett Wilfred

    Experimental flow visualization study was used to assess the ability of synthetic jets to be adapted for control of air flows and particulates in an indoor environment. Flow visualization was used to determine whether paired synthetic jet modules installed onto the surface of a supply diffuser could significantly impact room air distribution through changing the angle at which supply air left the diffuser when mixing into the room air. Control over the supply jet angle is directly related to how well the supply air mixes with the room air and the overall air quality of the room. A lab with a high air exchange rate (7 ACH) was selected to act as the environment to test the synthetic jets in. This lab space is representative of occupational indoor environments that may require ventilation strategies beyond typical systems to ensure the safe and efficient operation of the space. Three synthetic-jet modules were tested including two pairs of small one-inch diameter jets used in a previous small-scale ventilation study [1] and two larger two-inch diameter jet pairs constructed specifically for this study. Statistical methods were used to compare the visualized supply flow with active synthetic jet flow control versus a baseline case (no flow control). A significant increase in the angle of mixing of the supply air of up to 4° or 50% of the original supply jet angle was achieved. [1] Jennifer Ziegler, Active Control of Air Quality Using Synthetic Jet Actuators. Troy, New York: Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 2007.

  18. Erosion of metals by pulsating water jet

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Foldyna, Josef; Klich, Jiří; Hlaváček, Petr; Zeleňák, M.; Ščučka, Jiří

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 19 (2012), s. 381-386 ISSN 1330-3651 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : erosion effects * pulsating water jet * surface characteristics Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools Impact factor: 0.601, year: 2012 http://hrcak.srce.hr/index.php?show=clanak&id_clanak_jezik=124846

  19. Influence of nozzle arrangement on flow and heat transfer characteristics of arrays of circular impinging jets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perapong Tekasakul

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of jet arrangements on flow and heat transfer characteristics was experimentally and numerically investigatedfor arrays of impinging jets. The air jets discharge from round orifices and perpendicularly impinge on a surface within arectangular duct. Both the in-line and staggered arrangements, which have an array of 6×4 nozzles, were examined. A jet-toplate distance (H and jet-to-jet distance (S were fixed at H=2D and S=3D, respectively (where D is the round orificediameter. The experiments were carried out at jet Reynolds number Re=5,000, 7,500 and 13,400. Temperature distributions onthe impingement surface were measured using a Thermochromic Liquid Crystal sheet, and Nusselt number distributions wereevaluated using an image processing method. The flow characteristics on the impingement surface were visualized using theoil film technique. The numerical simulation employed to gain insight into the fluid flow of jets between the orifice plate andthe impingement wall was via computational fluid dynamics. The results reveal that the effect of crossflow on the impingingjets for the staggered arrangement is stronger than that in the case of in-line arrangement. In the latter case of in-line arrangement, the crossflow could pass throughout the passage between the rows of jets, whereas in the former case the crossflowwas hampered by the downstream jets. The average Nusselt number of the in-line arrangement is higher than that of thestaggered arrangement by approx. 13-20% in this study.

  20. Transverse liquid fuel jet breakup, burning, and ignition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, H.

    1990-01-01

    An analytical/numerical study of the breakup, burning, and ignition of liquid fuels injected transversely into a hot air stream is conducted. The non-reacting liquid jet breakup location is determined by the local sonic point criterion first proposed by Schetz, et al. (1980). Two models, one employing analysis of an elliptical jet cross-section and the other employing a two-dimensional blunt body to represent the transverse jet, have been used for sonic point calculations. An auxiliary criterion based on surface tension stability is used as a separate means of determining the breakup location. For the reacting liquid jet problem, a diffusion flame supported by a one-step chemical reaction within the gaseous boundary layer is solved along the ellipse surface in subsonic crossflow. Typical flame structures and concentration profiles have been calculated for various locations along the jet cross-section as a function of upstream Mach numbers. The integrated reaction rate along the jet cross-section is used to predict ignition position, which is found to be situated near the stagnation point. While a multi-step reaction is needed to represent the ignition process more accurately, the present calculation does yield reasonable predictions concerning ignition along a curved surface.

  1. Oscillation Characteristics of Thermocapillary Convection in An Open Annular Pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Li; Kang, Qi; Zhang, Di

    2016-07-01

    Temperature oscillation characteristics and free surface deformation are essential phenomena in fluids with free surface. We report experimental oscillatory behaviors for hydrothermal wave instability in thermocapillary-driven flow in an open annular pool of silicone oil. The annular pool is heated from the inner cylindrical wall with the radius 4mm and cooled at the outer wall with radius 20mm, and the depth of the silicone oil layer is in the range of 0.8mm-3mm.Temperature difference between the two sidewalls was increased gradually, and the flow will become unstable via a super critical temperature difference. In the present paper we used T-type thermocouple measuring the single-point temperature inside the liquid layer and captured the tiny micrometer wave signal through a high-precision laser displacement sensor. The critical temperature difference and critical Ma number of onset of oscillation have been obtained. We discussed the critical temperature difference and critical Marangoni number varies with the change of the depth of liquid layer, and the relationship between the temperature oscillation and surface oscillation has been discussed. Experimental results show that temperature oscillation and surface oscillation start almost at the same time with similar spectrum characteristic.

  2. DeepJet: a deep-learned multiclass jet-tagger for slim and fat jets

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; Qu, Huilin; Stoye, Markus; Kieseler, Jan; Verzetti, Mauro

    2018-01-01

    We present a customized neural network architecture for both, slim and fat jet tagging. It is based on the idea to keep the concept of physics objects, like particle flow particles, as a core element of the network architecture. The deep learning algorithm works for most of the common jet classes, i.e. b, c, usd and gluon jets for slim jets and W, Z, H, QCD and top classes for fat jets. The developed architecture promising gains in performance as shown in simulation of the CMS collaboration. Currently the tagger is under test in real data in the CMS experiment.

  3. Flow field characteristics of impinging sweeping jets: TR-PIV measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xin; Peng, Di; Liu, Yingzheng; Tang, Hui

    2017-11-01

    Influence of Reynolds number of sweeping jets on its impinging flow fields was extensively investigated in a water tank. Toward this end, a fluidic oscillator was specially designed to produce spatially sweeping jets which imping on a flat plate. Six Reynolds numbers were tested by controlling the supply flow rate of the fluidic oscillator. Impinging flow fields were captured by time-resolved Particle Image Velocimetry (TR-PIV) measurement. Reference signals were extracted from the flow fields for phase reconstruction. The oscillating flow fields with super-harmonic frequency at different regions were discussed in term of the phase-averaged velocity, vorticity and turbulent velocity. Dynamic mode decomposition (DMD) was used to capture the most-energetic flow patterns with distinct frequencies. By projecting the phase-averaged flow fields onto a reduced basis of DMD modes, the phase correlation between the distinct flow patterns were analyzed under different Reynolds numbers.

  4. Implications of Upwells as Hydrodynamic Jets in a Pulse Jet Mixed System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pease, Leonard F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bamberger, Judith A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Minette, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-08-01

    This report evaluates the physics of the upwell flow in pulse jet mixed systems in the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Although the initial downward flow and radial flow from pulse jet mixers (PJMs) has been analyzed in some detail, the upwells have received considerably less attention despite having significant implications for vessel mixing. Do the upwells behave like jets? How do the upwells scale? When will the central upwell breakthrough? What proportion of the vessel is blended by the upwells themselves? Indeed, how the physics of the central upwell is affected by multiple PJMs (e.g., six in the proposed mixing vessels), non-Newtonian rheology, and significant multicomponent solids loadings remain unexplored. The central upwell must satisfy several criteria to be considered a free jet. First, it must travel for several diameters in a nearly constant direction. Second, its velocity must decay with the inverse of elevation. Third, it should have an approximately Gaussian profile. Fourth, the influence of surface or body forces must be negligible. A combination of historical data in a 12.75 ft test vessel, newly analyzed data from the 8 ft test vessel, and conservation of momentum arguments derived specifically for PJM operating conditions demonstrate that the central upwell satisfies these criteria where vigorous breakthrough is achieved. An essential feature of scaling from one vessel to the next is the requirement that the underlying physics does not change adversely. One may have confidence in scaling if (1) correlations and formulas capture the relevant physics; (2) the underlying physics does not change from the conditions under which it was developed to the conditions of interest; (3) all factors relevant to scaling have been incorporated, including flow, material, and geometric considerations; and (4) the uncertainty in the relationships is sufficiently narrow to meet required specifications. Although the central upwell

  5. Energy exchange between the jets of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and synoptic eddies in the Drake Passage and Scotia Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshlyakov, Mikhail; Savchenko, Darya; Tarakanov, Roman

    2017-04-01

    Energy exchange between the jets of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) and ocean synoptic eddies in the surface layer of the Drake Passage and Scotia Sea is studied on the base of the satellite altimeter data for the period from 1993 to 2014 with the assumption that every ACC jet is enclosed between some fixed isopleths of the ocean surface absolute dynamics topography (ADT). All the ACC jets are dynamically unstable what results in the jet meandering, formation of cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies inside the meanders, intensification of the eddies up to reaching their maximum energy, subsequent eddy attenuation and their reverse merging with the mother jets. Corresponding fluctuations of the kinetic energy of the ACC jets and the eddies, generated by different jets, in the surface ocean layer were computed and analysed for the above mentioned 22 years period. As a main result of the analysis, if was confirmed that the kinetic energy of the ACC jets depends strongly on the intensivity of jet meandering and processes of eddy formation and reverse eddy absorption by the jets. Mean and extreme energy parameters of the jets and eddies were also estimated. The northern and middle jets of the South Polar Current are in the lead with respect to the formation of the ocean synoptic eddies.

  6. Seasonality and mechanisms of tropical intraseasonal oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazra, Abheera; Krishnamurthy, V.

    2018-01-01

    This study has compared the monsoon intraseasonal oscillation (MISO) during the boreal summer and Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO) during the boreal winter. Based on MISO and MJO in high-resolution three-dimensional diabatic heating, the possible mechanisms are discussed through observational analyses of dynamical and thermodynamical variables. The MISO and MJO are extracted as nonlinear oscillations during boreal summer and winter, respectively, by applying multi-channel singular spectrum analysis on daily anomalies of diabatic heating over the Indo-Pacific region. Lead and lag relations among moisture, temperature and surface fields relative to diabatic heating are analyzed to compare the mechanisms of MISO and MJO. While both the oscillations show eastward propagation, MISO has a strong northward propagation and MJO has a weak southward propagation as well. The analysis shows that MJO and MISO are essentially driven by the same mechanisms but with some difference in the meridional propagation. The westerly shear leads the diabatic heating, while the vorticity has weak correlation. Large-scale circulation creates positive moisture preconditioning before convection and negative moisture preconditioning before suppressed conditions. A positive lower level horizontal advection of temperature and upper level temperature tendencies lead the convective state while a negative lower level horizontal advection of temperature and upper level temperature tendencies lead the suppressed state. There is positive feedback from the SST to atmosphere. The difference in the meridional propagation of MISO and MJO is hypothesized to be because of the different differential heating meridionally during the two seasons.

  7. The effects of thermal radiation and viscous dissipation on MHD heat and mass diffusion flow past an oscillating vertical plate embedded in a porous medium with variable surface conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishore P.M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation is undertaken to study the hydromagnetic flow of a viscous incompressible fluid past an oscillating vertical plate embedded in a porous medium with radiation, viscous dissipation and variable heat and mass diffusion. Governing equations are solved by unconditionally stable explicit finite difference method of DuFort - Frankel’s type for concentration, temperature, vertical velocity field and skin - friction and they are presented graphically for different values of physical parameters involved. It is observed that plate oscillation, variable mass diffusion, radiation, viscous dissipation and porous medium affect the flow pattern significantly.

  8. Jet photoproduction at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frixione, S.

    1997-01-01

    We compute various kinematical distributions for one-jet and two-jet inclusive photoproduction at HERA. Our results are accurate to next-to-leading order in QCD. We use the subtraction method for the cancellation of infrared singularities. We perform a thorough study of the reliability of QCD predictions; in particular, we consider the scale dependence of our results and discuss the cases when the perturbative expansion might break down. We also deal with the problem of the experimental definition of the pointlike and hadronic components of the incident photon, and briefly discuss the sensitivity of QCD predictions upon the input parameters of the calculation, like α S and the parton densities. (orig.)

  9. SparkJet Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golbabaei-Asl, Mona; Knight, Doyle; Anderson, Kellie; Wilkinson, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    A novel method for determining the thermal efficiency of the SparkJet is proposed. A SparkJet is attached to the end of a pendulum. The motion of the pendulum subsequent to a single spark discharge is measured using a laser displacement sensor. The measured displacement vs time is compared with the predictions of a theoretical perfect gas model to estimate the fraction of the spark discharge energy which results in heating the gas (i.e., increasing the translational-rotational temperature). The results from multiple runs for different capacitances of c = 3, 5, 10, 20, and 40 micro-F show that the thermal efficiency decreases with higher capacitive discharges.

  10. Jets from Merging Neutron Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    With the recent discovery of gravitational waves from the merger of two black holes, its especially important to understand the electromagnetic signals resulting from mergers of compact objects. New simulations successfully follow a merger of two neutron stars that produces a short burst of energy via a jet consistent with short gamma-ray burst (sGRB) detections.Still from the authors simulation showing the two neutron stars, and their magnetic fields, before merger. [Adapted from Ruiz et al. 2016]Challenging SystemWe have long suspected that sGRBs are produced by the mergers of compact objects, but this model has been difficult to prove. One major hitch is that modeling the process of merger and sGRB launch is very difficult, due to the fact that these extreme systems involve magnetic fields, fluids and full general relativity.Traditionally, simulations are only able to track such mergers over short periods of time. But in a recent study, Milton Ruiz (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and Industrial University of Santander, Colombia) and coauthors Ryan Lang, Vasileios Paschalidis and Stuart Shapiro have modeled a binary neutron star system all the way through the process of inspiral, merger, and the launch of a jet.A Merger TimelineHow does this happen? Lets walk through one of the teams simulations, in which dipole magnetic field lines thread through the interior of each neutron star and extend beyond its surface(like magnetic fields found in pulsars). In this example, the two neutron stars each have a mass of 1.625 solar masses.Simulation start (0 ms)Loss of energy via gravitational waves cause the neutron stars to inspiral.Merger (3.5 ms)The neutron stars are stretched by tidal effects and make contact. Their merger produces a hypermassive neutron star that is supported against collapse by its differential (nonuniform) rotation.Delayed collapse into a black hole (21.5 ms)Once the differential rotation is redistributed by magnetic fields and partially

  11. Plasma jet takes off.

    OpenAIRE

    Frazer, L

    1999-01-01

    Thanks to a series of joint research projects by Los Alamos National Laboratory, Beta Squared of Allen, Texas, and the University of California at Los Angeles, there is now a more environmentally sound method for cleaning semiconductor chips that may also be effective in cleaning up chemical, bacterial, and nuclear contaminants. The Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet uses a type of ionized gas called plasma to clean up contaminants by binding to them and lifting them away. In contrast to the cor...

  12. Active control of continuous air jet with bifurcated synthetic jets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dančová Petra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthetic jets (SJs have many significant applications and the number of applications is increasing all the time. In this research the main focus is on the primary flow control which can be used effectively for the heat transfer increasing. This paper deals with the experimental research of the effect of two SJs worked in the bifurcated mode used for control of an axisymmetric air jet. First, the control synthetic jets were measured alone. After an adjustment, the primary axisymmetric jet was added in to the system. For comparison, the primary flow without synthetic jets control was also measured. All experiments were performed using PIV method whereby the synchronization between synthetic jets and PIV system was necessary to do.

  13. Coupled-oscillator based active-array antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Pogorzelski, Ronald J

    2012-01-01

    Describing an innovative approach to phased-array control in antenna design This book explores in detail phased-array antennas that use coupled-oscillator arrays, an arrangement featuring a remarkably simple beam steering control system and a major reduction in complexity compared with traditional methods of phased-array control. It brings together in one convenient, self-contained volume the many salient research results obtained over the past ten to fifteen years in laboratories around the world, including the California Institute of Technology's Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  14. Proprioceptive evoked gamma oscillations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnfred, S.M.; Hansen, Lars Kai; Parnas, J.

    2007-01-01

    A proprioceptive stimulus consisting of a weight change of a handheld load has recently been shown to elicit an evoked potential. Previously, somatosensory gamma oscillations have only been evoked by electrical stimuli. We conjectured that a natural proprioceptive stimulus also would be able...... contralateral to stimulus side and additionally an unexpected 20 Hz activity was observed slightly lateralized in the frontal central region. The gamma phase locking may be a manifestation of early somatosensory feature integration. The analyses suggest that the high frequency activity consists of two distinct...

  15. Neutrino oscillations at LAMPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlini, R.; Choi, C.; Donohue, J.

    1985-01-01

    Work at Argonne continues on the construction of the neutrino oscillation experiment (E645). Construction of detector supports and active shield components were completed at the Provo plant of the principal contractor for the project (the Pittsburgh-Des Moines Corporation). Erection of the major experimental components was completed at the LAMPF experimental site in mid-March 1985. Work continues on the tunnel which will house the detector. Construction of detector components (scintillators and proportional drift tubes) is proceeding at Ohio State University and Louisiana State University. Consolidation of these components into the 20-ton neutrino detector is beginning at LAMPF

  16. Theory of oscillators

    CERN Document Server

    Andronov, Aleksandr Aleksandrovich; Vitt, Aleksandr Adolfovich

    1966-01-01

    Theory of Oscillators presents the applications and exposition of the qualitative theory of differential equations. This book discusses the idea of a discontinuous transition in a dynamic process. Organized into 11 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the simplest type of oscillatory system in which the motion is described by a linear differential equation. This text then examines the character of the motion of the representative point along the hyperbola. Other chapters consider examples of two basic types of non-linear non-conservative systems, namely, dissipative systems and self-

  17. Torsional oscillations of strange stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mannarelli Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Strange stars are one of the hypothetical compact stellar objects that can be formed after a supernova explosion. The existence of these objects relies on the absolute stability of strange collapsed quark matter with respect to standard nuclear matter. We discuss simple models of strange stars with a bare quark matter surface, thus standard nuclear matter is completely absent. In these models an electric dipole layer a few hundreds Fermi thick should exist close to the star surface. Studying the torsional oscillations of the electrically charged layer we estimate the emitted power, finding that it is of the order of 1045 erg/s, meaning that these objects would be among the brightest compact sources in the heavens. The associated relaxation times are very uncertain, with values ranging between microseconds and minutes, depending on the crust thickness. Although part of the radiated power should be absorbed by the electrosphere surrounding the strange star, a sizable fraction of photons should escape and be detectable.

  18. Can zonally symmetric inertial waves drive an oscillating mean flow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seelig, Torsten; Harlander, Uwe

    2016-04-01

    In the presentation [5] zonal mean flow excitation by inertial waves is studied in analogy to mean flow excitation by gravity waves [3] that plays an important role for the quasi-biennial oscillation in the equatorial atmosphere. In geophysical flows that are stratified and rotating, pure gravity and inertial waves correspond to the two limiting cases: gravity waves neglect rotation, inertial waves neglect stratification. The former are more relevant for fluids like the atmosphere, where stratification is dominant, the latter for the deep oceans or planet cores, where rotation dominates. In the present study a hierarchy of simple analytical and numerical models of zonally symmetric inertial wave-mean flow interactions is considered and the results are compared with data from a laboratory experiment [4]. The main findings can be summarised as follows: (i) when the waves are decoupled from the mean flow they just drive a retrograde (eastward) zonal mean flow, independent of the sign of the meridional phase speed; (ii) when coupling is present and the zonal mean flow is assumed to be steady, the waves can drive vertically alternating jets, but still, in contrast to the gravity wave case, the structure is independent of the sign of the meridional phase speed; (iii) when coupling is present and time-dependent zonal mean flows are considered the waves can drive vertically and temporarily oscillating mean flows. The comparison with laboratory data from a rotating annulus experiment shows a qualitative agreement. It appears that the experiment captures the basic elements of the inertial wave mean flow coupling. The results might be relevant to understand how the Equatorial Deep Jets can be maintained against dissipation [1, 2], a process currently discussed controversially. [1] Greatbatch, R., Brandt, P., Claus, M., Didwischus, S., Fu, Y.: On the width of the equatorial deep jets. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 42, 1729-1740 (2012) [2] Muench, J.E., Kunze, E.: Internal wave

  19. Multiple Jets at the LHC with High Energy Jets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jeppe Rosenkrantz; Smillie, Jennifer M.

    2011-01-01

    We present a flexible Monte Carlo implementation of the perturbative framework of High Energy Jets, describing multi-jet events at hadron colliders. The description includes a resummation which ensures leading logarithmic accuracy for large invariant mass between jets, and is matched to tree......-level accuracy for multiplicities up to 4 jets. The resummation includes all-order hard corrections, which become important for increasing centre-of-mass energy of the hadronic collision. We discuss observables relevant for confronting the perturbative framework with 7 TeV data from the LHC, and the impact...

  20. Experimental investigation of mixed convection heat transfer caused by forced-jets in large enclosure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu, F.; Peterson, P.F.

    2004-01-01

    This research investigates experimentally mixed convection and heat transfer augmentation by forced jets in a large enclosure, at conditions simulating those of actual passive containment cooling systems and scales approaching those of actual containment buildings or compartments. The experiment was designed to measure the key parameters governing the heat transfer augmentation by forced jets and investigate the effects of geometric factors, including the jet diameter, jet injection orientation, interior structures, and enclosure aspect ratio. The tests cover a variety of injection modes leading to flow configurations of interest that contribute to reveal the nature of mixing and stratification phenomena in the containment under accident conditions of interest. The heat transfer of mixed convection can be predicted to be controlled by jet Archimedes number and geometric factors. Using a combining rule for mixed convection and appropriate forced and natural convection models, the correlations of heat transfer augmentation by forced jets are developed and agree well with experimental data. It appears that the jet Archimedes number is the important parameter in characterizing mixed convection heat transfer. The jet injection orientation has a substantial effect on heat transfer while the effect of the jet diameter is very weak. For vertical cooling surfaces, an impinging jet can achieve more effective heat transfer than a buoyant jet. The heat transfer augmentation increases with the reduction of enclosure aspect ratio