WorldWideScience

Sample records for surface orientations ranging

  1. Long range position and orientation tracking system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, G.A.; Jansen, J.F.; Burks, B.L.; Bernacki, B.E.; Nypaver, D.J.

    1995-12-31

    The long range position and orientation tracking system (LRPOTS) will consist of two measurement pods, a VME-based computer system, and a detector array. The system is used to measure the position and orientation of a target that may be attached to a robotic arm, teleoperated manipulator, or autonomous vehicle. The pods have been designed to be mounted in the man-ways of the domes of the Fernald K-65 waste silos. Each pod has two laser scanner subsystems as well as lights and camera systems. One of the laser scanners will be oriented to scan in the pan direction, the other in the tilt direction. As the lasers scan across the detector array, the angles of incidence with each detector are recorded. Combining measurements from each of the four lasers yields sufficient data for a closed-form solution of the transform describing the location and orientation of the Content Mobilization System (CMS). Redundant detectors will be placed on the CMS to accommodate occlusions, to provide improved measurement accuracy, and to determine the CMS orientation.

  2. Long range position and orientation tracking system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, G.A.; Jansen, J.F.; Burks, B.L.; Bernacki, B.E.; Nypaver, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    The long range position and orientation tracking system (LRPOTS) will consist of two measurement pods, a VME-based computer system, and a detector array. The system is used to measure the position and orientation of a target that may be attached to a robotic arm, teleoperated manipulator, or autonomous vehicle. The pods have been designed to be mounted in the man-ways of the domes of the Fernald K-65 waste silos. Each pod has two laser scanner subsystems as well as lights and camera systems. One of the laser scanners will be oriented to scan in the pan direction, the other in the tilt direction. As the lasers scan across the detector array, the angles of incidence with each detector are recorded. Combining measurements from each of the four lasers yields sufficient data for a closed-form solution of the transform describing the location and orientation of the Content Mobilization System (CMS). Redundant detectors will be placed on the CMS to accommodate occlusions, to provide improved measurement accuracy, and to determine the CMS orientation

  3. Long range position and Orientation Tracking System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, G.A.; Jansen, J.F.; Burks, B.L. [and others

    1996-02-01

    The long range Position and Orientation Tracking System is an active triangulation-based system that is being developed to track a target to a resolution of 6.35 mm (0.25 in.) and 0.009{degrees}(32.4 arcseconds) over a range of 13.72 m (45 ft.). The system update rate is currently set at 20 Hz but can be increased to 100 Hz or more. The tracking is accomplished by sweeping two pairs of orthogonal line lasers over infrared (IR) sensors spaced with known geometry with respect to one another on the target (the target being a rigid body attached to either a remote vehicle or a remote manipulator arm). The synchronization and data acquisition electronics correlates the time that an IR sensor has been hit by one of the four lasers and the angle of the respective mirror at the time of the hit. This information is combined with the known geometry of the IR sensors on the target to determine position and orientation of the target. This method has the advantage of allowing the target to be momentarily lost due to occlusions and then reacquired without having to return the target to a known reference point. The system also contains a camera with operator controlled lighting in each pod that allows the target to be continuously viewed from either pod, assuming their are no occlusions.

  4. Independent encoding of surface orientation and surface curvature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, A; Passmore, P J

    1994-11-01

    Marr [(1982) Vision, San Francisco, Calif.: Freeman] proposed that we represent surface geometry in terms of a viewer-centred description of surface orientation and distance. This description is computed by a range of independent processing systems which take as input particular kinds of information present in images, like surface texture, shading, retinal disparity and motion parallax. The outputs of these modules are integrated in order to provide a unitary representation of the layout of visible surfaces. Higher order properties of surface geometry, like surface curvature, might be computed from this symbolic representation or might be encoded independently from the visual information available at the retinae. We measured surface slant and surface curvature discrimination thresholds for surface patches defined by shading, texture and retinal disparity as a function of the elevation of the illumination. We found that observers judgements about the curvature of local surface patches were too precise to be based on a symbolic representation of surface orientation and we conclude that surface curvature is computed directly from depth cues present in the retinal images.

  5. Orientation of liquid crystalline blue phases on unidirectionally orienting surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Misaki; Ohkawa, Takuma; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Fukuda, Jun-ichi; Kikuchi, Hirostugu; Ozaki, Masanori

    2018-03-01

    Liquid crystalline cholesteric blue phases (BPs) continue to attract interest due to their fast response times and quasi-polarization-independent phase modulation capabilities. Various approaches have recently been proposed to control the crystal orientation of BPs on substrates; however, their basic orientation properties on standard, unidirectionally orienting alignment layers have not been investigated in detail. Through analysis of the azimuthal orientation of Kossel diagrams, we study the 3D crystal orientation of a BP material—with a phase sequence of cholesteric, BP I, and BP II—on unidirectionally orienting surfaces prepared using two methods: rubbing and photoalignment. BP II grown from the isotropic phase is sensitive to surface conditions, with different crystal planes orienting on the two substrates. On the other hand, strong thermal hysteresis is observed in BPs grown through a different liquid crystal phase, implying that the preceding structure determines the orientation. More specifically, the BP II–I transition is accompanied by a rotation of the crystal such that the crystal direction defined by certain low-value Miller indices transform into different directions, and within the allowed rotations, different azimuthal configurations are obtained in the same cell depending on the thermal process. Our findings demonstrate that, for the alignment control of BPs, the thermal process is as important as the properties of the alignment layer.

  6. Antibody orientation on biosensor surfaces: a minireview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trilling, Anke K; Beekwilder, Jules; Zuilhof, Han

    2013-03-21

    Detection elements play a key role in analyte recognition in biosensors. Therefore, detection elements with high analyte specificity and binding strength are required. While antibodies (Abs) have been increasingly used as detection elements in biosensors, a key challenge remains - the immobilization on the biosensor surface. This minireview highlights recent approaches to immobilize and study Abs on surfaces. We first introduce Ab species used as detection elements, and discuss techniques recently used to elucidate Ab orientation by determination of layer thickness or surface topology. Then, several immobilization methods will be presented: non-covalent and covalent surface attachment, yielding oriented or random coupled Abs. Finally, protein modification methods applicable for oriented Ab immobilization are reviewed with an eye to future application.

  7. Surface structure of oriented PET films

    CERN Document Server

    Kirov, K

    2001-01-01

    crystallinity and the level of molecular orientation of the polymer are highest at the film surface and gradually decrease away from it. The same trend for an increase in structural order nearer the film surface was observed in a series of PET films drawn uniaxially in laboratory conditions. The observed strong dependence of stratification in the oriented films on drawing ratio, lead to the conclusion, that the structural gradients arise as a result of viscous flow. The molecular mechanism of stratification is discussed and leads to the idea of enhanced chain mobility at the PET film surface. The idea is in line with recent studies showing a depression of the glass transition temperature of free polymer surfaces. In addition, the results on structure formation in PET films during drawing, give support to the existing view that polymer crystallisation is assisted by a spinodal-decomposition nucleation process. Polymer films are widely used as substrates in nano-composite materials and therefore have to possess...

  8. Range of drainage effect of surface mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sozanski, J.

    1978-03-01

    This paper discusses methods of calculating the range of effects of water drainage from surface coal mines and other surface mines. It is suggested that methods based on test pumping (water drainage) are time consuming, and the results can be distorted by atmospheric factors such as rain fall or dry period. So-called empirical formulae produce results which are often incorrect. The size of a cone shaped depression calculated on the basis of empirical formulae can be ten times smaller than the size of the real depression. It is suggested that using a formula based on the Dupuit formula is superior to other methods of depression calculation. According to the derived formulae the radius of the depresion cone is a function of parameters of the water bearing horizons, size of surface mine working and of water depression. The proposed formula also takes into account the influence of atmospheric factors (water influx caused by precipitation, etc.). (1 ref.) (In Polish)

  9. Kinetics of oriented crystallization of polymers in the linear stress-orientation range in the series expansion approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Jarecki

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available An analytical formula is derived for the oriented crystallization coefficient governing kinetics of oriented crystallization under uniaxial amorphous orientation in the entire temperature range. A series expansion approach is applied to the free energy of crystallization in the Hoffman-Lauritzen kinetic model of crystallization at accounting for the entropy of orientation of the amorphous chains. The series expansion coefficients are calculated for systems of Gaussian chains in linear stress-orientation range. Oriented crystallization rate functions are determined basing on the ‘proportional expansion’ approach proposed by Ziabicki in the steady-state limit. Crystallization kinetics controlled by separate predetermined and sporadic primary nucleation is considered, as well as the kinetics involving both nucleation mechanisms potentially present in oriented systems. The involvement of sporadic nucleation in the transformation kinetics is predicted to increase with increasing amorphous orientation. Example computations illustrate the dependence of the calculated functions on temperature and amorphous orientation, as well as qualitative agreement of the calculations with experimental results.

  10. Orientations of Liquid Crystals in Contact with Surfaces that Present Continuous Gradients of Chemical Functionality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clare, B.; Efimenko, K.; Fischer, D.; Genzer, J.; Abbott, N.

    2006-01-01

    We report the formation of continuous spatial gradients in the density of grafted semifluorinated chains on silicon oxide surfaces by vapor-phase diffusion of semifluorinated silanes. We quantify the orientations of the nematic liquid crystal (LC) 4-cyano-4'-pentylbiphenyl on these surfaces as a function of local surface composition obtained by using NEXAFS. These measurements demonstrate that it is possible to obtain the full range of tilt angles of a LC on these surfaces. We also use the data provided by these gradient surfaces to test hypotheses regarding the nature of the interaction between the LC and surfaces that give rise to the range of tilted orientations of the LC. We conclude that the orientations of the LC are not determined solely by the density of grafted semifluorinated chains or by the density of residual hydroxyl groups presented at these surfaces following reactions with the silanes. Instead, our results raise the possibility that the tilt angles of the semifluorinated chains on these surfaces (which are a function of the density of the grafted chains) may influence the orientation of the LC. These results, when combined, demonstrate the potential utility of gradient surfaces for screening surface chemistries that achieve desired orientations of LCs as well as for rapidly assembling experimental data sets that can be used to test propositions regarding mechanisms of anchoring LCs at surfaces

  11. Orientational order as the origin of the long-range hydrophobic effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Saikat; Singh, Rakesh S.; Bagchi, Biman

    2015-04-01

    The long range attractive force between two hydrophobic surfaces immersed in water is observed to decrease exponentially with their separation—this distance-dependence of effective force is known as the hydrophobic force law (HFL). We explore the microscopic origin of HFL by studying distance-dependent attraction between two parallel rods immersed in 2D Mercedes Benz model of water. This model is found to exhibit a well-defined HFL. Although the phenomenon is conventionally explained by density-dependent theories, we identify orientation, rather than density, as the relevant order parameter. The range of density variation is noticeably shorter than that of orientational heterogeneity. The latter is comparable to the observed distances of hydrophobic force. At large separation, attraction between the rods arises primarily from a destructive interference among the inwardly propagating oppositely oriented heterogeneity generated in water by the two rods. As the rods are brought closer, the interference increases leading to a decrease in heterogeneity and concomitant decrease in free energy of the system, giving rise to the effective attraction. We notice formation of hexagonal ice-like structures at the onset of attractive region which suggests that metastable free energy minimum may play a role in the origin of HFL.

  12. Orientational order as the origin of the long-range hydrophobic effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Saikat; Singh, Rakesh S; Bagchi, Biman

    2015-04-07

    The long range attractive force between two hydrophobic surfaces immersed in water is observed to decrease exponentially with their separation-this distance-dependence of effective force is known as the hydrophobic force law (HFL). We explore the microscopic origin of HFL by studying distance-dependent attraction between two parallel rods immersed in 2D Mercedes Benz model of water. This model is found to exhibit a well-defined HFL. Although the phenomenon is conventionally explained by density-dependent theories, we identify orientation, rather than density, as the relevant order parameter. The range of density variation is noticeably shorter than that of orientational heterogeneity. The latter is comparable to the observed distances of hydrophobic force. At large separation, attraction between the rods arises primarily from a destructive interference among the inwardly propagating oppositely oriented heterogeneity generated in water by the two rods. As the rods are brought closer, the interference increases leading to a decrease in heterogeneity and concomitant decrease in free energy of the system, giving rise to the effective attraction. We notice formation of hexagonal ice-like structures at the onset of attractive region which suggests that metastable free energy minimum may play a role in the origin of HFL.

  13. Shape and Orientation of Mercury from Radar Ranging Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J. D.

    1996-01-01

    If Mercury's radius is expanded in Legendre functions to the second degree and order, the systematic error in radar ranging can be reduced significantly. We interpret the expansion coefficients in terms of a best-fit ellipsoid displaced with respect to the center of mass in the equatorial plane. The ellipsoid's principal axes are rotated in the equatorial plane such that the long axis is aligned with cartographic longitude 15.3 deg +/- 2.9 deg (west). The pole location is consistent with the IAU pole, normal to Mercury's orbital plane. There is a significant equatorial ellipticity (a - b)/a = (540 +/- 54) x 10(exp -6). The center of figure is offset from the center of mass (C.F.-C.M.) by 640 +/- 78 m in the equatorial plane in the direction of cartographic longitude 319.5 deg +/- 6.9 deg. The magnitude of the equatorial center of figure offset implies an excess crustal thickness of 12 km or less, comparable to the Moon's excess. By comparing the equatorial ellipticity with the Mariner 10 gravity coefficient C(sub 22) and assuming Airy isostatic compensation, we conclude that Mercury's crustal thickness is in the range from 100 to 300 km.

  14. Orientation of fibres in suspensions flowing over a solid surface

    OpenAIRE

    Carlsson, Allan

    2007-01-01

    The orientation of fibres suspended in a viscous fluid, flowing over a solid surface, has been studied experimentally. A shear layer was generated, by letting the suspension flow down an inclined plate. Far upstream from the measuring section the suspension was accelerated to obtain an initial orientation of the fibres aligned with the flow direction. A CCD-camera was used to visualise the fibres. The velocity profile of the fibres coincided with the theoretical expression for fully developed...

  15. Orientation and deformation of mineral crystals in tooth surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisaki, Kazuhiro; Todoh, Masahiro; Niida, Atsushi; Shibuya, Ryota; Kitami, Shunsuke; Tadano, Shigeru

    2012-06-01

    Tooth enamel is the hardest material in the human body, and it is mainly composed of hydroxyapatite (HAp)-like mineral particles. As HAp has a hexagonal crystal structure, X-ray diffraction methods can be used to analyze the crystal structure of HAp in teeth. Here, the X-ray diffraction method was applied to the surface of tooth enamel to measure the orientation and strain of the HAp crystals. The c-axis of the hexagonal crystal structure of HAp was oriented to the surface perpendicular to the tooth enamel covering the tooth surface. Thus, the strain of HAp at the surface of teeth was measured by X-ray diffraction from the (004) lattice planes aligned along the c-axis. The X-ray strain measurements were conducted on tooth specimens with intact surfaces under loading. Highly accurate strain measurements of the surface of tooth specimens were performed by precise positioning of the X-ray irradiation area during loading. The strains of the (004) lattice plane were measured at several positions on the surface of the specimens under compression along the tooth axis. The strains were obtained as tensile strains at the labial side of incisor tooth specimens. In posterior teeth, the strains were different at different measurement positions, varying from tensile to compressive types. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Slant-tilt: the visual encoding of surface orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, K A

    1983-01-01

    A specific form for the internal representation of local surface orientation is proposed, which is similar to Gibson's (1950) "amount and direction of slant". Slant amount is usually quantified by the angle sigma between the surface normal and the line of sight (0 degrees less than or equal to sigma less than or equal to 90 degrees). Slant direction corresponds to the direction of the gradient of distance from the viewer to the surface, and may be defined by the image direction tau to which the surface normal would project (0 degrees less than or equal to tau less than or equal to 360 degrees). Since the direction of slant is specified by the tilt of the projected surface normal, it is referred to as surface tilt (Stevens, 1979; Marr, 1982). The two degrees of freedom of orientation are therefore quantified by slant, an angle measured perpendicular to the image plane, and tilt, an angle measured in the image plane. The slant-tilt form provides several computational advantages relative to some other proposals and is consistent with various psychological phenomena. Slant might be encoded by various means, e.g. by the cosine of the angle, by the tangent, or linearly by the angle itself. Experimental results are reported that suggest that slant is encoded by an internal parameter that varies linearly with slant angle, with resolution of roughly one part in 100. Thus we propose that surface orientation is encoded in human vision by two quantities, one varying linearly with slant angle, the other varying linearly with tilt angle.

  17. Electronic structure of graphene on Ni surfaces with different orientation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pudikov, D.A.; Zhizhin, E.V.; Rybkin, A.G.; Rybkina, A.A.; Zhukov, Y.M.; Vilkov, O. Yu.; Shikin, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    An experimental study of the graphene, synthesized by propylene cracking on Ni surfaces with different orientation: (100) and (111), using angle-resolved photoemission, has been performed. It has been shown that graphene on Ni(111) had a perfect lateral structure due to consistency of their lattices, whereas graphene/Ni(100) consisted of a lot of domains. For both systems electronic structure was quite similar and demonstrated a strong bonding of graphene to the underlying Ni surface. After Au intercalation the electronic structure of graphene in both systems was shifted to the Fermi level and became linear in the vicinity of the K point of the Brillouin zone. - Highlights: • Graphene on Ni(111) is well-ordered, whereas on Ni(100) – multi-domain. • Graphene on Ni(111) and Ni(100) is strongly bonded with substrate. • Intercalation of Au atoms restores the linearity in dispersion and makes graphene quasi-free on both Ni(100) and Ni(111).

  18. Experimental characterization of micromilled surfaces by large range AFM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bariani, Paolo; Bissacco, Giuliano; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2004-01-01

    of workpiece material, particularly when sub-micrometer chip thicknesses are considered and when machining hard materials. Quantification of surface topography is of fundamental importance for the evaluation of the generated surface; high resolution and wide measuring range being highly desirable...... for the evaluation of the distinctive behaviour of the ball end mill. The combination of the two demands is to date not matched by any measuring instrument. The paper describes an experimental investigation of surface topography of such micromachined surfaces. Accurate characterization of fine surface details...

  19. In-Situ Extended Lateral Range Surface Metrology, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop an extended lateral range capability for a dynamic optical profiling system to enable non-contact, surface roughness measurement of large and...

  20. The effect of scattered light sensor orientation on roughness measurement of curved polished surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilny, Lukas; Bissacco, Giuliano; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    with crossed surface lay to document the robustness of the method. The instrument area-integrating measuring principle (figure 1) is based on a non-coherent light beam of ∅ 0.9 mm and 670 nm wavelength illuminating the measured surface, reflection of the incident light from the surface slopes in spatial......The effect of angular orientation of a scattered light sensor with respect to main curvature and surface lay on roughness measurements is evaluated. A commercial scattered light sensor OS 500-32 from Optosurf GmbH was used. The investigation was performed on polished cylindrical surfaces...... directions, and its acquisition within ± 16º angular range with a linear detector array. From the distribution of the acquired scattered light intensity, a number of statistical parameters describing the surface texture are calculated, where the Aq parameter (variance of the scattered light distribution...

  1. High Genetic Diversity and Structured Populations of the Oriental Fruit Moth in Its Range of Origin

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Yan; Peng, Xiong; Liu, Gaoming; Pan, Hongyan; Dorn, Silvia; Chen, Maohua

    2013-01-01

    The oriental fruit moth Grapholita ( = Cydia) molesta is a key fruit pest globally. Despite its economic importance, little is known about its population genetics in its putative native range that includes China. We used five polymorphic microsatellite loci and two mitochondrial gene sequences to characterize the population genetic diversity and genetic structure of G. molesta from nine sublocations in three regions of a major fruit growing area of China. Larval samples were collected through...

  2. Elite and amateur orienteers' running biomechanics on three surfaces at three speeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert-Losier, Kim; Mourot, Laurent; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2015-02-01

    Orienteering athletes must adapt to running on various surfaces, with biomechanics likely contributing to performance. Here, our aims were to identify the effect of athletic status and of surface on the running biomechanics of orienteers. Seven elite and seven amateur male orienteers ran 20 m on road, path, and forest surfaces at maximal, 3.8 m·s, and 85% of maximal speeds. A three-dimensional motion capturing system monitored temporal gait and lower extremity kinematic parameters. Data were analyzed using mixed effects models that considered surface (road-path-forest), group (elite-amateur), and surface-group interaction effects. Forest running at maximal speed was slower and involved longer step and cycle times, greater knee extension at foot strike, smaller peak hip flexion and dorsiflexion during stance, and increased ranges of vertical pelvis motion compared with those observed on the road. Elites specifically exhibited greater hip extension at foot strike, larger dorsiflexion at toe-off, and lower pelvis at foot strike and toe-off, whereas amateurs displayed longer stance, greater plantarflexion at foot strike, and greater knee with lesser ankle motion. At the slowest speed, subjects exhibited greater knee flexion at foot strike, greater dorsiflexion at toe-off, shorter strides, smaller peak dorsiflexion during stance, and greater hip, knee, and vertical pelvis motions on forest than on road surfaces. Elites specifically demonstrated shorter stance, step, and cycle times whereas amateurs did not. Orienteering athletes adjusted their running biomechanics when off-road, with distinct adaptations observed in elite versus amateur competitors. The vertical pelvis motion was consistently greater when running off-road, coherent with reported increases in energy expenditure. However, our athletes did not exhibit more crouched lower limb postures when sprinting in the forest, indicating alternative responses to off-road running to that previously proposed by "Groucho

  3. Photonic bandgap structures for long-range surface plasmon polaritons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Boltasseva, Alexandra; Søndergaard, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Propagation of long-range surface plasmon polaritons (LR-SPPs) along periodically thickness-modulated metal stripes embedded in dielectric is studied both theoretically and experimentally for light wavelengths in the telecom range. We demonstrate that symmetric (with respect to the film surface) nm......-size thickness variations result in the pronounced band gap effect, and obtain very good agreement between measured and simulated (transmission and reflection) spectra. This effect is exploited to realize a compact wavelength add-drop filter with the bandwidth of -20 nm centered at 1550 nm. The possibilities...

  4. Parallel tempering Monte Carlo simulations of lysozyme orientation on charged surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yun; Zhou, Jian; Jiang, Shaoyi

    2010-02-01

    In this work, the parallel tempering Monte Carlo (PTMC) algorithm is applied to accurately and efficiently identify the global-minimum-energy orientation of a protein adsorbed on a surface in a single simulation. When applying the PTMC method to simulate lysozyme orientation on charged surfaces, it is found that lysozyme could easily be adsorbed on negatively charged surfaces with "side-on" and "back-on" orientations. When driven by dominant electrostatic interactions, lysozyme tends to be adsorbed on negatively charged surfaces with the side-on orientation for which the active site of lysozyme faces sideways. The side-on orientation agrees well with the experimental results where the adsorbed orientation of lysozyme is determined by electrostatic interactions. As the contribution from van der Waals interactions gradually dominates, the back-on orientation becomes the preferred one. For this orientation, the active site of lysozyme faces outward, which conforms to the experimental results where the orientation of adsorbed lysozyme is co-determined by electrostatic interactions and van der Waals interactions. It is also found that despite of its net positive charge, lysozyme could be adsorbed on positively charged surfaces with both "end-on" and back-on orientations owing to the nonuniform charge distribution over lysozyme surface and the screening effect from ions in solution. The PTMC simulation method provides a way to determine the preferred orientation of proteins on surfaces for biosensor and biomaterial applications.

  5. Precision metrology of NSTX surfaces using coherent laser radar ranging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugel, H.W.; Loesser, D.; Roquemore, A. L.; Menon, M. M.; Barry, R. E.

    2000-01-01

    A frequency modulated Coherent Laser Radar ranging diagnostic is being used on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) for precision metrology. The distance (range) between the 1.5 microm laser source and the target is measured by the shift in frequency of the linearly modulated beam reflected off the target. The range can be measured to a precision of < 100microm at distances of up to 22 meters. A description is given of the geometry and procedure for measuring NSTX interior and exterior surfaces during open vessel conditions, and the results of measurements are elaborated

  6. Integrated Optical Components Utilizing Long-Range Surface Plasmon Polaritons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boltasseva, Alexandra; Nikolajsen, Thomas; Leosson, Kristjan

    2005-01-01

    New optical waveguide technology for integrated optics, based on propagation of long-range surface plasmon polaritons (LR-SPPs) along metal stripes embedded in dielectric, is presented. Guiding and routing of electromagnetic radiation along nanometer-thin and micrometer-wide gold stripes embedded...

  7. Increased fracture depth range in controlled spalling of (100)-oriented germanium via electroplating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crouse, Dustin; Simon, John; Schulte, Kevin L.; Young, David L.; Ptak, Aaron J.; Packard, Corinne E.

    2018-03-01

    Controlled spalling in (100)-oriented germanium using a nickel stressor layer shows promise for semiconductor device exfoliation and kerfless wafering. Demonstrated spall depths of 7-60 um using DC sputtering to deposit the stressor layer are appropriate for the latter application but spall depths < 5 um may be required to minimize waste for device applications. This work investigates the effect of tuning both electroplating current density and electrolyte chemistry on the residual stress in the nickel and on the achievable spall depth range for the Ni/Ge system as a lower-cost, higher-throughput alternative to sputtering. By tuning current density and electrolyte phosphorous concentration, it is shown that electroplating can successfully span the same range of spalled thicknesses as has previously been demonstrated by sputtering and can reach sufficiently high stresses to enter a regime of thickness (<7 um) appropriate to minimize substrate consumption for device applications.

  8. Effects of surface orientation on lifetime of near-surface nanoscale He bubble in tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Jiechao; Fu, Baoqin; Wu, Zhangwen; Hou, Qing, E-mail: qhou@scu.edu.cn

    2017-02-15

    In multiscale modeling of the morphological evolution of plasma facing materials in nuclear fusion reactors, the knowledge of the timescales of the involved physical processes is important. In the present study, a new method based on molecular dynamics simulations was developed to extract the lifetime of helium bubbles near tungsten surfaces. It was found that the lifetime of a helium bubble can be described by the Arrhenius equation. However, the lifetime of a helium bubble depends on the thickness of tungsten film above the helium bubble in the substrate and the bubble size. The influence of surface orientations on the lifetime of helium bubbles was also observed, and the performance of helium bubbles on the (1 1 1) surface is very different from on the (0 0 1) and (0 1 1) surfaces. The role of the helium bubble lifetime in other simulation techniques, such as in kinetic Monte Carlo methods and rate theory, is discussed.

  9. Directional couplers using long-range surface plasmon polariton waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boltasseva, Alexandra; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2006-01-01

    We present an experimental study of guiding and routing of electromagnetic radiation along the nanometer-thin and micrometer-wide gold stripes embedded in a polymer via excitation of long-range surface plasmon polaritons (LR-SPPs) in a very broad wavelength range from 1000 to 1650 mn. For straight....... The transmission spectra of LR-SPP-based directional couplers are presented demonstrating an efficient (similar to 30 dB) separation of different telecom wavelength bands. Various possibilities for dynamic control of wavelength division/multiplexing with LRSPP-based directional couplers that utilize the thermo...

  10. Influence of substrate microcrystallinity on the orientation of laser-induced periodic surface structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nürnberger, P.; Reinhardt, H.; Kim, H-C.; Yang, F. [Department of Chemistry, Philipps-University Marburg, Hans-Meerwein-Straße 4, 35032 Marburg (Germany); Peppler, K.; Janek, J. [Department of Physical-Chemistry, Justus-Liebig-University Gießen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 58, 35392 Gießen (Germany); Hampp, N. [Department of Chemistry, Philipps-University Marburg, Hans-Meerwein-Straße 4, 35032 Marburg (Germany); Materials Science Center, 35032 Marburg (Germany)

    2015-10-07

    The research in this paper deals with the angular dependence of the formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) by linearly polarized nanosecond laser pulses on polycrystalline austenitic stainless steel. Incident angles ranging from 45° to 70° lead to the generation of superimposed merely perpendicular oriented LIPSS on steel as well as on monocrystalline (100) silicon which was used as a reference material. Additional extraordinary orientations of superimposing LIPSS along with significantly different periodicities are found on polycrystalline steel but not on (100) silicon. Electron backscatter diffraction measurements indicate that the expansion of these LIPSS is limited to the grain size and affected by the crystal orientation of the individual grains. Atomic force microscopy imaging shows that LIPSS fringe heights are in good agreement with the theoretically predicted penetration depths of surface plasmon polaritons into stainless steel. These results indicate that optical anisotropies must be taken into account to fully describe the theory of light-matter interaction leading to LIPSS formation.

  11. The influence of surface on the running velocities of elite and amateur orienteer athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hébert-Losier, K; Jensen, Kurt; Mourot, L

    2014-01-01

    . Of course, cognitive, mental, and physical attributes other than the ability to run on different surfaces are required for excellence in orienteering (e.g., a high aerobic power). However, we suggest that athlete-specific assessment of running performance on various surfaces and distances might assist...... in tailoring training and identifying individual strengths and/or weaknesses in an orienteer....

  12. Semantic service-oriented architecture for range operation: evolving the role of semantics in the enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Richard; Bimson, Kent; Hyle, Richard; Thiebauth, Richard

    2009-05-01

    The Knowledge Management Framework (KMF) of the US Air Force 45th Space Wing's Knowledge Management Initiative (KMI) is a semantic service-oriented architecture that provides Eastern Range stakeholders with a semantically unified, web-based view of distributed range information-a Single Integrated Range Picture-through a virtual, federated, ontology-based enterprise model. Design time activities include the creation of physical data services and mapping of those physical data services to logical data services corresponding to the concepts described in an OWLDL[ 1] ontology. The physical data services aggregate and normalize information stored within federated relational databases and XML[2] files. Runtime activities are managed through a single web service providing methods for ontology discovery, ontology inspection and retrieval of concept instances from federated data sources. We present lessons learned and the technology currently under development to support ontology-driven EII, reasoning, and search. We finish by discussing how these lessons have reshaped our thinking about the role of semantics in enriching information to make it more meaningful for stakeholders, and the impact of these new concepts on our evolving KMF architecture.

  13. Long-range alpha detection applied to soil surface monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caress, R.W.; Allander, K.S.; Bounds, J.A.; Catlett, M.M.; MacArthur, D.W.; Rutherford, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    The long-range alpha detection (LRAD) technique depends on the detection of ion pairs generated by alpha particles losing energy in air rather than on detection of the alpha particles themselves. Typical alpha particles generated by uranium will travel less than 3 cm in air. In contrast, the ions have been successfully detected many inches or feet away from the contamination. Since LRAD detection systems are sensitive to all ions simultaneously, large LRAD soil surface monitors (SSMS) can be used to collect all of the ions from a large sample. The LRAD SSMs are designed around the fan-less LRAD detector. In this case a five-sided box with an open bottom is placed on the soil surface. Ions generated by alpha decays on the soil surface are collected on a charged copper plate within the box. These ions create a small current from the plate to ground which is monitored with a sensitive electrometer. The current measured is proportional to the number of ions in the box, which is, in turn, proportional to the amount of alpha contamination on the surface of the soil. This report includes the design and construction of a 1-m by 1-m SSM as well as the results of a study at Fernald, OH, as part of the Uranium in Soils Integrated Demonstration

  14. Evolution of surface topography in dependence on the grain orientation during surface thermal fatigue of polycrystalline copper

    CERN Document Server

    Aicheler, M; Taborelli, M; Calatroni, S; Neupert, H; Wuensch, W; Sgobba, S

    2011-01-01

    Surface degradation due to cyclic thermal loading plays a major role in the Accelerating Structures (AS) of the future Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) In this article results on surface degradation of thermally cycled polycrystalline copper as a function of the orientation of surface grains are presented Samples with different grain sizes were subjected to thermal fatigue using two different methods and were then characterized using roughness measurements and Orientation Imaging Scanning-Electron-Microscopy (OIM-SEM) Samples fatigued by a pulsed laser show the same trend in the orientation-fatigue damage accumulation as the sample fatigued by pulsed Radio-Frequency-heating (RF) it is clearly shown that 11 1 1] surface grains develop significantly more damage than the surface grains oriented in {[}100] and three reasons for this behaviour are pointed out Based on observations performed near grain boundaries their role in the crack initiation process is discussed The results are in good agreement with previous f...

  15. Experimental and modelling study of the effect of airflow orientation with respect to strip electrode on ozone production of surface dielectric barrier discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikeš, J.; Pekárek, S.; Soukup, I.

    2016-11-01

    This study examines the effect of airflow orientation with respect to the strip active electrode on concentration of ozone and nitrogen dioxide produced in a planar generator based on the surface dielectric barrier discharge. The orientation of the airflow was tested in parallel and perpendicular with respect to the strips. It was found that in the investigated range of average discharge power, the ozone concentration increases approximately by 25% when airflow was oriented in parallel with respect to the strips in comparison with perpendicular orientation of the airflow. Similarly the increase of nitrogen dioxide concentration was observed for parallel orientation of the airflow with respect to the strips in comparison with the perpendicular orientation of the airflow. Within the range of wavelengths from 250 to 1100 nm, the changes of intensities of spectral lines associated with airflow orientation have been observed. A 3D numerical model describing ion trajectories and airflow patterns have also been developed.

  16. Influence of the atomic structure of crystal surfaces on the surface diffusion in medium temperature range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cousty, J.P.

    1981-12-01

    In this work, we have studied the influence of atomic structure of crystal surface on surface self-diffusion in the medium temperature range. Two ways are followed. First, we have measured, using a radiotracer method, the self-diffusion coefficient at 820 K (0.6 T melting) on copper surfaces both the structure and the cleanliness of which were stable during the experiment. We have shown that the interaction between mobile surface defects and steps can be studied through measurements of the anisotropy of surface self diffusion. Second, the behavior of an adatom and a surface vacancy is simulated via a molecular dynamics method, on several surfaces of a Lennard Jones crystal. An inventory of possible migration mechanisms of these surface defects has been drawn between 0.35 and 0.45 Tsub(m). The results obtained with both the methods point out the influence of the surface atomic structure in surface self-diffusion in the medium temperature range [fr

  17. Path Planning Based on Ply Orientation Information for Automatic Fiber Placement on Mesh Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Jiazhi; Wang, Xiaoping; Pei, Jingyu; Yang, Yang

    2018-03-01

    This article introduces an investigation of path planning with ply orientation information for automatic fiber placement (AFP) on open-contoured mesh surface. The new method makes use of the ply orientation information generated by loading characteristics on surface, divides the surface into several zones according to the ply orientation information and then designs different fiber paths in different zones. This article also gives new idea of up-layer design in order to make up for defects between parts and improve product's strength.

  18. Procedure for fully automatic orientation of camera in digital close-range photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yong Ru; Trinder, John C.

    1994-03-01

    This paper presents an automatic procedure of camera orientation developed for a digital close-range photogrammetric system. In this application, small bright balls mounted on a calibration frame serve as control points, since their shape in an image is invariant to the camera position and they are always imaged as circles. To recognize the circles in the image, an edge detection algorithm is exploited to extract the circular edges with subpixel accuracy. The circles are recognized by matching the shape of these edges with the shape of an ideal circular target. The central location of the circles and their diameters can be determined from these edge points. The determination of the identification of the circles is a problem of artificial intelligence. The list of the circles in the image must be arranged in the order of the balls in 3D world. A fast search is described that is based on exploiting the available information in order to limit the number of possible alternative orders of the targets. In this way, the search can be achieved efficiently. The identification of circles results in the correct numbers being attached to the corresponding circles. Finally, the precise camera parameters are calculated by bundle adjustment.

  19. Highly Oriented Growth of Catalytically Active Zeolite ZSM‐5 Films with a Broad Range of Si/Al Ratios

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Donglong; Schmidt, Joel E.; Ristanović, Zoran; Chowdhury, Abhishek Dutta; Meirer, Florian; Weckhuysen, Bert M.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Highly b‐oriented zeolite ZSM‐5 films are critical for applications in catalysis and separations and may serve as models to study diffusion and catalytic properties in single zeolite channels. However, the introduction of catalytically active Al3+ usually disrupts the orientation of zeolite films. Herein, using structure‐directing agents with hydroxy groups, we demonstrate a new method to prepare highly b‐oriented zeolite ZSM‐5 films with a broad range of Si/Al ratios (Si/Al=45 to ∞)...

  20. High genetic diversity and structured populations of the oriental fruit moth in its range of origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yan; Peng, Xiong; Liu, Gaoming; Pan, Hongyan; Dorn, Silvia; Chen, Maohua

    2013-01-01

    The oriental fruit moth Grapholita ( = Cydia) molesta is a key fruit pest globally. Despite its economic importance, little is known about its population genetics in its putative native range that includes China. We used five polymorphic microsatellite loci and two mitochondrial gene sequences to characterize the population genetic diversity and genetic structure of G. molesta from nine sublocations in three regions of a major fruit growing area of China. Larval samples were collected throughout the season from peach, and in late season, after host switch by the moth to pome fruit, also from apple and pear. We found high numbers of microsatellite alleles and mitochondrial DNA haplotypes in all regions, together with a high number of private alleles and of haplotypes at all sublocations, providing strong evidence that the sampled area belongs to the origin of this species. Samples collected from peach at all sublocations were geographically structured, and a significant albeit weak pattern of isolation-by-distance was found among populations, likely reflecting the low flight capacity of this moth. Interestingly, populations sampled from apple and pear in the late season showed a structure differing from that of populations sampled from peach throughout the season, indicating a selective host switch of a certain part of the population only. The recently detected various olfactory genotypes in G. molesta may underly this selective host switch. These genetic data yield, for the first time, an understanding of population dynamics of G. molesta in its native range, and of a selective host switch from peach to pome fruit, which may have a broad applicability to other global fruit production areas for designing suitable pest management strategies.

  1. High genetic diversity and structured populations of the oriental fruit moth in its range of origin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zheng

    Full Text Available The oriental fruit moth Grapholita ( = Cydia molesta is a key fruit pest globally. Despite its economic importance, little is known about its population genetics in its putative native range that includes China. We used five polymorphic microsatellite loci and two mitochondrial gene sequences to characterize the population genetic diversity and genetic structure of G. molesta from nine sublocations in three regions of a major fruit growing area of China. Larval samples were collected throughout the season from peach, and in late season, after host switch by the moth to pome fruit, also from apple and pear. We found high numbers of microsatellite alleles and mitochondrial DNA haplotypes in all regions, together with a high number of private alleles and of haplotypes at all sublocations, providing strong evidence that the sampled area belongs to the origin of this species. Samples collected from peach at all sublocations were geographically structured, and a significant albeit weak pattern of isolation-by-distance was found among populations, likely reflecting the low flight capacity of this moth. Interestingly, populations sampled from apple and pear in the late season showed a structure differing from that of populations sampled from peach throughout the season, indicating a selective host switch of a certain part of the population only. The recently detected various olfactory genotypes in G. molesta may underly this selective host switch. These genetic data yield, for the first time, an understanding of population dynamics of G. molesta in its native range, and of a selective host switch from peach to pome fruit, which may have a broad applicability to other global fruit production areas for designing suitable pest management strategies.

  2. Simulation of surface dynamics during dissolution as a function of the surface orientation: Implications for non-constant dissolution rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godinho, J. R. A.; Piazolo, S.; Evans, L.

    2014-12-01

    An important problem in geochemistry is the understanding of how changes occurring on a surface during dissolution affect the variability of measured dissolution rates. In this study a new approach to study the effect of surface dynamics on dissolution rates is tested by coupling experimental data with a numerical model that simulates the retreat of surface profiles during dissolution. We present specific results from the simulation of dissolution of fluorite surfaces. The equations that determine the retreat of a surface are based on experimentally obtained equations that relate the retreat rate of a surface to a single variable, the crystallographic orientation of the surface. Our results show that depending on the starting orientation, different types of topography are developed, similar to those observed experimentally. During the initial dissolution phase, changes of topography are rapid and associated with fast dissolution rates. The progressively slower dissolution rates are coupled with the development of surface segments with orientations that dissolve at a slower rate. Consequently, the overall retreat rate of a profile decreases during the simulation, and tends to a near-constant value. The results show a close relationship between dissolution rates, surface orientation and surface dynamics, which suggests that the dissolution rate of a specific mineral phase is not constant but varies with dissolution time and surface structure. This variability needs to be considered in the evaluation of experimentally derived dissolution rates, future dissolution experiments, and predictive kinetic models of dissolution.

  3. Electric fields control the orientation of peptides irreversibly immobilized on radical-functionalized surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Lewis J; Akhavan, Behnam; Bilek, Marcela M M

    2018-01-24

    Surface functionalization of an implantable device with bioactive molecules can overcome adverse biological responses by promoting specific local tissue integration. Bioactive peptides have advantages over larger protein molecules due to their robustness and sterilizability. Their relatively small size presents opportunities to control the peptide orientation on approach to a surface to achieve favourable presentation of bioactive motifs. Here we demonstrate control of the orientation of surface-bound peptides by tuning electric fields at the surface during immobilization. Guided by computational simulations, a peptide with a linear conformation in solution is designed. Electric fields are used to control the peptide approach towards a radical-functionalized surface. Spontaneous, irreversible immobilization is achieved when the peptide makes contact with the surface. Our findings show that control of both peptide orientation and surface concentration is achieved simply by varying the solution pH or by applying an electric field as delivered by a small battery.

  4. Review of background oriented schlieren and development for ballistic range applications

    OpenAIRE

    Obayashi Shigeru; Kamishi Burim; Gojani Ardian B.

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative measurements of fluid flow can be achieved by flow visualization techniques, and this paper reviews and outlines background oriented schlieren, with emphasis on its performance: measurement sensitivity and uncertainty. Since the technique depends on cross-correlation, an assessment of image evaluation is also conducted. Background oriented schlieren is applied to two flows: shock reflection from a wedge in a shock tube, and natural cooling byconvection. It is estimated that the t...

  5. Review of background oriented schlieren and development for ballistic range applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obayashi Shigeru

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative measurements of fluid flow can be achieved by flow visualization techniques, and this paper reviews and outlines background oriented schlieren, with emphasis on its performance: measurement sensitivity and uncertainty. Since the technique depends on cross-correlation, an assessment of image evaluation is also conducted. Background oriented schlieren is applied to two flows: shock reflection from a wedge in a shock tube, and natural cooling byconvection. It is estimated that the technique can be applied to ballistic facilities.

  6. Observation of a distinct surface molecular orientation in films of a high mobility conjugated polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuettfort, Torben; Thomsen, Lars; McNeill, Christopher R

    2013-01-23

    The molecular orientation and microstructure of films of the high-mobility semiconducting polymer poly(N,N-bis-2-octyldodecylnaphthalene-1,4,5,8-bis-dicarboximide-2,6-diyl-alt-5,5-2,2-bithiophene) (P(NDI2OD-T2)) are probed using a combination of grazing-incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering (GIWAXS) and near-edge X-ray absorption fine-structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy. In particular a novel approach is used whereby the bulk molecular orientation and surface molecular orientation are simultaneously measured on the same sample using NEXAFS spectroscopy in an angle-resolved transmission experiment. Furthermore, the acquisition of bulk-sensitive NEXAFS data enables a direct comparison of the information provided by GIWAXS and NEXAFS. By comparison of the bulk-sensitive and surface-sensitive NEXAFS data, a distinctly different molecular orientation is observed at the surface of the film compared to the bulk. While a more "face-on" orientation of the conjugated backbone is observed in the bulk of the film, consistent with the lamella orientation observed by GIWAXS, a more "edge-on" orientation is observed at the surface of the film with surface-sensitive NEXAFS spectroscopy. This distinct edge-on surface orientation explains the high in-plane mobility that is achieved in top-gate P(NDI2OD-T2) field-effect transistors (FETs), while the bulk face-on texture explains the high out-of-plane mobilities that are observed in time-of-flight and diode measurements. These results also stress that GIWAXS lacks the surface sensitivity required to probe the microstructure of the accumulation layer that supports charge transport in organic FETs and hence may not necessarily be appropriate for correlating film microstructure and FET charge transport.

  7. Combining Surface Analytical and Computational Techniques to Investigate Orientation Effects of Immobilized Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Elisa Turla

    Controlling how proteins are immobilized (e.g. controlling their orientation and conformation) is essential for developing and optimizing the performance of in vitro protein-binding devices, such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The objective of this work is to develop new methodologies to study proteins and complex mixtures of proteins immobilized onto surfaces. The focus of this study was to control and characterize the orientation of protein G B1, an IgG antibody-binding domain of protein G, on well-defined surfaces as well as measure the effect of protein G B1 orientation on IgG antibody binding using a variety of surface analytical and computational techniques. The surface sensitivity of time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) was used to distinguish between different proteins and their orientation by monitoring the changes in intensity of characteristic amino acid mass fragments. Amino acids distributed asymmetrically were used to calculate peak intensity ratios from ToF-SIMS data to determine the orientation of five different cysteine mutants of protein G B1 covalently attached to a maleimide surface. To study the effect of protein orientation on antibody binding, we formed multilayer protein films by binding IgG to protein G B1 films. Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) detected protein coverages of 69-130 ng/cm2 (theoretical mass of a monolayer of protein G B1 is 110-160 ng/cm2). QCM-D and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis revealed that packing density along with orientation affected the antibody binding process. Spectra from ToF-SIMS using large Ar gas cluster ion sources distinguished between different proteins in multilayer protein systems. A Monte Carlo algorithm was developed to predict protein orientation on surfaces. Two distinct orientations of protein G B1 adsorbed onto a hydrophobic surface were found and characterized as two mutually exclusive sets of amino acids on the outermost

  8. Vibration analysis of a plate with an arbitrarily orientated surface crack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Rainah

    This research presents a vibration analysis for a thin isotropic plate containing an arbitrarily orientated surface crack. The work has been motivated by the well known applicability of various vibrational techniques for structural damage detection in which the detection and localisation of damage to thin plate structures at the earliest stage of development can optimise subsystem performance and assure a safer life, and is intended to be an enhancement to previous work on cracked plates for which the orientation of the crack angle was not included. The novelty of this research activity has been in the assimilation of a significantly enhanced crack model within the analytical model of the plate, in modal space, and taking the form of a specialised Duffing equation. The governing equation of motion of the plate model with enhanced crack modelling is proposed to represent the vibrational response of the plate and is based on classical plate theory into which a developed crack model has been assimilated.. The formulation of the angled crack is based on a simplified line-spring model, and the cracked plate is subjected to transverse harmonic excitation with arbitrarily chosen boundary conditions. In addition, the nonlinear behaviour of the cracked plate model is investigated analytically from the amplitude-frequency equation by use of the multiple scales perturbation method. For both cracked square and rectangular plate models, the influence of the boundary conditions, the crack orientation angle, crack length, and location of the point load is demonstrated. It is found that the vibration characteristics and nonlinear characteristics of the cracked plate structure can be greatly affected by the orientation of the crack in the plate. The dynamics and stability of the cracked plate model are also examined numerically using dynamical systems tools for representing the behaviour of this system for a range of parameters. Finally the validity of the developed model is shown

  9. Orientation correlations in metal structures from the micrometer to nanometer range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul Jensen, D.; Bowen, Jacob R.; Mishin, Oleg

    2005-01-01

    Distributions of boundary misorientations in aluminium are measured as a function of deformation for strains up to 10. These experimental distributions are compared to misorientation distributions generated from a random mix of orientations present in the microstructure. It is found that for all...... strains investigated, the experimental distributions contain a significant higher fraction of low angle boundaries than that expected from the theoretically calculated distributions assuming a random mixing of orientations. This means that there are clear correlations between neighbouring orientations...... annealing a sample deformed to epsilon=10 leads to significant structural coarsening, but a large fraction of low angle boundaries are maintained in the experimental misorientation distribution, which is not seen in the theoretically calculated distribution....

  10. Micro-orientation control of silicon polymer thin films on graphite surfaces modified by heteroatom doping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimoyama, Iwao, E-mail: shimoyama.iwao@jaea.go.jp [Material Science Research Center, Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura 2-4, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Baba, Yuji [Fukushima Administrative Department, Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura 2-4, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Hirao, Norie [Material Science Research Center, Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura 2-4, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

    2017-05-31

    Highlights: • Micro-orientation control method for organic polysilane thin films is proposed. • This method utilizes surface modification of graphite using heteroatom doping. • Lying, standing, and random orientations can be freely controlled by this method. • Micro-pattering of a polysilane film with controlled orientations is achieved. - Abstract: Near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy is applied to study orientation structures of polydimethylsilane (PDMS) films deposited on heteroatom-doped graphite substrates prepared by ion beam doping. The Si K-edge NEXAFS spectra of PDMS show opposite trends of polarization dependence for non irradiated and N{sub 2}{sup +}-irradiated substrates, and show no polarization dependence for an Ar{sup +}-irradiated substrate. Based on a theoretical interpretation of the NEXAFS spectra via first-principles calculations, we clarify that PDMS films have lying, standing, and random orientations on the non irradiated, N{sub 2}{sup +}-irradiated, and Ar{sup +}-irradiated substrates, respectively. Furthermore, photoemission electron microscopy indicates that the orientation of a PDMS film can be controlled with microstructures on the order of μm by separating irradiated and non irradiated areas on the graphite surface. These results suggest that surface modification of graphite using ion beam doping is useful for micro-orientation control of organic thin films.

  11. Long-range orientation and atomic attachment of nanocrystals in 2D honeycomb superlattices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boneschanscher, M. P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/355360977; Evers, W. H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/315553146; Geuchies, J. J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/370526090; Altantzis, T.; Goris, B.; Rabouw, F. T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413318036; van Rossum, S. A. P.; van der Zant, H. S. J.; Siebbeles, L. D. A.; Van Tendeloo, G.; Swart, I.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304837652; Hilhorst, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/31413106X; Petukhov, Andrei V.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304829196; Bals, S.; Vanmaekelbergh, D.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304829137

    2014-01-01

    Oriented attachment of synthetic semiconductor nanocrystals is emerging as a route for obtaining new semiconductors that can have Dirac-type electronic bands such as graphene, but also strong spin-orbit coupling. The two-dimensional (2D) assembly geometry will require both atomic coherence and

  12. On the diurnal ranges of Sea Surface Temperature (SST)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper describes the variability in the diurnal range of SST in the north Indian Ocean using in situ measurements and tests the suitability of simple regression models in estimating the diurnal range.SST measurements obtained from 1556 drifting and 25 moored buoys were used to determine the diurnal range of SSTs.

  13. Caller sex and orientation influence spectral characteristics of "two-voice" stereotyped calls produced by free-ranging killer whales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Patrick J O; Samarra, Filipa I P; Perthuison, Aurélie D

    2007-06-01

    This study investigates how particular received spectral characteristics of stereotyped calls of sexually dimorphic adult killer whales may be influenced by caller sex, orientation, and range. Calls were ascribed to individuals during natural behavior using a towed beamforming array. The fundamental frequency of both high-frequency and low-frequency components did not differ consistently by sex. The ratio of peak energy within the fundamental of the high-frequency component relative to summed peak energy in the first two low-frequency component harmonics, and the number of modulation bands off the high-frequency component, were significantly greater when whales were oriented towards the array, while range and adult sex had little effect. In contrast, the ratio of peak energy in the first versus second harmonics of the low-frequency component was greater in calls produced by adult females than adult males, while orientation and range had little effect. The dispersion of energy across harmonics has been shown to relate to body size or sex in terrestrial species, but pressure effects during diving are thought to make such a signal unreliable in diving animals. The observed spectral differences by signaler sex and orientation suggest that these types of information may be transmitted acoustically by freely diving killer whales.

  14. Micro-lubrication of Directionally Oriented Contact Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Maršálek

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A description of the set of software tools for detailed computational modelling of thin lubrication layers behaviour is presented in this paper. Individual chapters outline reasons for realization of its each part, explain the functionality of each software tool and the given mathematical definition or digital implementation of all important equations or formulae. The following are examples of partial results of the analysis carried out and the resulting flow factors databases for some kinds of rough surfaces, together with an example of the analysis result of the connecting rod sliding bearing of supercharged internal combustion engine.

  15. Orienting Block Copolymer Thin Films via Entropy and Surface Plasma Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Rong-Ming; Lu, Kai-Yuan; Lo, Ting-Ya; Dehghan, Ashkan; Shi, An-Chang; Prokopios, Georgopanos; Avgeropoulos, Apostolos

    Controlling the orientation of nanostructured thin films of block copolymers (BCPs) is essential for next generation lithography. In the thin-film state, how to achieve the perpendicular orientation of the nanostructured microdomains remains challenging due to the interfacial effects from the air and also the substrate, especially for the blocks with silicon containing segments which usually have different surface energies, favoring parallel microdomain orientation. Here, we show that entropic effect can be used to control the orientation of BCP thin films. Specifically, we used the architecture of star-block copolymers consisting of polystyrene (PS) and poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) blocks to regulate the entropic contribution to the self-assembled nanostructures. Moreover, we aim to achieve the formation of perpendicular orientation from the air surface via surface plasma treatment to neutralize the interfacial energy difference. By combining the architecture effect (entropy effect) on BCP self-assembly and the surface plasma treatment (enthalpy effect), well-defined perpendicular PDMS microdomains in the PS-b-PDMS thin film can be formed from the bottom of non-neutral substrate and the top of the thin film surface, giving great potential for lithographic applications.

  16. The Surface Measurement of Fibre Orientation Anisotropy and Misalignment Angle by Laser Diffraction

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Mário José Teixeira; Fiadeiro, Paulo Torrão; Jesus, M. E. P.; Silvy, Jacques

    2010-01-01

    The dimensional stability in fibre webs mainly depends of the fibre anisotropy and its orientation on the surfaces. These parameters are influenced during the manufacturing process, where the length and type of the fibres is determinant. The web quality control, in general, is performed based on the measurement of these parameters in the bulk of the fibre webs. This paper presents an optical laser diffraction method to measure the fibre anisotropy and the fibre orientation distribution only a...

  17. Exploration mode affects visuohaptic integration of surface orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaisier, Myrthe A; van Dam, Loes C J; Glowania, Catharina; Ernst, Marc O

    2014-11-20

    We experience the world mostly in a multisensory fashion using a combination of all of our senses. Depending on the modality we can select different exploration strategies for extracting perceptual information. For instance, using touch we can enclose an object in our hand to explore parts of the object in parallel. Alternatively, we can trace the object with a single finger to explore its parts in a serial fashion. In this study we investigated whether the exploration mode (parallel vs. serial) affects the way sensory signals are combined. To this end, participants visually and haptically explored surfaces that varied in roll angle and indicated which side of the surface was perceived as higher. In Experiment 1, the exploration mode was the same for both modalities (i.e., both parallel or both serial). In Experiment 2, we introduced a difference in exploration mode between the two modalities (visual exploration was parallel while haptic exploration was serial or vice versa). The results showed that visual and haptic signals were combined in a statistically optimal fashion only when the exploration modes were the same. In case of an asymmetry in the exploration modes across modalities, integration was suboptimal. This indicates that spatial-temporal discrepancies in the acquisition of information in the two senses (i.e., haptic and visual) can lead to the breakdown of sensory integration. © 2014 ARVO.

  18. Host range extension of Cydia pomonella granulovirus: adaptation to Oriental Fruit Moth, Grapholita molesta

    OpenAIRE

    Graillot, Benoit; Blachere, Christine; Besse, Samantha; Siegwart, Myriam; Lopez-Ferber, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    Among various Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV) isolates, the Mexican isolate (CpGV-M) has demonstrated a significant ability to reduce damage induced by the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (=Cydia molesta) in peach crops. To obtain a more efficient virus for G. molesta control, an experimental virus population was constructed by mixing various CpGV isolates. This mixture was then selected for replication in a G. molesta laboratory colony. After 12 successive passages on thi...

  19. The effect of scattered light sensor orientation on roughness measurement of curved polished surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilny, Lukas; Bissacco, Giuliano; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    Light scattering is a method for surface roughness measurements well suitable for use in a production environment thanks to its fast measurement rate, insensitivity to vibrations and to small misalignments. The method is however affected by several other factors. In this paper, the effect of angu...... of angular orientation of a commercial scattered light sensor on roughness measurements of polished cylindrical surfaces with crossed surface lay is investigated to document the robustness of the method....

  20. PROVE Surface albedo of Jornada Experimental Range, New Mexico, 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this study was to determine the spatial variations in field measurements of broadband albedo as related to the ground cover and under a range of...

  1. Dependability investigation of wireless short range embedded systems: hardware platform oriented approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Senouci, B.; Kerkhoff, Hans G.; Annema, Anne J.; Bentum, Marinus Jan

    2015-01-01

    A new direction in short-range wireless applications has appeared in the form of high-speed data communication devices for distances of hundreds meters. Behind these embedded applications, a complex heterogeneous architecture is built. Moreover, these short range communications are introduced into

  2. Ultrahigh resolution long range surface plasmon-based sensor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slavík, Radan; Homola, Jiří

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 123, č. 1 (2007), s. 10-12 ISSN 0925-4005 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP202/04/P141; GA ČR GA203/02/1326; GA ČR(CZ) GA303/03/0249 Grant - others:European Commission(XE) QLK4-CT-2002-02323; US FDA (US) FD-U-002250 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20670512 Keywords : surface plasmon resonance * refractive index Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 2.934, year: 2007

  3. Computational study on the interactions and orientation of monoclonal human immunoglobulin G on a polystyrene surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javkhlantugs N

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Namsrai Javkhlantugs,1,2 Hexig Bayar,3 Chimed Ganzorig,1 Kazuyoshi Ueda2 1Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology and Department of Chemical Technology, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, National University of Mongolia, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia; 2Department of Advanced Materials Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Yokohama National University, Yokohama, Japan; 3The Key Laboratory of Mammalian Reproductive Biology and Biotechnology of the Ministry of Education, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, People's Republic of China Abstract: Having a theoretical understanding of the orientation of immunoglobulin on an immobilized solid surface is important in biomedical pathogen-detecting systems and cellular analysis. Despite the stable adsorption of immunoglobulin on a polystyrene (PS surface that has been applied in many kinds of immunoassays, there are many uncertainties in antibody-based clinical and biological experimental methods. To understand the binding mechanism and physicochemical interactions between immunoglobulin and the PS surface at the atomic level, we investigated the binding behavior and interactions of the monoclonal immunoglobulin G (IgG on the PS surface using the computational method. In our docking simulation with the different arrangement of translational and rotational orientation of IgG onto the PS surface, three typical orientation patterns of the immunoglobulin G on the PS surface were found. We precisely analyzed these orientation patterns and clarified how the immunoglobulin G interacts with the PS surface at atomic scale in the beginning of the adsorption process. Major driving forces for the adsorption of IgG onto the PS surface come from serine (Ser, aspartic acid (Asp, and glutamic acid (Glu residues. Keywords: bionano interface, immunoassay, polystyrene, IgG, physical adsorption, simulation

  4. The influence of surface on the running velocities of elite and amateur orienteer athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert-Losier, K; Jensen, K; Mourot, L; Holmberg, H-C

    2014-12-01

    We compared the reduction in running velocities from road to off-road terrain in eight elite and eight amateur male orienteer athletes to investigate whether this factor differentiates elite from amateur athletes. On two separate days, each subject ran three 2-km time trials and three 20-m sprints "all-out" on a road, on a path, and in a forest. On a third day, the running economy and maximal aerobic power of individuals were assessed on a treadmill. The elite orienteer ran faster than the amateur on all three surfaces and at both distances, in line with their better running economy and aerobic power. In the forest, the elites ran at a slightly higher percentage of their 2-km (∼3%) and 20-m (∼4%) road velocities. Although these differences did not exhibit traditional statistical significance, magnitude-based inferences suggested likely meaningful differences, particularly during 20-m sprinting. Of course, cognitive, mental, and physical attributes other than the ability to run on different surfaces are required for excellence in orienteering (e.g., a high aerobic power). However, we suggest that athlete-specific assessment of running performance on various surfaces and distances might assist in tailoring training and identifying individual strengths and/or weaknesses in an orienteer. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Oriented coupling of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) to sensor surfaces using light assisted immobilisation technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snabe, Torben; Røder, Gustav Andreas; Neves-Petersen, Maria Teresa

    2005-01-01

    histocompatibility complex (MHC class I) to a sensor surface is presented. The coupling was performed using light assisted immobilisation--a novel immobilisation technology which allows specific opening of particular disulphide bridges in proteins which then is used for covalent bonding to thiol-derivatised surfaces...... via a new disulphide bond. Light assisted immobilisation specifically targets the disulphide bridge in the MHC-I molecule alpha(3)-domain which ensures oriented linking of the complex with the peptide binding site exposed away from the sensor surface. Structural analysis reveals that a similar...

  6. The Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, in China: Origin and Gradual Inland Range Expansion Associated with Population Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xuanwu; Nardi, Francesco; Zhang, Bin; Liu, Yinghong

    2011-01-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, expanded throughout mainland China in the last century to become one of the most serious pests in the area, yet information on this process are fragmentary. Three mitochondrial genes (nad1, cytb and nad5) were used to infer the genetic diversity, population structure and demographic history of the oriental fruit fly from its entire distribution range in China. High levels of genetic diversity, as well as a significant correspondence between genetic and geographic distances, suggest that the invasion process might have been gradual, with no associated genetic bottlenecks. Three population groups could be identified, nevertheless the overall genetic structure was weak. The effective number of migrants between populations, estimated using the coalescent method, suggested asymmetric gene flow from the costal region of Guangdong to most inland regions. The demographic analysis indicates the oriental fruit fly underwent a recent population expansion in the Central China. We suggest the species originated in the costal region facing the South China Sea and gradually expanded to colonize mainland China, expanding here to high population numbers. PMID:21984907

  7. The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, in China: origin and gradual inland range expansion associated with population growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xuanwu; Nardi, Francesco; Zhang, Bin; Liu, Yinghong

    2011-01-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, expanded throughout mainland China in the last century to become one of the most serious pests in the area, yet information on this process are fragmentary. Three mitochondrial genes (nad1, cytb and nad5) were used to infer the genetic diversity, population structure and demographic history of the oriental fruit fly from its entire distribution range in China. High levels of genetic diversity, as well as a significant correspondence between genetic and geographic distances, suggest that the invasion process might have been gradual, with no associated genetic bottlenecks. Three population groups could be identified, nevertheless the overall genetic structure was weak. The effective number of migrants between populations, estimated using the coalescent method, suggested asymmetric gene flow from the costal region of Guangdong to most inland regions. The demographic analysis indicates the oriental fruit fly underwent a recent population expansion in the Central China. We suggest the species originated in the costal region facing the South China Sea and gradually expanded to colonize mainland China, expanding here to high population numbers.

  8. Energy Efficiency Oriented Design Method of Power Management Strategy for Range-Extended Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiuyu Du

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The energy efficiency of the range-extended electric bus (REEB developed by Tsinghua University must be improved; currently, the energy management strategy is a charge-deplete-charge-sustain (CDCS strategy, which exhibits low energy efficiency on the demonstration model. To improve the energy efficiency and reduce the operating cost, a rule-based control strategy derived from the dynamic programming (DP strategy is obtained for the Chinese urban bus driving cycle (CUBDC. This rule is extracted by the power-split-ratio (PSR from the simulation results of the dynamic powertrain model using the DP strategy. By establishing the REEB dynamic models in Matlab/Simulink, the control rule can be achieved, and the power characteristic of powertrain, energy efficiency, operating cost, and computing time are analyzed. The simulation results show that the performance of the rule-based strategy presented in this paper is similar to that of the DP strategy. The energy efficiency can be improved greatly compared with that of the CDCS strategy, and the operating cost can also be reduced.

  9. NEXAFS characterization of DNA components and molecular-orientation of surface-bound DNA oligomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, Newton T.; Lee, C.-Y.; Gamble, Lara J.; Fischer, Daniel A.; Castner, David G.

    2006-01-01

    Single stranded DNA oligomers (ssDNA) immobilized onto solid surfaces forms the basis for several biotechnological applications such as DNA microarrays, affinity separations, and biosensors. Surface structure of Surface-bound oligomers is expected to significantly influence their biological activity and interactions with the environment. In this study near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS) is used to characterize the components of DNA (nucleobases, nucleotides and nucleosides) and the orientation information of surface-bound ssDNA. The K-edges of carbon, nitrogen and oxygen have spectra with features that are characteristic of the different chemical species present in the nucleobases of DNA. The effect of addition of the DNA sugar and phosphate components on the NEXAFS K-edge spectra was also investigated. The polarization-dependent nitrogen K-edge NEXAFS data show significant changes for different orientations of surface bound ssDNA. These results establish NEXAFS as a powerful technique for chemical and structural characterization of surface-bound DNA oligomers

  10. An atlas of the smaller maps in orientable and nonorientable surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, David

    2000-01-01

    Maps are beguilingly simple structures with deep and ubiquitous properties. They arise in an essential way in many areas of mathematics and mathematical physics, but require considerable time and computational effort to generate. Few collected drawings are available for reference, and little has been written, in book form, about their enumerative aspects. An Atlas of the Smaller Maps in Orientable and Nonorientable Surfaces is the first book to provide complete collections of maps along with their vertex and face partitions, number of rootings, and an index number for cross referencing. It provides an explanation of axiomatization and encoding, and serves as an introduction to maps as a combinatorial structure. The Atlas lists the maps first by genus and number of edges, and gives the embeddings of all graphs with at most five edges in orientable surfaces, thus presenting the genus distribution for each graph. Exemplifying the use of the Atlas, the authors explore two substantial conjectures with origins in ...

  11. Tuning the surface potential of Ag surfaces by chemisorption of oppositely-oriented thiolated carborane dipoles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lübben, J.F.; Baše, Tomáš; Rupper, P.; Künniger, T.; Macháček, Jan; Guimond, S.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 354, č. 1 (2011), s. 168-174 ISSN 0021-9797 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA400320901 Keywords : Adsorption * Thiolated carboranes * Silver surface * Surface potential * X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.070, year: 2011

  12. Highly efficient construction of oriented sandwich structures for surface-enhanced Raman scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Hongyun; Xu Weiqing; Xu Shuping; Zhou Ji; Lombardi, John R

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to solve the problem of low achievement in fabricating sandwich surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates. We demonstrated a highly efficient sandwich structure by the oriented assembly of metal nanoparticles (NPs) on a periodic hexagonal array of metal nanoprisms with 1,4-benzenedithiol (1,4-BDT) as linkers. The metal nanoprism array was prepared by vacuum deposition of metal on a close-packed polystyrene nanosphere pre-patterned substrate. The metal nanoprism array presents different surface properties from the pits left from the removal of polystyrene nanospheres, which causes linkers to selectively adsorb on the metal nanoprism array and sequentially leads to the oriented immobilization of the second-layer metal NPs, avoiding mismatched orientation. These sandwich SERS substrates were characterized by extinction spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy and their enhancement activity was evaluated under different excitation wavelengths. The sandwich structure greatly increases the achievement of ‘hot spots’ to almost 100% of all the metal nanoprisms and enables a large amplification of SERS signals by a factor of ten. This method has the advantages of simplicity, high efficiency, high throughput, controllability and high reproducibility. It has significance in both the study of SERS substrates and the development of plasmonic devices. (paper)

  13. Surface impedance of superconductors in wide frequency ranges for wake field calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidovskii, V.G.

    2006-01-01

    The problem of the surface impedance of superconductors in wide frequency ranges for calculations of wake fields, generated by bunches of charged particles moving axially inside a metallic vacuum chambers, is solved. The case of specular electron reflection at the superconductor surface is considered. The expression for the surface impedance of superconductors suitable for numerical computation is derived [ru

  14. Procedure for definition of end-effector orientation in planar surfaces robot applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidaković Jelena Z.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Design of user-friendly and at the same time powerful robot programming methods is the subject of significant efforts undertaken by the international robotics community. For the purpose of facilitating robot programming, with regard to the most common present-day applications in industry, it would be useful to develop programming procedures for frequently used manipulator tasks which could be easily implemented and used as ready-made application software. Important class of industrial robot applications involves end-effector trajectories in planar surfaces. Development of robot programming language procedure intended for determination of object plane normal with respect to frame of interest, as well as programming of end-effector orientation is presented in this paper. This procedure can be used as integral part of task oriented robot programing applications as well as a procedure for explicit programming languages, and it is illustrated in practical example with the robot Lola 15.

  15. High-resolution bistable nematic liquid crystal device realized on orientational surface patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong-Hyun; Yoneya, Makoto; Yokoyama, Hiroshi

    2003-01-01

    The four-fold symmetry of a checkerboard-like surface alignment consisted of square domains arrived at the macroscopic orientational bistability of nematic liquid crystals. Switching between the two orientations took place with an appropriate electric field. Here the threshold field of bistable switching decreased as temperature increased, and the light could heat only the selected region in the cell including a light-absorbing medium. Irradiating the laser concurrently with an electric field, we addressed a selected region in the alignment pattern without the disturbance of neighboring regions. Extending this process, we realized an extremely fine bistable device of nematic liquid crystal with a pixel size down to about 2 μm

  16. A low-cost, orientation-insensitive microwave water-cut sensor printed on a pipe surface

    KAUST Repository

    Karimi, Muhammad Akram

    2017-10-24

    This paper presents a novel and contactless water fraction (also known as water cut) measurement technique, which is independent of geometric distribution of oil and water inside the pipe. The sensor is based upon a modified dual helical stub resonators implemented directly on the pipe\\'s outer surface and whose resonance frequency decreases by increasing the water content in oil. The E-fields have been made to rotate and distribute well inside the pipe, despite having narrow and curved ground plane. It makes the sensor\\'s reading dependent only on the water fraction and not on the mixture distribution inside the pipe. That is why, the presented design does not require any flow conditioner to homogenize the oil/water mixture unlike many commercial WC sensors. The presented sensor has been realized by using extremely low cost methods of screen-printing and reusable 3D printed mask. Complete characterization of the proposed WC sensor, both in horizontal and vertical orientations, has been carried out in an industrial flow loop. Excellent repeatability of the sensor\\'s response has been observed under different flow conditions. The measured performance results of the sensor show full range accuracy of ±2-3% while tested under random orientations and wide range of flow rates.

  17. Identification of Hydraulic Fracture Orientation from Ground Surface Using the Seismic Moment Tensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V. Birialtcev

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Microseismic monitoring from ground surface is applied in the development of hard-to-recover reserves, especially in the process of hydraulic fracturing (HF. This paper compares several methods of HF microseismic monitoring from the surface, including diffraction stacking, time reverse modeling, and spectral methods. In (Aki and Richards, 1980 it is shown that signal enhancement from seismic events under correlated noises significantly improves when applying the maximum likelihood method. The maximum likelihood method allows to exclude influence of the correlated noise, and also to estimate the seismic moment tensor from ground surface. Estimation of the seismic moment tensor allows to detect type and orientation of source. Usually, the following source types are identified: “Explosion Point” (EXP, “Tensile Crack” (TC, “Double-Couple” (DC and “Compensated Linear Vector Dipole” (CLVD. The orientation of the hydraulic fracture can be estimated even when there is no obvious asymmetry of the spatial distribution of the cloud of events. The features of full-wave location technology are presented. The paper also reviews an example of microseismic monitoring of hydraulic fracturing when there is no obvious asymmetry of microseismic activity cloud, but due to the estimation of the seismic moment tensor it becomes possible to identify with confidence the dominant direction of the fracture.

  18. Surface orientation effects on bending properties of surgical mesh are independent of tensile properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, David D; Andrews, Sharon M; Robinson-Zeigler, Rebecca; Valdes, Thelma; Woods, Terry O

    2018-02-01

    Current mechanical testing of surgical mesh focuses primarily on tensile properties even though implanted devices are not subjected to pure tensile loads. Our objective was to determine the flexural (bending) properties of surgical mesh and determine if they correlate with mesh tensile properties. The flexural rigidity values of 11 different surgical mesh designs were determined along three textile directions (machine, cross-machine, and 45° to machine; n = 5 for each) using ASTM D1388-14 while tracking surface orientation. Tensile testing was also performed on the same specimens using ASTM D882-12. Linear regressions were performed to compare mesh flexural rigidity to mesh thickness, areal mass density, filament diameter, ultimate tensile strength, and maximum extension. Of 33 mesh specimen groups, 30 had significant differences in flexural rigidity values when comparing surface orientations (top and bottom). Flexural rigidity and mesh tensile properties also varied with textile direction (machine and cross-machine). There was no strong correlation between the flexural and tensile properties, with mesh thickness having the best overall correlation with flexural rigidity. Currently, surface orientation is not indicated on marketed surgical mesh, and a single mesh may behave differently depending on the direction of loading. The lack of correlation between flexural stiffness and tensile properties indicates the need to examine mesh bending stiffness to provide a more comprehensive understanding of surgical mesh mechanical behaviors. Further investigation is needed to determine if these flexural properties result in the surgical mesh behaving mechanically different depending on implantation direction. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 106B: 854-862, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Contrast investigations of surface acoustic waves by stroboscopic topography. 1. Orientation contrast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerva, H.; Graeff, W.

    1984-03-16

    Surface acoustic waves are investigated by stroboscopic topography using synchrotron radiation from the storage ring DORIS. The observed contrast of the acoustic displacements of the lattice planes has the same periods as the acoustic wave. It is demonstrated that the major part of the contrast is due to orientation contrast of the curved net planes. Intensity maxima correspond to troughs of the acoustic wave, minima to crests. A numerical treatment yielding ray tracing maps, intensity curves as well as focusing conditions which are in quantitative agreement with the experimental data is presented.

  20. Comparison of two methods of surface profile extraction from multiple ultrasonic range measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barshan, B; Baskent, D

    Two novel methods for surface profile extraction based on multiple ultrasonic range measurements are described and compared. One of the methods employs morphological processing techniques, whereas the other employs a spatial voting scheme followed by simple thresholding. Morphological processing

  1. The oriented and patterned growth of fluorescent metal–organic frameworks onto functionalized surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinliang Zhuang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A metal–organic framework (MOF material, [Zn2(adc2(dabco] (adc = anthracene-9,10-dicarboxylate, dabco = 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]­octane, the fluorescence of which depends on the loading of its nanopores, was synthesized in two forms: as free-flowing nanocrystals with different shapes and as surface-attached MOFs (SURMOFs. For the latter, we used self-assembled monolayers (SAMs bearing functional groups, such as carboxylate and pyridyl groups, capable of coordinating to the constituents of the MOF. It could be demonstrated that this directed coordination also orients the nanocrystals deposited at the surface. Using two different patterning methods, i.e., microcontact printing and electron-beam lithography, the lateral distribution of the functional groups could be determined in such a way that the highly localized deposition of the SURMOF films became possible.

  2. Orientation-dependent chemistry and band-bending of Ti on polar ZnO surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghetti, Patrizia; Mouchaal, Younes; Dai, Zongbei; Cabailh, Gregory; Chenot, Stéphane; Lazzari, Rémi; Jupille, Jacques

    2017-04-19

    Orientation-dependent reactivity and band-bending are evidenced upon Ti deposition (1-10 Å) on polar ZnO(0001)-Zn and ZnO(0001[combining macron])-O surfaces. At the onset of the Ti deposition, a downward band-bending was observed on ZnO(0001[combining macron])-O while no change occurred on ZnO(0001)-Zn. Combining this with the photoemission analysis of the Ti 2p core level and Zn L 3 (L 2 )M 45 M 45 Auger transition, it is established that the Ti/ZnO reaction is of the form Ti + 2ZnO → TiO 2 + 2Zn on ZnO(0001)-Zn and Ti + yZnO → TiZn x O y + (y - x)Zn on ZnO(0001[combining macron])-O. Consistently, upon annealing thicker Ti adlayers, the metallic zinc is removed to leave ZnO(0001)-Zn surfaces covered with a TiO 2 -like phase and ZnO(0001[combining macron])-O surfaces covered with a defined (Ti, Zn, O) compound. Finally, a difference in the activation temperature between the O-terminated (500 K) and Zn-terminated (700 K) surfaces is observed, which is tentatively explained by different electric fields in the space charge layer at ZnO surfaces.

  3. Surface enhanced Raman optical activity of molecules on orientationally averaged substrates: theory of electromagnetic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janesko, Benjamin G; Scuseria, Gustavo E

    2006-09-28

    We present a model for electromagnetic enhancements in surface enhanced Raman optical activity (SEROA) spectroscopy. The model extends previous treatments of SEROA to substrates, such as metal nanoparticles in solution, that are orientationally averaged with respect to the laboratory frame. Our theoretical treatment combines analytical expressions for unenhanced Raman optical activity with molecular polarizability tensors that are dressed by the substrate's electromagnetic enhancements. We evaluate enhancements from model substrates to determine preliminary scaling laws and selection rules for SEROA. We find that dipolar substrates enhance Raman optical activity (ROA) scattering less than Raman scattering. Evanescent gradient contributions to orientationally averaged ROA scale to first or higher orders in the gradient of the incident plane-wave field. These evanescent gradient contributions may be large for substrates with quadrupolar responses to the plane-wave field gradient. Some substrates may also show a ROA contribution that depends only on the molecular electric dipole-electric dipole polarizability. These conclusions are illustrated via numerical calculations of surface enhanced Raman and ROA spectra from (R)-(-)-bromochlorofluoromethane on various model substrates.

  4. Strong asymmetry for surface modes in nonlinear lattices with long-range coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Alejandro J.; Vicencio, Rodrigo A.; Molina, Mario I.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the formation of localized surface modes on a nonlinear cubic waveguide array in the presence of exponentially decreasing long-range interactions. We find that the long-range coupling induces a strong asymmetry between the focusing and defocusing cases for the topology of the surface modes and also for the minimum power needed to generate them. In particular, for the defocusing case, there is an upper power threshold for exciting staggered modes, which depends strongly on the long-range coupling strength. The power threshold for dynamical excitation of surface modes increases (decreases) with the strength of long-range coupling for the focusing (defocusing) cases. These effects seem to be generic for discrete lattices with long-range interactions.

  5. Structural Investigations of Surfaces and Orientation-SpecificPhenomena in Nanocrystals and Their Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aruguete, Deborah Michiko [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Studies of colloidal nanocrystals and their assemblies are presented. Two of these studies concern the atomic-level structural characterization of the surfaces, interfaces, and interiors present in II-VI semiconductor nanorods. The third study investigates the crystallographic arrangement of cobalt nanocrystals in self-assembled aggregates. Crystallographically-aligned assemblies of colloidal CdSe nanorods are examined with linearly-polarized Se-EXAFS spectroscopy, which probes bonding along different directions in the nanorod. This orientation-specific probe is used, because it is expected that the presence of specific surfaces in a nanorod might cause bond relaxations specific to different crystallographic directions. Se-Se distances are found to be contracted along the long axis of the nanorod, while Cd-Se distances display no angular dependence, which is different from the bulk. Ab-initio density functional theory calculations upon CdSe nanowires indicate that relaxations on the rod surfaces cause these changes. ZnS/CdS-CdSe core-shell nanorods are studied with Se, Zn, Cd, and S X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). It is hypothesized that there are two major factors influencing the core and shell structures of the nanorods: the large surface area-to-volume ratio, and epitaxial strain. The presence of the surface may induce bond rearrangements or relaxations to minimize surface energy; epitaxial strain might cause the core and shell lattices to contract or expand to minimize strain energy. A marked contraction of Zn-S bonds is observed in the core-shell nanorods, indicating that surface relaxations may dominate the structure of the nanorod (strain might otherwise drive the Zn-S lattice to accommodate the larger CdS or CdSe lattices via bond expansion). EXAFS and X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicate that Cd-Se bond relaxations might be anisotropic, an expected phenomenon for a rod-shaped nanocrystal. Ordered self-assembled aggregates of cobalt nanocrystals are

  6. Highly Oriented Growth of Catalytically Active Zeolite ZSM-5 Films with a Broad Range of Si/Al Ratios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fu, Donglong|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/412516918; Schmidt, Joel E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413333736; Ristanovic, Zoran|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/328233005; Chowdhury, Abhishek Dutta|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/412438003; Meirer, Florian; Weckhuysen, Bert M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/285484397

    2017-01-01

    Highly b-oriented zeolite ZSM-5 films are critical for applications in catalysis and separations and may serve as models to study diffusion and catalytic properties in single zeolite channels. However, the introduction of catalytically active Al3+ usually disrupts the orientation of zeolite films.

  7. Long-range surface plasmons for high-resolution surface plasmon resonance sensors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nenninger, G. G.; Tobiška, Petr; Homola, Jiří; Yee, S. S.

    B74, 1/3 (2001), s. 145-151 ISSN 0925-4005. [European Conference on Optical Chemical Sensors and Biosensors EUROPT(R)ODE /5./. Lyon-Villeurbanne, 16.04.2000-19.04.2000] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/99/0549; GA ČR GA102/00/1536 Grant - others:Department of Defense(US) DAAD13-99-C-0032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2067918 Keywords : sensors * surface plasmons * biosensors Subject RIV: JB - Sensors, Measurment, Regulation Impact factor: 1.440, year: 2001

  8. Object-oriented classification using quasi-synchronous multispectral images (optical and radar) over agricultural surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marais Sicre, Claire; Baup, Frederic; Fieuzal, Remy

    2015-04-01

    In the context of climate change (with consequences on temperature and precipitation patterns), persons involved in agricultural management have the imperative to combine: sufficient productivity (as a response of the increment of the necessary foods) and durability of the resources (in order to restrain waste of water, fertilizer or environmental damages). To this end, a detailed knowledge of land use will improve the management of food and water, while preserving the ecosystems. Among the wide range of available monitoring tools, numerous studies demonstrated the interest of satellite images for agricultural mapping. Recently, the launch of several radar and optical sensors offer new perspectives for the multi-wavelength crop monitoring (Terrasar-X, Radarsat-2, Sentinel-1, Landsat-8…) allowing surface survey whatever the cloud conditions. Previous studies have demonstrated the interest of using multi-temporal approaches for crop classification, requiring several images for suitable classification results. Unfortunately, these approaches are limited (due to the satellite orbit cycle) and require waiting several days, week or month before offering an accurate land use map. The objective of this study is to compare the accuracy of object-oriented classification (random forest algorithm combined with vector layer coming from segmentation) to map winter crop (barley, rapeseed, grasslands and wheat) and soil states (bare soils with different surface roughness) using quasi-synchronous images. Satellite data are composed of multi-frequency and multi-polarization (HH, VV, HV and VH) images acquired near the 14th of April, 2010, over a studied area (90km²) located close to Toulouse in France. This is a region of alluvial plains and hills, which are mostly mixed farming and governed by a temperate climate. Remote sensing images are provided by Formosat-2 (04/18), Radarsat-2 (C-band, 04/15), Terrasar-X (X-band, 04/14) and ALOS (L-band, 04/14). Ground data are collected

  9. Observations of orientation dependence of surface morphology in tungsten implanted by low energy and high flux D plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, H.Y.; Zhang, Yubin; Yuan, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Surface modification by formation of blistering and nanostructures with pronounced orientation dependence has been observed on surfaces of rolled tungsten and recrystallized tungsten after exposure to a low energy (38 eV) deuterium (D) plasma with a high flux of 1024 m-2 s -1. The correlation bet...

  10. Measurements of long-range interactions between protein-functionalized surfaces by total internal reflection microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaohui; Gong, Xiangjun; Ngai, To

    2015-03-17

    Understanding the interaction between protein-functionalized surfaces is an important subject in a variety of protein-related processes, ranging from coatings for biomedical implants to targeted drug carriers and biosensors. In this work, utilizing a total internal reflection microscope (TIRM), we have directly measured the interactions between micron-sized particles decorated with three types of common proteins concanavalin A (ConA), bovine serum albumin (BSA), lysozyme (LYZ), and glass surface coated with soy proteins (SP). Our results show that the protein adsorption greatly affects the charge property of the surfaces, and the interactions between those protein-functionalized surfaces depend on solution pH values. At pH 7.5-10.0, all these three protein-functionalized particles are highly negatively charged, and they move freely above the negatively charged SP-functionalized surface. The net interaction between protein-functionalized surfaces captured by TIRM was found as a long-range, nonspecific double-layer repulsion. When pH was decreased to 5.0, both protein-functionalized surfaces became neutral and double-layer repulsion was greatly reduced, resulting in adhesion of all three protein-functionalized particles to the SP-functionalized surface due to the hydrophobic attraction. The situation is very different at pH = 4.0: BSA-decorated particles, which are highly charged, can move freely above the SP-functionalized surfaces, while ConA- and LYZ-decorated particles can only move restrictively in a limited range. Our results quantify these nonspecific kT-scale interactions between protein-functionalized surfaces, which will enable the design of surfaces for use in biomedical applications and study of biomolecular interactions.

  11. Bioinspired and highly oriented clay nanocomposites with a xyloglucan biopolymer matrix: extending the range of mechanical and barrier properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochumalayil, Joby J; Bergenstråhle-Wohlert, Malin; Utsel, Simon; Wågberg, Lars; Zhou, Qi; Berglund, Lars A

    2013-01-14

    The development of clay bionanocomposites requires processing routes with nanostructural control. Moreover, moisture durability is a concern with water-soluble biopolymers. Here, oriented bionanocomposite coatings with strong in-plane orientation of clay platelets are for the first time prepared by continuous water-based processing. Montmorillonite (MTM) and a "new" unmodified biological polymer (xyloglucan (XG)) are combined. The resulting nanocomposites are characterized by FE-SEM, TEM, and XRD. XG adsorption on MTM is measured by quartz crystal microbalance analysis. Mechanical and gas barrier properties are measured, also at high relative humidity. The reinforcement effects are modeled. XG dimensions in composites are estimated using atomistic simulations. The nanostructure shows highly oriented and intercalated clay platelets. The reinforcement efficiency and effects on barrier properties are remarkable and are likely to be due to highly oriented and well-dispersed MTM and strong XG-MTM interactions. Properties are well preserved in humid conditions and the reasons for this are discussed.

  12. Preoperative tibial mechanical axis orientation and articular surface design influence on the coronal joint line orientation relative to the ground during gait after total knee arthroplasties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Koji; Hamai, Satoshi; Okazaki, Ken; Ikebe, Satoru; Higaki, Hidehiko; Shimoto, Takeshi; Nakashima, Yasuharu

    2018-03-20

    Neutral lower limb alignment does not necessarily produce a horizontal joint line after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The orientation of the pre- and postoperative tibial mechanical axes (TMAs-G), tibial component, and joint line relative to the ground were evaluated. The study group included 46 knees, 23 posterior-stabilized (PS) and 23 bicruciate-stabilized (BCS) TKAs. Using whole-leg standing radiographs, the static orientation of the pre- and postoperative TMAs-G and the tibial component as well as the postoperative alignment were measured. Applying image-matching techniques, the dynamic coronal orientation of the tibial component and joint line over the stance phase of gait were analysed. The correlation between static and dynamic orientation of the tibial component and differences in the joint line between the PS and BCS TKAs were evaluated. In standing, the postoperative TMA-G (0.8° ± 2.8°) and tibial component (1.5° ± 2.4°) were laterally tilted with a strong correlation. The preoperative lateral tilt of the TMA-G (7.9° ± 5.1°) was a significant predictor of the postoperative TMA-G. The lateral tilt of the tibial component increased to 5.1° ± 2.4° on dynamic analysis, and was moderately correlated to static orientation. The dynamic orientation of the joint line was smaller for the BCS (1.8° ± 2.4°) compared to the PS (5.5° ± 2.7°) TKA. Even with a mechanically well-aligned TKA, a lateral tilt of the tibial component was identified due to the lateral tilt of the postoperative TMA-G and the stance phase of gait. The BCS can better accommodate the residual lateral tilt of the joint line due to the 3° medial inclination of the joint surfaces of the implant. This study increases the awareness of surgeons regarding the possibility of the coronal joint line orientation to influence preoperative TMA-G and be accommodated by articular surface design, even in mechanically aligned TKA. IV.

  13. Short range laser obstacle detector. [for surface vehicles using laser diode array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriger, W. L. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A short range obstacle detector for surface vehicles is described which utilizes an array of laser diodes. The diodes operate one at a time, with one diode for each adjacent azimuth sector. A vibrating mirror a short distance above the surface provides continuous scanning in elevation for all azimuth sectors. A diode laser is synchronized with the vibrating mirror to enable one diode laser to be fired, by pulses from a clock pulse source, a number of times during each elevation scan cycle. The time for a given pulse of light to be reflected from an obstacle and received is detected as a measure of range to the obstacle.

  14. Dependence of the structure of ion-modified NiTi single crystal layers on the orientation of irradiated surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletika, T. M.; Meisner, L. L.; Girsova, S. L.; Tverdokhlebova, A. V.; Meisner, S. N.

    2017-07-01

    The composition and structure of Si layers implanted into titanium nickelide single crystals with different orientations relative to the ion beam propagation direction have been studied using Auger electron spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The role of the "soft" [111]B2 and "hard" [001]B2 NiTi orientations in the formation of the structure of ion-modified surface layer, as well as the defect structure of the surface layers of the single crystals, has been revealed. Orientation effects of selective sputtering and channeling of ions, which control the composition and thickness of the oxide and amorphous layers being formed, ion and impurity penetration depth, as well as the concentration profile of the Ni distribution over the surface, have been detected.

  15. Engaging western landowners in climate change mitigation: a guide to carbon-oriented forest and range management and carbon market opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    David D. Diaz; Susan Charnley; Hannah. Gosnell

    2009-01-01

    There are opportunities for forest owners and ranchers to participate in emerging carbon markets and contribute to climate change mitigation through carbon oriented forest and range management activities. These activities often promote sutainable forestry and ranching and broader conservation goals while having the potential to provide a new income stream for...

  16. Study on Crystallographic Orientation Effect on Surface Generation of Aluminum in Nano-cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feifei; Fang, Fengzhou; Zhu, Yuanqing; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2017-12-01

    The material characteristics such as size effect are one of the most important factors that could not be neglected in cutting the material at nanoscale. The effects of anisotropic nature of single crystal materials in nano-cutting are investigated employing the molecular dynamics simulation. Results show that the size effect of the plastic deformation is based on different plastic carriers, such as the twin, stacking faults, and dislocations. The minimum uncut chip thickness is dependent on cutting direction, where even a negative value is obtained when the cutting direction is {110}. It also determines the material deformation and removal mechanism (e.g., shearing, extruding, and rubbing mechanism) with a decrease in uncut chip thickness. When material is deformed by shearing, the primary shearing zone expands from the stagnation point or the tip of stagnation zone. When a material is deformed by extruding and rubbing, the primary deformation zone almost parallels to the cutting direction and expands from the bottom of the cutting edge merging with the tertiary deformation zone. The generated surface quality relates to the crystallographic orientation and the minimum uncut chip thickness. The cutting directions of {110}, {110}, and {111}, whose minimum uncut chip thickness is relatively small, have better surface qualities compared to the other cutting direction.

  17. Biosonar resolving power : echo-acoustic perception of surface structures in the submillimeter range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simon, Ralph; Knörnschild, Mirjam; Tschapka, Marco; Schneider, Annkathrin; Passauer, Nadine; Kalko, Elisabeth K V; von Helversen, Otto

    2014-01-01

    The minimum distance for which two points still can be separated from each other defines the resolving power of a visual system. In an echo-acoustic context, the resolving power is usually measured as the smallest perceivable distance of two reflecting surfaces on the range axis and is found to be

  18. Data transmission in long-range dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kharitonov, S.; Kiselev, R.; Kumar, Ashwani

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate the data transmission of 10 Gbit/s on-off keying modulated 1550 nm signal through a long-range dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguide structure with negligible signal degradation. In the experiment the bit error rate penalties do not exceed 0.6 dB over the 15 nm...

  19. Guiding of long-range surface plasmon polaritons along channels in periodic arrays of scatterers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boltasseva, Alexandra; Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Nikolajsen, T.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate waveguiding of long-range surface plasmon polaritons in periodic arrays of scatterers at telecommunication wavelengths. A propagation loss of approximately 6 dB/mm and a coupling loss of 0.5 dB is reported for 8-ìm-wide channels....

  20. Range and geophysical corrections in coastal regions: and implications for mean sea surface determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Scharroo, Remko

    2011-01-01

    The determination of sea surface height from the altimeter range measurement involves a number of corrections: those expressing the behavior of the radar pulse through the atmosphere, and those correcting for sea state and other geophysical signals. A number of these corrections need special...

  1. Calibration Standards for Surface Topography Measuring Systems down to Nanometric Range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trumpold, H.; De Chiffre, Leonardo; Andreasen, Jan Lasson

    Background For the precise and accurate measurement of surface topography a whole range of surface detection systems is available. With their application in research and production problems arise due to the lack of traceable standard artefacts for the instrument calibration in X, Y and Z directions...... to be replicated during all stages of the replication processes. Procedures for cleaning glass, PVC, PC, PMM and Ni-surfaces have been developed and tested. Calibration procedures for calibration standards and for calibrating instruments in X-, Y- and Z-direction have been developed and tested. Proposals...... in industries ranging from automotive manufacture to ultraprecision manufacture of data storage systems and compact discs. Objectives The project is concerned with developing calibration standards including their production methods and calibration procedures as a consistent means of calibrating different types...

  2. Mesoscopic surface roughness of ice crystals pervasive across a wide range of ice crystal conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, N. B.; Miller, A.; Amaral, M.; Cumiskey, A.

    2014-11-01

    Here we show high-magnification images of hexagonal ice crystals acquired by environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). Most ice crystals were grown and sublimated in the water vapor environment of an FEI-Quanta-200 ESEM, but crystals grown in a laboratory diffusion chamber were also transferred intact and imaged via ESEM. All of these images display prominent mesoscopic topography including linear striations, ridges, islands, steps, peaks, pits, and crevasses; the roughness is not observed to be confined to prism facets. The observations represent the most highly magnified images of ice surfaces yet reported and expand the range of conditions in which rough surface features are known to be conspicuous. Microscale surface topography is seen to be ubiquitously present at temperatures ranging from -10 °C to -40 °C, in supersaturated and subsaturated conditions, on all crystal facets, and irrespective of substrate. Despite the constant presence of surface roughness, the patterns of roughness are observed to be dramatically different between growing and sublimating crystals, and transferred crystals also display qualitatively different patterns of roughness. Crystals are also demonstrated to sometimes exhibit inhibited growth in moderately supersaturated conditions following exposure to near-equilibrium conditions, a phenomenon interpreted as evidence of 2-D nucleation. New knowledge about the characteristics of these features could affect the fundamental understanding of ice surfaces and their physical parameterization in the context of satellite retrievals and cloud modeling. Links to supplemental videos of ice growth and sublimation are provided.

  3. Effects of surface orientation on nucleate boiling heat transfer in a pool of water under atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Satbyoul; Kim, Hyungdae

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Effects of surface inclination on pool boiling were experimentally examined. • Heat transfer and major bubble parameters were simultaneously measured. • A modified wall boiling model considering bubble merging was developed. • The presented model reasonably predicted pool boiling heat transfer on inclined surfaces. - Abstract: The basic wall boiling model widely used in computation fluid dynamics codes gives no regard to influences of surface orientation upon boiling mechanism. This study aims at examining the effects of surface orientation on wall heat flux and bubble parameters in pool nucleate boiling and incorporating those into the wall boiling model. Boiling experiments on a flat plate heater submerged in a pool of saturated water were conducted under atmospheric pressure. Relevant bubble parameters as well as boiling heat transfer characteristics were simultaneously measured using a unique optical setup integrating shadowgraph, total reflection and infrared thermometry techniques. It was observed that as an upward-facing heater surface with a constant wall superheat of 7.5 °C inclines from horizontal towards vertical, the heat flux significantly increased; nucleation site density increased intensively at the upper part of the heater surface where thermal boundary layer might become thickened; isolated boiling bubbles tend to slide up due to buoyancy and coalesce with each other, thus forming one single large bubble. Such observations on the wall heat flux and bubble parameters according to surface orientation could not be predicted by the present basic wall boiling model only centered with isolated bubbles. A modified wall boiling model incorporating the effects of merging of isolated bubbles on an inclined surface was proposed. The model reasonably predicted the experimental data on various orientation angles.

  4. Effects of surface orientation on nucleate boiling heat transfer in a pool of water under atmospheric pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Satbyoul; Kim, Hyungdae, E-mail: hdkims@khu.ac.kr

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Effects of surface inclination on pool boiling were experimentally examined. • Heat transfer and major bubble parameters were simultaneously measured. • A modified wall boiling model considering bubble merging was developed. • The presented model reasonably predicted pool boiling heat transfer on inclined surfaces. - Abstract: The basic wall boiling model widely used in computation fluid dynamics codes gives no regard to influences of surface orientation upon boiling mechanism. This study aims at examining the effects of surface orientation on wall heat flux and bubble parameters in pool nucleate boiling and incorporating those into the wall boiling model. Boiling experiments on a flat plate heater submerged in a pool of saturated water were conducted under atmospheric pressure. Relevant bubble parameters as well as boiling heat transfer characteristics were simultaneously measured using a unique optical setup integrating shadowgraph, total reflection and infrared thermometry techniques. It was observed that as an upward-facing heater surface with a constant wall superheat of 7.5 °C inclines from horizontal towards vertical, the heat flux significantly increased; nucleation site density increased intensively at the upper part of the heater surface where thermal boundary layer might become thickened; isolated boiling bubbles tend to slide up due to buoyancy and coalesce with each other, thus forming one single large bubble. Such observations on the wall heat flux and bubble parameters according to surface orientation could not be predicted by the present basic wall boiling model only centered with isolated bubbles. A modified wall boiling model incorporating the effects of merging of isolated bubbles on an inclined surface was proposed. The model reasonably predicted the experimental data on various orientation angles.

  5. Effects of a surface oriented travelling screen and water abstraction practices on downstream migrating Salmonidae smolts in a lowland stream

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jon Christian; Aarestrup, Kim; Deacon, Michael G.

    2010-01-01

    Downstream migration of immature salmonids (smolts) may be associated with severe mortalities in anthropogenically altered channels. In Pacific salmon, several investigations have suggested the use of the dominating surface orientation of smolts to improve fish by-pass structures in large and dee...

  6. Measurement range of phase retrieval in optical surface and wavefront metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brady, Gregory R.; Fienup, James R.

    2009-01-01

    Phase retrieval employs very simple data collection hardware and iterative algorithms to determine the phase of an optical field. We have derived limitations on phase retrieval, as applied to optical surface and wavefront metrology, in terms of the speed of beam (i.e., f-number or numerical aperture) and amount of aberration using arguments based on sampling theory and geometrical optics. These limitations suggest methodologies for expanding these ranges by increasing the complexity of the measurement arrangement, the phase-retrieval algorithm, or both. We have simulated one of these methods where a surface is measured at unusual conjugates

  7. Sensing of bacteria immobilised under static conditions using long-range surface plasmon waveguides in Cytop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Asad; Krupin, Oleksiy; Lisicka-Skrzek, Ewa; Berini, Pierre

    2011-08-01

    Waveguides consisting of Au embedded in Cytop with micro-fluidic channels etched into the cladding are used for sensing via the propagation of long-range surface plasmons. Initially, a range of water/glycerol solutions with varying refractive indices were sequentially injected in a waveguide section in order to assess its bulk sensitivity and to find a solution supporting a strong high quality mode. Au waveguide surfaces were then functionalized with antibodies against Gram negative bacteria (Anti-Gneg) by first forming a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of 16-mercaptohexadecanoic acid (16-MHA) and subsequent conjugation with antibodies through carbodiimide chemistry. E.Coli XL-1 Blue was used as an analyte in static incubations. Wavelength sweeps of 16-MHA covered waveguides were compared against waveguides covered with E-coli. The results indicate that very few bacteria cells are required to obtain a measurable change in output signal.

  8. The dependence of the nuclear charge form factor on short range correlations and surface fluctuation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massen, S. E.; Garistov, V. P.; Grypeos, M. E.

    1996-01-01

    The effects of nuclear surface fluctuations on harmonic oscillator elastic charge form factor of light nuclei are investigated, simultaneously approximating the short-range correlations through a Jastrow correlation factor. Inclusion of the surface fluctuation effects within this description, by truncating the cluster expansion at the two-body part, is found to improve somewhat the fit to the elastic charge form-factor of 16 O and 40 Ca. However, the convergence of the cluster expansion is expected to deteriorate. An additional finding is that surface-fluctuation correlations produce a drastic change in the asymptotic behaviour of the point-proton form-factor, which now falls off quite slowly (i.e. as const.q -4 ) at large values of the momentum transfer q

  9. Procedure to detect impervious surfaces using satellite images and light detection and ranging (lidar) data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Cuenca, B.; Alonso-Rodríguez, M. C.; Domenech-Tofiño, E.; Valcárcel Sanz, N.; Delgado-Hernández, J.; Peces-Morera, Juan José; Arozarena-Villar, Antonio

    2014-10-01

    The detection of impervious surfaces is an important issue in the study of urban and rural environments. Imperviousness refers to water's inability to pass through a surface. Although impervious surfaces represent a small percentage of the Earth's surface, knowledge of their locations is relevant to planning and managing human activities. Impervious structures are primarily manmade (e.g., roads and rooftops). Impervious surfaces are an environmental concern because many processes that modify the normal function of land, air, and water resources are initiated during their construction. This paper presents a novel method of identifying impervious surfaces using satellite images and light detection and ranging (LIDAR) data. The inputs for the procedure are SPOT images formed by four spectral bands (corresponding to red, green, near-infrared and mid-infrared wavelengths), a digital terrain model, and an .las file. The proposed method computes five decision indexes from the input data to classify the studied area into two categories: impervious (subdivided into buildings and roads) and non-impervious surfaces. The impervious class is divided into two subclasses because the elements forming this category (mainly roads and rooftops) have different spectral and height properties, and it is difficult to combine these elements into one group. The classification is conducted using a decision tree procedure. For every decision index, a threshold is set for which every surface is considered impervious or non-impervious. The proposed method has been applied to four different regions located in the north, center, and south of Spain, providing satisfactory results for every dataset.

  10. The fundamental relationships between grain orientation, deformation-induced surface roughness and strain localization in an aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoudt, M.R.; Levine, L.E.; Creuziger, A.; Hubbard, J.B.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► AA6022 samples are characterized in situ during tensile deformation. ► Scanning laser confocal images and electron backscatter diffraction results are overlaid. ► Strain localization is correlated with Taylor factors, grain orientations, and grain sizes. - Abstract: Polycrystalline AA6022 tensile specimens were cut from sheet stock, mechanically polished, and uniaxially strained in situ under a scanning laser confocal microscope (SLCM) using a sub-sized universal testing apparatus. Prior to deformation, electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) was performed on the gauge sections of one specimen in the rolling direction of the sheet and one in the transverse direction. Maps of the largest displacements in the surface morphology were constructed from the SLCM data and overlaid onto maps derived from the crystallographic orientation data to examine the strength of the influence that grain orientation effects have on critical strain localization. The roles of Taylor factors, grain boundary misorientation, largest Schmid factors, grain sizes, coincident site lattice orientations, and local grain breakup were considered. The largest surface displacements were observed to be concentrated at triple junctions where there is a large difference between the Taylor factors of the individual grains. The high degree of correlation between the density and location of these large surface displacements and the local plasticity conditions indicate that a critical localization event is most likely to initiate in grain boundary regions where unfavorable slip interactions produce the largest plastic strains.

  11. Fabrication of hierarchical polymer surfaces with superhydrophobicity by injection molding from nature and function-oriented design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Can; Wang, Fei; Zhou, Mingyong; Yang, Dongjiao; Jiang, Bingyan

    2018-04-01

    A comparison of processes and wettability characteristics was presented for injection molded superhydrophobic polypropylene surfaces from two fabricating strategies. One is the biomimetic replication of patterns from indocalamus leaf in nature. The contact angle of water sitting on this PP surface was measured as 152 ± 2°, with comparable wetting behavior to natural indocalamus leaf surface. The other strategy is the fabrication of superhydrophobic structure by combining methods that produce structures at different length scales. Regarding both the machinability of mold inserts and function-oriented design, three micro-quadrangular arrays and one hierarchical micro-nano cylinder array were designed with the goal of superhydrophobicity. Particularly, a simple approach to the fabrication of hierarchical structures was proposed by combining the anodized plate and the punching plate. The function-oriented design targets as superhydrophobicity were all reached for the designed four structures. The measured contact angles of droplet for these structures were almost consistent with the calculated equilibrium contact angles from thermodynamic analysis. Among them, the contact angle of droplet on the surface of designed hierarchical structure reached about 163° with the sliding angle of 5°, resulting in self-cleaning characteristic. The superhydrophobicity of function-oriented designed polymer surfaces could be modified and controlled, which is exactly the limitation of replicating from natural organisms.

  12. Effects of surface orientation, fluid chemistry and mechanical polishing on the variability of dolomite dissolution rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldi, Giuseppe D.; Voltolini, Marco; Knauss, Kevin G.

    2017-06-01

    Recent studies of carbonate surface reactivity have underscored the fundamental variability of dissolution rates and the heterogeneous distribution of the reaction over the mineral surface due to the inhomogeneous distribution of surface energy. Dolomite dissolution rates relative to different cleavage planes (r-planes) and surfaces cut approximately perpendicular to the c-axis (c-planes) were studied at 50 °C as a function of pH (3.4 ≤ pH ≤ 9.0) and solution composition by vertical scanning interferometry (VSI) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), with the aim of providing an estimate of the intrinsic rate variation of dolomite single crystals and describing the surface reaction distribution and the rate controlling mechanisms. Surface normal retreat rates measured under acidic conditions increased linearly with time and were not visibly affected by the parallel increase of surface roughness. Mean total dissolution rates of r-planes decreased by over 200 times from pH 3.4 to pH 9.0 and CO32--rich solutions, whereas corresponding rate variations spanned over 3 orders of magnitude when also c-plane rate distributions were included in the analysis. At acid to near neutral pH, c-planes dissolved ∼ three times faster than the adjoining r-planes but slower at basic pH and high total carbon concentration, displaying a distinctive morphologic evolution in these two regimes. The comparison of polished and unpolished crystals showed that polished cleavage planes dissolved about three times faster than the unpolished counterpart at near neutral to basic conditions, whereas no significant difference in reactivity was observed at pH < 5. Although experimental data and observations indicate a tendency of dolomite faces to reach a low-energy topography over the course of the reaction, the evolution of the entire crystal morphology depends also on the reactivity of edge and corner regions, whose contribution to measured rates is not generally taken into account by laboratory

  13. Strategies for leukemic biomarker detection using long-range surface plasmon-polaritons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupin, O.; Wang, C.; Berini, P.

    2014-09-01

    The suitability and use of long-range surface plasmon-polaritons for leukemic biomarker detection is discussed. A novel optical biosensor comprised of gold straight waveguides embedded in CYTOP with an etched microfluidic channel was tested for detecting leukemia in patient serum. Gold surface functionalization involved the interaction of protein G (PG) with antibodies by first adsorbing PG on bare gold and then antibodies (Immunoglobulin G, IgG). Differentiation between healthy and leukemia patients was based on the difference in ratios of Ig kappa (Igκ) and Ig lambda (Igλ) light chains in both serums. The ratio for a normal patient is ~1.4 - 2, whereas for a leukemia patient this ratio is altered. As a receptor (primary antibodies), goat anti-human anti-IgGκ and anti-IgGλ were used to functionalize the surface. Diluted normal and leukemia patient serums were tested over the aforementioned surfaces. The ratios of mass surface densities of IgGκ:IgGλ for normal serum (NS) and patient serum (PS) were found to be 1.55 and 1.92 respectively.

  14. Evaluation of Surface Slope Effects on Ripple Orientations Observed on Sand Dunes in the Terra Tyrrhena Region of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimbelman, J. R.; Johnson, M. B.

    2014-12-01

    The High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) has revealed abundant wind ripples on sand dunes across Mars. Ripple orientations have been documented using HiRISE images of sand dunes at 24 widely distributed sites across Mars, in order to identify the last significant wind directions at these locations. Howard (GSAB, 1977) gives a mathematical expression for how surface slopes on a sand dune can affect the orientation of ripples with respect to the formative winds. In order to evaluate this mechanism for measured ripple orientations on Mars, quantitative data for surface slopes on the sand dunes is required. Stereo pairs of HiRISE images are used to generate Digital Terrain Models (DTMs) with postings of one meter. In June 2014 we produced a DTM of sand dunes in the Terra Tyrrhena region of Mars (14.55° S, 97.77° E) using SOCET SET at the Astrogeology Branch, USGS-Flagstaff. Typically it is difficult for feature matching software to work well on sand dunes, but our stereo images (ESP_022609_1655 and ESP_026675_1655) were obtained only six Earth days apart under excellent illumination conditions. The Terra Tyrrhena DTM had remarkably few artifacts on the sand dunes (except at slip faces, where the average slope between slip face crest and base was interpolated) and excellent control from irregular terrain exposed in interdune areas. Slopes on the stoss sides of sand dunes are generally ripple deflection angles should be ripple orientations to account for surface slopes utilizing the DTM data, and so far we do not see major changes to inferred surface wind directions that would be derived directly from the ripple orientations.

  15. Soil-geomorphic significance of land surface characteristics in an arid mountain range, Mojave Desert, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirmas, D.R.; Graham, R.C.; Kendrick, K.J.

    2011-01-01

    Mountains comprise an extensive and visually prominent portion of the landscape in the Mojave Desert, California. Landform surface properties influence the role these mountains have in geomorphic processes such as dust flux and surface hydrology across the region. The primary goal of this study was to describe and quantify land surface properties of arid-mountain landforms as a step toward unraveling the role these properties have in soil-geomorphic processes. As part of a larger soil-geomorphic study, four major landform types were identified within the southern Fry Mountains in the southwestern Mojave Desert on the basis of topography and landscape position: mountaintop, mountainflank, mountainflat (intra-range low-relief surface), and mountainbase. A suite of rock, vegetation, and morphometric land surface characteristic variables was measured at each of 65 locations across the study area, which included an associated piedmont and playa. Our findings show that despite the variation within types, landforms have distinct land surface properties that likely control soil-geomorphic processes. We hypothesize that surface expression influences a feedback process at this site where water transports sediment to low lying areas on the landscape and wind carries dust and soluble salts to the mountains where they are washed between rocks, incorporated into the soil, and retained as relatively long-term storage. Recent land-based video and satellite photographs of the dust cloud emanating from the Sierra Cucapá Mountains in response to the 7.2-magnitude earthquake near Mexicali, Mexico, support the hypothesis that these landforms are massive repositories of dust.

  16. The need for surface-parallel sensor orientation to address energy balance closure on mountain slopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Ortiz, Penelope; Sánchez-Cañete, Enrique P.; Pérez-Priego, Óscar; Carrara, Arnaud; Metzger, Stefan; Kowalski, Andrew S.

    2014-05-01

    Measurements of turbulent fluxes in varying environments are one of the tools scientists and decision makers rely on for assessing and forecasting global warming. Thus, in the last two decades eddy-covariance (EC) towers have proliferated around the globe. Yet, ideal sites are rarely found, and there is a great need to extend the EC method and its theoretical underpinning to more complex terrain. In particular, several principal challenges are aggravated by sloping terrain. Nevertheless, various studies have concluded that the EC method is a useful tool to determine ecosystem energy and CO2/H2O fluxes on mountain slopes. Following the first law of thermodynamics, the validity of EC measurements is often evaluated in terms of their ability to close the balance of energy entering [net radiation minus the soil heat flux] and leaving [sum of the latent and sensible heat, measured by EC] an ecosystem. In sloping terrain, this criterion is applied with results comparable to sites located in more ideal terrain. Arguably, fluxes perpendicular to the surface are needed to assess the energy budget. However, even in sloping terrain instrument installations are frequently referenced perpendicular to the geo-potential (e.g. using a bubble level). Here, we demonstrate several advantages of installing the net radiometer and soil heat flux instruments parallel to a 16% slope with a southwest orientation. Our results reveal a diurnal hysteresis in the energy balance closure as large as 30% when net radiometer and soil heat flux instruments are installed perpendicular to the geo-potential. Installing the net radiometer and soil heat flux instruments slope-parallel mitigates this discrepancy.

  17. Biosonar resolving power: Echo-acoustic perception of surface structures in the submillimeter range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph eSimon

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The minimum distance for which two points still can be separated from each other defines the resolving power of a visual system. In an echo-acoustic context, the resolving power is usually measured as the smallest perceivable distance of two reflecting surfaces on the range axis and is found to be around half a millimetre for bats employing frequency modulated echolocation calls. Only few studies measured such thresholds with physical objects, most often bats were trained on virtual echoes i.e. echoes generated and played back by a computer; moreover, bats were sitting while they received the stimuli. In these studies differences in structure depth between 200 µm and 340 µm were found. However, these low thresholds were never verified for free-flying bats and real physical objects. Here, we show behavioural evidence that the echo-acoustic resolving power for surface structures in fact can be as low as measured for computer generated echoes and even lower, sometimes below 100 µm. We found this exceptional fine discrimination ability only when one of the targets showed spectral interferences in the frequency range of the bats' echolocation call while the other target did not. This result indicates that surface structure is likely to be perceived as a spectral quality rather than being perceived strictly in the time domain. Further, it points out that sonar resolving power directly depends on the highest frequency/shortest wavelength of the signal employed.

  18. Sublethal exposure to methoxyfenozide-treated surfaces reduces the attractiveness and responsiveness in adult oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinke, Michael D; Barrett, Bruce A

    2007-02-01

    The chemical communication (female attractiveness and male responsiveness) of adult oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), exposed to surfaces treated with the ecdysteroid agonist methoxyfenozide for 48 h were investigated in two laboratory wind tunnel assays. The recapture assay examined the ability of treated males to orient to a single cage of treated females, and the data gathered were mean percentage of males recaptured per treatment. The male sexual behavior assay examined some specific orientation behaviors (associated with sexual excitability) of treated males when they were given a choice of two competing pheromone sources (cages of treated females), and the data gathered were mean time males spent in upwind plume orientations and at source contact (female cage) per treatment. Data from the recapture assay suggests that exposure to methoxyfenozide impacts male responsiveness more than female attractiveness. In contrast, data from the sexual behavior assay strongly revealed that exposure to methoxyfenozide-treated surfaces does negatively impact both the ability of calling females to attract males and of aroused males to display sustained upwind flight behavior and time spent at the female cages.

  19. Pivotal role of hMT+ in long-range disambiguation of interhemispheric bistable surface motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, João Valente; Costa, Gabriel Nascimento; Martins, Ricardo; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2017-10-01

    It remains an open question whether long-range disambiguation of ambiguous surface motion can be achieved in early visual cortex or instead in higher level regions, which concerns object/surface segmentation/integration mechanisms. We used a bistable moving stimulus that can be perceived as a pattern comprehending both visual hemi-fields moving coherently downward or as two widely segregated nonoverlapping component objects (in each visual hemi-field) moving separately inward. This paradigm requires long-range integration across the vertical meridian leading to interhemispheric binding. Our fMRI study (n = 30) revealed a close relation between activity in hMT+ and perceptual switches involving interhemispheric segregation/integration of motion signals, crucially under nonlocal conditions where components do not overlap and belong to distinct hemispheres. Higher signal changes were found in hMT+ in response to spatially segregated component (incoherent) percepts than to pattern (coherent) percepts. This did not occur in early visual cortex, unlike apparent motion, which does not entail surface segmentation. We also identified a role for top-down mechanisms in state transitions. Deconvolution analysis of switch-related changes revealed prefrontal, insula, and cingulate areas, with the right superior parietal lobule (SPL) being particularly involved. We observed that directed influences could emerge either from left or right hMT+ during bistable motion integration/segregation. SPL also exhibited significant directed functional connectivity with hMT+, during perceptual state maintenance (Granger causality analysis). Our results suggest that long-range interhemispheric binding of ambiguous motion representations mainly reflect bottom-up processes from hMT+ during perceptual state maintenance. In contrast, state transitions maybe influenced by high-level regions such as the SPL. Hum Brain Mapp 38:4882-4897, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley

  20. Analysis of the Impact of Wildfire on Surface Ozone Record in the Colorado Front Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure-Begley, A.; Petropavlovskikh, I. V.; Oltmans, S. J.; Pierce, R. B.; Sullivan, J. T.; Reddy, P. J.

    2015-12-01

    Ozone plays an important role on the oxidation capacity of the atmosphere, and at ground-level has negative impacts on human health and ecosystem processes. In order to understand the dynamics and variability of surface ozone, it is imperative to analyze individual sources, interactions between sources, transport, and chemical processes of ozone production and accumulation. Biomass burning and wildfires have been known to emit a suite of particulate matter and gaseous compounds into the atmosphere. These compounds, such as, volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides are precursor species which aid in the photochemical production and destruction of ozone. The Colorado Front Range (CFR) is a region of complex interactions between pollutant sources and meteorological conditions which result in the accumulation of ozone. High ozone events in the CFR associated with fires are analyzed for 2003-2014 to develop understanding of the large scale influence and variability of ozone and wildfire relationships. This study provides analysis of the frequency of enhanced ozone episodes that can be confirmed to be transported within and affected by the fires and smoke plumes. Long-term records of surface ozone data from the CFR provide information on the impact of wildfire pollutants on seasonal and diurnal ozone behavior. Years with increased local fire activity, as well as years with increased long-range transport of smoke plumes, are evaluated for the effect on the long-term record and high ozone frequency of each location. Meteorological data, MODIS Fire detection images, NOAA HYSPLIT Back Trajectory analysis, NOAA Smoke verification model, Fire Tracer Data (K+), RAQMS Model, Carbon Monoxide data, and Aerosol optical depth retrievals are used with NOAA Global Monitoring Division surface ozone data from three sites in Colorado. This allows for investigation of the interactions between pollutants and meteorology which result in high surface ozone levels.

  1. Behavior of the potential-induced degradation of photovoltaic modules fabricated using flat mono-crystalline silicon cells with different surface orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Seira; Masuda, Atsushi; Ohdaira, Keisuke

    2016-04-01

    This paper deals with the dependence of the potential-induced degradation (PID) of flat, p-type mono-crystalline silicon solar cell modules on the surface orientation of solar cells. The investigated modules were fabricated from p-type mono-crystalline silicon cells with a (100) or (111) surface orientation using a module laminator. PID tests were performed by applying a voltage of -1000 V to shorted module interconnector ribbons with respect to an Al plate placed on the cover glass of the modules at 85 °C. A decrease in the parallel resistance of the (100)-oriented cell modules is more significant than that of the (111)-oriented cell modules. Hence, the performance of the (100)-oriented-cell modules drastically deteriorates, compared with that of the (111)-oriented-cell modules. This implies that (111)-oriented cells offer a higher PID resistance.

  2. Propagation of long-range surface plasmon polaritons in photonic crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boltasseva, Alexandra; Søndergaard, Thomas; Nikolajsen, T.

    2005-01-01

    We study the interaction of long-range surface plasmon polaritons (LR-SPPs), excited at telecommunication wavelengths, with photonic crystals (PCs) formed by periodic arrays of gold bumps that are arranged in a triangular lattice and placed symmetrically on both sides of a thin gold film embedded...... structures, is rather weak, so that the photonic bandgap effect might be expected to take place only for some particular propagation directions. Preliminary experiments on LR-SPP bending and splitting at large angles are reported, and further research directions are discussed....

  3. Long-range surface-plasmon-polariton excitation at the quantum level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballester, D.; Tame, M. S.; Kim, M. S.; Lee, C.; Lee, J.

    2009-01-01

    We provide the quantum-mechanical description of the excitation of long-range surface-plasmon polaritons (LRSPPs) on thin metallic strips. The excitation process consists of an attenuated-reflection setup, where efficient photon-to-LRSPP wave-packet transfer is shown to be achievable. For calculating the coupling, we derive the first quantization of LRSPPs in the polaritonic regime. We study quantum statistics during propagation and characterize the performance of photon-to-LRSPP quantum state transfer for single-photons, photon-number states, and photonic coherent superposition states.

  4. Propagation of long-range surface plasmon polaritons in photonic crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boltasseva, Alexandra; Søndergaard, Thomas; Nikolajsen, T.

    2005-01-01

    We study the interaction of long-range surface plasmon polaritons (LR-SPPs), excited at telecommunication wavelengths, with photonic crystals (PCs) formed by periodic arrays of gold bumps that are arranged in a triangular lattice and placed symmetrically on both sides of a thin gold film embedded......) into the investigated PC structures. Using a self-consistent description based on the Green'S function formalism, we simulate numerically the LR-SPP transmission through and reflection from finite-size PC structures consisting of finite-size scatterers, as well as the LR-SPP guiding along line defects...

  5. Compact Z-add-drop wavelength filters for long-range surface plasmon polaritons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boltasseva, Alexandra; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Søndergaard, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    We design, fabricate and investigate compact Z-add-drop (ZAD) filters for long-range surface plasmon polaritons (LR-SPPs) at telecom wavelengths. The ZAD filter for LR-SPPs consists of two ridge gratings formed by periodic gold thickness modulation at the intersections of three zigzag-crossed gold...... stripes embedded in polymer. We investigate influence of the grating length and crossing angle on the filter characteristics and demonstrate a 10o-ZAD filter based on 80-mm-long gratings that exhibit a 15-dB dip (centered at ~1.55 mm) in transmission of the direct arm along with the corresponding ~13-nm...

  6. Binding and dissociation kinetics using fractals: an analysis of electrostatic effects and randomly coupled and oriented coupled receptors on biosensor surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butala, Harshala D; Sadana, Ajit

    2004-03-15

    A fractal analysis is used to analyze the influence of: (a) electrostatic interactions on binding and dissociation rate coefficients for antibodies HH8, HH10, and HH26 in solution to hen egg-white lysozyme (HEL) immobilized on a sensor chip surface [Biophys. J. 83 (2002) 2946]; and (b) the binding and dissociation of recombinant Fab in solution to random NHS-coupled Cys-HEL and oriented thiol-coupled Cys-HEL immobilized on a sensor chip surface [Methods 20 (2000) 310]. Single- and dual-fractal models were employed to fit the data. Values of the binding and the dissociation rate coefficient(s) and the fractal dimensions were obtained from a regression analysis provided by Corel Quattro Pro 8.0 (Corel Corporation Limited, Ottawa, Canada. 1997). The binding rate coefficients are quite sensitive to the degree of heterogeneity on the sensor chip surface. It is of interest to compare the results obtained by the fractal analysis with that of the original analysis [Biophys. J. 83 (2002) 2946]. For example, as one goes from the binding of 21 nM HH10/HEL to the binding of 640 nM HH10/HEL(K97A), Sinha et al. [Biophys. J. 83 (2002) 29461 indicate that the enhancement of diffusional encounter rates may be due to 'electrostatic steering' (a long-range interaction). Our analysis indicates that there is an increase in the value of the fractal dimension, Df1 by a factor of 1.12 from a value of 2.133-2.385. This increase in the degree of heterogeneity on the surface leads to an increase in the binding rate coefficient, k1 by a factor of 1.59 from 12.92 to 20.57. The fractal analysis of binding and dissociation of recombinant Fab in solution to random NHS-coupled Cys-HEL and oriented thiol-coupled Cys-HEL immobilized on a sensor chip [Methods 20 (2000) 310] surface are consistent with the degree of heterogeneity present on the sensor chip surface for the random and the oriented case. As expected, the random case will exhibit a higher degree of heterogeneity than the oriented case

  7. Surface accuracy of a large-scale compact antenna test range considering mechanism, metrology and alignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Guofeng; Li, Xiaoxing; Li, Dongsheng; Luan, Jingdong; Zhao, Jinze

    2014-01-01

    A large compact range (CR) having a width of 23 m and height of 16 m that will generate a Φ15 m quiet zone is presented. The antenna consists of 30 blocks and 76 serrated reflectors. Its mechanical accuracy is reflected in two aspects: surface precision and gap precision. In addition, the root-mean-square (RMS) surface accuracy should be less than or equal to 0.075 mm for achieving the highest operating frequency of 40 GHz, and the gaps between two segments should be controlled strictly to the tolerance of 0.4 ± 0.2 mm for avoiding gap diffraction and compensating for inter-block interference due to thermal deformation. The surface accuracy in terms of mechanical structure, metrology and alignment approach is very tight. First, a high-accuracy honeycomb sandwich panel, anisotropic back structure and spatial parallel adjustment mechanism are introduced, and the error contributions of these three mechanisms are 0.03 mm, 0.01 mm and 0.005 mm, respectively. Second, a measurement network based on laser tracker metrology was established, and the RMS error of the measurement system is controlled to 0.025 mm through the optimization of the measuring stations and weighted coordinate regression. Third, an original alignment approach that divides the entire assembly into three key phases by marked point edge-constrained surface is proposed. By performing a few iterations of onsite adjustment, the reflectors were aligned in the prescribed positions, and the gap quality was controlled effectively. Finally, the on-site alignment of the large CR is introduced. The final antenna surface RMS accuracy was up to 0.054 mm, and the gaps achieved the desired design index. (paper)

  8. Retrieval and Mapping of Soil Texture Based on Land Surface Diurnal Temperature Range Data from MODIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, De-Cai; Zhang, Gan-Lin; Zhao, Ming-Song; Pan, Xian-Zhang; Zhao, Yu-Guo; Li, De-Cheng; Macmillan, Bob

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the direct retrieval of soil properties, including soil texture, using remotely sensed images. However, few have considered how soil properties influence dynamic changes in remote images or how soil processes affect the characteristics of the spectrum. This study investigated a new method for mapping regional soil texture based on the hypothesis that the rate of change of land surface temperature is related to soil texture, given the assumption of similar starting soil moisture conditions. The study area was a typical flat area in the Yangtze-Huai River Plain, East China. We used the widely available land surface temperature product of MODIS as the main data source. We analyzed the relationships between the content of different particle soil size fractions at the soil surface and land surface day temperature, night temperature and diurnal temperature range (DTR) during three selected time periods. These periods occurred after rainfalls and between the previous harvest and the subsequent autumn sowing in 2004, 2007 and 2008. Then, linear regression models were developed between the land surface DTR and sand (> 0.05 mm), clay (soil texture. The spatial distribution of soil texture from the studied area was mapped based on the model with the minimum RMSE. A validation dataset produced error estimates for the predicted maps of sand, clay and physical clay, expressed as RMSE of 10.69%, 4.57%, and 12.99%, respectively. The absolute error of the predictions is largely influenced by variations in land cover. Additionally, the maps produced by the models illustrate the natural spatial continuity of soil texture. This study demonstrates the potential for digitally mapping regional soil texture variations in flat areas using readily available MODIS data.

  9. Retrieval and Mapping of Soil Texture Based on Land Surface Diurnal Temperature Range Data from MODIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, De-Cai; Zhang, Gan-Lin; Zhao, Ming-Song; Pan, Xian-Zhang; Zhao, Yu-Guo; Li, De-Cheng; Macmillan, Bob

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the direct retrieval of soil properties, including soil texture, using remotely sensed images. However, few have considered how soil properties influence dynamic changes in remote images or how soil processes affect the characteristics of the spectrum. This study investigated a new method for mapping regional soil texture based on the hypothesis that the rate of change of land surface temperature is related to soil texture, given the assumption of similar starting soil moisture conditions. The study area was a typical flat area in the Yangtze-Huai River Plain, East China. We used the widely available land surface temperature product of MODIS as the main data source. We analyzed the relationships between the content of different particle soil size fractions at the soil surface and land surface day temperature, night temperature and diurnal temperature range (DTR) during three selected time periods. These periods occurred after rainfalls and between the previous harvest and the subsequent autumn sowing in 2004, 2007 and 2008. Then, linear regression models were developed between the land surface DTR and sand (> 0.05 mm), clay (estimate soil texture. The spatial distribution of soil texture from the studied area was mapped based on the model with the minimum RMSE. A validation dataset produced error estimates for the predicted maps of sand, clay and physical clay, expressed as RMSE of 10.69%, 4.57%, and 12.99%, respectively. The absolute error of the predictions is largely influenced by variations in land cover. Additionally, the maps produced by the models illustrate the natural spatial continuity of soil texture. This study demonstrates the potential for digitally mapping regional soil texture variations in flat areas using readily available MODIS data. PMID:26090852

  10. Proper construction of ab initio global potential surfaces with accurate long-range interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Tak-San; Rabitz, Herschel

    2000-01-01

    An efficient procedure based on the reproducing kernel Hilbert space interpolation method is presented for constructing intermolecular potential energy surfaces (PES) using not only calculated ab initio data but also a priori information on long-range interactions. Explicitly, use of the reciprocal power reproducing kernel on the semiinfinite interval [0,∞) yields a set of exact linear relations between dispersion (multipolar) coefficients and PES data points at finite internuclear separations. Consequently, given a combined set of ab initio data and the values of dispersion (multipolar) coefficients, the potential interpolation problem subject to long-range interaction constraints can be solved to render globally smooth, asymptotically accurate ab initio potential energy surfaces. Very good results have been obtained for the one-dimensional He-He potential curve and the two-dimensional Ne-CO PES. The construction of the Ne-CO PES was facilitated by invoking a new reproducing kernel for the angular coordinate based on the optimally stable and shape-preserving Bernstein basis functions. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  11. A high dynamic range structured light means for the 3D measurement of specular surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhan; Jiang, Hualie; Lin, Haibo; Tang, Suming

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents a novel structured light approach for the 3D reconstruction of specular surface. The binary shifting strip is adopted as structured light pattern instead of conventional sinusoidal pattern. Based on the framework of conventional High Dynamic Range (HDR) imaging technique, an efficient means is first introduced to estimate the camera response function. And then, dynamic range of the generated radiance map is compressed in the gradient domain by introducing an attenuation function. Subject to the change of lighting conditions caused by projecting different structured light patterns, the structure light image with middle exposure level is selected as the reference image and used for the slight adjustment of the primary fused image. Finally, the regenerated structured light images with well exposing condition are used for 3D reconstruction of the specular surface. To evaluate performance of the method, some stainless stamping parts with strong reflectivity are used for the experiments. And the results showed that, different specular targets with various shapes can be precisely reconstructed by the proposed method.

  12. On the effect of topography on surface wave propagation in the ambient noise frequency range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Andreas; Weidle, Christian; Maupin, Valérie

    2012-04-01

    Due to the increasing popularity of analyzing empirical Green's functions obtained from ambient seismic noise, more and more regional tomographical studies based on short-period surface waves are published. Results could potentially be biased in mountainous regions where topography is not small compared to the wavelength and penetration depth of the considered waves. We investigate the effect of topography on the propagation of short-period Rayleigh waves empirically by means of synthetic data using a spectral element code and a 3-D model with real topography. We show that topography along a profile through the studied area can result in an underestimation of phase velocities of up to about 0.7% at the shortest investigated period (3 s). Contrary to the expectation that this bias results from the increased surface distance along topography, we find that this error can be estimated by local topographic contrasts in the vicinity of the receiver alone. We discuss and generalize our results by considering topographic profiles through other mountain ranges and find that southern Norway is a good proxy to assess the topography effect. Nevertheless, topographic bias on phase velocity measurements is in general not large enough to significantly affect recovered velocity variations in the ambient noise frequency range.

  13. Electrochemically modified crystal orientation, surface morphology and optical properties using CTAB on Cu2O thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karupanan Periyanan Ganesan

    Full Text Available Cuprous oxide (Cu2O thin films with different crystal orientations were electrochemically deposited in the presence of various molar concentrations of cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO glass substrate using standard three electrodes system. X-ray diffraction (XRD studies reveal cubic structure of Cu2O with (111 plane orientation, after addition of CTAB in deposition solution, the orientation of crystal changes from (111 into (200 plane. Scanning electron microscope (SEM images explored significant variation on morphology of Cu2O thin films deposited with addition of CTAB compared to without addition of CTAB. Photoluminescence (PL spectra illustrate that the emission peak around at 650 nm is attributed to near band edge emission, and the film prepared at the 3 mM of CTAB exhibits much higher intensity than that of the all other films. UV–Visible spectra show optical absorption in the range of 480–610 nm and the highest transparency of Cu2O film prepared at the concentration of 3 mM CTAB. The optical band gap is increased in the range between 2.16 and 2.45 eV with increasing the CTAB concentrations. Keywords: Cuprous oxide, Crystal orientation, Electrodeposition and cubic structure

  14. Influence of formwork surface on the orientation of steel fibres within self-compacting concrete and on the mechanical properties of cast structural elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svec, Oldrich; Zirgulis, Giedrius; Bolander, John E.

    2014-01-01

    The influences of formwork surface on the final orientation of steel fibres immersed in self-compacting concrete and on the resulting mechanical response of the cast structural elements are investigated. Experimental observations of fibre orientation within cast slabs, obtained via computed...... tomography, indicate that fibres tend to orient according to the flow patterns during casting, but such tendencies are suppressed near rough formwork surfaces. Fibre orientation, in turn, affects the mechanical properties of the concrete as demonstrated by the load testing of beams extracted from the cast...... and the mechanical response of the structural elements. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  15. The Evidence of Giant Surface Flexoelectric Field in (111) Oriented BiFeO3 Thin Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tieying; Zhang, Xingmin; Chen, Bin; Guo, Haizhong; Jin, Kuijuan; Wu, Xiaoshan; Gao, Xingyu; Li, Zhong; Wang, Can; Li, Xiaolong

    2017-02-15

    In this work, the surface structure of a single-domain epitaxial BiFeO 3 film with (111) orientation was investigated by in situ grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and X-ray reflectivity. We found that a large strain gradient exists in the surface region (2-3 nm) of the BiFeO 3 film. The strain gradient is approximately 10 7 m -1 , which is 2 or 3 orders of magnitude larger than the value inside the film. Moreover, we found that a surface layer with a lower electron density compared with the underlying BiFeO 3 layer exists on the surface of BiFeO 3 film, and this layer exhibits an irreversible surface structure transition occurs at 500 K, which should be associated with the surface flexoelectric field. We considered that this large strain gradient is originated from the surface depolarization field of ferroelectrics. Our results suggest a coupling between the surface structure and the flexoelectricity and imply that the surface layer and properties would be controlled by the strain gradient in ferroelectric films.

  16. Application of Long-Range Surface Plasmon Resonance for ABO Blood Typing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanida Tangkawsakul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we demonstrate a long-range surface plasmon resonance (LR-SPR biosensor for the detection of whole cell by captured antigens A and B on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs as a model. The LR-SPR sensor chip consists of high-refractive index glass, a Cytop film layer, and a thin gold (Au film, which makes the evanescent field intensity and the penetration depth longer than conventional SPR. Therefore, the LR-SPR biosensor has improved capability for detecting large analytes, such as RBCs. The antibodies specific to blood group A and group B (Anti-A and Anti-B are covalently immobilized on a grafting self-assembled monolayer (SAM/Au surface on the biosensor. For blood typing, RBC samples can be detected by the LR-SPR biosensor through a change in the refractive index. We determined that the results of blood typing using the LR-SPR biosensor are consistent with the results obtained from the agglutination test. We obtained the lowest detection limits of 1.58 × 105 cells/ml for RBC-A and 3.83 × 105 cells/ml for RBC-B, indicating that the LR-SPR chip has a higher sensitivity than conventional SPR biosensors (3.3 × 108 cells/ml. The surface of the biosensor can be efficiently regenerated using 20 mM NaOH. In summary, as the LR-SPR technique is sensitive and has a simple experimental setup, it can easily be applied for ABO blood group typing.

  17. Surface Plasmon Polariton-Assisted Long-Range Exciton Transport in Monolayer Semiconductor Lateral Heterostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jinwei; Lin, Meng-Hsien; Chen, Yi-Tong; Estakhri, Nasim Mohammadi; Tseng, Guo-Wei; Wang, Yanrong; Chen, Hung-Ying; Chen, Chun-An; Shih, Chih-Kang; Alã¹, Andrea; Li, Xiaoqin; Lee, Yi-Hsien; Gwo, Shangjr

    Recently, two-dimensional (2D) semiconductor heterostructures, i.e., atomically thin lateral heterostructures (LHSs) based on transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have been demonstrated. In an optically excited LHS, exciton transport is typically limited to a rather short spatial range ( 1 micron). Furthermore, additional losses may occur at the lateral interfacial regions. Here, to overcome these challenges, we experimentally implement a planar metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structure by placing a monolayer of WS2/MoS2 LHS on top of an Al2O3 capped Ag single-crystalline plate. We found that the exciton transport range can be extended to tens of microns. The process of long-range exciton transport in the MOS structure is confirmed to be mediated by an exciton-surface plasmon polariton-exciton conversion mechanism, which allows a cascaded energy transfer process. Thus, the planar MOS structure provides a platform seamlessly combining 2D light-emitting materials with plasmonic planar waveguides, offering great potential for developing integrated photonic/plasmonic functionalities.

  18. The invisible cues that guide king penguin chicks home: use of magnetic and acoustic cues during orientation and short-range navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesterova, Anna P; Chiffard, Jules; Couchoux, Charline; Bonadonna, Francesco

    2013-04-15

    King penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) live in large and densely populated colonies, where navigation can be challenging because of the presence of many conspecifics that could obstruct locally available cues. Our previous experiments demonstrated that visual cues were important but not essential for king penguin chicks' homing. The main objective of this study was to investigate the importance of non-visual cues, such as magnetic and acoustic cues, for chicks' orientation and short-range navigation. In a series of experiments, the chicks were individually displaced from the colony to an experimental arena where they were released under different conditions. In the magnetic experiments, a strong magnet was attached to the chicks' heads. Trials were conducted in daylight and at night to test the relative importance of visual and magnetic cues. Our results showed that when the geomagnetic field around the chicks was modified, their orientation in the arena and the overall ability to home was not affected. In a low sound experiment we limited the acoustic cues available to the chicks by putting ear pads over their ears, and in a loud sound experiment we provided additional acoustic cues by broadcasting colony sounds on the opposite side of the arena to the real colony. In the low sound experiment, the behavior of the chicks was not affected by the limited sound input. In the loud sound experiment, the chicks reacted strongly to the colony sound. These results suggest that king penguin chicks may use the sound of the colony while orienting towards their home.

  19. Manual matching of perceived surface orientation is affected by arm posture–Evidence of calibration between proprioception and visual experience in near space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi; Durgin, Frank H.

    2011-01-01

    Proprioception of hand orientation (orientation production using the hand) is compared with manual matching of visual orientation (visual surface matching using the hand) in two experiments. In Experiment 1, using self-selected arm postures, the proportions of wrist and elbow flexion spontaneously used to orient the pitch of the hand (20% and 80% respectively) are relatively similar across both manual matching tasks and manual orientation production tasks for most participants. Proprioceptive error closely matched perceptual biases previously reported for visual orientation perception, suggesting calibration of proprioception to visual biases. A minority of participants, who attempted to use primarily wrist flexion while holding the forearm horizontal, performed poorly at the manual matching task, consistent with proprioceptive error caused by biomechanical constraints of their self-selected posture. In Experiment 2, postural choices were constrained to primarily wrist or elbow flexion without imposing biomechanical constraints (using a raised forearm). Identical relative offsets were found between the two constraint groups in manual matching and manual orientation production. The results support two claims: (1) manual orientation matching to visual surfaces is based on manual proprioception and (2) calibration between visual and proprioceptive experiences guarantees relatively accurate manual matching for surfaces within reach despite systematic visual biases in perceived surface orientation. PMID:22086494

  20. n-type diamond growth by phosphorus doping on (0 0 1)-oriented surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Hiromitsu; Makino, Toshiharu; Yamasaki, Satoshi; Okushi, Hideyo

    2007-01-01

    The properties of phosphorus incorporation for n-type doping of diamond are discussed and summarized. Doping of (0 0 1)-oriented diamond is introduced and compared with results achieved on (1 1 1) diamond. This review describes detailed procedures and conditions of plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (CVD) growth and characteristics of electrical properties of phosphorus-doped diamond. The phosphorus incorporation was characterized by SIMS analysis including mapping. n-type conductivity is evaluated by Hall-effect measurements over a temperature regime of 300-1000 K. The crystal perfection of (0 0 1)-oriented n-type diamond is also evaluated by x-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, reflection high-energy electron diffraction and cathodoluminescence analyses. The results show that phosphorus atoms are incorporated into the diamond network during (0 0 1) CVD diamond growth and that phosphorus acts as a donor as in (1 1 1)-oriented diamond. This result eliminates the restriction on substrate orientation, which had previously created a bottleneck in the development of diamond electronic devices. (review article)

  1. Propagation of long-range surface plasmon polaritons in photonic band gap structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boltasseva, Alexandra; Søndergaard, Thomas; Nikolajsen, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    We study the interaction of long-range surface plasmon polaritons (LR-SPPs), excited at telecommunication wavelengths, with photonic crystals (PCs) formed by periodic arrays of gold bumps that are arranged in a triangular lattice and placed symmetrically on both sides of a thin gold fil embedded...... in polymer. Radiation is delivered to and from the PC structures with the help of LR-SPP guides that consist of 8 mm wide and 15 nm thick gold stripes attached to wide film sections (of the same thickness) covered with bumps (diameter ~300 nm, height up to 150 nm on each side of the film). We investigate......, is rather weak, so that the photonic bandgap effect might be expected to take place only for some particular propagation directions. Preliminary experiments on LR-SPP bending and splitting at large angles are reported, and further research directions are discussed....

  2. Integrated-Optics Components Utilizing Long-Range Surface Plasmon Polaritons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boltasseva, Alexandra

    2004-01-01

    This thesis describes a new class of components for integrated optics, based on the propagation of long-range surface plasmon polaritons (LR-SPPs) along metal stripes embedded in a dielectric. These novel components can provide guiding of light as well as coupling and splitting from/into a number...... fabricated and optically characterized. At 1570 nm, coupling lengths of 1.9 and 0.8 mm are found for directional couplers with waveguides separated 4 and 0 µm, respectively. LR-SPP-based waveguides and waveguide components are modeled using the effective-refractive-index method and a good agreement...... with experimental results is obtained. The interaction of LR-SPPs with photonic crystals (PCs) is also studied. The PC structures are formed by periodic arrays of gold bumps that are arranged in a triangular lattice and placed symmetrically on both sides of a thin gold film. The LR-SPP transmission through...

  3. Dynamical Orientation of Large Molecules on Oxide Surfaces and its Implications for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Brennan, Thomas P.

    2013-11-12

    A dual experimental-computational approach utilizing near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy and density functional theory-molecular dynamics (DFT-MD) is presented for determining the orientation of a large adsorbate on an oxide substrate. A system of interest in the field of dye-sensitized solar cells is studied: an organic cyanoacrylic acid-based donor-π-acceptor dye (WN1) bound to anatase TiO2. Assessment of nitrogen K-edge NEXAFS spectra is supported by calculations of the electronic structure that indicate energetically discrete transitions associated with the two π systems of the C-N triple bond in the cyanoacrylic acid portion of the dye. Angle-resolved NEXAFS spectra are fitted to determine the orientation of these two orbital systems, and the results indicate an upright orientation of the adsorbed dye, 63 from the TiO2 surface plane. These experimental results are then compared to computational studies of the WN1 dye on an anatase (101) TiO2 slab. The ground state structure obtained from standard DFT optimization is less upright (45 from the surface) than the NEXAFS results. However, DFT-MD simulations, which provide a more realistic depiction of the dye at room temperature, exhibit excellent agreement - within 2 on average - with the angles determined via NEXAFS, demonstrating the importance of accounting for the dynamic nature of adsorbate-substrate interactions and DFT-MD\\'s powerful predictive abilities. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  4. Oriented and Ordered Biomimetic Remineralization of the Surface of Demineralized Dental Enamel Using HAP@ACP Nanoparticles Guided by Glycine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haorong; Xiao, Zuohui; Yang, Jie; Lu, Danyang; Kishen, Anil; Li, Yanqiu; Chen, Zhen; Que, Kehua; Zhang, Qian; Deng, Xuliang; Yang, Xiaoping; Cai, Qing; Chen, Ning; Cong, Changhong; Guan, Binbin; Li, Ting; Zhang, Xu

    2017-01-01

    Achieving oriented and ordered remineralization on the surface of demineralized dental enamel, thereby restoring the satisfactory mechanical properties approaching those of sound enamel, is still a challenge for dentists. To mimic the natural biomineralization approach for enamel remineralization, the biological process of enamel development proteins, such as amelogenin, was simulated in this study. In this work, carboxymethyl chitosan (CMC) conjugated with alendronate (ALN) was applied to stabilize amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) to form CMC/ACP nanoparticles. Sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) functioned as the protease which decompose amelogenin in vivo to degrade the CMC-ALN matrix and generate HAP@ACP core-shell nanoparticles. Finally, when guided by 10 mM glycine (Gly), HAP@ACP nanoparticles can arrange orderly and subsequently transform from an amorphous phase to well-ordered rod-like apatite crystals to achieve oriented and ordered biomimetic remineralization on acid-etched enamel surfaces. This biomimetic remineralization process is achieved through the oriented attachment (OA) of nanoparticles based on non-classical crystallization theory. These results indicate that finding and developing analogues of natural proteins such as amelogenin involved in the biomineralization by natural macromolecular polymers and imitating the process of biomineralization would be an effective strategy for enamel remineralization. Furthermore, this method represents a promising method for the management of early caries in minimal invasive dentistry (MID).

  5. Highly Oriented Nanowire Thin Films with Anisotropic Optical Properties Driven by the Simultaneous Influence of Surface Templating and Shear Forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, Patrick T; Sekar, Sribharani; König, Tobias A F; Formanek, Petr; Decher, Gero; Fery, Andreas; Pauly, Matthias

    2018-01-24

    The functional properties of nanoparticle thin films depend strongly on the arrangement of the nanoparticles within the material. In particular, anisotropic optoelectronic properties can be achieved through the aligned assembly of 1D nanomaterials such as silver nanowires (AgNWs). However, the control of the hierarchical organization of these nanoscale building blocks across multiple length scales and over large areas is still a challenge. Here, we show that the oriented deposition of AgNWs using grazing incidence spraying of the nano-object suspensions on a substrate comprising parallel surface wrinkles readily produces highly oriented monolayer thin films on macroscopic areas (>5 × 5 mm 2 ). The use of textured substrates enhances the degree of ordering as compared to flat ones and increases the area over which AgNWs are oriented. The resulting microscopic linear arrangement of AgNWs evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) reflects in a pronounced macroscopic optical anisotropy measured by conventional polarized UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy. The enhanced ordering obtained when spraying is done in the same direction as the wrinkles makes this approach more robust against small rotational offsets during preparation. On the contrary, the templating effect of the wrinkle topography can even dominate the shear-driven alignment when spraying is performed perpendicular to the wrinkles: the concomitant but opposing influence of topographic confinement (alignment along the wrinkles) and of spray-induced shear forces (orientation along the spraying direction) lead to films in which the predominant orientation of AgNWs gradually changes from one direction to its perpendicular one over the same substrate in a single processing step. This demonstrates that exploiting the subtle balance between shear forces and substrate-nanowire interactions mediated by wrinkles offers a new way to control the self-assembly of nanoparticles into more complex patterns.

  6. Influence of GaAs Substrate Orientation on InAs Quantum Dots: Surface Morphology, Critical Thickness, and Optical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang BL

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractInAs/GaAs heterostructures have been simultaneously grown by molecular beam epitaxy on GaAs (100, GaAs (100 with a 2° misorientation angle towards [01−1], and GaAs (n11B (n = 9, 7, 5 substrates. While the substrate misorientation angle increased from 0° to 15.8°, a clear evolution from quantum dots to quantum well was evident by the surface morphology, the photoluminescence, and the time-resolved photoluminescence, respectively. This evolution revealed an increased critical thickness and a delayed formation of InAs quantum dots as the surface orientation departed from GaAs (100, which was explained by the thermal-equilibrium model due to the less efficient of strain relaxation on misoriented substrate surfaces.

  7. Surface Modification for Controlling the Orientation of Block Copolymers in thin film and in Cylindrical Nanopores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xin-Guan; Lin, Feng-Cheng; Tung, Shih-Huang

    2012-02-01

    A series of benzocyclobutene-functionalized random copolymers of styrene and 4-vinylpyridine were synthesized by nitroxide-mediated controlled radical polymerization with BPO and TEMPO. Our research was to use these random copolymers of P(S-r-BCB-r-4VP) to control the orientation of microdomains in block copolymers(BCPs) of poly(styrene-b-4-vinylpyridine)(PS-b-P4VP) thin films and in cylindrical nanopores of anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes. On P(S-r-BCB-r-4VP)-modified substrate,we found that in some particular compositions of random copolymer ,the parallel orientation of the microdomains is switched to be perpendicular in PS-b-P4VP thin film. We also introduced P(S-r-BCB-r-4VP) solution into the nanopores of the AAO and nanotubes formed after solvent evaporation and pyrolysis. And then BCPs of PS-b-P4VP were drawn into the P(S-r-BCB-r-4VP)-modified nanopores in the melt via capillary action to form P(S-r-BCB-r-4VP) coated nanorods of PS-b-P4VP.Similarly,in some particular compositions of random copolymer, we observed that the interactions of the blocks with the walls are not strong or if the interactions are balanced, then the orientation of the microdomains will change from being parallel to being perpendicular to the confining walls.

  8. Effect of surface roughness, chemical composition, and native oxide crystallinity on the orientation of self-assembled GaN nanowires on Ti foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, G.; Pettersen, S. V.; Pfüller, C.; Ramsteiner, M.; Grepstad, J. K.; Brandt, O.; Geelhaar, L.; Fernández-Garrido, S.

    2017-10-01

    We report on plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxial growth of almost randomly oriented, uniformly tilted, and vertically aligned self-assembled GaN nanowires (NWs), respectively, on different types of polycrystalline Ti foils. The NW orientation with respect to the substrate normal, which is affected by an in situ treatment of the foil surface before NW growth, depends on the crystallinity of the native oxide. Direct growth on the as-received foils results in the formation of ensembles of nearly randomly oriented NWs due to the strong roughening of the surface induced by chemical reactions between the impinging elements and Ti. Surface nitridation preceding the NW growth is found to reduce this roughening by transformation of the uppermost layers into TiN and TiO x N y species. These compounds are more stable against chemical reactions and facilitate the growth of uniformly oriented GaN NW ensembles on the surface of the individual grains of the polycrystalline Ti foils. If an amorphous oxide layer is present at the foil surface, vertically oriented NWs are obtained all across the substrate because this layer blocks the transfering of the epitaxial information from the underlying grains. The control of NW orientation and the understanding behind the achievement of vertically oriented NWs obtained in this study represent an important step towards the realization of GaN NW-based bendable devices on polycrystalline metal foils.

  9. Orientation control of photo-immobilized antibodies on the surface of azobenzene-containing polymers by the introduction of functional groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouri, Makoto; Ikawa, Taiji; Narita, Mamiko; Hoshino, Fumihiko; Watanabe, Osamu

    2010-06-11

    In our photo-induced immobilization technique for an antibody (IgG) using azopolymers, the introduction of COOH and NMe(2) into the azopolymers, which can introduce surface charges, strongly affected the immobilization properties such as the efficiency of immobilization and the activity of the immobilized IgG (i.e., the orientation of the immobilized IgG). The introduction of COOH promoted a more active orientation of the immobilized IgG. The orientation was determined during the adsorption process onto the azopolymer surface in solution before photo-immobilization, and was maintained during the photo-immobilization. The surface charge of the azopolymer appears to be an important factor for IgG orientation, which involves electrostatic interactions between its Fab and the azopolymer surface.

  10. Bearing splitting and near-surface source ranging in the direct zone of deep water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun-Nan; Zhou, Shi-Hong; Peng, Zhao-Hui; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Ren-He

    2016-12-01

    Sound multipath propagation is very important for target localization and identification in different acoustical zones of deep water. In order to distinguish the multipath characteristics in deep water, the Northwest Pacific Acoustic Experiment was conducted in 2015. A low-frequency horizontal line array towed at the depth of around 150 m on a receiving ship was used to receive the noise radiated by the source ship. During this experiment, a bearing-splitting phenomenon in the direct zone was observed through conventional beamforming of the horizontal line array within the frequency band 160 Hz-360 Hz. In this paper, this phenomenon is explained based on ray theory. In principle, the received signal in the direct zone of deep water arrives from two general paths including a direct one and bottom bounced one, which vary considerably in arrival angles. The split bearings correspond to the contributions of these two paths. The bearing-splitting phenomenon is demonstrated by numerical simulations of the bearing-time records and experimental results, and they are well consistent with each other. Then a near-surface source ranging approach based on the arrival angles of direct path and bottom bounced path in the direct zone is presented as an application of bearing splitting and is verified by experimental results. Finally, the applicability of the proposed ranging approach for an underwater source within several hundred meters in depth in the direct zone is also analyzed and demonstrated by simulations. Project supported by the Program of One Hundred Talented People of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11434012 and 41561144006).

  11. Extended-range forecasting of Chinese summer surface air temperature and heat waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhiwei; Li, Tim

    2018-03-01

    Because of growing demand from agricultural planning, power management and activity scheduling, extended-range (5-30-day lead) forecasting of summer surface air temperature (SAT) and heat waves over China is carried out in the present study via spatial-temporal projection models (STPMs). Based on the training data during 1960-1999, the predictability sources are found to propagate from Europe, Northeast Asia, and the tropical Pacific, to influence the intraseasonal 10-80 day SAT over China. STPMs are therefore constructed using the projection domains, which are determined by these previous predictability sources. For the independent forecast period (2000-2013), the STPMs can reproduce EOF-filtered 30-80 day SAT at all lead times of 5-30 days over most part of China, and observed 30-80 and 10-80 day SAT at 25-30 days over eastern China. Significant pattern correlation coefficients account for more than 50% of total forecasts at all 5-30-day lead times against EOF-filtered and observed 30-80 day SAT, and at a 20-day lead time against observed 10-80 day SAT. The STPMs perform poorly in reproducing 10-30 day SAT. Forecasting for the first two modes of 10-30 day SAT only shows useful skill within a 15-day lead time. Forecasting for the third mode of 10-30 day SAT is useless after a 10-day lead time. The forecasted heat waves over China are determined by the reconstructed SAT which is the summation of the forecasted 10-80 day SAT and the lower frequency (longer than 80-day) climatological SAT. Over a large part of China, the STPMs can forecast more than 30% of heat waves within a 15-day lead time. In general, the STPMs demonstrate the promising skill for extended-range forecasting of Chinese summer SAT and heat waves.

  12. Orientation effect of ion flux splitting reflected from Wehner cone on solid surface

    CERN Document Server

    Bratchenko, M I; Rozhkov, V V

    2001-01-01

    It is shown that simple geometrical model of specular reflection of particles from the surface of Wehner cone (frequently observed feature of solid surface macroscopic topography developed under ion bombardment) can describe qualitatively the essential characteristics of the reflected particles flux splitting effect predicted earlier by means of computer simulation methods.

  13. X-Band high range resolution radar measurements of sea surface forward scatter at low grazing angles

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smit, JC

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Radar measurements of a radar calibration sphere test target suspended in sea surface multipath propagation conditions are reported. Wideband measurements together with high range resolution (HRR) processing were employed to resolve the direct...

  14. Combinatorial near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure: Simultaneous determination of molecular orientation and bond concentration on chemically heterogeneous surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genzer, Jan; Fischer, Daniel A.; Efimenko, Kirill

    2003-01-01

    We show that simultaneous molecular orientation and bond chemistry of planar chemically heterogeneous surfaces can be obtained by combining near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy and rastering the incident x-ray beam on the specimen. This rastering produces serially two-dimensional NEXAFS images in space and energy, revealing information about the chemistry (including bond concentration) and orientation of the surface-bound molecules with submillimeter planar spatial resolution and submonolayer molecular sensitivity. We illustrate the power of the combinatorial NEXAFS method by simultaneously probing the concentration and molecular orientation of semifluorinated (SF) molecules in double-SF molecular gradients on flat silica substrates

  15. Structure Function Studies of Vaccinia Virus Host Range Protein K1 Reveal a Novel Functional Surface for Ankyrin Repeat Proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yongchao; Meng, Xiangzhi; Xiang, Yan; Deng, Junpeng (Texas-HSC); (OKLU)

    2010-06-15

    Poxvirus host tropism at the cellular level is regulated by virus-encoded host range proteins acting downstream of virus entry. The functioning mechanisms of most host range proteins are unclear, but many contain multiple ankyrin (ANK) repeats, a motif that is known for ligand interaction through a concave surface. We report here the crystal structure of one of the ANK repeat-containing host range proteins, the vaccinia virus K1 protein. The structure, at a resolution of 2.3 {angstrom}, showed that K1 consists entirely of ANK repeats, including seven complete ones and two incomplete ones, one each at the N and C terminus. Interestingly, Phe82 and Ser83, which were previously shown to be critical for K1's function, are solvent exposed and located on a convex surface, opposite the consensus ANK interaction surface. The importance of this convex surface was further supported by our additional mutagenesis studies. We found that K1's host range function was negatively affected by substitution of either Asn51 or Cys47 and completely abolished by substitution of both residues. Cys47 and Asn51 are also exposed on the convex surface, spatially adjacent to Phe82 and Ser83. Altogether, our data showed that K1 residues on a continuous convex ANK repeat surface are critical for the host range function, suggesting that K1 functions through ligand interaction and does so with a novel ANK interaction surface.

  16. The role of the transverse acetabular ligament for acetabular component orientation in total hip replacement: an analysis of acetabular component position and range of movement using navigation software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalteis, T; Sendtner, E; Beverland, D; Archbold, P A; Hube, R; Schuster, T; Renkawitz, T; Grifka, J

    2011-08-01

    Orientation of the native acetabular plane as defined by the transverse acetabular ligament (TAL) and the posterior labrum was measured intra-operatively using computer-assisted navigation in 39 hips. In order to assess the influence of alignment on impingement, the range of movement was calculated for that defined by the TAL and the posterior labrum and compared with a standard acetabular component position (abduction 45°/anteversion 15°). With respect to the registration of the plane defined by the TAL and the posterior labrum, there was moderate interobserver agreement (r = 0.64, p hip replacement. However, there is only a moderate interobserver agreement and intra-observer reliability in the alignment of the acetabular component using the TAL and the posterior labrum. No reduction in impingement was found when the acetabular component was aligned with the TAL and the posterior labrum, compared with a standard acetabular component position.

  17. A compendium of results from long-range alpha detector soil surface monitoring: June 1992--May 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garner, S.E.; Bounds, J.A.; Allander, K.S.; Johnson, J.D.; MacArthur, D.W.; Caress, R.W.

    1994-11-01

    Soil surface monitors based on long-range alpha detector (LRAD) technology are being used to monitor alpha contamination at various sites in the Department of Energy complex. These monitors, the large soil-surface monitor (LSSM) and the small soil-surface monitor (SSSM), were used to help characterize sites at Fernald, Ohio, and active or inactive firing sites at Sandia National Laboratories and Los Alamos National Laboratory. Monitoring results are presented herein in chronological order

  18. Surface slope effects for ripple orientation on sand dunes in López crater, Terra Tyrrhena region of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimbelman, James R.; Johnson, Molly B.

    2017-06-01

    Ripple orientations on small sand dunes (dunes lacking substantial slip faces) at widely distributed sites across Mars have been documented using High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) images, in an effort to determine the last formative aeolian sediment transport direction experienced at these locations. Howard (1977) used field measurements and first principles to derive an expression for determining how much the surface slope on a sand dune deflects the orientation of sand ripples with respect to the formative wind direction. A Digital Terrain Model derived from stereo HiRISE images was used to assess the potential deflection of ripples on sand dunes on the floor of López crater on Mars. Three-quarters of the area covered by sand dunes within the DTM has a surface slope sand dunes on Mars that lack large slip faces. Sand ripples therefore should be good indicators of the most recent sand-transporting winds that have blown across sand dunes on Mars, as long as areas on or very near to slip faces are avoided.

  19. Covalent and Oriented Surface Immobilization of Antibody Using Photoactivatable Antibody Fc-Binding Protein Expressed in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeolin; Jeong, Jiyun; Lee, Gabi; Moon, Jeong Hee; Lee, Myung Kyu

    2016-10-04

    Fc-specific antibody binding proteins (FcBPs) with the minimal domain of protein G are widely used for immobilization of well-oriented antibodies onto solid surfaces, but the noncovalently bound antibodies to FcBPs are unstable in sera containing large amounts of antibodies. Here we report novel photoactivatable FcBPs with photomethionine (pMet) expressed in E. coli, which induce Fc-specific photo-cross-linking with antibodies upon UV irradiation. Unfortunately, pMet did not support protein expression in the native E. coli system, and therefore we also developed an engineered methionyl tRNA synthetase (MRS5m). Coexpression of MRS5m proteins successfully induced photoactivatable FcBP overexpression in methionine-auxotroph E. coli cells. The photoactivatable FcBPs could be easily immobilized on beads and slides via their N-terminal cysteine residues and 6xHis tag. The antibodies photo-cross-linked onto the photoactivatable FcBP-beads were resistant from serum-antibody mediated dissociation and efficiently captured antigens in human sera. Furthermore, photo-cross-linked antibody arrays prepared using this system allowed sensitive detection of antigens in human sera by sandwich immunoassay. The photoactivatable FcBPs will be widely applicable for well-oriented antibody immobilization on various surfaces of microfluidic chips, glass slides, and nanobeads, which are required for development of sensitive immunosensors.

  20. Effects of Oriented Surface Dipole on Photoconversion Efficiency in an Alkane/Lipid-Hybrid-Bilayer-Based Photovoltaic Model System

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Lixia

    2013-06-21

    When a phospholipid monolayer containing a zinc-coordinated porphyrin species formed atop a self-assembled monolayer of heptadecafluoro-1-decanethiol (CF3(CF2)7(CH2)2SH) is subjected to photoelectrochemical current generation, a significant modulation effect is observed. Compared with devices that contain similar photoactive lipid monolayers but formed on 1-dodecanethiol SAMs, these fluorinated hybrid bilayers produce a >60 % increase in cathodic currents and a similar decrease in anodic currents. Photovoltages recorded from these hybrid bilayers are found to vary in the same fashion. The modulation of photovoltaic responses in these hybrid-bilayer-based devices is explained by the opposite surface dipoles associated with the thiols employed in this study, which in one case (fluorothiol) increase and in another (alkanethiol) decrease the work function of the underlying gold substrates. A similar trend of photovoltage/photocurrent modulation is also observed if fullerene is used as the photoagent in these devices. Our results reveal the intricacy of orientated surface dipole in influencing the photovoltaic processes, and its subtle interplay with other factors related to the photoagents, such as their location and orientation within the organic matrix. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Adsorption of a single polymer chain on a surface: effects of the potential range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klushin, Leonid I; Polotsky, Alexey A; Hsu, Hsiao-Ping; Markelov, Denis A; Binder, Kurt; Skvortsov, Alexander M

    2013-02-01

    We investigate the effects of the range of adsorption potential on the equilibrium behavior of a single polymer chain end-attached to a solid surface. The exact analytical theory for ideal lattice chains interacting with a planar surface via a box potential of depth U and width W is presented and compared to continuum model results and to Monte Carlo (MC) simulations using the pruned-enriched Rosenbluth method for self-avoiding chains on a simple cubic lattice. We show that the critical value U(c) corresponding to the adsorption transition scales as W(-1/ν), where the exponent ν=1/2 for ideal chains and ν≈3/5 for self-avoiding walks. Lattice corrections for finite W are incorporated in the analytical prediction of the ideal chain theory U(c)≈(π(2)/24)(W+1/2)(-2) and in the best-fit equation for the MC simulation data U(c)=0.585(W+1/2)(-5/3). Tail, loop, and train distributions at the critical point are evaluated by MC simulations for 1≤W≤10 and compared to analytical results for ideal chains and with scaling theory predictions. The behavior of a self-avoiding chain is remarkably close to that of an ideal chain in several aspects. We demonstrate that the bound fraction θ and the related properties of finite ideal and self-avoiding chains can be presented in a universal reduced form: θ(N,U,W)=θ(NU(c),U/U(c)). By utilizing precise estimations of the critical points we investigate the chain length dependence of the ratio of the normal and lateral components of the gyration radius. Contrary to common expectations this ratio attains a limiting universal value /=0.320±0.003 only at N~5000. Finite-N corrections for this ratio turn out to be of the opposite sign for W=1 and for W≥2. We also study the N dependence of the apparent crossover exponent φ(eff)(N). Strong corrections to scaling of order N(-0.5) are observed, and the extrapolated value φ=0.483±0.003 is found for all values of W. The strong correction to scaling effects found here explain why

  2. Beyond the lotus effect: roughness influences on wetting over a wide surface-energy range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spori, Doris M; Drobek, Tanja; Zürcher, Stefan; Ochsner, Mirjam; Sprecher, Christoph; Mühlebach, Andreas; Spencer, Nicholas D

    2008-05-20

    To enhance our understanding of liquids in contact with rough surfaces, a systematic study has been carried out in which water contact angle measurements were performed on a wide variety of rough surfaces with precisely controlled surface chemistry. Surface morphologies consisted of sandblasted glass slides as well as replicas of acid-etched, sandblasted titanium, lotus leaves, and photolithographically manufactured golf-tee shaped micropillars (GTMs). The GTMs display an extraordinarily stable, Cassie-type hydrophobicity, even in the presence of hydrophilic surface chemistry. Due to pinning effects, contact angles on hydrophilic rough surfaces are shifted to more hydrophobic values, unless roughness or surface energy are such that capillary forces become significant, leading to complete wetting. The observed hydrophobicity is thus not consistent with the well-known Wenzel equation. We have shown that the pinning strength of a surface is independent of the surface chemistry, provided that neither capillary forces nor air enclosure are involved. In addition, pinning strength can be described by the axis intercept of the cosine-cosine plot of contact angles for rough versus flat surfaces with the same surface chemistries.

  3. Response of the global surface ozone distribution to Northern Hemisphere sea surface temperature changes: implications for long-range transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Kan; Liu, Junfeng; Ban-Weiss, George; Zhang, Jiachen; Tao, Wei; Cheng, Yanli; Tao, Shu

    2017-07-01

    The response of surface ozone (O3) concentrations to basin-scale warming and cooling of Northern Hemisphere oceans is investigated using the Community Earth System Model (CESM). Idealized, spatially uniform sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies of ±1 °C are individually superimposed onto the North Pacific, North Atlantic, and North Indian oceans. Our simulations suggest large seasonal and regional variability in surface O3 in response to SST anomalies, especially in the boreal summer. The responses of surface O3 associated with basin-scale SST warming and cooling have similar magnitude but are opposite in sign. Increasing the SST by 1 °C in one of the oceans generally decreases the surface O3 concentrations from 1 to 5 ppbv. With fixed emissions, SST increases in a specific ocean basin in the Northern Hemisphere tend to increase the summertime surface O3 concentrations over upwind regions, accompanied by a widespread reduction over downwind continents. We implement the integrated process rate (IPR) analysis in CESM and find that meteorological O3 transport in response to SST changes is the key process causing surface O3 perturbations in most cases. During the boreal summer, basin-scale SST warming facilitates the vertical transport of O3 to the surface over upwind regions while significantly reducing the vertical transport over downwind continents. This process, as confirmed by tagged CO-like tracers, indicates a considerable suppression of intercontinental O3 transport due to increased tropospheric stability at lower midlatitudes induced by SST changes. Conversely, the responses of chemical O3 production to regional SST warming can exert positive effects on surface O3 levels over highly polluted continents, except South Asia, where intensified cloud loading in response to North Indian SST warming depresses both the surface air temperature and solar radiation, and thus photochemical O3 production. Our findings indicate a robust linkage between basin-scale SST

  4. Response of the global surface ozone distribution to Northern Hemisphere sea surface temperature changes: implications for long-range transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Yi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The response of surface ozone (O3 concentrations to basin-scale warming and cooling of Northern Hemisphere oceans is investigated using the Community Earth System Model (CESM. Idealized, spatially uniform sea surface temperature (SST anomalies of ±1 °C are individually superimposed onto the North Pacific, North Atlantic, and North Indian oceans. Our simulations suggest large seasonal and regional variability in surface O3 in response to SST anomalies, especially in the boreal summer. The responses of surface O3 associated with basin-scale SST warming and cooling have similar magnitude but are opposite in sign. Increasing the SST by 1 °C in one of the oceans generally decreases the surface O3 concentrations from 1 to 5 ppbv. With fixed emissions, SST increases in a specific ocean basin in the Northern Hemisphere tend to increase the summertime surface O3 concentrations over upwind regions, accompanied by a widespread reduction over downwind continents. We implement the integrated process rate (IPR analysis in CESM and find that meteorological O3 transport in response to SST changes is the key process causing surface O3 perturbations in most cases. During the boreal summer, basin-scale SST warming facilitates the vertical transport of O3 to the surface over upwind regions while significantly reducing the vertical transport over downwind continents. This process, as confirmed by tagged CO-like tracers, indicates a considerable suppression of intercontinental O3 transport due to increased tropospheric stability at lower midlatitudes induced by SST changes. Conversely, the responses of chemical O3 production to regional SST warming can exert positive effects on surface O3 levels over highly polluted continents, except South Asia, where intensified cloud loading in response to North Indian SST warming depresses both the surface air temperature and solar radiation, and thus photochemical O3 production. Our findings indicate a robust linkage

  5. Modelling UV irradiances on arbitrarily oriented surfaces: effects of sky obstructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hess

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available A method is presented to calculate UV irradiances on inclined surfaces that additionally takes into account the influence of sky obstructions caused by obstacles such as mountains, houses, trees, or umbrellas. With this method it is thus possible to calculate the impact of UV radiation on biological systems, such as, for instance, the human skin or eye, in any natural or artificial environment. The method, which consists of a combination of radiation models, is explained here and the accuracy of its results is demonstrated. The effect of a natural skyline is shown for an Alpine ski area, where the UV irradiance even on a horizontal surface may increase due to reflection from snow by more than 10 percent. In contrast, in a street canyon the irradiance on a horizontal surface is reduced to 30% in shadow and to about 75% for a position in the sun.

  6. Modelling UV irradiances on arbitrarily oriented surfaces: effects of sky obstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, M.; Koepke, P.

    2008-07-01

    A method is presented to calculate UV irradiances on inclined surfaces that additionally takes into account the influence of sky obstructions caused by obstacles such as mountains, houses, trees, or umbrellas. With this method it is thus possible to calculate the impact of UV radiation on biological systems, such as, for instance, the human skin or eye, in any natural or artificial environment. The method, which consists of a combination of radiation models, is explained here and the accuracy of its results is demonstrated. The effect of a natural skyline is shown for an Alpine ski area, where the UV irradiance even on a horizontal surface may increase due to reflection from snow by more than 10 percent. In contrast, in a street canyon the irradiance on a horizontal surface is reduced to 30% in shadow and to about 75% for a position in the sun.

  7. Nanoscale determination of surface orientation and electrostatic properties of ZnO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuniga-Perez, J.; Munoz-Sanjose, V. [Universitat de Valencia, Departament de Fisica Aplicada i Electromagnetisme, Burjassot (Spain); Palacios-Lidon, E.; Colchero, J. [Universidad de Murcia, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Quimica, Campus Espinardo, Murcia (Spain)

    2007-07-15

    Scanning force microscopy related techniques are applied to study surface nanoscale properties. We show that nanogoniometry can be combined with local electrostatic measurements - electrostatic force microscopy and Kelvin probe microscopy - to identify surface planes families and to study their local electrical properties. The scanning force microscopy techniques employed are analyzed and the correct way of acquiring and interpreting data is discussed in detail. The experiments performed on ZnO films grown along the nonpolar [112 anti 0] direction show that these films completely facet into {l_brace}101 anti 11{r_brace} and {l_brace}10 anti 1 anti 1{r_brace} planes, which follow a well defined pattern of surface potential along the [0001 ] direction. This pattern is explained in terms of the different ionic termination - Zn or O ions - of the exposed facets. Finally, the presence of inversion domain boundaries is discussed. (orig.)

  8. Monte Carlo characterization of skin doses in 6 MV transverse field MRI-linac systems: effect of field size, surface orientation, magnetic field strength, and exit bolus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oborn, B M; Metcalfe, P E; Butson, M J; Rosenfeld, A B

    2010-10-01

    The main focus of this work is to continue investigations into the Monte Carlo predicted skin doses seen in MRI-guided radiotherapy. In particular, the authors aim to characterize the 70 microm skin doses over a larger range of magnetic field strength and x-ray field size than in the current literature. The effect of surface orientation on both the entry and exit sides is also studied. Finally, the use of exit bolus is also investigated for minimizing the negative effects of the electron return effect (ERE) on the exit skin dose. High resolution GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulations of a water phantom exposed to a 6 MV x-ray beam (Varian 2100C) have been performed. Transverse magnetic fields of strengths between 0 and 3 T have been applied to a 30 x 30 x 20 cm3 phantom. This phantom is also altered to have variable entry and exit surfaces with respect to the beam central axis and they range from -75 degrees to +75 degrees. The exit bolus simulated is a 1 cm thick (water equivalent) slab located on the beam exit side. On the entry side, significant skin doses at the beam central axis are reported for large positive surface angles and strong magnetic fields. However, over the entry surface angle range of -30 degrees to -60 degrees, the entry skin dose is comparable to or less than the zero magnetic field skin dose, regardless of magnetic field strength and field size. On the exit side, moderate to high central axis skin dose increases are expected except at large positive surface angles. For exit bolus of 1 cm thickness, the central axis exit skin dose becomes an almost consistent value regardless of magnetic field strength or exit surface angle. This is due to the almost complete absorption of the ERE electrons by the bolus. There is an ideal entry angle range of -30 degrees to -60 degrees where entry skin dose is comparable to or less than the zero magnetic field skin dose. Other than this, the entry skin dose increases are significant, especially at higher magnetic

  9. The Influence of Long-Range Surface Forces on the Contact Angle of Nanometric Droplets and Bubbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocco, Antonio; Möhwald, Helmuth

    2015-11-03

    For a droplet or a bubble of dimensions below 100 nm, long-range surface forces such as long-range van der Waals forces can compete with capillarity, which leads to a size dependence of the contact angle. This is discussed in this work, where we also show that the effect cannot simply be described by a normalized line tension. We calculate interfacial profiles for typical values of van der Waals forces and discuss the role of long-range surface forces on the contact angle of nanobubbles and nanodrops.

  10. Tribological investigation of diamond-like carbon coated micro-dimpled surface under bovine serum and osteoarthritis oriented synovial fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Subir; Choudhury, Dipankar; Roy, Taposh; Mamat, Azuddin Bin; Masjuki, H. H.; Pingguan-Murphy, Belinda

    2015-06-01

    Osteoarthritis-oriented synovial fluid (OASF), i.e., that typical of a patient with osteoarthritis, has different physical and biological characteristics than bovine serum (BS), a lubricant widely used in biotribological investigations. Micro-dimpled and diamond-like carbon- (DLC) coated surfaces are key emerging interfaces for orthopedic implants. In this study, tribological performances of dimpled surfaces, with and without DLC coating, have been investigated under both BS and OASF. The friction tests were performed utilizing a pin on a disk tribometer, whereas contact pressure, speed, and temperature were simulated to a ‘medium walking gait’ of hip joint conditions. The mechanical properties of the specimen and the physical properties of the lubricant were characterized before the friction test. Raman analysis was conducted to identify the coating condition both before and after the test. The DLC-coated dimpled surface showed maximum hardness and residual stress. A DLC-coated dimpled surface under an OASF lubricated condition yielded a lower friction coefficient and wear compared to those of plain and dimpled specimens. The higher graphitization of coated materials with increasing load was confirmed by Raman spectroscopy.

  11. Tribological investigation of diamond-like carbon coated micro-dimpled surface under bovine serum and osteoarthritis oriented synovial fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Subir; Roy, Taposh; Pingguan-Murphy, Belinda; Choudhury, Dipankar; Bin Mamat, Azuddin; Masjuki, H H

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis-oriented synovial fluid (OASF), i.e., that typical of a patient with osteoarthritis, has different physical and biological characteristics than bovine serum (BS), a lubricant widely used in biotribological investigations. Micro-dimpled and diamond-like carbon- (DLC) coated surfaces are key emerging interfaces for orthopedic implants. In this study, tribological performances of dimpled surfaces, with and without DLC coating, have been investigated under both BS and OASF. The friction tests were performed utilizing a pin on a disk tribometer, whereas contact pressure, speed, and temperature were simulated to a ‘medium walking gait’ of hip joint conditions. The mechanical properties of the specimen and the physical properties of the lubricant were characterized before the friction test. Raman analysis was conducted to identify the coating condition both before and after the test. The DLC-coated dimpled surface showed maximum hardness and residual stress. A DLC-coated dimpled surface under an OASF lubricated condition yielded a lower friction coefficient and wear compared to those of plain and dimpled specimens. The higher graphitization of coated materials with increasing load was confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. (paper)

  12. Tribological investigation of diamond-like carbon coated micro-dimpled surface under bovine serum and osteoarthritis oriented synovial fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Subir; Choudhury, Dipankar; Roy, Taposh; Bin Mamat, Azuddin; Masjuki, H H; Pingguan-Murphy, Belinda

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis-oriented synovial fluid (OASF), i.e., that typical of a patient with osteoarthritis, has different physical and biological characteristics than bovine serum (BS), a lubricant widely used in biotribological investigations. Micro-dimpled and diamond-like carbon- (DLC) coated surfaces are key emerging interfaces for orthopedic implants. In this study, tribological performances of dimpled surfaces, with and without DLC coating, have been investigated under both BS and OASF. The friction tests were performed utilizing a pin on a disk tribometer, whereas contact pressure, speed, and temperature were simulated to a ‘medium walking gait’ of hip joint conditions. The mechanical properties of the specimen and the physical properties of the lubricant were characterized before the friction test. Raman analysis was conducted to identify the coating condition both before and after the test. The DLC-coated dimpled surface showed maximum hardness and residual stress. A DLC-coated dimpled surface under an OASF lubricated condition yielded a lower friction coefficient and wear compared to those of plain and dimpled specimens. The higher graphitization of coated materials with increasing load was confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. PMID:27877803

  13. Kinetic Electron Emission from Higly Oriented Pyrolytic Graphite Surfaces Induced by Singly Charged Ions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cernusca, S.; Diem, A.; Winter, H. P.; Aumayr, F.; Lörinčík, Jan; Šroubek, Zdeněk

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 193, - (2002), s. 616-620 ISSN 0168-583X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : clean metal-surface * slow * polycrystalline gold Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.158, year: 2002

  14. Diurnal Cycles of High Resolution Land Surface Temperatures (LSTs) Determined from UAV Platforms Across a Range of Surface Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, M.; Rosas Aguilar, J.; Parkes, S. D.; Aragon, B.

    2017-12-01

    Observation of land surface temperature (LST) has many practical uses, from studying boundary layer dynamics and land-atmosphere coupling, to investigating surface properties such as soil moisture status, heat stress and surface heat fluxes. Typically, LST is observed via satellite based sensors such as LandSat or via point measurements using IR radiometers. These measurements provide either good spatial coverage and resolution or good temporal coverage. However, neither are able to provide the needed spatial and temporal resolution for many of the research applications described above. Technological developments in the use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), together with small thermal frame cameras, has enabled a capacity to overcome this spatiotemporal constraint. Utilising UAV platforms to collect LST measurements across diurnal cycles provides an opportunity to study how meteorological and surface properties vary in both space and time. Here we describe the collection of LST data from a multi-rotor UAV across a study domain that is observed multiple times throughout the day. Flights over crops of Rhodes grass and alfalfa, along with a bare desert surface, were repeated with between 8 and 11 surveys covering the period from early morning to sunset. Analysis of the collected thermal imagery shows that the constructed LST maps illustrate a strong diurnal cycle consistent with expected trends, but with considerable spatial and temporal variability observed within and between the different domains. These results offer new insights into the dynamics of land surface behavior in both dry and wet soil conditions and at spatiotemporal scales that are unable to be replicated using traditional satellite platforms.

  15. Population genetic structure and approximate Bayesian computation analyses reveal the southern origin and northward dispersal of the oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in its native range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shu-Jun; Cao, Li-Jun; Gong, Ya-Jun; Shi, Bao-Cai; Wang, Su; Zhang, Fan; Guo, Xiao-Jun; Wang, Yuan-Min; Chen, Xue-Xin

    2015-08-01

    The oriental fruit moth (OFM) Grapholita molesta is one of the most destructive orchard pests. Assumed to be native to China, the moth is now distributed throughout the world. However, the evolutionary history of this moth in its native range remains unknown. In this study, we explored the population genetic structure, dispersal routes and demographic history of the OFM in China and South Korea based on mitochondrial genes and microsatellite loci. The Mantel test indicated a significant correlation between genetic distance and geographical distance in the populations. Bayesian analysis of population genetic structure (baps) identified four nested clusters, while the geneland analysis inferred five genetic groups with spatial discontinuities. Based on the approximate Bayesian computation approach, we found that the OFM was originated from southern China near the Shilin area of Yunnan Province. The early divergence and dispersal of this moth was dated to the Penultimate glaciation of Pleistocene. Further dispersal from southern to northern region of China occurred before the last glacial maximum, while the expansion of population size in the derived populations in northern region of China occurred after the last glacial maximum. Our results indicated that the current distribution and structure of the OFM were complicatedly influenced by climatic and geological events and human activities of cultivation and wide dissemination of peach in ancient China. We provide an example on revealing the origin and dispersal history of an agricultural pest insect in its native range as well as the underlying factors. © 2015 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Orientation of Pterin-6-Carboxylic Acid on Gold Capped Silicon Nanopillars Platforms: Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy and Density Functional Theory Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castillo, John J.; Rozo, Ciro E.; Bertel, Linda

    2016-01-01

    The orientation of pterin-6-carboxylic acid on gold nanopillars was investigated by surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy and density functional theory methods. The experimentally vibrations from pterin-6-COOH free and attached to the Au surface display vibration features indicating chemical...

  17. Application of the surface azimuthal electrical resistivity survey method to determine patterns of regional joint orientation in glacial tills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, D.

    2010-01-01

    Joints within unconsolidated material such as glacial till can be primary avenues for the flow of electrical charge, water, and contaminants. To facilitate the siting and design of remediation programs, a need exists to map anisotropic distribution of such pathways within glacial tills by determining the azimuth of the dominant joint set. The azimuthal survey method uses standard resistivity equipment with a Wenner array rotated about a fixed center point at selected degree intervals that yields an apparent resistivity ellipse. From this ellipse, joint set orientation can be determined. Azimuthal surveys were conducted at 21 sites in a 500-km2 (193 mi2) area around Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and more specifically, at sites having more than 30 m (98 ft) of glacial till (to minimize the influence of underlying bedrock joints). The 26 azimuthal surveys revealed a systematic pattern to the trend of the dominant joint set within the tills, which is approximately parallel to ice flow direction during till deposition. The average orientation of the joint set parallel with the ice flow direction is N77??E and N37??E for the Oak Creek and Ozaukee tills, respectively. The mean difference between average direct observation of joint set orientations and average azimuthal resistivity results is 8??, which is one fifth of the difference of ice flow direction between the Ozaukee and Oak Creek tills. The results of this study suggest that the surface azimuthal electrical resistivity survey method used for local in situ studies can be a useful noninvasive method for delineating joint sets within shallow geologic material for regional studies. Copyright ?? 2010 The American Association of Petroleum Geologists/Division of Environmental Geosciences. All rights reserved.

  18. Detecting surface coal mining areas from remote sensing imagery: an approach based on object-oriented decision trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiaoji; Liu, Zhifeng; He, Chunyang; Ma, Qun; Wu, Jianguo

    2017-01-01

    Detecting surface coal mining areas (SCMAs) using remote sensing data in a timely and an accurate manner is necessary for coal industry management and environmental assessment. We developed an approach to effectively extract SCMAs from remote sensing imagery based on object-oriented decision trees (OODT). This OODT approach involves three main steps: object-oriented segmentation, calculation of spectral characteristics, and extraction of SCMAs. The advantage of this approach lies in its effective integration of the spectral and spatial characteristics of SCMAs so as to distinguish the mining areas (i.e., the extracting areas, stripped areas, and dumping areas) from other areas that exhibit similar spectral features (e.g., bare soils and built-up areas). We implemented this method to extract SCMAs in the eastern part of Ordos City in Inner Mongolia, China. Our results had an overall accuracy of 97.07% and a kappa coefficient of 0.80. As compared with three other spectral information-based methods, our OODT approach is more accurate in quantifying the amount and spatial pattern of SCMAs in dryland regions.

  19. The crystal orientation relation and macroscopic surface roughness in hetero-epitaxial graphene grown on Cu/mica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, J L; Nagashio, K; Nishimura, T; Toriumi, A

    2014-01-01

    Clean, flat and orientation-identified graphene on a substrate is in high demand for graphene electronics. In this study, the hetero-epitaxial graphene growth on Cu(111)/mica(001) by chemical vapor deposition is investigated to check the applicability for top-gate insulator research on graphene, as well as graphene channel research, by transferring graphene on to SiO 2 /Si substrates. After adjusting the graphene growth conditions, the surface roughness of the graphene/Cu/mica substrate and the average smoothed areas are ∼0.34 nm and ∼100 μm 2 , respectively. The orientation of graphene in the graphene/Cu/mica substrate can be identified by the hexagonal void morphology of Cu. Moreover, we demonstrate a relatively high mobility of ∼4500 cm 2 V −1 s −1 in graphene transferred on the SiO 2 /Si substrate. These results suggest that the present graphene/Cu/mica substrate can be used for top-gate insulator research on graphene. (papers)

  20. Turbulent heat transfer on a permeable surface in the range of supercritical gas injections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kichatov, B.V.; Polyaev, V.M.

    1997-01-01

    Gas injection in a permeable surface is used as one of the most perspective ways of thermal protection. Forcing back of the boundary layer from the surface takes place by injection, whereby the friction coefficients and heat exchange are decreased. By certain injection parameter, which is called critical, there takes place the complete forcing back of the boundary layer from the surface. However the process of friction and heat exchange degeneration proceeds nonuniformly. This article is devoted to explanation of the above notice. Analysis of the problem is based on the limiting relative law of heat exchange and friction for a turbulent boundary layer

  1. Hydrogen bonds induced supramolecular self-assembly of azobenzene derivatives on the highly oriented pyrolytic graphite surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Xinrui; Cheng, Zhiyu; Ren, Biye; Deng, Wenli

    2012-08-01

    The self-assembly of azobenzene derivatives (CnAzCOOH) with various lengths of peripheral alkyl chains (with carbon number of n = 8, 10, 12, 14, 16) were observed by scanning tunneling microscopy on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surface. The effect of van der Waals interactions and the intermolecular hydrogen bonding on the two-dimensional self-assembly was systematically studied. No alkyl-chain length effect was observed according to the STM images. All kinds of CnAzCOOH adopting the same pattern self-assembled on the HOPG surface, suggesting the formation of the two-dimensional structures was dominated by the hydrogen bonding of the functional groups. It could be found that two CnAzCOOH molecules formed a hydrogen-bonded dimer with “head-to-head” fashion as expected; however, the dimers organized themselves in the form of relative complex lamellae. Three dimers as a group arranged side by side and formed a well-defined stripe with periodic dislocations due to the registry mechanism of the alkyl chain with the underlying HOPG surface. The hydrogen bonds between the adjacent dimers in one lamella were formed and dominated the self-assembled pattern.

  2. Influence of MgO containing strontium on the structure of ceramic film formed on grain oriented silicon steel surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela C. Leite Vasconcelos

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available The oxide layer formed on the surface of a grain oriented silicon steel was characterized by SEM and EDS. 3% Si steel substrates were coated by two types of slurries: one formed by MgO and water and other formed by MgO, water and SrSO4. The ceramic films were evaluated by SEM, EDS and X-ray diffraction. Depth profiles of Fe, Si and Mg were obtained by GDS. The magnetic core losses (at 1.7 Tesla, 60 Hz of the coated steel samples were evaluated as well. The use of MgO containing strontium reduced the volume fraction of forsterite particles beneath the outermost ceramic layer. It was observed a reduced magnetic core loss with the use of the slurry with MgO containing strontium.

  3. Orientation and Optical Polarized Spectra (380–900 nm of Methylene Blue Crystals on a Glass Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja D. Milošević

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The crystallographic directions of the crystal toward the vector of polarized light can accurately be positioned, so the information that we gain from polarized spectra can be consistently interpreted according to known crystal structure. The orientation and optical properties of the methylene blue (MB crystals were analyzed by XRD, XRPD, and polarized VIS-NIR spectroscopy. Cationic dye, MB, was polymerized into crystals on a glass slate. The blue color crystals showed pronounced dichroism, twin lamellar structure and bladed to fibrous habit. According to XRD data, [010] direction lies perpendicular to the crystal surface, so we recognized it as (0k0 face, while [100] and [001] directions coincide with crystal elongation and crystal thickness respectively. In this paper, the polarized spectra of MB crystal are presented, measured with the aim of acquisition of referent values, which could be helpful for the identification of MB molecular aggregation.

  4. Injection molding of nanopatterned surfaces in the sub-micrometer range with induction heating aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menotti, Stefano; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Bissacco, Giuliano

    2014-01-01

    Replication of sub-micrometer structures by injection molding leads to special requirements for the mold in order to ensure proper replica and acceptable cycle time. This paper investigates the applicability of induction heating embedded into the mold for the improvement of nanopattern replication...... as materials, and heating parameters were investigated after a preliminary optimization with standard heating conditions. The replicated surfaces were quantitatively characterized by atomic force microscopy using specific three-dimensional surface amplitude parameters and qualitatively inspected by scanning...

  5. Magnetic frustration, short-range correlations and the role of the paramagnetic Fermi surface of PdCrO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billington, David; Ernsting, David; Millichamp, Thomas E.; Lester, Christopher; Dugdale, Stephen B.; Kersh, David; Duffy, Jonathan A.; Giblin, Sean R.; Taylor, Jonathan W.; Manuel, Pascal; Khalyavin, Dmitry D.; Takatsu, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Frustrated interactions exist throughout nature, with examples ranging from protein folding through to frustrated magnetic interactions. Whilst magnetic frustration is observed in numerous electrically insulating systems, in metals it is a rare phenomenon. The interplay of itinerant conduction electrons mediating interactions between localised magnetic moments with strong spin-orbit coupling is likely fundamental to these systems. Therefore, knowledge of the precise shape and topology of the Fermi surface is important in any explanation of the magnetic behaviour. PdCrO2, a frustrated metallic magnet, offers the opportunity to examine the relationship between magnetic frustration, short-range magnetic order and Fermi surface topology. By mapping the short-range order in reciprocal space and experimentally determining the electronic structure, we have identified the dual role played by the Cr electrons in which the itinerant ones on the nested paramagnetic Fermi surface mediate the frustrated magnetic interactions between local moments. PMID:26206589

  6. Identification of air and sea-surface targets with a laser range profiler

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, J.C. van den; Schoemaker, R.M.; Schleijpen, H.M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Current coastal operations have to deal with threats at short range in complex environments with both neutral and hostile targets. There is a need for fast identification, which is possible with a laser range profiler. A number of field trials have been conducted to validate the concept of

  7. Surface Plasmon-Polaritons and Transverse Spin Angular Momentum at the Boundary of Hyperbolic Metamaterial with Arbitrary Orientation of the Optical Axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Belyi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The possibility is established and the conditions are found for localization of plasmon-polaritons (PPs near the boundaries of hyperbolic metamaterials (HMs of both I and II types with arbitrary orientation of the optical axis. It is grounded that such surface PP has the transverse spin momentum which depends on the wavelength of the exciting wave, the orientation of the optical axis of the hyperbolic metamaterial, and dielectric properties of bordered media.

  8. Crystal Orientation and Electrical Properties of Tin Oxide Transparent Conducting Films Deposited on Rutile Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Y.; Hashimoto, Y.; Hoshi, Y.; Uchida, T.; Kobayashi, S.; Sun, L.; Yue, B.

    2017-10-01

    Thin films of tin oxide (SnO2) without doping are attractive transparent conducting film since environmentally unfavorable elements of antimony or fluorine are eliminated. Tin oxide films without doping were fabricated very cheaply on (001) and (100) planes of single crystal of rutile (TiO2) by spray chemical vapor deposition (mist CVD). The film deposited on rutile (001) surface was poorly epitaxial (double domain) but with higher mobility (24 cm2 V-1 s-1) and lower resistivity (1.6×10-3 Ω cm) than that deposited on glass substrate (16 cm2 V-1 s-1 and 2.4×10-3 Ω cm) for reference. Deposition on rutile (100) surface resulted in better epitaxial growth (single domain). The mobility (39 cm2 V-1 s-1) and the carrier electron density (2.7×1020 cm-3) were much higher. The resistivity (6.2×10-4 Ω cm) was compatible with those doped with antimony or fluorine and will be the lowest among tin oxide films without doping.

  9. Influence of surface position along the working range of conoscopic holography sensors on dimensional verification of AISI 316 wire EDM machined surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Pedro; Blanco, David; Rico, Carlos; Valiño, Gonzalo; Mateos, Sabino

    2014-03-06

    Conoscopic holography (CH) is a non-contact interferometric technique used for surface digitization which presents several advantages over other optical techniques such as laser triangulation. Among others, the ability for the reconstruction of high-sloped surfaces stands out, and so does its lower dependence on surface optical properties. Nevertheless, similarly to other optical systems, adjustment of CH sensors requires an adequate selection of configuration parameters for ensuring a high quality surface digitizing. This should be done on a surface located as close as possible to the stand-off distance by tuning frequency (F) and power (P) until the quality indicators Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) and signal envelope (Total) meet proper values. However, not all the points of an actual surface are located at the stand-off distance, but they could be located throughout the whole working range (WR). Thus, the quality of a digitized surface may not be uniform. The present work analyses how the quality of a reconstructed surface is affected by its relative position within the WR under different combinations of the parameters F and P. Experiments have been conducted on AISI 316 wire EDM machined flat surfaces. The number of high-quality points digitized as well as distance measurements between different surfaces throughout the WR allowed for comparing the metrological behaviour of the CH sensor with respect to a touch probe (TP) on a CMM.

  10. Influence of Surface Position along the Working Range of Conoscopic Holography Sensors on Dimensional Verification of AISI 316 Wire EDM Machined Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Fernández

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Conoscopic holography (CH is a non-contact interferometric technique used for surface digitization which presents several advantages over other optical techniques such as laser triangulation. Among others, the ability for the reconstruction of high-sloped surfaces stands out, and so does its lower dependence on surface optical properties. Nevertheless, similarly to other optical systems, adjustment of CH sensors requires an adequate selection of configuration parameters for ensuring a high quality surface digitizing. This should be done on a surface located as close as possible to the stand-off distance by tuning frequency (F and power (P until the quality indicators Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR and signal envelope (Total meet proper values. However, not all the points of an actual surface are located at the stand-off distance, but they could be located throughout the whole working range (WR. Thus, the quality of a digitized surface may not be uniform. The present work analyses how the quality of a reconstructed surface is affected by its relative position within the WR under different combinations of the parameters F and P. Experiments have been conducted on AISI 316 wire EDM machined flat surfaces. The number of high-quality points digitized as well as distance measurements between different surfaces throughout the WR allowed for comparing the metrological behaviour of the CH sensor with respect to a touch probe (TP on a CMM.

  11. Squeezing Molecularly thin Lubricant Films between curved Corrugated Surfaces with long range Elasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Samoilov, Vladimir N.; Persson, Bo N. J.

    2010-01-01

    one being associated with devastating wear progress. The properties of alkane lubricants confined between two approaching solids are investigated by a model that accounts for the roughness, curvature and elastic properties of the solid surfaces. We consider linear alkanes of different chain lengths, C......The present work investigates the ability of two nm thick lubrication films to stay in a contact and thereby to prevent excessive wear of the surfaces. At this thickness the film is no longer a fluid but it is the very important intermediate between the lubricated and the dry regimes, the latter......3H8, C4H10, C8H18, C9H20, C10H22, C14H30 and C16H34, confined between corrugated gold surfaces. Well defined molecular layers develop in the lubricant film when the width is of the order of a few atomic diameters. An external squeezing pressure induces discontinuous, thermally activated changes...

  12. Long-range attractive forces extending from the alumina’s nanolayer surface in aqueous solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid A. Kaledin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum oxide-hydroxide nanolayer with a thickness of approximately 1.2 nm is electroadhesively deposited onto silicious support material with large surface area of about 50 m2/g, forming a highly electropositive composite of boehmite nanolayer in the form of monocrystalline oxide/hydroxide (α-Al2O3·H2O on the second electronegative solid. The composite can be viewed as a sphere with a rough surface and charge density of approximately 0.08 C/m2. This creates a significant electric field with negligible screening (ka ≪ 1 in the region close to the surface of the nanocomposite. This field attracts nano- and micron-sized particles from as far as 200 μm in a few seconds, many orders of magnitude greater than conventional Derjaguin–Landau–Verwey–Overbeek (DLVO theory, which predicts only nanometer-scale effects arising from the presence of the surface. The strong electric field on the surface is then able to retain small particles such as viruses, atomically thin sheets of graphene oxide, RNA, DNA, proteins, dyes as well as heavy metals such as cobalt, arsenic, and lead. Alumina’s nanolayer surface can be further functionalized by adding other sub-micron or nano-sized particles to target a specific contaminant. An example is shown where alumina nanolayer is coated with nano-sized iron monohydrate to yield an arsenic sorbent that shows high sorption capacity.

  13. Low Friction and Wear Surface for Application over a Wide Range of Temperature

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bhattacharya, Rabi

    1997-01-01

    ...) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), both before and after exposure to high temperatures (up to 700 deg C) in air. Friction measurements were performed at temperatures in the range of room temperature to 700 deg C in air...

  14. Photonic bandgap structures for guiding of long-range surface plasmon polaritons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leosson, K.; Nikolajsen, T.; Boltasseva, Alexandra

    2003-01-01

    We present the first observations of long-range plasmon polariton guiding in photonic bandgap structures. The transmission of waveguide structures is characterized at telecommunication wavelengths and a propagation loss below 4 dB/mm is determined.......We present the first observations of long-range plasmon polariton guiding in photonic bandgap structures. The transmission of waveguide structures is characterized at telecommunication wavelengths and a propagation loss below 4 dB/mm is determined....

  15. The effect of impurities on the surface melt of a glacier in the Suntar Khayata Mountain Range, Russian Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nozomu eTakeuchi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated characteristics of impurities and their impact on the ablation of Glacier No.31 in the Suntar-Khayata Mountain Range in Russian Siberia during summer 2014. Positive degree-day factors (PDDFs obtained from 20 stake measurements distributed across the glacier’s ablation area varied from 3.00 to 8.55 mm w.e. K-1 day-1. The surface reflectivity measured with a spectrometer as a proxy for albedo, ranged from 0.09 to 0.62, and was negatively correlated with the PDDF, suggesting that glacier ablation is controlled by surface albedo on the studied glacier. Mass of total insoluble impurities on the ice surface varied from 0.1 to 45.2 g m-2 and was not correlated with surface reflectivity, suggesting that albedo is not directly conditioned by the mass of the impurities. Microscopy of impurities revealed that they comprised mineral particles, cryoconite granules, and ice algal cells filled with dark-reddish pigments (Ancylonema nordenskioldii. There was a significant negative correlation between surface reflectivity and algal biomass or organic matter, suggesting that the ice algae and their products are the most effective constituents in defining glacier surface albedo. Our results suggest that the melting of ice surface was enhanced by the growth of ice algae, which increased the melting rate 1.6 - 2.6 times greater than that of the impurity free bare-ice.

  16. Communication: Salt-induced water orientation at a surface of non-ionic surfactant in relation to a mechanism of Hofmeister effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hishida, Mafumi; Kaneko, Yohei; Okuno, Masanari; Yamamura, Yasuhisa; Ishibashi, Taka-aki; Saito, Kazuya, E-mail: kazuya@chem.tsukuba.ac.jp [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan)

    2015-05-07

    The behavior of water molecules at the surface of nonionic surfactant (monomyristolein) and effects of monovalent ions on the behavior are investigated using the heterodyne-detected vibrational sum frequency generation spectroscopy. It is found that water molecules at the surface are oriented with their hydrogen atoms pointing to the bulk, and that the degree of orientation depends on the anion strongly but weakly on the cation. With measured surface potentials in those saline solutions, it is concluded that the heterogeneous distribution of anions and cations in combination with the nonionic surfactant causes the water orientation. This heterogeneous distribution well explains the contrasting order of anions and cations with respect to the ion size in the Hofmeister series.

  17. Preventing protein adsorption from a range of surfaces using an aqueous fish protein extract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pillai, Saju; Arpanaei, Ayyoob; Meyer, Rikke L.

    2009-01-01

    We utilize an aqueous extract of fish proteins (FPs) as a coating for minimizing the adsorption of fibrinogen (Fg) and human serum albumin (HSA). The surfaces include stainless steel (SS), gold (Au), silicon dioxide (SiO2), and poly(styrene) (PS). The adsorption processes (kinetics and adsorbed...

  18. Long-Range Forecasting of Surface Air Temperature and Precipitation for the Korean Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    from the southeast area and Pusan (the second largest city in South Korea). The volcanic island of Cheju-do is located in the southern portion of this...highest correlation magnitude is to the northeast of Madagascar in the Indian Ocean. 35 Correlation of sea surface temperatures (SSTs) for Dec

  19. On the diurnal ranges of Sea Surface Temperature (SST) in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The variability of sea surface temperature (SST) is widely studied due to its large impact on ocean–atmosphere interaction. Kawai and Wada. (2007) provides an excellent review on the impor- tance of the diurnal variability of SST on air– sea interaction. Diurnal variations in the SST affect longer time-scale variability events ...

  20. Oriented Nucleation of both Ge-Fresnoite and Benitoite/BaGe4O9 during the Surface Crystallisation of Glass Studied by Electron Backscatter Diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniewski, Wolfgang; Patschger, Marek; Murdzheva, Steliana; Thieme, Christian; Rüssel, Christian

    2016-02-01

    Two glasses of the compositions 2 BaO - TiO2 - 2.75 GeO2 and 2 BaO - TiO2 -3.67 GeO2 (also known as BTG55) are annealed at temperatures from 680 to 970 °C to induce surface crystallization. The resulting samples are analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) including electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). Ge-Fresnoite (Ba2TiGe2O8, BTG) is observed at the immediate surface of all samples and oriented nucleation is proven in both compositions. After a very fast kinetic selection, the crystal growth of BTG into the bulk occurs via highly oriented dendrites where the c-axes are oriented perpendicular to the surface. The growth of this oriented layer is finally blocked by dendritc BTG originating from bulk nucleation. The secondary phases BaTiGe3O9 (benitoite) and BaGe4O9 are also identified near the surface by XRD and localized by EBSD which additionally indicates orientation preferences for these phases. This behaviour is in contrast with previous reports from the Ba2TiSi2O8 as well as the Sr2TiSi2O8 systems.

  1. Nano- and femtosecond UV laser pulses to immobilize biomolecules onto surfaces with preferential orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettieri, S.; Avitabile, A.; Della Ventura, B.; Funari, R.; Ambrosio, A.; Maddalena, P.; Valadan, M.; Velotta, R.; Altucci, C.

    2014-10-01

    By relying on the photonic immobilization technique of antibodies onto surfaces, we realized portable biosensors for light molecules based on the use of quartz crystal microbalances, given the linear dependence of the method on the laser pulse intensity. Here, we compare the quality of the anchoring method when using nanosecond (260 nm, 25 mJ/pulse, 5 ns, 10 Hz rep. rate) and femtosecond (258 nm, 25 μJ/pulse, 150 fs, 10 kHz rep. rate) laser source, delivering the same energy to the sample with the same average power. As a reference, we also tethered untreated antibodies by means of the passive adsorption. The results are striking: When the antibodies are irradiated with the femtosecond pulses, the deposition on the gold plate is much more ordered than in the other two cases. The effects of UV pulses irradiation onto the antibodies are also analyzed by measuring absorption and fluorescence and suggest the occurrence of remarkable degradation when nanosecond pulses are used likely induced by a larger thermal coupling. In view of the high average power required to activate the antibodies for the achievement of the photonic immobilization technique, we conclude that femtosecond rather than nanosecond laser pulses have to be used.

  2. Impact of Molecular Orientation and Packing Density on Electronic Polarization in the Bulk and at Surfaces of Organic Semiconductors

    KAUST Repository

    Ryno, Sean

    2016-05-16

    The polarizable environment surrounding charge carriers in organic semiconductors impacts the efficiency of the charge transport process. Here, we consider two representative organic semiconductors, tetracene and rubrene, and evaluate their polarization energies in the bulk and at the organic-vacuum interface using a polarizable force field that accounts for induced-dipole and quadrupole interactions. Though both oligoacenes pack in a herringbone motif, the tetraphenyl substituents on the tetracene backbone of rubrene alter greatly the nature of the packing. The resulting change in relative orientations of neighboring molecules is found to reduce the bulk polarization energy of holes in rubrene by some 0.3 eV when compared to tetracene. The consideration of model organic-vacuum interfaces highlights the significant variation in the electrostatic environment for a charge carrier at a surface although the net change in polarization energy is small; interestingly, the environment of a charge even just one layer removed from the surface can be viewed already as representative of the bulk. Overall, it is found that in these herringbone-type layered crystals the polarization energy has a much stronger dependence on the intralayer packing density than interlayer packing density.

  3. Experimental demonstration of CMOS-compatible long-range dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides (LR-DLSPPWs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zektzer, Roy; Desiatov, Boris; Mazurski, Noa

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate the design, fabrication and experimental characterization of long-range dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides (LR-DLSPPWs) that are compatible with complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology. The demonstrated waveguides feature good mode confinement...

  4. Dynamic range of nanoresonators with random rough surfaces in the presence of thermomechanical and momentum exchange noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palasantzas, G.

    2007-01-01

    The authors investigate the simultaneous influence of thermomechanical and momentum exchange noise on the linear dynamic range DR of nanoresonators with random rough surfaces. The latter are characterized by the roughness amplitude w, the lateral correlation length xi, and the roughness exponent 0

  5. Conceptual Model for the Transport of Energetic Residues from Surface Soil to Groundwater by Range Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    fluidized - bed reactors. Although engineered biological reduction of per- chlorate for drinking water has been demonstrated, the application of this...Hence, slow transport of TNT from the soil bed is a limiting fac- tor in the phytoremediation or bioremediation of TNT. Fluxes were, in de- creasing...for RDX and HMX were estimated using mass-to-surface-area ratios for each ex- plosive based on military specifications for acceptable granulation

  6. Influence of CuO catalyst in the nanoscale range on SnO2 surface ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The dispersal of CuO catalyst on the surface of the semiconducting SnO2 film is found to be of vital importance for improving the sensitivity and the response speed of a SnO2 gas sensor for H2S gas detection. Ultra-thin CuO islands (8 nm thin and 0.6 mm diameter) prepared by evaporating Cu through a mesh and ...

  7. Influence of CuO catalyst in the nanoscale range on SnO2 surface ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The dispersal of CuO catalyst on the surface of the semiconducting SnO2 film is found to be of vital importance for improving the sensitivity and the response speed of a SnO2 gas sensor for H2S gas detection. Ultra-thin CuO islands (8 nm thin and. 0.6 mm diameter) prepared by evaporating Cu through a mesh and ...

  8. Addressing Spatial Variability of Surface-Layer Wind with Long-Range WindScanners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Jacob; Vasiljevic, Nikola; Kelly, Mark C.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of mean wind measurements from a coordinated system of long-range WindScanners. From individual scan patterns the mean wind field was reconstructed over a large area, and hence it highlights the spatial variability. From comparison with sonic anemometers, the quality...

  9. On the diurnal ranges of Sea Surface Temperature (SST) in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A simple regression model based on the peak solar radiation and average wind speed was good enough to estimate the diurnal range of SST at ∼1.0 m in the north Indian Ocean during most of the seasons except under low wind-high solar radiation conditions that occur mostly during spring. The additional information on ...

  10. Short-range surface plasmonics: Localized electron emission dynamics from a 60-nm spot on an atomically flat single-crystalline gold surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Bettina; Kahl, Philip; Podbiel, Daniel; Spektor, Grisha; Orenstein, Meir; Fu, Liwei; Weiss, Thomas; Horn-von Hoegen, Michael; Davis, Timothy J; Meyer Zu Heringdorf, Frank-J; Giessen, Harald

    2017-07-01

    We experimentally and theoretically visualize the propagation of short-range surface plasmon polaritons using atomically flat single-crystalline gold platelets on silicon substrates. We study their excitation and subfemtosecond dynamics via normal-incidence two-photon photoemission electron microscopy. By milling a plasmonic disk and grating structure into a single-crystalline gold platelet, we observe nanofocusing of the short-range surface plasmon polariton. Localized two-photon ultrafast electron emission from a spot with a smallest dimension of 60 nm is observed. Our novel approach opens the door toward reproducible plasmonic nanofocusing devices, which do not degrade upon high light intensity or heating due to the atomically flat surface without any tips, protrusions, or holes. Our nanofoci could also be used as local emitters for ultrafast electron bunches in time-resolved electron microscopes.

  11. SERS and in situ SERS spectroscopy of riboflavin adsorbed on silver, gold and copper substrates. Elucidation of variability of surface orientation based on both experimental and theoretical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dendisová-Vyškovská, Marcela; Kokaislová, Alžběta; Ončák, Milan; Matějka, Pavel

    2013-04-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering and in situ surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectra have been collected to study influences of (i) used metal and (ii) applied electrode potential on orientation of adsorbed riboflavin molecules. Special in situ SERS spectroelectrochemical cell was used to obtain in situ SERS spectra of riboflavin adsorbed on silver, gold and copper nanostructured surfaces. Varying electrode potential was applied in discrete steps forming a cycle from positive values to negative and backward. Observed spectral features in in situ SERS spectra, measured at alternate potentials, have been changing very significantly and the spectra have been compared with SERS spectra of riboflavin measured ex situ. Raman spectra of single riboflavin molecule in the vicinity to metal (Ag, Au and Cu) clusters have been calculated for different mutual positions. The results demonstrate significant changes of bands intensities which can be correlated with experimental spectra measured at different potentials. Thus, the orientation of riboflavin molecules adsorbed on metal surfaces can be elucidated. It is influenced definitely by the value of applied potential. Furthermore, the riboflavin adsorption orientation on the surface depends on the used metal. Adsorption geometries on the copper substrates are more diverse in comparison with the orientations on silver and gold substrates.

  12. One-level modeling for diagnosing surface winds over complex terrain. II - Applicability to short-range forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpert, P.; Getenio, B.; Zak-Rosenthal, R.

    1988-01-01

    The Alpert and Getenio (1988) modification of the Mass and Dempsey (1985) one-level sigma-surface model was used to study four synoptic events that included two winter cases (a Cyprus low and a Siberian high) and two summer cases. Results of statistical verification showed that the model is not only capable of diagnosing many details of surface mesoscale flow, but might also be useful for various applications which require operative short-range prediction of the diurnal changes of high-resolution surface flow over complex terrain, for example, in locating wildland fires, determining the dispersion of air pollutants, and predicting changes in wind energy or of surface wind for low-level air flights.

  13. Probing the orientation of surface-immobilized protein G B1 using ToF-SIMS, sum frequency generation, and NEXAFS spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baugh, Loren; Weidner, Tobias; Baio, J E; Nguyen, Phuong-Cac T; Gamble, Lara J; Stayton, Patrick S; Castner, David G

    2010-11-02

    The ability to orient active proteins on surfaces is a critical aspect of many medical technologies. An important related challenge is characterizing protein orientation in these surface films. This study uses a combination of time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy, and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy to characterize the orientation of surface-immobilized Protein G B1, a rigid 6 kDa domain that binds the Fc fragment of IgG. Two Protein G B1 variants with a single cysteine introduced at either end were immobilized via the cysteine thiol onto maleimide-oligo(ethylene glycol)-functionalized gold and bare gold substrates. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to measure the amount of immobilized protein, and ToF-SIMS was used to measure the amino acid composition of the exposed surface of the protein films and to confirm covalent attachment of protein thiol to the substrate maleimide groups. SFG and NEXAFS were used to characterize the ordering and orientation of peptide or side chain bonds. On both substrates and for both cysteine positions, ToF-SIMS data showed enrichment of mass peaks from amino acids located at the end of the protein opposite to the cysteine surface position as compared with nonspecifically immobilized protein, indicating end-on protein orientations. Orientation on the maleimide substrate was enhanced by increasing pH (7.0-9.5) and salt concentration (0-1.5 M NaCl). SFG spectral peaks characteristic of ordered α-helix and β-sheet elements were observed for both variants but not for cysteine-free wild type protein on the maleimide surface. The phase of the α-helix and β-sheet peaks indicated a predominantly upright orientation for both variants, consistent with an end-on protein binding configuration. Polarization dependence of the NEXAFS signal from the N 1s to π* transition of β-sheet peptide bonds also indicated protein ordering

  14. Probing the Orientation of Surface Immobilized Protein G B1 using ToF SIMS, Sum Frequency Generation, and NEXAFS Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baugh, Loren; Weidner, Tobias; Baio, J.E.; Nguyen, Phuong Cac; Gamble, Lara J.; Stayton, Patrick S.; Castner, David G.

    2010-01-01

    The ability to orient active proteins on surfaces is a critical aspect of many medical technologies. An important related challenge is characterizing protein orientation in these surface films. This study uses a combination of time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy, and near edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy to characterize the orientation of surface-immobilized Protein G B1, a rigid 6 kDa domain that binds the Fc fragment of IgG. Two Protein G B1 variants with a single cysteine introduced at either end were immobilized via the cysteine thiol onto maleimide-oligo(ethylene glycol)-functionalized gold and bare gold substrates. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to measure the amount of immobilized protein and ToF-SIMS was used to measure the amino acid composition of the exposed surface of the protein films and to confirm covalent attachment of protein thiol to the substrate maleimide groups. SFG and NEXAFS were used to characterize the ordering and orientation of peptide or side chain bonds. On both substrates and for both cysteine positions, ToF-SIMS data showed enrichment of mass peaks from amino acids located at the end of the protein opposite the cysteine surface position compared with nonspecifically immobilized protein, indicating end-on protein orientations. Orientation on the maleimide substrate was enhanced by increasing pH (7.0 to 9.5) and salt concentration (0 to 1.5 M NaCl). SFG spectral peaks characteristic of ordered α-helix and β-sheet elements were observed for both variants but not for cysteine-free wild type protein on the maleimide surface. The phase of the α-helix and β-sheet peaks indicated a predominantly upright orientation for both variants, consistent with an end-on protein binding configuration. Polarization dependence of the NEXAFS signal from the N 1s toπ* transition of β-sheet peptide bonds also indicated protein ordering

  15. Mapping DNA cleavage by the Type ISP restriction-modification enzymes following long-range communication between DNA sites in different orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Aelst, Kara; Saikrishnan, Kayarat; Szczelkun, Mark D.

    2015-01-01

    The prokaryotic Type ISP restriction-modification enzymes are single-chain proteins comprising an Mrr-family nuclease, a superfamily 2 helicase-like ATPase, a coupler domain, a methyltransferase, and a DNA-recognition domain. Upon recognising an unmodified DNA target site, the helicase-like domain hydrolyzes ATP to cause site release (remodeling activity) and to then drive downstream translocation consuming 1–2 ATP per base pair (motor activity). On an invading foreign DNA, double-strand breaks are introduced at random wherever two translocating enzymes form a so-called collision complex following long-range communication between a pair of target sites in inverted (head-to-head) repeat. Paradoxically, structural models for collision suggest that the nuclease domains are too far apart (>30 bp) to dimerise and produce a double-strand DNA break using just two strand-cleavage events. Here, we examined the organisation of different collision complexes and how these lead to nuclease activation. We mapped DNA cleavage when a translocating enzyme collides with a static enzyme bound to its site. By following communication between sites in both head-to-head and head-to-tail orientations, we could show that motor activity leads to activation of the nuclease domains via distant interactions of the helicase or MTase-TRD. Direct nuclease dimerization is not required. To help explain the observed cleavage patterns, we also used exonuclease footprinting to demonstrate that individual Type ISP domains can swing off the DNA. This study lends further support to a model where DNA breaks are generated by multiple random nicks due to mobility of a collision complex with an overall DNA-binding footprint of ∼30 bp. PMID:26507855

  16. Mapping DNA cleavage by the Type ISP restriction-modification enzymes following long-range communication between DNA sites in different orientations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Aelst, Kara; Saikrishnan, Kayarat; Szczelkun, Mark D

    2015-12-02

    The prokaryotic Type ISP restriction-modification enzymes are single-chain proteins comprising an Mrr-family nuclease, a superfamily 2 helicase-like ATPase, a coupler domain, a methyltransferase, and a DNA-recognition domain. Upon recognising an unmodified DNA target site, the helicase-like domain hydrolyzes ATP to cause site release (remodeling activity) and to then drive downstream translocation consuming 1-2 ATP per base pair (motor activity). On an invading foreign DNA, double-strand breaks are introduced at random wherever two translocating enzymes form a so-called collision complex following long-range communication between a pair of target sites in inverted (head-to-head) repeat. Paradoxically, structural models for collision suggest that the nuclease domains are too far apart (>30 bp) to dimerise and produce a double-strand DNA break using just two strand-cleavage events. Here, we examined the organisation of different collision complexes and how these lead to nuclease activation. We mapped DNA cleavage when a translocating enzyme collides with a static enzyme bound to its site. By following communication between sites in both head-to-head and head-to-tail orientations, we could show that motor activity leads to activation of the nuclease domains via distant interactions of the helicase or MTase-TRD. Direct nuclease dimerization is not required. To help explain the observed cleavage patterns, we also used exonuclease footprinting to demonstrate that individual Type ISP domains can swing off the DNA. This study lends further support to a model where DNA breaks are generated by multiple random nicks due to mobility of a collision complex with an overall DNA-binding footprint of ∼30 bp. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  17. Controlling the Short-Range Propagation Environment Using Active Frequency Selective Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Subrt

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a new approach to the control of the propagation environment in indoor scenarios using intelligent walls. The intelligent wall is a conventional wall situated inside a building, but equipped with an active frequency selective surface and sensors. The intelligent wall can be designed as a self-configuring and self-optimizing autonomous part of a collaborative infrastructure working within a high-capacity mobile radio system. The paper shows how such surfaces can be used to adjust the electromagnetic characteristics of the wall in response to changes in traffic demand, monitored using a network of sensors, thereby controlling the propagation environment inside the building. Some of the potential problems (mainly controlling coverage and interference relating to an increased usage of wireless systems both inside and outside buildings are discussed and possible solutions using intelligent walls with the active FSS are suggested. The positive influence of intelligent walls on system performance is shown and results obtained from the simulations are shown and discussed.

  18. HIGH-RESOLUTION SURFACE RECONSTRUCTION FROM IMAGERY FOR CLOSE RANGE CULTURAL HERITAGE APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Wenzel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The recording of high resolution point clouds with sub-mm resolution is a demanding and cost intensive task, especially with current equipment like handheld laser scanners. We present an image based approached, where techniques of image matching and dense surface reconstruction are combined with a compact and affordable rig of off-the-shelf industry cameras. Such cameras provide high spatial resolution with low radiometric noise, which enables a one-shot solution and thus an efficient data acquisition while satisfying high accuracy requirements. However, the largest drawback of image based solutions is often the acquisition of surfaces with low texture where the image matching process might fail. Thus, an additional structured light projector is employed, represented here by the pseudo-random pattern projector of the Microsoft Kinect. Its strong infrared-laser projects speckles of different sizes. By using dense image matching techniques on the acquired images, a 3D point can be derived for almost each pixel. The use of multiple cameras enables the acquisition of a high resolution point cloud with high accuracy for each shot. For the proposed system up to 3.5 Mio. 3D points with sub-mm accuracy can be derived per shot. The registration of multiple shots is performed by Structure and Motion reconstruction techniques, where feature points are used to derive the camera positions and rotations automatically without initial information.

  19. Investigation of Range Profiles from a Simplified Ship on Rough Sea Surface and Its Multipath Imaging Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siyuan He

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The range profiles of a two-dimension (2 D perfect electric conductor (PEC ship on a wind-driven rough sea surface are derived by performing an inverse discrete Fourier transform (IDFT on the wide band backscattered field. The rough sea surface is assuming to be a PEC surface. The back scattered field is computed based on EM numerical simulation when the frequencies are sampled between 100 MHz and 700 MHz. Considering the strong coupling interactions between the ship and sea, the complicated multipath effect to the range profile characteristics is fully analyzed based on the multipath imaging mechanisms. The coupling mechanisms could be explained by means of ray theory prediction and numerical extraction of the coupling currents. The comparison of the range profile locations between ray theory prediction and surface current simulation is implemented and analyzed in this paper. Finally, the influence of different sea states on the radar target signatures has been examined and discussed.

  20. Bardenas Reales Range, Spain. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (Russwo). Parts A-F.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-06-30

    VAIIIL .3. _____ i TOTAL NUMBER OF OBSERVATIONS 141, USAFETAC Ft6 0-8-5 ( EL A) IP0Mvous SO)T)OOS OF THI OIl S 0* 8oLMT0 -f--. .. ’ . ___ SURFACE...88 4 8 88 8 88a8 A 6 ; 8.4 89.2 ;39.5 b9. 5 9 9.8: 89.9; A9.9, 90. 1 90. 9,.l 90.1 90.11) 0. el 90.3 91.2! 92.0 cI2.3* -9 2 7zj 92.81 92.8 93.0 93: q...00.0 TOTAL NUMBER OF OBSERVATIONS - 147 USAF )TAC ’ 0-4-5 L A , , ’) f.I 0 0 tn-t.c DATA P’ CESSIJC tifO -CH V RU /,DIT USAF ETAC CEILING VES S IIBLT AI

  1. Nitrogen diffusion in near-surface range of ion doped molybdenum

    CERN Document Server

    Zamalin, E Y

    2001-01-01

    The dynamics of change in nitrogen near-the-surface concentration in the Mo ion-alloyed monocrystalline foil is studied through the Auger-electron spectroscopy and the secondary ion mass spectrometry. The implantation dose constituted 5 x 10 sup 1 sup 7 ion/cm sup 2 and the implantation energy equaled 50 and 100 keV. The samples diffusion annealing was performed at the temperature of 800-900 deg C. The evaluation of the nitrogen diffusion coefficient indicates the values by 3-5 orders lesser than the diffusion coefficient in the nitrogen solid-state solution in the molybdenum. At the same time the molybdenum self-diffusion coefficient value is by 3-5 orders lesser as compared to the obtained value. The supposition is made, the the surplus nitrogen relative to the solubility limit is deposited on the radiation defects and in the process of the diffusion annealing it nitrates together with them

  2. Surface and adsorbate structural studies by photoemission in the hν = 50-500 eV range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirley, D.A.

    1979-08-01

    The present status of photoelectron spectroscopy in the 50-500 eV range is discussed in relation to its application to surface science. Instrumentation aspects of synchrotron radiation sources are reviewed. The direct transition model is shown to be applicable in this range with some limitations. Cooper minima and adsorbate sensitivity enhancement for hν > 100 eV are reviewed. A new effect--condensed phase photoelectron asymmetry--is noted. Finally, photoelectron diffraction - another new effect - is described and evaluated

  3. Effect of Channel Orientation and Rib Pitch-to-Height Ratio on Pressure Drop in a Rotating Square Channel with Ribs on Two Opposite Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhu S. V.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of channel orientation and rib pitch-to-height ratio on the pressure drop distribution in a rib-roughened channel is an important issue in turbine blade cooling. The present investigation is a study of the overall pressure drop distribution in a square cross-sectioned channel, with rib turbulators, rotating about an axis normal to the free stream. The ribs are configured in a symmetric arrangement on two opposite surfaces with a rib angle of 90 ∘ to the mainstream flow. The study has been conducted for three Reynolds numbers, namely, 13 000, 17 000, and 22 000 with the rotation number varying from 0– 0.38 . Experiments have been carried out for various rib pitch-to-height ratios ( P/e with a constant rib height-to-hydraulic diameter ratio ( e/D of 0.1 . The test section in which the ribs are placed on the leading and trailing surfaces is considered as the base case ( orientation angle= 0 ∘ , Coriolis force vector normal to the ribbed surfaces. The channel is turned about its axis in steps of 15 ∘ to vary the orientation angle from 0 ∘ to 90 ∘ . The overall pressure drop does not change considerably under conditions of rotation for the base case. However, for the other cases tested, it is observed that the overall pressure drop increases with an increase in the rotation number for a given orientation angle and also increases with an increase in the orientation angle for a given rotation number. This change is attributed to the variation in the separation zone downstream of the ribs due to the presence of the Coriolis force—local pressure drop data is presented which supports this idea. At an orientation angle of 90 ∘ (ribs on the top and bottom surfaces, Coriolis force vector normal to the smooth surfaces, the overall pressure drop is observed to be maximum during rotation. The overall pressure drop for a case with a rib pitch-to-height ratio of 5 on both surfaces is found to be the highest

  4. Extraction and Analysis of Mega Cities’ Impervious Surface on Pixel-based and Object-oriented Support Vector Machine Classification Technology: A case of Bombay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, S. S.; Sun, Z. C.; Sun, L.; Wu, M. F.

    2017-02-01

    The object of this paper is to study the impervious surface extraction method using remote sensing imagery and monitor the spatiotemporal changing patterns of mega cities. Megacity Bombay was selected as the interesting area. Firstly, the pixel-based and object-oriented support vector machine (SVM) classification methods were used to acquire the land use/land cover (LULC) products of Bombay in 2010. Consequently, the overall accuracy (OA) and overall Kappa (OK) of the pixel-based method were 94.97% and 0.96 with a running time of 78 minutes, the OA and OK of the object-oriented method were 93.72% and 0.94 with a running time of only 17s. Additionally, OA and OK of the object-oriented method after a post-classification were improved up to 95.8% and 0.94. Then, the dynamic impervious surfaces of Bombay in the period 1973-2015 were extracted and the urbanization pattern of Bombay was analysed. Results told that both the two SVM classification methods could accomplish the impervious surface extraction, but the object-oriented method should be a better choice. Urbanization of Bombay experienced a fast extending during the past 42 years, implying a dramatically urban sprawl of mega cities in the developing countries along the One Belt and One Road (OBOR).

  5. The effect of entrainment through atmospheric boundary layer growth on observed and modeled surface ozone in the Colorado Front Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaser, L.; Patton, E. G.; Pfister, G. G.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Montzka, D. D.; Flocke, F.; Thompson, A. M.; Stauffer, R. M.; Halliday, H. S.

    2017-06-01

    Ozone concentrations at the Earth's surface are controlled by meteorological and chemical processes and are a function of advection, entrainment, deposition, and net chemical production/loss. The relative contributions of these processes vary in time and space. Understanding the relative importance of these processes controlling surface ozone concentrations is an essential component for designing effective regulatory strategies. Here we focus on the diurnal cycle of entrainment through atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) growth in the Colorado Front Range. Aircraft soundings and surface observations collected in July/August 2014 during the DISCOVER-AQ/FRAPPÉ (Deriving Information on Surface conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality/Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Éxperiment) campaigns and equivalent data simulated by a regional chemical transport model are analyzed. Entrainment through ABL growth is most important in the early morning, fumigating the surface at a rate of 5 ppbv/h. The fumigation effect weakens near noon and changes sign to become a small dilution effect in the afternoon on the order of -1 ppbv/h. The chemical transport model WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting Model with chemistry) underestimates ozone at all altitudes during this study on the order of 10-15 ppbv. The entrainment through ABL growth is overestimated by the model in the order of 0.6-0.8 ppbv/h. This results from differences in boundary layer growth in the morning and ozone concentration jump across the ABL top in the afternoon. This implicates stronger modeled fumigation in the morning and weaker modeled dilution after 11:00 LT.

  6. Long-Range Transhorizon Lunar Surface Radio Wave Propagation in the Presence of a Regolith and a Sparse Exospheric Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Robert M.

    2008-01-01

    Long-range, over-the-horizon (transhorizon) radio wave propagation is considered for the case of the Moon. In the event that relay satellites are not available or otherwise unwarranted for use, transhorizon communication provides for a contingency or backup option for non line-of-sight lunar surface exploration scenarios. Two potential low-frequency propagation mechanisms characteristic of the lunar landscape are the lunar regolith and the photoelectron induced plasma exosphere enveloping the Moon. Although it was hoped that the regolith would provide for a spherical waveguide which could support a trapped surface wave phenomena, it is found that, in most cases, the regolith is deleterious to long range radio wave propagation. However, the presence of the plasma of the lunar exosphere supports wave propagation and, in fact, surpasses the attenuation of the regolith. Given the models of the regolith and exosphere adopted here, it is recommended that a frequency of 1 MHz be considered for low rate data transmission along the lunar surface. It is also recommended that further research be done to capture the descriptive physics of the regolith and the exospheric plasma so that a more complete model can be obtained. This comprehensive theoretical study is based entirely on first principles and the mathematical techniques needed are developed as required; it is self-contained and should not require the use of outside resources for its understanding.

  7. Atmospheric and surface water pollution interpretation in the Gdansk beltway impact range by the use of multivariate analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubiella-Jackowska, Aleksandra; Polkowska, Zaneta; Kudlak, Blazej; Namiesnik, Jacek [Chemical Faculty, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Gdansk University of Technology, Gdansk (Poland); Astel, Aleksander [Environmental Chemistry Research Unit, Institute of Biology and Environmental Protection, Pomeranian Academy, Slupsk (Poland); Staszek, Wojciech [Faculty of Physical Geography and Environmental Management, University of Gdansk, Gdansk (Poland)

    2010-09-15

    The present study deals with the application of the hierarchical cluster analysis and non-parametric tests in order to interpret the Gdansk Beltway impact range. The data set represents concentration values for major inorganic ions (Na{sup +}, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, K{sup +}, Mg{sup 2+}, Ca{sup 2+}, F{sup -}, Cl{sup -}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}) as well as electrolytic conductivity and pH measured in various water samples [precipitation, throughfall water, road runoff, and surface water (drainage ditches, surface water reservoirs, and spring water)] collected in the vicinity of the beltway. Several similarity groups were discovered both in the objects and in the variables modes according to the water sample. In the majority of cases clear anthropogenic (fertilizers usage and transport, road salting in winter) and semi-natural (sea salt aerosols, erosion of construction materials) impacts were discovered. Spatial variation was discovered for road runoff samples and samples collected from surface water reservoirs and springs. Surprisingly no clear seasonal variability was discovered for precipitation chemistry, while some evidences for existing of summer and winter specific chemical profile was discovered for road runoff samples. In general, limited range of the Gdansk Beltway impact was proven. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  8. Positive or Negative? Urbanization-Induced Variations in Diurnal Skin-Surface Temperature Range Detected Using Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fan; Zhan, Wenfeng; Wang, Zhihua; Wang, Kaicun; Chen, Jing M.; Liu, Yongxue; Lai, Jiameng; Ju, Weimin

    2017-12-01

    Diurnal temperature range (DTR) is an important indicator for assessing the local climate change due to urbanization. Studies that focused on surface air temperature (SAT) have reported decreased DTRSAT in urban areas. However, this urbanization-induced effect becomes more complex with regard to land skin-surface temperature (LST), which is highly localized and extremely sensitive to land surface properties. We thus investigated the urban-rural DTRLST difference (ΔDTRLST) over 354 cities across China using satellite-retrieved LSTs within 2008-2013. Our major findings include the following: (1) urban areas experience increased (decreased) DTRLST compared with rural areas on the annual average for the majority of cities located in southern (northern) China; (2) the ΔDTRLST is mostly positive in warm months but negative in cold months. It generally becomes more positive from January to August and becomes more negative afterward; and (3) the ΔDTRLST is positively related to the daytime surface urban heat island intensity; it is yet negatively correlated with the urban-rural difference in vegetation abundance. We consider these insights valuable for in-depth understanding urban thermal environment and will likely help improve urban planning.

  9. Performance improvement of long-range surface plasmon structure for use in an all-optical switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandaghian, Ali; Lotfalian, Ali; Kouhkan, Mohsen; Mohajerani, Ezeddin

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents important parameters in performance of long-range surface plasmon (LRSP) structure (SF4/PVA/silver/PMMA-DR1) that are improved. We select poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) as the first dielectric layer due to its water solubility and good optical properties. The thickness of PVA and silver layers is optimized by transfer matrix method based on Fresnel equations. Surface morphologies of PVA and silver surfaces are analyzed by AFM imaging due to their important role in the performance of an LRSP structure. Furthermore, the sensitivity of an all-optical switch based on plasmon is investigated. In order to compare the sensitivity of LRSP and conventional surface plasmon (SP) structures in switching mode, full wide of half maximum, resonance angles, and pump powers of both structures are measured by a custom-made optical setup based on angular interrogation with a precision of 0.01 deg. Finally, we conclude that for creating equal signal levels in both samples, the required pump power for LRSP structure was about three times less than that for conventional SP; thus, these results led to power savings in optical switches.

  10. Oriented circular dichroism analysis of chiral surface-anchored metal-organic frameworks grown by liquid-phase epitaxy and upon loading with chiral guest compounds

    KAUST Repository

    Gu, Zhigang

    2014-06-17

    Oriented circular dichroism (OCD) is explored and successfully applied to investigate chiral surface-anchored metal-organic frameworks (SURMOFs) based on camphoric acid (D- and Lcam) with the composition [Cu2(Dcam) 2x(Lcam)2-2x(dabco)]n (dabco=1,4-diazabicyclo- [2.2.2]-octane). The three-dimensional chiral SURMOFs with high-quality orientation were grown on quartz glass plates by using a layer-by-layer liquid-phase epitaxy method. The growth orientation, as determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), could be switched between the [001] and [110] direction by using either OH- or COOH-terminated substrates. These SURMOFs were characterized by using OCD, which confirmed the ratio as well as the orientation of the enantiomeric linker molecules. Theoretical computations demonstrate that the OCD band intensities of the enantiopure [Cu2(Dcam)2(dabco)] n grown in different orientations are a direct result of the anisotropic nature of the chiral SURMOFs. Finally, the enantiopure [Cu 2(Dcam)2(dabco)]n and [Cu2(Lcam) 2(dabco)]n SURMOFs were loaded with the two chiral forms of ethyl lactate [(+)-ethyl-D-lactate and (-)-ethyl-L-lactate)]. An enantioselective enrichment of >60 % was observed by OCD when the chiral host scaffold was loaded from the racemic mixture. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Relationship between open-circuit voltage in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cell and peak position of (220/204) preferred orientation near its absorber surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chantana, J.; Minemoto, T.; Watanabe, T.; Teraji, S.; Kawamura, K.

    2013-01-01

    Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 (CIGS) absorbers with various Ga/III, Ga/(In+Ga), profiles are prepared by the so-called “multi-layer precursor method” using multi-layer co-evaporation of material sources. It is revealed that open-circuit voltage (V OC ) of CIGS solar cell is primarily dependent on averaged Ga/III near the surface of its absorber. This averaged Ga/III is well predicted by peak position of (220/204) preferred orientation of CIGS film near its surface investigated by glancing-incidence X-ray diffraction with 0.1° incident angle. Finally, the peak position of (220/204) preferred orientation is proposed as a measure of V OC before solar cell fabrication

  12. Improvement of Surface Temperature Prediction Using SVR with MOGREPS Data for Short and Medium range over South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, S. J.; Choi, R. K.; Ahn, K. D.; Ha, J. C.; Cho, C. H.

    2014-12-01

    As the Korea Meteorology Administration (KMA) has operated Met Office Global and Regional Ensemble Prediction System (MOGREPS) with introduction of Unified Model (UM), many attempts have been made to improve predictability in temperature forecast in last years. In this study, post-processing method of MOGREPS for surface temperature prediction is developed with machine learning over 52 locations in South Korea. Past 60-day lag time was used as a training phase of Support Vector Regression (SVR) method for surface temperature forecast model. The selected inputs for SVR are followings: date and surface temperatures from Numerical Weather prediction (NWP), such as GDAPS, individual 24 ensemble members, mean and median of ensemble members for every 3hours for 12 days.To verify the reliability of SVR-based ensemble prediction (SVR-EP), 93 days are used (from March 1 to May 31, 2014). The result yielded improvement of SVR-EP by RMSE value of 16 % throughout entire prediction period against conventional ensemble prediction (EP). In particular, short range predictability of SVR-EP resulted in 18.7% better RMSE for 1~3 day forecast. The mean temperature bias between SVR-EP and EP at all test locations showed around 0.36°C and 1.36°C, respectively. SVR-EP is currently extending for more vigorous sensitivity test, such as increasing training phase and optimizing machine learning model.

  13. Predicting borderline personality disorder features from personality traits, identity orientation, and attachment styles in Italian nonclinical adults: issues of consistency across age ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossati, Andrea; Borroni, Serena; Feeney, Judith; Maffei, Cesare

    2012-04-01

    The aims of this study were to assess whether Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) features could be predicted by Big Five traits, impulsivity, identity orientation, and adult attachment patterns in a sample of 1,192 adult nonclinical participants, and to evaluate the consistency of these regression models across four age groups (49 years, and >50 years, respectively). In the full sample, measures of neuroticism (N), impulsivity, and anxious insecure attachment were substantial predictors of BPD features (adjusted R(2) = .38, p personality traits and disturbed attachment patterns.

  14. Modal Bin Hybrid Model: A surface area consistent, triple-moment sectional method for use in process-oriented modeling of atmospheric aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajino, Mizuo; Easter, Richard C.; Ghan, Steven J.

    2013-09-01

    triple-moment sectional (TMS) aerosol dynamics model, Modal Bin Hybrid Model (MBHM), has been developed. In addition to number and mass (volume), surface area is predicted (and preserved), which is important for aerosol processes and properties such as gas-to-particle mass transfer, heterogeneous reaction, and light extinction cross section. The performance of MBHM was evaluated against double-moment sectional (DMS) models with coarse (BIN4) to very fine (BIN256) size resolutions for simulating evolution of particles under simultaneously occurring nucleation, condensation, and coagulation processes (BINx resolution uses x sections to cover the 1 nm to 1 µm size range). Because MBHM gives a physically consistent form of the intrasectional distributions, errors and biases of MBHM at BIN4-8 resolution were almost equivalent to those of DMS at BIN16-32 resolution for various important variables such as the moments Mk (k: 0, 2, 3), dMk/dt, and the number and volume of particles larger than a certain diameter. Another important feature of MBHM is that only a single bin is adequate to simulate full aerosol dynamics for particles whose size distribution can be approximated by a single lognormal mode. This flexibility is useful for process-oriented (multicategory and/or mixing state) modeling: Primary aerosols whose size parameters would not differ substantially in time and space can be expressed by a single or a small number of modes, whereas secondary aerosols whose size changes drastically from 1 to several hundred nanometers can be expressed by a number of modes. Added dimensions can be applied to MBHM to represent mixing state or photochemical age for aerosol mixing state studies.

  15. The Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document for the Derivation of Range and Range Distributions from Laser Pulse Waveform Analysis for Surface Elevations, Roughness, Slope, and Vegetation Heights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Anita C.; Zwally, H. Jay; Bentley, Charles R.; Csatho, Bea M.; Harding, David J.; Hofton, Michelle A.; Minster, Jean-Bernard; Roberts, LeeAnne; Saba, Jack L.; Thomas, Robert H.; hide

    2012-01-01

    The primary purpose of the GLAS instrument is to detect ice elevation changes over time which are used to derive changes in ice volume. Other objectives include measuring sea ice freeboard, ocean and land surface elevation, surface roughness, and canopy heights over land. This Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document (ATBD) describes the theory and implementation behind the algorithms used to produce the level 1B products for waveform parameters and global elevation and the level 2 products that are specific to ice sheet, sea ice, land, and ocean elevations respectively. These output products, are defined in detail along with the associated quality, and the constraints, and assumptions used to derive them.

  16. Surface impedance of BaFe2-xNixAs2 in the radio frequency range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Abbassi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We report measurements of the temperature dependence of the surface impedance in superconducting BaFe1.93Ni0.07As2 crystals using the radiofrequency reflection technique in the 5range. An LC resonant circuit with a phase sensitive detection was used at 92MHz. A measurement assembly with point contacts was used at 30MHz. The recent discovery of iron based arsenide superconductors BaFe2-xNixAs2 has attracted much interest. For a Ni doping level of 7% the superconducting phase transition is found around 20K. The temperature dependence of the superconducting penetration depth was determined.

  17. The liquid phase epitaxy method for the construction of oriented ZIF-8 thin films with controlled growth on functionalized surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Shekhah, Osama

    2013-01-01

    Highly-oriented ZIF-8 thin films with controllable thickness were grown on an -OH-functionalized Au substrate using the liquid phase epitaxy method at room temperature, as evidenced by SEM and PXRD. The adsorption-desorption properties of the resulting ZIF-8 thin film were investigated for various VOCs using the QCM technique. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2013.

  18. Definition of intrusion scenarios and example concentration ranges for the disposal of near-surface waste at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaberg, R.L.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.

    1990-10-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of conducting performance assessments of its radioactive waste sites and disposal systems to ensure that public health and safety are protected, the environment is preserved, and that no remedial actions after disposal are required. Hanford Site low-level waste performance assessments are technical evaluations of waste sites or disposal systems that provide a basis for making decisions using established criteria. The purpose of this document is to provide a family of scenarios to be considered when calculating radionuclide exposure to individuals who may inadvertently intrude into near-surface waste disposal sites. Specific performance assessments will use modifications of the general scenarios described here to include additional site/system details concerning the engineering design, waste form, inventory, and environmental setting. This document also describes and example application of the Hanford-specific scenarios in the development of example concentration ranges for the disposal of near-surface wastes. The overall goal of the example calculations is to illustrate the application of the scenarios in a performance assessment to assure that people in the future cannot receive a dose greater than an established limit. 24 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  19. Sensitive and selective analysis of a wide concentration range of IGFBP7 using a surface plasmon resonance biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Dae-Ho; Choi, Youngbo; Choi, Yong-Soo; Kim, Sun-Mi; Kwak, Hojung; Shin, Se-Hyun; Hong, Surin

    2014-11-01

    A sensitive method for selectively detecting insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7 (IGFBP7) over a wide range of concentrations based on the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensing techniques is described. IGFBP7 has been shown to regulate cell proliferation, cell adhesion, cellular senescence, apoptosis, and angiogenesis in several different cancer cell lines. Since the concentration of IGFBP7 can vary widely in the body, determining the precise concentration of IGFBP7 over a wide range of concentrations is important, since it serves as an inducible biomarker for both disease diagnosis and subsequent therapy. The SPR sensing method is based on the selective interaction of IGFBP7 with specific anti-IGFBP7 proteins on a gold thin film, which was covalently bound to the Fc-binding domain of protein G on a mixed self-assembled monolayer composed of DSNHS (S2(CH2)11COO(CH2)2COO-(N-hydroxysuccinimide)) and mercaptoundecanol, and effect of this on changes in the SPR profiles. The limit of detection (LOD) of the SPR biosensor was determined to be 10 ng/ml, which is a reasonable LOD value for biomedical applications. The response is essentially linear in the concentration range of 10-300 ng/ml. The SPR biosensor also shows specificity for IGFBP7 compared to that for biologically relevant interleukin (IL) derivatives including IL4, IL23, IL29, and IFG1. These molecules are also present along with IGFBP7 in the cell culture medium and have the potential to interfere with the analysis. Finally, the level secretion of IGFBP7 from cancer cells detected by the SPR biosensor showed a good correlation with a commercial kit using an IGFBP7 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The findings reported herein indicate that the SPR biosensor for IGFBP7 would be applicable in a wide variety of biomedical fields. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Secondary shock features for large surface explosions: results from the Sayarim Military Range, Israel and other experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitterman, Y.

    2014-05-01

    A series of surface explosions was designed and conducted by the Geophysical Institute of Israel at the Sayarim Military Range in the Negev desert, including two large-scale explosions: approx. 82 tons of high explosives in 2009, and approx. 100 tons of low-grade ANFO explosives in 2011. The main goal of the explosions was to provide large controlled sources for calibration of global infrasound stations designated for monitoring nuclear tests; however, the geophysical experiment also provided valuable observations for shock wave research. High-pressure gauges were deployed at distances between 100 and 600 m to record air blast properties and to provide reliable estimation of the true charge yield compared to the design value. Secondary shock phenomena were clearly observed at all near-source gauges as characteristic shock wave shapes. Secondary shocks were also observed at numerous seismic and acoustic sensors deployed in the range 0.3-20 km as acoustic phases. Empirical relationships for standard air blast parameters (peak pressure and impulse) and for a new parameter called secondary shock time delay, as a function of distance, were established and analyzed. The standard parameters, scaled by the cubic root of the estimated TNT yield, were found to be consistent for all analyzed explosions. However, the scaled secondary shock delays were clearly separated for the 2009 and 2011 explosions, thus demonstrating dependence on the explosive type. Additionally, air blast records from other experiments were used to extend the charge and distance ranges for the secondary shock observation, and showed consistency with the Sayarim data. Analysis and interpretation of observed features of the secondary shock phenomenon are proposed and a new empirical relationship of scaled secondary shock delay versus scaled distance is established. The results suggest that the secondary shock delay can be used as a new additional waveform feature for simple and cost-effective explosive

  1. Self-construction of core-shell and hollow zeolite analcime icositetrahedra: a reversed crystal growth process via oriented aggregation of nanocrystallites and recrystallization from surface to core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xueying; Qiao, Minghua; Xie, Songhai; Fan, Kangnian; Zhou, Wuzong; He, Heyong

    2007-10-31

    Zeolite analcime with a core-shell and hollow icositetrahedron architecture was prepared by a one-pot hydrothermal route in the presence of ethylamine and Raney Ni. Detailed investigations on samples at different preparation stages revealed that the growth of the complex single crystalline geometrical structure did not follow the classic crystal growth route, i.e., a crystal with a highly symmetric morphology (such as polyhedra) is normally developed by attachment of atoms or ions to a nucleus. A reversed crystal growth process through oriented aggregation of nanocrystallites and surface recrystallization was observed. The whole process can be described by the following four successive steps. (1) Primary analcime nanoplatelets undergo oriented aggregation to yield discus-shaped particles. (2) These disci further assemble into polycrystalline microspheres. (3) The relatively large platelets grow into nanorods by consuming the smaller ones, and meanwhile, the surface of the microspheres recrystallizes into a thin single crystalline icositetrahedral shell via Ostwald ripening. (4) Recrystallization continues from the surface to the core at the expense of the nanorods, and the thickness of the monocrystalline shell keeps on increasing until all the nanorods are consumed, leading to hollow single crystalline analcime icositetrahedra. The present work adds new useful information for the understanding of the principles of zeolite growth.

  2. Surface deformation measured with interferometric synthetic aperture radar: Case studies of basin and range and Garlock-San Andreas fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Fernando

    Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) and Global Positioning System (GPS) is widely used to detect ground deformation from varieties of geophysical origins. However, most studies lack the spatial and temporal resolutions to better characterize such observations. The purpose of this research is to use multi-track satellite radar imagery to generate time series to study and monitor vertical ground deformation over large regions such as the Nevada portion of the Basin and Range Province and the western end of the Mojave Desert. We developed an innovative method to remove horizontal movements from InSAR line-of-sight (LOS) observations using a GPS velocity field and subsequently combine the multi-track imagery resulting in one single high spatial resolution map of observed vertical crustal and surface movements. By implementing this technique we detect vertical deformation signals with short and intermediate wavelength signals associated to tectonic processes such as interseismic and postseismic deformation. In Central Nevada Seismic Belt we detect in three independent orbits a broad area of uplift that confirms results of previous studies that associate the origin of this signal to post-seimic deformation of the historic earthquakes at this region. In south-central Nevada we detect several valleys that show a gradual eastward tilt of the valley floors due to deep geodynamical processes. The valleys located at the eastern side of Ruby Mountains show a range decrease that could indicate uplift related to magma intrusion or post-seismic deformation due to older, unrecognized earthquakes. In the Big Bend segment in southern California we detect vertical uplift as expected by mechanical models of interseismic deformation. Additionaly all our velocity maps reveal small wavelength deformation signals of anthropogenic origin.

  3. Surface-charge-induced orientation of interfacial water suppresses heterogeneous ice nucleation on α-alumina (0001)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelmonem, Ahmed; Backus, Ellen H. G.; Hoffmann, Nadine; Sánchez, M. Alejandra; Cyran, Jenée D.; Kiselev, Alexei; Bonn, Mischa

    2017-06-01

    Surface charge is one of the surface properties of atmospheric aerosols, which has been linked to heterogeneous ice nucleation and hence cloud formation, microphysics, and optical properties. Despite the importance of surface charge for ice nucleation, many questions remain on the molecular-level mechanisms at work. Here, we combine droplet-freezing assay studies with vibrational sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy to correlate interfacial water structure to surface nucleation strength. We study immersion freezing of aqueous solutions of various pHs on the atmospherically relevant aluminum oxide α-Al2O3 (0001) surface using an isolated droplet on the surface. The high-pH solutions freeze at temperatures higher than that of the low-pH solution, while the neutral pH has the highest freezing temperature. On the molecular level, the SFG spectrum of the interfacial water changes substantially upon freezing. At all pHs, crystallization leads to a reduction of intensity of the 3400 cm-1 water resonance, while the 3200 cm-1 intensity drops for low pH but increases for neutral and high pHs. We find that charge-induced surface templating suppresses nucleation, irrespective of the sign of the surface charge. Heterogeneous nucleation is most efficient for the nominally neutral surface.

  4. Calibration of the modulation transfer function of surface profilometers with binary pseudo-random test standards: expanding the application range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Anderson, Erik H.; Barber, Samuel K.; Bouet, Nathalie; Cambie, Rossana; Conley, Raymond; McKinney, Wayne R.; Takacs, Peter Z.; Voronov, Dmitriy L.

    2011-03-14

    A modulation transfer function (MTF) calibration method based on binary pseudo-random (BPR) gratings and arrays [Proc. SPIE 7077-7 (2007), Opt. Eng. 47, 073602 (2008)] has been proven to be an effective MTF calibration method for a number of interferometric microscopes and a scatterometer [Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A616, 172 (2010)]. Here we report on a further expansion of the application range of the method. We describe the MTF calibration of a 6 inch phase shifting Fizeau interferometer. Beyond providing a direct measurement of the interferometer's MTF, tests with a BPR array surface have revealed an asymmetry in the instrument's data processing algorithm that fundamentally limits its bandwidth. Moreover, the tests have illustrated the effects of the instrument's detrending and filtering procedures on power spectral density measurements. The details of the development of a BPR test sample suitable for calibration of scanning and transmission electron microscopes are also presented. Such a test sample is realized as a multilayer structure with the layer thicknesses of two materials corresponding to BPR sequence. The investigations confirm the universal character of the method that makes it applicable to a large variety of metrology instrumentation with spatial wavelength bandwidths from a few nanometers to hundreds of millimeters.

  5. Calibration of the modulation transfer function of surface profilometers with binary pseudo-random test standards: Expanding the application range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V; Anderson, Erik H.; Barber, Samuel K.; Bouet, Nathalie; Cambie, Rossana; Conley, Raymond; McKinney, Wayne R.; Takacs, Peter Z.; Voronov, Dmitriy L.

    2010-07-26

    A modulation transfer function (MTF) calibration method based on binary pseudo-random (BPR) gratings and arrays [Proc. SPIE 7077-7 (2007), Opt. Eng. 47(7), 073602-1-5 (2008)] has been proven to be an effective MTF calibration method for a number of interferometric microscopes and a scatterometer [Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 616, 172-82 (2010]. Here we report on a significant expansion of the application range of the method. We describe the MTF calibration of a 6 inch phase shifting Fizeau interferometer. Beyond providing a direct measurement of the interferometer's MTF, tests with a BPR array surface have revealed an asymmetry in the instrument's data processing algorithm that fundamentally limits its bandwidth. Moreover, the tests have illustrated the effects of the instrument's detrending and filtering procedures on power spectral density measurements. The details of the development of a BPR test sample suitable for calibration of scanning and transmission electron microscopes are also presented. Such a test sample is realized as a multilayer structure with the layer thicknesses of two materials corresponding to BPR sequence. The investigations confirm the universal character of the method that makes it applicable to a large variety of metrology instrumentation with spatial wavelength bandwidths from a few nanometers to hundreds of millimeters.

  6. MESSENGER, MErcury: Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging; A Mission to Orbit and Explore the Planet Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    MESSENGER is a scientific mission to Mercury. Understanding this extraordinary planet and the forces that have shaped it is fundamental to understanding the processes that have governed the formation, evolution, and dynamics of the terrestrial planets. MESSENGER is a MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry and Ranging mission to orbit Mercury for one Earth year after completing two flybys of that planet following two flybys of Venus. The necessary flybys return significant new data early in the mission, while the orbital phase, guided by the flyby data, enables a focused scientific investigation of this least-studied terrestrial planet. Answers to key questions about Mercury's high density, crustal composition and structure, volcanic history, core structure, magnetic field generation, polar deposits, exosphere, overall volatile inventory, and magnetosphere are provided by an optimized set of miniaturized space instruments. Our goal is to gain new insight into the formation and evolution of the solar system, including Earth. By traveling to the inner edge of the solar system and exploring a poorly known world, MESSENGER fulfills this quest.

  7. Calibration of the modulation transfer function of surface profilometers with binary pseudo-random test standards: expanding the application range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Anderson, Erik H.; Barber, Samuel K.; Bouet, Nathalie; Cambie, Rossana; Conley, Raymond; McKinney, Wayne R.; Takacs, Peter Z.; Voronov, Dmitriy L.

    2011-01-01

    A modulation transfer function (MTF) calibration method based on binary pseudo-random (BPR) gratings and arrays (Proc. SPIE 7077-7 (2007), Opt. Eng. 47, 073602 (2008)) has been proven to be an effective MTF calibration method for a number of interferometric microscopes and a scatterometer (Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A616, 172 (2010)). Here we report on a further expansion of the application range of the method. We describe the MTF calibration of a 6 inch phase shifting Fizeau interferometer. Beyond providing a direct measurement of the interferometer's MTF, tests with a BPR array surface have revealed an asymmetry in the instrument's data processing algorithm that fundamentally limits its bandwidth. Moreover, the tests have illustrated the effects of the instrument's detrending and filtering procedures on power spectral density measurements. The details of the development of a BPR test sample suitable for calibration of scanning and transmission electron microscopes are also presented. Such a test sample is realized as a multilayer structure with the layer thicknesses of two materials corresponding to BPR sequence. The investigations confirm the universal character of the method that makes it applicable to a large variety of metrology instrumentation with spatial wavelength bandwidths from a few nanometers to hundreds of millimeters.

  8. Study of Cs adsorption on (100) surface of [001]-oriented GaN nanowires: A first principle research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Sihao [Department of Optoelectronic Technology, School of Electronic and Optical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology Nanjing, 210094 (China); Liu, Lei, E-mail: liu1133_cn@sina.com.cn [Department of Optoelectronic Technology, School of Electronic and Optical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology Nanjing, 210094 (China); Kong, Yike [Department of Optoelectronic Technology, School of Electronic and Optical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology Nanjing, 210094 (China); Wang, Honggang; Wang, Meishan [School of Information and Electrical Engineering, Ludong University, Yantai 264025 (China)

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • B{sub N} is the most stable adsorption site. • Work function is reduced after Cs adsorption. • Surface atomic structures are reconstructed. • Surface states near fermi level is contributed to the hybridization of Cs 5s state with Ga 4p and N 2p state. • NEA surface is demonstrated after Cs adsorption on GaN nanowire surface. - Abstract: Based on first-principle study, the adsorption mechanism of Cs on (100) crystal plane of GaN nanowire surface with coverage of 1/12 monolayer is explored. It is discovered that the most stable adsorption site is B{sub N} because of its lowest adsorption energy. The work function of GaN nanowire surface is reduced by 1.69 eV and will be further reduced with increasing Cs adsorption, which promotes the development of negative electron affinity (NEA) state of the materials. Furthermore, Cs adatom will make a great influence on the surface atomic structure, oppositely, little influence on the center atomic structure. There appears a dipole moment valued −6.93 Debye on the nanowire surface contributed to the formation the heterojunction on the surface, which is beneficial to the photoelectrons liberation. After Cs adsorption, the valence band and conduction band both move to lower energy side. The surface states mainly result from the hybridization of Cs 5s state with Ga 4p state and N 2p state. This study can help us to further experiment on the Cs adsorption processing on GaN nanowire and improve the photoemission performance of GaN nanowire devices.

  9. Atomic scale study of surface orientations and energies of Ti 2 O 3 crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Meng [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Southern University of Science and Technology, 1088 Xueyuan Blvd, Shenzhen, Guangdong 518055, China; Wang, Zhiguo [School of Physical Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054, People' s Republic of China; Wang, Chongmin [Environmental Molecular Science Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, Richland, Washington 99352, USA; Zheng, Jianming [Energy and Environmental Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, Richland, Washington 99352, USA

    2017-10-30

    For nanostructured particles, the faceting planes and their terminating chemical species are two critical factors that govern the chemical behavior of the particle. The surface atomistic structure and termination of the Ti2O3 crystals were analyzed using atomic-scale aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) combining with density functional theory (DFT) calculations. STEM imaging reveals that the Ti2O3 crystal are most often faceted along (001), (012), (-114) and (1-20) planes. DFT calculation indicates that the (012) surface with TiO-termination have the lowest cleavage energy and correspondingly the lowest surface energy, indicating that (012) will be the most stable and prevalent surfaces in Ti2O3 nanocrystals. These observations provide insights for exploring the interfacial process involving Ti2O3 nanoparticles.

  10. Genus Ranges of Chord Diagrams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Jonathan; Jonoska, Nataša; Saito, Masahico

    2015-04-01

    A chord diagram consists of a circle, called the backbone, with line segments, called chords, whose endpoints are attached to distinct points on the circle. The genus of a chord diagram is the genus of the orientable surface obtained by thickening the backbone to an annulus and attaching bands to the inner boundary circle at the ends of each chord. Variations of this construction are considered here, where bands are possibly attached to the outer boundary circle of the annulus. The genus range of a chord diagram is the genus values over all such variations of surfaces thus obtained from a given chord diagram. Genus ranges of chord diagrams for a fixed number of chords are studied. Integer intervals that can be, and those that cannot be, realized as genus ranges are investigated. Computer calculations are presented, and play a key role in discovering and proving the properties of genus ranges.

  11. Pseudomorphy, surface alloys and the role of elementary clusters on the domain orientations in the Cu/Al13Co4(100) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Addou, R; Shukla, A K; De Weerd, M-C; Fournee, V; Dubois, J-M; Ledieu, J; Gille, P; Widmer, R; Groening, O

    2011-01-01

    We have used the pseudo-tenfold surface of the orthorhombic Al 13 Co 4 crystal as a template for the adsorption of Cu thin films of various thicknesses deposited at different temperatures. This study has been carried out by means of low energy electron diffraction (LEED), scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and x-ray photoelectron diffraction (XPD). From 300 to 573 K, Cu adatoms grow pseudomorphically up to one monolayer. At 300 K, the β-Al(Cu, Co) phase appears for coverages greater than one monolayer. For higher temperature deposition, the β-Al(Cu, Co) phase further transforms into the γ-Al 4 Cu 9 phase. Both β and γ phases grow as two (110) domains rotated by 72 0 ± 1 0 from each other. Instead of following the substrate symmetry, it is the orientations of the bipentagonal motifs present on the clean Al 13 Co 4 (100) surface that dictate the growth orientation of these domains. The initial bulk composition and structural complexity of the substrate have a minor role in the formation of the γ-Al 4 Cu 9 phase as long as the amount of Al and the Cu film thickness reach a critical stoichiometry. (paper)

  12. The effects of deposition parameters on surface morphology and crystallographic orientation of electroless Ni-B coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulbul, Ferhat

    2011-02-01

    Electroless Ni-B coatings were deposited on AISI 304 stainless steels by electroless deposition method, which was performed for nine different test conditions at various levels of temperature, concentration of NaBH4, concentration of NiCl2, and time, using the Taguchi L9(34) experimental method. The effects of deposition parameters on the crystallographic orientation of electroless Ni-B coatings were investigated using SEM and XRD equipment. SEM analysis revealed that the Ni-B coatings developed six types (pea-like, maize-like, primary nodular, blackberry-like or grapes-like, broccoli-like, and cauliflower-like) of morphological structures depending on the deposition parameters. XRD results also showed that these structures exhibited different levels of amorphous character. The concentration of NaBH4 had the most dominant effect on the morphological and crystallographic development of electroless Ni-B coatings.

  13. Influence of grain orientation on evolution of surface features in fatigued polycrystalline copper: a comparison of thermal and uniaxial mechanical fatigue results

    CERN Document Server

    Aicheler, M

    2010-01-01

    Surface state plays a major role in the crack nucleation process of pure metals in the High-Cycle-Fatigue (HCF) as well as in the Ultra-High-Cycle-Fatigue (UHCF) regime. Therefore, in studies dealing with HCF or UHCF, special attention is paid to the evolution of surface degradation during fatigue life. The accelerating structures of the future Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) under study at CERN will be submitted to a high number of thermal-mechanical fatigue cycles, arising from Radio Frequency (RF) induced eddy currents, causing local superficial cyclic heating. The number of cycles during the foreseen lifetime of CLIC reaches 2x10(11). Fatigue may limit the lifetime of CLIC structures. In order to assess the effects of superficial fatigue, specific tests are defined and performed on polycrystalline Oxygen Free Electronic (OFE) grade Copper, a candidate material for the structures. Surface degradation depends on the orientation of near-surface grains. Copper samples thermally fatigued in two different fatigu...

  14. A Change Oriented Extension of EOF Analysis Applied to the 1996-1997 AVHRR Sea Surface Temperature Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Conradsen, Knut; Andersen, Ole Baltazar

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the application of orthogonal transformations to detect multivariate change in the monthly mean sea surface temperature (SST) as given by the NOAA/NASA Oceans Pathfinder data. The transforms applied include multivariate alteration detection (MAD) variates based on canonical c...

  15. Genus Ranges of 4-Regular Rigid Vertex Graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Dorothy; Dolzhenko, Egor; Jonoska, Nataša; Saito, Masahico; Valencia, Karin

    2015-01-01

    A rigid vertex of a graph is one that has a prescribed cyclic order of its incident edges. We study orientable genus ranges of 4-regular rigid vertex graphs. The (orientable) genus range is a set of genera values over all orientable surfaces into which a graph is embedded cellularly, and the embeddings of rigid vertex graphs are required to preserve the prescribed cyclic order of incident edges at every vertex. The genus ranges of 4-regular rigid vertex graphs are sets of consecutive integers, and we address two questions: which intervals of integers appear as genus ranges of such graphs, and what types of graphs realize a given genus range. For graphs with 2 n vertices ( n > 1), we prove that all intervals [ a, b ] for all a genus ranges. For graphs with 2 n - 1 vertices ( n ≥ 1), we prove that all intervals [ a, b ] for all a genus ranges. We also provide constructions of graphs that realize these ranges.

  16. Orientating lipase molecules through surface chemical control for enhanced activity: A QCM-D and ToF-SIMS investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Paul; Kempson, Ivan; Prestidge, Clive A

    2016-06-01

    Bio-active materials consisting of lipase encapsulated within porous silica particles were engineered to control the adsorption kinetics and molecular orientation of lipase, which play critical roles in the digestion kinetics of triglycerides. The adsorption kinetics of Candida antartica lipase A (CalA) was monitored using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) and controlled by altering the hydrophobicity of a silica binding support. The extent of adsorption was 2-fold greater when CalA was adsorbed onto hydrophobic silica compared to hydrophilic silica. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) fragmentation patterns, in conjunction with multivariate statistics, demonstrated enhanced exposure of the lipase's catalytic domain, specifically the histidine group responsible for activity, when CalA was adsorbed on hydrophilic silica. Consequently, lipid digestion kinetics were enhanced when CalA was loaded in hydrophilic porous silica particles, i.e., a 2-fold increase in the pseudo-first-order rate constant for digestion when compared to free lipase. In contrast, digestion kinetics were inhibited when CalA was hosted in hydrophobic porous silica, i.e., a 5-fold decrease in pseudo-first-order rate constant for digestion when compared to free lipase. These findings provide valuable insights into the mechanism of lipase action which can be exploited to develop smarter food and drug delivery systems consisting of porous lipid-based materials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Reassessment of MxiH subunit orientation and fold within native Shigella T3SS needles using surface labelling and solid-state NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verasdonck, Joeri; Shen, Da-Kang; Treadgold, Alexander; Arthur, Christopher; Böckmann, Anja; Meier, Beat H; Blocker, Ariel J

    2015-12-01

    T3SSs are essential virulence determinants of many Gram-negative bacteria, used to inject bacterial effectors of virulence into eukaryotic host cells. Their major extracellular portion, a ∼50 nm hollow, needle-like structure, is essential to host cell sensing and the conduit for effector secretion. It is formed of a small, conserved subunit arranged as a helical polymer. The structure of the subunit has been studied by electron cryomicroscopy within native polymers and by solid-state NMR in recombinant polymers, yielding two incompatible atomic models. To resolve this controversy, we re-examined the native polymer used for electron cryomicroscopy via surface labelling and solid-state NMR. Our data show the orientation and overall fold of the subunit within this polymer is as established by solid-state NMR for recombinant polymers. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Ripple structures of mixed homopolymer brushes grafted on cylindrical surfaces: controlling the orientation of the pattern by attuning the substrate curvatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xin; Chen, Cangyi; Yang, Yingzi; Qiu, Feng

    2014-08-28

    We employed the strong segregation theory (SST) to study the phase structures of mixed homopolymer brushes grafted on cylindrical surfaces. We considered a simplified case in which two incompatible homopolymers have the same chain length and grafting density. Under these conditions, micro-phase separation in the brush may result in either ripple or helix structures. By comparing the free energy of the possible candidate structures, we found that the helix structure is never the most stable one, while the stability of the perpendicular and parallel ripple structures are sensitive to the curvature of the grafting substrate. It was found that the morphology orientation of the mixed homopolymer brushes can be controlled by attuning the geometry of the substrates.

  19. Hartmann tests to measure the spherical and cylindrical curvatures and the axis orientation of astigmatic lenses or optical surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Gómez, Geovanni; Malacara-Hernández, Zacarías; Malacara-Hernández, Daniel

    2014-02-20

    The measurement of astigmatic lenses, optical surfaces or wavefronts are a highly studied problem and many different instruments have been commercially fabricated to perform this task. Many of them use a Hartmann arrangement to obtain the result. In this paper, we analyze with detail the algorithms that can be used to make the necessary calculations and propose several alternatives with different advantages and disadvantages. Different mathematical algorithms that are involved in the calculation process have been given whereas any description of the instrument itself is not proposed, but only the different mathematical algorithms that are involved in the calculation process.

  20. Impact of molecular structure on the lubricant squeeze-out between curved surfaces with long range elasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tartaglino, Ugo; Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Persson, B N J

    2006-01-01

    layers develop in the lubricant film when the width is of the order of a few atomic diameters. The branched isobutane forms more disordered structures which permit it to stay liquidlike at smaller surface separations. During squeezing the solvation forces show oscillations corresponding to the width...... isobutane. With n-butane possessing a slightly lower viscosity at high pressures, our result refutes the view that squeeze-out should be harder for higher viscosities; on the other hand our results are consistent with wear experiments in which n-butane were shown to protect steel surfaces better than...

  1. Experimental Proof of the Characteristics of Short-Range FM Radar Converted Signal Spectrum for a Smooth Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brodņevs Deniss

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a natural experiment of the spectral processing of 4.3 GHz Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave Radar (FMCWR converted signal. The FMCWR antennas are fixed above a smooth reflective surface. The converted signal spectrum is theoretically calculated and compared with the experimental data.

  2. The effect of surface nano-corrugation on the squeeze-out of molecular thin hydrocarbon films between curved surfaces with long range elasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Persson, Bo N. J.

    2016-01-01

    The properties of linear alkane lubricants confined between two approaching solids are investigated by a model that accounts for the roughness, curvature and elastic properties of the solid surfaces. We consider linear alkanes of different chain lengths from [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see...

  3. 33 CFR 334.200 - Chesapeake Bay, Point Lookout to Cedar Point; aerial and surface firing range and target area, U...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chesapeake Bay, Point Lookout to... Chesapeake Bay, Point Lookout to Cedar Point; aerial and surface firing range and target area, U.S. Naval Air... of Chesapeake Bay within an area described as follows: Beginning at the easternmost extremity of...

  4. Squeezing molecular thin alkane lubrication films between curved solid surfaces with long-range elasticity: Layering transitions and wear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Samoilov, V. N.; Persson, B. N. J.

    2003-01-01

    The properties of alkane lubricants confined between two approaching solids are investigated by a model that accounts for the curvature and the elastic properties of the solid surfaces. We consider linear alkane molecules of different chain lengths, C3H8, C4H10, C8H18, C9H20, C10H22, C12H26 and C14......H30 confined between smooth gold surfaces. In most cases we observe well defined molecular layers develop in the lubricant film when the width of the film is of the order of a few atomic diameters. An external squeezing-pressure induces discontinuous, thermally activated changes in the number n...... of lubricant layers. We find that with increasing alkane chain length, the transition from n to n-1 layers occurs at higher pressure, as expected based on the increasing wettability ~or spreading pressure with increasing chain length. Thus, the longer alkanes are better boundary lubricants than the shorter...

  5. Risks and advantages of using surface laser photogrammetry on free-ranging marine organisms: a case study on white sharks Carcharodon carcharias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leurs, G; O'Connell, C P; Andreotti, S; Rutzen, M; Vonk Noordegraaf, H

    2015-06-01

    This study employed a non-lethal measurement tool, which combined an existing photo-identification technique with a surface, parallel laser photogrammetry technique, to accurately estimate the size of free-ranging white sharks Carcharodon carcharias. Findings confirmed the hypothesis that surface laser photogrammetry is more accurate than crew-based estimations that utilized a shark cage of known size as a reference tool. Furthermore, field implementation also revealed that the photographer's angle of reference and the shark's body curvature could greatly influence technique accuracy, exposing two limitations. The findings showed minor inconsistencies with previous studies that examined pre-caudal to total length ratios of dead specimens. This study suggests that surface laser photogrammetry can successfully increase length estimation accuracy and illustrates the potential utility of this technique for growth and stock assessments on free-ranging marine organisms, which will lead to an improvement of the adaptive management of the species. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  6. Surface orientation affects the direction of cone growth by Leptolyngbya sp. strain C1, a likely architect of coniform structures Octopus Spring (Yellowstone National Park).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Kristina; Gonzalez, Nicolas I; Stewart, Joshua; Ospino, Frank; Nguyen, Dickie; Cho, David T; Ghahremani, Nahal; Spear, John R; Johnson, Hope A

    2013-02-01

    Laminated, microbially produced stromatolites within the rock record provide some of the earliest evidence for life on Earth. The chemical, physical, and biological factors that lead to the initiation of these organosedimentary structures and shape their morphology are unclear. Modern coniform structures with morphological features similar to stromatolites are found on the surface of cyanobacterial/microbial mats. They display a vertical element of growth, can have lamination, can be lithified, and observably grow with time. To begin to understand the microbial processes and interactions required for cone formation, we determined the phylogenetic composition of the microbial community of a coniform structure from a cyanobacterial mat at Octopus Spring, Yellowstone National Park, and reconstituted coniform structures in vitro. The 16S rRNA clone library from the coniform structure was dominated by Leptolyngbya sp. Other cyanobacteria and heterotrophic bacteria were present in much lower abundance. The same Leptolyngbya sp. identified in the clone library was also enriched in the laboratory and could produce cones in vitro. When coniform structures were cultivated in the laboratory, the initial incubation conditions were found to influence coniform morphology. In addition, both the angle of illumination and the orientation of the surface affected the angle of cone formation demonstrating how external factors can influence coniform, and likely, stromatolite morphology.

  7. Introducing close-range photogrammetry for characterizing forest understory plant diversity and surface fuel structure at fine scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin C. Bright; E. Louise Loudermilk; Scott M. Pokswinski; Andrew T. Hudak; Joseph J. O' Brien

    2016-01-01

    Methods characterizing fine-scale fuels and plant diversity can advance understanding of plant-fire interactions across scales and help in efforts to monitor important ecosystems such as longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) forests of the southeastern United States. Here, we evaluate the utility of close-range photogrammetry for measuring fuels and plant...

  8. EDITORIAL: Optical orientation Optical orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAME ADDRESS *, Yuri; Landwehr, Gottfried

    2008-11-01

    Boris Petrovitch Zakharchenya (1928-2005) This issue is dedicated to the memory of Boris Petrovich Zakharchenya, who died at the age of 77 in April 2005. He was an eminent scientist and a remarkable man. After studying physics at Leningrad University he joined the Physico-Technical Institute (now the A F Ioffe Institute) in 1952 and became the co-worker of Evgeny Feodorovich Gross, shortly after the exciton was discovered in his laboratory. The experiments on cuprous oxide crystals in the visible spectral range showed a hydrogen-like spectrum, which was interpreted as excitonic absorption. The concept of the exciton had been conceived some years earlier by Jacov Frenkel at the Physico-Technical Institute. Immediately after joining Gross, Zakharchenya succeeded in producing spectra of unprecedented quality. Subsequently the heavy and the light hole series were found. Also, Landau splitting was discovered when a magnetic field was applied. The interpretation of the discovery was thrown into doubt by Russian colleagues and it took some time, before the correct interpretation prevailed. Shortly before his death, Boris wrote the history of the discovery of the exciton, which has recently been published in Russian in a book celebrating the 80th anniversary of his birth [1]. The book also contains essays by Boris on various themes, not only on physics, but also on literature. Boris was a man of unusually wide interests, he was not only fascinated by physics, but also loved literature, art and music. This can be seen in the first article of this issue The Play of Light in Crystals which is an abbreviated version of his more complete history of the discovery of the exciton. It also gives a good impression of the personality of Boris. One of us (GL) had the privilege to become closely acquainted with him, while he was a guest professor at the University of Würzburg. During that time we had many discussions, and I recall his continuing rage on the wrong attribution of the

  9. Thermodynamical and structural properties of solid surfaces in the high temperature range by molecular dynamics solution: evidence for a roughening transition on the F.C.C. {110} surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosato, Vittorio

    1986-01-01

    We have studied by Molecular Dynamics simulation the thermodynamical and structural properties of the {110} solid Argon surface as a function of temperature up to T m . The following results have been obtained: 1) the Arrhenius plot indicates that for T> 0.7 T m the defect creation becomes a nearly athermal process. The measured surface diffusion coefficients are very high and are comparable with those observed in the liquid state. 2) the long range order is preserved at least up to T= 0.94 T m . The thermal disorder is related to the onset of a roughening transition on that surface at T ≅ 0.7 T m . Surface layers are not melted in the whole range of temperature we have studied. Furthermore we have investigated the influence of constraints on the surface structure for the same model system previously used at T = 0.48 T m . We have shown that both temperature and constraints induce disorder on surface: for constraints corresponding to elastic deformations of -5 pc applied along the dense axis {110}, the surface structure results to be very similar to that obtained, without constraints, at a higher temperature (T = 0.68 T m ). The implications of our bindings in several areas of Materials Science are briefly discussed. (author) [fr

  10. Observationally constrained modeling of sound in curved ocean internal waves: examination of deep ducting and surface ducting at short range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, Timothy F; Lin, Ying-Tsong; Reeder, D Benjamin

    2011-09-01

    A study of 400 Hz sound focusing and ducting effects in a packet of curved nonlinear internal waves in shallow water is presented. Sound propagation roughly along the crests of the waves is simulated with a three-dimensional parabolic equation computational code, and the results are compared to measured propagation along fixed 3 and 6 km source/receiver paths. The measurements were made on the shelf of the South China Sea northeast of Tung-Sha Island. Construction of the time-varying three-dimensional sound-speed fields used in the modeling simulations was guided by environmental data collected concurrently with the acoustic data. Computed three-dimensional propagation results compare well with field observations. The simulations allow identification of time-dependent sound forward scattering and ducting processes within the curved internal gravity waves. Strong acoustic intensity enhancement was observed during passage of high-amplitude nonlinear waves over the source/receiver paths, and is replicated in the model. The waves were typical of the region (35 m vertical displacement). Two types of ducting are found in the model, which occur asynchronously. One type is three-dimensional modal trapping in deep ducts within the wave crests (shallow thermocline zones). The second type is surface ducting within the wave troughs (deep thermocline zones). © 2011 Acoustical Society of America

  11. Cu-Fe-S Nanocrystals Exhibiting Tunable Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance in the Visible to NIR Spectral Ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabka, Grzegorz; Bujak, Piotr; Ostrowski, Andrzej; Tomaszewski, Waldemar; Lisowski, Wojciech; Sobczak, Janusz W; Pron, Adam

    2016-07-05

    Cu-Fe-S nanocrystals exhibiting a strong localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) effect were synthesized for the first time. The elaborated reproducible preparation procedure involved copper(II) oleate, iron(III) stearate, and sulfur powder dissolved in oleylamine (OLA) as precursors. The wavelength of the plasmonic resonance maximum could be tuned by changing the Cu/Fe ratio in the resulting nanocrystals, being the most energetic for the 1:1 ratio (486 nm) and undergoing a bathochromic shift to ca. 1200 nm with an increase to 6:1. LSPR could also be observed in nanocrystals prepared from the same metal precursors and sulfur powder dissolved in 1-octadecene (ODE), provided that the sulfur precursor was taken in excess. Detailed analysis of the reaction mixture by chromatographic techniques, supplemented by mass spectrometry and (1)H NMR spectroscopy enabled the identification of the true chemical nature of the sulfur precursor in S/OLA, namely, (C18H35NH3(+))(C18H35NH-S8(-)), a reactive product of the reduction of elemental sulfur by the amine groups of OLA. In the case of the S/ODE precursor, the true precursors are much less reactive primary or secondary thioethers and dialkyl polysulfides.

  12. A machine vision identification technique from range images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehtarnavaz, N.; Mohan, S.

    1988-01-01

    An orientation-independent identification technique from three-dimensional surface maps or range images is developed. Given the range image of an object, it is decomposed into orientation-independent patches using the sign of Gaussian curvature. A relational graph is then set up such that a node represents a patch and an edge represents the adjacency of two patches. The identification of the object is achieved by matching its graph representation to a number of model graphs. The matching is performed by employing the best-first search strategy. Examples of real range images show the merit of the technique.

  13. Investigation of the range of validity of the pairwise summation method applied to the calculation of the surface roughness correction to the van der Waals force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusso, André; Burnham, Nancy A.

    2016-09-01

    It has long been recognized that stochastic surface roughness can considerably change the van der Waals (vdW) force between interacting surfaces and particles. However, few analytical expressions for the vdW force between rough surfaces have been presented in the literature. Because they have been derived using perturbative methods or the proximity force approximation the expressions are valid when the roughness correction is small and for a limited range of roughness parameters and surface separation. In this work, a nonperturbative approach, the effective density method (EDM) is proposed to circumvent some of these limitations. The method simplifies the calculations of the roughness correction based on pairwise summation (PWS), and allows us to derive simple expressions for the vdW force and energy between two semispaces covered with stochastic rough surfaces. Because the range of applicability of PWS and, therefore, of our results, are not known a priori, we compare the predictions based on the EDM with those based on the multilayer effective medium model, whose range of validity can be defined more properly and which is valid when the roughness correction is comparatively large. We conclude that the PWS can be used for roughness characterized by a correlation length of the order of its rms amplitude, when this amplitude is of the order of or smaller than a few nanometers, and only for typically insulating materials such as silicon dioxide, silicon nitride, diamond, and certain glasses, polymers and ceramics. The results are relevant for the correct modeling of systems where the vdW force can play a significant role such as micro and nanodevices, for the calculation of the tip-sample force in atomic force microscopy, and in problems involving adhesion.

  14. An autonomous multisensor in situ metrology system for enabling high dynamic range measurement of 3D surfaces on precision machine tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Samuel M Y; Cheung, Benny C F; Cheng, Ching-Hsiang; Whitehouse, David

    2016-01-01

    An in situ measurement is of prime importance when trying to maintain the position of the workpiece for further compensation processes in order to improve the accuracy and efficiency of the precision machining of three dimensional (3D) surfaces. However, the coordinates of most of the machine tools with closed machine interfaces and control system are not accessible for users, which make it difficult to use the motion axes of the machine tool for in situ measurements. This paper presents an autonomous multisensor in situ metrology system for enabling high dynamic range measurement of 3D surfaces on precision machine tools. It makes use of a designed tool path and an additional motion sensor to assist the registration of time-space data for the position estimation of a 2D laser scanner which measures the surface with a high lateral resolution and large area without the need to interface with the machine tool system. A prototype system was built and integrated into an ultra-precision polishing machine. Experimental results show that it measures the 3D surfaces with high resolution, high repeatability, and large measurement range. The system not only improves the efficiency and accuracy of the precision machining process but also extends the capability of machine tools. (paper)

  15. Hybrid-Mode-Assisted Long-Distance Excitation of Short-Range Surface Plasmons in a Nanotip-Enhanced Step-Index Fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuniz, Alessandro; Chemnitz, Mario; Dellith, Jan; Weidlich, Stefan; Schmidt, Markus A

    2017-02-08

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a monolithic nanowire-enhanced fiber-based nanoprobe for the broadband delivery of light (550-730 nm) to a deep subwavelength scale using short-range surface plasmons. The geometry is formed by a step index fiber with an integrated gold nanowire in its core and a protruding gold nanotip with sub-10 nm apex radius. We present a novel coupling scheme to excite short-range surface plasmons, whereby the radially polarized hybrid mode propagating inside the nanowire section excites the plasmonic mode close to the fiber endface, which is in turn superfocused down to nanoscale dimensions at the tip apex. We show that in this all-integrated fiber-plasmonic coupling scheme the wire length can be orders of magnitude longer than the attenuation length of short-range plasmon polaritons, yielding a broadband plasmon excitation and reducing demands in fabrication. We observe that the scattered light in the far-field from the nanotip is axially polarized and preferentially excited by a radially polarized input, unambiguously revealing that it originates from a short-range plasmon propagating on the nanotip, in agreement with simulations. This novel excitation scheme will have important applications in near-field microscopy and nanophotonics and potentially offers significantly improved resolution compared to current delivery near-field probes.

  16. Investigating the influence of long-range transport on surface O3 in Nevada, USA, using observations from multiple measurement platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Rebekka; Miller, Matthieu B; Yates, Emma L; Iraci, Laura T; Gustin, Mae Sexauer

    2015-10-15

    The current United States (US) National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for O3 (75 ppb) is expected to be revised to between 60 and 70 ppb. As the NAAQS becomes more stringent, characterizing the extent of O3 and precursors transported into the US is increasingly important. Given the high elevation, complex terrain, and location in the Intermountain West, the State of Nevada is ideally situated to intercept air transported into the US. Until recently, measurements of O3 and associated pollutants were limited to areas in and around the cities of Las Vegas and Reno. In 2011, the Nevada Rural Ozone Initiative began and through this project 13 surface monitoring sites were established. Also in 2011, the NASA Ames Alpha Jet Atmospheric eXperiment (AJAX) began making routine aircraft measurements of O3 and other greenhouse gases in Nevada. The availability of aircraft and surface measurements in a relatively rural, remote setting in the Intermountain West presented a unique opportunity to investigate sources contributing to the O3 observed in Nevada. Our analyses indicate that stratosphere to troposphere transport, long-range transport of Asian pollution, and regional emissions from urban areas and wildfires influence surface observations. The complexity of sources identified here along with the fact that O3 frequently approaches the threshold being considered for a revised NAAQS indicate that interstate and international cooperation will be necessary to achieve compliance with a more stringent regulatory standard. Further, on a seasonal basis we found no significant difference between daily 1-h maximum O3 at surface sites, which ranged in elevation from 888 to 2307 m, and aircraft measurements of O3 O3 across rural Nevada and indicates that column measurements from Railroad Valley, NV are useful in understanding these processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 484: Surface Debris, Waste Sites, and Burn Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechel Nevada

    2004-01-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration plan details the activities necessary to close Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 484: Surface Debris, Waste Sites, and Burn Area (Tonopah Test Range). CAU 484 consists of sites located at the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, and is currently listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. CAU 484 consists of the following six Corrective Action Sites: (1) CAS RG-52-007-TAML, Davis Gun Penetrator Test; (2) CAS TA-52-001-TANL, NEDS Detonation Area; (3) CAS TA-52-004-TAAL, Metal Particle Dispersion Test; (4) CAS TA-52-005-TAAL, Joint Test Assembly DU Sites; (5) CAS TA-52-006-TAPL, Depleted Uranium Site; and (6) CAS TA-54-001-TANL, Containment Tank and Steel Structure

  18. Orienteering club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2015-01-01

    Course d'orientation La reprise des courses d’orientation était attendue dans la région puisque près de 150 coureurs ont participé à la première épreuve automnale organisée par le club d’orientation du CERN sur le site de La Faucille. Les circuits ont été remportés par Yann Locatelli du club d’Orientation Coeur de Savoie avec 56 secondes d’avance sur Damien Berguerre du club SOS Sallanches pour le parcours technique long, Marie Vuitton du club CO CERN (membre également de l’Equipe de France Jeune) pour le parcours technique moyen avec presque 4 minutes d’avance sur Jeremy Wichoud du club Lausanne-Jorat, Victor Dannecker pour le circuit technique court devant Alina Niggli, Elliot Dannecker pour le facile moyen et Alice Merat sur le facile court, tous membres du club O’Jura. Les résultats comp...

  19. Oriental cholangiohepatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheible, F.W.; Davis, G.B.; California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla

    1981-01-01

    The recent influx of immigrants from Southeast Asia into the United States has increased the likelihood of encountering unusual diseases heretofore rarely seen in this country. Among these disorders is Oriental cholangiohepatitis, a potentially life-threatening process whose early diagnosis is facilitated by roentgenographic findings. Ultrasonography can also provide useful information, although potential pitfalls in diagnosis should be recognized. (orig.)

  20. Photometric analysis of the structure evolution on the Pb-19.4%Sn melt surface in the S-L temperature range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyakhovitskii M.M.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The structure evolution of alloys in solidification range is considered as the first-order phase transformation from the solid state to the liquid one, which occurs by the mechanism of nucleation and growth of more symmetrical phase to less symmetrical crystalline phase. The kinetic regularities of this transformation are studied by the method of the photometric analysis of structure images (PHASI, which makes it possible to establish the temperature dependence of the relationship between the solid and liquid phases and their distribution on the melt surface. The PHASI method is based on the combined analysis of the brightness spectra of the visible light reflections from the sample surface and of the distribution of its scattering centers in different intensity intervals. The data on the structure evolution of the Sn+19.4%Pb alloy upon melting and solidification were considered in parallel with the measured spectra of sound signals. It was revealed that a distinct maximum is observed in the temperature dependence of radiation energy in the temperature range of phase transformation from the liquid into the solid state and hot crack formation occurs near the transition zone in the region of the contact of the ingot with the crucible.

  1. Relationship between open-circuit voltage in Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} solar cell and peak position of (220/204) preferred orientation near its absorber surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chantana, J., E-mail: jakapan@fc.ritsumei.ac.jp; Minemoto, T. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Nojihigashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Watanabe, T.; Teraji, S.; Kawamura, K. [Environment and Energy Research Center, Nitto Denko Corporation, 2-8 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2013-11-25

    Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) absorbers with various Ga/III, Ga/(In+Ga), profiles are prepared by the so-called “multi-layer precursor method” using multi-layer co-evaporation of material sources. It is revealed that open-circuit voltage (V{sub OC}) of CIGS solar cell is primarily dependent on averaged Ga/III near the surface of its absorber. This averaged Ga/III is well predicted by peak position of (220/204) preferred orientation of CIGS film near its surface investigated by glancing-incidence X-ray diffraction with 0.1° incident angle. Finally, the peak position of (220/204) preferred orientation is proposed as a measure of V{sub OC} before solar cell fabrication.

  2. Investigating the influence of long-range transport on surface O3 in Nevada, USA, using observations from multiple measurement platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fine, Rebekka; Miller, Matthieu B.; Yates, Emma L.; Iraci, Laura T.; Gustin, Mae Sexauer

    2015-01-01

    The current United States (US) National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for O 3 (75 ppb) is expected to be revised to between 60 and 70 ppb. As the NAAQS becomes more stringent, characterizing the extent of O 3 and precursors transported into the US is increasingly important. Given the high elevation, complex terrain, and location in the Intermountain West, the State of Nevada is ideally situated to intercept air transported into the US. Until recently, measurements of O 3 and associated pollutants were limited to areas in and around the cities of Las Vegas and Reno. In 2011, the Nevada Rural Ozone Initiative began and through this project 13 surface monitoring sites were established. Also in 2011, the NASA Ames Alpha Jet Atmospheric eXperiment (AJAX) began making routine aircraft measurements of O 3 and other greenhouse gases in Nevada. The availability of aircraft and surface measurements in a relatively rural, remote setting in the Intermountain West presented a unique opportunity to investigate sources contributing to the O 3 observed in Nevada. Our analyses indicate that stratosphere to troposphere transport, long-range transport of Asian pollution, and regional emissions from urban areas and wildfires influence surface observations. The complexity of sources identified here along with the fact that O 3 frequently approaches the threshold being considered for a revised NAAQS indicate that interstate and international cooperation will be necessary to achieve compliance with a more stringent regulatory standard. Further, on a seasonal basis we found no significant difference between daily 1-h maximum O 3 at surface sites, which ranged in elevation from 888 to 2307 m, and aircraft measurements of O 3 < 2500 m which suggests that similar processes influence daytime O 3 across rural Nevada and indicates that column measurements from Railroad Valley, NV are useful in understanding these processes. - Highlights: • Measurements indicate Asian LRT, STT, and

  3. Investigating the influence of long-range transport on surface O{sub 3} in Nevada, USA, using observations from multiple measurement platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fine, Rebekka, E-mail: rebekkafine@gmail.com [Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Science, University of Nevada-Reno, Reno, NV (United States); Miller, Matthieu B. [Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Science, University of Nevada-Reno, Reno, NV (United States); Yates, Emma L.; Iraci, Laura T. [Atmospheric Science Branch, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Gustin, Mae Sexauer, E-mail: mgustin@cabnr.unr.edu [Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Science, University of Nevada-Reno, Reno, NV (United States)

    2015-10-15

    The current United States (US) National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for O{sub 3} (75 ppb) is expected to be revised to between 60 and 70 ppb. As the NAAQS becomes more stringent, characterizing the extent of O{sub 3} and precursors transported into the US is increasingly important. Given the high elevation, complex terrain, and location in the Intermountain West, the State of Nevada is ideally situated to intercept air transported into the US. Until recently, measurements of O{sub 3} and associated pollutants were limited to areas in and around the cities of Las Vegas and Reno. In 2011, the Nevada Rural Ozone Initiative began and through this project 13 surface monitoring sites were established. Also in 2011, the NASA Ames Alpha Jet Atmospheric eXperiment (AJAX) began making routine aircraft measurements of O{sub 3} and other greenhouse gases in Nevada. The availability of aircraft and surface measurements in a relatively rural, remote setting in the Intermountain West presented a unique opportunity to investigate sources contributing to the O{sub 3} observed in Nevada. Our analyses indicate that stratosphere to troposphere transport, long-range transport of Asian pollution, and regional emissions from urban areas and wildfires influence surface observations. The complexity of sources identified here along with the fact that O{sub 3} frequently approaches the threshold being considered for a revised NAAQS indicate that interstate and international cooperation will be necessary to achieve compliance with a more stringent regulatory standard. Further, on a seasonal basis we found no significant difference between daily 1-h maximum O{sub 3} at surface sites, which ranged in elevation from 888 to 2307 m, and aircraft measurements of O{sub 3} < 2500 m which suggests that similar processes influence daytime O{sub 3} across rural Nevada and indicates that column measurements from Railroad Valley, NV are useful in understanding these processes. - Highlights:

  4. Recent and historical range shifts of two canopy-forming seaweeds in North Spain and the link with trends in sea surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Linney; Viejo, Rosa M.; Martínez, Brezo; deCastro, Maite; Gómez-Gesteira, Moncho; Gallardo, Tomás

    2013-08-01

    Geographical range shifts of two canopy-forming seaweeds, Himanthalia elongata (L.) S.F. Gray and Fucus serratus L. were investigated at their southern range boundary in Northern Spain from the end of nineteenth century to 2009. Given the good dispersal abilities of H. elongata and its short life-span, we hypothesize that this species will track environmental changes at a faster rate than the perennial and short-distance disperser F. serratus. Our results show a continuous and drastic westward retraction of H. elongata, which has nowadays virtually vanished in Northern Spain, whereas F. serratus is still found in the westernmost area. Despite this, the first species is still relatively abundant in the Iberian Peninsula, whereas the presence of the latter is scattered and reduced. Overall, range shifts fit with the warming trend in sea surface temperature (SST), whereas it is unlikely that increases in grazing pressure or coastal pollution have driven the observed changes, particularly the rapid trend in recent years. Differences in species traits are linked to range dynamics. The higher persistence of F. serratus at eastern shores may thus be related to its longer life span and its greater thermal tolerance. The presence of sporadic populations of H. elongata outside the zone of continuous distribution can be attributed to long-distance dispersal events during cold pulses. Relict populations in isolated and estuarine locations were left behind in the contracting range margins, particularly for F. serratus. In Northern Spain, the westward retreat of large canopy-forming algae seems to be a general phenomenon, involving other species such as kelps. Therefore, an evident reorganization of coastal assemblages is expected, though the temporal extent of changes and the consequences for ecosystem services need to be evaluated.

  5. In Situ Studies of the Temperature-Dependent Surface Structure and Chemistry of Single-Crystalline (001)-Oriented La 0.8 Sr 0.2 CoO 3−δ Perovskite Thin Films

    KAUST Repository

    Feng, Zhenxing

    2013-05-02

    Perovskites are used to promote the kinetics of oxygen electrocatalysis in solid oxide fuel cells and oxygen permeation membranes. Little is known about the surface structure and chemistry of perovskites at high temperatures and partial oxygen pressures. Combining in situ X-ray reflectivity (XRR) and in situ ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (APXPS), we report, for the first time, the evolution of the surface structure and chemistry of (001)-oriented perovskite La0.8Sr0.2CoO 3-δ (LSC113) and (La0.5Sr 0.5)2CoO4+δ (LSC214)-decorated LSC113 (LSC113/214) thin films as a function of temperature. Heating the (001)-oriented LSC113 surface leads to the formation of surface LSC214-like particles, which is further confirmed by ex situ Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). In contrast, the LSC113/214 surface, with activities much higher than that of LSC 113, is stable upon heating. Combined in situ XRR and APXPS measurements support that Sr enrichment may occur at the LSC113 and LSC214 interface, which can be responsible for its markedly enhanced activities. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  6. An in situ spectroelectrochemical study on the orientation changes of an [FeiiiLN2O3] metallosurfactant deposited as LB Films on gold electrode surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Izabella; Juhaniewicz-Debinska, Joanna; Wickramasinghe, Lanka; Verani, Claudio N

    2018-03-28

    In this paper we analyze the changes in molecular orientation triggered by electrochemical reduction of an iron-containing surfactant in Langmuir-Blodgett films deposited onto gold electrodes. The metallosurfactant [Feiii(LN2O3)] (1) is an established molecular rectifier capable of unidirectional electron transfer between two electrodes. A gradual decrease in the activity is observed in sequential current vs. potential curves upon repeated cycles. Here we evaluate the redox response associated with the reduction of the Feiii/Feii couple in a single monolayer, as well as in a 5-layer LB film of 1. We use polarization modulation infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (PM IRRAS) to follow structural and orientation changes associated with such applied potential scans. We observe that the reduction of the Fe center becomes increasingly irreversible because an Fe-Ophenolate bond is cleaved. This transformation is accompanied by an almost vertical change in the orientation of metallosurfactant molecules in LB films.

  7. Orientation Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2014-01-01

    COURSE ORIENTATION Résultats de samedi 10 mai    C’est sur une carte entièrement réactualisée dans les bois de Versoix, que plus de 100 coureurs sont venus participer à la course d’orientation, type longue distance, préparée par des membres du club du CERN. Le terrain plutôt plat nécessitait une orientation à grande vitesse, ce qui a donné les podiums suivants :  Technique long avec 17 postes : 1er Jurg Niggli, O’Jura en 52:48, 2e Beat Muller, COLJ Lausanne-Jorat en 58:02, 3e Christophe Vuitton, CO CERN en 58:19 Technique moyen avec 13 postes : 1er Jean-Bernard Zosso, CO CERN, en 46:05 ; 2e Yves Rousselot, Balise 25 Besançon, en 55:11 ; 3e Laurent Merat, O'Jura, en 55:13 Technique court avec 13 postes : 1er Julien Vuitton, CO CERN en 40:59, 2e Marc Baumgartner, CO CERN en 43:18, 3e Yaelle Mathieu en 51:42 Su...

  8. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2013-01-01

    Courses d’orientation ce printemps Le Club d’orientation du CERN vous invite à venir découvrir la course d’orientation et vous propose, en partenariat avec d’autres clubs de la région, une dizaine de courses populaires. Celles-ci ont lieu les samedis après-midi, elles sont ouvertes à tous, quel que soit le niveau, du débutant au sportif confirmé, en famille ou en individuel, en promenade ou en course. Si vous êtes débutant vous pouvez profiter d’une petite initiation offerte par l’organisateur avant de vous lancer sur un parcours. Divers types de parcours sont à votre choix lors de chaque épreuve : facile court (2-3 km), facile moyen (3-5 km), technique court (3-4 km), technique moyen (4-5 km) et technique long (5-7 km). Les dates à retenir sont les suivantes : Samedi 23 mars: Pully (Vd) Samedi 13 avril: Pougny...

  9. Andromede project: Surface analysis and modification with probes from hydrogen to nano-particles in the MeV energy range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eller, Michael J.; Cottereau, Evelyne [Institut de Physique Nucléaire d’Orsay, UMR8608, CNRS/IN2P3, Université Paris-Sud 11, F-91406 Orsay (France); Rasser, Bernard; Verzeroli, Elodie [Orsay Physics, ZAC Saint Charles, 95 Av des Monts Auréliens, 13710 Fuveau (France); Agnus, Benoit; Gaubert, Gabriel; Donzel, Xavier [Pantechnik SA, 13 rue de la Résistance, 14400 Bayeux (France); Delobbe, Anne [Orsay Physics, ZAC Saint Charles, 95 Av des Monts Auréliens, 13710 Fuveau (France); Della-Negra, Serge, E-mail: dellaneg@ipno.in2p3.fr [Institut de Physique Nucléaire d’Orsay, UMR8608, CNRS/IN2P3, Université Paris-Sud 11, F-91406 Orsay (France)

    2015-12-15

    The Andromede project is the center of a multi-disciplinary team which will build a new instrument for surface modification and analysis using the impact of probes from hydrogen to nano-particles (Au{sub 400}{sup +4}) in the MeV range. For this new instrument a series of atomic, polyatomic, molecular and nano-particle ion beams will be delivered using two ion sources in tandem, a liquid metal ion source and an electron cyclotron resonance source. The delivered ion beams will be accelerated to high energy with a 4 MeV van de Graaff type accelerator. By using a suite of probes in the MeV energy range, ion beam analysis techniques, MeV atomic and cluster secondary ion mass spectrometry can all be performed in one location. A key feature of the instrument is its ability to produce an intense beam for injection into the accelerator. The commissioning of the two sources shows that intense beams from atomic ions to nano-particles can be delivered for subsequent acceleration. The calculations and measurements for the two sources are presented.

  10. Orientation politique

    OpenAIRE

    Tiberj, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    L’orientation politique constitue l’ensemble des valeurs, normes et préférences (bref l’idéologie) qui guide ou structure les individus vers un parti ou un camp politique. Contrairement à une vision philosophique de la politique fondée sur un citoyen idéal à la fois rationnel et insensible aux contingences de sa situation personnelle, l’électeur n’est pas seul quand il se présente dans l’isoloir, il amène avec lui ses groupes d’appartenance, son histoire individuelle et ses valeurs. En cela, ...

  11. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'Orientation

    2013-01-01

    Course d’orientation Face aux Championnats de France des Clubs à Poitiers, et à une météo hivernale (vent glaciale et pluie), il ne restait qu’une cinquantaine d’orienteurs pour participer à l’épreuve organisée le samedi 25 mai à Grange-Malval. Les participants ont tout de même bien apprécié les 5 circuits proposés par le Satus Genève. Les résultats sont disponibles sur notre site http://cern.ch/club-orientation. En plus des résultats, vous pourrez noter des informations sur la nouvelle école de CO encadrée par B. Barge, Prof. EPS à Ferney-Voltaire pour les jeunes à partir de 6 ans. La prochaine étape de la coupe genevoise se déroulera samedi 1er juin à Morez (39). Epreuve organisée par le club O’Jura&nb...

  12. Club Orientation

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2014-01-01

      COURSE ORIENTATION   Pas moins de 100 concurrents sont venus s’affronter sur les parcours proposés par le club d’orientation du CERN ce samedi 26 avril lors de la 4e étape de la coupe genevoise de printemps. Les podiums ont été attribués à :  Technique long avec 19 postes : 1er Yvan Balliot, ASO Annecy en 1:01:39 ; 2e Dominique Fleurent, ASO Annecy, en 1:05:12 ; 3e Rémi Fournier, SOS Sallanches, en 1:05:40. Technique moyen avec 14 postes : 1er Jean-Bernard Zosso, CO CERN, en 46:42 ; 2e Céline Zosso, CO CERN, en 50:51 ; 3e Clément Poncet, O’Jura Prémanon, en 51:27. Technique court avec 13 postes : 1er Jaakko Murtomaki, YKV Seinaejoki, en 36:04 ; 2e Marc Baumgartner en 41:27 ; 3e Natalia Niggli, O’Jura Prémanon, en 52:43. Sur les parcours facile moyen et facile court, victoire respectivement de Stéphanie...

  13. Orienteering club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2010-01-01

    Course d’orientation : Coupe Genevoise de printemps 2010 Et c’est reparti pour une nouvelle saison! Pour cette coupe de printemps 2010, le Club d’Orientation du CERN, en partenariat avec d’autres clubs de la région, vous propose le calendrier suivant: – samedi 20 mars : Cossonay (Vd) – samedi 10 avril : Echallens (Vd) – samedi 17 avril : Trélex (Vd) – samedi 24 avril : Genolier (Vd) – samedi 1 mai : Vulbens/Valleiry (74) – samedi 8 mai : Bois de la Rippe (Vd) – samedi 29 mai : Sauvabellin (Vd) : relais – samedi 5 juin: St Cergue (Vd) : grande finale Les courses populaires ont lieu en général le samedi après-midi, elles sont ouvertes à tous, quel que soit le niveau, du débutant au sportif confirmé, en famille ou en individuel, en promenade ou en course. Pour cela, divers types de parcours sont &agr...

  14. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Le Club d’orientation du CERN

    2017-01-01

    Course orientation Les courses d’orientation comptant pour la coupe genevoise de printemps s’enchainent dans la région franco-suisse. Samedi dernier, une bonne centaine de coureurs se sont retrouvés au Mont Mourex où le club du CERN avait préparé la sixième épreuve. A l’issue de la course, les participants confirmaient l’exigence des circuits, à savoir la condition physique et le côté technique du traçage. Le parcours technique long comportant 20 postes a été remporté par Darrell High du Care Vevey en 1:22:38 devançant Beat Muller du COLJ Lausanne-Jorat en 1:25:25 et Alison High également du Care Vevey en 1:28:51. Le circuit technique moyen a été remporté par Christophe Vuitton du CO CERN et le circuit technique court par Claire-Lise Rouiller, CO CERN. Les trois pr...

  15. COURSE ORIENTATION

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation du CERN

    2015-01-01

      Les coureurs d’orientation de la région se sont donné rendez-vous samedi dernier dans les bois de Pougny/Challex lors de l’épreuve organisée par le club d’orientation du CERN. La carte proposée pour les 5 circuits offrait aussi bien un coté très technique avec un relief pentu qu’un coté avec de grandes zones plates à forêt claire. Le parcours technique long comportant 20 postes a été remporté par Beat Muller du COLJ Lausanne en 56:26 devançant Denis Komarov, CO CERN en 57:30 et Yvan Balliot, ASO Annecy en 57:46. Pour les autres circuits les résultats sont les suivants: Technique moyen (13 postes): 1er Joël Mathieu en 52:32 à une seconde du 2e Vladimir Kuznetsov, COLJ Lausanne-Jorat, 3e Jean-Bernard Zosso, CO CERN, en 54:01 Technique court (12 postes): 1er Lennart Jirden, ...

  16. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Le Club d’orientation du CERN

    2017-01-01

    COURSE ORIENTATION Finale de la coupe d’automne Le club d’orientation du CERN (COC Genève) a organisé sa dernière course populaire de la saison samedi 4 novembre au lieu-dit Les Terrasses de Genève (74). Cette 9e épreuve qui se courait sous la forme d’un One-Man-Relay, clôturait ainsi la coupe genevoise d’automne dont les lauréats sont : Circuit technique long : 1. Julien Vuitton (COC Genève), 2. Berni Wehrle (COC Genève), 3. Christophe Vuitton (COC Genève). Circuit technique moyen : 1. Vladimir Kuznetsov (Lausanne-Jorat), 2. J.-Bernard Zosso (COC Genève), 3. Laurent Merat (O’Jura). Circuit technique court : 1. Thibault Rouiller (COC Genève), 2. exæquo Lennart Jirden (COC Genève) et Katya Kuznetsova (Lausanne-Jorat). Circuit facile moyen : 1. Tituan Barge ...

  17. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Le Club d’orientation du CERN

    2017-01-01

    COURSE ORIENTATION Finale de la coupe d’automne Le club d’orientation du CERN (COC Genève) a organisé sa dernière course populaire de la saison samedi 4 novembre au lieu-dit Les Terrasses de Genève (74). Cette 9e épreuve qui se courait sous la forme d’un One-Man-Relay, clôturait ainsi la coupe genevoise d’automne dont les lauréats sont : Circuit technique long : 1. Julien Vuitton (COC Genève), 2. Berni Wehrle (COC Genève), 3. Christophe Vuitton (COC Genève). Circuit technique moyen : 1. Vladimir Kuznetsov (Lausanne-Jorat), 2. J.-Bernard Zosso (COC Genève), 3. Laurent Merat (O’Jura). Circuit technique court : 1. Thibault Rouiller (COC Genève), 2. exæquo Lennart Jirden (COC Genève) et Katya Kuznetsova (Lausanne-Jorat). Circuit facile moyen : 1. Tituan Barge...

  18. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Le Club d’orientation du CERN

    2017-01-01

    Calendrier des courses de la Coupe Genevoise – printemps 2017 Club d'orientation - Julien,  jeune membre du club. Le Club d’orientation du CERN, en partenariat avec d’autres clubs de la région, vous propose une série de courses populaires, qui se dérouleront des deux côtés de la frontière franco-suisse, à savoir : Samedi 1 avril : Pougny/Challex (01) Samedi 8 avril: Ballens (VD) Samedi 22 avril: Apples (VD) Samedi 29 avril: Mont Mussy (01) Samedi 6 mai: Prémanon (39) Samedi 13 mai: Mont Mourex (01) Samedi 20 mai: Prévondavaux (VD) Samedi 10 juin: Chancy/Valleiry (74) Samedi 17 juin: Trélex - Finale (VD) Ces courses sont ouvertes à tous, quel que soit le niveau, du débutant au sportif confirmé, en famille ou en individuel. Les inscriptions sur un des 5 parcours proposés se font sur place le jour de l...

  19. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'Orientation

    2015-01-01

    Course orientation C’est au pied du Salève, proche du Golf de Bosset, que le club d’orientation du CERN (CO CERN) a organisé samedi 19 septembre une nouvelle épreuve comptant pour la Coupe Genevoise d’automne. La zone « des Terrasses de Genève » avait été cartographiée et mise en service l’année dernière. Les participants ont pu apprécier un terrain ludique avec beaucoup de microreliefs, de points d’eau et de gros rochers, le tout au milieu d’une forêt assez claire et agréable à courir. Sur le parcours technique long, le résultat a été très serré puisque Pierrick Merino du club d’Annecy a gagné avec seulement 9 secondes d’avance sur Gaëtan Vuitton (CO CERN) qui confiait avoir perdu beaucoup du te...

  20. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2010-01-01

    COURSE D’ORIENTATION La finale de la coupe de printemps Après avoir remporté le challenge club, samedi 29 juin lors du relais inter-club à Lausanne, le Club d’orientation du CERN organisait la dernière étape de la coupe genevoise de printemps samedi 5 juin à Saint-Cergue dans les bois de Monteret (Canton de Vaud). Plus de 100 participants se sont déplacés pour venir participer à la finale et découvrir une toute nouvelle carte dans une forêt vallonnée. Les résultats pour chaque circuit de cette étape sont : Technique long : 1. Jurg Niggli du club O’Jura, 2. Clément Poncet, 3. Oystein Midttun. Technique moyen : 1. Zoltan Trocsanyi CO CERN, 2. Christophe Ingold, 3. Christina Falga. Technique court : 1. Pierre-Andre Baum, CARE Vevey, 2. Emese Szunyog, 3. Solène Balay. Facile moyen : 1. Elisa P...

  1. Orienteering club

    CERN Multimedia

    Orienteering Club

    2016-01-01

    Course d'orientation Calendrier des courses d’orientation Coupe genevoise d’automne 2016 Samedi 3 septembre : La Faucille (01) Samedi 10 septembre : Prémanon (39) Samedi 17 septembre : Saint-Cergue (VD) Samedi 24 septembre : Jorat / Corcelles (VD) Samedi 1 octobre: Bière - Ballens (VD) -relais Vendredi 14 octobre : Parc Mon Repos (GE) - nocturne Samedi 15 octobre : Terrasse de Genève (74) Samedi 29 octobre : Bonmont (VD) Samedi 5 novembre : Pomier (74) – one-man-relay - Finale   Courses ouvertes à toutes et à tous, sportifs, familles, débutants ou confirmés, du CERN ou d’ailleurs. Cinq circuits disponibles, ceci va du facile court (2 km) adapté aux débutants et aux enfants jusqu’au parcours technique long de 6 km pour les chevronnés en passant par les parcours facile moyen (4&am...

  2. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'Orientation

    2012-01-01

     Course d’orientation C’est sous un magnifique soleil que s’est tenue la 7e épreuve de la coupe genevoise organisée par le club d’orientation du CERN. Les organisateurs avaient concocté des parcours assez techniques sur le site de La Faucille. Sur le parcours technique long, beau podium avec la victoire de Domenico Lepori (double médaillés aux championnats du monde en 2010 en vétéran) du club Care Vevey en 1:00:23, juste devant Jürg Niggli du club O’Jura en 1:00:56 puis Beat Mueller du club Lausanne-Jorat en 1:04:28. Sur le parcours technique moyen, Franck Longchampt s’est octroyé la première place, sur le parcours technique court, le jeune Julien Vuitton, qui n’a pas tout à fait 11 ans, a remporté son circuit. Coté parcours facile moyen, Victor Kuznetsov a une fois de plus gagn&eacut...

  3. Orienting hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Anna E; Sugarman, Laurence I

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a new frame for understanding hypnosis and its clinical applications. Despite great potential to transform health and care, hypnosis research and clinical integration is impaired in part by centuries of misrepresentation and ignorance about its demonstrated efficacy. The authors contend that advances in the field are primarily encumbered by the lack of distinct boundaries and definitions. Here, hypnosis, trance, and mind are all redefined and grounded in biological, neurological, and psychological phenomena. Solutions are proposed for boundary and language problems associated with hypnosis. The biological role of novelty stimulating an orienting response that, in turn, potentiates systemic plasticity forms the basis for trance. Hypnosis is merely the skill set that perpetuates and influences trance. This formulation meshes with many aspects of Milton Erickson's legacy and Ernest Rossi's recent theory of mind and health. Implications of this hypothesis for clinical skills, professional training, and research are discussed.

  4. Precipitable water and surface humidity over global oceans from special sensor microwave imager and European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W. T.; Tang, Wenqing; Wentz, Frank J.

    1992-01-01

    Global fields of precipitable water W from the special sensor microwave imager were compared with those from the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) model. They agree over most ocean areas; both data sets capture the two annual cycles examined and the interannual anomalies during an ENSO episode. They show significant differences in the dry air masses over the eastern tropical-subtropical oceans, particularly in the Southern Hemisphere. In these regions, comparisons with radiosonde data indicate that overestimation by the ECMWF model accounts for a large part of the differences. As a check on the W differences, surface-level specific humidity Q derived from W, using a statistical relation, was compared with Q from the ECMWF model. The differences in Q were found to be consistent with the differences in W, indirectly validating the Q-W relation. In both W and Q, SSMI was able to discern clearly the equatorial extension of the tongues of dry air in the eastern tropical ocean, while both ECMWF and climatological fields have reduced spatial gradients and weaker intensity.

  5. Absence of spontaneous magnetism associated with a possible time-reversal symmetry breaking state beneath the surface of (110)-oriented YBa2Cu3O7-δ superconducting films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadaoui, H.; Salman, Z.; Prokscha, T.; Suter, A.; Huhtinen, H.; Paturi, P.; Morenzoni, E.

    2013-11-01

    We report the results of a search for spontaneous magnetism due to a time-reversal symmetry breaking phase in the superconducting state of (110)-oriented YBa2Cu3O7-δ films, expected near the surface in this geometry. Zero field and weak transverse field measurements performed using the low-energy muon spin rotation technique with muons implanted a few nm inside optimally doped YBa2Cu3O7-δ-(110) films show no appearance of spontaneous magnetic fields below the superconducting temperature down to 2.9 K. Our results give an upper limit of ˜0.02 mT for putative spontaneous internal fields.

  6. Orienteering club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2014-01-01

    Course d'orientation C’est sous un beau soleil samedi 4 octobre que s’est déroulée la 6e étape de la Coupe genevoise d’automne organisée par le club. Plus d’une centaine de concurrents provenant de 7 clubs de CO avaient fait le déplacement pour courir sur un des cinq parcours proposés dans les bois de Trélex-Génolier (VD). Le podium est le suivant : Technique long (5,9 km, 19 postes) : 1er Jurg Niggli, O’Jura (1:00:02); 2e Berni Wehrle, CO CERN (1:06:44); 3e Konrad Ehrbar, COLJ (1:07:08) Technique moyen (4,8 km, 18 postes) : 1er Christophe Vuitton, CO CERN (54:25); 2e J.B. Zosso, CO CERN (1:01:19); 3e Jeremy Wichoud, COLJ (1:06:21) Technique court (3,8 km, 14 postes) : 1er Julien Vuitton, CO CERN (36:19); 2e Vladimir Kuznetsov, COLJ (48:47); 3e Natalia Niggli, O’Jura (50:38) Facile moyen (3,2 km, 11 postes) : 1ère Alina Niggli, O&...

  7. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    CLUB D'ORIENTATION

    2013-01-01

    Calendrier de la coupe d’automne Le Club d’orientation du CERN, en partenariat avec d’autres clubs de la région, vous propose, pour cette nouvelle coupe d’automne genevoise, une série de 10 courses. Le club du O’Jura donnera le coup d’envoi le samedi 31 août. Les courses s’enchaîneront selon le calendrier suivant : Samedi 31 août : Prémanon (39) - longue distance Samedi 14 septembre : La Faucille (01) - longue distance Samedi 21 septembre : Saint Cergue (VD) - longue distance Samedi 28 septembre : Ballens (VD) - relais Samedi 5 octobre : La Pile (VD) - longue distance Vendredi 11 octobre : Les Evaux (GE) - nocturne Samedi 12 octobre : Grand Jorat, Savigny (VD) - longue distance Samedi 19 octobre : Terrasses de Genève (74) - longue distance Samedi 26 octobre : Prémanon (39) - longue distance Samedi 2 novembre : Bois Tollot (GE) - score - Finale Les &a...

  8. Orienteering club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2013-01-01

    Course d'orientation Vers les dernières courses de printemps Une centaine de coureurs se sont déplacés sur le site de la Roche Fendue prés de Morez pour gouter à un des 5 parcours proposés par le club du O’Jura. Le terrain était gras mais que peut-on trouver d’autre avec cette météo! Les vainqueurs de chaque circuit sont : Alina Niggli (O’Jura) facile court, Natalja Niggli (O’Jura) facile moyen, Victor Kuznetsov (COLJ) technique court, Yves Rousselot (Balise 25) technique moyen et pour finir François Gonon (O’Jura) avec une victoire haut la main sur le technique long. Il ne reste plus que deux épreuves pour la coupe genevoise de printemps : à savoir samedi 8 juin, course de type longue distance organisée par le club de Lausanne Jorat (COLJ) dans le bois de Seyte sur Mutrux/Concise, inscription de 12h &...

  9. Orienteering club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2010-01-01

    COURSE D’ORIENTATION  De La Rippe à Sauvabellin, la coupe genevoise continue ! Le rendez-vous était donné samedi 8 mai aux amateurs de course d’orientation dans les bois de La Rippe (Canton de Vaud). Cette 6e épreuve était organisée par le Club Satus Grutli de Genève. Il est dommage que les participants n’aient pas été aussi nombreux que lors des dernières courses, les Championnats de France des clubs à Dijon ayant certainement retenus plus d’un compétiteur. La première place est revenue à : – Technique long : Berni Wehrle – Technique moyen : Jean-Bernard Zosso – Technique court : Berni Wehrle – Facile moyen : Peter Troscanyi – Facile court : Claire Droz. Il ne restera plus que deux épreuves ...

  10. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'Orientation

    2012-01-01

    Course d'orientation Ces deux dernières semaines, le club a organisé la troisième puis la quatrième étape de la coupe de printemps, une dans la forêt de Collogny/Moissey près de Vulbens, l’autre vers le parcours vita de Trélex. Les résultats sont: Facile court Vulbens : 1er Léo Lonchampt, O’Jura (16:04), 2e Timothée Bazin (23:07), 3e Francesco Pieri (26:57) Trélex : 1er Noora Maurent (23:11), 2e Sarah Stuber, COLJ (26:51), 3e T. Bazin (28:17) Facile moyen Vulbens : 1er Victor Kuznetsov, CO CERN (25:36), 2e Didier Descourvières (28:03), 3e Konstantinos Haider, CO CERN (36:53) Trélex : 1er V. Kuznetsov, COLJ (38:01), 2e K. Haider, CO CERN (43:15), 3e ex aequo Olivia Nguyen et Sven Vietmeier (58:11) Technique court Vulbens : 1er Benoit Bazin (41:21), 2e Colas Gintzburger (55:12), 3e Nathan Freydoz (55:48) Trélex : 1...

  11. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'Orientation

    2015-01-01

    Course orientation Finale de la coupe genevoise La série des courses de printemps s’est achevée samedi dernier dans les bois de Bonmont (Vaud) avec une épreuve «one-man-relay» organisée par le club. Le vainqueur du parcours technique  long, Yann Locatelli (Club de Chambéry Savoie) a réalisé les deux boucles comportant 24 balises avec presque 6 minutes d’avance sur le second concurrent Domenico Lepori (Club CARE Vevey). Cette dernière étape était aussi décisive pour la désignation des lauréats de la coupe genevoise de printemps, en comptabilisant les 6 meilleurs résultats sur les 10 épreuves. Le podium officiel était donné par le président du club, L. Jirden, qui profitait de l’occasion pour remercier tous les participants et également tous les...

  12. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'Orientation

    2012-01-01

     Finale de la coupe de printemps   La dernière course d’orientation comptant pour la Coupe de printemps a eu lieu samedi dernier dans le village des Rousses et vers le Fort. Il s’agissait d’un sprint organisé par le club O’Jura. Les temps de course ont avoisiné les 20 minutes que ce soit pour le parcours technique moyen ou technique long. Tous les habitués étaient au rendez-vous pour venir consolider ou améliorer leur place au classement. A l’issue de cette course, le classement général de la Coupe de printemps prenant en compte les 6 meilleurs résultats des 9 courses était établi et les lauréats de chaque catégorie sont les suivants: Circuit technique long : 1er Berni Wehrle, 2e Bruno Barge, 3e Edvins Reisons. Circuit technique moyen : 1er Jean-Bernard Zosso, 2e Cédric Wehrl&...

  13. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2013-01-01

    Course d'orientation Le coup d’envoi de la coupe genevoise a été donné samedi 31 août dans les bois de Combe Froide à Prémanon. Plus de 150 coureurs avaient fait le déplacement. Les parcours facile court, facile moyen et technique court ont été remportés par des coureurs du club O’Jura - Ulysse Dannecker, Léo Lonchampt, Franck Lonchampt, le technique moyen par Pekka Marti du club Ol Biel Seeland et le technique long par Térence Risse du CA Rosé – également membre de l’équipe nationale suisse des moins de 20 ans. Pour le club du CERN, les meilleures résultats ont été obtenus pas Emese Szunyog sur technique court et Marie Vuitton sur technique moyen avec une 4e place. La prochaine course aura lieu samedi 14 septembre à La Faucille. Le club propose aussi...

  14. Orienteering club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2013-01-01

    Course d'orientation Finale de la coupe genevoise Rapide et méthodique, voilà les qualités dont il fallait faire preuve pour remporter la dernière étape de la coupe organisée par le club du CERN dans les bois de Monteret. Il s’agissait d’une course au score où chaque concurrent disposait d’un temps imparti pour poinçonner le maximum de balises. Le parcours technique a été remporté par Tomas Shellman et le parcours facile par Victor Dannecker. Cette dernière étape était aussi décisive pour la désignation des lauréats de la coupe genevoise de printemps. Les résultats officiels étaient donnés par le président du club, L. Jirden : Circuit Technique Long : Berni Wehrle, Bruno Barge, Edvins Reisons Circuit Technique Moyen : J.-Bernard Zosso, ...

  15. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'Orientation

    2012-01-01

    Relais inter-club/Challenge Carlo Milan Samedi dernier, lors de l’épreuve de course d’orientation organisée par le club du O’Jura, le moteur de la discipline était l’esprit d’équipe, puisqu’il était question d’un relais inter-club avec le Challenge Carlo Milan. Les clubs avaient aligné leurs coureurs soit sur le relais technique (trois participants) soit sur le relais facile (deux participants). Côté O’Jura, il fallait noter la participation de François Gonon, champion du monde 2011, côté club du CERN, Marie et Gaëtan Vuitton, jeunes espoirs du club, devaient préparer la piste pour lancer le dernier relayeur. Côté Lausanne-Jorat, il fallait compter sur le très jeune Viktor Kuznetsov. Les 31 équipes engagées n’ont pas m&ea...

  16. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2013-01-01

    De jour comme de nuit Les amateurs de course d’orientation ont pu s’en donner à cœur joie ce week-end puisqu’ils avaient la possibilité de courir sur deux épreuves en moins de 24 heures. En effet, le club du CERN organisait une course de nuit aux Evaux et la 7e étape de la coupe genevoise se tenait samedi après-midi dans les bois du Grand Jorat à Savigny. Les vainqueurs pour chaque course sont : Technique long CO de nuit: Julien Charlemagne, SOS Sallanches CO samedi: Philipp Khlebnikov, ANCO   Technique moyen CO de nuit: Céline Zosso, CO CERN CO samedi: Pavel Khlebnikov, ANCO Technique court CO de nuit: Colas Ginztburger, SOS Sallanches CO samedi: Victor Kuznetsov, COLJ Lausannne Facile moyen CO de nuit: Gaëtan Rickenbacher, CO CERN CO samedi: Tamas Szoke   Facile court CO de nuit:Oriane Rickenbacher, CO CERN CO samedi: Katya Kuznetsov...

  17. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'Orientation

    2011-01-01

    Course d'orientation Avec la CO en nocturne organisée par le club du CERN vendredi 14 octobre au stade des Eveaux (Ge), et la CO à Savigny (Vd) proposée par le club de Lausanne-Jorat le lendemain, les étapes de la coupe genevoise d’automne s’enchainent rapidement. Il ne reste plus que 3 rendez-vous pour boucler la saison. Les premières places devraient certainement se jouer entre des membres du club du CERN, du O’Jura ou de Lausanne-Jorat. La prochaine course du club est programmée pour samedi 22 octobre à Pomier, près de Cruseilles. L’accueil se fera à partir de 12h30 et les départs s’échelonneront de 13h à 15h. * * * * * * * Nouvelle belle victoire samedi 8 octobre à Saint Cergue du jeune finlandais Ville Keskisaari (COLJ) en 50:56 devant Jürg Niggli (O’Jura) en 1:03:32, et Alexandre...

  18. Orienteering club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2013-01-01

    Courses d’orientation Samedi 20 avril, les organisateurs du Club de CO du CERN ont accueilli au Mont Mourex 70 participants qui n’ont pas hésité à venir malgré la forte bise. Berni Wehrle du CO CERN s’est octroyé la première place en 1:04:49 sur le parcours technique long devant Pyry Kettunen du Saynso Juankoski en 1:06:52, la 3e place revenant à Bruno Barge, CO CERN, à 7 secondes. Les autres parcours ont été remportés par : Technique moyen : 1er Jacques Moisset, Chamonix (47:44), 2e Yves Rousselot, Balise 25 Besançon (57:16), 3e Jean-Bernard Zosso, CO CERN (59:28). Technique court : 1er Victor Kuznetsov, COLJ (51:53), 2e Pierrick Collet, CO CERN (1:12:52), 3e Dominique Balay, CO CERN (1:16:04). Pour les parcours facile moyen et facile court, Ralf Nardini et Léa Nicolas, tous deux du CO CERN, terminaient respectivement premier. Voi...

  19. Orienteering club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2014-01-01

    Course d'orientation Finale de la coupe d’automne La dernière épreuve de la coupe d’automne organisée par le club s’est déroulée ce samedi 1er novembre avec une course type «one-man-relay» dans la forêt de Trelex (Vd). Les concurrents des circuits techniques devaient parcourir trois boucles et ceux des circuits «faciles» deux boucles, avec changements de carte. Le parcours technique long a été remporté par un membre du club, Berni Wehrle. A l’issue de cette course, le Président du club, L. Jirden annonçait le classement général de la coupe d’automne, basé sur les 6 meilleurs résultats de la saison : Circuit technique long : 1er Juerg Niggli (O’Jura), 2e Berni Wehrle, 3e Beat Mueller. Circuit technique moyen : 1er Laurent Merat (O&r...

  20. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2013-01-01

    Finale de la coupe d’automne La dernière épreuve de la coupe d’automne organisée par le club d’orientation du CERN s’est déroulée ce samedi 2 novembre avec une course au score dans le bois Tollot (GE). Les concurrents disposaient d’un temps imparti pour poinçonner le maximum de balises différemment placées selon le circuit choisi. Juerg Niggli (club O’Jura) a remporté le parcours technique long. A l’issue de cette course, le classement général de la coupe d’automne, basé sur les 6 meilleurs résultats de la saison, est le suivant : Circuit technique long : 1er Juerg Niggli (O’Jura), 2e Bruno Barge, 3e Beat Mueller. Circuit technique moyen : 1er Laurent Merat (O’Jura), 2e Jirden Lennart, 3e Daria Niggli. Circuit technique court : 1er Victor Kuznetsov (COLJ), 2e N...

  1. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2012-01-01

    Finale de la coupe d’automne   La coupe d’automne organisée par le club d’orientation du CERN s’est terminée ce samedi 10 novembre avec une course sprint à Prévessins. C’était la 12e épreuve de la saison. En stage dans la région, Tanya Ryabkina, championne d’Europe en titre et médaillée de bronze en moyenne distance lors des championnats du monde à La Givrine cet été, a fait l’honneur de sa présence et termine 2e à 8 secondes de Trygve Buanes, norvégien du club de Bergen. A l’issue de cette dernière épreuve, le classement général de la coupe d’automne, basé sur les 8 meilleurs résultats de la saison, est ainsi le suivant : Circuit technique long : 1er Jurg Niggli (O&rsqu...

  2. Nonlocal Coulomb correlations in pure and electron-doped Sr2IrO4 : Spectral functions, Fermi surface, and pseudo-gap-like spectral weight distributions from oriented cluster dynamical mean-field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Cyril; Lenz, Benjamin; Perfetti, Luca; Brouet, Veronique; Bertran, François; Biermann, Silke

    2018-03-01

    We address the role of nonlocal Coulomb correlations and short-range magnetic fluctuations in the high-temperature phase of Sr2IrO4 within state-of-the-art spectroscopic and first-principles theoretical methods. Introducing an "oriented-cluster dynamical mean-field scheme", we compute momentum-resolved spectral functions, which we find to be in excellent agreement with angle-resolved photoemission spectra. We show that while short-range antiferromagnetic fluctuations are crucial to accounting for the electronic properties of Sr2IrO4 even in the high-temperature paramagnetic phase, long-range magnetic order is not a necessary ingredient of the insulating state. Upon doping, an exotic metallic state is generated, exhibiting cuprate-like pseudo-gap spectral properties, for which we propose a surprisingly simple theoretical mechanism.

  3. Self-assemblies of meso-tetraphenylporphine ligand on surfaces of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite and single-walled carbon nanotubes: insights from scanning tunneling microscopy and molecular modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassiouk, Maria; Alvarez-Zauco, Edgar; Basiuk, Vladimir A

    2011-06-01

    The self-assembly of porphyrins into highly organized functional arrays supported on appropriate solid substrates is an area of research with multiple potential applications in the "bottom-up" approach to manufacturing. In order to analyze the self-assembly of meso-tetraphenylporphine (H2TPP) on the surfaces of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), we performed molecular mechanics modeling (by MM+ force field) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) imaging. Molecular modeling predicted an energetic preference of the H2TPP molecules to adsorb in monolayers on the surfaces of graphite and SWNT sidewall, rather than their stacking or separation. On graphite, the most favorable arrays were predicted to be ribbons composed of interacting parallel chains of H2TPP molecules. On the SWNT sidewall, the energetic preference pointed toward the formation of parallel and interacting long-period helixes, resulting in an almost full coverage of the SWNT surface. These preferable arrays on both carbon materials assure the interaction of every porphyrin unit with as many neighbors as possible, thus lowering the potential energy of the adsorption complexes. STM imaging results are in good agreement with molecular modeling predictions. The formation of self-assembled ribbons was a frequently observed phenomenon on the HOPG surface, while on the SWNT surface a full coverage of the exposed portion of the sidewalls was observed, suggesting the formation of interacting long-period helixes. A preferential adsorption of H2TPP molecules near graphite topographic defects was also observed.

  4. Atlantic Test Range (ATR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — ATR controls fully-instrumented and integrated test ranges that provide full-service support for cradle-to-grave testing. Airspace and surface target areas are used...

  5. Development of an immunosensor using oriented immobilized anti-OmpW for sensitive detection of Vibrio cholerae by surface plasmon resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, Ramezan Ali; Rezayan, Ali Hossein; Rahimi, Fereshteh; Mohammadnejad, Javad; Kamali, Mehdi

    2016-12-15

    The first SPR sensor for detection of bacteria was reported in 1998 with high detection limit as much as 10(7)cfu/mL. Since then, a lot of effort has been made to lower detection limit and increase sensitivity of detection mainly by using of different assay formats, immobilization strategies, suitable antibodies, minimizing non-specific adsorption and improving the quality of SPR devices. The aim of this paper is to introduce the potential of an antibody against recombinant outer membrane protein (anti-OmpW) in sensitive detection of Vibrio cholerae by developing an immunosensor based on SPR and compare the sensitivity of this method with former report for detection of V. cholerae published in 2006. Recombinant OmpW antigen (a bacterial outer-membrane protein) of V. cholerae was expressed and purified and raising of polyclonal rabbit anti-OmpW was done. Protein G was covalently immobilized on 11-MUA SAM via amine coupling and bioaffinity-based oriented immobilization of anti-OmpW was done on protein G layer. The results showed high affinity interaction between OmpW and anti-OmpW (KD=2.4×10(-9)M) and the detection limit of fabricated immunosensor was 43 cells/mL. The apparent reasons for achieving this low LOD are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A surface-enhanced Raman study of N-methylquinolinium tricyanoquinodimethanide adsorbed on Ag nanospheres: Determination of molecular orientation and order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Melissa C.; Alexson, Dimitri M.; Prokes, Sharka M.; Glembocki, Orest J.; Vivoni, Alberto; Hosten, Charles M.

    2015-08-01

    Quinolinium tricyanoquinodimethanides are among the most promising molecules for electronic applications. Disorder can be detrimental to the desired electronic properties of a monolayer, and as such, a reliable method to characterize a monolayer without destroying or creating defects is paramount to determining potential applications. Here, the normal and surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectra of N-methylquinolinium tricyanoquinodimethanide (CH3Q-3CNQ) on silver coated nanosurfaces have been obtained and analyzed. Theoretical treatment of CH3Q-3CNQ was performed. Optimization and frequency search was conducted using the B3LYP functional with the 6-31G(d) basis set. A complete list of frequencies and assignments for the molecules are presented. The spectroscopic evidence points to the fact that a monolayer of CH3Q-3CNQ can be formed through the self-assembly process, and the SERS data indicate that the monolayer attaches to the silver surface through the nitrile groups.

  7. Ladder Structures and Magnetic Surveys: New Insights into the Near Surface, Three-Dimensional Shape and Orientation of Plutonic Structures in the Tuolumne Intrusive Suite, Yosemite National Park, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, J. D.

    2017-12-01

    The study of pluton emplacement and growth history offers a window into the evolution of the continental crust. Plutons, however, are often largely homogeneous in outcrop, lacking reliable structural markers for tracking their emplacement and growth through time. The ladder structures exposed on the glacially polished surfaces of the Tuolumne Intrusive Suite (TIS) in Yosemite National Park, California are an exception. Ladder structures (LS) are eye-catching concentrations of alternating mafic and felsic mineral assemblages in dominantly cresent-shaped, meter to sub-meter scale bands in outcrop that locally terminate into a mafic band forming a circular-shaped enclosure. Their geochemistry and modal mineralogy diverge sharply from host rock trends with large quantities of magnetite, titanite, and zircon in the mafic assemblages. The limited exposure of LS in outcrops has led to much debate as to their true geometries and orientations. The high concentration of magnetite in the LS is fortuitous in that it allows these features to be investigated by magnetic techniques. The preliminary results of new high resolution magnetic surveys of these LS are presented here. A grid of total magnetic intensity (TMI) was collected across the ladder structures. The TMI's were then inverted and modeled to determine the orientation of the magnetic bodies with depth using PyGMI freeware. With sufficient contrast in the magnetic susceptibility (Km) between the feature being imaged and the host rock, meter to sub-meter scale features can be resolved. The average Km of the LS mafic bands and the host rock is approximately 200-850 x10-3 and 15-20×10-3 SI units respectively. These measurements along with oriented samples were collected to determine input parameters (e.g. anisotropy and remanence) for the geocellular model used in this study.

  8. Symmetric Euler orientation representations for orientational averaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayerhöfer, Thomas G

    2005-09-01

    A new kind of orientation representation called symmetric Euler orientation representation (SEOR) is presented. It is based on a combination of the conventional Euler orientation representations (Euler angles) and Hamilton's quaternions. The properties of the SEORs concerning orientational averaging are explored and compared to those of averaging schemes that are based on conventional Euler orientation representations. To that aim, the reflectance of a hypothetical polycrystalline material with orthorhombic crystal symmetry was calculated. The calculation was carried out according to the average refractive index theory (ARIT [T.G. Mayerhöfer, Appl. Spectrosc. 56 (2002) 1194]). It is shown that the use of averaging schemes based on conventional Euler orientation representations leads to a dependence of the result from the specific Euler orientation representation that was utilized and from the initial position of the crystal. The latter problem can be overcome partly by the introduction of a weighing factor, but only for two-axes-type Euler orientation representations. In case of a numerical evaluation of the average, a residual difference remains also if a two-axes type Euler orientation representation is used despite of the utilization of a weighing factor. In contrast, this problem does not occur if a symmetric Euler orientation representation is used as a matter of principle, while the result of the averaging for both types of orientation representations converges with increasing number of orientations considered in the numerical evaluation. Additionally, the use of a weighing factor and/or non-equally spaced steps in the numerical evaluation of the average is not necessary. The symmetrical Euler orientation representations are therefore ideally suited for the use in orientational averaging procedures.

  9. Orientation specific deposition of mesoporous particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Kjellman

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a protocol for a facile orientation specific deposition of plate-like mesoporous SBA-15 silica particles onto a surface (mesopores oriented normal to surface. A drop of an aqueous dispersion of particles is placed on the surface and water vaporizes under controlled relative humidity. Three requirements are essential for uniform coverage: particle dispersion should not contain aggregates, a weak attraction between particles and surface is needed, and evaporation rate should be low. Aggregates are removed by stirring/sonication. Weak attraction is realized by introducing cationic groups to the surface. Insight into the mechanisms of the so-called coffee stain effect is also provided.

  10. Surface structure of MgO underlayer with Ti diffusion for (002) oriented L10 FePt-based heat assisted magnetic recording media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinata, Sintaro; Jo, Shin; Saito, Shin

    2018-05-01

    Surface morphology of the MgO layer and magnetic properties of FePt-C layer deposited on the MgO were investigated for the FePt-based heat assisted magnetic recording media. Stacking structure of the underlayer for the FePt-C layer was MgO (0-5 nm)/Cr80Mn20 (0-30 nm)/Cr50Ti50 (0-50 nm)/glass sub.. Surface observation result for the MgO film by using an atomic force microscope revealed the existence of nodules with a height of about 2 nm and a network-like convex structure with a height difference of about sub nm (boundary wall, BW) on the MgO crystal grain boundary. Density of the nodules largely depends on the surface roughness of the CrTi layer, RaCrTi and it is suppressed from 10 to 2/0.5 μm2 by reducing RaCrTi from 420 to 260 pm. Height of the BW depends on thickness of the MgO layer, tMgO and it can be suppressed by reducing tMgO to less than 4 nm. From the cross-sectional energy dispersive x-ray mapping, it is clarified that the BW is formed by atomic diffusion of Ti atoms from CrTi layer due to the substrate heating process, and a compound consists of Mg, Ti and O atoms. This BW can be used as a template to magnetically isolate the FePt column in the FePt-based granular film, such as FePt-SiO2, if the size of the BW is reduced to less than 10 nm. M-H loop of the FePt-C granular film deposited on the underlayer showed that the nodule and BW induce oxidation of the FePt grains, and reduction of intergranular exchange coupling.

  11. Sacral orientation and spondylolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Smadar; Dar, Gali; Steinberg, Nili; Masharawi, Youssef; Been, Ella; Abbas, Janan; Hershkovitz, Israel

    2009-12-01

    A descriptive study (based on skeletal material) was designed to measure sacral anatomic orientation (SAO) in individuals with and without spondylolysis. To test whether a relationship between SAO and spondylolysis exists. Spondylolysis is a stress fracture in the pars interarticularis (mainly of L5). The natural history of the phenomenon has been debated for years with opinions divided, i.e., is it a developmental condition or a stress fracture phenomenon. There is some evidence to suggest that sacral orientation can be a "key player" in revealing the etiology of spondylolysis. The pelvis was anatomically reconstructed and SAO was measured as the angle created between the intersection of a line running parallel to the superior surface of the sacrum and a line running between the anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) and the anterior-superior edge of the symphysis pubis (PUBIS).SAO was measured in 99 adult males with spondylolysis and 125 adult males without spondylolysis. The difference between the groups was tested using an unpaired t test. Spondylolysis prevalence is significantly higher in African-Americans compared to European-Americans: 5.4% versus 2.04% in males (P < 0.001) and 2.31% versus 0.4%, P < 0.001 in females. SAO was significantly lower in the spondylolytic group (44.07 degrees +/- 11.46 degrees) compared to the control group (51.07 degrees +/- 8.46 degrees, P < 0.001). A more horizontally oriented sacrum leads to direct impingement on L5 pars interarticularis by both L4 inferior articular facet superiorly and S1 superior articular facet inferiorly. Repetitive stress due to standing (daily activities) or sitting increases the "pincer effect" on this area, and eventually may lead to incomplete synostosis of the neural arch.

  12. Real-time label-free monitoring of the cellular response to osmotic stress using conventional and long-range surface plasmons

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vala, Milan; Roberek, R.; Bocková, Markéta; Wegener, J.; Homola, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 1 (2013), s. 417-421 ISSN 0956-5663 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP205/12/G118 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : surface plasmon resonance * NRK cells * osmotic stress Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 6.451, year: 2013

  13. Long-chain alkanes and fatty acids from Ludwigia octovalvis weed leaf surface waxes as short-range attractant and ovipositional stimulant to Altica cyanea (Weber) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, S; Sarkar, N; Barik, A

    2017-06-01

    The importance of leaf surface wax compounds from the rice-field weed Ludwigia octovalvis (Jacq.) Raven (Onagraceae) was determined in the flea beetle Altica cyanea (Weber) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Extraction, thin layer chromatography and GC-MS and GC-FID analyses of surface waxes of young, mature and senescent leaves revealed 20, 19 and 19 n-alkanes between n-C15 and n-C35, respectively; whereas 14, 14 and 12 free fatty acids between C12:0 and C22:0 fatty acids were identified in young, mature and senescent leaves, respectively. Tricosane was predominant n-alkane in young and mature leaves, whilst eicosane predominated in senescent leaves. Heneicosanoic acid, palmitic acid and docosanoic acid were the most abundant free fatty acids in young, mature and senescent leaves, respectively. A. cyanea females showed attraction to 0.25 mature leaf equivalent surface waxes compared with young or senescent leaves in a short glass Y-tube olfactometer bioassay. The insects were attracted to a synthetic blend of 0.90, 1.86, 1.83, 1.95, 0.50 and 0.18 µg ml-1 petroleum ether of hexadecane, octadecane, eicosane, tricosane, palmitic acid and alpha-linolenic acid, respectively, comparable with the proportions as present in 0.25 mature leaf equivalent surface waxes. A. cyanea also laid eggs on a filter paper moistened with 0.25 mature leaf equivalent surface waxes or a synthetic blend of 0.90, 1.86, 1.83, 1.95, 0.50 and 0.18 µg ml-1 petroleum ether of hexadecane, octadecane, eicosane, tricosane, palmitic acid and alpha-linolenic acid, respectively. This finding could provide a basis for monitoring of the potential biocontrol agent in the field.

  14. Photoemission surface characterization of (0 0 1) In{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin film through the interactions with oxygen, water and carbon monoxide: Comparison with (1 1 1) orientation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinzari, V., E-mail: vbrinzari@mail.ru [State University of Moldova, str. Mateevich 60A, MD-2009 Chisinau, Republic of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of); Cho, B.K. [Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kamei, M. [National Institute for Material Science, Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Korotcenkov, G., E-mail: ghkoro@yahoo.com [Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • SRPES of In{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0 0 1) thin film under heating activated gas exposures of O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, CO. • Changes in surface band bending and composition vs. these treatments. • Models of (0 0 1) surface terminations, compositions and zone diagrams. • Changes in VB spectra radically differ from the same ones for (1 1 1) film. • Adsorbed water species do not donate electrons into conduction band. - Abstract: Synchrotron radiation ultraviolet photoemission experiments at photon energies of 150 and 49 eV have been performed on (0 0 1) In{sub 2}O{sub 3} epitaxial layer with thickness of 120 nm grown by electron beam evaporation method. Valence band (VB) photoemission spectra have been monitored under separate oxygen, water and carbon monoxide exposures (100 L) at different sample temperatures within the range utilized for chemoresistive gas sensors operation (20–450 °C). Large changes in photoemission response within the whole VB were observed for all gases. Surface potential changes were identified as a shift of the valence band edge relative to the Fermi energy. It was found that the initial state of the In{sub 2}O{sub 3} surface after standard preparation procedure corresponded to highly reduced surface, close to “metallic” surface. Treatments in oxygen resulted in oxidation of the surface and regular upward band bending have been changing up to 0.27 eV. These two extreme states of the In{sub 2}O{sub 3} surface corresponded to the surface zone diagrams with accumulation layer and flat bands, respectively. Surface potential changes under water and carbon monoxide treatment have been irregular vs. temperature and small enough (<0.05 eV). However, the magnitudes of photoemission deviations under these treatments were large and comparable with intensity of an initial photoemission itself before the treatment (ΔI{sub ph} ∼ 10–40%). The obtained results have been compared with the ones previously received for (1 1 1) surface and

  15. Experimental Surface Pressure Data Obtained on 65 deg Delta Wing Across Reynolds Number and Mach Number Ranges. Volume 2; Small-Radius Leading Edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Julio; Luckring, James M.

    1996-01-01

    An experimental wind tunnel test of a 65 deg. delta wing model with interchangeable leading edges was conducted in the Langley National Transonic Facility (NTF). The objective was to investigate the effects of Reynolds and Mach numbers on slender-wing leading-edge vortex flows with four values of wing leading-edge bluntness. Experimentally obtained pressure data are presented without analysis in tabulated and graphical formats across a Reynolds number range of 6 x 10(exp 6) to 84 x 10(exp 6) at a Mach number of 0.85 and across a Mach number range of 0.4 to 0.9 at Reynolds numbers of 6 x 10(exp 6) and 60 x 10(exp 6). Normal-force and pitching-moment coefficient plots for these Reynolds number and Mach number ranges are also presented.

  16. Nonlinear optical response of a gold surface in the visible range: A study by two-color sum-frequency generation spectroscopy. I. Experimental determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalstein, L; Revel, A; Humbert, C; Busson, B

    2018-04-07

    We experimentally determine the effective nonlinear second-order susceptibility of gold over the visible spectral range. To reach that goal, we probe by vibrational two-color sum-frequency generation spectroscopy the methyl stretching region of a dodecanethiol self-assembled monolayer adsorbed on a gold film. The sum-frequency generation spectra show a remarkable shape reversal when the visible probe wavelength is tuned from 435 to 705 nm. After correcting from Fresnel effects, the methyl stretching vibrations serve as an internal reference, allowing to extract the dispersion of the absolute phase and relative amplitude of the effective nonlinear optical response of gold in the visible range.

  17. Probing Anisotropic Surface Properties and Surface Forces of Fluorite Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhiyong; Xie, Lei; Cui, Xin; Hu, Yuehua; Sun, Wei; Zeng, Hongbo

    2018-02-20

    Fluorite is the most important mineral source for producing fluorine-based chemicals and materials in a wide range of engineering and technological applications. In this work, atomic force microscopy was employed, for the first time, to probe the surface interactions and adhesion energy of model oleic acid (a commonly used surface modification organics for fluorite) molecules on fluorite surfaces with different orientations in both air and aqueous solutions at different pH conditions. Fitted with the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek theory, the force results during surface approaching demonstrate the anisotropy in the surface charge of different orientations, with the {111} surface exhibiting a higher magnitude of surface charge, which could be attributed to the difference in the atomic composition. The adhesion measured during surface retraction shows that model oleic acid molecules have a stronger adhesion with the {100} surface than with the {111} surface in both air and aqueous solutions. The anisotropic adhesion energy was analyzed in relation to the surface atom (especially calcium) activity, which was supported by the surface free energy results calculated based on a three-probe-liquid method. Each calcium atom on the {100} surface with four dangling bonds is more active than the calcium atom on the {111} surface with only one dangling bond, supported by a larger value of the Lewis acid component for the {100} surface. The model oleic acid molecules present in the ionic form at pH 9 exhibit a higher adhesion energy with fluorite surfaces as compared to their molecular form at pH 6, which was related to the surface activity of different forms. The adhesion energy measured in solution is much lower than that in air, indicating that the solvent exerts an important influence on the interactions of organic molecules with mineral surfaces. The results provide useful information on the fundamental understanding of surface interactions and adhesion energy of organic

  18. The paradoxical distribution of a shallow-rooted keystone species away from surface water, near the water-limited edge of its range in the Sonoran Desert: Seed-seedling conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drezner, Taly Dawn

    2013-02-01

    Species distributions reflect limiting factors, particularly near the margins of their range where density and abundance decrease as environmental factors decrease or increase to non-optimal conditions. I test whether the keystone saguaro cactus (Carnegiea gigantea), a shallow-rooted species, is indeed distributed disproportionately in areas of concentrated drainage (runnels) in a water-limited population. Carnegiea and a common nurse were sampled at a marginal site in and out of areas with concentrated surface water and chi-square analysis was used to determine the pattern of distribution. In this study I found that, surprisingly, near the hot, water-limited edge of their range, C. gigantea are found significantly less often in areas where more water would be available to them. For example, while only 20% of nurses were on interfluves, half of Carnegiea protégé were there. One possible explanation is that the subsequent redistribution of seeds by water away from preferred microsites may be important in shaping the final pattern of successful establishment. The shallow-rooted Carnegiea relies entirely on surface water for its moisture; it is thus paradoxical that the surface water so fundamentally essential to its survival throughout its life appears to hinder its establishment in precisely those sites where the greatest surface water would be available, particularly near the water-limited edge of its range.

  19. Experimental investigations of sensor-based surface following performed by a mobile manipulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reister, D.B.; Unseren, M.A.; Baker, J.E.; Pin, F.G.

    1994-10-01

    We discuss a series of surface following experiments using a range finder mounted on the end of an arm that is mounted on a vehicle. The goal is to keep the range finder at a fixed distance from an unknown surface and to keep the orientation of the range finder perpendicular to the surface. During the experiments, the vehicle moves along a predefined trajectory while planning software determines the position and orientation of the arm. To keep the range finder perpendicular to the surface, the planning software calculates the surface normal for the unknown surface. We assume that the unknown surface is a cylinder (the surface depends on x and y but does not depend on z). To calculate the surface normal, the planning software must calculate the locations (x,y) of points on the surface in world coordinates. The calculation requires data on the position and orientation of the vehicle, the position and orientation of the arm, and the distance from the range finder to the surface. We discuss four series of experiments. During the first series of experiments, the calculated surface normal values had large high frequency random variations. A filter was used to produce an average value for the surface normal and we limited the rate of change in the yaw angle target for the arm. We performed the experiment for a variety of concave and convex surfaces. While the experiments were qualitative successes, the measured distance to the surface was significantly different than the target. The distance errors were systematic, low frequency, and had magnitudes up to 25 mm. During the second series of experiments, we reduced the variations in the calculated surface normal values. While reviewing the data collected while following the surface of a barrel, we found that the radius of the calculated surface was significantly different than the measured radius of the barrel.

  20. Facile and tunable synthesis of hierarchical mesoporous silica materials ranging from flower structure with wrinkled edges to hollow structure with coarse surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Nanjing, E-mail: nanjing.hao@dartmouth.edu [Dartmouth College, Thayer School of Engineering (United States); Li, Laifeng; Tang, Fangqiong, E-mail: tangfq@mail.ipc.ac.cn [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry (China)

    2016-11-15

    Mesoporous silica materials have attracted great attention in many fields. However, facile and tunable synthesis of hierarchical mesoporous silica structures is still a big challenge, and thus the development of them still lags behind. Herein, well-defined mesoporous silica flower structure with wrinkled edges and mesoporous silica hollow structure with coarse surface were synthesized simply by using poly(vinylpyrrolidone) and hexadecylamine as cotemplates in different water/ethanol solvent systems. The shape evolution from flower to hollow can be easily realized by tuning the volume ratio of water to ethanol, and the yields of both materials can reach gram scale. The formation mechanisms of mesoporous silica flower and hollow structures were also experimentally investigated and discussed. These novel hierarchical structures having unique physicochemical properties may bring many interesting insights into scientific research and technological application.

  1. (In,Ga,Al)P-GaP laser diodes grown on high-index GaAs surfaces emitting in the green, yellow and bright red spectral range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledentsov, N. N.; Shchukin, V. A.; Shernyakov, Yu M.; Kulagina, M. M.; Payusov, A. S.; Gordeev, N. Yu; Maximov, M. V.; Cherkashin, N. A.

    2017-02-01

    We report on low threshold current density (<400 A cm-2) injection lasing in (Al x Ga1-x )0.5In0.5P-GaAs-based diodes down to the green spectral range (<570 nm). The epitaxial structures are grown on high-index (611)A and (211)A GaAs substrates by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy and contain tensile-strained GaP-enriched insertions aimed at reflection of the injected nonequilibrium electrons preventing their escape from the active region. Extended waveguide concept results in a vertical beam divergence with a full width at half maximum of 15° for (611)A substrates. The lasing at the wavelength of 569 nm is realized at 85 K. In an orange-red laser diode structure low threshold current density (190 A cm-2) in the orange spectral range (598 nm) is realized at 85 K. The latter devices demonstrated room temperature lasing at 628 nm at ˜2 kA cm-2 and a total power above 3 W. The red laser diodes grown on (211)A substrates demonstrated a far field characteristic for vertically multimode lasing indicating a lower optical confinement factor for the fundamental mode as compared to the devices grown on (611)A. However, as expected from previous research, the temperature stability of the threshold current and the wavelength stability were significantly higher for (211)A-grown structures.

  2. The timing and cause of glacial activity during the last glacial in central Tibet based on 10Be surface exposure dating east of Mount Jaggang, the Xainza range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Guocheng; Zhou, Weijian; Yi, Chaolu; Fu, Yunchong; Zhang, Li; Li, Ming

    2018-04-01

    Mountain glaciers are sensitive to climate change, and can provide valuable information for inferring former climates on the Tibetan Plateau (TP). The increasing glacial chronologies indicate that the timing of the local Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) recorded across the TP is asynchronous, implying different local influences of the mid-latitude westerlies and Asian Summer Monsoon in triggering glacier advances. However, the well-dated sites are still too few, especially in the transition zone between regions controlled by the two climate systems. Here we present detailed last glacial chronologies for the Mount Jaggang area, in the Xainza range, central Tibet, with forty-three apparent 10Be exposure-ages ranging from 12.4 ± 0.8 ka to 61.9 ± 3.8 ka. These exposure-ages indicate that at least seven glacial episodes occurred during the last glacial cycle east of Mount Jaggang. These include: a local LGM that occurred at ∼61.9 ± 3.8 ka, possibly corresponding to Marine Isotope Stage 4 (MIS 4); subsequent glacial advances at ∼43.2 ± 2.6 ka and ∼35.1 ± 2.1 ka during MIS 3; one glacial re-advance/standstill at MIS3/2 transition (∼29.8 ± 1.8 ka); and three glacial re-advances/standstills that occurred following MIS 3 at ∼27.9 ± 1.7 ka, ∼21.8 ± 1.3 ka, and ∼15.1 ± 0.9 ka. The timing of these glacial activities is roughly in agreement with North Atlantic millennial-scale climate oscillations (Heinrich events), suggesting the potential correlations between these abrupt climate changes and glacial fluctuations in the Mount Jaggang area. The successively reduced glacial extent might have resulted from an overall decrease in Asian Summer Monsoon intensity over this timeframe.

  3. Polarization filtering in the visible wavelength range using surface plasmon resonance and a sunflower-type photonic quasi-crystal fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Bei; Wang, Anran; Liu, Exian; Tan, Wei; Xie, Jianlan; Ge, Rui; Liu, Jianjun

    2018-04-01

    A novel polarization filter based on a sunflower-type photonic quasi-crystal fiber (PQF) is proposed in this paper. We also discuss different methods to tune the filter wavelength. The proposed filter can efficiently produce polarized light with visible wavelengths by using the resonance between the second-order surface plasmon polariton mode and the core mode of the PQF. The filtered wavelength can be tuned between 0.55 µm and 0.68 µm by adjusting the thickness of the gold film. When the thickness of the gold film is 25.3 nm, the resonance loss in the y-polarized direction reaches 11707 dB m‑1 for a wavelength of 0.6326 µm, and the full width at half maximum is only 5 nm. Due to the flexible design and absence of both polarization coupling and polarization dispersion, this polarization filter can be used in devices that require narrow-band filtering.

  4. Entrepreneurial orientation, market orientation, and competitive environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Hans Eibe; Cadogan, John W.

    orientation, and competitive environment shape business performance via a three-way interaction. We test the model using primary data from the CEOs of 270 CEO of manufacturing firms, together with secondary data on these firms' profit performance. An assessment of the results indicates that customer...... orientation moderates the positive relationships between the competitiveness element of entrepreneurial orientation and market share and return on assets (ROA): the positive relationships between competitiveness and market share and competitiveness and ROA become stronger the greater the firms' customer...... orientations. Also, these moderating effects are stronger for firms operating in highly competitive environments. For the innovativeness component of entrepreneurship, however, the positive relationship between innovativeness and ROA decreases as the competitive environment becomes more hostile....

  5. Electrospinning of oriented and nonoriented ultrafine fibers of biopolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, David

    2005-07-01

    Chitosan has long been known as a biocompatible and biodegradable material suitable for tissue engineering applications. Unfortunately, conventional chitosan solutions cannot be used for electrospinning due to their high conductivity, viscosity and surface tension. We have developed a method to produce clear chitosan solutions with conductivities, surface tension and viscosities that facilitate their processing into micron and submicron fibers via electrospinning. Acetic acid, carbon dioxide and organic solvents are key ingredients in preparing the chitosan solutions. Oriented and non oriented chitosan fibers were produced with the ultimate goal of designing a suitable tissue engineering scaffold. Circularly oriented, continuous, and aligned nanofibers were produced via this technique in the form of a thin membrane or fibrous "mat". Chitosan fiber diameters ranged from 5 micrometers down to 100 nanometers. The structure and mechanical properties of oriented and randomly aligned chitosan fiber deposits could potentially be exploited for cartilage tissue engineering. Ultrafine fibers of starch acetate (SA) also were prepared by the electrospinning process. In this study, solvent mixtures based on DMF, DMSO, pyrindine, acetic acid, acetone, THF, DMC, chloroform were used. A two-solvent formulation was used to study the effect of viscosity, surface tension, and conductivity to the fiber diameter. Also, water and ethanol were used to decrease the boiling point of the solvent, and to make bundled fibers. Several techniques such as scanning electron microscopy, conductmetry, viscometry, and tensiometry were used in this study. The results showed that the combined effects of viscosity, surface tension, and conductivity are of great importance in controlling the diameter of the fibers. We were able to produce SA fibers that was less than 40 nm in diameter. The dependence of fiber diameter on flow-rate, electric field and solvents also was investigated. A rotating disk and a

  6. Understanding political market orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormrod, Robert P.; Henneberg, Stephan C.

    influences of such behavior. The study includes structural equation modeling to investigate several propositions. While the results show that political parties need to focus on several different aspects of market-oriented behavior, especially using an internal and external orientation as cultural antecedents......This article develops a conceptual framework and measurement model of political market orientation that consists of attitudinal and behavioural constructs. The article reports on perceived relationships among different behavioral aspects of political market orientation and the attitudinal......, a more surprising result is the inconclusive effect of a voter orientation on market-oriented behaviours. The article discusses the findings in the context of the existing literature in political marketing and commercial market orientation....

  7. Orientalism and India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jukka Jouhki

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article Orientalism, a special hegemonic discourse about "the Orient" by Europeans is discussed by focusing on how it is manifested in a "Western" view of India. Orientalism as a discourse about the Orient is a concept first coined by Edward Said in his book Orientalism (1978 and contains a long history of European way of relating to the Orient as a counterpart of European/Western culture. In this article Orientalist discourses about India by hegemonically Western (and particularly Anglo-Saxon sources are portrayed and the so-called Indo-Orientalist essentialism defining Indianness from the outside analyzed. Moreover, a Indo-Orientalism as an imported ideology to be used in Indian nationalist discourses to emphasize a dichotomy between India and "the West" is discussed.

  8. Extending the range of low energy electron diffraction (LEED) surface structure determination: Co-adsorbed molecules, incommensurate overlayers and alloy surface order studied by new video and electron counting LEED techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogletree, D.F.

    1986-11-01

    LEED multiple scattering theory is briefly summarized, and aspects of electron scattering with particular significance to experimental measurements such as electron beam coherence, instrument response and phonon scattering are analyzed. Diffuse LEED experiments are discussed. New techniques that enhance the power of LEED are described, including a real-time video image digitizer applied to LEED intensity measurements, along with computer programs to generate I-V curves. The first electron counting LEED detector using a ''wedge and strip'' position sensitive anode and digital electronics is described. This instrument uses picoampere incident beam currents, and its sensitivity is limited only by statistics and counting times. Structural results on new classes of surface systems are presented. The structure of the c(4 x 2) phase of carbon monoxide adsorbed on Pt(111) has been determined, showing that carbon monoxide molecules adsorb in both top and bridge sites, 1.85 +- 0.10 A and 1.55 +- 0.10 A above the metal surface, respectively. The structure of an incommensurate graphite overlayer on Pt(111) is analyzed. The graphite layer is 3.70 +- 0.05 A above the metal surface, with intercalated carbon atoms located 1.25 +- 0.10 A above hollow sites supporting it. The (2..sqrt..3 x 4)-rectangular phase of benzene and carbon monoxide coadsorbed on Pt(111) is analyzed. Benzene molecules adsorb in bridge sites parallel to and 2.10 +- 0.10 A above the surface. The carbon ring is expanded, with an average C-C bond length of 1.72 +- 0.15 A. The carbon monoxide molecules also adsorb in bridge sites. The structure of the (..sqrt..3 x ..sqrt..3) reconstruction on the (111) face of the ..cap alpha..-CuAl alloy has been determined.

  9. Influence of Molecular Shape on the Thermal Stability and Molecular Orientation of Vapor-Deposited Organic Semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Diane M; Antony, Lucas; de Pablo, Juan J; Ediger, M D

    2017-07-20

    High thermal stability and anisotropic molecular orientation enhance the performance of vapor-deposited organic semiconductors, but controlling these properties is a challenge in amorphous materials. To understand the influence of molecular shape on these properties, vapor-deposited glasses of three disk-shaped molecules were prepared. For all three systems, enhanced thermal stability is observed for glasses prepared over a wide range of substrate temperatures and anisotropic molecular orientation is observed at lower substrate temperatures. For two of the disk-shaped molecules, atomistic simulations of thin films were also performed and anisotropic molecular orientation was observed at the equilibrium liquid surface. We find that the structure and thermal stability of these vapor-deposited glasses results from high surface mobility and partial equilibration toward the structure of the equilibrium liquid surface during the deposition process. For the three molecules studied, molecular shape is a dominant factor in determining the anisotropy of vapor-deposited glasses.

  10. Asymmetries in perception of 3D orientation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan C Dobbins

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Visual scene interpretation depends on assumptions based on the statistical regularities of the world. People have some preference for seeing ambiguously oriented objects (Necker cubes as if tilted down or viewed from above. This bias is a near certainty in the first instant (approximately 1 s of viewing and declines over the course of many seconds. In addition, we found that there is modulation of perceived orientation that varies with position--for example objects on the left are more likely to be interpreted as viewed from the right. Therefore there is both a viewed-from-above prior and a scene position-dependent modulation of perceived 3-D orientation. These results are consistent with the idea that ambiguously oriented objects are initially assigned an orientation consistent with our experience of an asymmetric world in which objects most probably sit on surfaces below eye level.

  11. Machine Learning and Infrared Thermography for Fiber Orientation Assessment on Randomly-Oriented Strands Parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Henrique; Zhang, Hai; Figueiredo, Alisson; Malheiros, Fernando; Ignacio, Luis Henrique; Sfarra, Stefano; Ibarra-Castanedo, Clemente; Guimaraes, Gilmar; Maldague, Xavier

    2018-01-19

    The use of fiber reinforced materials such as randomly-oriented strands has grown in recent years, especially for manufacturing of aerospace composite structures. This growth is mainly due to their advantageous properties: they are lighter and more resistant to corrosion when compared to metals and are more easily shaped than continuous fiber composites. The resistance and stiffness of these materials are directly related to their fiber orientation. Thus, efficient approaches to assess their fiber orientation are in demand. In this paper, a non-destructive evaluation method is applied to assess the fiber orientation on laminates reinforced with randomly-oriented strands. More specifically, a method called pulsed thermal ellipsometry combined with an artificial neural network, a machine learning technique, is used in order to estimate the fiber orientation on the surface of inspected parts. Results showed that the method can be potentially used to inspect large areas with good accuracy and speed.

  12. Preferred orientation of ettringite in concrete fractures

    KAUST Repository

    Wenk, Hans-Rudolf

    2009-05-15

    Sulfate attack and the accompanying crystallization of fibrous ettringite [Ca6Al2(OH)12(SO4) 3·26H2O] cause cracking and loss of strength in concrete structures. Hard synchrotron X-ray microdiffraction is used to quantify the orientation distribution of ettringite crystals. Diffraction images are analyzed using the Rietveld method to obtain information on textures. The analysis reveals that the c axes of the trigonal crystallites are preferentially oriented perpendicular to the fracture surfaces. By averaging single-crystal elastic properties over the orientation distribution, it is possible to estimate the elastic anisotropy of ettringite aggregates. © 2009 International Union of Crystallography.

  13. Entrepreneurial Orientation and Internationalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Decker, Arnim; Rollnik-Sadowska, Ewa; Servais, Per

    orientation as an attitude held by principals we investigate how entrepreneurial orientation affected the behaviour of these firms, specifically in terms of their internationalisation. Despite the fact that all firms have identical roots we find that entrepreneurial orientation held by their principals affect......Entrepreneurial orientation is a multidimensional construct that determines the strategic posture of a firm. In this study we investigate a sample of six manufacturing firms which are located both in a remote area and in a transition economy. Through interpreting the construct of entrepreneurial...

  14. Device Oriented Project Controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalesio, Leo; Kraimer, Martin

    2013-11-20

    This proposal is directed at the issue of developing control systems for very large HEP projects. A de-facto standard in accelerator control is the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS), which has been applied successfully to many physics projects. EPICS is a channel based system that requires that each channel of each device be configured and controlled. In Phase I, the feasibility of a device oriented extension to the distributed channel database was demonstrated by prototyping a device aware version of an EPICS I/O controller that functions with the current version of the channel access communication protocol. Extensions have been made to the grammar to define the database. Only a multi-stage position controller with limit switches was developed in the demonstration, but the grammar should support a full range of functional record types. In phase II, a full set of record types will be developed to support all existing record types, a set of process control functions for closed loop control, and support for experimental beam line control. A tool to configure these records will be developed. A communication protocol will be developed or extensions will be made to Channel Access to support introspection of components of a device. Performance bench marks will be made on both communication protocol and the database. After these records and performance tests are under way, a second of the grammar will be undertaken.

  15. Quasiclassical Trajectory Calculations of the Rate Constant of the OH + HBr → Br + H2O Reaction Using a Full-Dimensional Ab Initio Potential Energy Surface Over the Temperature Range 5 to 500 K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira-Filho, Antonio G S; Ornellas, Fernando R; Bowman, Joel M

    2014-02-20

    We report a permutationally invariant, ab initio potential energy surface (PES) for the OH + HBr → Br + H2O reaction. The PES is a fit to roughly 26 000 spin-free UCCSD(T)/cc-pVDZ-F12a energies and has no classical barrier to reaction. It is used in quasiclassical trajectory calculations with a focus on the thermal rate constant, k(T), over the temperature range 5 to 500 K. Comparisons with available experimental data over the temperature range 23 to 416 K are made using three approaches to treat the OH rotational and associated electronic partition function. All display an inverse temperature dependence of k(T) below roughly 160 K and a nearly constant temperature dependence above 160 K, in agreement with experiment. The calculated rate constant with no treatment of spin-orbit coupling is overall in the best agreement with experiment, being (probably fortuitously) within 20% of it.

  16. Marketing-oriented organizations: an integrated approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stensrud, R; Arrington, B

    1988-03-01

    Organizations can be oriented toward marketing from a production, product, sales, or marketing perspective. Strategies, structures, and cultures, which reflect a company's basic orientation, must be integrated to ensure that marketing efforts communicate a clear corporate position. In a study of 31 hospitals, the Center for Health Services Education Research, St. Louis University, found that no hospital's organization fit neatly into a single category. For example, a hospital may have some service lines that were marketing oriented while other lines were production oriented. The majority of hospitals, however, were product oriented, focusing on productivity and financial performance rather than on market factors. The most effective sales orientation was observed in the for-profits. Their selling efforts, however, tended to be internally focused, with product development activities divorced from the planning and marketing functions. Only the for-profit hospitals showed the beginning of a marketing orientation. Developing a marketing orientation, especially in line divisions, requires a careful, well-orchestrated effort and the presence of several key factors: Access to capital and an emphasis on long-range planning and strategic spending The availability of hospital-specific market research. Key distribution channels. Talented middle managers. Up-to-date systems and structures equipped to serve new values and strategies. Leaders capable of communicating to the organization a vision of its role in the community.

  17. Aspect-Oriented Programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmans, Lodewijk; Videira Lopes, Cristina; Moreira, Ana; Demeyer, Serge

    1999-01-01

    Aspect-oriented programming is a promising idea that can improve the quality of software by reduce the problem of code tangling and improving the separation of concerns. At ECOOP'97, the first AOP workshop brought together a number of researchers interested in aspect-orientation. At ECOOP'98, during

  18. Staying oriented while driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridder, S.N. de

    2002-01-01

    Do elderly drivers have more trouble finding their way and staying spatially oriented than younger drivers do? If spatial orientation is more difficult for elderly drivers it could distract attention from vehicle control resulting in a higher accident rate for elderly drivers. Moreover, it could

  19. Edward Said and "Orientalism"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronicle of Higher Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    In the nearly 30 years since Edward Said published the hugely influential Orientalism, his indictment of racism and imperialism in Western scholarship on the Orient has had its share of plaudits and condemnations. Now Robert Irwin, the Middle East editor of The Times Literary Supplement, has reignited the controversy with his broadside against the…

  20. Towards a new orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Janet F; Overgaard, Dorthe; Bestle, Morten H

    2017-01-01

    narrative of recovery was 'toward a trajectory of new orientation'. This narrative contained the chronological narratives of being 'at death's door', 'still not out of the woods' and 'on the road to recovery'. The road to recovery was described as downhill, steady-state or progressive. New orientation...

  1. Wildlife value orientations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamborg, Christian; Jensen, Frank Søndergaard

    2016-01-01

    This article examined value orientations toward wildlife among the adult general Danish public in relation to age, sex, past and present residence, education, and income, using a U.S. survey instrument on Wildlife Value Orientations (WVO). The study used an Internet-based questionnaire sent...

  2. Competitiveness through strategic orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Monferrer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to further the study of the factors that influence the international competitive position of international new ventures and, consequently, their international performance. Specifically, we analyze the role of entrepreneurial and market orientations in the international competitive position of such firms. Data were collected at Spanish and Belgian international new ventures. The structural equations model approach was used to test our hypotheses. Both the Spanish and the Belgian sample revealed a positive and significant relationship between entrepreneurial orientation and market orientation. Furthermore, both orientations have a positive and significant effect on the international competitive position of such firms. Finally, any firm’s international competitive position is positively and significantly related to its international performance. The study therefore appears to indicate that, when it comes to international new ventures, the conjunction of these two orientations is a key factor to attaining a superior competitive position and a positive performance in international markets.

  3. Deposition of DNA Nanostructures on Highly Oriented Pyrolytic Graphite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricardo, Karen B; Xu, Anqin; Salim, Muhammad; Zhou, Feng; Liu, Haitao

    2017-04-25

    We report the deposition of DNA origami nanostructures on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG). The DNA origami goes through a structural rearrangement and the DNA base is exposed to interact with the graphite surface. Exposure to ambient air, which is known to result in a hydrophilic-to-hydrophobic wetting transition of HOPG, does not significantly impact the deposition yield or the shape deformation of DNA nanostructures. The deposited DNA nanostructures maintain their morphology for at least a week and promote site-selective chemical vapor deposition of SiO 2 . This process is potentially useful for a range of applications that include but are not limited to nanostructure fabrication, sensing, and electronic and surface engineering.

  4. Sum-frequency spectroscopic studies: I. Surface melting of ice, II. Surface alignment of polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Xing [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Surface vibrational spectroscopy via infrared-visible sum-frequency generation (SFG) has been established as a useful tool to study the structures of different kinds of surfaces and interfaces. This technique was used to study the (0001) face of hexagonal ice (Ih). SFG spectra in the O-H stretch frequency range were obtained at various sample temperatures. For the vapor(air)/ice interface, the degree of orientational order of the dangling OH bonds at the surface was measured as a function of temperature. Disordering sets in around 200 K and increases dramatically with temperature, which is strong evidence of surface melting of ice. For the other ice interfaces (silica/OTS/ice and silica/ice), a similar temperature dependence of the hydrogen bonded OH stretch peak was observed; the free OH stretch mode, however, appears to be different from that of the vapor (air)/ice interface due to interactions at the interfaces. The technique was also used to measure the orientational distributions of the polymer chains on a rubbed polyvinyl alcohol surface. Results show that the polymer chains at the surface appear to be well aligned by rubbing, and the adsorbed liquid crystal molecules are aligned, in turn, by the surface polymer chains. A strong correlation exists between the orientational distributions of the polymer chains and the liquid crystal molecules, indicating that the surface-induced bulk alignment of a liquid crystal film by rubbed polymer surfaces is via an orientational epitaxy-like mechanism. This thesis also contains studies on some related issues that are crucial to the above applications. An experiment was designed to measure SFG spectra in both reflection and transmission. The result confirms that SFG in reflection is generally dominated by the surface contribution. Another issue is the motional effect due to fast orientational motion of molecules at a surface or interface. Calculations show that the effect is significant if the molecular orientation varies

  5. Subject-Oriented Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coggins, James M.

    Object-Oriented Programming is enabled by advances in compiler technology and programming language design supporting encapsulation and inheritance. This technical adjustment has had a surprisingly broad impact on strategies for design and development of software. This paper explains what Object-Oriented Programming is, why it has attracted so much interest, and then critically examines its impact. The conclusion is that the optimal use of OOP occurs when application clients are empowered to contribute to the inspection, testing and development of the software they need, in a strategy I call Subject-Oriented Programming. The paper concludes by examining what the next important advance in software technology is likely to be.

  6. Orientation of Hittite Monuments

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-García, A. César; Belmonte, Juan Antonio

    The possible astronomical or topographical orientations of the Hittite monuments of the Bronze Age has remained unexplored until recently. This would provide an important insight into how temporality was imprinted by this culture in sacred spaces and in the landscape. The authors' analysis of a statistically significant sample of Hittite temples - and a few monumental gates - has demonstrated that ancient Hittite monuments were not randomly orientated as previously thought. On the contrary, there were well-defined patterns of orientation that can be interpreted within the context of Hittite culture and religion.

  7. Determining OBS Instrument Orientations: A Comparison of Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, A. K.; Laske, G.

    2015-12-01

    The alignment of the orientation of the horizontal seismometer components with the geographical coordinate system is critical for a wide variety of seismic analyses, but the traditional deployment method of ocean bottom seismometers (OBS) precludes knowledge of this parameter. Current techniques for determining the orientation predominantly rely on body and surface wave data recorded from teleseismic events with sufficiently large magnitudes. Both wave types experience lateral refraction between the source and receiver as a result of heterogeneity and anisotropy, and therefore the arrival angle of any one phase can significantly deviate from the great circle minor arc. We systematically compare the results and uncertainties obtained through current determination methods, as well as describe a new algorithm that uses body wave, surface wave, and differential pressure gauge data (where available) to invert for horizontal orientation. To start with, our method is based on the easily transportable computer code of Stachnik et al. (2012) that is publicly available through IRIS. A major addition is that we utilize updated global dispersion maps to account for lateral refraction, as was done by Laske (1995). We also make measurements in a wide range of frequencies, and analyze surface wave trains of repeat orbits. Our method has the advantage of requiring fewer total events to achieve high precision estimates, which is beneficial for OBS deployments that can be as short as weeks. Although the program is designed for the purpose of use with OBS instruments, it also works with standard land installations. We intend to provide the community with a program that is easy to use, requires minimal user input, and is optimized to work with data cataloged at the IRIS DMC.

  8. Metrological large range scanning probe microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Gaoliang; Pohlenz, Frank; Danzebrink, Hans-Ulrich; Xu Min; Hasche, Klaus; Wilkening, Guenter

    2004-01-01

    We describe a metrological large range scanning probe microscope (LR-SPM) with an Abbe error free design and direct interferometric position measurement capability, aimed at versatile traceable topographic measurements that require nanometer accuracy. A dual-stage positioning system was designed to achieve both a large measurement range and a high measurement speed. This dual-stage system consists of a commercially available stage, referred to as nanomeasuring machine (NMM), with a motion range of 25 mmx25 mmx5 mm along x, y, and z axes, and a compact z-axis piezoelectric positioning stage (compact z stage) with an extension range of 2 μm. The metrological LR-SPM described here senses the surface using a stationary fixed scanning force microscope (SFM) head working in contact mode. During operation, lateral scanning of the sample is performed solely by the NMM. Whereas the z motion, controlled by the SFM signal, is carried out by a combination of the NMM and the compact z stage. In this case the compact z stage, with its high mechanical resonance frequency (greater than 20 kHz), is responsible for the rapid motion while the NMM simultaneously makes slower movements over a larger motion range. To reduce the Abbe offset to a minimum the SFM tip is located at the intersection of three interferometer measurement beams orientated in x, y, and z directions. To improve real time performance two high-end digital signal processing (DSP) systems are used for NMM positioning and SFM servocontrol. Comprehensive DSP firmware and Windows XP-based software are implemented, providing a flexible and user-friendly interface. The instrument is able to perform large area imaging or profile scanning directly without stitching small scanned images. Several measurements on different samples such as flatness standards, nanostep height standards, roughness standards as well as sharp nanoedge samples and 1D gratings demonstrate the outstanding metrological capabilities of the instrument

  9. Crystal orientation dependent thermoelectric properties of highly oriented aluminum-doped zinc oxide thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Abutaha, Anas I.

    2013-02-06

    We demonstrate that the thermoelectric properties of highly oriented Al-doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films can be improved by controlling their crystal orientation. The crystal orientation of the AZO films was changed by changing the temperature of the laser deposition process on LaAlO3 (100) substrates. The change in surface termination of the LaAlO3 substrate with temperature induces a change in AZO film orientation. The anisotropic nature of electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient of the AZO films showed a favored thermoelectric performance in c-axis oriented films. These films gave the highest power factor of 0.26 W m−1 K−1 at 740 K.

  10. Systematic characterization of a 1550 nm microelectromechanical (MEMS)-tunable vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) with 7.92 THz tuning range for terahertz photomixing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidar, M. T.; Preu, S.; Cesar, J.; Paul, S.; Hajo, A. S.; Neumeyr, C.; Maune, H.; Küppers, F.

    2018-01-01

    Continuous-wave (CW) terahertz (THz) photomixing requires compact, widely tunable, mode-hop-free driving lasers. We present a single-mode microelectromechanical system (MEMS)-tunable vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) featuring an electrothermal tuning range of 64 nm (7.92 THz) that exceeds the tuning range of commercially available distributed-feedback laser (DFB) diodes (˜4.8 nm) by a factor of about 13. We first review the underlying theory and perform a systematic characterization of the MEMS-VCSEL, with particular focus on the parameters relevant for THz photomixing. These parameters include mode-hop-free CW tuning with a side-mode-suppression-ratio >50 dB, a linewidth as narrow as 46.1 MHz, and wavelength and polarization stability. We conclude with a demonstration of a CW THz photomixing setup by subjecting the MEMS-VCSEL to optical beating with a DFB diode driving commercial photomixers. The achievable THz bandwidth is limited only by the employed photomixers. Once improved photomixers become available, electrothermally actuated MEMS-VCSELs should allow for a tuning range covering almost the whole THz domain with a single system.

  11. Implementing Strategic Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Arthur K.; Brownback, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    An HRM case dealing with problems and issues of setting up orientation programs which align with corporate strategy. Discussion concerns how such a case can be used to exhibit the alignment between HRM and business strategy.

  12. Objective - oriented financial analysis introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dessislava Kostova – Pickett

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The practice of financial analysis has been immeasurably strengthened in recent years thanks to the ongoing evolution of computerized approaches in the form of spreadsheets and computer-based financial models of different types. These devices not only relieved the analyst's computing task, but also opened up a wide range of analyzes and research into alternative sensitivity, which so far has not been possible. The main potential for object-oriented financial analysis consists in enormously expanding the analyst's capabilities through an online knowledge and information interface that has not yet been achieved through existing methods and software packages.

  13. Physiological and biomechanical aspects of orienteering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creagh, U; Reilly, T

    1997-12-01

    Orienteering is an endurance running event which differs from other running sports both in its cognitive element and in the type of terrain encountered. The demands of overcoming this terrain are not manifest in significant differences between orienteers and road runners in somatotype, though elite female orienteers have consistently been shown to have higher levels of adiposity (> 19%) than elite road runners. High aerobic power in orienteers (up to 63 and 76 ml/kg/min in women and men, respectively) is coupled with lower anaerobic performance. While leg strength is generally not high when compared with other athletic specialties, female orienteers have relatively good leg flexion strength. The energy cost of running is greatly increased in rough terrain. Oxygen cost was 26% higher while running in a forest when compared with road running. Biomechanical differences in stride pattern contribute towards this increased demand. Despite the high energy demands during competition, orienteers pace themselves such that their mean heart rate remains within the range of 167 to 172 beats/min, despite large fluctuations. The rough terrain encountered in orienteering results not only in a high energy cost but also in a higher incidence of sport-specific injuries, particularly to the ankle. Minor injuries such as cuts and bruises are common during competition.

  14. Cultural Orientation and Interdisciplinarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sofie Søndergaard

    2004-01-01

    I begin the article with an account of the background to the German debate on ‘Literaturwissenschaft als Kulturwissenschaft’, including the introduction of the concept of ’cultural orientation’ as a strategy for achieving interdisciplinarity. This is followed by a consideration of the discussion ...... of the object of literary studies as a way of defining the disciplinarity or identity of literary studies. Finally I summarize some of the characteristics of culturally orientated literary studies....

  15. Oriented active shape models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiamin; Udupa, Jayaram K

    2009-04-01

    Active shape models (ASM) are widely employed for recognizing anatomic structures and for delineating them in medical images. In this paper, a novel strategy called oriented active shape models (OASM) is presented in an attempt to overcome the following five limitations of ASM: 1) lower delineation accuracy, 2) the requirement of a large number of landmarks, 3) sensitivity to search range, 4) sensitivity to initialization, and 5) inability to fully exploit the specific information present in the given image to be segmented. OASM effectively combines the rich statistical shape information embodied in ASM with the boundary orientedness property and the globally optimal delineation capability of the live wire methodology of boundary segmentation. The latter characteristics allow live wire to effectively separate an object boundary from other nonobject boundaries with similar properties especially when they come very close in the image domain. The approach leads to a two-level dynamic programming method, wherein the first level corresponds to boundary recognition and the second level corresponds to boundary delineation, and to an effective automatic initialization method. The method outputs a globally optimal boundary that agrees with the shape model if the recognition step is successful in bringing the model close to the boundary in the image. Extensive evaluation experiments have been conducted by utilizing 40 image (magnetic resonance and computed tomography) data sets in each of five different application areas for segmenting breast, liver, bones of the foot, and cervical vertebrae of the spine. Comparisons are made between OASM and ASM based on precision, accuracy, and efficiency of segmentation. Accuracy is assessed using both region-based false positive and false negative measures and boundary-based distance measures. The results indicate the following: 1) The accuracy of segmentation via OASM is considerably better than that of ASM; 2) The number of landmarks

  16. Roles of Oxygen and Hydrogen in Crystal Orientation Transition of Copper Foils for High-Quality Graphene Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Junxiong; Xu, Jianbao; Zhao, Yanfei; Shi, Lin; Li, Qi; Liu, Fengkui; Ullah, Zaka; Li, Weiwei; Guo, Yufen; Liu, Liwei

    2017-04-03

    The high-quality graphene film can be grown on single-crystal Cu substrate by seamlessly stitching the aligned graphene domains. The roles of O 2 and H 2 have been intensively studied in the graphene growth kinetics, including lowering the nucleation sites and tailoring the domain structures. However, how the O 2 and H 2 influence Cu orientations during recrystallization prior to growing graphene, still remains unclear. Here we report that the oxidation of Cu surface tends to stabilize the Cu(001) orientation while impedes the evolution of Cu(111) single domain during annealing process. The crystal orientation-controlled synthesis of aligned graphene seeds is further realized on the long-range ordered Cu(111) substrate. With decreasing the thickness of oxide layer on Cu surface by introducing H 2 , the Cu(001) orientation changes into Cu(111) orientation. Meanwhile, the average domain size of Cu foils is increased from 50 μm to larger than 1000 μm. The density functional theory calculations reveal that the oxygen increases the energy barrier for Cu(111) surface and makes O/Cu(001) more stable than O/Cu(111) structure. Our work can be helpful for revealing the roles of O 2 and H 2 in controlling the formation of Cu single-crystal substrate as well as in growing high-quality graphene films.

  17. Influence of the crystal orientation on the electrical properties of AlN thin films on LTCC substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bittner, A., E-mail: achim.bittner@tuwien.ac.at [Micromechanics, Microfluidics/Microactuators, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Technology II, Saarland University, D-66123 Saarbruecken (Germany); Ababneh, A.; Seidel, H. [Micromechanics, Microfluidics/Microactuators, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Technology II, Saarland University, D-66123 Saarbruecken (Germany); Schmid, U. [Department for Microsystems Technology, Institute of Sensor and Actuator Systems, Vienna University of Technology, Floragasse 7, A-1040 Vienna (Austria)

    2010-11-15

    In this study, the influence of the crystal orientation on the electrical properties of sputter deposited aluminium nitride (AlN) thin films on low temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC) substrates is investigated. The degree of c-axis orientation can be tailored by the deposition conditions such as plasma power, gas pressure and gas composition in the deposition chamber. Due to the large surface roughness of LTCC substrates (R{sub a} = {approx}0.4 {mu}m) the quality of thin films is lower compared to silicon. Between areas of columnar grains arranged perpendicular to the LTCC surface, defects like voids are generated due to the wavy surface characteristics. The impact of crystal orientation and temperature up to 400 deg. C on the electrical performance is evaluated, as these layers are targeted as potential candidates for dielectric heat spreaders on multilayered ceramic substrates for high frequency applications. These AlN thin films having a good c-axis orientation exhibit lower leakage current levels over the complete temperature range compared to those with a poor alignment with respect to this crystallographic plane. The leakage current behaviour, however, is dominated according to the Pool-Frenkel electron emission independent of the degree of c-axis orientation.

  18. Inhomogeneous LOFF phase revisited for surface superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzykin, Victor; Gor'kov, Lev P.

    2003-03-01

    We consider 2D surface superconductivity in high magnetic fields parallel to the surface. We demonstrate that the spin-orbit interaction at the surface changes the properties of the inhomogeneous superconducting Larkin-Ovchinnikov-Fulde-Ferrell state that develops above fields given by the paramagnetic criterion. Strong spin-orbit interaction significantly broadens the range of existence of the LOFF phase, which takes the form of periodic superconducting stripes running along the field direction on the surface, leading to the anisotropy of its properties. We also discuss this problem for the d-wave pairing to indicate the possibility of a re-orientation transition as the magnetic field direction is rotated in the plane parallel to the surface. Our results provide a tool for studying surface superconductivity This work was supported in part by NHMFL through the NSF Cooperative agreement No. DMR-9521035 and the State of Florida, in part (VB) by the University of Tennessee.

  19. Head orientation of walking blowflies is controlled by visual and mechanical cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteagudo, José; Lindemann, Jens P; Egelhaaf, Martin

    2017-12-15

    During locomotion, animals employ visual and mechanical cues in order to establish the orientation of their head, which reflects the orientation of the visual coordinate system. However, in certain situations, contradictory cues may suggest different orientations relative to the environment. We recorded blowflies walking on a horizontal or tilted surface surrounded by visual cues suggesting a variety of orientations. We found that the different orientations relative to gravity of visual cues and walking surface were integrated, with the orientation of the surface being the major contributor to head orientation, while visual cues and gravity also play an important role. In contrast, visual cues did not affect body orientation much. Cue integration was modeled as the weighted sum of orientations suggested by the different cues. Our model suggests that in the case of lacking visual cues, more weight is given to gravity. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. Electron work function of stepped tungsten surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krahl-Urban, B.

    1976-03-01

    The electron work function of tungsten (110) vicinal faces was measured with the aid of thermionic emission, and its dependence on the crystallographic orientation and the surface structure was investigated. The thermionic measurements were evaluated with the aid of the Richardson plot. The real temperature of the emitting tungsten faces was determined with an accuracy of +- 0.5% in the range between 2,200 and 2,800 K. The vicinal faces under investigation have been prepared with an orientation exactness of +- 15'. In the tungsten (110) vicinal faces under investigation, a strong dependence of the temperature coefficient d PHI/dT of the work function on the crystallographic orientation was found. A strong influence of the edge structure as well as of the step density on the temperature coefficient was observed. (orig./HPOE) [de

  1. PENGARUH CUSTOMER ORIENTATION DAN COMPETITIVE ORIENTATION TERHADAP CUSTOMER SATISFACTION MELALUI SALESPERSON CUSTOMER ORIENTATION

    OpenAIRE

    Adiyanto, Yoga; Sunaryo, Deni

    2017-01-01

    The empirical investigation examines the influence of customer orientation and competitive orientation to customer satisfaction mediating with salesperson customer orientation in Smart Telecom company.The objective of this research was investigated the influence of customer orientation and competitive orientation to customer satisfaction mediating with salesperson customer orientation in Smart Telecom company.The design of this research using hypotheses testing in the influence of customer or...

  2. Object-oriented Persistent Homology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bao; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2016-01-15

    Persistent homology provides a new approach for the topological simplification of big data via measuring the life time of intrinsic topological features in a filtration process and has found its success in scientific and engineering applications. However, such a success is essentially limited to qualitative data classification and analysis. Indeed, persistent homology has rarely been employed for quantitative modeling and prediction. Additionally, the present persistent homology is a passive tool, rather than a proactive technique, for classification and analysis. In this work, we outline a general protocol to construct object-oriented persistent homology methods. By means of differential geometry theory of surfaces, we construct an objective functional, namely, a surface free energy defined on the data of interest. The minimization of the objective functional leads to a Laplace-Beltrami operator which generates a multiscale representation of the initial data and offers an objective oriented filtration process. The resulting differential geometry based object-oriented persistent homology is able to preserve desirable geometric features in the evolutionary filtration and enhances the corresponding topological persistence. The cubical complex based homology algorithm is employed in the present work to be compatible with the Cartesian representation of the Laplace-Beltrami flow. The proposed Laplace-Beltrami flow based persistent homology method is extensively validated. The consistence between Laplace-Beltrami flow based filtration and Euclidean distance based filtration is confirmed on the Vietoris-Rips complex for a large amount of numerical tests. The convergence and reliability of the present Laplace-Beltrami flow based cubical complex filtration approach are analyzed over various spatial and temporal mesh sizes. The Laplace-Beltrami flow based persistent homology approach is utilized to study the intrinsic topology of proteins and fullerene molecules. Based on a

  3. Absolute stress measurements at the rangely anticline, Northwestern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Cruz, R. V.; Raleigh, C.B.

    1972-01-01

    Five different methods of measuring absolute state of stress in rocks in situ were used at sites near Rangely, Colorado, and the results compared. For near-surface measurements, overcoring of the borehole-deformation gage is the most convenient and rapid means of obtaining reliable values for the magnitude and direction of the state of stress in rocks in situ. The magnitudes and directions of the principal stresses are compared to the geologic features of the different areas of measurement. The in situ stresses are consistent in orientation with the stress direction inferred from the earthquake focal-plane solutions and existing joint patterns but inconsistent with stress directions likely to have produced the Rangely anticline. ?? 1972.

  4. Age and Value Orientations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asya Kh. Kukubayeva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article deals with value orientations and their role in men’s lives, particularly, in young people’s lives. This notion was introduced by the American theoretical sociologist T. Parsons, one of the creators of modern theoretical sociology. The scientist made an attempt to construct the structural and analytical theory of social action, combining personal interests (needs and aims and situation, it takes place in. The issue of value orientations remains acute for psychology. Herein we have considered several most important works, relating to the considered issue. Age aspects of young people’s value orientations are of peculiar interest to us. When analyzing this phenomenon, one should take into consideration the psychological formations, inhere for a certain age. In fact every age has its unique structure, which may change when passing from one development stage to another. Basing on this fact, we’ve considered the values, depending on the age features of the youth, relying upon the works of the scientists, working with different categories of the youth, such as: teenagers, students, children of different nationalities. It is not surprising that most scientists have come to the conclusion that the chief role in value orientation belongs to a family, originates in relations with parents and teachers. The positive reinforcement to the future develops throughout life in accordance with a lifestyle of a family, society and political situation in a state.Life orientations as a type of value orientations show different types of young people’s preferences. Value structure of its consciousness has its own specific character, depending on the age peculiarities. The dynamics of the transition from one age to another is accompanied with the reappraisal of values, eventually, influencing the life strategy of the future generation

  5. Future-Oriented LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Stig Irving; Borup, Mads; Andersen, Per Dannemand

    2017-01-01

    challenges are described and some learnings are derived. Many of the future-oriented LCAs published so far perform relatively short-term prediction of simple comparisons. But for more long-term time horizons foresight methods can be of help. Scenarios established by qualified experts about future......LCA is often applied for decision-making that concerns actions reaching near or far into the future. However, traditional life cycle assessment methodology must be adjusted for the prospective and change-oriented purposes, but no standardised way of doing this has emerged yet. In this chapter some...

  6. Effects of orientation on hardness, strain accumulation, and fracture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suresh, K.S., E-mail: santharamsuresh@gmail.com; Kitashima, T.; Yamabe-Mitarai, Y.

    2014-11-17

    Effects of orientation on mechanical properties of near α titanium alloy IMI834 have been investigated. Orientation dependent hardness was characterized by micro hardness testing and electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD). Strain accumulation of samples subjected to tensile, compression and Charpy impact tests at room temperature and at 650 °C was analyzed using EBSD. The [0001] orientation shows the highest hardness; lower values of hardness occurred for orientations along the [101{sup ¯}0][312{sup ¯}0] axis. Differences in hardness between different orientations were discussed based on the activation of different slip and twinning systems. During tensile and Charpy impact tests at both temperatures, localized deformations restricted the strain accumulation at regions farther from the fracture surface. In both high-temperature tensile and compression tests, large orientation gradients occurred primarily at grains having lower hardness; however, the converse was not true. Apart from grain orientation, orientations of neighboring grains also have a strong influence on the development of orientation gradient. Irrespective of the test conditions and orientation, twinned regions accommodate considerably less strain and orientation gradient compared with those of the surrounding matrix.

  7. Frontiers of solution-oriented adaptation research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisaro, A.; Swart, R.J.; Hinkel, J.

    2016-01-01

    Adaptation is heterogeneous and relevant for a range of sectors and levels of decision-making. As adaptation moves up the policy agenda, solution-oriented adaptation research requires addressing questions that are salient to stakeholders and decision-makers at various scales and involves applying a

  8. Orientation Sensitivity of Oxygen Evolution Reaction on Hematite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, X. Q.; Cao, C.; Bieberle, A.

    2016-01-01

    The sensitivity of the surface orientation on photoelectrochemical water oxidation has recently been reported by experimental studies. However, a detailed theoretical understanding is still missing. Density functional theory + Hubbard U (DFT + U) calculations are therefore carried out in order to

  9. London forces in highly oriented pyrolytic graphite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Poperenko

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Surface of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite with terrace steps was studied using scanning tunneling microscopy with high spatial resolution. Spots with positive and negative charges were found in the vicinity of the steps. Values of the charges depended both on the microscope needle scan velocity and on its motion direction. The observed effect was theoretically explained with account of London forces that arise between the needle tip and the graphite surface. In this scheme, a terrace step works as a nanoscale diode for surface electric currents.

  10. Development and synthesis nanocompositions DLC coatings with orientation effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levchenko, V.A.; Novoselova, N.V.; Matveenko, V.N.

    2008-01-01

    On the basis of volume modelling and a detailed experimental research of physical and chemical properties nanocompositions DLC with one-dimensional highly orientationally the carbon structure on interphase border of section with lubricant as models tribological knot, proves typical models of synthesis new nanocompositions the DLC possessing high tribological properties (by high wear resistance, low of a friction, etc.). The influence mechanism orientation properties of a surface of the synthesized coatings on molecular in a boundary lubricant layer is investigated. On basis tribological experimental batch tests nanocompositions the carbon coatings possessing orientation effect, the synthesis mechanism highly orientationally DLC coatings with optimum tribological properties is developed.

  11. Orientation of Phoenician Temples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escacena Carrasco, José Luis

    The orientation of Phoenician temples has revealed some of the astronomical knowledge of their builders. What we now know on this topic is complemented by other archaeological documents from Syrio-Palestinian cities and their colonies. The astral aspects of Phoenician religion are a direct legacy from the Canaanite traditions 1,000 years earlier and display connections with Mesopotamia and Egypt.

  12. Component-oriented programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, J; Szyperski, C; Weck, W; Buschmann, F; Buchmann, AP; Cilia, MA

    2003-01-01

    This report covers the eighth Workshop on Component-Oriented Programming (WCOP). WCOP has been affiliated with ECOOP since its inception in 1996. The report summarizes the contributions made by authors of accepted position papers as well as those made by all attendees of the workshop sessions.

  13. QUANTIFYING WILDLIFE ORIENTATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    environment (P);. Attitudes expressed towards the natural environment (A);. Activity, or the involvement of a person in conservation actions in the broader sense {I). Different combinations of these functions give rise to four typologies of orientation. (Newgard et al., 1986) in the following way: TYPOLOGY. CHARACTERISTICS.

  14. Social Workers’ Orientation Toward

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deirdre Beneken genaamd Kolmer; René Schalk; Renske J.M. van der Zwet

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study assesses social workers’ orientation toward the evidence-based practice (EBP) process and explores which specific variables (e.g. age) are associated. Methods: Data were collected from 341 Dutch social workers through an online survey which included a Dutch translation of the

  15. Preferred orientation of ettringite in concrete fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenk, Hans-Rudolf; Monteiro, Paulo J.M.; Kunz, Martin; Chen, Kai; Tamura, Nobumichi; Lutterotti, Luca; Delacroz, John

    2009-01-31

    Sulfate attack and the accompanying crystallization of fibrous ettringite [Ca{sub 6}Al{sub 2}(OH){sub 12}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} {center_dot} 26H{sub 2}O] cause cracking and loss of strength in concrete structures. Hard synchrotron X-ray microdiffraction is used to quantify the orientation distribution of ettringite crystals. Diffraction images are analyzed using the Rietveld method to obtain information on textures. The analysis reveals that the c axes of the trigonal crystallites are preferentially oriented perpendicular to the fracture surfaces. By averaging single-crystal elastic properties over the orientation distribution, it is possible to estimate the elastic anisotropy of ettringite aggregates.

  16. On the Frequency and Voltage-Dependent Profiles of the Surface States and Series Resistance of Au/ZnO/n-Si Structures in a Wide Range of Frequency and Voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikravan, Afsoun; Badali, Yosef; Altındal, Şemsettin; Uslu, İbrahim; Orak, İkram

    2017-10-01

    In order to interpret the electrical characteristics of fabricated Au/ZnO/n-Si structures as a function of frequency and voltage well, their capacitance-voltage ( C- V) and conductance-voltage ( G/ ω- V) measurements were carried out in a wide range of frequencies (0.7 kHz-2 MHz) and voltages (± 6 V) by 50 mV steps at room temperature. Both the C- V and G/ ω- V plots have reverse, depletion, and accumulation regions such as a metal-insulator/oxide semiconductor (MIS or MOS) structures. The values of doped-donor atoms ( N D), Fermi energy level ( E F), barrier height (ΦB), and series resistance ( R s) of the structure were obtained as a function of frequency and voltage. While the value of N D decreases with increasing frequency almost as exponentially, the value of depletion width ( W D) increases. The values of C and G/ ω increase with decreasing frequency because the surface states ( N ss) are able to follow the alternating current (AC) signal, resulting in excess capacitance ( C ex) and conductance ( G ex/ ω), which depends on their relaxation time and the frequency of the AC signal. The voltage-dependent profiles of N ss were obtained from both the high-low frequency capacitance and Hill-Colleman methods. The other important parameter R s of the structure was also obtained from the Nicollian and Brews methods as a function of voltage.

  17. Multiscale Characterization of Joint Surface Roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigon, Benoit; Englert, Andreas; Pascal, Christophe; Saintot, Aline

    2017-12-01

    Recent studies provided detailed characterizations of fault (i.e., shear fracture) roughness at different length scales. Similar investigation for joints (i.e., tensile fractures) are seldom and not as detailed. The present study aims at characterizing joint plumose patterns. We investigated the scale-dependent surface roughness properties of S-type plumoses. Joint surface measurements at relatively large scales were carried out with Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) technology. Joint surface measurements at the microscopic scale were carried out based on a noncontact optical method, using a Keyence VHX-2000D microscope. Three parameters were used to characterize fracture surface elevation, standard deviation, Hurst exponent, and correlation length through 3 scale length orders of magnitude. Our study showed that standard deviation and correlation length decrease with scale, similarly to previous findings on faults. In addition, the range of Hurst exponents as a function of scale for the studied joint surface agrees well with those previously found for faults. However, directional analysis showed that correlation length and Hurst exponent of joint surfaces at scales smaller than 1 dm differ significantly from the ones of fault surfaces. In contrast to fault surface ornaments that are mainly characterized by linear structures, plumose structures show marked variability in orientation and anisotropy as a function of position on the joint surface.

  18. Grain orientation studies in superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, Sudhakar; Schulze, Walter A.

    1990-01-01

    Grain oriented fabrication of ceramics utilizes the presence of some form of anisotropy in the particles of the starting material to obtain textured microstructures. The molten salt, or flux method, a popular technique for growing crystals and particles with anisotropic morphology, is utilized in this study. The formation of Ba2YCu3O(7-x) in the presence of molten salts of Na, K, Li belonging to chloride and sulfate systems does not appear feasible in the temperature range up to 900 C. Researchers also present the results of studies in using BaY2CuO5 as seed crystals in the formation of Ba2YCu3O(7-x) wherein BaY2CuO5 has been observed to have better stability in water and against most of the salts as compared to Ba2YCu3O(7-x). Additional results of molten salt processing of bismuth systems are also presented.

  19. Lunar Rotation, Orientation and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J. G.; Ratcliff, J. T.; Boggs, D. H.

    2004-12-01

    The Moon is the most familiar example of the many satellites that exhibit synchronous rotation. For the Moon there is Lunar Laser Ranging measurements of tides and three-dimensional rotation variations plus supporting theoretical understanding of both effects. Compared to uniform rotation and precession the lunar rotational variations are up to 1 km, while tidal variations are about 0.1 m. Analysis of the lunar variations in pole direction and rotation about the pole gives moment of inertia differences, third-degree gravity harmonics, tidal Love number k2, tidal dissipation Q vs. frequency, dissipation at the fluid-core/solid-mantle boundary, and emerging evidence for an oblate boundary. The last two indicate a fluid core, but a solid inner core is not ruled out. Four retroreflectors provide very accurate positions on the Moon. The experience with the Moon is a starting point for exploring the tides, rotation and orientation of the other synchronous bodies of the solar system.

  20. Value oriented strategic marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milisavljević Momčilo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in today's business environment require companies to orient to strategic marketing. The company accepting strategic marketing has a proactive approach and focus on continuous review and reappraisal of existing and seeking new strategic business areas. Difficulties in achieving target profit and growth require turning marketing from the dominant viewpoint of the tangible product to creating superior value and developing relationships with customers. Value orientation implies gaining competitive advantage through continuous research and understanding of what value represents to the consumers and discovering new ways to meet their required values. Strategic marketing investment requires that the investment in the creation of values should be regularly reviewed in order to ensure a focus on customers with high profit potential and environmental value. This increases customer satisfaction and retention and long-term return on investment of companies.

  1. Electrodynamics and Time Orientability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Mark J.

    2017-06-01

    On spacetimes that are not time orientable we construct a U(1) bundle to measure the twisting of the time axis. This single assumption, and simple construction, gives rise to Maxwell's equations of electromagnetism, the Lorentz force law and the Einstein-Maxwell equations for electromagnetism coupled to General relativity. The derivations follow the Kaluza Klein theory, but with the constraints required for connections on a U(1) bundle rather than five spacetime dimensions. The non time orientability is seen to justify and constrain Kaluza Klein theories exactly as required to unify gravitation with electromagnetism. Unlike any other schemes, apparent net electric charges arise naturally because the direction of the electric field reverses along a time reversing path. The boundary of a time reversing region can therefore have a net electric flux and appear exactly as a region containing an electric charge. The treatment is purely classical, but motivated by links between acausal structures and quantum theory.

  2. AEGIS: Agent Oriented Organisations

    OpenAIRE

    Unland, R.; Kirn, S.; Wanka, U.; O'Hare, G. M. P. (Greg M. P.); Abbas, S.

    1995-01-01

    Today's enterprises are faced with highly dynamic, sometimes even hostile environments. This paper dicovers that the two most prominent organizational strategies addressing these challenges, namely that of widespread decentralization and of business process orientation, are inherently conflicting. We argue that cooperative knowledge processing technology can contribute to dissolve this conflict. For this purpose, we introduce the reader into the field of Distributed Artificial Intelligence. O...

  3. Cerro Largo South orientation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradier, B.

    1982-01-01

    This work is about Cerro Largo South orientation. The site is located in the northeast of Uruguay in the south of Melo city, Department of Cerro Largo. The study was carried out in the young edge socket in the East side of a small valley. This metamorphic socket constituted by gneisses and crystalline limestone are in contact with upper carboniferous formations and basal deposits composed by sandstones and conglomerates

  4. Aspect-Oriented Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elrad, Tzilla (Editor); Filman, Robert E. (Editor); Bader, Atef (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    Computer science has experienced an evolution in programming languages and systems from the crude assembly and machine codes of the earliest computers through concepts such as formula translation, procedural programming, structured programming, functional programming, logic programming, and programming with abstract data types. Each of these steps in programming technology has advanced our ability to achieve clear separation of concerns at the source code level. Currently, the dominant programming paradigm is object-oriented programming - the idea that one builds a software system by decomposing a problem into objects and then writing the code of those objects. Such objects abstract together behavior and data into a single conceptual and physical entity. Object-orientation is reflected in the entire spectrum of current software development methodologies and tools - we have OO methodologies, analysis and design tools, and OO programming languages. Writing complex applications such as graphical user interfaces, operating systems, and distributed applications while maintaining comprehensible source code has been made possible with OOP. Success at developing simpler systems leads to aspirations for greater complexity. Object orientation is a clever idea, but has certain limitations. We are now seeing that many requirements do not decompose neatly into behavior centered on a single locus. Object technology has difficulty localizing concerns invoking global constraints and pandemic behaviors, appropriately segregating concerns, and applying domain-specific knowledge. Post-object programming (POP) mechanisms that look to increase the expressiveness of the OO paradigm are a fertile arena for current research. Examples of POP technologies include domain-specific languages, generative programming, generic programming, constraint languages, reflection and metaprogramming, feature-oriented development, views/viewpoints, and asynchronous message brokering. (Czarneclu and

  5. Oriented Fiber Filter Media

    OpenAIRE

    R. Bharadwaj; A. Patel, S. Chokdeepanich, Ph.D.; G.G. Chase, Ph.D.

    2008-01-01

    Coalescing filters are widely used throughout industry and improved performance will reduce droplet emissions and operating costs. Experimental observations show orientation of micro fibers in filter media effect the permeability and the separation efficiency of the filter media. In this work two methods are used to align the fibers to alter the filter structure. The results show that axially aligned fiber media improve quality factor on the order of 20% and cutting media on an angle from a t...

  6. Research oriented projects on design themese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tollestrup, Christian; Eriksen, Kaare; Ovesen, Nis

    2011-01-01

    How can design students do research-oriented projects about design themes? At the 3rd semester at the Industrial Design Master Program at Aalborg University this is done by taking research oriented learning objectives on design theories and methods and combining them with experimental case studies...... the setup including the experiment or case that they will be carrying out. This approach shares characteristics of a regular research project, but the extent and level of complexity is much lower and the experiment and case is larger part of the project. At the other end of the project the analysis...... and discussion of the project is also significantly less in extent and complexity. This paper will use four case projects to demonstrate the variety and range of projects carried out under this research-oriented semester called “Research & Strategy”. Even with a variety in extent, context and structure they all...

  7. Understanding voter orientation in the context of political market orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormrod, Robert P.; Henneberg, Stephan C.

    2010-01-01

    modelling to test several hypotheses. While the results show that political parties focus on several different aspects of market-oriented behaviour, especially using an internal and societal orientation as cultural antecedents, a more surprising result is the inconclusive effect of a voter orientation...

  8. WPC's Short Range Forecast Coded Bulletin

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Short Range Forecast Coded Bulletin. The Short Range Forecast Coded Bulletin describes the expected locations of high and low pressure centers, surface frontal...

  9. Club d'orientation

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2014-01-01

    Courses d’orientation ce printemps Le Club d’orientation du CERN vous invite à venir découvrir la course d’orientation et vous propose, en partenariat avec d’autres clubs de la région, une dizaine de courses populaires. Celles-ci ont lieu les samedis après-midi, elles sont ouvertes à tous, quel que soit le niveau, du débutant au sportif confirmé, en famille ou en individuel, en promenade ou en course. Si vous êtes débutant vous pouvez profiter d’une petite initiation offerte par l’organisateur avant de vous lancer sur un parcours. Divers types de parcours sont à votre choix lors de chaque épreuve: facile court (2-3 km), facile moyen (3-5 km), technique court (3-4 km), technique moyen (4-5 km) et technique long (5-7 km). Les dates à retenir sont les suivantes pour la coupe genevoise de printemps: Samedi 22 mars: Apples (...

  10. The Ranging and Nanosatellite Guidance Experiment (RANGE)

    OpenAIRE

    Gunter, Brian C.; Davis, Byron; Lightsey, Glenn; Braun, Robert D.

    2016-01-01

    The Ranging And Nanosatellite Guidance Experiment (RANGE) cubesat mission was recently selected for a flight opportunity as part of the Skybox University Cubesat Partnership, with a tentative launch date scheduled for 2016. The RANGE mission involves two 1.5U cubesats flying in a leader-follower formation with the goal of improving the relative and absolute positioning capabilities of nanosatellites. The satellites' absolute positions will be tracked using GPS receivers synchronized with mini...

  11. Analysis of method of polarization surveying of water surface oil pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukov, B. S.

    1979-01-01

    A method of polarization surveying of oil films on the water surface is analyzed. Model calculations of contrasted oil and water obtained with different orientations of the analyzer are discussed. The model depends on the spectral range, water transparency and oil film, and the selection of observational direction.

  12. Surface studies on as-grown (111) faces of sodium bromate crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. Single crystals of sodium bromate are grown at various supersaturations ranging from 3% to 8%. Surface studies have been carried out on as-grown and etched (111) faces of these crystals. Typical and syste- matically oriented growth hillocks are observed almost on all the faces. Further dislocation studies are ...

  13. Getting the parking right for transit-oriented development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Increasingly MPOs in Texas are incorporating Transit-Oriented Development (TOD) or similar : concepts into their long-range plans for the purpose of achieving sustainable transportation. : One major challenge to implementing these TOD-type strategies...

  14. Oriented Poly(dialkylstannane)s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choffat, Fabien; Fornera, Sara; Smith, Paul

    2008-01-01

    The inorganic (or 'organometallic') polymers poly(dibutylstannane), poly(dioctylstannane), and poly(didodecylstannane) have been oriented by shear forces, the tensile drawing of blends with polyethylene, and deposition from solution onto glass slides coated with all oriented, friction...

  15. Genesis and preservation of a uranium-rich paleozoic epithermal system with a surface expression (Northern Flinders Ranges, South Australia): radiogenic heat driving regional hydrothermal circulation over geological timescales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugger, Joël; Wülser, Pierre-Alain; Foden, John

    2011-01-01

    The surface expressions of hydrothermal systems are prime targets for astrobiological exploration, and fossil systems on Earth provide an analogue to guide this endeavor. The Paleozoic Mt. Gee-Mt. Painter system (MGPS) in the Northern Flinders Ranges of South Australia is exceptionally well preserved and displays both a subsurface quartz sinter (boiling horizon) and remnants of aerial sinter pools that lie in near-original position. The energy source for the MGPS is not related to volcanism but to radiogenic heat produced by U-Th-K-rich host rocks. This radiogenic heat source drove hydrothermal circulation over a long period of time (hundreds of millions of years, from Permian to present), with peaks in hydrothermal activity during periods of uplift and high water supply. This process is reflected by ongoing hot spring activity along a nearby fault. The exceptional preservation of the MGPS resulted from the lack of proximal volcanism, coupled with tectonics driven by an oscillating far-field stress that resulted in episodic basement uplift. Hydrothermal activity caused the remobilization of U and rare earth elements (REE) in host rocks into (sub)economic concentrations. Radiogenic-heat-driven systems are attractive analogues for environments that can sustain life over geological times; the MGPS preserves evidence of episodic fluid flow for the past ∼300 million years. During periods of reduced hydrothermal activity (e.g., limited water supply, quiet tectonics), radiolytic H(2) production has the potential to support an ecosystem indefinitely. Remote exploration for deposits similar to those at the MGPS systems can be achieved by combining hyperspectral and gamma-ray spectroscopy. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

  16. The effects of market orientation

    OpenAIRE

    Sandvik, Kåre

    1998-01-01

    This research is designed to accomplish three goals. The first goal is to revisit the market orientation construct in order to define the different facets of it. A review of the market orientation literature is made to assess and synthesize the stock of accumulated knowledge regarding the market orientation construct. The second goal of the research is to develop a theory of the effects ofmarket orientation. Using the literature concerning resource-based theory and organization...

  17. What is the orientation of the tip in a scanning tunneling microscope?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mándi, Gábor; Teobaldi, Gilberto; Palotás, Krisztián

    2015-05-01

    The atomic structure and electronic properties of the tip apex can strongly affect the contrast of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) images. This is a critical issue in STM imaging given the, to date unsolved, experimental limitations in precise control of the tip apex atomic structure. Definition of statistically robust procedures to indirectly obtain information on the tip apex structure is highly desirable as it would open up for more rigorous interpretation and comparison of STM images from different experiments. To this end, here we introduce a statistical correlation analysis method to obtain information on the local geometry and orientation of the tip used in STM experiments based on large scale simulations. The key quantity is the relative brightness correlation of constant-current topographs between experimental and simulated data. This correlation can be analyzed statistically for a large number of modeled tip orientations and geometries. Assuming a stable tip during the STM scans and based on the correlation distribution, it is possible to determine the tip orientations that are most likely present in an STM experiment, and exclude other orientations. This is especially important for substrates such as highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) since its STM contrast is strongly tip dependent, which makes interpretation and comparison of STM images very challenging. We illustrate the applicability of our method considering the HOPG surface in combination with tungsten tip models of two different apex geometries and 18,144 different orientations. We calculate constant-current profiles along the direction of the HOPG(0 0 0 1) surface in the | V | ⩽ 1V bias voltage range, and compare them with experimental data. We find that a blunt tip model provides better correlation with the experiment for a wider range of tip orientations and bias voltages than a sharp tip model. Such a combination of experiments and large scale simulations opens up the way for

  18. Optimizing Street Canyon Orientation for Rajarhat Newtown, Kolkata, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Bhaskar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Air temperature in urban street canyons is increased due to the morphed urban geometry, increased surface area, decreased long wave radiation and evapo-transpiration, different thermo-physical properties of surface materials and anthropogenic heat which results in thermal discomfort. Outdoor thermal stress can be mitigated substantially by properly orienting the canyons. It is crucial for the urban planners and designers to orient street canyons optimally considering variable local climatic context. It is important especially for cities in warm humid climatic context as these cities receive higher insolation with higher relative humidity and low level macro wind flow. This paper examines influence of canyon orientation on outdoor thermal comfort and proposes the optimum canyon orientation for the Rajarhat Newtown, Kolkata – a city in warm humid climate zone. Different scenarios are generated with different orientations. Change in air temperature, wind speed, Mean Radiant Temperature (MRT and Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET of different scenarios are compared to find out the optimum orientation by parametric simulation in ENVI_met. Analysing the simulation results it is observed that orientation angle between 30°–60° to north performs the best for the study area of the Rajarhat Newtown. The findings of this research will be helpful for the planners to orient the street canyons optimally for future development and extension of the Rajarhat Newtown, Kolkata.

  19. Optimizing Street Canyon Orientation for Rajarhat Newtown, Kolkata, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Bhaskar; Mukherjee, Mahua

    2017-12-01

    Air temperature in urban street canyons is increased due to the morphed urban geometry, increased surface area, decreased long wave radiation and evapo-transpiration, different thermo-physical properties of surface materials and anthropogenic heat which results in thermal discomfort. Outdoor thermal stress can be mitigated substantially by properly orienting the canyons. It is crucial for the urban planners and designers to orient street canyons optimally considering variable local climatic context. It is important especially for cities in warm humid climatic context as these cities receive higher insolation with higher relative humidity and low level macro wind flow. This paper examines influence of canyon orientation on outdoor thermal comfort and proposes the optimum canyon orientation for the Rajarhat Newtown, Kolkata - a city in warm humid climate zone. Different scenarios are generated with different orientations. Change in air temperature, wind speed, Mean Radiant Temperature (MRT) and Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET) of different scenarios are compared to find out the optimum orientation by parametric simulation in ENVI_met. Analysing the simulation results it is observed that orientation angle between 30°-60° to north performs the best for the study area of the Rajarhat Newtown. The findings of this research will be helpful for the planners to orient the street canyons optimally for future development and extension of the Rajarhat Newtown, Kolkata.

  20. Child-oriented marketing techniques in snack food packages in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacon, Violeta; Letona, Paola; Barnoya, Joaquin

    2013-10-18

    Childhood overweight in Guatemala is now becoming a public health concern. Child-oriented marketing contributes to increase children's food preference, purchase and consumption. This study sought to assess the availability of child-oriented snack foods sold in school kiosks and convenience stores near public schools in Guatemala, to identify the marketing techniques used in child-oriented snack food packages and to classify the snacks as "healthy" or "less-healthy". We purchased all child-oriented snacks found in stores inside and within 200 square meters from four schools in an urban community. Snacks were classified as child-oriented if the package had any promotional characters, premium offers, children's television/movie tie-ins, sports references, or the word "child". We used a checklist to assess child-oriented references and price. Snacks were classified as "healthy" or "less-healthy" according to the UK standards for the Nutritional Profiling Model. We analyzed 106 packages found in 55 stores. The most commonly used technique was promotional characters (92.5%) of which 32.7% were brand-specific characters. Premium offers were found in 34% of packages and were mostly collectibles (50%). Most marketing techniques were located on the front and covered nearly 25% of the package surface. Median (interquartile range) price was US$ 0.19 (0.25). Nutrition labels were found in 91 (86%) packages and 41% had a nutrition related health claim. Most snacks (97.1%) were classified as "less-healthy". In Guatemala, the food industry targets children through several marketing techniques promoting inexpensive and unhealthy snacks in the school environment. Evidence-based policies restricting the use of promotional characters in unhealthy snack food packages need to be explored as a contributing strategy to control the obesity epidemic.

  1. Child-oriented marketing techniques in snack food packages in Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Childhood overweight in Guatemala is now becoming a public health concern. Child-oriented marketing contributes to increase children’s food preference, purchase and consumption. This study sought to assess the availability of child-oriented snack foods sold in school kiosks and convenience stores near public schools in Guatemala, to identify the marketing techniques used in child-oriented snack food packages and to classify the snacks as “healthy” or “less-healthy”. Methods We purchased all child-oriented snacks found in stores inside and within 200 square meters from four schools in an urban community. Snacks were classified as child-oriented if the package had any promotional characters, premium offers, children′s television/movie tie-ins, sports references, or the word “child”. We used a checklist to assess child-oriented references and price. Snacks were classified as “healthy” or “less-healthy” according to the UK standards for the Nutritional Profiling Model. Results We analyzed 106 packages found in 55 stores. The most commonly used technique was promotional characters (92.5%) of which 32.7% were brand-specific characters. Premium offers were found in 34% of packages and were mostly collectibles (50%). Most marketing techniques were located on the front and covered nearly 25% of the package surface. Median (interquartile range) price was US$ 0.19 (0.25). Nutrition labels were found in 91 (86%) packages and 41% had a nutrition related health claim. Most snacks (97.1%) were classified as “less-healthy”. Conclusion In Guatemala, the food industry targets children through several marketing techniques promoting inexpensive and unhealthy snacks in the school environment. Evidence-based policies restricting the use of promotional characters in unhealthy snack food packages need to be explored as a contributing strategy to control the obesity epidemic. PMID:24139325

  2. Oriented growth of polyaniline nanofiber arrays onto the glass and flexible substrates using a facile method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan; Xu, Shaoqin; Cheng, Huan; Liu, Wenfeng; Chen, Fang; Liu, Xueqing; Liu, Jiyan; Chen, Shaoyun; Hu, Chenglong

    2018-01-01

    The oriented 1D nanostructure arrays of PANI have great potential applications in various devices. In this paper, we report a simple and facile one-step template-free way to assemble highly oriented arrays of PANI nanofibers using chemical oxidative polymerization on the glass and polymer flexible substrates. The diameters of the individual nanofibers range from 10 nm to 33 nm, and the average length of the aligned nanofibers is up to 48-139 nm. The PANI nanofiber arrays can be uniformly distributed on the whole substrates via this method, which are confirmed by the results of SEM images and Raman mapping. The as-prepared PANI nanofiber arrays can be potentially used in flexible low-voltage electronics, anti coatings, self-cleaning surfaces and chemical sensors, and so on.

  3. Model-based orientation-independent 3-D machine vision techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Figueiredo, R. J. P.; Kehtarnavaz, N.

    1988-01-01

    Orientation-dependent techniques for the identification of a three-dimensional object by a machine vision system are represented in parts. In the first part, the data consist of intensity images of polyhedral objects obtained by a single camera, while in the second part, the data consist of range images of curved objects obtained by a laser scanner. In both cases, the attributed graphic representation of the object surface is used to drive the respective algorithm. In this representation, a graph node represents a surface patch and a link represents the adjacency between two patches. The attributes assigned to nodes are moment invariants of the corresponding face for polyhedral objects. For range images, the Gaussian curvature is used as a segmentation criterion for providing symbolic shape attributes. Identification is achieved by an efficient graph-matching algorithm used to match the graph obtained from the data to a subgraph of one of the model graphs stored in the commputer memory.

  4. Growth of pentacene on clean and modified gold surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaefer, Daniel; Ruppel, Lars; Witte, Gregor

    2007-01-01

    The growth and evolution of pentacene films on gold substrates have been studied. By combining complementary techniques including scanning tunneling microscopy, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, near-edge x-ray-absorption fine structure, and x-ray diffraction, the molecular orientation, crystalline structure, and morphology of the organic films were characterized as a function of film thickness and growth parameters (temperature and rate) for different gold substrates ranging from Au(111) single crystals to polycrystalline gold. Moreover, the influence of precoating the various gold substrates with self-assembled monolayers (SAM's) of organothiols with different chemical terminations has been studied. On bare gold the growth of pentacene films is characterized by a pronounced dewetting while the molecular orientation within the resulting crystalline three-dimensional islands depends distinctly on the roughness and cleanliness of the substrate surface. After completion of the first wetting layer where molecules adopt a planar orientation parallel to the surface the molecules continue to grow in a tilted fashion: on Au(111) the long molecular axis is oriented parallel to the surface while on polycrystalline gold it is upstanding oriented and thus parallels the crystalline orientation of pentacene films grown on SiO 2 . On SAM pretreated gold substrates the formation of a wetting layer is effectively suppressed and pentacene grows in a quasi-layer-by-layer fashion with an upstanding orientation leading to rather smooth films. The latter growth mode is observed independently of the chemical termination of the SAM's and the roughness of the gold substrate. Possible reasons for the different growth mechanism as well as consequences for the assignment of spectroscopic data of thin pentacene film are discussed

  5. Flight calls and orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Andersen, Bent Bach; Kropp, Wibke

    2008-01-01

      In a pilot experiment a European Robin, Erithacus rubecula, expressing migratory restlessness with a stable orientation, was video filmed in the dark with an infrared camera and its directional migratory activity was recorded. The flight overhead of migrating conspecifics uttering nocturnal...... flight calls was simulated by sequential computer controlled activation of five loudspeakers placed in a linear array perpendicular to the bird's migration course. The bird responded to this stimulation by changing its migratory course in the direction of that of the ‘flying conspecifics' but after about...

  6. Mina Oriental report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicalese, H.; Mari, C.; Lema, F.; Valverde, C.; Haut, R.

    1986-01-01

    This report refers to the obtained results of those geophysical works practiced during the year 1985 in Mina Oriental region, located in the department of Maldonado. The same ones had like object to supplement geophysical studies previous carried out in the area and to investigate a possible connection mineralized in the geologic context with Mina La Esperanza that , where they arose anomalous indications in geochemical prospecting. They were applied the following methods: Induced Polarization, Magnetometry and Electromagnetism. The conclusions and recommendations arrived express one discontinuity among the referred areas, even subtracting some explanations on the detected lateral anomalies.

  7. Emotion-oriented systems

    CERN Document Server

    Pelachaud, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    The Affective Computing domain, term coined by Rosalind Picard in 1997, gathers several scientific areas such as computer science, cognitive science, psychology, design and art. The humane-machine interaction systems are no longer solely fast and efficient. They aim to offer to users affective experiences: user's affective state is detected and considered within the interaction; the system displays affective state; it can reason about their implication to achieve a task or resolve a problem. In this book, we have chosen to cover various domains of research in emotion-oriented systems. Our aim

  8. Is pedophilia a sexual orientation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Michael C

    2012-02-01

    In this article, I address the question of whether pedophilia in men can be construed as a male sexual orientation, and the implications for thinking of it in this way for scientific research, clinical practice, and public policy. I begin by defining pedophilia and sexual orientation, and then compare pedophilia (as a potential sexual orientation with regard to age) to sexual orientations with regard to gender (heterosexuality, bisexuality, and homosexuality), on the bases of age of onset, correlations with sexual and romantic behavior, and stability over time. I conclude with comments about the potential social and legal implications of conceptualizing pedophilia as a type of sexual orientation in males.

  9. Neutron Scattering Study of Nitrogen Adsorbed on Basal Plane Oriented Graphite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjems, Jørgen; Passell, L.; Taub, H.

    1976-01-01

    Thermal-neutron scattering has been used to investigate the structure of nitrogen films adsorbed on Grafoil, a basal-plane-oriented graphite. Diffraction scans were made at coverages between 1/3 of a monolayer and 7/4 monolayers over a temperature range from 10 to 90 K. The observed line shapes...... were analyzed and found to be generally consistent with the predictions of two-dimensional diffraction theory. From the data at least three distinct surface phases can be identified: (i) a low-temperature epitaxial phase with a triangular lattice structure, (ii) a more compressed low-temperature phase...

  10. Effect of nanostructures orientation on electroosmotic flow in a microfluidic channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng Lim, An; Lim, Chun Yee; Cheong Lam, Yee; Taboryski, Rafael; Rui Wang, Shu

    2017-06-01

    Electroosmotic flow (EOF) is an electric-field-induced fluid flow that has numerous micro-/nanofluidic applications, ranging from pumping to chemical and biomedical analyses. Nanoscale networks/structures are often integrated in microchannels for a broad range of applications, such as electrophoretic separation of biomolecules, high reaction efficiency catalytic microreactors, and enhancement of heat transfer and sensing. Their introduction has been known to reduce EOF. Hitherto, a proper study on the effect of nanostructures orientation on EOF in a microfluidic channel is yet to be carried out. In this investigation, we present a novel fabrication method for nanostructure designs that possess maximum orientation difference, i.e. parallel versus perpendicular indented nanolines, to examine the effect of nanostructures orientation on EOF. It consists of four phases: fabrication of silicon master, creation of mold insert via electroplating, injection molding with cyclic olefin copolymer, and thermal bonding and integration of practical inlet/outlet ports. The effect of nanostructures orientation on EOF was studied experimentally by current monitoring method. The experimental results show that nanolines which are perpendicular to the microchannel reduce the EOF velocity significantly (approximately 20%). This flow velocity reduction is due to the distortion of local electric field by the perpendicular nanolines at the nanostructured surface as demonstrated by finite element simulation. In contrast, nanolines which are parallel to the microchannel have no effect on EOF, as it can be deduced that the parallel nanolines do not distort the local electric field. The outcomes of this investigation contribute to the precise control of EOF in lab-on-chip devices, and fundamental understanding of EOF in devices which utilize nanostructured surfaces for chemical and biological analyses.

  11. Club d'orientation

    CERN Multimedia

    Le Club d’Orientation du CERN

    2010-01-01

    COURSE D’ORIENTATION : Coupe Genevoise de printemps 2010 Pour cette première étape de la Coupe Genevoise de printemps, une centaine de coureurs se sont déplacés dans les bois de Cossonay (Vd) pour découvrir un des cinq circuits proposés par le Club de Lausanne-Jorat. Ces circuits techniques et rapides ont été appréciés par la majorité des concurrents. Les vainqueurs du jour sont : technique long, Christophe Vuitton (CO CERN) s’imposant d’une seconde devant Grégoire Schrago (CO Rosé) ; technique moyen, Pekka Marti (Ol Bienne) ; technique court, David Cuenin (ANCO) ; facile moyen, Nicolas Muller (CO Lausanne-Jorat) et pour finir facile court, Julien Vuitton (CO CERN). Les résultats complets - avec temps intermédiaires – sont consultables sur http://cern.ch/club-orientation. Le prochain rendez-vous est pr&...

  12. Course d'Orientation

    CERN Multimedia

    Course d'Orientation

    2012-01-01

      Coupe de printemps La deuxième étape de la coupe de printemps organisée par le club d’orientation du CERN s’est déroulée le samedi 21 avril dans la forêt de Pougny-Challex. étant donné le temps très humide qui domine depuis début avril, les coureurs ne pouvaient trouver qu’un terrain gras et trempé, mais cela fait partie des défis de la course d’orientation. Le parcours technique long a été remporté par Yvan Balliot, CO Annecy en 51:18 devant Jean-Charles Baritaux en 56:21 et Bruno Barge, CO CERN en 59:39. La prochaine CO populaire se courra à Vulbens le samedi 28 avril. Les inscriptions et les départs se feront entre 13h et 15h. A noter les courses en mai : • Samedi 5 mai : Trelex • Samedi 12 mai : Chancy / Valleiry • Samedi 19 mai : Lausan...

  13. Milestones Universidad de Oriente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio A. Villalón-Infante

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available On October 10, 1947, the University of Oriente is founded with the presence of local authorities and the historic Bell of the Damajagua. Since then it has generated outstanding events that have drawn guidelines in its history. These landmarks have taken place in different spheres of social, political and economic life. We have found that most workers and students from the University know less than fifty percent of such events, and we assume that the population outside the walls must have a greater ignorance. The present paper aims to spread these crucial events because knowing them will help appreciate better the real prestige of this house of higher learning through its rich  history, which will result in feelings of admiration and respect for this university. Thus, it is necessary to make a wider propagation through the press, radio and television programs and digital media such as Multimedia, Web Pages and the Internet.The theme landmark at the Universidad de Oriente of the subject Historical and Contemporary Debates implemented in the disciplines of all careers at this university gives freshmen the opportunity to investigate and learn about these remarkable  facts with some impact outside our national territory.

  14. Club d'orientation

    CERN Document Server

    Le Club d’Orientation du CERN

    2011-01-01

    La première course d’orientation comptant pour la Coupe Genevoise de printemps a eu lieu près de Cossonay samedi 19 mars ; une bonne soixantaine de coureurs avaient fait le déplacement. Les vainqueurs sont : technique long, Domenico Lepori (Care Vevey) s’imposant d’une minute devant Yannick Gagneret (O’Jura) ; technique moyen, Jean-Rodolphe Knuchel (CO Lausanne-Jorat) devant Cédric Wehrle (CO CERN) ; technique court, Marie Droz (ANCO) ; facile moyen, Elia Martarelli devant Konstantinos Haider (CO CERN); facile court, Sarah Stuber (CO Lausanne-Jorat). Prochain rendez-vous à noter : samedi 26 mars dans la forêt d’Attalens (Canton de Vaud), parking au terrain de foot. Les inscriptions et départs de la course populaire se feront entre 13h et 15h. Pour ceux qui ne connaissent pas l’orientation, c’est l&am...

  15. Fuel cycle oriented approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, A.

    1987-01-01

    The term fuel cycle oriented approach is currently used to designate two quite different things: the attempt to consider all or part of a national fuel cycle as one material balance area (MBA) or to consider individual MBAs existing in a state while designing a unique safeguards approach for each and applying the principle of nondiscrimination to fuel cycles as a whole, rather than to individual facilities. The merits of such an approach are acceptability by the industry and comparison with the contemplated establishment of long-term criteria. The following points concern the acceptability by the industry: (1) The main interest of the industry is to keep an open international market and therefore, to have effective and efficient safeguards. (2) The main concerns of the industry regarding international safeguards are economic burden, intrusiveness, and discrimination. Answers to these legitimate concerns, which retain the benefits of a fuel cycle oriented approach, are needed. More specifically, the problem of reimbursing the operator the costs that he has incurred for the safeguards must be considered

  16. Ion bombardment induced topography evolution on low index crystal surfaces of Cu and Pb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanovic, L.; Tanovic, N.; Carter, G.; Nobes, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    (100), (110) and (111) oriented single crystal surfaces of Cu and Pb have been bombarded with inert gas ions, self ions, ions of the other substrate species and Bi in the energy range 50-150 keV and in the fluence range 10 15 -10 18 ions.cm 2 . The evolving surface topography was observed by scanning electron microscopy. This topography was observed to be strongly influenced by ion species and surface orientation but the habit of the topography was delineated at low fluences and the features increased in size and density with increasing fluence with some mutation to the more stable of the features. As an example Bi and Pb bombardment of (100) Cu leads to little topographic evolution, (110) Cu develops a system of parallel ridges with (100) facets and (111) Cu develops a prismatic surface, each prism possessing (100) facets. These, and the more general, results cannot be explained by surface erosion by sputtering theory alone (this predicts surface stability of the lowest sputtering yield orientation (110), nor by surface free energy density minimisation criteria (this predicts stability of (111) surfaces). It is proposed that the observed topography is most strongly related to the crystallographic form of precipitates of implanted species. (orig.)

  17. Ion bombardment induced topography evolution on low index crystal surfaces of Cu and Pb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanovic, L.; Tanovic, N.; Carter, G.; Nobes, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    (100), (110) and (111) oriented single crystal surfaces of Cu and Pb have been bombarded with inert gas ions, self ions, ions of the other substrate species and Bi in the energy range 50-150 keV and in the fluence range 10 15 -10 18 ions cm 2 . The evolving surface topography was observed by scanning electron microscopy. This topography was observed to be strongly influenced by ion species and surface orientation but the habit of the topography was delineated at low fluences and the features increased in size and density with increasing fluence with some mutation to the more stable of the features. As an example Bi and Pb bombardment of (100) Cu leads to little topographic evolution, (110) Cu develops a system of parallel ridges with (100) facets and (111) Cu develops a prismatic surface, each prism possessing (100) facets. These, and the more general, results cannot be explained by surface erosion by sputtering theory alone (this predicts surface stability of the lowest sputtering yield orientation (110), nor by surface free energy density minimisation criteria (this predicts stability of (111) surfaces). It is proposed that the observed topography is most strongly related to the crystallographic form of precipitates of implanted species. (orig.)

  18. Analysis of GaSb and AlSb reconstructions on GaSb(111) A- and B-oriented surfaces by azimuthal-scan reflection high-energy electron diffraction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Proessdorf, A.; Grosse, F.; Braun, W.; Katmis, F.; Riechert, H.; Romanyuk, Olexandr

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 83, č. 15 (2011), "155317-1"-"155317-11" ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP204/10/P028 Grant - others:GermanResearchFoundation(DE) GZ:436TSE113/62/0-1 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : III-V semiconductor surfaces * RHEED * surface reconstruction * MBE Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.691, year: 2011 http://prb.aps.org/abstract/PRB/v83/i15/e155317

  19. The Structure of Reality in Izutsu’s Oriental Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshitsugu Sawai

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This paper aims at elucidating the structure of reality in Toshihiko Izutsu’s “Oriental Philosophy” by discussing the main characteristics of his philosophical perspective of reality and consciousness. From semantic perspectives, Izutsu attempted to construct Oriental Philosophy by a creative “reading” of variegated traditional Oriental thought, which has developed in the Orient since ancient times. His philosophical reflection is characterised by his unique semantic theory, whose sphere ranges from East Asian philosophical traditions to Middle Eastern ones. On the basis of his “reading” of Oriental thought, he undertook the “synchronical structuralisation” of varieties of Oriental thought by artificially creating “an organic space of thought,” which could structurally incorporate all these traditions. An important characteristic of this Oriental Philosophy consisted in the way Oriental philosophers opened the dimension of depth-consciousness as their own experiential facts. Thus, Izutsu developed his semantic theory of Oriental Philosophy characterised by a multi-layered correlation of reality and consciousness.

  20. CRED Coral Reef Early Warning System (CREWS) Enhanced Buoy, Sea Surface Temperature and Conductivity Recorder (SBE37); NWHI, MID; Long: -177.34402, Lat: 28.21788 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.00m; Data Range: 20020724-20020920.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CREWS Enhanced (CREWS-ENH) buoys are equipped to measure sea surface water temperature and conductivity (Sea-Bird Model SBE37-SM, Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.,...

  1. CRED Coral Reef Early Warning System (CREWS) Enhanced Buoy, Sea Surface Temperature and Conductivity Recorder (SBE37); NWHI, FFS; Long: -166.27183, Lat: 23.85678 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.00m; Data Range: 20020911-20030305.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CREWS Enhanced (CREWS-ENH) buoys are equipped to measure sea surface water temperature and conductivity (Sea-Bird Model SBE37-SM, Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.,...

  2. CRED Coral Reef Early Warning System (CREWS) Enhanced Buoy, Sea Surface Temperature and Conductivity Recorder (SBE37); NWHI, FFS; Long: -166.27183, Lat: 23.85678 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.00m; Data Range: 20040622-20040808.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CREWS Enhanced (CREWS-ENH) buoys are equipped to measure sea surface water temperature and conductivity (Sea-Bird Model SBE37-SM, Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.,...

  3. CRED Coral Reef Early Warning System (CREWS) Enhanced Buoy, Sea Surface Temperature and Conductivity Recorder (SBE37); NWHI, FFS; Long: -166.27183, Lat: 23.85678 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.00m; Data Range: 20040919-20050411.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CREWS Enhanced (CREWS-ENH) buoys are equipped to measure sea surface water temperature and conductivity (Sea-Bird Model SBE37-SM, Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.,...

  4. CRED Coral Reef Early Warning System (CREWS) Standard Buoy, Sea Surface Temperature and Conductivity Recorder (SBE37); AMSM, ROS; Long: -168.16025, Lat: -14.55134 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.00m; Data Range: 20060307-20080312.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CREWS Standard (CREWS-STD) buoys are equipped to measure sea surface water temperature and conductivity (Sea-Bird Model SBE37-SM, Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.,...

  5. CRED Coral Reef Early Warning System (CREWS) Enhanced Buoy, Supplemental Sea Surface Temperature Recorder (SBE39); PRIA, PAL; Long: -162.10280, Lat: 05.88468 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.00m; Data Range: 20060326-20071017.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CREWS Enhanced (CREWS-ENH) buoys are equipped to measure sea surface water temperature and conductivity (Sea-Bird Model SBE37-SM, Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.,...

  6. CRED Coral Reef Early Warning System (CREWS) Standard Buoy, Supplemental Sea Surface Temperature Recorder (SBE39); AMSM, ROS; Long: -168.16018, Lat: -14.55140 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.00m; Data Range: 20020224-20020420.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CREWS Standard (CREWS-STD) buoys are equipped to measure sea surface water temperature and conductivity (Sea-Bird Model SBE37-SM, Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.,...

  7. CRED Coral Reef Early Warning System (CREWS) Standard Buoy, Supplemental Sea Surface Temperature Recorder (SBE39); AMSM, ROS; Long: -168.16025, Lat: -14.55134 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.00m; Data Range: 20060307-20070902.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CREWS Standard (CREWS-STD) buoys are equipped to measure sea surface water temperature and conductivity (Sea-Bird Model SBE37-SM, Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.,...

  8. CRED Coral Reef Early Warning System (CREWS) Standard Buoy, Sea Surface Temperature and Conductivity Recorder (SBE37); NWHI, PHR; Long: -175.81612, Lat: 27.85325 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.00m; Data Range: 20020918-20030314.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CREWS Standard (CREWS-STD) buoys are equipped to measure sea surface water temperature and conductivity (Sea-Bird Model SBE37-SM, Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.,...

  9. CRED Coral Reef Early Warning System (CREWS) Enhanced Buoy, Sea Surface Temperature and Conductivity Recorder (SBE37); NWHI, FFS; Long: -166.27183, Lat: 23.85678 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.00m; Data Range: 20050413-20060904.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CREWS Enhanced (CREWS-ENH) buoys are equipped to measure sea surface water temperature and conductivity (Sea-Bird Model SBE37-SM, Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.,...

  10. CRED Coral Reef Early Warning System (CREWS) Enhanced Buoy, Sea Surface Temperature and Conductivity Recorder (SBE37); PRIA, PAL; Long: -162.10283, Lat: 05.88468 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.00m; Data Range: 20020315-20021023.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CREWS Enhanced (CREWS-ENH) buoys are equipped to measure sea surface water temperature and conductivity (Sea-Bird Model SBE37-SM, Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.,...

  11. CRED Coral Reef Early Warning System (CREWS) Standard Buoy, Supplemental Sea Surface Temperature Recorder (SBE39); NWHI, MAR; Long: -170.63382, Lat: 25.44652 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.00m; Data Range: 20020424-20020802.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CREWS Standard (CREWS-STD) buoys are equipped to measure sea surface water temperature and conductivity (Sea-Bird Model SBE37-SM, Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.,...

  12. CRED Coral Reef Early Warning System (CREWS) Standard Buoy, Supplemental Sea Surface Temperature Recorder (SBE39); NWHI, LIS; Long: -173.91608, Lat: 25.96767 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.00m; Data Range: 20011020-20011225.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CREWS Standard (CREWS-STD) buoys are equipped to measure sea surface water temperature and conductivity (Sea-Bird Model SBE37-SM, Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.,...

  13. CRED Coral Reef Early Warning System (CREWS) Standard Buoy, Supplemental Sea Surface Temperature Recorder (SBE39); NWHI, KUR; Long: -178.34455, Lat: 28.41863 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.00m; Data Range: 20040629-20041005.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CREWS Standard (CREWS-STD) buoys are equipped to measure sea surface water temperature and conductivity (Sea-Bird Model SBE37-SM, Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.,...

  14. CRED Coral Reef Early Warning System (CREWS) Enhanced Buoy, Sea Surface Temperature and Conductivity Recorder (SBE37); CNMI, SAI; Long: 145.72288, Lat: 15.23746 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.00m; Data Range: 20050921-20060525.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CREWS Enhanced (CREWS-ENH) buoys are equipped to measure sea surface water temperature and conductivity (Sea-Bird Model SBE37-SM, Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.,...

  15. CRED Coral Reef Early Warning System (CREWS) Standard Buoy, Sea Surface Temperature and Conductivity Recorder (SBE37); NWHI, MAR; Long: -170.63382, Lat: 25.44643 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.00m; Data Range: 20040924-20051014.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CREWS Standard (CREWS-STD) buoys are equipped to measure sea surface water temperature and conductivity (Sea-Bird Model SBE37-SM, Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.,...

  16. CRED Coral Reef Early Warning System (CREWS) Standard Buoy, Supplemental Sea Surface Temperature Recorder (SBE39); NWHI, PHR; Long: -175.81595, Lat: 27.85396 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 0.91m; Data Range: 20060915-20080828.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CREWS Standard (CREWS-STD) buoys are equipped to measure sea surface water temperature and conductivity (Sea-Bird Model SBE37-SM, Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.,...

  17. CRED Coral Reef Early Warning System (CREWS) Standard Buoy, Supplemental Sea Surface Temperature Recorder (SBE39); NWHI, PHR; Long: -175.81590, Lat: 27.85408 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 0.50m; Data Range: 20030801-20030810.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CREWS Standard (CREWS-STD) buoys are equipped to measure sea surface water temperature and conductivity (Sea-Bird Model SBE37-SM, Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.,...

  18. CRED Coral Reef Early Warning System (CREWS) Enhanced Buoy, Supplemental Sea Surface Temperature Recorder (SBE39); PRIA, PAL; Long: -162.10282, Lat: 05.88467 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.00m; Data Range: 20040330-20060325.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CREWS Enhanced (CREWS-ENH) buoys are equipped to measure sea surface water temperature and conductivity (Sea-Bird Model SBE37-SM, Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.,...

  19. CRED Coral Reef Early Warning System (CREWS) Enhanced Buoy, Sea Surface Temperature and Conductivity Recorder (SBE37); NWHI, MID; Long: -177.34402, Lat: 28.21788 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.00m; Data Range: 20011022-20020325.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CREWS Enhanced (CREWS-ENH) buoys are equipped to measure sea surface water temperature and conductivity (Sea-Bird Model SBE37-SM, Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.,...

  20. CRED Coral Reef Early Warning System (CREWS) Standard Buoy, Sea Surface Temperature and Conductivity Recorder (SBE37); NWHI, KUR; Long: -178.34455, Lat: 28.41863 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.00m; Data Range: 20020922-20030316.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CREWS Standard (CREWS-STD) buoys are equipped to measure sea surface water temperature and conductivity (Sea-Bird Model SBE37-SM, Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.,...

  1. CRED Coral Reef Early Warning System (CREWS) Enhanced Buoy, Supplemental Sea Surface Temperature Recorder (SBE39); NWHI, FFS; Long: -166.27183, Lat: 23.85678 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.00m; Data Range: 20050411-20060904.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CREWS Enhanced (CREWS-ENH) buoys are equipped to measure sea surface water temperature and conductivity (Sea-Bird Model SBE37-SM, Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.,...

  2. CRED Coral Reef Early Warning System (CREWS) Standard Buoy, Supplemental Sea Surface Temperature Recorder (SBE39); NWHI, PHR; Long: -175.81590, Lat: 27.85408 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.00m; Data Range: 20020505-20020810.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CREWS Standard (CREWS-STD) buoys are equipped to measure sea surface water temperature and conductivity (Sea-Bird Model SBE37-SM, Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.,...

  3. CRED Coral Reef Early Warning System (CREWS) Standard Buoy, Sea Surface Temperature and Conductivity Recorder (SBE37); AMSM, ROS; Long: -168.16018, Lat: -14.55140 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.00m; Data Range: 20040209-20041002.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CREWS Standard (CREWS-STD) buoys are equipped to measure sea surface water temperature and conductivity (Sea-Bird Model SBE37-SM, Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.,...

  4. CRED Coral Reef Early Warning System (CREWS) Standard Buoy, Sea Surface Temperature and Conductivity Recorder (SBE37); NWHI, MAR; Long: -170.63382, Lat: 25.44643 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.00m; Data Range: 20051016-20060907.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CREWS Standard (CREWS-STD) buoys are equipped to measure sea surface water temperature and conductivity (Sea-Bird Model SBE37-SM, Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.,...

  5. CRED Coral Reef Early Warning System (CREWS) Standard Buoy, Sea Surface Temperature and Conductivity Recorder (SBE37); NWHI, PHR; Long: -175.81612, Lat: 27.85325 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.00m; Data Range: 20030812-20040428.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CREWS Standard (CREWS-STD) buoys are equipped to measure sea surface water temperature and conductivity (Sea-Bird Model SBE37-SM, Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.,...

  6. CRED Coral Reef Early Warning System (CREWS) Standard Buoy, Supplemental Sea Surface Temperature Recorder (SBE39); NWHI, KUR; Long: -178.34453, Lat: 28.41852 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.00m; Data Range: 20060918-20080929.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CREWS Standard (CREWS-STD) buoys are equipped to measure sea surface water temperature and conductivity (Sea-Bird Model SBE37-SM, Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.,...

  7. CRED Coral Reef Early Warning System (CREWS) Enhanced Buoy, Sea Surface Temperature and Conductivity Recorder (SBE37); PRIA, PAL; Long: -162.10289, Lat: 05.88463 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.00m; Data Range: 20080401-20100410.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CREWS Enhanced (CREWS-ENH) buoys are equipped to measure sea surface water temperature and conductivity (Sea-Bird Model SBE37-SM, Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.,...

  8. CRED Coral Reef Early Warning System (CREWS) Enhanced Buoy, Supplemental Sea Surface Temperature Recorder (SBE39); PRIA, PAL; Long: -162.10289, Lat: 05.88463 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.00m; Data Range: 20080401-20090515.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CREWS Enhanced (CREWS-ENH) buoys are equipped to measure sea surface water temperature and conductivity (Sea-Bird Model SBE37-SM, Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.,...

  9. CRED Coral Reef Early Warning System (CREWS) Standard Buoy, Sea Surface Temperature and Conductivity Recorder (SBE37); NWHI, KUR; Long: -178.34453, Lat: 28.41852 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.00m; Data Range: 20060917-20080929.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CREWS Standard (CREWS-STD) buoys are equipped to measure sea surface water temperature and conductivity (Sea-Bird Model SBE37-SM, Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.,...

  10. CRED Coral Reef Early Warning System (CREWS) Enhanced Buoy, Sea Surface Temperature and Conductivity Recorder (SBE37); PRIA, PAL; Long: -162.10282, Lat: 05.88467 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.00m; Data Range: 20040330-20060325.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CREWS Enhanced (CREWS-ENH) buoys are equipped to measure sea surface water temperature and conductivity (Sea-Bird Model SBE37-SM, Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.,...

  11. CRED Coral Reef Early Warning System (CREWS) Enhanced Buoy, Sea Surface Temperature and Conductivity Recorder (SBE37); NWHI, FFS; Long: -166.27183, Lat: 23.85678 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.00m; Data Range: 20011017-20020120.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CREWS Enhanced (CREWS-ENH) buoys are equipped to measure sea surface water temperature and conductivity (Sea-Bird Model SBE37-SM, Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.,...

  12. CRED Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Buoy; NWHI, LAY; Long: -171.74252, Lat: 25.77290 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 0.33m; Data Range: 20030724-20040923.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Buoys provide a time series of...

  13. CRED Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Buoy; AMSM, TUT; Long: -170.56228, Lat: -14.28372 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 0.33m; Data Range: 20060218-20080223.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Buoys provide a time series of...

  14. CRED Coral Reef Early Warning System (CREWS) Standard Buoy, Supplemental Sea Surface Temperature Recorder (SBE39); NWHI, MAR; Long: -170.63382, Lat: 25.44643 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.00m; Data Range: 20051020-20060907.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CREWS Standard (CREWS-STD) buoys are equipped to measure sea surface water temperature and conductivity (Sea-Bird Model SBE37-SM, Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.,...

  15. CRED Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Buoy; CNMI, GUA; Long: 144.79778, Lat: 13.51902 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 0.33m; Data Range: 20030924-20040531.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Buoys provide a time series of...

  16. CRED Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Buoy; NWHI, LIS; Long: -173.91588, Lat: 25.96764 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 0.19m; Data Range: 20090910-20100922.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Buoys provide a time series of...

  17. CRED Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Buoy; CNMI, GUA; Long: 144.80048, Lat: 13.52900 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 0.19m; Data Range: 20070513-20090405.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Buoys provide a time series of...

  18. CRED Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Buoy; AMSM, TAU; Long: -169.50890, Lat: -14.24409 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 0.33m; Data Range: 20060304-20080229.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Buoys provide a time series of...

  19. CRED Coral Reef Early Warning System (CREWS) Standard Buoy, Sea Surface Temperature and Conductivity Recorder (SBE37); NWHI, MAR; Long: -170.63382, Lat: 25.44652 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.00m; Data Range: 20021001-20030321.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CREWS Standard (CREWS-STD) buoys are equipped to measure sea surface water temperature and conductivity (Sea-Bird Model SBE37-SM, Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.,...

  20. Structure of the Clean and Oxygen-Covered Cu(100) Surface at Room Temperature in the Presence of Methanol Vapor in the 10-200 mTorr Pressure Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, Baran; Kersell, Heath; Weatherup, Robert S; Heine, Christian; Crumlin, Ethan J; Friend, Cynthia M; Salmeron, Miquel B

    2018-01-18

    Using ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (APXPS) and high pressure scanning tunneling microscopy (HPSTM), we show that in equilibrium with 0.01-0.2 Torr of methanol vapor, at room temperature, the Cu(100) surface is covered with methoxy species forming a c(2 × 2) overlayer structure. In contrast, no methoxy is formed if the surface is saturated with an ordered oxygen layer, even when the methanol pressure is 0.2 Torr. At oxygen coverages below saturation, methanol dissociates and reacts with the atomic oxygen, producing methoxy and formate on the surface, and formaldehyde that desorbs to the gas phase. Unlike the case of pure carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, methanol does not induce the restructuring of the Cu(100) surface. These results provide insight into catalytic anhydrous production of aldehydes.

  1. CRED Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Buoy; NWHI, LAY; Long: -171.74250, Lat: 25.77240 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 0.33m; Data Range: 20040924-20060910.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Buoys provide a time series of...

  2. CRED Coral Reef Early Warning System (CREWS) Enhanced Buoy, Sea Surface Temperature and Conductivity Recorder (SBE37); PRIA, PAL; Long: -162.10280, Lat: 05.88468 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.00m; Data Range: 20060326-20080401.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CREWS Enhanced (CREWS-ENH) buoys are equipped to measure sea surface water temperature and conductivity (Sea-Bird Model SBE37-SM, Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.,...

  3. El oriente de Chillida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma Galante Rodero

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Todo el arte es influyente porque todo arte nace del hombre. Esta pequeña reflexión quiere resaltar cómo el arte y el pensamiento oriental han sido más influyentes, no sólo en el ámbito estético, sino en la concepción espacial y del propio hecho creador, en el arte occidental de lo que a primera vista podemos apreciar. En el caso de Chillida es una influencia no intencionada, muy sutil y analizada desde dos perspectivas, la primera, a partir de sus contactos directos con Japón como Homenaje a Hokusai, exposiciones realizadas y premios concedidos en el país nipón y por otro lado, los contactos indirectos con Oriente como su biblioteca personal, sus colaboraciones editoriales con Heidegger y Valente y su encuentro con Mark Tobey en la Bienal de Venecia de 1958.All art is influential because all art is born of man. This short reflection wants to highlight how eastern art and Eastern thought have been most influential, not only in the aesthetic realm, in spatial conception and creative act, in Western art more than at first glance we can see. In the case of Chillida’s unintentional influence, very subtle and analyzed from two perspectives, first from direct contacts with Japan as Tribute to Hokusai, exhibitions and prizes awarded in the japanese country, and on the other hand, indirect contacts with the East as his personal library, his collaborations with Heidegger and Valente and his encounter with Mark Tobey at the Venice Biennale of 1958.

  4. Enhanced optoelastic interaction range in liquid crystals with negative dielectric anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simoni, F.; Lalli, S.; Lucchetti, L. [Dipartimento di Scienze e Ingegneria della Materia, dell' Ambiente ed Urbanistica and CNISM, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona (Italy); Criante, L. [Center for Nano Science and Technology-PoliMi, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Via Giovanni Pascoli, 70/3, 20133 Milano (Italy); Brasselet, E. [Univ. Bordeaux and CNRS, Laboratoire Ondes et Matière d' Aquitaine, UMR 5798, F-33400 Talence (France)

    2014-01-06

    We demonstrate that the long-range interaction between surface-functionalized microparticles immersed a nematic liquid crystal—a “nematic colloid”—and a laser-induced “ghost colloid” can be enhanced by a low-voltage quasistatic electric field when the nematic mesophase has a negative dielectric anisotropy. The optoelastic trapping distance is shown to be enhanced by a factor up to 2.5 in presence of an electric field. Experimental data are quantitatively described with a theoretical model accounting for the spatial overlap between the orientational distortions around the microparticle and those induced by the trapping light beam itself.

  5. Radially oriented nanostrand electrodes to boost glucose sensing in mammalian blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Naeem; El-Safty, Sherif A; Abdelsalam, Mamdouh E; Shenashen, Mohamed A; Kawarada, Hiroshi

    2016-03-15

    Architecture of nanoscale electrochemical sensors for ultra-trace detection of glucose in blood is important in real-life sampling and analysis. To broaden the application of electrochemical sensing of glucose, we fabricated, for the first time, a glucose sensor electrode based on radially oriented NiO nanostrands (NSTs) onto 3D porous Ni foam substrate for monitoring, as well as selective and sensitive sensing of glucose in mammalian blood. The simple, scalable one-pot fabrication of this NST-Ni sensor design enabled control of the pattern of radially oriented NSTs onto 3D porous Ni foam substrate. The radial orientation of NST-Ni electrode onto the interior of the 3D porous substrate with controlled crystal structure size and atomic arrangement along the axis of the strands, intrinsic surface defects, and superior surface properties, such as hydrophilicity, high surface energy, and high density led to highly exposed catalytic active sites. The hierarchical NST-Ni electrode was used to develop a sensitive and selective sensor over a wide range of glucose concentrations among actively competitive ions, chemical species and molecular agents, and multi-cyclic sensing assays. The NST-Ni electrode shows significant glucose sensing performance in terms of unimpeded diffusion pathways, a wide range of concentration detection, and lower limit of detection (0.186 µM) than NiO nanosheet (NS)-Ni foam electrode pattern, indicating the effectiveness of the shape-dependent structural architecture of NST-Ni electrode. In this study, the NST-Ni electrode is fabricated to develop a simple, selective method for detecting glucose in physiological fluids (e.g., mammalian blood). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Environmental Orientation in Swedish Local Governments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Alpenberg

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the environmental orientation in Swedish local governments. Environmental concerns over potential risk factors have become more important and popular among public organizations and environmental improvement efforts are made to create a sustainable ecosystem for the actors doing business, living and working in the area. Prior research indicates that public organizations have started to become more environmentally oriented in order to take on more responsibilities for reducing their own environmental impact as well as influencing the citizens and local businesses in the direction of a more sustainable way of living and working. Through a survey of Swedish local governments we conclude that they are taking on a key role in developing a sustainable ecosystem through becoming more environmentally oriented. This includes developing a framework for setting environmental goals, identifying suitable environmental indicators and reporting to a wide range of stakeholders. A factor that explains the increasing environmental orientation in the public sector is the implementation of digitalized performance measurement systems. We find that the environmental performance measurements are used to motivate different internal and external stakeholders in the efforts to create a multi-actor ecosystem.

  7. The theory of experience orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Legaard

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the theory of experience orientation, which builds on the division of experiences in two categories: Goal-oriented and Omni-oriented. The theory comes from preliminary studies of userexperiences in a work-context, where I have found this distinction to be beneficial....... In this paper I explain the theory behind it and the practical application of such a distinction when designing for an experience....

  8. Near field communication in orienteering

    OpenAIRE

    Lisovski, Dominik Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    Near Field Communication (NFC) – radio-based communication technology that is rapidly gaining in popularity, although its potential is still not fully utilized. The aim of this thesis is to improve orienteering sports using NFC technology. Firstly, in this final work orienteering sport is analysed. It is identified how punching happens at control points and what are the main problems of orienteering sports. Secondly, operating principles of the technology, usage perspectives at the present an...

  9. Understanding service-oriented software.

    OpenAIRE

    Gold, N. E.; Knight, C.; Mohan, A.; Munro, M.

    2004-01-01

    Service-oriented software is being hailed as the next revolutionary approach to software development. Service orientation allows organizations to rapidly and dynamically form new software applications to meet changing business needs, thus alleviating the software evolution problems that occur with traditional applications. The largest of these problems is the need to understand existing software before changing it. This article looks ahead toward the automated construction of service-oriented...

  10. Report of the Orientation Workshop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nunez, Heilyn Camacho; Buus, Lillian; Ogange, Betty

    2014-01-01

    created for this purpose. Participants will receive all the information about how to access the virtual learning environment (Moodle) prior to the pre-orientation workshop. In this report we cover only the two first stages. Jørgen Bang, as a part of the Community of Practice activity, will be facilitating......This Orientation Workshops is part of MAAGART project. The workshop is divided in three parts: 1) pre-Orientation Workshop stage, 2) Face-to-Face stage and 3) post-Orientation stage. Pre and post stages will be developed online. All the activities will take place in a virtual learning environment...

  11. Ice friction: The effects of surface roughness, structure, and hydrophobicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kietzig, Anne-Marie; Hatzikiriakos, Savvas G.; Englezos, Peter

    2009-07-01

    The effect of surface roughness, structure, and hydrophobicity on ice friction is studied systematically over a wide range of temperature and sliding speeds using several metallic interfaces. Hydrophobicity in combination with controlled roughness at the nanoscale is achieved by femtosecond laser irradiation to mimic the lotus effect on the slider's surface. The controlled roughness significantly increases the coefficient of friction at low sliding speeds and temperatures well below the ice melting point. However, at temperatures close to the melting point and relatively higher speeds, roughness and hydrophobicity significantly decrease ice friction. This decrease in friction is mainly due to the suppression of capillary bridges in spite of the presence of surface asperities that facilitate their formation. Finally, grooves oriented in the sliding direction also significantly decrease friction in the low velocity range compared to scratches and grooves randomly distributed over a surface.

  12. Decomposing Oriented Graphs into Six Locally Irregular Oriented Graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bensmail, Julien; Renault, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    An undirected graph G is locally irregular if every two of its adjacent vertices have distinct degrees. We say that G is decomposable into k locally irregular graphs if there exists a partition E1∪E2∪⋯∪Ek of the edge set E(G) such that each Ei induces a locally irregular graph. It was recently...... conjectured by Baudon et al. that every undirected graph admits a decomposition into at most three locally irregular graphs, except for a well-characterized set of indecomposable graphs. We herein consider an oriented version of this conjecture. Namely, can every oriented graph be decomposed into at most...... three locally irregular oriented graphs, i.e. whose adjacent vertices have distinct outdegrees? We start by supporting this conjecture by verifying it for several classes of oriented graphs. We then prove a weaker version of this conjecture. Namely, we prove that every oriented graph can be decomposed...

  13. Value oriented marketing strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Ljiljana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of business environment imposes the need for continuous change and reexamination of business marketing strategies of enterprises. Theory and practice of strategic management and marketing show that the activities of marketing, which are closely connected to corporate strategy, are the key drivers of growth. There is a positive correlation between competition intensity, marketing strategy and business performance of companies. Even though, managers of many companies don't see a clear connection between marketing strategy and business performance, numerous empirical research show that the companies which possess and efficiently use marketing resources and capabilities are more successful. In knowledge-based economics, the development of value oriented marketing strategies for all participants in the chain is a supposition of the survival, growth and development of companies. Competitive advantage is the essence of any strategy. Acquisition and maintenance of competitive advantage is more successful if the potentials for value creation are used efficiently. The paper examines the critical factors that influence alignment and transformation of marketing strategies in accordance with changes in value estimation. Superior value, is created in different network classes. Theory and practice researches create a reliable basis for the development of new concepts, marketing strategy business models that will contribute to competitive advantage of enterprises and the economy.

  14. COURSE D'ORIENTATION

    CERN Multimedia

    CLUB D'ORIENTATION

    2010-01-01

      Finale de la coupe d’automne La coupe d’automne organisée par le club d’orientation du CERN s’est terminée ce samedi 23 octobre après 7 épreuves. Les deux dernières courses se sont déroulées en l’espace de 24 heures, puisque le club organisait une course type nocturne vendredi 22 octobre sur le site du CERN et la dernière étape avait lieu dans la forêt de Merdisel sous la forme d’une course aux points samedi 23 après-midi. Les participants avaient à cœur de bien terminer lors de ces deux épreuves pour consolider ou améliorer leur place au classement général. Le classement général de la coupe d’automne, basé sur les 4 meilleurs résultats de la saison, est ainsi le suivant : Circuit ...

  15. COURSE D'ORIENTATION

    CERN Multimedia

    Course d'Orientation

    2010-01-01

    Du Mont Mussy à Lamoura C’est au Mont Mussy près de Divonne que s’est déroulée la deuxième course comptant pour la coupe d’automne. Une bonne centaine de participants n’ont pas hésité à venir découvrir, sous un magnifique soleil, les 5 parcours proposés par la famille Williams/Hatzifotiadou. La plupart des participants ont couru en individuel, certains ont choisi de chercher les balises en famille. C’est un effet une possibilité qu’offrent nos courses d’orientation du samedi, à savoir que l’on peut pratiquer individuellement, en famille ou entre amis. Les résultats sur les 5 parcours sont les suivants : Technique long : Yannick Gagneret en 1.08:09, suivi par F. Janod en 1.09:41 et de Bruno Barge en 1.11:23. Technique moyen : Victoire pour Rémi...

  16. Club d'orientation

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation du CERN

    2010-01-01

    COURSE D’ORIENTATION  1er mai: muguet et balises à Vulbens Les week-ends s’enchainent et les courses aussi. La quatrième manche de la coupe genevoise organisée par le club sous la direction de J. Zosso, J. Iven et W. Heinze a eu lieu sur le site de Genolier (canton de Vaud) samedi dernier. Le soleil a, une nouvelle fois, accompagné les participants sur les cinq circuits proposés. On notera la jolie performance de Sami Vaehaenen élite finlandais (CO CERN) sur le parcours technique long en 49:09 avec une avance de presque 10 mm sur le second concurrent, le junior Clément Poncet (O’Jura). Les résultats complets de cette étape sont consultables en ligne à l’adresse suivante : http://cern.ch/club-orientation. La prochaine étape est prévue dans la forêt de Vulbens (Haute Savoie) samedi 1er mai sur une toute nouvelle carte. Les...

  17. Club d’orientation

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d’orientation

    2010-01-01

    On s’approche vers la finale ! Samedi 29 juin, le club d’orientation de Lausanne-Jorat (Canton de Vaud) a accueilli le relais inter-club. Douze équipes de deux coureurs étaient venues s’affronter sur le parcours de type «facile», et vingt-six équipes de trois coureurs du côté «technique». Tous ces parcours étaient proposés sur une zone semi-urbaine où il fallait alterner entre habitations, rues, bois, parc et adapter sa vitesse de course. Le suspens était bien présent notamment sur le relais technique. La victoire est revenue à l’équipe de l’OLG Huttwil composée de Thomas Hofer, Janick Zappa et Philipp Zappa en un temps de 2:14:07. Juste derrière à 50 secondes on trouve l’équipe CO CERN T1 avec Emese&am...

  18. COURSE D'ORIENTATION

    CERN Multimedia

    COURSE D'ORIENTATION

    2010-01-01

    Coupe d’automne Samedi 25 septembre, certains courageux ont osé affronter le temps pluvieux et frais et se sont rendus aux Pléiades pour participer à la quatrième étape de la coupe Genevoise d’automne. Le Club du CARE-Vevey avait préparé 5 jolis circuits : 3 techniques et 2 faciles. Félicitations à tous les concurrents et plus particulièrement aux vainqueurs de chaque parcours. Les résultats complets sont sur le site du club http://cern.ch/club-orientation. Technique long : 1. Samy Vaehaenen (CO CERN), 2. Clément Poncet (O’Jura), 3. Bernhard Wehrle (CO CERN). Technique moyen : 1. Sampo Vallotton (RTB), 2. Guillaume Ladine (RTB), 3. Anne Godel (CA Rosé). Technique court : 1. Miles Marston (Gimel), 2. Alison High (CARE Vevey), 3. Emese Szwuyog (CO CERN). Facile moyen : 1. Nicolas M&u...

  19. CERN Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d’Orientation du CERN

    2018-01-01

    Calendrier des courses de la Coupe Genevoise – printemps 2018 C’est reparti pour une nouvelle saison ! Le Club d’orientation du CERN, en partenariat avec d’autres clubs de la région, vous propose une série de courses populaires pour ce printemps. Le coup d’envoi sera donné samedi 7 avril à 13h à Trélex dans le canton de Vaud avec une course longue distance. Puis le programme sera le suivant : Samedi 14 avril : Mont Mourex (01) Samedi 21 avril : Pougny (01) Samedi 28 avril : Vulbens (74) Samedi 5 mai : Dorigny (VD) Samedi 19 mai : Prémanon (39) Samedi 26 mai : Chancy (GE) Samedi 2 juin : Monteret (VD) Samedi 9 juin : Bonmont (VD) Ces courses sont ouvertes à tous, quel que soit le niveau, du débutant au sportif confirmé, en famille ou en individuel. Les inscriptions sur un des 5 parcours proposés se font sur place le jour de l&...

  20. High Dynamic Range Video

    CERN Document Server

    Myszkowski, Karol

    2008-01-01

    This book presents a complete pipeline forHDR image and video processing fromacquisition, through compression and quality evaluation, to display. At the HDR image and video acquisition stage specialized HDR sensors or multi-exposure techniques suitable for traditional cameras are discussed. Then, we present a practical solution for pixel values calibration in terms of photometric or radiometric quantities, which are required in some technically oriented applications. Also, we cover the problem of efficient image and video compression and encoding either for storage or transmission purposes, in