WorldWideScience

Sample records for surface ocean conditions

  1. Iodine isotopes species fingerprinting environmental conditions in surface water along the northeastern Atlantic Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Peng; Hou, Xiaolin; Aldahan, Ala

    2013-01-01

    Concentrations and species of iodine isotopes (127I and 129I) provide vital information about iodine geochemistry, environmental conditions and water masses exchange in oceans. Despite extensive investigations of anthropogenic 129I in the Arctic Ocean and the Nordic Seas, concentrations of the is...... 129I in ocean environments and impact on climate at the ocean boundary layer.......Concentrations and species of iodine isotopes (127I and 129I) provide vital information about iodine geochemistry, environmental conditions and water masses exchange in oceans. Despite extensive investigations of anthropogenic 129I in the Arctic Ocean and the Nordic Seas, concentrations...... of the isotope in the Atlantic Ocean are, however, still unknown. We here present first data on 129I and 127I, and their species (iodide and iodate) in surface water transect along the northeastern Atlantic between 30° and 50°N. The results show iodate as the predominant species in the analyzed marine waters...

  2. Vertical changes in the probability distribution of downward irradiance within the near-surface ocean under sunny conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernez, Pierre; Stramski, Dariusz; Darecki, Miroslaw

    2011-07-01

    Time series measurements of fluctuations in underwater downward irradiance, Ed, within the green spectral band (532 nm) show that the probability distribution of instantaneous irradiance varies greatly as a function of depth within the near-surface ocean under sunny conditions. Because of intense light flashes caused by surface wave focusing, the near-surface probability distributions are highly skewed to the right and are heavy tailed. The coefficients of skewness and excess kurtosis at depths smaller than 1 m can exceed 3 and 20, respectively. We tested several probability models, such as lognormal, Gumbel, Fréchet, log-logistic, and Pareto, which are potentially suited to describe the highly skewed heavy-tailed distributions. We found that the models cannot approximate with consistently good accuracy the high irradiance values within the right tail of the experimental distribution where the probability of these values is less than 10%. This portion of the distribution corresponds approximately to light flashes with Ed > 1.5?, where ? is the time-averaged downward irradiance. However, the remaining part of the probability distribution covering all irradiance values smaller than the 90th percentile can be described with a reasonable accuracy (i.e., within 20%) with a lognormal model for all 86 measurements from the top 10 m of the ocean included in this analysis. As the intensity of irradiance fluctuations decreases with depth, the probability distribution tends toward a function symmetrical around the mean like the normal distribution. For the examined data set, the skewness and excess kurtosis assumed values very close to zero at a depth of about 10 m.

  3. OW CCMP Ocean Surface Wind

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Cross-Calibrated Multi-Platform (CCMP) Ocean Surface Wind Vector Analyses (Atlas et al., 2011) provide a consistent, gap-free long-term time-series of monthly...

  4. OW ASCAT Ocean Surface Winds

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) sensor onboard the EUMETSAT MetOp polar-orbiting satellite provides ocean surface wind observations by means of radar...

  5. Impact of surface ocean conditions and aerosol provenance on the dissolution of aerosol manganese, cobalt, nickel and lead in seawater

    OpenAIRE

    Fishwick, MP; Ussher, SJ; Sedwick, PN; Lohan, MC; Worsfold, PJ; Buck, KN; Church, TM

    2018-01-01

    © 2017. Atmospheric deposition is an important pathway by which bioactive trace metals are delivered to the surface ocean. The proportions of total aerosol trace metals that dissolve in seawater, and thus become available to biota, are not well constrained and are therefore a key uncertainty when estimating atmospheric fluxes of these elements to surface waters. The aim of this study was to elucidate the main physico-chemical controls on the dissolution of the bioactive trace metals manganese...

  6. Ocean climate and seal condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crocker Daniel E

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The condition of many marine mammals varies with fluctuations in productivity and food supply in the ocean basin where they forage. Prey is impacted by physical environmental variables such as cyclic warming trends. The weaning weight of northern elephant seal pups, Mirounga angustirostris, being closely linked to maternal condition, indirectly reflects prey availability and foraging success of pregnant females in deep waters of the northeastern Pacific. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of ocean climate on foraging success in this deep-diving marine mammal over the course of three decades, using cohort weaning weight as the principal metric of successful resource accrual. Results The mean annual weaning weight of pups declined from 1975 to the late 1990s, a period characterized by a large-scale, basin-wide warm decadal regime that included multiple strong or long-duration El Niños; and increased with a return to a cool decadal regime from about 1999 to 2004. Increased foraging effort and decreased mass gain of adult females, indicative of reduced foraging success and nutritional stress, were associated with high ocean temperatures. Conclusion Despite ranging widely and foraging deeply in cold waters beyond coastal thermoclines in the northeastern Pacific, elephant seals are impacted significantly by ocean thermal dynamics. Ocean warming redistributes prey decreasing foraging success of females, which in turn leads to lower weaning mass of pups. Annual fluctuations in weaning mass, in turn, reflect the foraging success of females during the year prior to giving birth and signals changes in ocean temperature cycles.

  7. Water vapor profiling over ocean surface with 90 GHz and 183 GHz measurements under clear and cloudy conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J. R.; Sharma, A. K.

    1992-01-01

    Radiometric measurements at 90 GHz and three sideband frequencies near the peak water vapor absorption line of 183.3 GHz were made with the Advanced Microwave Moisture Sounder (AMMS) aboard the NASA DC-8 aircraft over some regions of the Pacific Ocean. These measurements were used to retrieve atmospheric water vapor profiles over ocean surface using the algorithm developed by Schaerer and Wilheit (1979). The algorithm incorporates a mechanism to estimate cloud liquid water when the estimated relative humidity is greater than 95 percent. The results are compared with estimated values from measurements taken by the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSMI) and TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS). The water vapor profiles estimated from AMMS are generally higher at low altitudes and lower at high altitudes than those from the TOVS measurements. Cloud liquid water is retrieved from both AMMS and SSM/I measurements over the same general regions. The retrieved water vapor profiles show more fluctuations in these regions. It is concluded that the AMMS with only four channels of measurements may not be able to retrieve both water vapor and cloud information with authority.

  8. Boundary Conditions, Data Assimilation, and Predictability in Coastal Ocean Models

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Samelson, Roger M; Allen, John S; Egbert, Gary D; Kindle, John C; Snyder, Chris

    2007-01-01

    ...: The specific objectives of this research are to determine the impact on coastal ocean circulation models of open ocean boundary conditions from Global Ocean Data Assimilation Experiment (GODAE...

  9. The physical structure of the oceanic surface-layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedorov, K.N.

    1981-01-01

    A study is presented of the structure of the near-surface layer of the ocean under various hydrometeorological conditions. Such a study allows the isolation of border measures for a four characteristic regime for the top ocean layer: 1) intensive wind-wave mixing; 2) Langmuir circulation; 3) intense solar heating during still and calm weather (with and without internal wave modulations); 4) a pressing-out of surface sediment. It is demonstrated that the spatial temperature change in the ocean surface, the thermal structure, and the heat attainment in the top layer have various characteristics during different regimes and this must be considered during the measuring of the ocean surface temperature with the contact method as well as during the comparison of contact and satallite data on the ocean surface temperature. The necessity for more research in this area is underscored.

  10. Simulation Tool for GNSS Ocean Surface Reflections

    OpenAIRE

    Høeg, Per; von Benzon, Hans-Henrik; Durgonics, Tibor

    2015-01-01

    GNSS coherent and incoherent reflected signals have the potential of deriving large scale parameters of ocean surfaces, as barotropic variability, eddy currents and fronts, Rossby waves, coastal upwelling, mean ocean surfaceheights, and patterns of the general ocean circulation. In the reflection zone the measurements may deriveparameters as sea surface roughness, winds, waves, heights and tilts from the spectral measurements. Previous measurements from the top of mountains and airplanes have...

  11. An update to the Surface Ocean CO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, D.C.E.; de Baar, H.J.W.; van heuven, S.

    2014-01-01

    The Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT), an activity of the international marine carbon research community, provides access to synthesis and gridded fCO2 (fugacity of carbon dioxide) products for the surface oceans. Version 2 of SOCAT is an update of the previous release (version

  12. Ocean-atmosphere interaction and synoptic weather conditions in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Ocean-atmosphere interaction and synoptic weather conditions in association with the two contrasting phases of monsoon during BOBMEX-1999. S P Ghanekar, V R Mujumdar, P Seetaramayya and U V Bhide. Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Dr. Homi Bhabha Road, Pashan, Pune 411 008. Surface meteorological ...

  13. Late Archean Surface Ocean Oxygenation (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, B.; Reinhard, C.; Lyons, T. W.; Kaufman, A. J.; Anbar, A. D.

    2009-12-01

    Oxygenic photosynthesis must have evolved by 2.45-2.32 Ga, when atmospheric oxygen abundances first rose above 0.001% present atmospheric level (Great Oxidation Event; GOE). Biomarker evidence for a time lag between the evolution of cyanobacterial oxygenic photosynthesis and the GOE continues to be debated. Geochemical signatures from sedimentary rocks (redox-sensitive trace metal abundances, sedimentary Fe geochemistry, and S isotopes) represent an alternative tool for tracing the history of Earth surface oxygenation. Integrated high-resolution chemostratigraphic profiles through the 2.5 Ga Mt. McRae Shale (Pilbara Craton, Western Australia) suggest a ‘whiff’ of oxygen in the surface environment at least 50 M.y. prior to the GOE. However, the geochemical data from the Mt. McRae Shale does not uniquely constrain the presence or extent of Late Archean ocean oxygenation. Here, we present high-resolution chemostratigraphic profiles from 2.6-2.5 Ga black shales (upper Campbellrand Subgroup, Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa) that provide the earliest direct evidence for an oxygenated ocean water column. On the slope beneath the Campbellrand - Malmani carbonate platform (Nauga Formation), a mildly oxygenated water column (highly reactive iron to total iron ratios [FeHR/FeT] ≤ 0.4) was underlain by oxidizing sediments (low Re and Mo abundances) or mildly reducing sediments (high Re but low Mo abundances). After drowning of the carbonate platform (Klein Naute Formation), the local bottom waters became anoxic (FeHR/FeT > 0.4) and intermittently sulphidic (pyrite iron to highly reactive iron ratios [FePY/FeHR] > 0.8), conducive to enrichment of both Re and Mo in sediments, followed by anoxic and Fe2+-rich (ferruginous) conditions (high FeT, FePY/FeHR near 0). Widespread surface ocean oxygenation is suggested by Re enrichment in the broadly correlative Klein Naute Formation and Mt. McRae Shale, deposited ~1000 km apart in the Griqualand West and Hamersley basins

  14. Sunglitter Imagery Of The Ocean Surface Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myasoedov, Alexander; Kudryavtsev, Vladimir; Chapron, Bertrand; Johannessen, Johnny

    2010-04-01

    An algorithm for retrieval of spatial variations of the mean square slope (MSS) of the sea surface from sunglint imagery is proposed. The retrieval algorithm is free on a prior suggestion on PDF model. The transfer function, relating the brightness contrast to the MSS contrasts, is found from observed sunglint brightness, where “real” PDF of the sea slopes has built-in. Developed approach was applied for analysis of the sunglint signature of the mesoscale ocean dynamics and internal waves. We found that the ocean currents (eddies, meanders, frontal lines) and internal waves are well visible on the sea surface as the MSS anomalies. Results of this study is further adopted by Kudryavtsev et al. (2010) for development of advanced approach for synergetic use of SAR and optical imagery in studies of meso-scale ocean dynamics.

  15. Surface wind mixing in the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Robin; Hartlipp, Paul

    2017-12-01

    Mixing at the ocean surface is key for atmosphere-ocean interactions and the distribution of heat, energy, and gases in the upper ocean. Winds are the primary force for surface mixing. To properly simulate upper ocean dynamics and the flux of these quantities within the upper ocean, models must reproduce mixing in the upper ocean. To evaluate the performance of the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) in replicating the surface mixing, the results of four different vertical mixing parameterizations were compared against observations, using the surface mixed layer depth, the temperature fields, and observed diffusivities for comparisons. The vertical mixing parameterizations investigated were Mellor- Yamada 2.5 level turbulent closure (MY), Large- McWilliams- Doney Kpp (LMD), Nakanishi- Niino (NN), and the generic length scale (GLS) schemes. This was done for one temperate site in deep water in the Eastern Pacific and three shallow water sites in the Baltic Sea. The model reproduced the surface mixed layer depth reasonably well for all sites; however, the temperature fields were reproduced well for the deep site, but not for the shallow Baltic Sea sites. In the Baltic Sea, the models overmixed the water column after a few days. Vertical temperature diffusivities were higher than those observed and did not show the temporal fluctuations present in the observations. The best performance was by NN and MY; however, MY became unstable in two of the shallow simulations with high winds. The performance of GLS nearly as good as NN and MY. LMD had the poorest performance as it generated temperature diffusivities that were too high and induced too much mixing. Further observational comparisons are needed to evaluate the effects of different stratification and wind conditions and the limitations on the vertical mixing parameterizations.

  16. Evaluation of Scaling Approaches for the Oceanic Dissipation Rate of Turbulent Kinetic Energy in the Surface Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esters, L. T.; Ward, B.; Sutherland, G.; Ten Doeschate, A.; Landwehr, S.; Bell, T. G.; Christensen, K. H.

    2016-02-01

    The air-sea exchange of heat, gas and momentum plays an important role for the Earth's weather and global climate. The exchange processes between ocean and atmosphere are influenced by the prevailing surface ocean dynamics. This surface ocean is a highly turbulent region where there is enhanced production of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE). The dissipation rate of TKE (ɛ) in the surface ocean is an important process for governing the depth of both the mixing and mixed layers, which are important length-scales for many aspects of ocean research. However, there exist very limited observations of ɛ under open ocean conditions and consequently our understanding of how to model the dissipation profile is very limited. The approaches to model profiles of ɛ that exist, differ by orders of magnitude depending on their underlying theoretical assumption and included physical processes. Therefore, scaling ɛ is not straight forward and requires open ocean measurements of ɛ to validate the respective scaling laws. This validated scaling of ɛ, is for example required to produce accurate mixed layer depths in global climate models. Errors in the depth of the ocean surface boundary layer can lead to biases in sea surface temperature. Here, we present open ocean measurements of ɛ from the Air-Sea Interaction Profiler (ASIP) collected during several cruises in different ocean basins. ASIP is an autonomous upwardly rising microstructure profiler allowing undisturbed profiling up to the ocean surface. These direct measurements of ɛ under various types of atmospheric and oceanic conditions along with measurements of atmospheric fluxes and wave conditions allow us to make a unique assessment of several scaling approaches based on wind, wave and buoyancy forcing. This will allow us to best assess the most appropriate ɛ-based parameterisation for air-sea exchange.

  17. Merged Land and Ocean Surface Temperature, Version 3.5

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The historical Merged Land-Ocean Surface Temperature Analysis (MLOST) is derived from two independent analyses, an Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature...

  18. Atmosphere-surface interactions over polar oceans and heterogeneous surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vihma, T.

    1995-12-31

    Processes of interaction between the atmospheric boundary layer and the planetary surface have been studied with special emphasis on polar ocean surfaces: the open ocean, leads, polynyas and sea ice. The local exchange of momentum, heat and moisture has been studied experimentally both in the Weddell Sea and in the Greenland Sea. Exchange processes over heterogeneous surfaces are addressed by modelling studies. Over a homogeneous surface, the local turbulent fluxes can be reasonably well estimated using an iterative flux-profile scheme based on the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. In the Greenland Sea, the near-surface air temperature and the generally small turbulent fluxes over the open ocean were affected by the sea surface temperature fronts. Over the sea ice cover in the Weddell Sea, the turbulent sensible heat flux was generally downwards, and together with an upward oceanic heat flux through the ice it compensated the heat loss from the surface via long-wave radiation. The wind dominated on time scales of days, while the current became important on longer time scales. The drift dynamics showed apparent spatial differences between the eastern and western regions, as well as between the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and the rest of the Weddell Sea. Inertial motion was present in regions of low ice concentration. The surface heterogeneity, arising e.g. from roughness or temperature distribution, poses a problem for the parameterization of surface exchange processes in large-scale models. In the case of neutral flow over a heterogeneous terrain, an effective roughness length can be used to parameterize the roughness effects

  19. Slow and Steady: Ocean Circulation. The Influence of Sea Surface Height on Ocean Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haekkinen, Sirpa

    2000-01-01

    The study of ocean circulation is vital to understanding how our climate works. The movement of the ocean is closely linked to the progression of atmospheric motion. Winds close to sea level add momentum to ocean surface currents. At the same time, heat that is stored and transported by the ocean warms the atmosphere above and alters air pressure distribution. Therefore, any attempt to model climate variation accurately must include reliable calculations of ocean circulation. Unlike movement of the atmosphere, movement of the ocean's waters takes place mostly near the surface. The major patterns of surface circulation form gigantic circular cells known as gyres. They are categorized according to their general location-equatorial, subtropical, subpolar, and polar-and may run across an entire ocean. The smaller-scale cell of ocean circulation is known' as an eddy. Eddies are much more common than gyres and much more difficult to track in computer simulations of ocean currents.

  20. Ka-band Doppler Scatterometer for Measurements of Ocean Vector Winds and Surface Currents

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ocean surface currents impact heat transport, surface momentum and gas fluxes, ocean productivity and marine biological communities. Ocean currents also have social...

  1. Oil spill cleanup in severe weather and open ocean conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalski, T.

    1993-01-01

    Most serious oil spills occur in open water under severe weather conditions. At first the oil stays on the surface, where it is spread by winds and water currents. The action of the waves then mixes the oil into the water column. With time the light elements of crude oil evaporate. The remaining residue is of very low commercial value, but of significant environmental impact. The oil spill can move either out to sea or inshore, where it ends up on the beaches. Normal procedures are to let outbound oil disperse by evaporation and mixing into the water column, and to let the inbound oil collect on the beaches, where the cleanup operations are concentrated. The reason for this is that there is no capability to clean the surface of the water in wave conditions-present-day oil skimmers are ineffective in waves approaching 4 ft in height. It would be simpler, more effective and environmentally more beneficial to skim the oil right at the spill location. This paper describes a method to do this. In the case of an oil spill in open water and high wave conditions, it is proposed to reduce the height of the ocean waves by the use of floating breakwaters to provide a relatively calm area. In such protected areas existing oil skimmers can be used to recover valuable oil and clean up the spill long before it hits the beaches. A floating breakwater developed at the University of Rhode Island by the author can be of great benefit in oil spill cleanup for open ocean conditions. This breakwater is constructed from scrap automobile tires. It is built in units of 20 tires each, which are easily transportable and can be connected together at the spill site to form any desired configuration

  2. Application of Satellite-Derived Ocean Surface Winds to the Detection of Weather Systems and the Prediction of Near-Ocean Surface Winds around Hawaii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsi-Chyi Yeh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Hawaiian Island chain is surrounded by the open ocean and is an ideal place to conduct the application of QuikSCAT satellite-derived ocean surface winds to the detection of weather systems. With the help of QuikSCAT winds, the associated circulation of the weather systems over the open ocean around Hawaii can be identified. In this study, the obvious cyclonic circulation associated with a Kona storm, the significant wind shift and wind confluence related to the surface cold front, and the anticyclonic circulation related to high-pressure systems for both a strong-wind event and a trade-wind condition are revealed over the open ocean through QuikSCAT winds. The propagation of a cold frontal boundary, defined by the wind shift and wind confluence, also can be clearly detected using the reanalyzed ocean-surface winds.

  3. Evaluation of OSCAR ocean surface current product in the tropical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (Johnson et al. 2007). The OSCAR product is, however, a global product. Thus there is a pressing need to validate this product in the other basins of the world ocean, e.g., in the Indian Ocean. The present study is motivated by this need. In the present study, monthly climatology of OSCAR ocean surface currents in the TIO ...

  4. Simulation Tool for GNSS Ocean Surface Reflections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høeg, Per; von Benzon, Hans-Henrik; Durgonics, Tibor

    2015-01-01

    . This impedance concept gives an accurate lower boundary condition in the determination of the electromagnetic field, and makes itpossible to simulate reflections and the effects of transitions between different mediums. A semi-isotropic Philipsspectrum is used to represent the air-sea interaction.Simulated GPS...... on the solution of the parabolic equation. The parabolic equation in our simulator is solvedusing the split-step sine transformation. The Earth’s surface is modeled with the use of an impedance model. The value of the Earth impedance is given as a function of the range along the surface of the Earth...

  5. Volcanic ash as fertiliser for the surface ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Langmann

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Iron is a key limiting micro-nutrient for marine primary productivity. It can be supplied to the ocean by atmospheric dust deposition. Volcanic ash deposition into the ocean represents another external and so far largely neglected source of iron. This study demonstrates strong evidence for natural fertilisation in the iron-limited oceanic area of the NE Pacific, induced by volcanic ash from the eruption of Kasatochi volcano in August 2008. Atmospheric and oceanic conditions were favourable to generate a massive phytoplankton bloom in the NE Pacific Ocean which for the first time strongly suggests a connection between oceanic iron-fertilisation and volcanic ash supply.

  6. Retrieval and assimilation of velocities at the ocean surface

    OpenAIRE

    Isern-Fontanet, Jordi; Ballabrera-Poy, Joaquim; Turiel, Antonio; García-Ladona, Emilio

    2017-01-01

    Ocean currents play a key role in Earth’s climate, they are of major importance for navigation and human activities at sea, and impact almost all processes that take place in the ocean. Nevertheless, their observation and forecasting are still difficult. First, direct measurements of ocean currents are difficult to obtain synoptically at global scale. Consequently, it has been necessary to use Sea Surface Height and Sea Surface Temperature measurements and refer to dynamical frameworks to der...

  7. Arctic Ocean surface geostrophic circulation 2003–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. W. K. Armitage

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring the surface circulation of the ice-covered Arctic Ocean is generally limited in space, time or both. We present a new 12-year record of geostrophic currents at monthly resolution in the ice-covered and ice-free Arctic Ocean derived from satellite radar altimetry and characterise their seasonal to decadal variability from 2003 to 2014, a period of rapid environmental change in the Arctic. Geostrophic currents around the Arctic basin increased in the late 2000s, with the largest increases observed in summer. Currents in the southeastern Beaufort Gyre accelerated in late 2007 with higher current speeds sustained until 2011, after which they decreased to speeds representative of the period 2003–2006. The strength of the northwestward current in the southwest Beaufort Gyre more than doubled between 2003 and 2014. This pattern of changing currents is linked to shifting of the gyre circulation to the northwest during the time period. The Beaufort Gyre circulation and Fram Strait current are strongest in winter, modulated by the seasonal strength of the atmospheric circulation. We find high eddy kinetic energy (EKE congruent with features of the seafloor bathymetry that are greater in winter than summer, and estimates of EKE and eddy diffusivity in the Beaufort Sea are consistent with those predicted from theoretical considerations. The variability of Arctic Ocean geostrophic circulation highlights the interplay between seasonally variable atmospheric forcing and ice conditions, on a backdrop of long-term changes to the Arctic sea ice–ocean system. Studies point to various mechanisms influencing the observed increase in Arctic Ocean surface stress, and hence geostrophic currents, in the 2000s – e.g. decreased ice concentration/thickness, changing atmospheric forcing, changing ice pack morphology; however, more work is needed to refine the representation of atmosphere–ice–ocean coupling in models before we can fully

  8. A computational analysis of sonic booms penetrating a realistic ocean surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochat, J L; Sparrow, V W

    2001-03-01

    The last decade has seen a revival of sonic boom research, a direct result of the projected market for a new breed of supersonic passenger aircraft, its design, and its operation. One area of the research involves sonic boom penetration into the ocean, one concern being the possible disturbance of marine mammals from the noise generated by proposed high-speed civil transport (HSCT) flyovers. Although theory is available to predict underwater sound levels due to a sonic boom hitting a homogeneous ocean with a flat surface, theory for a realistic ocean, one with a wavy surface and bubbles near the surface, is missing and will be presented in this paper. First, reviews are given of a computational method to calculate the underwater pressure field and the effects of a simple wavy ocean surface on the impinging sonic boom. Second, effects are described for the implementation of three additional conditions: a sonic boom/ocean "wavelength" comparison, complex ocean surfaces, and bubbles near the ocean surface. Overall, results from the model suggest that the realistic ocean features affect the penetrating proposed HSCT sonic booms by modifying the underwater sound-pressure levels only about 1 decibel or less.

  9. Size-dependent δ18O and δ13C variations in a planktic foraminiferal Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (sinistral) record from Chukchi Plateau: implications for (sub)surface water conditions in the western Arctic Ocean over the past 50 ka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, R.; Xiao, W.; Mei, J.; Polyak, L.

    2017-12-01

    Oxygen and carbon stable isotopes in planktic foraminifera Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (sinistral) (Nps) have a promising potential for reconstructing (sub)surface water conditions in the Arctic Ocean. Size-dependent (63-154 µm, 154-250 µm, and >250 µm) Nps δ18O and δ13C were measured along with Ice Rafted Debris (IRD) and scanned XRF Ca and Mn contents in sediment core ARC3-P31 from the Chukchi Plateau (434 m water depth) representing paleoceanographic conditions during the last 50 ka (Marine Isotope Stages 1-3). While the interval corresponding to the Last Glacial Maximum is represented by a hiatus, the following deglaciation is clearly marked by a strong depletion in both δ18O and δ13C in all Nps size fractions along with a peak in detrital carbonate IRD indicative of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago provenance. This pronounced feature presumably indicates a collapse event of the northwestern Laurentide Ice Sheet, potentially linked to the rising sea level. In the overall record under study, average values of Nps δ18O and δ13C fluctuate in the range of 1.2-2.1‰ and 0.3-0.9 ‰, respectively. Mid-size Nps δ18O values (154-250 µm) are in average lighter by 0.2-0.5 ‰ than those of small (63-154 µm) and large (>250 µm) Nps tests. This offset may indicate a different water-depth dwelling, possibly affected by a relatively warm subsurface Atlantic water.

  10. Evaluation of OSCAR ocean surface current product in the tropical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 122; Issue 1. Evaluation of OSCAR ocean surface current product in the tropical Indian Ocean using in situ data. Rajesh Sikhakolli Rashmi Sharma Sujit Basu B S Gohil Abhijit Sarkar K V S R Prasad. Volume 122 Issue 1 February 2013 pp 187-199 ...

  11. Indian Ocean surface winds from NCMRWF analysis as compared to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Indian Ocean surface winds from NCMRWF analysis as compared to QuikSCAT and moored buoy winds. B N Goswami1 and E N Rajagopal2. 1Centre for Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India. 2National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting, Department of ...

  12. Shell condition and survival of Puget Sound pteropods are impaired by ocean acidification conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Shallin Busch

    Full Text Available We tested whether the thecosome pteropod Limacina helicina from Puget Sound, an urbanized estuary in the northwest continental US, experiences shell dissolution and altered mortality rates when exposed to the high CO2, low aragonite saturation state (Ωa conditions that occur in Puget Sound and the northeast Pacific Ocean. Five, week-long experiments were conducted in which we incubated pteropods collected from Puget Sound in four carbon chemistry conditions: current summer surface (∼460-500 µatm CO2, Ωa≈1.59, current deep water or surface conditions during upwelling (∼760 and ∼1600-1700 µatm CO2, Ωa≈1.17 and 0.56, and future deep water or surface conditions during upwelling (∼2800-3400 µatm CO2, Ωa≈0.28. We measured shell condition using a scoring regime of five shell characteristics that capture different aspects of shell dissolution. We characterized carbon chemistry conditions in statistical analyses with Ωa, and conducted analyses considering Ωa both as a continuous dataset and as discrete treatments. Shell dissolution increased linearly as aragonite saturation state decreased. Discrete treatment comparisons indicate that shell dissolution was greater in undersaturated treatments compared to oversaturated treatments. Survival increased linearly with aragonite saturation state, though discrete treatment comparisons indicated that survival was similar in all but the lowest saturation state treatment. These results indicate that, under starvation conditions, pteropod survival may not be greatly affected by current and expected near-future aragonite saturation state in the NE Pacific, but shell dissolution may. Given that subsurface waters in Puget Sound's main basin are undersaturated with respect to aragonite in the winter and can be undersaturated in the summer, the condition and persistence of the species in this estuary warrants further study.

  13. Shell condition and survival of Puget Sound pteropods are impaired by ocean acidification conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, D Shallin; Maher, Michael; Thibodeau, Patricia; McElhany, Paul

    2014-01-01

    We tested whether the thecosome pteropod Limacina helicina from Puget Sound, an urbanized estuary in the northwest continental US, experiences shell dissolution and altered mortality rates when exposed to the high CO2, low aragonite saturation state (Ωa) conditions that occur in Puget Sound and the northeast Pacific Ocean. Five, week-long experiments were conducted in which we incubated pteropods collected from Puget Sound in four carbon chemistry conditions: current summer surface (∼460-500 µatm CO2, Ωa≈1.59), current deep water or surface conditions during upwelling (∼760 and ∼1600-1700 µatm CO2, Ωa≈1.17 and 0.56), and future deep water or surface conditions during upwelling (∼2800-3400 µatm CO2, Ωa≈0.28). We measured shell condition using a scoring regime of five shell characteristics that capture different aspects of shell dissolution. We characterized carbon chemistry conditions in statistical analyses with Ωa, and conducted analyses considering Ωa both as a continuous dataset and as discrete treatments. Shell dissolution increased linearly as aragonite saturation state decreased. Discrete treatment comparisons indicate that shell dissolution was greater in undersaturated treatments compared to oversaturated treatments. Survival increased linearly with aragonite saturation state, though discrete treatment comparisons indicated that survival was similar in all but the lowest saturation state treatment. These results indicate that, under starvation conditions, pteropod survival may not be greatly affected by current and expected near-future aragonite saturation state in the NE Pacific, but shell dissolution may. Given that subsurface waters in Puget Sound's main basin are undersaturated with respect to aragonite in the winter and can be undersaturated in the summer, the condition and persistence of the species in this estuary warrants further study.

  14. Surface temperature pattern of the Indian Ocean before summer monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gopinathan, C.K.; Rao, D.P.

    The surface meteorological data collected during 1963 and 1964 indicate that the northward migration of the ITCZ is associated with a shift of the warm waters to the northern Indian Ocean. The warmer waters, found in the equatorial regions during...

  15. The timescales of global surface-ocean connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jönsson, Bror F; Watson, James R

    2016-04-19

    Planktonic communities are shaped through a balance of local evolutionary adaptation and ecological succession driven in large part by migration. The timescales over which these processes operate are still largely unresolved. Here we use Lagrangian particle tracking and network theory to quantify the timescale over which surface currents connect different regions of the global ocean. We find that the fastest path between two patches--each randomly located anywhere in the surface ocean--is, on average, less than a decade. These results suggest that marine planktonic communities may keep pace with climate change--increasing temperatures, ocean acidification and changes in stratification over decadal timescales--through the advection of resilient types.

  16. Lidar equation for ocean surface and subsurface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josset, Damien; Zhai, Peng-Wang; Hu, Yongxiang; Pelon, Jacques; Lucker, Patricia L

    2010-09-27

    The lidar equation for ocean at optical wavelengths including subsurface signals is revisited using the recent work of the radiative transfer and ocean color community for passive measurements. The previous form of the specular and subsurface echo term are corrected from their heritage, which originated from passive remote sensing of whitecaps, and is improved for more accurate use in future lidar research. A corrected expression for specular and subsurface lidar return is presented. The previous formalism does not correctly address angular dependency of specular lidar return and overestimates the subsurface term by a factor ranging from 89% to 194% for a nadir pointing lidar. Suggestions for future improvements to the lidar equation are also presented.

  17. On the interaction between ocean surface waves and seamounts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, Jeison; Cavaleri, Luigi; Portilla-Yandún, Jesús

    2017-12-01

    Of the many topographic features, more specifically seamounts, that are ubiquitous in the ocean floor, we focus our attention on those with relatively shallow summits that can interact with wind-generated surface waves. Among these, especially relatively long waves crossing the oceans (swells) and stormy seas are able to affect the water column up to a considerable depth and therefore interact with these deep-sea features. We quantify this interaction through numerical experiments using a numerical wave model (SWAN), in which a simply shaped seamount is exposed to waves of different length. The results show a strong interaction that leads to significant changes in the wave field, creating wake zones and regions of large wave amplification. This is then exemplified in a practical case where we analyze the interaction of more realistic sea conditions with a very shallow rock in the Yellow Sea. Potentially important for navigation and erosion processes, mutatis mutandis, these results are also indicative of possible interactions with emerged islands and sand banks in shelf seas.

  18. Indian Ocean surface winds from NCMRWF analysis as compared to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The quality of the surface wind analysis at the National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (NCMRWF), New Delhi over the tropical Indian Ocean and its improvement in 2001 are examined by comparing it with in situ buoy measurements and satellite derived surface winds from NASA QuikSCAT satellite (QSCT) ...

  19. Auto-correlation analysis of ocean surface wind vectors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The nature of the inherent temporal variability of surface winds is analyzed by comparison of winds obtained through different measurement methods. In this work, an auto-correlation analysis of a time series data of surface winds measured in situ by a deep water buoy in the Indian Ocean has been carried out. Hourly time ...

  20. Evaluation of Oceanic Surface Observation for Reproducing the Upper Ocean Structure in ECHAM5/MPI-OM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hao; Zheng, Fei; Zhu, Jiang

    2017-12-01

    Better constraints of initial conditions from data assimilation are necessary for climate simulations and predictions, and they are particularly important for the ocean due to its long climate memory; as such, ocean data assimilation (ODA) is regarded as an effective tool for seasonal to decadal predictions. In this work, an ODA system is established for a coupled climate model (ECHAM5/MPI-OM), which can assimilate all available oceanic observations using an ensemble optimal interpolation approach. To validate and isolate the performance of different surface observations in reproducing air-sea climate variations in the model, a set of observing system simulation experiments (OSSEs) was performed over 150 model years. Generally, assimilating sea surface temperature, sea surface salinity, and sea surface height (SSH) can reasonably reproduce the climate variability and vertical structure of the upper ocean, and assimilating SSH achieves the best results compared to the true states. For the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), assimilating different surface observations captures true aspects of ENSO well, but assimilating SSH can further enhance the accuracy of ENSO-related feedback processes in the coupled model, leading to a more reasonable ENSO evolution and air-sea interaction over the tropical Pacific. For ocean heat content, there are still limitations in reproducing the long time-scale variability in the North Atlantic, even if SSH has been taken into consideration. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of assimilating surface observations in capturing the interannual signal and, to some extent, the decadal signal but still highlight the necessity of assimilating profile data to reproduce specific decadal variability.

  1. Ocean Surface Current Vectors from MODIS Terra/Aqua Sea Surface Temperature Image Pairs, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Satellites that record imagery of the same sea surface area, at times separated by a few hours, can be used to estimate ocean surface velocity fields based on the...

  2. Marine isoprene production and consumption in the mixed layer of the surface ocean - a field study over two oceanic regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booge, Dennis; Schlundt, Cathleen; Bracher, Astrid; Endres, Sonja; Zäncker, Birthe; Marandino, Christa A.

    2018-02-01

    Parameterizations of surface ocean isoprene concentrations are numerous, despite the lack of source/sink process understanding. Here we present isoprene and related field measurements in the mixed layer from the Indian Ocean and the eastern Pacific Ocean to investigate the production and consumption rates in two contrasting regions, namely oligotrophic open ocean and the coastal upwelling region. Our data show that the ability of different phytoplankton functional types (PFTs) to produce isoprene seems to be mainly influenced by light, ocean temperature, and salinity. Our field measurements also demonstrate that nutrient availability seems to have a direct influence on the isoprene production. With the help of pigment data, we calculate in-field isoprene production rates for different PFTs under varying biogeochemical and physical conditions. Using these new calculated production rates, we demonstrate that an additional significant and variable loss, besides a known chemical loss and a loss due to air-sea gas exchange, is needed to explain the measured isoprene concentration. We hypothesize that this loss, with a lifetime for isoprene between 10 and 100 days depending on the ocean region, is potentially due to degradation or consumption by bacteria.

  3. The influence of Southern Ocean surface buoyancy forcing on glacial-interglacial changes in the global deep ocean stratification

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, S; Eisenman, I; Stewart, AL

    2016-01-01

    ©2016. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved. Previous studies have suggested that the global ocean density stratification below ∼3000 m is approximately set by its direct connection to the Southern Ocean surface density, which in turn is constrained by the atmosphere. Here the role of Southern Ocean surface forcing in glacial-interglacial stratification changes is investigated using a comprehensive climate model and an idealized conceptual model. Southern Ocean surface forcing is f...

  4. Using the Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS to improve the sea surface temperature predictions of the MERCATOR Ocean System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Costa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Global models are generally capable of reproducing the observed trends in the globally averaged sea surface temperature (SST. However, the global models do not perform as well on regional scales. Here, we present an ocean forecast system based on the Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS, the boundary conditions come from the MERCATOR ocean system for the North Atlantic (1/6° horizontal resolution. The system covers the region of the northwestern Iberian Peninsula with a horizontal resolution of 1/36°, forced with the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF and the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT. The ocean model results from the regional ocean model are validated using real-time SST and observations from the MeteoGalicia, INTECMAR and Puertos Del Estado real-time observational networks. The validation results reveal that over a one-year period the mean absolute error of the SST is less than 1°C, and several sources of measured data reveal that the errors decrease near the coast. This improvement is related to the inclusion of local forcing not present in the boundary condition model.

  5. About New Maps of Surface Currents of the World Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, O. P.; Kasyanov, S. Yu.

    2018-01-01

    Using the example of the surface currents map constructed for the Northern Atlantic on the basis of data of modern observations by means of drifting buoys, it is shown that the previously published maps of ocean surface currents, based on ship drift data, have become outdated and require an update. The influence of the bottom relief on the directions of surface layer currents is shown.

  6. The Proposed Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Lee-Lueng; Alsdorf, Douglas; Rodriguez, Ernesto; Morrow, Rosemary; Mognard, Nelly; Vaze, Parag; Lafon, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    A new space mission concept called Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) is being developed jointly by a collaborative effort of the international oceanographic and hydrological communities for making high-resolution measurement of the water elevation of both the ocean and land surface water to answer the questions about the oceanic submesoscale processes and the storage and discharge of land surface water. The key instrument payload would be a Ka-band radar interferometer capable of making high-resolution wide-swath altimetry measurement. This paper describes the proposed science objectives and requirements as well as the measurement approach of SWOT, which is baselined to be launched in 2019. SWOT would demonstrate this new approach to advancing both oceanography and land hydrology and set a standard for future altimetry missions.

  7. Reduced prokaryotic heterotrophic production at in situ pressure conditions in the dark ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano-Sato, Chie; Sintes, Eva; Reinthaler, Thomas; Utsumi, Motoo; Herndl, Gerhard J.

    2017-04-01

    Prokaryotic heterotrophic production (PHP) is a key process in the ocean's biological carbon cycle. About 50% of the oceanic PHP takes place in the dark ocean characterized by low temperature and high hydrostatic pressure, which increases by 1 MPa (10 atm) every 100 m depth. However, rate measurements of PHP are usually performed under atmospheric pressure conditions. Yet, the difference in pressure conditions and the handling of the samples on board may introduce biases in the PHP measurements. To determine PHP at in situ conditions, we developed an in situ microbial incubator (ISMI) designed to autonomously sample and incubate seawater down to a depth of 4000 m. Natural prokaryotic communities from the North Atlantic and Pacific Oceans were incubated in the ISMI with 5 nM 3H-leucine at different depths ranging between 10 and 3200 m. For comparison, atmospheric pressure incubations at in situ temperature were also conducted. PHP and single cell activity assessed by microautoradiography combined with catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization (MICRO-CARD-FISH) were determined. PHP obtained under in situ pressure conditions was generally lower than under atmospheric pressure conditions, suggesting that incubation under atmospheric pressure on board stimulates activity of dark ocean prokaryotes. The ratio between the bulk PHP obtained under in situ and under atmospheric pressure conditions decreased with depth. Moreover, MICRO-CARD-FISH revealed that some specific prokaryotic groups are apparently more affected by the hydrostatic pressure condition than others. Our results suggest that PHP in the dark ocean might be lower than assumed based on measurements under surface pressure conditions.

  8. View-Dependent Tessellation and Simulation of Ocean Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Puig-Centelles

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Modeling and rendering realistic ocean scenes have been thoroughly investigated for many years. Its appearance has been studied and it is possible to find very detailed simulations where a high degree of realism is achieved. Nevertheless, among the solutions to ocean rendering, real-time management of the huge heightmaps that are necessary for rendering an ocean scene is still not solved. We propose a new technique for simulating the ocean surface on GPU. This technique is capable of offering view-dependent approximations of the mesh while maintaining coherence among the extracted approximations. This feature is very important as most solutions previously presented must retessellate from the initial mesh. Our solution is able to use the latest extracted approximation when refining or coarsening the mesh.

  9. Ocean Surface Wind Speed of Hurricane Helene Observed by SAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Qing; Cheng, Yongcun; Li, Xiaofeng

    2011-01-01

    The hurricanes can be detected by many remote sensors, but synthetic aperture radar (SAR) can yield high-resolution (sub-kilometer) and low-level wind information that cannot be seen below the cloud by other sensors. In this paper, an assessment of SAR capability of monitoring high......-resolution hurricane was conducted. A case study was carried out to retrieve ocean surface wind field from C-band RADARSAT-1 SAR image which captured the structure of hurricane Helene over the Atlantic Ocean on 20 September, 2006. With wind direction from the outputs of U.S. Navy Operational Global Atmospheric...... CIWRAP models have been tested to extract wind speed from SAR data. The SAR retrieved ocean surface winds were compared to the aircraft wind speed observations from stepped frequency microwave radiometer (SFMR). The results show the capability of hurricane wind monitoring by SAR....

  10. Ocean Surface Carbon Dioxide Fugacity Observed from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W. Timothy; Xie, Xiaosu

    2014-01-01

    We have developed and validated a statistical model to estimate the fugacity (or partial pressure) of carbon dioxide (CO2) at sea surface (pCO2sea) from space-based observations of sea surface temperature (SST), chlorophyll, and salinity. More than a quarter million in situ measurements coincident with satellite data were compiled to train and validate the model. We have produced and made accessible 9 years (2002-2010) of the pCO2sea at 0.5 degree resolutions daily over the global ocean. The results help to identify uncertainties in current JPL Carbon Monitoring System (CMS) model-based and bottom-up estimates over the ocean. The utility of the data to reveal multi-year and regional variability of the fugacity in relation to prevalent oceanic parameters is demonstrated.

  11. Reduction in Surface Ocean Carbon Storage across the Middle Miocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babila, T. L.; Sosdian, S. M.; Foster, G. L.; Lear, C. H.

    2017-12-01

    During the Middle Miocene, Earth underwent a profound climate shift from the warmth of the Miocene Climatic Optimum (MCO; 14-17 Ma) to the stable icehouse of today during the Middle Miocene Climate transition (MMCT). Elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations (pCO2) revealed by boron isotope records (δ11B) link massive volcanic outputs of Columbia River Flood Basalts to the general warmth of MCO. Superimposed on the long-term cooling trend (MMCT) is a gradual pCO2 decline and numerous positive carbon isotope (δ13C) excursions that indicate dynamic variations in the global carbon cycle. Enhanced organic carbon burial via marine productivity, increased silicate weathering and volcanic emission cessation are each invoked to explain the drawdown of pCO2. To better constrain the oceanic role in carbon sequestration over the Middle Miocene detailed records of carbonate chemistry are needed. We present high resolution Boron/Calcium (B/Ca) and δ13C records in planktonic foraminifer T.trilobus spanning 12-17 Ma at ODP 761 (tropical eastern Indian Ocean) to document changes in surface ocean carbonate chemistry. An overall 30% increase in B/Ca ratios is expressed as two stepwise phases occurring at 14.7 and 13 Ma. Cyclic B/Ca variations are coherent with complimentary δ13C records suggesting a tight coupling between ocean carbonate chemistry parameters. Lower resolution B/Ca data at DSDP 588 (Pacific) and ODP 926 (Atlantic) corroborate the trends observed at ODP 761. We employ a paired approach that combines B/Ca (this study) to δ11B (Foster et al., 2012) and an ad hoc calibration to estimate changes in surface ocean dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). We estimate a substantial decrease in surface ocean DIC spanning the Middle Miocene that culminates with modern day like values. This gradual decline in surface ocean DIC is coeval with existing deep-ocean records which together suggests a whole ocean reduction in carbon storage. We speculate that enhanced weathering

  12. Circulation of the surface waters in the north Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varadachari, V.V.R.; Sharma, G.S.

    The circulation pattern of the surface waters in the North Indian Ocean for different months of the year is discussed. In order to arrive at a reliable and detailed picture of the circulation pattern, streamlines are drawn using the isogon technique...

  13. A uniform, quality controlled Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Pfeil

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A well-documented, publicly available, global data set of surface ocean carbon dioxide (CO2 parameters has been called for by international groups for nearly two decades. The Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT project was initiated by the international marine carbon science community in 2007 with the aim of providing a comprehensive, publicly available, regularly updated, global data set of marine surface CO2, which had been subject to quality control (QC. Many additional CO2 data, not yet made public via the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC, were retrieved from data originators, public websites and other data centres. All data were put in a uniform format following a strict protocol. Quality control was carried out according to clearly defined criteria. Regional specialists performed the quality control, using state-of-the-art web-based tools, specially developed for accomplishing this global team effort. SOCAT version 1.5 was made public in September 2011 and holds 6.3 million quality controlled surface CO2 data points from the global oceans and coastal seas, spanning four decades (1968–2007. Three types of data products are available: individual cruise files, a merged complete data set and gridded products. With the rapid expansion of marine CO2 data collection and the importance of quantifying net global oceanic CO2 uptake and its changes, sustained data synthesis and data access are priorities.

  14. Evaluation of OSCAR ocean surface current product in the tropical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    combined fashion, have contributed to the superior performance of the present algorithm for generat- ing ocean surface current. Validation and error analysis of the OSCAR pro- ..... EC (figure 4) through the appearance of strong semiannual periodicity. The SEC peaks in July, the peak being smoother in OSCAR climatology.

  15. Phase spectral composition of wind generated ocean surface waves

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.

    A study of the composition of the phase spectra of wind generated ocean surface waves is carried out using wave records collected employing a ship borne wave recorder. It is found that the raw phase spectral estimates could be fitted by the Uniform...

  16. Interpretation of nonlinearity in wind generated ocean surface waves

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.

    This study attempts to resolve a mix-up between a physical process and its mathematical interpretation in the context of wind waves on ocean surface. Wind generated wave systems, are conventionally interpreted as a result of interaction of a number...

  17. Auto-correlation analysis of ocean surface wind vectors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M. Senthilkumar (Newgen Imaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    In this work, an auto-correlation analysis of a time series data of surface winds measured in situ by a deep water buoy in the Indian Ocean has been carried out. Hourly time series data available for 240 hours in the month of May, 1999 were subjected to an auto-correlation analysis. The analysis indicates an exponential fall ...

  18. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of Ocean Near Surface Atmospheric Properties, Version 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Ocean Surface Bundle (OSB) Climate Data Record (CDR) consist of three parts: sea surface temperature; near-surface wind speed, air temperature, and specific...

  19. Natural variability in the surface ocean carbonate ion concentration

    OpenAIRE

    N. S. Lovenduski; M. C. Long; K. Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    We investigate variability in the surface ocean carbonate ion concentration ([CO32−]) on the basis of a long control simulation with a fully-coupled Earth System Model. The simulation is run with a prescribed, pre-industrial atmospheric CO2 concentration for 1000 years, permitting investigation of natural [CO32−] variability on interannual to multi-decadal timescales. We find high interannual variability in surface [CO32−] in the tropical...

  20. Natural variability in the surface ocean carbonate ion concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Lovenduski, N. S.; Long, M. C.; Lindsay, K.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate variability in the surface ocean carbonate ion concentration ([CO32−]) on the basis of a~long control simulation with an Earth System Model. The simulation is run with a prescribed, pre-industrial atmospheric CO2 concentration for 1000 years, permitting investigation of natural [CO32−] variability on interannual to multi-decadal timescales. We find high interannual variability in surface [CO32−] in the tropical Pacific and ...

  1. Ocean sunfish rewarm at the surface after deep excursions to forage for siphonophores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Itsumi; Goto, Yusuke; Sato, Katsufumi

    2015-05-01

    Ocean sunfish (Mola mola) were believed to be inactive jellyfish feeders because they are often observed lying motionless at the sea surface. Recent tracking studies revealed that they are actually deep divers, but there has been no evidence of foraging in deep water. Furthermore, the surfacing behaviour of ocean sunfish was thought to be related to behavioural thermoregulation, but there was no record of sunfish body temperature. Evidence of ocean sunfish feeding in deep water was obtained using a combination of an animal-borne accelerometer and camera with a light source. Siphonophores were the most abundant prey items captured by ocean sunfish and were typically located at a depth of 50-200 m where the water temperature was Ocean sunfish were diurnally active, made frequently deep excursions and foraged mainly at 100-200 m depths during the day. Ocean sunfish body temperatures were measured under natural conditions. The body temperatures decreased during deep excursions and recovered during subsequent surfacing periods. Heat-budget models indicated that the whole-body heat-transfer coefficient between sunfish and the surrounding water during warming was 3-7 times greater than that during cooling. These results suggest that the main function of surfacing is the recovery of body temperature, and the fish might be able to increase heat gain from the warm surface water by physiological regulation. The thermal environment of ocean sunfish foraging depths was lower than their thermal preference (c. 16-17 °C). The behavioural and physiological thermoregulation enables the fish to increase foraging time in deep, cold water. Feeding rate during deep excursions was not related to duration or depth of the deep excursions. Cycles of deep foraging and surface warming were explained by a foraging strategy, to maximize foraging time with maintaining body temperature by vertical temperature environment. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2015 British

  2. Natural variability in the surface ocean carbonate ion concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Lovenduski

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigate variability in the surface ocean carbonate ion concentration ([CO32−] on the basis of a~long control simulation with an Earth System Model. The simulation is run with a prescribed, pre-industrial atmospheric CO2 concentration for 1000 years, permitting investigation of natural [CO32−] variability on interannual to multi-decadal timescales. We find high interannual variability in surface [CO32−] in the tropical Pacific and at the boundaries between the subtropical and subpolar gyres in the Northern Hemisphere, and relatively low interannual variability in the centers of the subtropical gyres and in the Southern Ocean. Statistical analysis of modeled [CO32−] variance and autocorrelation suggests that significant anthropogenic trends in the saturation state of aragonite (Ωaragonite are already or nearly detectable at the sustained, open-ocean time series sites, whereas several decades of observations are required to detect anthropogenic trends in Ωaragonite in the tropical Pacific, North Pacific, and North Atlantic. The detection timescale for anthropogenic trends in pH is shorter than that for Ωaragonite, due to smaller noise-to-signal ratios and lower autocorrelation in pH. In the tropical Pacific, the leading mode of surface [CO32−] variability is primarily driven by variations in the vertical advection of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC in association with El Niño–Southern Oscillation. In the North Pacific, surface [CO32−] variability is caused by circulation-driven variations in surface DIC and strongly correlated with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, with peak spectral power at 20–30-year periods. North Atlantic [CO32−] variability is also driven by variations in surface DIC, and exhibits weak correlations with both the North Atlantic Oscillation and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. As the scientific community seeks to detect the anthropogenic influence on ocean carbonate chemistry, these results

  3. Natural variability in the surface ocean carbonate ion concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovenduski, N. S.; Long, M. C.; Lindsay, K.

    2015-11-01

    We investigate variability in the surface ocean carbonate ion concentration ([CO32-]) on the basis of a~long control simulation with an Earth System Model. The simulation is run with a prescribed, pre-industrial atmospheric CO2 concentration for 1000 years, permitting investigation of natural [CO32-] variability on interannual to multi-decadal timescales. We find high interannual variability in surface [CO32-] in the tropical Pacific and at the boundaries between the subtropical and subpolar gyres in the Northern Hemisphere, and relatively low interannual variability in the centers of the subtropical gyres and in the Southern Ocean. Statistical analysis of modeled [CO32-] variance and autocorrelation suggests that significant anthropogenic trends in the saturation state of aragonite (Ωaragonite) are already or nearly detectable at the sustained, open-ocean time series sites, whereas several decades of observations are required to detect anthropogenic trends in Ωaragonite in the tropical Pacific, North Pacific, and North Atlantic. The detection timescale for anthropogenic trends in pH is shorter than that for Ωaragonite, due to smaller noise-to-signal ratios and lower autocorrelation in pH. In the tropical Pacific, the leading mode of surface [CO32-] variability is primarily driven by variations in the vertical advection of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in association with El Niño-Southern Oscillation. In the North Pacific, surface [CO32-] variability is caused by circulation-driven variations in surface DIC and strongly correlated with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, with peak spectral power at 20-30-year periods. North Atlantic [CO32-] variability is also driven by variations in surface DIC, and exhibits weak correlations with both the North Atlantic Oscillation and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. As the scientific community seeks to detect the anthropogenic influence on ocean carbonate chemistry, these results will aid the interpretation of trends

  4. Coccolith distribution patterns in South Atlantic and Southern Ocean surface sediments in relation to environmental gradients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boeckel, B.; Baumann, K.-H.; Henrich, R.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the coccolith compositions of 213 surface sediment samples from the South Atlantic and Southern Ocean were analysed with respect to the environmental parameters of the overlying surface waters. From this data set, the abundance patterns of the main species and their ecological...... seems to be associated with high temperatures and salinities under low-nutrient conditions. Based on the relative abundances of Calcidiscus leptoporus, F. profunda, Gladiolithus flabellatus, Helicosphaera spp., Umbilicosphaera foliosa, Umbilicosphaera sibogae and a group of subordinate subtropical...

  5. Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT) gridded data products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabine, Christopher [NOAA Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory; Hankin, S. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Koyuk, H [Joint Institute for the Study of the Atmosphere and Ocean, University of Washington; Bakker, D C E [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK; Pfeil, B [Geophysical Institute, University of Bergen; Uni Research AS, Bergen, Norway; Olsen, A [Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, UNIFOB AS, Bergen, Norway; Metzl, N [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, LOCEAN/IPSL, Paris, France; Kozyr, Alexander [ORNL; Fassbender, A [School of Oceanography, University of Washington, Seattle, WA; Manke, A [Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; Malczyk, J [Jetz Laboratory, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Yale University; Akl, J [CSIRO Wealth from Oceans Flagship, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia; Alin, S R [Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; Bellerby, R G J [Geophysical Institute, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway; Borges, A [University of Liege, Chemical Oceanography Unit, Institut de Physique, Liege, Belgium; Boutin, J [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, LOCEAN/IPSL, Paris, France; Brown, P J [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK; Cai, W-J [Department of Marine Sciences, University of Georgia; Chavez, F P [Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, Moss Landing, CA; Chen, A [Institute of Marine Geology and Chemistry, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; Cosa, C [Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; Feely, R A [Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; Gonzalez-Davila, M [Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria,; Goyet, C [Institut de Modélisation et d' Analyse en Géo-Environnement et Santé, Université de Perpignan; Hardman-Mountford, N [CSIRO, Marine and Atmospheric Research, Wembley, Western Australia, Australia; Heinze, C [Geophysical Institute, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway; Hoppema, M [Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven, Germany; Hunt, C W [Ocean Process Analysis Lab, University of New Hampshire, Durham, New Hampshire; Hydes, D [National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, UK; Ishii, M [Japan Meteorological Agency, Meteorological Research Institute, Tsukuba, Japan; Johannessen, T [Geophysical Institute, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway; Key, R M [Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey; Kortzinger, A [GEOMAR, Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research, Kiel, Germany; Landschutzer, P [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK; Lauvset, S K [Geophysical Institute, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway; Lefevre, N [Université Pierre et Marie Curie, LOCEAN/IPSL, Paris, France; Lenton, A [Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia; Lourantou, A [Université Pierre et Marie Curie, LOCEAN/IPSL, Paris, France; Merlivat, L [Université Pierre et Marie Curie, LOCEAN/IPSL, Paris, France; Midorikawa, T [Nagasaki Marine Observatory, Nagasaki, Japan; Mintrop, L [MARIANDA, Kiel, Germany; Miyazaki, C [Faculty of Environmental Earth Science, Hokkaido University, Hokkaido, Japan; Murata, A [Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Yokosuka, Japan; Nakadate, A [Marine Division, Global Environment and Marine Department, Japan Meteorological Agency, Tokyo, Japan; Nakano, Y [Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Yokosuka, Japan; Nakaoka, S [National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), Tsukuba, Japan; Nojiri, Y [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Japan; et al.

    2013-01-01

    A well documented, publicly available, global data set for surface ocean carbon dioxide (CO2) parameters has been called for by international groups for nearly two decades. The Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT) project was initiated by the international marine carbon science community in 2007 with the aim of providing a comprehensive, publicly available, regularly updated, global data set of marine surface CO2, which had been subject to quality control (QC). SOCAT version 1.5 was made public in September 2011 and holds 6.3 million quality controlled surface CO2 data from the global oceans and coastal seas, spanning four decades (1968 2007). The SOCAT gridded data is the second data product to come from the SOCAT project. Recognizing that some groups may have trouble working with millions of measurements, the SOCAT gridded product was generated to provide a robust regularly spaced fCO2 product with minimal spatial and temporal interpolation which should be easier to work with for many applications. Gridded SOCAT is rich with information that has not been fully explored yet, but also contains biases and limitations that the user needs to recognize and address.

  6. Late Holocene diatom-based sea-surface temperature reconstruction from the Conrad Rise, Southern Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orme, Lisa; Mietinnen, Arto; Crosta, Xavier; Mohan, Rahul

    2017-04-01

    The Southern Ocean plays an important role in the global climate system. The temperature and sea ice extent alter the latitudinal temperature gradient of the Southern Ocean, which can be transferred to the atmosphere resulting in changes in the southern westerly winds. The temperature, sea ice and wind variations are also factors influencing Antarctic Bottom Water formation, which is a control on the strength of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. Therefore conditions in the Southern Ocean may influence the climate in the northern and southern hemispheres. The Southern Ocean and North Atlantic were connected during the Last Glacial during Dansgaard-Oeschger events, when variations in ocean circulation caused a bipolar seesaw of temperatures. For the Holocene there is less evidence for a bipolar seesaw, although recent research shows concurrent, opposite trends in ocean circulation in the North Atlantic and in the Southern Ocean. Further reconstructions are required from the Southern Ocean in particular to enable greater understanding of how the temperature and sea ice varied during the Holocene. The OCTEL project (Ocean-sea-ice-atmosphere teleconnections between the Southern Ocean and North Atlantic during the Holocene) aims to investigate the ocean, atmosphere and sea-ice teleconnections for the Holocene using new, high resolution records from both the Southern Ocean and North Atlantic. We here present initial results from diatom analysis conducted on a sediment core from the Southern Ocean, sampled from the Conrad Rise (54˚ 16.04'S, 39˚ 45.98'W). The preliminary results highlight a dominance of diatom species Fragilariopsis kerguelensis and Thalassiosira lentiginosa, with lower abundances of Thalassiothrix antarctica and Thalassiosira gracilis among others, which suggests an open ocean setting close to the polar front. The diatom data will be converted to quantitative reconstructions of summer sea surface temperature and sea ice presence using the

  7. Microwave Remote Sensing Modeling of Ocean Surface Salinity and Winds Using an Empirical Sea Surface Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yueh, Simon H.

    2004-01-01

    Active and passive microwave remote sensing techniques have been investigated for the remote sensing of ocean surface wind and salinity. We revised an ocean surface spectrum using the CMOD-5 geophysical model function (GMF) for the European Remote Sensing (ERS) C-band scatterometer and the Ku-band GMF for the NASA SeaWinds scatterometer. The predictions of microwave brightness temperatures from this model agree well with satellite, aircraft and tower-based microwave radiometer data. This suggests that the impact of surface roughness on microwave brightness temperatures and radar scattering coefficients of sea surfaces can be consistently characterized by a roughness spectrum, providing physical basis for using combined active and passive remote sensing techniques for ocean surface wind and salinity remote sensing.

  8. Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT gridded data products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Sabine

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available As a response to public demand for a well-documented, quality controlled, publically available, global surface ocean carbon dioxide (CO2 data set, the international marine carbon science community developed the Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT. The first SOCAT product is a collection of 6.3 million quality controlled surface CO2 data from the global oceans and coastal seas, spanning four decades (1968–2007. The SOCAT gridded data presented here is the second data product to come from the SOCAT project. Recognizing that some groups may have trouble working with millions of measurements, the SOCAT gridded product was generated to provide a robust, regularly spaced CO2 fugacity (fCO2 product with minimal spatial and temporal interpolation, which should be easier to work with for many applications. Gridded SOCAT is rich with information that has not been fully explored yet (e.g., regional differences in the seasonal cycles, but also contains biases and limitations that the user needs to recognize and address (e.g., local influences on values in some coastal regions.

  9. Impacts of climate changes on ocean surface gravity waves over the eastern Canadian shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lanli; Sheng, Jinyu

    2017-05-01

    A numerical study is conducted to investigate the impact of climate changes on ocean surface gravity waves over the eastern Canadian shelf (ECS). The "business-as-usual" climate scenario known as Representative Concentration Pathway RCP8.5 is considered in this study. Changes in the ocean surface gravity waves over the study region for the period 1979-2100 are examined based on 3 hourly ocean waves simulated by the third-generation ocean wave model known as WAVEWATCHIII. The wave model is driven by surface winds and ice conditions produced by the Canadian Regional Climate Model (CanRCM4). The whole study period is divided into the present (1979-2008), near future (2021-2050) and far future (2071-2100) periods to quantify possible future changes of ocean waves over the ECS. In comparison with the present ocean wave conditions, the time-mean significant wave heights ( H s ) are expected to increase over most of the ECS in the near future and decrease over this region in the far future period. The time-means of the annual 5% largest H s are projected to increase over the ECS in both near and far future periods due mainly to the changes in surface winds. The future changes in the time-means of the annual 5% largest H s and 10-m wind speeds are projected to be twice as strong as the changes in annual means. An analysis of inverse wave ages suggests that the occurrence of wind seas is projected to increase over the southern Labrador and central Newfoundland Shelves in the near future period, and occurrence of swells is projected to increase over other areas of the ECS in both the near and far future periods.

  10. Mid-late Holocene changes in the El Niño Southern Oscillation and Hadley Cell intensity; their effect on sea-surface conditions in the mid-latitude southeast Pacific Ocean (41°S)

    OpenAIRE

    Verleye, T.

    2010-01-01

    The study focuses on the observed effects of changes in the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Hadley Cell intensity on sea-surface water conditions in the SE Pacific (41°S; Site ODP1233) during the last 8.000 years. Recent studies suggest that periods characterised by a negative Southern Oscillation Index (SOI; El Niño) cause positive precipitation anomalies during austral winter (and annually) in Mid-South Chile, while austral summer periods are rather drier. This because El Niño weake...

  11. Quantifying the Dynamic Ocean Surface Using Underwater Radiometric Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    PUBLICATIONS 1. Xu, Z. and D. K. P. Yue (2013a), Mixture model for probability of inherent shortwave radiation intensity in strong scattering mediums...reflections for various solar incidence conditions, particularly the shadowing effect for large zenith solar incidence case. With the numerical tool, we...We provided direct and empirical derivations of parameters needed for the model using priori information of ocean wave spectra, solar incidence and

  12. Surface ocean carbon dioxide during the Atlantic Meridional Transect (1995-2013); evidence of ocean acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitidis, Vassilis; Brown, Ian; Hardman-Mountford, Nicholas; Lefèvre, Nathalie

    2017-11-01

    Here we present more than 21,000 observations of carbon dioxide fugacity in air and seawater (fCO2) along the Atlantic Meridional Transect (AMT) programme for the period 1995-2013. Our dataset consists of 11 southbound and 2 northbound cruises in boreal autumn and spring respectively. Our paper is primarily focused on change in the surface-ocean carbonate system during southbound cruises. We used observed fCO2 and total alkalinity (TA), derived from salinity and temperature, to estimate dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and pH (total scale). Using this approach, estimated pH was consistent with spectrophotometric measurements carried out on 3 of our cruises. The AMT cruises transect a range of biogeographic provinces where surface Chlorophyll-α spans two orders of magnitude (mesotrophic high latitudes to oligotrophic subtropical gyres). We found that surface Chlorophyll-α was negatively correlated with fCO2, but that the deep chlorophyll maximum was not a controlling variable for fCO2. Our data show clear evidence of ocean acidification across 100° of latitude in the Atlantic Ocean. Over the period 1995-2013 we estimated annual rates of change in: (a) sea surface temperature of 0.01 ± 0.05 °C, (b) seawater fCO2 of 1.44 ± 0.84 μatm, (c) DIC of 0.87 ± 1.02 μmol per kg and (d) pH of -0.0013 ± 0.0009 units. Monte Carlo simulations propagating the respective analytical uncertainties showed that the latter were < 5% of the observed trends. Seawater fCO2 increased at the same rate as atmospheric CO2.

  13. Sea surface temperature and salinity from the Global Ocean Surface Underway Data (GOSUD) from 1980-01-03 to present

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This collection contains the Global Ocean Surface Underway Data (GOSUD) from 1980-01-03 to present as submitted to NOAA/NCEI. The data includes information about sea...

  14. SWOT, The Surface Water and Ocean Topography Satellite Mission (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsdorf, D.; Andreadis, K.; Bates, P. D.; Biancamaria, S.; Clark, E.; Durand, M. T.; Fu, L.; Lee, H.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Mognard, N. M.; Moller, D.; Morrow, R. A.; Rodriguez, E.; Shum, C.

    2009-12-01

    Surface fresh water is essential for life, yet we have surprisingly poor knowledge of its variability in space and time. Similarly, ocean circulation fundamentally drives global climate variability, yet the ocean current and eddy field that affects ocean circulation and heat transport at the sub-mesoscale resolution and particularly near coastal and estuary regions, is poorly known. About 50% of the vertical exchange of water properties (nutrients, dissovled CO2, heat, etc) in the upper ocean is taking place at the sub-mesoscale. Measurements from the Surface Water and Ocean Topography satellite mission (SWOT) will make strides in understanding these processes and improving global ocean models for studying climate change. SWOT is a swath-based interferometric-altimeter designed to acquire elevations of ocean and terrestrial water surfaces at unprecedented spatial and temporal resolutions. The mission will provide measurements of storage changes in lakes, reservoirs, and wetlands as well as estimates of discharge in rivers. These measurements are important for global water and energy budgets, constraining hydrodynamic models of floods, carbon evasion through wetlands, and water management, especially in developing nations. Perhaps most importantly, SWOT measurements will provide a fundamental understanding of the spatial and temporal variations in global surface waters, which for many countries are the primary source of water. An on-going effort, the “virtual mission” (VM) is designed to help constrain the required height and slope accuracies, the spatial sampling (both pixels and orbital coverage), and the trade-offs in various temporal revisits. Example results include the following: (1) Ensemble Kalman filtering of VM simulations recover water depth and discharge, reducing the discharge RMSE from 23.2% to 10.0% over an 84-day simulation period, relative to a simulation without assimilation. (2) Ensemble-based data assimilation of SWOT like measurements yields

  15. Prebiotic Synthesis of Protobiopolymers Under Alkaline Ocean Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Bermejo, Marta; Rivas, Luis A.; Palacín, Arantxa; Menor-Salván, César; Osuna-Esteban, Susana

    2011-08-01

    Clasically, prebiotic chemistry has focused on the production and identification of simple organic molecules, many of them forming part of "intractable polymers" named tholins. In a previous work, we demonstrated that in experiments using an external energy source and inorganic carbon the aqueous aerosols improved the formation of hydrophilic tholins. Herein, we elucidate the role of pH (from 4 to 12) in prebiotic experiments using saline aqueous aerosols, spark discharges and an atmosphere containing CH4. At all values of pH, the saline aqueous aerosols increased the production of a significant variety of carboxylic acids that could have been present in a primitive Krebs cycle. Moreover, the study for the first time of hydrophilic tholins by 2-D electrophoresis revealed that these are formed by a set of unexpected heavy polymeric species. The initial alkaline conditions significantly increased both the apparent molecular weight of polymeric species up to 80 kDa and their diversity. We propose the term of protobiopolymers to denote those polymeric species fractionated by 2-D electrophoresis since these are formed by biomolecules present in living systems and show diversity in length as well as in functional groups. Thus, aerosols formed in simulated alkaline ocean conditions could provide an optimal medium for the formation of the primeval materials that could be precursors to the emergence of life.

  16. Warming and surface ocean acidification over the last deglaciation: implications for foraminiferal assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyez, K. A.; Hoenisch, B.; deMenocal, P. B.

    2017-12-01

    Although plankton drift with ocean currents, their presence and relative abundance varies across latitudes and environmental seawater conditions (e.g. temperature, pH, salinity). While earlier studies have focused on temperature as the primary factor for determining the regional species composition of planktic foraminiferal communities, evidence has recently been presented that foraminiferal shell thickness varies with ocean pH, and it remains unclear whether ongoing ocean acidification will cause ecological shifts within this plankton group. The transition from the last glacial maximum (LGM; 19,000-23,000 years B.P.) to the late Holocene (0-5,000 years B.P.) was characterized by both warming and acidification of the surface ocean, and thus provides an opportunity to study ecosystem shifts in response to these environmental changes. Here we provide new δ11B, Mg/Ca, and δ18O measurements from a suite of global sediment cores spanning this time range. We use these geochemical data to reconstruct ocean temperature, pH and salinity and pair the new data with previously published analyses of planktic foraminifera assemblages to study the respective effects of ocean warming and acidification on the foraminiferal habitat. At most open-ocean sample locations, our proxies indicate warming and acidification similar to previously published estimates, but in some marginal seas and coastal locations pH changes little between over the glacial termination. At face value, these observations suggest that warming is generally more important for ecosystem changes than acidification, at least over the slow rates of warming and ocean acidification in this time period. While geochemical data collection is being completed, we aim to include these data in an ecological model of foraminiferal habitat preferences.

  17. Sea surface salinity variability in the tropical Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Subrahmanyam, B.; Murty, V.S.N.; Heffner, D.M.

    . Thompson et al. (2006) reported the Indian Ocean circulation and SSS variability during IODZM events, using different OGCM (Ocean General Circulation Model) simulations and assimilated data sets of SODA (Simple Ocean Data Assimilation) and ECCO...

  18. Physical Retracking of Cryosat-2 Low Resolution Mode data for ocean surface height and gravity field estimation in open ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Maulik; Baltazar Andersen, Ole; Dall, Jorgen; Stenseng, Lars

    2014-05-01

    Cryosat-2 Low Resolution Mode (LRM) altimetric data is processed to determine precise ocean surface heights and gravity fields in open ocean. These ocean surface heights are corrected using various geophysical corrections available. The along track variation of the ocean surface height anomaly is used to determine the gravity field. The quality of this gravity field estimation is dependent on the precision in the ocean surface height anomaly. Thus a three/two parameter based physical model based on an error function is used, and the Cryosat-2 LRM waveforms are fit to this model. The fitting routines which employ the Levenberg Marquadt technique generate estimated values of retracked epochs which are used to compute the ocean surface heights. A two step processing system made up of sequential 3 parameter (amplitude, rise time, retracked epoch) and 2 parameter (amplitude, retracked epoch) fitting models are used to determine precise ocean surface heights. The quality of the processing system is judged by evaluating the standard deviation of the ocean surface height anomaly obtained after all corrections and the mean sea surface/geoid are removed. The lower the value of the standard deviation of the ocean surface height anomaly, the better the quality of processing is. Hence, different processing schemes are considered and evaluated in order to conclude towards the best retracking procedure which would eventually result in high accuracy gravity field estimations. Also, the quality on the precision is judged by analyzing the standard deviation in the gravity field anomaly. The gravity field anomaly is obtained by subtracting the retracked gravity field with the marine gravity field available. A lower value of the standard deviation in the gravity field anomaly indicates a more precise retracking algorithm. Using the two retracker performance evaluation strategies, namely the ocean surface height anomaly and the gravity field anomaly, it was concluded that the three

  19. Error estimates for CCMP ocean surface wind data sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlas, R. M.; Hoffman, R. N.; Ardizzone, J.; Leidner, S.; Jusem, J.; Smith, D. K.; Gombos, D.

    2011-12-01

    The cross-calibrated, multi-platform (CCMP) ocean surface wind data sets are now available at the Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center from July 1987 through December 2010. These data support wide-ranging air-sea research and applications. The main Level 3.0 data set has global ocean coverage (within 78S-78N) with 25-kilometer resolution every 6 hours. An enhanced variational analysis method (VAM) quality controls and optimally combines multiple input data sources to create the Level 3.0 data set. Data included are all available RSS DISCOVER wind observations, in situ buoys and ships, and ECMWF analyses. The VAM is set up to use the ECMWF analyses to fill in areas of no data and to provide an initial estimate of wind direction. As described in an article in the Feb. 2011 BAMS, when compared to conventional analyses and reanalyses, the CCMP winds are significantly different in some synoptic cases, result in different storm statistics, and provide enhanced high-spatial resolution time averages of ocean surface wind. We plan enhancements to produce estimated uncertainties for the CCMP data. We will apply the method of Desroziers et al. for the diagnosis of error statistics in observation space to the VAM O-B, O-A, and B-A increments. To isolate particular error statistics we will stratify the results by which individual instruments were used to create the increments. Then we will use cross-validation studies to estimate other error statistics. For example, comparisons in regions of overlap for VAM analyses based on SSMI and QuikSCAT separately and together will enable estimating the VAM directional error when using SSMI alone. Level 3.0 error estimates will enable construction of error estimates for the time averaged data sets.

  20. Ocean-atmosphere interaction and synoptic weather conditions in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... period of strong north-south pressure gradient over the Bay region. Events of prominent fall in SST and in the upper 15m ocean layer mean temperature and salinity values during typical rainfall events are cited. The impact of monsoon disturbances on ocean-atmosphere interface transfer processes has been investigated.

  1. Sea level: measuring the bounding surfaces of the ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamisiea, Mark E; Hughes, Chris W; Williams, Simon D P; Bingley, Richard M

    2014-09-28

    The practical need to understand sea level along the coasts, such as for safe navigation given the spatially variable tides, has resulted in tide gauge observations having the distinction of being some of the longest instrumental ocean records. Archives of these records, along with geological constraints, have allowed us to identify the century-scale rise in global sea level. Additional data sources, particularly satellite altimetry missions, have helped us to better identify the rates and causes of sea-level rise and the mechanisms leading to spatial variability in the observed rates. Analysis of all of the data reveals the need for long-term and stable observation systems to assess accurately the regional changes as well as to improve our ability to estimate future changes in sea level. While information from many scientific disciplines is needed to understand sea-level change, this review focuses on contributions from geodesy and the role of the ocean's bounding surfaces: the sea surface and the Earth's crust. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  2. Sea level: measuring the bounding surfaces of the ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamisiea, Mark E.; Hughes, Chris W.; Williams, Simon D. P.; Bingley, Richard M.

    2014-01-01

    The practical need to understand sea level along the coasts, such as for safe navigation given the spatially variable tides, has resulted in tide gauge observations having the distinction of being some of the longest instrumental ocean records. Archives of these records, along with geological constraints, have allowed us to identify the century-scale rise in global sea level. Additional data sources, particularly satellite altimetry missions, have helped us to better identify the rates and causes of sea-level rise and the mechanisms leading to spatial variability in the observed rates. Analysis of all of the data reveals the need for long-term and stable observation systems to assess accurately the regional changes as well as to improve our ability to estimate future changes in sea level. While information from many scientific disciplines is needed to understand sea-level change, this review focuses on contributions from geodesy and the role of the ocean's bounding surfaces: the sea surface and the Earth's crust. PMID:25157196

  3. Research on model of additional forces of ocean conditions in one-dimensional coolant channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Libo; Tian Wenxi; Qiu Suizheng; Su Guanghui; Li Yong; Huang Yanping; Yan Xiao

    2012-01-01

    The effect of different ocean conditions on coolant flow can come down to the differences of additional forces in the momentum equations, thus ocean conditions can be considered by adding the additional forces caused by them to the momentum equations. The model of additional forces of 6 types of typical and relevant coupled ocean conditions is obtained based on the basic momentum equation in the non-inertial reference frame and the one-dimensional coolant channel. (authors)

  4. Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas Database Version 5 (SOCATv5) (NCEI Accession 0163180)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT, www.socat.info) is a synthesis activity by the international marine carbon research community and has more than 100 contributors...

  5. Ocean Surface Topography Mission (OSTM) /Jason-3: Auxiliary Files, 2015- (NODC Accession 0122597)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Jason-3 is the fourth mission in U.S.-European series of satellite missions that measure the height of the ocean surface. Scheduled to launch in 2015, the mission...

  6. Ocean Surface Topography Mission (OSTM) /Jason-3: Orbital Information, 2015- (NODC Accession 0122598)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Jason-3 is the fourth mission in U.S.-European series of satellite missions that measure the height of the ocean surface. Scheduled to launch in 2015, the mission...

  7. Ocean Surface Topography Mission (OSTM) /Jason-3: Ancillary Files, 2015- (NCEI Accession 0122596)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Jason-3 is the fourth mission in U.S.-European series of satellite missions that measure the height of the ocean surface. Scheduled to launch in 2015, the mission...

  8. Ocean Surface Topography Mission (OSTM) /Jason-3: Telemetry, 2015- (NODC Accession 0122599)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Jason-3 is the fourth mission in U.S.-European series of satellite missions that measure the height of the ocean surface. Scheduled to launch in 2015, the mission...

  9. Molecular biogeochemical provinces in the Atlantic Surface Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, B. P.; Flerus, R.; Schmitt-Kopplin, P.; Lechtenfeld, O. J.; Bracher, A.; Cooper, W.; Frka, S.; Gašparović, B.; Gonsior, M.; Hertkorn, N.; Jaffe, R.; Jenkins, A.; Kuss, J.; Lara, R. J.; Lucio, M.; McCallister, S. L.; Neogi, S. B.; Pohl, C.; Roettgers, R.; Rohardt, G.; Schmitt, B. B.; Stuart, A.; Theis, A.; Ying, W.; Witt, M.; Xie, Z.; Yamashita, Y.; Zhang, L.; Zhu, Z. Y.; Kattner, G.

    2010-12-01

    One of the most important aspects to understand marine organic carbon fluxes is to resolve the molecular mechanisms which convert fresh, labile biomolecules into semi-labile and refractory dissolved and particulate organic compounds in the ocean. In this interdisciplinary project, which was performed on a cruise with RV Polarstern, we carried out a detailed molecular characterisation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) on a North-South transect in the Atlantic surface ocean in order to relate the data to different biological, climatic, oceanographic, and meteorological regimes as well as to terrestrial input from riverine and atmospheric sources. Our goal was to achieve a high resolution data set for the biogeochemical characterisation of the sources and reactivity of DOM. We applied ultrahigh resolution Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS), nutrient, trace element, amino acid, and lipid analyses and other biogeochemical measurements for 220 samples from the upper water column (0-200m) and eight deep profiles. Various spectroscopic techniques were applied continuously in a constant sample water flow supplied by a fish system and the moon pool. Radiocarbon dating enabled assessing DOC residence time. Bacterial abundance and production provided a metabolic context for the DOM characterization work and pCO2 concentrations. Combining molecular organic techniques and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) established an important link between organic and inorganic biogeochemical studies. Multivariate statistics, primarily based on FT-ICR-MS data for 220 samples, allowed identifying geographical clusters which matched ecological provinces proposed previously by Longhurst (2007). Our study demonstrated that marine DOM carries molecular information reflecting the “history” of ocean water masses. This information can be used to define molecular biogeochemical provinces and to improve our understanding of element fluxes in

  10. Closing the Seasonal Ocean Surface Temperature Balance in the Eastern Tropical Oceans from Remote Sensing and Model Reanalyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, J. Brent; Clayson, C. A.

    2012-01-01

    Residual forcing necessary to close the MLTB on seasonal time scales are largest in regions of strongest surface heat flux forcing. Identifying the dominant source of error - surface heat flux error, mixed layer depth estimation, ocean dynamical forcing - remains a challenge in the eastern tropical oceans where ocean processes are very active. Improved sub-surface observations are necessary to better constrain errors. 1. Mixed layer depth evolution is critical to the seasonal evolution of mixed layer temperatures. It determines the inertia of the mixed layer, and scales the sensitivity of the MLTB to errors in surface heat flux and ocean dynamical forcing. This role produces timing impacts for errors in SST prediction. 2. Errors in the MLTB are larger than the historical 10Wm-2 target accuracy. In some regions, a larger accuracy can be tolerated if the goal is to resolve the seasonal SST cycle.

  11. Application of SMAP Data for Ocean Surface Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fore, A.; Yueh, S. H.; Tang, W.; Stiles, B. W.; Hayashi, A.

    2017-12-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission was launched January 31st, 2015. It is designed to measure the soil moisture over land using a combined active / passive L-band system. Due to the Aquarius mission, L-band model functions for ocean winds and salinity are mature and are directly applicable to the SMAP mission. In contrast to Aquarius, the higher resolution and scanning geometry of SMAP allow for wide-swath ocean winds and salinities to be retrieved. In this talk we present the SMAP Sea Surface Salinity (SSS) and extreme winds dataset and its performance. First we discuss the heritage of SMAP SSS algorithms, showing that SMAP and Aquarius show excellent agreement in the ocean surface roughness correction. Then, we give an overview of some newly developed algorithms that are only relevant to the SMAP system; a new galaxy correction and land correction enabling SSS retrievals up to 40 km from coast. We discuss recent improvements to the SMAP data processing for version 4.0. Next we compare the performance of the SMAP SSS to in-situ salinity measurements obtained from ARGO floats, tropical moored buoys, and ship-based data. SMAP SSS has accuracy of 0.2 PSU on a monthly basis compared to ARGO gridded data in tropics and mid-latitudes. In tropical oceans, time series comparison of salinity measured at 1 m depth by moored buoys indicates SMAP can track large salinity changes within a month. Synergetic analysis of SMAP, SMOS, and Argo data allows us to identify and exclude erroneous buoy data from assessment of SMAP SSS. The resulting SMAP-buoy matchup analysis gives a mean standard deviation (STD) of 0.22 PSU and correlation of 0.73 on weekly scale; at monthly scale the mean STD decreased to 0.17 PSU and the correlation increased to 0.8. In addition to SSS, SMAP provides a view into tropical cyclones having much higher sensitivity than traditional scatterometers. We validate the high-winds using collocations with SFMR during tropical cyclones as well as

  12. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from station Schodack Island hydro/weather by Hudson River Environmental Conditions Observing System (HRECOS) and assembled by Mid-Atlantic Regional Association Coastal Ocean Observing System (MARACOOS) in the Hudson River from 2008-04-25 to 2017-05-31 (NCEI Accession 0163416)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0163416 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected at Schodack Island hydro/weather, a fixed station in the Hudson River. These...

  13. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from station Port of Albany weather/hydro by Hudson River Environmental Conditions Observing System (HRECOS) and assembled by Mid-Atlantic Regional Association Coastal Ocean Observing System (MARACOOS) in the Hudson River from 2011-01-04 to 2017-07-31 (NCEI Accession 0163364)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0163364 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected at Port of Albany weather/hydro, a fixed station in the Hudson River. These...

  14. Chemistry of Frozen NaCl and MgSO4 Brines - Implications for Surface Expression of Europa's Ocean Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, P. V.; Hodyss, R. P.; Choukroun, M.; Vu, T. H.

    2015-12-01

    The composition of Europa's subsurface ocean is a critical determinant of its habitability, but current analysis of the ocean composition is limited to its expression on the Europan surface. While there is observational evidence indicating that ocean materials make their way to the surface, our understanding of the chemical processes that can alter this material under Europan surface conditions is limited. We present experimental data on the chemistry of mixed solutions of NaCl and MgSO4 as they are frozen to 100 K, replicating the conditions that may occur when subsurface ocean fluids are emplaced onto Europa's surface. Confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy is used to study the formation of salts during the freezing process, and the interaction of ions in the frozen brines. Our data indicate that mixed aqueous solutions of NaCl and MgSO4 form Na2SO4 and MgCl2 preferentially when frozen, rather than making NaCl and MgSO4 precipitates. The detection of epsomite (MgSO4Ÿ•7H2O) on Europa's surface may therefore imply an ocean composition relatively low in sodium, unless radiolytic chemistry converts MgCl2 to MgSO4 as suggested by Hand and Brown 2013 (ApJ 145 110). These results have important implications for the interpretation of remote sensing data of Europa's surface.

  15. Impacts of Ocean Waves on the Atmospheric Surface Layer: Simulations and Observations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sullivan, Peter P; McWilliams, James C; Melville, W. K

    2008-01-01

    ... planetary boundary layers (PBL). Efforts were focused on the effects of surface gravity waves on the near-surface dynamics, surface fluxes, and coupling between the atmospheric and oceanic PBLs...

  16. Warming Ocean Conditions Relate to Increased Trophic Requirements of Threatened and Endangered Salmon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A Daly

    Full Text Available The trophic habits, size and condition of yearling Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha caught early in their marine residence were examined during 19 survey years (1981-1985; 1998-2011. Juvenile salmon consumed distinct highly piscivorous diets in cold and warm ocean regimes with major differences between ocean regimes driven by changes in consumption of juvenile rockfishes, followed by several other fish prey, adult euphausiids and decapod larvae. Notable, Chinook salmon consumed 30% more food in the warm versus cold ocean regime in both May and June. Additionally, there were about 30% fewer empty stomachs in the warm ocean regime in May, and 10% fewer in warm June periods. The total prey energy density consumed during the warmer ocean regime was also significantly higher than in cold. Chinook salmon had lower condition factor and were smaller in fork length during the warm ocean regime, and were longer and heavier for their size during the cold ocean regime. The significant increase in foraging during the warm ocean regime occurred concurrently with lower available prey biomass. Adult return rates of juvenile Chinook salmon that entered the ocean during a warm ocean regime were lower. Notably, our long term data set contradicts the long held assertion that juvenile salmon eat less in a warm ocean regime when low growth and survival is observed, and when available prey are reduced. Comparing diet changes between decades under variable ocean conditions may assist us in understanding the effects of projected warming ocean regimes on juvenile Chinook salmon and their survival in the ocean environment. Bioenergetically, the salmon appear to require more food resources during warm ocean regimes.

  17. Warming Ocean Conditions Relate to Increased Trophic Requirements of Threatened and Endangered Salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Elizabeth A; Brodeur, Richard D

    2015-01-01

    The trophic habits, size and condition of yearling Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) caught early in their marine residence were examined during 19 survey years (1981-1985; 1998-2011). Juvenile salmon consumed distinct highly piscivorous diets in cold and warm ocean regimes with major differences between ocean regimes driven by changes in consumption of juvenile rockfishes, followed by several other fish prey, adult euphausiids and decapod larvae. Notable, Chinook salmon consumed 30% more food in the warm versus cold ocean regime in both May and June. Additionally, there were about 30% fewer empty stomachs in the warm ocean regime in May, and 10% fewer in warm June periods. The total prey energy density consumed during the warmer ocean regime was also significantly higher than in cold. Chinook salmon had lower condition factor and were smaller in fork length during the warm ocean regime, and were longer and heavier for their size during the cold ocean regime. The significant increase in foraging during the warm ocean regime occurred concurrently with lower available prey biomass. Adult return rates of juvenile Chinook salmon that entered the ocean during a warm ocean regime were lower. Notably, our long term data set contradicts the long held assertion that juvenile salmon eat less in a warm ocean regime when low growth and survival is observed, and when available prey are reduced. Comparing diet changes between decades under variable ocean conditions may assist us in understanding the effects of projected warming ocean regimes on juvenile Chinook salmon and their survival in the ocean environment. Bioenergetically, the salmon appear to require more food resources during warm ocean regimes.

  18. Thermal evolution of an early magma ocean in interaction with the atmosphere: conditions for the condensation of a water ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebrun T.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The thermal evolution of magma oceans produced by collision with giant impactors late in accretion is xpected to depend on the composition and structure of the atmosphere through the greenhouse effect of CO2 and H2O released from the magma during its crystallization. We developed a 1D parameterized convection model of a magma ocean coupled with a 1D radiative convective model of the atmosphere. We conducted a parametric study and described the influences of some important parameters such as the Sun-planet distance. Our results suggest that a steam atmosphere delays the end of the magma ocean phase by typically 1 Myr. Water vapor condenses to an ocean after 0.1 Myr, 1.5 Myr and 10 Myr for, respectively, Mars, Earth and Venus. This time would be virtually infinite for an Earth-sized planet located at less than 0.66 AU from the Sun. So there are conditions such as no water ocean is formed on Venus. Moreover, for Mars and Earth, water ocean formation time scales are shorter than typical time gaps between major impacts. This implies that successive water oceans may have developed during accretion, making easier the loss of their atmospheres by impact erosion.

  19. High colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) absorption in surface waters of the central-eastern Arctic Ocean: Implications for biogeochemistry and ocean color algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves-Araujo, Rafael; Rabe, Benjamin; Peeken, Ilka; Bracher, Astrid

    2018-01-01

    As consequences of global warming sea-ice shrinking, permafrost thawing and changes in fresh water and terrestrial material export have already been reported in the Arctic environment. These processes impact light penetration and primary production. To reach a better understanding of the current status and to provide accurate forecasts Arctic biogeochemical and physical parameters need to be extensively monitored. In this sense, bio-optical properties are useful to be measured due to the applicability of optical instrumentation to autonomous platforms, including satellites. This study characterizes the non-water absorbers and their coupling to hydrographic conditions in the poorly sampled surface waters of the central and eastern Arctic Ocean. Over the entire sampled area colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) dominates the light absorption in surface waters. The distribution of CDOM, phytoplankton and non-algal particles absorption reproduces the hydrographic variability in this region of the Arctic Ocean which suggests a subdivision into five major bio-optical provinces: Laptev Sea Shelf, Laptev Sea, Central Arctic/Transpolar Drift, Beaufort Gyre and Eurasian/Nansen Basin. Evaluating ocean color algorithms commonly applied in the Arctic Ocean shows that global and regionally tuned empirical algorithms provide poor chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) estimates. The semi-analytical algorithms Generalized Inherent Optical Property model (GIOP) and Garver-Siegel-Maritorena (GSM), on the other hand, provide robust estimates of Chl-a and absorption of colored matter. Applying GSM with modifications proposed for the western Arctic Ocean produced reliable information on the absorption by colored matter, and specifically by CDOM. These findings highlight that only semi-analytical ocean color algorithms are able to identify with low uncertainty the distribution of the different optical water constituents in these high CDOM absorbing waters. In addition, a clustering of the Arctic Ocean

  20. The causes of alkalinity variations in the global surface ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Fry, Claudia Helen

    2016-01-01

    Human activities have caused the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) to increase by 120 ppmv from pre-industrial times to 2014. The ocean takes up approximately a quarter of the anthropogenic CO2, causing ocean acidification (OA). Therefore it is necessary to study the ocean carbonate system, including alkalinity, to quantify the flux of CO2 into the ocean and understand OA. Since the 1970s, carbonate system measurements have been undertaken which can be analyzed to quantify the...

  1. Arctic surface temperatures from Metop AVHRR compared to in situ ocean and land data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Dybkjær

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The ice surface temperature (IST is an important boundary condition for both atmospheric and ocean and sea ice models and for coupled systems. An operational ice surface temperature product using satellite Metop AVHRR infra-red data was developed for MyOcean. The IST can be mapped in clear sky regions using a split window algorithm specially tuned for sea ice. Clear sky conditions prevail during spring in the Arctic, while persistent cloud cover limits data coverage during summer. The cloud covered regions are detected using the EUMETSAT cloud mask. The Metop IST compares to 2 m temperature at the Greenland ice cap Summit within STD error of 3.14 °C and to Arctic drifting buoy temperature data within STD error of 3.69 °C. A case study reveals that the in situ radiometer data versus satellite IST STD error can be much lower (0.73 °C and that the different in situ measurements complicate the validation. Differences and variability between Metop IST and in situ data are analysed and discussed. An inter-comparison of Metop IST, numerical weather prediction temperatures and in situ observation indicates large biases between the different quantities. Because of the scarcity of conventional surface temperature or surface air temperature data in the Arctic, the satellite IST data with its relatively good coverage can potentially add valuable information to model analysis for the Arctic atmosphere.

  2. Ocean-atmosphere interaction and synoptic weather conditions in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    latent heat and momentum fluxes at air-sea interface. Synoptic scale monsoon disturbances formed only during the period of strong north-south pressure gradient over the Bay region. Events of prominent fall in SST and in the upper 15m ocean layer mean temperature and salinity values during typical rainfall events are ...

  3. Artificial ocean upwelling utilizing the energy of surface waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloviev, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Artificial upwelling can bring cold water from below the thermocline to the sea surface. Vershinsky, Pshenichnyy, and Soloviev (1987) developed a prototype device, utilizing the energy of surface waves to create an upward flow of water in the tube. This is a wave-inertia pump consisting of a vertical tube, a valve, and a buoy to keep the device afloat. An outlet valve at the top of the unit synchronizes the operation of the device with surface waves and prevents back-splashing. A single device with a 100 m long and 1.2 m diameter tube is able to produce up to 1 m3s-1 flow of deep water to the surface. With a 10 oC temperature difference over 100 m depth, the negative heat supply rate to the sea surface is 42 MW, which is equivalent to a 42 Wm-2 heat flux, if distributed over 1 km2 area. Such flux is comparable to the average net air-sea flux. A system of artificial upwelling devices can cool down the sea surface, modify climate on a regional scale and possibly help mitigate hurricanes. The cold water brought from a deeper layer, however, has a larger density than the surface water and therefore has a tendency to sink back down. In this work, the efficiency of wave-inertia pumps and climatic consequences are estimated for different environmental conditions using a computational fluid dynamics model.

  4. Ocean acidification impacts bacteria – phytoplankton coupling at low-nutrient conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hornick, T.; Bach, L.T.; Crawfurd, K.J.; Spilling, K.; Achterberg, E.P.; Woodhouse, J.N.; Schulz, K.G.; Brussaard, C.P.D.; Riebesell, U.; Grossart, H.-P.

    2017-01-01

    The oceans absorb about a quarter of the annuallyproduced anthropogenic atmospheric carbon dioxide(CO2/, resulting in a decrease in surface water pH, aprocess termed ocean acidification (OA). Surprisingly littleis known about how OA affects the physiology of heterotrophicbacteria or the coupling of

  5. Spiraling pathways of global deep waters to the surface of the Southern Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Tamsitt, Veronica; Drake, Henri F.; Morrison, Adele K.; Talley, Lynne D.; Dufour, Carolina O.; Gray, Alison R.; Griffies, Stephen M.; Mazloff, Matthew R.; Sarmiento, Jorge L.; Wang, Jinbo; Weijer, Wilbert

    2017-01-01

    Upwelling of global deep waters to the sea surface in the Southern Ocean closes the global overturning circulation and is fundamentally important for oceanic uptake of carbon and heat, nutrient resupply for sustaining oceanic biological production, and the melt rate of ice shelves. However, the exact pathways and role of topography in Southern Ocean upwelling remain largely unknown. Here we show detailed upwelling pathways in three dimensions, using hydrographic observations and particle trac...

  6. Impact of Surface Waves on SWOT’s Projected Ocean Accuracy

    OpenAIRE

    Peral, Eva; Rodríguez, Ernesto; Esteban-Fernández, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission being considered by NASA has, as one of its main objectives, to measure ocean topography with centimeter scale accuracy over kilometer scale spatial resolution. This paper investigates the impact of ocean waves on SWOT’s projected performance. Several effects will be examined: volumetric decorrelation, aliasing of ocean waves, backscattering modulation, and the so-called surfboard sampling.

  7. Highly stable superhydrophobic surfaces under flow conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moonchan; Yim, Changyong; Jeon, Sangmin

    2015-01-01

    We synthesized hydrophobic anodic aluminum oxide nanostructures with pore diameters of 35, 50, 65, and 80 nm directly on quartz crystal microresonators, and the stability of the resulting superhydrophobicity was investigated under flow conditions by measuring changes in the resonance frequency and dissipation factor. When the quartz substrates were immersed in water, their hydrophobic surfaces did not wet due to the presence of an air interlayer. The air interlayer was gradually replaced by water over time, which caused decreases in the resonance frequency (i.e., increases in mass) and increases in the dissipation factor (i.e., increases in viscous damping). Although the water contact angles of the nanostructures increased with increasing pore size, the stability of their superhydrophobicity increased with decreasing pore size under both static conditions (without flow) and dynamic conditions (with flow); this increase can be attributed to an increase in the solid surface area that interacts with the air layer above the nanopores as the pore size decreases. Further, the effects of increasing the flow rate on the stability of the superhydrophobicity were quantitatively determined.

  8. [Measurements of surface ocean carbon dioxide partial pressure during WOCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the research progress of the second year of research under Measurement of Surface Ocean Carbon Dioxide Partial Pressure During WOCE'' and proposes to continue measurements of underway pCO[sub 2]. During most of the first year of this grant, our efforts to measure pCO[sub 2] on WOCE WHP legs were frustrated by ship problems. The R/V Knorr, which was originally scheduled to carry out the first work on WHP lines P19 and P16 in the southeastem Pacific during the 1990-91 austral summer, was delayed in the shipyard during her mid-life refit for more than a year. In the interim, the smaller R/V Thomas Washington, was pressed into service to carry out lower-latitude portions of WHP lines P16 and P17 during mid-1991 (TUNES Expedition). We installed and operated our underway chromatographic system on this expedition, even though space and manpower on this smaller vessel were limited and no one from our group would be aboard any of the 3 WHP expedition legs. The results for carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide are shown. A map of the cruise track is shown for each leg, marked with cumulative distance. Following each track is a figure showing the carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide results as a function of distance along this track. The results are plotted as dry-gas mole fractions (in ppm and ppb, respectively) in air and in gas equilibrated with surface seawater at a total pressure equal to the barometric pressure. The air data are plotted as a 10-point running mean, and appear as a roughly horizontal line. The seawater data are plotted as individual points, using a 5-point Gaussian smoother. Equal values Of xCO[sub 2] in air and surface seawater indicate air-sea equilibrium.

  9. The Ocean Surface Topography Sentinel-6/Jason-CS Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giulicchi, L.; Cullen, R.; Donlon, C.; Vuilleumier@esa int, P.

    2016-12-01

    The Sentinel-6/Jason-CS mission consists of two identical satellites flying in sequence and designed to provide operational measurements of sea surface height significant wave high and wind speed to support operational oceanography and climate monitoring. The mission will be the latest in a series of ocean surface topography missions that will span nearly three decades. They follow the altimeters on- board TOPEX/Poseidon through to Jason-3 (launched in January 2016). Jason-CS will continue to fulfil objectives of the reference series whilst introducing a major enhancement in capability providing the operational and science oceanographic community with the state of the art in terms of spacecraft, measurement instrumentation design thus securing optimal operational and science data return. As a secondary objective the mission will also include Radio Occultation user services. Each satellite will be launched sequentially into the Jason orbit (up to 66 latitude) respectively in 2020 and 2025. The principle payload instrument is a high precision Ku/C band radar altimeter with retrieval of geophysical parameters (surface elevation, wind speed and SWH) from the altimeter data require supporting measurements: a DORIS receiver for Precise Orbit Determination; The Climate Quality Advanced Microwave Radiometer (AMR-C) for high stability path delay correction. Orbit tracking data are also provided by GPS & LRA. An additional GPS receiver will be dedicated to radio-occultation measurements. The programme is a part of the European Community Copernicus initiative, whose objective is to support Europe's goals regarding sustainable development and global governance of the environment by providing timely and quality data, information, services and knowledge. The Sentinel-6/Jason-CS in particular is a cooperative mission with contributions from NASA, NOAA, EUMETSAT, ESA, CNES and the European Union.

  10. Three Dimensional Dynamics of Freshwater Lenses in the Oceans Near Surface Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-14

    the potential impact of these fluxes on the barrier layer and Aquarius and Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite image formations. By...contributing to the salinity field detected in the Aquarius and Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) sat- ellite footprints. The barrier layer (Lukas...operational algorithms for sea surface salinity satellites. Oceanic advection and mixing funda- mentally affect the sea surface salinity sig - nal

  11. Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT) gridded data products

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sabine, C.L.; Hankin, S.; Koyuk, H.; Bakker, D.C.E.; Pfeil, B.; Olsen, A; Metzl, N.; Kozyr, A; Fassbender, A; Manke, A; Malczyk, J.; Akl, J.; Alin, S.R.; Bellerby, R.G.J.; Borges, A; Boutin, J.; Brown, P.J.; Cai, W.-J.; Chavez, F.P.; Chen, A.; Cosca, C.; Feely, R.A.; Gonzalez-Davila, M.; Goyet, C.; Hardman-Mountford, N.; Heinze, C.; Hoppema, M.; Hunt, C.W.; Hydes, D.; Ishii, M.; Johannessen, T.; Key, R.M.; Kortzinger, A.; Landschutzer, P.; Lauvset, S.K.; Lefevre, N.; Lenton, A.; Lourantou, A.; Merlivat, L.; Midorikawa, T.; Mintrop, L.; Miyazaki, C.; Murata, A.; Nakadate, A.; Nakano, Y.; Nakaoka, S.; Nojiri, Y.; Omar, A.M.; Padin, X.A.; Park, G.-H.; Paterson, K.; Perez, F.F.; Pierrot, D.; Poisson, A.; Rios, A.F.; Salisbury, J.; Santana-Casiano, J.M.; Sarma, V.V.S.S.; et al.

    As a response to public demand for a well-documented, quality controlled, publically available, global surface ocean carbon dioxide (CO2) data set, the international marine carbon science community developed the Surface Ocean CO2...

  12. Distribution of benthic foraminifers (>125 um) in the surface sediments of the Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterman, Lisa E.; Poore, Richard Z.; Foley, Kevin M.

    1999-01-01

    Census data on benthic foraminifers (>125 ?m) in surface sediment samples from 49 box cores are used to define four depth-controlled biofacies, which will aid in the paleoceanographic reconstruction of the Arctic Ocean. The shelf biofacies contains a mix of shallow-water calcareous and agglutinated species from the continental shelves of the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas and reflects the variable sedimentologic and oceanic conditions of the Arctic shelves. The intermediate-depth calcareous biofacies, found between 500 and 1,100 meters water depth (mwd), contains abundant Cassidulina teretis , presumably indicating the influence of Atlantic-derived water at this depth. In water depths between 1,100 and 3,500 m, a deepwater calcareous biofacies contains abundant Oridorsalis umbonatus . Below 3,500 mwd, the deepwater mixed calcareous/agglutinated biofacies of the Canada, Makarov, and Eurasian Basins reflects a combination of low productivity, dissolution, and sediment transport. Two other benthic foraminiferal species show specific environmental preferences. Fontbotia wuellerstorfi has a depth distribution between 900 and 3,500 mwd, but maximum abundance occurs in the region of the Mendeleyev Ridge. The elevated abundance of F. wuellerstorfi may be related to increased food supply carried by a branch of Atlantic water that crosses the Lomonosov Ridge near the Russian Continental Shelf. Triloculina frigida is recognized to be a species preferring lower slope sediments commonly disturbed by turbidites and bottom currents. INTRODUCTION At present, our understanding of the Arctic Ocean lags behind our understanding of other oceans, and fundamental questions still exist about its role in and response to global climate change. The Arctic Ocean is particularly sensitive to climatic fluctuations because small changes in the amounts of sea-ice cover can alter global albedo and thermohaline circulation (Aagaard and Carmack, 1994). Numerous questions still exist regarding the nature

  13. Remote sensing of global surface shortwave radiation and PAR over the ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, Catherine H.; Byers, Michael L.

    1992-12-01

    During the past few years many methods have been proposed for estimating surface radiative fluxes (shortwave radiation, photosynthetically active radiation - PAR) from satellite observations. We have developed algorithms for computing the shortwave radiative flux (shortwave irradiance) at the ocean surface from visible radiance observations and they have been found to be quite successful under most atmospheric and cloud conditions. For broken clouds, however, the simple plane parallel assumption for solving the radiative transfer equations may need to be corrected to account for cloud geometry. The estimation of PAR is simpler because the most commonly used satellite radiance measurements cover a similar region of the solar spectrum. We are in the process of producing global $ARDNSW and PAR as a contribution to the Sequoia 2000 project (to implement a distributed processing system designed for the needs of global change researchers). Results from our algorithms developed for Sequoia and preliminary global surface solar irradiance and PAR fields are presented and discussed.

  14. Surface Ocean Circulation and Dynamics in the Philippine Archipelago Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, W.; Moore, A. M.; Levin, J.; Zhang, B.; Arango, H. G.; Curchitser, E.; di Lorenzo, E.; Gordon, A. L.; Lin, J.

    2008-12-01

    The dynamics of the seasonal surface circulation in the Philippine Archipelago (117E-128E, 0N-14N) are investigated using a high-resolution Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) for the period of 2004 - March 2008. Three experiments are performed to estimate the relative importance of local, remote and tidal forcing. On annual mean, circulation in the Sulu Sea is dominated by the inflow from the South China Sea at the Mindoro and Balabac Straits, outflow into the Sulawesi Sea at the Sibutu Passage, and cyclonic circulation in the Sulu basin. A strong jet forms in the northeast Sulu Sea when currents from the Mindoro and Tablas Straits converge. Within the Archipelago, strong westward currents in the Bohol Sea carry the western Pacific (WP) Water from the Surigao Strait into the Sulu Sea via the Dipolog Strait. In the Sibuyan Sea, currents flow westward, which carry part of the WP water from the San Bernardino Strait into the Sulu Sea via the Tablas Strait. The surface circulations exhibit strong seasonal variations or reversals from winter to summer. The variations of volume transports above 40m at the Mindoro Strait, Balabac Strait and Sibutu Passage of the Sulu Sea and at the Verde Island Passage are dominated by remote forcing, although local forcing can be large sometimes. At the Tablas and Dipolog Straits, variations of transports result from both remote and local forcing. The cyclonic (anticyclonic) gyres during winter (summer) in the Sulu Sea and seasonally reversing currents in the Archipelago result mainly from local forcing. Nonlinear rectification of tides acts to reduce the mean transports at the Surigao, San Bernardino and Dipolog Straits, and it also affects the Sulu Sea circulation perhaps by tidal mixing and shifting the locations of jets and eddies.

  15. Improving NOAA's NWLON Through Enhanced Data Inputs from NASA's Ocean Surface Topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, DeNeice C.

    2010-01-01

    This report assesses the benefit of incorporating NASA's OSTM (Ocean Surface Topography Mission) altimeter data (C- and Ku-band) into NOAA's (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) NWLON (National Water Level Observation Network) DSS (Decision Support System). This data will enhance the NWLON DSS by providing additional inforrnation because not all stations collect all meteorological parameters (sea-surface height, ocean tides, wave height, and wind speed over waves). OSTM will also provide data where NWLON stations are not present. OSTM will provide data on seasurface heights for determining sea-level rise and ocean circulation. Researchers and operational users currently use satellite altimeter data products with the GSFCOO NASA data model to obtain sea-surface height and ocean circulation inforrnation. Accurate and tirnely inforrnation concerning sea-level height, tide, and ocean currents is needed to irnprove coastal tidal predictions, tsunarni and storm surge warnings, and wetland restoration.

  16. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from ODEN in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2006-12-14 to 2006-12-26 (NODC Accession 0108159)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0108159 includes Surface underway data collected from ODEN in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60 degrees...

  17. Auto-correlation analysis of ocean surface wind vectors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M. Senthilkumar (Newgen Imaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    satellite and in situ measurements. A case study using the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) and. Indian Ocean buoy wind speed data resulted in an improvement of about 10%. 1. Introduction. The need for studying temporal variability of oceanic winds has been pointed out by many authors (for example, Ezraty R S 1989).

  18. Soliton turbulence in shallow water ocean surface waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Andrea; Osborne, Alfred R; Resio, Donald T; Alessio, Silvia; Chrivì, Elisabetta; Saggese, Enrica; Bellomo, Katinka; Long, Chuck E

    2014-09-05

    We analyze shallow water wind waves in Currituck Sound, North Carolina and experimentally confirm, for the first time, the presence of soliton turbulence in ocean waves. Soliton turbulence is an exotic form of nonlinear wave motion where low frequency energy may also be viewed as a dense soliton gas, described theoretically by the soliton limit of the Korteweg-deVries equation, a completely integrable soliton system: Hence the phrase "soliton turbulence" is synonymous with "integrable soliton turbulence." For periodic-quasiperiodic boundary conditions the ergodic solutions of Korteweg-deVries are exactly solvable by finite gap theory (FGT), the basis of our data analysis. We find that large amplitude measured wave trains near the energetic peak of a storm have low frequency power spectra that behave as ∼ω-1. We use the linear Fourier transform to estimate this power law from the power spectrum and to filter densely packed soliton wave trains from the data. We apply FGT to determine the soliton spectrum and find that the low frequency ∼ω-1 region is soliton dominated. The solitons have random FGT phases, a soliton random phase approximation, which supports our interpretation of the data as soliton turbulence. From the probability density of the solitons we are able to demonstrate that the solitons are dense in time and highly non-Gaussian.

  19. Investigating the Potential Impact of the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) Altimeter on Ocean Mesoscale Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrier, M.; Ngodock, H.; Smith, S. R.; Souopgui, I.

    2016-02-01

    NASA's Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite, scheduled for launch in 2020, will provide sea surface height anomaly (SSHA) observations with a wider swath width and higher spatial resolution than current satellite altimeters. It is expected that this will help to further constrain ocean models in terms of the mesoscale circulation. In this work, this expectation is investigated by way of twin data assimilation experiments using the Navy Coastal Ocean Model Four Dimensional Variational (NCOM-4DVAR) data assimilation system using a weak constraint formulation. Here, a nature run is created from which SWOT observations are sampled, as well as along-track SSHA observations from simulated Jason-2 tracks. The simulated SWOT data has appropriate spatial coverage, resolution, and noise characteristics based on an observation-simulator program provided by the SWOT science team. The experiment is run for a three-month period during which the analysis is updated every 24 hours and each analysis is used to initialize a 96 hour forecast. The forecasts in each experiment are compared to the available nature run to determine the impact of the assimilated data. It is demonstrated here that the SWOT observations help to constrain the model mesoscale in a more consistent manner than traditional altimeter observations. The findings of this study suggest that data from SWOT may have a substantial impact on improving the ocean model analysis and forecast of mesoscale features and surface ocean transport.

  20. Ferruginous conditions: A dominant feature of the ocean through Earth’s history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulton, Simon W.; Canfield, Donald Eugene

    2011-01-01

    The reconstruction of oceanic paleoredox conditions on Earth is essential for investigating links between biospheric oxygenation and major periods of biological innovation and extinction, and for unravelling feedback mechanisms associated with paleoenvironmental change. The occurrence of anoxic...

  1. Southern Hemisphere anticyclonic circulation drives oceanic and climatic conditions in late Holocene southernmost Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Annette; Schefuß, Enno; Andò, Sergio; Cawthra, Hayley C.; Frenzel, Peter; Kugel, Martin; Meschner, Stephanie; Mollenhauer, Gesine; Zabel, Matthias

    2017-06-01

    Due to the high sensitivity of southern Africa to climate change, a reliable understanding of its hydrological system is crucial. Recent studies of the regional climatic system have revealed a highly complex interplay of forcing factors on precipitation regimes. This includes the influence of the tropical easterlies, the strength of the southern hemispheric westerlies as well as sea surface temperatures along the coast of the subcontinent. However, very few marine records have been available in order to study the coupling of marine and atmospheric circulation systems. Here we present results from a marine sediment core, recovered in shallow waters off the Gouritz River mouth on the south coast of South Africa. Core GeoB18308-1 allows a closer view of the last ˜ 4 kyr. Climate sensitive organic proxies, like the distribution and isotopic composition of plant-wax lipids as well as indicators for sea surface temperatures and soil input, give information on oceanographic and hydrologic changes during the recorded time period. Moreover, the micropaleontology, mineralogical and elemental composition of the sediments reflect the variability of the terrigenous input to the core site. The combination of down-core sediment signatures and a catchment-wide provenance study indicate that the Little Ice Age ( ˜ 300-650 cal yr BP) was characterized by climatic conditions favorable to torrential flood events. The Medieval Climate Anomaly ( ˜ 950-650 cal yr BP) is expressed by lower sea surface temperatures in the Mossel Bay area and humid conditions in the Gouritz River catchment. These new results suggest that the coincidence of humid conditions and cooler sea surface temperatures along the south coast of South Africa resulted from a strengthened and more southerly anticyclonic circulation. Most probably, the transport of moisture from the Indian Ocean by strong subtropical easterlies was coupled with Agulhas Bank upwelling pulses, which were initiated by an increase in

  2. Surface area and the seabed area, volume, depth, slope, and topographic variation for the world's seas, oceans, and countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Mark John; Cheung, Alan; De Hauwere, Nathalie

    2010-12-01

    Depth and topography directly and indirectly influence most ocean environmental conditions, including light penetration and photosynthesis, sedimentation, current movements and stratification, and thus temperature and oxygen gradients. These parameters are thus likely to influence species distribution patterns and productivity in the oceans. They may be considered the foundation for any standardized classification of ocean ecosystems and important correlates of metrics of biodiversity (e.g., species richness and composition, fisheries). While statistics on ocean depth and topography are often quoted, how they were derived is rarely cited, and unless calculated using the same spatial resolution the resulting statistics will not be strictly comparable. We provide such statistics using the best available resolution (1-min) global bathymetry, and open source digital maps of the world's seas and oceans and countries' Exclusive Economic Zones, using a standardized methodology. We created a terrain map and calculated sea surface and seabed area, volume, and mean, standard deviation, maximum, and minimum, of both depth and slope. All the source data and our database are freely available online. We found that although the ocean is flat, and up to 71% of the area has a ocean volume exceeds 1.3 billion km(3) (or 1.3 sextillion liters), and sea surface and seabed areas over 354 million km(2). We propose the coefficient of variation of slope as an index of topographic heterogeneity. Future studies may improve on this database, for example by using a more detailed bathymetry, and in situ measured data. The database could be used to classify ocean features, such as abyssal plains, ridges, and slopes, and thus provide the basis for a standards based classification of ocean topography.

  3. Ocean acidification impacts bacteria-phytoplankton coupling at low-nutrient conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornick, Thomas; Bach, Lennart T.; Crawfurd, Katharine J.; Spilling, Kristian; Achterberg, Eric P.; Woodhouse, Jason N.; Schulz, Kai G.; Brussaard, Corina P. D.; Riebesell, Ulf; Grossart, Hans-Peter

    2017-01-01

    The oceans absorb about a quarter of the annually produced anthropogenic atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), resulting in a decrease in surface water pH, a process termed ocean acidification (OA). Surprisingly little is known about how OA affects the physiology of heterotrophic bacteria or the coupling of heterotrophic bacteria to phytoplankton when nutrients are limited. Previous experiments were, for the most part, undertaken during productive phases or following nutrient additions designed to stimulate algal blooms. Therefore, we performed an in situ large-volume mesocosm ( ˜ 55 m3) experiment in the Baltic Sea by simulating different fugacities of CO2 (fCO2) extending from present to future conditions. The study was conducted in July-August after the nominal spring bloom, in order to maintain low-nutrient conditions throughout the experiment. This resulted in phytoplankton communities dominated by small-sized functional groups (picophytoplankton). There was no consistent fCO2-induced effect on bacterial protein production (BPP), cell-specific BPP (csBPP) or biovolumes (BVs) of either free-living (FL) or particle-associated (PA) heterotrophic bacteria, when considered as individual components (univariate analyses). Permutational Multivariate Analysis of Variance (PERMANOVA) revealed a significant effect of the fCO2 treatment on entire assemblages of dissolved and particulate nutrients, metabolic parameters and the bacteria-phytoplankton community. However, distance-based linear modelling only identified fCO2 as a factor explaining the variability observed amongst the microbial community composition, but not for explaining variability within the metabolic parameters. This suggests that fCO2 impacts on microbial metabolic parameters occurred indirectly through varying physicochemical parameters and microbial species composition. Cluster analyses examining the co-occurrence of different functional groups of bacteria and phytoplankton further revealed a separation of

  4. A cold and fresh ocean surface in the Nordic Seas during MIS 11: Significance for the future ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kandiano, E.S.; Van der Meer, M.T.J.; Bauch, H.A.; Helmke, J.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Schouten, S.

    2016-01-01

    Paleoceanographical studies of Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 11 have revealed higher-than-presentsea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the North Atlantic and in parts of the Arctic but lower-than-present SSTsin the Nordic Seas, the main throughflow area of warm water into the Arctic Ocean. We resolve

  5. A cold and fresh ocean surface in the Nordic Seas during MIS 11 : Significance for the future ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kandiano, Evgenia S.; van der Meer, M.T.J.; Bauch, H.A.; Helmke, Jan; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Schouten, S.

    2016-01-01

    Paleoceanographical studies of Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 11 have revealed higher-than-present sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the North Atlantic and in parts of the Arctic but lower-than-present SSTs in the Nordic Seas, the main throughflow area of warm water into the Arctic Ocean. We resolve

  6. Geoengineering impact of open ocean dissolution of olivine on atmospheric CO2, surface ocean pH and marine biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Köhler, Peter; Abrams, Jesse F; Völker, Christoph; Hauck, Judith; Wolf-Gladrow, Dieter A

    2013-01-01

    Ongoing global warming induced by anthropogenic emissions has opened the debate as to whether geoengineering is a ‘quick fix’ option. Here we analyse the intended and unintended effects of one specific geoengineering approach, which is enhanced weathering via the open ocean dissolution of the silicate-containing mineral olivine. This approach would not only reduce atmospheric CO 2 and oppose surface ocean acidification, but would also impact on marine biology. If dissolved in the surface ocean, olivine sequesters 0.28 g carbon per g of olivine dissolved, similar to land-based enhanced weathering. Silicic acid input, a byproduct of the olivine dissolution, alters marine biology because silicate is in certain areas the limiting nutrient for diatoms. As a consequence, our model predicts a shift in phytoplankton species composition towards diatoms, altering the biological carbon pumps. Enhanced olivine dissolution, both on land and in the ocean, therefore needs to be considered as ocean fertilization. From dissolution kinetics we calculate that only olivine particles with a grain size of the order of 1 μm sink slowly enough to enable a nearly complete dissolution. The energy consumption for grinding to this small size might reduce the carbon sequestration efficiency by ∼30%. (letter)

  7. Respiration of new and old carbon in the surface ocean: Implications for estimates of global oceanic gross primary productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Matheus C.; Schulz, Kai G.; Eyre, Bradley D.

    2017-06-01

    New respiration (Rnew, of freshly fixated carbon) and old respiration (Rold, of storage carbon) were estimated for different regions of the global surface ocean using published data on simultaneous measurements of the following: (1) primary productivity using 14C (14PP); (2) gross primary productivity (GPP) based on 18O or O2; and (3) net community productivity (NCP) using O2. The ratio Rnew/GPP in 24 h incubations was typically between 0.1 and 0.3 regardless of depth and geographical area, demonstrating that values were almost constant regardless of large variations in temperature (0 to 27°C), irradiance (surface to 100 m deep), nutrients (nutrient-rich and nutrient-poor waters), and community composition (diatoms, flagellates, etc,). As such, between 10 and 30% of primary production in the surface ocean is respired in less than 24 h, and most respiration (between 55 and 75%) was of older carbon. Rnew was most likely associated with autotrophs, with minor contribution from heterotrophic bacteria. Patterns were less clear for Rold. Short 14C incubations are less affected by respiratory losses. Global oceanic GPP is estimated to be between 70 and 145 Gt C yr-1.Plain Language SummaryHere we present a comprehensive coverage of ocean new and old respiration. Our results show that nearly 20% of oceanic gross primary production is consumed in the first 24 h. However, most (about 60%) respiration is of older carbon fixed at least 24 h before its consumption. Rates of new respiration relative to gross primary production were remarkably constant for the entire ocean, which allowed a preliminary estimation of global primary productivity as between 70 and 145 gt C yr-1.

  8. Sensitivity of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current transport to surface buoyancy conditions in the North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shantong; Liu, Jinliang

    2017-10-01

    The sensitivity of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) transport to surface buoyancy conditions in the North Atlantic is investigated using a sector configuration of an ocean general circulation model. We find that the sensitivity of the ACC transport is significantly weaker than previous studies. We attribute this difference to the different depth of the simulated Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. Because a fast restoring buoyancy boundary condition is used that strongly constrains the surface buoyancy structure at the Southern Ocean surface, the ACC transport is determined by the isopycnal slope that is coupled to the overturning circulation in the Southern Ocean. By changing the surface buoyancy in the North Atlantic, the shared buoyancy contour between the North Atlantic and the Southern Ocean is varied, and consequently the strength of the overturning circulation is modified. For different depth of the simulated overturning circulation, the response of the ACC transport to changes in the strength of the overturning circulation varies substantially. This is illustrated in two conceptual models based on the residual-mean theory of overturning circulation. Our results imply that the sensitivity of the ACC transport to surface forcing in the North Atlantic could vary substantially in different models depending on the simulated vertical structure of the overturning circulation.

  9. Marine environmental conditions in the SW Indian Ocean and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dry weather prevails in a NW-SE band across Madagascar and the adjacent island nations; and, - Sea surface temperatures (SST) off Angola increase well in advance. Further work is needed to compare marine environmental signals that could emerge from locally sourced fish catch data and those reported here with the ...

  10. Transport and scavenging of Pu in surface waters of the Southern Hemisphere Oceans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gastaud, J.; Povinec, P.P.; Aoyama, M.

    2011-01-01

    of the conservative 137Cs tracer are in all three oceanic basins comparable. The primary productivity reflected by the chlorophyll content in surface waters has similar longitudinal distribution as 239Pu. Radioactive and chlorophyll tracers revealed that the most important current system in each southern oceanic...

  11. Evolving research directions in Surface Ocean-Lower Atmosphere (SOLAS) science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Law, Cliff S.; Breviere, Emilie; de Leeuw, Gerrit; Garcon, Veronique; Guieu, Cecile; Kieber, David J.; Kontradowitz, Stefan; Paulmier, Aurelien; Quinn, Patricia K.; Saltzman, Eric S.; Stefels, Jacqueline; von Glasow, Roland

    2013-01-01

    This review focuses on critical issues in ocean-atmosphere exchange that will be addressed by new research strategies developed by the international Surface Ocean-Lower Atmosphere Study (SOLAS) research community. Eastern boundary upwelling systems are important sites for CO2 and trace gas emission

  12. The Surface Water and Ocean Topography Mission: a mission concept to study the world's oceans and fresh water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaze, Parag; Albuys, Vincent; Esteban-Fernandez, Daniel; Lafon, Thierry; Lambin, Juliette; Mallet, Alain; Rodriguez, Ernesto

    2010-10-01

    The Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) is a planned satellite mission to study the world's oceans and terrestrial surface water bodies. The SWOT mission concept has been proposed jointly by the global Hydrology and Oceanography science communities to make the first global survey of the Earth's surface water, observe the fine details of the ocean's surface topography, and measure how water bodies change over time. SWOT was one of 15 missions listed in the 2007 National Research Council's Decadal Survey for Earth science as a mission that NASA should implement in the incoming decade. This mission concept builds upon the heritage of prior missions and technologies such as Topex/Poseidon, Jason-1/ 2, the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), and the initial development of the Wide Swatch Ocean Altimeter intended for the Ocean Surface Topography Mission/Jason-2. The key measurement capability for SWOT is provided by a Ka-band synthetic aperture radar interferometer (KaRIn). With an orbit altitude of 970 km, the KaRIn instrument provides a high-resolution swath width of 120 km enabling global coverage (~90%) of the world's ocean's and fresh water bodies. The KaRIn measurement is being designed to provide a spatial resolution of 1 km for the oceans (after on-board processing), and 100 m for land water, both at centimetric accuracy. An additional instrument suite similar to the Jason series will complement KaRIn: a Ku-band nadir altimeter, a Microwave Radiometer and Precision Orbit Determination (POD) systems. To enable this challenging measurement performance, the SWOT mission concept is designed to overcome several challenges, such as very high raw data rate (320 Mbps), large on-board data volumes, high power demand, stringent pointing and stability requirements, and ground data processing systems, to produce meaningful science data products to our user community. The SWOT mission concept is being developed as a cooperative effort between NASA and CNES. This

  13. Photoheterotrophy of bacterioplankton is ubiquitous in the surface oligotrophic ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Claire; Gómez-Pereira, Paola R.; Martin, Adrian P.; Scanlan, David J.; Zubkov, Mikhail V.

    2015-06-01

    Accurate measurements in the Southern Hemisphere were obtained to test a hypothesis of the ubiquity of photoheterotrophy in the oligotrophic ocean. We present experimental results of light-enhanced uptake of methionine, leucine and ATP by bacterioplankton during two large-scale transects of the South Atlantic. Light increased the uptake of substrates by both dominant bacterioplankton groups, Prochlorococcus and SAR11, as well as for the bulk microbial community. Our consistent experimental evidence strongly indicates that photoheterotrophy is characteristic of dominant bacterioplankton populations in the global oligotrophic ocean.

  14. Influence of Met-Ocean Condition Forecasting Uncertainties on Weather Window Predictions for Offshore Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gintautas, Tomas; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2017-01-01

    The article briefly presents a novel methodology of weather window estimation for offshore operations and mainly focuses on effects of met-ocean condition forecasting uncertainties on weather window predictions when using the proposed methodology. It is demonstrated that the proposed methodology...... to include stochastic variables, representing met-ocean forecasting uncertainties and the results of such modification are given in terms of predicted weather windows for a selected test case....

  15. Novel Methods for Optically Measuring Whitecaps Under Natural Wave Breaking Conditions in the Southern Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, K. L.; Dierssen, H. M.; Cifuentes-Lorenzen, A.; Balch, W. M.; Monahan, E. C.; Zappa, C. J.; Drapeau, D.; Bowler, B.

    2016-02-01

    Breaking waves on the ocean surface mark areas of significant importance to air-sea flux estimates of gas, aerosols, and heat. Traditional methods of measuring whitecap coverage using digital photography can miss features that are small in size or do not show high enough contrast to the background. The geometry of the images collected captures the near surface, bright manifestations of the whitecap feature and miss a portion of the bubble plume that is responsible for the production of sea salt aerosols and the transfer of lower solubility gases. Here, a novel method for accurately measuring both the fractional coverage of whitecaps and the intensity and decay rate of whitecap events using above water radiometry is presented. The methodology was developed using data collected during the austral summer in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean under a large range of wind (speeds of 1 to 15 m s-1) and wave (significant wave heights 2 to 8 m) conditions as part of the Southern Ocean Gas Exchange experiment. Whitecap metrics were retrieved by employing a magnitude threshold based on the interquartile range of the radiance or reflectance signal for a single channel (411 nm) after a baseline removal, determined using a moving minimum/maximum filter. Breaking intensity and decay rate metrics were produced from the integration of, and the exponential fit to, radiance or reflectance over the lifetime of the whitecap. When compared to fractional whitecap coverage measurements obtained from high resolution digital images, radiometric estimates were consistently higher because they capture more of the decaying bubble plume area that is difficult to detect with photography. Radiometrically-retrieved whitecap measurements are presented in the context of concurrently measured meteorological (e.g., wind speed) and oceanographic (e.g., wave) data. The optimal fit of the radiometrically estimated whitecap coverage to the instantaneous wind speed, determined using ordinary least

  16. Near-surface circulation and kinetic energy in the tropical Indian Ocean derived from lagrangian drifters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shenoi, S.S.C.; Saji, P.K.; Almeida, A.M.

    Trajectories of 412 satellite-tracked drifting buoys deployed in the tropical Indian Ocean have been analyzed to document the surface circulation and kinetic energy field. Only drifters drogued at 15 m depth and having drag area ratio greater than...

  17. Calibration and Validation of High Frequency Radar for Ocean Surface Current Mapping

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kim, Kyung

    2004-01-01

    High Frequency (HF) radar backscatter instruments are being developed and tested in the marine science and defense science communities for their abilities to sense surface parameters remotely in the coastal ocean over large areas...

  18. Retrieval of sea surface air temperature from satellite data over Indian Ocean: An empirical approach

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sathe, P.V.; Muraleedharan, P.M.

    The sea surface air temperature is an important parameter required for computation of air-sea fluxes over oceans which at present cannot be directly measured from remote sensing. In the present article, an empirical approach is proposed to determine...

  19. Pathways of upwelling deep waters to the surface of the Southern Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamsitt, Veronica; Drake, Henri; Morrison, Adele; Talley, Lynne; Dufour, Carolina; Gray, Alison; Griffies, Stephen; Mazloff, Matthew; Sarmiento, Jorge; Wang, Jinbo; Weijer, Wilbert

    2017-04-01

    Upwelling of Atlantic, Indian and Pacific deep waters to the sea surface in the Southern Ocean closes the global overturning circulation and is fundamentally important for oceanic uptake of anthropogenic carbon and heat, nutrient resupply for sustaining oceanic biological production, and the melt rate of ice shelves. Here we go beyond the two-dimensional view of Southern Ocean upwelling, to show detailed Southern Ocean upwelling pathways in three dimensions, using hydrographic observations and particle tracking in high-resolution ocean and climate models. The northern deep waters enter the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) via narrow southward currents along the boundaries of the three ocean basins, before spiraling southeastward and upward through the ACC. Upwelling is greatly enhanced at five major topographic features, associated with vigorous mesoscale eddy activity. Deep water reaches the upper ocean predominantly south of the southern ACC boundary, with a spatially nonuniform distribution, regionalizing warm water supply to Antarctic ice shelves and the delivery of nutrient and carbon-rich water to the sea surface. The timescale for half of the deep water to upwell from 30°S to the mixed layer is on the order of 60-90 years, which has important implications for the timescale for signals to propagate through the deep ocean. In addition, we quantify the diabatic transformation along particle trajectories, to identify where diabatic processes are important along the upwelling pathways.

  20. Retrieval of sea surface velocities using sequential Ocean Colour ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Indian remote sensing satellite, IRS-P4 (Oceansat-I) launched on May 26th, 1999 carried two sensors on board, i.e., the Ocean Colour Monitor (OCM) and the Multi-frequency Scanning Microwave Radiometer (MSMR) dedicated for oceanographic research. Sequential data of IRS-P4 OCM has been analysed over parts ...

  1. Retrieval of sea surface velocities using sequential Ocean Colour ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    The Indian remote sensing satellite, IRS-P4 (Oceansat-I) launched on May 26th, 1999 carried two sensors on board, i.e., the Ocean Colour Monitor (OCM) and the Multi-frequency Scanning. Microwave Radiometer (MSMR) dedicated for oceanographic research. Sequential data of IRS-P4. OCM has been analysed over ...

  2. Extensional terrain formation on Europa and Ganymede: Implications for ocean-surface interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, S. M.; Pappalardo, R. T.

    2017-12-01

    Europa and Ganymede, Galilean satellites of Jupiter, exhibit geologic activity in their outer H2O ice shells that might convey material from water oceans within the satellites to their surfaces. Imagery from the Voyager and Galileo spacecraft reveal surfaces rich with tectonic deformation, including dilational bands on Europa and groove lanes on Ganymede. These features are generally attributed to the extension of a brittle ice lithosphere overlaying a possibly convecting ice asthenosphere. To explore band formation and interaction with interior oceans, we employ fully visco-elasto-plastic 2-D models of faulting and convection with complex, realistic pure ice rheologies. In these models, material entering from below is tracked and considered to be "fossilized ocean," ocean material that has frozen into the ice shell and evolves through geologic time. We track the volume fraction of fossil ocean material in the ice shell as a function of depth, and the exposure of both fresh ice and fossil ocean material at the ice shell surface. We vary ice shell thickness, fault localization, melting-temperature ice viscosity, and the presence of pre-existing weaknesses. Mechanisms which act to weaken the ice shell and thin the lithosphere (e.g. vigorous convection, thinner shells, pre-existing weaknesses) tend to plastically yield to form smooth bands at high strains, and are more likely to incorporate fossil ocean material in the ice shell and expose it at the surface. In contrast, lithosphere strengthened by rapid fault annealing or increased viscosity, for example, exhibits large-scale tectonic rifting at low strains superimposed over pre-existing terrains, and inhibits the incorporation and delivery of fossil ocean material to the surface. Thus, our results identify a spectrum of extensional terrain formation mechanisms as linked to lithospheric strength, rather than any specific mechanism being unique to each type of band, and where in this spectrum ocean material

  3. Latitudinal and seasonal capacity of the surface oceans as a reservoir of polychlorinated biphenyls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurado, Elena; Lohmann, Rainer; Meijer, Sandra; Jones, Kevin C.; Dachs, Jordi

    2004-01-01

    The oceans play an important role as a global reservoir and ultimate sink of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls congeners (PCBs). However, the physical and biogeochemical variables that affect the oceanic capacity to retain PCBs show an important spatial and temporal variability which have not been studied in detail, so far. The objective of this paper is to assess the seasonal and spatial variability of the ocean's maximum capacity to act as a reservoir of atmospherically transported and deposited PCBs. A level I fugacity model is used which incorporates the environmental variables of temperature, phytoplankton biomass, and mixed layer depth, as determined from remote sensing and from climatological datasets. It is shown that temperature, phytoplankton biomass and mixed layer depth influence the potential PCB reservoir of the oceans, being phytoplankton biomass specially important in the oceanic productive regions. The ocean's maximum capacities to hold PCBs are estimated. They are compared to a budget of PCBs in the surface oceans derived using a level III model that assumes steady state and which incorporates water column settling fluxes as a loss process. Results suggest that settling fluxes will keep the surface oceanic reservoir of PCBs well below its maximum capacity, especially for the more hydrophobic compounds. The strong seasonal and latitudinal variability of the surface ocean's storage capacity needs further research, because it plays an important role in the global biogeochemical cycles controlling the ultimate sink of PCBs. Because this modeling exercise incorporates variations in downward fluxes driven by phytoplankton and the extent of the water column mixing, it predicts more complex latitudinal variations in PCBs concentrations than those previously suggested. - Model calculations estimate the latitudinal and seasonal storage capacity of the surface oceans for PCBs

  4. Electron Conditioning of Technical Aluminium Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Pimpec, F

    2004-09-02

    The effect of electron conditioning on commercially aluminium alloys 1100 and 6063 were investigated. Contrary to the assumption that electron conditioning, if performed long enough, can reduce and stabilize the SEY to low values (= 1.3, value of many pure elements [1]), the SEY of aluminium did not go lower than 1.8. In fact, it reincreases with continued electron exposure dose.

  5. Ocean Surface Waves and Turbulence: Air-Sea Fluxes and Climate Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melville, W. Kendall

    2009-11-01

    Apart from heating of the atmosphere, two of the most important consequences of current climate variability are changes in sea level, and acidification of the oceans. Over decadal time scales, changes in sea level are caused by changes in heat content and salinity of the ocean, and by changes in mass resulting from exchanges between the ocean, glaciers and other land-based reservoirs. The oceans have absorbed about one third of the anthropogenic CO2 due to fossil fuel burning. This reduces the green house effect in the atmosphere, but the CO2 reacts in the surface waters of the ocean to lower pH. Conservative projections of sea level rise over the next century are O(0.1 - 1) m, while ocean acidification is already having an impact on marine ecosystems. Both these processes depend on air-sea fluxes: heat flux for sea level rise, and gas flux for ocean acidification. These fluxes are among the most poorly constrained in current climate models, but both ultimately depend on fluid dynamics at the ocean surface and in the adjacent boundary layers. Traditional boundary layer models of the marine boundary layer and the marine atmospheric boundary layer were based on classical theories of boundary layers over rigid surfaces, but there is increasing evidence that these models must now include surface wave effects. In this talk the motivating climate data and modeling will be briefly reviewed, and then recent work on surface wave dynamics, air-sea fluxes and the adjacent boundary layers will be presented. The roles of surface wave breaking, Langmuir circulations, wave-turbulence interactions and gravity-capillary waves will be discussed.

  6. Statistical fluctuations of an ocean surface inferred from shoes and ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerche, Ian; Maubeuge, Frédéric

    1995-12-01

    This paper shows that it is possible to roughly estimate some ocean properties using simple time-dependent statistical models of ocean fluctuations. Based on a real incident, the loss by a vessel of a Nike shoes container in the North Pacific Ocean, a statistical model was tested on data sets consisting of the Nike shoes found by beachcombers a few months later. This statistical treatment of the shoes' motion allows one to infer velocity trends of the Pacific Ocean, together with their fluctuation strengths. The idea is to suppose that there is a mean bulk flow speed that can depend on location on the ocean surface and time. The fluctuations of the surface flow speed are then treated as statistically random. The distribution of shoes is described in space and time using Markov probability processes related to the mean and fluctuating ocean properties. The aim of the exercise is to provide some of the properties of the Pacific Ocean that are otherwise calculated using a sophisticated numerical model, OSCURS, where numerous data are needed. Relevant quantities are sharply estimated, which can be useful to (1) constrain output results from OSCURS computations, and (2) elucidate the behavior patterns of ocean flow characteristics on long time scales.

  7. Progress in investigations on thermo-hydraulic characteristics of ship nuclear reactors under ocean conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Jian; Li Longjian; Huang Yanping; Huang Jun; Wang Yanlin

    2011-01-01

    The thermo-hydraulic characteristics of ship nuclear reactors are very important to the safety and reliability of ship voyage under the ocean conditions. Therefore, many countries have carried out plentiful investigations. This paper is based on some Asia open literature of investigations on thermo-hydraulic characteristics of ship nuclear reactors under the ocean conditions, reviews and sums up those main progresses such as the method, contents and typical results in this field, analyzes their insufficiency, and puts forward advices on the future investigation based on the known research findings. (authors)

  8. Statistical multi-model climate projections of surface ocean waves in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Jorge; Menendez, Melisa; Camus, Paula; Mendez, Fernando J.; Losada, Inigo J.

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, the impact of climate change on sea surface waves has received increasingly more attention by the climate community. Indeed, ocean waves reaching the coast play an important role in several processes concerning coastal communities, such as inundation and erosion. However, regional downscaling at the high spatial resolution necessary for coastal studies has received less attention. Here, we present a novel framework for regional wave climate projections and its application in the European region. Changes in the wave dynamics under different scenarios in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean are analyzed. The multi-model projection methodology is based on a statistical downscaling approach. The statistical relation between the predictor (atmospheric conditions) and the predictand (multivariate wave climate) is based on a weather type (WT) classification. This atmospheric classification is developed by applying the k-means clustering technique over historical offshore sea level pressure (SLP) fields. Each WT is linked to sea wave conditions from a wave hindcast. This link is developed by associating atmospheric conditions from reanalysis with multivariate local waves. This predictor-predictand relationship is applied to the daily SLP fields from global climate models (GCMs) in order to project future changes in regional wave conditions. The GCMs used in the multi-model projection are selected according to skill criteria. The application of this framework uses CMIP5-based wave climate projections in Europe. The low computational requirements of the statistical approach allow a large number of GCMs and climate change scenarios to be studied. Consistent with previous works on global wave climate projections, the estimated changes from the regional wave climate projections show a general decrease in wave heights and periods in the Atlantic Europe for the late twenty-first century. The regional projections, however, allow a more detailed

  9. Free surface flows under compensated gravity conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Dreyer, Miachel E

    2007-01-01

    This book considers the behavior of fluids in a low-gravity environment with special emphasis on application in PMD (propellant management device) systems . In the compensated gravity environment of a spacecraft, the hydrostatic pressure decreases to very low values depending on the residual acceleration, and surface tension forces become dominant. Consequently, surface tension can be used to transport and position liquids if the residual acceleration and the resulting hydrostatic pressure are small compared to the capillary pressure. One prominent application is the use of PMDs in surface-tension satellite tanks. PMDs must ensure that the tank outlet is covered with liquid whenever outflow is demanded. Furthermore, PMDs are used to ensure expulsion and refilling of tanks for liquids and gases for life support, reactants, and experiment supplies. Since most of the PMD designs are not testable on ground and thus rely on analytical or numerical concepts, this book treats three different flow problems with analy...

  10. How do uncertainties in NCEP R2 and CFSR surface fluxes impact tropical ocean simulations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Caihong; Xue, Yan; Kumar, Arun; Behringer, David; Yu, Lisan

    2017-11-01

    NCEP/DOE reanalysis (R2) and Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) surface fluxes are widely used by the research community to understand surface flux climate variability, and to drive ocean models as surface forcings. However, large discrepancies exist between these two products, including (1) stronger trade winds in CFSR than in R2 over the tropical Pacific prior 2000; (2) excessive net surface heat fluxes into ocean in CFSR than in R2 with an increase in difference after 2000. The goals of this study are to examine the sensitivity of ocean simulations to discrepancies between CFSR and R2 surface fluxes, and to assess the fidelity of the two products. A set of experiments, where an ocean model was driven by a combination of surface flux components from R2 and CFSR, were carried out. The model simulations were contrasted to identify sensitivity to different component of the surface fluxes in R2 and CFSR. The accuracy of the model simulations was validated against the tropical moorings data, altimetry SSH and SST reanalysis products. Sensitivity of ocean simulations showed that temperature bias difference in the upper 100 m is mostly sensitive to the differences in surface heat fluxes, while depth of 20 °C (D20) bias difference is mainly determined by the discrepancies in momentum fluxes. D20 simulations with CFSR winds agree with observation well in the western equatorial Pacific prior 2000, but have large negative bias similar to those with R2 winds after 2000, partly because easterly winds over the central Pacific were underestimated in both CFSR and R2. On the other hand, the observed temperature variability is well reproduced in the tropical Pacific by simulations with both R2 and CFSR fluxes. Relative to the R2 fluxes, the CFSR fluxes improve simulation of interannual variability in all three tropical oceans to a varying degree. The improvement in the tropical Atlantic is most significant and is largely attributed to differences in surface winds.

  11. Influence of Met-Ocean Condition Forecasting Uncertainties on Weather Window Predictions for Offshore Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gintautas, Tomas; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2017-01-01

    The article briefly presents a novel methodology of weather window estimation for offshore operations and mainly focuses on effects of met-ocean condition forecasting uncertainties on weather window predictions when using the proposed methodology. It is demonstrated that the proposed methodology...... to include stochastic variables, representing met-ocean forecasting uncertainties and the results of such modification are given in terms of predicted weather windows for a selected test case....... has the capacity to retain the uncertainties of met-ocean condition forecasting and transfer them into uncertainties of probability of operation failure. In addition to that, improvements to the failure function, used to define operation failure are presented. The failure function is modified...

  12. System for Monitoring, Determining, and Reporting Directional Spectra of Ocean Surface Waves in Near Realtime from a Moored Buoy

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A moored buoy floating at the ocean surface and anchored to the seafloor precisely measures acceleration, pitch, roll, and Earth's magnetic flux field of the buoy...

  13. Sea Surface Salinity and Ocean Color Observations in the Northern Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesson, J. C.; Burrage, D. M.; Wang, D. W.; Howden, S. D.

    2012-04-01

    ) Flights over NOAA buoys (which record in situ winds, waves, and temperature) in star-shaped patterns, for roughness studies. 4) Mapping flights to map salinity near a ship or buoy. Observations of high salinity gradient conditions near the coast allow us to evaluate SMOS SSS measurements near to shore under optimal conditions. The campaign was conducted at a time when the Mississippi River had been diverted into the Morganza spillway due to record high river levels (flow rate exceeding 42,500 m^3/s), in order to reduce flooding risk for Baton Rouge and New Orleans, LA. The Morganza spillway had last been used for flood diversion in 1973. The diverted flow went into the Atchafalaya river and Atchafalaya Bay, west of the Mississippi River outlet. In this paper we concentrate on the near coastal observations (see also Burrage, Wesson, Wang, Hwang, and Howden, "Coincident Retrieval of Sea Surface Salinity from the Northern Gulf of Mexico Using SMOS and STARRS During the 2011 COSSAR Airborne Campaign") of ocean color and SSS, to map the extent of the freshwater plumes of the Atchafalaya and Mississippi outflows. We evaluate the effectiveness of the ocean color measurements as a proxy for SSS, in comparison with the airborne L-band SSS measurements, and also assess the SMOS nearshore salinity measurements.

  14. Enhanced Decadal Warming of the Southeast Indian Ocean During the Recent Global Surface Warming Slowdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanlong; Han, Weiqing; Zhang, Lei

    2017-10-01

    The rapid Indian Ocean warming during the early-21th century was a major heat sink for the recent global surface warming slowdown. Analysis of observational data and ocean model experiments reveals that during 2003-2012 more than half of the increased upper Indian Ocean heat content was concentrated in the southeast Indian Ocean (SEIO), causing a warming "hot spot" of 0.8-1.2 K decade-1 near the west coast of Australia. This SEIO warming was primarily induced by the enhancements of the Pacific trade winds and Indonesian throughflow associated with the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation's (IPO) transition to its negative phase, and to a lesser degree by local atmospheric forcing within the Indian Ocean. Large-ensemble climate model simulations suggest that this warming event was likely also exacerbated by anthropogenic forcing and thus unprecedentedly strong as compared to previous IPO transition periods. Climate model projections suggest an increasing possibility of such strong decadal warming in future.

  15. Macrofauna under sea ice and in the open surface layer of the Lazarev Sea, Southern Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flores, Hauke; van Franeker, Jan-Andries; Cisewski, Boris; Leach, Harry; Van de Putte, Anton P.; Meesters, Erik (H. W. G.); Bathmann, Ulrich; Wolff, Wirn J.

    2011-01-01

    A new fishing gear was used to sample the macrozooplankton and micronekton community in the surface layer (0-2 m) under ice and in open water, the Surface and Under Ice Trawl (SUIT). In total, 57 quantitative hauls were conducted in the Lazarev Sea (Southern Ocean) during 3 different seasons (autumn

  16. Macrofauna under sea ice and in the open surface layer of the Lazarev Sea, Southern Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Florentino De Souza Silva, A.P.; Franeker, van J.A.; Cisewski, B.; Leach, H.; Putte, van de A.P.; Meesters, H.W.G.; Bathmann, U.; Wolff, W.J.

    2011-01-01

    A new fishing gear was used to sample the macrozooplankton and micronekton community in the surface layer (0–2 m) under ice and in open water, the Surface and Under Ice Trawl (SUIT). In total, 57 quantitative hauls were conducted in the Lazarev Sea (Southern Ocean) during 3 different seasons (autumn

  17. Surface temperatures of the Mid-Pliocene North Atlantic Ocean: Implications for future climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowsett, Harry J.; Chandler, Mark A.; Robinson, Marci M.

    2009-01-01

    The Mid-Pliocene is the most recent interval in the Earth's history to have experienced warming of the magnitude predicted for the second half of the twenty-first century and is, therefore, a possible analogue for future climate conditions. With continents basically in their current positions and atmospheric CO2 similar to early twenty-first century values, the cause of Mid-Pliocene warmth remains elusive. Understanding the behaviour of the North Atlantic Ocean during the Mid-Pliocene is integral to evaluating future climate scenarios owing to its role in deep water formation and its sensitivity to climate change. Under the framework of the Pliocene Research, Interpretation and Synoptic Mapping (PRISM) sea surface reconstruction, we synthesize Mid-Pliocene North Atlantic studies by PRISM members and others, describing each region of the North Atlantic in terms of palaeoceanography. We then relate Mid-Pliocene sea surface conditions to expectations of future warming. The results of the data and climate model comparisons suggest that the North Atlantic is more sensitive to climate change than is suggested by climate model simulations, raising the concern that estimates of future climate change are conservative.

  18. Sea surface temperature predictions using a multi-ocean analysis ensemble scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Zhu, Jieshun; Li, Zhongxian; Chen, Haishan; Zeng, Gang

    2017-08-01

    This study examined the global sea surface temperature (SST) predictions by a so-called multiple-ocean analysis ensemble (MAE) initialization method which was applied in the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Climate Forecast System Version 2 (CFSv2). Different from most operational climate prediction practices which are initialized by a specific ocean analysis system, the MAE method is based on multiple ocean analyses. In the paper, the MAE method was first justified by analyzing the ocean temperature variability in four ocean analyses which all are/were applied for operational climate predictions either at the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts or at NCEP. It was found that these systems exhibit substantial uncertainties in estimating the ocean states, especially at the deep layers. Further, a set of MAE hindcasts was conducted based on the four ocean analyses with CFSv2, starting from each April during 1982-2007. The MAE hindcasts were verified against a subset of hindcasts from the NCEP CFS Reanalysis and Reforecast (CFSRR) Project. Comparisons suggested that MAE shows better SST predictions than CFSRR over most regions where ocean dynamics plays a vital role in SST evolutions, such as the El Niño and Atlantic Niño regions. Furthermore, significant improvements were also found in summer precipitation predictions over the equatorial eastern Pacific and Atlantic oceans, for which the local SST prediction improvements should be responsible. The prediction improvements by MAE imply a problem for most current climate predictions which are based on a specific ocean analysis system. That is, their predictions would drift towards states biased by errors inherent in their ocean initialization system, and thus have large prediction errors. In contrast, MAE arguably has an advantage by sampling such structural uncertainties, and could efficiently cancel these errors out in their predictions.

  19. Evolving research directions in Surface Ocean-Lower Atmosphere (SOLAS) science

    OpenAIRE

    Law, CS; Brévière, E; De Leeuw, G; Garçon, V; Guieu, C; Kieber, DJ; Kontradowitz, S; Paulmier, A; Quinn, PK; Saltzman, ES; Stefels, J; Von Glasow, R

    2013-01-01

    This review focuses on critical issues in ocean-atmosphere exchange that will be addressed by new research strategies developed by the international Surface Ocean-Lower Atmosphere Study (SOLAS) research community. Eastern boundary upwelling systems are important sites for CO 2 and trace gas emission to the atmosphere, and the proposed research will examine how heterotrophic processes in the underlying oxygen-deficient waters interact with the climate system. The second regional research focu...

  20. Comparison of several databases of downward solar daily irradiation data at ocean surface with PIRATA measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trolliet, Mélodie; Wald, Lucien

    2017-04-01

    The solar radiation impinging at sea surface is an essential variable in climate system. There are several means to assess the daily irradiation at surface, such as pyranometers aboard ship or on buoys, meteorological re-analyses and satellite-derived databases. Among the latter, assessments made from the series of geostationary Meteosat satellites offer synoptic views of the tropical and equatorial Atlantic Ocean every 15 min with a spatial resolution of approximately 5 km. Such Meteosat-derived databases are fairly recent and the quality of the estimates of the daily irradiation must be established. Efforts have been made for the land masses and must be repeated for the Atlantic Ocean. The Prediction and Research Moored Array in the Tropical Atlantic (PIRATA) network of moorings in the Tropical Atlantic Ocean is considered as a reference for oceanographic data. It consists in 17 long-term Autonomous Temperature Line Acquisition System (ATLAS) buoys equipped with sensors to measure near-surface meteorological and subsurface oceanic parameters, including downward solar irradiation. Corrected downward solar daily irradiation from PIRATA were downloaded from the NOAA web site and were compared to several databases: CAMS RAD, HelioClim-1, HelioClim-3 v4 and HelioClim-3 v5. CAMS-RAD, the CAMS radiation service, combines products of the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS) on gaseous content and aerosols in the atmosphere together with cloud optical properties deduced every 15 min from Meteosat imagery to supply estimates of the solar irradiation. Part of this service is the McClear clear sky model that provides estimates of the solar irradiation that should be observed in cloud-free conditions. The second and third databases are HelioClim-1 and HelioClim-3 v4 that are derived from Meteosat images using the Heliosat-2 method and the ESRA clear sky model, based on the Linke turbidity factor. HelioClim-3 v5 is the fourth database and differs from v4 by the

  1. The importance of kinetics and redox in the biogeochemical cycling of iron in the surface ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter L. Croot

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available It is now well established that Iron (Fe is a limiting element in many regions of the open ocean. Our current understanding of the key processes which control iron distribution in the open ocean have been largely based on thermodynamic measurements performed under the assumption of equilibrium conditions. Using this equilibrium approach, researchers have been able to detect and quantify organic complexing ligands in seawater and examine their role in increasing the overall solubility of iron. Our current knowledge about iron bioavailability to phytoplankton and bacteria is also based heavily on carefully controlled laboratory studies where it is assumed the chemical species are in equilibrium in line with the free ion association model (FIAM and/or its successor the biotic ligand model (BLM. Similarly most field work on Fe biogeochemistry generally consists of a single profile which is in essence a ‘snap-shot’ in time of the system under investigation. However it is well known that the surface ocean is an extremely dynamic environment and it is unlikely if thermodynamic equilibrium between all the iron species present is ever truly achieved. In sunlit waters this is mostly due to the daily passage of the sun across the sky leading to photoredox processes which alter Fe speciation by cycling between redox states and between inorganic and organic species. Episodic deposition events, are also important perturbations to iron cycling as they bring new iron to the system altering the equilibrium between species and phases. Over the last 20 years the mesoscale iron enrichment experiments (e.g. IronEx I /II, SOIREE, EisenEx, SOFeX, EIFeX, SAGE, SEEDS and SERIES I /II and the FeCycle (I/II experiments have provided the first insights into processes altering iron speciation and distribution which occur over temporal scales of days to weeks. Here we utilize new field data collected in the open ocean on the redox and complexation kinetics of iron in the

  2. Mechanisms for SAR imaging of ocean surface phenomena: Theory and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesecky, J. F.

    1983-01-01

    Understanding the SAR response to surface wave is a central issue in the analysis of SAR ocean images. The imaging mechanism for gravity waves and the practical question of just which characteristics of the ocean wave field can be measured remotely using SAR were examined. Assessments of wave imaging theory are based primarily on comparisons of the directional wave height variance spectrum psi (K) measured by in situ buoys with estimates from SAR images. Other criteria are also recommended, e.g., the effects of focus adjustments. It is assumed that fluctuations in SAR image intensity are proportional to fluctuations in ocean surface height. If this were true, the Fourier power spectrum of a SAR image and corresponding surface measurements of psi would coincide. Differences between SAR estimates based on this hypothesis and buoy measurements of psi are then used to begin the assessment of rival wave imaging theories.

  3. Out of Thin Air: Microbial Utilization of Atmospheric Gaseous Organics in the Surface Ocean

    KAUST Repository

    Arrieta, Jesus

    2016-01-20

    Volatile and semi-volatile gas-phase organic carbon (GOC) is a largely neglected component of the global carbon cycle, with poorly resolved pools and fluxes of natural and anthropogenic GOC in the biosphere. Substantial amounts of atmospheric GOC are exchanged with the surface ocean, and subsequent utilization of specific GOC compounds by surface ocean microbial communities has been demonstrated. Yet, the final fate of the bulk of the atmospheric GOC entering the surface ocean is unknown. Our data show experimental evidence of efficient use of atmospheric GOC by marine prokaryotes at different locations in the NE Subtropical Atlantic, the Arctic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. We estimate that between 2 and 27% of the prokaryotic carbon demand was supported by GOC with a major fraction of GOC inputs being consumed within the mixed layer. The role of the atmosphere as a key vector of organic carbon subsidizing marine microbial metabolism is a novel link yet to be incorporated into the microbial ecology of the surface ocean as well as into the global carbon budget.

  4. Spatial distributions of Southern Ocean mesozooplankton communities have been resilient to long-term surface warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarling, Geraint A; Ward, Peter; Thorpe, Sally E

    2018-01-01

    The biogeographic response of oceanic planktonic communities to climatic change has a large influence on the future stability of marine food webs and the functioning of global biogeochemical cycles. Temperature plays a pivotal role in determining the distribution of these communities and ocean warming has the potential to cause major distributional shifts, particularly in polar regions where the thermal envelope is narrow. We considered the impact of long-term ocean warming on the spatial distribution of Southern Ocean mesozooplankton communities through examining plankton abundance in relation to sea surface temperature between two distinct periods, separated by around 60 years. Analyses considered 16 dominant mesozooplankton taxa (in terms of biomass and abundance) in the southwest Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean, from net samples and in situ temperature records collected during the Discovery Investigations (1926-1938) and contemporary campaigns (1996-2013). Sea surface temperature was found to have increased significantly by 0.74°C between the two eras. The corresponding sea surface temperature at which community abundance peaked was also significantly higher in contemporary times, by 0.98°C. Spatial projections indicated that the geographical location of community peak abundance had remained the same between the two eras despite the poleward advance of sea surface isotherms. If the community had remained within the same thermal envelope as in the 1920s-1930s, community peak abundance would be 500 km further south in the contemporary era. Studies in the northern hemisphere have found that dominant taxa, such as calanoid copepods, have conserved their thermal niches and tracked surface isotherms polewards. The fact that this has not occurred in the Southern Ocean suggests that other selective pressures, particularly food availability and the properties of underlying water masses, place greater constraints on spatial distributions in this region. It

  5. Multi-mission mean sea surface and geoid models for ocean monitoring within the GOCINA project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, O. B.; Knudsen, P.; Anne, V. L.

    2004-05-01

    A major goal of the EU project GOCINA (Geoid and Ocean Circulation In the North Atlantic) is to develop tools for ocean monitoring using satellite altimetry combined with satellite gravimetry. Furthermore, the project will determine an accurate geoid in the region between Greenland and the UK and, hereby, create a platform for validation of future GOCE Level 2 data and higher order scientific products. The central quantity bridging the geoid and the ocean circulation is the mean dynamic topography, which is the difference between the mean sea surface and the geoid. The mean dynamic topography provides the absolute reference surface for the ocean circulation. The improved determination of the mean circulation will advance the understanding of the role of the ocean mass and heat transport in climate change. To calculate the best possible synthetic mean dynamic topographies a new mean sea surface (KMS03) has been derived from nine years of altimetric data (1993-2001). The regional geoid has furthermore being updated using GRACE and gravimetric data from a recent airborne survey. New synthetic mean dynamic topography models have been computed from the best available geoid models (EGM96, GRACE, GOCINA) and the present mean sea surface models (i.e. CLS01, GSFC00, KMS03). These models will be compared with state of the art hydrodynamic mean dynamic topography models in the North Atlantic GOCINA area. An extended comparison in the Artic Ocean will also be presented to demonstrate the impact of improved geoid and mean sea surface modeling. Particularly using the GRACE derived geoid models, and the KMS03 mean sea surface.

  6. Oceanic whitecaps: Sea surface features detectable via satellite that ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Andreas et al (1995), and figure 1 of Monahan and Spillane (1984). et al (1995) made detailed measurements in a large wave basin of the increases in brightness tempera- ture associated with measured increases in stage A whitecap coverage. It follows that the fraction of the sea surface covered by stage A whitecaps can ...

  7. A role of the Atlantic Ocean in predicting summer surface air temperature over North East Asia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monerie, Paul-Arthur; Robson, Jon; Dong, Buwen; Dunstone, Nick

    2017-10-01

    We assess the ability of the DePreSys3 prediction system to predict the summer (JJAS) surface-air temperature over North East Asia. DePreSys3 is based on a high resolution ocean-atmosphere coupled climate prediction system ( 60 km in the atmosphere and 25 km in the ocean), which is full-field initialized from 1960 to 2014 (26 start-dates). We find skill in predicting surface-air temperature, relative to a long-term trend, for 1 and 2-5 year lead-times over North East Asia, the North Atlantic Ocean and Eastern Europe. DePreSys3 also reproduces the interdecadal evolution of surface-air temperature over the North Atlantic subpolar gyre and North East Asia for both lead times, along with the strong warming that occurred in the mid-1990s over both areas. Composite analysis reveals that the skill at capturing interdecadal changes in North East Asia is associated with the propagation of an atmospheric Rossby wave, which follows the subtropical jet and modulates surface-air temperature from Europe to Eastern Asia. We hypothesise that this `circumglobal teleconnection' pattern is excited over the Atlantic Ocean and is related to Atlantic multi-decadal variability and the associated changes in precipitation over the Sahel and the subtropical Atlantic Ocean. This mechanism is robust for the 2-5 year lead-time. For the 1 year lead-time the Pacific Ocean also plays an important role in leading to skill in predicting SAT over Northeast Asia. Increased temperatures and precipitation over the western Pacific Ocean was found to be associated with a Pacific-Japan like-pattern, which can affect East Asia's climate.

  8. Distinct global warming rates tied to multiple ocean surface temperature changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Shuai-Lei; Luo, Jing-Jia; Huang, Gang; Wang, Pengfei

    2017-07-01

    The globally averaged surface temperature has shown distinct multi-decadal fluctuations since 1900, characterized by two weak slowdowns in the mid-twentieth century and early twenty-first century and two strong accelerations in the early and late twentieth century. While the recent global warming (GW) hiatus has been particularly ascribed to the eastern Pacific cooling, causes of the cooling in the mid-twentieth century and distinct intensity differences between the slowdowns and accelerations remain unclear. Here, our model experiments with multiple ocean sea surface temperature (SST) forcing reveal that, although the Pacific SSTs play essential roles in the GW rates, SST changes in other basins also exert vital influences. The mid-twentieth-century cooling results from the SST cooling in the tropical Pacific and Atlantic, which is partly offset by the Southern Ocean warming. During the recent hiatus, the tropical Pacific-induced strong cooling is largely compensated by warming effects of other oceans. In contrast, during the acceleration periods, ubiquitous SST warming across all the oceans acts jointly to exaggerate the GW. Multi-model simulations with separated radiative forcing suggest diverse causes of the SST changes in multiple oceans during the GW acceleration and slowdown periods. Our results highlight the importance of multiple oceans on the multi-decadal GW rates.

  9. Spiraling pathways of global deep waters to the surface of the Southern Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamsitt, Veronica; Drake, Henri F; Morrison, Adele K; Talley, Lynne D; Dufour, Carolina O; Gray, Alison R; Griffies, Stephen M; Mazloff, Matthew R; Sarmiento, Jorge L; Wang, Jinbo; Weijer, Wilbert

    2017-08-02

    Upwelling of global deep waters to the sea surface in the Southern Ocean closes the global overturning circulation and is fundamentally important for oceanic uptake of carbon and heat, nutrient resupply for sustaining oceanic biological production, and the melt rate of ice shelves. However, the exact pathways and role of topography in Southern Ocean upwelling remain largely unknown. Here we show detailed upwelling pathways in three dimensions, using hydrographic observations and particle tracking in high-resolution models. The analysis reveals that the northern-sourced deep waters enter the Antarctic Circumpolar Current via southward flow along the boundaries of the three ocean basins, before spiraling southeastward and upward through the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. Upwelling is greatly enhanced at five major topographic features, associated with vigorous mesoscale eddy activity. Deep water reaches the upper ocean predominantly south of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, with a spatially nonuniform distribution. The timescale for half of the deep water to upwell from 30° S to the mixed layer is ~60-90 years.Deep waters of the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans upwell in the Southern Oceanbut the exact pathways are not fully characterized. Here the authors present a three dimensional view showing a spiralling southward path, with enhanced upwelling by eddy-transport at topographic hotspots.

  10. Trichodesmium blooms and warm-core ocean surface features in the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyothibabu, R; Karnan, C; Jagadeesan, L; Arunpandi, N; Pandiarajan, R S; Muraleedharan, K R; Balachandran, K K

    2017-08-15

    Trichodesmium is a bloom-forming, diazotrophic, non-heterocystous cyanobacteria widely distributed in the warmer oceans, and their bloom is considered a 'biological indication' of stratification and nitrogen limitation in the ocean surface layer. In the first part of this paper, based on the retrospective analyses of the ocean surface mesoscale features associated with 59 Trichodesmium bloom incidences recorded in the past, 32 from the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal, and 27 from the rest of the world, we have showed that warm-core features have an inducing effect on bloom formation. In the second part, we have considered the environmental preferences of Trichodesmium bloom based on laboratory and field studies across the globe, and proposed a view about how warm-core features could provide an inducing pre-requisite condition for the bloom formation in the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. Proposed that the subsurface waters of warm-core features maintain more likely chances for the conducive nutrient and light conditions required for the triggering of the blooms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Surface free energy for systems with integrable boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goehmann, Frank; Bortz, Michael; Frahm, Holger

    2005-01-01

    The surface free energy is the difference between the free energies for a system with open boundary conditions and the same system with periodic boundary conditions. We use the quantum transfer matrix formalism to express the surface free energy in the thermodynamic limit of systems with integrable boundary conditions as a matrix element of certain projection operators. Specializing to the XXZ spin-1/2 chain we introduce a novel 'finite temperature boundary operator' which characterizes the thermodynamical properties of surfaces related to integrable boundary conditions

  12. Ocean surface waves and winds over the north Indian Ocean from satellite altimeter - preliminary results of SAC-NIO joint project

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, A.; Rajkumar, R.; Gairola, R.M.; Gohil, B.S.; Vethamony, P.; Rao, L.V.G.

    With the aim of retrieving, validating and mapping ocean surface winds and waves in the north Indian Ocean, GEOSAT altimeter data for the period November 1986 to October 1987 and available sea truth data for the above period were processed in SAC...

  13. SWOT: The Surface Water and Ocean Topography Mission. Wide- Swath Altimetric Elevation on Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Lee-Lueng (Editor); Alsdorf, Douglas (Editor); Morrow, Rosemary; Rodriguez, Ernesto; Mognard, Nelly

    2012-01-01

    The elevation of the surface of the ocean and freshwater bodies on land holds key information on many important processes of the Earth System. The elevation of the ocean surface, called ocean surface topography, has been measured by conventional nadirlooking radar altimeter for the past two decades. The data collected have been used for the study of large-scale circulation and sea level change. However, the spatial resolution of the observations has limited the study to scales larger than about 200 km, leaving the smaller scales containing substantial kinetic energy of ocean circulation that is responsible for the flux of heat, dissolved gas and nutrients between the upper and the deep ocean. This flux is important to the understanding of the ocean's role in regulatingfuture climate change.The elevation of the water bodies on land is a key parameter required for the computation of storage and discharge of freshwater in rivers, lakes, and wetlands. Globally, the spatial and temporal variability of water storage and discharge is poorly known due to the lack of well-sampled observations. In situ networks measuring river flows are declining worldwide due to economic and political reasons. Conventional altimeter observations suffers from the complexity of multiple peaks caused by the reflections from water, vegetation canopy and rough topography, resulting in much less valid data over land than over the ocean. Another major limitation is the large inter track distance preventing good coverage of rivers and other water bodies.This document provides descriptions of a new measurement technique using radar interferometry to obtain wide-swath measurement of water elevation at high resolution over both the ocean and land. Making this type of measurement, which addresses the shortcomings of conventional altimetry in both oceanographic and hydrologic applications, is the objective of a mission concept called Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT), which was recommended by

  14. Ocean surface waves in Hurricane Ike (2008) and Superstorm Sandy (2012): Coupled model predictions and observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuyi S.; Curcic, Milan

    2016-07-01

    Forecasting hurricane impacts of extreme winds and flooding requires accurate prediction of hurricane structure and storm-induced ocean surface waves days in advance. The waves are complex, especially near landfall when the hurricane winds and water depth varies significantly and the surface waves refract, shoal and dissipate. In this study, we examine the spatial structure, magnitude, and directional spectrum of hurricane-induced ocean waves using a high resolution, fully coupled atmosphere-wave-ocean model and observations. The coupled model predictions of ocean surface waves in Hurricane Ike (2008) over the Gulf of Mexico and Superstorm Sandy (2012) in the northeastern Atlantic and coastal region are evaluated with the NDBC buoy and satellite altimeter observations. Although there are characteristics that are general to ocean waves in both hurricanes as documented in previous studies, wave fields in Ike and Sandy possess unique properties due mostly to the distinct wind fields and coastal bathymetry in the two storms. Several processes are found to significantly modulate hurricane surface waves near landfall. First, the phase speed and group velocities decrease as the waves become shorter and steeper in shallow water, effectively increasing surface roughness and wind stress. Second, the bottom-induced refraction acts to turn the waves toward the coast, increasing the misalignment between the wind and waves. Third, as the hurricane translates over land, the left side of the storm center is characterized by offshore winds over very short fetch, which opposes incoming swell. Landfalling hurricanes produce broader wave spectra overall than that of the open ocean. The front-left quadrant is most complex, where the combination of windsea, swell propagating against the wind, increasing wind-wave stress, and interaction with the coastal topography requires a fully coupled model to meet these challenges in hurricane wave and surge prediction.

  15. High-Resolution Specification of the Land and Ocean Surface for Improving Regional Mesoscale Model Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Jonathan L.; Lazarus, Steven M.; Splitt, Michael E.; Crosson, William L.; Lapenta, William M.; Jedlovec, Gary J.; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.

    2008-01-01

    The exchange of energy and moisture between the Earth's surface and the atmospheric boundary layer plays a critical role in many meteorological processes. High-resolution, accurate representations of surface properties such as sea-surface temperature (SST), soil temperature and moisture content, ground fluxes, and vegetation are necessary to better understand the Earth-atmosphere interactions and improve numerical predictions of sensible weather. The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center has been conducting separate studies to examine the impacts of high-resolution land-surface initialization data from the Goddard Space Flight Center Land Information System (LIS) on subsequent WRF forecasts, as well as the influence of initializing WRF with SST composites derived from the MODIS instrument. This current project addresses the combined impacts of using high-resolution lower boundary data over both land (LIS data) and water (MODIS SSTs) on the subsequent daily WRF forecasts over Florida during May 2004. For this experiment, the WRF model is configured to run on a nested domain with 9- km and 3-kin grid spacing, centered on the Florida peninsula and adjacent coastal waters of the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean. A control configuration of WRF is established to take all initial condition data from the NCEP Eta model. Meanwhile, two WRF experimental runs are configured to use high-resolution initialization data from (1) LIS land-surface data only, and (2) a combination of LIS data and high-resolution MODIS SST composites. The experiment involves running 24-hour simulations of the control WRF configuration, the MS-initialized WRF, and the LIS+MODIS-initialized WRF daily for the entire month of May 2004. All atmospheric data for initial and boundary conditions for the Control, LIS, and LIS+MODIS runs come from the NCEP Eta model on a 40-km grid. Verification statistics are generated at land surface observation sites and buoys, and the impacts

  16. The Ocean's Vital Skin: Toward an Integrated Understanding of the Sea Surface Microlayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engel, Anja; Bange, Hermann W.; Cunliffe, Michael; Burrows, Susannah M.; Friedrichs, Gernot; Galgani, Luisa; Herrmann, Hartmut; Hertkorn, Norbert; Johnson, Martin; Liss, Peter S.; Quinn, Patricia K.; Schartau, Markus; Soloviev, Alexander; Stolle, Christian; Upstill-Goddard, Robert C.; van Pinxteren, Manuela; Zäncker, Birthe

    2017-05-30

    Despite the huge extent of the ocean’s surface, until now relatively little attention has been paid to the sea surface microlayer (SML) as the ultimate interface where heat, momentum and mass exchange between the ocean and the atmosphere takes place. Via the SML, large-scale environmental changes in the ocean such as warming, acidification, deoxygenation, and eutrophication potentially influence cloud formation, precipitation, and the global radiation balance. Due to the deep connectivity between biological, chemical, and physical processes, studies of the SML may reveal multiple sensitivities to global and regional changes. Understanding the processes at the ocean’s surface, in particular involving the SML as an important and determinant interface, could therefore provide an essential contribution to the reduction of uncertainties regarding ocean-climate feedbacks. This review identifies gaps in our current knowledge of the SML and highlights a need to develop a holistic and mechanistic understanding of the diverse biological, chemical, and physical processes occurring at the ocean-atmosphere interface. We advocate the development of strong interdisciplinary expertise and collaboration in order to bridge between ocean and atmospheric sciences. Although this will pose significant methodological challenges, such an initiative would represent a new role model for interdisciplinary research in Earth System sciences.

  17. Surface conditions and viscoelastic properties of the denture liner Permaflex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buch, D; Beal, Y

    1995-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the viscoelastic properties of Permaflex compared to other soft lining materials. The surface condition of this material was also investigated under both laboratory and simulated clinical conditions and with and without the application of a varnish. The tests provided practical instructions for the use of Permaflex, which showed good adaptive properties to stress and surface condition initially and after adjustment.

  18. Mechanisms for Seasonal and Interannual Sea Surface Salinity Variability in the Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, J.; Stammer, D.; Serra, N.; Bryan, F.

    2016-12-01

    Space-borne salinity data in the Indian Ocean are analyzed over the period 2000-2015 based on data from the European Space Agency's (ESA) "Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity" (SMOS) and the National Aeronautical Space Agency's (NASA) "Aquarius/SAC-D" missions. The seasonal variability is the dominant mode of sea surface salinity (SSS) variability in the Indian Ocean, accounting for more than 50% of salinity variance. Through a combined analysis of the satellite and ARGO data, dominant forcing terms for seasonal salinity changes are identified. It is found, that E-P controls seasonal salinity tendency in the western Indian Ocean, where the ITCZ has a strong seasonal cycle. In contrast, Ekman advection is the dominant term in the northern and eastern equatorial Indian Ocean. The influence of vertical processes on the salinity tendency is enhanced in coastal upwelling regions and south of the equator due to mid-ocean upwelling. Jointly those processes can explain most of the observed seasonal cycle with a correlation of 0.85 and an RMS difference of 0.07/month. However, the detailed composition of driving terms depends on underlying data products. In general, our study confirms previous results from Lisan Yu (2011); however, in the eastern Indian Ocean contrasting results indicate the leading role of meridional Ekman advection to the seasonal salinity tendency instead of surface external forces due to precipitation. The inferred dominant salinity budget terms are confirmed by results obtained from a high resolution NCAR Core model run driven by NCEP forcing fields. From an EOF analysis of the salinity fields after substracting the annual and semiannual cycle we found that the first EOF mode explains more than 20% of salinity variance. The first principal component of SSS EOF is correlated with the Indian Ocean Dipole Mode Index. Nevertheless the EOF pattern shows a meridional tripole structure, while the IOD describes a zonal SST dipole (Saji et al, 1999).

  19. Wavenumber Spectrum of Intermediate-Scale Ocean Surface Waves

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hwang, Paul A

    2005-01-01

    ... (wavelengths between 0.02 and 6 m) under various sea-state conditions. The main result of the analysis is that the dependence of the dimensionless wave spectrum on the dimensionless wind friction velocity follows a power-law function...

  20. Wavenumber Spectrum of Intermediate-Scale Ocean Surface Waves

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hwang, Paul A

    2005-01-01

    ... (wavelengths between 0.02 and 6 meters) under various sea-state conditions. The main result of the analysis is that the dependence of the dimensionless wave spectrum on the dimensionless wind-friction velocity follows a power-law function...

  1. The Wave Glider°: A New Autonomous Surface Vehicle to Augment MBARI's Growing Fleet of Ocean Observing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tougher, B. B.

    2011-12-01

    Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute's (MBARI) evolving fleet of ocean observing systems has made it possible to collect information and data about a wide variety of ocean parameters, enabling researchers to better understand marine ecosystems. In collaboration with Liquid Robotics Inc, the designer of the Wave Glider autonomous surface vehicle (ASV), MBARI is adding a new capability to its suite of ocean observing tools. This new technology will augment MBARI research programs that use satellites, ships, moorings, drifters, autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) and remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) to improve data collection of temporally and spatially variable oceanographic features. The Wave Glider ASV derives its propulsion from wave energy, while sensors and communications are powered through the use of two solar panels and batteries, enabling it to remain at sea indefinitely. Wave Gliders are remotely controlled via real-time Iridium burst communications, which also permit real-time data telemetry. MBARI has developed Ocean Acidification (OA) moorings to continuously monitor the chemical and physical changes occurring in the ocean as a result of increased levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). The moorings are spatially restricted by being anchored to the seafloor, so during the summer of 2011 the ocean acidification sensor suite designed for moorings was integrated into a Wave Glider ASV to increase both temporal and spatial ocean observation capabilities. The OA sensor package enables the measurement of parameters essential to better understanding the changing acidity of the ocean, specifically pCO2, pH, oxygen, salinity and temperature. The Wave Glider will also be equipped with a meteorological sensor suite that will measure air temperature, air pressure, and wind speed and direction. The OA sensor integration into a Wave Glider was part of MBARI's 2011 summer internship program. This project involved designing a new layout for the OA sensors

  2. Impulse exchange at the surface of the ocean and the fractal dimension of drifter trajectories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Summers

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available An impulse-based model is developed to represent a coupling between turbulent flow in the atmosphere and turbulent flow in the ocean. In particular, it is argued that the atmosphere flowing horizontally over the ocean surface generates a velocity fluctuation field in the latter's near-surface flow. The mechanism for this can be understood kinematically in terms of an exchange of tangentially-oriented fluid impulse at the air-sea interface. We represent this exchange numerically through the creation of Lagrangian elements of impulse density. An indication of the efficacy of such a model would lie in its ability to predict the observed fractal dimension of lateral trajectories of submerged floats set adrift in the ocean. To this end, we examine the geometry of lateral tracer-paths determined from the present model.

  3. Reconstructing Sea Surface Conditions in the Bay of Bengal during the Mid-Pleistocene Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagos, A. D.; Dekens, P.; Reilly, B. T.; Selkin, P. A.; Meynadier, L.; Savian, J. F.

    2017-12-01

    During the Mid-Pleistocene Transition (MPT, 0.8-1.2Ma) Earth's glacial cycles transitioned from responding primarily to 41kyr obliquity cycles to responding to 100kyr eccentricity cycles. In the tropics, sea surface temperature (SST) in the eastern tropical Pacific cooled through the MPT, suggesting a strengthening of the equatorial Pacific zonal temperature gradient (Medina-Elizalde & Lea, 2005). The strong SST gradient would have intensified Walker Cell convection during the MPT and built up latent heat in the western Pacific, which could cause cold SST anomalies in the northern Indian Ocean (Liu et al., 2015). Due to a scarcity of records, it is unclear how climate and oceanic conditions evolved in the Indian Ocean during the MPT. A set of recent IODP expeditions, including 353 and 354, cored sediment from the Bay of Bengal. Several sites recovered by expedition 353 will be ideal for reconstructing monsoon intensity through time, while the expedition 354 cores from a longitudinal transect at 8°N are in a region not directly impacted by changes in freshwater input due to direct precipitation or run off. The sites are influenced by the northeastern migration of equatorial Indian Ocean water via the Southwest Monsoon Current, which supplies significant moisture to the monsoon. Expedition 354's southern Bay of Bengal sites are well situated for better understanding the link between the tropical Indian Ocean and the northern Bay of Bengal. We reconstructed sea surface conditions at IODP site 1452 (8°N, 87°E, 3670m water depth) in the distal Bengal Fan. A 3 meter long section of the core has been identified as the MPT using the Bruhnes/Matuyama, Jaramillo, and Cobb Mountain paleomagnetic reversals (France-Lanord et al., 2016). This section of site 1452 was sampled every 2cm ( 2kyr resolution). Approximately 30 G. sacculifer, a surface dwelling planktonic foraminifera, were picked from the 355-425μm size fraction. We measured Mg/Ca and δ18O on splits of the same

  4. Decadal variability of the Tropical Atlantic Ocean Surface Temperature in shipboard measurements and in a Global Ocean-Atmosphere model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Vikram M.; Delworth, Thomas

    1995-01-01

    Sea surface temperature (SST) variability was investigated in a 200-yr integration of a global model of the coupled oceanic and atmospheric general circulations developed at the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL). The second 100 yr of SST in the coupled model's tropical Atlantic region were analyzed with a variety of techniques. Analyses of SST time series, averaged over approximately the same subregions as the Global Ocean Surface Temperature Atlas (GOSTA) time series, showed that the GFDL SST anomalies also undergo pronounced quasi-oscillatory decadal and multidecadal variability but at somewhat shorter timescales than the GOSTA SST anomalies. Further analyses of the horizontal structures of the decadal timescale variability in the GFDL coupled model showed the existence of two types of variability in general agreement with results of the GOSTA SST time series analyses. One type, characterized by timescales between 8 and 11 yr, has high spatial coherence within each hemisphere but not between the two hemispheres of the tropical Atlantic. A second type, characterized by timescales between 12 and 20 yr, has high spatial coherence between the two hemispheres. The second type of variability is considerably weaker than the first. As in the GOSTA time series, the multidecadal variability in the GFDL SST time series has approximately opposite phases between the tropical North and South Atlantic Oceans. Empirical orthogonal function analyses of the tropical Atlantic SST anomalies revealed a north-south bipolar pattern as the dominant pattern of decadal variability. It is suggested that the bipolar pattern can be interpreted as decadal variability of the interhemispheric gradient of SST anomalies. The decadal and multidecadal timescale variability of the tropical Atlantic SST, both in the actual and in the GFDL model, stands out significantly above the background 'red noise' and is coherent within each of the time series, suggesting that specific sets of

  5. Measurements of Surface Ocean Carbon Dioxide Partial Pressure During WOCE; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, R.F.

    1998-01-01

    All of the technical goals of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) field program which were supported under the Department of Energy research grant ''Measurements of Surface Ocean Carbon Dioxide Partial Pressure During WOCE'' (DE-FG03-90ER60981) have been met. This has included the measurement of the partial pressures of carbon dioxide (C0(sub 2)) and nitrous oxide (N(sub 2)O) in both the surface ocean and the atmosphere on 24 separate shipboard expedition legs of the WOCE Hydrographic Programme. These measurements were made in the Pacific, Indian and Atlantic Oceans over a six-and-a-half year period, and over a distance of nearly 200,000 kilometers of ship track. The total number of measurements, including ocean measurements, air measurements and standard gas measurements, is about 136,000 for each gas, or about 34,000 measurements of each gas in the ocean and in the air. This global survey effort is directed at obtaining a better understanding of the role of the oceans in th e global atmospheric budgets of two important natural and anthropogenic modulators of climate through the ''greenhouse effect'', CO(sub 2) and N(sub 2)O, and an important natural and anthropogenic modulator of the Earth's protective ozone layer through catalytic processes in the stratosphere, N(sub 2)O. For both of these compounds, the oceans play a major role in their global budgets. In the case of CO(sub 2), roughly half of the anthropogenic production through the combustion of fossil fuels has been absorbed by the world's oceans. In the case of N(sub 2)O, roughly a third of the natural flux to the atmosphere originates in the oceans. As the interpretation of the variability in the oceanic distributions of these compounds improves, measurements such as those supported by this research project are playing an increasingly important role in improving our understanding of natural and anthropogenic influences on climate and ozone

  6. Satellite surface salinity maps to determine fresh water fluxes in the Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabarro, Carolina; Estrella, Olmedo; Emelianov, Mikhail; Ballabrera, Joaquim; Turiel, Antonio

    2017-04-01

    Salinity and temperature gradients drive the thermohaline circulation of the oceans, and play a key role in the ocean-atmosphere coupling. The strong and direct interactions between the ocean and the cryosphere (primarily through sea ice and ice shelves) are also a key ingredient of the thermohaline circulation. Recent observational studies have documented changes in upper Arctic Ocean hydrography [1, 2]. The ESA's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission, launched in 2009, have the objective to measure soil moisture over the continents and sea surface salinity over the oceans [3]. However, SMOS is also making inroads in Cryospheric science, as the measurements of thin ice thickness and sea ice concentration. SMOS carries an innovative L-band (1.4 GHz, or 21-cm wavelength), passive interferometric radiometer (the so-called MIRAS) that measures the electromagnetic radiation emitted by the Earth's surface, at about 50 km spatial resolution wide swath (1200-km), and with a 3-day revisit time at the equator, but more frequently at the poles. Although the SMOS radiometer operating frequency offers almost the maximum sensitivity of the brightness temperature (TB) to sea surface salinity (SSS) variations, such sensitivity is rather low, even lower at cold waters [4]: 90% of ocean SSS values span a range of brightness temperatures of just 5K. This implies that the SMOS SSS retrieval requires a high performance of the MIRAS interferometric radiometer [5]. New algorithms, recently developed at the Barcelona Expert Center (BEC) to improve the quality of SMOS measurements [6], allow for the first time to derive cold-water SSS maps from SMOS data, and to observe the variability of the SSS in the higher north Atlantic and the Arctic Ocean. In this work, we will provide an assessment of the quality of these new SSS Arctic maps, and we will illustrate their potential to monitor the impact on ocean state of the discharges from the main rivers to the Arctic Ocean. Moreover

  7. Operational use of ocean surface drifters for tracking spilled oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aamo, O. M.; Jensen, H.

    1997-01-01

    The use of Argos-positioned surface drifters by Norwegian engineers to monitor oil slicks in the North Sea was discussed. The system that was tested in June 1996 during the Norwegian Clean Seas Association oil-on-water exercise consisted of several GPS-positioned Argos drift trackers, an Argos receiver, a GPS navigator for the ship's position, and a PC with software for logging and displaying positions. Results of the field trial have been positive in that the system worked as expected. The range of direct transmission of signals from the buoys to the ship was about three nautical miles. The degree of accuracy of the relative positioning between the buoy GPS and the ship-borne GPS navigator was similar to the absolute positioning of single buoys. For best results, a minimum of two buoys and the use of lithium cells to increase battery capacity, were recommended. 3 refs., 5 figs

  8. Polyunsaturated Aldehydes from Large Phytoplankton of the Atlantic Ocean Surface (42°N to 33°S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Bartual

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUAs are organic compounds mainly produced by diatoms, after cell wounding. These compounds are increasingly reported as teratogenic for species of grazers and deleterious for phytoplanktonic species, but there is still scarce information regarding concentration ranges and the composition of PUAs in the open ocean. In this study, we analyzed the spatial distribution and the type of aldehydes produced by the large-sized (>10 μm phytoplankton in the Atlantic Ocean surface. Analyses were conducted on PUAs released after mechanical disruption of the phytoplankton cells, referred to here as potential PUAs (pPUAs. Results show the ubiquitous presence of pPUA in the open ocean, including upwelling areas, as well as oligotrophic gyres. Total pPUA concentrations ranged from zero to 4.18 pmol from cells in 1 L. Identified PUAs were heptadienal, octadienal and decadienal, with heptadienal being the most common (79% of total stations. PUA amount and composition across the Atlantic Ocean was mainly related to the nitrogen:phosphorus ratio, suggesting nutrient-driven mechanisms of PUA production. Extending the range of trophic conditions considered by adding data reported for productive coastal waters, we found a pattern of PUA variation in relation to trophic status.

  9. Low reservoir ages for the surface ocean from mid-Holocene Florida corals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druffel, E.R.M.; Robinson, L.F.; Griffin, S.; Halley, R.B.; Southon, J.R.; Adkins, J.F.

    2008-01-01

    The 14C reservoir age of the surface ocean was determined for two Holocene periods (4908-4955 and 3008-3066 calendar (cal) B.P.) using U/Th-dated corals from Biscayne National Park, Florida, United States. We found that the average reservoir ages for these two time periods (294 ?? 33 and 291 ?? 27 years, respectively) were lower than the average value between A.D. 1600 and 1900 (390 ?? 60 years) from corals. It appears that the surface ocean was closer to isotopic equilibrium with CO2 in the atmosphere during these two time periods than it was during recent times. Seasonal ??18O measurements from the younger coral are similar to modern values, suggesting that mixing with open ocean waters was indeed occurring during this coral's lifetime. Likely explanations for the lower reservoir age include increased stratification of the surface ocean or increased ??14C values of subsurface waters that mix into the surface. Our results imply that a more correct reservoir age correction for radiocarbon measurements of marine samples in this location from the time periods ???3040 and ???4930 cal years B.P. is ???292 ?? 30 years, less than the canonical value of 404 ?? 20 years. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  10. Photo-oxidation : Major sink of oxygen in the ocean surface layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gieskes, W. W. C.; Laane, R. W. P. M.; Ruardij, P.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence is presented that the oxygen demand associated with photochemical processes in the surface layer of oceans and seas worldwide is of the same order of magnitude as the amount of oxygen released by photosynthesis of the world's marine phytoplankton. Both estimates are of necessity quite rough

  11. Photo-oxidation: Major sink of oxygen in the ocean surface layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gieskes, W.W.C.; Laane, R.W.P.M.; Ruardij, P.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence is presented that the oxygen demand associated with photochemical processes in the surface layer of oceans and seas worldwide is of the same order of magnitude as the amount of oxygen released by photosynthesis of the world's marine phytoplankton. Both estimates are of necessity quite rough

  12. The warmer the ocean surface, the shallower the mixed layer. How much of this is true?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somavilla, R; González-Pola, C; Fernández-Diaz, J

    2017-09-01

    Ocean surface warming is commonly associated with a more stratified, less productive, and less oxygenated ocean. Such an assertion is mainly based on consistent projections of increased near-surface stratification and shallower mixed layers under global warming scenarios. However, while the observed sea surface temperature (SST) is rising at midlatitudes, the concurrent ocean record shows that stratification is not unequivocally increasing nor is MLD shoaling. We find that while SST increases at three study areas at midlatitudes, stratification both increases and decreases, and MLD deepens with enhanced deepening of winter MLDs at rates over 10 m  decade-1. These results rely on the estimation of several MLD and stratification indexes of different complexity on hydrographic profiles from long-term hydrographic time-series, ocean reanalysis, and Argo floats. Combining this information with estimated MLDs from buoyancy fluxes and the enhanced deepening/attenuation of the winter MLD trends due to changes in the Ekman pumping, MLD variability involves a subtle interplay between circulation and atmospheric forcing at midlatitudes. Besides, it is highlighted that the density difference between the surface and 200 m, the most widely used stratification index, should not be expected to reliably inform about changes in the vertical extent of mixing.

  13. Probing Earth’s conductivity structure beneath oceans by scalar geomagnetic data: autonomous surface vehicle solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuvshinov, Alexey; Matzka, Jürgen; Poedjono, Benny

    2016-01-01

    to the conductivity structure beneath the ocean. We conclude that the sensitivity, depending on the bathymetry gradient, is typically largest near the coast offshore. We show that such sea-surface marine induction surveys can be performed with the Wave Glider, an easy-to-deploy, autonomous, energy-harvesting floating...

  14. Surface temperature of the equatorial Pacific Ocean and the Indian rainfall

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gopinathan, C.K.

    The time variation of the monthly mean surface temperature of the equatorial Pacific Ocean during 1982-1987 has been studied in relation to summer monsoon rainfall over India The ENSO events of 1982 and 1987 were related to a significant reduction...

  15. The warmer the ocean surface, the shallower the mixed layer. How much of this is true?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somavilla, R.; González-Pola, C.; Fernández-Diaz, J.

    2017-09-01

    Ocean surface warming is commonly associated with a more stratified, less productive, and less oxygenated ocean. Such an assertion is mainly based on consistent projections of increased near-surface stratification and shallower mixed layers under global warming scenarios. However, while the observed sea surface temperature (SST) is rising at midlatitudes, the concurrent ocean record shows that stratification is not unequivocally increasing nor is MLD shoaling. We find that while SST increases at three study areas at midlatitudes, stratification both increases and decreases, and MLD deepens with enhanced deepening of winter MLDs at rates over 10 m decade-1. These results rely on the estimation of several MLD and stratification indexes of different complexity on hydrographic profiles from long-term hydrographic time-series, ocean reanalysis, and Argo floats. Combining this information with estimated MLDs from buoyancy fluxes and the enhanced deepening/attenuation of the winter MLD trends due to changes in the Ekman pumping, MLD variability involves a subtle interplay between circulation and atmospheric forcing at midlatitudes. Besides, it is highlighted that the density difference between the surface and 200 m, the most widely used stratification index, should not be expected to reliably inform about changes in the vertical extent of mixing.

  16. Attributing seasonal pH variability in surface ocean waters to governing factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagens, M.; Middelburg, J.J.

    2016-01-01

    On-going ocean acidification and increasing availability of high-frequency pH data have stimulated interest to understand seasonal pH dynamics in surface waters. Here we show that it is possible to accurately reproduce observed pH values by combining seasonal changes in temperature (T), dissolved

  17. Theoretical model of laminar flow in a channel or tube under ocean conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, B.H.; Yu, L.; Yang, Y.H.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The theoretical model of laminar flow in channels under ocean conditions is established. → The frictional resistance coefficient and Nusselt number are also obtained. → The theoretical results are in agreement with experimental data. → The oscillation of parameters is induced by the tangential force. -- Abstract: The theoretical model of laminar flow in a channel or tube under ocean conditions is established. The velocity and temperature correlations are derived, and the frictional resistance coefficient and Nusselt number are also obtained. The theoretical results are in agreement with experimental data. The oscillation of parameters is induced by the tangential force due to ocean conditions. The effect of centrifugal and Coriolis forces on the flow is negligible. The effects of several parameters on the frictional resistance coefficient and Nusselt number are investigated. The oscillating amplitude of Nusselt number increases with the increasing of Prandtl number. Both the oscillating amplitudes of frictional resistance coefficient and Nusselt number increase with the increasing of rolling frequency.

  18. Impacts of Ocean Waves on the Atmospheric Surface Layer: Simulations and Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-06

    than about 5 m s −1 (Makin, Kudryavtsev & Mastenbroek 1995; Banner & Peirson 1998). Ocean boundary layers with vortex force and stochastic breaking...amplitude. Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. A 342, 157–174. Makin, V. K., Kudryavtsev , V. N. & Mastenbroek, C. 1995 Drag of the sea surface. Boundary- Layer Met. 73...to study some of the impacts of fast-moving waves on marine surface layers (e.g., Gent and Taylor 1976; Gent 1977; Li 1995; Kudryavtsev and Makin 2004

  19. Ocean Acidification in the Surface Waters of the Pacific-Arctic Boundary Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathis, J. T.; Cross, J. N.; Evans, W.; Doney, S. C.

    2016-02-01

    The continental shelves of the Pacific-Arctic Region (PAR) are especially vulnerable to the effects of ocean acidification (OA) because the intrusion of anthropogenic CO2 is not the only process that can reduce pH and carbonate mineral saturation states for aragonite (ΩArag). Enhanced sea-ice melt, respiration of organic matter, upwelling and riverine inputs have been shown to exacerbate CO2-driven ocean acidification in high-latitude regions. Additionally, the indirect effect of changing sea-ice coverage is providing a positive feedback to OA as more open water will allow for greater uptake of atmospheric CO2. Here, we compare model-based outputs from the Community Earth System Model with a subset of recent ship-based observations, and take an initial look at future model projections of surface water ΩArag in the Bering, Chukchi and Beaufort Seas. We then use the model outputs to define benchmark years when biological impacts are likely to result from reduced ΩArag. Each of the three continental shelf seas in the PAR will become undersaturated with respect to aragonite at approximately 30-year intervals, indicating that aragonite undersaturations gradually progress upstream along the flow path of the waters as they move north from the Pacific Ocean. However, naturally high variability in ΩArag may indicate higher resilience of the Bering Sea ecosystem to these low-ΩArag conditions than the Chukchi and the Beaufort Seas. Based on our initial results, we have determined that the annual mean for ΩArag will pass below the current range of natural variability in 2025 for the Beaufort Sea and 2027 for the Chukchi Sea. Because of the higher range of natural variability, the annual mean for ΩArag for the Bering Sea does not pass out of the natural variability range until 2044. As ΩArag in these shelf seas slips below the present-day range of large seasonal variability by midcentury, it could put tremendous pressure on the diverse ecosystems that support some of

  20. Sea surface height evidence for long-term warming effects of tropical cyclones on the ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Wei; Primeau, François; McWilliams, James C; Pasquero, Claudia

    2013-09-17

    Tropical cyclones have been hypothesized to influence climate by pumping heat into the ocean, but a direct measure of this warming effect is still lacking. We quantified cyclone-induced ocean warming by directly monitoring the thermal expansion of water in the wake of cyclones, using satellite-based sea surface height data that provide a unique way of tracking the changes in ocean heat content on seasonal and longer timescales. We find that the long-term effect of cyclones is to warm the ocean at a rate of 0.32 ± 0.15 PW between 1993 and 2009, i.e., ∼23 times more efficiently per unit area than the background equatorial warming, making cyclones potentially important modulators of the climate by affecting heat transport in the ocean-atmosphere system. Furthermore, our analysis reveals that the rate of warming increases with cyclone intensity. This, together with a predicted shift in the distribution of cyclones toward higher intensities as climate warms, suggests the ocean will get even warmer, possibly leading to a positive feedback.

  1. Physical Retracking of Jason-1 LRM data for ocean surface height/gravity field determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Maulik; Baltazar Andersen, Ole; Stenseng, Lars; Dall, Jørgen

    2013-04-01

    Jason-1 Low Resolution Mode (LRM) waveforms can be processed to extract accurate heights of the ocean surface. These heights are adjusted taking into account various corrections available. Further the along surface slope/variation of these ocean heights can be used to make an estimation of the gravity field. An important part of this gravity field estimation is dependent on the way the LRM waveform is processed. Thus a physical model based on an error function is used, and the LRM waveforms are fit to this model. A processing system made up of 2 parameter and 3 parameter fitting models are used in order to extract the most reliable ocean surface heights. The quality of the processing system is judged by evaluating the standard deviation of the sea surface anomaly obtained after all corrections and the mean sea surface/geoid are removed. The lower the value of the standard deviation of the sea surface anomaly, the better the quality of processing is. Hence, different processing schemes are considered and evaluated in order to conclude towards the best retracking procedure which would eventually result in high accuracy gravity field estimations.

  2. Influence of basin- and local-scale environmental conditions on nearshore production in the northeast Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Biela, Vanessa R.; Zimmerman, Christian E.; Kruse, Gordon H.; Mueter, Franz J.; Black, Bryan A.; Douglas, David C.; Bodkin, James L.

    2016-01-01

    Nearshore marine habitats are productive and vulnerable owing to their connections to pelagic and terrestrial landscapes. To understand how ocean basin- and local-scale conditions may influence nearshore species, we developed an annual index of nearshore production (spanning the period 1972–2010) from growth increments recorded in otoliths of representative pelagic-feeding (Black Rockfish Sebastes melanops) and benthic-feeding (Kelp Greenling Hexagrammos decagrammus) nearshore-resident fishes at nine sites in the California Current and Alaska Coastal Current systems. We explored the influence of basin- and local-scale conditions across all seasons at lags of up to 2 years to represent changes in prey quantity (1- or 2-year time lags) and quality (within-year relationships). Relationships linking fish growth to basin-scale (Pacific Decadal Oscillation, North Pacific Gyre Oscillation, and multivariate El Niño–Southern Oscillation index) and local-scale (sea surface temperature, sea surface height anomalies, upwelling index, photosynthetically active radiation, and freshwater discharge) environmental conditions varied by species and current system. Growth of Black Rockfish increased with cool basin-scale conditions in the California Current and warm local-scale conditions in the Alaska Coastal Current, consistent with existing hypotheses linking climate to pelagic production on continental shelves in the respective regions. Relationships for Kelp Greenlings in the California Current were complex, with faster growth related to within-year warm conditions and lagged-year cool conditions. These opposing, lag-dependent relationships may reflect differences in conditions that promote quantity versus quality of benthic invertebrate prey in the California Current. Thus, we hypothesize that benthic production is maximized by alternating cool and warm years, as benthic invertebrate recruitment is food limited during warm years while growth is temperature limited by cool

  3. Changes in Energy Imbalance at the Ocean Surface during the "hiatus" period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, L.

    2016-02-01

    Despite the recent slowdown in the rate of surface warming, a general consensus exists, that is, the Earth continues to gain energy and almost all the energy added to the Earth system is accumulated in the oceans. Nevertheless, key issues remain unaddressed regarding the actual energy imbalance at the top-of-atmosphere and the Earth surface, their changes over time, and their storage and distribution in the oceans. Quantifying and tracking the energy flow through the Earth System require consistent and accurate record of observations, but existing observation platforms contain various degrees of uncertainty. There is a need to cross-validate the energy budget estimates from different resources and from different approaches. In this study, we conducted an assessment of net energy budget at the ocean surface estimated from three general sources, the satellite-based analysis (WHOI OAFlux and NASA CERES), an ocean state estimator (MIT ECCO), and the atmospheric reanalysis products. For the "hiatus" period (2001-2010) in study, all products show that the oceans have been on net energy gain, but the magnitude varies and the differences in the rate of the decadal change in energy imbalance are large. While the reanalysis products show either upward or downward trends, ECCO and OAFlux/CERES indicate that the energy imbalance remains near constant. The downward trend in ERA-Interim started from 2006, driven by a peculiar pattern change in the Pacific. ECCO, which used ERA-Interim as initial surface forcing, corrected the pattern and maintained a near steady rate. ECCO assimilates observations from oceanographic satellites and Argo profiles, while the OAFlux/CERES Qnet were obtained from satellite atmospheric and near-surface observations using no dynamical models but the state-of-the-art flux algorithms and statistical approaches. Given the differences in input data sources and approaches, the agreement between ECCO and OAFlux/CERES is encouraging and instructive.

  4. Engaging the Applications Community of the future Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, M.; Andral, A.; Dejus, M.; Hossain, F.; Peterson, C.; Beighley, E.; Pavelsky, T.; Chao, Y.; Doorn, B.; Bronner, E.; Houpert, L.

    2015-04-01

    NASA and the French space agency, CNES, with contributions from the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) and United Kingdom Space Agency (UKSA) are developing new wide swath altimetry technology that will cover most of the world's ocean and surface freshwater bodies. The proposed Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission will have the capability to make observations of surface water (lakes, rivers, wetland) heights and measurements of ocean surface topography with unprecedented spatial coverage, temporal sampling, and spatial resolution compared to existing technologies. These data will be useful for monitoring the hydrologic cycle, flooding, and characterizing human impacts on a changing environment. The applied science community is a key element in the success of the SWOT mission, demonstrating the high value of the science and data products in addressing societal issues and needs. The SWOT applications framework includes a working group made up of applications specialists, SWOT science team members, academics and SWOT Project members to promote applications research and engage a broad community of potential SWOT data users. A defined plan and a guide describing a program to engage early adopters in using proxies for SWOT data, including sophisticated ocean and hydrology simulators, an airborne analogue for SWOT (AirSWOT), and existing satellite datasets, are cornerstones for the program. A user survey is in development and the first user workshop was held in 2015, with annual workshops planned. The anticipated science and engineering advances that SWOT will provide can be transformed into valuable services to decision makers and civic organizations focused on addressing global disaster risk reduction initiatives and potential science-based mitigation activities for water resources challenges of the future. With the surface water measurements anticipated from SWOT, a broad range of applications can inform inland and coastal managers and marine operators of

  5. Atmospheric response to multidecadal sea surface temperature variability in the Pacific Ocean (IPV) and the North Atlantic Ocean (AMV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsbury, D.; Peings, Y.; Magnusdottir, G.

    2017-12-01

    Multidecadal modes of sea surface temperature (SST) variability in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans act as forcing fields in a series of atmospheric global climate model (AGCM) simulations. These modes, Interdecadal Pacific Variability (IPV) and Atlantic Multidecadal Variability (AMV), are important regulators of global temperature, precipitation, extreme climate events (droughts and temperature extremes), and have recently been implicated as playing an important role in the global warming hiatus. Despite a growing recognition of the importance of these climate modes, the most fundamental atmospheric and climatic responses to the long-term internal variability and interplay of these two ocean basins is not well understood. In a series of 200-yr experiments using the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM), the atmosphere is forced by the 9 different combinations of the AMV and IPV states (neutral, positive, negative) using a single polarity from each the IPV and the AMV, and different combinations. The atmospheric response associated with each combination of SST anomalies is investigated, with a focus on modes of variability such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and associated temperature/precipitation variability. Of particular interest is the response related to forcing from the tropical Pacific, the stratospheric response and associated stratosphere-troposphere interactions, and the response of extreme weather events in both winter and summer. These results yield a more complete understanding of climate predictability associated with each basin at multidecadal time scales, and how their respective influences interfere with each other.

  6. Remote sensing of ocean surface currents: a review of what is being observed and what is being assimilated

    OpenAIRE

    Isern-Fontanet, Jordi; Ballabrera-Poy, Joaquim; Turiel, Antonio; García-Ladona, Emilio

    2017-01-01

    Ocean currents play a key role in Earth's climate – they impact almost any process taking place in the ocean and are of major importance for navigation and human activities at sea. Nevertheless, their observation and forecasting are still difficult. First, no observing system is able to provide direct measurements of global ocean currents on synoptic scales. Consequently, it has been necessary to use sea surface height and sea surface temperature measurements and refer to dy...

  7. Global relationships of total alkalinity with salinity and temperature in surface waters of the world's oceans. (NCEI Accession 0157795)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surface Total Alkalinity fields were estimated from five regional TA relationships presented in Lee et al. 2006, using monthly mean sea surface temperature and...

  8. Intercomparison of oceanic and atmospheric forced and coupled mesoscale simulations Part I: Surface fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Josse

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available A mesoscale non-hydrostatic atmospheric model has been coupled with a mesoscale oceanic model. The case study is a four-day simulation of a strong storm event observed during the SEMAPHORE experiment over a 500 × 500 km2 domain. This domain encompasses a thermohaline front associated with the Azores current. In order to analyze the effect of mesoscale coupling, three simulations are compared: the first one with the atmospheric model forced by realistic sea surface temperature analyses; the second one with the ocean model forced by atmospheric fields, derived from weather forecast re-analyses; the third one with the models being coupled. For these three simulations the surface fluxes were computed with the same bulk parametrization. All three simulations succeed well in representing the main oceanic or atmospheric features observed during the storm. Comparison of surface fields with in situ observations reveals that the winds of the fine mesh atmospheric model are more realistic than those of the weather forecast re-analyses. The low-level winds simulated with the atmospheric model in the forced and coupled simulations are appreciably stronger than the re-analyzed winds. They also generate stronger fluxes. The coupled simulation has the strongest surface heat fluxes: the difference in the net heat budget with the oceanic forced simulation reaches on average 50 Wm-2 over the simulation period. Sea surface-temperature cooling is too weak in both simulations, but is improved in the coupled run and matches better the cooling observed with drifters. The spatial distributions of sea surface-temperature cooling and surface fluxes are strongly inhomogeneous over the simulation domain. The amplitude of the flux variation is maximum in the coupled run. Moreover the weak correlation between the cooling and heat flux patterns indicates that the surface fluxes are not responsible for the whole cooling and suggests that the response of the ocean mixed layer

  9. Intercomparison of oceanic and atmospheric forced and coupled mesoscale simulations Part I: Surface fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Giordani

    Full Text Available A mesoscale non-hydrostatic atmospheric model has been coupled with a mesoscale oceanic model. The case study is a four-day simulation of a strong storm event observed during the SEMAPHORE experiment over a 500 × 500 km2 domain. This domain encompasses a thermohaline front associated with the Azores current. In order to analyze the effect of mesoscale coupling, three simulations are compared: the first one with the atmospheric model forced by realistic sea surface temperature analyses; the second one with the ocean model forced by atmospheric fields, derived from weather forecast re-analyses; the third one with the models being coupled. For these three simulations the surface fluxes were computed with the same bulk parametrization. All three simulations succeed well in representing the main oceanic or atmospheric features observed during the storm. Comparison of surface fields with in situ observations reveals that the winds of the fine mesh atmospheric model are more realistic than those of the weather forecast re-analyses. The low-level winds simulated with the atmospheric model in the forced and coupled simulations are appreciably stronger than the re-analyzed winds. They also generate stronger fluxes. The coupled simulation has the strongest surface heat fluxes: the difference in the net heat budget with the oceanic forced simulation reaches on average 50 Wm-2 over the simulation period. Sea surface-temperature cooling is too weak in both simulations, but is improved in the coupled run and matches better the cooling observed with drifters. The spatial distributions of sea surface-temperature cooling and surface fluxes are strongly inhomogeneous over the simulation domain. The amplitude of the flux variation is maximum in the coupled run. Moreover the weak correlation between the cooling and heat flux patterns indicates that the surface fluxes are not responsible for the whole cooling and suggests that the response of the ocean mixed layer

  10. Ocean Heat Uptake Slows 21st Century Surface Warming Driven by Extratropical Cloud Feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, W.; Maroon, E.; Pendergrass, A. G.; Kay, J. E.

    2017-12-01

    Equilibrium climate sensitivity (ECS), the warming in response to instantaneously doubled CO2, has long been used to compare climate models. In many models, ECS is well correlated with warming produced by transient forcing experiments. Modifications to cloud phase at high latitudes in a state-of-the-art climate model, the Community Earth System Model (CESM), produce a large increase in ECS (1.5 K) via extratropical cloud feedbacks. However, only a small surface warming increase occurs in a realistic 21st century simulation including a full-depth dynamic ocean and the "business as usual" RCP8.5 emissions scenario. In fact, the increase in surface warming is only barely above the internal variability-generated range in the CESM Large Ensemble. The small change in 21st century warming is attributed to subpolar ocean heat uptake in both hemispheres. In the Southern Ocean, the mean-state circulation takes up heat while in the North Atlantic a slowdown in circulation acts as a feedback to slow surface warming. These results show the importance of subpolar ocean heat uptake in controlling the pace of warming and demonstrate that ECS cannot be used to reliably infer transient warming when it is driven by extratropical feedbacks.

  11. Extreme diving behaviour in devil rays links surface waters and the deep ocean

    KAUST Repository

    Thorrold, Simon R.

    2014-07-01

    Ecological connections between surface waters and the deep ocean remain poorly studied despite the high biomass of fishes and squids residing at depths beyond the euphotic zone. These animals likely support pelagic food webs containing a suite of predators that include commercially important fishes and marine mammals. Here we deploy pop-up satellite archival transmitting tags on 15 Chilean devil rays (Mobula tarapacana) in the central North Atlantic Ocean, which provide movement patterns of individuals for up to 9 months. Devil rays were considered surface dwellers but our data reveal individuals descending at speeds up to 6.0 ms-1 to depths of almost 2,000 m and water temperatures <4 C. The shape of the dive profiles suggests that the rays are foraging at these depths in deep scattering layers. Our results provide evidence of an important link between predators in the surface ocean and forage species occupying pelagic habitats below the euphotic zone in ocean ecosystems. 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  12. Origin, dynamics and evolution of ocean garbage patches from observed surface drifters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Sebille, Erik; England, Matthew H; Froyland, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Much of the debris in the near-surface ocean collects in so-called garbage patches where, due to convergence of the surface flow, the debris is trapped for decades to millennia. Until now, studies modelling the pathways of surface marine debris have not included release from coasts or factored in the possibilities that release concentrations vary with region or that pathways may include seasonal cycles. Here, we use observational data from the Global Drifter Program in a particle-trajectory tracer approach that includes the seasonal cycle to study the fate of marine debris in the open ocean from coastal regions around the world on interannual to centennial timescales. We find that six major garbage patches emerge, one in each of the five subtropical basins and one previously unreported patch in the Barents Sea. The evolution of each of the six patches is markedly different. With the exception of the North Pacific, all patches are much more dispersive than expected from linear ocean circulation theory, suggesting that on centennial timescales the different basins are much better connected than previously thought and that inter-ocean exchanges play a large role in the spreading of marine debris. This study suggests that, over multi-millennial timescales, a significant amount of the debris released outside of the North Atlantic will eventually end up in the North Pacific patch, the main attractor of global marine debris. (letter)

  13. Observations of Near-Surface Current Shear Help Describe Oceanic Oil and Plastic Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laxague, Nathan J. M.; Ö-zgökmen, Tamay M.; Haus, Brian K.; Novelli, Guillaume; Shcherbina, Andrey; Sutherland, Peter; Guigand, Cédric M.; Lund, Björn; Mehta, Sanchit; Alday, Matias; Molemaker, Jeroen

    2018-01-01

    Plastics and spilled oil pose a critical threat to marine life and human health. As a result of wind forcing and wave motions, theoretical and laboratory studies predict very strong velocity variation with depth over the upper few centimeters of the water column, an observational blind spot in the real ocean. Here we present the first-ever ocean measurements of the current vector profile defined to within 1 cm of the free surface. In our illustrative example, the current magnitude averaged over the upper 1 cm of the ocean is shown to be nearly four times the average over the upper 10 m, even for mild forcing. Our findings indicate that this shear will rapidly separate pieces of marine debris which vary in size or buoyancy, making consideration of these dynamics essential to an improved understanding of the pathways along which marine plastics and oil are transported.

  14. Assimilation of ocean sea-surface height observations of mesoscale eddies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jeffrey B.; Grooms, Ian

    2017-12-01

    Mesoscale eddies are one of the dominant sources of variability in the world's oceans. With eddy-resolving global ocean models, it becomes important to assimilate observations of mesoscale eddies to correctly represent the state of the mesoscale. Here, we investigate strategies for assimilating a reduced number of sea-surface height observations by focusing on the coherent mesoscale eddies. The study is carried out in an idealized perfect-model framework using two-layer forced quasigeostrophic dynamics, which captures the dominant dynamics of ocean mesoscale eddies. We study errors in state-estimation as well as error growth in forecasts and find that as fewer observations are assimilated, assimilating at vortex locations results in reduced state estimation and forecast errors.

  15. Multimodel simulations of Arctic Ocean sea surface height variability in the period 1970-2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koldunov, Nikolay V.; Serra, Nuno; Koehl, Armin

    2014-01-01

    is in reasonable agreement with available measurements. Focusing on results from one of the models for a detailed analysis, it is shown that the decadal-scale SSH variability over shelf areas and deep parts of the Arctic Ocean have pronounced differences that are determined mostly by salinity variations. A further......The performance of several numerical ocean models is assessed with respect to their simulation of sea surface height (SSH) in the Arctic Ocean, and the main patterns of SSH variability and their causes over the past 40 years (1970-2009) are analyzed. In comparison to observations, all tested models...... of low-salinity shelf water. Overall, we show that present-day models can be used for investigating the reasons for low-frequency SSH variability in the region....

  16. Biochemical characteristics and bacterial community structure of the sea surface microlayer in the South Pacific Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Obernosterer

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The chemical and biological characteristics of the surface microlayer were determined during a transect across the South Pacific Ocean in October-December 2004. Concentrations of particulate organic carbon (1.3 to 7.6-fold and nitrogen (1.4 to 7-fold, and POC:PON ratios were consistently higher in the surface microlayer as compared to surface waters (5 m. The large variability in particulate organic matter enrichment was negatively correlated to wind speed. No enhanced concentrations of dissolved organic carbon were detectable in the surface microlayer as compared to 5 m, but chromophoric dissolved organic matter was markedly enriched (by 2 to 4-fold at all sites. Based on pigment analysis and cell counts, no consistent enrichment of any of the major components of the autotrophic and heterotrophic microbial community was detectable. CE-SSCP fingerprints and CARD FISH revealed that the bacterial communities present in the surface microlayer had close similarity (>76% to those in surface waters. By contrast, bacterial heterotrophic production (3H-leucine incorporation was consistently lower in the surface microlayer than in surface waters. By applying CARD-FISH and microautoradiography, we observed that Bacteroidetes and Gammaproteobacteria dominated leucine uptake in the surface microlayer, while in surface waters Bacteroidetes and Alphaproteobacteria were the major groups accounting for leucine incorporation. Our results demonstrate that the microbial community in the surface microlayer closely resembles that of the surface waters of the open ocean. Even a short residence in the surface microlayer influences leucine incorporation by different bacterial groups, probably as a response to the differences in the physical and chemical nature of the two layers.

  17. Open-ocean boundary conditions from interior data: Local and remote forcing of Massachusetts Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogden, P.S.; Malanotte-Rizzoli, P.; Signell, R.

    1996-01-01

    Massachusetts and Cape Cod Bays form a semienclosed coastal basin that opens onto the much larger Gulf of Maine. Subtidal circulation in the bay is driven by local winds and remotely driven flows from the gulf. The local-wind forced flow is estimated with a regional shallow water model driven by wind measurements. The model uses a gravity wave radiation condition along the open-ocean boundary. Results compare reasonably well with observed currents near the coast. In some offshore regions however, modeled flows are an order of magnitude less energetic than the data. Strong flows are observed even during periods of weak local wind forcing. Poor model-data comparisons are attributable, at least in part, to open-ocean boundary conditions that neglect the effects of remote forcing. Velocity measurements from within Massachusetts Bay are used to estimate the remotely forced component of the flow. The data are combined with shallow water dynamics in an inverse-model formulation that follows the theory of Bennett and McIntosh [1982], who considered tides. We extend their analysis to consider the subtidal response to transient forcing. The inverse model adjusts the a priori open-ocean boundary condition, thereby minimizing a combined measure of model-data misfit and boundary condition adjustment. A "consistency criterion" determines the optimal trade-off between the two. The criterion is based on a measure of plausibility for the inverse solution. The "consistent" inverse solution reproduces 56% of the average squared variation in the data. The local-wind-driven flow alone accounts for half of the model skill. The other half is attributable to remotely forced flows from the Gulf of Maine. The unexplained 44% comes from measurement errors and model errors that are not accounted for in the analysis. 

  18. The OSMOSIS Model of the Wind-Driven Ocean Surface Boundary Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, A. L.; Belcher, S. E.; Pearson, B.; Polton, J.

    2016-02-01

    In the wind-driven ocean surface boundary layer (OSBL) the vertical velocity variance is observed to be larger than in shear driven turbulence. The observed variances are consistent with the results from large-eddy simulations (LES) which parametrize the interaction between the Stokes drift of the surface waves and vorticity. The resulting flow is known as Langmuir turbulence and the close connection between winds and waves suggests that Langmuir turbulence is common in the OSBL. This poster describes a model of the OSBL, developed as part of the OSMOSIS project, in which mixing is by Langmuir turbulence. The transports of momentum, heat and salinity are represented by a first-order closure scheme with flux-gradient relationships that include non-gradient contributions. In this the model is similar to the KPP scheme which uses flux-gradient relationships with non-gradient contributions to represent scalar transports. The flux-gradient relationships are derived from an analysis of the turbulent flux budgets of momentum and scalars (heat) obtained from LES. The non-gradient terms represent the contributions to the turbulent flux by the terms in the turbulent flux budget that represent the effects of the Stokes shear, buoyancy and turbulent transport. The eddy viscosity, diffusivities and non-gradient components are represented by similarity profiles. The depth of the boundary layer is determined by a prognostic equation, which represents the time variation of the boundary layer depth in both unstable and stable conditions. It is based on the equation for the depth integrated potential energy combined with a parametrization of the turbulent kinetic energy budget. The use of the prognostic equation allows the effects of Langmuir turbulence on boundary layer depth to be explicitly represented in the model. Comparison with the results from LES of the diurnal cycle of the OSBL are presented as a test for the model.

  19. Boundary conditions for soft glassy flows: slippage and surface fluidization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansard, Vincent; Bocquet, Lydéric; Colin, Annie

    2014-09-28

    We explore the question of surface boundary conditions for the flow of a dense emulsion. We make use of microlithographic tools to create surfaces with well controlled roughness patterns and measure using dynamic confocal microscopy both the slip velocity and the shear rate close to the wall, which we relate to the notion of surface fluidization. Both slippage and wall fluidization depend non-monotonously on the roughness. We interpret this behavior within a simple model in terms of the building of a stratified layer and the activation of plastic events by the surface roughness.

  20. CAROLS: A New Airborne L-Band Radiometer for Ocean Surface and Land Observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zribi, Mehrez; Parde, Mickael; Boutin, Jacquline

    2011-01-01

    The "Cooperative Airborne Radiometer for Ocean and Land Studies" (CAROLS) L-Band radiometer was designed and built as a copy of the EMIRAD II radiometer constructed by the Technical University of Denmark team. It is a fully polarimetric and direct sampling correlation radiometer. It is installed ...... is conforming to specification and is a useful tool for Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite validation as well as for specific studies on surface soil moisture or ocean salinity.......The "Cooperative Airborne Radiometer for Ocean and Land Studies" (CAROLS) L-Band radiometer was designed and built as a copy of the EMIRAD II radiometer constructed by the Technical University of Denmark team. It is a fully polarimetric and direct sampling correlation radiometer. It is installed...... flights were carried out over South West France, the Valencia site and the Bay of Biscay (Atlantic Ocean) in 2007, 2008 and 2009, in coordination with in situ field campaigns. In order to validate the CAROLS data, various aircraft flight patterns and maneuvers were implemented, including straight...

  1. On-site ocean horizontal aerosol extinction coefficient inversion under different weather conditions on the Bo-hai and Huang-hai Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xianjiang; Xia, Min; Ge, Yinghui; Guo, Wenping; Yang, Kecheng

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we explore the horizontal extinction characteristics under different weather conditions on the ocean surface with on-site experiments on the Bo-hai and Huang-hai Seas in the summer of 2016. An experimental lidar system is designed to collect the on-site experimental data. By aiming at the inhomogeneity and uncertainty of the horizontal aerosol in practice, a joint retrieval method is proposed to retrieve the aerosol extinction coefficients (AEC) from the raw data along the optical path. The retrieval results of both the simulated and the real signals demonstrate that the joint retrieval method is practical. Finally, the sequence observation results of the on-site experiments under different weather conditions are reported and analyzed. These results can provide the attenuation information to analyze the atmospheric aerosol characteristics on the ocean surface.

  2. Strong relationship between DMS and the solar radiation dose over the global surface ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallina, Sergio M; Simó, Rafel

    2007-01-26

    Marine biogenic dimethylsulfide (DMS) is the main natural source of tropospheric sulfur, which may play a key role in cloud formation and albedo over the remote ocean. Through a global data analysis, we found that DMS concentrations are highly positively correlated with the solar radiation dose in the upper mixed layer of the open ocean, irrespective of latitude, plankton biomass, or temperature. This is a necessary condition for the feasibility of a negative feedback in which light-attenuating DMS emissions are in turn driven by the light dose received by the pelagic ecosystem.

  3. Temperature-dependent remineralization in a warming ocean increases surface pCO2 through changes in marine ecosystem composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segschneider, Joachim; Bendtsen, Jørgen

    2014-05-01

    Temperature-dependent remineralization of organic matter is, in general, not included in marine biogeochemistry models currently used for Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) climate projections. Associated feedbacks with climate and the carbon cycle have therefore not been quantified. In this study we aim at investigating how temperature-dependent remineralization rates (Q10 = 2) in a warming ocean impact on the marine carbon cycle, and if this may weaken the oceanic sink for anthropogenic CO2. We perturb an Earth system model used for CMIP5 with temperature-dependent remineralization rates of organic matter using representative concentration pathway (RCP)8.5-derived oceanic temperature anomalies for 2100. The result is a modest change of organic carbon export but more important derived effects associated with feedback processes between changed nutrient concentrations and ecosystem structure. As more nutrients are recycled in the euphotic layer, increased primary production causes a depletion of silicate in the surface layer because opal is exported to depth more efficiently than particulate organic carbon. Shifts in the ecosystem occur as diatoms find less favorable conditions. Export production of calcite shells increases causing a decrease in alkalinity and higher surface pCO2. With regard to future climate projections, the results indicate a reduction of oceanic uptake of anthropogenic CO2 of about 0.2 PgC yr-1 towards the end of the 21st century. This is in addition to reductions caused by already identified climate-carbon cycle feedbacks. Similar shifts in the ecosystem as identified here, but driven by external forcing, have been proposed to drive glacial/interglacial changes in atmospheric pCO2. We propose a similar positive feedback between climate perturbations and the global carbon cycle but driven solely by internal marine biogeochemical processes.

  4. Northerly surface winds over the eastern North Pacific Ocean in spring and summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, S.V.; Cayan, D.R.; Graham, N.E.; Georgakakos, K.P.

    2008-01-01

    Persistent spring and summer northerly surface winds are the defining climatological feature of the western coast of North America, especially south of the Oregon coast. Northerly surface winds are important for upwelling and a vast array of other biological, oceanic, and atmospheric processes. Intermittence in northerly coastal surface wind is characterized and wind events are quantitatively defined using coastal buoy data south of Cape Mendocino on the northern California coast. The defined wind events are then used as a basis for composites in order to explain the spatial evolution of various atmospheric and oceanic processes. Wind events involve large-scale changes in the three-dimensional atmospheric circulation including the eastern North Pacific subtropical anticyclone and southeast trade winds. Composites of QSCAT satellite scatterometer wind estimates from 1999 to 2005 based on a single coastal buoy indicate that wind events typically last 72-96 h and result in anomalies in surface wind and Ekman pumping that extend over 1000 kin from the west coast of North America. It may be useful to consider ocean circulation and dependent ecosystem dynamics and the distribution of temperature, moisture, and aerosols in the atmospheric boundary layer in the context of wind events defined herein. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  5. Surface water and atmospheric underway carbon data obtained during the World Ocean Circulation Experiment Indian Ocean survey cruises (R/V Knorr, December 1998--January 1996)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozyr, A. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Energy, Environment, and Resources Center; Allison, L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center

    1997-11-01

    This data documentation presents the results of the surface water and atmospheric underway measurements of mole fraction of carbon dioxide (xCO{sub 2}), sea surface salinity, and sea surface temperature, obtained during the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) Indian Ocean survey cruises (December 1994--January 1996). Discrete and underway carbon measurements were made by members of the CO{sub 2} survey team. The survey team is a part of the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study supported by the US Department of Energy to make carbon-related measurements on the WOCE global survey cruises. Approximately 200,000 surface seawater and 50,000 marine air xCO{sub 2} measurements were recorded.

  6. Oceanic Transport of Surface Meltwater from the Southern Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hao; Castelao, Renato M.; Rennermalm, Asa K.; Tedesco, Marco; Bracco, Annalisa; Yager, Patricia L.; Mote, Thomas L.

    2016-01-01

    The Greenland ice sheet has undergone accelerating mass losses during recent decades. Freshwater runoff from ice melt can influence fjord circulation and dynamic1 and the delivery of bioavailable micronutrients to the ocean. It can also have climate implications, because stratification in the adjacent Labrador Sea may influence deep convection and the strength of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. Yet, the fate of the meltwater in the ocean remains unclear. Here, we use a high-resolution ocean model to show that only 1-15% of the surface meltwater runoff originating from southwest Greenland is transported westwards. In contrast, up to 50-60% of the meltwater runoff originating from southeast Greenland is transported westwards into the northern Labrador Sea, leading to significant salinity and stratification anomalies far from the coast. Doubling meltwater runoff, as predicted in future climate scenarios, results in a more-than-double increase in anomalies offshore that persists further into the winter. Interannual variability in offshore export of meltwater is tightly related to variability in wind forcing. The new insight that meltwaters originating from the west and east coasts have different fates indicates that future changes in mass loss rates and surface runoff will probably impact the ocean differently, depending on their Greenland origins.

  7. The artificial object detection and current velocity measurement using SAR ocean surface images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpatov, Boris; Strotov, Valery; Ershov, Maksim; Muraviev, Vadim; Feldman, Alexander; Smirnov, Sergey

    2017-10-01

    Due to the fact that water surface covers wide areas, remote sensing is the most appropriate way of getting information about ocean environment for vessel tracking, security purposes, ecological studies and others. Processing of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images is extensively used for control and monitoring of the ocean surface. Image data can be acquired from Earth observation satellites, such as TerraSAR-X, ERS, and COSMO-SkyMed. Thus, SAR image processing can be used to solve many problems arising in this field of research. This paper discusses some of them including ship detection, oil pollution control and ocean currents mapping. Due to complexity of the problem several specialized algorithm are necessary to develop. The oil spill detection algorithm consists of the following main steps: image preprocessing, detection of dark areas, parameter extraction and classification. The ship detection algorithm consists of the following main steps: prescreening, land masking, image segmentation combined with parameter measurement, ship orientation estimation and object discrimination. The proposed approach to ocean currents mapping is based on Doppler's law. The results of computer modeling on real SAR images are presented. Based on these results it is concluded that the proposed approaches can be used in maritime applications.

  8. Magnetic Signatures of Fine-scale Processes in the Ocean Surface Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloviev, A.; Dean, C.; Avera, W. E.

    2015-12-01

    Fine-scale processes in the upper ocean turbulent boundary layer may have a measurable electromagnetic signature. In order to study magnetic signatures of these fine-scale processes, we have applied a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model combining a 3D computational fluid dynamics model and electromagnetic block, based on ANSYS Fluent software. In addition, the hydrodynamic component of the MHD model is coupled with a radar imaging algorithm, which potentially provides a link to synthetic aperture radar (SAR) satellite imagery. Capabilities of this model have been demonstrated using a simulation and observation of an internal wave soliton in the Straits of Florida, observed with in situ instrumentation (ADCP mooring) and COSMO Sky Med (SAR) satellite image. We have applied this model to study magnetic signatures of surface waves, freshwater lenses, spatially coherent organized motions in the near-surface layer of the ocean (Langmuir circulation and ramp-like structures), and bio-turbulence induced by diel vertical migrations of zooplankton in some areas of the ocean. Investigation of electromagnetic signatures in upper ocean processes offers a valuable new prospect in air-sea interaction.

  9. Oceanic transport of surface meltwater from the southern Greenland ice sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hao; Castelao, Renato M.; Rennermalm, Asa K.; Tedesco, Marco; Bracco, Annalisa; Yager, Patricia L.; Mote, Thomas L.

    2016-07-01

    The Greenland ice sheet has undergone accelerating mass losses during recent decades. Freshwater runoff from ice melt can influence fjord circulation and dynamics and the delivery of bioavailable micronutrients to the ocean. It can also have climate implications, because stratification in the adjacent Labrador Sea may influence deep convection and the strength of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. Yet, the fate of the meltwater in the ocean remains unclear. Here, we use a high-resolution ocean model to show that only 1-15% of the surface meltwater runoff originating from southwest Greenland is transported westwards. In contrast, up to 50-60% of the meltwater runoff originating from southeast Greenland is transported westwards into the northern Labrador Sea, leading to significant salinity and stratification anomalies far from the coast. Doubling meltwater runoff, as predicted in future climate scenarios, results in a more-than-double increase in anomalies offshore that persists further into the winter. Interannual variability in offshore export of meltwater is tightly related to variability in wind forcing. The new insight that meltwaters originating from the west and east coasts have different fates indicates that future changes in mass loss rates and surface runoff will probably impact the ocean differently, depending on their Greenland origins.

  10. Odor tracking in sharks is reduced under future ocean acidification conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixson, Danielle L; Jennings, Ashley R; Atema, Jelle; Munday, Philip L

    2015-04-01

    Recent studies show that ocean acidification impairs sensory functions and alters the behavior of teleost fishes. If sharks and other elasmobranchs are similarly affected, this could have significant consequences for marine ecosystems globally. Here, we show that projected future CO2 levels impair odor tracking behavior of the smooth dogfish (Mustelus canis). Adult M. canis were held for 5 days in a current-day control (405 ± 26 μatm) and mid (741 ± 22 μatm) or high CO2 (1064 ± 17 μatm) treatments consistent with the projections for the year 2100 on a 'business as usual' scenario. Both control and mid CO2 -treated individuals maintained normal odor tracking behavior, whereas high CO2 -treated sharks significantly avoided the odor cues indicative of food. Control sharks spent >60% of their time in the water stream containing the food stimulus, but this value fell below 15% in high CO2 -treated sharks. In addition, sharks treated under mid and high CO2 conditions reduced attack behavior compared to the control individuals. Our findings show that shark feeding could be affected by changes in seawater chemistry projected for the end of this century. Understanding the effects of ocean acidification on critical behaviors, such as prey tracking in large predators, can help determine the potential impacts of future ocean acidification on ecosystem function. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Theoretical research for natural circulation operational characteristic of ship nuclear machinery under ocean conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan Binghuo [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Naval University of Engineering, Wuhan 430033 (China)], E-mail: yanbh1986@163.com; Yu Lei [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Naval University of Engineering, Wuhan 430033 (China)], E-mail: yulei301@163.com

    2009-06-15

    Based on the two-phase drift flux model and the multi-pressure nodes matrix solving method, natural circulation thermal hydraulic analysis models for the Nuclear Machinery (NM) under ocean conditions are developed. The neutron physical activities and the responses of the reactivity control systems are described by the two-group, 3-dimensional space and time dependent neutron kinetics model. Reactivity feedback is calculated by coupling the neutron physics and thermal hydraulic codes, and is tested by comparison with experiments. Using the models developed, the natural circulation operating characteristics of NM in rolling and pitching motions and the transitions between forced circulation (FC) to natural circulation (NC) are analyzed. The results show that the influence of the rolling motion increases as the rolling amplitude is increased, and as the rolling period becomes shorter. The results also show that for this NM, with the same rolling period and rolling angle, the influence of pitching motion on natural circulation is greater than that of rolling motion. Furthermore, the oscillation period for pitching motion is the same as the pitching period, while the oscillation period for rolling is one half of the rolling period. In the ocean environment, excessive flow oscillation of the natural circulation may cause the control rods to respond so frequently that the NM would not be able to realize the transition from the FC to NC steadily. However, the influence of ocean environment on the transition from NC to FC is limited.

  12. Effect of ocean acidification on growth and otolith condition of juvenile scup, Stenotomus chrysops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Dean M; Redman, Dylan H; Widman, James C; Meseck, Shannon; King, Andrew; Pereira, Jose J

    2015-09-01

    Increasing amounts of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) from human industrial activities are causing changes in global ocean carbonate chemistry, resulting in a reduction in pH, a process termed "ocean acidification." It is important to determine which species are sensitive to elevated levels of CO2 because of potential impacts to ecosystems, marine resources, biodiversity, food webs, populations, and effects on economies. Previous studies with marine fish have documented that exposure to elevated levels of CO2 caused increased growth and larger otoliths in some species. This study was conducted to determine whether the elevated partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) would have an effect on growth, otolith (ear bone) condition, survival, or the skeleton of juvenile scup, Stenotomus chrysops, a species that supports both important commercial and recreational fisheries. Elevated levels of pCO2 (1200-2600 μatm) had no statistically significant effect on growth, survival, or otolith condition after 8 weeks of rearing. Field data show that in Long Island Sound, where scup spawn, in situ levels of pCO2 are already at levels ranging from 689 to 1828 μatm due to primary productivity, microbial activity, and anthropogenic inputs. These results demonstrate that ocean acidification is not likely to cause adverse effects on the growth and survivability of every species of marine fish. X-ray analysis of the fish revealed a slightly higher incidence of hyperossification in the vertebrae of a few scup from the highest treatments compared to fish from the control treatments. Our results show that juvenile scup are tolerant to increases in seawater pCO2, possibly due to conditions this species encounters in their naturally variable environment and their well-developed pH control mechanisms.

  13. Ocean regional circulation model sensitizes to resolution of the lateral boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Van Sy; Hwang, Jin Hwan

    2017-04-01

    Dynamical downscaling with nested regional oceanographic models is an effective approach for forecasting operationally coastal weather and projecting long term climate on the ocean. Nesting procedures deliver the unwanted in dynamic downscaling due to the differences of numerical grid sizes and updating steps. Therefore, such unavoidable errors restrict the application of the Ocean Regional Circulation Model (ORCMs) in both short-term forecasts and long-term projections. The current work identifies the effects of errors induced by computational limitations during nesting procedures on the downscaled results of the ORCMs. The errors are quantitatively evaluated for each error source and its characteristics by the Big-Brother Experiments (BBE). The BBE separates identified errors from each other and quantitatively assess the amount of uncertainties employing the same model to simulate for both nesting and nested model. Here, we focus on discussing errors resulting from two main matters associated with nesting procedures. They should be the spatial grids' differences and the temporal updating steps. After the diverse cases from separately running of the BBE, a Taylor diagram was adopted to analyze the results and suggest an optimization intern of grid size and updating period and domain sizes. Key words: lateral boundary condition, error, ocean regional circulation model, Big-Brother Experiment. Acknowledgement: This research was supported by grants from the Korean Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries entitled "Development of integrated estuarine management system" and a National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) Grant (No. 2015R1A5A 7037372) funded by MSIP of Korea. The authors thank the Integrated Research Institute of Construction and Environmental Engineering of Seoul National University for administrative support.

  14. Oceanic and atmospheric conditions associated with the pentad rainfall over the southeastern peninsular India during the North-East Indian Monsoon season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugasundaram, Jothiganesh; Lee, Eungul

    2018-03-01

    The association of North-East Indian Monsoon rainfall (NEIMR) over the southeastern peninsular India with the oceanic and atmospheric conditions over the adjacent ocean regions at pentad time step (five days period) was investigated during the months of October to December for the period 1985-2014. The non-parametric correlation and composite analyses were carried out for the simultaneous and lagged time steps (up to four lags) of oceanic and atmospheric variables with pentad NEIMR. The results indicated that NEIMR was significantly correlated: 1) positively with both sea surface temperature (SST) led by 1-4 pentads (lag 1-4 time steps) and latent heat flux (LHF) during the simultaneous, lag 1 and 2 time steps over the equatorial western Indian Ocean, 2) positively with SST but negatively with LHF (less heat flux from ocean to atmosphere) during the same and all the lagged time steps over the Bay of Bengal. Consistently, during the wet NEIMR pentads over the southeastern peninsular India, SST significantly increased over the Bay of Bengal during all the time steps and the equatorial western Indian Ocean during the lag 2-4 time steps, while the LHF decreased over the Bay of Bengal (all time steps) and increased over the Indian Ocean (same, lag 1 and 2). The investigation on ocean-atmospheric interaction revealed that the enhanced LHF over the equatorial western Indian Ocean was related to increased atmospheric moisture demand and increased wind speed, whereas the reduced LHF over the Bay of Bengal was associated with decreased atmospheric moisture demand and decreased wind speed. The vertically integrated moisture flux and moisture transport vectors from 1000 to 850 hPa exhibited that the moisture was carried away from the equatorial western Indian Ocean to the strong moisture convergence regions of the Bay of Bengal during the same and lag 1 time steps of wet NEIMR pentads. Further, the moisture over the Bay of Bengal was transported to the southeastern peninsular

  15. An update to the Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT version 2)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bakker, D.C.E.; Hankin, S.; Olsen, A.; Pfeil, B.; Smith, K.; Alin, S.R.; Cosca, C.; Hales, B.; Harasawa, S.; Kozyr, A.; Nojiri, Y.; OBrien, K.M.; Schuster, U.; Telszewski, M.; Tilbrook, B.; Wada, C.; Akl, J.; Barbero, L.; Bates, N.; Boutin, J.; Cai, W.J.; Castle, R.D.; Chavez, F.; Chen, L.; Chierici, M.; Currie, K.; Evans, W.; Feely, R.A.; Fransson, A.; Gao, Z.; Hardman-Mountford, N.; Hoppema, M.; Huang, W.J.; Hunt, C.W.; Huss, B.; Ichikawa, T.; Jacobson, A.; Johannessen, T.; Jones, E.M.; Jones, S.; Sara, J.; Kitidis, V.; Kortzinger, A.; Lauvset, S.; Lefevre, N.; Manke, A.B.; Mathis, J.; Metzl, N.; Monteiro, P.; Murata, A.; Newberger, T.; Nobuo, T.; Ono, T.; Paterson, K.; Pierrot, D.; Rios, A.F.; Sabine, C.L.; Saito, S.; Salisbury, J.; Sarma, V.V.S.S.; Schlitzer, R.; Sieger, R.; Skjelvan, I.; Steinhoff, T.; Sullivan, K.; Sutherland, S.C.; Suzuki, T.; Sutton, A.; Sweeney, C.; Takahashi, T.; Tjiputra, J.; VanHeuven, S.; Vandemark, D.; Vlahos, P.; Wallace, D.W.R.; Wanninkhof, R.; Watson, A.J.

    /69/2014/ Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 6, 69–90, 2014 78 D. C. E. Bakker et al.: An update to the Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT version 2) 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 x 105 N um be r o f f C O 2 va lu es N at ha ni el B . P al m er E xp lo re r o f t he S ea s La ur en ce M.... Sci. Data, 6, 69–90, 2014 www.earth-syst-sci-data.net/6/69/2014/ doi:10.5194/essd-6-69-2014 © Author(s) 2014. CC Attribution 3.0 License. Op en A cc es s Earth System Science Data An update to the Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT version 2) D. C. E...

  16. Application of Ultrasonic Sensors in Road Surface Condition Distinction Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shota Nakashima

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The number of accidents involving elderly individuals has been increasing with the increase of the aging population, posing increasingly serious challenges. Most accidents are caused by reduced judgment and physical abilities, which lead to severe consequences. Therefore, studies on support systems for elderly and visually impaired people to improve the safety and quality of daily life are attracting considerable attention. In this study, a road surface condition distinction method using reflection intensities obtained by an ultrasonic sensor was proposed. The proposed method was applied to movement support systems for elderly and visually impaired individuals to detect dangerous road surfaces and give an alarm. The method did not perform well in previous studies of puddle detection, because the alert provided by the method did not enable users to avoid puddles. This study extended the method proposed by previous studies with respect to puddle detection ability. The findings indicate the effectiveness of the proposed method by considering four road surface conditions. The proposed method could detect puddle conditions. The effectiveness of the proposed method was verified in all four conditions, since users could differentiate between road surface conditions and classify the conditions as either safe or dangerous.

  17. Osteogenic potential of laser modified and conditioned titanium zirconium surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P David Charles

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: The osseointegration of dental implant is related to their composition and surface treatment. Titanium zirconium (TiZr has been introduced as an alternative to the commercially pure titanium and its alloys as dental implant material, which is attributed to its superior mechanical and biological properties. Surface treatments of TiZr have been introduced to enhance their osseointegration ability; however, reliable, easy to use surface modification technique has not been established. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the effect of neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd-YAG laser surface treatment of TiZr implant alloy on their osteogenic potential. Materials and Methods: Twenty disc-shaped samples of 5 mm diameter and 2 mm height were milled from the TiZr alloy ingot. The polished discs were ultrasonically cleaned in distilled water. Ten samples each were randomly selected as Group A control samples and Group B consisted of Nd-YAG laser surface etched and conditioned test samples. These were evaluated for cellular response. Cellular adhesion and proliferation were quantified, and the results were statistically analyzed using nonparametric analysis. Cellular morphology was observed using electron and epiflurosence microscopy. Results: Nd-YAG laser surface modified and conditioned TiZr samples increased the osteogenic potential. Conclusion: Nd-YAG laser surface modification of TiZr, improves the cellular activity, surface roughness, and wettability, thereby increasing the osteogenic potential.

  18. Surface Drift in the South-East Atlantic Ocean | Wedepohl | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Surface drift in the South-East Atlantic Ocean is described using historical shipdrift data. The Benguela Current has a width of 200 km in the south and 750 km in the north. The mean speeds of the current vary from <11 cm.s-1 to a maximum of 23 cm.s-1. The highest current speeds occur during summer in the southern ...

  19. An Overview of the Naval Research Laboratory Ocean Surface Flux (NFLUX) System

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, J. C.; Rowley, C. D.; Barron, C. N.

    2016-02-01

    The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) ocean surface flux (NFLUX) system is an end-to-end data processing and assimilation system used to provide near-real time satellite-based surface heat flux fields over the global ocean. Swath-level air temperature (TA), specific humidity (QA), and wind speed (WS) estimates are produced using multiple polynomial regression algorithms with inputs from satellite sensor data records from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder, the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A, the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder, and the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-2 sensors. Swath-level WS estimates are also retrieved from satellite environmental data records from WindSat, the MetOp scatterometers, and the Oceansat scatterometer. Swath-level solar and longwave radiative flux estimates are produced utilizing the Rapid Radiative Transfer Model for Global Circulation Models (RRTMG). Primary inputs to the RRTMG include temperature and moisture profiles and cloud liquid and ice water paths from the Microwave Integrated Retrieval System. All swath-level satellite estimates undergo an automated quality control process and are then assimilated with atmospheric model forecasts to produce 3-hourly gridded analysis fields. The turbulent heat flux fields, latent and sensible heat flux, are determined from the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment (COARE) 3.0 bulk algorithms using inputs of TA, QA, WS, and a sea surface temperature model field. Quality-controlled in situ observations over a one-year time period from May 2013 through April 2014 form the reference for validating ocean surface state parameter and heat flux fields. The NFLUX fields are evaluated alongside the Navy's operational global atmospheric model, the Navy Global Environmental Model (NAVGEM). NFLUX is shown to have smaller biases and lower or similar root mean square errors compared to NAVGEM.

  20. Cloud Properties Observed From the Surface and by Satellite at the Northern Edge of the Southern Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, S. P.; Protat, A.

    2018-01-01

    A Raman depolarization lidar was deployed at Cape Grim, Australia (40.7°S, 144.7°E), at the northern edge of the Southern Ocean from July 2013 to February 2014 from which we determine cloud boundaries, cloud phase, ice virga, and cloud effective top heights. We compare surface-based lidar with results from the raDAR/liDAR (DARDAR) data set within 1,000 km of Cape Grim. DARDAR combines information from the CloudSat and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) instruments. We extract single-layer clouds that are sufficiently thin for signal to be present on the farside of the cloud and which have a liquid cloud top phase. These conditions maximize the likelihood that both surface-based lidar and DARDAR are observing the full vertical extent of the same clouds. Differences in low-level cloud occurrence frequencies for these single-layer clouds reveal that DARDAR underestimates cloud at 0.2-1.0 km altitude by a factor of 3 compared with the surface-based lidar. When multiple cloud decks are present, the underestimate in this altitude region is around 2.5 times. Heterogeneous glaciation observed by the Cape Grim lidar in midlevel stratiform supercooled water clouds is similar to that reported by previous surface-based observations adjacent to the Southern Ocean, with half of these clouds precipitating ice at cloud top temperatures of -20°C. This transition occurs around -15°C in the DARDAR data set, and this difference is likely due to the reduced sensitivity of surface-based lidar in detecting precipitating ice compared with what a surface-based radar could observe.

  1. Conditions on holographic entangling surfaces in higher curvature gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdmenger, Johanna; Flory, Mario; Sleight, Charlotte [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut),Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805, Munich (Germany)

    2014-06-17

    We study the extremal surfaces of functionals recently proposed for the holographic calculation of entanglement entropy in general higher curvature theories, using New Massive gravity and Gauss-Bonnet gravity as concrete examples. We show that the entropy functionals admit closed extremal surfaces, which for black hole backgrounds can encircle the event horizon of the black hole. In the examples considered, such closed surfaces correspond to a lower value of the entropy functional than expected from CFT calculations, implying a seeming mismatch between the bulk and boundary calculations. For Lorentzian settings we show that this problem can be resolved by imposing a causality constraint on the extremal surfaces. The possibility of deriving conditions from an alternative conical boundary condition method as proposed by Lewkowycz and Maldacena is explored.

  2. KARIN: The Ka-Band Radar Interferometer for the Proposed Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban-Fernandez, Daniel; Peral, Eva; McWatters, Dalia; Pollard, Brian; Rodriguez, Ernesto; Hughes, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Over the last two decades, several nadir profiling radar altimeters have provided our first global look at the ocean basin-scale circulation and the ocean mesoscale at wavelengths longer than 100 km. Due to sampling limitations, nadir altimetry is unable to resolve the small wavelength ocean mesoscale and sub-mesoscale that are responsible for the vertical mixing of ocean heat and gases and the dissipation of kinetic energy from large to small scales. The proposed Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission would be a partnership between NASA, CNES (Centre National d'Etudes Spaciales) and the Canadian Space Agency, and would have as one of its main goals the measurement of ocean topography with kilometer-scale spatial resolution and centimeter scale accuracy. In this paper, we provide an overview of all ocean error sources that would contribute to the SWOT mission.

  3. The Surface Ocean Carbon Dioxide Atlas (SOCAT) - A Solid Data Base for Carbon Related Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhoff, T.; Bakker, D. C. E.; Wanninkhof, R. H.; Currie, K.; Landa, C.; Landschutzer, P.; Metzl, N.; Nakaoka, S. I.; Nojiri, Y.; O'Brien, K.; Olsen, A.; Pfeil, B.; Schuster, U.; Smith, K. M.; Tilbrook, B. D.

    2016-02-01

    The Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT) is an activity by the international marine carbon research community. It improves access to surface water CO2 data by regular releases of quality controlled and documented, synthesis fCO2 (fugacity of carbon dioxide) data products for the global surface oceans and coastal seas. The first version of SOCAT was publicly released in September 2011(Bakker et al., 2011) with 6.3 million observations. In June 2013 version 2 was released including already over 10 million observations and in September 2015 SOCAT version 3 was released with more than 14 million observations. With the release of version 3 in September 2015 a big step was made in the direction of an annual updated database by using an automated data ingestion and quality control tool. The database holds now data from 1957 to today which enables SOCAT data products the detection of changes in the ocean carbon sink. Here we present the innovations in version 3 and give an outlook of the next version(s) of SOCAT. A major improvement in version 3 is the inclusion of data from alternative sensors with a lower accuracy (better than 10 µatm) compared to the standard instrumentation (2 µatm), since their number will increase in the future. In addition exemplary studies using the SOCAT database will be presented which demonstrate the potential of the SOCAT database and point out possible improvements for the future.

  4. Amino acid stable isotope applications to deep-sea corals: A molecular geochemistry approach to reconstructing past ocean conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, K.; McCarthy, M. D.; Guilderson, T. P.; Sherwood, O.; Williams, B.; Larsen, T.; Glynn, D. S.

    2017-12-01

    Future climate change is predicted to alter ocean productivity, food web dynamics, biogeochemical cycling, and the efficacy of the biological pump. Proteinaceous deep-sea corals act as "living sediment traps," providing long-term, high-resolution records of exported surface ocean production and a window into past changes in ocean condition as a historical context for potential future changes. Here, we present recent work developing the application of compound-specific stable isotope analysis of individual amino acids to proteinaceous deep-sea corals to reconstruct past changes in phytoplankton community composition and biogeochemical cycling. We present new calibrations for molecular isotope comparisons between metabolically active coral polyp tissue and bioarchival proteinaceous skeleton. We then applied these techniques to deep-sea corals from the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre (NPSG) to reconstruct centennial to millennial time scale changes in phytoplankton community composition and biogeochemical cycling as a function of regional climate change. This work suggests that the NPSG has undergone multiple major phytoplankton regime shifts over the last millennium between prokaryotic and eukaryotic phytoplankton communities and associated sources of nitrogen fueling production. The most recent regime, which started around the end of the Little Ice Age and the onset of the Industrial era, is unprecedented in the last 1000 years and resulted in a 30-50% increase in diazotrophic cyanobacteria contribution to export production and an associated 17-27% increase in N2-fixation in the NPSG over last century. By offering the first direct phylogenetic context for long-term shifts in isotopic records of exported particulate organic matter, our data represent a major step forward in understanding the evolution of marine plankton community dynamics, food web architecture, biogeochemical cycling, and the climate feedback loops through the biological pump.

  5. Unveiling the role and life strategies of viruses from the surface to the dark ocean

    KAUST Repository

    Lara, Elena

    2017-09-07

    Viruses are a key component of marine ecosystems, but the assessment of their global role in regulating microbial communities and the flux of carbon is precluded by a paucity of data, particularly in the deep ocean. We assessed patterns in viral abundance and production and the role of viral lysis as a driver of prokaryote mortality, from surface to bathypelagic layers, across the tropical and subtropical oceans. Viral abundance showed significant differences between oceans in the epipelagic and mesopelagic, but not in the bathypelagic, and decreased with depth, with an average power-law scaling exponent of −1.03 km−1 from an average of 7.76 × 106 viruses ml−1 in the epipelagic to 0.62 × 106 viruses ml−1 in the bathypelagic layer with an average integrated (0 to 4000 m) viral stock of about 0.004 to 0.044 g C m−2, half of which is found below 775 m. Lysogenic viral production was higher than lytic viral production in surface waters, whereas the opposite was found in the bathypelagic, where prokaryotic mortality due to viruses was estimated to be 60 times higher than grazing. Free viruses had turnover times of 0.1 days in the bathypelagic, revealing that viruses in the bathypelagic are highly dynamic. On the basis of the rates of lysed prokaryotic cells, we estimated that viruses release 145 Gt C year−1 in the global tropical and subtropical oceans. The active viral processes reported here demonstrate the importance of viruses in the production of dissolved organic carbon in the dark ocean, a major pathway in carbon cycling.

  6. Rapid removal of plutonium from the oceanic surface layer by zooplankton faecal pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgo, J.J.W.; Cherry, R.D.; Heyraud, M.; Fowler, S.W.

    1977-01-01

    In view of the possibility that increasing quantities of Pu may in due course be introduced into the marine environment, it is important to have a detailed knowledge of its oceanic behaviour. It has been suggested that algae and perhaps the phytoplanktonic mass may have an important role in determining the chemical and physical forms of Pu predominant in the ocean. The role of the zooplanktonic mass has not been investigated in detail, but it is known that for several elements zooplankton metabolism may be an important biological factor in the removal of elements from the surface layers of the ocean. The particular importance of zooplankton faecal pellets in this process has been stressed, and it has been found that M. norvegica is rich in the naturally-occurring α-emitter 210 Po when compared with whole organism levels. A study is here described for Pu, and it is reported that M. norvegica faecal pellets are relatively rich in Pu. It is suggested that zooplankton faecal pellet deposition might be an important vector in the vertical oceanic transport of this element. Experimental details are given and results are shown in tabular form. The implications of the high concentrations of Pu in faecal pellets are described, and rough estimates are made for the removal time of Pu from the upper mixed ocean layers by zooplankton pellets alone; the result is 3.6 years. It is suggested that faecal pellets may have a significant role in the removal of Pu from the surface layers of the sea. (U.K.)

  7. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from S. A. AGULHAS in the Indian Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2009-01-26 to 2011-01-10 (NODC Accession 0081024)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0081024 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from S. A. AGULHAS in the Indian Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean...

  8. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from surface underway observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from Hakuho Maru in the Indian Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2009-12-16 to 2010-01-26 (NCEI Accession 0163190)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0163190 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and surface underway data collected from Hakuho Maru in the Indian Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and...

  9. Testing of newly developed functional surfaces under pure sliding conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godi, Alessandro; Mohaghegh, Kamran; Grønbæk, J.

    2013-01-01

    -polished counterpart. A number of experiments were carried out at different normal pressures employing for all specimens the same reciprocating movement and the same lubrication. The measured friction forces were plotted against the incremental normal pressure, and the friction coefficients were calculated....... The results comparison showed clearly how employing multifunctional surfaces can reduce friction forces up to 50 % at high normal loads compared to regularly ground or turned surfaces. Friction coefficients approximately equal to 0.12 were found for classically machined surfaces, whereas the values were 0...... the surfaces in an industrial context. In this paper, a number of experimental tests were performed using a novel test rig, called axial sliding test, simulating the contact of surfaces under pure sliding conditions. The aim of the experiments is to evaluate the frictional behavior of a new typology...

  10. Flow and coral morphology control coral surface pH: Implications for the effects of ocean acidification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil C. S. Chan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The future impact of ocean acidification (OA on corals is disputed in part because mathematical models used to predict these impacts do not seem to capture, or offer a framework to adequately explain, the substantial variability in acidification effects observed in empirical studies. The build-up of a diffusive boundary layer (DBL, wherein solute transport is controlled by diffusion, can lead to pronounced differences between the bulk seawater pH, and the actual pH experienced by the organism, a factor rarely considered in mathematical modelling of ocean acidification effects on corals. In the present study, we developed a simple diffusion-reaction-uptake model that was experimentally parameterized based on direct microsensor measurements of coral tissue pH and O2 within the DBL of a branching and a massive coral. The model accurately predicts tissue surface pH for different coral morphologies and under different flow velocities as a function of ambient pH. We show that, for all cases, tissue surface pH is elevated at lower flows, and thus thicker DBLs. The relative effects of OA on coral surface pH was controlled by flow and we show that under low flow velocities tissue surface pH under OA conditions (pHSWS = 7.8 can be equal to the pH under normal conditions (pHSWS = 8.2. We conclude that OA effects on corals in nature will be complex as the degree to which they are controlled by flow appears to be species specific.

  11. Interaction between surface wind and ocean circulation in the Carolina Capes in a coupled low-order model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, L.; Pietrafesa, L.J.; Raman, S.

    1997-03-18

    Interactions between surface winds and ocean currents over an east-coast continental shelf are studied using a simple mathematical model. The model physics include cross-shelf advection of sea surface temperature (SST) by Ekman drift, upwelling due to Ekman transport divergence, differential heating of the low-level atmosphere by a cross-shelf SST gradient, and the Coriolis effect. Additionally, the effects of diabatic cooling of surface waters due to air-sea heat exchange and of the vertical density stratification on the thickness of the upper ocean Ekman layer are considered. The model results are qualitatively consistent with observed wind-driven coastal ocean circulation and surface wind signatures induced by SST. This simple model also demonstrates that two-way air-sea interaction plays a significant role in the subtidal frequency variability of coastal ocean circulation and mesoscale variability of surface wind fields over coastal waters.

  12. Remote sensing of ocean surface currents: a review of what is being observed and what is being assimilated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isern-Fontanet, Jordi; Ballabrera-Poy, Joaquim; Turiel, Antonio; García-Ladona, Emilio

    2017-10-01

    Ocean currents play a key role in Earth's climate - they impact almost any process taking place in the ocean and are of major importance for navigation and human activities at sea. Nevertheless, their observation and forecasting are still difficult. First, no observing system is able to provide direct measurements of global ocean currents on synoptic scales. Consequently, it has been necessary to use sea surface height and sea surface temperature measurements and refer to dynamical frameworks to derive the velocity field. Second, the assimilation of the velocity field into numerical models of ocean circulation is difficult mainly due to lack of data. Recent experiments that assimilate coastal-based radar data have shown that ocean currents will contribute to increasing the forecast skill of surface currents, but require application in multidata assimilation approaches to better identify the thermohaline structure of the ocean. In this paper we review the current knowledge in these fields and provide a global and systematic view of the technologies to retrieve ocean velocities in the upper ocean and the available approaches to assimilate this information into ocean models.

  13. Remote sensing of ocean surface currents: a review of what is being observed and what is being assimilated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Isern-Fontanet

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Ocean currents play a key role in Earth's climate – they impact almost any process taking place in the ocean and are of major importance for navigation and human activities at sea. Nevertheless, their observation and forecasting are still difficult. First, no observing system is able to provide direct measurements of global ocean currents on synoptic scales. Consequently, it has been necessary to use sea surface height and sea surface temperature measurements and refer to dynamical frameworks to derive the velocity field. Second, the assimilation of the velocity field into numerical models of ocean circulation is difficult mainly due to lack of data. Recent experiments that assimilate coastal-based radar data have shown that ocean currents will contribute to increasing the forecast skill of surface currents, but require application in multidata assimilation approaches to better identify the thermohaline structure of the ocean. In this paper we review the current knowledge in these fields and provide a global and systematic view of the technologies to retrieve ocean velocities in the upper ocean and the available approaches to assimilate this information into ocean models.

  14. Intraseasonal Variability of the Equatorial Indian Ocean Observed from Sea Surface Height, Wind, and Temperature Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Lee-Lueng

    2007-01-01

    The forcing of the equatorial Indian Ocean by the highly periodic monsoon wind cycle creates many interesting intraseasonal variabilities. The frequency spectrum of the wind stress observations from the European Remote Sensing Satellite scatterometers reveals peaks at the seasonal cycle and its higher harmonics at 180, 120, 90, and 75 days. The observations of sea surface height (SSH) from the Jason and Ocean Topography Experiment (TOPEX)/Poseidon radar altimeters are analyzed to study the ocean's response. The focus of the study is on the intraseasonal periods shorter than the annual period. The semiannual SSH variability is characterized by a basin mode involving Rossby waves and Kelvin waves traveling back and forth in the equatorial Indian Ocean between 10(deg)S and 10(deg)N. However, the interference of these waves with each other masks the appearance of individual Kelvin and Rossby waves, leading to a nodal point (amphidrome) of phase propagation on the equator at the center of the basin. The characteristics of the mode correspond to a resonance of the basin according to theoretical models. The theory also calls for similar modes at 90 and 60 days.

  15. The relative influence of H2O and CO2 on the primitive surface conditions of Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador, A.; Massol, H.; Davaille, A.; Marcq, E.; Sarda, P.; Chassefiere, E.

    2017-12-01

    How the volatile content influences the primordial surface conditions of terrestrial planets and, thus, their future geodynamic evolution is an important question to answer. We simulate the secular convective cooling of a 1-D magma ocean (MO) in interaction with its outgassed atmosphere. A first rapid cooling stage, where efficient MO cooling and degassing take place, producing the atmosphere, is followed by a second quasi steady state where the heat flux balance is dominated by the solar flux. The end ofthe rapid cooling stage (ERCS) is reached when the mantle heat flux becomes negligible compared tothe absorbed solar flux. Varying the initial CO2 and H2O contents and the solar distance, we showed that the resulting surface conditions at ERCS strongly depend on these parameters and that water ocean's formation obeys simple scaling laws.Although today's Venus is located beyond the inner edge of the habitable zone due to its high albedo, its high CO2/H2O ratio prevents any water ocean formation.We already showed that depending on the formation time of its cloudcover and resulting albedo, only 0.3 Earth ocean mass might be sufficient to form a water ocean onearly Venus. Here we investigate more precisely these results by taking into account the effect of shortwave radiation on the radiative budget by computing the feedbacks between atmospheric composition and incident stellar flux instead of using a prescribed albedo value.

  16. Overview and preliminary results of the Surface Ocean Aerosol Production (SOAP campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. Law

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Establishing the relationship between marine boundary layer (MBL aerosols and surface water biogeochemistry is required to understand aerosol and cloud production processes over the remote ocean and represent them more accurately in earth system models and global climate projections. This was addressed by the SOAP (Surface Ocean Aerosol Production campaign, which examined air–sea interaction over biologically productive frontal waters east of New Zealand. This overview details the objectives, regional context, sampling strategy and provisional findings of a pilot study, PreSOAP, in austral summer 2011 and the following SOAP voyage in late austral summer 2012. Both voyages characterized surface water and MBL composition in three phytoplankton blooms of differing species composition and biogeochemistry, with significant regional correlation observed between chlorophyll a and DMSsw. Surface seawater dimethylsulfide (DMSsw and associated air–sea DMS flux showed spatial variation during the SOAP voyage, with maxima of 25 nmol L−1 and 100 µmol m−2 d−1, respectively, recorded in a dinoflagellate bloom. Inclusion of SOAP data in a regional DMSsw compilation indicates that the current climatological mean is an underestimate for this region of the southwest Pacific. Estimation of the DMS gas transfer velocity (kDMS by independent techniques of eddy covariance and gradient flux showed good agreement, although both exhibited periodic deviations from model estimates. Flux anomalies were related to surface warming and sea surface microlayer enrichment and also reflected the heterogeneous distribution of DMSsw and the associated flux footprint. Other aerosol precursors measured included the halides and various volatile organic carbon compounds, with first measurements of the short-lived gases glyoxal and methylglyoxal in pristine Southern Ocean marine air indicating an unidentified local source. The application of a real-time clean sector

  17. Vertical eddy diffusion as a key mechanism for removing perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) from the global surface oceans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lohmann, R.; Jurado Cojo, E.; Dijkstra, H.A.; Dachs, J.

    2013-01-01

    Here we estimate the importance of vertical eddy diffusion in removing perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) from the surface Ocean and assess its importance as a global sink. Measured water column profiles of PFOA were reproduced by assuming that vertical eddy diffusion in a 3-layer ocean model is the sole

  18. Distribution of surface plastic debris in the eastern Pacific Ocean from an 11-year data set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Kara Lavender; Morét-Ferguson, Skye E; Goodwin, Deborah S; Zettler, Erik R; Deforce, Emelia; Kukulka, Tobias; Proskurowski, Giora

    2014-05-06

    We present an extensive survey of floating plastic debris in the eastern North and South Pacific Oceans from more than 2500 plankton net tows conducted between 2001 and 2012. From these data we defined an accumulation zone (25 to 41 °N, 130 to 180 °W) in the North Pacific subtropical gyre that closely corresponds to centers of accumulation resulting from the convergence of ocean surface currents predicted by several oceanographic numerical models. Maximum plastic concentrations from individual surface net tows exceeded 10(6) pieces km(-2), with concentrations decreasing with increasing distance from the predicted center of accumulation. Outside the North Pacific subtropical gyre the median plastic concentration was 0 pieces km(-2). We were unable to detect a robust temporal trend in the data set, perhaps because of confounded spatial and temporal variability. Large spatiotemporal variability in plastic concentration causes order of magnitude differences in summary statistics calculated over short time periods or in limited geographic areas. Utilizing all available plankton net data collected in the eastern Pacific Ocean (17.4 °S to 61.0 °N; 85.0 to 180.0 °W) since 1999, we estimated a minimum of 21,290 t of floating microplastic.

  19. Chemical characterization of detrital sugar chains with peptides in oceanic surface particulate organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukasaki, A.; Nishida, T.; Tanoue, E.

    2016-02-01

    For better understanding of the dynamics of organic matter in the ocean interior, particulate organic matter (POM) in oceanic surface water is a key material as a starting material in food chain and biological carbon pump, and the source of dissolved organic matter. POM consists of a mixture of non-living POM (detritus) and small amount of living POM (organisms). Particulate combined amino acids (PCAAs) are one of the major components of POM and the most important source of nitrogen and carbon for heterotrophic organisms in marine environments. In our previous studies of molecular-level characterization of PCAAs using electrophoretic separation (SDS-PAGE: sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) with specific detection of protein/peptide and sugar chains, we reported that most of PCAAs existed as small-sized peptide chains with carbohydrate-rich remnants. Although carbohydrates are one of the major carbon components of POM, the details of molecular-level structures including sugar chains are unknown. In this study, we applied electrophoretic separation for sugar chains (FACE: fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis) to the POM samples collected from the surface water of the Pacific Ocean. The results showed that sugar chains with various degree of polymerization were detected in POM. The possible roles of such sugar chains in marine biogeochemical cycle of organic matter are discussed in the presentation.

  20. Observations and simulations of microplastic marine debris in the ocean surface boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukulka, T.; Brunner, K.; Proskurowski, G. K.; Lavender Law, K. L.

    2016-02-01

    Motivated by observations of buoyant microplastic marine debris (MPMD) in the ocean surface boundary layer (OSBL), this study applies a large eddy simulation model and a parametric one-dimensional column model to examine vertical distributions of MPMD. MPMD is widely distributed in vast regions of the subtropical gyres and has emerged as a major open ocean pollutant whose distribution is subject to upper ocean turbulence. The models capture wind-driven turbulence, Langmuir turbulence (LT), and enhanced turbulent kinetic energy input due to breaking waves (BW). Model results are only consistent with MPMD observations if LT effects are included. Neither BW nor shear-driven turbulence is capable of deeply submerging MPMD, suggesting that the observed vertical MPMD distributions are a characteristic signature of wave-driven LT. Thus, this study demonstrates that LT substantially increases turbulent transport in the OSBL, resulting in deep submergence of buoyant tracers. The parametric model is applied to eleven years of observations in the North Atlantic and North Pacific subtropical gyres to show that surface measurements substantially underestimate MPMD concentrations by a factor of three to thirteen.

  1. Responses of the tropical gorgonian coral Eunicea fusca to ocean acidification conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, C. E.; Paul, V. J.; Ritson-Williams, R.; Muehllehner, N.; Langdon, C.; Sánchez, J. A.

    2015-06-01

    Ocean acidification can have negative repercussions from the organism to ecosystem levels. Octocorals deposit high-magnesium calcite in their skeletons, and according to different models, they could be more susceptible to the depletion of carbonate ions than either calcite or aragonite-depositing organisms. This study investigated the response of the gorgonian coral Eunicea fusca to a range of CO2 concentrations from 285 to 4,568 ppm (pH range 8.1-7.1) over a 4-week period. Gorgonian growth and calcification were measured at each level of CO2 as linear extension rate and percent change in buoyant weight and calcein incorporation in individual sclerites, respectively. There was a significant negative relationship for calcification and CO2 concentration that was well explained by a linear model regression analysis for both buoyant weight and calcein staining. In general, growth and calcification did not stop in any of the concentrations of pCO2; however, some of the octocoral fragments experienced negative calcification at undersaturated levels of calcium carbonate (>4,500 ppm) suggesting possible dissolution effects. These results highlight the susceptibility of the gorgonian coral E. fusca to elevated levels of carbon dioxide but suggest that E. fusca could still survive well in mid-term ocean acidification conditions expected by the end of this century, which provides important information on the effects of ocean acidification on the dynamics of coral reef communities. Gorgonian corals can be expected to diversify and thrive in the Atlantic-Eastern Pacific; as scleractinian corals decline, it is likely to expect a shift in these reef communities from scleractinian coral dominated to octocoral/soft coral dominated under a "business as usual" scenario of CO2 emissions.

  2. A simple mathematical model to predict sea surface temperature over the northwest Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noori, Roohollah; Abbasi, Mahmud Reza; Adamowski, Jan Franklin; Dehghani, Majid

    2017-10-01

    A novel and simple mathematical model was developed in this study to enhance the capacity of a reduced-order model based on eigenvectors (RMEV) to predict sea surface temperature (SST) in the northwest portion of the Indian Ocean, including the Persian and Oman Gulfs and Arabian Sea. Developed using only the first two of 12,416 possible modes, the enhanced RMEV closely matched observed daily optimum interpolation SST (DOISST) values. Spatial distribution of the first mode indicated the greatest variations in DOISST occurred in the Persian Gulf. Also, the slightly increasing trend in the temporal component of the first mode observed in the study area over the last 34 years properly reflected the impact of climate change and rising DOISST. Given its simplicity and high level of accuracy, the enhanced RMEV can be applied to forecast DOISST in oceans, which the poor forecasting performance and large computational-time of other numerical models may not allow.

  3. Acoustic characterization of panel materials under simulated ocean conditions using a parametric array source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Victor F; Robinson, Stephen P; Smith, John D; Martin, Michael J; Beamiss, Graham A; Hayman, Gary; Carroll, Nicholas L

    2008-08-01

    A technique for evaluating the underwater acoustic performance of panels under simulated ocean conditions in a laboratory test facility is described. The method uses a parametric array as a source of sound within a test vessel capable of simulating ocean depths down to 700 m and water temperatures from 2 to 35 degrees C. The reflection loss and transmission loss of the test panel may be determined at frequencies from a few kilohertz to 50 kHz. The use of the parametric array enables wideband measurements to be undertaken with short-duration pulses and reduces the effects of diffraction from the panel edges. An acoustic filter is used to truncate the array in order to provide a source-free measurement region and to simplify the measurement process. The difficulties of establishing a parametric array in the confined space of the vessel are outlined, and the experimental procedures adopted are described. The techniques were validated by undertaking measurements on two test objects that have predictable behavior. The potential of the technique is also illustrated with experimental results for test panels for hydrostatic pressures up to 2.8 MPa. An extensive discussion of the measurement limitations is included.

  4. The Evolution of Glacial Conditions in the Southern Atlantic Ocean: A Depth Transect Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, Alan Dean

    Understanding the role of the deep ocean in governing glacial/interglacial cycles has been a central theme of paleoceanography since its inception. Historically attempts at resolving the changes that occurred in the deep ocean have focused on tying together sedimentary time series from disparate locations. However, the sparse geographic distribution and variable depositional conditions of the sedimentary cores that make up such compilations have been significant obstacles for the creation of a detailed picture of changes in circulation and carbon storage over ice-age cycles. Vertical tracer profiles represent an alternative approach that circumvents a number of these problems. These profiles ('depth transects') compile proxy measurements from sediment cores collected at multiple depths in a single geographic area into a single 'steady-state' picture. By densely sampling the water column in a single location, vertical profiles act as 'paleo-CTD' casts that provide detailed observations of changes in water mass geometry using sediment cores that have experienced nearly identical depositional conditions. In this thesis I present proxy observations from a depth transect in the Southeastern Atlantic Ocean for 6 different time points over the last glacial/interglacial cycle. Together these observations provide information about the timing and magnitude of changes in deep ocean temperature, salinity, and carbon storage as glacial conditions evolved over the last 140,000 years. The efficacy of the vertical depth transect approach depends entirely on how accurately the cores that comprise the depth transect can be correlated and dated. In Chapter 1, I present X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) observations of bulk sedimentary elemental abundances for the 20 sediment cores that comprise the core collection. In this chapter I demonstrate that these XRF-derived elemental traces have characteristic variability that can be used to correlate cores across the entire range of depths in the

  5. Control of surface composition and hydrogen recycling by plasma conditioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clausing, R.E.; Heatherly, L.

    1984-01-01

    Data from a laboratory simulator, TEXTOR, JET, and other tokamaks are used to show that oxygen and carbon surface impurities on the walls of plasma chambers are interrelated and can be manipulated by controlling the composition of the gas used for plasma surface conditioning. Not only can oxygen be reduced to low levels, but carbon (and other elements) can be either removed or deposited and reacted with the substrate. In the case of carbon deposits, a thin metal-carbide layer can be formed or thicker deposits of elemental carbon can be made. Surface compositions can be reproduced easily and reversibly in a controlled way. Furthermore, these composition changes can alter the hydrogen recycling speed and plasma impurity levels by an order of magnitude or more. In the simulator we have related gas composition to surface composition changes and resulting recycling behavior. Surface oxygen levels can be reduced from 30 to less than 3 at.% in less than 45 min of discharge cleaning. Carbon and oxygen levels as well as those of other surface active impurities are interrelated. Examples are shown and discussed. Comparisons are made to show the changes in the hydrogen recycling behavior caused by various surface preparations (compositions). (orig.)

  6. Meteorological conditions in the central Arctic summer during the Arctic Summer Cloud Ocean Study (ASCOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tjernström

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the rapidly changing climate in the Arctic is limited by a lack of understanding of underlying strong feedback mechanisms that are specific to the Arctic. Progress in this field can only be obtained by process-level observations; this is the motivation for intensive ice-breaker-based campaigns such as the Arctic Summer Cloud-Ocean Study (ASCOS, described here. However, detailed field observations also have to be put in the context of the larger-scale meteorology, and short field campaigns have to be analysed within the context of the underlying climate state and temporal anomalies from this.

    To aid in the analysis of other parameters or processes observed during this campaign, this paper provides an overview of the synoptic-scale meteorology and its climatic anomaly during the ASCOS field deployment. It also provides a statistical analysis of key features during the campaign, such as key meteorological variables, the vertical structure of the lower troposphere and clouds, and energy fluxes at the surface. In order to assess the representativity of the ASCOS results, we also compare these features to similar observations obtained during three earlier summer experiments in the Arctic Ocean: the AOE-96, SHEBA and AOE-2001 expeditions.

    We find that these expeditions share many key features of the summertime lower troposphere. Taking ASCOS and the previous expeditions together, a common picture emerges with a large amount of low-level cloud in a well-mixed shallow boundary layer, capped by a weak to moderately strong inversion where moisture, and sometimes also cloud top, penetrate into the lower parts of the inversion. Much of the boundary-layer mixing is due to cloud-top cooling and subsequent buoyant overturning of the cloud. The cloud layer may, or may not, be connected with surface processes depending on the depths of the cloud and surface-based boundary layers and on the relative strengths of surface-shear and

  7. Physiological responses to ocean acidification and warming synergistically reduce condition of the common cockle Cerastoderma edule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, E Z; Briffa, M; Moens, T; Van Colen, C

    2017-09-01

    The combined effect of ocean acidification and warming on the common cockle Cerastoderma edule was investigated in a fully crossed laboratory experiment. Survival of the examined adult organisms remained high and was not affected by elevated temperature (+3 °C) or lowered pH (-0.3 units). However, the morphometric condition index of the cockles incubated under high pCO 2 conditions (i.e. combined warming and acidification) was significantly reduced after six weeks of incubation. Respiration rates increased significantly under low pH, with highest rates measured under combined warm and low pH conditions. Calcification decreased significantly under low pH while clearance rates increased significantly under warm conditions and were generally lower in low pH treatments. The observed physiological responses suggest that the reduced food intake under hypercapnia is insufficient to support the higher energy requirements to compensate for the higher costs for basal maintenance and growth in future high pCO 2 waters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Sea surface temperature (SST) and surface current data collected from the Mar Mostro during the around-the-world Volvo Ocean Race (VOR) from 2011-11-05 to 2012-07-12 (NCEI Accession 0130694)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Navigation, surface current, sea surface temperature, wind, and atmospheric pressure data collected by the Mar Mostro during the around-the-world Volvo Ocean Race...

  9. Foreword: In situ gas surface interactions: approaching realistic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Edvin; Over, Herbert

    2008-03-01

    This special issue is devoted to the application of in situ surface-sensitive techniques in the elucidation of catalysed reactions at (model) catalyst surfaces. Both reaction intermediates and the nature of the catalytically active phase are the targets of these investigations. In situ surface science techniques are also used to study the interaction of water with surfaces under realistic conditions. Since 80% of all technical chemicals are manufactured by utilizing (heterogeneous) catalysis, scientific understanding and technological development of catalysis are of central practical importance in modern society [1]. Heterogeneously catalysed reactions take place at the gas/solid interface. Therefore one of the major topics in surface chemistry and physics is closely related to heterogeneous catalysis, with the aim of developing novel catalysts and to improve catalysts' performances on the basis of atomic scale based knowledge. Despite the economical and environmental rewards—if such a goal is achieved—and despite 40 years of intensive research, practical catalysis is still safely in a black box: the reactivity and selectivity of a catalyst are commercially still optimized on a trial and error basis, applying the high throughput screening approach. The reason for this discrepancy between ambition and reality lies in the inherent complexity of the catalytic system, consisting of the working catalyst and the interaction of the catalyst with the reactant mixture. Practical (solid) catalysts consist of metal or oxide nanoparticles which are dispersed and stabilized on a support and which may be promoted by means of additives. These particles catalyse a reaction in pressures as high as 100 bar. Practical catalysis is in general considered to be far too complex for gaining atomic-scale understanding of the mechanism of the catalysed reaction of an industrial catalyst during its operation. Therefore it has been necessary to introduce idealization and simplification of

  10. Surfactant-Associated Bacteria in the Near Surface Layer of the Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurata, Naoko; Vella, Katie; Soloviev, Alexander; Matt, Silvia; Tartar, Aurelien; Shivji, Mahmood; Perrie, William

    2013-04-01

    It has recently been realized that biogeochemical processes in the ocean are, to a large extent, the result of nanoscale processes in the microbial part of the pelagic food web. Bacteria found in thin near-surface layers of the ocean - bacterioneuston - are of special interest due to a number of practical applications, including air-sea gas exchange, production of climate-active marine aerosols and remote sensing of the ocean. In particular, bacteria involved in the production of the surface active materials resulting in slicks on the sea surface can potentially be observed from space using high-resolution remote sensing techniques. In this work done by a multidisciplinary team, we demonstrate a direct connection between surfactant-associated bacteria, identified with an advanced DNA analysis, and fine-scale features on the sea surface in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery. Experiments were conducted in the Straits of Florida during RASRASAT 2 satellite overpasses. The sea surface microlayer sampling method was designed to enable aseptic bacterial sampling. A 47 mm polycarbonate membrane was utilized at each sampling site to obtain a snapshot of the bacteria community structure at a specific space and time. Microbial composition was determined using DNA analysis of 16S rRNA genes. A new generation high-throughput sequencing method (454) was employed to compensate for the small sample size. A total of 27,006 nucleotide sequences with an average 437.8 bp in length were analyzed. From in situ samples taken during satellite overpasses, we found a higher abundance of surfactant-associated bacteria in slick (visible in SAR from space) as compared to non-slick areas; furthermore, higher abundance of this type of bacteria was observed in subsurface samples than in those taken from the sea surface. These observations suggest that surfactants are produced by marine bacteria mostly in the water column and migrate up to the sea surface by diffusion, air bubbles, or

  11. Drivers of Antarctic sea-ice expansion and Southern Ocean surface cooling over the past four decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purich, Ariaan; England, Matthew

    2017-04-01

    Despite global warming, total Antarctic sea-ice coverage has increased overall during the past four decades. In contrast, the majority of CMIP5 models simulate a decline. In addition, Southern Ocean surface waters have largely cooled, in stark contrast to almost all historical CMIP5 simulations. Subantarctic Surface Waters have cooled and freshened while waters to the north of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current have warmed and increased in salinity. It remains unclear as to what extent the cooling and Antarctic sea-ice expansion is due to natural variability versus anthropogenic forcing; due for example to changes in the Southern Annular Mode (SAM). It is also unclear what the respective role of surface buoyancy fluxes is compared to internal ocean circulation changes, and what the implications are for longer-term climate change in the region. In this presentation we will outline three distinct drivers of recent Southern Ocean surface trends that have each made a significant contribution to regional cooling: (1) wind-driven surface cooling and sea-ice expansion due to shifted westerly winds, (2) teleconnections of decadal variability from the tropical Pacific, and (3) surface cooling and ice expansion due to large-scale Southern Ocean freshening, most likely driven by SAM-related precipitation trends over the open ocean. We will also outline the main reasons why climate models for the most part miss these Southern Ocean cooling trends, despite capturing overall trends in the SAM.

  12. Effects of flow scarcity on leaf-litter processing under oceanic climate conditions in calcareous streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Aingeru; Pérez, Javier; Molinero, Jon; Sagarduy, Mikel; Pozo, Jesús

    2015-01-15

    Although temporary streams represent a high proportion of the total number and length of running waters, historically the study of intermittent streams has received less attention than that of perennial ones. The goal of the present study was to assess the effects of flow cessation on litter decomposition in calcareous streams under oceanic climate conditions. For this, leaf litter of alder was incubated in four streams (S1, S2, S3 and S4) with different flow regimes (S3 and S4 with zero-flow periods) from northern Spain. To distinguish the relative importance and contribution of decomposers and detritivores, fine- and coarse-mesh litter bags were used. We determined processing rates, leaf-C, -N and -P concentrations, invertebrate colonization in coarse bags and benthic invertebrates. Decomposition rates in fine bags were similar among streams. In coarse bags, only one of the intermittent streams, S4, showed a lower rate than that in the other ones as a consequence of lower invertebrate colonization. The material incubated in fine bags presented higher leaf-N and -P concentrations than those in the coarse ones, except in S4, pointing out that the decomposition in this stream was driven mainly by microorganisms. Benthic macroinvertebrate and shredder density and biomass were lower in intermittent streams than those in perennial ones. However, the bags in S3 presented a greater amount of total macroinvertebrates and shredders comparing with the benthos. The most suitable explanation is that the fauna find a food substrate in bags less affected by calcite precipitation, which is common in the streambed at this site. Decomposition rate in coarse bags was positively related to associated shredder biomass. Thus, droughts in streams under oceanic climate conditions affect mainly the macroinvertebrate detritivore activity, although macroinvertebrates may show distinct behavior imposed by the physicochemical properties of water, mainly travertine precipitation, which can

  13. Dependence of the cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus on hydrogen peroxide scavenging microbes for growth at the ocean's surface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Jeffrey Morris

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The phytoplankton community in the oligotrophic open ocean is numerically dominated by the cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus, accounting for approximately half of all photosynthesis. In the illuminated euphotic zone where Prochlorococcus grows, reactive oxygen species are continuously generated via photochemical reactions with dissolved organic matter. However, Prochlorococcus genomes lack catalase and additional protective mechanisms common in other aerobes, and this genus is highly susceptible to oxidative damage from hydrogen peroxide (HOOH. In this study we showed that the extant microbial community plays a vital, previously unrecognized role in cross-protecting Prochlorococcus from oxidative damage in the surface mixed layer of the oligotrophic ocean. Microbes are the primary HOOH sink in marine systems, and in the absence of the microbial community, surface waters in the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean accumulated HOOH to concentrations that were lethal for Prochlorococcus cultures. In laboratory experiments with the marine heterotroph Alteromonas sp., serving as a proxy for the natural community of HOOH-degrading microbes, bacterial depletion of HOOH from the extracellular milieu prevented oxidative damage to the cell envelope and photosystems of co-cultured Prochlorococcus, and facilitated the growth of Prochlorococcus at ecologically-relevant cell concentrations. Curiously, the more recently evolved lineages of Prochlorococcus that exploit the surface mixed layer niche were also the most sensitive to HOOH. The genomic streamlining of these evolved lineages during adaptation to the high-light exposed upper euphotic zone thus appears to be coincident with an acquired dependency on the extant HOOH-consuming community. These results underscore the importance of (indirect biotic interactions in establishing niche boundaries, and highlight the impacts that community-level responses to stress may have in the ecological and evolutionary outcomes for co

  14. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2011-12-30 to 2012-12-24 (NCEI Accession 0144349)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144349 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  15. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2013-12-31 to 2014-12-20 (NCEI Accession 0144532)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144532 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  16. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2007-12-30 to 2008-10-28 (NCEI Accession 0144348)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144348 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  17. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2007-01-02 to 2007-12-22 (NCEI Accession 0144528)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144528 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  18. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2002-12-29 to 2003-11-30 (NCEI Accession 0144351)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144351 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  19. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2002-03-23 to 2002-12-23 (NCEI Accession 0148766)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0148766 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  20. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2011-12-30 to 2012-12-23 (NCEI Accession 0148774)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0148774 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  1. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2010-01-01 to 2011-12-19 (NCEI Accession 0148765)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0148765 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  2. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2006-01-02 to 2006-12-26 (NCEI Accession 0148764)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0148764 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  3. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2007-01-02 to 2007-12-20 (NCEI Accession 0148773)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0148773 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  4. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2014-01-01 to 2014-12-20 (NCEI Accession 0145200)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0145200 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  5. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2003-01-01 to 2003-12-29 (NCEI Accession 0148770)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0148770 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  6. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2007-12-31 to 2008-10-27 (NCEI Accession 0148763)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0148763 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  7. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2011-01-02 to 2011-12-18 (NCEI Accession 0148767)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0148767 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  8. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2006-01-01 to 2006-12-27 (NCEI Accession 0144535)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144535 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  9. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2002-03-07 to 2002-12-23 (NCEI Accession 0144356)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144356 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  10. Sea surface salinity variability during the Indian Ocean Dipole and ENSO events in the tropical Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Grunseich, G.; Subrahmanyam, B.; Murty, V.S.N.; Giese, B.S.

    into the southwestern tropical Indian Ocean. The impact of concomitant La Niña with negative IOD is also large with an intense freshening in the southeastern Arabian Sea and salting off the northern Sumatra coast....

  11. Annual and interannual variability of scatterometer ocean surface wind over the South China Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, GS; Xu, Q.; Gong, Z.

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the annual and interannual variability of ocean surface wind over the South China Sea (SCS), the vector empirical orthogonal function (VEOF) method and the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) method were employed to analyze a set of combined satellite scatterometer wind data during...... the period from December 1992 to October 2009. The merged wind data were generated from European Remote Sensing Satellite (ERS)-1/2 Scatterometer, NASA Scatterometer (NSCAT) and NASA's Quick Scatterometer (QuikSCAT) wind products. The first VEOF mode corresponds to a winter-summer mode which accounts for 87...

  12. Symmetrical electroadhesives independent of different interfacial surface conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, J.; Hovell, T.; Bamber, T.; Petzing, J.; Justham, L.

    2017-11-01

    Current electroadhesive actuators cannot produce stable electroadhesive forces on the same substrate with different interfacial surface interactions. It is, therefore, desirable to develop electroadhesive actuators that can generate stable adhesive forces on different surface conditions. A symmetrical electroadhesive pad that is independent of different interfacial scratch directions is developed and presented. A relative difference of only 6.4% in the normal force direction was observed when the electroadhesive was facing an aluminium plate with surface scratch directions of 0°, 45°, 90°, and 135°. This step-change improvement may significantly promote the application of electroadhesion technology. In addition, this manifests that significant performance improvements could be achieved via further investigations into electroadhesive designs.

  13. Long-term changes in the surface conditions of PLT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, S.A.; Dylla, H.F.; Rossnagel, S.M.; Picraux, S.T.; Borders, J.A.; Magee, C.W.

    1977-01-01

    Long-term changes in the surface conditions of the PLT vacuum vessel wall have been monitored by the periodic analysis of a variety of sample substrates (stainless steel, alumina, silicon), exposed to PLT discharges for periods of up to several months and subsequently removed for analysis by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), photoelectron spectroscopy, ion backscattering, nuclear reaction analysis, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy

  14. Coralline algal barium as indicator for 20th century northwestern North Atlantic surface ocean freshwater variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetzinger, S; Halfar, J; Zack, T; Mecking, J V; Kunz, B E; Jacob, D E; Adey, W H

    2013-01-01

    During the past decades climate and freshwater dynamics in the northwestern North Atlantic have undergone major changes. Large-scale freshening episodes, related to polar freshwater pulses, have had a strong influence on ocean variability in this climatically important region. However, little is known about variability before 1950, mainly due to the lack of long-term high-resolution marine proxy archives. Here we present the first multidecadal-length records of annually resolved Ba/Ca variations from Northwest Atlantic coralline algae. We observe positive relationships between algal Ba/Ca ratios from two Newfoundland sites and salinity observations back to 1950. Both records capture episodical multi-year freshening events during the 20th century. Variability in algal Ba/Ca is sensitive to freshwater-induced changes in upper ocean stratification, which affect the transport of cold, Ba-enriched deep waters onto the shelf (highly stratified equals less Ba/Ca). Algal Ba/Ca ratios therefore may serve as a new resource for reconstructing past surface ocean freshwater changes.

  15. Effect of surface wettability caused by radiation induced surface activation on leidenfrost condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takamasa, T.; Hazuku, T.; Tamura, N.; Okamoto, K. [Tokyo Univ., Tokyo (Japan); Mishima, K. [Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan); Furuya, M. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    Improving the limit of boiling heat transfer or critical heat flux requires that the cooling liquid can contact the heating surface, or a high-wettability, highly hydrophilic heating surface, even if a vapor bubble layer is generated on the surface. From this basis, we investigated surface wettability and Leidenfrost condition using metal oxides irradiated by {gamma}-rays. In our previous study, contact angle, an indicator of macroscopic wettability, of a water droplet on metal oxide at room temperature was measured by image processing of the images obtained by a CCD video camera. The results showed that the surface wettability on metal oxide pieces of titanium, Zircaloy No. 4, SUS-304, and copper was improved significantly by the Radiation Induced Surface Activation (RISA) phenomenon. To delineate the effect of Radiation Induced Surface Activation (RISA) on heat transferring phenomena, the Leidenfrost condition and quenching of metal oxides irradiated by {gamma}-rays were investigated. In the Leidenfrost experiment, when the temperature of the heating surface reached the wetting limit temperature, water-solid contact vanished because a stable vapor film existed between the droplet and the metal surface; i.e., a Leidenfrost condition obtained. The wetting limit temperature increased with integrated irradiation dose. After irradiation, the wet length and the duration of contact increased, and the contact angle decreased. In the quenching test, high surface wettability, or a highly hydrophilic condition, of a simulated fuel rod made of SUS was achieved, and the quenching velocities were increased up to 20-30% after 300 kGy 60Co {gamma}-ray irradiation.

  16. Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW Resonators for Monitoring Conditioning Film Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegfried Hohmann

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We propose surface acoustic wave (SAW resonators as a complementary tool for conditioning film monitoring. Conditioning films are formed by adsorption of inorganic and organic substances on a substrate the moment this substrate comes into contact with a liquid phase. In the case of implant insertion, for instance, initial protein adsorption is required to start wound healing, but it will also trigger immune reactions leading to inflammatory responses. The control of the initial protein adsorption would allow to promote the healing process and to suppress adverse immune reactions. Methods to investigate these adsorption processes are available, but it remains difficult to translate measurement results into actual protein binding events. Biosensor transducers allow user-friendly investigation of protein adsorption on different surfaces. The combination of several transduction principles leads to complementary results, allowing a more comprehensive characterization of the adsorbing layer. We introduce SAW resonators as a novel complementary tool for time-resolved conditioning film monitoring. SAW resonators were coated with polymers. The adsorption of the plasma proteins human serum albumin (HSA and fibrinogen onto the polymer-coated surfaces were monitored. Frequency results were compared with quartz crystal microbalance (QCM sensor measurements, which confirmed the suitability of the SAW resonators for this application.

  17. Volcanic ash as an iron-fertilizer in ocean surface water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olgun, N.; Duggen, S.; Croot, P.; Dietze, H.; Schacht, U.; Oskarsson, N.; Siebe, C.; Auer, A.

    2007-12-01

    Surface ocean fertilisation with iron may affect the marine primary productivity, C-cycles and eventually climate development. Volcanic ash has the potential to release iron on contact with seawater and to stimulate phytoplankton growth (1,2) but the relative importance of volcanism at destructive plate margins (subduction zones, SZ) and intraplate volcanic settings (ocean islands at hot spots) remains unknown. Here we present new results from geochemical experiments with natural seawater and numerous volcanic ash samples from SZ volcanoes in the Pacific Ring of Fire (Alaska, Japan, Kamchatka, Northern and Central America and Papua New Guinea) and hot spot volcanoes (on Iceland and Hawaii). The release of iron as a function of time was determined in situ in seawater by means of Cathodic Stripping Voltammetry. Our experiments show that: A) volcanic ash from both SZ and hot spot volcanic areas mobilise significant amounts of iron, B) with the highest mobilisation rates within the first 10-20 minutes and C) indicate that volcanic ash from hot spot volcanoes mobilise less iron than volcanic ash from SZ. We propose that the higher iron-mobilisation potential of SZ volcanic ash results from higher HCl/HF ratios in SZ volcanic gases that seem to be involved in the formation of Fe-bearing soluble salt coatings (condensed gases and adsorbed aerosols) on ash particles (1,2,3). Higher HCl/HF ratios in SZ volcanic gases thus appear to be linked to the recycling of seawater through subduction of oceanic lithosphere at destructive plate margins. Together, taking into account differences in ash-fluxes from SZ and hot spot volcanoes into the oceans, our study suggests that SZ volcanic ash plays a more important role for the global surface ocean iron budget than ash from volcanoes in hot spot areas. 1 Frogner, Gislason, Oskarsson (2001). Geology, 29, 487-490. 2 Duggen, Croot, Schacht, Hofmann (2007) Geoph. Res. Letters 34, 5. 3 Oskarsson (1980), J. Volc. and Geoth. Res. 8, 251-266.

  18. Surface signature of Mediterranean water eddies in the Northeastern Atlantic: effect of the upper ocean stratification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Bashmachnikov

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Meddies, intra-thermocline eddies of Mediterranean water, can often be detected at the sea surface as positive sea-level anomalies. Here we study the surface signature of several meddies tracked with RAFOS floats and AVISO altimetry.

    While pushing its way through the water column, a meddy raises isopycnals above. As a consequence of potential vorticity conservation, negative relative vorticity is generated in the upper layer. During the initial period of meddy acceleration after meddy formation or after a stagnation stage, a cyclonic signal is also generated at the sea-surface, but mostly the anticyclonic surface signal follows the meddy.

    Based on geostrophy and potential vorticity balance, we present theoretical estimates of the intensity of the surface signature. It appears to be proportional to the meddy core radius and to the Coriolis parameter, and inversely proportional to the core depth and buoyancy frequency. This indicates that surface signature of a meddy may be strongly reduced by the upper ocean stratification. Using climatic distribution of the stratification intensity, we claim that the southernmost limit for detection in altimetry of small meddies (with radii on the order of 10–15 km should lie in the subtropics (35–45° N, while large meddies (with radii of 25–30 km could be detected as far south as the northern tropics (25–35° N. Those results agree with observations.

  19. Resonant Absorption of Surface Sausage and Surface Kink Modes under Photospheric Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dae Jung; Van Doorsselaere, Tom; Goossens, Marcel

    2017-11-01

    We study the effect of resonant absorption of surface sausage and surface kink modes under photospheric conditions where the slow surface sausage modes undergo resonant damping in the slow continuum and the surface kink modes in the slow and Alfvén continua at the transitional layers. We use recently derived analytical formulas to obtain the damping rate (time). By considering linear density and linear pressure profiles for the transitional layers, we show that resonant absorption in the slow continuum could be an efficient mechanism for the wave damping of the slow surface sausage and slow surface kink modes while the damping rate of the slow surface kink mode in the Alfvén continuum is weak. It is also found that the resonant damping of the fast surface kink mode is much stronger than that of the slow surface kink mode, showing a similar efficiency as under coronal conditions. It is worth noting that the slow body sausage and kink modes can also resonantly damp in the slow continuum for those linear profiles.

  20. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and others from 2004-12-31 to 2005-12-26 (NCEI Accession 0144531)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144531 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and...

  1. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from ROGER REVELLE in the Indian Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and others from 2007-02-04 to 2007-03-16 (NCEI Accession 0144252)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144252 includes Surface underway data collected from ROGER REVELLE in the Indian Ocean, South Pacific Ocean, Southern Oceans (> 60 degrees South)...

  2. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and others from 2004-12-30 to 2005-11-20 (NCEI Accession 0148772)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0148772 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and...

  3. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and others from 2008-12-31 to 2009-12-21 (NCEI Accession 0148771)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0148771 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and...

  4. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and others from 2008-12-31 to 2009-12-22 (NCEI Accession 0144533)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144533 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and...

  5. Contributions of Greenhouse Gas Forcing and the Southern Annular Mode to Historical Southern Ocean Surface Temperature Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostov, Yavor; Ferreira, David; Armour, Kyle C.; Marshall, John

    2018-01-01

    We examine the 1979-2014 Southern Ocean (SO) sea surface temperature (SST) trends simulated in an ensemble of coupled general circulation models and evaluate possible causes of the models' inability to reproduce the observed 1979-2014 SO cooling. For each model we estimate the response of SO SST to step changes in greenhouse gas (GHG) forcing and in the seasonal indices of the Southern Annular Mode (SAM). Using these step-response functions, we skillfully reconstruct the models' 1979-2014 SO SST trends. Consistent with the seasonal signature of the Antarctic ozone hole and the seasonality of SO stratification, the summer and fall SAM exert a large impact on the simulated SO SST trends. We further identify conditions that favor multidecadal SO cooling: (1) a weak SO warming response to GHG forcing, (2) a strong multidecadal SO cooling response to a positive SAM trend, and (3) a historical SAM trend as strong as in observations.

  6. The influence of ocean conditions on two-phase flow instability in a parallel multi-channel system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun Guo; Qiu, S.Z.; Su, G.H.; Jia, D.N.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the two-phase flow instability between multi-channels (FIBM) operating under ocean conditions is studied theoretically. The physical and mathematical model of the multi-channel system which is based on Lee and Pan [Lee, J.D., Pan, C., 1999. Dynamics of multiple parallel boiling channel systems with forced flows. Nuclear Engineering and Design 192, 31-44], is extended to analyze the influence of ocean conditions. The influence of ocean conditions on the FIBM is analyzed, particularly with respect to the periodic total mass flow rate and rolling motion. Furthermore, the instability oscillation trajectories of the multi-channel system are obtained on the phase plane of the inlet velocity and boiling boundary. Some of the trajectories show chaotic characteristic. The instability zone of a nine-channel system under rolling motion is then obtained

  7. Investigating the role of wind in generating surface currents over the slope area of the Laptev Sea, Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patteson, R. N.

    2017-12-01

    Mixing mechanisms of the Arctic Ocean have profound impacts on sea ice, global ocean dynamics, and arctic communities. This project used a two-year long time series of ocean current velocities collected from eight moorings located on the Eurasian basin, as well as ERA-interim wind data, to compare and assess relationships between current and wind velocities at different depths. Determining the strength of these correlations will further scientific understanding of the degree to which wind influences mixing, with implications for heat flux, diffusion, and sea ice changes. Using statistical analysis, I calculated whether a significant relationship between wind velocity and ocean currents existed beginning at the surface level ( 50m) .The final correlation values, ranging from R = 0.11 to R = 0.28, indicated a weak relationship between wind velocity and ocean currents at the surface for all eight mooring sites. The results for the surface depth imply that correlation likely decreases with increasing depths, and thus further testing of deeper depth levels was unnecessary. This finding suggests that there is another dominant factor at play in the ocean; we postulate that topography exerts a significant influence on subsurface mixing. This study highlights the need for further research of the different mechanisms and their importance in influencing the dynamic structure of the ocean.

  8. Nitrogen uptake by phytoplankton in surface waters of the Indian sector of Southern Ocean during austral summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, S. C.; Patra, Sivaji; Vishnu Vardhan, K.; Sarkar, A.; Mishra, R. K.; Anilkumar, N.

    2018-03-01

    This study reports the nitrogen uptake rate (using 15N tracer) of phytoplankton in surface waters of different frontal zones in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean (SO) during austral summer of 2013. The investigated area encompasses four major frontal systems, i.e., the subtropical front (STF), subantarctic front (SAF), polar front-1 (PF1) and polar front-2 (PF2). Southward decrease of surface water temperature was observed, whereas surface salinity did not show any significant trend. Nutrient (NO3 - and SiO4 4-) concentrations increased southward from STF to PF; while ammonium (NH4 +), nitrite (NO2 -) and phosphate (PO4 3-) remained comparatively stable. Analysis of nutrient ratios indicated potential N-limited conditions at the STF and SAF but no such scenario was observed for PF. In terms of phytoplankton biomass, PF1 was found to be the most productive followed by SAF, whereas PF2 was the least productive region. Nitrate uptake rate increased with increasing latitude, as no systematic spatial variation was discerned for NH4 + and urea (CO(NH2)2). Linear relationship between nitrate and total N-uptake reveals that the studied area is capable of exporting up to 60% of the total production to the deep ocean if the environmental settings are favorable. Like N-uptake rates the f-ratio also increased towards PF region indicating comparatively higher new production in the PF than in the subtropics. The moderately high average f-ratio (0.53) indicates potentially near equal contributions by new production and regenerated production to the total productivity in the study area. Elevation in N-uptake rates with declining temperature suggests that the SO with its vast quantity of cool water could play an important role in drawing down the atmospheric CO2 through the "solubility pump".

  9. Community composition of ammonia-oxidizing archaea from surface and anoxic depths of oceanic oxygen minimum zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefeng ePeng

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA have been reported at high abundance in much of the global ocean, even in environments, such as pelagic oxygen minimum zones (OMZs, where conditions seem unlikely to support aerobic ammonium oxidation. Due to the lack of information on any potential alternative metabolism of AOA, the AOA community composition might be expected to differ between oxic and anoxic environments, indicating some difference in ecology and/or physiology of the AOA assemblage. This hypothesis was tested by evaluating AOA community composition using a functional gene microarray that targets the ammonia monooxygenase gene subunit A (amoA. The relationship between environmental parameters and the biogeography of the Arabian Sea and the Eastern Tropical South Pacific (ETSP AOA assemblages was investigated using principal component analysis (PCA and redundancy analysis (RDA. In both the Arabian Sea and the ETSP, AOA communities within the core of the OMZ were not significantly different from those inhabiting the oxygenated surface waters above the OMZ. The AOA communities in the Arabian Sea were significantly different from those in the ETSP. In both oceans, the abundance of archaeal amoA gene in the core of the OMZ was higher than that in the surface waters. Our results indicate that AOA communities are distinguished by their geographic origin. RDA suggested that temperature was the main factor that correlated with the differences between the AOA communities from the Arabian Sea and those from the ETSP. Physicochemical properties that characterized the different environments of the OMZ and surface waters played a less important role, than did geography, in shaping the AOA community composition.

  10. Stylophora pistillata in the Red Sea demonstrate higher GFP fluorescence under ocean acidification conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinblat, Mila; Fine, Maoz; Tikochinski, Yaron; Loya, Yossi

    2018-03-01

    Ocean acidification is thought to exert a major impact on calcifying organisms, including corals. While previous studies have reported changes in the physiological response of corals to environmental change, none have described changes in expression of the ubiquitous host pigments—fluorescent proteins (FPs)—to ocean acidification. The function of FPs in corals is controversial, with the most common consideration being that these primarily regulate the light environment in the coral tissue and protect the host from harmful UV radiation. Here, we provide for the first time experimental evidence that increased fluorescence of colonies of the coral Stylophora pistillata is independent of stress and can be regulated by a non-stressful decrease in pH. Stylophora pistillata is the most abundant and among the most resilient coral species in the northern Gulf of Eilat/Aqaba (GoE/A). Fragmented "sub-colonies" ( n = 72) incubated for 33 days under three pH treatments (ambient, 7.9, and 7.6), under ambient light, and running seawater showed no stress or adverse physiological performance, but did display significantly higher fluorescence, with lower pH. Neither the average number of planulae shed from the experimental sub-colonies nor planulae green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression changed significantly among pH treatments. Sub-colonies incubated under the lower-than-ambient pH conditions showed an increase in both total protein and GFP expression. Since extensive protein synthesis requires a high level of transcription, we suggest that GFP constitutes a UV protection mechanism against potential RNA as well as against DNA damage caused by UV exposure. Manipulating the regulation of FPs in adult corals and planulae, under controlled and combined effects of pH, light, and temperature, is crucial if we are to obtain a better understanding of the role played by this group of proteins in cnidarians.

  11. The Relative Influence of H2O and CO2 on the Primitive Surface Conditions and Evolution of Rocky Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador, A.; Massol, H.; Davaille, A.; Marcq, E.; Sarda, P.; Chassefiere, E.

    2016-12-01

    Recent literature reveals how different the telluric planets' water content can be, depending on the formation processes and origins of water. Furthermore, for Earth mass planets, estimates of their atmospheric water content range between 0.3 to 1000 water oceans. We simulate the secular convective cooling and solidification of a 1D magma ocean (hereafter "MO") in interaction with the outgassed atmosphere. We vary the initial CO2 and H2O contents (respectively from 0.1×10-2 to 14×10-2wt% and from 0.05 to 2.2 times the Earth Ocean current mass (MEO)), the solar distance - from 0.63 to 1.30 AU -, the radiative heat transfer in the atmosphere (grey or non-grey, with or without clouds) and investigate the relative influence of these parameters on an Earth like planet's surface conditions at the MO phase term, and especially its ability to form a water ocean. We define the end of the MO as the time when the heat flux from the vigorous convecting mantle becomes negligible compared to the incident solar flux, linked to the dramatic increase of viscosity as the MO solidification reaches the surface, which considerably reduces the convection intensity and the heat transfer. This particular time coincides with the possible apparition of a water ocean and with the development of a thermal boundary layer at the surface, thick enough to limit the interactions between the two reservoirs. As a first step, we assume a bottom-up solidification of the MO. The planetary surface pressure-temperature conditions, resulting from the solidification, are conditioned by the sun-planet distance and the initial CO2 and H2O contents. There is a critical sun-planet distance Rc below which water will never condense, whatever the initial volatile content. For distances larger than Rc, water condensation strongly depends on the relative proportion of CO2 and H2O. The higher the H2O content, the easier it is to reach the equilibrium water vapor pressure and therefore to condense water, for the

  12. Modified hot-conditioning of PHT system surfaces of PHWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkateswaran, G.

    1997-01-01

    The increased awareness on the importance of controlling activity transport and radiation buildup on out-of-core surfaces of water cooled nuclear reactors is leading to a host of measures both from chemistry as well as engineering sides being undertaken. Passivation of the surfaces of structural materials is one such. Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors of CANDU design use large surface area of carbon steel alloy in the Primary Heat Transport System. Hot-conditioning of the PHT system with deoxygenated light water at temperatures ≅ 473 - 523 K during commissioning stage is done to form a protective magnetite film on the surfaces of carbon steel essentially to guard this material from corrosion during the intervening period between initial commissioning and first fuel loading and achieving nuclear heat. However, a need is felt to improve the quality of this magnetite film and control the crud release so that the twin objectives of controlling the corrosion of carbon steel and reducing a possible deposition of corrosion products on surfaces of fuel clad could be achieved. Laboratory static autoclave investigations have been carried out on the formation of protective magnetite film on carbon steel at 473 K, pH 10 (pH at 298 K) deoxygenated aqueous solutions of chelants like HEDTA, DTPA, NTA apart from EDTA. Additionally, influence of AVT chemicals like hydrazine, cyclohexylamine, morpholine and additives like glucose, boric acid has been studied. The data have been compared with the standard procedure of hot-conditioning namely with simple LiOH. It is found that chelants increase the base metal loss but the oxide formed is more protective than the one formed under simple LiOH treatment. The efficiency of passivation is greatly enhanced by hydrazine and boric acid while it is adversely affected by glucose. AVT chemicals acts as effective corrosion inhibitors. (author). 14 refs, 2 figs, 4 tabs

  13. An Anisotropic Ocean Surface Emissivity Model Based on WindSat Polarimetric Brightness Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. F.; Gasiewski, A. J.; Sandeep, S.; Weber, B. L.

    2012-12-01

    The goal of this research has been to develop a standardized fast full-Stokes ocean surface emissivity model with Jacobian for a wind-driven ocean surface applicable at arbitrary microwave frequencies, polarizations, and incidence angles. The model is based on the Ohio State University (OSU) two-scale code for surface emission developed by Johnson (2006, IEEE TGRS, 44, 560) but modified as follows: (1) the Meissner-Wentz dielectric permittivity (2012, IEEE TGRS, 50, 3004) replaces the original permittivity, (2) the Elfouhaily sea surface spectrum (1997, JGR, 102, C7,15781) replaces the Durden-Vesecky spectrum (1985, IEEE TGRS, OE-10, 445), but the Durden-Vesecky angular spreading function is retained, (3) the high-frequency portion of the Elfouhaily spectrum is multiplied by the Pierson-Moskowitz shape spectrum to correct an error in the original paper, (4) the generalized Phillips-Kitaigorodskii equilibrium range parameter for short waves is modeled as a continuous function of the friction velocity at the water surface to eliminate a discontinuous jump in the original paper. A total of five physical tuning parameters were identified, including the spectral strength and the hydrodynamic modulation factor. The short wave part of the spectrum is also allowed to have an arbitrary ratio relative to the long wave part. The foam fraction is multiplied by a variable correction factor, and also modulated to allow an anisotropic foam fraction with more foam on the leeward side of a wave. The model is being tuned against multi-year sequences of WindSat and Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSMI) data as analyzed by Meissner and Wentz (2012, IEEE TGRS, 50, 3004) for up to four Stokes brightnesses and in all angular harmonics up to two in twenty five wind bins from 0.5-25.5 m/s and of 1 m/s width. As a result there are 40 brightnesses per wind bin, for a total of 1000 brightnesses used to constrain the modified model. A chi-squared tuning criterion based on error standard

  14. Regime-Dependent Differences in Surface Freshwater Exchange Estimates Over the Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Sun; Behrangi, Ali

    2018-01-01

    Differences in gridded precipitation (P), surface evaporation (E), and the resultant surface freshwater exchange (P - E) among different products over the ocean are diagnosed as functions of moisture advection (Qadvt) and moisture tendency by dynamical convergence (Qcnvg). Compared to the GPCP product, the TRMM3B42 product captures higher frequency of precipitation with larger extreme precipitation rates in regimes of deep convection and more light rain detections in regimes of frequent occurrence of boundary layer clouds. Discrepancies in E depend on moisture flux divergence, with the OAFlux product having the largest E in regimes of divergence. Discrepancies in mean P - E in deep convective regimes are highly influenced by differences in precipitation, with the TRMM3B42 product yielding P - E histograms closer to those inferred from the reanalysis moisture flux convergence. In nonconvergent regimes, observation-based P - E histograms skew toward positive values while the inferred reanalysis histograms are symmetric about the means.

  15. The relative influence of H2O and CO2 on the primitive surface conditions and evolution of rocky planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador, A.; Massol, H.; Davaille, A.; Marcq, E.; Sarda, P.; Chassefière, E.

    2017-07-01

    How the volatile content influences the primordial surface conditions of terrestrial planets and, thus, their future geodynamic evolution is an important question to answer. We simulate the secular convective cooling of a 1-D magma ocean (MO) in interaction with its outgassed atmosphere. The heat transfer in the atmosphere is computed either using the grey approximation or using a k-correlated method. We vary the initial CO2 and H2O contents (respectively from 0.1 × 10-2 to 14 × 10-2 wt % and from 0.03 to 1.4 times the Earth Ocean current mass) and the solar distance—from 0.63 to 1.30 AU. A first rapid cooling stage, where efficient MO cooling and degassing take place, producing the atmosphere, is followed by a second quasi steady state where the heat flux balance is dominated by the solar flux. The end of the rapid cooling stage (ERCS) is reached when the mantle heat flux becomes negligible compared to the absorbed solar flux. The resulting surface conditions at ERCS, including water ocean's formation, strongly depend both on the initial volatile content and solar distance D. For D > DC, the "critical distance," the volatile content controls water condensation and a new scaling law is derived for the water condensation limit. Although today's Venus is located beyond DC due to its high albedo, its high CO2/H2O ratio prevents any water ocean formation. Depending on the formation time of its cloud cover and resulting albedo, only 0.3 Earth ocean mass might be sufficient to form a water ocean on early Venus.

  16. Modulating Effects of Mesoscale Oceanic Eddies on Sea Surface Temperature Response to Tropical Cyclones Over the Western North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhanhong; Fei, Jianfang; Huang, Xiaogang; Cheng, Xiaoping

    2018-01-01

    The impact of mesoscale oceanic eddies on the temporal and spatial characteristics of sea surface temperature (SST) response to tropical cyclones is investigated in this study based on composite analysis of cyclone-eddy interactions over the western North Pacific. The occurrence times of maximum cooling, recovery time, and spatial patterns of SST response are specially evaluated. The influence of cold-core eddies (CCEs) renders the mean occurrence time of maximum SST cooling to become about half a day longer than that in eddy-free condition, while warm-core eddies (WCEs) have little effect on this facet. The recovery time of SST cooling also takes longer in presence of CCEs, being overall more pronounced for stronger or slower tropical cyclones. The effect of WCEs on the recovery time is again not significant. The modulation of maximum SST decrease by WCEs for category 2-5 storms is found to be remarkable in the subtropical region but not evident in the tropical region, while the role of CCEs is remarkable in both regions. The CCEs are observed to change the spatial characteristics of SST response, with enhanced SST decrease initially at the right side of storm track. During the recovery period the strengthened SST cooling by CCEs propagates leftward gradually, with a feature similar as both the westward-propagating eddies and the recovery of cold wake. These results underscore the importance of resolving mesoscale oceanic eddies in coupled numerical models to improve the prediction of storm-induced SST response.

  17. Modeled Oceanic Response and Sea Surface Cooling to Typhoon Kai-Tak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Heng Tseng

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An ocean response to typhoon Kai-Tak is simulated using an accurate fourth-order, basin-scale ocean model. The surface winds of typhoon Kai-Tak were obtained from QuikSCAT satellite images blended with the ECMWF wind fields. An intense nonlinear mesoscale eddy is generated in the northeast South China Sea (SCS with a Rossby number of O(1 and on a 50 - 100 km horizontal scale. Inertial oscillation is clearly observed. Advection dominates as a strong wind shear drives the mixed layer flows outward, away from the typhoon center, thus forcing upwelling from deep levels with a high upwelling velocity (> 30 m day-1. A drop in sea surface temperature (SST of more than 9°C is found in both observation and simulation. We attribute this significant SST drop to the influence of the slow moving typhoon, initial stratification and bathymetry-induced upwelling in the northeast of the SCS where the typhoon hovered.

  18. Variable but persistent coexistence of Prochlorococcus ecotypes along temperature gradients in the ocean's surface mixed layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Jeremy W; Lin, Yajuan; Gainer, P Jackson; Post, Anton F; Johnson, Zackary I; Zinser, Erik R

    2016-04-01

    The vast majority of the phytoplankton communities in surface mixed layer of the oligotrophic ocean are numerically dominated by one of two ecotypes of Prochlorococcus, eMIT9312 or eMED4. In this study, we surveyed large latitudinal transects in the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean to determine if these ecotypes discretely partition the surface mixed layer niche, or if populations exist as a continuum along key environmental gradients, particularly temperature. Transitions of dominance occurred at approximately 19-21°C, with the eMED4 ecotype dominating the colder, and eMIT9312 ecotype dominating the warmer regions. Within these zones of regional dominance, however, the minority ecotype was not competed to extinction. Rather, a robust log-linear relationship between ecotype ratio and temperature characterized this stabilized coexistence: for every 2.5°C increase in temperature, the eMIT9312:eMED4 ratio increased by an order of magnitude. This relationship was observed in both quantitative polymerase chain reaction and in pyrosequencing assays. Water column stratification also contributed to the ecotype ratio along the basin-scale transects, but to a lesser extent. Finally, instances where the ratio of the eMED4 and eMIT9312 abundances did not correlate well with temperature were identified. Such occurrences are likely due to changes in water temperatures outpacing changes in community structure. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Predicting East African spring droughts using Pacific and Indian Ocean sea surface temperature indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, C.; Hoell, A.; Shukla, S.; Bladé, I.; Liebmann, B.; Roberts, J. B.; Robertson, F. R.; Husak, G.

    2014-12-01

    In eastern East Africa (the southern Ethiopia, eastern Kenya and southern Somalia region), poor boreal spring (long wet season) rains in 1999, 2000, 2004, 2007, 2008, 2009, and 2011 contributed to severe food insecurity and high levels of malnutrition. Predicting rainfall deficits in this region on seasonal and decadal time frames can help decision makers implement disaster risk reduction measures while guiding climate-smart adaptation and agricultural development. Building on recent research that links more frequent East African droughts to a stronger Walker circulation, resulting from warming in the Indo-Pacific warm pool and an increased east-to-west sea surface temperature (SST) gradient in the western Pacific, we show that the two dominant modes of East African boreal spring rainfall variability are tied to SST fluctuations in the western central Pacific and central Indian Ocean, respectively. Variations in these two rainfall modes can thus be predicted using two SST indices - the western Pacific gradient (WPG) and central Indian Ocean index (CIO), with our statistical forecasts exhibiting reasonable cross-validated skill (rcv ≈ 0.6). In contrast, the current generation of coupled forecast models show no skill during the long rains. Our SST indices also appear to capture most of the major recent drought events such as 2000, 2009 and 2011. Predictions based on these simple indices can be used to support regional forecasting efforts and land surface data assimilations to help inform early warning and guide climate outlooks.

  20. Lagrangian modelling of ocean surface waves and synthetic aperture radar wave measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouques, Sebastien

    2005-07-01

    The present thesis is concerned with the estimation of the ocean wave spectrum from synthetic aperture radar imaging and the modelling of ocean surface waves using the Lagrangian formalism. The first part gives a short overview of the theories of ocean surface waves and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) whereas the second part consists of five independent publications. The first two articles investigate the influence of the radar backscatter model on the SAR imaging of ocean waves. In Article I, Monte Carlo simulations of SAR images of the ocean surface are carried out using a nonlinear backscatter model that include both specular reflection and Bragg scattering and the results are compared to simulations from the classical Hasselmann integral transform (Hasselmann and Hasselmann, 1991). It is shown that nonlinearities in the backscatter model strongly influence the imaging of range-travelling waves and that the former can suppress the range-splitting effect (Bruning et al., 1988). Furthermore, in Article II a database of Envisat-ASAR Wave Mode products co-located with directional wave spectra from the numerical model WAM and which contains range-travelling wave cases only, is set up. The WAM spectra are used as input to several ocean-to-SAR integral transforms, with various real aperture radar (RAR) models and the obtained SAR image cross-spectra are compared to the Envisat-ASAR observations. A first result is that the use of a linear backscatter model leads to a high proportion of non-physical negative backscatter values in the RAR image, as suggested by Schulz-Stellenfleth (2001). Then, a comparison between the observed SAR cross-spectra and the ones simulated through Hasselmann's integral transform reveals that only twenty percents of the observations show a range-splitting effect as strong as in the simulations. A much better agreement is obtained when using the integral transform by Schulz-Stellenfleth (2003), which is based on a nonlinear hackscatter model

  1. Ocean Circulation

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Andrew F.; Rahmstorf, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    The ocean moderates the Earth's climate due to its vast capacity to store and transport heat; the influence of the large-scale ocean circulation on changes in climate is considered in this chapter. The ocean experiences both buoyancy forcing (through heating/cooling and evaporation/precipitation) and wind forcing. Almost all ocean forcing occurs at the surface, but these changes are communicated throughout the entire depth of the ocean through the meridional overturning circulation (MOC). In ...

  2. Reconstructing surface ocean circulation with129I time series records from corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ching-Chih; Burr, George S; Jull, A J Timothy; Russell, Joellen L; Biddulph, Dana; White, Lara; Prouty, Nancy G; Chen, Yue-Gau; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Zhou, Weijian; Lam, Doan Dinh

    2016-12-01

    The long-lived radionuclide 129 I (half-life: 15.7 × 10 6  yr) is well-known as a useful environmental tracer. At present, the global 129 I in surface water is about 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than pre-1960 levels. Since the 1990s, anthropogenic 129 I produced from industrial nuclear fuels reprocessing plants has been the primary source of 129 I in marine surface waters of the Atlantic and around the globe. Here we present four coral 129 I time series records from: 1) Con Dao and 2) Xisha Islands, the South China Sea, 3) Rabaul, Papua New Guinea and 4) Guam. The Con Dao coral 129 I record features a sudden increase in 129 I in 1959. The Xisha coral shows similar peak values for 129 I as the Con Dao coral, punctuated by distinct low values, likely due to the upwelling in the central South China Sea. The Rabaul coral features much more gradual 129 I increases in the 1970s, similar to a published record from the Solomon Islands. The Guam coral 129 I record contains the largest measured values for any site, with two large peaks, in 1955 and 1959. Nuclear weapons testing was the primary 129 I source in the Western Pacific in the latter part of the 20th Century, notably from testing in the Marshall Islands. The Guam 1955 peak and Con Dao 1959 increases are likely from the 1954 Castle Bravo test, and the Operation Hardtack I test is the most likely source of the 1959 peak observed at Guam. Radiogenic iodine found in coral was carried primarily through surface ocean currents. The coral 129 I time series data provide a broad picture of the surface distribution and depth penetration of 129 I in the Pacific Ocean over the past 60 years. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Reconstructing surface ocean circulation with 129I time series records from corals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ching-Chih; Burr, George S.; Jull, A. J. Timothy; Russell, Joellen L.; Biddulph, Dana; White, Lara; Prouty, Nancy G.; Chen, Yue-Gau; Chuan-Chou Shen,; Zhou, Weijian; Lam, Doan Dinh

    2016-01-01

    The long-lived radionuclide 129I (half-life: 15.7 × 106 yr) is well-known as a useful environmental tracer. At present, the global 129I in surface water is about 1–2 orders of magnitude higher than pre-1960 levels. Since the 1990s, anthropogenic 129I produced from industrial nuclear fuels reprocessing plants has been the primary source of 129I in marine surface waters of the Atlantic and around the globe. Here we present four coral 129I time series records from: 1) Con Dao and 2) Xisha Islands, the South China Sea, 3) Rabaul, Papua New Guinea and 4) Guam. The Con Dao coral 129I record features a sudden increase in 129I in 1959. The Xisha coral shows similar peak values for 129I as the Con Dao coral, punctuated by distinct low values, likely due to the upwelling in the central South China Sea. The Rabaul coral features much more gradual 129I increases in the 1970s, similar to a published record from the Solomon Islands. The Guam coral 129I record contains the largest measured values for any site, with two large peaks, in 1955 and 1959. Nuclear weapons testing was the primary 129I source in the Western Pacific in the latter part of the 20th Century, notably from testing in the Marshall Islands. The Guam 1955 peak and Con Dao 1959 increases are likely from the 1954 Castle Bravo test, and the Operation Hardtack I test is the most likely source of the 1959 peak observed at Guam. Radiogenic iodine found in coral was carried primarily through surface ocean currents. The coral 129I time series data provide a broad picture of the surface distribution and depth penetration of 129I in the Pacific Ocean over the past 60 years.

  4. Characterization and conditioning of SSPX plasma facing surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchenauer, D.A.; Mills, B.E.; Wood, R.; Woodruff, S.; Hill, D.N.; Hooper, E.B.; Cowgill, D.F.; Clift, M.W.; Yang, N.Y.

    2001-01-01

    The Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment (SSPX) will examine the confinement properties of spheromak plasmas sustained by DC helicity injection. Understanding the plasma-surface interactions is an important component of the experimental program since the spheromak plasma is in close contact with a stabilizing wall (flux conserver) and is maintained by a high current discharge in the coaxial injector region. Peak electron temperatures in the range of 400 eV are expected, so the copper plasma facing surfaces in SSPX have been coated with tungsten to minimize sputtering and plasma contamination. Here, we report on the characterization and conditioning of these surfaces used for the initial studies of spheromak formation in SSPX. The high pressure plasma-sprayed tungsten facing the SSPX plasma was characterized in situ using β-backscattering and ex situ using laboratory measurements on similarly prepared samples. Measurements showed that water can be desorbed effectively through baking while the removal rates of volatile impurity gases during glow discharge and shot conditioning indicated a large source of carbon and oxygen in the porous coating

  5. Ocean Surface Topography Mission (OSTM) /Jason-3: Near Real-Time Altimetry Validation System (NRTAVS) QA Reports, 2015 - (NCEI Accession 0122600)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Jason-3 is the fourth mission in U.S.-European series of satellite missions that measure the height of the ocean surface. Scheduled to launch in 2015, the mission...

  6. The Sentinel-3 Surface Topography Mission (S-3 STM): Level 2 SAR Ocean Retracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinardo, S.; Lucas, B.; Benveniste, J.

    2015-12-01

    The SRAL Radar Altimeter, on board of the ESA Mission Sentinel-3 (S-3), has the capacity to operate either in the Pulse-Limited Mode (also known as LRM) or in the novel Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) mode. Thanks to the initial results from SAR Altimetry obtained exploiting CryoSat-2 data, lately the interest by the scientific community in this new technology has significantly increased and consequently the definition of accurate processing methodologies (along with validation strategies) has now assumed a capital importance. In this paper, we present the algorithm proposed to retrieve from S-3 STM SAR return waveforms the standard ocean geophysical parameters (ocean topography, wave height and sigma nought) and the validation results that have been so far achieved exploiting the CryoSat-2 data as well as the simulated data. The inversion method (retracking) to extract from the return waveform the geophysical information is a curve best-fitting scheme based on the bounded Levenberg-Marquardt Least-Squares Estimation Method (LEVMAR-LSE). The S-3 STM SAR Ocean retracking algorithm adopts, as return waveform’s model, the “SAMOSA” model [Ray et al, 2014], named after the R&D project SAMOSA (led by Satoc and funded by ESA), in which it has been initially developed. The SAMOSA model is a physically-based model that offers a complete description of a SAR Altimeter return waveform from ocean surface, expressed in the form of maps of reflected power in Delay-Doppler space (also known as stack) or expressed as multilooked echoes. SAMOSA is able to account for an elliptical antenna pattern, mispointing errors in roll and yaw, surface scattering pattern, non-linear ocean wave statistics and spherical Earth surface effects. In spite of its truly comprehensive character, the SAMOSA model comes with a compact analytical formulation expressed in term of Modified Bessel functions. The specifications of the retracking algorithm have been gathered in a technical document (DPM

  7. An explanation for the different climate sensitivities of land and ocean surfaces based on the diurnal cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleidon, Axel; Renner, Maik

    2017-09-01

    Observations and climate model simulations consistently show a higher climate sensitivity of land surfaces compared to ocean surfaces. Here we show that this difference in temperature sensitivity can be explained by the different means by which the diurnal variation in solar radiation is buffered. While ocean surfaces buffer the diurnal variations by heat storage changes below the surface, land surfaces buffer it mostly by heat storage changes above the surface in the lower atmosphere that are reflected in the diurnal growth of a convective boundary layer. Storage changes below the surface allow the ocean surface-atmosphere system to maintain turbulent fluxes over day and night, while the land surface-atmosphere system maintains turbulent fluxes only during the daytime hours, when the surface is heated by absorption of solar radiation. This shorter duration of turbulent fluxes on land results in a greater sensitivity of the land surface-atmosphere system to changes in the greenhouse forcing because nighttime temperatures are shaped by radiative exchange only, which are more sensitive to changes in greenhouse forcing. We use a simple, analytic energy balance model of the surface-atmosphere system in which turbulent fluxes are constrained by the maximum power limit to estimate the effects of these different means to buffer the diurnal cycle on the resulting temperature sensitivities. The model predicts that land surfaces have a 50 % greater climate sensitivity than ocean surfaces, and that the nighttime temperatures on land increase about twice as much as daytime temperatures because of the absence of turbulent fluxes at night. Both predictions compare very well with observations and CMIP5 climate model simulations. Hence, the greater climate sensitivity of land surfaces can be explained by its buffering of diurnal variations in solar radiation in the lower atmosphere.

  8. Effects of process conditions on chlorine generation and storage stability of electrolyzed deep ocean water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Guoo-Shyng Wang; Hsia, Chih-Wei; Hsu, Shun-Yao

    2015-12-01

    Electrolyzed water is a sustainable disinfectant, which can comply with food safety regulations and is environmentally friendly. We investigated the effects of platinum plating of electrode, electrode size, cell potential, and additional stirring on electrolysis properties of deep ocean water (DOW) and DOW concentration products. We also studied the relationships between quality properties of electrolyzed DOW and their storage stability. Results indicated that concentrating DOW to 1.7 times increased chlorine level in the electrolyzed DOW without affecting electric and current efficiencies of the electrolysis process. Increasing magnesium and potassium levels in DOW decreased chlorine level in the electrolyzed DOW as well as electric and current efficiencies of the electrolysis process. Additional stirring could not increase electrolysis efficiency of small electrolyzer. Large electrode, high electric potential and/or small electrolyzing cell increased chlorine production rate but decreased electric and current efficiencies. High electrolysis intensity decreased storage stability of the electrolyzed seawater and the effects of electrolysis on DOW gradually subsided in storage. DOW has similar electrolysis properties to surface seawater, but its purity and stability are better. Therefore, electrolyzed DOW should have better potential for applications on postharvest cleaning and disinfection of ready-to-eat fresh produce. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Cooling the vertical surface by conditionally single pulses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karpov Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available You Sprays with periodic supply of the droplet phase have great opportunities to control the heat exchange processes. Varying pulse duration and frequency of their repetition, we can achieve the optimal conditions of evaporative cooling with minimization of the liquid flow rate. The paper presents experimental data on studying local heat transfer on a large subcooled surface, obtained on the original setup with multinozzle controlled system of impact irrigation by the gas-droplet flow. A contribution to intensification of the spray parameters (flow rate, pulse duration, repetition frequency per a growth of integral heat transfer was studied. Data on instantaneous distribution of the heat flux value helped us to describe the processes occurring on the studied surface. These data could describe the regime of “island” film cooling.

  10. Cooling the vertical surface by conditionally single pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpov, Pavel; Nazarov, Alexander; Serov, Anatoly; Terekhov, Victor

    2017-10-01

    You Sprays with periodic supply of the droplet phase have great opportunities to control the heat exchange processes. Varying pulse duration and frequency of their repetition, we can achieve the optimal conditions of evaporative cooling with minimization of the liquid flow rate. The paper presents experimental data on studying local heat transfer on a large subcooled surface, obtained on the original setup with multinozzle controlled system of impact irrigation by the gas-droplet flow. A contribution to intensification of the spray parameters (flow rate, pulse duration, repetition frequency) per a growth of integral heat transfer was studied. Data on instantaneous distribution of the heat flux value helped us to describe the processes occurring on the studied surface. These data could describe the regime of "island" film cooling.

  11. Boundary conditions for free surface inlet and outlet problems

    KAUST Repository

    Taroni, M.

    2012-08-10

    We investigate and compare the boundary conditions that are to be applied to free-surface problems involving inlet and outlets of Newtonian fluid, typically found in coating processes. The flux of fluid is a priori known at an inlet, but unknown at an outlet, where it is governed by the local behaviour near the film-forming meniscus. In the limit of vanishing capillary number Ca it is well known that the flux scales with Ca 2/3, but this classical result is non-uniform as the contact angle approaches π. By examining this limit we find a solution that is uniformly valid for all contact angles. Furthermore, by considering the far-field behaviour of the free surface we show that there exists a critical capillary number above which the problem at an inlet becomes over-determined. The implications of this result for the modelling of coating flows are discussed. © 2012 Cambridge University Press.

  12. An AES Study of the Room Temperature Surface Conditioning of Technological Metal Surfaces by Electron Irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    Scheuerlein, C; Hilleret, Noël; Taborelli, M; Brown, A; Baker, M A

    2002-01-01

    The modifications to technological copper and niobium surfaces induced by 2.5 keV electron irradiation have been investigated in the context of the conditioning process occurring in particle accelerator ultra high vacuum systems. Changes in the elemental surface composition have been found using Scanning Auger Microscopy (SAM) by monitoring the carbon, oxygen and metal Auger peak intensities as a function of electron irradiation in the dose range 10-6 to 10-2 C mm-2. The surface analysis resu...

  13. Conditions for mould growth on typical interior surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Eva B.; Andersen, Birgitte; Rode, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    Prediction of the risk for mould growth is an important parameter for the analysis and design of the hygrothermal performance of building constructions. However, in practice the mould growth does not always follow the predicted behavior described by the mould growth models. This is often explained...... by uncertainty in the real conditions of exposure. In this study, laboratory experiments were designed to determine mould growth at controlled transient climate compared to growth at constant climate. The experiment included three building materials with four different surface treatments. The samples were...

  14. The surface drifter program for real time and off-line validation of ocean forecasts and reanalyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Fabrice; Regnier, Charly; Drévillon, Marie

    2017-04-01

    As part of the Global Ocean Observing System, the Global Drifter Program (GDP) is comprised of an array of about 1250 drifting buoys spread over the global ocean, that provide operational, near-real time surface velocity, sea surface temperature (SST) and sea level pressure observations. This information is used mainly used for numerical weather forecasting, research, and in-situ calibration/verification of satellite observations. Since 2013 the drifting buoy SST measurements are used for near real time assessment of global forecasting systems from Canada, France, UK, USA, Australia in the frame of the GODAE OceanView Intercomparison and Validation Task. For most of these operational systems, these data are not used for assimilation, and offer an independent observation assessment. This approach mimics the validation performed for SST satellite products. More recently, validation procedures have been proposed in order to assess the surface dynamics of Mercator Océan global and regional forecast and reanalyses. Velocities deduced from drifter trajectories are used in two ways. First, the Eulerian approach where buoy and ocean model velocity values are compared at the position of drifters. Then, from discrepancies, statistics are computed and provide an evaluation of the ocean model's surface dynamics reliability. Second, the Lagrangian approach, where drifting trajectories are simulated at each location of the real drifter trajectory using the ocean model velocity fields. Then, on daily basis, real and simulated drifter trajectories are compared by analyzing the spread after one day, two days etc…. The cumulated statistics on specific geographical boxes are evaluated in term of dispersion properties of the "real ocean" as captured by drifters, and those properties in the ocean model. This approach allows to better evaluate forecasting score for surface dispersion applications, like Search and Rescue, oil spill forecast, drift of other objects or contaminant

  15. Analysis of the global ocean sampling (GOS project for trends in iron uptake by surface ocean microbes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eve Toulza

    Full Text Available Microbial metagenomes are DNA samples of the most abundant, and therefore most successful organisms at the sampling time and location for a given cell size range. The study of microbial communities via their DNA content has revolutionized our understanding of microbial ecology and evolution. Iron availability is a critical resource that limits microbial communities' growth in many oceanic areas. Here, we built a database of 2319 sequences, corresponding to 140 gene families of iron metabolism with a large phylogenetic spread, to explore the microbial strategies of iron acquisition in the ocean's bacterial community. We estimate iron metabolism strategies from metagenome gene content and investigate whether their prevalence varies with dissolved iron concentrations obtained from a biogeochemical model. We show significant quantitative and qualitative variations in iron metabolism pathways, with a higher proportion of iron metabolism genes in low iron environments. We found a striking difference between coastal and open ocean sites regarding Fe(2+ versus Fe(3+ uptake gene prevalence. We also show that non-specific siderophore uptake increases in low iron open ocean environments, suggesting bacteria may acquire iron from natural siderophore-like organic complexes. Despite the lack of knowledge of iron uptake mechanisms in most marine microorganisms, our approach provides insights into how the iron metabolic pathways of microbial communities may vary with seawater iron concentrations.

  16. Fishing ground distribution of neon flying squid ( Ommastrephes bartramii) in relation to oceanographic conditions in the Northwest Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wei; Chen, Xinjun; Yi, Qian

    2017-12-01

    Neon flying squid, Ommastrephes bartramii, is a squid species of the North Pacific Ocean, which plays an important economical role in the international fishery. Logbook data for Chinese squid-jigging fishery over 2004-2011 were used to evaluate the relationship between the fishing grounds of the squid and the convergent frontal areas, which were defined by the contour lines of specific sea surface temperature (SST) and chlorophyll- a (Chl- a) concentration. Our results indicate that the SST in the range of 15 to 19°C and the Chl- a concentration in the range of 0.1 to 0.4 mg m-3 are the favorable conditions for the aggregation of the squid. Additionally, we deduced that the SST at 17.5°C and the Chl- a concentration at 0.25 mg m-3 are the optimal environmental conditions for the aggregation of O. bartramii. In August, the annual CPUE is positively correlated with the proportion of the fishing grounds with favorable SST and Chl- a concentration, as well as the combination of the two variables, implying that the abundance of the squid annually is largely depending on the presence of the favorable environmental conditions for fishery in August. Minor spatial difference between mean latitudinal location of the 17.5°C SST and 0.25 mg m-3 Chl- a fronts can increase the CPUEs of O. bartramii. Furthermore, the monthly latitudinal gravity centers of the CPUE closely followed the mean latitudinal position of the contour lines of the 17.5°C SST and the 0.25 mg m-3 Chl- a concentration. Our findings suggest the convergent oceanographic features (fronts) play significant roles in regulating the distribution and abundance of the western stock of the winter-spring cohort of O. bartramii, which can help people to improve their ability to discover the O. bartramii fishing grounds with higher productivity.

  17. A Note on the Relationship of Temperature and Water Vapor over Oceans, as well as the Sea Surface Temperature Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shie, C.-L.; Tao, W.-K.; Simpson, J.

    2005-01-01

    This note follows up on a recent study by Shie et al. (2005) and extends the investigation of the domain-averaged moisture-temperature (Q-T) relationship from the Tropics (i.e., the previous study) to the tropical Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Oceans. The Q and T data examined in this study are obtained from the GEOS-3 [Goddard Earth Observing System Version-3] global re-analysis monthly products. Similar to what was found earlier in the Tropics, Q is also found to increase with T over the entire oceanic region; however, Q increases faster with T over oceans than over the Tropics. The Q-T distribution for the Tropics is in a quasi-linear relationship, which is embedded in a global Q-T distribution that is, however, in a more complex curvilinear relationship. The Q-T distribution over the oceanic regions seems to fall within the lower bound (ie., the relatively colder and driver regime) of the tropical Q-T distribution. T over oceans is also found increasing with SST (sea surface temperature), which seemingly implies that an air mass might have gained heat more readily from a warmer ocean as compared to a colder ocean. Q is also found to increase with SST in a manner that quantitatively resembles an earlier finding by Stevens (1990). We also found that relative humidity exhibits similar behaviors for oceanic and tropical regions, respectively, i.e., it increases with both SST and T over oceans and increases with T in the Tropics (Shie et al. 2005). All these similar features found between oceanic and tropical regions seem to inform us that oceans occupy most of the Tropics and so play a key role in determining what have happened in the Tropics.

  18. Use of Ensemble Numerical Weather Prediction Data for Inversely Determining Atmospheric Refractivity in Surface Ducting Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenway, D. P.; Hackett, E.

    2017-12-01

    Under certain atmospheric refractivity conditions, propagated electromagnetic waves (EM) can become trapped between the surface and the bottom of the atmosphere's mixed layer, which is referred to as surface duct propagation. Being able to predict the presence of these surface ducts can reap many benefits to users and developers of sensing technologies and communication systems because they significantly influence the performance of these systems. However, the ability to directly measure or model a surface ducting layer is challenging due to the high spatial resolution and large spatial coverage needed to make accurate refractivity estimates for EM propagation; thus, inverse methods have become an increasingly popular way of determining atmospheric refractivity. This study uses data from the Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System developed by the Naval Research Laboratory and instrumented helicopter (helo) measurements taken during the Wallops Island Field Experiment to evaluate the use of ensemble forecasts in refractivity inversions. Helo measurements and ensemble forecasts are optimized to a parametric refractivity model, and three experiments are performed to evaluate whether incorporation of ensemble forecast data aids in more timely and accurate inverse solutions using genetic algorithms. The results suggest that using optimized ensemble members as an initial population for the genetic algorithms generally enhances the accuracy and speed of the inverse solution; however, use of the ensemble data to restrict parameter search space yields mixed results. Inaccurate results are related to parameterization of the ensemble members' refractivity profile and the subsequent extraction of the parameter ranges to limit the search space.

  19. Distribution, reproductive and energetic conditions of decapod crustaceans along the Scotia Arc (Southern Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo A. Lovrich

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies on decapod distribution patterns and reproductive and energetic conditions were carried out along the islands and shallows of the Scotia Arc (Southern Ocean during the RV “Polarstern” LAMPOS expedition (ANT XIX/5 between April and May 2002. A clear biogeographic zonation was found. The Subantarctic Magellan-South Atlantic decapod fauna consisting of both “natant” (caridean and “reptant” (astacidean, anomuran, and brachyuran decapods appeared along the northern branch of the Scotia Arc to South Georgia, where Subantarctic and Antarctic faunas were found overlapping. An impoverished caridean shrimp fauna was found along the islands of the southern branch, from the South Sandwich Islands to the Antarctic Peninsula. Differences in the reproductive traits of the two most abundant species were detected. The reproductive cycle of Notocrangon antarcticus at South Georgia was more advanced than that at the South Orkney Islands, probably due to temperature differences between the two locations. Although the oogenesis and the reproductive cycle of Munida subrugosa seem to be in phase at Burdwood Bank and in the Beagle Channel, the oocyte number is probably lower at the former location. A new index was used to measure the energy devoted to reproduction by relating the energy contents of the egg mass/ovary plus hepatopancreas and the energy content of the whole body. This index revealed that the energy investment in reproduction was (1 independent of the sampling location, (2 species-specific, and (3 larger in caridean shrimps than in galatheid crabs.

  20. Baseline monitoring of the western Arctic Ocean estimates 20% of Canadian basin surface waters are undersaturated with respect to aragonite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa L Robbins

    Full Text Available Marine surface waters are being acidified due to uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide, resulting in surface ocean areas of undersaturation with respect to carbonate minerals, including aragonite. In the Arctic Ocean, acidification is expected to occur at an accelerated rate with respect to the global oceans, but a paucity of baseline data has limited our understanding of the extent of Arctic undersaturation and of regional variations in rates and causes. The lack of data has also hindered refinement of models aimed at projecting future trends of ocean acidification. Here, based on more than 34,000 data records collected in 2010 and 2011, we establish a baseline of inorganic carbon data (pH, total alkalinity, dissolved inorganic carbon, partial pressure of carbon dioxide, and aragonite saturation index for the western Arctic Ocean. This data set documents aragonite undersaturation in ≈ 20% of the surface waters of the combined Canada and Makarov basins, an area characterized by recent acceleration of sea ice loss. Conservative tracer studies using stable oxygen isotopic data from 307 sites show that while the entire surface of this area receives abundant freshwater from meteoric sources, freshwater from sea ice melt is most closely linked to the areas of carbonate mineral undersaturation. These data link the Arctic Ocean's largest area of aragonite undersaturation to sea ice melt and atmospheric CO2 absorption in areas of low buffering capacity. Some relatively supersaturated areas can be linked to localized biological activity. Collectively, these observations can be used to project trends of ocean acidification in higher latitude marine surface waters where inorganic carbon chemistry is largely influenced by sea ice meltwater.

  1. Surface Wind and Upper-Ocean Variability Associated with the Madden-Julian Oscillation Simulated by the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    temperature is observed during the suppressed phase of the MJO because of the weak winds and large shortwave radiation (Weller and Anderson 1996...western PacificOceans (e.g.,Weller andAnderson 1996; Soloviev and Lukas 1997; Bellenger and Duvel 2009). The diurnal cycle of the solar radiation ...the difference in surface shortwave radiation caused by the small-scale cloud variability, which cannot be resolved by the atmospheric model. Also

  2. Surface and subsurface conditions in permafrost areas - a literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidstrand, Patrik

    2003-02-01

    This report contains a summary of some of the information within existing technical and scientific literature on permafrost. Permafrost is viewed as one of the future climate driven process domains that may exist in Scandinavia, and that may give rise to significantly different surface and subsurface conditions than the present. Except for changes in the biosphere, permafrost may impact hydraulic, mechanical, and chemical subsurface processes and conditions. Permafrost and its influences on the subsurface conditions are thus of interest for the performance and safety assessments of deep geological waste repositories. The definition of permafrost is 'ground that stays at or below 0 deg C for at least two consecutive years'. Permafrost will effect the geological subsurface to some depth. How deep the permafrost may grow is a function of the heat balance, thermal conditions at the surface and within the ground, and the geothermal heat flux from the Earth's inner parts. The main chapters of the report summaries the knowledge on permafrost evolution, occurrence and distribution, and extracts information concerning hydrology and mechanical and chemical impacts due to permafrost related conditions. The results of a literature review are always dependent on the available literature. Concerning permafrost there is some literature available from investigations in the field of long-term repositories and some from mining industries. However, reports of these investigations are few and the bulk of permafrost literature comes from the science departments concerned with surficial processes (e.g. geomorphology, hydrology, agriculture, etc) and from engineering concerns, such as foundation of constructions and pipeline design. This focus within the permafrost research inevitably yields a biased but also an abundant amount of information on localised surficial processes and a limited amount on regional and deep permafrost characteristics. Possible conclusions are that there is

  3. Surface and subsurface conditions in permafrost areas - a literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidstrand, Patrik [Bergab, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2003-02-01

    This report contains a summary of some of the information within existing technical and scientific literature on permafrost. Permafrost is viewed as one of the future climate driven process domains that may exist in Scandinavia, and that may give rise to significantly different surface and subsurface conditions than the present. Except for changes in the biosphere, permafrost may impact hydraulic, mechanical, and chemical subsurface processes and conditions. Permafrost and its influences on the subsurface conditions are thus of interest for the performance and safety assessments of deep geological waste repositories. The definition of permafrost is 'ground that stays at or below 0 deg C for at least two consecutive years'. Permafrost will effect the geological subsurface to some depth. How deep the permafrost may grow is a function of the heat balance, thermal conditions at the surface and within the ground, and the geothermal heat flux from the Earth's inner parts. The main chapters of the report summaries the knowledge on permafrost evolution, occurrence and distribution, and extracts information concerning hydrology and mechanical and chemical impacts due to permafrost related conditions. The results of a literature review are always dependent on the available literature. Concerning permafrost there is some literature available from investigations in the field of long-term repositories and some from mining industries. However, reports of these investigations are few and the bulk of permafrost literature comes from the science departments concerned with surficial processes (e.g. geomorphology, hydrology, agriculture, etc) and from engineering concerns, such as foundation of constructions and pipeline design. This focus within the permafrost research inevitably yields a biased but also an abundant amount of information on localised surficial processes and a limited amount on regional and deep permafrost characteristics. Possible conclusions are that

  4. Reductive precipitation of neptunium on iron surfaces under anaerobic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H.; Cui, D.; Grolimund, D.; Rondinella, V. V.; Brütsch, R.; Amme, M.; Kutahyali, C.; Wiss, A. T.; Puranen, A.; Spahiu, K.

    2017-12-01

    Reductive precipitation of the radiotoxic nuclide 237Np from nuclear waste on the surface of iron canister material at simulated deep repository conditions was investigated. Pristine polished as well as pre-corroded iron specimens were interacted in a deoxygenated solution containing 10-100 μM Np(V), with 10 mM NaCl and 2 mM NaHCO3 as background electrolytes. The reactivity of each of the two different systems was investigated by analyzing the temporal evolution of the Np concentration in the reservoir. It was observed that pre-oxidized iron specimen with a 40 μm Fe3O4 corrosion layer are considerably more reactive regarding the reduction and immobilization of aqueous Np(V) as compared to pristine polished Fe(0) surfaces. 237Np immobilized by the reactive iron surfaces was characterized by scanning electron microscopy as well as synchrotron-based micro-X-ray fluorescence and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. At the end of experiments, a 5-8 μm thick Np-rich layer was observed to be formed ontop of the Fe3O4 corrosion layer on the iron specimen. The findings from this work are significant in the context of performance assessments of deep geologic repositories using iron as high level radioactive waste (HLW) canister material and are of relevance regarding removing pollutants from contaminated soil or groundwater aquifer systems.

  5. The influence of bubble populations generated under windy conditions on the blue-green light transmission in the upper ocean: An exploratory approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengan; Tan, Jianyu; Lai, Qingzhi

    2016-12-01

    The “blue-green window” in the ocean plays an important role in functions such as communication between vessels, underwater target identification, and remote sensing. In this study, the transmission process of blue-green light in the upper ocean is analyzed numerically using the Monte Carlo method. First, the effect of total number of photons on the numerical results is evaluated, and the most favorable number is chosen to ensure accuracy without excessive costs for calculation. Then, the physical and mathematical models are constructed. The rough sea surface is generated under windy conditions and the transmission signals are measured in the far field. Therefore, it can be conceptualized as a 1D slab with a rough boundary surface. Under windy conditions, these bubbles form layers that are horizontally homogeneous and decay exponentially with depth under the influence of gravity. The effects of bubble populations on the process of blue-green light transmission at different wind speeds, wavelengths, angle of incidence and chlorophyll-a concentrations are studied for both air-incident and water-incident cases. The results of this study indicate that the transmission process of blue-green light is significantly influenced by bubbles under high wind-speed conditions.

  6. Transport of contaminants by Arctic sea ice and surface ocean currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfirman, S.

    1995-01-01

    Sea ice and ocean currents transport contaminants in the Arctic from source areas on the shelves, to biologically active regions often more than a thousand kilometers away. Coastal regions along the Siberian margin are polluted by discharges of agricultural, industrial and military wastes in river runoff, from atmospheric deposition and ocean dumping. The Kara Sea is of particular concern because of deliberate dumping of radioactive waste, as well as the large input of polluted river water. Contaminants are incorporated in ice during suspension freezing on the shelves, and by atmospheric deposition during drift. Ice releases its contaminant load through brine drainage, surface runoff of snow and meltwater, and when the floe disintegrates. The marginal ice zone, a region of intense biological activity, may also be the site of major contaminant release. Potentially contaminated ice from the Kara Sea is likely to influence the marginal ice zones of the Barents and Greenland seas. From studies conducted to date it appears that sea ice from the Kara Sea does not typically enter the Beaufort Gyre, and thus is unlikely to affect the northern Canadian and Alaskan margins

  7. Relationships between Indian Ocean Sea surface temperature and the rainfall of Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suppiah, Ramasamy

    1988-02-28

    Spatial and temporal variations of the sea surface temperature (SST) over the Indian Ocean are examined by using empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis. The first EOF mode explains 20.54% of the total variance indicating positive values over the study area. The second and third EOF modes explain relatively less contribution, 5.6% and 5.1% of the total variance. A weak positive correlation coefficient is observed between the time coefficients of the first EOF mode of SST anomalies and the time coefficients of the first EOF mode of the rainfall anomalies over Sri Lanka when all months are considered. The positive relationships between SST anomalies of the Pacific and the Indian Oceans and rainfall anomalies of Sri Lanka first appear in March and April, and then gradually build up towards the significant level. In the case of the summer monsoon, Arabian Sea SST's strongly influence the rainfall of Sri Lank, particularly striking in the southwestern quadrant of the island. (8 figs, 4 tabs, 27 refs)

  8. Protection performance of some polyurethane surface systems on wood surface in outdoor conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Özgenc

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, two different surface system applied oriental spruce (Picea orientalis L. were investigated resistance to the outdoor conditions of the test and control wood. Surface systems were compared as two different property polyurethane-based materials. Outdoor test has been implemented in Sürmene coastal, Uzungol and Hıdırnebi plateaus. Oriental spruce samples were compared based on the discoloration and reduction in fiber to parallel compressive strength in outdoor conditions. The weathering test in Hıdırnebi plateau was found at the lowest discoloration and reduction rate on compressive strength. According to the obtained results; polyester-based material, the oriental spruce wood against discoloration and reduction in compressive strength was determined at outdoor conditions is relatively well preserved

  9. An AES Study of the Room Temperature Surface Conditioning of Technological Metal Surfaces by Electron Irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Scheuerlein, C; Taborelli, M; Brown, A; Baker, M A

    2002-01-01

    The modifications to technological copper and niobium surfaces induced by 2.5 keV electron irradiation have been investigated in the context of the conditioning process occurring in particle accelerator ultra high vacuum systems. Changes in the elemental surface composition have been found using Scanning Auger Microscopy (SAM) by monitoring the carbon, oxygen and metal Auger peak intensities as a function of electron irradiation in the dose range 10-6 to 10-2 C mm-2. The surface analysis results are compared with electron dose dependent secondary electron and electron stimulated desorption yield measurements. Initially the electron irradiation causes a surface cleaning through electron stimulated desorption, in particular of hydrogen. During this period both the electron stimulated desorption and secondary electron yield decrease as a function of electron dose. When the electron dose exceeds 10-4 C mm-2 electron stimulated desorption yields are reduced by several orders of magnitude and the electron beam indu...

  10. Spatio-temporal dynamics of ocean conditions and forage taxa reveal regional structuring of seabird–prey relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santora, Jarrod A; Schroeder, Isaac D; Field, John C; Wells, Brian K; Sydeman, William J

    Studies of predator–prey demographic responses and the physical drivers of such relationships are rare, yet essential for predicting future changes in the structure and dynamics of marine ecosystems. Here, we hypothesize that predator–prey relationships vary spatially in association with underlying physical ocean conditions, leading to observable changes in demographic rates, such as reproduction. To test this hypothesis, we quantified spatio-temporal variability in hydrographic conditions, krill, and forage fish to model predator (seabird) demographic responses over 18 years (1990–2007). We used principal component analysis and spatial correlation maps to assess coherence among ocean conditions, krill, and forage fish, and generalized additive models to quantify interannual variability in seabird breeding success relative to prey abundance. The first principal component of four hydrographic measurements yielded an index that partitioned “warm/weak upwelling” and “cool/strong upwelling” years. Partitioning of krill and forage fish time series among shelf and oceanic regions yielded spatially explicit indicators of prey availability. Krill abundance within the oceanic region was remarkably consistent between years, whereas krill over the shelf showed marked interannual fluctuations in relation to ocean conditions. Anchovy abundance varied on the shelf, and was greater in years of strong stratification, weak upwelling and warmer temperatures. Spatio-temporal variability of juvenile forage fish co-varied strongly with each other and with krill, but was weakly correlated with hydrographic conditions. Demographic responses between seabirds and prey availability revealed spatially variable associations indicative of the dynamic nature of “predator–habitat” relationships. Quantification of spatially explicit demographic responses, and their variability through time, demonstrate the possibility of delineating specific critical areas where the

  11. Seasonal Variations of the Earth's Gravitational Field: An Analysis of Atmospheric Pressure, Ocean Tidal, and Surface Water Excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, D,; Gross, R.S.; Dickey, J.

    1996-01-01

    Monthly mean gravitational field parameters (denoted here as C(sub even)) that represent linear combinations of the primarily even degree zonal spherical harmonic coefficients of the Earth's gravitational field have been recovered using LAGEOS I data and are compared with those derived from gridded global surface pressure data of the National meteorological center (NMC) spanning 1983-1992. The effect of equilibrium ocean tides and surface water variations are also considered. Atmospheric pressure and surface water fluctuations are shown to be the dominant cause of observed annual C(sub even) variations. Closure with observations is seen at the 1sigma level when atmospheric pressure, ocean tide and surface water effects are include. Equilibrium ocean tides are shown to be the main source of excitation at the semiannual period with closure at the 1sigma level seen when both atmospheric pressure and ocean tide effects are included. The inverted barometer (IB) case is shown to give the best agreement with the observation series. The potential of the observed C(sub even) variations for monitoring mass variations in the polar regions of the Earth and the effect of the land-ocean mask in the IB calculation are discussed.

  12. Influence of Conditioned Surface Textures on Plain Journal Bearing Performance Working on HL Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vélez-Restrepo J.M.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available As an answer to the need for reducing friction losses on bearings, dynamic seals, piston rings, cutting tools and others, a lot of work has been dedicated to mechanical systems study whose surfaces have been textured in a controlled way. Theoretical models and experimental results have shown improvements on the tribological performance of these systems regarding untextured systems, working under the same conditions. This paper presents a numerical model for getting relationships among the operational conditions (load, speed, and dynamic viscosity, the minimum lubricate film thickness, the friction coefficient and the conditioned micro-topography of a plain sliding bearing working under a hydrodynamic regime. Moreover, regarding other similar works the constructed model allows studying the combined effect of the micro-wedges that work as micro-bearings, and the typical convergent macro-wedge of these study elements.

  13. Temperature and surface-ocean water balance of the mid-holocene tropical western Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagan, M.K.; Ayliffe, K.K.; Cali, J.A. [Australian National Univ., Canberra (Australia)] [and others

    1998-02-13

    Skeletal Sr/Ca and {sup 18}O/{sup 16}O ratios in corals from the Great Barrier Reef, Australia, indicate that the tropical ocean surface {approx} 5350 years ago was 1{degree}C warmer and enriched in {sup 18}O by 0.5 per mil relative to modern seawater. The results suggest that the temperature increase enhanced the evaporative enrichment of {sup 18}O in seawater. Transport of part of the additional atmospheric water vapor to extratropical latitudes may have sustained the {sup 18}O/{sup 16}O anomaly. The reduced glacial-Holocene shift in seawater {sup 18}O/{sup 16}O ratio produced by the mid-Holocene {sup 18}O enrichment may help to reconcile the different temperature histories for the last deglaciation given by coral Sr/Ca thermometry and foraminiferal oxygen-isotope records. 37 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  14. High Quality Acquisition of Surface Electromyography - Conditioning Circuit Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shobaki, Mohammed M.; Malik, Noreha Abdul; Khan, Sheroz; Nurashikin, Anis; Haider, Samnan; Larbani, Sofiane; Arshad, Atika; Tasnim, Rumana

    2013-12-01

    The acquisition of Surface Electromyography (SEMG) signals is used for many applications including the diagnosis of neuromuscular diseases, and prosthesis control. The diagnostic quality of the SEMG signal is highly dependent on the conditioning circuit of the SEMG acquisition system. This paper presents the design of an SEMG conditioning circuit that can guarantee to collect high quality signal with high SNR such that it is immune to environmental noise. The conditioning circuit consists of four stages; consisting of an instrumentation amplifier that is used with a gain of around 250; 4th order band pass filter in the 20-500Hz frequency range as the two initial stages. The third stage is an amplifier with adjustable gain using a variable resistance; the gain could be changed from 1000 to 50000. In the final stage the signal is translated to meet the input requirements of data acquisition device or the ADC. Acquisition of accurate signals allows it to be analyzed for extracting the required characteristic features for medical and clinical applications. According to the experimental results, the value of SNR for collected signal is 52.4 dB which is higher than the commercial system, the power spectrum density (PSD) graph is also presented and it shows that the filter has eliminated the noise below 20 Hz.

  15. Correlations Between Sea-Surface Salinity Tendencies and Freshwater Fluxes in the Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Adamec, David

    2007-01-01

    Temporal changes in sea-surface salinity (SSS) from 21 years of a high resolution model integration of the Pacific Ocean are correlated with the freshwater flux that was used to force the integration. The correlations are calculated on a 1 x10 grid, and on a monthly scale to assess the possibility of deducing evaporation minus precipitation (E-P) fields from the salinity measurements to be taken by the upcoming Aquarius/SAC-D mission. Correlations between the monthly mean E-P fields and monthly mean SSS temporal tendencies are mainly zonally-oriented, and are highest where the local precipitation is relatively high. Nonseasonal (deviations from the monthly mean) correlations are highest along mid-latitude storm tracks and are relatively small in the tropics. The response of the model's surface salinity to surface forcing is very complex, and retrievals of freshwater fluxes from SSS measurements alone will require consideration of other processes, including horizontal advection and vertical mixing, rather than a simple balance between the two.

  16. Correlation characteristics of signals reflected by the wavy surface of ocean in mirror direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhitkovskiy, Y. Y.; Nosov, A. V.; Savelyev, V. V.

    1985-06-01

    An experimental study was carried out to determine the correlation characteristics of pseudonoise signals reflected from a wave-covered surface in the mirror direction. The major measured quantity was the reciprocal correlation coefficient between the transmitted signal and the reflected signal. The transmitter was lowered from a ship on a 150 m cable. The receiver and preamplifier were lowered to the same depth from a buoy which was allowed to drift from the ship to a distance of 100-500 m, the changing distance changing the angle of the beam reflected from the surface of the ocean back down to the hydrophone. The radiator transmitted a pulsed signal with a pseudonoise carrier. The results were interpreted within the framework of ordinary correlation theory by processing several recordings, calculating the sign and ordinary correlation coefficients to determine the variation in sign correlation coefficient as a function of the ordinary correlation coefficient. Graphs of the average variation are presented. It was found that the medium did not distort the signal as it propagated through the water mass (within the limits of experimental accuracy). The correlation coefficient between the transmitted and reflected signals is thus determined entirely by the characteristics of reradiation of the sound by the wavecovered surface.

  17. How well will the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission observe global reservoirs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solander, Kurt C.; Reager, John T.; Famiglietti, James S.

    2016-03-01

    Accurate observations of global reservoir storage are critical to understand the availability of managed water resources. By enabling estimates of surface water area and height for reservoir sizes exceeding 250 m2 at a maximum repeat orbit of up to 21 days, the NASA Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission (anticipated launch date 2020) is expected to greatly improve upon existing reservoir monitoring capabilities. It is thus essential that spatial and temporal measurement uncertainty for water bodies is known a priori to maximize the utility of SWOT observations as the data are acquired. In this study, we evaluate SWOT reservoir observations using a three-pronged approach that assesses temporal aliasing, errors due to specific reservoir spatial properties, and SWOT performance over actual reservoirs using a combination of in situ and simulated reservoir observations from the SWOTsim instrument simulator. Results indicate temporal errors to be less than 5% for the smallest reservoir sizes (100 km2). Surface area and height errors were found to be minimal (area SWOT, this study will be have important implications for future applications of SWOT reservoir measurements in global monitoring systems and models.

  18. An explanation for the different climate sensitivities of land and ocean surfaces based on the diurnal cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kleidon

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Observations and climate model simulations consistently show a higher climate sensitivity of land surfaces compared to ocean surfaces. Here we show that this difference in temperature sensitivity can be explained by the different means by which the diurnal variation in solar radiation is buffered. While ocean surfaces buffer the diurnal variations by heat storage changes below the surface, land surfaces buffer it mostly by heat storage changes above the surface in the lower atmosphere that are reflected in the diurnal growth of a convective boundary layer. Storage changes below the surface allow the ocean surface–atmosphere system to maintain turbulent fluxes over day and night, while the land surface–atmosphere system maintains turbulent fluxes only during the daytime hours, when the surface is heated by absorption of solar radiation. This shorter duration of turbulent fluxes on land results in a greater sensitivity of the land surface–atmosphere system to changes in the greenhouse forcing because nighttime temperatures are shaped by radiative exchange only, which are more sensitive to changes in greenhouse forcing. We use a simple, analytic energy balance model of the surface–atmosphere system in which turbulent fluxes are constrained by the maximum power limit to estimate the effects of these different means to buffer the diurnal cycle on the resulting temperature sensitivities. The model predicts that land surfaces have a 50 % greater climate sensitivity than ocean surfaces, and that the nighttime temperatures on land increase about twice as much as daytime temperatures because of the absence of turbulent fluxes at night. Both predictions compare very well with observations and CMIP5 climate model simulations. Hence, the greater climate sensitivity of land surfaces can be explained by its buffering of diurnal variations in solar radiation in the lower atmosphere.

  19. Surface layer conditions of the atmosphere over western Bay of Bengal during Monex

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Anto, A.F.; Rao, L.V.G.; Somayajulu, Y.K.

    Based on surface meteorological data and wave data collected from 2 stations in the western Bay of Bengal in July 1979, surface layer (SL) conditions of the atmosphere for different situations of surface circulations and the associated sea surface...

  20. Ocean circulation and biogeochemistry moderate interannual and decadal surface water pH changes in the Sargasso Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathalie F. Goodkin,; Bo-Shian Wang,; Chen-Feng You,; Konrad Hughen,; Prouty, Nancy G.; Bates, Nicholas; Scott Doney,

    2015-01-01

    The oceans absorb anthropogenic CO2 from the atmosphere, lowering surface ocean pH, a concern for calcifying marine organisms. The impact of ocean acidification is challenging to predict as each species appears to respond differently and because our knowledge of natural changes to ocean pH is limited in both time and space. Here we reconstruct 222 years of biennial seawater pH variability in the Sargasso Sea from a brain coral, Diploria labyrinthiformis. Using hydrographic data from the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study and the coral-derived pH record, we are able to differentiate pH changes due to surface temperature versus those from ocean circulation and biogeochemical changes. We find that ocean pH does not simply reflect atmospheric CO2 trends but rather that circulation/biogeochemical changes account for >90% of pH variability in the Sargasso Sea and more variability in the last century than would be predicted from anthropogenic uptake of CO2 alone.

  1. Applying machine learning to global surface ocean and seabed data to reveal the controls on the distribution of deep-sea sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutkiewicz, Adriana; Müller, Dietmar; O'Callaghan, Simon

    2017-04-01

    the occurrence of five major lithologies in the world's ocean can be predicted on the basis of just two or three parameters, notably sea-surface salinity and sea-surface temperature. These parameters control the growth and composition of plankton and specific salinities and temperatures are also associated with the influx of non-aerosol terrigenous material into the ocean. Bathymetry is an important parameter for discriminating the occurrence of calcareous sediment, clay and coarse lithogenous sediment from each other but it is not important for biosiliceous oozes. Consequently, radiolarian and diatom oozes are poor indicators of palaeo-depth. Contrary to widely held view, we find that calcareous and siliceous oozes are not linked to high surface productivity. Our analysis shows that small shifts in surface ocean conditions significantly affect the lithology of modern seafloor sediments on a global scale and that these relationships need to be incorporated into interpretations of the geological record of ocean basins. Dutkiewicz, A., Müller, R. D., O'Callaghan, S., and Jónasson, H., 2015, Census of seafloor sediments in the world's ocean: Geology, v. 43, no. 9, p. 795-798. Dutkiewicz, A., O'Callaghan, S., and Müller, R. D., 2016, Controls on the distribution of deep-sea sediments: Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., v. 17, p. 1-24.

  2. Sea surface temperature estimates for the mid-Piacenzian Indian Ocean—Ocean Drilling Program sites 709, 716, 722, 754, 757, 758, and 763

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Marci M.; Dowsett, Harry J.; Stoll, Danielle K.

    2018-01-30

    Despite the wealth of global paleoclimate data available for the warm period in the middle of the Piacenzian Stage of the Pliocene Epoch (about 3.3 to 3.0 million years ago [Ma]; Dowsett and others, 2013, and references therein), the Indian Ocean has remained a region of sparse geographic coverage in terms of microfossil analysis. In an effort to characterize the surface Indian Ocean during this interval, we examined the planktic foraminifera from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) sites 709, 716, 722, 754, 757, 758, and 763, encompassing a wide range of oceanographic conditions. We quantitatively analyzed the data for sea surface temperature (SST) estimation using both the modern analog technique (MAT) and a factor analytic transfer function. The data will contribute to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Pliocene Research, Interpretation and Synoptic Mapping (PRISM) Project’s global SST reconstruction and climate model SST boundary condition for the mid-Piacenzian and will become part of the PRISM verification dataset designed to ground-truth Pliocene climate model simulations (Dowsett and others, 2013).

  3. Conditions for mould growth on typical interior surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Eva B.; Andersen, Birgitte; Rode, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    Prediction of the risk for mould growth is an important parameter for the analysis and design of the hygrothermal performance of building constructions. However, in practice the mould growth does not always follow the predicted behavior described by the mould growth models. This is often explained...... by uncertainty in the real conditions of exposure. In this study, laboratory experiments were designed to determine mould growth at controlled transient climate compared to growth at constant climate. The experiment included three building materials with four different surface treatments. The samples were...... inoculated with 8 common indoor moulds. Even after 40 weeks no growth was observed on any sample. The paper describes different hypotheses for the missing growth, and how these have been tested....

  4. Surface chemistry of tribochemical reactions explored in ultrahigh vacuum conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lara-Romero, Javier; Maya-Yescas, Rafael; Rico-Cerda, Jose Luis; Rivera-Rojas, Jose Luis; Castillo, Fernando Chinas; Kaltchev, Matey; Tysoe, Wilfred T.

    2006-01-01

    The thermal decomposition of model extreme-pressure lubricant additives on clean iron was studied in ultrahigh vacuum conditions using molecular beam strategies. Methylene chloride and chloroform react to deposit a solid film consisting of FeCl 2 and carbon, and evolve only hydrogen into the gas phase. No gas-phase products and less carbon on the surface are detected in the case of carbon tetrachloride. Dimethyl and diethyl disulfide react on clean iron to deposit a saturated sulfur plus carbon layer at low temperatures (∼600 K) and an iron sulfide film onto a Fe + C underlayer at higher temperatures (∼950 K). Methane is the only gas-phase product when dimethyl disulfide reacts with iron. Ethylene and hydrogen are detected when diethyl disulfide is used

  5. A Novel Low-cost, Ka-band, High Altitude, Multi-Baseline Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Sensor for Surface Water Ocean Topography, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NRC Decadal Survey recommended the Surface Water Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission to address terrestrial fresh water hydrology and physical oceanography...

  6. Ocean Surface Topography Mission (OSTM) /Jason-2 Data Collection, 2008-present (NODC Accession 0118277)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — OSTM/JASON-2 is a follow-on mission continuing the TOPEX/Poseidon and Jason-1, and is designed to ensure continuity of high quality measurements for ocean science...

  7. Ocean Surface Topography Mission (OSTM) /Jason-2: Level-2 Geophysical Data Records (GDR) (NODC Accession 0043269)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — OSTM/JASON-2 is a follow-on mission continuing the TOPEX/Poseidon and Jason-1, and is designed to ensure continuity of high quality measurements for ocean science...

  8. Surface gravity wave effects in the oceanic boundary layer: large-eddy simulation with vortex force and stochastic breakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Peter P.; McWilliams, James C.; Melville, W. Kendall

    The wind-driven stably stratified mid-latitude oceanic surface turbulent boundary layer is computationally simulated in the presence of a specified surface gravity-wave field. The gravity waves have broad wavenumber and frequency spectra typical of measured conditions in near-equilibrium with the mean wind speed. The simulation model is based on (i) an asymptotic theory for the conservative dynamical effects of waves on the wave-averaged boundary-layer currents and (ii) a boundary-layer forcing by a stochastic representation of the impulses and energy fluxes in a field of breaking waves. The wave influences are shown to be profound on both the mean current profile and turbulent statistics compared to a simulation without these wave influences and forced by an equivalent mean surface stress. As expected from previous studies with partial combinations of these wave influences, Langmuir circulations due to the wave-averaged vortex force make vertical eddy fluxes of momentum and material concentration much more efficient and non-local (i.e. with negative eddy viscosity near the surface), and they combine with the breakers to increase the turbulent energy and dissipation rate. They also combine in an unexpected positive feedback in which breaker-generated vorticity seeds the creation of a new Langmuir circulation and instigates a deep strong intermittent downwelling jet that penetrates through the boundary layer and increases the material entrainment rate at the base of the layer. These wave effects on the boundary layer are greater for smaller wave ages and higher mean wind speeds.

  9. Long-term changes in the surface conditions of PLT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, S.A.; Dylla, H.F.; Rossnagel, S.M.; Picraux, S.T.; Borders, J.A.; Magee, C.W.

    1978-06-01

    Long-term changes in the surface conditions of the PLT vacuum vessel wall have been monitoried by the periodic analysis of a variety of sample substrates (stainless steel, alumina, silicon), exposed to PLT discharges for periods of up to several months and subsequently removed for analysis by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), photoelectron spectroscopy (ESCA), ion backscattering, nuclear reaction analysis, secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), and scanning electron microscopy. Samples exposed for extended time periods (2 to 6 months) showed deposited films containing limiter (W) and liner constituent metals (Fe, Cr, and Ni) and C and O. The film thicknesses ranged between 100 to 200 A with 2 to 15 atomic percent W and 5 to 40 percent Fe as determined by sputter-AES and ion backscattering measurements. Increased deposition of metallic impurities (W, Fe) was noted following the first extensive application of low power discharge cleaning. We discuss possible mechanisms responsible for the deposition of metals onto the sample surfaces. Deuterium retention was observed in all the exposed samples with the deuterium depth profiles restricted primarily to the deposited films on the stainless steel substrates and extending deeper for Si. The deuterium retained in the exposed samples shows a saturation at (1 to 11) x 10 15 D atoms/cm 2 for an estimated variation in the deuterium fluence of 10 17 to 10 19 D atoms/cm 2

  10. Highly variable Pliocene sea surface conditions in the Norwegian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachem, Paul E.; Risebrobakken, Bjørg; De Schepper, Stijn; McClymont, Erin L.

    2017-09-01

    The Pliocene was a time of global warmth with small sporadic glaciations, which transitioned towards the larger-scale Pleistocene glacial-interglacial variability. Here, we present high-resolution records of sea surface temperature (SST) and ice-rafted debris (IRD) in the Norwegian Sea from 5.32 to 3.14 Ma, providing evidence that the Pliocene surface conditions of the Norwegian Sea underwent a series of transitions in response to orbital forcing and gateway changes. Average SSTs are 2 °C above the regional Holocene mean, with notable variability on millennial to orbital timescales. Both gradual changes and threshold effects are proposed for the progression of regional climate towards the Late Pliocene intensification of Northern Hemisphere glaciation. Cooling from 4.5 to 4.3 Ma may be linked to the onset of poleward flow through the Bering Strait. This cooling was further intensified by a period of cool summers due to weak obliquity forcing. A 7 °C warming of the Norwegian Sea at 4.0 Ma suggests a major increase in northward heat transport from the North Atlantic, leading to an enhanced zonal SST gradient in the Nordic Seas, which may be linked to the expansion of sea ice in the Arctic and Nordic Seas. A warm Norwegian Sea and enhanced zonal temperature gradient between 4.0 and 3.6 Ma may have been a priming factor for increased glaciation around the Nordic Seas due to enhanced evaporation and precipitation at high northern latitudes.

  11. Baseline Monitoring of the Western Arctic Ocean Estimates 20% of Canadian Basin Surface Waters Are Undersaturated with Respect to Aragonite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Lisa L.; Wynn, Jonathan G.; Lisle, John T.; Yates, Kimberly K.; Knorr, Paul O.; Byrne, Robert H.; Liu, Xuewu; Patsavas, Mark C.; Azetsu-Scott, Kumiko; Takahashi, Taro

    2013-01-01

    Marine surface waters are being acidified due to uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide, resulting in surface ocean areas of undersaturation with respect to carbonate minerals, including aragonite. In the Arctic Ocean, acidification is expected to occur at an accelerated rate with respect to the global oceans, but a paucity of baseline data has limited our understanding of the extent of Arctic undersaturation and of regional variations in rates and causes. The lack of data has also hindered refinement of models aimed at projecting future trends of ocean acidification. Here, based on more than 34,000 data records collected in 2010 and 2011, we establish a baseline of inorganic carbon data (pH, total alkalinity, dissolved inorganic carbon, partial pressure of carbon dioxide, and aragonite saturation index) for the western Arctic Ocean. This data set documents aragonite undersaturation in ∼20% of the surface waters of the combined Canada and Makarov basins, an area characterized by recent acceleration of sea ice loss. Conservative tracer studies using stable oxygen isotopic data from 307 sites show that while the entire surface of this area receives abundant freshwater from meteoric sources, freshwater from sea ice melt is most closely linked to the areas of carbonate mineral undersaturation. These data link the Arctic Ocean’s largest area of aragonite undersaturation to sea ice melt and atmospheric CO2 absorption in areas of low buffering capacity. Some relatively supersaturated areas can be linked to localized biological activity. Collectively, these observations can be used to project trends of ocean acidification in higher latitude marine surface waters where inorganic carbon chemistry is largely influenced by sea ice meltwater. PMID:24040074

  12. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Micro-porous membrane equilibrator and other instruments from WAKATAKA MARU in the North Atlantic Ocean, North Pacific Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2011-06-10 to 2011-12-06 (NCEI Accession 0157428)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157428 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from WAKATAKA MARU in the North Atlantic Ocean, North Pacific...

  13. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from Investigator in the North Pacific Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2016-04-26 to 2016-06-29 (NCEI Accession 0160555)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0160555 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from Investigator in the North Pacific Ocean, South Pacific...

  14. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2012-12-31 to 2013-12-19 (NCEI Accession 0163187)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0163187 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South...

  15. Near 7-day response of ocean bottom pressure to atmospheric surface pressure and winds in the northern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kun; Zhu, Xiao-Hua; Zhao, Ruixiang

    2018-02-01

    Ocean bottom pressures, observed by five pressure-recording inverted echo sounders (PIESs) from October 2012 to July 2014, exhibit strong near 7-day variability in the northern South China Sea (SCS) where long-term in situ bottom pressure observations are quite sparse. This variability was strongest in October 2013 during the near two years observation period. By joint analysis with European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) data, it is shown that the near 7-day ocean bottom pressure variability is closely related to the local atmospheric surface pressure and winds. Within a period band near 7 days, there are high coherences, exceeding 95% significance level, of observed ocean bottom pressure with local atmospheric surface pressure and with both zonal and meridional components of the wind. Ekman pumping/suction caused by the meridional component of the wind in particular, is suggested as one driving mechanism. A Kelvin wave response to the near 7-day oscillation would propagate down along the continental slope, observed at the Qui Nhon in the Vietnam. By multiple and partial coherence analyses, we find that local atmospheric surface pressure and Ekman pumping/suction show nearly equal influence on ocean bottom pressure variability at near 7-day periods. A schematic diagram representing an idealized model gives us a possible mechanism to explain the relationship between ocean bottom pressure and local atmospheric forcing at near 7-day periods in the northern SCS.

  16. Solutions Network Formulation Report: Improving NOAA's PORTS(R) Through Enhanced Data Inputs from NASA's Ocean Surface Topography Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, DeNeice

    2007-01-01

    The Nation uses water-level data for a variety of practical purposes, including nautical charting, maritime navigation, hydrography, coastal engineering, and tsunami and storm surge warnings. Long-term applications include marine boundary determinations, tidal predictions, sea-level trend monitoring, oceanographic research, and climate research. Accurate and timely information concerning sea-level height, tide, and ocean current is needed to understand their impact on coastal management, disaster management, and public health. Satellite altimeter data products are currently used by hundreds of researchers and operational users to monitor ocean circulation and to improve scientists understanding of the role of the oceans in climate and weather. The NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) National Ocean Service has been monitoring sea-level variations for many years. NOAA s PORTS (Physical Oceanographic Real-Time System) DST (decision support tool), managed by the Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services, supports safe and cost-efficient navigation by providing ship masters and pilots with accurate real-time information required to avoid groundings and collisions. This report assesses the capacity of NASA s satellite altimeter data to meet societal decision support needs through incorporation into NOAA s PORTS. NASA has a long heritage of collecting data for ocean research, including its current Terra and Aqua missions. Numerous other missions provide additional important information for coastal management issues, and data collection will continue in the coming decade with such missions as the OSTM (Ocean Surface Topography Mission). OSTM will provide data on sea-surface heights for determining ocean circulation, climate change, and sea-level rise. We suggest that NASA incorporate OSTM altimeter data (C- and Ku-band) into NOAA s PORTS DST in support of NASA s Coastal Management National Application with secondary support to the

  17. Simulation of the Impact of New Ocean Surface Wind Measurements on H*Wind Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Timothy; Atlas, Robert; Black, Peter; Chen, Shuyi; Hood, Robbie; Johnson, James; Jones, Linwood; Ruf, Chris; Uhlhorn, Eric

    2008-01-01

    The H*Wind analysis, a product of the Hurricane Research Division of NOAA's Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, brings together wind measurements from a variety of observation platforms into an objective analysis of the distribution of surface wind speeds in a tropical cyclone. This product is designed to improve understanding of the extent and strength of the wind field, and to improve the assessment of hurricane intensity. See http://www.aoml.noaa.gov/hrd/data sub/wind.html. The Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) is a new passive microwave remote sensor for hurricane observations that is currently under development by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, NOAA Hurricane Research Division, the University of Central Florida and the University of Michigan. HIRAD is being designed to enhance the current real-time airborne ocean surface winds observation capabilities of NOAA and USAF Weather Squadron hurricane hunter aircraft using the operational airbome Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer (SFMR). Unlike SFMR, which measures wind speed and rain rate along the ground track directly beneath the aircraft, HIRAD will provide images of the surface wind and rain field over a wide swath (approximately 3 x the aircraft altitude, or approximately 2 km from space). The instrument is described in a separate paper presented at this conference. The present paper describes a set of Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs) in which measurements from the new instrument as well as those from existing instruments (air, surface, and space-based) are simulated from the output of a numerical model from the University of Miami, and those results are used to construct H*Wind analyses. Evaluations will be presented on the relative impact of HIRAD and other instruments on H*Wind analyses, including the use of HIRAD from 2 aircraft altitudes and from a space-based platform.

  18. Water surface elevation from the upcoming SWOT mission under different flows conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domeneghetti, Alessio; Schumann, Guy J. P.; Wei, Rui; Frasson, Renato P. M.; Durand, Michael; Pavelsky, Tamlin; Castellarin, Attilio; Brath, Armando

    2017-04-01

    The upcoming SWOT (Surface Water and Ocean Topography) satellite mission will provide unprecedented bi-dimensional observations of terrestrial water surface heights along rivers wider than 100m. Despite the literature reports several activities showing possible uses of SWOT products, potential and limitations of satellite observations still remain poorly understood and investigated. We present one of the first analyses regarding the spatial observation of water surface elevation expected from SWOT for a 140 km reach of the middle-lower portion of the Po River, in Northern Italy. The river stretch is characterized by a main channel varying from 100-500 m in width and a floodplain delimited by a system of major embankments that can be as wide as 5 km. The reconstruction of the hydraulic behavior of the Po River is performed by means of a quasi-2D model built with detailed topographic and bathymetric information (LiDAR, 2m resolution), while the simulation of remotely sensed hydrometric data is performed with a SWOT simulator that mimics the satellite sensor characteristics. Referring to water surface elevations associated with different flow conditions (maximum, minimum and average flow) this work characterizes the spatial observations provided by SWOT and highlights the strengths and limitations of the expected products. The analysis provides a robust reference for spatial water observations that will be available from SWOT and assesses possible effects of river embankments, river width and river topography under different hydraulic conditions. Results of the study characterize the expected accuracy of the upcoming SWOT mission and provide additional insights towards the appropriate exploitation of future hydrological observations.

  19. Full 2D observation of water surface elevation from SWOT under different flow conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domeneghetti, Alessio; Schumann, Guy; Rui, Wei; Durand, Michael; Pavelsky, Tamlin

    2016-04-01

    The upcoming Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission is a joint project of NASA, Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES, France), the Canadian Space Agency, and the Space Agency of the UK that will provide a first global, high-resolution observation of ocean and terrestrial water surface heights. Characterized by an observation swath of 120 km and an orbit repeat interval of about 21 days, SWOT will provide unprecedented bi-dimensional observations of rivers wider than 50-100 m. Despite many research activities that have investigated potential uses of remotely sensed data from SWOT, potentials and limitations of the spatial observations provided by the satellite mission for flood modeling still remain poorly understood and investigated. In this study we present a first analysis of the spatial observation of water surface elevation that is expected from SWOT for a 140 km reach of the middle-lower portion of the Po River, in Northern Italy. The river stretch is characterized by a main channel varying from 200-500 m in width and a floodplain that can be as wide as 5 km and that is delimited by a system of major embankments. The reconstruction of the hydraulic behavior of the Po River is performed by means of a quasi-2d model built with detailed topographic and bathymetric information (LiDAR, 2 m resolution), while the simulation of the spatial observation sensed by SWOT is performed with a SWOT simulator that mimics the satellite sensor characteristics. Referring to water surface elevations associated with different flow conditions (maximum, minimum and average flow reproduced by means of the quasi-2d numerical model) this work provides a first characterization of the spatial observations provided by SWOT and highlights the strengths and limitations of the expected products. By referring to a real river reach the analysis provides a credible example of the type of spatial observations that will be available after launch of SWOT and offers a first

  20. Response of the North Atlantic surface and intermediate ocean structure to climate warming of MIS 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandiano, Evgenia S; van der Meer, Marcel T J; Schouten, Stefan; Fahl, Kirsten; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S; Bauch, Henning A

    2017-04-10

    Investigating past interglacial climates not only help to understand how the climate system operates in general, it also forms a vital basis for climate predictions. We reconstructed vertical stratification changes in temperature and salinity in the North Atlantic for a period some 400 ka ago (MIS11), an interglacial time analogue of a future climate. As inferred from a unique set of biogeochemical, geochemical, and faunal data, the internal upper ocean stratification across MIS 11 shows distinct depth-dependent dynamical changes related to vertical as well as lateral shifts in the upper Atlantic meridional circulation system. Importantly, transient cold events are recognized near the end of the long phase of postglacial warming at surface, subsurface, mid, and deeper water layers. These data demonstrate that MIS 11 coolings over the North Atlantic were initially triggered by freshwater input at the surface and expansion of cold polar waters into the Subpolar Gyre. The cooling signal was then transmitted downwards into mid-water depths. Since the cold events occurred after the main deglacial phase we suggest that their cause might be related to continuous melting of the Greenland ice sheet, a mechanism that might also be relevant for the present and upcoming climate.

  1. Ocean acidification exerts negative effects during warming conditions in a developing Antarctic fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Erin E; Bjelde, Brittany E; Miller, Nathan A; Todgham, Anne E

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic CO2 is rapidly causing oceans to become warmer and more acidic, challenging marine ectotherms to respond to simultaneous changes in their environment. While recent work has highlighted that marine fishes, particularly during early development, can be vulnerable to ocean acidification, we lack an understanding of how life-history strategies, ecosystems and concurrent ocean warming interplay with interspecific susceptibility. To address the effects of multiple ocean changes on cold-adapted, slowly developing fishes, we investigated the interactive effects of elevated partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) and temperature on the embryonic physiology of an Antarctic dragonfish (Gymnodraco acuticeps), with protracted embryogenesis (∼10 months). Using an integrative, experimental approach, our research examined the impacts of near-future warming [-1 (ambient) and 2°C (+3°C)] and ocean acidification [420 (ambient), 650 (moderate) and 1000 μatm pCO2 (high)] on survival, development and metabolic processes over the course of 3 weeks in early development. In the presence of increased pCO2 alone, embryonic mortality did not increase, with greatest overall survival at the highest pCO2. Furthermore, embryos were significantly more likely to be at a later developmental stage at high pCO2 by 3 weeks relative to ambient pCO2. However, in combined warming and ocean acidification scenarios, dragonfish embryos experienced a dose-dependent, synergistic decrease in survival and developed more slowly. We also found significant interactions between temperature, pCO2 and time in aerobic enzyme activity (citrate synthase). Increased temperature alone increased whole-organism metabolic rate (O2 consumption) and developmental rate and slightly decreased osmolality at the cost of increased mortality. Our findings suggest that developing dragonfish are more sensitive to ocean warming and may experience negative physiological effects of ocean acidification only in

  2. Heavy Rainfall Episodes in the Eastern Northeast Brazil Linked to Large-Scale Ocean-Atmosphere Conditions in the Tropical Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves K. Kouadio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Relationships between simultaneous occurrences of distinctive atmospheric easterly wave (EW signatures that cross the south-equatorial Atlantic, intense mesoscale convective systems (lifespan > 2 hour that propagate westward over the western south-equatorial Atlantic, and subsequent strong rainfall episodes (anomaly > 10 mm·day−1 that occur in eastern Northeast Brazil (ENEB are investigated. Using a simple diagnostic analysis, twelve cases with EW lifespan ranging between 3 and 8 days and a mean velocity of 8 m·s−1 were selected and documented during each rainy season of 2004, 2005, and 2006. These cases, which represent 50% of the total number of strong rainfall episodes and 60% of the rainfall amount over the ENEB, were concomitant with an acceleration of the trade winds over the south-equatorial Atlantic, an excess of moisture transported westward from Africa to America, and a strengthening of the convective activity in the oceanic region close to Brazil. Most of these episodes occurred during positive sea surface temperature anomaly patterns over the entire south-equatorial Atlantic and low-frequency warm conditions within the oceanic mixing layer. A real-time monitoring and the simulation of this ocean-atmosphere relationship could help in forecasting such dramatic rainfall events.

  3. On the role of surface heat budget parameters over the tropical Indian Ocean in relation to the summer monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RameshKumar, M.R.; Sastry, J.S.

    This study presents the role of sea surface temperature (SST) in the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal, cloud motion vector winds in the Equatorial Indian Ocean, and the cold fronts in the South Africa-Malagassy region on the onset and quantum...

  4. Late Holocene (0-2.4 ka BP) surface water temperature and salinity variability, Feni Drift, NE Atlantic Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richter, T.O.; Peeters, F.J.C.; van Weering, T.C.E.

    2009-01-01

    Planktonic foraminiferal Mg/Ca ratios and oxygen isotopic compositions of a spliced sediment record from Feni Drift, NE Atlantic Ocean (box core M200309 and piston core ENAM9606) trace late Holocene sea surface temperature (SST) and salinity changes over the past 2400 years. At this location, the

  5. Highly variable Pliocene sea surface conditions in the Norwegian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. E. Bachem

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Pliocene was a time of global warmth with small sporadic glaciations, which transitioned towards the larger-scale Pleistocene glacial–interglacial variability. Here, we present high-resolution records of sea surface temperature (SST and ice-rafted debris (IRD in the Norwegian Sea from 5.32 to 3.14 Ma, providing evidence that the Pliocene surface conditions of the Norwegian Sea underwent a series of transitions in response to orbital forcing and gateway changes. Average SSTs are 2 °C above the regional Holocene mean, with notable variability on millennial to orbital timescales. Both gradual changes and threshold effects are proposed for the progression of regional climate towards the Late Pliocene intensification of Northern Hemisphere glaciation. Cooling from 4.5 to 4.3 Ma may be linked to the onset of poleward flow through the Bering Strait. This cooling was further intensified by a period of cool summers due to weak obliquity forcing. A 7 °C warming of the Norwegian Sea at 4.0 Ma suggests a major increase in northward heat transport from the North Atlantic, leading to an enhanced zonal SST gradient in the Nordic Seas, which may be linked to the expansion of sea ice in the Arctic and Nordic Seas. A warm Norwegian Sea and enhanced zonal temperature gradient between 4.0 and 3.6 Ma may have been a priming factor for increased glaciation around the Nordic Seas due to enhanced evaporation and precipitation at high northern latitudes.

  6. Sea surface height determination in the arctic ocean from Cryosat2 SAR data, the impact of using different empirical retrackers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, Maulik; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Stenseng, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Cryosat2 Level 1B SAR data can be processed using different empirical retrackers to determine the sea surface height and its variations in the Arctic Ocean. Two improved retrackers based on the combination of OCOG (Offset Centre of Gravity), Threshold methods and Leading Edge Retrieval is used...... to estimate the sea surface height in the Arctic Region. This sea surface height determination is to be compared with the Level2 sea surface height components available in the Cryosat2 data. Further a comparison is done with the marine gravity field for retracker performance evaluation....

  7. [Measurements of surface ocean carbon dioxide partial pressure during WOCE]. Summary of research progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    This paper discusses the research progress of the second year of research under ``Measurement of Surface Ocean Carbon Dioxide Partial Pressure During WOCE`` and proposes to continue measurements of underway pCO{sub 2}. During most of the first year of this grant, our efforts to measure pCO{sub 2} on WOCE WHP legs were frustrated by ship problems. The R/V Knorr, which was originally scheduled to carry out the first work on WHP lines P19 and P16 in the southeastem Pacific during the 1990-91 austral summer, was delayed in the shipyard during her mid-life refit for more than a year. In the interim, the smaller R/V Thomas Washington, was pressed into service to carry out lower-latitude portions of WHP lines P16 and P17 during mid-1991 (TUNES Expedition). We installed and operated our underway chromatographic system on this expedition, even though space and manpower on this smaller vessel were limited and no one from our group would be aboard any of the 3 WHP expedition legs. The results for carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide are shown. A map of the cruise track is shown for each leg, marked with cumulative distance. Following each track is a figure showing the carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide results as a function of distance along this track. The results are plotted as dry-gas mole fractions (in ppm and ppb, respectively) in air and in gas equilibrated with surface seawater at a total pressure equal to the barometric pressure. The air data are plotted as a 10-point running mean, and appear as a roughly horizontal line. The seawater data are plotted as individual points, using a 5-point Gaussian smoother. Equal values Of xCO{sub 2} in air and surface seawater indicate air-sea equilibrium.

  8. Automated River Reach Definition Strategies: Applications for the Surface Water and Ocean Topography Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasson, Renato Prata de Moraes; Wei, Rui; Durand, Michael; Minear, J. Toby; Domeneghetti, Alessio; Schumann, Guy; Williams, Brent A.; Rodriguez, Ernesto; Picamilh, Christophe; Lion, Christine; Pavelsky, Tamlin; Garambois, Pierre-André

    2017-10-01

    The upcoming Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission will measure water surface heights and widths for rivers wider than 100 m. At its native resolution, SWOT height errors are expected to be on the order of meters, which prevent the calculation of water surface slopes and the use of slope-dependent discharge equations. To mitigate height and width errors, the high-resolution measurements will be grouped into reaches (˜5 to 15 km), where slope and discharge are estimated. We describe three automated river segmentation strategies for defining optimum reaches for discharge estimation: (1) arbitrary lengths, (2) identification of hydraulic controls, and (3) sinuosity. We test our methodologies on 9 and 14 simulated SWOT overpasses over the Sacramento and the Po Rivers, respectively, which we compare against hydraulic models of each river. Our results show that generally, height, width, and slope errors decrease with increasing reach length. However, the hydraulic controls and the sinuosity methods led to better slopes and often height errors that were either smaller or comparable to those of arbitrary reaches of compatible sizes. Estimated discharge errors caused by the propagation of height, width, and slope errors through the discharge equation were often smaller for sinuosity (on average 8.5% for the Sacramento and 6.9% for the Po) and hydraulic control (Sacramento: 7.3% and Po: 5.9%) reaches than for arbitrary reaches of comparable lengths (Sacramento: 8.6% and Po: 7.8%). This analysis suggests that reach definition methods that preserve the hydraulic properties of the river network may lead to better discharge estimates.

  9. Evaluating road surface conditions using dynamic tire pressure sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yubo; Wu, H. Felix; McDaniel, J. Gregory; Wang, Ming L.

    2014-03-01

    In order to best prioritize road maintenance, the level of deterioration must be known for all roads in a city's network. Pavement Condition Index (PCI) and International Roughness Index (IRI) are two standard methods for obtaining this information. However, IRI is substantially easier to measure. Significant time and money could be saved if a method were developed to estimate PCI from IRI. This research introduces a new method to estimate IRI and correlate IRI with PCI. A vehicle-mounted dynamic tire pressure sensor (DTPS) system is used. The DTPS measures the signals generated from the tire/road interaction while driving. The tire/road interaction excites surface waves that travel through the road. DTPS, which is mounted on the tire's valve stem, measures tire/road interaction by analyzing the pressure change inside the tire due to the road vibration, road geometry and tire wall vibration. The road conditions are sensible to sensors in a similar way to human beings in a car. When driving on a smooth road, tire pressure stays almost constant and there are minimal changes in the DTPS data. When driving on a rough road, DTPS data changes drastically. IRI is estimated from the reconstructed road profile using DTPS data. In order to correlate IRI with PCI, field tests were conducted on roads with known PCI values in the city of Brockton, MA. Results show a high correlation between the estimated IRI values and the known PCI values, which suggests that DTPS-based IRI can provide accurate predictions of PCI.

  10. The Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas: Stewarding Underway Carbon Data from Collection to Archival

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, K.; Smith, K. M.; Pfeil, B.; Landa, C.; Bakker, D. C. E.; Olsen, A.; Jones, S.; Shrestha, B.; Kozyr, A.; Manke, A. B.; Schweitzer, R.; Burger, E. F.

    2016-02-01

    The Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT, www.socat.info) is a quality controlled, global surface ocean carbon dioxide (CO2) data set gathered on research vessels, SOOP and buoys. To the degree feasible SOCAT is comprehensive; it draws together and applies uniform QC procedures to all such observations made across the international community. The first version of SOCAT (version 1.5) was publicly released September 2011(Bakker et al., 2011) with 6.3 million observations. This was followed by the release of SOCAT version 2, expanded to over 10 million observations, in June 2013 (Bakker et al., 2013). Most recently, in September 2015 SOCAT version 3 was released containing over 14 millions observations spanning almost 60 years! The process of assembling, QC'ing and publishing V1.5 and V2 of SOCAT required an unsustainable level of manual effort. To ease the burden on data managers and data providers, the SOCAT community agreed to embark an automated data ingestion process which would create a streamlined workflow to improve data stewardship from ingestion to quality control and from publishing to archival. To that end, for version 3 and beyond, the SOCAT automation team created a framework which was based upon standards and conventions, yet at the same time allows scientists to work in the data formats they felt most comfortable with (ie, csv files). This automated workflow provides several advantages: 1) data ingestion into uniform and standards-based file formats; 2) ease of data integration into standard quality control system; 3) data ingestion and quality control can be performed in parallel; 4) provides uniform method of archiving carbon data and generation of digital object identifiers (DOI).In this presentation, we will discuss and demonstrate the SOCAT data ingestion dashboard and the quality control system. We will also discuss the standards, conventions, and tools that were leveraged to create a workflow that allows scientists to work in their own formats, yet

  11. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the POLARSTERN in the Indian Ocean, North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2000-10-04 to 2000-12-01 (NODC Accession 0113246)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0113246 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from POLARSTERN in the Indian Ocean, North Atlantic Ocean...

  12. Tropical cooling of the ocean surface during the Last Glacial Maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bard, Edouard

    2013-04-01

    Many studies have shown the importance of a correct evaluation of the mean tropical cooling to estimate the relative impact of climate forcings during the LGM, notably the effect of lower concentrations of atmospheric greenhouse gases, and in turn, have applied these results to quantify the so-called equilibrium climate sensitivity (ECS) to a CO2 doubling. Several geochemical paleothermometers have been used to estimate the tropical sea surface temperatures (e.g. SST based on alkenones and magnesium/calcium ratios measured in ocean sediments) that can be compared with model estimates (e.g. Bard 1999 Science for a short discussion). For alkenones, the TEMPUS group (Rosell-Mele et al. 2004 GRL) and MARGO group (Waelbroeck et al. Nat. Geo. 2009) used a linear equation of UK37' vs. SST based on the global core top calibration compiled by Müller et al. (1998 GCA). This calibration is indistinguishable from the original calibration based on Emiliana huxleyi cultures (Prahl et al. 1988 GCA). However, it has also been shown that the warm end of the UK37' calibration is flatter than indicated by a single straight line over the full SST range. For the warm end, this started with our study by Sonzogni et al. (1997 QR) based on low-latitude core tops from the Indian Ocean including samples representing SST between 24 and 30°C. This UK37' versus SST linear equation has a reduced slope (0.023/°C) when compared to that (0.033/°C) derived from the linear equation based on core tops compiled from all oceans (Müller et al. 1998). Support for this complexity also comes from close inspection of the global compilation by Müller et al., suggesting that the relationship flattens out at high temperatures (see also Pelejero & Calvo 2003 G3). In addition, culture studies of different strains of Gephyrocapsa oceanica and E. huxleyi (Conte et al., 1998 GCA) and measurements of sinking particulate matter from Bermuda (Conte et al. 2001 GCA) strongly suggest that the real shape of the UK

  13. An overview of ENSO signature on the surface parameters of the tropical Pacific ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available ÉTUDE DE LA SIGNATURE DE L’ENSO SUR LES PARAMETRES DE SURFACE DE L’OCEAN PACIFIQUE TROPICAL. A l’échelle interannuelle, le phénomène climatique El Niño Oscillation Australe (ENSO constitue le signal climatique le plus puissant de la Planète. Cette note décrit et analyse la variabilité associée à ce phénomène dans le Pacifique tropical au cours de la période 1961-1995. L’accent est mis sur cinq paramètres considérés comme essentiels, à savoir: la température et la salinité de surface, l’anomalie de hauteur dynamique 0/450 dbar (un alias du niveau de la mer, le vent de surface et les précipitations. Le signal ENSO est décrit à partir d’une analyse en fonctions empiriques orthogonales des séries temporelles filtrées de manière à ne retenir que les variations de période supérieure à un an. Cette analyse précise de manière concise l’amplitude, la position géographique et la date d’apparition des anomalies associées à chaque paramètre. UN ESTUDIO DE LA FIRMA ENSO DE LOS PARÁMETROS SUPERFICIALES DEL OCÉANO PACÍFICO TROPICAL. El fenómeno ENSO (El Niño Oscilación del Sur es el fenómeno climático más poderoso del planeta a una escala interanual. En esta nota, la variabilidad relacionada al ENSO, se describe y analiza para los parámetros claves oceánicos y atmosféricos del Pacífico tropical. Estos parámetros consisten en la temperatura superficial del mar y la salinidad, la anomalía de altura dinámica 0/450 dbar (esto es, un alias para el nivel del mar, viento superficial y la precipitación recolectada durante el período de 1961 a 1995. Se extraen las señales relacionadas al ENSO a partir del análisis de una Función Ortogonal Empírica (FOE realizada en las series de tiempo filtradas de paso bajo. Para cada parámetro, el análisis FOE precisa las localizaciones y tiempos de las variaciones notables relacionadas al ENSO en una forma concisa. The ENSO (El Niño Southern Oscillation phenomenon

  14. Ocean redox conditions between the snowballs - Geochemical constraints from Arena Formation, East Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheller, Eva L.; Dickson, Alexander J.; Canfield, Donald E.

    2017-01-01

    (FePY/FeHR > 0.7). These black shales display small Mo enrichments (TOC compared to overlying shales and Phanerozoic euxinic sediments. The maximum δ98Mo value is observed in the basal Arena Fm (1.5‰). Many samples display lower δ98Mo than typical oceanic input fluxes, which can...

  15. HF Surface Wave Radar Operation in Adverse Conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ponsford, Anthony M; Dizaji, Reza M; McKerracher, Richard

    2005-01-01

    ...) system based on HF Surface Wave Radar (HFSWR). the primary objective behind the programme was to demonstrate the capability of HFSWR to continuously detect and track surface targets (ships and icebergs...

  16. On the role of sea surface temperature variability over the Tropical Indian Ocean in relation to summer monsoon using satellite data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RameshKumar, M.R.; Muraleedharan, P.M.; Sathe, P.V.

    The sea surface temperature (SST) variability over the tropical Indian Ocean is studied for the period January 1988 to December 1992 using the multichannel sea surface temperature (MCSST) from the NOAA series of satellites. The MCSST values were...

  17. Separating Atmospheric and Surface Contributions in Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO) Scenes using Informed Non-Negative Matrix Factorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, L.; Coddington, O.; Pilewskie, P.

    2016-12-01

    Hyperspectral instruments are a growing class of Earth observing sensors designed to improve remote sensing capabilities beyond discrete multi-band sensors by providing tens to hundreds of continuous spectral channels. Improved spectral resolution, range and radiometric accuracy allow the collection of large amounts of spectral data, facilitating thorough characterization of both atmospheric and surface properties. These new instruments require novel approaches for processing imagery and separating surface and atmospheric signals. One approach is numerical source separation, which allows the determination of the underlying physical causes of observed signals. Improved source separation will enable hyperspectral imagery to better address key science questions relevant to climate change, including land-use changes, trends in clouds and atmospheric water vapor, and aerosol characteristics. We developed an Informed Non-negative Matrix Factorization (INMF) method for separating atmospheric and surface sources. INMF offers marked benefits over other commonly employed techniques including non-negativity, which avoids physically impossible results; and adaptability, which tailors the method to hyperspectral source separation. The INMF algorithm is adapted to separate contributions from physically distinct sources using constraints on spectral and spatial variability, and library spectra to improve the initial guess. We also explore methods to produce an initial guess of the spatial separation patterns. Using this INMF algorithm we decompose hyperspectral imagery from the NASA Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO) with a focus on separating surface and atmospheric signal contributions. HICO's coastal ocean focus provides a dataset with a wide range of atmospheric conditions, including high and low aerosol optical thickness and cloud cover, with only minor contributions from the ocean surfaces in order to isolate the contributions of the multiple atmospheric

  18. Effect of road surfacing condition on tyre life

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steyn, WJvdM

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available surfaces and potholes, the stresses caused by varying surface textures due to differences in road surface type and patches in specific wheel lanes, and the subsequent reduction in tyre life due to use on a specific route. In this paper some of the aspects...

  19. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, thermosalinographs and other instruments from JAMES CLARK ROSS in the South Atlantic Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2008-01-02 to 2008-02-17 (NCEI Accession 0157284)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157284 includes Surface underway, chemical and physical data collected from JAMES CLARK ROSS in the South Atlantic Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  20. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, thermosalinographs and other instruments from JAMES CLARK ROSS in the South Atlantic Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2006-10-24 to 2006-12-01 (NCEI Accession 0157244)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157244 includes Surface underway, chemical and physical data collected from JAMES CLARK ROSS in the South Atlantic Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  1. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, thermosalinographs and other instruments from JAMES CLARK ROSS in the South Atlantic Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2009-03-11 to 2009-04-17 (NCEI Accession 0157275)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157275 includes Surface underway, chemical and physical data collected from JAMES CLARK ROSS in the South Atlantic Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  2. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway, discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from MAURICE EWING in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 1994-01-04 to 1994-03-21 (NODC Accession 0115157)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0115157 includes Surface underway, discrete sample and profile data collected from MAURICE EWING in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean...

  3. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from POLARSTERN in the North Atlantic Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and others from 2016-02-20 to 2016-05-08 (NCEI Accession 0160572)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0160572 includes Surface underway, chemical and meteorological data collected from POLARSTERN in the North Atlantic Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean, South...

  4. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from TANGAROA in the South Pacific Ocean, Southern Oceans and Tasman Sea from 2015-01-05 to 2015-12-23 (NCEI Accession 0157326)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157326 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from TANGAROA in the South Pacific Ocean, Southern Oceans...

  5. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from surface underway observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from Hakuho Maru in the Indian Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2010-12-17 to 2011-01-17 (NCEI Accession 0163189)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0163189 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and surface underway data collected from Hakuho Maru in the Indian Ocean and Southern Oceans (>...

  6. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from MIRAI in the Indian Ocean, Mozambique Channel and South Atlantic Ocean from 2003-12-09 to 2004-01-24 (NCEI Accession 0144250)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144250 includes Surface underway data collected from MIRAI in the Indian Ocean, Mozambique Channel and South Atlantic Ocean from 2003-12-09 to...

  7. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from ROGER REVELLE in the South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2005-01-06 to 2005-02-19 (NCEI Accession 0144243)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144243 includes Surface underway data collected from ROGER REVELLE in the South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60 degrees South) from...

  8. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from ROGER REVELLE in the Indian Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2016-02-08 to 2016-03-15 (NCEI Accession 0157333)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157333 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from ROGER REVELLE in the Indian Ocean and Southern Oceans...

  9. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from Investigator in the Indian Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Tasman Sea from 2016-03-14 to 2016-04-15 (NCEI Accession 0157615)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157615 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from Investigator in the Indian Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and...

  10. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from surface underway observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from Investigator in the Indian Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Tasman Sea from 2015-03-21 to 2015-03-29 (NCEI Accession 0163179)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0163179 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and surface underway data collected from Investigator in the Indian Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and...

  11. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from POLARSTERN in the Arctic Ocean, North Atlantic Ocean and others from 2007-12-03 to 2008-08-05 (NCEI Accession 0157407)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157407 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from POLARSTERN in the Arctic Ocean, North Atlantic Ocean,...

  12. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from TANGAROA in the Indian Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and others from 1999-02-02 to 1999-02-28 (NCEI Accession 0155958)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0155958 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from TANGAROA in the Indian Ocean, South Pacific Ocean,...

  13. Correction of Sampling Errors in Ocean Surface Cross-Sectional Estimates from Nadir-Looking Weather Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caylor, I. Jeff; Meneghini, R.; Miller, L. S.; Heymsfield, G. M.

    1997-01-01

    The return from the ocean surface has a number of uses for airborne meteorological radar. The normalized surface cross section has been used for radar system calibration, estimation of surface winds, and in algorithms for estimating the path-integrated attenuation in rain. However, meteorological radars are normally optimized for observation of distributed targets that fill the resolution volume, and so a point target such as the surface can be poorly sampled, particularly at near-nadir look angles. Sampling the nadir surface return at an insufficient rate results in a negative bias of the estimated cross section. This error is found to be as large as 4 dB using observations from a high-altitude airborne radar. An algorithm for mitigating the error is developed that is based upon the shape of the surface echo and uses the returned signal at the three range gates nearest the peak surface echo.

  14. Friction behaviors of rough chromium surfaces under starving lubrication conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Derong; Yan, Bo; Shen, Bin; Liu, Lei; Hu, Wenbin

    2018-01-01

    Surface texturing has become an effective method for improving the tribological properties of mechanical components under the oil lubrication. In this study, a rough surface, with the bumps arranged in a random array, was prepared by means of electrodeposition. A post-grinding and polishing processing was employed to fabricate flat areas for tribological tests under conformal contact. Compared with the smooth surfaces, the rough surface improves the load capacity of coatings at high loads. The effects of rough surfaces on friction reduction become more pronounced at higher speeds and lower normal loads due to the transition of lubricant regime from the boundary to mixed lubrication.

  15. NOAA AVHRR Clear-Sky Products over Oceans (ACSPO): Sea Surface Temperature, Clear Sky Radiances, and Aerosol Optical Depth for the Global Ocean, 2011 - present (NCEI Accession 0072979)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The AVHRR Clear-Sky Processor over Oceans, jointly developed between NESDIS STAR and OSDPD, produces AVHRR clear-sky products over oceans. ACSPO generates output...

  16. The Application of Jason-1 Measurements to Estimate the Global Near Surface Ocean Circulation for Climate Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niiler, Peran P.

    2004-01-01

    The scientific objective of this research program was to utilize drifter, Jason-1 altimeter data and a variety of wind data for the determination of time mean and time variable wind driven surface currents of the global ocean. To accomplish this task has required the interpolation of 6-hourly winds on drifter tracks and the computation of the wind coherent motions of the drifters. These calculations showed that the Ekman current model proposed by Ralph and Niiler for the tropical Pacific was valid for all the oceans south of 40N latitude. Improvements to RN99 model were computed and poster presentations of the results were given in several ocean science venues, including the November 2004 GODAY meeting in St. Petersburg, FL.

  17. The intOA Experiment: A Study of Ocean-Atmosphere Interactions Under Moderate to Strong Offshore Winds and Opposing Swell Conditions in the Gulf of Tehuantepec, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocampo-Torres, F. J.; García-Nava, H.; Durazo, R.; Osuna, P.; Díaz Méndez, G. M.; Graber, H. C.

    2011-03-01

    The Gulf of Tehuantepec air-sea interaction experiment ( intOA) took place from February to April 2005, under the Programme for the Study of the Gulf of Tehuantepec (PEGoT, Spanish acronym for Programa para el Estudio del Golfo de Tehuantepec). PEGoT is underway aiming for better knowledge of the effect of strong and persistent offshore winds on coastal waters and their natural resources, as well as performing advanced numerical modelling of the wave and surface current fields. One of the goals of the intOA experiment is to improve our knowledge on air-sea interaction processes with particular emphasis on the effect of surface waves on the momentum flux for the characteristic and unique conditions that occur when strong Tehuano winds blow offshore against the Pacific Ocean long period swell. For the field campaign, an air-sea interaction spar (ASIS) buoy was deployed in the Gulf of Tehuantepec to measure surface waves and the momentum flux between the ocean and the atmosphere. High frequency radar systems (phase array type) were in operation from two coastal sites and three acoustic Doppler current profilers were deployed near-shore. Synthetic aperture radar images were also acquired as part of the remote sensing component of the experiment. The present paper provides the main results on the wave and wind fields, addressing the direct calculation of the momentum flux and the drag coefficient, and gives an overview of the intOA experiment. Although the effect of swell has been described in recent studies, this is the first time for the very specific conditions encountered, such as swell persistently opposing offshore winds and locally generated waves, to show a clear evidence of the influence on the wind stress of the significant steepness of swell waves.

  18. Ocean Surface Topography Mission (OSTM) /Jason-3 Data Collection, 2015- (NCEI Accession 0118278)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — OSTM/JASON-3 is a follow-on mission continuing the TOPEX/Poseidon and Jason-1/2, and is designed to ensure continuity of high quality measurements for ocean science...

  19. Observations of CO{sub 2} clathrate hydrate formation and dissolution under deep-ocean disposal conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warzinski, R.P.; Cugini, A.V. [Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Holder, G.D. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Disposal of anthropogenic emissions of CO{sub 2} may be required to mitigate rises in atmospheric levels of this greenhouse gas if other measures are ineffective and the worst global warming scenarios begin to occur. Long-term storage of large quantities of CO{sub 2} has been proposed, but the feasibility of large land and ocean disposal options remains to be established. Determining the fate of liquid CO{sub 2} injected into the ocean at depths greater than 500 m is complicated by uncertainties associated with the physical behavior of CO{sub 2} under these conditions, in particular the possible formation of the ice-like CO{sub 2} clathrate hydrate. Resolving this issue is key to establishing the technical feasibility of this option. Experimental and theoretical work in this area is reported.

  20. Impact of environmental conditions on sub-surface storage tanks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cast iron made storage tanks with gasoline fluid were buried under the soil at a depth of 4 m under various environment conditions. The simulated conditions include natural rain fail, temperature and acidic, alkaline and neutral soils. A control condition of neutral sea sand as base and filling materials were also investigated.

  1. The Impact of the Assimilation of Aquarius Sea Surface Salinity Data in the GEOS Ocean Data Assimilation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernieres, Guillaume Rene Jean; Kovach, Robin M.; Keppenne, Christian L.; Akella, Santharam; Brucker, Ludovic; Dinnat, Emmanuel Phillippe

    2014-01-01

    Ocean salinity and temperature differences drive thermohaline circulations. These properties also play a key role in the ocean-atmosphere coupling. With the availability of L-band space-borne observations, it becomes possible to provide global scale sea surface salinity (SSS) distribution. This study analyzes globally the along-track (Level 2) Aquarius SSS retrievals obtained using both passive and active L-band observations. Aquarius alongtrack retrieved SSS are assimilated into the ocean data assimilation component of Version 5 of the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS-5) assimilation and forecast model. We present a methodology to correct the large biases and errors apparent in Version 2.0 of the Aquarius SSS retrieval algorithm and map the observed Aquarius SSS retrieval into the ocean models bulk salinity in the topmost layer. The impact of the assimilation of the corrected SSS on the salinity analysis is evaluated by comparisons with insitu salinity observations from Argo. The results show a significant reduction of the global biases and RMS of observations-minus-forecast differences at in-situ locations. The most striking results are found in the tropics and southern latitudes. Our results highlight the complementary role and problems that arise during the assimilation of salinity information from in-situ (Argo) and space-borne surface (SSS) observations

  2. Variability and trends in surface seawater pCO2 and CO2 flux in the Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, A. J.; Wanninkhof, R.; Sabine, C. L.; Feely, R. A.; Cronin, M. F.; Weller, R. A.

    2017-06-01

    Variability and change in the ocean sink of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) have implications for future climate and ocean acidification. Measurements of surface seawater CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) and wind speed from moored platforms are used to calculate high-resolution CO2 flux time series. Here we use the moored CO2 fluxes to examine variability and its drivers over a range of time scales at four locations in the Pacific Ocean. There are significant surface seawater pCO2, salinity, and wind speed trends in the North Pacific subtropical gyre, especially during winter and spring, which reduce CO2 uptake over the 10 year record of this study. Starting in late 2013, elevated seawater pCO2 values driven by warm anomalies cause this region to be a net annual CO2 source for the first time in the observational record, demonstrating how climate forcing can influence the timing of an ocean region shift from CO2 sink to source.

  3. Land surface and atmospheric conditions associated with heat waves in the South Central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eungul; Bieda, Rahama; Shanmugasundaram, Jothiganesh; Richter, Heather

    2017-04-01

    Exposure to extreme heat was reconstructed based on regional land-atmosphere processes from 1979 to 2010 in the South Central U.S. The study region surrounds the Chickasaw Nation (CN), a predominantly Native American population with a highly prevalent burden of climate-sensitive chronic diseases. Land surface and atmospheric conditions for summer heat waves were analyzed during spring (March-April-May, MAM) and summer (June-July-August, JJA) based on the Climate and Ocean: Variability, Predictability, and Change maximum temperature definition for heat wave frequency (HWF). The spatial-temporal pattern of HWF was determined using empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis and the corresponding principle component time series of the first EOF of HWF. Statistically significant analyses of observed conditions indicated that sensible heat increased and latent heat fluxes decreased with high HWF in the South Central U.S. The largest positive correlations of sensible heat flux to HWF and the largest negative correlations of latent heat flux to HWF were specifically observed over the CN. This is a significantly different energy transfer regime due to less available soil moisture during the antecedent MAM and JJA. The higher sensible heat from dry soil could cause significant warming from the near surface (> 2.0°C) to the lower troposphere (> 1.5°C), and accumulated boundary layer heat could induce the significant patterns of higher geopotential height and enhance anticyclonic circulations (negative vorticity anomaly) at the midtroposphere. Results suggested a positive land-atmosphere feedback associated with heat waves and called attention to the need for region-specific climate adaptation planning.

  4. Linking atmospheric synoptic transport, cloud phase, surface energy fluxes, and sea-ice growth: observations of midwinter SHEBA conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, P. Ola G.; Shupe, Matthew D.; Perovich, Don; Solomon, Amy

    2017-08-01

    Observations from the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean (SHEBA) project are used to describe a sequence of events linking midwinter long-range advection of atmospheric heat and moisture into the Arctic Basin, formation of supercooled liquid water clouds, enhancement of net surface energy fluxes through increased downwelling longwave radiation, and reduction in near-surface conductive heat flux loss due to a warming of the surface, thereby leading to a reduction in sea-ice bottom growth. The analyses provide details of two events during Jan. 1-12, 1998, one entering the Arctic through Fram Strait and the other from northeast Siberia; winter statistics extend the results. Both deep, precipitating frontal clouds and post-frontal stratocumulus clouds impact the surface radiation and energy budget. Cloud liquid water, occurring preferentially in stratocumulus clouds extending into the base of the inversion, provides the strongest impact on surface radiation and hence modulates the surface forcing, as found previously. The observations suggest a minimum water vapor threshold, likely case dependent, for producing liquid water clouds. Through responses to the radiative forcing and surface warming, this cloud liquid water also modulates the turbulent and conductive heat fluxes, and produces a thermal wave penetrating into the sea ice. About 20-33 % of the observed variations of bottom ice growth can be directly linked to variations in surface conductive heat flux, with retarded ice growth occurring several days after these moisture plumes reduce the surface conductive heat flux. This sequence of events modulate pack-ice wintertime environmental conditions and total ice growth, and has implications for the annual sea-ice evolution, especially for the current conditions of extensive thinner ice.

  5. ENSO signals on sea-surface salinity in the eastern tropical pacific ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available SIGNAUX DE L’ENSO SUR LA SALINITE DE LA SURFACE DE LA MER DANS L’OCEAN PACIFIQUE TROPICAL ORIENTAL. Nous présentons les variations de la température et de la salinité de surface. Des navires de commerce ont été récemment équipés de thermosalinographes automatiques qui permettent d’échantillonner en continu et de localiser le front de salinité le long de la ligne Panama-Tahiti, séparant les masses d’eaux du golfe de Panama et celles du Pacifique central sud. La variation en latitude de la position du front halin suit la position de la zone de convergence intertropicale des vents du Pacifique. La salinité donne ainsi des informations supplémentaires sur le développement du phénomène El Niño dans le Pacifique tropical. La future transmission par satellite de la salinité de surface permettra de suivre en temps réel la distribution de la salinité de surface qui est étroitement liée aux échanges entre l’océan et l’atmosphère. SEÑALES DEL ENSO SOBRE LA SALINIDAD DE LA SUPERFICIE DEL OCÉANO PACÍFICO ORIENTAL. Presentamos las variaciones de la temperatura y de la salinidad de superficie. Barcos de comercio fueron recientemente equipados con termo-saliógrafos automáticos, los cuales permiten observar un muestreo continuo y ubicar el frente de salinidad en la recta Panamá-Tahiti, la cual separa las masas de agua del golfo de Panamá con las del Pacífico centro Sur. La variación en latitud de la ubicación del frente halino acompaña a la posición de la Zona de Convergencia Intertropical de los vientos del Pacífico. La salinidad proporciona también informaciones adicionales sobre el desarrollo del Fenómeno El Niño en el Pacífico tropical. La futura transmisión por satélite de la salinidad de superficie permitirá el monitoreo en tiempo real de la distribución en tiempo real de la salinidad de superficie, la cual está estrechamente vinculada con los intercambios entre el océano y la atmósfera. Various data

  6. Local inertial oscillations in the surface ocean generated by time-varying winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shengli; Polton, Jeff A.; Hu, Jianyu; Xing, Jiuxing

    2015-12-01

    A new relationship is presented to give a review study on the evolution of inertial oscillations in the surface ocean locally generated by time-varying wind stress. The inertial oscillation is expressed as the superposition of a previous oscillation and a newly generated oscillation, which depends upon the time-varying wind stress. This relationship is employed to investigate some idealized wind change events. For a wind series varying temporally with different rates, the induced inertial oscillation is dominated by the wind with the greatest variation. The resonant wind, which rotates anti-cyclonically at the local inertial frequency with time, produces maximal amplitude of inertial oscillations, which grows monotonically. For the wind rotating at non-inertial frequencies, the responses vary periodically, with wind injecting inertial energy when it is in phase with the currents, but removing inertial energy when it is out of phase. The wind rotating anti-cyclonically with time is much more favorable to generate inertial oscillations than the cyclonic rotating wind. The wind with a frequency closer to the inertial frequency generates stronger inertial oscillations. For a diurnal wind, the induced inertial oscillation is dependent on latitude and is most significant at 30 °. This relationship is also applied to examine idealized moving cyclones. The inertial oscillation is much stronger on the right-hand side of the cyclone path than on the left-hand side (in the northern hemisphere). This is due to the wind being anti-cyclonic with time on the right-hand side, but cyclonic on the other side. The inertial oscillation varies with the cyclone translation speed. The optimal translation speed generating the greatest inertial oscillations is 2 m/s at the latitude of 10 ° and gradually increases to 6 m/s at the latitude of 30 °.

  7. Distribution and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments from the Bering Sea and western Arctic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mengwei; Wang, Weiguo; Liu, Yanguang; Dong, Linsen; Jiao, Liping; Hu, Limin; Fan, Dejiang

    2016-03-15

    To analyze the distribution and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and evaluate their potential ecological risks, the concentrations of 16 PAHs were measured in 43 surface sediment samples from the Bering Sea and western Arctic Ocean. Total PAH (tPAH) concentrations ranged from 36.95 to 150.21 ng/g (dry weight). In descending order, the surface sediment tPAH concentrations were as follows: Canada Basin>northern Chukchi Sea>Chukchi Basin>southern Chukchi Sea>Aleutian Basin>Makarov Basin>Bering Sea shelf. The Bering Sea and western Arctic Ocean mainly received PAHs of pyrogenic origin due to pollution caused by the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels. The concentrations of PAHs in the sediments of the study areas did not exceed effects range low (ERL) values. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. An experimental study on decontamination by surface condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Hae

    1974-01-01

    Surface decontamination is one of the very important problem to be completely solved in the isotope laboratory where there is always the possibility of radioactive contamination, i.e., on the floors, walls, working tables and benches etc., Isotope laboratories require surface covering of material which can be easily and effectively decontaminated. These experiment were done to find an effective decontamination procedure for kind of surfaces which usually are found in radioisotope laboratories and the best type of surface material, that is, one which is easily decontaminated from the point of view of radiation health and safely. This study is presented to guide radioisotope laboratories in Korea which may need to renovate existing unsafe facilities. In some contaminated facilities entirely new installations may be required. Twelve types of surface material are used for study in this experiment. These include 10 cm square of stainless steel, aluminum, ceramic and mosaic tiles, glass, acrylic, formica board, asphalt tile and coated wood with 4 kinds of paints. Stepwise decontamination was performed with various decontamination procedures following a spill of I 1 31 on the center of the surface material being tested. Twelve different decontamination procedures were tested. These included wet wiping with water and detergent, or dry wiping, or removing with gummed paper. Additional chemical procedures used 10% solution of hydrochloric acid, or surface acid, or ammonium citrate, or potassium iodide, or acetone or carbon tetrachloride. The final testing method was abrasion of the test surfaces. Brief analysis of experimental results on the decontaminability on the tested surface showed: 1. Metallic surfaces such as stainless steel or aluminum, or glass, or a piece of ceramic tile or acrylic are recommended as the surface materials for isotope laboratories because these are easily decontaminated by wet wiping only. 2. Formica board, asphalt tile and wood are not easily

  9. Detecting the influence of ocean process on the moisture supply for India summer monsoon from Satellite Sea Surface Salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, W.; Yueh, S. H.; Liu, W. T.; Fore, A.; Hayashi, A.

    2016-02-01

    A strong contrast in the onset of Indian summer monsoon was observed by independent satellites: average rain rate over India subcontinent (IS) in June was more than doubled in 2013 than 2012 (TRMM); also observed are larger area of wet soil (Aquarius) and high water storage (GRACE). The difference in IS rainfall was contributed to the moisture inputs through west coast of India, estimated from ocean wind (OSCAT2) and water vapor (TMI). This is an interesting testbed for studying the role of ocean on terrestrial water cycle, in particular the Indian monsoon, which has tremendous social-economical impact. What is the source of extra moisture in 2013 or deficit in 2012 for the monsoon onset? Is it possible to quantify the contribution of ocean process that maybe responsible for redistributing the freshwater in favor of the summer monsoon moisture supply? This study aims to identify the influence of ocean processes on the freshwater exchange between air-sea interfaces, using Aquarius sea surface salinity (SSS). We found two areas in Indian Ocean with high correlation between IS rain rate and Aquarius SSS: one area is in the Arabian Sea adjacent to IS, another area is a horizontal patch from 60°E to 100°E centered around 10°S. On the other hand, E-P (OAflux, TRMM) shows no similar correlation patterns with IS rain. Based on the governing equation of the salt budget in the upper ocean, we define the freshwater flux, F, from the oceanic branch of the water cycle, including contributions from salinity tendency, advection, and subsurface process. The tendency and advection terms are estimated using Aquarius SSS and OSCAR ocean current. We will present results of analyzing the spatial and temporal variability of F and evidence of and hypothesis on how the oceanic processes may enhance the moisture supply for summer Indian monsoon onset in 2013 comparing with 2012. The NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) has been producing the global soil moisture (SM) every 2-3 days

  10. Remarkable Impacts of Indian Ocean Sea Surface Temperature on Interdecadal Variability of Summer Rainfall in Southwestern China

    OpenAIRE

    Jingpeng Liu; Hong-Li Ren; Weijing Li; Jinqing Zuo

    2018-01-01

    During the boreal summer from June to August, rainfall in Southwestern China shows substantial interdecadal variabilities on timescales longer than 10 years. Based on observational analyses and numerical modeling, we investigated the characteristics of interdecadal Southwestern China summer rainfall (SWCSR) and its dynamic drivers. We find that the SWCSR is markedly impacted by the interdecadal Indian Ocean basin mode (ID-IOBM) of the sea surface temperature (SST), which may induce anomalous ...

  11. Surface water iron supplies in the Southern Ocean sustained by deep winter mixing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tagliabue, A

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Low levels of iron limit primary productivity across much of the Southern Ocean. At the basin scale, most dissolved iron is supplied to surfacewaters from subsurface reservoirs, because land inputs are spatially limited. Deep mixing in winter...

  12. A Smart Climatology of Evaporation Duct Height and Surface Radar Propagation in the Indian Ocean

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Twigg, Katherine L

    2007-01-01

    .... We have used existing, civilian, dynamically balanced reanalysis data, for 1970 to 2006, and a state-of-the-art ED model, to produce a spatially and temporally refined EDH climatology for the Indian Ocean (10) and nearby seas...

  13. Airborne Measurements of Rain and the Ocean Surface Backscatter Response at C- and Ku-band

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fernandez, Daniel E; Chang, Paul S; Carswell, James R; Contreras, Robert F; Frasier, Stephen J

    2005-01-01

    ...) and the Simultaneous Frequency Microwave Radiometer (SFMR). IWRAP is a dual-band (C- and Ku), dual-polarized pencilbeam airborne radar that profiles the volume backscatter and Doppler velocity from rain and that also measures the ocean backscatter response...

  14. Ocean Surface Topography Mission (OSTM) /Jason-2: Auxiliary Files (NODC Accession 0044983)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains the data descriptions for the OSTM/Jason-2 Auxiliary data files, which is served through the NOAA/NESDIS Comprehensive Large Array-data...

  15. Ocean Surface Topography Mission (OSTM) /Jason-2: Orbital Information (NODC Accession 0044985)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains the descriptions for the OSTM/Jason-2 orbital information, which is served through the NOAA/NESDIS Comprehensive Large Array-data Stewardship...

  16. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of Ocean Near Surface Atmospheric Properties, Version 1 (Version Superseded)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Please note, this dataset has been superseded by a newer version (see below). Users should not use this version except in rare cases (e.g., when reproducing previous...

  17. Ocean Surface Topography Mission (OSTM) /Jason-2: Ancillary Files (NODC Accession 0044982)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains the data descriptions for the OSTM/Jason-2 Ancillary data files, which is served through the NOAA/NESDIS Comprehensive Large Array-data...

  18. Ocean Surface Topography Mission (OSTM) /Jason-2: Telemetry (NODC Accession 0044986)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains the data descriptions for the OSTM/Jason-2 Telemetry data, which is served through the NOAA/NESDIS Comprehensive Large Array-data Stewardship...

  19. Ocean Surface Topography Mission (OSTM) - Jason-2 and Jason-3: Data Documentation Records (NCEI Accession 0118276)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — OSTM/JASON-2 and Jason-3 (scheduled for launch in 2015) are follow-on missions continuing the TOPEX/Poseidon and Jason-1 missions, and are designed to ensure...

  20. Depositional History of the Western Amundsen Basin, Arctic Ocean, and Implications for Neogene Climate and Oceanographic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, J. R.; Castro, C. F.; Knutz, P. C.; Funck, T.

    2017-12-01

    Seismic reflection data collected in the western Amundsen Basin as part of the Law of the Sea program for the Kingdom of Denmark show a uniform and continuous cover of sediments over oceanic basement. An interpretation of seismic facies units shows that the depositional history of the basin reflects changing tectonic, climatic, and oceanographic conditions throughout the Cenozoic. In this contribution, the Miocene to present history is summarized. Two distinct changes in the depositional environment are proposed, first in response to the development of a deep water connection between the Arctic and North Atlantic, and the second in response to the onset of perennial sea ice cover in the Arctic. In the early to mid-Miocene, a buildup of contourite deposits indicates a distinct change in sedimentation that is particularly well developed near the flank of the Lomonosov Ridge. It is suggested that this is a response to the opening of the Fram Strait and the establishment of geostrophic bottom currents that flowed from the Laptev Sea towards Greenland. These deposits are overlain by a seismic facies unit characterized by buried channels and erosional features. These include prominent basinward levee systems that suggest a channel morphology maintained by overbank deposition of muddy sediments carried by suspension currents periodically spilling over the channel pathway. These deposits indicate a change to a much higher energy environment that is proposed to be a response to brine formation associated with the onset of perennial sea ice cover in the Arctic Ocean. This interpretation implies that the development of extensive sea ice cover results in a significant change in the energy environment of the ocean that is reflected in the depositional and erosional patterns observed. The lack of similar high energy erosional features and the presence of contourite deposits throughout most of the Miocene may indicate the Arctic Ocean was relatively ice-free until the very latest

  1. Effective velocity boundary condition at a mixed slip surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sbragaglia, M.; Prosperetti, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies the nature of the effective velocity boundary condition for liquid flow over a plane boundary on which small free-slip islands are randomly distributed. It is found that an effective Navier partial-slip condition for the velocity emerges from a statistical analysis valid for

  2. Passive buoyant tracers in the ocean surface boundary layer: 2. Observations and simulations of microplastic marine debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, K.; Kukulka, T.; Proskurowski, G.; Law, K. L.

    2015-11-01

    This paper is the second of a two-part series that investigates passive buoyant tracers in the ocean surface boundary layer (OSBL). The first part examines the influence of equilibrium wind-waves on vertical tracer distributions, based on large eddy simulations (LESs) of the wave-averaged Navier-Stokes equation. Motivated by observations of buoyant microplastic marine debris (MPMD), this study applies the LES model and the parametric one-dimensional column model from part one to examine the vertical distributions of MPMD. MPMD is widely distributed in vast regions of the subtropical gyres and has emerged as a major open ocean pollutant whose distribution is subject to upper ocean turbulence. The models capture shear-driven turbulence, Langmuir turbulence (LT), and enhanced turbulent kinetic energy input due to breaking waves (BWs). Model results are only consistent with observations of MPMD profiles and the relationship between surface concentrations and wind speed if LT effects are included. Neither BW nor shear-driven turbulence is capable of deeply submerging MPMD, suggesting that the observed vertical MPMD distributions are a characteristic signature of wave-driven LT. Thus, this study demonstrates that LT substantially increases turbulent transport in the OSBL, resulting in deep submergence of buoyant tracers. The parametric model is applied to 11 years of observations in the North Atlantic and North Pacific subtropical gyres to show that surface measurements substantially underestimate MPMD concentrations by a factor of 3-13.

  3. Seasonal surface ocean circulation and dynamics in the Philippine Archipelago region during 2004-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Weiqing; Moore, Andrew M.; Levin, Julia; Zhang, Bin; Arango, Hernan G.; Curchitser, Enrique; Di Lorenzo, Emanuele; Gordon, Arnold L.; Lin, Jialin

    2009-06-01

    The dynamics of the seasonal surface circulation in the Philippine Archipelago (117°E-128°E, 0°N-14°N) are investigated using a high-resolution configuration of the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) for the period of January 2004-March 2008. Three experiments were performed to estimate the relative importance of local, remote and tidal forcing. On the annual mean, the circulation in the Sulu Sea shows inflow from the South China Sea at the Mindoro and Balabac Straits, outflow into the Sulawesi Sea at the Sibutu Passage, and cyclonic circulation in the southern basin. A strong jet with a maximum speed exceeding 100 cm s -1 forms in the northeast Sulu Sea where currents from the Mindoro and Tablas Straits converge. Within the Archipelago, strong westward currents in the Bohol Sea carry the surface water of the western Pacific (WP) from the Surigao Strait into the Sulu Sea via the Dipolog Strait. In the Sibuyan Sea, currents flow westward, which carry the surface water from the WP near the San Bernardino Strait into the Sulu Sea via the Tablas Strait. These surface currents exhibit strong variations or reversals from winter to summer. The cyclonic (anticyclonic) circulation during winter (summer) in the Sulu Sea and seasonally reversing currents within the Archipelago region during the peak of the winter (summer) monsoon result mainly from local wind forcing, while remote forcing dominates the current variations at the Mindoro Strait, western Sulu Sea and Sibutu passage before the monsoons reach their peaks. The temporal variations (with the mean removed), also referred to as anomalies, of volume transports in the upper 40 m at eight major Straits are caused predominantly by remote forcing, although local forcing can be large during sometime of a year. For example, at the Mindoro Strait, the correlation between the time series of transport anomalies due to total forcing (local, remote and tides) and that due only to the remote forcing is 0.81 above 95

  4. Lithium Wall Conditioning And Surface Dust Detection On NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, C.H.; Allain, J.P.; Bell, M.G.; Friesen, F.Q.L.; Heim, B.; Jaworski, M.A.; Kugel, H.; Maingi, R.; Rais, B.; Taylor, C.N.

    2011-01-01

    Lithium evaporation onto NSTX plasma facing components (PFC) has resulted in improved energy confinement, and reductions in the number and amplitude of edge-localized modes (ELMs) up to the point of complete ELM suppression. The associated PFC surface chemistry has been investigated with a novel plasma material interface probe connected to an in-vacuo surface analysis station. Analysis has demonstrated that binding of D atoms to the polycrystalline graphite material of the PFCs is fundamentally changed by lithium - in particular deuterium atoms become weakly bonded near lithium atoms themselves bound to either oxygen or the carbon from the underlying material. Surface dust inside NSTX has been detected in real-time using a highly sensitive electrostatic dust detector. In a separate experiment, electrostatic removal of dust via three concentric spiral-shaped electrodes covered by a dielectric and driven by a high voltage 3-phase waveform was evaluated for potential application to fusion reactors

  5. Sea surface conditions in the southern Nordic Seas during the Holocene based on dinoflagellate cyst assemblages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Nieuwenhove, Nicolas; Baumann, Astrid; Matthiessen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Dinoflagellate cyst (dinocyst) records from the southern Nordic Seas were compiled in order to evaluate the evolution of upper ocean conditions, on a millennial timescale and supported by a highly resolved record from the Vøring Plateau. After the transitional phase from the last deglaciation...

  6. Linking sardine recruitment in coastal areas to ocean currents using surface drifters and HF radar. A case study in the Gulf of Manfredonia, Adriatic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sciascia, Roberta; Berta, Maristella; Carlson, Daniel Frazier

    2017-01-01

    with observations of surface ocean currents to test two hypotheses: 1) ELHS are transported from remote spawning areas (SAs) by ocean cur- rents to the Gulf of Manfredonia; 2) sardines spawn locally and ELHS are retained by eddies. A historical surface drifter database is used to test hypothesis 1. Hypothesis 2......Understanding the role of ocean currents in the recruitment of commercially and ecologically important fish is an important step towards developing sustainable resource management guidelines. To this end, we attempt to elucidate the role of surface ocean transport in supplying recruits of sardine...... is tested by estimating residence times of surface drifters and virtual particles trajectories that were computed from high resolution observations of surface currents measured by a High Frequency (HF) radar network. Transport from remote SAs seems more likely than local spawning and retention given...

  7. Recording and conditioning of surface EMG signal for decomposition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pošusta, A.; Otáhal, Jakub

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 30 (2012), s. 28-31 ISSN 1801-1217 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS501210509; GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) LH12070 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : surface electromyography * decomposition * EMG Lab * prosthetics Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  8. Vorticity models of ocean surface diffusion in coastal jets and eddies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, D.; Matulka, A.; Sekula, E.

    2010-05-01

    We present and discuss the use of multi-fractal techniques used to investigete vorticity and jet dynamical state of these features detected in the sea surface as well as to identify possible local parametrizations of turbulent diffusion in complex non-homogeneous flows. We use a combined vorticity/energy equation to parametrize mixing at the Rossby Deformation Radius, which may be used even in non Kolmogorov types of flows. The vorticity cascade is seen to be different to the energy cascade and may have important cnsecuences in pollutant dispersion prediction, both in emergency accidental releases and on a day to day operational basis. We also identify different SAR signatures of river plumes near the coast, which are usefull to provide calibrations for the different local configurations that allow to predict the behaviour of different tracers and tensioactives in the coastal sea surface area by means of as a geometrical characterization of the vorticity and velocity maps which induce local mixing and dilution jet processes. The satellite-borne SAR seems to be a good system for the identification of dynamic. lt is also a convenient tool to investigate the eddy structures of a certain area where the effect of bathymetry and local currents are important in describing the ocean surface behavior. Maximum eddy size agrees remarkably well with the limit imposed by the local Rossby deformation radius using the usual thermocline induced stratification, Redondo and Platonov (2000). The Rossby deformation radius, defined as Rd = (N/f)h, where N is the Brunt-Vaisalla frequency, f is the local Coriolis parameter (f=2Osin(lat), where O is the rotation of the earth as function of the latitude), The role of buoyancy may be also detected by seasonal changes in h, the thermocline depth, with these considerations Rd is ranged between 6 and 30 Km. Bezerra M.O., Diez M., Medeiros C. Rodriguez A., Bahia E., Sanchez Arcilla A and Redondo J.M. (1998) "Study on the influence of waves on

  9. The SURFEXv7.2 land and ocean surface platform for coupled or offline simulation of earth surface variables and fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, V.; Le Moigne, P.; Martin, E.; Faroux, S.; Alias, A.; Alkama, R.; Belamari, S.; Barbu, A.; Boone, A.; Bouyssel, F.; Brousseau, P.; Brun, E.; Calvet, J.-C.; Carrer, D.; Decharme, B.; Delire, C.; Donier, S.; Essaouini, K.; Gibelin, A.-L.; Giordani, H.; Habets, F.; Jidane, M.; Kerdraon, G.; Kourzeneva, E.; Lafaysse, M.; Lafont, S.; Lebeaupin Brossier, C.; Lemonsu, A.; Mahfouf, J.-F.; Marguinaud, P.; Mokhtari, M.; Morin, S.; Pigeon, G.; Salgado, R.; Seity, Y.; Taillefer, F.; Tanguy, G.; Tulet, P.; Vincendon, B.; Vionnet, V.; Voldoire, A.

    2013-07-01

    SURFEX is a new externalized land and ocean surface platform that describes the surface fluxes and the evolution of four types of surfaces: nature, town, inland water and ocean. It is mostly based on pre-existing, well-validated scientific models that are continuously improved. The motivation for the building of SURFEX is to use strictly identical scientific models in a high range of applications in order to mutualise the research and development efforts. SURFEX can be run in offline mode (0-D or 2-D runs) or in coupled mode (from mesoscale models to numerical weather prediction and climate models). An assimilation mode is included for numerical weather prediction and monitoring. In addition to momentum, heat and water fluxes, SURFEX is able to simulate fluxes of carbon dioxide, chemical species, continental aerosols, sea salt and snow particles. The main principles of the organisation of the surface are described first. Then, a survey is made of the scientific module (including the coupling strategy). Finally, the main applications of the code are summarised. The validation work undertaken shows that replacing the pre-existing surface models by SURFEX in these applications is usually associated with improved skill, as the numerous scientific developments contained in this community code are used to good advantage.

  10. The SURFEXv7.2 land and ocean surface platform for coupled or offline simulation of earth surface variables and fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Masson

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available SURFEX is a new externalized land and ocean surface platform that describes the surface fluxes and the evolution of four types of surfaces: nature, town, inland water and ocean. It is mostly based on pre-existing, well-validated scientific models that are continuously improved. The motivation for the building of SURFEX is to use strictly identical scientific models in a high range of applications in order to mutualise the research and development efforts. SURFEX can be run in offline mode (0-D or 2-D runs or in coupled mode (from mesoscale models to numerical weather prediction and climate models. An assimilation mode is included for numerical weather prediction and monitoring. In addition to momentum, heat and water fluxes, SURFEX is able to simulate fluxes of carbon dioxide, chemical species, continental aerosols, sea salt and snow particles. The main principles of the organisation of the surface are described first. Then, a survey is made of the scientific module (including the coupling strategy. Finally, the main applications of the code are summarised. The validation work undertaken shows that replacing the pre-existing surface models by SURFEX in these applications is usually associated with improved skill, as the numerous scientific developments contained in this community code are used to good advantage.

  11. Hydrodynamic modeling in the Peace-Athabasca Delta for the upcoming Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, J.; Carter, T.; Langlois, S.; Leconte, R.; Peters, D.; Pietroniro, A.; Russell, M.; Saint-Jean, R.; Siles, G. L.; Trudel, M.

    2017-12-01

    The upcoming Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission aims to retrieve water levels elevations via satellite remote sensing. In anticipation of the launch, scheduled for 2021, multiple regions are selected for calibration/validation purposes. The Peace-Athabasca Delta (PAD), a fresh water wetland complex located in the northeastern part of Alberta, Canada, is one of those regions. The PAD comprises numerous lakes and rivers, including Lake Mamawi and the Athabasca River presented in this study. Since it is a region of interest for many projects, including this one, the region has been monitored via multiple types of observations over time, including airborne LiDAR, water level, discharge, bathymetric surveys retrieved from traditional point-measurements tied to Global Positioning System and from an acoustic Doppler current profiler, and more recently, the airborne support instrument AirSWOT. Using a SWOT imagery simulator and a 2D hydrodynamic model (H2D2), we model the hydrologic steady-state conditions of Lake Mamawi and the Athabasca River, as well as the simulated SWOT imagery resulting from a virtual overpass. A digital terrain model derived from airborne LiDAR and bathymetric surveys, as well as water level and discharge measurements collected during the summers of 2016 and 2017, are used to provide a calibrated H2D2 model, from which simulated SWOT images are generated. The objectives of the research are to explore the capabilities of the simulated SWOT data to 1) calibrate and validate the H2D2 model over the PAD, and 2) to improve the water balance of the PAD in a synthetic context.

  12. Global Ocean Surface Water Partial Pressure of CO2 Database: Measurements Performed During 1957-2016 (LDEO Database Version 2016) (NCEI Accession 0160492)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Approximately 10.8 million measurements of surface water pCO2 made over the global oceans during 1957-2016 have been processed to make a uniform data file in this...

  13. Temporal and spatial characteristics of sea surface height variability in the North Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Cromwell

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the spatial and temporal variability of sea surface height (SSH in the North Atlantic basin using satellite altimeter data from October 1992–January 2004. Our primary aim is to provide a detailed description of such variability, including that associated with propagating signals. We also investigate possible correlations between SSH variability and atmospheric pressure changes as represented by climate indices. We first investigate interannual SSH variations by deriving the complex empirical orthogonal functions (CEOFs of altimeter data lowpass-filtered at 18 months. We determine the spatial structure of the leading four modes (both in amplitude and phase and also the associated principal component (PC time series. Using wavelet analysis we derive the time-varying spectral density of the PCs, revealing when particular modes were strongest between 1992–2004. The spatial pattern of the leading CEOF, comprising 30% of the total variability, displays a 5-year periodicity in phase; signal propagation is particularly marked in the Labrador Sea. The second mode, with a dominant 3-year signal, has strong variability in the eastern basin. Secondly, we focus on the Azores subtropical frontal zone. The leading mode (35% is strong in the south and east of this region with strong variations at 3- and 5-year periods. The second mode (21% has a near-zonal band of low variance between  22°–27° N, sandwiched between two regions of high variance. Thirdly, we lowpass filter the altimeter data at a cutoff of 30 days, instead of 18 months, in order to retain signals associated with propagating baroclinic Rossby waves and/or eddies. The leading mode is the annual steric signal, around 46% of the SSH variability. The third and fourth CEOFs,  11% of the remaining variability, are associated with westward propagation which is particularly dominant in a "waveband" between 32°–36° N. For all three cases considered above, no significant cross

  14. Target surface condition during reactive glow discharge sputtering of copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depla, D; Haemers, J; Gryse, R De

    2002-01-01

    During reactive glow discharge sputtering of copper in an argon/nitrogen plasma, we noticed an abrupt change of the target voltage and the deposition rate when the nitrogen concentration in the plasma exceeds a critical value. To explain this behaviour, the target surface after reactive glow discharge sputtering was examined by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). An experimental arrangement was constructed that allows direct transfer of the glow discharge cathode to the XPS analysis chamber without air exposure. These XPS measurements revealed that several different chemical states of nitrogen are present in the layer that forms on the target surface. The relative concentration of these different states changes when the critical nitrogen concentration in the plasma is exceeded

  15. Effect of surface conditioning methods on the microtensile bond strength of resin composite to composite after aging conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozcan, Mutlu; Barbosa, Silvia Helena; Melo, Renata Marques; Galhano, Graziela Avila Prado; Bottino, Marco Antonio

    2007-01-01

    Objectives. This study evaluated the effect of two different surface conditioning methods on the repair bond strength of a bis-GMA-adduct/bis-EMA/TEGDMA based resin composite after three aging conditions. Methods. Thirty-six composite resin blocks (Esthet X, Dentsply) were prepared (5 mm x 6 mm x 6

  16. Use of weather research and forecasting model outputs to obtain near-surface refractive index structure constant over the ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Chun; Wu, Xiaoqing; Li, Xuebin; Zhu, Wenyue; Qiao, Chunhong; Rao, Ruizhong; Mei, Haipin

    2016-06-13

    The methods to obtain atmospheric refractive index structure constant (Cn2) by instrument measurement are limited spatially and temporally and they are more difficult and expensive over the ocean. It is useful to forecast Cn2 effectively from Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) outputs. This paper introduces a method that WRF Model is used to forecast the routine meteorological parameters firstly, and then Cn2 is calculated based on these parameters by the Bulk model from the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory (MOST) over the ocean near-surface. The corresponding Cn2 values measured by the micro-thermometer which is placed on the ship are compared with the ones forecasted by WRF model to determine how this method performs. The result shows that the forecasted Cn2 is consistent with the measured Cn2 in trend and the order of magnitude as a whole, as well as the correlation coefficient is up to 77.57%. This method can forecast some essential aspects of Cn2 and almost always captures the correct magnitude of Cn2, which experiences fluctuations of two orders of magnitude. Thus, it seems to be a feasible and meaningful method that using WRF model to forecast near-surface Cn2 value over the ocean.

  17. One- to two-month oscillations in SSMI surface wind speed in western tropical Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Michael L.; Stanford, John L.; Halpern, David

    1994-01-01

    The 10-m wind speed over the ocean can be estimated from microwave brightness temperature measurements recorded by the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSMI) instrument mounted on a polar-orbiting spacecraft. Four-year (1988-1991) time series of average daily 1 deg x 1 deg SSMI wind speeds were analyzed at selected sites in the western tropical Pacific Ocean. One- to two-month period wind speed oscillations with amplitudes statistically significant at the 95% confidence level were observed near Kanton, Eniwetok, Guam, and Truk. This is the first report of such an oscillation in SSMI wind speeds.

  18. New sea surface salinity product in the tropical Indian Ocean estimated from outgoing longwave radiation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Subrahmanyam, B.; Murty, V.S.N.; O'Brien, J.J.

    .... Teaming Toward the Future September 22-26, 2003 San Diego, California Town and Country -Hotel and Convention Center • • IEEE OCEANS 2003 MTSIIEEE CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS PUBLISHED BY: OCEANS 2003 MTSIIEEE CONFERENCE COMMITTEE Responsibility for the contents... © 2003 by The Marine Technology Society IEEE Catalog Number: 03CH37492 ISBN: 0-933957-30-0 DVDVersion ISBN: 0-933957-32-7 DVD, CD-ROM Layout and Replication by: HoUand Enterprises Book Layout and Printing by: HoUand Publications 1782 Solana Glen Escondido...

  19. Responses of the sea anemone, Exaiptasia pallida, to ocean acidification conditions and zinc or nickel exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckworth, Christina G; Picariello, Codie R; Thomason, Rachel K; Patel, Krina S; Bielmyer-Fraser, Gretchen K

    2017-01-01

    Ocean acidification, caused by increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), is a growing concern in marine environments. Land-based sources of pollution, such as metals, have also been a noted problem; however, little research has addressed the combined exposure of both pollutants to coral reef organisms. In this study we examined tissue metal accumulation and physiological effects (activity of anti-oxidant enzymes, catalase and glutathione reductase) in the sea anemone, Exaiptasia pallida after exposure to increased CO 2 , as well as zinc (Zn) or nickel (Ni). After exposure to four concentrations (nominal values=control, 10, 50, 100μg/L) of Zn or Ni over 7days, both metals accumulated in the tissues of E. pallida in a concentration-dependent manner. Anemones exposed to elevated CO 2 (1000ppm) accumulated significant tissue burdens of Zn or Ni faster (by 48h) than those exposed to the same metal concentrations at ambient CO 2 . No differences were observed in catalase activity due to Zn exposure; however, 50μg/L Ni caused a significant increase in catalase activity at ambient CO 2 . No significant effect on catalase activity from CO 2 exposure alone was observed. Glutathione reductase activity was affected by increased Zn or Ni exposure and those effects were influenced by increased CO 2 . Results of this study provide insight into the toxic mechanisms and environmental implications of CO 2 and Zn or Ni exposure to the cnidarian E. pallida. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Dissolution of methane bubbles with hydrate armoring in deep ocean conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalchuk, Margarita; Socolofsky, Scott

    2017-11-01

    The deep ocean is a storehouse of natural gas. Methane bubble moving upwards from marine sediments may become trapped in gas hydrates. It is uncertain precisely how hydrate armoring affects dissolution, or mass transfer from the bubble to the surrounding water column. The Texas A&M Oilspill Calculator was used to simulate a series of gas bubble dissolution experiments conducted in the United States Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory High Pressure Water Tunnel. Several variations of the mass transfer coefficient were calculated based on gas or hydrate phase solubility and clean or dirty bubble correlations. Results suggest the mass transfer coefficient may be most closely modeled with gas phase solubility and dirty bubble correlation equations. Further investigation of hydrate bubble dissolution behavior will refine current numeric models which aid in understanding gas flux to the atmosphere and plumes such as oil spills. Research funded in part by the Texas A&M University 2017 Undergraduate Summer Research Grant and a Grant from the Methane Gas Hydrates Program of the US DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory.

  1. Satellite monitoring of the global ocean surface during 1987-1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, David

    1992-01-01

    Long-term simultaneous global coverage of AVHRR sea surface temperature, SSMI surface wind speed, GEOSAT sea surface height, and ARGOS buoy drift began in 1987. Methodology to create annual atlases of monthly mean distributions is described.

  2. Big Jump of Record Warm Global Mean Surface Temperature in 2014-2016 Related to Unusually Large Oceanic Heat Releases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jianjun; Overpeck, Jonathan; Peyser, Cheryl; Stouffer, Ronald

    2018-01-01

    A 0.24°C jump of record warm global mean surface temperature (GMST) over the past three consecutive record-breaking years (2014-2016) was highly unusual and largely a consequence of an El Niño that released unusually large amounts of ocean heat from the subsurface layer of the northwestern tropical Pacific. This heat had built up since the 1990s mainly due to greenhouse-gas (GHG) forcing and possible remote oceanic effects. Model simulations and projections suggest that the fundamental cause, and robust predictor of large record-breaking events of GMST in the 21st century, is GHG forcing rather than internal climate variability alone. Such events will increase in frequency, magnitude, and duration, as well as impact, in the future unless GHG forcing is reduced.

  3. MERRA 2D IAU Ocean Surface Diagnostic, Single Level, Time Avg 1-hr (2/3x1/2L1) V5.2.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MAT1NXOCN or tavg1_2d_ocn_Nx data product is the MERRA Data Assimilation System 2-Dimensional ocean surface single-level diagnostics that is time averaged...

  4. MERRA 2D IAU Ocean Surface Diagnostic, Single Level, Monthly Mean (2/3x1/2L1) V5.2.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MATMNXOCN or tavgM_2d_ocn_Nx data product is the MERRA Data Assimilation System 2-Dimensional ocean surface single-level diagnostics that is monthly mean...

  5. MERRA 2D IAU Ocean Surface Diagnostic, Single Level, Diurnal (2/3x1/2L1) V5.2.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MATUNXOCN or tavgU_2d_ocn_Nx data product is the MERRA Data Assimilation System 2-Dimensional ocean surface single-level diagnostics that is monthly mean...

  6. Diagnostic model of 3-D circulation in the Arabian Sea and western equatorial Indian Ocean: Results of monthly mean sea surface topography

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bahulayan, N.; Shaji, C.

    A three-dimensional diagnostic model has been developed to compute the monthly mean circulation and sea surface topography in the Western Tropical Indian Ocean north of 20 degrees S and west of 80 degrees E. The diagnostic model equations...

  7. Testing the alkenone D/H ratio as a paleo indicator of sea surface salinity in a coastal ocean margin (Mozambique Channel)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasper, S.; der Meer, M.T.J.; Castañeda, I.S.; Tjallingii, R.; Brummer, G.J.A.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Schouten, S.

    2015-01-01

    Reconstructing past ocean salinity is important for assessing paleoceanographic change and therefore past climatic dynamics. Commonly, sea water salinity reconstruction is based on planktonic foraminifera oxygen isotope values combined with sea surface temperature reconstruction. However, the

  8. A Novel Low-cost, Ka-band, High Altitude, Multi-Baseline Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Sensor for Surface Water Ocean Topography, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal presents the Ka-band SWOT Phenomenology Airborne Radar (KaSPAR) to support the surface water ocean topography (SWOT) mission for science and algorithm...

  9. Microclimatic conditions at the external surface of building envelopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kragh, M.K.

    1998-12-31

    The project is described, the motivation for the research and the microclimate is defined in relation to both building physics research and applications. Air temperatur, air humidity, solar radiation and air velocity are briefly considered, whilst driving rain and long-wave radiation are described in more detail. Convective heat transfer and surface coefficients are discussed, although they are not microclimatic factors, merely resulting from combinations of such factors. They are included as they are important in relation to transfer of heat and moisture at the surface of the building envelope. Driving rain measurement is the main area of interest, including development of measurement equipment. Long-wave irradiation is measured and compared with empirical formulae from the literature. Window convection heat transfer is another main area of interest. Nocturnal convective heat transfer from a double pane glazing is studied and measurement principles are discussed. Finally, a compilation of meteorological data for hygrothermal simulations, including estimation of driving rain, is described. System error estimation in relation to the window convection measurements, design notes on an apparatus for external convection measurement, formulae for conversion of relative humitity and dry-bulb temperature into dew point temperature. (EG) 66 refs.

  10. A History of Warming Sea Surface Temperature and Ocean Acidification Recorded by Planktonic Foraminifera Geochemistry from the Santa Barbara Basin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, E.; Thunell, R.; Bizimis, M.; Buckley, W. P., Jr.; benitez-Nelson, C. R.; Chartier, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    The geochemistry of foraminiferal shells has been widely used to reconstruct past conditions of the ocean and climate. Since the onset of the Industrial Revolution, anthropogenically produced CO2 has resulted in an increase in global temperatures and a decline in the mean pH of the world's oceans. The California Current System is a particularly susceptible region to ocean acidification due to natural upwelling processes that also cause a reduction in seawater pH. The trace element concentration of magnesium and boron in planktonic foraminiferal shells are used here as proxies for temperature and carbonate ion concentration ([CO32-]), respectively. Newly developed calibrations relating Mg/Ca ratios to temperature (R2 0.91) and B/Ca ratios to [CO32-] (R2 0.84) for the surface-mixed layer species Globogerina bulloides were generated using material collected in the Santa Barbara Basin sediment trap time-series. Using these empirical relationships, temperature and [CO32-] are reconstructed using a 0.5 meter long multi-core collected within the basin. 210Pb activities were used to determine a sedimentation rate for the core to estimate ages for core samples (sedimentation rate: 0.341 cm/yr). A spike in 137Cs activity is used as a tie-point to the year 1965 coinciding with the peak of nuclear bomb testing. Our down-core record extends through the mid-19th century to create a history of rising sea surface temperatures and declining [CO32-] as a result of anthropogenic CO2 emissions.

  11. An Assessment of State-of-the-Art Mean Sea Surface and Geoid Models of the Arctic Ocean: Implications for Sea Ice Freeboard Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skourup, Henriette; Farrell, Sinéad Louise; Hendricks, Stefan; Ricker, Robert; Armitage, Thomas W. K.; Ridout, Andy; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Haas, Christian; Baker, Steven

    2017-11-01

    State-of-the-art Arctic Ocean mean sea surface (MSS) models and global geoid models (GGMs) are used to support sea ice freeboard estimation from satellite altimeters, as well as in oceanographic studies such as mapping sea level anomalies and mean dynamic ocean topography. However, errors in a given model in the high-frequency domain, primarily due to unresolved gravity features, can result in errors in the estimated along-track freeboard. These errors are exacerbated in areas with a sparse lead distribution in consolidated ice pack conditions. Additionally model errors can impact ocean geostrophic currents, derived from satellite altimeter data, while remaining biases in these models may impact longer-term, multisensor oceanographic time series of sea level change in the Arctic. This study focuses on an assessment of five state-of-the-art Arctic MSS models (UCL13/04 and DTU15/13/10) and a commonly used GGM (EGM2008). We describe errors due to unresolved gravity features, intersatellite biases, and remaining satellite orbit errors, and their impact on the derivation of sea ice freeboard. The latest MSS models, incorporating CryoSat-2 sea surface height measurements, show improved definition of gravity features, such as the Gakkel Ridge. The standard deviation between models ranges 0.03-0.25 m. The impact of remaining MSS/GGM errors on freeboard retrieval can reach several decimeters in parts of the Arctic. While the maximum observed freeboard difference found in the central Arctic was 0.59 m (UCL13 MSS minus EGM2008 GGM), the standard deviation in freeboard differences is 0.03-0.06 m.

  12. Surface distribution of dissolved trace metals in the oligotrophic ocean and their influence on phytoplankton biomass and productivity

    KAUST Repository

    Pinedo-González, Paulina

    2015-10-25

    The distribution of bioactive trace metals has the potential to enhance or limit primary productivity and carbon export in some regions of the world ocean. To study these connections, the concentrations of Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mo, Ni, and V were determined for 110 surface water samples collected during the Malaspina 2010 Circumnavigation Expedition (MCE). Total dissolved Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mo, Ni, and V concentrations averaged 19.0 ± 5.4 pM, 21.4 ± 12 pM, 0.91 ± 0.4 nM, 0.66 ± 0.3 nM, 88.8 ± 12 nM, 1.72 ± 0.4 nM, and 23.4 ± 4.4 nM, respectively, with the lowest values detected in the Central Pacific and increased values at the extremes of all transects near coastal zones. Trace metal concentrations measured in surface waters of the Atlantic Ocean during the MCE were compared to previously published data for the same region. The comparison revealed little temporal changes in the distribution of Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, and Ni over the last 30 years. We utilized a multivariable linear regression model to describe potential relationships between primary productivity and the hydrological, biological, trace nutrient and macronutrient data collected during the MCE. Our statistical analysis shows that primary productivity in the Indian Ocean is best described by chlorophyll a, NO3, Ni, temperature, SiO4, and Cd. In the Atlantic Ocean, primary productivity is correlated with chlorophyll a, NO3, PO4, mixed layer depth, Co, Fe, Cd, Cu, V, and Mo. The variables salinity, temperature, SiO4, NO3, PO4, Fe, Cd, and V were found to best predict primary productivity in the Pacific Ocean. These results suggest that some of the lesser studied trace elements (e.g., Ni, V, Mo, and Cd) may play a more important role in regulating oceanic primary productivity than previously thought and point to the need for future experiments to verify their potential biological functions.

  13. Climate change and ocean deoxygenation within intensified surface-driven upwelling circulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakun, Andrew

    2017-09-13

    Ocean deoxygenation often takes place in proximity to zones of intense upwelling. Associated concerns about amplified ocean deoxygenation arise from an arguable likelihood that coastal upwelling systems in the world's oceans may further intensify as anthropogenic climate change proceeds. Comparative examples discussed include the uniquely intense seasonal Somali Current upwelling, the massive upwelling that occurs quasi-continuously off Namibia and the recently appearing and now annually recurring 'dead zone' off the US State of Oregon. The evident 'transience' in causal dynamics off Oregon is somewhat mirrored in an interannual-scale intermittence in eruptions of anaerobically formed noxious gases off Namibia. A mechanistic scheme draws the three examples towards a common context in which, in addition to the obvious but politically problematic remedy of actually reducing 'greenhouse' gas emissions, the potentially manageable abundance of strongly swimming, finely gill raker-meshed small pelagic fish emerges as a plausible regulating factor.This article is part of the themed issue 'Ocean ventilation and deoxygenation in a warming world'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  14. Size, surface texture, chemical composition and mineralogy interrelations in ferromanganese nodules of central Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banakar, V.K.; Pattan, J.N.; Jauhari, P.

    Fiftyseven ferromanganese nodules, classified into 3 size class (4,4-6 and 6-8 cm diam.), from the siliceous sediments of central Indian Ocean were analysed for transition metals and representative sample from each size class for mineralogy. Smaller...

  15. Deep-Sea Bioluminescence Blooms after Dense Water Formation at the Ocean Surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamburini, C.; Canals, M.; de Madron, X.D.; Houpert, L.; Lefevre, D.; Martini, V.; D'Ortenzio, F.; Robert, A.; Testor, P.; Aguilar, J.A.; Al Samarai, I.; Albert, A.; Andre, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Jesus, A.C.A.; Astraatmadja, T.L.; Aubert, J.J.; Baret, B.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bigi, A.; Bigongiari, C.; Bogazzi, C.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Bouhou, B.; Bouwhuis, M.C.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Camarena, F.; Capone, A.; Carloganu, C.; Carminati, G.; Carr, J.; Cecchini, S.; Charif, Z.; Charvis, P.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Curtil, C.; Decowski, P.; Dekeyser, I.; Deschamps, A.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Dorosti, H.Q.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; Emanuele, U.; Ernenwein, J.P.; Escoffier, S.; Fermani, P.; Ferri, M.; Flaminio, V.; Folger, F.; Fritsch, U.; Fuda, J.L.; Galata, S.; Gay, P.; Giacomelli, G.; Giordano, V.; Gomez-Gonzalez, J.P.; Graf, K.; Guillard, G.; Halladjian, G.; Hallewell, G.; van Haren, H.; Hartman, J.; Heijboer, A.J.; Hello, Y.; Hernandez-Rey, J.J.; Herold, B.; Hossl, J.; Hsu, C.C.; De Jong, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U.; Kavatsyuk, O.; Kooijman, P.; Kopper, C.; Kouchner, A.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lahmann, R.; Lamare, P.; Larosa, G.; Lattuada, D.; Lim, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Mangano, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Martinez-Mora, J.A.; Meli, A.; Montaruli, T.; Moscoso, L.; Motz, H.; Neff, M.; Nezri, E.N.; Palioselitis, D.; Pavalas, G.E.; Payet, K.; Payre, P.; Petrovic, J.; Piattelli, P.; Picot-Clemente, N.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Presani, E.; Racca, C.; Reed, C.; Riccobene, G.; Richardt, C.; Richter, R.; Riviere, C.; Roensch, K.; Rostovtsev, A.; Ruiz-Rivas, J.; Rujoiu, M.; Russo, V.G.; Salesa, F.; Sanchez-Losa, A.; Sapienza, P.; Schock, F.; Schuller, J.P.; Schussler, F.; Shanidze, R.; Simeone, F.; Spies, A.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J.J.M.; Stolarczyk, T.; Taiuti, M.G.F.; Toscano, S.; Vallage, B.; Van Elewyck, V.; Vannoni, G.; Vecchi, M.; Vernin, P.; Wijnker, G.; Wilms, J.; de Wolf, E.; Yepes, H.; Zaborov, D.; Zornoza, J.D.; Zuniga, J.

    2013-01-01

    The deep ocean is the largest and least known ecosystem on Earth. It hosts numerous pelagic organisms, most of which are able to emit light. Here we present a unique data set consisting of a 2.5-year long record of light emission by deep-sea pelagic organisms, measured from December 2007 to June

  16. Climate change and ocean deoxygenation within intensified surface-driven upwelling circulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakun, Andrew

    2017-08-01

    Ocean deoxygenation often takes place in proximity to zones of intense upwelling. Associated concerns about amplified ocean deoxygenation arise from an arguable likelihood that coastal upwelling systems in the world's oceans may further intensify as anthropogenic climate change proceeds. Comparative examples discussed include the uniquely intense seasonal Somali Current upwelling, the massive upwelling that occurs quasi-continuously off Namibia and the recently appearing and now annually recurring `dead zone' off the US State of Oregon. The evident `transience' in causal dynamics off Oregon is somewhat mirrored in an interannual-scale intermittence in eruptions of anaerobically formed noxious gases off Namibia. A mechanistic scheme draws the three examples towards a common context in which, in addition to the obvious but politically problematic remedy of actually reducing `greenhouse' gas emissions, the potentially manageable abundance of strongly swimming, finely gill raker-meshed small pelagic fish emerges as a plausible regulating factor. This article is part of the themed issue 'Ocean ventilation and deoxygenation in a warming world'.

  17. Guest editor - Material exchanges at marine boundaries and surface ocean processes: Forcings and feedbacks

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DileepKumar, M.

    the equatorial Indian Ocean. I thank all the authors for contributing to Ses- sion OA-18 of the AOGS 2005 meeting and to this Special section. I am grateful to the review- ers (Drs. Hermann W Bange of Forschungs- bereich Marine Biogeochemie, Kiel, Germany...

  18. Oceanic sources of continental precipitation and the correlation with sea surface temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Ent, R.J.; Savenije, H.H.G.

    2013-01-01

    Identifying the sources of continental precipitation has received increasing attention in recent years. With the use of various numerical methods, sources of precipitation have been identified from local to global scales. In this paper we identify the oceanic sources based on an atmospheric

  19. Surface and subsurface geostrophic current variability in the Indian Ocean from altimetry

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Cadden, D.D; Subrahmanyam, B; Chambers, D; Murty, V.S.N.

    the World Ocean Atlas 2005. The results of this method were validated with currents measured using Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers moored along the equator at 77 degrees E, 83 degrees E, and 93 degrees E. The measured and computed currents compared...

  20. Viscosity of MgSiO3 liquid at Earth's mantle conditions: implications for an early magma ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karki, Bijaya B; Stixrude, Lars P

    2010-05-07

    Understanding the chemical and thermal evolution of Earth requires knowledge of transport properties of silicate melts at high pressure and high temperature. Here, first-principles molecular dynamics simulations show that the viscosity of MgSiO3 liquid varies by two orders of magnitude over the mantle pressure regime. Addition of water systematically lowers the viscosity, consistent with enhanced structural depolymerization. The combined effects of pressure and temperature along model geotherms lead to a 10-fold increase in viscosity with depth from the surface to the base of the mantle. Based on these calculations, efficient heat flux from a deep magma ocean may have exceeded the incoming solar flux early in Earth's history.

  1. Environmental conditioning on uranium surface distribution in the tropical region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Heitor Evangelista da; Licinio, Marcus V.S.; Miranda, Marcio R.

    2001-01-01

    Based on a high resolution aerogammaspectrometer survey over the State of Rio de Janeiro, it is presented an associative study of equivalent uranium concentration and environmental parameters. The aspects considered in this study included geological domains like Sandys, Gnaisses, Granites, Xists; soils domains like Organic and Alluvial ones, Litolic, Glei, Podzolic, Red-yellow, Latossolo, Planossolo, Red bruizem, Cambissolo, Hidromorphic Podzol, Yellow latossolo; geomorphology (Coast Plains and River Accumulation Land, Coast Tabulators, Pomba-Muriae Rivers Spread Depression, Northern Mantiqueira, main Hills and Coastal Rock Massifs, Steep slopes and Reverses of Serra do Mar Mountain Range ,Serra dos Orgaos Mountain Range and Bocaina Tablelands), Paraiba do Sul Crests Alignment, Medium Paraiba do Sul Depression); influence of mean annual rain intensity and hydrographical categories were also evaluated. Geoprocessing of each environmental data base at the same cartographical base of uranium surface distribution was the basic methodology employed. (author)

  2. Condition Assessment for Wastewater Pipes: Method for Assessing Cracking and Surface Damage of Concrete Pipes

    OpenAIRE

    Hauge, Petter

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the Master Thesis has been to provide an improved method for condition assessment, which will give a better correlation between Condition class and actual Condition of concrete pipes with cracking and/or surface damages. Additionally improvement of the characterization of cracking (SR) and surface (KO) damages was a sub goal.Based on the findings described in my Thesis and my Specialization Project (Hauge 2012), I recommend that the Norwegian condition assessment method based...

  3. The influence of small-scale sea surface temperature gradients on surface vector winds and subsequent impacts on oceanic Ekman pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Paul J.

    Satellite observations have revealed a small-scale (air--sea coupling in regions of strong sea surface temperature (SST) gradients (e.g., fronts, currents, eddies, and tropical instability waves), where the surface wind and wind stress are modified. Surface winds and wind stresses are persistently higher over the warm side of the SST front compared to the cool side, causing perturbations in the dynamically and thermodynamically curl and divergence fields. Capturing this small-scale SST--wind variability is important because it can significantly impact both local and remote (i.e., large scale) oceanic and atmospheric processes. The SST--wind relationship is not well represented in numerical weather prediction (NWP) and climate models, and the relative importance of the physical processes that are proposed to be responsible for this relationship is actively and vehemently debated. This study focuses on the physical mechanisms that are primarily responsible for the SST-induced changes in surface wind and wind stress, and on the physical implication on ocean forcing through Ekman pumping. The roles that SST-induced atmospheric baroclinicity and boundary-layer stability play in modifying the surface vector wind in regions of strong SST gradients are examined with an idealized model. Modeled changes in surface wind speed due to changes in atmospheric boundary-layer stability and baroclinicity are largely between -2.0 and 2.0 m s-1, which is consistent with past observational findings. The baroclinic-related changes in the surface vector wind are found to have a largely linear dependence on the SST gradient, whereas the stability-related changes are highly non-linear. The linearity of the baroclinic impacts matches that of the observed (satellite and in situ) SST--wind relationship. This result suggests that the baroclinic-related mechanism is the leading factor in driving the observed surface wind response to strong open ocean SST fronts on scales greater than 25 km

  4. Mars analog minerals' spectral reflectance characteristics under Martian surface conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poitras, J. T.; Cloutis, E. A.; Salvatore, M. R.; Mertzman, S. A.; Applin, D. M.; Mann, P.

    2018-05-01

    We investigated the spectral reflectance properties of minerals under a simulated Martian environment. Twenty-eight different hydrated or hydroxylated phases of carbonates, sulfates, and silica minerals were selected based on past detection on Mars through spectral remote sensing data. Samples were ground and dry sieved to Mars, only losing adsorbed H2O while maintaining their diagnostic spectral features. Sulfates were less stable, often with shifts in the band position of the SO, Fe, and OH absorption features. Silicas displayed spectral shifts related to SiOH and hydration state of the mineral surface, while diagnostic bands for quartz were stable. Previous detection of carbonate minerals based on 2.3-2.5 μm and 3.4-3.9 μm features appears to be consistent with our results. Sulfate mineral detection is more questionable since there can be shifts in band position related to SO4. The loss of the 0.43 μm Fe3+ band in many of the sulfates indicate that there are fewer potential candidates for Fe3+ sulfates to permanently exist on the Martian surface based on this band. The gypsum sample changed phase to basanite during desiccation as demonstrated by both reflectance and XRD. Silica on Mars has been detected using band depth ratio at 1.91 and 1.96 μm and band minimum position of the 1.4 μm feature, and the properties are also used to determine their age. This technique continues to be useful for positive silica identifications, however, silica age appears to be less consistent with our laboratory data. These results will be useful in spectral libraries for characterizing Martian remote sensed data.

  5. Assimilation and High Resolution Forecasts of Surface and Near Surface Conditions for the 2010 Vancouver Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, Natacha B.; Bélair, Stéphane; Bilodeau, Bernard; Tong, Linying

    2014-01-01

    A dynamical model was experimentally implemented to provide high resolution forecasts at points of interests in the 2010 Vancouver Olympics and Paralympics Region. In a first experiment, GEM-Surf, the near surface and land surface modeling system, is driven by operational atmospheric forecasts and used to refine the surface forecasts according to local surface conditions such as elevation and vegetation type. In this simple form, temperature and snow depth forecasts are improved mainly as a result of the better representation of real elevation. In a second experiment, screen level observations and operational atmospheric forecasts are blended to drive a continuous cycle of near surface and land surface hindcasts. Hindcasts of the previous day conditions are then regarded as today's optimized initial conditions. Hence, in this experiment, given observations are available, observation driven hindcasts continuously ensure that daily forecasts are issued from improved initial conditions. GEM-Surf forecasts obtained from improved short-range hindcasts produced using these better conditions result in improved snow depth forecasts. In a third experiment, assimilation of snow depth data is applied to further optimize GEM-Surf's initial conditions, in addition to the use of blended observations and forecasts for forcing. Results show that snow depth and summer temperature forecasts are further improved by the addition of snow depth data assimilation.

  6. Using coral Ba/Ca records to investigate seasonal to decadal scale biogeochemical cycling in the surface and intermediate ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaVigne, M.; Cobb, K. M.; DeLong, K. L.; Freiberger, M. M.; Grottoli, A. G.; Hill, T. M.; Miller, H. R.; Nurhati, I. S.; Richey, J. N.; Serrato Marks, G.; Sherrell, R. M.

    2016-12-01

    Dissolved barium (BaSW), a bio-intermediate element, is linked to several biogeochemical processes such as the cycling and export of nutrients, organic carbon (Corg), and barite in surface and intermediate oceans. Dynamic BaSW cycling has been demonstrated in the water column on short timescales (days-weeks) while sedimentary records have documented geologic-scale changes in barite preservation driven by export production. Our understanding of how seasonal-decadal scale climate variability impacts these biogeochemical processes currently lacks robust records. Ba/Ca calibrations in surface and deep sea corals suggest barium is incorporated via cationic substitution in both aragonite and calcite. Here we demonstrate the utility of Ba/Ca for reconstructing biogeochemical variability using examples of surface and deep sea coral records. Century-long deep sea coral records from the California Current System (bamboo corals: 900-1500m) record interannual variations in Ba/Ca, likely reflecting changes in barite formation via bacterial Corg respiration or barite saturation state. A surface Porites coral Ba/Ca record from Christmas Island (central equatorial Pacific: 1978-1995) shows maxima during low productivity El Niño warm periods, suggesting that variations in BaSW are driven by biological removal via direct cellular uptake or indirectly via barite precipitation with the decomposition of large phytoplankton blooms at this location. Similarly, a sixteen-year long Siderastera siderea surface coral record from Dry Tortugas, FL (Gulf of Mexico: 1991-2007) shows seasonal Ba/Ca cycles that align with annual chlorophyll and δ13C. Taken together, these records demonstrate the linkages among Corg, nutrient cycling and BaSW in the surface and intermediate ocean on seasonal to decadal timescales. Multi-proxy paleoceanographic reconstructions including Ba/Ca have the potential to elucidate the mechanisms linking past climate, productivity, nutrients, and BaSW cycling in the past.

  7. Adriatic Sea surface temperature and ocean colour variability during the MFSPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Böhm

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Two years and six months of night-time Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR sea surface temperature (SST and daytime Sea viewing Wide Field of view Sensor (SeaWiFS data collected during the MFSPP have been used to examine spatial and temporal variability of SST and chlorophyll (Chl in the Adriatic Sea. Flows along the Albanian and the Italian coasts can be distinguished year-round in the monthly averaged Chl but only in the colder months in the monthly averaged SST’s. The Chl monthly-averaged fields supply less information on circulation features away from coastal boundaries and where conditions are generally oligotrophic, except for the early spring bloom in the Southern Adriatic Gyre. To better characterise the year-to-year and seasonal variability, exploratory data analysis techniques, particularly the plotting of multiple Chl-SST histograms, are employed to make joint quantitative use of monthly-averaged fields. Modal water mass (MW, corresponding to the Chl-SST pairs in the neighbourhood of the maximum of each monthly histogram, are chosen to represent the temporal and spatial evolution of the prevalent processes and their variability in the Adriatic Sea. Over an annual cycle, the MW followed a triangular path with the most pronounced seasonal and interannual variations in both Chl-SST properties and spatial distributions of the MW in the colder part of the year. The winter of 1999 is the colder (by at least 0.5°C and most eutrophic (by 0.2 mg/m 3. The fall of the year 2000 is characterised by the lack of cooling in the month of November that was observed in the previous year. In addition to characterising the MW, the two-dimensional histogram technique allows a distinction to be made between different months in terms of the spread of SST values at a given Chl concentration. During spring and summer, the spread is minimal indicating surface homothermal conditions. In fall and winter, on the other hand, a spread of points

  8. Exploring the southern ocean response to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinson, Douglas G.; Rind, David; Parkinson, Claire

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to couple a regional (Southern Ocean) ocean/sea ice model to the existing Goddard Institute for Space Science (GISS) atmospheric general circulation model (GCM). This modification recognizes: the relative isolation of the Southern Ocean; the need to account, prognostically, for the significant air/sea/ice interaction through all involved components; and the advantage of translating the atmospheric lower boundary (typically the rapidly changing ocean surface) to a level that is consistent with the physical response times governing the system evolution (that is, to the base of the fast responding ocean surface layer). The deeper ocean beneath this layer varies on time scales several orders of magnitude slower than the atmosphere and surface ocean, and therefore the boundary between the upper and deep ocean represents a more reasonable fixed boundary condition.

  9. Relationship Between the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Measurements and Surface Temperatures of Selected Ocean Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Dhirendra, K.; Lee, Robert B., III; Brown, Shannon B.; Paden, Jack; Spence, Peter L.; Thomas, Susan; Wilson, Robert S.; Al-Hajjah, Aiman

    2001-01-01

    Clear sky longwave radiances and fluxes are compared with the sea surface temperatures for three oceanic regions: Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific. The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) measurements were obtained by the three thermistor bolometers: total channel which measures the radiation arising from the earth-atmosphere system between 0.3 - greater than 100 micrometers; the window channel which measures the radiation from 8-12 micrometers; and the shortwave channel which measures the reflected energy from 0.3 - less than 5.0 micrometers. These instruments have demonstrated measurement precisions of approximately 0.3% on the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) between ground and on-orbit sensor calibrations. In this work we have used eight months of clear sky earth-nadir-view radiance data starting from January 1998 through August 1998. We have found a very strong correlation of 0.97 between the CERES window channel's weekly averaged unfiltered spectral radiance values at satellite altitude (350 km) and the corresponding weekly averaged sea surface temperature (SST) data covering all the oceanic regions. Such correlation can be used in predicting the sea surface temperatures using the present CERES Terra's window channel radiances at satellite altitude very easily.

  10. The impact of a seasonally ice free Arctic Ocean on the temperature, precipitation and surface mass balance of Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Day

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The observed decline in summer sea ice extent since the 1970s is predicted to continue until the Arctic Ocean is seasonally ice free during the 21st Century. This will lead to a much perturbed Arctic climate with large changes in ocean surface energy flux. Svalbard, located on the present day sea ice edge, contains many low lying ice caps and glaciers and is expected to experience rapid warming over the 21st Century. The total sea level rise if all the land ice on Svalbard were to melt completely is 0.02 m.

    The purpose of this study is to quantify the impact of climate change on Svalbard's surface mass balance (SMB and to determine, in particular, what proportion of the projected changes in precipitation and SMB are a result of changes to the Arctic sea ice cover. To investigate this a regional climate model was forced with monthly mean climatologies of sea surface temperature (SST and sea ice concentration for the periods 1961–1990 and 2061–2090 under two emission scenarios. In a novel forcing experiment, 20th Century SSTs and 21st Century sea ice were used to force one simulation to investigate the role of sea ice forcing. This experiment results in a 3.5 m water equivalent increase in Svalbard's SMB compared to the present day. This is because over 50 % of the projected increase in winter precipitation over Svalbard under the A1B emissions scenario is due to an increase in lower atmosphere moisture content associated with evaporation from the ice free ocean. These results indicate that increases in precipitation due to sea ice decline may act to moderate mass loss from Svalbard's glaciers due to future Arctic warming.

  11. Recent summer precipitation trends in the Greater Horn of Africa and the emerging role of Indian Ocean sea surface temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, A.P. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Earth and Environmental Sciences Division, Los Alamos, NM (United States); University of California, Geography Department, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Funk, Chris [University of California, Geography Department, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); U.S. Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS), Sioux Falls, SD (United States); Michaelsen, Joel [University of California, Geography Department, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Rauscher, Sara A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Theoretical Division, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Robertson, Iain; Loader, Neil J. [Swansea University, Department of Geography, College of Science, Swansea (United Kingdom); Wils, Tommy H.G. [Rotterdam University, Department of Geography, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Koprowski, Marcin [Nicolaus Copernicus University, Laboratory of Dendrochronology, Institute of Ecology and Environment Protection, Torun (Poland); Eshetu, Zewdu [Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research, Forestry Research Centre, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia)

    2012-11-15

    We utilize a variety of climate datasets to examine impacts of two mechanisms on precipitation in the Greater Horn of Africa (GHA) during northern-hemisphere summer. First, surface-pressure gradients draw moist air toward the GHA from the tropical Atlantic Ocean and Congo Basin. Variability of the strength of these gradients strongly influences GHA precipitation totals and accounts for important phenomena such as the 1960s-1980s rainfall decline and devastating 1984 drought. Following the 1980s, precipitation variability became increasingly influenced by the southern tropical Indian Ocean (STIO) region. Within this region, increases in sea-surface temperature, evaporation, and precipitation are linked with increased exports of dry mid-tropospheric air from the STIO region toward the GHA. Convergence of dry air above the GHA reduces local convection and precipitation. It also produces a clockwise circulation response near the ground that reduces moisture transports from the Congo Basin. Because precipitation originating in the Congo Basin has a unique isotopic signature, records of moisture transports from the Congo Basin may be preserved in the isotopic composition of annual tree rings in the Ethiopian Highlands. A negative trend in tree-ring oxygen-18 during the past half century suggests a decline in the proportion of precipitation originating from the Congo Basin. This trend may not be part of a natural cycle that will soon rebound because climate models characterize Indian Ocean warming as a principal signature of greenhouse-gas induced climate change. We therefore expect surface warming in the STIO region to continue to negatively impact GHA precipitation during northern-hemisphere summer. (orig.)

  12. The Zn abundance and isotopic composition of diatom frustules, a proxy for Zn availability in ocean surface seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Morten B.; Vance, Derek; Archer, Corey; Anderson, Robert F.; Ellwood, Michael J.; Allen, Claire S.

    2011-01-01

    We have developed cleaning methods for extracting diatomopal from bulk marine sediment samples, for measurement of both zinc (Zn) abundance and isotope composition. This cleaning technique was then applied to a set of Holocene core-top samples from the Southern Ocean. The measured δ66Zn (reported relative to the JMCLyon standard) and Zn/Si ratios from the Southern Ocean diatomopal samples range from 0.7 to 1.5‰, and from 14 to 0.9 μmol/mol, respectively. The Zn abundance and isotope composition data show a clear correlation with opal burial rates and other oceanographic parameters. In common with previous work, we interpret the systematic changes in the Zn/Si ratio to be linked to the variability in the concentrations of bioavailable Zn in the ambient surface seawater where the diatom opal is formed. This variability is likely to be primarily controlled by the degree to which Zn is taken up into phytoplankton biomass. The observed systematic pattern in the δ66Zn compositions of the diatomopal core-top samples is, similarly, likely to reflect changes in the δ66Zn composition of the ambient Zn in the surface waters above the core-top sites, which is progressively driven towards isotopically heavier values by preferential incorporation of the lighter isotopes into phytoplankton organic material. Thus, the systematic relationship between Zn isotopes and abundance observed in the core-top diatomopal samples suggests a potential tool for investigating the biogeochemical cycling of Zn in the past surface ocean for down-core diatomopal material. In this respect, it may be possible to test hypotheses that attribute variations in atmospheric CO2 on glacial-interglacial timescales to the degree to which trace metals limited primary productivity in HNLC zones.

  13. Surface chemistry of rare-earth oxide surfaces at ambient conditions: reactions with water and hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Külah, Elçin; Marot, Laurent; Steiner, Roland; Romanyuk, Andriy; Jung, Thomas A; Wäckerlin, Aneliia; Meyer, Ernst

    2017-03-22

    Rare-earth (RE) oxide surfaces are of significant importance for catalysis and were recently reported to possess intrinsic hydrophobicity. The surface chemistry of these oxides in the low temperature regime, however, remains to a large extent unexplored. The reactions occurring at RE surfaces at room temperature (RT) in real air environment, in particular, in presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), were not addressed until now. Discovering these reactions would shed light onto intermediate steps occurring in automotive exhaust catalysts before reaching the final high operational temperature and full conversion of organics. Here we first address physical properties of the RE oxide, nitride and fluoride surfaces modified by exposure to ambient air and then we report a room temperature reaction between PAH and RE oxide surfaces, exemplified by tetracene (C 18 H 12 ) on a Gd 2 O 3 . Our study evidences a novel effect - oxidation of higher hydrocarbons at significantly lower temperatures (~300 K) than previously reported (>500 K). The evolution of the surface chemical composition of RE compounds in ambient air is investigated and correlated with the surface wetting. Our surprising results reveal the complex behavior of RE surfaces and motivate follow-up studies of reactions between PAH and catalytic surfaces at the single molecule level.

  14. Effect of alloy type and surface conditioning on roughness and bond strength of metal brackets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nergiz, I.; Schmage, P.; Herrmann, W.; Ozcan, M.; Nergiz, [No Value

    2004-01-01

    The effect of 5 different surface conditioning methods on bonding of metal brackets to cast dental alloys was examined. The surface conditioning methods were fine (30-µm) or rough (125-µm) diamond bur, sandblasting (50-µm or 110-µm aluminum oxide [Al2O3]), and silica coating (30-µm silica). Fifty

  15. Contributions of greenhouse gas forcing and the Southern Annular Mode to historical Southern Ocean surface temperature trends

    OpenAIRE

    Kostov, Yavor; Ferreira, David; Marshall, John; Armour, Kyle

    2018-01-01

    We examine the 1979-2014 Southern Ocean (SO) sea surface temperature (SST) trends simulated in an ensemble of coupled general circulation models and evaluate possible causes of the models’ inability to reproduce the observed 1979-2014 SO cooling. For each model we estimate the response of SO SST to step changes in greenhouse gas (GHG) forcing and in the seasonal indices of the Southern Annular Mode (SAM). Using these step-response functions, we skillfully reconstruct the models’ 1979-2014 SO ...

  16. Coherence between interannual variability of sea level with some surface met-ocean parameters at Cochin, southwest coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Srinivas, K.

    Centre, Cochin - 682 014, Kerala, India [ E-mail: srinivas_kantha@rediffmail.com ; srinivas_kantha@yahoo.co.in ] Received 4 October 2001, revised 14 June 2002 The interannual coherence of some surface met-ocean parameters (viz. SST, air temperature....01354, 0.01968 and 0.01428 dyne/cm 2 , respectively. As the numerical values of the observed wind stress are small, the re- siduals (i.e. anomalies) are still smaller. Further, the seasonal signal component in the cross-shore and along-shore wind stress...

  17. Influence of the sea surface temperature anomaly over the Indian Ocean in March on the summer rainfall in Xinjiang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yang; Huang, Anning; Zhao, Yong; Yang, Qing; Jiang, Jing; La, Mengke

    2015-02-01

    This study explores the relationship between the sea surface temperature over the Indian Ocean (IOSST) in March and the summer rainfall in Xinjiang. In the observations, the IOSST in March significantly correlates with the summer rainfall in Xinjiang with a correlation coefficient of about 0.49 during 1961-2007. This relationship is independent from the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), with a partial correlation coefficient of about 0.40-0.48 controlling for the ENSO indices from December to March. In addition to the observations, three sets of numerical sensitivity experiments are conducted with a regional climate model (RegCM4.3). The model results show that warm IOSST can excite a negative anomaly of geopotential height at 500 hPa over the Indian Ocean in March. This anomaly stays over the tropical Indian Ocean, and then propagates north to central Asia in June. Consequently, the anomalous wind associated with this geopotential height anomaly transports moisture from the Persian Gulf and the coast of Iran to Xinjiang, passing over Pakistan and the Tibetan Plateau. Therefore, the warm (cold) IOSST in March tends to cause the increase (decrease) of the summer rainfall over Xinjiang, especially in the Tian Shan and Kunlun Mountains.

  18. Bomb-test 90Sr in Pacific and Indian Ocean surface water as recorded by banded corals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toggweiler, J.R.; Trumbore, S.

    1985-01-01

    We report here measurements of bomb-test 90 Sr activity in the CaCO 3 skeletons of banded head forming corals collected from nine locations in the tropical Pacific and Indian Oceans. Density variations in skeletal carbonate demarcate annual growth bands and allow one to section individual years. Measurements of 90 Sr activity in the annual bands reconstruct the activity of the water in which the coral grew. Our oldest records date to the early years of the nuclear era and record not only fallout deposition from the major U.S. and Soviet tests of 1958-1962, but also the huge, and largely unappreciated, localized inputs from the U.S. tests at Eniwetok and Bikini atolls during 1952-1958. In the 1960's the 90 Sr activity in Indian Ocean surface water was twice as high as activity levels in the South Pacific at comparable latitudes. We suggest that substantial amounts of northern hemisphere fallout moved west and south into the Indian Ocean via passages through the Indonesian archipelago. Equatorial Pacific 90 Sr levels have remained relatively constant from the mid 1960's through the end of 1970's in spite of 90 Sr decay, reflecting a large-scale transfer of water between the temperate and tropical North Pacific. Activity levels at Fanning Is. (4 0 N, 160 0 W) appear to vary in conjunction with the 3-4 year El Nino cycle. (orig.)

  19. Spatial variations of prokaryotic communities in surface water from India Ocean to Chinese marginal seas and their underlining environmental determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei eZheng

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available To illustrate the biogeographic patterns of prokaryotic communities in surface sea water, 24 samples were systematically collected across a large distance from Indian Ocean to Chinese marginal seas, with an average distance of 453 km between two adjacent stations. A total of 841,364 quality reads was produced by the high throughput DNA sequencing of the 16S rRNA genes. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Proteobacteria were predominant in all samples, with Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria being the two most abundant components. Cyanobacteria represented the second largest fraction of the total quality reads, and mainly included Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus. The semi-closed marginal seas, including South China Sea (SCS and nearby regions, exhibited a transition in community composition between oceanic and coastal seas, based on the distribution patterns of Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus as well as a non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS analysis. Distinct clusters of prokaryotes from coastal and open seas, and from different water masses in Indian Ocean were obtained by Bray-Curtis dissimilarity analysis at the OTU level, revealing a clear spatial heterogeneity. The major environmental factors correlated with the community variation in this broad scale were identified as salinity, temperature and geographic distance. Community comparison among regions shows that anthropogenic contamination is another dominant factor in shaping the biogeographic patterns of the microorganisms. These results suggest that environmental factors involved in complex interactions between land and sea act synergistically in driving spatial variations in coastal areas.

  20. Contrasting biogeochemical cycles of cobalt in the surface western Atlantic Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dulaquais, G.; Boye, M.; Middag, R.; Owens, S.; Puigcorbe, V.; Buesseler, K.; Masqué, P.; De Baar, H.J.W.; Carton, X.

    2014-01-01

    Dissolved cobalt (DCo; <0.2 µm; 14 to 93 pM) and the apparent particulate cobalt (PCo; >0.2 µm; <1 to 15 pM) were determined in the upper water column (<1000 m) of the western Atlantic Ocean along the GEOTRACES-A02 section (64°N to 50°S). The lowest DCo concentrations, typical of a nutrient-type