WorldWideScience

Sample records for surface mining activities

  1. IDENTIFYING RECENT SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES USING A NORMALIZED DIFFERENCE VEGETATION INDEX (NDVI) CHANGE DETECTION METHOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coal mining is a major resource extraction activity on the Appalachian Mountains. The increased size and frequency of a specific type of surface mining, known as mountain top removal-valley fill, has in recent years raised various environmental concerns. During mountainto...

  2. Development of a tree classifier for discrimination of surface mine activity from Landsat digital data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, J. L.; Miller, W. F.; Quattrochi, D. A.

    1979-01-01

    In a cooperative project with the Geological Survey of Alabama, the Mississippi State Remote Sensing Applications Program has developed a single purpose, decision-tree classifier using band-ratioing techniques to discriminate various stages of surface mining activity. The tree classifier has four levels and employs only two channels in classification at each level. An accurate computation of the amount of disturbed land resulting from the mining activity can be made as a product of the classification output. The utilization of Landsat data provides a cost-efficient, rapid, and accurate means of monitoring surface mining activities.

  3. The Effect of Mining Activity on the Surface in the Safety Shaft Pillar Area of Mayrau Mine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Živor, Roman; Klos, Pavel; Pechoč, Jiří; Brož, Milan

    M-24(340) (2002), s. 227-235 ISSN 0138-015X. [Polish-Czech-Slovakian Symposium on Mining Geophysics /28./. Niedzica, 11.06.2001-13.06.2001] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS3086005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3046908 Keywords : shaft pillar * mining * surface subsidence Subject RIV: DH - Mining, incl. Coal Mining

  4. Effect of coal mine dust and clay extracts on the biological activity of the quartz surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, V.; Jones, R.; Rollo, K.; Duffin, R.; Donaldson, K.; Brown, D.M. [Napier University, Edinburgh (United Kingdom). School of Life Science

    2004-04-01

    Modification of the quartz surface by aluminum salts and metallic iron have been shown to reduce the biological activity of quartz. This study aimed to investigate the ability of water soluble extracts of coal mine dust (CMD), low aluminum clays (hectorite and montmorillonite) and high aluminum clays (attapulgite and kaolin) to inhibit the reactivity of the quartz surface. DQ12 induced significant haemolysis of sheep erythrocytes in vitro and inflammation in vivo as indicated by increases in the total cell numbers, neutrophil cell numbers, MIP-2 protein and albumin content of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. Treatment of DQ12 with CMD extract prevented both haemolysis and inflammation. Extracts of the high aluminum clays (kaolin and attapulgite) prevented inhibition of DQ12 induced haemolysis, and the kaolin extract inhibited quartz driven inflammation. DQ12 induced haemolysis by coal mine dust and kaolin extract could be prevented by pre-treatment of the extracts with a cation chellator. Extracts of the low aluminum clays (montmorillonite and hectorite) did not prevent DQ12 induced haemolysis, although the hectorite extract did prevent inflammation. These results suggest that CMD, and clays both low and rich in aluminum, all contain soluble components (possibly cations) capable of masking the reactivity of the quartz surface.

  5. Surface Mines, Other - Longwall Mining Panels

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Coal mining has occurred in Pennsylvania for over a century. A method of coal mining known as Longwall Mining has become more prevalent in recent decades. Longwall...

  6. Mining activities at Neyveli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boopathy, P.V.; Rathinavel, R.

    1993-01-01

    Mining activities at lignite areas around Neyveli are described. Measures taken to safeguard the environment from despoliation of land, air pollution, noise pollution and effluents are described. (M.G.B.)

  7. Surface mining and land reclamation in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nephew, E.A.

    1972-05-01

    Mining and land restoration methods as well as planning and regulatory procedures employed in West Germany to ameliorate environmental impacts from large-scale surface mining are described. The Rhineland coalfield in North Rhine Westphalia contains some 55 billion tons of brown-coal (or lignite), making the region one of Europe's most important energy centers. The lignite is extracted from huge, open-pit mines, resulting in large areas of disturbed land. The German reclamation approach is characterized by planning and carrying out the mining process as one continuum from early planning to final restoration of land and its succeeding use. Since the coalfield is located in a populated region with settlements dating back to Roman times, whole villages lying in the path of the mining operations sometimes have to be evacuated and relocated. Even before mining begins, detailed concepts must be worked out for the new landscape which will follow: the topography, the water drainage system, lakes and forests, and the intended land-use pattern are designed and specified in advance. Early, detailed planning makes it possible to coordinate mining and concurrent land reclamation activities. The comprehensive approach permits treating the overall problem as a whole rather than dealing with its separate aspects on a piecemeal basis.

  8. Impact of surface coal mining on soil hydraulic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    X. Liu; J. Q. Wu; P. W. Conrad; S. Dun; C. S. Todd; R. L. McNearny; William Elliot; H. Rhee; P. Clark

    2016-01-01

    Soil erosion is strongly related to soil hydraulic properties. Understanding how surface coal mining affects these properties is therefore important in developing effective management practices to control erosion during reclamation. To determine the impact of mining activities on soil hydraulic properties, soils from undisturbed areas, areas of roughly graded mine...

  9. Barium concentrations and speciation in surface waters collected from an active barium mining area in Guizhou Province, southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qinhui; Xu, Xiaohang; Xu, Zhidong; Liang, Longchao; Shang, Lihai; Xiao, Dean; Zhang, Sensen; Jiang, Yuping; Qiu, Guangle

    2018-03-01

    Barium (Ba) is a toxic element and can cause serious health effects. Humans have experienced increased exposure to Ba due to its intensive usage in industrial areas and daily life. Anthropogenic activities of Ba mining and the manufacture of Ba containing products introduce the element into surrounding areas, posing environmental concerns. Concentrations of total Ba (TBa) and dissolved Ba (DBa) in water samples collected from active Ba mines in Tianzhu, east Guizhou Province, southwestern China were measured to show the regional dispersion of Ba contamination. Aqueous Ba species in water were calculated using the PHREEQC program. The results showed that TBa and DBa concentrations ranged from 6.7 to 483.1 μg/L and from 7.5 to 222.7 μg/L, respectively. TBa concentrations presented a high average value of 126.6 μg/L and greatly exceeded the reported common value of 10 μg/L Ba in surface water set by the Ministry of Environment Protection of China. PHREEQC results indicated that Ba species in water were present as Ba 2+ , BaSO 4 , BaHCO 3 , BaCO 3 , and BaOH + . The distribution of Ba species in water is controlled by pH and total organic carbon (TOC), and the lower pH (pH < 7) the higher the dissolved fractions. The log K d values (K d , dissolved-particulate distribution coefficients) varied from 2.41 to 6.32. Significant correlations were observed among Ba 2+ and K + , Na + , Cl - , NO 3 - , with Pearson correlation coefficients of 0.425, 0.531, 0.853, 0.612, and 0.329, respectively (p < 0.01). Elevated Ba concentrations in water indicated that the Ba contamination and its distribution pattern in local aquatic ecosystems are derived from Ba mining sites in the Tianzhu area.

  10. Effects of wearing gumboots and leather lace-up boots on lower limb muscle activity when walking on simulated underground coal mine surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Jessica A; Riddiford-Harland, Diane L; Steele, Julie R

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of wearing two standard underground coal mining work boots (a gumboot and a leather lace-up boot) on lower limb muscle activity when participants walked across simulated underground coal mining surfaces. Quadriceps (rectus femoris, vastus medialis, vastus lateralis) and hamstring (biceps femoris, semitendinosus) muscle activity were recorded as twenty male participants walked at a self-selected pace around a circuit while wearing each boot type. The circuit consisted of level, inclined and declined surfaces composed of rocky gravel and hard dirt. Walking in a leather lace-up boot, compared to a gumboot, resulted in increased vastus lateralis and increased biceps femoris muscle activity when walking on sloped surfaces. Increased muscle activity appears to be acting as a slip and/or trip prevention strategy in response to challenging surfaces and changing boot features. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  11. Surface deformation of the secondary former mining areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Głowacki

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper discuss the problem of secondary deformation observed on the surface of the land in the area of the old, non-existent copper and coal mines. The authors discuss the formation of the deformation in the final period of the mine, and after his arrest, after the close of any work of protecting the surface area of influence of mining activities. Discusses the reduction of the surface of the example of two disused mines: mining copper “Konrad” in Iwiny and “Thorez” in Walbrzych, an old coal mine. In the first part of the paper discusses a brief history of the creation of old copper basin and the Lower Silesian coal basin. It then discusses the formation of deformation processes in mining areas. Conducting continuous surveying allows you to monitor changes in the formation of land, in the paper indicate the source of the vertical displacements after ending of operation, the closure of the mine and stopped all work safety. In the area of Lower Silesia there are many remnants of disused mines, surface geodetic measurements show a constant activity in post-mining areas and the need to control the formation of the surface.

  12. Experimental 3-D modelling of surface subsidence affected by underground mining activities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trčková, Jiřina

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 109, č. 12 (2009), s. 739-744 ISSN 0038-223X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA2119402 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : undermining * subsidence of surface * 3-D experimental model Subject RIV: DO - Wilderness Conservation Impact factor: 0.216, year: 2009

  13. Applications of Geomatics in Surface Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blachowski, Jan; Górniak-Zimroz, Justyna; Milczarek, Wojciech; Pactwa, Katarzyna

    2017-12-01

    In terms of method of extracting mineral from deposit, mining can be classified into: surface, underground, and borehole mining. Surface mining is a form of mining, in which the soil and the rock covering the mineral deposits are removed. Types of surface mining include mainly strip and open-cast methods, as well as quarrying. Tasks associated with surface mining of minerals include: resource estimation and deposit documentation, mine planning and deposit access, mine plant development, extraction of minerals from deposits, mineral and waste processing, reclamation and reclamation of former mining grounds. At each stage of mining, geodata describing changes occurring in space during the entire life cycle of surface mining project should be taken into consideration, i.e. collected, analysed, processed, examined, distributed. These data result from direct (e.g. geodetic) and indirect (i.e. remote or relative) measurements and observations including airborne and satellite methods, geotechnical, geological and hydrogeological data, and data from other types of sensors, e.g. located on mining equipment and infrastructure, mine plans and maps. Management of such vast sources and sets of geodata, as well as information resulting from processing, integrated analysis and examining such data can be facilitated with geomatic solutions. Geomatics is a discipline of gathering, processing, interpreting, storing and delivering spatially referenced information. Thus, geomatics integrates methods and technologies used for collecting, management, processing, visualizing and distributing spatial data. In other words, its meaning covers practically every method and tool from spatial data acquisition to distribution. In this work examples of application of geomatic solutions in surface mining on representative case studies in various stages of mine operation have been presented. These applications include: prospecting and documenting mineral deposits, assessment of land accessibility

  14. Environmental impact assessment for surface coal mine - a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, P.; Chakraborty, K.

    1994-01-01

    Surface coal mines being the largest contributor to the national coal production, the study of environmental impacts due to this becomes mandatory as it will help in proper planning and safe operations of the mine in an environmentally compatible manner. Within the scope of this paper, a model for preparation of comprehensive environmental impact assessment (EIA) by utilising a new evaluation methodology leading to determination of Environmental Quality Designation an index has been developed and this model has been validated by using data from a running surface coal mine in Wardha Valley Coalfield. Based on this exercise, the overall impact of the surface coal mine under consideration on environment indicates a medium level and accordingly the control measures have to be planned. Thus repair to the environment has to be made a concurrent activity with mining i.e. to say we have to design with nature not against it

  15. 12th International Symposium Continuous Surface Mining

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This edited volume contains research results presented at the 12th International Symposium Continuous Surface Mining, ISCSM Aachen 2014. The target audience primarily comprises researchers in the lignite mining industry and practitioners in this field but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  16. BLM Colorado Mining Claims Active

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — Shapefile Format –This data set consists of active mining claim records extracted from BLM’s LR2000 database. These records contain case attributes as well as legal...

  17. Detection and Monitoring of Surface Motions in Active Open Pit Iron Mine in the Amazon Region, Using Persistent Scatterer Interferometry with TerraSAR-X Satellite Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos E. Hartwig

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Persistent Scatterer interferometry (PSI represents a powerful tool for the detection and monitoring of tiny surface deformations in vast areas, allowing a better understanding of its triggering mechanisms, planning of mitigation measures, as well as to find better solutions for social and environmental issues. However, there is no record hitherto of its use in active open pit mine in tropical rainforest environment. In this paper we evaluate the use of the PSI technique for the detection and monitoring of mine slope deformations in the N4W iron mine and its surroundings, Pará State, Northern Brazil. The PSI processing was performed with 18 ascending SAR scenes of the TerraSAR-X satellite acquired in the dry season of 2012. The results showed a significant number of widely distributed persistent scatterers. It was observed that most of the study area was stable during the time span. Nevertheless, high deformation rates (312 mm/year were mapped over the mine waste piles, but do not offer any hazard, since they are expected displacements of meters in magnitude for these manmade land structures. Additionally, it was mapped tiny deformation rates in both the east and west flanks of pits 1 and 2. The main underlying reasons can be assigned to the accommodation phenomena of very poor rock masses, to the local geometric variations of the slope cuts, to the geological contact between ironstones and the country rocks, to the exploitation activities, as well as to the major geological structures. This study showed the applicability of the PSI technique using TerraSAR-X scenes in active open pit mines in tropical moist environment. However, the PSI technique is not capable in providing real-time warnings, and faces limitations due to SAR viewing geometry. In this sense, we strongly recommend the use of radar scenes acquired in both ascending and descending orbits, which would also provide a more complete understanding of the deformation patterns.

  18. 30 CFR 780.27 - Reclamation plan: Surface mining near underground mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reclamation plan: Surface mining near underground mining. 780.27 Section 780.27 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND COAL...

  19. Range of drainage effect of surface mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sozanski, J.

    1978-03-01

    This paper discusses methods of calculating the range of effects of water drainage from surface coal mines and other surface mines. It is suggested that methods based on test pumping (water drainage) are time consuming, and the results can be distorted by atmospheric factors such as rain fall or dry period. So-called empirical formulae produce results which are often incorrect. The size of a cone shaped depression calculated on the basis of empirical formulae can be ten times smaller than the size of the real depression. It is suggested that using a formula based on the Dupuit formula is superior to other methods of depression calculation. According to the derived formulae the radius of the depresion cone is a function of parameters of the water bearing horizons, size of surface mine working and of water depression. The proposed formula also takes into account the influence of atmospheric factors (water influx caused by precipitation, etc.). (1 ref.) (In Polish)

  20. Forest ecosystem and mining activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badrinath, S.D.; Chakraborty, A.; Khan, S.

    1994-01-01

    The Indian sub-continent has a tremendous diversity of plant and animal species. About 80,000 species of animals and 15,000 species of flowering plants have so far been described from India. Profound changes have taken place in this era, the changes driven by an unprecedented level of human demands for the resources. One major crisis is the loss of biological diversity. Tropical moist forest tracts harbouring the bulk of this diversity is of main concern. Many countries largely from tropical belts have been identified as megadiversity countries, for biodiversity conservation. India is one of them. Conserving India's heritage of biodiversity is a great challenge, with large biomass needs of its huge rural population and exploding resource demands of its growing urban-industrial-intensive agricultural sector. One such major impact on the biological diversity is mining. Main environmental problems of mining are deforestation, land damage, visual intrusion, and disturbance of hydrological systems. Opencast mining, specially with multi-seam or steep deposits involves creation of external overburden dumps which destroys further lands and causes visual intrusion. The present paper highlights a few case studies carried out to understand the biological environmental impact assessment due to mining activity and also discusses the management plan for eco-restoration of the mined areas and degraded lands. 3 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs

  1. Effect of Traditional Gold Mining to Surface Water Quality in Murung Raya District, Central Kalimantan Province

    OpenAIRE

    Wilopo, W; Resili, R; Putra, D P E

    2013-01-01

    There are many locations for traditional gold mining in Indonesia. One of these is in Murung Raya District, Central Kalimantan Province. Mining activities involving the application of traditional gold processing technology have a high potential to pollute the environment, especially surface water. Therefore, this study aims to determine the impact of gold mining and processing on surface water quality around the mine site. Based on the results of field surveys and laboratory analysis, our dat...

  2. Environmental impact of mining activities in the Lousal area (Portugal): chemical and diatom characterization of metal-contaminated stream sediments and surface water of Corona stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luís, Ana Teresa; Teixeira, Paula; Almeida, Salomé Fernandes Pinheiro; Matos, João Xavier; da Silva, Eduardo Ferreira

    2011-09-15

    Lousal mine is a typical "abandoned mine" with all sorts of problems as consequence of the cessation of the mining activity and lack of infrastructure maintenance. The mine is closed at present, but the heavy metal enriched tailings remain at the surface in oxidizing conditions. Surface water and stream sediments revealed much higher concentrations than the local geochemical background values, which the "Contaminated Sediment Standing Team" classifies as very toxic. High concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn, As, Cd and Hg occurred within the stream sediments downstream of the tailings sites (up to: 817 mg kg(-1) As, 6.7 mg kg(-1) Cd, 1568 mg kg(-1) Cu, 1059 mg kg(-1) Pb, 82.4 mg kg(-1) Sb, 4373 mg kg(-1) Zn). The AMD waters showed values of pH ranging from 1.9 to 2.9 and concentrations of 9249 to 20,700 mg L(-1) SO(4)(-2), 959 to 4830 mg L(-1) Fe and 136 to 624 mg L(-1) Al. Meanwhile, the acid effluents and mixed stream waters also carried high contents of SO(4)(2-,) Fe, Al, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, and As, generally exceeding the Fresh Water Aquatic Life Acute Criteria. Negative impacts in the diatom communities growing at different sites along a strong metal pollution gradient were shown through Canonical Correspondence Analysis: in the sites influenced by Acid Mine Drainage (AMD), the dominant taxon was Achnanthidium minutissimum. However, Pinnularia acoricola was the dominant species when the environmental conditions were extremely adverse: very low pH and high metal concentrations (sites 2 and 3). Teratological forms of Achnanthidium minutissimum (Kützing) Czarnecki, Brachysira vitrea (Grunow) Ross in Hartley, Fragilaria rumpens (Kützing) G. W. F. Carlson and Nitzschia hantzschiana Rabenhorst were found. A morphometric study of B. vitrea showed that a decrease in size was evident at the most contaminated sites. These results are evidence of metal and acidic pollution. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Carbon Sequestration on Surface Mine Lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald Graves; Christopher Barton; Richard Sweigard; Richard Warner; Carmen Agouridis

    2006-03-31

    Since the implementation of the federal Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA) in May of 1978, many opportunities have been lost for the reforestation of surface mines in the eastern United States. Research has shown that excessive compaction of spoil material in the backfilling and grading process is the biggest impediment to the establishment of productive forests as a post-mining land use (Ashby, 1998, Burger et al., 1994, Graves et al., 2000). Stability of mine sites was a prominent concern among regulators and mine operators in the years immediately following the implementation of SMCRA. These concerns resulted in the highly compacted, flatly graded, and consequently unproductive spoils of the early post-SMCRA era. However, there is nothing in the regulations that requires mine sites to be overly compacted as long as stability is achieved. It has been cultural barriers and not regulatory barriers that have contributed to the failure of reforestation efforts under the federal law over the past 27 years. Efforts to change the perception that the federal law and regulations impede effective reforestation techniques and interfere with bond release must be implemented. Demonstration of techniques that lead to the successful reforestation of surface mines is one such method that can be used to change perceptions and protect the forest ecosystems that were indigenous to these areas prior to mining. The University of Kentucky initiated a large-scale reforestation effort to address regulatory and cultural impediments to forest reclamation in 2003. During the three years of this project 383,000 trees were planted on over 556 acres in different physiographic areas of Kentucky (Table 1, Figure 1). Species used for the project were similar to those that existed on the sites before mining was initiated (Table 2). A monitoring program was undertaken to evaluate growth and survival of the planted species as a function of spoil characteristics and

  4. Survey of nine surface mines in North America. [Nine different mines in USA and Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, L.G.; Brackett, R.D.; Floyd, F.D.

    1981-01-01

    This report presents the information gathered by three mining engineers in a 1980 survey of nine surface mines in the United States and Canada. The mines visited included seven coal mines, one copper mine, and one tar sands mine selected as representative of present state of the art in open pit, strip, and terrace pit mining. The purpose of the survey was to investigate mining methods, equipment requirements, operating costs, reclamation procedures and costs, and other aspects of current surface mining practices in order to acquire basic data for a study comparing conventional and terrace pit mining methods, particularly in deeper overburdens. The survey was conducted as part of a project under DOE Contract No. DE-AC01-79ET10023 titled The Development of Optimal Terrace Pit Coal Mining Systems.

  5. Overcoming soil compaction in surface mine reclamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweigard, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    Rubber-tyred soil reconstruction equipment causes compaction of soil and means surface mine operators cannot satisfy crop yield standards defined by the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act. Soil compaction can be overcome by either modifying the reconstruction process or alleviating the problem, for example by deep tillage, once it occurs. The Dept. of Mining Engineering at the Institute of Mining and Minerals Research is conducting a laboratory investigation into a method of injecting low density porous organic material into a bin containing soil at the same time as the soil is ripped. This should prevent voids collapsing when subjected to forces from farm equipment and natural sources. Soil analyses are performed before and after the injection. Ripping and injection with ground pecan shells had a residual effect on nuclear bulk density compared to the initially compacted case and also showed an improvement in hydraulic conductivity. Work is in progress on modifying the system to handle other injection material and should lead on to field tests on a prototype involving both soil analysis and crop yield determination. 1 fig

  6. Surface mine impoundments as wildlife and fish habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Rumble

    1989-01-01

    Unreclaimed surface mine impoundments provide poor fish and wildlife habitat. Recommendations given here for reclaiming "prelaw" impoundments and creating new impoundments could provide valuable fish and wildlife habitat if incorporated into existing laws and mine plans.

  7. 30 CFR 912.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 912.764 Section 912.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining... coal mining and reclamation operations. ...

  8. 78 FR 63463 - Intent To Prepare a Regional Environmental Impact Statement for Surface Coal and Lignite Mining...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... Environmental Impact Statement for Surface Coal and Lignite Mining in the State of Texas AGENCY: Department of... responsibility. These coal and lignite mining activities may eventually require authorization from the USACE... by mail. Surface coal and lignite mining projects in the USACE Fort Worth's area of responsibility...

  9. Interaction of mining activities and aquatic environment: A review from Greek mine sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasileiou, Eleni; Kallioras, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    In Greece a significant amount of mineral and ore deposits have been recorded accompanied by large industrial interest and a long mining history. Today many active and/or abandoned mine sites are scattered within the country; while mining activities take place in different sites for exploiting various deposits (clay, limestone, slate, gypsum, kaolin, mixed sulphide ores (lead, zinc, olivine, pozzolan, quartz lignite, nickel, magnesite, aluminum, bauxite, gold, marbles etc). The most prominent recent ones are: (i) the lignite exploitation that is extended in the area of Ptolemais (Western Macedonia) and Megalopolis (Central Peloponnese); and (ii) the major bauxite deposits located in central Greece within the Parnassos-Ghiona geotectonic zone and on Euboea Island. In the latter area, significant ores of magnesite were exploited and mixed sulphide ores. Centuries of intensive mining exploitation and metallurgical treatment of lead-silver deposits in Greece, have also resulted in significant abandoned sites, such as the one in Lavrion. Mining activities in Lavrio, were initiated in ancient times and continued until the 1980s, resulting in the production of significant waste stockpiles deposited in the area, crucial for the local water resources. Ιn many mining sites, environmental pressures are also recorded after the mine closure to the aquatic environment, as the surface waters flow through waste dump areas and contaminated soils. This paper aims to the geospatial visualization of the mining activities in Greece, in connection to their negative (surface- and/or ground-water pollution; overpumping due to extensive dewatering practices) or positive (enhanced groundwater recharge; pit lakes, improvement of water budget in the catchment scale) impacts on local water resources.

  10. Mining-induced surface damage and the study of countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Jixian

    1994-01-01

    Coal constitutes China's major energy resource. The majority of the coal is produced from underground mining operations. Surface subsidence may amount to 80% of the thickness of the seam mined, while the subsided volume is around 60% of the mined volume underground. An area of 20 hectares of land will be affected with each 1 million tons of coal mined, thereby causing severe surface damage. Following a description of the characteristics of surface damages due to underground mining disturbance, this paper elaborates on the damage prediction method, standards applied for evaluating the damages experienced by surface buildings, land reclamation methods in subsided area, measures for reinforcing and protecting buildings in mining-affected areas, and performance of antideformation buildings

  11. Surface Mining: Soil, Coal, and Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, S. Fred

    Soil is a resource that is for all practical purposes nonrenewable. Natural soils have been formed over periods of thousands of years, although with intensive management and with inputs of nutrients and conditioners this time could be reduced.Coal is another precious resource, of critical importance as an interim fuel for perhaps the next hundred years or so, until renewable energy resources based on nuclear fusion or solar energy can become economic and widespread. Surface mining is the most efficient method for obtaining coal at lowest cost. But it disturbs the soil and takes it out of agricultural production for many years or decades, and sometimes forever, unless the land is properly restored at considerable cost.

  12. Activity recognition from minimal distinguishing subsequence mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Mohammad; Pao, Hsing-Kuo

    2017-08-01

    Human activity recognition is one of the most important research topics in the era of Internet of Things. To separate different activities given sensory data, we utilize a Minimal Distinguishing Subsequence (MDS) mining approach to efficiently find distinguishing patterns among different activities. We first transform the sensory data into a series of sensor triggering events and operate the MDS mining procedure afterwards. The gap constraints are also considered in the MDS mining. Given the multi-class nature of most activity recognition tasks, we modify the MDS mining approach from a binary case to a multi-class one to fit the need for multiple activity recognition. We also study how to select the best parameter set including the minimal and the maximal support thresholds in finding the MDSs for effective activity recognition. Overall, the prediction accuracy is 86.59% on the van Kasteren dataset which consists of four different activities for recognition.

  13. Reforesting unused surface mined lands by replanting with native trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick N. Angel; James A. Burger; Carl E. Zipper; Scott Eggerud

    2012-01-01

    More than 600,000 ha (1.5 million ac) of mostly forested land in the Appalachian region were surface mined for coal under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act. Today, these lands are largely unmanaged and covered with persistent herbaceous species, such as fescue (Festuca spp.) and sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata [Dum. Cours.] G. Don,) and a mix of...

  14. Environmental laws for mining activities in Provincia de San Juan (Argentina), gravel mines exploitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, M.; Carrascosa, H.

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses San Juan Province - Argentina prevailing environmental legislation for mining activity and gravel mines. The study focuses the subject from a mining engineering point of view. (author)

  15. Carbon Sequestration on Surface Mine Lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald H. Graves; Christopher Barton; Bon Jun Koo; Richard Sweigard; Richard Warner

    2004-11-30

    The first quarter of 2004 was dedicated to tree planting activities in two locations in Kentucky. During the first year of this project there was not available mine land to plant in the Hazard area, so 107 acres were planted in the Martin County mine location. This year 120 acres were planted in the Hazard area to compensate for the prior year and an additional 57 acres were planted on Peabody properties in western Kentucky. Additional sets of special plots were established on each of these areas that contained 4800 seedlings each for carbon sequestration demonstrations. Plantings were also conducted to continue compaction and water quality studies on the newly established areas as well as continual measurements of the first year's plantings. Total plantings on this project now amount to 357 acres containing 245,960 seedlings. During the second quarter of this year monitoring systems were established for all the new research areas. Weather data pertinent to the research as well as hydrology and water quality monitoring continues to be conducted on all areas. Studies established to assess specific questions pertaining to carbon flux and the invasion of the vegetation by small mammals are being quantified. Experimental practices initiated with this research project will eventually allow for the planting on long steep slopes with loose grading systems and allow mountain top removal areas to be constructed with loose spoil with no grading of the final layers of rooting material when establishing trees for the final land use designation. Monitoring systems have been installed to measure treatment effects on both above and below ground carbon and nitrogen pools in the planting areas. Soil and tissue samples were collected from both years planting and analyses were conducted in the laboratory. Examination of decomposition and heterotropic respiration on carbon cycling in the reforestation plots continued during the reporting period. Entire planted trees were

  16. 30 CFR 947.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 947.762 Section 947.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mining and reclamation operations. ...

  17. 30 CFR 921.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 921.762 Section 921.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mine operations. ...

  18. 30 CFR 942.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 942.764 Section 942.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE TENNESSEE § 942.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining... Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mining and reclamation operations. (b) The Secretary shall...

  19. 30 CFR 941.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 941.762 Section 941.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mine operations. ...

  20. 30 CFR 933.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 933.762 Section 933.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designation Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mining and reclamation operations. ...

  1. 30 CFR 939.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 939.762 Section 939.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mining and reclamation operations. ...

  2. 30 CFR 905.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 905.762 Section 905.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mining operations. ...

  3. An intelligent hybrid system for surface coal mine safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilic, N.; Obradovic, I.; Cvjetic, A. [University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia)

    2010-06-15

    Analysis of safety in surface coal mines represents a very complex process. Published studies on mine safety analysis are usually based on research related to accidents statistics and hazard identification with risk assessment within the mining industry. Discussion in this paper is focused on the application of AI methods in the analysis of safety in mining environment. Complexity of the subject matter requires a high level of expert knowledge and great experience. The solution was found in the creation of a hybrid system PROTECTOR, whose knowledge base represents a formalization of the expert knowledge in the mine safety field. The main goal of the system is the estimation of mining environment as one of the significant components of general safety state in a mine. This global goal is subdivided into a hierarchical structure of subgoals where each subgoal can be viewed as the estimation of a set of parameters (gas, dust, climate, noise, vibration, illumination, geotechnical hazard) which determine the general mine safety state and category of hazard in mining environment. Both the hybrid nature of the system and the possibilities it offers are illustrated through a case study using field data related to an existing Serbian surface coal mine.

  4. Atlas of western surface-mined lands: coal, uranium, and phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, A.K.; Uhleman, E.W.; Eby, P.A.

    1978-01-01

    The atlas contains available information on all coal, uranium, and phosphate surface mines in excess of 10 acres that were in operation prior to 1976 in the western 11 contiguous states plus North Dakota and South Dakota. It is assembled in a format that allows a systematic and comprehensive review of surface-mined lands so that appropriate areas can be selected for intensive biological assessment of natural and man-induced revegetation and refaunation. For each identified mine, the following information has been obtained wherever possible: geographic location and locating instructions, operator and surface and subsurface ownership, summary of the mining plan and methods, summary of the reclamation plan and methods, dates of operation, area affected by mining activities, reclamation history, where applicable, and current land use and vegetation conditions

  5. Potential utility of the thematic mapper for surface mine monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irons, J.R.; Lachowski, H.M.

    1981-01-01

    One of many potential applications of the thematic mapper (TM) is surface mine monitoring. To assess this potential, data acquired by an aircraft multispectral scanner over Pennsylvania surface mines were preprocessed to simulate the anticipated spectral, spatial, and radiometric characteristics of TM data. False color imagery and thematic maps were derived from the simulated data and compared to imagery and maps derived from LANDSAT multispectral scanner subsystems data. On the basis of this comparison, TM data should definitely increase the detail and accuracy of remotely acquired surface mine information and may enable the remote determination of compliance with reclamation regulations

  6. Applying WEPP technologies to western alkaline surface coal mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Q. Wu; S. Dun; H. Rhee; X. Liu; W. J. Elliot; T. Golnar; J. R. Frankenberger; D. C. Flanagan; P. W. Conrad; R. L. McNearny

    2011-01-01

    One aspect of planning surface mining operations, regulated by the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES), is estimating potential environmental impacts during mining operations and the reclamation period that follows. Practical computer simulation tools are effective for evaluating site-specific sediment control and reclamation plans for the NPDES....

  7. The Necessity of Public Relations for Sustainable Mining Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunbock; Ji, Sangwoo

    2015-04-01

    This paper reports research about the necessity of image making for sustainable mine developments in the Republic of Korea. One of the big risks in mining activities is mining area residents opposing mine developments and operations. Analysis of the media reports on disputes between mining companies and residents can determine causes of opposing mine developments, dispute process, and influences of disputes on processes of mining projects. To do this, civil complaints from 2009 to 2012 and 24 media reports since 2000 on opposing mining activities are analyzed. And, to analyze difficulties of mining companies, the survey is conducted to target to mining companies. 57 representatives of mining companies are participated in the survey. The result of analysis cited that the major reasons of anti-mining activities are environmental degradation and reduced agricultural productivity. And specifically because of water pollution (50%), crop damages (33%), and mining dust pollution (21%), communities of mining area are against mine developments and operations. However, 25% of residents have experience of the damage caused by mining activities and the remaining 75% of residents opposing mining activities simply have anxiety about mining pollution. In the past, construction-oriented, environment-unfriendly mining projects had lasted. And while mine reclamation had been postponed in abandoned mines, mining area residents had suffered from mining pollution. So, mining area residents are highly influenced by the prejudice that mining activities are harmful to mining area communities. Current mining projects in South Korea, unlike the past mining activity, focus on minimizing environmental damage and contributing to mining area communities financially. But, in many case of disputes between mining companies and mining area residents, the both cannot reach an agreements because of the negative prejudice. Moreover, some communities categorically refuse any mining activity. On the

  8. Loosewall stability in United Kingdom surface coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stead, D.; Singh, R. (University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon (Canada). Department of Geological Sciences)

    1989-05-01

    In order to successfully exploit surface coal mine reserves, a database was compiled over the last 10 years containing information on loosewall slope failures such as mine locality information, failure date, failure height, failure slope angle, failure depth, failure length, failure volume, assumed failure mechanism, pavement dip, failure surface type, water data, curvature of slope in plan and section, and mining method. Both the Bishop's simplified and the biplanar wedge methods were used to conduct a detailed two-dimensional limit equilibrium back. 11 figs., 31 refs.,

  9. Cycle mining in active database environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitzer, Jennifer; Buckley, James P.

    2000-04-01

    Traditional data mining algorithms identify patterns in data that are not explicit. These patterns are denoted in the form of IF-THEN rules (IF antecedent THEN consequent), where the antecedent and consequent are logical conjunctions of propositions or first-order predicates. Generally, the mined rules apply to all time periods and specify no temporal interval between antecedent detection and consequent firing. Cycle mining algorithms identify meta-patterns of these associations depicting inferences forming cyclic chains of rule dependencies. Because traditional rules comprise these cycles, the mined cycles also apply to all time periods and do not currently possess the temporal interval of applicability. An active database is one that responds to stimuli in real time, operating in the event-condition-action (ECA) paradigm where a specific event is monitored, a condition is evaluated, and one or more actions are taken. The actions often involve real-time modification of the database. In this paper, we introduce the concepts and present algorithms for mining rules with firing intervals, and intervals of applicability. Using an active database environment, we describe a real time framework that incorporates the active database concept in order to ascertain previously undefined cycles in data over a specific time interval and thereby introduce the concept of interval of discovery. Comprised of discovered rules with firing intervals and intervals of applicability, the encompassing discovered cycles also possess a variation of these attributes. We illustrate this framework with an example from an E-commerce endeavor where data is mined for rules with firing intervals and intervals of applicability, which amalgamate to form a cycle in its interval of discovery. We describe the computer system INDED, the author's implementation of cycle mining, which we are currently interfacing to an active Oracle database using triggers and PL/SQL stored procedures.

  10. Impact of mining activities on water resources in the vicinity of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Surface and groundwater samples within the catchment area of the Obuasi mine were analysed to assess the impact of mining activities on water resources. The concentration of Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Hg, As and selected major ions in water samples were analysed to assess their role in the contamination of both surface ...

  11. Northern bobwhite breeding season ecology on a reclaimed surface mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke, Jarred M.; Tanner, Evan P.; Peters, David C.; Tanner, Ashley M.; Harper, Craig A.; Keyser, Patrick D.; Clark, Joseph D.; Morgan, John J.

    2017-01-01

    Surface coal mining and subsequent reclamation of surface mines have converted large forest areas into early successional vegetative communities in the eastern United States. This reclamation can provide a novel opportunity to conserve northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus). We evaluated the influence of habitat management activities on nest survival, nest-site selection, and brood resource selection on managed and unmanaged units of a reclaimed surface mine, Peabody Wildlife Management Area (Peabody), in west-central Kentucky, USA, from 2010 to 2013. We compared resource selection, using discrete-choice analysis, and nest survival, using the nest survival model in Program MARK, between managed and unmanaged units of Peabody at 2 spatial scales: the composition and configuration of vegetation types (i.e., macrohabitat) and vegetation characteristics at nest sites and brood locations (i.e., microhabitat). On managed sites, we also investigated resource selection relative to a number of different treatments (e.g., herbicide, disking, prescribed fire). We found no evidence that nest-site selection was influenced by macrohabitat variables, but bobwhite selected nest sites in areas with greater litter depth than was available at random sites. On managed units, bobwhite were more likely to nest where herbicide was applied to reduce sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata) compared with areas untreated with herbicide. Daily nest survival was not influenced by habitat characteristics or by habitat management but was influenced by nest age and the interaction of nest initiation date and nest age. Daily nest survival was greater for older nests occurring early in the breeding season (0.99, SE < 0.01) but was lower for older nests occurring later in the season (0.08, SE = 0.13). Brood resource selection was not influenced by macrohabitat or microhabitat variables we measured, but broods on managed units selected areas treated with herbicide to control sericea lespedeza

  12. 30 CFR 910.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 910.764 Section 910.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA § 910.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining...

  13. 30 CFR 903.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 903.762 Section 903.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA § 903.762 Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining...

  14. 30 CFR 922.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 922.762 Section 922.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE MICHIGAN § 922.762 Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining...

  15. 30 CFR 937.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 937.764 Section 937.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON § 937.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining...

  16. 30 CFR 762.13 - Land exempt from designation as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 762.13 Section 762.13 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... AREAS AS UNSUITABLE FOR SURFACE COAL MINING OPERATIONS § 762.13 Land exempt from designation as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. The requirements of this part do not apply to— (a) Lands on...

  17. 30 CFR 762.15 - Exploration on land designated as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 762.15 Section 762.15 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... AREAS AS UNSUITABLE FOR SURFACE COAL MINING OPERATIONS § 762.15 Exploration on land designated as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Designation of any area as unsuitable for all or certain types...

  18. 30 CFR 937.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 937.762 Section 937.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON § 937.762 Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining...

  19. 30 CFR 922.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 922.764 Section 922.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MICHIGAN § 922.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining...

  20. 30 CFR 912.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 912.762 Section 912.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912.762 Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining...

  1. 30 CFR 910.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 910.762 Section 910.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA § 910.762 Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining...

  2. 30 CFR 941.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 941.764 Section 941.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE SOUTH DAKOTA § 941.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining...

  3. 30 CFR 939.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 939.764 Section 939.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE RHODE ISLAND § 939.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining...

  4. Wide Strip Backfill Mining for Surface Subsidence Control and Its Application in Critical Mining Conditions of a Coal Mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhao Cao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Critical mining under buildings, railways, and water bodies (BRW brings the contradiction between high recovery rate and minor environmental hazards. To lessen this contradiction, an innovative mining method referred to as “wide strip backfill mining” (WSBM was proposed in this study. A Winkler beam model is applied to the primary key strata (PKS, and the study revealed a surface subsidence control mechanism and designed the technical parameters of the method. The respective numerical simulations suggested the feasibility of the proposed method and the main influencing factors on surface subsidence can be ranked in descending order as wide filling strip width (WFSW, filling ratio, and pillar width. Meanwhile, a drop in the WFSW from 96 m to 72 m brought out the surface subsidence reduction by 44.5%. By using the super-high water content filling material, the proposed method was applied in the Taoyi coal mine under critical mining conditions. The resulting surface subsidence and deformations met the safety requirements for building protection level 1, and the recovery rate reached 75.9%. Moreover, the application of the method achieved significant technical and economic benefits. The research can provide a theoretical and experimental substantiation for critical mining under BRW.

  5. 36 CFR 292.47 - Mining activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mining activities. 292.47 Section 292.47 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NATIONAL... common varieties of gravel, sand, or stone, may be used only within the HCNRA for the purpose of...

  6. 30 CFR 75.1711-3 - Openings of active mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Openings of active mines. 75.1711-3 Section 75.1711-3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1711-3 Openings of...

  7. Economic Impacts of Surface Mining on Household Drinking Water Supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report provides information on the economic and social impacts of contaminated surface and ground water supplies on residents and households near surface mining operations. The focus is on coal slurry contamination of water supplies in Mingo County, West Virginia, and descr...

  8. Effect of traditional gold mining to surface water quality in Murung Raya District, Central Kalimantan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.Wilopo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available There are many locations for traditional gold mining in Indonesia. One of these is in Murung Raya District, Central Kalimantan Province. Mining activities involving the application of traditional gold processing technology have a high potential to pollute the environment, especially surface water. Therefore, this study aims to determine the impact of gold mining and processing on surface water quality around the mine site. Based on the results of field surveys and laboratory analysis, our data shows that the concentration of mercury (Hg and Cyanide (CN has reached 0.3 mg/L and 1.9 mg/L, respectively, in surface water. These values exceed the drinking water quality standards of Indonesia and WHO. Many people who live in the mining area use surface water for daily purposes including drinking, cooking, bathing and washing. This scenario is very dangerous because the effect of surface water contamination on human health cannot be immediately recognized or diagnosed. In our opinion the dissemination of knowledge regarding the treatment of gold mining wastewater is urgently required so that the quality of wastewater can be improved before it is discharged into the environment

  9. Project proposal for surface-mined land enhancement (SMILE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, A.M.

    1975-01-29

    Reclaiming strip-mined land is a program ideally suited to meet the requirements of the Job Opportunities Program. It will provide healthy and vigorous outdoor activity involving surveying, earth-moving, revegetation, tree planting, construction of roads, paths, lakes, and park facilities. It is work which states and communities are anxious to have started. It can be done with relatively small capital expenditure. Technical expertise is available in the various states concerned. FEA is the ideal agency to initiate such a project. It has regional offices throughout the country with close contacts with states and local communities. It is a temporary emergency agency with considerable experience in initiating and carrying out crash programs. It is not tied down to the procedures and bureaucratic problems which burden an old-line agency attempting to take on new work. Finally, FEA has a vital interest in energy and surface mining in particular. It played a major role in drafting the new legislation. The initial program development is described, including the technical aspects, economic aspects and administration, cost, budget, cooperation with state agencies, etc.

  10. 30 CFR 905.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 905.764 Section 905.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE CALIFORNIA § 905.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining... coal mining operations beginning one year after the effective date of this program. ...

  11. 30 CFR 921.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 921.764 Section 921.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS... Coal Mining Operations, pertaining to petitioning, initial processing, hearing requirements, decisions...

  12. 30 CFR 947.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 947.764 Section 947.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE WASHINGTON § 947.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining... coal mining and reclamation operations. (b) The Secretary shall notify the Washington Department of...

  13. 30 CFR 933.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 933.764 Section 933.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... Coal Mining Operations, pertaining to petitioning, initial processing, hearing requirements, decisions... surface coal mining and reclamation operations beginning one year after the effective date of this program. ...

  14. 30 CFR 903.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 903.764 Section 903.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA § 903.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining... coal mining operations beginning June 24, 1996, one year after the effective date of this program. ...

  15. Large Omnivore Movements in Response to Surface Mining and Mine Reclamation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristescu, Bogdan; Stenhouse, Gordon B; Boyce, Mark S

    2016-01-11

    Increasing global demands have resulted in widespread proliferation of resource extraction. Scientists are challenged to develop environmental mitigation strategies that meet societal expectations of resource supply, while achieving minimal disruption to sensitive "wilderness" species. We used GPS collar data from a 9-year study on grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) (n = 18) in Alberta, Canada to assess movements and associated space use during versus after mining. Grizzly bear home range overlap with mined areas was lower during active mining except for females with cubs, that also had shortest movements on active mines. However, both females with cubs and males made shorter steps when on/close to mines following mine closure and reclamation. Our results show differences in bear movement and space-use strategies, with individuals from a key population segment (females with cubs) appearing most adaptable to mining disturbance. Preserving patches of original habitat, reclaiming the landscape and minimizing the risk of direct human-induced mortality during and after development can help conserve bears and other wildlife on industrially modified landscapes.

  16. Mechanics of active surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salbreux, Guillaume; Jülicher, Frank

    2017-09-01

    We derive a fully covariant theory of the mechanics of active surfaces. This theory provides a framework for the study of active biological or chemical processes at surfaces, such as the cell cortex, the mechanics of epithelial tissues, or reconstituted active systems on surfaces. We introduce forces and torques acting on a surface, and derive the associated force balance conditions. We show that surfaces with in-plane rotational symmetry can have broken up-down, chiral, or planar-chiral symmetry. We discuss the rate of entropy production in the surface and write linear constitutive relations that satisfy the Onsager relations. We show that the bending modulus, the spontaneous curvature, and the surface tension of a passive surface are renormalized by active terms. Finally, we identify active terms which are not found in a passive theory and discuss examples of shape instabilities that are related to active processes in the surface.

  17. Regional scale selenium loading associated with surface coal mining, Elk Valley, British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellen, Christopher C; Shatilla, Nadine J; Carey, Sean K

    2015-11-01

    Selenium (Se) concentrations in surface water downstream of surface mining operations have been reported at levels in excess of water quality guidelines for the protection of wildlife. Previous research in surface mining environments has focused on downstream water quality impacts, yet little is known about the fundamental controls on Se loading. This study investigated the relationship between mining practices, stream flows and Se concentrations using a SPAtially Referenced Regression On Watershed attributes (SPARROW) model. This work is part of a R&D program examining the influence of surface coal mining on hydrological and water quality responses in the Elk Valley, British Columbia, Canada, aimed at informing effective management responses. Results indicate that waste rock volume, a product of mining activity, accounted for roughly 80% of the Se load from the Elk Valley, while background sources accounted for roughly 13%. Wet years were characterized by more than twice the Se load of dry years. A number of variables regarding placement of waste rock within the catchments, length of buried streams, and the construction of rock drains did not significantly influence the Se load. The age of the waste rock, the proportion of waste rock surface reclaimed, and the ratio of waste rock pile side area to top area all varied inversely with the Se load from watersheds containing waste rock. These results suggest operational practices that are likely to reduce the release of Se to surface waters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. CARBON SEQUESTRATION ON SURFACE MINE LANDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald H. Graves; Christopher Barton; Richard Sweigard; Richard Warner

    2004-11-30

    A monitoring program to measure treatment effects on above ground, and below ground carbon and nitrogen pools for the planting areas is being conducted. The collection of soil and tissue samples from both the 2003 and 2004 plantings is complete and are currently being processed in the laboratory. Detailed studies have been initiated to address specific questions pertaining to carbon cycling. Examinations of decomposition and heterotropic respiration on carbon cycling in the reforestation plots were continued during this reporting period. A whole-tree harvesting method was employed to evaluate carbon accumulation as a function of time on the mined site. The trees were extracted from the sites and separated into the following components: foliage, stems, branches, and roots.

  19. Mining and mining authorities in Saarland 2016. Mining economy, mining technology, occupational safety, environmental protection, statistics, mining authority activities. Annual report; Bergbau und Bergbehoerden im Saarland 2016. Bergwirtschaft, Bergtechnik, Arbeitsschutz, Umweltschutz, Statistiken, Taetigkeiten der Bergbehoerden. Jahresbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-07-01

    The annual report of the Saarland Upper Mining Authority provides an insight into the activities of mining authorities. Especially, the development of the black coal mining, safety and technology of mining as well as the correlation between mining and environment are stressed.

  20. Impact of Mining Activities on Water Resources in the Vicinity of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    T. M. Akabzaa11*, B. K. Banoeng-Yakubo1 and J. S. Seyire2

    Abstract. Surface and groundwater samples within the catchment area of the Obuasi mine were analysed to assess the impact of mining activities on water resources. The concentration of Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Hg, As and selected major ions in water samples were analysed to assess their role in the contamination of both ...

  1. Mining activities and arsenic in a Baja California Sur watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alejandro Naranjo-Pulido; Alfredo Ortega-Rubio; Baudillo Acost-Vargas; Lia Rodriguez-Mendez; Marcos Acevedo-Beltran; Cerafina Arguelles-Mendez

    2000-01-01

    Mining is one of the most important sources of income for the Baja California Sur state. This state is the second most important area for mineral (gold, silver, copper) and non-mineral (salt) mining activities in the Mexican Republic. In the San Antonio-El Triunfo region, mineral-mining activities flourished during the 19th century. Tons of debris containing a high...

  2. Analysis of Occupational Accidents in Underground and Surface Mining in Spain Using Data-Mining Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanmiquel, Lluís; Bascompta, Marc; Rossell, Josep M; Anticoi, Hernán Francisco; Guash, Eduard

    2018-03-07

    An analysis of occupational accidents in the mining sector was conducted using the data from the Spanish Ministry of Employment and Social Safety between 2005 and 2015, and data-mining techniques were applied. Data was processed with the software Weka. Two scenarios were chosen from the accidents database: surface and underground mining. The most important variables involved in occupational accidents and their association rules were determined. These rules are composed of several predictor variables that cause accidents, defining its characteristics and context. This study exposes the 20 most important association rules in the sector-either surface or underground mining-based on the statistical confidence levels of each rule as obtained by Weka. The outcomes display the most typical immediate causes, along with the percentage of accidents with a basis in each association rule. The most important immediate cause is body movement with physical effort or overexertion, and the type of accident is physical effort or overexertion. On the other hand, the second most important immediate cause and type of accident are different between the two scenarios. Data-mining techniques were chosen as a useful tool to find out the root cause of the accidents.

  3. Infiltration of surface mined land reclaimed by deep tillage treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chong, S.K.; Cowsert, P.

    1994-01-01

    Surface mining of coal leads to the drastic disturbance of soils. Compaction of replaced subsoil and topsoil resulting from hauling, grading, and leveling procedures produces a poor rooting medium for crop growth. Soil compaction results in high bulk density, low macroporosity, poor water infiltration capacity, and reduced elongation of plant roots. In the United States, Public Law 95-87 mandates that the rooting medium of mined soils have specific textural characteristics and be graded and shaped to a topography similar to premining conditions. Also, crop productivity levels equivalent to those prior to mining must be achieved, especially for prime farmland. Alleviation of compaction has been the major focus of reclamation, and recently new techniques to augment the rooting zone with deep-ripping and loosening equipment have come to the forefront. Several surface mine operators in the Illinois coal basin are using deep tillage equipment that is capable of loosening soils to greater depths than is possible with conventional farm tillage equipment. Information on the beneficial effects of these loosening procedures on soil hydrological properties, such as infiltration, runoff potential, erosion, and water retention, is extremely important for future mined land management. However, such information is lacking. In view of the current yield demonstration regulation for prime farmland and other unmined soils, it is important that as much information as possible be obtained concerning the effect of deep tillage on soil hydrologic properties. The objectives of this study are: (1) to compare infiltration rates and related soil physical properties of mined soils reclaimed by various deep tillage treatments and (2) to study the temporal variability of infiltration and related physical properties of the reclaimed mined soil after deep tillage treatment

  4. Reforestation of surface mines on lands of VICC Land Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas F. Evans

    1980-01-01

    This Virginia coal company's surface mined lands show an adequate stocking of tree seedlings in terms of number per acre, but the distribution of seedlings has been affected by past reclamation practices. Natural reseeding has been an important contributor to the present seedling stock.

  5. Hearing-impairment among workers in a surface gold mining ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study to determine the impact of hazardous noise on workers was conducted in a surface gold mining company in Ghana. The procedure adopted included noise survey, case history, otoscopy and conventional pure-tone audiometry. Five main areas were surveyed for hazardous noise namely, Pit, Processing, Ana ...

  6. Chapter 10: Establishing native trees on legacy surface mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.A. Burger; C.E. Zipper; P.N. Angel; N. Hall; J.G. Skousen; C.D. Barton; S. Eggerud

    2017-01-01

    More than 1 million acres have been surface mined for coal in the Appalachian region. Today, much of this land is unmanaged, unproductive, and covered with nonnative plants. Establishing productive forests on such lands will aid restoration of ecosystem services provided by forests—services such as watershed protection, water quality enhancement, carbon storage, and...

  7. Solution of underground mine gas emissions on surface of abandoned mining sites where steep deposited coal seams have been exploited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takla, G.; Froml, K. [OKD, DPB, Paskov (Czech Republic)

    2005-07-01

    The solution of uncontrolled gas emissions from abandoned underground coal mine sites in Ostrava-Karvina coal-field to surface ground in connection with old mine shafts and drifts and with old mining workings in horizontal and inclined coal seams has many forms. It varies according to geological and mining conditions and the disposition of the site surface. Since four years the gas emission risk has appeared in the area of former exploited vertical coal seams within the historical centre of Orlova town, which is protected by State Monument Protection office. A project based on such special nature of mining-geological and urban conditions was elaborated and already implemented. (authors)

  8. Solution of underground mine gas emissions on surface of abandoned mining sites where steep deposited coal seams have been exploited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takla, G.; Froml, K.

    2005-01-01

    The solution of uncontrolled gas emissions from abandoned underground coal mine sites in Ostrava-Karvina coal-field to surface ground in connection with old mine shafts and drifts and with old mining workings in horizontal and inclined coal seams has many forms. It varies according to geological and mining conditions and the disposition of the site surface. Since four years the gas emission risk has appeared in the area of former exploited vertical coal seams within the historical centre of Orlova town, which is protected by State Monument Protection office. A project based on such special nature of mining-geological and urban conditions was elaborated and already implemented. (authors)

  9. Radiological characterization of a uranium mine with no mining activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lozano, J.C.; Vera Tome, F.; Gomez Escobar, V.; Blanco Rodriguez, P.

    2000-01-01

    We report a radiological study of a uranium mine located in Extremadura, in the south-west of Spain, in which mining work had ceased. One interest in the work is that the results can be used as a reference for the future evaluation of the effects produced by the restoration program. The radiological parameters selected to estimate the impact of the inactive mine were: 222 Rn in air and water, 222 Rn exhalation, effective 226 Ra in soils and sediments, and natural uranium and 226 Ra in water. Chemical analyses of water samples and measurements of meteorological variables were also made. Average values of these radiological parameters are presented. We characterize the zone radiologically and estimate the influence of the mine on the basis of some of these parameters, while others are used to reflect the status of the installation, information which could be very useful in the near future when restoration is complete

  10. Changes in the Extent of Surface Mining and Reclamation in the Central Appalachians Detected Using a 1976-2006 Landsat Time Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Philip A.; Helmers, David P.; Kingdon, Clayton C.; McNeil, Brenden E.; de Beurs, Kirsten M.; Eshleman, Keith N.

    2009-01-01

    Surface mining and reclamation is the dominant driver of land cover land use change (LCLUC) in the Central Appalachian Mountain region of the Eastern U.S. Accurate quantification of the extent of mining activities is important for assessing how this LCLUC affects ecosystem services such as aesthetics, biodiversity, and mitigation of flooding.We used Landsat imagery from 1976, 1987, 1999 and 2006 to map the extent of surface mines and mine reclamation for eight large watersheds in the Central Appalachian region of West Virginia, Maryland and Pennsylvania. We employed standard image processing techniques in conjunction with a temporal decision tree and GIS maps of mine permits and wetlands to map active and reclaimed mines and track changes through time. For the entire study area, active surface mine extent was highest in 1976, prior to implementation of the Surface Mine Control and Reclamation Act in 1977, with 1.76% of the study area in active mines, declining to 0.44% in 2006. The most extensively mined watershed, Georges Creek in Maryland, was 5.45% active mines in 1976, declining to 1.83% in 2006. For the entire study area, the area of reclaimed mines increased from 1.35% to 4.99% from 1976 to 2006, and from 4.71% to 15.42% in Georges Creek. Land cover conversion to mines and then reclaimed mines after 1976 was almost exclusively from forest. Accuracy levels for mined and reclaimed cover was above 85% for all time periods, and was generally above 80% for mapping active and reclaimed mines separately, especially for the later time periods in which good accuracy assessment data were available. Among other implications, the mapped patterns of LCLUC are likely to significantly affect watershed hydrology, as mined and reclaimed areas have lower infiltration capacity and thus more rapid runoff than unmined forest watersheds, leading to greater potential for extreme flooding during heavy rainfall events.

  11. Surface movement above an underground coal longwall mine after closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervoort, André

    2016-09-01

    The surface movement in an area of about 22 km2 above the underground coal mine of Houthalen was analyzed based on Interferometry with Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) measurements. After its closure in 1992, a residual subsidence was observed over a period of several years, followed by an uplift of the surface above and around the past longwall panels, whereby the rate of movement was, in absolute terms, of the same order for the two types of movements. The processes behind these movements are different. The process of subsidence is caused by the caving of the roof above the mined-out area and is mainly a mechanical stress-deformation process, including time-dependent aspects. However, the process of uplift is most probably caused by the swelling of the clay minerals in the argillaceous rocks in the coal strata after the flooding of the underground workings. Hence, the areas in which there is the greatest risk of damage to the surface infrastructure are not the same for the hazards linked to subsidence and uplift. For example, the zone in which the maximum uplift occurs clearly is at a different location from that of the zone with the maximum residual subsidence. There is no clear sign that the amount of mining underneath affects the residual subsidence, and there is no indication that the process of uplift is linked directly to the mining characteristics. It is more likely that uplift as the result of flooding is initiated at, or close to, the vertical shafts.

  12. The design procedures on brick building against surface ground deformations due to mining and earthquake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, J.; Yang, S. (China University of Mining and Technology (China))

    1992-05-01

    By analysing the effects of ground motion and deformation on surface buildings, and drawing on the experience of damages caused by the Tangshan and Chenhai earthquakes, the authors discuss the design of brick and concrete buildings which are protected against the damaging effects of both earthquakes and mining activities. 5 figs.

  13. Deep Impact: Effects of Mountaintop Mining on Surface Topography, Bedrock Structure, and Downstream Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Matthew R V; McGlynn, Brian L; Bernhardt, Emily S

    2016-02-16

    Land use impacts are commonly quantified and compared using 2D maps, limiting the scale of their reported impacts to surface area estimates. Yet, nearly all land use involves disturbances below the land surface. Incorporating this third dimension into our estimates of land use impact is especially important when examining the impacts of mining. Mountaintop mining is the most common form of coal mining in the Central Appalachian ecoregion. Previous estimates suggest that active, reclaimed, or abandoned mountaintop mines cover ∼7% of Central Appalachia. While this is double the areal extent of development in the ecoregion (estimated to occupy impacts are far more extensive than areal estimates alone can convey as the impacts of mines extend 10s to 100s of meters below the current land surface. Here, we provide the first estimates for the total volumetric and topographic disturbance associated with mining in an 11 500 km(2) region of southern West Virginia. We find that the cutting of ridges and filling of valleys has lowered the median slope of mined landscapes in the region by nearly 10 degrees while increasing their average elevation by 3 m as a result of expansive valley filling. We estimate that in southern West Virginia, more than 6.4km(3) of bedrock has been broken apart and deposited into 1544 headwater valley fills. We used NPDES monitoring datatsets available for 91 of these valley fills to explore whether fill characteristics could explain variation in the pH or selenium concentrations reported for streams draining these fills. We found that the volume of overburden in individual valley fills correlates with stream pH and selenium concentration, and suggest that a three-dimensional assessment of mountaintop mining impacts is necessary to predict both the severity and the longevity of the resulting environmental impacts.

  14. Simultaneous caving and surface restoration system for oil shale mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allsman, P.T.

    1968-10-01

    A modified caving method is introduced for mining oil shale and simultaneous restoration of the land surface by return of spent shale onto the subsided area. Other methods have been designed to mine the relatively thin richer beds occurring near outcrops in the Piceance Creek Basin of NW. Colorado. Since the discovery of the much thicker beds in the N.-central part of the basin, some attention has focused on in situ and open-pit methods of recovery. Although caving has been recognized as a possible means of mining shale, most people have been skeptical of its success. This stems from the unknown and salient factors of cavability and size of broken rock with caving. Wisdom would seem to dictate that serious evaluation of the caving method be made along with the other methods.

  15. Underground coal mine subsidence impacts on surface water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stump, D.E. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that subsidence from underground coal mining alters surface water discharge and availability. The magnitude and areal extent of these impacts are dependent on many factors, including the amount of subsidence, topography, geology, climate, surface water - ground water interactions, and fractures in the overburden. There alterations may have positive and/or negative impacts. One of the most significant surface water impacts occurred in July 1957 near West Pittston, Pennsylvania. Subsidence in the Knox Mine under the Coxton Yards of the Lehigh Valley Railroad allowed part of the discharge in the Susquehanna River to flow into the mine and create a crater 200 feet in diameter and 300 feet deep. Fourteen railroad gondola cars fell into the hole which was eventually filled with rock, sand, and gravel. Other surface water impacts from subsidence may include the loss of water to the ground water system, the gaining of water from the ground water system, the creation of flooded subsidence troughs, the increasing of impoundment storage capacity, the relocation of water sources (springs), and the alteration of surface drainage patterns

  16. Analysis of Occupational Accidents in Underground and Surface Mining in Spain Using Data-Mining Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lluís Sanmiquel

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of occupational accidents in the mining sector was conducted using the data from the Spanish Ministry of Employment and Social Safety between 2005 and 2015, and data-mining techniques were applied. Data was processed with the software Weka. Two scenarios were chosen from the accidents database: surface and underground mining. The most important variables involved in occupational accidents and their association rules were determined. These rules are composed of several predictor variables that cause accidents, defining its characteristics and context. This study exposes the 20 most important association rules in the sector—either surface or underground mining—based on the statistical confidence levels of each rule as obtained by Weka. The outcomes display the most typical immediate causes, along with the percentage of accidents with a basis in each association rule. The most important immediate cause is body movement with physical effort or overexertion, and the type of accident is physical effort or overexertion. On the other hand, the second most important immediate cause and type of accident are different between the two scenarios. Data-mining techniques were chosen as a useful tool to find out the root cause of the accidents.

  17. Analysis of Occupational Accidents in Underground and Surface Mining in Spain Using Data-Mining Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanmiquel, Lluís; Bascompta, Marc; Rossell, Josep M.; Anticoi, Hernán Francisco; Guash, Eduard

    2018-01-01

    An analysis of occupational accidents in the mining sector was conducted using the data from the Spanish Ministry of Employment and Social Safety between 2005 and 2015, and data-mining techniques were applied. Data was processed with the software Weka. Two scenarios were chosen from the accidents database: surface and underground mining. The most important variables involved in occupational accidents and their association rules were determined. These rules are composed of several predictor variables that cause accidents, defining its characteristics and context. This study exposes the 20 most important association rules in the sector—either surface or underground mining—based on the statistical confidence levels of each rule as obtained by Weka. The outcomes display the most typical immediate causes, along with the percentage of accidents with a basis in each association rule. The most important immediate cause is body movement with physical effort or overexertion, and the type of accident is physical effort or overexertion. On the other hand, the second most important immediate cause and type of accident are different between the two scenarios. Data-mining techniques were chosen as a useful tool to find out the root cause of the accidents. PMID:29518921

  18. 30 CFR 77.1200 - Mine map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps § 77.1200 Mine... boundary lines of the active areas of the mine; (c) Contour lines passing through whole number elevations...

  19. Private and social costs of surface mine reforestation performance criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Jay; Amacher, Gregory S

    2010-02-01

    We study the potentially unnecessary costs imposed by strict performance standards for forest restoration of surface coal mines in the Appalachian region under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA) that can vary widely across states. Both the unnecessary private costs to the mine operator and costs to society (social costs) are reported for two performance standards, a ground cover requirement, and a seedling survival target. These standards are examined using numerical analyses under a range of site productivity class and market conditions. We show that a strict (90%) ground cover standard may produce an unnecessary private cost of more than $700/ha and a social cost ranging from $428/ha to $710/ha, as compared with a 70% standard. A strict tree survival standard of 1235 trees/ha, as compared with the more typical 1087 trees/ha standard, may produce an unnecessary private cost of approximately $200/ha, and a social cost in the range of $120 to $208/ha. We conclude that strict performance standards may impose substantial unnecessary private costs and social costs, that strict performance standards may be discouraging the choice of forestry as a post-mining land use, and that opportunities exist for reform of reforestation performance standards. Our study provides a basis for evaluating tradeoffs between regulatory efficiency and optimal reforestation effort.

  20. Achieving revegetation standards on surface mined lands. [Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sindelar, B. W.

    1980-01-01

    Standards for revegetation success on surface mined lands have been developed by federal and state regulatory authorities. Because reclamation science is young, its potential for meeting revegetation standards is untested. This paper reviews the Montana revegetation standards which require establishment of a diverse, effective, and permanent vegetational cover. In addition, productivity, cover, and diversity must be comparable to that of reference areas. Fifty-one percent of the cover must be of native species. A plant succession study at Colstrip, MT, has been directed toward documenting establishment, succession, and stability of vegetation on surface mined land. Data from the study were used to discuss success of reclamation seedings since 1969. Major problem areas identified include achieving: comparable life form composition, cover of perennial vegetation, species diversity, and seasonality of forage and browse. Achieving erosion control, comparable production, and native species dominance did not appear to be major problems. Achieving revegetation standards on mined lands in the future will require very specialized reclamation procedures and continued research. Naturally revegetated mined lands at Colstrip indicate good potential for reclamation success.

  1. Assessment of the impact of underground mining on ground surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toomik, Arvi

    1999-01-01

    The mine able oil shale bed is located in horizontally lying Ordovician limestones at a depth of 10-60 meters from the ground surface. Limestones are covered with Quaternary sediments, mainly till and loam, sporadically seams of clay occur. The overburden rocks of oil shale bed are jointed limestones with weak contacts between layers. The upper part of limestones is weakened additionally due to weathering to depths of 10-20 metres. Ground movements caused by mining reach the ground surface easily due to the shallow location of workings. The size and nature of these movements depend on mining and roof control methods used. In this study the impact of geotechnical processes on the ground surface caused by four different mining methods is analysed. A new, artificial micro relief is formed on undermined areas, where the ground surface depressions are alternating with rising grounds. When the Quaternary cover contains loamy sediments, the surface (rain) water will accumulate in the depressions. The response of usable lands on undermined areas depends on the degree of changes in the relief and water regime. There exists a maximum degree (limit) of changes of ground movements in case of which the changes in land use are not yet considerable. The factor of land deterioration was developed for arable and forest lands taking into account the character and degree of negative impacts. When no one deterioration factor exceeds the limit, the value of arable land will be 1.0 (100%). When some factor exceeds the limit, then water logging in subsidence troughs will diminish the value to 0.7, slopes to 0.8 and the area of weathered basic rocks to 0.9. In case of a combined effect of all these factors the value of arable land will fall to 0.5. As the long-term character of ground movement after room and pillar mining is not yet established, the factor for quasi stable areas is taken preliminarily as 0.9. Using detailed plans of mined out areas and the proposed factors, it is possible

  2. Damage to underground coal mines caused by surface blasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourie, A.B.; Green, R.W.

    1993-01-01

    An investigation of the potential damage to underground coal workings as a result of surface blasting at an opencast coal mine is described. Seismometers were installed in a worked out area of an underground mine, in the eastern Transvaal region of South Africa, and the vibration caused by nearby surface blasting recorded. These measurements were used to derive peak particle velocities. These velocities were correlated with observed damage underground in order to establish the allowable combination of the two blasting parameters of charge mass per relay, and blast-to-gage point distance. An upper limit of 110mm/sec peak particle velocity was found to be sufficient to ensure that the damage to the particular workings under consideration was minimal. It was further found that a cube-root scaling law provided a better fit to the field data than the common square-root law. 11 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs

  3. NOVEL EXCAVATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR EFFICIENT AND ECONOMIC SURFACE MINING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vladislav Kecojevic; Samuel Frimpong

    2005-05-01

    Ground excavation constitutes a significant component of production costs in any surface mining operation. The excavation process entails material digging and removal in which the equipment motion is constrained by the workspace geometry. A major excavation problem is the variability of material properties, resulting in varying mechanical energy input and stress loading of shovel dipper-and-tooth assembly across the working bench. This variability has a huge impact on the shovel dipper and tooth assembly in hard formations. With this in mind, the primary objectives of the project were to (i) provide the theoretical basis to develop the Intelligent Shovel Excavation (ISE) technology to solve the problems associated with excavation in material formations; (ii) advance knowledge and frontiers in shovel excavation through intelligent navigation; and (iii) submit proposal for the design, development and implementation of the ISE technology for shovel excavation at experimental surface mining sites. The mathematical methods were used to (i) develop shovel's kinematics and dynamics, and (ii) establish the relationship between shovel parameters and the resistive forces from the material formation during excavation process. The ADAMS simulation environment was used to develop the hydraulic and cable shovel virtual prototypes. Two numerical examples are included to test the theoretical hypotheses and the obtained results are discussed. The area of sensor technology was studied. Application of specific wrist-mounted sensors to characterize the material, bucket and frame assembly was determined. Data acquisition, display and control system for shovel loading technology was adopted. The concept of data acquisition and control system was designed and a shovel boom stresses were simulated. A multi-partner collaboration between research organizations, shovel manufacturer, hardware and sensor technology companies, and surface mining companies is proposed to test design

  4. Possibilities of surface waters monitoring at mining areas using UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisiecka, Ewa; Motyka, Barbara; Motyka, Zbigniew; Pierzchała, Łukasz; Szade, Adam

    2018-04-01

    The selected, remote measurement methods are discussed, useful for determining surface water properties using mobile unmanned aerial platforms (UAV). The possibilities of using this type of solutions in the scope of measuring spatial, physicochemical and biological parameters of both natural and anthropogenic water reservoirs, including flood polders, water-filled pits, settling tanks and mining sinks were analyzed. Methods of remote identification of the process of overgrowing this type of ecosystems with water and coastal plant formations have also been proposed.

  5. CARBON SEQUESTRATION ON SURFACE MINE LANDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald H. Graves; Christopher Barton; Richard Sweigard; Richard Warner

    2005-02-25

    The October-December Quarter was dedicated to analyzing the first two years tree planting activities and evaluation of the results. This included the analyses of the species success at each of the sites and quantifying the data for future year determination of research levels. Additional detailed studies have been planned to further quantify total carbon storage accumulation on the research areas. At least 124 acres of new plantings will be established in 2005 to bring the total to 500 acres or more in the study area across the state of Kentucky. During the first 2 years of activities, 172,000 tree seedlings were planted on 257 acres in eastern Kentucky and 77,520 seedlings were planted on 119 acres in western Kentucky. The quantities of each species was discussed in the first Annual Report. A monitoring program was implemented to measure treatment effects on above and below ground C and nitrogen (N) pools and fluxes. A sampling strategy was devised that will allow for statistical comparisons of the various species within planting conditions and sites. Seedling heights and diameters are measured for initial status and re-measured on an annual basis. Leaves were harvested and leaf area measurements were performed. They were then dried and weighed and analyzed for C and N. Whole trees were removed to determine biomass levels and to evaluate C and N levels in all components of the trees. Clip plots were taken to determine herbaceous production and litter was collected in baskets and gathered each month to quantify C & N levels. Soil samples were collected to determine the chemical and mineralogical characterization of each area. The physical attributes of the soils are also being determined to provide information on the relative level of compaction. Hydrology and water quality monitoring is being conducted on all areas. Weather data is also being recorded that measures precipitation values, temperature, relative humidity wind speed and direction and solar radiation

  6. Adverse Impact of the Historic Mining Activities on the Enviroment in Malé Karpaty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Jozef

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available During 1999 – 2001 the Ministry of the Environment of the Slovak Republic has financed the geological work „Evaluation of the Adverse Impact of Mining Activities on the Environment in the Region of Malé Karpaty“. Results and recommendations of the work in this contribution are discussed.Mineral resources, such as pyrit – pyrhotite deposits, hydrothermal metal ore deposits (Au – Ag, pyrit – Cu, Pb – Ag, Zn, Sb, hydrothermal deposits of barytes and manganesian ore deposits are situated in mining districts of Malé Karpaty. The exploitation of these deposits has been already finished. The deposits of limestone, building stones, earth and clay were or are quarried. The underground mined deposits were divided into 6 mining districts: Kuchyòa, Pernek, Pezinok, Modra, Èastá, and Borinka – Jabloòové. The impact of surface and underground mining on the environment was examined on 353 underground mining object and 117 quarries.The most important processes were studied: pollution of surface and groundwaters, soils and sediments, normal radioactivity of land, degradation of lands, ecological stability, disturbance of the ground, contemporary land-use influence, adverse effects on rocks, flora and fauna, and atmosphere. The mining waste disposals, underground mining works and mining objects, and quarries were investigated.According to the intensity of adverse impact on the environment, the mining objects in the region of Malé Karpaty were divided into 4 groups. Fifty seven mining objects and 87 quarries were recommended to the remedial treatment.The implementation of nature protection measures will eliminate or considerably reduce the damage done to the environment.Proposal of methodics for evaluation of the adverse impact of mining activities on the environment was elaborated as a part of the geological work.

  7. Contamination in surface waters around uranium mines in the Guadiana Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bejarano, J.D.; Tome, F.V.; Sanchez, A.M.; Sanchez, A.R.

    1988-01-01

    In a study of the contamination by uranium mines in the River Guadiana basin, we have found the natural higher concentration of uranium in samples collected near the mines and the expected decrease with distance in samples farther away. In spite of this expected result, there is another interesting fact: a natural isotopic separation is observed. Measurements were by alpha spectrometry with a silicon surface barrier detector. The study was completed with total gamma activity at the same sites as for alphas, using an Nal(Tl) detector. (author).

  8. 30 CFR 933.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE NORTH CAROLINA § 933.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated Unsuitable for Coal Mining by Act of Congress, with the exception of §§ 761.11(c) and 761.12(f)(1), shall apply to surface coal mining and reclamation...

  9. 30 CFR 942.800 - Bond and insurance requirements for surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... required for postmining water treatment must remain bonded. However, the trust fund or annuity may serve as... coal mining and reclamation operations. 942.800 Section 942.800 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING...

  10. Characteristics of hazardous airborne dust around an Indian surface coal mining area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, Mrinal K; Majee, S R

    2007-07-01

    Surface coal mining creates more air pollution problems with respect to dust than underground mining . An investigation was conducted to evaluate the characteristics of the airborne dust created by surface coal mining in the Jharia Coalfield. Work zone air quality monitoring was conducted at six locations, and ambient air quality monitoring was conducted at five locations, for a period of 1 year. Total suspended particulate matter (TSP) concentration was found to be as high as 3,723 microg/m(3), respirable particulate matter (PM10) 780 microg/m(3), and benzene soluble matter was up to 32% in TSP in work zone air. In ambient air, the average maximum level of TSP was 837 microg/m(3), PM10 170 microg/m(3) and benzene soluble matter was up to 30%. Particle size analysis of TSP revealed that they were more respirable in nature and the median diameter was around 20 microm. Work zone air was found to have higher levels of TSP, PM10 and benzene soluble materials than ambient air. Variations in weight percentages for different size particles are discussed on the basis of mining activities. Anionic concentration in TSP was also determined. This paper concludes that more stringent air quality standards should be adopted for coal mining areas and due consideration should be given on particle size distribution of the air-borne dust while designing control equipment.

  11. Sustainability Activities In The Mining Sector: Current Status And Challenges Ahead Limestone Mining In Nusakambangan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayuningrum, Theresia Vika; Purnaweni, Hartuti

    2018-02-01

    Potential Karst area in Nusakambangan has an important role in maintaining the balance of nature. But with the existence of mining activities, will automatically change the environmental conditions there. In order for the utilization of resources to meet the rules of optimization between the interests of mining and sustainability of the environment so in every mining sector activities required a variety of environmental studies. The purpose of this study is to find out how the analysis of environmental management due to limestone mining activities in Nusakambangan so that it can be known the management of mining areas are optimal, wise based on ecological principles, and sustainability. In qualitative research methods, data analysis using description percentage, with the type of data collected in the form of primary data and secondary data.

  12. Surface mining machines problems of maintenance and modernization

    CERN Document Server

    Rusiński, Eugeniusz; Moczko, Przemysław; Pietrusiak, Damian

    2017-01-01

    This unique volume imparts practical information on the operation, maintenance, and modernization of heavy performance machines such as lignite mine machines, bucket wheel excavators, and spreaders. Problems of large scale machines (mega machines) are highly specific and not well recognized in the common mechanical engineering environment. Prof. Rusiński and his co-authors identify solutions that increase the durability of these machines as well as discuss methods of failure analysis and technical condition assessment procedures. "Surface Mining Machines: Problems in Maintenance and Modernization" stands as a much-needed guidebook for engineers facing the particular challenges of heavy performance machines and offers a distinct and interesting demonstration of scale-up issues for researchers and scientists from across the fields of machine design and mechanical engineering.

  13. Arsenic Concentration in the Surface Water of a Former Mining Area: The La Junta Creek, Baja California Sur, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaz Lamadrid, Miguel; Acosta Vargas, Baudilio

    2018-01-01

    The mining activity in the San Antonio-El Triunfo district, located in a mountainous region at 60 km southeast of La Paz, occured for more than 250 years and left behind severe contamination of soils and riverbed sediments which led to elevated concentrations of arsenic and other trace elements in the surface- and groundwater of the region. Although the main mining activity ended around 1911, contamination is still beeing distributed, especially from left behind tailings and mine waste piles. The contamination levels in the groundwater have been reported in several studies, but there is little information available on the surface water quality, and especially the temporal variation. In this study, we analyzed the surface water of the La Junta creek, in the southern part of the San Antonio-El Triunfo mining district. The working hypothesis was that by means of a spatial analysis of surface water and shallow groundwater, in combination with the temporal observation of the concentrations in runoff water, the effects of different sources of arsenic (natural geogene anomalies, due to historic mining activity, and hydrothermal related impact) in the La Junta creek can be recognized. This present study revealed that historic mining activity caused a mojor impact of arsenic but less contamination was observed than in the northern part of the district and elevated arsenic concentrations in stream water generally occurred during times of low streamflow. PMID:29498700

  14. Factors affecting the development of a surface coal mine safety and training program in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, D.W.; Gilliss, A.M.

    1982-09-01

    During the past decade, a general awareness of the need for and subsequent development of increased safety in United States coal mines has taken place. Government and industry alike were stimulated into accelerating their actions through unacceptable accident statistics and costs (in terms of human misery and dollar values). Those of us who work in the United States coal industry are aware of the development of governmental controls on mine safety. Both Federal and State regulations have placed increased responsibility upon mine owners and operators to insure a safe working environment and to provide training for miners. No other industrial group of workers has received such attention or, in our opinion, deserves it more. It should be pointed out that surface coal mines are safe places to work, considering the size of equipment, depths of excavation, use of high voltage electricity, explosives, and other hazards associated with continuous operations in all weather conditions. United States surface miners are, we believe, in a far safer environment while working at the mine than they are while driving to and from the mine, or performing a host of other non-mine related activities. While it is not the purpose of this paper to argue the effectiveness of governmental regulations, a brief review of the Federal control of mine safety will be made. Along with regulations, management expertise has also been developed. Since coal mining is an expensive, complex business, management sophistication has increased and with this enlightened viewpoint, all aspects of the business have been and are being analyzed. The impact management has on mine safety will also be discussed. Finally, and as the main function of this paper, we will describe management's use of principles and courses of action used to develop the safety function at a large volume surface lignite coal mine in the United States.

  15. Combining a Spatial Model and Demand Forecasts to Map Future Surface Coal Mining in Appalachia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strager, Michael P; Strager, Jacquelyn M; Evans, Jeffrey S; Dunscomb, Judy K; Kreps, Brad J; Maxwell, Aaron E

    2015-01-01

    Predicting the locations of future surface coal mining in Appalachia is challenging for a number of reasons. Economic and regulatory factors impact the coal mining industry and forecasts of future coal production do not specifically predict changes in location of future coal production. With the potential environmental impacts from surface coal mining, prediction of the location of future activity would be valuable to decision makers. The goal of this study was to provide a method for predicting future surface coal mining extents under changing economic and regulatory forecasts through the year 2035. This was accomplished by integrating a spatial model with production demand forecasts to predict (1 km2) gridded cell size land cover change. Combining these two inputs was possible with a ratio which linked coal extraction quantities to a unit area extent. The result was a spatial distribution of probabilities allocated over forecasted demand for the Appalachian region including northern, central, southern, and eastern Illinois coal regions. The results can be used to better plan for land use alterations and potential cumulative impacts.

  16. Combining a Spatial Model and Demand Forecasts to Map Future Surface Coal Mining in Appalachia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P Strager

    Full Text Available Predicting the locations of future surface coal mining in Appalachia is challenging for a number of reasons. Economic and regulatory factors impact the coal mining industry and forecasts of future coal production do not specifically predict changes in location of future coal production. With the potential environmental impacts from surface coal mining, prediction of the location of future activity would be valuable to decision makers. The goal of this study was to provide a method for predicting future surface coal mining extents under changing economic and regulatory forecasts through the year 2035. This was accomplished by integrating a spatial model with production demand forecasts to predict (1 km2 gridded cell size land cover change. Combining these two inputs was possible with a ratio which linked coal extraction quantities to a unit area extent. The result was a spatial distribution of probabilities allocated over forecasted demand for the Appalachian region including northern, central, southern, and eastern Illinois coal regions. The results can be used to better plan for land use alterations and potential cumulative impacts.

  17. Amphoteric surface active agents

    OpenAIRE

    Eissa, A.M. F.

    1995-01-01

    2-[trimethyl ammonium, triethyl ammonium, pyridinium and 2-amino pyridinium] alkanoates, four series of surface active agents containing carbon chain C12, C14, C16 and C18carbon atoms, were prepared. Their structures were characterized by microanalysis, infrared (IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Surface and interfacial tension, Krafft point, wetting time, emulsification power, foaming height a...

  18. Coal and Open-pit surface mining impacts on American Lands (COAL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, T. A.; McGibbney, L. J.

    2017-12-01

    Mining is known to cause environmental degradation, but software tools to identify its impacts are lacking. However, remote sensing, spectral reflectance, and geographic data are readily available, and high-performance cloud computing resources exist for scientific research. Coal and Open-pit surface mining impacts on American Lands (COAL) provides a suite of algorithms and documentation to leverage these data and resources to identify evidence of mining and correlate it with environmental impacts over time.COAL was originally developed as a 2016 - 2017 senior capstone collaboration between scientists at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and computer science students at Oregon State University (OSU). The COAL team implemented a free and open-source software library called "pycoal" in the Python programming language which facilitated a case study of the effects of coal mining on water resources. Evidence of acid mine drainage associated with an open-pit coal mine in New Mexico was derived by correlating imaging spectrometer data from the JPL Airborne Visible/InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer - Next Generation (AVIRIS-NG), spectral reflectance data published by the USGS Spectroscopy Laboratory in the USGS Digital Spectral Library 06, and GIS hydrography data published by the USGS National Geospatial Program in The National Map. This case study indicated that the spectral and geospatial algorithms developed by COAL can be used successfully to analyze the environmental impacts of mining activities.Continued development of COAL has been promoted by a Startup allocation award of high-performance computing resources from the Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment (XSEDE). These resources allow the team to undertake further benchmarking, evaluation, and experimentation using multiple XSEDE resources. The opportunity to use computational infrastructure of this caliber will further enable the development of a science gateway to continue foundational COAL

  19. Responsible Development of Areva's Mining Activities. Report 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-09-01

    After a presentation of the approach to responsibility adopted by AREVA to be a responsible mining stake holder (charter of values, implemented policies, risk prevention and management, best practices), this report gives an overview of mining activities (international presence, production in constant increase) with a focus on uranium mining which is the core business (the different phases are briefly presented: exploration, project development, mining, site decommissioning). It outlines personnel qualification and commitment, actions and policy in the field of personnel health and safety. It addresses the environmental policy: key levers, environmental management system, examples throughout the entire mining life cycle, changes in site consumptions and emissions, promotion of biodiversity. The next part concerns Areva's social commitment (dialogue, development aid in mining territories). Then, performance is expressed in terms of indicators for these different issues (teams, environmental policy, social involvement)

  20. Preliminary analysis of surface mining options for Naval Oil Shale Reserve 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-07-20

    The study was undertaken to determine the economic viability of surface mining to exploit the reserves. It is based on resource information already developed for NOSR 1 and conceptual designs of mining systems compatible with this resource. Environmental considerations as they relate to surface mining have been addressed qualitatively. The conclusions on economic viability were based primarily on mining costs projected from other industries using surface mining. An analysis of surface mining for the NOSR 1 resource was performed based on its particular overburden thickness, oil shale thickness, oil shale grade, and topography. This evaluation considered reclamation of the surface as part of its design and cost estimate. The capital costs for mining 25 GPT and 30 GPT shale and the operating costs for mining 25 GPT, 30 GPT, and 35 GPT shale are presented. The relationship between operating cost and stripping ratio, and the break-even stripping ratio (BESR) for surface mining to be competitive with room-and-pillar mining, are shown. Identification of potential environmental impacts shows that environmental control procedures for surface mining are more difficult to implement than those for underground mining. The following three areas are of prime concern: maintenance of air quality standards by disruption, movement, and placement of large quantities of overburden; disruption or cutting of aquifers during the mining process which affect area water supplies; and potential mineral leaching from spent shales into the aquifers. Although it is an operational benefit to place spent shale in the open pit, leaching of the spent shales and contamination of the water is detrimental. It is therefore concluded that surface mining on NOSR 1 currently is neither economically desirable nor environmentally safe. Stringent mitigation measures would have to be implemented to overcome some of the potential environmental hazards.

  1. Response of transplanted aspen to irrigation and weeding on a Colorado reclaimed surface coal mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert C. Musselman; Wayne D. Shepperd; Frederick W. Smith; Lance A. Asherin; Brian W. Gee

    2012-01-01

    Successful re-establishment of aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) on surface-mined lands in the western United States is problematic because the species generally regenerates vegetatively by sprouting from parent roots in the soil; however, topsoil is removed in the mining process. Previous attempts to plant aspen on reclaimed mine sites have failed because...

  2. Gas migration from closed coal mines to the surface. Risk assessment methodology and prevention means

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokryszka, Z.; Tauziede, Ch.; Lagny, C.; Guise, Y.; Gobillot, R.; Planchenault, J.M.; Lagarde, R.

    2005-01-01

    French law as regards renunciation to mining concessions calls for the mining operator to first undertake analyses of the risks represented by their underground mining works. The problem of gas migration to the surface is especially significant in the context of coal mines. This is because mine gas can migrate to the earth's surface, then present significant risks: explosion, suffocation or gas poisoning risks. As part of the scheduled closure of all coal mining operations in France, INERIS has drawn up, at the request of national mining operator Charbonnages de France, a general methodology for assessing the risk linked to gas in the context of closed coal mines. This article presents the principles of this methodology. An application example based on a true case study is then described. This is completed by a presentation of the preventive and monitoring resources recommended and usually applied in order to manage the risk linked to gaseous emissions. (authors)

  3. Soil macropores: Control on infiltration, hillslope and surface hydrology on a reclaimed surface-mined watershed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guebert, M.D.; Gardner, T.W.

    1992-01-01

    The hydrologic response of a surface-mined watershed in central Pennsylvania is controlled by rapid macropore flow within the unsaturated man-made topsoil. Newly reclaimed surface-mined watersheds in central Pennsylvania exhibit low steady-state infiltration rates (1--2 cm/hr) and produce runoff dominated by infiltration-excess overland flow. However, within four years after reclamation, infiltration rates on some mine surfaces approach premined rates (8 cm/hr). As infiltration rate increases, the volume of infiltrated water increases, but the total porosity of minesoil matrix remains constant. There is little change in the surface discharge volume, indicating that infiltrated water continues to contribute to the basin surface discharge by the processes of throughflow and return flow. Throughflow in the topsoil horizon occurs in rapid response to rainfall input, producing large volumes of water with throughflow rates closely related to rainfall rates and with throughflow peaks following rainfall peaks by only minutes. Increased return flow alters the shape of the surface runoff hydrograph by slightly lagging behind infiltration excess overland flow. These changes in the shape of the surface runoff hydrograph reduce the potential for severe gully erosion on the reclaimed site. In addition, throughflow water remains predominantly in the topsoil horizon, and therefore has limited contact with potentially acid-producing backfill. Better understanding of macropore flow processes in reclaimed minesoils will help investigators evaluate past strategies and develop new reclamation techniques that will minimize the short-term surface erosional effects of mining and reclamation, while optimizing the long-term effluent and groundwater quality

  4. 30 CFR 941.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE SOUTH DAKOTA § 941.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal...

  5. 30 CFR 937.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON § 937.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining and... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal...

  6. 30 CFR 905.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE CALIFORNIA § 905.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal...

  7. 30 CFR 910.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA § 910.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal...

  8. 30 CFR 903.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA § 903.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, applies to surface coal mining... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal...

  9. 30 CFR 939.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE RHODE ISLAND § 939.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal...

  10. 30 CFR 922.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE MICHIGAN § 922.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal...

  11. 30 CFR 921.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE MASSACHUSETTS § 921.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal...

  12. 30 CFR 912.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining and... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal...

  13. 30 CFR 947.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE WASHINGTON § 947.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal...

  14. 30 CFR 942.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE TENNESSEE § 942.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal...

  15. 43 CFR 20.402 - Interests in underground or surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Certain Employees of the Department § 20.402 Interests in underground or surface coal mining operations...) Indirect financial interest in underground or surface coal mining operations means the same financial... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interests in underground or surface coal...

  16. Impacts of surface gold mining on land use systems in Western Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schueler, Vivian; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Schröder, Hilmar

    2011-07-01

    Land use conflicts are becoming increasingly apparent from local to global scales. Surface gold mining is an extreme source of such a conflict, but mining impacts on local livelihoods often remain unclear. Our goal here was to assess land cover change due to gold surface mining in Western Ghana, one of the world's leading gold mining regions, and to study how these changes affected land use systems. We used Landsat satellite images from 1986-2002 to map land cover change and field interviews with farmers to understand the livelihood implications of mining-related land cover change. Our results showed that surface mining resulted in deforestation (58%), a substantial loss of farmland (45%) within mining concessions, and widespread spill-over effects as relocated farmers expand farmland into forests. This points to rapidly eroding livelihood foundations, suggesting that the environmental and social costs of Ghana's gold boom may be much higher than previously thought.

  17. Hydrochemical characteristics of mine waters from abandoned mining sites in Serbia and their impact on surface water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanacković, Nebojša; Dragišić, Veselin; Stojković, Jana; Papić, Petar; Zivanović, Vladimir

    2013-11-01

    Upon completion of exploration and extraction of mineral resources, many mining sites have been abandoned without previously putting environmental protection measures in place. As a consequence, mine waters originating from such sites are discharged freely into surface water. Regional scale analyses were conducted to determine the hydrochemical characteristics of mine waters from abandoned sites featuring metal (Cu, Pb-Zn, Au, Fe, Sb, Mo, Bi, Hg) deposits, non-metallic minerals (coal, Mg, F, B) and uranium. The study included 80 mine water samples from 59 abandoned mining sites. Their cation composition was dominated by Ca2+, while the most common anions were found to be SO4(2-) and HCO3-. Strong correlations were established between the pH level and metal (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu) concentrations in the mine waters. Hierarchical cluster analysis was applied to parameters generally indicative of pollution, such as pH, TDS, SO4(2-), Fe total, and As total. Following this approach, mine water samples were grouped into three main clusters and six subclusters, depending on their potential environmental impact. Principal component analysis was used to group together variables that share the same variance. The extracted principal components indicated that sulfide oxidation and weathering of silicate and carbonate rocks were the primary processes, while pH buffering, adsorption and ion exchange were secondary drivers of the chemical composition of the analyzed mine waters. Surface waters, which received the mine waters, were examined. Analysis showed increases of sulfate and metal concentrations and general degradation of surface water quality.

  18. Remote Sensing based multi-temporal observation of North Korea mining activities : A case study of Rakyeon mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, J. H.; Yu, J.; Koh, S. M.; Lee, G.

    2017-12-01

    Mining is a major industrial business of North Korea accounting for significant portion of an export for North Korean economy. However, due to its veiled political system, details of mining activities of North Korea is rarely known. This study investigated mining activities of Rakyeon Au-Ag mine, North Korea based on remote sensing based multi-temporal observation. To monitor the mining activities, CORONA data acquired in 1960s and 1970s, SPOT and Landsat data acquired in 1980s and 1990s and KOMPSAT-2 data acquired in 2010s are utilized. The results show that mining activities of Rakyeon mine continuously carried out for the observation period expanding tailing areas of the mine. However, its expanding rate varies between the period related to North Korea's economic and political situations.

  19. Amphoteric surface active agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eissa, A.M. F.

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available 2-[trimethyl ammonium, triethyl ammonium, pyridinium and 2-amino pyridinium] alkanoates, four series of surface active agents containing carbon chain C12, C14, C16 and C18carbon atoms, were prepared. Their structures were characterized by microanalysis, infrared (IR and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR. Surface and interfacial tension, Krafft point, wetting time, emulsification power, foaming height and critical micelle concentration (cmc were determined and a comparative study was made between their chemical structure and surface active properties. Antimicrobial activity of these surfactants was also determined.

    Se prepararon cuatro series de agentes tensioactivos del tipo 2-[trimetil amonio, trietil amonio, piridinio y 2-amino piridinio] alcanoatos, que contienen cadenas carbonadas con C12, C14, C16 y C18 átomos de carbono.
    Se determinaron la tensión superficial e interfacial, el punto de Krafft, el tiempo humectante, el poder de emulsionamiento, la altura espumante y la concentración critica de miscela (cmc y se hizo un estudio comparativo entre la estructura química y sus propiedades tensioactivas. Se determinó también la actividad antimicrobiana de estos tensioactivos. Estas estructuras se caracterizaron por microanálisis, infrarrojo (IR y resonancia magnética nuclear (RMN.

  20. Finite element modeling of surface subsidence induced by underground coal mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, D.W.H.

    1992-01-01

    The ability to predict the effects of longwall mining on topography and surface structures is important for any coal company in making permit applications and anticipating potential mining problems. The sophisticated finite element model described and evaluated in this paper is based upon five years of underground and surface observations and evolutionary development of modeling techniques and attributes. The model provides a very powerful tool to address subsidence and other ground control questions. The model can be used to calculate postmining stress and strain conditions at any horizon between the mine and the ground surface. This holds the promise of assisting in the prediction of mining-related hydrological effects

  1. Light Stable Isotopes in Aquifers Affected by Mining Activities in a Brazilian Mining Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, R. M.; de Carvalho, J. B.

    2013-05-01

    Iron ore is presently a main item in the Brazilian commercial agenda. Large reserves have converted this utility into an important source of export earnings and, secondarily, of raw materials for the domestic industry. Parallel to a boom in mining activities in the last years environmental impacts and a stress on natural resources have soared. A region exhibiting pronouncedly intensive mining activities lies in the central part of the State of Minas Gerais, the third economy of the federation. Mines are sited right beside the capital and neighbor towns amounting to nearly five million inhabitants and a pronounced dependence on groundwater resources. Besides, this region is a water divide enclosing the sources of main contributors to the most strategic fluvial basins in the country. Iron ore is by large the main mineral but other metals (including gold and uranium), as well as non-metals such as limestone, quartz and granite, also occur. Given the significance of this commodity in the country's trade balance and the demand of water resources with acceptable quality for human consumption, the scale of ensuing water use conflicts caused by its exploration is wide ranging and has to be coped with well grounded environmental assessment approaches. Tracer hydrology techniques might be a valuable tool in this context. The characteristics of the area being impacted have been surveyed, including climate and pluviometry, stratigraphic litology, geological structure, use of soil, mineral resources and their exploration, surface and ground water hydrology and their sundry uses. Data to be processed have been procured at local public agencies but as regard local hydrological features, particularly isotopic compositions, ad hoc surveys and methodologies were required. One instance concerns pluviometric isotopy due to the alpine character of the surveyed region altitude and temperature effects might take place. Hence different sites were monitored; cumulative pluviometer samples

  2. Derived surface contamination limits for the uranium mining and milling industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ching, S.H.

    1984-10-01

    Derived Surface Contamination Limits (DSCL) are proposed for the control of surface contamination at the work place for the uranium mining and milling industry. They have been derived by a method incorporating recent ICRP recommendations and consideration of the radiation exposure pathways of ingestion, inhalation and external irradiation of the basal layer of skin. A generalized DSCL of 10 5 Bq/m 2 of beta activity is recommended for all contaminants likely to be found in uranium mine and mill workplaces except for fresh uranium concentrates. In the latter case, the DSCL is expressed in terms of alpha activity because the ratio of beta to alpha activities for fresh uranium concentrates is variable; the beta activity increases with the ingrowth of U-238 daughter products (Th-234 and Pa-234m) until secular equilibrium is re-established in about six months. A surface contamination limit of 10 4 Bq/m 2 of beta activity is proposed for the release of non-porous materials and equipment with no detectable loose contamination to the public domain

  3. Geomorphic evaluation of erosional stability at reclaimed surface mines in northwestern Colorado. Water Resources Investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, J.G.

    1990-01-01

    The report identifies geomorphic, pedologic, vegetation, and hydrologic conditions that are associated with erosion of reclaimed surface-mined lands in northwestern Colorado. The report also presents methods for determining the appropriate values of geomorphic variables that can be manipulated during reclamation to increase erosional stability. A section on geomorphic principles associated with erosion of reclaimed land surfaces is designed for use as a primer by mine personnel and reclamation planners. The areas of interest in the study were those that were reclaimed under jurisdiction of current (1988) SMCRA reclamation regulations, yet were still affected by relatively rapid erosion rates several years after reclamation activities were completed. Geomorphic, pedologic, vegetation, and hydrologic data were collected onsite and from topographic maps. Data from reclaimed areas undergoing accelerated erosion were compared with data from reclaimed areas undergoing minimal erosion to identify conditions that controlled erosion on reclaimed surface-mined lands and to identify some postmining equilibrium landform characteristics. These data also were used to develop threshold relations

  4. Panorama of mining activities in France during 1993-1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, J.C.; Bornuat, M.; Heinry, C.; Le Berre, P.

    1995-01-01

    Demand, and thus prices and activities, in the French mining sector continued to suffer from the effects of the 1993 recession. The moderate economic recovery seen in 1994 has not had an immediate impact on the mining industry partly because of previously built up stocks, but some encouraging signs have appeared: a clear resumption of oil exploration, the anti-dumping measures of the European Union, and a new Chinese pricing policy particularly concerning tungsten, antimony and fluorite. In general, French mining continued its decline as illustrated by the closures of further iron, uranium and zinc mines and the loss of all tungsten, bauxite, lead, zinc and germanium mines. The very marked decrease in zinc, silver, uranium, iron and coal production reflects the programmed closure of certain mines. In detail, the balance is more varied and the situation and outlook are not as bleak for all mineral substances: decline is moderate for potassium, barite and fluorite; oil and gas in France and nickel in new Caledonia are stable; sulphur, talc, salt, kaolin, feldspar and silica production have recorded a slight growth while gold is in clear progression. However, these positive aspects cannot counter-balance the lack of significant new resources (hydrocarbons, potassium) and of sufficient exploration effort relative to the stakes (metal ore mines). The end of the National Mineral Inventory in 1993 and the very long procedures for mining permits obtention do not favor national or international private investment. (J.S.). 14 figs., 11 tabs

  5. Usage of emulsion explosives on surface open pit mine “Zelenikovec” - Skopje

    OpenAIRE

    Dambov, Risto; Bosevski, Trajce

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the advantages of using emulsion explosives on the surface mine ”Zelenikovec”. A comparison has been made with the other types of explosives regarding the cost of drilling, blasting, environmental protection and the safety while using them. In the estimates, the criteria for using this type of emulsion explosives on the surface mine “Zelenikovec” have been met.

  6. 30 CFR 57.4131 - Surface fan installations and mine openings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Surface fan installations and mine openings. 57... Fire Prevention and Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 57.4131 Surface fan installations... stored within 100 feet of mine openings or within 100 feet of fan installations used for underground...

  7. Quartz exposure levels in the underground and surface coal mining industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ainsworth, S.M.; Gero, A.J.; Parobeck, P.S; Tomb, T.F. [US Mine Safety and Health Administration, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Occupational quartz exposure data gathered from the Mine Safety and Health Adminsitration`s respirable dust enforcement program and a program to monitor quartz exposure in several mining occupations were compiled and analyzed to assess the status of quartz exposures in the coal mining industry. The analysis showed that, in underground mines, a substantial number of samples contained greater than 5% quartz. Occupations that showed a high frequency of excessive quartz exposure included the roof bolter, continuous miner operator, and continuous miner operator helper. In surface coal mines the highwall drill operator and helper, bulldozer operator, scraper operator, and truck driver were frequently exposed to high quartz concentrations.

  8. Stress monitoring versus microseismic ruptures in an active deep mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonnellier, Alice; Bouffier, Christian; Bigarré, Pascal; Nyström, Anders; Österberg, Anders; Fjellström, Peter

    2015-04-01

    monitoring data coming from the mine in quasi-real time and facilitates information exchanges and decision making for experts and stakeholders. On the basis of these data acquisition and sharing, preliminary analysis has been started to highlight whether stress variations and seismic sources behaviour might be directly bound with mine working evolution and could improve the knowledge on the equilibrium states inside the mine. Knowing such parameters indeed will be a potential solution to understand better the response of deep mining activities to the exploitation solicitations and to develop, if possible, methods to prevent from major hazards such as rock bursts and other ground failure phenomena.

  9. LANDSAT remote sensing: observations of an Appalachian mountaintop surface coal mining and reclamation operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-10-01

    The potential benefits of using LANDSAT remote sensing data by state agencies as an aide in monitoring surface coal mining operations are reviewed. A mountaintop surface mine in eastern Kentucky was surveyed over a 5 year period using satellite multispectral scanner data that were classified by computer analyses. The analyses were guided by aerial photography and by ground surveys of the surface mines procured in 1976. The application of the LANDSAT data indicates that: (1) computer classification of the various landcover categories provides information for monitoring the progress of surface mining and reclamation operations, (2) successive yearly changes in barren and revegetated areas can be qualitatively assessed for surface mines of 100 acres or more of disrupted area, (3) barren areas consisting of limestone and shale mixtures may be recognized, and revegetated areas in various stages of growth may be identified against the hilly forest background

  10. Groundwater quality in a mining activity area (The Bierzo Basin-Leon)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Losa, A. de la; Moreno, L.; Nunez, I.

    2010-01-01

    The Bierzo Basin presents large coal mining structures without restore where the air exposition of metallic sulphurs could become a source of heavy metal pollution and acification of waters. This paper presents the results of a research focused on groundwater quality affected by the mining activity. A sampling campaign of both ground and surface waters was carried out. Altogether, 37 sampling points has been selected including 26 springs, 7 shallow wells for agricultural use and 4 river water samples, all of them directly or indirectly connected to groundwater. The interpretation of results is based on the multivariate analysis application. Sulphate is the dominant anion in both water types, and it is related, in most cases, to oxidation of sulphurs, widely represented in the study area. However, the main conclusion is that surface water and groundwater samples have no high abnormal contents of heavy metals due to the induced alteration by mining activity. (Author) 15 refs.

  11. Local community opinions regarding the socio-environmental aspects of lignite surface mining: Experiences from central Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badera, Jarosław; Kocoń, Paweł

    2014-01-01

    Surface lignite mining covers large areas and usually generates social conflicts which pose one of several energy security threats to certain states. Therefore, defining the social conditions determines the success of a mining project. Two communes were chosen for a public opinion study: Kleszczów, where the Bełchatów mine is located, and Złoczew, where a lignite deposit will soon be developed. The analysis shows, as opposed to other areas in Poland that have been projected for development, that both local communities are characterised by a high level of acceptance for lignite mining. In both cases, awareness about the profits was stronger than anxiety about the investment's negative effects. However, most inhabitants could not assess the mining company's diligence concerning its responsibility for mining damages as well as the diligence of external experts assessing the environmental impacts of excavation. Most respondents also could not assess if the legal regulations of public participation in the decision process were sufficient, but the negative opinions outweighed the positive ones. From the perspective of the energy policy, dialogue-type social communication is needed for every case of a new energy-mining project. Research on local public opinion should be the first step to opening up a social debate. - Highlights: • Lignite mining can generate social conflicts, which may threaten energy security. • Examined communes are characterised by a high level of acceptance for lignite mining. • Inhabitants cannot assess if the legal regulations of mining activity are sufficient. • From the perspective of the energy policy, broader social communication is needed. • Research on the public opinion should be the first step to open up a social debate

  12. Distribution of uranium-238 in environmental samples from a residential area impacted by mining and milling activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, M.A.; Ramanujam, V.M.S.; Alcock, N.W.; Gabehart, G.J.; Au, W.W.

    1998-01-01

    The northern region of Karnes County, Texas, USA, has been the site of extensive mining/milling of uranium for over 30 years. A previous study in their laboratory indicates that residents living near these facilities have increased chromosomal aberrations and a reduced DNA repair capacity. In this study, the long-lived radionuclides uranium-238 ( 238 U) and thorium-232 ( 232 Th) were measured in order to evaluate the extent of contamination from mining/milling facilities. 232 Th was quantified simultaneously and served as a reference. Soil samples were collected from the yards of previously studied households and adjacent areas near former mining and mining/milling sites at the surface and 30 cm subsurface. Additionally, samples from drinking water wells were collected from selected households. Sites located over 14 km from the study area with no known history of mining/milling served as the control. In the control area, 238 U concentrations in soil were consistent between surface (0.13--0.26 mg/kg) and subsurface samples. Near mining/milling sites, 238 U in surface soil was found to be consistently and statistically higher than corresponding subsurface samples. Near mining-only areas, 238 U in surface soil, however, was not significantly increased over subsurface soil. As expected, 238 U was much higher overall in the mining/milling and mining-only areas compared to the control sites. No trends were detected in the distribution of 232 Th. The concentration of 238 U was up to six times higher in a drinking water well near a former mining/milling operation, indicating possible leaching into the groundwater, while 232 Th concentrations were low and uniform. Furthermore, lead isotope ratio analysis indicates contamination from the interstate shipping of ore by rail to and from a mining/milling facility. These data indicate contamination of the environment by the mining/milling activities in a residential area

  13. Responsible Development of AREVA's Mining Activities - Report 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-09-01

    By defining AREVA's strategy and policies, this report aims to demonstrate the company's performance in the key areas of mining activity responsibility: ethics and governance, social report, the environment, occupational health and safety, community involvement, commitments to stakeholders. The data given cover the assets for which AREVA acts as operator in uranium mining activities: exploration, project development, production and rehabilitation. The consolidated data target activities in France, Canada, Niger, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Gabon and Namibia. Activities in the Central African Republic and those linked to La Mancha no longer fall within the scope of this report (sale of assets in 2012). This report is the third edition of this annual exercise

  14. Sorption of Heavy Metals from Mine Wastewater by Activated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study on sorption of heavy metal ions: Lead (Pb2+), Copper (Cu2+) and Cadmium (Cd2+) from mine wastewater by activated carbons prepared from coconut husk was conducted. The activated carbons were prepared by carbonisation of the husk at 900 ºC pyrolysis temperature, followed by steam activation of the ...

  15. Case studies: Mining and milling activities - South African facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalf, P.E.; Woude, S. van der

    2000-01-01

    The mining and milling of minerals is a very important industry in South Africa that employs more than 300,000 people. South Africa extracts minerals with naturally occurring radionuclides, amongst which uranium, monazite and zircon. Two case studies involving environmental restoration activities that are typically associated with mining and minerals processing are discussed. The first case study, Katdoringbos, describes the restoration of a contaminated site where scrap material originating from the mining and minerals processing facilities had been recycled. The other case study, Crown 4, deals with the restoration of a contaminated site where a mine tailings dam had been removed and the owner of the land wished to develop it for commercial exploitation. (author)

  16. Minimizing the Impact of Mining Activities for Sustainable Mined-Out ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria is endowed with abundant mineral resources. However, their extraction and processing through mining activities especially, of the solid minerals are going on at different scales of intensity. Some of these operations, and their negative impacts to the environment which include: land degradation, ecological disruption ...

  17. Woody vegetation and succession on the Fonde surface mine demonstration area, Bell County, Kentucky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, G.L.; Thompson, R.L.

    1999-01-01

    The long term impact of surface mining on vegetation and plant succession has always been of concern to environmentalists and residents of Appalachia. The Fonde Surface Mine Demonstration Area is a 7.3-ha, NE-NW-aspect contour coal mine at an elevation of 562 m. It was reclaimed in 1965 to show state-of-the-art surface mine reclamation techniques consistent with then-current law and regulations after coal mining in 1959 and 1963. The mine spoils were lightly graded to control erosion and crates a bench with water control and two sediment ponds. Soil pH ranged from 2.8 to 5.9. About 80 percent of the mine was planted with 18 tree and shrub species including plantations of mixed pine, mixed hardwoods, black locust, and shrubs for wildlife. In a complete floristic inventory conducted 25 years later, the authors found the woody flora consisted of 34 families, 53 genera, and 70 species including 7 exotics. This inventory of the Fonde mine shows that a diverse forest vegetation can be reestablished after extreme disturbances in Appalachia. Black locust, yellow poplar, and Virginia pine reproduction varied significantly among plantation types. Canopy tree species significantly affected ground layer cover, total species richness, number of tree seedling species, and total number of tree seedlings present. Mine soil type affected ground layer percent cover and total species richness. Pre-SMCRA (Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977) reclaimed and inventoried mines can be used to evaluate biodiversity on post-SMCRA mines

  18. Responsible Development of Areva's Mining Activities. 2010 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    After a map indicating the location of the main Areva's mining sites, this report provides several key figures and data and discusses the evolution of this activity which is part of the business core of the AREVA company. It gives a statement of values and principles, governance and commitments related to this activity. In order to report this activity, it addresses several topics: reduction of industrial risks, protection of workers and populations, rational consumption of water and energy resources, biodiversity preservation, management over time of waste rock and mining tailings, sustainable integration into territories, and contribution to social development. This document is proposed in French and in English

  19. Restoring forests and associated ecosystem services on appalachian coal surface mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipper, Carl E; Burger, James A; Skousen, Jeffrey G; Angel, Patrick N; Barton, Christopher D; Davis, Victor; Franklin, Jennifer A

    2011-05-01

    Surface coal mining in Appalachia has caused extensive replacement of forest with non-forested land cover, much of which is unmanaged and unproductive. Although forested ecosystems are valued by society for both marketable products and ecosystem services, forests have not been restored on most Appalachian mined lands because traditional reclamation practices, encouraged by regulatory policies, created conditions poorly suited for reforestation. Reclamation scientists have studied productive forests growing on older mine sites, established forest vegetation experimentally on recent mines, and identified mine reclamation practices that encourage forest vegetation re-establishment. Based on these findings, they developed a Forestry Reclamation Approach (FRA) that can be employed by coal mining firms to restore forest vegetation. Scientists and mine regulators, working collaboratively, have communicated the FRA to the coal industry and to regulatory enforcement personnel. Today, the FRA is used routinely by many coal mining firms, and thousands of mined hectares have been reclaimed to restore productive mine soils and planted with native forest trees. Reclamation of coal mines using the FRA is expected to restore these lands' capabilities to provide forest-based ecosystem services, such as wood production, atmospheric carbon sequestration, wildlife habitat, watershed protection, and water quality protection to a greater extent than conventional reclamation practices.

  20. Restoring Forests and Associated Ecosystem Services on Appalachian Coal Surface Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipper, Carl E.; Burger, James A.; Skousen, Jeffrey G.; Angel, Patrick N.; Barton, Christopher D.; Davis, Victor; Franklin, Jennifer A.

    2011-05-01

    Surface coal mining in Appalachia has caused extensive replacement of forest with non-forested land cover, much of which is unmanaged and unproductive. Although forested ecosystems are valued by society for both marketable products and ecosystem services, forests have not been restored on most Appalachian mined lands because traditional reclamation practices, encouraged by regulatory policies, created conditions poorly suited for reforestation. Reclamation scientists have studied productive forests growing on older mine sites, established forest vegetation experimentally on recent mines, and identified mine reclamation practices that encourage forest vegetation re-establishment. Based on these findings, they developed a Forestry Reclamation Approach (FRA) that can be employed by coal mining firms to restore forest vegetation. Scientists and mine regulators, working collaboratively, have communicated the FRA to the coal industry and to regulatory enforcement personnel. Today, the FRA is used routinely by many coal mining firms, and thousands of mined hectares have been reclaimed to restore productive mine soils and planted with native forest trees. Reclamation of coal mines using the FRA is expected to restore these lands' capabilities to provide forest-based ecosystem services, such as wood production, atmospheric carbon sequestration, wildlife habitat, watershed protection, and water quality protection to a greater extent than conventional reclamation practices.

  1. The landscape degradation in the mining sites with suspended activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca IONCE

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The extracting industry, through its extraction activities, of shipping the ores, of breaking the ores, of preparing the practical substances, of stowing the useless rock, of transporting the practical substances, etc. might modify the area’s relief and the quality of ground, of thesurface waters and of the air. Suceava County has an old tradition of mining, where the results of this activity are visible, especially the visual point of view, and where not taking certain measures of ecological remediation will emphasize the disappointing image of the landscape within the areas of mining activity performing.The predominant mountainous landscape, in which mining activities have been held, is being affected also by the abandoned industrial and administrative buildings, in an advanced degradation state.The hydrographic system, very rich in mining areas, has its water quality affected by the acid rock drainage- phenomenon which appeared in many mining waste deposits.

  2. Distributions and concentrations of thallium in surface waters of a region impacted by historical metal mining (Cornwall, UK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsi, Kristi; Turner, Andrew

    2014-03-01

    Thallium is a highly toxic heavy metal whose concentrations and distributions in the aquatic environment are poorly defined. In this study, concentrations of aqueous and total Tl have been measured in water samples from a variety of rivers and effluents (the latter related to historical metal mining) in the county of Cornwall, SW England. Aqueous concentrations ranged from about 13 ng L(-1) in a river whose catchment contained no metal mines to 2,640 ng L(-1) in water abstracted directly from an abandoned mine shaft. Concentrations of Tl in rivers were greatest in the vicinity of mine-related effluents, with a maximum value measured of about 770 ng L(-1). Thallium was not efficiently removed by the conventional, active treatment of mine water, and displayed little interaction with suspended particles. Its mobility in surface waters, coupled with concentrations that are close to a quality guideline of 800 ng L(-1), is cause for concern. Accordingly, we recommend that the metal is more closely monitored in this and other regions impacted by mining activities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The influence of the scale of mining activity and mine site remediation on the contamination legacy of historical metal mining activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Graham

    2016-12-01

    Globally, thousands of kilometres of rivers are degraded due to the presence of elevated concentrations of potentially harmful elements (PHEs) sourced from historical metal mining activity. In many countries, the presence of contaminated water and river sediment creates a legal requirement to address such problems. Remediation of mining-associated point sources has often been focused upon improving river water quality; however, this study evaluates the contaminant legacy present within river sediments and attempts to assess the influence of the scale of mining activity and post-mining remediation upon the magnitude of PHE contamination found within contemporary river sediments. Data collected from four exemplar catchments indicates a strong relationship between the scale of historical mining, as measured by ore output, and maximum PHE enrichment factors, calculated versus environmental quality guidelines. The use of channel slope as a proxy measure for the degree of channel-floodplain coupling indicates that enrichment factors for PHEs in contemporary river sediments may also be the highest where channel-floodplain coupling is the greatest. Calculation of a metric score for mine remediation activity indicates no clear influence of the scale of remediation activity and PHE enrichment factors for river sediments. It is suggested that whilst exemplars of significant successes at improving post-remediation river water quality can be identified; river sediment quality is a much more long-lasting environmental problem. In addition, it is suggested that improvements to river sediment quality do not occur quickly or easily as a result of remediation actions focused a specific mining point sources. Data indicate that PHEs continue to be episodically dispersed through river catchments hundreds of years after the cessation of mining activity, especially during flood flows. The high PHE loads of flood sediments in mining-affected river catchments and the predicted changes to

  4. Surface Soil Preparetion for Leguminous Plants Growing in Degraded Areas by Mining Located in Amazon Forest-Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irio Ribeiro, Admilson; Hashimoto Fengler, Felipe; Araújo de Medeiros, Gerson; Márcia Longo, Regina; Frederici de Mello, Giovanna; José de Melo, Wanderley

    2015-04-01

    The revegetation of areas degraded by mining usually requires adequate mobilization of surface soil for the development of the species to be implemented. Unlike the traditional tillage, which has periodicity, the mobilization of degraded areas for revegetation can only occur at the beginning of the recovery stage. In this sense, the process of revegetation has as purpose the establishment of local native vegetation with least possible use of inputs and superficial tillage in order to catalyze the process of natural ecological succession, promoting the reintegration of areas and minimizing the negative impacts of mining activities in environmental. In this context, this work describes part of a study of land reclamation by tin exploitation in the Amazon ecosystem in the National Forest Jamari- Rondonia Brazil. So, studied the influence of surface soil mobilization in pit mine areas and tailings a view to the implementation of legumes. The results show that the surface has areas of mobilizing a significant effect on the growth of leguminous plants, areas for both mining and to tailings and pit mine areas.

  5. Tailings From Mining Activities, Impact on Groundwater, and Remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Al-Rawahy

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Effluent wastes from mining operations and beneficiation processes are comprized mostly of the following pollutants: total suspended solids (TTS, alkalinity or acidity (pH, settleable solids, iron in ferrous mining, and dissolved metals in nonferrous mining. Suspended solids consist of small particles of solid pollutants that resist separation by conventional means. A number of dissolved metals are considered toxic pollutants. The major metal pollutants present in ore mining and beneficiation waste waters include arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, and zinc. Tailings ponds are used for both the disposal of solid waste and the treatment of waste-water streams. The supernatant decanted from these ponds contains suspended solids and, at times, process reagents introduced to the water during ore beneficiation. Leakage of material from tailings pond into groundwater is one possible source of water pollution in the mining industry. Percolation of waste-water from impoundment may occur if tailings ponds are not properly designed. This paper addresses potential groundwater pollution due to effluent from mining activities, and the possible remediation options.

  6. Quantitative Assessment of Landscape Load Caused by Mining Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csüllög Gábor

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In Hungary, not only the aftermath of the extraction in the past nearly 150 years, but also the economic changes taking place in the past two decades have had significant environmental consequences manifested, above all, in the landscape. It is, however, not sufficient to investigate the landscape components separately; it is necessary to explore connections within the landscape. Accordingly, the chief aim of this presentation has been, on the one hand, to work out the method of landscape load index, based on a quantitative database of mining claims and deposits of mining waste, which has revealed their impacts on the landscape as well. On the other hand, we have also aimed at developing the method of the mining load index of certain geographical landscape units. By calculating and analysing the indices, we have intended to build a quantitative database suitable for investigating the impacts of mining activities on the landscape. On the basis of the indices, the impacts and consequences could be ranked, and it was also possible to compare the impacts of different mining claims and waste deposits in three different landscape categories. With the main result of our examination, this will make it possible to investigate concrete problems and landscape conflicts caused by the landscape use of mining or its aftermath in different landscape units with a high load index.

  7. Prime farmland disturbance from coal surface mining in the corn belt, 1980-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, D.P.

    1979-09-01

    The five midwestern states that make up the Corn Belt farm production region - Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Missouri, and Ohio - contain about 110 billion tons of coal reserves (19% of which are surface mineable) and 110 million acres of arable land (69% of which are prime farmlands). In 1975, this region was the site of 21% of the nation's total coal production and 50% of the nation's corn and soybean harvest. Because corn and soybeans are key elements in US foreign trade and because nearly two-thirds of the regional coal production is from surface coal mines, it is important to understand the potential conflicts that may arise between the coal and agricultural industries in the Corn Belt. This report presents background data on the coal and agricultural industries in the Corn Belt states, along with the results of a quantitative analysis of the potential disruption of land and associated prime farmland due to future coal surface mining activity in the region. Estimates of potential land dusruptions indicate that 452,000 acres of land, including 127,000 acres of prime farmland, could be disturbed in the period 1980-2000. Additionally, the data indicate that certain counties in the Corn Belt states may experience impacts significantly greater than the regional average would suggest.

  8. Recent developments in the reclamation of surface mined lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, K.D.; Gough, L.P.; Kumar, S.; Sharma, B.K.; Saxena, S.K.

    1997-01-01

    A broad review of mine land reclamation problems and challenges in arid lands is presented with special emphasis on work recently completed in India. The economics of mining in the Indian Desert is second only to agriculture in importance. Lands disturbed by mining, however, have only recently been the focus of reclamation attempts. Studies were made and results compiled of problems associated with germplasm selection, soil, plant and overburden characterization and manipulation, plant establishment methods utilized, soil amendment needs, use and conservation of available water and the evaluation of ecosystem sustainability. Emphasis is made of the need for multi-disciplinary approaches to mine land reclamation research and for the long-term monitoring of reclamation success.

  9. Effect of high-extraction coal mining on surface and ground waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kendorski, F.S.

    1993-01-01

    Since first quantified around 1979, much new data have become available. In examining the sources of data and the methods and intents of the researchers of over 65 case histories, it became apparent that the strata behaviors were being confused with overlapping vertical extents reported for the fractured zones and aquiclude zones depending on whether the researcher was interested in water intrusion into the mine or in water loss from surface or ground waters. These more recent data, and critical examination of existing data, have led to the realization that the former Aquiclude Zone defined for its ability to prevent or minimize the intrusion of ground or surface waters into mines has another important character in increasing storage of surface and shallow ground waters in response to mining with no permanent loss of waters. This zone is here named the Dilated Zone. Surface and ground waters can drain into this zone, but seldom into the mine, and can eventually be recovered through closing of dilations by mine subsidence progression away from the area, or filling of the additional void space created, or both. A revised model has been developed which accommodates the available data, by modifying the zones as follows: collapse and disaggregation extending 6 to 10 times the mined thickness above the panel; continuous fracturing extending approximately 24 times the mined thickness above the panel, allowing temporary drainage of intersected surface and ground waters; development of a zone of dilated, increased storativity, and leaky strata with little enhanced vertical permeability from 24 to 60 times the mined thickness above the panel above the continuous fracturing zone, and below the constrained or surface effects zones; maintenance of a constrained but leaky zone above the dilated zone and below the surface effects zone; and limited surface fracturing in areas of extension extending up to 50 ft or so beneath the ground surface. 119 ref., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Surface Mining and Reclamation Effects on Flood Response of Watersheds in the Central Appalachian Plateau Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, J. R.; Lookingbill, T. R.; McCormick, B.; Townsend, P. A.; Eshleman, K. N.

    2009-01-01

    Surface mining of coal and subsequent reclamation represent the dominant land use change in the central Appalachian Plateau (CAP) region of the United States. Hydrologic impacts of surface mining have been studied at the plot scale, but effects at broader scales have not been explored adequately. Broad-scale classification of reclaimed sites is difficult because standing vegetation makes them nearly indistinguishable from alternate land uses. We used a land cover data set that accurately maps surface mines for a 187-km2 watershed within the CAP. These land cover data, as well as plot-level data from within the watershed, are used with HSPF (Hydrologic Simulation Program-Fortran) to estimate changes in flood response as a function of increased mining. Results show that the rate at which flood magnitude increases due to increased mining is linear, with greater rates observed for less frequent return intervals. These findings indicate that mine reclamation leaves the landscape in a condition more similar to urban areas rather than does simple deforestation, and call into question the effectiveness of reclamation in terms of returning mined areas to the hydrological state that existed before mining.

  11. Implementation of paste backfill mining technology in Chinese coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Qingliang; Chen, Jianhang; Zhou, Huaqiang; Bai, Jianbiao

    2014-01-01

    Implementation of clean mining technology at coal mines is crucial to protect the environment and maintain balance among energy resources, consumption, and ecology. After reviewing present coal clean mining technology, we introduce the technology principles and technological process of paste backfill mining in coal mines and discuss the components and features of backfill materials, the constitution of the backfill system, and the backfill process. Specific implementation of this technology and its application are analyzed for paste backfill mining in Daizhuang Coal Mine; a practical implementation shows that paste backfill mining can improve the safety and excavation rate of coal mining, which can effectively resolve surface subsidence problems caused by underground mining activities, by utilizing solid waste such as coal gangues as a resource. Therefore, paste backfill mining is an effective clean coal mining technology, which has widespread application.

  12. Implementation of Paste Backfill Mining Technology in Chinese Coal Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingliang Chang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of clean mining technology at coal mines is crucial to protect the environment and maintain balance among energy resources, consumption, and ecology. After reviewing present coal clean mining technology, we introduce the technology principles and technological process of paste backfill mining in coal mines and discuss the components and features of backfill materials, the constitution of the backfill system, and the backfill process. Specific implementation of this technology and its application are analyzed for paste backfill mining in Daizhuang Coal Mine; a practical implementation shows that paste backfill mining can improve the safety and excavation rate of coal mining, which can effectively resolve surface subsidence problems caused by underground mining activities, by utilizing solid waste such as coal gangues as a resource. Therefore, paste backfill mining is an effective clean coal mining technology, which has widespread application.

  13. Implementation of Paste Backfill Mining Technology in Chinese Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Qingliang; Zhou, Huaqiang; Bai, Jianbiao

    2014-01-01

    Implementation of clean mining technology at coal mines is crucial to protect the environment and maintain balance among energy resources, consumption, and ecology. After reviewing present coal clean mining technology, we introduce the technology principles and technological process of paste backfill mining in coal mines and discuss the components and features of backfill materials, the constitution of the backfill system, and the backfill process. Specific implementation of this technology and its application are analyzed for paste backfill mining in Daizhuang Coal Mine; a practical implementation shows that paste backfill mining can improve the safety and excavation rate of coal mining, which can effectively resolve surface subsidence problems caused by underground mining activities, by utilizing solid waste such as coal gangues as a resource. Therefore, paste backfill mining is an effective clean coal mining technology, which has widespread application. PMID:25258737

  14. NEWS RELEASE - Agencies Agree to Joint Regulatory Framework for Processing Applications for Surface Coal Mining Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    News release from February 10, 2005 announcing a memorandum of understanding (MOU) that offers a joint framework to improve permit application procedures for surface coal mining operations that place dredged or fill material in waters of the United States.

  15. Radiological assessment of surface water quality around proposed uranium mining site in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, S K; Lenka, P; Gothankar, S; Tripathi, R M; Puranik, V D; Khating, D T

    2009-06-01

    The gross alpha and gross beta activities were estimated for radiological assessment of surface water quality around the proposed uranium mining site Kylleng Pyndengsohiong Mawthabah (Domiasiat), West Khasi Hills District, Meghalaya situated in a high rainfall area (12,000mm) in India. 189 Surface water samples were collected over different seasons of the year from nine different locations covering around 100km(2). Gross beta activities were found to vary from 144 to 361mBq/L which is much below the prescribed WHO limit of 1000mBq/L for drinking water. Gross alpha activities varied from 61 to 127mBq/L. These values are much below the reported gross alpha values by other countries. In about 7% of the samples the alpha activities remain exceeded the WHO guideline limit of 100mBq/L. Surface water samples collected during the summer season of the year show higher activity whereas low activity was found from samples collected during monsoon season. Results show that all water sources are acceptable as drinking water for human consumption from the radiological point of view, the higher gross alpha concentrations in a few locations remains so only for short duration during the summer season.

  16. Radiological assessment of surface water quality around proposed uranium mining site in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, S.K.; Lenka, P.; Gothankar, S.; Tripathi, R.M.; Puranik, V.D.; Khating, D.T.

    2009-01-01

    The gross alpha and gross beta activities were estimated for radiological assessment of surface water quality around the proposed uranium mining site Kylleng Pyndengsohiong Mawthabah (Domiasiat), West Khasi Hills District, Meghalaya situated in a high rainfall area (12,000 mm) in India. 189 Surface water samples were collected over different seasons of the year from nine different locations covering around 100 km 2 . Gross beta activities were found to vary from 144 to 361 mBq/L which is much below the prescribed WHO limit of 1000 mBq/L for drinking water. Gross alpha activities varied from 61 to 127 mBq/L. These values are much below the reported gross alpha values by other countries. In about 7% of the samples the alpha activities remain exceeded the WHO guideline limit of 100 mBq/L. Surface water samples collected during the summer season of the year show higher activity whereas low activity was found from samples collected during monsoon season. Results show that all water sources are acceptable as drinking water for human consumption from the radiological point of view, the higher gross alpha concentrations in a few locations remains so only for short duration during the summer season.

  17. Rehabilitation materials from surface- coal mines in western U.S.A. III. Relations between elements in mine soil and uptake by plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severson, R.C.; Gough, L.P.

    1984-01-01

    Plant uptake of Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn from mine soils was assessed using alfalfa Medicago sativa, sainfoin Onobrychis viciaefolia, smooth brome Bromus inermis, crested wheatgrass Agropyron cristatum, slender wheatgrass A. trachycaulum and intermediate wheatgrass A. intermedium; mine soil (cover-soil and spoil material) samples were collected from rehabilitated areas of 11 western US surface-coal mines in North Dakota, Montana, Wyoming and Colorado. Correlations between metals in plants and DTPA-extractable metals from mine soils were generally not statistically significant and showed no consistent patterns for a single metal or for a single plant species. Metal uptake by plants, relative to amounts in DTPA extracts of mine soil, was positively related to mine soil organic matter content or negatively related to mine soil pH. DTPA-extractable metal levels were significantly correlated with mine soil pH and organic-matter content.-from Authors

  18. 75 FR 18500 - Guidance on Improving EPA Review of Appalachian Surface Coal Mining Operations under the Clean...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-12

    ... in terms of mine design, site and materials management, or water treatment systems, consistent with... of Appalachian Surface Coal Mining Operations under the Clean Water Act, National Environmental... Appalachian Surface Coal Mining Operations under the Clean Water Act, National Environmental Policy Act, and...

  19. Mercury distribution in coals influenced by magmatic intrusions, and surface waters from the Huaibei Coal Mining District, Anhui, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Zhicao; Liu, Guijian; Sun, Ruoyu; Wu, Dun; Wu, Bin; Zhou, Chuncai

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Hg concentrations in coal and surface water samples were determined. • Hg is enriched in the Huaibei coals. • Magmatic activities imparted influences on Hg content and distribution. • Hg contents in surface waters are relative low at the present status. - Abstract: The Hg concentrations in 108 samples, comprising 81 coal samples, 1 igneous rock, 2 parting rock samples and 24 water samples from the Huaibei Coal Mining District, China, were determined by cold-vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry. The abundance and distribution of Hg in different coal mines and coal seams were studied. The weighted average Hg concentration for all coal samples in the Huaibei Coalfield is 0.42 mg/kg, which is about twice that of average Chinese coals. From southwestern to northeastern coalfield, Hg concentration shows a decreasing trend, which is presumably related to magmatic activity and fault structures. The relatively high Hg levels are observed in coal seams Nos. 6, 7 and 10 in the southwestern coal mines. Correlation analysis indicates that Hg in the southwestern and southernmost coals with high Hg concentrations is associated with pyrite. The Hg concentrations in surface waters in the Huaibei Coal Mining District range from 10 to 60 ng/L, and display a decreasing trend with distance from a coal waste pile but are lower than the regulated levels for Hg in drinking water

  20. Human Activity Recognition Using Hierarchically-Mined Feature Constellations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oikonomopoulos, A.; Pantic, Maja

    In this paper we address the problem of human activity modelling and recognition by means of a hierarchical representation of mined dense spatiotemporal features. At each level of the hierarchy, the proposed method selects feature constellations that are increasingly discriminative and

  1. Restoration activities in uranium mining and milling facilities in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Quiros, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    From the end of the 80's up to now, several tasks have been carried out in Spain on restoration in the field of uranium mining and milling, significant among them being Andujar Uranium Mill (FUA) closure and La Haba closure. Also, a study has been carried out on restoration of inoperative and abandoned uranium mine sites. At present, detailed plans are being worked out for the project on the closure of the Elefante plant. All activities have been developed in the common framework of national standards and regulations which are generally in compliance with the standards, regulations and recommendations of international organizations. This paper describes briefly the standards and the criteria applied to the restoration tasks at various sites of the uranium mining and milling facilities in Spain. The restoration activities have different characteristics La Haba facility is an isolated and conventional facility to produce uranium concentrate; in the case of old and abandoned uranium mines the intervention criteria is more relevant than the activities to be carried out; the closure (the first phase of licensing) and restoration activities of Elefante plant have to be developed taking into account that it is sited within the area of Quercus plant which is currently in operation. (author)

  2. Salt mine Asse II. Status of the retrieval activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-02-01

    The booklet on the status of retrieval activities in the salt mine Asse II includes information on the background of medium-level radioactive waste disposal during 1967 to 1978 on behalf of the Federal government. Since 2009 the former mine is operated by the BfS with the assignment of decommissioning. The potential risk for stability and safety due to problems of water ingress were known before beginning of the disposals. The retrieval of the radioactive waste will require many decades; the costs are financed by tax money. The planning of the retrieval is currently on the way, details of the concept are described.

  3. Research on the surface water quality in mining influenced area in north-western part of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smical Irina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper highlights the current situation of the quality of surface water in the areas influenced by mining activities in the north-western part of Romania. In this respect a series of investigations have been conducted regarding the contamination with heavy metals of the water of the Someş and Tisa hydro- graphic Basins, which cover the northern part of Maramures County and the south-western area of Maramures County, respectively. The results of the comparative research refer to the period between 1999 and 2011 and reveal the specific heavy metal ions of mining activity: Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb Cd and Ni, as well as the water pH. The presented values as annual average values reveal an increase in several heavy metals after the closure of mines, which is due to the lack of effectiveness of the closure and of the conservation of the mine galleries, as well as of the impaired functioning of the mining wastewater treatment plants.

  4. Mining the active proteome of Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renier A. L. Van Der Hoorn

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Assigning functions to the >30.000 proteins encoded by the Arabidopsis genome is a challenging task of the Arabidopsis Functional Genomics Network. Although genome-wide technologies like proteomics and transcriptomics have generated a wealth of information that significantly accelerated gene annotation, protein activities are poorly predicted by transcript or protein levels as protein activities are post-translationally regulated. To directly display protein activities in Arabidopsis proteomes, we developed and applied Activity-based Protein Profiling (ABPP. ABPP is based on the use of small molecule probes that react with the catalytic residues of distinct protein classes in an activity-dependent manner. Labeled proteins are separated and detected from proteins gels and purified and identified by mass spectrometry. Using probes of six different chemotypes we have displayed of activities of 76 Arabidopsis proteins. These proteins represent over ten different protein classes that contain over 250 Arabidopsis proteins, including cysteine- serine- and metallo-proteases, lipases, acyltransferases, and the proteasome. We have developed methods for identification of in vivo labeled proteins using click-chemistry and for in vivo imaging with fluorescent probes. In vivo labeling has revealed novel protein activities and unexpected subcellular activities of the proteasome. Labeling of extracts displayed several differential activities e.g. of the proteasome during immune response and methylesterases during infection. These studies illustrate the power of ABPP to display the functional proteome and testify to a successful interdisciplinary collaboration involving chemical biology, organic chemistry and proteomics.

  5. Predicting events in the development of a coal surface mine in the west

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn M. Ferrante; Edward C. Thor

    1980-01-01

    Sudden changes in the level of coal mining activity in an area can cause immediate and profound changes in every facet of life in a rural community. Local officials and administrators of Federal and State governments often bear the brunt of responding to the disruptions that result from these changes. The nature of coal mining in the West is such that the community in...

  6. Active Particles on Curved Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Fily, Yaouen; Baskaran, Aparna; Hagan, Michael F.

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the sensitivity of active matter to boundaries and their geometries. Here we develop a general theory for the dynamics and statistics of active particles on curved surfaces and illustrate it on two examples. We first show that active particles moving on a surface with no ability to probe its curvature only exhibit steady-state inhomogeneities in the presence of orientational order. We then consider a strongly confined 3D ideal active gas and compute its steady-...

  7. Role of mycorrhizae in forestation of surface mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald H. Marx

    1980-01-01

    A brief introduction to ecto- and endomycorrhizae and their importance to plants is presented. Recent findings confirm the significance of ectomycorrhizae, particularly those formed by Pisolithus tinctorius in nurseries, to survival and growth of pine seedlings on strip-mined lands. Commercial inoculum of this fungus may be available in 1981. Recent...

  8. Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairullah Khan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Opinion mining is an interesting area of research because of its applications in various fields. Collecting opinions of people about products and about social and political events and problems through the Web is becoming increasingly popular every day. The opinions of users are helpful for the public and for stakeholders when making certain decisions. Opinion mining is a way to retrieve information through search engines, Web blogs and social networks. Because of the huge number of reviews in the form of unstructured text, it is impossible to summarize the information manually. Accordingly, efficient computational methods are needed for mining and summarizing the reviews from corpuses and Web documents. This study presents a systematic literature survey regarding the computational techniques, models and algorithms for mining opinion components from unstructured reviews.

  9. 78 FR 37404 - Small Business Size Standards: Support Activities for Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ... Support Activities for Coal Mining $7.0 $19.0 213114 Support Activities for Metal Mining $7.0 $19.0 SBA is... million in net income after income taxes) for business concerns that do not meet the size standards for... Oil and Gas Operations.. $35.5 213113 Support Activities for Coal Mining $19.0 213114 Support...

  10. Responsible Development of Areva's Mining Activities - 2010 Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-07-01

    Areva's mining activities place it among the world leaders in uranium production. The main objective of Areva's mining activities is ensuring uranium supply over the long term to produce nuclear power while emitting less CO 2 , reducing risks to people and the environment and contributing to the development of areas where mining activities take place. Areva's mining activities span five continents. This diversified portfolio allows the group to carry out exploration, project development and production activities in various geopolitical and technological contexts with the support of its staff's multi-cultural backgrounds. This document is the first Responsible Development report of Areva's Mining Activities. Content: 1 - All about Areva's Mining Activities (Interview with Sebastien de Montessus, General Director of Areva's Mining Activities, Ongoing Progress, The Core of Areva's Mining Activities Work); 2 - The Foundation of Areva's Mining Activities Approach (Values and Principles, Governance, Commitments); 3 - Reporting on Areva's Mining Activities (Scope, Relevance of Indicators, Outlook); 4 - Being a Responsible Mining Stakeholder (Actions, Reducing Industrial Risks, Ensuring the Protection of Workers and Populations, Consuming Water and Energy Resources in a Rational Way, Preserving Biodiversity, Managing Waste Rock and Mine Tailings over Time, Sustainable Presence, Contribution to Social Development); 5 - Glossary

  11. Selected problems of the influence of underground mining on ground surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gren, K.; Popiolek, E.; Janusz, W.; Bartosik-Sroka, T.; Ostrowski, J.

    1980-01-01

    Problems associated with forecasting ground deformation caused by underground mining are discussed. Irregularities in surface deformations are described. Two cases of irregularities which occur in the Lower Silesian coal basin are presented. In the Nowa Ruda coal mine, irregularities accompany mining of coal seams located at a depth of about 400 m using pneumatic stowing. Mining geological conditions of working fronts are discussed. The mined coal seams are located in the protective pillar under Nowa Ruda. Zone of increased deformation is characterized by horizontal deformations 2.5 times higher than the maximum average deformation. The second case is associated with coal mining in the safety coal pillar of Nowe Miasto (a section of the town of Walbrzych). Irregularities in ground deformations occur on the rise side of mined coal seams: compression deformations are two times higher than the maximum compression beyond the zone and the three times higher than the maximum tension deformations. Ground deformations and the irregularities are shown in four diagrams. It is suggested that the described cases of deformation irregularities point out the need for individual analysis of geological and mining conditions of coal seams. (9 refs.) (In Polish)

  12. Geodetic monitoring (TLS of a steel transport trestle bridge located in an active mining exploitation site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skoczylas Arkadiusz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Underground mining exploitation causes, in general, irregular vertical and horizontal shifts in the superficial layer of the rock mass. In the case of construction objects seated on this layer, a deformation of the object’s foundation can be observed. This leads to additional loads and deformations. Identification of surface geometry changes in construction objects located within the premises of underground mining exploitation areas is an important task as far as safety of mining sites is concerned. Surveys targeting shifts and deformations in engineering objects preformed with the use of classic methods are of a selective nature and do not provide the full image of the phenomenon being the subject of the observation. This paper presents possibilities of terrestrial laser scanning technology application in the monitoring of engineering objects that allows for a complete spatial documentation of an object subjected to the influence of an active mining exploitation. This paper describes an observation of a 100 m section of a steel transport trestle bridge located on the premises of hard coal mine Lubelski Węgiel “Bogdanka” S.A. carried out in 2015. Measurements were carried out using a Z+F Imager 5010C scanner at an interval of 3.5 months. Changes in the structure’s geometry were determined by comparing the point clouds recorded during the two measurement periods. The results of the analyses showed shifts in the trestle bridge towards the exploited coal wall accompanied by object deformation. The obtained results indicate the possibility of of terrestrial laser scanning application in studying the aftereffects of underground mining exploitation on surface engineering objects.

  13. Residence time of contaminants released in surface coal mines: A wind-tunnel study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, R.S.

    1993-08-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments direct the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to evaluate and modify, as required, existing dispersion models for the prediction of dispersion of dust from surface coal mines. The application of mathematical air pollution dispersion models to the dispersion of dust from surface coal mines requires knowledge of not only the amount of dust generated in the mine, but the fraction of that generated that actually escapes from the mine. The escape fraction can be related to the residence time that released material will remain, on average, within the mine. The concentration in the mine was found to follow an exponential decay function from which an exponential decay time constant (or residence time) was computed for each case. A semi-empirical formula was found that related the residence time to the mine geometry and wind direction quite well. This formula can be used to estimate escape fraction in determining the source strength for the application of mathematical dispersion models.

  14. On-Site Radon Detection of Mining-induced Fractures from Overlying Strata to the Surface: A Case Study of the Baoshan Coal Mine in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale longwall mining of shallow coal seams may cause mining-induced fractures that can project completely through to the surface. This could lead to a series of mine safety and environmental issues, further deteriorating the already fragile ecological environment in the Western mining areas in China. Therefore, an accurate and effective understanding of the spatiotemporal evolution law of mining-induced fractures in overlying strata and its relationship to upper aquifers is critical. In this paper, the application of the geophysical-chemical properties of radon in mining engineering is explored as a potential solution to the shortcomings of existing surveying methods. A radioactive measurement method is proposed for the detection of the development of mining-induced fractures from overlying strata to the surface in the Baoshan Coal Mine (BCM. The on-site test indicated that the first weighting step is approximately 60 m, the average periodic weighting step is approximately 20 m, and the influence coverage of the advanced abutment pressure is approximately 30 m. The presented method could be used as an indirect technical support to increase the safety of coal mining by acting as a simple, fast, and reliable method of detecting mining-induced fractures in overlying strata.

  15. Evaluation of gas emission from closed mines surface to atmosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Pokryszka, Zbigniew; Tauziède, Christian

    2000-01-01

    International audience; The closed mines are likely to release into atmosphere polluting or/and dangerous gases. The detection and hazard evaluation of those emissions are a complex problem. In order to quantify and qualify these gas emissions and check gas migrations special measuring methods are required. The research done at INERIS resulted in a reliable and appropriate methodology using a flux chamber. This methodology is intended for detecting, quantifying and qualifying gas discharges, ...

  16. Ensuring the Environmental and Industrial Safety in Solid Mineral Deposit Surface Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubetskoy, Kliment; Rylnikova, Marina; Esina, Ekaterina

    2017-11-01

    The growing environmental pressure of mineral deposit surface mining and severization of industrial safety requirements dictate the necessity of refining the regulatory framework governing safe and efficient development of underground resources. The applicable regulatory documentation governing the procedure of ore open-pit wall and bench stability design for the stage of pit reaching its final boundary was issued several decades ago. Over recent decades, mining and geomechanical conditions have changed significantly in surface mining operations, numerous new software packages and computer developments have appeared, opportunities of experimental methods of source data collection and processing, grounding of the permissible parameters of open pit walls have changed dramatically, and, thus, methods of risk assessment have been perfected [10-13]. IPKON RAS, with the support of the Federal Service for Environmental Supervision, assumed the role of the initiator of the project for the development of Federal norms and regulations of industrial safety "Rules for ensuring the stability of walls and benches of open pits, open-cast mines and spoil banks", which contribute to the improvement of economic efficiency and safety of mineral deposit surface mining and enhancement of the competitiveness of Russian mines at the international level that is very important in the current situation.

  17. 77 FR 26046 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Ground Control for Surface Coal Mines and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ... provided in the desired format, reporting burden (time and financial resources) is minimized, collection... Extension of Existing Information Collection; Ground Control for Surface Coal Mines and Surface Work Areas... Federal agencies with an opportunity to comment on proposed and continuing collections of information in...

  18. Chapter 4: Low compaction grading to enhance reforestation success on coal surface mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Sweigard; J. Burger; C. Zipper; J. Skousen; C. Barton; P. Angel

    2017-01-01

    This Forest Reclamation Advisory describes final-grading techniques for reclaiming coal surface mines to forest postmining land uses. Final grading that leaves a loose soil and a rough surface increases survival of planted seedlings and forest productivity. Such practices are often less costly than traditional "smooth grading" while meeting the requirements...

  19. Development and Application of Blast Casting Technique in Large-Scale Surface Mines: A Case Study of Heidaigou Surface Coal Mine in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Blast casting is a high-efficiency technique applied in surface mines for overburden removal and results in stripping cost savings. According to ballistic theory and center-of-mass frame basic movement principles, key factors influencing blast casting effect were analyzed, which include bench height and mining panel width, inclined angle of blast holes, explosive unit consumption (EUC, delay-time interval, presplitting, and blast hole pattern parameters. An intelligent design software was developed for obtaining better breaking and casting effect, and the error rates predicted with actual result can be controlled with 10%. Blast casting technique was successfully applied in Heidaigou Surface Coal Mine (HSCM with more than 34% of material casted into the inner dump. A ramp ditch was set within the middle inner dump for coal transportation. The procedure of stripping and excavating was implemented separately and alternately in the two sections around the middle ramp ditch. An unconstrained-nonlinear model was deduced for optimizing the shift distance of the middle ramp. The calculation results show that optimum shift distance of HSCM is 480 m, and the middle ditch should be shifted after 6 blast casting mining panels being stripped.

  20. Investigating uranium distribution in surface sediments and waters: a case study of contamination from the Juniper Uranium Mine, Stanislaus National Forest, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayzar, Theresa M; Villa, Adam C; Lobaugh, Megan L; Gaffney, Amy M; Williams, Ross W

    2014-10-01

    The uranium concentrations and isotopic compositions of waters, sediment leachates and sediments from Red Rock Creek in the Stanislaus National Forest of California were measured to investigate the transport of uranium from a point source (the Juniper Uranium Mine) to a natural surface stream environment. The ((234)U)/((238)U) composition of Red Rock Creek is altered downstream of the Juniper Mine. As a result of mine-derived contamination, water ((234)U)/((238)U) ratios are 67% lower than in water upstream of the mine (1.114-1.127 ± 0.009 in the contaminated waters versus 1.676 in the clean branch of the stream), and sediment samples have activity ratios in equilibrium in the clean creek and out of equilibrium in the contaminated creek (1.041-1.102 ± 0.007). Uranium concentrations in water, sediment and sediment leachates are highest downstream of the mine, but decrease rapidly after mixing with the clean branch of the stream. Uranium content and compositions of the contaminated creek headwaters relative to the mine tailings of the Juniper Mine suggest that uranium has been weathered from the mine and deposited in the creek. The distribution of uranium between sediment surfaces (leachable fraction) and bulk sediment suggests that adsorption is a key element of transfer along the creek. In clean creek samples, uranium is concentrated in the sediment residues, whereas in the contaminated creek, uranium is concentrated on the sediment surfaces (∼70-80% of uranium in leachable fraction). Contamination only exceeds the EPA maximum contaminant level (MCL) for drinking water in the sample with the closest proximity to the mine. Isotopic characterization of the uranium in this system coupled with concentration measurements suggest that the current state of contamination in Red Rock Creek is best described by mixing between the clean creek and contaminated upper branch of Red Rock Creek rather than mixing directly with mine sediment. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Mining and representing recommendations in actively evolving recommender systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assent, Ira

    2010-01-01

    Recommender systems provide an automatic means of filtering out interesting items, usually based on past similarity of user ratings. In previous work, we have suggested a model that allows users to actively build a recommender network. Users express trust, obtain transparency, and grow (anonymous......) recommender connections. In this work, we propose mining such active systems to generate easily understandable representations of the recommender network. Users may review these representations to provide active feedback. This approach further enhances the quality of recommendations, especially as topics...... of interest change over time. Most notably, it extends the amount of control users have over the model that the recommender network builds of their interests....

  2. TSCA Chemical Data Reporting Fact Sheet: Reporting Manufactured Chemical Substances from Metal Mining and Related Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet provides guidance on the Chemical Data Reporting (CDR) rule requirements related to the reporting of mined metals, intermediates, and byproducts manufactured during metal mining and related activities.

  3. Restoration of surface-mined lands with rainfall harvesting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauer, R.H.; Rickard, W.H.

    1982-12-01

    Strip mining for coal in the arid western US will remove grazing land as energy demands are met. Conventional resotration usually includes leveling the spoil banks and covering them with top soil, fertilizing, seeding and irrigation with well or river water. An overview of research on an alternate method of restoring this land is reported. From 1976 through 1981 studies were conducted on the use of water harvesting, the collection and use of rainfall runoff, to restore the vegetative productivity of strip mined lands in arid regions. These studies tested the technical and economic feasibility of using partially leveled spoil banks at strip mines as catchment areas to collect and direct runoff to the topsoiled valley floor where crops were cultivated. Information was collected on the efficiency of seven treatments to increase runoff from the catchment areas and on the productivity of seven crops. The experiments were conducted in arid areas of Washington, Arizona, and Colorado. It was concluded that water harvesting can replace or augment expensive and inadequate supplies of well and river water in arid regions with a suitable climate. These studies showed that some treatments provided adequate runoff to produce a useful crop in the valleys, thus making this alternative approach to restoration technically feasible. This approach was also potentially economically feasible where the treatment costs of the catchment areas were low, the treatment was effective, the crop was productive and valuable, and earthmoving costs were lower than with conventional restoration involving complete leveling of spoil banks. It was also concluded that water harvesting can be made more effective with further information on catchment area treatments, which crops are most adaptable to water harvesting, the optimum incline of the catchment areas and climatic influences on water harvesting.

  4. Assessment of surface and subsurface ground disturbance due to underground mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khair, A.W.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents highlights of the research carried out at West Virginia University in order to assess surface and subsurface ground disturbance due to longwall mining. Extensive instrumentation and measurements have been made over three longwall mines in northern West Virginia during a three-year period. Various monitoring techniques including full profile borehole extensometer, full profile borehole inclinometers, time domain reflectometry, sonic reflection technique, a unique mechanical grouting method, photographic and visual observations, standard surveying, and water-level measurements were utilized. The paper's emphasis is first on surface ground movement and its impact on integrity of surface ground and structures and second on type and magnitude of subsurface ground movements associated with mine geometry and geology. A subsidence prediction model based on implementation of both mechanisms of ground movement around the excavation and the geologic and geotechnical properties of the rock/coal surrounding the excavation has been developed. 8 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab

  5. Disposing of coal combustion residues in inactive surface mines: Effects on water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, A.G.; Ackman, T.E.

    1994-01-01

    The disposal of coal combustion residues (CCR) in surface and underground coal mines can provide a stable, low-maintenance alternative to landfills, benefiting the mining and electric power industries. The material may be able to improve water quality at acid generating abandoned or reclaimed coal mine sites. Most combustion residues are alkaline, and their addition to the subsurface environment could raise the pH, limiting the propagation of pyrite oxidizing bacteria and reducing the rate of acid generation. Many of these CCR are also pozzolanic, capable of forming cementitious grouts. Grouts injected into the buried spoil may decrease its permeability and porosity, diverting water away from the pyritic material. Both mechanisms, alkaline addition and water diversion, are capable of reducing the amount of acid produced at the disposal site. The US Bureau of Mines is cooperating in a test of subsurface injection of CCR into a reclaimed surface mine. Initially, a mixture of fly ash, lime, and acid mine drainage (AMD) sludge was injected. Lime was the source of calcium for the formation of the pozzolanic grout. Changes in water quality parameters (pH, acidity, anions, and trace metals) in water samples from wells and seeps indicate a small but significant improvement after CCR injection. Changes in the concentration of heavy metals in the water flowing across the site were apparently influenced by the presence of flyash

  6. Hydrogeochemical features of surface water and groundwater contaminated with acid mine drainage (AMD) in coal mining areas: a case study in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galhardi, Juliana Aparecida; Bonotto, Daniel Marcos

    2016-09-01

    Effects of acid mine drainage (AMD) were investigated in surface waters (Laranjinha River and Ribeirão das Pedras stream) and groundwaters from a coal mining area sampled in two different seasons at Figueira city, Paraná State, Brazil. The spatial data distribution indicated that the acid effluents favor the chemical elements leaching and transport from the tailings pile into the superficial water bodies or aquifers, modifying their quality. The acid groundwaters in both sampling periods (dry: pH 2.94-6.04; rainy: pH 3.25-6.63) were probably due to the AMD generation and infiltration, after the oxidation of sulfide minerals. Such acid effluents cause an increase of the solubilization rate of metals, mainly iron and aluminum, contributing to both groundwater and surface water contamination. Sulfate in high levels is a result of waters' pollution due to AMD. In some cases, high sulfate and low iron contents, associated with less acidic pH values, could indicate that AMD, previously generated, is nowadays being neutralized. The chemistry of the waters affected by AMD is controlled by the pH, sulfide minerals' oxidation, oxygen, iron content, and microbial activity. It is also influenced by seasonal variations that allow the occurrence of dissolution processes and the concentration of some chemical elements. Under the perspective of the waters' quality evaluation, the parameters such as conductivity, dissolved sodium, and sulfate concentrations acted as AMD indicators of groundwaters and surface waters affected by acid effluents.

  7. Surface structural damage associated with longwall mining near Tuscaloosa, Alabama: a case history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isphording, W.C.

    1992-01-01

    Initially the paper examines the frequency of coal mine subsidence and the influence on surface subsidence of subsurface mining methods, i.e. room and pillar and longwall mining. A case study of the subsidence damage caused to a log house near Tuscaloosa, Alabama (USA), when a longwall panel passed beneath it is presented. The damage resulted in the homeowners suing the mining company for negligence. The article discusses information provided to the plaintiffs attorneys by the author. Aspects covered are: the subsidence and damage to the property; prediction of subsidence; the monitoring of subsidence; and the prevention of subsidence. An out-of-court settlement was agreed by the two parties. 15 refs., 5 figs

  8. The effect of electro-activation and eggshell powder on the neutralization of acid mine drainage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Kastyuchik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Acid mine drainage (AMD production by sulfide mine tailing (SMT is a major environmental preoccupation because it can degrade water surface quality on account of its strong acidity and advanced content of sulfide, iron (Fe and other metals and metalloids. Acid neutralization and the precipitation of metals present in AMD were carried out by electro-activation with ion-exchange membranes, which is based on the self-generation of necessary conditions for acid neutralization and metal precipitation. The treatment of SMT was carried out by using an electro-activation cell generated alkaline solution in the cathode compartment. After 60 min of electro-activation, a pHcatholyte of 7.9–9.6, depending on the experimental conditions, was obtained. The absence of Fe and other trace metal ions in the catholyte provide evidence that the electro-activation of SMT promotes the precipitation of insoluble trace metals in the cathode compartment. This approach can be applied to real conditions in combination with a pretreatment of SMT neutralization, in which biological calcareous amendments are available. Finally, the electro-activation technology of acid mine drainage may be a feasible, cost-effective approach for SMT neutralization because it focuses on sustainable development.

  9. Legal Policy Of Peoples Rights In Around Mining Corporate Post-Mining Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Teng Berlianty; Abrar Saleng; Irwansyah; Suriyaman Mustari Pide

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to gain an understanding of the essence of the rights of communities around post-mining corporate responsibility towards the fulfillment of the rights of communities around post-mining as well as government policies to protect the sustainability of the post-mining communities around the mining business. This type of research is a normative legal research methods using primary legal materials secondary and tertiary. With the approach of sociolegal through down the field in Gebe...

  10. Environmental impact of coal mining and coal seam gas production on surface water quality in the Sydney basin, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, A; Strezov, V; Davies, P; Wright, I

    2017-08-01

    The extraction of coal and coal seam gas (CSG) will generate produced water that, if not adequately treated, will pollute surface and groundwater systems. In Australia, the discharge of produced water from coal mining and related activities is regulated by the state environment agency through a pollution licence. This licence sets the discharge limits for a range of analytes to protect the environment into which the produced water is discharged. This study reports on the impact of produced water from coal mine activities located within or discharging into high conservation environments, such as National Parks, in the outer region of Sydney, Australia. The water samples upstream and downstream from the discharge points from six mines were taken, and 110 parameters were tested. The results were assessed against a water quality index (WQI) which accounts for pH, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, total dissolved solids, total phosphorus, nitrate nitrogen and E .coli. The water quality assessment based on the trace metal contents against various national maximum admissible concentration (MAC) and their corresponding environmental impacts was also included in the study which also established a base value of water quality for further study. The study revealed that impacted water downstream of the mine discharge points contained higher metal content than the upstream reference locations. In many cases, the downstream water was above the Australia and New Zealand Environment Conservation Council and international water quality guidelines for freshwater stream. The major outliers to the guidelines were aluminium (Al), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn). The WQI of surface water at and downstream of the discharge point was lower when compared to upstream or reference conditions in the majority of cases. Toxicology indices of metals present in industrial discharges were used as an additional tool to assess water quality, and the newly

  11. Fifth symposium on surface mining and reclamation. NCA/BCR coal conference and Expo IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-01

    The Fifth Symposium on Surface Mining and Reclamation, sponsored by the National Coal Association and Bituminous Coal Research, Inc., was held at the Kentucky Fair and Exposition Center, Louisville, Kentucky, October 18-20, 1977. Twenty-six papers from the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. Topics covered include spoil bank revegetation, use of aerial photography, reclamation for row crop production, hydrology, computer programs related to this work, subirrigated alluvial valley floors, reclamation on steep slopes, mountain top removal, surface mine road design, successional processes involved in reclamation, land use planning, etc. (LTN)

  12. Autumn olive (Elaeagnus umbellata) presence and proliferation on former surface coal mines in Eastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliphant, Adam J.; Wynne, R.H.; Zipper, Carl E.; Ford, W. Mark; Donovan, P. F.; Li, Jing

    2017-01-01

    Invasive plants threaten native plant communities. Surface coal mines in the Appalachian Mountains are among the most disturbed landscapes in North America, but information about land cover characteristics of Appalachian mined lands is lacking. The invasive shrub autumn olive (Elaeagnus umbellata) occurs on these sites and interferes with ecosystem recovery by outcompeting native trees, thus inhibiting re-establishment of the native woody-plant community. We analyzed Landsat 8 satellite imagery to describe autumn olive’s distribution on post-mined lands in southwestern Virginia within the Appalachian coalfield. Eight images from April 2013 through January 2015 served as input data. Calibration and validation data obtained from high-resolution aerial imagery were used to develop a land cover classification model that identified areas where autumn olive was a primary component of land cover. Results indicate that autumn olive cover was sufficiently dense to enable detection on approximately 12.6 % of post-mined lands within the study area. The classified map had user’s and producer’s accuracies of 85.3 and 78.6 %, respectively, for the autumn olive coverage class. Overall accuracy was assessed in reference to an independent validation dataset at 96.8 %. Autumn olive was detected more frequently on mines disturbed prior to 2003, the last year of known plantings, than on lands disturbed by more recent mining. These results indicate that autumn olive growing on reclaimed coal mines in Virginia and elsewhere in eastern USA can be mapped using Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager imagery; and that autumn olive occurrence is a significant landscape vegetation feature on former surface coal mines in the southwestern Virginia segment of the Appalachian coalfield.

  13. Uranium in Surface Waters and Sediments Affected by Historical Mining in the Denver West 1:100,000 Quadrangle, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Robert A.; Otton, James K.; Schumann, R. Randall; Wirt, Laurie

    2008-01-01

    Geochemical sampling of 82 stream waters and 87 stream sediments within mountainous areas immediately west of Denver, Colorado, was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in October 1994. The primary purpose was to evaluate regionally the effects of geology and past mining on the concentration and distribution of uranium. The study area contains uranium- and thorium-rich bedrock, numerous noneconomic occurrences of uranium minerals, and several uranium deposits of variable size and production history. During the sampling period, local streams had low discharge and were more susceptible to uranium-bearing acid drainage originating from historical mines of base- and precious-metal sulfides. Results indicated that the spatial distribution of Precambrian granites and metamorphic rocks strongly influences the concentration of uranium in stream sediments. Within-stream transport increases the dispersion of uranium- and thorium rich mineral grains derived primarily from granitic source rocks. Dissolved uranium occurs predominantly as uranyl carbonate complexes, and concentrations ranged from less than 1 to 65 micrograms per liter. Most values were less than 5 micrograms per liter, which is less than the current drinking water standard of 30 micrograms per liter and much less than locally applied aquatic-life toxicity standards of several hundred micrograms per liter. In local streams that are affected by uranium-bearing acid mine drainage, dissolved uranium is moderated by dilution and sorptive uptake by stream sediments. Sorbents include mineral alteration products and chemical precipitates of iron- and aluminum-oxyhydroxides, which form where acid drainage enters streams and is neutralized. Suspended uranium is relatively abundant in some stream segments affected by nearby acid drainage, which likely represents mobilization of these chemical precipitates. The 234U/238U activity ratio of acid drainage (0.95-1.0) is distinct from that of local surface waters (more than 1

  14. Utilization of InSAR differential interferometry for surface deformation detection caused by mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, F. [Liaoning Technical Univ., Fuxin (China). School of Geomatics; Shao, Y. [Liaoning Technical Univ., Fuxin (China). Dept. of Foreign Language; Guichen, M. [Gifu Univ., Yanagido, Gifu (Japan). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2010-07-01

    In China, the surface deformation of ground has been a significant geotechnical problem as a result of cracks in the ground surface, collapsing of house, and subsidence of roads. A powerful technology for detecting surface deformation in the ground is differential interferometry using synthetic aperture radar (INSAR). The technology enables the analysis from different phase of micro-wave between two observed data by synthetic aperture radar (SAR) of surface deformation of ground such as ground subsidence, land slide, and slope failure. In January 2006, the advanced land observing satellite was launched by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. This paper presented an analytical investigation to detect ground subsidence or change caused by mining, overuse of ground water, and disaster. Specifically, the paper discussed the INSAR monitoring technology of the mine slope, including INSAR data sources and processing software; the principle of synthetic aperture radar interferometry; principles of differential SAR interferometry; and INSAR technology to slope monitoring of the Haizhou open pit mine. The paper also discussed the Haizhou strip mine side slope INSAR monitoring results and tests. It was concluded that the use of synthetic aperture radar interferometer technique was the optimal technique to provide three-dimensional spatial information and minimal change from ground surface by spatial remote sensing device. 18 refs., 5 figs.

  15. Impact of Mining Activities on Water Resources in the Vicinity of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    T. M. Akabzaa11*, B. K. Banoeng-Yakubo1 and J. S. Seyire2

    1 Department of Geology, P. O. Box LG 58, University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana ... The probe results did not show Hg in mine spoil, and very high Hg values observed in the vicinity of areas of intense illegal small- ... and ground water in the area, and assesses the impact of mining including illegal artisanal mining activities ...

  16. Active Free Surface Density Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelen, S.

    2016-10-01

    Percolation problems were occupied to many physical problems after their establishment in 1957 by Broadbent and Hammersley. They can be used to solve complex systems such as bone remodeling. Volume fraction method was adopted to set some algorithms in the literature. However, different rate of osteoporosis could be observed for different microstructures which have the same mass density, mechanical stimuli, hormonal stimuli and nutrition. Thus it was emphasized that the bone might have identical porosity with different specific surfaces. Active free surface density of bone refers the used total area for its effective free surface. The purpose of this manuscript is to consolidate a mathematical approach which can be called as “active free surface density maps” for different surface patterns and derive their formulations. Active free surface density ratios were calculated for different Archimedean lattice models according to Helmholtz free energy and they were compared with their site and bond percolation thresholds from the background studies to derive their potential probability for bone remodeling.

  17. Mine Waste at The Kherzet Youcef Mine : Environmental Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issaad, Mouloud; Boutaleb, Abdelhak; Kolli, Omar

    2017-04-01

    Mining activity in Algeria has existed since antiquity. But it was very important since the 20th century. This activity has virtually ceased since the beginning of the 1990s, leaving many mine sites abandoned (so-called orphan mines). The abandonment of mining today poses many environmental problems (soil pollution, contamination of surface water, mining collapses...). The mining wastes often occupy large volumes that can be hazardous to the environment and human health, often neglected in the past: Faulting geotechnical implementation, acid mine drainage (AMD), alkalinity, presence of pollutants and toxic substances (heavy metals, cyanide...). The study started already six years ago and it covers all mines located in NE Algeria, almost are stopped for more than thirty years. So the most important is to have an overview of all the study area. After the inventory job of the abandoned mines, the rock drainage prediction will help us to classify sites according to their acid generating potential.

  18. 30 CFR 761.15 - Procedures for waiving the prohibition on surface coal mining operations within the buffer zone...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedures for waiving the prohibition on surface coal mining operations within the buffer zone of an occupied dwelling. 761.15 Section 761.15... surface coal mining operations within the buffer zone of an occupied dwelling. (a) This section does not...

  19. Data Mining Activities for Bone Discipline - Current Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibonga, J. D.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Johnston, S. L.; Arnaud, S. B.

    2008-01-01

    The disciplinary goals of the Human Research Program are broadly discussed. There is a critical need to identify gaps in the evidence that would substantiate a skeletal health risk during and after spaceflight missions. As a result, data mining activities will be engaged to gather reviews of medical data and flight analog data and to propose additional measures and specific analyses. Several studies are briefly reviewed which have topics that partially address these gaps in knowledge, including bone strength recovery with recovery of bone mass density, current renal stone formation knowledge, herniated discs, and a review of bed rest studies conducted at Ames Human Research Facility.

  20. Legal Policy Of Peoples Rights In Around Mining Corporate Post-Mining Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng Berlianty

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to gain an understanding of the essence of the rights of communities around post-mining corporate responsibility towards the fulfillment of the rights of communities around post-mining as well as government policies to protect the sustainability of the post-mining communities around the mining business. This type of research is a normative legal research methods using primary legal materials secondary and tertiary. With the approach of sociolegal through down the field in Gebe to get data concrete. Data were analyzed with qualitative analysis. The results showed that the essence of the rights of communities around mining operations after the mine in the form of the right to a decent life welfare the right to social security in the form of employment the guarantee of free education and healthcare for the local population as well as the right to a good environment and healthy as a guarantee of the continuity of human existence and future generations. These rights have not been fully realized post-mining. Corporate responsibility in accordance with Article 74 of Law No. 40 of 2007 on the fulfillment of the rights of communities around mining operations after the mine in the form of welfare responsibilities clothing food and shelter especially electricity and water have not been met then the social responsibility to empower communities around the mine as stakeholders as well as environmental responsibility. Legal policy such as the empowerment of communities around the mine in order to be self-sufficient after the post-mining public service policies in education and health as a form of existence of government using existing programs nationally and subordinate to the PT. Antam. as well as environmental protection policies in the form of post-mining reclamation formulated in the companys liabilities.

  1. Emission of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons from the Exhalation Zones of Thermally Active Mine Waste Dumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrycja Kuna-Gwoździewicz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents results of research carried out on the occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH in gases of exhalation zones, created on the surface of a thermally active coal mine waste dump. The oxidation and self-heating of mine waste are accompanied with the intensive emission of flue gases, including PAH group compounds. Taking into consideration the fact the hydrocarbons show strong genotoxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic properties, research was conducted to establish their content in the examined gases. The research object was a gangue dump located in Rybnik. The research was performed in 2012. In total, 24 samples of gas were collected with PUF (polyurethane foam sampling cartridges with a quartz fibre filter and an aspirator. The collected samples were analysed with the use of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and a fluorescence detector (FLD to evaluate the amount of PAH present.

  2. 77 FR 62266 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Daily Inspection of Surface Coal Mines...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-12

    ... collections of information in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. This program helps to assure that requested data can be provided in the desired format, reporting burden (time and financial... Extension of Existing Information Collection; Daily Inspection of Surface Coal Mines; Certified Person...

  3. Baseline studies and evaluation of effects of surface discharge of deep-sea mining - INDEX area

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSousa, S.N.; Sardessai, S.

    . An evaluation of possible effects of surface discharge of mining fines - a slurry consisting of fine nodule fragments, bottom water and sediments - suggests that the discharge, with an expected solid content of 50 g/l, will induce increased primary production...

  4. Reforestation species study on a reclaimed surface mine in western Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay A. Engle

    1980-01-01

    Westvaco Forest Research established a species comparison test including eighteen species of trees in the spring of 1978 on a recently reclaimed surface mine in Garrett County, Maryland. After two growing seasons height growth of all species has not been impressive. Seven species have better than 75 percent survival with pitch pine being best. Seven other species have...

  5. Reforestation Efforts in Indiana Following the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen D. Fillmore; John W. Groninger

    2004-01-01

    During the summer of 2002, data were collected from 22 post-Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act sites in southwestern Indiana. Tree growth across these sites was generally poor, with site index values typically less than 40 feet (base age 50) for upland oaks. Robinina pseudoacacia (black locust) was observed to be the primary overstory tree...

  6. Blasting injuries in surface mining with emphasis on flyrock and blast area security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajpayee, T.S.; Rehak, T.R.; Mowrey, G.L.; Ingram, D.K. [NIOSH, Pittsburgh, PA (USA). Pittsburgh Research Lab.

    2004-07-01

    Blasting is a hazardous component of surface mining. Serious injuries and fatalities result from improper judgment or practice during rock blasting. This paper describes several fatal injury case studies, analyzes causative factors, and emphasizes preventive measures. During the 21-year period from 1978 to 1998, the mean yearly explosive-related injuries (fatal and nonfatal) for surface coal mines was 8.86 (95% CI: 6.38-11.33), and for surface metal/nonmetal mines 10.76 (95% CI: 8.39-13.14). Flyrock and lack of blast area security accounted for 68.2% of these injuries. Case studies indicate that the causative factors for fatal injuries are primarily personal and task-related and to some extent environmental. A reduction in the annual injuries in surface coal mines was observed during the 10-year period of 1989-1998 (5.80 (95% CI: 2.71-8.89)) compared to the previous 10-year period of 1979-1988 (10.90 (95% CI: 7.77-14.14)). However, such reduction was not noticed in the metal/nometal sector (i.e., 9.30 (95% CI: 6.84-11.76) for the period 1989-1998 compared with 11.00 (95% CI: 7.11-14.89) for the period 1979-1988). Discussion of case studies during safety meetings will help to mitigate fatal injuries and derive important payoffs in terms of lower risks and costs of injuries.

  7. Modeling forest ecosystem changes resulting from surface coal mining in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Brown; Andrew J. Lister; Mary Ann Fajvan; Bonnie Ruefenacht; Christine Mazzarella

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this project is to assess the effects of surface coal mining on forest ecosystem disturbance and restoration in the Coal River Subbasin in southern West Virginia. Our approach is to develop disturbance impact models for this subbasin that will serve as a case study for testing the feasibility of integrating currently available GIS data layers, remote...

  8. Selective bibliography of surface coal mining and reclamation literature. Volume 2. Interior Coal Province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patricoski, M. L.; Daniels, L. K.; Sobek, A. A.

    1979-08-01

    This bibliography has been compiled for use by researchers, students, and other groups who need a reference source of published literature related to surface coal mining and reclamation in the Interior Coal Province. This bibliography contains more than 1300 references, including government reports, journal articles, symposium proceedings, industrial reports, workshop proceedings, theses, and bibliographies. A simple format was used to categorize citations.

  9. Reclamation of lands disturbed by mining activities in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Kirilov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Disturbed by the mining industry area in Bulgaria is about 24.113 ha of which only 8.253 ha are reclaimed. Reclamation of disturbed areas covers a complex of engineering, technical, ameliorative, agricultural, forestry and other activities, which aim at restoration of the disturbed terrains and their re-entry into economic turnover in accordance with environmental conditions and area landscape. All disturbed lands as well as their adjacent areas that have completely or partially lost productivity as a result of the negative impact of mining activities and land damage are subject to reclamation. Land reclamation is a two-step process which includes: technical reclamation and biological reclamation. Technical reclamation is performed by the land owner and covers cleaning and preparation of the terrain, leveling, final formation and laying a humus soil layer on site by adding appropriate “improvers” (e.g. fertilizers, texture enhancers, etc.. Biological reclamation covers restoration of the productivity of the disturbed areas. Reclamation technologies applied in Bulgaria as a whole have led to a state of these territories that requires both maintenance and search for new ways of integration of the reclaimed landscapes with modern economic activities. The aim of the study is analysis and applying reliable modern practices that ensure good results in visual qualities of landscape and more options for future use of the reclaimed land.

  10. Development of near surface seismic methods for urban and mining applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malehmir, Alireza; Brodic, Bojan; Place, Joachim; Juhlin, Christopher; Bastani, Mehrdad

    2014-05-01

    There is a great need to improve our understanding of the geological conditions in the shallow subsurface. Direct observations of the subsurface are cumbersome and expensive, and sometimes impossible. Urban and mining areas are especially challenging due to various sources of noise such as from traffic, buildings, cars, city trains, trams, bridges and high-voltage power-lines. Access is also restricted both in time and space, which requires the equipment to be versatile, fast to set up and pack, and produces the least disruptions. However, if properly designed and implemented, geophysical methods are capable of imaging detailed subsurface structures and can successfully be used to provide crucial information for site characterizations, infrastructure planning, brown- and near-field exploration, and mine planning. To address some of these issues Uppsala University, in collaboration with a number of public authorities, research organizations and industry partners, has recently developed a prototype broadband (0-800 Hz based on digital sensors) multi-component seismic landstreamer system. The current configuration consists of three segments with twenty 3C-sensors each 2 m apart and an additional segment with twenty 3C-sensors each 4 m apart, giving a total streamer length of 200 m. These four segments can be towed in parallel or in series, which in combination with synchronized wireless and cabled sensors can address a variety of complex near surface problems. The system is especially geared for noisy environments and areas where high-resolution images of the subsurface are needed. The system has little sensitivity to electrical noise and measures sensor tilt, important in rough terrains, so it can immediately be corrected for during the acquisition. Thanks to the digital sensors, the system can also be used for waveform tomography and multi-channel analysis of surface waves (MASW). Both these methods require low frequencies and these are often sacrificed in

  11. Assessment of the Pollutants in Soils and Surface Waters Around Gümüşköy Silver Mine (Kütahya, Turkey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Şebnem; Çelik, Mehmet

    2015-10-01

    Heavy metal concentrations in surface water and soil samples around Gümüşköy Silver Mine, located in Köprüören Basin, were determined to evaluate the anthropogenic level of contamination due to mining activities. The mean concentrations of As, Pb, Sb and Cd in 12 soil samples came out to be 1193, 844, 66 and 19 ppm, respectively. Soil pollution assessment was carried out by using geoaccumulation index (Igeo), enrichment factor (EF) and pollution index (PI). Igeo, EF and PI suggest anthropogenic pollution of As, Pb, Sb and Zn in the areas where there is leakage of these heavy metals from the waste pools of the silver mine facility. Water samples collected from the surface waters also have elevated concentrations of these heavy metals. The contaminants are most probably transported by surface waters in the rainy season.

  12. Evaluation of water quality in surface water and shallow groundwater: a case study of a rare earth mining area in southern Jiangxi Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xiuzhen; Wang, Dengjun; Wang, Peiran; Wang, Yuxia; Zhou, Dongmei

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the quality of surface water and shallow groundwater near a rare earth mining area in southern Jiangxi Province, China. Water samples from paddy fields, ponds, streams, wells, and springs were collected and analyzed. The results showed that water bodies were characterized by low pH and high concentrations of total nitrogen (total N), ammonium nitrogen (NH4 (+)-N), manganese (Mn), and rare earth elements (REEs), which was likely due to residual chemicals in the soil after mining activity. A comparison with the surface water standard (State Environmental Protection Administration & General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of China GB3838, 2002) and drinking water sanitary standard (Ministry of Health & National Standardization Management Committee of China GB5749, 2006) of China revealed that 88 % of pond and stream water samples investigated were unsuitable for agricultural use and aquaculture water supply, and 50 % of well and spring water samples were unsuitable for drinking water. Moreover, significant cerium (Ce) negative and heavy REEs enrichment was observed after the data were normalized to the Post-Archean Australian Shales (PAAS). Principal component analysis indicated that the mining activity had a more significant impact on local water quality than terrace field farming and poultry breeding activities. Moreover, greater risk of water pollution and adverse effects on local residents' health was observed with closer proximity to mining sites. Overall, these findings indicate that effective measures to prevent contamination of surrounding water bodies from the effects of mining activity are needed.

  13. Tailings From Mining Activities, Impact on Groundwater, and Remediation

    OpenAIRE

    Khalid Al-Rawahy

    2001-01-01

    Effluent wastes from mining operations and beneficiation processes are comprized mostly of the following pollutants: total suspended solids (TTS), alkalinity or acidity (pH), settleable solids, iron in ferrous mining, and dissolved metals in nonferrous mining. Suspended solids consist of small particles of solid pollutants that resist separation by conventional means. A number of dissolved metals are considered toxic pollutants. The major metal pollutants present in ore mining and beneficiati...

  14. Surface deformation in areas of abandoned mining: a case study of InSAR applied in the Northumberland region of the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccormack, Harry; Bateson, Luke; Banton, Carl; Holley, Rachel; Lawrence, David; Cigna, Francesca; Watson, Ian; Burren, Richard

    2013-04-01

    The United Kingdom has a rich history of coal mining probably dating back to Roman times, and this was a driving force behind the industrial revolution. Although the amount of mining has decreased significantly in recent years, the effects of mining on ground stability are widespread, complex and under-monitored. The Coal Authority is responsible for protecting the public and environment in coal mining areas. Particularly they are responsible for administering coal mining subsidence damage claims and preventing problems due to rising groundwater in old mining areas. Drawing on the expertise of Fugro NPA (FNPA) and the British Geological Survey (BGS), the aim of this project was to show how a wide-area ground stability dataset with associated geological interpretation could help the Coal Authority better administer their subsidence claims and groundwater management. This work was performed within the Terrafirma project. The study area chosen was the Northumberland and Durham coalfield where the last active mine closed in 2005. More than 20 seams have been mined and as depths increased this led to the need to pump water to prevent the mines from flooding. As the mines shut down the pumping stopped, causing the water level to rise and recover. Using interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) techniques FNPA produced a surface deformation dataset which was interpreted by BGS to add value in the form of geological interpretation. The dataset covers two epochs; 1995-2000 and 2002-2008. During the earlier epoch eight to nine 'hotspots' of subsidence were identified, mainly in the south of the study area. All but one of the subsidence areas shows a strong spatial correlation with areas of past mining. However there is a discrepancy in the timing of InSAR deformations and the timing of subsidence that would be expected given the type of workings. It is suspected that the spatial and temporal pattern of deformation relates not only to material extraction but also to

  15. NASA Lunar Mining and Construction Activities and Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Gerald B.; Larson, William E.; Sacksteder, Kurt R.

    2009-01-01

    The Space Exploration Policy enacted by the US Congress in 2005 calls for the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to implement a sustained and affordable human and robotic program to explore the solar system and beyond; Extend human presence across the solar system, starting with a human return to the Moon by the year 2020, in preparation for human exploration of Mars and other destinations; Develop the innovative technologies, knowledge, and infrastructures both to explore and to support decisions about the destinations for human exploration; and Promote international and commercial participation in exploration to further U.S. scientific, security, and economic interests. In 2006, NASA released the Lunar Architecture Study, which proposed establishing a lunar Outpost on the Moon with international participation to extend human presence beyond Earth's orbit, pursue scientific activities, use the Moon to prepare for future human missions to Mars, and expand Earth s economic sphere. The establishment of sustained human presence on the Moon for science and exploration combines the design, integration, and operation challenges experienced from both the short Apollo lunar missions and the build-up and sustained crew operations of the International Space Station (ISS). Apollo experience reminds developers and mission planners that hardware must operate under extremely harsh environmental and abrasive conditions and every kilogram of mass and payload must be critical to achieve the mission s objectives due to the difficulty and cost of reaching the lunar surface. Experience from the ISS reminds developers and mission planners that integration of all hardware must be designed and planned from the start of the program, operations and evolution of capabilities on a continuous basis are important, and long-term life-cycle costs and logistical needs are equally or more important than minimizing early development and test costs. Overarching all of this is

  16. Memorandum of Understanding on Surface Coal Mining Operations Resulting in Placement of Excess Spoil Fills in the Waters of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    MOU on Surface Coal Mining Operations establishes a process for improving coordination in the review of permit applications required for surface coal mining and reclamation in waters of the United States

  17. On Future Coal Mining and Human Underground Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Petras, L.

    1980-01-01

    The IIASA Research Program for 1980 includes two Industry Studies under the general heading "Issues for the Eighties". The first of these industry studies is in Coal, in particular hard coal mining underground. This Professional Paper provides background material for a discussion of new mining technologies, e.g., robot mining devices, to be considered in the context of anticipated shortage of underground manpower.

  18. The Impact of Mining Activity upon the Aquatic Environment in the Southern Apuseni Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIGISMUND DUMA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Southern Apuseni Mountains, mining activities have taken place since Antiquity, leaving their marks upon the natural environment, the aquatic one inclusively. If the traditional technologies had a low impact upon the aquatic environment, the ones in the modern period have affected it up to the “dead water” level. It is about the disorganization of the hydrographical basins and especially about aggressive pollution of surface waters with some of the most toxic chemical substances such as cyanides, as well as by an increase in the contents of metallic ions, chlorides, sulphides, sulphates, suspensions and fixed residuum. The decrease in pH, and implicitly the acidification of waters, is also remarkable. It must be mentioned that no systematic studies of the impact of mining activities upon the aquatic environment have been conducted in the area in the last years. In these conditions, the data about water quality have been taken over from the studies conducted by author between 1996 and 1998. The cause of the lack of concern in the field is no other but the cease in ore valorization activities in the majority of the mining objectives in the area. As none of the tailings settling ponds has guard canals, the direct pluvial waters and the ones drained from the slopes transport tailings with noxes which they subsequently discharge in the local pluvial network. In these conditions, both the quality of the mine waters which run freely into the emissary and of the ones that flow from the waste dumps remain mainly in the qualitative parameters analyzed and presented in the study.

  19. Weathering behavior of mine tailings and waste rock: A surface investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domvile, S.J.; Li, M.G.; Sollner, D.D.; Nesbitt, W.

    1994-01-01

    A study focusing on the ion movement in the near surface of sulfide minerals was conducted to better understand the weathering mechanisms of mine waste materials. Tailings and waste rock samples from Canadian mines were subjected to controlled weathering studies using various chemical leachants. Leachates were analyzed for various parameters, and petrographic analyses were conducted on the solid residues. Laboratory oxidation studies of pure pyrrhotite and arsenopyrite were carried out using the surface techniques X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and auger electron spectroscopy (AES). The data derived from the weathering study and the surface techniques were correlated to determine mechanisms of oxidation. Several results were observed during the project: ferric iron constitutes one third of the iron present in pyrrhotite, sulfide oxidation is initiated when rock is blasted, sulfide sulfur is oxidized to di- and poly-sulfides prior to forming sulfates, and significantly more sulfate is produced upon exposure to aqueous environments than to air alone

  20. Enhancement Experiment on Cementitious Activity of Copper-Mine Tailings in a Geopolymer System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Yu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Copper-mine tailings are the residual products after the extraction of precious copper metal from copper ores, and their storage can create numerous environmental problems. Many researchers have used copper-mine tailings for the preparation of geopolymers. This paper studies the enhancement of the cementitious activity of copper-mine tailings in geopolymer systems. First, copper-mine tailings are activated through mechanical grinding activation. Then, the mechanically activated copper-mine tailings are further processed through thermal activation and alkaline-roasting activation. The cementitious activity index of copper-mine tailings is characterized through the degree of leaching concentration of Si and Al. It was observed that the Si and Al leaching concentration of mechanically activated tailings was increased by 26.03% and 93.33%, respectively. The concentration of Si and Al was increased by 54.19% and 119.92%, respectively. For alkaline-roasting activation, roasting time, temperature and the mass ratio of copper-mine tailings to NaOH (C/N ratio were evaluated through orthogonal tests, and the best condition for activation was 120 min at 600 °C with a C/N ratio of 5:1. In this study, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD and infra-red (IR analysis show that mechanical, thermal and alkaline-roasting activation could be used to improve the cementitious activity index of copper-mine tailings.

  1. Preferential flow characteristics of reclaimed mine soils in a surface coal mine dump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gang, Lv; Jun, Li; Yexin, Li; Ting, Wang; Yazhuo, Liu; Xinyang, Fu

    2017-06-01

    % of the total soil profile (0∼60 cm). Moreover, a Pearson correlation was used to analyze the relationship between environmental factors (soil, water, and plant factors) and the dye coverage ratio. The dye coverage ratio of soil preferential flow under different reclamation vegetations was very significantly or significantly positively correlated with the gravel content, mean radius of soil macropores, soil saturated hydraulic conductivity, root weight density, and root length density, which promoted the formation and development of soil preferential flow. This study will provide a scientific basis for understanding the formation mechanism and perfecting the research system of soil preferential flow, vegetation restoration, and reconstruction in a dump; furthermore, this research offers significance guidance in the construction of green mines and the development of regional economics.

  2. Fish and wildlife evaluation of wetlands created by mining activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kepler, S.R.; Sabolcik, T.M.

    1994-01-01

    Four lacustrine wetland systems in Pennsylvania created by mining activities, either by sand and gravel or bituminous coal removal, were samples to determine the functional values of the fish and wildlife habitat. Most of the sampled sites were remnants of pre-act (1977) mining where minimal, if any, reclamation techniques were used. Natural succession within these impoundments have created ecosystems different in quality based on the availability of suitable habitat. Sampling techniques used to evaluate the wetland systems included initial water quality analyses, and aquatic habitat mapping using visual observations, LCD recorder, and computerized chart recorder. Fish populations were sampled using a boat mounted D.C. electrofishing unit with game fish being collected, weighted and measured and population estimates calculated as catch per unit effort (CPUE). Wildlife utilization of each site was conducted during the spring nesting season. Each site was surveyed for species utilization, nest searches determined whether nesting occurred and nesting success was noted. Wildlife utilization was determined by observation, tracks, calls, scat, etc. Whenever possible sites were monitored during the fall migration period to determine whether the sites were being utilized by migratory waterfowl. Wetland vegetative studies were also conducted at each site. Wetland species were identified and concentrations and dispersion of each wetland species were noted. Each sampled wetland data set is presented separately because of the variabilities between sampled sites based on the geology, reclamation status, and habitat

  3. Surface water quality associated with the surface mining of Iowa coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulliford, J.B.; Wildman, R.B.; Payne, L.K.

    1977-11-07

    The findings of an exhaustive study of coal mining and coal preparation industries are reviewed for the purpose of developing limitation guidelines and performance standards. Successful technologies are discussed for treatment of acid mine water collected in settling ponds. A combination of limestone (less expensive, safer to handle, most effective at low pH levels) and lime (more effective in neutralizing at higher pH's) is recommended when cost is an important consideration, as in Iowa mining. We recommend two ponds, with raw water entering the second pond after treatment with limestone/lime on a regulated dose/flow rate with thorough mixing. The second pond would serve a clarifying purpose for settling of the floc of insoluble sulfates and hydroxides. Adequate retention time is important before discharge of the effluent to the receiving stream. We are confident that the effluent from this secondary pond could be expected to meet EPA and DEQ standards if the pH of the treated water were raised to 7 to 9. EPA has documented these performance standards at the mining operations included in their study. The engineering and application costs of this treatment method should be well within reach of Iowa mining companies.

  4. Hydroxamic acid surface active agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Sawy, A. A.

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available p-Hydroxy phenyloctadecanol and p-hydroxy phenyloctadecanoic acid were used as new precursors for the preparation of surface active hydroxamic acid including different moles of propylene oxide. The hydroxamic acid was prepared by the reaction of propenoxylated products with sodium chloroacetate, followed by methyl esterification and the resultant product reacted with hydroxyl amine hydrochloride to give the hydroxamic acid. The structures of prepared hydroxamic acid were confirmed by spectroscopic study. The surface activity of prepared hydroxamic acid was studied; the results revealed that, the prepared hydroxamic acid has pronounced surface activity, the alcohol substrate shows a surface activity superior than the acid substrate.Se han utilizado el p-hidroxifeniloctadecanol y el ácido p-hidroxifeniloctadecanoico como nuevos precursores para la preparación de tensioactivos derivados del ácido hidroxámico, que incluyen diferentes moles de óxido de propileno. El ácido hidroxámico se preparó por reacción de los productos propenoxilados con cloroacetato sódico, seguido de la formación de ésteres metílicos, y los productos resultantes se hicieron reaccionar con clorhidrato de hidroxilamina para dar los derivados del ácido hidroxámico. Las estructuras de los derivados preparados del ácido hidroxámico, se confirmaron por técnicas espectroscópicas, estudiándose su actividad superficial cuyos resultados mostraron que dichos compuestos tenían un alto valor. La actividad superficial del sustrato alcohólico fue mayor que la del sustrato ácido.

  5. Resilience of benthic deep-sea fauna to mining activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollner, Sabine; Kaiser, Stefanie; Menzel, Lena; Jones, Daniel O B; Brown, Alastair; Mestre, Nelia C; van Oevelen, Dick; Menot, Lenaick; Colaço, Ana; Canals, Miquel; Cuvelier, Daphne; Durden, Jennifer M; Gebruk, Andrey; Egho, Great A; Haeckel, Matthias; Marcon, Yann; Mevenkamp, Lisa; Morato, Telmo; Pham, Christopher K; Purser, Autun; Sanchez-Vidal, Anna; Vanreusel, Ann; Vink, Annemiek; Martinez Arbizu, Pedro

    2017-08-01

    With increasing demand for mineral resources, extraction of polymetallic sulphides at hydrothermal vents, cobalt-rich ferromanganese crusts at seamounts, and polymetallic nodules on abyssal plains may be imminent. Here, we shortly introduce ecosystem characteristics of mining areas, report on recent mining developments, and identify potential stress and disturbances created by mining. We analyze species' potential resistance to future mining and perform meta-analyses on population density and diversity recovery after disturbances most similar to mining: volcanic eruptions at vents, fisheries on seamounts, and experiments that mimic nodule mining on abyssal plains. We report wide variation in recovery rates among taxa, size, and mobility of fauna. While densities and diversities of some taxa can recover to or even exceed pre-disturbance levels, community composition remains affected after decades. The loss of hard substrata or alteration of substrata composition may cause substantial community shifts that persist over geological timescales at mined sites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Intervention strategies to eliminate truck-related fatalities in surface coal mining in West Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng; Kecojevic, Vladislav

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this review was to build upon a previous study on the root causes of truck-related fatalities in surface coal mining operations in West Virginia, and to develop intervention strategies to eliminate these fatalities. This review considers a two-pronged approach to accident prevention: one that is fundamental and traditional (safety regulations, training and education, and engineering of the work environment); and one that is innovative and creative (e.g., applying technological advances to better control and eliminate the root causes of accidents). Suggestions for improving current training and education system are proposed, and recommendations are provided on improving the safety of mine working conditions, specifically safety conditions on haul roads, dump sites, and loading areas. We also discuss various currently available technologies that can help prevent haul truck-related fatal accidents. The results of this review should be used by mine personnel to help create safer working conditions and decrease truck-related fatalities in surface coal mining.

  7. Radiological impact of surface water and sediment near uranium mining sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, K; Stojanovska, Z; Badulin, V; Kunovska, B; Yovcheva, M

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the radiological impact of surface water and sediment around uranium mining sites 20 years after their closing. The areas under observations are 31 former classical underground uranium mining and exploratory sites in Bulgaria, named as objects. The extraction and processing of uranium ores in the Republic of Bulgaria were ended in 1992. To assess the radiological impact of radionuclides field expeditions were performed to sample water and bottom sediment. The migration of uranium through surface water was examined as one of the major pathways for contamination spread. The range of uranium concentration in water flowing from the mining sites was from 0.012 to 6.8 mgU l(-1) with a geometric mean of 0.192 mgU l(-1). The uranium concentrations in water downstream the mining sites were approximately 3 times higher than the background value (upstream). The concentrations of Unat, (226)Ra, (210)Pb, and (232)Th in the sediment of downstream river were higher than those upstream by 3.4, 2.6, 2, and 1.7 times, respectively. The distribution coefficient of uranium reflects its high mobility in most of the sites. In order to evaluate the impact on people as well as site prioritization for more detailed assessment and water management, screening dose assessments were done.

  8. Effects of lignite surface mining on local communities: controversies and areas of negotiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badera Jarosław

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Selecting locations for lignite mining and power generation complexes has been the subject of intense controversy. As a result, there have been many conflicts in society due to environmental and economic concerns. This paper poses the question of how lignite surface mining affects local communities. These effects may be both negative and positive and some of them are intangible. It is very difficult to balance the pros and cons objectively as it depends on the assumed objectives and criteria of the analysis. Different social and economic structures in different communities, and various additional factors, are just some of the reasons why this balance may significantly differ around a country. The authors hold opposing views on the role of lignite in the energy mix and the balance of negative and positive effects that surface mining exerts on local communities. They agree, however, that the most important elements of the societal debate on lignite mining have not yet been adequately studied or presented in public discourse. The authors propose to introduce the procedure of Social Impact Assessment to the Polish legal system. This could be effective as a means to prevent many conflicts in the energy sector and be the best way to reach a compromise.

  9. Suitability of dredged material for reclamation of surface-mined land. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, W.; Van Luik, A.

    1979-12-01

    Eroding ridges of acidic coal-mine spoil in La Salle County, Illinois, were leveled to form a gently-sloped raised plateau. Four test plots were constructed: a control plot and three treatment plots that received a 0.9-m-thick cover of dredged material obtained from the Metropolitan Sanitary District of Greater Chicago. Two treatment plots received lime applications and all plots were seeded with a mixture of grasses. Pressure-vacuum soil water samplers were installed, in duplicate, at two levels in the control plot and at three levels in each treatment plot. The three levels in the treatment plots coincided with dredged material, the dredged-material mine-spoil interface, and the underlying mine spoil. Surface water, soil water, and groundwater were monitored for 29 water-quality parameters for one year. Rainfall, air temperature, runoff, and water-level elevation data were collected also. Detailed analysis of the data indicates that the dredged material used in this study does not adversely affect water quality; it supports abundant plant growth, lessens groundwater contamination, and controls acid runoff. The dredged material is judged to be a suitable material for use in reclamation of surface-mined land.

  10. Abandoned Smolník mine (Slovakia – a catchment area affected by mining activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lintnerová, Otília

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Smolník is a historical Cu-mining area that was exploited from the 14th century to 1990. The Smolník mine was definitively closed and flooded in 1990–1994. Acid mine drainage discharging from the flooded mine (pH = 3.83, Fe = 542 mg/l, SO42– = 3642 mg/l, Cu = 1880 µg/l, Zn = 9599 µg/l, As = 108 mg/l acidified and contaminated the Smolník Creek water, which transported pollution into the Hnilec River catchment. The Smolník mine waste area has been used as a model area to document pollution of waters, stream sediments, and soils by metals and other toxic elements. Major goals of this complex study were to document creek water transport of the main pollutants (Fe, sulphates, Cu, Al, As, etc. in the form of suspended solids, to investigate elements mobility in common mine waste (rock and processing waste heaps and tailing impoundment and in the soil on the basis of neutralization and leach experiments. Different methodologies and techniques for sampling and chemical and mineralogical characterization of samples were used and checked to evaluate environmental risk of this abandoned mine area.

  11. Online Nonparametric Bayesian Activity Mining and Analysis From Surveillance Video.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastani, Vahid; Marcenaro, Lucio; Regazzoni, Carlo S

    2016-05-01

    A method for online incremental mining of activity patterns from the surveillance video stream is presented in this paper. The framework consists of a learning block in which Dirichlet process mixture model is employed for the incremental clustering of trajectories. Stochastic trajectory pattern models are formed using the Gaussian process regression of the corresponding flow functions. Moreover, a sequential Monte Carlo method based on Rao-Blackwellized particle filter is proposed for tracking and online classification as well as the detection of abnormality during the observation of an object. Experimental results on real surveillance video data are provided to show the performance of the proposed algorithm in different tasks of trajectory clustering, classification, and abnormality detection.

  12. Metal dispersion resulting from mining activities in coastal environments: A pathways approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koski, Randolph A.

    2012-01-01

    Acid rock drainage (ARD) and disposal of tailings that result from mining activities impact coastal areas in many countries. The dispersion of metals from mine sites that are both proximal and distal to the shoreline can be examined using a pathways approach in which physical and chemical processes guide metal transport in the continuum from sources (sulfide minerals) to bioreceptors (marine biota). Large amounts of metals can be physically transported to the coastal environment by intentional or accidental release of sulfide-bearing mine tailings. Oxidation of sulfide minerals results in elevated dissolved metal concentrations in surface waters on land (producing ARD) and in pore waters of submarine tailings. Changes in pH, adsorption by insoluble secondary minerals (e.g., Fe oxyhydroxides), and precipitation of soluble salts (e.g., sulfates) affect dissolved metal fluxes. Evidence for bioaccumulation includes anomalous metal concentrations in bivalves and reef corals, and overlapping Pb isotope ratios for sulfides, shellfish, and seaweed in contaminated environments. Although bioavailability and potential toxicity are, to a large extent, functions of metal speciation, specific uptake pathways, such as adsorption from solution and ingestion of particles, also play important roles. Recent emphasis on broader ecological impacts has led to complementary methodologies involving laboratory toxicity tests and field studies of species richness and diversity.

  13. Development of a new mathematical model for prediction of surface subsidence due to inclined coal-seam mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asadi, A.; Shahriar, K.; Goshtasbi, K.; Najm, K. [Islam Azad University, Tehran (Iran). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    2005-01-01

    Subsidence phenomenon as an unwanted consequence of underground mining can cause problems for environment and surface structures in mine area. Surface subsidence prediction for inclined and steep seams has been given less attention than horizontal seams due to the difficulties involved in the extraction of such coal-seams. This paper introduces a new profile function method for prediction of surface subsidence due to inclined coal-seam mining. The results of calculation with the new function indicate that the predicted value has good agreement with the measured data.

  14. Localization of Surface or Near-surface Drifting Mines for Unmanned Systems in the Persian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    many cases of interdiction mining, the minefields are covertly laid off enemy ports or assets. Once such a minefield is discovered , the port in...few days, and density-driven currents or thermohaline circulation varies over a period of weeks. The strong tidal currents create a bottom, mechanical

  15. Integrated approach to assess the environmental impact of mining activities: estimation of the spatial distribution of soil contamination (Panasqueira mining area, Central Portugal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candeias, Carla; Ávila, Paula F; Ferreira da Silva, Eduardo; Teixeira, João Paulo

    2015-03-01

    Through the years, mining and beneficiation processes in Panasqueira Sn-W mine (Central Portugal) produced large amounts of As-rich mine wastes laid up in huge tailings and open-air impoundments (Barroca Grande and Rio tailings) that are the main source of pollution in the surrounding area once they are exposed to the weathering conditions leading to the formation of acid mine drainage (AMD) and consequently to the contamination of the surrounding environments, particularly soils. The active mine started the exploration during the nineteenth century. This study aims to look at the extension of the soil pollution due to mining activities and tailing erosion by combining data on the degree of soil contamination that allows a better understanding of the dynamics inherent to leaching, transport, and accumulation of some potential toxic elements in soil and their environmental relevance. Soil samples were collected in the surrounding soils of the mine, were digested in aqua regia, and were analyzed for 36 elements by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Selected results are that (a) an association of elements like Ag, As, Bi, Cd, Cu, W, and Zn strongly correlated and controlled by the local sulfide mineralization geochemical signature was revealed; (b) the global area discloses significant concentrations of As, Bi, Cd, and W linked to the exchangeable and acid-soluble bearing phases; and (c) wind promotes the mechanical dispersion of the rejected materials, from the milled waste rocks and the mineral processing plant, with subsequent deposition on soils and waters. Arsenic- and sulfide-related heavy metals (such as Cu and Cd) are associated to the fine materials that are transported in suspension by surface waters or associated to the acidic waters, draining these sites and contaminating the local soils. Part of this fraction, especially for As, Cd, and Cu, is temporally retained in solid phases by precipitation of soluble secondary minerals (through

  16. 78 FR 45051 - Small Business Size Standards; Support Activities for Mining; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... Industry Classification System (NAICS) Subsector 213, Support Activities for Mining, that are based on... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 121 RIN 3245-AG44 Small Business Size Standards; Support Activities for Mining; Correction AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Final rule; correction...

  17. The use of geographical information system (GIS) technology in surface mine reclamation monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, C.

    1999-01-01

    The use of a Geographic Information System (GIS) and related technologies (e.g., Digital cartographic tools, satellite image processing systems) can benefit the planning and monitoring of open-pit mine reclamation activities. PCI Geomatics, in conjunction with Luscar Limited's Line Creek Mine, has developed a GIS-based system designed to store information relevant to planning and assessing reclamation progress. Data that existed in various formats throughout the company, and which had been collected since the mine-planning phase, was integrated into the GIS. The system is used to summarize current reclamation activities and is linked to corporate costing procedures. Monitoring of reclamation activities and quantifying change in the mine area is easily done using the spatial analysis capabilities of the GIS. Assessments of the change in reclamation areas are enhanced by using satellite image data to produce inexpensive and timely information on the land base, and allow the comparison of the health of the vegetation to reclamation areas from year to year. The implemented system substantially reduces the time needed to generate statistics and produce maps for government or internal reports. Also, there are benefits in terms of both cost and effectiveness of reclamation planning

  18. Indoor metallic pollution related to mining activity in the Bolivian Altiplano

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonturbel, Francisco E.; Barbieri, Enio; Herbas, Cristian; Barbieri, Flavia L.; Gardon, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    The environmental pollution associated with mining and metallurgical activities reaches its greatest extent in several Andean cities and villages. Many locations in this area have accumulated through centuries a large amount of mining wastes, often disregarding the magnitude of this situation. However, in these naturally mineralized regions, there is little information available stating the exact role of mining and metallurgical industries in urban pollution. In this study, we demonstrated that the various metallic elements present in indoor dust (As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Sb, Sn, Zn) had a common origin and this contamination was increased by the proximity to the mines. Lead dust concentration was found at concerning levels for public health. In addition, wrong behaviors such as carrying mining workwear home contributed to this indoor dust pollution. Consequently, the constant exposure of the population could represent a potential health hazard for vulnerable groups, especially children. - Highlights: → We measured polymetallic pollution in household indoor dust from a mining town. → Toxic elements (Pb, As, Cd, Sb) in dust are correlated, suggesting a common origin. → The most polluted houses are within a 1 km radius around the mining center. → Carrying mining workwear home increases indoor pollution. → Lead concentrations in dust represent a serious concern for Public Health (600 μg/g). - In a typical Andean mining city, the urban indoor pollution with toxic metallic elements is directly related to the closeness of the mining activities.

  19. Indoor metallic pollution related to mining activity in the Bolivian Altiplano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonturbel, Francisco E., E-mail: fonturbel@ug.uchile.cl [Departamento de Ciencias Ecologicas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Barbieri, Enio [IRD-HSM (Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement), La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); Herbas, Cristian [Universidad Mayor de San Andres, IGEMA Institute (Instituto de Investigaciones Geologicas y del Medio Ambiente), La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); Barbieri, Flavia L.; Gardon, Jacques [IRD-HSM (Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement), La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); Universidad Mayor de San Andres, SELADIS Institute (Instituto de Servicios de Laboratorio para el Diagnostico e Investigacion en Salud), La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of)

    2011-10-15

    The environmental pollution associated with mining and metallurgical activities reaches its greatest extent in several Andean cities and villages. Many locations in this area have accumulated through centuries a large amount of mining wastes, often disregarding the magnitude of this situation. However, in these naturally mineralized regions, there is little information available stating the exact role of mining and metallurgical industries in urban pollution. In this study, we demonstrated that the various metallic elements present in indoor dust (As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Sb, Sn, Zn) had a common origin and this contamination was increased by the proximity to the mines. Lead dust concentration was found at concerning levels for public health. In addition, wrong behaviors such as carrying mining workwear home contributed to this indoor dust pollution. Consequently, the constant exposure of the population could represent a potential health hazard for vulnerable groups, especially children. - Highlights: > We measured polymetallic pollution in household indoor dust from a mining town. > Toxic elements (Pb, As, Cd, Sb) in dust are correlated, suggesting a common origin. > The most polluted houses are within a 1 km radius around the mining center. > Carrying mining workwear home increases indoor pollution. > Lead concentrations in dust represent a serious concern for Public Health (600 {mu}g/g). - In a typical Andean mining city, the urban indoor pollution with toxic metallic elements is directly related to the closeness of the mining activities.

  20. Developments in the analysis of footwall slopes in surface coal mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stead, D.; Eberhardt, E. [University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Dept. of Geological Sciences

    1997-03-01

    Surface mining of coal, particularly in areas of mountainous topography, often involves the formation of extensive footwall slopes parallel to the strata dip. Due to structural deformation steep dips on the limbs of folds may be encountered in association with thrust faults, jointing and residual shear strength conditions. Such an environment necessitates a rigorous assessment of footwall stability in order to ensure safe and economic exploitation of the coal. This paper provides a detailed review of the factors influencing footwall slope instability in surface coal mining and the major instability mechanisms. The analysis of footwalls in the design stage and the back analysis of footwall slope failures has in general been undertaken using predominantly two-dimensional limit equilibrium techniques often incorporating a simplistic elastic column analysis. The application of numerical modelling techniques to surface coal mine footwalls has received little attention. Here the authors illustrate the potential for investigating footwall failure mechanisms and stability using the distinct element method and other modelling techniques. 44 refs., 21 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Protection and restoration of soil in mining operations which disrupt the surface of the earth, with the open pit method of working minerals (problems, obtained data and recommendations)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debelak, M.

    1981-01-01

    A critical analysis is made of the current state and the ways to solve the problem of protection and restoration of the sections of the earth's surface and sources of drinking water which can be disrupted with the open pit method of working minerals. The need is advanced for creating a system of coordination and planning of the activity of all the organizations associated with working minerals, restoration operations and inspection of them. The order of preparation for recultivation during mining operations (in particular, storage of the fertile ground) and conducting them after the end of mining are described.

  2. Assessment of Radioactive Materials and Heavy Metals in the Surface Soil around the Bayanwula Prospective Uranium Mining Area in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Haribala; Hu, Bitao; Wang, Chengguo; Bao, Shanhu; Sai, Gerilemandahu; Xu, Xiao; Zhang, Shuai; Li, Yuhong

    2017-03-14

    The present work is the first systematic and large scale study on radioactive materials and heavy metals in surface soil around the Bayanwula prospective uranium mining area in China. In this work, both natural and anthropogenic radionuclides and heavy metals in 48 surface soil samples were analyzed using High Purity Germanium (HPGe) γ spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The obtained mean activity concentrations of 238 U, 226 Ra, 232 Th, 40 K, and 137 Cs were 25.81 ± 9.58, 24.85 ± 2.77, 29.40 ± 3.14, 923.0 ± 47.2, and 5.64 ± 4.56 Bq/kg, respectively. The estimated average absorbed dose rate and annual effective dose rate were 76.7 ± 3.1 nGy/h and 83.1 ± 3.8 μ Sv, respectively. The radium equivalent activity, external hazard index, and internal hazard index were also calculated, and their mean values were within the acceptable limits. The estimated lifetime cancer risk was 3.2 × 10 -4 /Sv. The heavy metal contents of Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb from the surface soil samples were measured and their health risks were then assessed. The concentrations of all heavy metals were much lower than the average backgrounds in China except for lead which was about three times higher than that of China's mean. The non-cancer and cancer risks from the heavy metals were estimated, which are all within the acceptable ranges. In addition, the correlations between the radionuclides and the heavy metals in surface soil samples were determined by the Pearson linear coefficient. Strong positive correlations between radionuclides and the heavy metals at the 0.01 significance level were found. In conclusion, the contents of radionuclides and heavy metals in surface soil around the Bayanwula prospective uranium mining area are at a normal level.

  3. Recommending Learning Activities in Social Network Using Data Mining Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahnane, Lamia

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we show how data mining algorithms (e.g. Apriori Algorithm (AP) and Collaborative Filtering (CF)) is useful in New Social Network (NSN-AP-CF). "NSN-AP-CF" processes the clusters based on different learning styles. Next, it analyzes the habits and the interests of the users through mining the frequent episodes by the…

  4. Actual Uranium Exploration and Mining Activities in Niger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kache, Mamane

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Since the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident in 2011, many mining companies are not interested in uranium. It leads to the decrease in uranium spot price and the delay of IMOURAREN Project. Only, 47 exploration licenses for 12 mining companies are now valid in Niger.

  5. ORD Technical Outreach and Support Activities on Sustainable Mining Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardrock mining has played a significant role in the development of economies, consumer products and defense in the United States from the start of industrialization. Currently, the industry continues to lay a critical role in the development of our country. Mining waste which ...

  6. Natural radionuclides in fish species from surface water of Bagjata and Banduhurang uranium mining areas, East Singhbhum, Jharkhand, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Soma; Singh, Gurdeep; Jha, V N; Tripathi, R M

    2010-11-01

    To study the natural radionuclides in the freshwater fish samples around the uranium mining areas of Bagjata and Banduhurang, East Singhbhum, Jharkhand, India. The naturally occurring radioisotopes of uranium, U(nat), consisting of (234)U, (235)U and (238)U; (226)Ra, (230)Th and (210)Po were analysed in the fish samples from the surface water of Bagjata and Banduhurang mining areas after acid digestion. The ingestion dose, concentration factor and excess lifetime cancer risk of the radionuclides were estimated. The geometric mean activity of U(nat), (226)Ra, (230)Th and (210)Po in the fish samples was found to be 0.05, 0.19, 0.29 and 0.95 Bq kg(-1)(fresh) (Becquerel per kilogram fresh fish), respectively, in the Bagjata mining area, while for Banduhurang mining area it was estimated to be 0.08, 0.41, 0.22 and 2.48 Bq kg(-1)(fresh), respectively. The ingestion dose was computed to be 1.88 and 4.16 μSvY(-1), respectively, for both the areas which is much below the 1 mSv limit set in the new International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommendations. The estimation of the Concentration Factors (CF) reveal that the CF from water is greater than 1 l/kg(-1)in most of the cases while from sediment CF is less than 1. The excess individual lifetime cancer risk due to the consumption of fish was calculated to be 2.53 × 10(-5) and 6.48 × 10(-5), respectively, for Bagjata and Banduhurang areas, which is within the acceptable excess individual lifetime cancer risk value of 1 × 10(-4). The study confirms that current levels of radioactivity do not pose a significant radiological risk to freshwater fish consumers.

  7. The political economy of regulation: Investigation of the relationship between design and performance standards in surface coal mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, K.R.

    1991-01-01

    Research concerning political and economic regulatory policy was conducted on 15 randomly selected surface coal mines in Tennessee. Data on violations were collected over a 6-year period from 1979 through 1984. The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the approaches of the Carter and Reagan administrations concerning the implementation of design and performance regulations of Public Law 95-87. The study concluded that: (1) A change in political administration affects regulatory policy concerning enforcement practices. (2) Regulatory policy is altered in the direction of economic activity believed by an administration to be desirable to society and its constituents. (3) Elaborate rule making activity constrains market activity. (4) The coupling of design and performance standards should be retained. No difference was found in the number of violations for design and associated performance standards. Findings support the theory that it is the administration that affects change in regulatory policy, and not the regulatory construct for compliance with a mandate

  8. Emission factors for wind erosion of exposed aggregates at surface coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowherd, C.

    1982-06-01

    The information presented in this paper is directed to those interested in inventorying dust emissions generated by wind erosion of exposed aggregates at surface coal mines. A testing program is described which entailed the use of a portable wind tunnel and an isokinetic sampling system to measure windblown dust emissions from coal and overburden materials at three western mine sites. Test measurements consisted of particle mass emission rates and size distributions for various control wind speeds and times after the initiation of wind erosion. The results indicate that natural surface crusts are very effective in mitigating suspended dust emissions and that a given surface has a finite potential for wind erosion subsequent to mechanical disturbance. Test data are used to develop a predictive emission factor equation which relates emission rate (per unit surface area) to the frequency of disturbance and the erosion potential corresponding to the fastest mile of wind for the period between disturbances. This equation can be used directly for flat surfaces or it can be coupled with an analysis of wind flow patterns around elevated storage piles to develop dust emission estimates for overall pile erosion.

  9. 30 CFR 800.17 - Bonding requirements for underground coal mines and long-term coal-related surface facilities and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bonding requirements for underground coal mines... REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS BOND AND INSURANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS UNDER REGULATORY PROGRAMS § 800.17 Bonding requirements for...

  10. Possible use of wetlands in ecological restoration of surface mined lands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, R.B.; Cairns, J. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Surface mining for coal has dramatically altered millions of hectares throughout the Appalachian region of eastern North America. Flat benches and vertical high walls have replaced well-drained slopes, and wetlands have developed 'accidentally' on abandoned benches. Surface mining is continuing in this region, but new regulations do not include specifications for wetland construction in the reclamation process. Recent research has suggested that many ecosystem services appropriate for the Appalachian landscape could be performed by constructed wetlands. Inclusion of wetland construction in a reclamation plan could lead to a net increase in wetland acreage locally, as well as offset the loss of natural and/or accidental wetlands that are constructed to enhance nontreatment goals in reclamation. Study sites included 14 emergent wetlands in Wise County, Virginia. Sampling in June and August detected a total of 94 species in 36 vascular plant facilities. Obligate wetlands species, species that occur in wetlands over 99% of the time, were found in all 14 sites and included 26 species. The presence of so many wetland species without intentional management efforts suggests that wetland establishment could become a common component of mine reclamation. 18 refs., 2 tabs

  11. Optimization of Fe2+Removal from Coal Mine Wastewater using Activated Biochar ofColocasia esculenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Soumya; LaminKa-Ot, Augustine; Joshi, S R; Mandal, Tamal; Halder, Gopinath

    2017-09-01

      The present study investigates the sorptive removal of Fe2+ from simulated coal mine waste water using steam activated biochar (SABC) developed from the roots of Colocasia esculenta. The process was optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) under the influence of pH, temperature, adsorbent dosage and contact time at a constant shaking speed of 180 rpm with an initial concentration of 3 mg/L. The uptake performance of the biosorbent was assessed following a 24 full factorial experimental matrix developed by central composite design approach. Adsorbent was characterised by SEM, EDAX, XRD and B.E.T surface area analyzer. Maximum removal of 72.96% of Fe2+ was observed at pH 7.75, temperature 37.5 °C, adsorbent dosage 1.5 g/L for a time period of 180 mins. The study suggested that SABC prepared from roots of Colocasia esculenta could be used as an efficient and cost effective sorbent for removal of Fe2+ from coal mine wastewater.

  12. Ra-226 collective dosimetry for surface waters in the uranium mining region of Pocos de Caldas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschoa, A.S.; Sigaud, G.M.; Montenegro, E.C.; Baptista, G.B.

    1980-01-01

    Graphs of the collective dose equivalent for the whole body, bone, gastro-intestinal tract (lower large intestine), kidneys, and liver, via the pathways of drinking water and ingestion of food grown in irrigated fields are presented as a function of the 226 Ra concentrations in the surface waters of the Pocos de Caldas region. The collective dose equivalent calculated from the 226 Ra concentrations measured in the baseline studies are compared with those collective dose equivalent estimated from the projected higher 226 Ra concentrations in the river waters. The 226 Ra concentrations in river waters of the region are expected to be enhanced due to 226 Ra releases from uranium mining and milling operations. The dose equivalent commitment for the exposed population for the referred pathways is also estimated for the contribution of the mine during its predicted time of operation. The assumptions for the dose calculations are presented and the results obtained are discussed. (H.K.)

  13. Treatment of sulphated water of surface origin produced by an open pit coal mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Campos-Sánchez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to select the most suitable method of treatment of sulfated water produced by an open pit coal mine in Venezuela. Samples of water taken on surface, middle and bottom of water bodies in three areas were subjected to basic, gravimetric, volumetric and colorimetric analysis. The results indicated that the pH is within limits permitted by current environmental regulations, while total suspended solids, total dissolved solids, and sulfates exceed the normed values. The aerobic wetland method was selected as the most efficient for the removal of sulfates, depending on the physicochemical characteristics of the sulphated waters from the mine and because they are systems that use natural energy to purify water, its construction and maintenance costs Is significantly inferior to the conventional treatments and because, being replicas of natural ecosystems, they are integrated to the environment.

  14. Responsible Development On Areva's Mining Activities - Report 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    Constituting the first link in the nuclear fuel cycle, New Areva's mining activities cover research, production and commercialization of uranium throughout the world. New Areva counts among the world's leading producers of uranium enjoying competitive production costs and with mines in operation in Canada, Kazakhstan and Niger. Committed to its role as a responsible mining company, New Areva conducts its mining activities in a manner that fully respects people and the environment, and contributes to the economic development of local regions and their populations. Thanks to a presence spanning five continents, they ensure the long-term supply to customers of uranium for electricity production while maintaining a responsible attitude towards people and the environment. It has a diverse portfolio of both active mines (Canada, Kazakhstan and Niger) and mines under development (Africa). This document is Areva's Mining Activities responsible Development report for 2016. Content: profile (Overview, Keys events, Worldwide presence, Governance and Organization, Uranium market); CSR approach (Top management statement, Risk management, Ethics and human rights, Voluntary initiatives, Materiality); Commitments (Health, occupational safety and radiation protection, Environment and Biodiversity, Social involvement, Commitment to employees, Mining closure, R and D and Innovation); Performance (CSR objectives, Key indicators, Reporting parameters); Case Studies; Annexes (GRI Index)

  15. Distribution of natural radionuclides in surface soils in the vicinity of abandoned uranium mines in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momčilović, Milan; Kovačević, Jovan; Tanić, Milan; Dorđević, Milan; Bačić, Goran; Dragović, Snežana

    2013-02-01

    The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in soils from the area affected by uranium mining at Stara Planina Mountain in Serbia were studied and compared with the results obtained from an area with no mining activities (background area). In the affected area, the activity concentrations ranged from 1.75 to 19.2 mg kg(-1) for uranium and from 1.57 to 26.9 mg kg(-1) for thorium which is several-fold higher than those in the background area. The Th/U, K/U, and K/Th activity ratios were also determined and compared with data from similar studies worldwide. External gamma dose rate in the air due to uranium, thorium, and potassium at 1 m above ground level in the area affected by uranium mining was found to be 91.3 nGy h(-1), i.e., about two-fold higher than that in background area. The results of this preliminary study indicate the importance of radiological evaluation of the area and implementation of remedial measures in order to prevent further dispersion of radionuclides in the environment.

  16. Surface active monomers synthesis, properties, and application

    CERN Document Server

    Borzenkov, Mykola

    2014-01-01

    This brief includes information on the background?of and development of synthesis of various types of surface active monomers. The authors explain the importance of utilization of surface active monomers for creation of surface active polymers? and the various biomedical applications of such compounds . This brief introduces techniques for the synthesis of novel types of surface active monomers, their colloidal and polymerizable properties and application for needs of medicine and biology.

  17. Impact of uranium mining activity on cave deposit (stalagmite) and pine trees (S-Hungary)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siklosy, Z.; Kern, Z.; Demeny, A.; Pilet, S.; Leel-Ossy, Sz.; Lin, K.; Shen, C.-C.; Szeles, E.

    2009-04-01

    about 0.5 mm, then declines to about 1.5 ppm at the surface. The increase in U concentration coincided with a significant decrease in d234U initial values (Siklosy et al., 2008) suggesting contribution from a U source different from the natural weathering input. This is also supported by a change in the P/U ratio and much weaker correlation of the U concentrations with P in the U-enriched section of the stalagmite ("mining-period"). According to the average growth rate of the stalagmite, this period represents the last 30-50 years. Dendrochemical data covered the 1914-2004 period. The trace element time series derived from tree rings are characterized by plateaux-like maxima during the late-1960s and the 1985-95 period. This elevated events closely coupled to opening of two different uranium mine pits. Two prominent peaks emerged in the U-record coinciding the 1968 and 1991 tree rings. Dendrochemical data show abrupt increase in trace elemets (most pronounced in metals) from the tree ring dated to 1966 while the sudden decrease positioned to 1998 tree-ring. The perfect agreement between the dendrochronological dates of major changes in the chemistry of the wood and the onset-offset dates of mining history gives high probability that the mining activity is the main agent responsible for this environmental change. The possible source of U is therefore the 40-year-old Mecsek uranium mine, which produced ca. 500 tons of U concentrate per year and has reworked millions of tons of solid material (Bánik et al., 2002). Acknowledgements — This study was financially supported by the Hungarian Scientific Research Fund (OTKA T 049713 and K 67583). Measurements of U-Th isotopic compositions and and 230Th dates were supported by the National Science Council grants (94-2116-M002-012, 97-2752-M002-004-PAE & -005-PAE to C.C.S.). Bánik, J., Csicsák, J. and Berta, Zs. 2002: Experience on application of continuous drain trench during the remediation of tailings ponds in Hungary. In

  18. Deformation of slopes as a cause of underground mining activities: three case studies from Ostrava-Karviná coal field (Czech Republic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschalko, Marian; Yilmaz, Işık; Bednárik, Martin; Kubečka, Karel

    2012-11-01

    Underground mining activities may potentially play a role on the initiation and reactivation of the slope movements. However, an adequate attention has not yet been paid to these problems; in this study, the possible influence of present and former mining activities on the selected set of model slope deformations in the Ostrava-Karviná Coalfield (Opliji, Repiste and Orlova Lazy District) was analysed and a methodology for their observation for application to similar conditions and influence was described. Isocatabase maps, terrain deformation parameters calculated for the point lying on the slope deformation surface, length measurement by zone extensometer and dilatometer measurement in cracks was also provided for evaluation of the underground mining impact. It was found that inclinations of both boreholes were evidence of underground mining impact, and localization of inclinometer measurement on boreholes in the active part as well as in the near vicinity was very important as an important result of this study. Analysis of underground mining activity influence on model localities in relation to performed mining operations, subsidence and other influences on the ground surface was also determined. Thus, the study will contribute to a more objective knowledge of these problems of interest for the professional public and also for the state administration to solve problems associated with the utilisation and settlement of such affected areas.

  19. The Study of Mining Activities and their Influences in the Almaden Region Applying Remote Sensing Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rico, C.; Schmid, T.; Millan, R.; Gumuzzio, J.

    2010-01-01

    This scientific-technical report is a part of an ongoing research work carried out by Celia Rico Fraile in order to obtain the Diploma of Advanced Studies as part of her PhD studies. This work has been developed in collaboration with the Faculty of Science at The Universidad Autonoma de Madrid and the Department of Environment at CIEMAT. The main objective of this work was the characterization and classification of land use in Almaden (Ciudad Real) during cinnabar mineral exploitation and after mining activities ceased in 2002, developing a methodology focused on the integration of remote sensing techniques applying multispectral and hyper spectral satellite data. By means of preprocessing and processing of data from the satellite images as well as data obtained from field campaigns, a spectral library was compiled in order to obtain representative land surfaces within the study area. Monitoring results show that the distribution of areas affected by mining activities is rapidly diminishing in recent years. (Author) 130 refs

  20. Spatial variation in spoil and vegetative characteristics of pastures on reclaimed surface mined land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teutsch, C.D.; Collins, M.; Ditsch, D.C.

    1999-01-01

    Kentucky has large areas of reclaimed surface mined land that could provide grazing for livestock. Research is needed to determine optimal stocking densities and to evaluate the sustainability of such grazing systems for this region. A long-term grazing study was initiated in 1997 on 151 ha of reclaimed land near Chavies, KY to determine spatial and temporal variation with stocking densities of 0, 0.28, 0.42, or 0.83 beef cow-calf units/ha. Global Positioning System and GIS technologies were used to establish pasture boundaries, locate permanent sampling markers at a density of 1 per 0.4 ha, and interpolate maps of physical, spoil, and vegetable pasture characteristics. Herbage and spoil samples were collected around the permanent markers in May of 1997. Stepwise regression was used to determine factors affecting the vegetative characteristics of the sites. Biomass density ranged from 0 to 2500 kg/ha with a mean of 570 kg/ha. Factors affecting biomass included legume and weed proportions in the sward, grazing activity, soil potassium, elevation, and potential acidity, cumulatively accounting for 32% of the variation. Ground cover ranged from 10 to 100% with an average of 74%. Soil pH, potassium, and grass in the sward accounted for 14% of the variation in ground cover. Legumes made up 0 to 61% of the sward with a mean of 13% over the pasture area. Variables affecting the amount of legume in the sward included biomass density, slope, elevation, pH, and stocking density, together accounting for 21% of the variation. Spatial variation in the physical, spoil, and vegetative characteristics of the pastures was large. Overall, regression accounted for a limited amount of the variation in the vegetative characteristics of the site indicating that other important variables exist

  1. Habitat manipulation influences northern bobwhite resource selection on a reclaimed surface mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke, Jarred M.; Peters, David C.; Unger, Ashley M.; Tanner, Evan P.; Harper, Craig A.; Keyser, Patrick D.; Clark, Joseph D.; Morgan, John J.

    2015-01-01

    More than 600,000 ha of mine land have been reclaimed in the eastern United States, providing large contiguous tracts of early successional vegetation that can be managed for northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus). However, habitat quality on reclaimed mine land can be limited by extensive coverage of non-native invasive species, which are commonly planted during reclamation. We used discrete-choice analysis to investigate bobwhite resource selection throughout the year on Peabody Wildlife Management Area, a 3,330-ha reclaimed surface mine in western Kentucky. We used a treatment-control design to study resource selection at 2 spatial scales to identify important aspects of mine land vegetation and whether resource selection differed between areas with habitat management (i.e., burning, disking, herbicide; treatment) and unmanaged units (control). Our objectives were to estimate bobwhite resource selection on reclaimed mine land and to estimate the influence of habitat management practices on resource selection. We used locations from 283 individuals during the breeding season (1 Apr–30 Sep) and 136 coveys during the non-breeding season (1 Oct–Mar 31) from August 2009 to March 2014. Individuals were located closer to shrub cover than would be expected at random throughout the year. During the breeding season, individuals on treatment units used areas with smaller contagion index values (i.e., greater interspersion) compared with individuals on control units. During the non-breeding season, birds selected areas with greater shrub-open edge density compared with random. At the microhabitat scale, individuals selected areas with increased visual obstruction >1 m aboveground. During the breeding season, birds were closer to disked areas (linear and non-linear) than would be expected at random. Individuals selected non-linear disked areas during winter but did not select linear disked areas (firebreaks) because they were planted to winter wheat each fall and

  2. Hydrology and geochemistry of a surface coal mine in northwestern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R.S.; Clark, G.M.

    1994-01-01

    The hydrology and geochemistry of a reclaimed coal mine in northwestern Colorado were monitored during water years 1988 and 1989. Some data also were collected in water years 1987 and 1990. This report describes (1) the sources of hydrologic recharge to and discharge from reclaimed spoil, (2) the relative contributions of recharge to the reclaimed spoil aquifer from identified source waters and the rate of water movement from those sources to the reclaimed spoil, and (3) the geochemical reactions that control water quality in reclaimed spoil. The study area was at a dip-slope coal mine encompassing about 7 square miles with land slopes of varying aspect. The area was instrumented and monitored at five sites; two sites had unmined and reclaimed- spoil areas adjacent to each other and three sites were unmined. The mined areas had been reclaimed. Instrumentation at the study sites included 1 climate station, 3 rain gages, 19 soil-water access tubes, 2 lysimeters, 18 wells completed in bedrock, 7 wells completed in reclaimed spoil, and 2 surface- water gaging stations. The results of the study indicate that the reclaimed spoil is recharged from surface recharge and underburden aquifers. Discharge, as measured by lysimeters, was about 3 inches per year and occurred during and after snowmelt. Hydraulic-head measurements indicated a potential for ground-water movement from deeper to shallower aquifers. Water levels rose in the reclaimed-spoil aquifer and spring discharge at the toe of the spoil slopes increased rapidly in response to snowmelt. Water chemistry, stable isotopes, geochemical models, and mass-balance calculations indicate that surface recharge and the underburden aquifers each contribute about 50 percent of the water to the reclaimed-spoil aquifers. Geochemical information indicates that pyrite oxidation and dissolution of carbonate and efflorescent sulfate minerals control the water chemistry of the reclaimed-spoil aquifer.

  3. Diagnostic measurements on the great machines conditions of lignite surface mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helebrant, F.; Jurman, J.; Fries, J. [Technical University of Ostrava, Ostrava-Poruba (Czech Republic)

    2005-07-01

    An analysis of the diagnosis of loading and service dependability of a rail-mounted excavator used in surface lignite mining is described. Wheel power vibrations in electric motor bearings and electric motor input bearings to the gearbox were measured in situ, in horizontal, vertical, and axial directions. The data were analyzed using a mathematical relationship. The results are presented in a loading diagram that shows the deterioration and the acceptable lower bound of machine conditions over time. Work is continuing. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  4. Numerical modelling of buckling and ploughing slope instability in surface coal mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberhardt, E.; Stead, D. (University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-01-01

    Buckling and ploughing are characteristic failure mechanisms affecting the footwall slopes of surface coal mines. These failures may cause large losses in production, pose serious safety hazards and necessitate extensive deformation monitoring schemes. A brief survey of the factors influencing buckling and ploughing failures is presented based on a detailed examination of the published literature. A critical review of conventional methods of analysis: two-dimensional limit equilibrium, Euler theory, three-hinge buckling and physical modelling, is undertaken. Preliminary results of numerical modelling using finite difference and distinct element techniques are presented using a typical footwall slope and a selected case history. 16 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Study on dose assessment in surrounding environment of the Tono Mine associated with closure activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasao, Eiji

    2012-07-01

    Dose assessment associated with closure activity of the Tono Mine has been performed. In this assessment, exposure dose has been calculated on groundwater and surface water migration of radionuclide from 1) waste rock in the waste rock dump facility, 2) mining waste in the mining waste facility, and 3) uranium ore and waste rock backfilled in the shafts and galleries. Direct and skyshine gamma rays and exposure of exhalated radon from the waste rock dump has also been evaluated. An evaluation tool developed for safety assessment for sub-surface disposal of radioactive waste is utilized for this assessment. Localities for dose evaluation are selected at the Higashihoragawa and Hiyoshigawa based on the topography around the Tono Mine and groundwater flow simulation. Evaluation scenarios are classified into 'Scenario for intake of agricultural product' as the base scenario, and 'Scenario for intake of groundwater' as the alternative scenario. Parameters for dose assessment are set-up based on the existing data. But the range and uncertainty of parameters are taken into account in the 'alternative cases'. As the result of dose assessment, maximum exposure dose of the base scenario is 0.08mSv/year, and 0.09mSv/year including direct and skyshine gamma rays and exposure of exhalatedradon at the Higashihoragawa. Maximum exposure dose of the alternative scenario is 0.08mSv/year (0.09mSv/year including direct and skyshine gamma rays and exposure of exhalated radon). On the alternative cases, exposure doses are calculated as 0.05-0.14mSv/year in both of the base and alternative scenarios. At the Hiyoshigawa, maximum exposure dose is less than 0.001mSv/year (1x10 -6 mSv/year) for the base scenario, and 0.001mSv/year for the alternative scenario. On the alternative cases, maximum exposure doses are less than 0.001mSv/year for all cases of the base scenario and 0.0006-0.002mSv/year for the alternative scenario. (author)

  6. Health assessment of mining activities on concession communities in the nimba county: Republic of Liberia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farngalo, Eddie Marway

    2014-09-01

    Globally, nearly 13 million people are presently involved in iron ore and other mining activities while 80-100 million are indirectly affected by these activities. Iron ore mining alone produces about one billion tonnes in 2013 worldwide. Currently, the world had discovered an iron ore reserved of about 230 billion tons (Bt) that may be available for nearly 50 years. Small scale mining serves as a source of employment for more youth where mineral deposits originate. Despite its environmental, health and social challenges, it is established that the adverse effects of mining activities on communities in close proximity are mixed with both positive and negative consequences. The main objective was to assess the public health adverse effects in the mining communities in terms of their health characteristic, levels of heavy metals in water sources, and on affected communities. The study was conducted from July to September, 2014. The number of sample from each community was calculated using probability proportional to size (PPS), while purposive and simple random sampling were employed in selecting the affected communities and household heads respectively. A structured questionnaire was administered to households’ heads that had lived in the studied areas for two or more years and were 18 years and above, and has consented to participate in the research. Water samples were analysed at the Nuclear Chemistry and Environmental Research Centre, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission in Accra for heavy metals (Cd, As, Hg, Pb), total dissolved solids, and pH. Reference standards used were those of the World Health Organization (WHO) standards for drinking water, which was used to determine the level of heavy metals in water bodies. Logistic regression statistical analysis was employed in drawing inferences on the probably health effects of the mining activities on the ten communities. Twenty nine per cent of the respondents was within the age group of 41-50 years while 24.7% falls

  7. Feasibility of a continuous surface mining machine using impact breakers. First quarterly report, October 1-December 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, A. T.

    1980-01-01

    This is the first quarterly report on the efforts to evaluate the feasibility of excavating coal and overburden from surface mines using impact breakers. The initial stages of the project are devoted to a literature search, equipment selection, test site selection, and conceptual test system design. Hence, this report details the progress made in these areas; the next quarter will see the finalization of Phase I. Included as appendices to this report are FMA internal reports on the individual mines visited. These reports are the basis of the test site selection, and have been censored here to remove data the mine operators deemed as confidential.

  8. Soil-characterization and soil-amendment use on coal surface mine lands: An annotated bibliography. Information Circular/1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norland, M.R.; Veith, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    The U.S. Bureau of Mines Report on United States and Canadian Literature pertaining to soil characterization and the use of soil amendments as a part of the reclamation process of coal surface-mined lands contains 1,280 references. The references were published during the 1977 to 1988 period. Each reference is evaluated by keywords, providing the reader with a means of rapidly sorting through the references to locate those articles with the coal mining regions and subjects of interest. All references are annotated

  9. Field Trial of Resin-Based Composite Materials for the Treatment of Surface Collapses Associated with Former Shallow Coal Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Philip T. Broughton; Mark P. Bettney; Isla L. Smail

    2016-01-01

    Effective treatment of ground instability is essential when managing the impacts associated with historic mining. A field trial was undertaken by the Coal Authority to investigate the geotechnical performance and potential use of composite materials comprising resin and fill or stone to safely treat surface collapses, such as crown-holes, associated with shallow mining. Test pits were loosely filled with various granular fill materials. The fill material was injected with commercially availab...

  10. Chemical properties and particle-size distribution of 39 surface-mine spoils in southern West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    William T. Plass; Willis G. Vogel

    1973-01-01

    A survey of 39 surface-mine sites in southern West Virginia showed that most of the spoils from current mining operations had a pH of 5.0 or higher. Soil-size material averaged 37 percent of the weight of the spoils sampled. A major problem for the establishment of vegetation was a deficiency of nitrogen and phosphorus. This can be corrected with additions of...

  11. Mining activities abroad, a subject of teaching and research; Auslandsbergbau in Lehre und Forschung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drebenstedt, C. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Bergbau

    2008-04-15

    As globalisation extends in all fields of life, university teaching must cope by integrating internationalisation in its teaching subjects. In the case of raw materials resources and mining, the case is quite clear: Industrialized countries like Germany are big consumers of raw materials, most of which must be imported. Mining companies, including German mining companies, have extended their activities world-wide, and German producers of mining machinery and sytems, consultants and mining specialists are exporting technology and know-how into raw materials producing countries. Universities must take account of these trends if they are to train students for tomorrow's international market. The TU Bergakademie Freiberg is presented as an example. (orig.)

  12. Indoor metallic pollution related to mining activity in the Bolivian Altiplano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontúrbel, Francisco E; Barbieri, Enio; Herbas, Cristian; Barbieri, Flavia L; Gardon, Jacques

    2011-10-01

    The environmental pollution associated with mining and metallurgical activities reaches its greatest extent in several Andean cities and villages. Many locations in this area have accumulated through centuries a large amount of mining wastes, often disregarding the magnitude of this situation. However, in these naturally mineralized regions, there is little information available stating the exact role of mining and metallurgical industries in urban pollution. In this study, we demonstrated that the various metallic elements present in indoor dust (As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Sb, Sn, Zn) had a common origin and this contamination was increased by the proximity to the mines. Lead dust concentration was found at concerning levels for public health. In addition, wrong behaviors such as carrying mining workwear home contributed to this indoor dust pollution. Consequently, the constant exposure of the population could represent a potential health hazard for vulnerable groups, especially children. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Environmental heritage of oil shale mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toomik, A.

    1998-01-01

    Oil shale mining like every kind of exploitation of mineral resources imparts a variety of impacts on the environment. One group of factors has a temporary impact during the mining activities only, another group of factors leaves its footprints in nature for a long time. Geological conditions, mining methods underground or surface mining, roof control methods and methods of reclamation determine the variety of landforms and their parameters in post mining landscape. Long-time ecological observations and changing economical conditions can influence the current attitudes and criteria of assessments of the environmental impact caused by mining. (author)

  14. Assessing Surface Hydrological Processes on a Rehabilitated Mine Landform in Northern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Qi; Saynor, Mike; Lowry, John; Lu, Ping; Baumgartl, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    To assist with the evaluation of the proposed rehabilitation designs for the mine closure at a Uranium Mine, Northern Territory, Australia, a trial landform (200 m × 400 m) was constructed using waste rocks, with its surface ripped along the contour. The surface hydrological performance of this landform was investigated in this study. Field infiltration measurements were conducted using both large and regular ring infiltrometers to investigate the surface hydraulic properties, and water contents and surface runoff were monitored continuously in two 30 m × 30 m runoff plots for four years. A Cellular Automata based runoff model (RunCA) was also used to simulate the runoff behaviors under different rainfall conditions. Results showed a higher infiltration capacity in the areas of rip lines than the non-ripped areas due to the disturbance to the surface. Runoff coefficient was less than 6% and 10% for 80% of the 304 observed rainfall events on plot 1 and plot 2, respectively. The low levels of runoff were well explained by the simulated flow maps of RunCA, which demonstrated the roles of the rip lines in storing flow water and discontinuing the runoff paths. However, when the maximum storage capacity of these rip lines was exceeded during several large rainfall events, the runoff became much more significant and led to high potentials for erosion and landform instability. RunCA simulations on the virtual landforms with higher rip lines indicated dramatically reduced runoff rates. Therefore, it is suggested here that the current landform may be subjected to great runoff and erosion risks under extreme rainfall events, and raising the rip line height may potentially solve this problem.

  15. Thirteen-year hardwood tree performance on a Midwest surface mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashby, W.C.; Kolar, C.A.

    1998-01-01

    Black walnut (Juglans nigra L.), sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.), tuliptree (Liriodendron tulipifera L.), white oak (Quercus alba L.), bur oak (Q. macrocarpa Michx.), and pin oak (Q. palustris Muenchh.) seedlings were planted both fall 1980 and spring 1981 on mixed overburden strip-mining banks (ungraded), mixed overburden graded to approximate original contour (AOC) (graded), mixed overburden graded to AOC wit h 60 cm of replaced pre-mining surface soil materials (topsoil), and on old fields near the strip-mine (unmined). Black walnut and pin oak were also planted as seed, with a total of 6000 seedlings/seed spots in the study. Initial species field viability ranged from 86 to 100%. With one exception, after 3 growing seasons oak seedlings had 50% or greater survival. Survival was mostly lower after 3 years with some additional mortality by years 8 and 13. Height and diameter breast height were measured after 13 years. Survival and growth of trees planted fall or spring was similar overall with variable performance by species. Seedlings of several species on the ungraded site had over 50% survival after 13 years, with fewer trees where planted as seed. Mean height of all species combined was significantly greater on the ungraded than on any other site and was lowest on the topsoil site. The unmined sites had high variability in species survival and height. Better reclamation with trees resulted from a deep, well-drained rooting medium with minimal compaction and a mineral-rich surface soil including coarse fragments over 2 mm in size for long-term productivity

  16. Thirteen-year hardwood tree performance on a Midwest surface mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashby, W.C.; Kolar, C.A. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Plant Biology

    1998-12-31

    Black walnut (Juglans nigra L.), sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.), tuliptree (Liriodendron tulipifera L.), white oak (Quercus alba L.), bur oak (Q. macrocarpa Michx.), and pin oak (Q. palustris Muenchh.) seedlings were planted both fall 1980 and spring 1981 on mixed overburden strip-mining banks (ungraded), mixed overburden graded to approximate original contour (AOC) (graded), mixed overburden graded to AOC wit h 60 cm of replaced pre-mining surface soil materials (topsoil), and on old fields near the strip-mine (unmined). Black walnut and pin oak were also planted as seed, with a total of 6000 seedlings/seed spots in the study. Initial species field viability ranged from 86 to 100%. With one exception, after 3 growing seasons oak seedlings had 50% or greater survival. Survival was mostly lower after 3 years with some additional mortality by years 8 and 13. Height and diameter breast height were measured after 13 years. Survival and growth of trees planted fall or spring was similar overall with variable performance by species. Seedlings of several species on the ungraded site had over 50% survival after 13 years, with fewer trees where planted as seed. Mean height of all species combined was significantly greater on the ungraded than on any other site and was lowest on the topsoil site. The unmined sites had high variability in species survival and height. Better reclamation with trees resulted from a deep, well-drained rooting medium with minimal compaction and a mineral-rich surface soil including coarse fragments over 2 mm in size for long-term productivity.

  17. Assessment of mercury erosion by surface water in Wanshan mercury mining area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, ZhiHui; Feng, Xinbin; Zhang, Chao; Shang, Lihai; Qiu, Guangle

    2013-08-01

    Soil erosion is a main cause of land degradation, and in its accelerated form is also one of the most serious ecological environmental problems. Moreover, there are few studies on migration of mercury (Hg) induced by soil erosion in seriously Hg-polluted districts. This paper selected Wanshan Hg mining area, SW China as the study area. Revised universal soil loss equation (RUSLE) and Geographic information system (GIS) methods were applied to calculate soil and Hg erosion and to classify soil erosion intensity. Our results show that the soil erosion rate can reach up to 600,884tkm(-2)yr(-1). Surfaces associated with very slight and extremely severe erosion include 76.6% of the entire land in Wanshan. Furthermore, the cumulative erosion rates in the area impacted by extremely severe erosion make up 90.5% of the total. On an annual basis, Hg surface erosion load was predicted to be 505kgyr(-1) and the corresponding mean migration flux of Hg was estimated to be 3.02kgkm(-2)yr(-1). The erosion loads of Hg resulting from farmland and meadow soil were 175 and 319kgyr(-1) respectively, which were enhanced compared to other landscape types due to the fact that they are generally located in the steep zones associated with significant reclamation. Contributing to establish a mass balance of Hg in Wanshan Hg mining area, this study supplies a dependable scientific basis for controlling soil and water erosion in the local ecosystems. Land use change is the most effective way for reducing Hg erosion load in Wanshan mining area. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Survey of active and inactive mines for possible use as in situ test facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-09-01

    A survey of active and inactive mines which might be useful for radioactive waste storage in situ test experiments was conducted. It was performed for Union Carbide Corporation, Nuclear Division, Office of Waste Isolation. The report covers available information gathered from literature, U.S. Bureau of Mines, the Mining Enforcement and Safety Agency, and a limited number of personal contacts with constructors or operators of facilities. This survey is preliminary in nature and the objective is to develop potential candidate facilities for in situ experiments which warrant further investigation. Included are descriptions of 244 facilities, with all the data about each one which was available within the time restraint of the study. These facility descriptions are additionally indexed by depth of mine, nature of the country rock, mineral mined, and type of entry. A total of 14 inactive mines and 34 active mines has been selected as those most worthy of further investigation for possible service as nuclear waste isolation test facilities. This investigation, being preliminary and having been performed in a very short time period, must be qualified, and the description of the qualification is presented in the body of this report. Qualifications deal primarily with the hazard of having omitted facilities and having incomplete data in some instances. Results indicate sedimentary rock mines of minerals of evaporite origin as a first ranking of preference for in situ testing, followed by other sedimentary rocks and then by mines producing minerals from any type rock where the mine is above the local water table. These are general rules and of course there can be exceptions to them

  19. Potential for exposure to radon in non-uranium mines and other activities in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, D.W.; Gooding, T.D.

    1996-01-01

    Radon levels in UK mines have been investigated in several surveys over the last decade and have shown that greatest potential for exposure in in mines other than coal mines ('non-coal mines' for brevity). These and associated studies have also shown that there is is potential for significant exposure in mines even after mineral extraction has ceased, for example, during their use for secondary commercial purposes, such as tourism of storage. Even after all work has been abandoned, mines can be a focus for some leisure activities such as industrial archaeology or mineral collecting. A key element of protection for employees and members of the public who enter mines is a programme of area monitoring. The diverse range of conditions from continuous occupancy and forces ventilation, to sporadic entry into naturally ventilated systems, places stringent demands on monitoring programmes and methods of dose estimation. In particular, the use of intermittent ventilation can have unexpected and adverse effects on radon levels and the implications of such phenomena for dose limitation and monitoring programmes are considered for the various stages in the life of a mine. (author). 13 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  20. Impact of sand mining activities on the environmental condition of the Komering river, South Sumatera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusiagustin, V.; Kusratmoko, E.

    2017-07-01

    Sand mining activities in the Komering river, South Sumatera, has been existed around a long time and continues to grow along with the increase of development that occurred in the district of East Ogan Komering Ulu (East OKU). The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of sand mining activities to environmental conditions of the Komering river. Field studies have been conducted during the period of April-June 2016 for observing the condition of the river channel, water quality measurement and mining activities. Analysis of the results of field studies combined with GIS and Remote sensing analysis was conducted to measure the impact of mining activities both spatially and temporally. The results showed that the sand mining activities on the Komering river have led not only to the degradation of water quality but also damage of the river channel. In this paper, we also discussed the relationship between the distribution of water quality and channel damage with the mining activities in the spatial perspective.

  1. Environmental activities in uranium mining and milling. A Joint NEA/IAEA report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This report on 'Environmental Activities in Uranium Mining and Milling' presents an overview of environmental activities related to uranium production. The profile of activities and concerns are based on survey responses from 29 countries and a review of relevant activities of the International Atomic Energy Agency and the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. It also provides an overview of the reported interests of specialists working in the field, including environmental impact assessment, emissions to air and water, work environment, radiation safety, waste handling and disposal, mine and mill decommissioning and site restoration, and the regulation of these activities. The report reflects the increasing awareness in all countries of the need for environmental protection. For several years large programmes have been underway in several countries to clean up wastes from closed mines and mills. Many of these sites, particularly the older ones, were brought into production, operated and closed when little was known about environmental effects. At the time, little concern was given to the resulting environmental impacts. Currently, planning for and conducting uranium mine closure and mill decommissioning, together with site clean-up and restoration, are of almost universal concern. Mine closure and mill decommissioning activities have been or are being conducted in most of the countries with a history of uranium production. Information about several mine closures and mill decommissioning projects is included in this report

  2. Grasshopper sparrow reproductive success and habitat use on reclaimed surface mines varies by age of reclamation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Petra; Ammer, Frank K.

    2015-01-01

    We studied 3 mountaintop mining–valley fill (MTMVF) complexes in southern West Virginia, USA to examine grasshopper sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum pratensis) demographic response to different age classes of mine land reclamation. For 71 nests monitored during the 2001–2002 breeding seasons, overall nest success (36%) was within the range of nest success rates previously reported for this species, but it was highest on more recently reclaimed sites (56%). Nest density and clutch size did not differ (P > 0.30) among reclamation age classes, whereas number of fledglings was greater (P = 0.01) on more recently reclaimed sites. We measured vegetation variables at 70 nest subplots and at 96 systematic subplots to compare nest vegetation with vegetation available on the plots. We found that nests occurred in areas with more bare ground near the nest, greater vegetation height–density surrounding the nest site, lower grass height, and fewer woody stems, similar to previous studies. As postreclamation age increased, vegetation height–density and maximum grass height increased, and sericea (Lespedeza cuneata) became more dominant. Nest success declined with increasing vegetation height–density at the nest. The grasslands available on these reclaimed mine complexes are of sufficient quality to support breeding populations of grasshopper sparrows, but nest success decreased on the older reclaimed areas. Without active management, grasslands on reclaimed MTMVF mines become less suitable for nesting grasshopper sparrows about 10 years after reclamation.

  3. Satellite radar interferometry for monitoring subsidence induced by longwall mining activity using Radarsat-2, Sentinel-1 and ALOS-2 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Alex Hay-Man; Ge, Linlin; Du, Zheyuan; Wang, Shuren; Ma, Chao

    2017-09-01

    This paper describes the simulation and real data analysis results from the recently launched SAR satellites, ALOS-2, Sentinel-1 and Radarsat-2 for the purpose of monitoring subsidence induced by longwall mining activity using satellite synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR). Because of the enhancement of orbit control (pairs with shorter perpendicular baseline) from the new satellite SAR systems, the mine subsidence detection is now mainly constrained by the phase discontinuities due to large deformation and temporal decorrelation noise. This paper investigates the performance of the three satellite missions with different imaging modes for mapping longwall mine subsidence. The results show that the three satellites perform better than their predecessors. The simulation results show that the Sentinel-1A/B constellation is capable of mapping rapid mine subsidence, especially the Sentinel-1A/B constellation with stripmap (SM) mode. Unfortunately, the Sentinel-1A/B SM data are not available in most cases and hence real data analysis cannot be conducted in this study. Despite the Sentinel-1A/B SM data, the simulation and real data analysis suggest that ALOS-2 is best suited for mapping mine subsidence amongst the three missions. Although not investigated in this study, the X-band satellites TerraSAR-X and COSMO-SkyMed with short temporal baseline and high spatial resolution can be comparable with the performance of the Radarsat-2 and Sentinel-1 C-band data over the dry surface with sparse vegetation. The potential of the recently launched satellites (e.g. ALOS-2 and Sentinel-1A/B) for mapping longwall mine subsidence is expected to be better than the results of this study, if the data acquired from the ideal acquisition modes are available.

  4. Hydrochemical evaluation of the influences of mining activities on river water chemistry in central northern Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batsaikhan, Bayartungalag; Kwon, Jang-Soon; Kim, Kyoung-Ho; Lee, Young-Joon; Lee, Jeong-Ho; Badarch, Mendbayar; Yun, Seong-Taek

    2017-01-01

    Although metallic mineral resources are most important in the economy of Mongolia, mining activities with improper management may result in the pollution of stream waters, posing a threat to aquatic ecosystems and humans. In this study, aiming to evaluate potential impacts of metallic mining activities on the quality of a transboundary river (Selenge) in central northern Mongolia, we performed hydrochemical investigations of rivers (Tuul, Khangal, Orkhon, Haraa, and Selenge). Hydrochemical analysis of river waters indicates that, while major dissolved ions originate from natural weathering (especially, dissolution of carbonate minerals) within watersheds, they are also influenced by mining activities. The water quality problem arising from very high turbidity is one of the major environmental concerns and is caused by suspended particles (mainly, sediment and soil particles) from diverse erosion processes, including erosion of river banks along the meandering river system, erosion of soils owing to overgrazing by livestock, and erosion by human activities, such as mining and agriculture. In particular, after passing through the Zaamar gold mining area, due to the disturbance of sediments and soils by placer gold mining, the Tuul River water becomes very turbid (up to 742 Nephelometric Turbidity Unit (NTU)). The Zaamar area is also the contamination source of the Tuul and Orkhon rivers by Al, Fe, and Mn, especially during the mining season. The hydrochemistry of the Khangal River is influenced by heavy metal (especially, Mn, Al, Cd, and As)-loaded mine drainage that originates from a huge tailing dam of the Erdenet porphyry Cu-Mo mine, as evidenced by δ 34 S values of dissolved sulfate (0.2 to 3.8 ‰). These two contaminated rivers (Tuul and Khangal) merge into the Orkhon River that flows to the Selenge River near the boundary between Mongolia and Russia and then eventually flows into Lake Baikal. Because water quality problems due to mining can be critical

  5. Mining soil phosphorus by zero P-application: an effective method to reduce the risk of P loading to surface water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salm, van der C.; Chardon, W.J.; Koopmans, G.F.

    2007-01-01

    This study aims to find field evidence for the effectiveness of P-mining to reduce the risk of P leaching to surface water. In 2002, a P-mining was conducted on four grassland sites in the Netherlands on sand (two sites), peat and clay soils. The mining plots received no P and an annual N surplus of

  6. Debilitating lung disease among surface coal miners with no underground mining tenure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halldin, Cara N; Reed, William R; Joy, Gerald J; Colinet, Jay F; Rider, James P; Petsonk, Edward L; Abraham, Jerrold L; Wolfe, Anita L; Storey, Eileen; Laney, A Scott

    2015-01-01

    To characterize exposure histories and respiratory disease among surface coal miners identified with progressive massive fibrosis from a 2010 to 2011 pneumoconiosis survey. Job history, tenure, and radiograph interpretations were verified. Previous radiographs were reviewed when available. Telephone follow-up sought additional work and medical history information. Among eight miners who worked as drill operators or blasters for most of their tenure (median, 35.5 years), two reported poor dust control practices, working in visible dust clouds as recently as 2012. Chest radiographs progressed to progressive massive fibrosis in as few as 11 years. One miner's lung biopsy demonstrated fibrosis and interstitial accumulation of macrophages containing abundant silica, aluminum silicate, and titanium dust particles. Overexposure to respirable silica resulted in progressive massive fibrosis among current surface coal miners with no underground mining tenure. Inadequate dust control during drilling/blasting is likely an important etiologic factor.

  7. Seasonal and spatial variations in microbial community structure and diversity in the acid stream draining across an ongoing surface mining site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Gui-Liang; Shu, Wen-Sheng; Zhou, Wen-Hua; Li, Xiang-Li; Lan, Chong-Yu; Huang, Li-Nan

    2009-11-01

    This study examined the microbial community in an acidic stream draining across the Yun-Fu pyrite mine (Guangdong, China), where extremely acidic mine water is a persistent feature due to the intensive surface mining activities. Analysis of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that microbial populations varied spatially and seasonally and correlated with geochemical and physical conditions. After the stream moves from underground to the surface, the microbial community in the acidic water rapidly evolves into a distinct community close to that in the downstream storage pond. Comparisons of TRFLP peaks with sequenced clone libraries indicated that bacteria related to the recently isolated iron-oxidizer Ferrovum myxofaciens dominated the acidophilic community throughout the year except for the samples collected in spring from the storage pond, where Ferroplasma acidiphilum-like archaea represented the most abundant group. Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans-affiliated organisms increased along the acid stream and remained common over the year, whereas Leptospirillum ferrooxidans-like bacteria were negligible or even not detected in the analyzed samples. The data indicate that changes in environmental conditions are accompanied by significant shifts in community structure of the prokaryotic assemblages at this opencast mining site.

  8. Effects of mining activities on the release of heavy metals(HMs) in the head water regions of the Heihe River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, W., Sr.; Ma, R.; Sun, Z.; Bu, J.; Chang, Q.

    2017-12-01

    The head water regions of Heihe River were located in the Qilian orogenic belt, where belongs to the Qilian Mountains National Ecological Nature Protection and has fragile ecosystem. Previous surveys show that the regions were rich in various metal ores, and the mining activities have been intense.The environmental effect of mining activities will be going on several years, while Our field investigation show that there were 23 mines, of which 18 have been historical. This study collected water samples in main Heihe river and its tributaries, groundwaters and soil water, and the sediment samples near the ores. The concentration of HMs in both waters and sediments was measured for characterizing the spatial distribution of HMs, and determining the origin of the HMs in the river waters. Results of water quality assessment show that 67% of water samples failed to reach the Grade II environmental quality standard for surface water in China (GB3838-2002).The spatial distribution of HMs (Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb) is highly correlated with the geographical distribution of local mines, suggesting that various heavy metals(HMs) were released into the Heihe River via mining activities. The Be, Co, Sn, Bi, Th, U were mainly derived from aluminosilicate weathering crusts. And the acid mine wastewater was the main source for Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd. The Serpentine wreathing was the main source for Cr and Ni. Mn and Cs were enriched by agricultural activities.

  9. The Influence of Surface Coal Mining on Runoff Processes and Stream Chemistry in the Elk Valley, British Colubmbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, S. K.; Wellen, C. C.; Shatilla, N. J.

    2015-12-01

    Surface mining is a common method of accessing coal. In high-elevation environments, vegetation and soils are typically removed prior to the blasting of overburden rock, thereby allowing access to mineable ore. Following this, the removed overburden rock is deposited in adjacent valleys as waste rock spoils. Previous research has identified that areas downstream of surface coal mining have impaired water quality, yet there is limited information about the interaction of hydrology and geochemistry across a range of mining conditions, particularly at the headwater scale. Here, we provide an analysis of an extensive long-term data set of geochemistry and flows across a gradient of coal mining in the Elk Valley, British Columbia, Canada. This work is part of a broader R&D program examining the influence of surface coal mining on hydrological and water quality responses in the Elk Valley aimed at informing effective management responses. Results indicate that water from waste rock piles has an ionic profile distinct from unimpacted catchments. While the concentration of geochemicals increased with the degree of mine impact, the control of hydrological transport capacity over geochemical export did not vary with degree of mine impact. Geochemical export in mine-influenced catchments was limited more strongly by transport capacity than supply, implying that more water moving through the waste rock mobilized more geochemicals. Placement of waste rock within the catchment (headwaters or outlet) did not affect chemical concentrations but did alter the timing with which chemically distinct water mixed. This work advances on results reported earlier using empirical models of selenium loading and further highlights the importance of limiting water inputs into waste rock piles.

  10. Resilience of benthic deep-sea fauna to mining activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gollner, S.; Kaiser, S.; Menzel, L.; Jones, D.O.B.; Brown, A.; Mestre, N.C.; Van Oevelen, D.; Menot, L.; Colaço, A.; Canals, M.; Cuvelier, D.; Durden, J.M.; Gebruk, A.; Egho, G.A.; Haeckel, M.; Marcon, Y.; Mevenkamp, L.; Morato, T.; Pham, C.K.; Purser, A.; Sanchez-Vidal, A.; Vanreusel, A.; Vink, A.; Martinez Arbizu, P.

    2017-01-01

    With increasing demand for mineral resources, extraction of polymetallic sulphides at hydrothermal vents, cobalt-rich ferromanganese crusts at seamounts, and polymetallic nodules on abyssal plains may be imminent. Here, we shortly introduce ecosystem characteristics of mining areas, report on recent

  11. Sorption of Heavy Metal Ions from Mine Wastewater by Activated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    2016-12-02

    Dec 2, 2016 ... 1 Introduction. Various operations such as mineral processing tailings disposal, illegal mining, domestic waste disposal and many others result in the release of heavy metals into water bodies. The presence of these metals including Cadmium (Cd), Arsenic. (As), Chromium (Cr), Thallium (Tl), and Lead.

  12. Increased mining activities in the eastern Democratic Republic of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Businesses keen to address malnutrition need to be cognisant of the prevalence of the problem and its contextual drivers, particularly on the socio-economic front, to be able to conceptualise appropriate responses. Keywords: malnutrition; children under-five-years-old; mining; DRC; corporate social responsibility ...

  13. Contribution of Mining Activities and Development in Africa: Private ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Reports. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and development in Africa : redefining the roles and responsibilities of public and private actors in the mining sector. Download PDF. Reports. Des caravanes juridiques à la relecture du Code minier : capitalisation des expériences en matière de développement des capacités ...

  14. July 2011 Memorandum: Improving EPA Review of Appalachian Surface Coal Mining Operations Under the Clean Water Act, National Environmental Policy Act, and the Environmental Justice Executive Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memorandum: Improving EPA Review of Appalachian Surface Coal Mining Operations Under the Clean Water Act, National Environmental Policy Act, and the Environmental Justice Executive Order, July 21, 2011

  15. Biocatalytic Route to Surface Active Lipid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheong, Ling-Zhi; Xu, Xuebing

    Lipid can be structurally modified in order to attain improved functional properties. This work look into the possibilities of developing surface active lipids with improved functional properties through biocatalytic route. Biocatalytic route to surface active lipid are usually complex involving ...... distinct self assembling property and find useful application in surfactant industry.......Lipid can be structurally modified in order to attain improved functional properties. This work look into the possibilities of developing surface active lipids with improved functional properties through biocatalytic route. Biocatalytic route to surface active lipid are usually complex involving...

  16. Groundwater quality in a mining activity area (The Bierzo Basin-Leon); Calidad quimica de las aguas subterraneas en una zona de actividad minera (Cuenca del Bierzo- Leon)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Losa, A. de la; Moreno, L.; Nunez, I.

    2010-07-01

    The Bierzo Basin presents large coal mining structures without restore where the air exposition of metallic sulphurs could become a source of heavy metal pollution and acification of waters. This paper presents the results of a research focused on groundwater quality affected by the mining activity. A sampling campaign of both ground and surface waters was carried out. Altogether, 37 sampling points has been selected including 26 springs, 7 shallow wells for agricultural use and 4 river water samples, all of them directly or indirectly connected to groundwater. The interpretation of results is based on the multivariate analysis application. Sulphate is the dominant anion in both water types, and it is related, in most cases, to oxidation of sulphurs, widely represented in the study area. However, the main conclusion is that surface water and groundwater samples have no high abnormal contents of heavy metals due to the induced alteration by mining activity. (Author) 15 refs.

  17. Vertical Displacement of the Surface Area over the Leakage to the Transverse salt Mine in 1992-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipecki, Tomasz

    2018-03-01

    The leakage of water in the salt mine caused considerable deformation of the surface. This article shows the vertical displacement in the area of leakage to the mine excavation, measured by precision leveling, carried out from the first days of leakage in 1992 until 2012. The geological and hydrogeological conditions of the mine, as well as the associated water hazards were described, which in conjunction with the inconvenient location of the excavation site in the northern frontage of the Carpathians and also inadequately conducted mining operations, contributed to the risk of flooding mine. The analysis of the vertical movements of the surface - subsidence and uplift - were present as well as the process of formation of the depression trough in the form of maps and graphs. The analyzes were based on 49 measurement series, starting from the first days of the disaster within the next 20 years. The course of development of the depression trough and the condition of the surface after stopping the water from the rock mass has been shown, which caused the surface to uplift.

  18. Monitoring of Thermal and Gas Activities in Mining Dump Hedvika, Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surovka, D.; Pertile, E.; Dombek, V.; Vastyl, M.; Leher, V.

    2017-10-01

    The negative consequences of mining of the black coal is occurrence of extractive waste storage locations - mining dumps. The mining activities carried out within the area of Ostrava are responsible for at least six mine dumps of loose materials arising as wastes from mining of mineral resources, many of which show presence of thermal processes. The thermal activity in dumps is responsible for many hazardous substances that pollute the environment and harm human health in the surroundings. This paper deals with the results of the first phase of project CZ.11.4.120/0.0/0.0/15_006/0000074 TERDUMP, on exploration of thermally active mining dumps are published in the article. As a first studied thermally active dump was a Hedvika dump. To localize of hot spots with hot gas emission was used a thermovision scanning by drone. The place with high temperature (49.8 °C) identified natural gas emission through natural cracks. Analysing the occurring pollutants in Hedvika Dump using the GC-MS or HPLC, respectively and the inert gases (CO2, CO and SO2) were determined by ion chromatography. The pollutants were determined in five sampling points during two measurements executed from July to August 2017.

  19. Impact of former uranium mining activities on the floodplains of the Mulde River, Saxony, Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bister, S.; Birkhan, J.; Lüllau, T.; Bunka, M.; Solle, A.; Stieghorst, C.; Riebe, B.; Michel, R.; Walther, C.

    2015-01-01

    The Mulde River drains the former uranium mining areas in Saxony (Germany), which has led to a large-scale contamination of the river and the adjacent floodplain soils with radionuclides of the uranium decay series. The objective of the investigation is to quantify the long-term effect of former uranium mining activities on a river system. All of the investigated environmental compartments (water, sediment, soil) still reveal an impact from the former uranium mining and milling activities. The contamination of water has decreased considerably during the last 20 years due to the operation of water treatment facilities. The uranium content of the sediments decreased as well (on average by a factor of 5.6), most likely caused by displacement of contaminated material during flood events. Currently, the impact of the mining activities is most obvious in soils. For some of the plots activity concentrations of >200 Bq/kg of soil were detected for uranium-238. Alluvial soils used as grassland were found to be contaminated to a higher degree than those used as cropland. - Highlights: • Water, sediments, and soils affected by uranium mining were investigated. • All environmental compartments still reveal an impact of former uranium mining. • Contamination of water and sediment has decreased over the past 20 years. • Alluvial soils under pasture are higher contaminated than those from cropland

  20. Assessment of Radioactive Materials and Heavy Metals in the Surface Soil around the Bayanwula Prospective Uranium Mining Area in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haribala Bai

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work is the first systematic and large scale study on radioactive materials and heavy metals in surface soil around the Bayanwula prospective uranium mining area in China. In this work, both natural and anthropogenic radionuclides and heavy metals in 48 surface soil samples were analyzed using High Purity Germanium (HPGe γ spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS. The obtained mean activity concentrations of 238U, 226Ra, 232Th, 40K, and 137Cs were 25.81 ± 9.58, 24.85 ± 2.77, 29.40 ± 3.14, 923.0 ± 47.2, and 5.64 ± 4.56 Bq/kg, respectively. The estimated average absorbed dose rate and annual effective dose rate were 76.7 ± 3.1 nGy/h and 83.1 ± 3.8 μSv, respectively. The radium equivalent activity, external hazard index, and internal hazard index were also calculated, and their mean values were within the acceptable limits. The estimated lifetime cancer risk was 3.2 × 10−4/Sv. The heavy metal contents of Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb from the surface soil samples were measured and their health risks were then assessed. The concentrations of all heavy metals were much lower than the average backgrounds in China except for lead which was about three times higher than that of China’s mean. The non-cancer and cancer risks from the heavy metals were estimated, which are all within the acceptable ranges. In addition, the correlations between the radionuclides and the heavy metals in surface soil samples were determined by the Pearson linear coefficient. Strong positive correlations between radionuclides and the heavy metals at the 0.01 significance level were found. In conclusion, the contents of radionuclides and heavy metals in surface soil around the Bayanwula prospective uranium mining area are at a normal level.

  1. Mining for diagnostic information in body surface potential maps: A comparison of feature selection techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCullagh Paul J

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In body surface potential mapping, increased spatial sampling is used to allow more accurate detection of a cardiac abnormality. Although diagnostically superior to more conventional electrocardiographic techniques, the perceived complexity of the Body Surface Potential Map (BSPM acquisition process has prohibited its acceptance in clinical practice. For this reason there is an interest in striking a compromise between the minimum number of electrocardiographic recording sites required to sample the maximum electrocardiographic information. Methods In the current study, several techniques widely used in the domains of data mining and knowledge discovery have been employed to mine for diagnostic information in 192 lead BSPMs. In particular, the Single Variable Classifier (SVC based filter and Sequential Forward Selection (SFS based wrapper approaches to feature selection have been implemented and evaluated. Using a set of recordings from 116 subjects, the diagnostic ability of subsets of 3, 6, 9, 12, 24 and 32 electrocardiographic recording sites have been evaluated based on their ability to correctly asses the presence or absence of Myocardial Infarction (MI. Results It was observed that the wrapper approach, using sequential forward selection and a 5 nearest neighbour classifier, was capable of choosing a set of 24 recording sites that could correctly classify 82.8% of BSPMs. Although the filter method performed slightly less favourably, the performance was comparable with a classification accuracy of 79.3%. In addition, experiments were conducted to show how (a features chosen using the wrapper approach were specific to the classifier used in the selection model, and (b lead subsets chosen were not necessarily unique. Conclusion It was concluded that both the filter and wrapper approaches adopted were suitable for guiding the choice of recording sites useful for determining the presence of MI. It should be noted however

  2. Mercury pollution on district of Dimembe river system North Sulawesi, Indonesia, due to traditional gold mining activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayhuan, D.; Atteng, O.; Dondokambey, A.; Randuk, M.

    2003-05-01

    Mercury contamination caused by the amalgamation of gold in small scale gold mining is a environmental problem. Small-scale gold mining (SSGM) is common in mineral endowed developing countries. It offers an important means of livehood and has served as a safety net in times of natural calamities or economic distress. In north Sulawesi Province alone, approximately 22,000 small-scale gold miners were active in 1998, and produced an estimated 10 tonnes of gold bullion. Activities of traditional / illegal gold mining (PETI) in Dimembe of district, which is located in Minahasa Regency, North Sulawesi Province. The major environmental concern associated with PETI in mercury pollution from processing of gold-bearing ore. In both the inorganic and organic forms, mercury is one of the most toxic substances to humans. One of the environmental pollution is water pollution on district of Dimembe river system that is probably caused by the use of mercury (Hg) in processing mine ore. This mercury is used in an iron rolling vessel, wllich is called tromol. Mercury concentration at employed in this operation reaches 1 kg out of 30 kg ore. Sampling stage was conducted at Warat river, downstream Taiawaan river, Merut river and Kadumut river on late April 2002 by BAPEDALDA team together with Health Laboratory staff. Material which were sampled was water. Sampling methods carried out were bottle sample immersed about 10 cm below the water surface. The analysis method used was mercury analyzer. The analysis result show that total concentration of mercury range from 1. 69 to 25. 54 ppb. This concentration is closed to Water Quality Standard IV Class that is 0.005 mg/L (Regulation Government No. 82/2001). The result of this research indicate that the district of Dimembe river system in the gold mining area have been contaminated by mercury.

  3. Review : Pollution due to Coal Mining Activity and its Impact on Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Andi Arif Setiawan; Dedik Budianta; Dwi Putro Priadi; Suheryanto

    2018-01-01

    Utilization of natural resources in the form of coal mines has a positive impact on economic and energy development, in addition to coal mining activities have a negative impact on the environment that result in environmental pollution in soil, water, and air. Pollution begins when clearing land, taking exploitation, transporting, stockpile and when the coal is burned. When land clearing causes damage to forest ecosystems. At the time of exploitation impact on air pollution by coal dust parti...

  4. Utilization of textile surface covers for stabilizing slopes in brown coal surface mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathmann, K.; Ganz, R.; Taubert, E.; Scheler, D.

    1980-01-01

    Results are presented of tests on preventing slope erosion at a spoil bank by covering inclined surfaces with textile. Three polyethylene and one polyamide cloth types with varying mesh size and material elasticity were attached to the ground after seeding of grass plants. Slope erosion and grass growth were evaluated at three-week intervals. Best results were achieved with polyethylene cloth with a 10/20 mm mesh to facilitate grass growth and with low elasticity, which showed the best adaption to the slope of the ground and prevented washout from below. Economic advantages of using surface covers are described as reducing expenditures in labor employed in slope maintenance. A 50% cost saving is estimated, which depends on the availability of low cost ground covers, preferably from waste products. The suitability of textile from magnetic tape scrap will be tested.

  5. Water resources and effects of potential surface coal mining on dissolved solids in Hanging Woman Creek basin, southeastern Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, M.R.

    1989-01-01

    Groundwater resources of the Hanging Woman Creek basin, Montana include Holocene and Pleistocene alluvial aquifers and sandstone , coal, and clinker aquifers in the Paleocene Fort Union Formation. Surface water resources are composed of Hanging Woman Creek, its tributaries, and small stock ponds. Dissolved-solids concentrations in groundwater ranged from 200 to 11,00 mg/L. Generally, concentrations were largest in alluvial aquifers and smallest in clinker aquifers. Near its mouth, Hanging Woman Creek had a median concentration of about 1,800 mg/L. Mining of the 20-foot to 35-foot-thick Anderson coal bed and 3-foot to 16-foot thick Dietz coal bed could increase dissolved-solids concentrations in shallow aquifers and in Hanging Woman Creek because of leaching of soluble minerals from mine spoils. Analysis of saturated-paste extracts from 158 overburden samples indicated that water moving through mine spoils would have a median increase in dissolved-solids concentration of about 3,700 mg/L, resulting in an additional dissolved-solids load to Hanging Woman Creek of about 3.0 tons/day. Hanging Woman Creek near Birney could have an annual post-mining dissolved-solids load of 3,415 tons at median discharge, a 47% increase from pre-mining conditions load. Post-mining concentrations of dissolved solids, at median discharge, could range from 2,380 mg/L in March to 3,940 mg/L in August, compared to mean pre-mining concentrations that ranged from 1,700 mg/L in July, November, and December to 2,060 mg/L in May. Post-mining concentrations and loads in Hanging Woman Creek would be smaller if a smaller area were mined. (USGS)

  6. Single-molecule conductivity of non-redox and redox molecules at pure and gold-mined Au(111)-electrode surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jingdong; Chi, Qijin; Ulstrup, Jens

    media supported by comprehensive theoretical frames, have emerged as core approaches in these exciting areas. Single-molecule redox electrochemistry is rooted in two major areas. One is the preparation of well-defined (atomically planar) electrode surfaces modified by molecular monolayers (SAMs). High...... to surface-mined Au-atoms. In addition the SAMs ensure protein/enzyme immobilization gentle enough that the proteins retain electron transfer or enzyme activity in a variety of local environments. The second area is the mapping and control of the immobilized redox molecules and metalloproteins themselves...

  7. Role of soil health in maintaining environmental sustainability of surface coal mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acton, Peter M; Fox, James F; Campbell, J Elliott; Jones, Alice L; Rowe, Harold; Martin, Darren; Bryson, Sebastian

    2011-12-01

    Mountaintop coal mining (MCM) in the Southern Appalachian forest region greatly impacts both soil and aquatic ecosystems. Policy and practice currently in place emphasize water quality and soil stability but do not consider upland soil health. Here we report soil organic carbon (SOC) measurements and other soil quality indicators for reclaimed soils in the Southern Appalachian forest region to quantify the health of the soil ecosystem. The SOC sequestration rate of the MCM soils was 1.3 MgC ha(-1) yr(-1) and stocks ranged from 1.3 ± 0.9 to 20.9 ± 5.9 Mg ha(-1) and contained only 11% of the SOC of surrounding forest soils. Comparable reclaimed mining soils reported in the literature that are supportive of soil ecosystem health had SOC stocks 2.5-5 times greater than the MCM soils and sequestration rates were also 1.6-3 times greater. The high compaction associated with reclamation in this region greatly reduces both the vegetative rooting depth and infiltration of the soil and increases surface runoff, thus bypassing the ability of soil to naturally filter groundwater. In the context of environmental sustainability of MCM, it is proposed that the entire watershed ecosystem be assessed and that a revision of current policy be conducted to reflect the health of both water and soil.

  8. Measurement of sub-surface strata behaviour in bord and pillar mining: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishna, R.

    1991-01-01

    Ranigunj coalfield (India) has been facing significant problems due to subsidence as a result of underground mining of coal seams. The occurrence of the thick seams in close proximity, shallow depth, great variation in the nature of superincumbent strata from site to site, followed by the slow rate of extraction, has aggravated subsidence problems. In the recent past, many such workings have collapsed, damaging a large number of surface structures. In view of the aforesaid need, a comprehensive project financed by the Ministry of Energy (Coal), was undertaken by the Department of Mining Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, at a Colliery in Ranigunj Coalfield. This investigation revealed that the caving horizon occurred at 4 times the extracted seam height, which differs from the findings in the UK, USA, and Australia. Also, it appears possible to estimate strata displacements from geological and physicomechanical information from the overlying rocks using the bending moment principle. Further, it was observed that the shallow workings could give rise to a sink hole type of subsidence, which is dangerous and could adversely affect the environment, safety of the public and properties. 11 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab

  9. A REIA Study of Marble Mining Activities in District- Nagaur (Rajasthan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Arif

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Conventional and unscientific mining poses severe threat to life, public property and continuation of mining in the area. Incompatible land uses, huge waste dumps and large scale land transformation have resulted in land degradation, ponding, flooding, water contamination and health hazards in Makrana mining area. Segregation of dumps, compatible land use, research and development activity for use of marble slurry are suggested measures for reclamation and restoration of the degraded land. While for the purpose of development and economic upliftment of people, there is a need for establishment of industrial project, but these have to be environmentally friendly. Therefore it is essential to assess the impacts of mining on different environmental parameters, before starting the mining operations, so that abatement measures could be planned in advance for eco-friendly mining in the area. Environmental impact assessment (EIA is a systematic process that examines the environmental consequences of development action like mining, cement, transport, river valley. EIA systematically examines booth beneficial and adverse consequences of the proposed project and ensures that these impacts are taken into account during the project design.

  10. Assessment of post-mining damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibesová, B.; Koudelková, J.; Mudruňka, J.; Vrublova, D.

    2017-10-01

    The article describes characteristic features of post-mining and mining activities. These includes drop basins, settling ponds with flotation tailings, mine water discharge into surface water, coal waste dumps and their thermic activities. In conclusion, the financial demands oi individual remediation and reclamation activities are quantified. The costs of land reclamation measures with respect to the subsequent use of the landscape are also calculated for the Ostrava-Karvina Coal District.

  11. Mechanism of the asymmetric activation of the MinD ATPase by MinE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyung-Tae; Wu, Wei; Lovell, Scott; Lutkenhaus, Joe

    2012-01-01

    Summary MinD is a component of the Min system involved in the spatial regulation of cell division. It is an ATPase in the MinD/ParA/Mrp deviant Walker A motif family which is within the P loop GTPase superfamily. Its ATPase activity is stimulated by MinE, however, the mechanism of this activation is unclear. MinD forms a symmetric dimer with two binding sites for MinE, however, a recent model suggested that MinE occupying one site was sufficient for ATP hydrolysis. By generating heterodimers with one binding site for MinE we show that one binding site is sufficient for stimulation of the MinD ATPase. Furthermore, comparison of structures of MinD and related proteins led us to examine the role of N45 in the switch I region. An asparagine at this position is conserved in four of the deviant Walker A motif subfamilies (MinD, chromosomal ParAs, Get3 and FleN) and we find that N45 in MinD is essential for MinE stimulated ATPase activity and suggest that it is a key residue affected by MinE binding. PMID:22651575

  12. Method of solution mining subsurface orebodies to reduce restoration activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, G.J.

    1984-01-01

    A method of solution mining is claimed wherein a lixiviant containing both leaching and oxidizing agents is injected into the subsurface orebody. The composition of the lixiviant is changed by reducing the level of oxidizing agent to zero so that soluble species continue to be removed from the subsurface environment. This reduces the uranium level of the ground water aquifer after termination of the lixiviant injection

  13. Method of solution mining subsurface orebodies to reduce restoration activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartman, G.J.

    1984-01-24

    A method of solution mining is claimed wherein a lixiviant containing both leaching and oxidizing agents is injected into the subsurface orebody. The composition of the lixiviant is changed by reducing the level of oxidizing agent to zero so that soluble species continue to be removed from the subsurface environment. This reduces the uranium level of the ground water aquifer after termination of the lixiviant injection.

  14. Activities concerning plugging and sealing in the Asse salt mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kappei, G.

    1986-01-01

    A large amount of experience regarding chamber sealing has been acquired in the Asse salt mine over the years. Various techniques were tested such as, for example, the pneumatic or pumping technique as well as the possible use of different constructional materials. The schematic construction of several existing bulkheads and the geotechnical instrumentation required for monitoring are described. Results of stress measurements from within a four year's old bulkhead are given. (orig./DG)

  15. Biomarker monitoring of a population residing near uranium mining activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, W W; Lane, R G; Legator, M S; Whorton, E B; Wilkinson, G S; Gabehart, G J

    1995-01-01

    We investigated whether residents residing near uranium mining operations (target population), who are potentially exposed to toxicants from mining waste, have increased genotoxic effects compared with people residing elsewhere (reference population). Population surveys were conducted, and 24 target and 24 reference residents were selected. The selected subjects and controls were matched on age and gender and they were nonsmokers. Blood samples were collected for laboratory studies. The standard cytogenetic assay was used to determine chromosome aberration frequencies, and the challenge assay was used to investigate DNA repair responses. We found that individuals who resided near uranium mining operations had a higher mean frequency of cells with chromosome aberrations and higher deletion frequency but lower dicentric frequency than the reference group, although the difference was not statistically significant. After cells were challenged by exposure to gamma-rays, the target population had a significantly higher frequency of cells with chromosome aberrations and deletion frequency than the reference group. The latter observation is indicative of abnormal DNA repair response in the target population. PMID:7656876

  16. Coal Mine Permit Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — ESRI ArcView shapefile depicting New Mexico coal mines permitted under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA), by either the NM Mining these...

  17. Abandoned Uranium Mine (AUM) Surface Areas, Navajo Nation, 2016, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains polygon features that represent all Abandoned Uranium Mines (AUMs) on or within one mile of the Navajo Nation. Attributes include mine...

  18. Impacts of manganese mining activity on the environment: interactions among soil, plants, and arbuscular mycorrhiza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Becerril, Facundo; Juárez-Vázquez, Lucía V; Hernández-Cervantes, Saúl C; Acevedo-Sandoval, Otilio A; Vela-Correa, Gilberto; Cruz-Chávez, Enrique; Moreno-Espíndola, Iván P; Esquivel-Herrera, Alfonso; de León-González, Fernando

    2013-02-01

    The mining district of Molango in the Hidalgo State, Mexico, possesses one of the largest deposits of manganese (Mn) ore in the world. This research assessed the impacts of Mn mining activity on the environment, particularly the interactions among soil, plants, and arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) at a location under the influence of an open Mn mine. Soils and plants from three sites (soil under maize, soil under native vegetation, and mine wastes with some vegetation) were analyzed. Available Mn in both soil types and mine wastes did not reach toxic levels. Samples of the two soil types were similar regarding physical, chemical, and biological properties; mine wastes were characterized by poor physical structure, nutrient deficiencies, and a decreased number of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) spores. Tissues of six plant species accumulated Mn at normal levels. AM was absent in the five plant species (Ambrosia psilostachya, Chenopodium ambrosoides, Cynodon dactylon, Polygonum hydropiperoides, and Wigandia urens) established in mine wastes, which was consistent with the significantly lower number of AMF spores compared with both soil types. A. psilostachya (native vegetation) and Zea mays showed mycorrhizal colonization in their root systems; in the former, AM significantly decreased Mn uptake. The following was concluded: (1) soils, mine wastes, and plant tissues did not accumulate Mn at toxic levels; (2) despite its poor physical structure and nutrient deficiencies, the mine waste site was colonized by at least five plant species; (3) plants growing in both soil types interacted with AMF; and (4) mycorrhizal colonization of A. psilostachya influenced low uptake of Mn by plant tissues.

  19. 3D modeling of surface quarries and deposits of mined materials and the monitoring of slopes

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Maňas

    2007-01-01

    The application of computer technology by simulating opencast mining and deposits of raw materials. The mathematic principles of three-dimensional probabilistic models of raw materials deposits and a familiarization with the user interface software GEOLOGICKY MODEL. The principles of the simulation of opencast mines, generation intersections with models of raw materials deposits, computation of mining materials with the quality scaling,and the design of advanced mining with the software BANSK...

  20. Assessment of Water Quality Index and Heavy Metal Contamination in Active and Abandoned Iron Ore Mining Sites in Pahang, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madzin Zafira

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The composition of heavy metals in water and surface soils of iron ore mining sites were investigated to evaluate on the potential occurrence of heavy metal contamination. Physico-chemical characteristics of the waters were also investigated to determine the current status of water quality index (WQI of the sites. Samples of water and surface soils of active mine (Kuala Lipis and abandoned mine (Bukit Ibam in Pahang were collected at four locations, respectively. The physico-chemical parameters measured for WQI were pH, dissolved oxygen, biological oxygen demand (BOD, chemical oxygen demand (COD, suspended solids (SS, and ammoniacal nitrogen (AN. The water quality parameters were classified according to the Department of Environment (DOE water quality classification. The study revealed that most of the sites in Bukit Ibam and Kuala Lipis were categorized as clean to slightly polluted. On the other hand, heavy metal analysis in water showed that aluminium and manganese level in both sites have exceeded the allowable limits for raw and treated water standards by the Ministry of Health. For heavy metal compositions in soils showed most of the heavy metal concentrations were below the recommended guideline values except for lead, arsenic, zinc and copper.

  1. Coal mining activities change plant community structure due to air pollution and soil degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Bhanu; Agrawal, Madhoolika; Singh, Siddharth

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of coal mining activities on the community structures of woody and herbaceous plants. The response of individual plants of community to defilement caused by coal mining was also assessed. Air monitoring, soil physico-chemical and phytosociological analyses were carried around Jharia coalfield (JCF) and Raniganj coalfield. The importance value index of sensitive species minified and those of tolerant species enhanced with increasing pollution load and altered soil quality around coal mining areas. Although the species richness of woody and herbaceous plants decreased with higher pollution load, a large number of species acclimatized to the stress caused by the coal mining activities. Woody plant community at JCF was more affected by coal mining than herbaceous community. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed that structure of herbaceous community was mainly driven by soil total organic carbon, soil nitrogen, whereas woody layer community was influenced by sulphur dioxide in ambient air, soil sulphate and soil phosphorus. The changes in species diversity observed at mining areas indicated an increase in the proportion of resistant herbs and grasses showing a tendency towards a definite selection strategy of ecosystem in response to air pollution and altered soil characteristics.

  2. Simulated effects of surface coal mining and agriculture on dissolved solids in the Redwater River, east-central Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, R.F.; Lambing, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    Dissolved solids concentrations in five reaches of the Redwater River in east-central Montana were simulated to evaluate the effects of surface coal mining and agriculture. A mass-balance model of streamflow and dissolved solids load developed for the Tongue River in southeastern Montana was modified and applied to the Redwater River. Mined acreages, dissolved solids concentrations in mined spoils, and irrigated acreage can be varied in the model to study relative changes in the dissolved solids concentration in consecutive reaches of the river. Because of extreme variability and a limited amount of data, the model was not consecutively validated. Simulated mean and median monthly mean streamflows and consistently larger than those calculated from streamflow records. Simulated mean and median monthly mean dissolved solids loads also are consistently larger than regression-derived values. These discrepancies probably result from extremely variable streamflow, overestimates of streamflow from ungaged tributaries, and weak correlations between streamflow and dissolved solids concentrations. The largest increases in simulated dissolved solids concentrations from mining and agriculture occur from September through January because of smaller streamflows and dissolved solids loads. Different combinations of agriculture and mining under mean flow conditions resulted in cumulative percentage increases of dissolved solids concentrations of less than 5% for mining and less than 2% for agriculture. (USGS)

  3. Selective bibliography of surface coal mining and reclamation literature. Volume 1. Eastern coal province. [More than 1300 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, N. E.; Sobek, A. A.; Streib, D. L.

    1977-11-01

    This bibliography has been compiled for use by researchers, students, and other groups who need a reference source of published literature related to surface coal mining and reclamation in the Eastern Coal Province. This bibliography contains more than 1300 references including government reports, journal articles, symposium proceedings, industrial reports, workshop proceedings, theses, and bibliographices. A simple format was used to categorize citations.

  4. Nesting success of grassland and savanna birds on reclaimed surface coal mines of the midwestern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galligan, E.W.; DeVault, T.L.; Lima, S.L. [Indiana State University, Terre Haute, IN (United States)

    2006-12-15

    Reclaimed surface coal mines in southwestern Indiana support many grassland and shrub/savanna bird species of conservation concern. We examined the nesting success of birds on these reclaimed mines to assess whether such 'unnatural' places represent productive breeding habitats for such species. We established eight study sites on two large, grassland-dominated mines in southwestern Indiana and classified them into three categories (open grassland, shrub/savanna, and a mixture of grassland and shrub/savanna) based on broad vegetation and landscape characteristics. During the 1999 and 2000 breeding seasons, we found and monitored 911 nests of 31 species. Daily nest survival for the most commonly monitored grassland species ranged from 0.903 (Dickcissel, Spiza americana) to 0.961 (Grasshopper Sparrow, Ammodramus savannarum). Daily survival estimates for the dominant shrub/savanna nesting species ranged from 0.932 (Brown Thrasher, Toxostoma rufum) to 0.982 (Willow Flycatcher, Empidonax traillii). Vegetation and landscape effects on nesting success were minimal, and only Eastern Meadowlarks (Sturnella magna) showed a clear time-of-season effect, with greater nesting success in the first half of the breeding season. Rates of Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) parasitism were only 2.1% for grassland species and 12.0% for shrub/savanna species. The nesting success of birds on reclaimed mine sites was comparable to that in other habitats, indicating that reclaimed habitats on surface mines do not necessarily represent reproductive traps for birds.

  5. Agriculture in an area impacted by past uranium mining activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, F. P.; Oliveira, J. M.; Neves, O.; Vicente, E. M.; Abreu, M. M.

    2007-01-01

    The shallow aquifer near the old Cunha Baixa uranium mine (Viseu, Portugal) was contaminated by acid mine drainage. Concentration of radionuclides in water from irrigation wells and in the topsoil layer of the agriculture fields nearby display enhanced concentrations of uranium, radium and polonium. Two types of agriculture land in this area were selected, one with enhanced and another with low uranium concentrations, for controlled growth of lettuce and potatoes. Plants were grown in replicate portions of land (two plots) in each soil type and were periodically irrigated with water from wells. In each soil, one plot was irrigated with water containing low concentration of dissolved uranium and the other plot with water containing enhanced concentration of dissolved uranium. At the end of the growth season, plants were harvested and analysed, along with soil and irrigation water samples. Results show the accumulation of radionuclides in edible parts of plants, specially in the field plots with higher radionuclide concentrations in soil. Radionuclides in irrigation water contributed less to the radioactivity accumulated in plants than radionuclides from soils. (authors)

  6. Assessment of heavy metal pollution risks in Yonki Reservoir environmental matrices affected by gold mining activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapia, Samuel; Rao, B K Rajashekhar; Sakulas, Harry

    2016-10-01

    This study reports the heavy metal (Hg, Cd, Cr, Cu, and Pb) contamination risks to and safety of two species of fresh water fish (tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus and carp, Cyprinus carpio) that are farmed in the Yonki Reservoir in the Eastern Highlands of Papua New Guinea (PNG). The upper reaches of the reservoir are affected by alluvial and large-scale gold mining activities. We also assessed heavy metal levels in the surface waters and sediments and in selected aquatic plant species from the reservoir and streams that intersect the gold mining areas. The water quality was acceptable, except for the Cr concentration, which exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO) standard for water contamination. The sediments were contaminated with Cd and Cu in most of the sampling stations along the upstream waters and the reservoir. The Cd concentration in the sediments exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency's Sediment Quality Guideline (SQG) values, and the geoaccumulation index (Igeo) values indicated heavy to extreme pollution. In addition, the Cd, Cu, and Pb concentrations in aquatic plants exceeded the WHO guidelines for these contaminants. Between the fish species, tilapia accumulated significantly higher (P < 0.05) Cu in their organ tissues than carp, confirming the bioaccumulation of some metals in the aquatic fauna. The edible muscles of the fish specimens had metal concentrations below the maximum permissible levels established by statutory guidelines. In addition, a human health risk assessment, performed using the estimated weekly intake (EWI) values, indicated that farmed fish from the Yonki Reservoir are safe for human consumption.

  7. Environment managing all along the mining cycle: implementing an integrated and pro-active approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    Uranium mining is a niche business because of its production volume and the size of its market that have nothing to do with coal market or iron ore business. It is a very concentrated business with only a few players. New AREVA is one of them with an output of 11.186 tons of uranium representing 15% of the world production in 2016. New AREVA has committed oneself to preserve the environment during the exploitation phase of a mine. Environment samples (soil, water, plants...) are collected to draw an initial picture of a site before mining activities begin in order to minimize the environmental impact. In some sites, for instance in Mongolia, water is scarce and has to be spared, a recycling technology for the sludge recovered from drilling operations, has been tested with success. Another challenge is the adaptation to the climate warming as both a player and a victim because most sites are in zones that are very sensitive to climate change and because mining can release greenhouse effect gases. The final challenge that faces New AREVA at the end of a mining cycle is to succeed the remediation of the site, it does not mean a come back to the initial situation which is impossible to reach but to get an environmental state that is safe and durable. In 2011 AREVA joined the International Counsel for mines and metals (ICMM) in order to share a code of practice for a sustainable development. (A.C.)

  8. Water treatment strategy for underground and surface waters in order to reduce the hydro-network contamination due to close out of a uranium mining area in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgescu, D.; Radulescu, C.

    1999-01-01

    Under the present circumstances, in correlation with the national nuclear program and strategy, it is foreseen to stop the exploitation activities in two important uranium mining areas from Romania. This close-out action is involving a number of technical decisions for environmental restoration. Reduction of waters radioactive contamination in these zones, both during the operating period and after the closeout period, is one of the main components of the environment rehabilitation strategy. In this paper there are presented the today situation and the program foreseen for ground and surface water treatment at an uranium mining unit situated in the SW side of Romania, program based on the results of our own research carried out to decrease the content of pollutant radioactive elements. (author)

  9. Responsible Development On Areva's Mining Activities - Report 2013-2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Mining activities are the first link in the nuclear fuel cycle and in the integrated model of the Areva Group. Areva was one of the top producers worldwide in 2013, producing 9,330 metric tons of uranium (Areva's financially consolidated share). The group works to maintain resources and weighted reserves equivalent to 20 years of production at all times. Thanks to a presence spanning five continents, they ensure the long-term supply to customers of uranium for electricity production while maintaining a responsible attitude towards people and the environment. It has a diverse portfolio of both active mines (Canada, Kazakhstan and Niger) and mines under development (Africa). This document is Areva's Mining Activities responsible Development report for 2013 and 2014. Content: profile (Overview, Keys events, Worldwide presence, Governance and Organization, Uranium market); CSR approach (Message from the Senior Executive Vice President, Fundamentals, Responsible Commitments Plan, Materiality); Commitments (Health and radiation protection, Occupational safety, Environment and Biodiversity, Community involvement, Commitment to employees, Relationships with stakeholders, Innovation); Performance (Main Key indicators, 2013-2016 Objectives, Reporting parameters); Annexes (Cases studies, Focus post-mining, Audit and GRI certifications)

  10. Responsible Development On Areva's Mining Activities. Report 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Mining activities are the first link in the nuclear fuel cycle and in the integrated model of the Areva Group. Areva was one of the top producers worldwide in 2015, producing 11,002 metric tons of uranium. The group works to maintain resources and weighted reserves equivalent to 20 years of production at all times. Thanks to a presence spanning five continents, they ensure the long-term supply to customers of uranium for electricity production while maintaining a responsible attitude towards people and the environment. It has a diverse portfolio of both active mines (Canada, Kazakhstan and Niger) and mines under development (Africa). This document is Areva's Mining Activities responsible Development report for 2015. Content: profile (Overview, Keys events, Worldwide presence, Governance and Organization, Uranium market); CSR approach (Statement from the senior executive vice president, Risk management, Ethics and human rights, Voluntary initiatives, Materiality); Commitments (Health and radiation protection, Occupational safety, Environment and Biodiversity, Social involvement, Commitment to employees, Mining closure, Innovation); Performance (CSR objectives, Key indicators, Reporting parameters); Case Studies; Annexes (GRI Index)

  11. Responsible Development On Areva's Mining Activities - Report 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Mining activities are the first link in the nuclear fuel cycle and in the integrated model of the Areva Group. Areva was one of the top producers worldwide in 2014, producing 8,959 metric tons of uranium. The group works to maintain resources and weighted reserves equivalent to 20 years of production at all times. Thanks to a presence spanning five continents, they ensure the long-term supply to customers of uranium for electricity production while maintaining a responsible attitude towards people and the environment. It has a diverse portfolio of both active mines (Canada, Kazakhstan and Niger) and mines under development (Africa). This document is Areva's Mining Activities responsible Development report for 2014. Content: profile (Overview, Keys events, Worldwide presence, Governance and Organization, Uranium market); CSR approach (Statement from the senior executive vice president, Risk management, Ethics and human rights, Voluntary initiatives, Materiality); Commitments (Health and radiation protection, Occupational safety, Environment and Biodiversity, Community involvement, Commitment to employees, After-mines, Innovation); Performance (Key indicators, Objectives of responsibility, Reporting parameters); Case Studies; Annexes (GRI Index)

  12. Characterization of Activated Carbon from Coal and Its Application as Adsorbent on Mine Acid Water Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Hardianti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Anthracite and Sub-bituminous as activated carbon raw material had been utilized especially in mining field as adsorbent of dangerous heavy metal compound resulted in mining activity. Carbon from coal was activated physically and chemically in various temperature and particle sizes. Characterization was carried out in order to determine the adsorbent specification produced hence can be used and applied accordingly. Proximate and ultimate analysis concluded anthracite has fixed carbon 88.91% while sub-bituminous 49.05%. NaOH was used in chemical activation while heated at 400-500°C whereas physical activation was conducted at 800-1000°C. Activated carbon has high activity in adsorbing indicated by high iodine number resulted from analysis. SEM-EDS result confirmed that activated carbon made from coal has the quality in accordance to SNI and can be used as adsorbent in acid water treatment.

  13. Immobilization of Active Bacteriophages on Polyhydroxyalkanoate Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chanchan; Sauvageau, Dominic; Elias, Anastasia

    2016-01-20

    A rapid, efficient technique for the attachment of bacteriophages (phages) onto polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) surfaces has been developed and compared to three reported methods for phage immobilization. Polymer surfaces were modified to facilitate phage attachment using (1) plasma treatment alone, (2) plasma treatment followed by activation by 1-ethyl-3-(3-(dimethylamino)propyl)carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) and N-hydroxysulfosuccinimide (sulfo-NHS), (3) plasma-initiated acrylic acid grafting, or (4) plasma-initiated acrylic acid grafting with activation by EDC and sulfo-NHS. The impact of each method on the surface chemistry of PHA was investigated using contact angle analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Each of the four treatments was shown to result in both increased hydrophilicity and in the modification of the surface functional groups. Modified surfaces were immersed in suspensions of phage T4 for immobilization. The highest level of phage binding was observed for the surfaces modified by plasma treatment alone. The change in chemical bond states observed for surfaces that underwent plasma treatment is suspected to be the cause of the increased binding of active phages. Plasma-treated surfaces were further analyzed through phage-staining and fluorescence microscopy to assess the surface density of immobilized phages and their capacity to capture hosts. The infective capability of attached phages was confirmed by exposing the phage-immobilized surfaces to the host bacteria Escherichia coli in both plaque and infection dynamic assays. Plasma-treated surfaces with immobilized phages displayed higher infectivity than surfaces treated with other methods; in fact, the equivalent initial multiplicity of infection was 2 orders of magnitude greater than with other methods. Control samples - prepared by immersing polymer surfaces in phage suspensions (without prior plasma treatment) - did not show any bacterial growth inhibition, suggesting they did not bind

  14. Derived limits for occupational exposure to uranium mine and mill dusts in the air and on surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, M.W.

    1983-01-01

    Limits are derived for the concentration of uranium mine and mill dusts in the air based on ICRP30 and assumptions regarding the isotopic make up of the dusts. From these limits using a resuspension factor, limits for surface contamination are derived. Calculations are presented of the dose to the basal layer of the skin from mine and mill dusts on the skin. From these calculations limits for skin contamination are derived. A calculation of a limit based on direct ingestion is also presented. Exposure limits for the public are not considered

  15. Effects of mining activities on evolution of water quality of karst waters in Midwestern Guizhou, China: evidences from hydrochemistry and isotopic composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuexian; Wu, Pan; Han, Zhiwei; Zha, Xuefang; Ye, Huijun; Qin, Yingji

    2018-01-01

    Zhijin coal-mining district, located in Midwestern Guizhou Province, has been extensively exploited for several decades. The discharge of acid mine drainage (AMD) has constituted a serious threat to local water environmental quality, which greatly affected the normal use of local people. The Permian limestone aquifer is the essential potable water supply for local people, which covered under the widely distributed coal seams. To investigate the origin of the water, the evolutionary processes, and the sources of dissolved sulfate in the karst waters, the mine water, surface water, and groundwater near the coal mines were sampled for stable isotopes (H, O, and S) and conventional hydrochemical analysis. The results of hydrochemistry and isotopic composition indicate that the regional surface water and partial karst groundwater are obviously affected by coal-mining activities, which is mainly manifested in the increase of water solute concentration and the change of hydrochemical types. The isotopic composition of δ 2 H H2O and δ 18 O H2O indicates that the major recharge source of surface water and the groundwater is atmospheric precipitation and that it is influenced obviously by evaporation in the recharge process. The surface water is mainly controlled by the oxidation of pyrite, as well as the dissolution of carbonate rocks, whereas that of natural karst waters is influenced by the dissolution of carbonate rocks. The resulting δ 34 S SO4 values suggest that the dissolved sulfate source in the surface water is mainly pyrite oxidation but atmospheric precipitation for the karst groundwater. Given the similar chemistry and isotopic composition between surface water and partial groundwater, it is reasonable to assume that most of the dissolved sulfate source in part of the groundwater was derived through the oxidation of pyrite in the coal. Furthermore, the contamination of the surface water and partial groundwater from the coal seam has occurred distinctly in the

  16. Responsible Development of Areva's Mining Activities - Report 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-09-01

    The results consolidated at Mining Business Group level and presented in this document mainly relate to the uranium production sites for which Areva is the majority operator. For each stage of the mining life cycle (exploration, project development, operation, closure, redevelopment) much of the data is also reported on a national and international reporting level, and is presented in this document when deemed necessary for the understanding of Areva's activities. This document reports the extra-financial performance of Areva's mining activities for the period from 1 January to 31 December 2011. The extra-financial performance of mining activities presented in this report is underpinned by the Areva group reporting process called STAR (for Sustainability Tools Advanced Reporting). It is supplemented by information collected from in-house experts or from other reporting documents deemed to be valid sources of reference for the subjects discussed. Content: 1 - Approach to responsibility (Being a Responsible Mining Stakeholder, The Fundamentals of Areva's Approach); 2 - Activities (Activities Experiencing Strong Growth, Uranium as a Core Business); 3 - Teams (A Proactive Employment Policy, Employee Health and Safety, Focus: 'I am committed to maintaining safety' campaign yields exemplary results in Namibia); 4 - Environmental policy (Management of Challenges, The Environment Throughout the Entire Mining Lifecycle, Focus: hybrid electricity generation system for prospecting camps in Australia); 5 - Social commitment (Transparency and Openness to Dialogue, Community Involvement, Focus: working group with communities of the province of Saskatchewan in Canada); 6 - Performance (The Main Sustainable Development Indicators, Scope of this Report); 7 - Appendices (Glossary, Communications associated with this report)

  17. Mining anaerobic digester consortia metagenomes for secreted carbohydrate active enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilkens, Casper; Busk, Peter Kamp; Pilgaard, Bo

    , and food wastes (Alvarado et al., 2014). The processes and the roles of the microorganisms that are involved in biomass conversion and methane production in ADs are still not fully understood. We are investigating thermophilic and mesophilic ADs that use wastewater surplus sludge for methane production......Anaerobic digesters (ADs) are one of several ways to produce renewable energy, which in the case of ADs is in the form of methane. Several microbial groups are involved in anaerobic degradation of organic wastes such as animal manures and wastewater, and solid organic wastes such as sludge, crop...... was done with the Peptide Pattern Recognition (PPR) program (Busk and Lange, 2013), which is a novel non-alignment based approach that can predict function of e.g. CAZymes. PPR identifies a set of short conserved sequences, which can be used as a finger print when mining genomes for novel enzymes. In both...

  18. Building local competences to meet mining activities – strategies based on experiences from Greenland and Island

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ulrik; Gjedssø Bertelsen, Rasmus; Hendriksen, Kåre

    Mineral extraction in the Arctic is seen as a key to overcome future shortages of raw materials and local economic challenges in northern regions. Governmental strategies aim at building competence in governance and a local workforce that can be employed in mining industries and related businesses....... However many mining companies envisage potentials for a fast extraction of the resources using immigrant and migrant laborers that work intensively over a period of time while living in shantytowns. Past Greenland experiences with this type of work organization is not particularly positive. Experiences...... from Island demonstrate that is a long haul to build competences beyond local service activities. In preparing for large scale mining activities legal, social and environmental impact assessments are mandatory and needed for the public, political decision making concerning licenses for the initiation...

  19. Long-term effects of surface coal mining on ground-water levels and quality in two small watersheds in eastern Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, W.L.; Jones, R.L.

    1990-01-01

    Two small eastern Ohio watersheds surface mined for coal and reclaimed were studied during 1986-89. Water level and water quality data were compared with data from investigations conducted during 1976-83 to determine long-term effects of surface mining on the hydrologic system. Before mining, the watersheds were characterized by flatlying sedimentary rocks above clay beds underlying two major coal seams. Two aquifers overlay each under clay. Surface mining removed the upper aquifer, stripped the coal seam, and replaced the spoil, creating a new aquifer with hydraulic and chemical characteristics different from those of the original upper aquifer. Water levels were measured continuously in one well in each aquifer and every 2 months in other wells. Water levels in upper aquifers reached hydraulic equilibrium from 2 to 5 years after mining and, in middle aquifers, water levels increased more than 5 ft during mining; equilibrium occurred almost immediately thereafter. Water samples were collected from three upper aquifer wells, one middle-aquifer well, a seep from the upper aquifer, and the stream in each watershed. Samples were collected in 1986, 1987, 1988, and 1989. In both watersheds, sulfate replaced bicarbonate as the dominant anion in the upper aquifer after mining. In general, significant increases in concentrations of dissolved constituents in groundwater resulted from surface mining. The continued decrease in pH indicates that groundwater had not reached complete geochemical equilibrium in either watershed more than 8 years after mining ended

  20. Cancer mortality in a Texas county with prior uranium mining and milling activities, 1950-2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boice, John D Jr; Mumma, Michael; Schweitzer, Sarah; Blot, William J

    2003-01-01

    Uranium was discovered in Karnes County, Texas, in 1954 and the first uranium mill began operating in 1961 near Falls City. Uranium milling and surface and in situ mining continued in Karnes County until the early 1990s. Remediation of uranium tailings ponds was completed in the 1990s. There were three mills and over 40 mines operating in Karnes County over these years and potential exposure to the population was from possible environmental releases into the air and ground water. From time to time concerns have been raised in Karnes County about potential increased cancer risk from these uranium mining and milling activities. To evaluate the possibility of increased cancer deaths associated with these uranium operations, a mortality survey was conducted. The numbers and rates of cancer deaths were determined for Karnes County and for comparison for four 'control' counties in the same region with similar age, race, urbanisation and socioeconomic distributions reported in the 1990 US Census. Comparisons were also made with US and Texas general population rates. Following similar methods to those used by the National Cancer Institute, standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were computed as the ratio of observed numbers of cancers in the study and control counties compared to the expected number derived from general population rates for the United States. Relative risks (RRs) were computed as the ratios of the SMRs for the study and the control counties. Overall, 1223 cancer deaths occurred in the population residing in Karnes County from 1950 to 2001 compared with 1392 expected based on general population rates for the US. There were 3857 cancer deaths in the four control counties during the same 52 year period compared with 4389 expected. There was no difference between the total cancer mortality rates in Karnes County and those in the control counties (RR = 1.0; 95% confidence interval 0.9-1.1). There were no significant increases in Karnes County for any cancer when

  1. Spatial distribution and source identification of heavy metals in surface soils in a typical coal mine city, Lianyuan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jie; Feng, Chunting; Zeng, Guangming; Gao, Xiang; Zhong, Minzhou; Li, Xiaodong; Li, Xin; He, Xinyue; Fang, Yilong

    2017-06-01

    In this study, we investigated the pollution degree and spatial distribution of heavy metals and determined their sources in topsoil in a typical coal mine city, Lianyuan, Hunan Province, China. We collected 6078 soil surface samples in different land use types. And the concentrations of Zn, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, Sb, As, Mo, V, Mn, Fe and Cr were measured. The average contents of all heavy metals were lower than their corresponding Grade II values of Chinese Soil Quality Standard with the exception of Hg. However, average contents of twelve heavy metals, except for Mn, exceeded their background level in soils in Hunan Province. Based on one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), the contents of Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Hg, Mo and V were related to the anthropogenic source and there were statistically significant differences in their concentrations among different land use patterns. The spatial variation of heavy metal was visualized by GIS. The PMF model was used to ascertain contamination sources of twelve heavy metals and apportion their source contributions in Lianyuan soils. The results showed that the source contributions of the natural source, atmospheric deposition, industrial activities and agricultural activities accounted for 33.6%, 26.05%, 23.44% and 16.91%, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Post-mining in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This plentifully illustrated book aims at showing how new equilibria are building up during the transition between mining activity and post-mining, and at stressing on the necessity to keep up the cultural elements, the competencies and knowledge of mining works. The first chapter - mine and men - shows the importance of mineral substances in the objects of the everyday life, illustrates the importance of the mining tradition in France and describes the technical and administrative organisation of the end of the mining activity (works, rehabilitation, regulation, monitoring..). Chapter two - exploitation methods - presents the surface and underground facilities and their impact on the environment (extraction machines, workshops, ore processing plants, decantation ponds..). The third chapter deals with the rehabilitation and monitoring aspects: impact of mining activity stoppage on underground and surface waters, land stability, soils cleansing.. The last chapter summarizes the history of French mining region by region: Nord-Pas-de-Calais, Lorraine-Alsace, Massif central, Bretagne-Normandie, Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur and Pyrenees

  3. 3D modeling of surface quarries and deposits of mined materials and the monitoring of slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Maňas

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The application of computer technology by simulating opencast mining and deposits of raw materials. The mathematic principles of three-dimensional probabilistic models of raw materials deposits and a familiarization with the user interface software GEOLOGICKY MODEL. The principles of the simulation of opencast mines, generation intersections with models of raw materials deposits, computation of mining materials with the quality scaling,and the design of advanced mining with the software BANSKY MODEL.The monitoring the potential of dynamic movements’ of unstable slopes with the automatic total station and a following interpretation in general time intervals by means of the software MONITORING.

  4. Feasibility of a continuous surface mining machine using impact breakers. Phase I report, 1 October 1979-31 March 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, A. T.; Simpson, R. J.

    1980-04-01

    This is the first phase report of the efforts to evaluate the feasibility of excavating coal and overburden from surface mines using impact breakers. Phase I is divided into four task groups. Those tasks are as follows: Selection of Field Sites for Parametric, Selection of Impact Hammers for Field, Design Test System, and Prepare Parametric Test Plan. A detailed description and accounting of each task is given in the body of this report. Included as appendices are the FMA internal reports on the individual mines visited. These reports are the basis of test site selection. The basic finding of this phase are that industry interest in the concept of impact mining tends toward the removal of multiple thin seams of coal and parting rather than deep coal or overburden and, while the intent of this contract is to explore the feasibility of impactors in a vertical array for use in a terraced mine plan, future design of a continuous mining machine should take industry acceptance into account.

  5. Geochemical evolution of acidic ground water at a reclaimed surface coal mine in western Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta,, Charles A.

    1991-01-01

    Concentrations of dissolved sulfate and acidity in ground water increase downflow in mine spoil and underlying bedrock at a reclaimed surface coal mine in the bituminous field of western Pennsylvania. Elevated dissolved sulfate and negligible oxygen in ground water from bedrock about 100 feet below the water table suggest that pyritic sulfur is oxidized below the water table, in a system closed to oxygen. Geochemical models for the oxidation of pyrite (FeS2) and production of sulfate (SO42-) and acid (H+) are presented to explain the potential role of oxygen (O2) and ferric iron (Fe3+) as oxidants. Oxidation of pyrite by O2 and Fe3+ can occur under oxic conditions above the water table, whereas oxidation by Fe3+ also can occur under anoxic conditions below the water table. The hydrated ferric-sulfate minerals roemerite [Fe2+Fe43+(SO4)4·14H2O], copiapite [Fe2+Fe43+(SO4)6(OH)2·20H20], and coquimbite [Fe2(SO4)3·9H2O] were identified with FeS2 in coal samples, and form on the oxidizing surface of pyrite in an oxic system above the water table. These soluble ferric-sulfate 11 salts11 can dissolve with recharge waters or a rising water table releasing Fe3+, SO42-. and H+, which can be transported along closed-system ground-water flow paths to pyrite reaction sites where O2 may be absent. The Fe3+ transported to these sites can oxidize pyritic sulfur. The computer programs WATEQ4F and NEWBAL were used to compute chemical speciation and mass transfer, respectively, considering mineral dissolution and precipitation reactions plus mixing of waters from different upflow zones. Alternative mass-balance models indicate that (a) extremely large quantities of O2, over 100 times its aqueous solubility, can generate the observed concentrations of dissolved SO42- from FeS2, or (b) under anoxic conditions, Fe3+ from dissolved ferric-sulfate minerals can oxidize FeS2 along closed-system ground-water flow paths. In a system open to O2, such as in the unsaturated zone, the aqueous

  6. Mining for osteogenic surface topographies: In silico design to in vivo osseo-integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulshof, Frits F B; Papenburg, Bernke; Vasilevich, Aliaksei; Hulsman, Marc; Zhao, Yiping; Levers, Marloes; Fekete, Natalie; de Boer, Meint; Yuan, Huipin; Singh, Shantanu; Beijer, Nick; Bray, Mark-Anthony; Logan, David J; Reinders, Marcel; Carpenter, Anne E; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; Stamatialis, Dimitrios; de Boer, Jan

    2017-08-01

    Stem cells respond to the physicochemical parameters of the substrate on which they grow. Quantitative material activity relationships - the relationships between substrate parameters and the phenotypes they induce - have so far poorly predicted the success of bioactive implant surfaces. In this report, we screened a library of randomly selected designed surface topographies for those inducing osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Cell shape features, surface design parameters, and osteogenic marker expression were strongly correlated in vitro. Furthermore, the surfaces with the highest osteogenic potential in vitro also demonstrated their osteogenic effect in vivo: these indeed strongly enhanced bone bonding in a rabbit femur model. Our work shows that by giving stem cells specific physicochemical parameters through designed surface topographies, differentiation of these cells can be dictated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Surface-water and groundwater interactions in an extensively mined watershed, upper Schuylkill River, Pennsylvania, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta,, Charles A.; Goode, Daniel J.; Bartles, Michael D.; Risser, Dennis W.; Galeone, Daniel G.

    2014-01-01

    Streams crossing underground coal mines may lose flow, while abandoned mine drainage (AMD) restores flow downstream. During 2005-12, discharge from the Pine Knot Mine Tunnel, the largest AMD source in the upper Schuylkill River Basin, had near-neutral pH and elevated concentrations of iron, manganese, and sulfate. Discharge from the tunnel responded rapidly to recharge but exhibited a prolonged recession compared to nearby streams, consistent with rapid infiltration and slow release of groundwater from the mine. Downstream of the AMD, dissolved iron was attenuated by oxidation and precipitation while dissolved CO2 degassed and pH increased. During high-flow conditions, the AMD and downstream waters exhibited decreased pH, iron, and sulfate with increased acidity that were modeled by mixing net-alkaline AMD with recharge or runoff having low ionic strength and low pH. Attenuation of dissolved iron within the river was least effective during high-flow conditions because of decreased transport time coupled with inhibitory effects of low pH on oxidation kinetics. A numerical model of groundwater flow was calibrated using groundwater levels in the Pine Knot Mine and discharge data for the Pine Knot Mine Tunnel and the West Branch Schuylkill River during a snowmelt event in January 2012. Although the calibrated model indicated substantial recharge to the mine complex took place away from streams, simulation of rapid changes in mine pool level and tunnel discharge during a high flow event in May 2012 required a source of direct recharge to the Pine Knot Mine. Such recharge produced small changes in mine pool level and rapid changes in tunnel flow rate because of extensive unsaturated storage capacity and high transmissivity within the mine complex. Thus, elimination of stream leakage could have a small effect on the annual discharge from the tunnel, but a large effect on peak discharge and associated water quality in streams.

  8. The importance of observation of structural changes of lead acid battery active mass in special applications in the mining industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Zimáková

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available To be able to use lead acid batteries in particularly difficult conditions in the mining industry, it is very important to understand the events that occur during traction operation of mining carts, or auxiliary lighting. Failure of lead accumulators in the hazardous environments, where it is desired non-explosive embodiment, may have fatal consequences. The paper describes the possibility of observing changes in active materials at the microscopic level. The process of charging and discharging lead-acid accumulator has been described in many publications. The aim of this article is to supplement known information about a series of images and analysis that will accurately show progressive changes in the structure of the negative electrode. Negative electrodes are, at each cycle, charged and discharged under the same conditions, scanned with a scanning electron microscope, the elemental analysis (EDS is performed, and the size of the individual sulfate crystals is measured. Previously measured results indicate that during the charging the conversion of PbSO4 crystals into a charged form of the active mass is not complete, and there is a rapid increase in the size of lead sulfate crystals on the negative electrode. This article compares changes in electrode surface composition after two cycles. There is a clear loss of lead and, on the other hand, the visible growth of sulfur. This indicates progressive surface sulfation.

  9. Impact of former uranium mining activities on the floodplains of the Mulde River, Saxony, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bister, S; Birkhan, J; Lüllau, T; Bunka, M; Solle, A; Stieghorst, C; Riebe, B; Michel, R; Walther, C

    2015-06-01

    The Mulde River drains the former uranium mining areas in Saxony (Germany), which has led to a large-scale contamination of the river and the adjacent floodplain soils with radionuclides of the uranium decay series. The objective of the investigation is to quantify the long-term effect of former uranium mining activities on a river system. All of the investigated environmental compartments (water, sediment, soil) still reveal an impact from the former uranium mining and milling activities. The contamination of water has decreased considerably during the last 20 years due to the operation of water treatment facilities. The uranium content of the sediments decreased as well (on average by a factor of 5.6), most likely caused by displacement of contaminated material during flood events. Currently, the impact of the mining activities is most obvious in soils. For some of the plots activity concentrations of >200 Bq/kg of soil were detected for uranium-238. Alluvial soils used as grassland were found to be contaminated to a higher degree than those used as cropland. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. 77 FR 57111 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request for the Mine, Development, and Mineral...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    ... Collection Activities: Comment Request for the Mine, Development, and Mineral Exploration Supplement (1 Form... information collection (1028-0060). SUMMARY: We (the USGS) will ask the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) to approve the information collection (IC) described below. This collection consists of 1 form. As...

  11. 78 FR 16863 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request for the Mine, Development, and Mineral...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-19

    ... Collection Activities: Comment Request for the Mine, Development, and Mineral Exploration Supplement (1 Form..., Development, and Mineral Exploration Supplement. This collection consists of one form and this notice provides... information collection (1028-0060). SUMMARY: To comply with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (PRA), we are...

  12. 75 FR 3753 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request for the USGS Mine, Development, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR U.S. Geological Survey Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request for the USGS Mine, Development, and Mineral Exploration Supplement AGENCY: U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Interior. ACTION: Notice of an extension of an information collection (1028- 0060...

  13. Field and LiDAR observations of the Hector Mine California 1999 surface rupture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, F.; Akciz, S. O.; Harvey, J. C.; Hudnut, K. W.; Lynch, D. K.; Scharer, K. M.; Stock, J. M.; Witkosky, R.; Kendrick, K. J.; Wespestad, C.

    2014-12-01

    We report new field- and computer-based investigations of the surface rupture of the October 16, 1999 Hector Mine Earthquake. Since May 2012, in cooperation with the United States Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center (MCAGCC) at Twentynine Palms, CA, our team has been allowed ground and aerial access to the entire surface rupture. We have focused our new field-based research and imagery analysis along the ~10 kilometer-long maximum slip zone (MSZ) which roughly corresponds to the zone of >4 meter dextral horizontal offset. New data include: 1) a 1 km wide aerial LiDAR survey along the entire surface rupture (@ 10 shots/m2, May 2012, www.opentopography.org); 2) terrestrial LiDAR surveys at 5 sites within the MSZ (@ >1000 shots/m2, April 2014); 3) low altitude aerial photography and ground based photography of the entire MSZ; 4) a ground-truthed database of 87 out of the 94 imagery-based offset measurements made within the MSZ; and 5) a database of 50 new field-based offset measurements made within the MSZ by our team on the ground, 31 of which have also been made on the computer (Ladicaoz) with both the 2000 LiDAR data (@ 0.5 m DEM resolution; Chen et al, in review) and 2012 LiDAR data (@ 35 cm DEM resolution; our team). New results to date include 1) significant variability (> 2 m) in horizontal offsets measured along short distances of the surface rupture (~100 m) within segments of the surface rupture that are localized to a single fault strand; 2) strong dependence of decadal scale fault scarp preservation on local lithology (bedrock vs. alluvial fan vs. fine sediment) and geomorphology (uphill vs. downhill facing scarp); 3) newly observed offset features which were never measured during the post-event field response; 4) newly observed offset features too small to be resolved in airborne LiDAR data (judged by our team to warrant removal from the database due to incorrect feature reconstruction; and 6) significant variability in both accuracy of LiDAR offset

  14. Active micromixer using surface acoustic wave streaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branch,; Darren W. , Meyer; Grant D. , Craighead; Harold, G [Ithaca, NY

    2011-05-17

    An active micromixer uses a surface acoustic wave, preferably a Rayleigh wave, propagating on a piezoelectric substrate to induce acoustic streaming in a fluid in a microfluidic channel. The surface acoustic wave can be generated by applying an RF excitation signal to at least one interdigital transducer on the piezoelectric substrate. The active micromixer can rapidly mix quiescent fluids or laminar streams in low Reynolds number flows. The active micromixer has no moving parts (other than the SAW transducer) and is, therefore, more reliable, less damaging to sensitive fluids, and less susceptible to fouling and channel clogging than other types of active and passive micromixers. The active micromixer is adaptable to a wide range of geometries, can be easily fabricated, and can be integrated in a microfluidic system, reducing dead volume. Finally, the active micromixer has on-demand on/off mixing capability and can be operated at low power.

  15. Thermal infrared remote sensing in assessing groundwater and surface-water resources related to Hannukainen mining development site, northern Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautio, Anne B.; Korkka-Niemi, Kirsti I.; Salonen, Veli-Pekka

    2018-02-01

    Mining development sites occasionally host complicated aquifer systems with notable connections to natural surface water (SW) bodies. A low-altitude thermal infrared (TIR) imaging survey was conducted to identify hydraulic connections between aquifers and rivers and to map spatial surface temperature patterns along the subarctic rivers in the proximity of the Hannukainen mining development area, northern Finland. In addition to TIR data, stable isotopic compositions ( δ 18O, δD) and dissolved silica concentrations were used as tracers to verify the observed groundwater (GW) discharge into the river system. Based on the TIR survey, notable GW discharge into the main river channel and its tributaries (61 km altogether) was observed and over 500 GW discharge sites were located. On the basis of the survey, the longitudinal temperature patterns of the studied rivers were found to be highly variable. Hydrological and hydrogeological information is crucial in planning and siting essential mining operations, such as tailing areas, in order to prevent any undesirable environmental impacts. The observed notable GW discharge was taken into consideration in the planning of the Hannukainen mining development area. The results of this study support the use of TIR imagery in GW-SW interaction and environmental studies in extensive and remote areas with special concerns for water-related issues but lacking the baseline research.

  16. Impaired microbial activity caused by metal pollution: A field study in a deactivated uranium mining area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Sara Cristina; Pereira, Ruth; Marques, Sérgio Miguel; Castro, Bruno Branco; Gonçalves, Fernando

    2011-12-01

    European frameworks for the ecological risk assessment (ERA) of contaminated sites integrate information from three lines of evidence: chemical, ecotoxicological, and ecological. Regarding the last one, field observations at the contaminated sites are compared to reference site(s) and the differences recorded are analysed at the light of a cause-effect relationship, taking into account the site-specific contamination. Thus, included in the tier 2 of a site-specific risk assessment that is being carried out in an deactivated uranium mining area, a battery of soil enzyme activities (dehydrogenases, urease, arysulphatase, cellulase, acid phosphate) and potential nitrification were assessed in seven sampling sites (A-D-E-F-G-H-I) at different distances from the mine pit. These parameters have been considered good indicators of impacts on soil microbial communities and, subsequently, on soil functions. Soil enzyme activities were impaired in the most contaminated site (A, near the mine pit), for which a higher degree of risk was determined in the tier 1 of ERA. Three other sites within the mining area (F, G, and D) were discriminated on the basis of their low microbial activity, using uni- and multivariate approaches, and validating what had been previously found with chemical and ecotoxicological lines of evidence. We observed considerable among-site heterogeneity in terms of soil physical and chemical properties, combined with seasonal differences in enzyme activities. Still, the correlation between microbial parameters and soil general physical and chemical parameters was weak. In opposition, significant and negative correlations were found between soil enzyme activities and several metallic elements (Al, Be, Cu, U). These findings suggest a clear correlation between compromised soil function (nutrient recycling) and metal contamination. Such information reinforces the evidence of risks for some sites within the mining area and is an important contribution for the

  17. Optimization Review: French Gulch/Wellington-Oro Mine Site Water Treatment Plant, Breckenridge, Summit County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    The French Gulch/Wellington-Oro Mine Site is located near the town of Breckenridge in Summit County, Colorado. Environmental contamination of surface water, groundwater, soil and sediment at the site resulted from mining activities dating to the 1880s.

  18. Effects of Small-Scale Gold Mining on Surface and Ground Water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    / Prestea mining area in the Western Region of Ghana were conducted with the aim of assessing the possible effects of mining on water quality. Water samples were collected for 6 consecutive months at ten sampling sites within the study area ...

  19. State Mines Inspectorate of Saarland and Rheinland-Pfalz, Mines Inspectorate Saarbruecken / Mines Inspectorate Rheinland-Pfalz. Annual report 2001. Economic and technical aspects, industrial safety and environmental protection, statistics, activities of the mining authorities; Oberbergamt fuer das Saarland und das Land Rheinland-Pfalz, Bergamt Saarbruecken / Bergamt Rheinland-Pfalz. Jahresbericht 2001. Bergwirtschaft, Bergtechnik, Arbeitsschutz, Umweltschutz, Statistiken, Taetigkeiten der Bergbehoerden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boettcher, R.; Hugo, K.H.; Kuhn, M.; Strauch, T. (comps.)

    2002-07-01

    The annual report of the Saarland and Rheinland-Pfalz State Mines Inspectorate and the Mines Inspectorates of the two states provide an insight into the many activities of mines inspectorates and of the current trends in mining engineering. The importance of mining and regional raw materials management is stressed. [German] Der vorliegende Jahresbericht des Oberbergamtes fuer das Saarland und das Land Rheinland-Pfalz sowie der Bergaemter in beiden Bundeslaendern gibt einen Einblick in das vielfaeltige Arbeitsgebiet der Bergbehoerden. Gleichzeitig vermittelt er einen Ueberblick ueber die bergtechnische Entwicklung und unterstreicht die volkswirtschaftliche Bedeutung des Bergbaus und der standortgebundenen Rohstoffwirtschaft.

  20. The Effect of Mercury Mining Activities on Oak Forest in the Almaden Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villadoniga, M.; Sierra, M. J.; Millan, R.

    2009-01-01

    This scientific-technical report is the result of the research work carried out by Maite Villadoniga Garcia, to obtain the Master's Final Project, this has been developed at the Unit of Soil Degradation in the Department of Environment at CIEMAT. Two main reasons are important for the study of the vegetation in Almaden, firstly to ascertain the state in which they find the different landscapes surrounding the mine and secondly, it would be interesting to know the potential applications for recovery areas, degraded by this type of mining. This report presents the initial analysis of a natural area where there has not been activity related to mining of mercury, but their lithologic conditions and proximity to the mine of Almaden (within 3 km) make it a space in which they are both elevated mercury concentrations in soil (1.25 to 35.55 mg kg - 1) and plant species (Quercus ilex: 0.10-2.29 mg kg - 1; Pseudovernia sp. 1.10-21.06 mg kg - 1). We can conclude after this study that the natural vegetation of the area if they had been affected by years of mining, although not find any obvious signs of damage to these ecosystems and that different factors affect the uptake of mercury by of different species. (Author) 37 refs.

  1. Environmental remediation activities at the Ningyo-toge Uranium Mine, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Hiroshi; Taki, Tomohiro

    2011-01-01

    Ningyo-toge Uranium Mine is subject to the environmental remediation. The main purposes are to take measures to ensure the radiation protection from the exposure pathways to humans in future, and to prevent the occurrence of mining pollution. The Mill Tailings Pond in the Ningyo-toge Uranium Mine has deposited mining waste and impounded water as a buffer reservoir before it is transferred to the Water Treatment Facility. It is located at the upstream of the water-source river, and therefore, for the environmental remediation, the highest priority has been put to it among many facilities in the Mine. So far, basic concept has been examined and planning has been carried out for the remediation. Also, a great number of data has been acquired, and using the data, some remediation activities have already begun, including designing for the upstream part of the Mill Tailings Pond. According to the current plan, the Mill Tailings Pond will be covered by capping following dewatering and compressing of mill tailings. The capping is composed of 'radon barrier' for lowering radon-gas dissipation and dose rate, and its protection layer. Natural materials are planned to be used for the capping to alleviate the future maintenance. After capping, data will be accumulated to verify the effectiveness of the capping, and if proved effective, it will be utilized for the capping of the downstream part. (author)

  2. A Data Mining Approach for Examining Predictors of Physical Activity Among Urban Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sunmoo; Suero-Tejeda, Niurka; Bakken, Suzanne

    2015-07-01

    The current study applied innovative data mining techniques to a community survey dataset to develop prediction models for two aspects of physical activity (i.e., active transport and screen time) in a sample of urban, primarily Hispanic, older adults (N=2,514). Main predictors for active transport (accuracy=69.29%, precision=0.67, recall=0.69) were immigrant status, high level of anxiety, having a place for physical activity, and willingness to make time for physical activity. The main predictors for screen time (accuracy=63.13%, precision=0.60, recall=0.63) were willingness to make time for exercise, having a place for exercise, age, and availability of family support to access health information on the Internet. Data mining methods were useful to identify intervention targets and inform design of customized interventions. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  3. Use of barium-strontium carbonatite for flux welding and surfacing of mining machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryukov, R. E.; Kozyrev, N. A.; Usoltsev, A. A.

    2017-09-01

    The results of application of barium-strontium carbonatite for modifying and refining iron-carbon alloys, used for welding and surfacing in ore mining and smelting industry, are generalized. The technology of manufacturing a flux additive containing 70 % of barium-strontium carbonatite and 30 % of liquid glass is proposed. Several compositions of welding fluxes based on silicomanganese slag were tested. The flux additive was introduced in an amount of 1, 3, 5 %. Technological features of welding with the application of the examined fluxes are determined. X-ray spectral analysis of the chemical composition of examined fluxes, slag crusts and weld metal was carried out, as well as metallographic investigations of welded joints. The principal possibility of applying barium-strontium carbonatite as a refining and gas-protective additive for welding fluxes is shown. The use of barium-strontium carbonatite reduces the contamination of the weld seam with nonmetallic inclusions: non-deforming silicates, spot oxides and brittle silicates, and increases the desulfurizing capacity of welding fluxes.

  4. Hydraulic Conductivity Modeling of Fractured Rock at Grasberg Surface Mine, Papua-Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tedy Agung Cahyadi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Packer tests and slug tests were conducted at 49 points at the Grasberg surface mine, Indonesia to obtain hydraulic conductivity data. The HC-system approach, which relies on rock quality designation, lithology permeability index, depth index, and gouge content designation, was applied. Geotechnical drill holes in 441 locations, consisting of 4,850 points of information, were used to determine the K values using the equation K = 2x10-6x HC0.5571. The K values, which were within the range of 10-8 and 10-5 m/s, were distributed into five alternative 3D distributions using Ordinary Kriging (OK and Artificial Neural Network (ANN. The result of the ANN modeling showed that some of the K values, with log K varying from -10.51 m/s to -3.09 m/s, were outside the range of the observed K values. The OK modeling results of K values, with log K varying from -8.12 m/s to -5.75 m/s, were within the range of the observed K values. The ANN modeled K values were slightly more varied than the OK modeled values. The result of an alternative OK modeling was chosen to represent the existing data population of flow media because it fits well to the geological conditions.

  5. Assessment of radioactive materials and heavy metals in the surface soil around uranium mining area of Tongliao, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haribala; Hu, Bitao; Wang, Chengguo; Gerilemandahu; Xu, Xiao; Zhang, Shuai; Bao, Shanhu; Li, Yuhong

    2016-08-01

    Natural and artificial radionuclides and heavy metals in the surface soil of the uranium mining area of Tongliao, China, were measured using gamma spectrometry, flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry, graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry and microwave dissolution atomic fluorescence spectrometry respectively. The estimated average activity concentrations of (238)U, (232)Th, (226)Ra, (40)K and (137)Cs are 27.53±16.01, 15.89±5.20, 12.64±4.27, 746.84±38.24 and 4.23±4.76Bq/kg respectively. The estimated average absorbed dose rate in the air and annual effective dose rate are 46.58±5.26nGy/h and 57.13±6.45μSv, respectively. The radium equivalent activity, external and internal hazard indices were also calculated and their mean values are within the acceptable limits. The heavy metal concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Hg and As from the surface soil were measured and their health risks were then determined. Although the content of Cd is much higher than the average background in China, its non-cancer and cancer risk indices are all within the acceptable ranges. These calculated hazard indices to estimate the potential radiological health risk in soil and the dose rate are well below their permissible limit. In addition the correlations between the radioactivity concentrations of the radionuclides and the heavy metals in soil were determined by the Pearson linear coefficient. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Technical activities, 1990: Surface Science Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, C.J.

    1991-05-01

    The report summarizes technical activities and accomplishments of the NIST Surface Science Division during Fiscal Year 1990. Overviews are presented of the Division and of its three constituent groups: Surface Dynamical Processes, Thin Films and Interfaces, and Surface Spectroscopies and Standards. These overviews are followed by reports of selected technical accomplishments during the year. A summary is given of Division outputs and interactions that includes lists of publications, talks, committee assignments, seminars (including both Division seminars and Interface Science seminars arranged through the Division), conferences organized, and a standard reference material certified. Finally, lists are given of Division staff and of guest scientists who have worked in the Division during the past year

  7. Min(d)ing the land: The relationship between artisanal and small-scale mining and surface land arrangements in the southern Philippines, eastern DRC and Liberia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbrugge, B.L.P.; Cuvelier, J.; Bockstael, S. van

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) and surface land tenure arrangements, through a comparison of mining areas in the southern Philippines, the eastern DRC and Liberia. In all three cases, ASM takes place in peripheral regions outside central state

  8. Restoration of intact ground waters and surface waters in the post-mining landscape; Wiederherstellung intakter Grund- und Oberflaechengewaesser nach dem Braunkohlenbergbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merkel, Broder; Schipek, Mandy [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany); Scholz, Guenter; Rabe, Wolfgang; Clauss, Denny [MOVAB-D GmbH, Lauta (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    The restoration of the territories of former brown coal mining increasingly requires special efforts for the protection of affected ground waters and surface waters. With newly developed methods (the so-called inlake technology), recently various solutions to neutralize acidic mining lakes could be created. Simultaneously, this improves the water quality of adjacent aquifers at reasonable financial cost.

  9. Impact of terrestrial mining and intensive agriculture in pollution of estuarine surface sediments: Spatial distribution of trace metals in the Gulf of Urabá, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo Toro, Pedro Pablo; Vásquez Bedoya, Luis Fernando; Correa, Iván Darío; Bernal Franco, Gladys Rocío; Alcántara-Carrió, Javier; Palacio Baena, Jaime Alberto

    2016-10-15

    The Gulf of Urabá (northwestern Colombia) is a geostrategic region, rich in biodiversity and natural resources. Its economy is mainly based on agribusinesses and mining activities. In this research is determined the impact of these activities in bottom surface sediments of the estuary. Thus, grain size, total organic carbon, total nitrogen, carbonates, Ag, Al, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn concentrations from 17 surface sediment samples were obtained and enrichment factors (EF) as well as geo-accumulation indices (Igeo) were calculated to determine the contamination level in the gulf. EF and Igeo values revealed that the estuary is extremely contaminated with Ag and moderately contaminated with Zn. Therefore, the observed enrichment of Ag may be explained as a residue of the extraction of gold and platinum-group metals and the enrichment with Zn associated mainly to pesticides used in banana plantations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. JCMT active surface control system: implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ian A.

    1998-05-01

    The James Clerk Maxwell Telescope on the summit of Mauna Kea in Hawaii is a 15 meter sub-millimeter telescope which operates in the 350 microns to 2 millimeter region. The primary antenna surface consists of 276 panels, each of which is positioned by 3 stepper motors. In order to achieve the highest possible surface accuracy we are embarking upon a project to actively control the position of the panels adjuster system is based on a 6809 micro connected to the control computer by a GPIB interface. This system is slow and inflexible and it would prove difficult to build an active surface control system with it. Part of the upgrade project is to replace the existing micro with a 68060 VME micro. The poster paper will describe how the temperature of the antenna is monitored with the new system, how a Finite Element Analyses package transforms temperature changes into a series of panel adjuster moves, and how these moves are then applied to the surface. The FEA package will run on a high end Sun workstation. A series of DRAMA tasks distributed between the workstation and the Baja 68060 VxWorks Active Surface Control System micro will control the temperature monitoring, FEA and panel adjustment activities. Users can interact with the system via a Tcl/TK based GUI.

  11. Underground mining of the lower 163 zone through groundwater drainage at the Eagle Point Mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robson, D.M.; Bashir, R.; Thomson, J.; Klemmer, S.; Rigden, A.

    2010-01-01

    The Eagle Point Mine is part of the Cameco Rabbit Lake Operation. The mine produces uranium ore using the long-hole, vertical and horizontal retreat mining method. The majority of the mine workings are under Wollaston Lake and cementitious grouting is used as one of the water control measures. Historical groundwater table in the mining area was close to ground surface. The Lower 163 Zone encompasses an estimated 4.2 million pounds U 3 O 8 geological resource that was not considered feasible to mine due to the expected groundwater flows in the area. Cross-hole testing was conducted to better understand the groundwater flow through various geologic units. A local depressurization test was conducted to assess the potential for lowering the water table. Following testing an active depressurization was conducted to lower the groundwater table below the planned mining areas. This resulted in safe and drier mining conditions and allowed for the successful extraction of the ore body. (author)

  12. Children's personal exposure to PM10 and associated metals in urban, rural and mining activity areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinwood, Andrea; Callan, Anna C; Heyworth, Jane; McCafferty, Peter; Sly, Peter D

    2014-08-01

    There has been limited study of children's personal exposure to PM10 and associated metals in rural and iron ore mining activity areas where PM10 concentrations can be very high. We undertook a small study of 70 children where 13 children were recruited in an area of iron ore mining processing and shipping, 15 children from an area in the same region with no mining activities, and 42 children in an urban area. Each child provided a 24h personal exposure PM10 sample, a first morning void urine sample, a hair sample, time activity diary, and self administered questionnaire. Children's 24h personal PM10 concentrations were low (median of 28 μg m(-3) in the mining area; 48 μg m(-3) in the rural area and 45 μg m(-3) in the urban area) with corresponding outdoor PM10 concentrations also low. Some very high personal PM10 concentrations were recorded for individuals (>300 μg m(-3)) with the highest concentrations recorded in the mining and rural areas in the dry season. PM10 concentrations were highly variable. Hair aluminium, cadmium and manganese concentrations were higher in the iron ore activity area, while hair mercury, copper and nickel concentrations were higher in the urban area. Factors such as season and ventilation appear to be important but this study lacked power to confirm this. These results need to be confirmed by a larger study and the potential for absorption of the metals needs to be established along with the factors that increase exposures and the potential for health risks arising from exposure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Interferometric seismic imaging around the active Lalor mine in the Flin Flon greenstone belt, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roots, Eric; Calvert, Andrew J.; Craven, Jim

    2017-10-01

    Seismic interferometry, which recovers the impulse response of the Earth by cross-correlation of ambient noise recorded at sets of two receivers, has found several applications, including the generation of virtual shot gathers for use in seismic reflection processing. To evaluate the effectiveness of this passive recording technique in mineral exploration in a hard-rock environment, 336 receivers recorded 300 h of ambient noise over the volcanogenic massive sulphide deposit of the recently discovered Lalor mine in the Canadian Flin Flon greenstone belt. A novel time-domain beamforming algorithm was developed to search for individual source locations, demonstrating that the vast majority of noise originated from the mine and ventilation shafts of the Lalor mine. The results of the beamforming were utilized in conjunction with frequency-wavenumber filtering to remove undesirable, mostly monochromatic surface wave noise originating from nearby sources. Virtual shot gathers were generated along three receiver lines, each of which was processed as a separate 2-D reflection line. Two of the resulting unmigrated reflection profiles are compared against coincident dipmoveout-stacked data from a larger, coincident 3-D dynamite seismic survey that was also acquired over the Lalor mine in 2013. Using knowledge of the local geology derived from numerous boreholes, coherent events recovered in the passive reflection profiles are inferred to be either spurious arrivals or real reflections, some of which can be interpreted in terms of geological contacts, indicating the future potential of passive recording surveys in hard rock settings.

  14. Influence of mine drainage on water quality along River Nyaba in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ELO

    Drainage from underground coal mines, surface mines and coal refuse piles is the oldest industrial pollution in the Enugu coal area which is characterized by numerous surface water, hand dug wells and shallow unconfined aquifer and as such the water sources are prone to con- tamination from coal mining activities.

  15. 77 FR 72766 - Small Business Size Standards: Support Activities for Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ....9 $3,246.0 0.892 $35.5 $7.0 Operations 35.5 35.5 35.5 $35.5 213113 Support Activities for Coal... taxes (excluding any carry-over losses) for the 2 full fiscal years before the date of the application... Oil and Gas $7.0 $35.5 Operations. 213113 Support Activities for Coal Mining...... 7.0 19.0 213114...

  16. Object Relevance Weight Pattern Mining for Activity Recognition and Segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmes, Paulito Pedregosa; Pung, Hung Keng; Gu, Tao

    2010-01-01

    Monitoring daily activities of a person has many potential benefits in pervasive computing. These include providing proactive support for the elderly and monitoring anomalous behaviors. A typical approach in existing research on activity detection is to construct sequence-based models of low-leve...

  17. Total and labile metals in surface sediments of the tropical river-estuary system of Marabasco (Pacific coast of Mexico): Influence of an iron mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmolejo-Rodríguez, Ana Judith; Prego, Ricardo; Meyer-Willerer, Alejandro; Shumilin, Evgueni; Cobelo-García, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    Marabasco is a tropical river-estuary system comprising the Marabasco river and the Barra de Navidad Lagoon. The river is impacted by the Peña Colorada iron mine, which produces 3.5 million tons of pellets per year. Thirteen surface sediment samples were collected in May 2005 (dry season) in order to establish background levels of Al, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, and Zn in the system and to ascertain the potential mobility of metals in the sediments. Analyses were carried out in the fraction finer than 63 microm, and labile metals extracted according the BCR procedure. Certified reference materials were used for validation of methods. Total concentrations of Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn were in the range of 0.05-0.34, 6-95, 0.7-31, 9-26, 2-18, and 53-179 mgkg(-1), respectively; Al and Fe ranges of 24-127, and 26-69 mgg(-1) correspondingly. Cadmium was found to be significantly labile in the sediments (20-100%), followed by Co (0-35%), Ni (3-16%) and Zn (0-25%), whereas the labile fraction for Cu, Fe and Pb was almost negligible (iron mine on the Marabasco system is lower than expected when compared with other similar World systems influenced by mining activities.

  18. Weighting Criteria and Prioritizing of Heat stress indices in surface mining using a Delphi Technique and Fuzzy AHP-TOPSIS Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghari, Mehdi; Nassiri, Parvin; Monazzam, Mohammad Reza; Golbabaei, Farideh; Arabalibeik, Hossein; Shamsipour, Aliakbar; Allahverdy, Armin

    2017-01-01

    Heat stress as a physical harmful agent can increase the risk of health and safety problems in different workplaces such as mining. Although there are different indices to assess the heat stress imposed on workers, choosing the best index for a specific workplace is so important. Since various criteria affect an index applicability, extracting the most effective ones and determining their weights help to prioritize the existing indices and select the optimal index. In order to achieve this aim, present study compared some heat stress indices using effective methods. The viewpoints of occupational health experts and the qualitative Delphi methods were used to extract the most important criteria. Then, the weights of 11 selected criteria were determined by Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process. Finally, fuzzy TOPSIS technique was applied for choosing the most suitable heat stress index. According to result, simplicity, reliability, being low cost, and comprehensiveness were the most determinative criteria for a heat stress index. Based on these criteria and their weights, the existing indices were prioritized. Eventually, wet bulb glob temperature appropriated the first priority and it was proposed as an applicable index for evaluating the heat stress at outdoor hot environments such as surface mines. The use of these strong methods allows introducing the most simple, precise, and applicable tool for evaluation the heat stress in hot environments. It seems that WBGT acts as an appropriate index for assessing the heat stress in mining activities at outdoors.

  19. Mercury speciation in the Mt. Amiata mining district (Italy): interplay between urban activities and mercury contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimondi, Valentina; Bardelli, Fabrizio; Benvenuti, Marco; Costagliola, Pilario; Gray, John E.; Lattanzi, Pierfranco

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental step to evaluate the biogeochemical and eco-toxicological significance of Hg dispersion in the environment is to determine speciation of Hg in solid matrices. In this study, several analytical techniques such as scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), sequential chemical extractions (SCEs), and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XANES) were used to identify Hg compounds and Hg speciation in samples collected from the Mt. Amiata Hg mining district, southern Tuscany, Italy. Different geological materials, such as mine waste calcine (retorted ore), soil, stream sediment, and stream water suspended particulate matter were analyzed. Results show that the samples were generally composed of highly insoluble Hg compounds such as sulphides (HgS, cinnabar and metacinnabar), and more soluble Hg halides such as those associated with the mosesite group. Other moderately soluble Hg compounds, HgCl2, HgO and Hg0, were also identified in stream sediments draining the mining area. The presence of these minerals suggests active and continuous runoff of soluble Hg compounds from calcines, where such Hg compounds form during retorting, or later in secondary processes. Specifically, we suggest that, due to the proximity of Hg mines to the urban center of Abbadia San Salvatore, the influence of other anthropogenic activities was a key factor for Hg speciation, resulting in the formation of unusual Hg-minerals such as mosesite.

  20. Palaeo-pollution from mining activities in the Vosges Mountains: 1000 years and still bioavailable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariet, Anne-Lise; de Vaufleury, Annette; Bégeot, Carole; Walter-Simonnet, Anne-Véronique; Gimbert, Frédéric

    2016-07-01

    Mining and smelting activities have contaminated the environment with trace metals (TMs) at a worldwide scale for at least two millennia. A combination of chemical approaches and active biomonitoring was performed to analyse the environmental availability and bioavailability of TM palaeo-pollution in a former PbAg mining district in the Vosges Mountains, France. Along a soil TM contamination gradient that covered eight stations, including two archaeological mining sites, the toxicokinetics of six TMs (Pb, Cd, As, Ag, Co, Sb) in the snail Cantareus aspersus revealed that palaeo-pollution from the studied sites remains bioavailable. This study provides the first data on the accumulation kinetics of Ag and Co for C. aspersus. The environmental availability of the TMs was estimated with three chemical extraction methods (aqua regia, EDTA 50 mM, CaCl2 10 mM). Univariate regression analyses showed that EDTA extraction is the best method for estimating the bioavailability of Pb, As, Ag, Co and Sb to snails. None of the three extractants was efficient for Cd. A multivariate analysis of bioaccumulation data revealed that TM bioavailability and transfer were modulated by exposure sources (soil, humus and vegetation) rather than by soil physico-chemical characteristics. Hence, although the deposition of mining wastes dates back several centuries, these wastes still represent a source of contamination that must be considered to develop relevant site management and environmental risk assessment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A novel understanding of land use characteristics caused by mining activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jianjun; Rao, Yongheng; Geng, Yuhuan

    2017-01-01

    An idea that which zones are the main disturbed areas in mining cities and what are the exact impacts in space concerns re-use and optimal allocation of land. Current research mostly concludes that mining activities impact land use greatly, but there is no definite spatial range of disturbance. T...... play a more important role in land use structure and functions, designated to 0–9 km, especially 3–6 km away from mineral locations, where land needs more concerns about optimal allocation for future policy-making to improve the pattern, function and continuity.......An idea that which zones are the main disturbed areas in mining cities and what are the exact impacts in space concerns re-use and optimal allocation of land. Current research mostly concludes that mining activities impact land use greatly, but there is no definite spatial range of disturbance....... To find out the exact range, this paper sets up 12 gradients composed of mineral locations and 11 surrounding gradients with an interval of 3 km. And the “D-C-S” (Disturbance-Continuity- Sustainability) framework was then established to evaluate land use characteristics, including 9 indices in the three...

  2. Ion activity and distribution of heavy metals in acid mine drainage polluted subtropical soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yongtao; Becquer, Thierry; Dai Jun; Quantin, Cecile; Benedetti, Marc F.

    2009-01-01

    The oxidative dissolution of mine wastes gives rise to acidic, metal-enriched mine drainage (AMD) and has typically posed an additional risk to the environment. The poly-metallic mine Dabaoshan in South China is an excellent test site to understand the processes affecting the surrounding polluted agricultural fields. Our objectives were firstly to investigate metal ion activity in soil solution, distribution in solid constituents, and spatial distribution in samples, secondly to determine dominant environment factors controlling metal activity in the long-term AMD-polluted subtropical soils. Soil Column Donnan Membrane Technology (SC-DMT) combined with sequential extraction shows that unusually large proportion of the metal ions are present as free ion in the soil solutions. The narrow range of low pH values prevents any pH effects during the binding onto oxides or organic matter. The differences in speciation of the soil solutions may explain the different soil degradation observed between paddy and non-paddy soils. - First evidence of the real free metal ion concentrations in acid mine drainage context in tropical systems

  3. A Data Mining Approach for Exploring Correlates of Self-Reported Comparative Physical Activity Levels of Urban Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sunmoo; Co, Manuel C; Suero-Tejeda, Niurka; Bakken, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    We applied data mining techniques to a community-based behavioral dataset to build prediction models to gain insights about physical activity levels as the foundation for future interventions for urban Latinos. Our application of data mining strategies identified environment factors including having a convenient location for physical activity and psychological factors including depression as the strongest correlates of self-reported comparative physical activity among hundreds of variables. The data mining methods were useful to build prediction models to gain insights about perceptions of physical activity behavior as compared to peers.

  4. Anthropogenic sources and environmentally relevant concentrations of heavy metals in surface water of a mining district in Ghana: a multivariate statistical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armah, Frederick A; Obiri, Samuel; Yawson, David O; Onumah, Edward E; Yengoh, Genesis T; Afrifa, Ernest K A; Odoi, Justice O

    2010-11-01

    The levels of heavy metals in surface water and their potential origin (natural and anthropogenic) were respectively determined and analysed for the Obuasi mining area in Ghana. Using Hawth's tool an extension in ArcGIS 9.2 software, a total of 48 water sample points in Obuasi and its environs were randomly selected for study. The magnitude of As, Cu, Mn, Fe, Pb, Hg, Zn and Cd in surface water from the sampling sites were measured by flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS). Water quality parameters including conductivity, pH, total dissolved solids and turbidity were also evaluated. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis, coupled with correlation coefficient analysis, were used to identify possible sources of these heavy metals. Pearson correlation coefficients among total metal concentrations and selected water properties showed a number of strong associations. The results indicate that apart from tap water, surface water in Obuasi has elevated heavy metal concentrations, especially Hg, Pb, As, Cu and Cd, which are above the Ghana Environmental Protection Agency (GEPA) and World Health Organisation (WHO) permissible levels; clearly demonstrating anthropogenic impact. The mean heavy metal concentrations in surface water divided by the corresponding background values of surface water in Obuasi decrease in the order of Cd > Cu > As > Pb > Hg > Zn > Mn > Fe. The results also showed that Cu, Mn, Cd and Fe are largely responsible for the variations in the data, explaining 72% of total variance; while Pb, As and Hg explain only 18.7% of total variance. Three main sources of these heavy metals were identified. As originates from nature (oxidation of sulphide minerals particularly arsenopyrite-FeAsS). Pb derives from water carrying drainage from towns and mine machinery maintenance yards. Cd, Zn, Fe and Mn mainly emanate from industry sources. Hg mainly originates from artisanal small-scale mining. It cannot be said that the difference in concentration

  5. Fuzzy Spatiotemporal Data Mining to Activity Recognition in Smart Homes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A primary goal to design smart homes is to provide automatic assistance for the residents to make them able to live independently at home. Activity recognition is...

  6. Longwall mining and surface deformation – lessons learned from dInSAR measurements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Engelbrecht, Jeanine

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available including 1) subsidence related to mining and groundwater abstraction, 2) deformation following earthquake events, 3) monitoring of landslides and slope stability, 4) monitoring the stability of infrastructure and large engineering works, and 5) monitoring...

  7. Bactericidal activity of biomimetic diamond nanocone surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Leanne E; Yang, Yang; Yuen, Muk-Fung; Zhang, Wenjun; Nobbs, Angela H; Su, Bo

    2016-03-17

    The formation of biofilms on implant surfaces and the subsequent development of medical device-associated infections are difficult to resolve and can cause considerable morbidity to the patient. Over the past decade, there has been growing recognition that physical cues, such as surface topography, can regulate biological responses and possess bactericidal activity. In this study, diamond nanocone-patterned surfaces, representing biomimetic analogs of the naturally bactericidal cicada fly wing, were fabricated using microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition, followed by bias-assisted reactive ion etching. Two structurally distinct nanocone surfaces were produced, characterized, and the bactericidal ability examined. The sharp diamond nanocone features were found to have bactericidal capabilities with the surface possessing the more varying cone dimension, nonuniform array, and decreased density, showing enhanced bactericidal ability over the more uniform, highly dense nanocone surface. Future research will focus on using the fabrication process to tailor surface nanotopographies on clinically relevant materials that promote both effective killing of a broader range of microorganisms and the desired mammalian cell response. This study serves to introduce a technology that may launch a new and innovative direction in the design of biomaterials with capacity to reduce the risk of medical device-associated infections.

  8. Activation of interfacial enzymes at membrane surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, Ole G.; Andresen, Thomas Lars; Halperin, Avi

    2006-01-01

    A host of water-soluble enzymes are active at membrane surfaces and in association with membranes. Some of these enzymes are involved in signalling and in modification and remodelling of the membranes. A special class of enzymes, the phospholipases, and in particular secretory phospholipase A2 (s...

  9. Plasma-Surface Interaction Activities in KSTAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hong, S. H.; Yu, Y.; Kim, K. P.; Bak, J. G.; Park, H. J.; Oh, Y. S.; Chung, J.; Nam, Y. U.; Bang, E. N.; Kim, K. R.; Litnovsky, A.; Hellwig, M.; Matveev, D.; Komm, M.; van den Berg, M. A.; Kim, W. C.; Kim, H. K.; Rho, T. H.; Chu, Y.; Oh, Y. K.; Yang, H. L.; Park, K. R.; Chung, K. S.; Kstar Team,

    2013-01-01

    Selected topics of Plasma-Surface Interaction (PSI) activities in KSTAR are briefly introduced. SOL parameter measurements, particle balance and fuel retention, in-vessel dust research, and finally tungsten R & D are discussed. Some quantitative numbers from the initial phase of the operation

  10. Considerations about TENR due to non-nuclear mining and milling activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pires do Rio, M.A.; Amaral, E.C.S.; Rochedo, E.R.R.; Fernandes, H.M.

    2002-01-01

    Mining and processing activities dealing with mineral ores containing associated uranium and thorium series elements can make these radionuclides available in their products, byproducts and in the environment, leading to the enhancement of the exposure of the public to natural radiation. Niobium, phosphate, coal and gold plants have been selected as case studies, aiming to identify possible radiological impact sources during and after ceasing the operation on these units. The dose assessment results for present and future exposures scenarios confirm these mining industries as activities potentially enhancing exposure to natural radiation. Thus, the legislation for environmental licensing must be reviewed in order to take into account the potential environmental radiological impact caused by these activities, as well as the establishment of remediation procedures for waste storage areas in the existing sites. (author)

  11. Biochar application to hardrock mine tailings: Soil quality, microbial activity, and toxic element sorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Charlene N.; Peltz, Christopher D.; Stanton, Mark R.; Rutherford, David W.; Rostad, Colleen E.

    2014-01-01

    Waste rock piles from historic mining activities remain unvegetated as a result of metal toxicity and high acidity. Biochar has been proposed as a low-cost remediation strategy to increase soil pH and reduce leaching of toxic elements, and improve plant establishment. In this laboratory column study, biochar made from beetle-killed pine wood was assessed for utility as a soil amendment by mixing soil material from two mine sites collected near Silverton, Colorado, USA with four application rates of biochar (0%, 10%, 20%, 30% vol:vol). Columns were leached seven times over 65 days and leachate pH and concentration of toxic elements and base cations were measured at each leaching. Nutrient availability and soil physical and biological parameters were determined following the incubation period. We investigated the hypotheses that biochar incorporation into acidic mine materials will (1) reduce toxic element concentrations in leaching solution, (2) improve soil parameters (i.e. increase nutrient and water holding capacity and pH, and decrease compaction), and (3) increase microbial populations and activity. Biochar directly increased soil pH (from 3.33 to 3.63 and from 4.07 to 4.77 in the two materials) and organic matter content, and decreased bulk density and extractable salt content in both mine materials, and increased nitrate availability in one material. No changes in microbial population or activity were detected in either mine material upon biochar application. In leachate solution, biochar increased base cations from both materials and reduced the concentrations of Al, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in leachate solution from one material. However, in the material with greater toxic element content, biochar did not reduce concentrations of any measured dissolved toxic elements in leachate and resulted in a potentially detrimental release of Cd and Zn into solution at concentrations above that of the pure mine material. The length of time of effectiveness and specific

  12. [Effects of Different Reclaimed Scenarios on Soil Microbe and Enzyme Activities in Mining Areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun-jian; Liu, Feng; Zhou, Xiao-mei

    2015-05-01

    Abstract: Ecological degradation in the mining areas is greatly aggravated in recent several decades, and ecological restoration has become the primary measure for the sustainable development. Soil microbe and enzyme activity are sensitive indices to evaluate soil quality. Ecological reconstruction was initiated in Antaibao mining area, and we tested soil physicochemical properties, microbial populations of azotobacteria, nitrifying-bacteria and denitrifying-bacteria, and enzyme activities (including sucrose, polyphenol oxidase, dehydrogenase and urease) under different regeneration scenarios. Regeneration scenarios had significant effects on soil physicochemical properties, microbial population and enzyme activities. Total nitrogen was strongly correlated with azotobacteria and nitrifying-bacteria, however, total nitrogen was not correlated with denitrifying-bacteria. Phenol oxidase activity was negatively correlated with soil organic carbon and total nitrogen, but other enzyme activities were positively correlated with soil organic carbon and total nitrogen. Principal Component Analysis ( PCA) was applied to analyze the integrated fertility index (IFI). The highest and lowest IFIs were in Robinia pseudoacacia-Pinus tabuliformis mixed forests and un-reclaimed area, respectively. R. pseudoacacia-P. tabuliformis mixed forests were feasible for reclaimed mining areas in semi-arid region Northwest Shanxi.

  13. Mining Chemical Activity Status from High-Throughput Screening Assays

    KAUST Repository

    Soufan, Othman

    2015-12-14

    High-throughput screening (HTS) experiments provide a valuable resource that reports biological activity of numerous chemical compounds relative to their molecular targets. Building computational models that accurately predict such activity status (active vs. inactive) in specific assays is a challenging task given the large volume of data and frequently small proportion of active compounds relative to the inactive ones. We developed a method, DRAMOTE, to predict activity status of chemical compounds in HTP activity assays. For a class of HTP assays, our method achieves considerably better results than the current state-of-the-art-solutions. We achieved this by modification of a minority oversampling technique. To demonstrate that DRAMOTE is performing better than the other methods, we performed a comprehensive comparison analysis with several other methods and evaluated them on data from 11 PubChem assays through 1,350 experiments that involved approximately 500,000 interactions between chemicals and their target proteins. As an example of potential use, we applied DRAMOTE to develop robust models for predicting FDA approved drugs that have high probability to interact with the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) in humans. Our findings are further partially and indirectly supported by 3D docking results and literature information. The results based on approximately 500,000 interactions suggest that DRAMOTE has performed the best and that it can be used for developing robust virtual screening models. The datasets and implementation of all solutions are available as a MATLAB toolbox online at www.cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/dramote and can be found on Figshare.

  14. Mechanotransductive surfaces for reversible biocatalysis activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, Damien; Vogt, Cédric; Hemmerlé, Joseph; Mutterer, Jérôme; Ball, Vincent; Voegel, Jean-Claude; Schaaf, Pierre; Lavalle, Philippe

    2009-09-01

    Fibronectin, like other proteins involved in mechanotransduction, has the ability to exhibit recognition sites under mechanical stretch. Such cryptic sites are buried inside the protein structure in the native fold and become exposed under an applied force, thereby activating specific signalling pathways. Here, we report the design of new active polymeric nanoassembled surfaces that show some similarities to these cryptic sites. These nanoassemblies consist of a first polyelectrolyte multilayer stratum loaded with enzymes and capped with a second polyelectrolyte multilayer acting as a mechanically sensitive nanobarrier. The biocatalytic activity of the film is switched on/off reversibly by mechanical stretching, which exposes enzymes through the capping barrier, similarly to mechanisms involved in proteins during mechanotransduction. This first example of a new class of biologically inspired surfaces should have great potential in the design of various devices aimed to trigger and modulate chemical reactions by mechanical action with applications in the field of microfluidic devices or mechanically controlled biopatches for example.

  15. Groundwater Surface Water Interactions in a Gold-Mined Dredged Floodplain of the Merced River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, L.; Conklin, M. H.; Ghezzehei, T. A.

    2012-12-01

    The Merced River, originating in the Sierra Nevada, California, drains a watershed with an area of ~3,305 km2. Merced River has been highly altered due to diversions, mechanically dredged mining, and damming. A year of groundwater-surface water interactions were studied to elucidate the hydrological connection between the Main Canal, an unlined canal that contains Merced River water flows parallel to the river with an average elevation of 89m, the highly conductive previously dredged floodplain, and the Merced River with an average elevation of 84m. Upstream of the study reach, located in an undredged portion, of the floodplain are two fish farms that have been operating for approximately 40 years. This study reach has been historically important for salmon spawning and rearing, where more than 50% of the Chinook salmon of the Merced River spawn. Currently salmon restoration is focusing gravel augmentation and adding side channel and ignoring groundwater influences. Exchanges between the hyporheic and surrounding surface, groundwater, riparian, and alluvial floodplain habitats occur over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. Pressure transducers were installed in seven wells and four ponds located in the dredged floodplain. All wells were drilled to the Mehrten Formation, a confining layer, and screened for last 3m. These groundwater well water levels as well as the surface water elevations of the Main Canal and the Merced River were used to determine the direction of sublateral surface flows using Groundwater Vistas as a user interface for MODFLOW. The well and pond waters and seepage from the river banks were sampled for anion/cation, dissolved organic carbon, total nitrogen, total iron, and total dissolved iron concentrations to determine water sources and the possibility of suboxic water. Field analysis indicated that water in all wells and ponds exhibit low dissolved oxygen, high conductivity rates, and oxidation/reduction potentials that switched from

  16. Active colloidal propulsion over a crystalline surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Udit; Straube, Arthur V.; Fischer, Peer; Gibbs, John G.; Höfling, Felix

    2017-12-01

    We study both experimentally and theoretically the dynamics of chemically self-propelled Janus colloids moving atop a two-dimensional crystalline surface. The surface is a hexagonally close-packed monolayer of colloidal particles of the same size as the mobile one. The dynamics of the self-propelled colloid reflects the competition between hindered diffusion due to the periodic surface and enhanced diffusion due to active motion. Which contribution dominates depends on the propulsion strength, which can be systematically tuned by changing the concentration of a chemical fuel. The mean-square displacements (MSDs) obtained from the experiment exhibit enhanced diffusion at long lag times. Our experimental data are consistent with a Langevin model for the effectively two-dimensional translational motion of an active Brownian particle in a periodic potential, combining the confining effects of gravity and the crystalline surface with the free rotational diffusion of the colloid. Approximate analytical predictions are made for the MSD describing the crossover from free Brownian motion at short times to active diffusion at long times. The results are in semi-quantitative agreement with numerical results of a refined Langevin model that treats translational and rotational degrees of freedom on the same footing.

  17. Surface active properties of lipid nanocapsules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia R A Mouzouvi

    Full Text Available Lipid nanocapsules (LNCs are biomimetic nanocarriers used for the encapsulation of a broad variety of active ingredients. Similar to surface active compounds, LNCs contain both hydrophilic and hydrophobic parts in their structure. Moreover, the components of LNCs, macrogol 15 hydroxystearate (MHS and lecithin, are known for their surface active properties. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to investigate the capability of the LNCs to decrease surface tension using two techniques: drop tensiometry and the Wilhelmy plate method. LNCs with diameters ranging from 30 to 100 nm were successfully obtained using a phase inversion technique. The LNCs' properties, such as size and zeta potential, depend on the composition. LNCs exhibit a lower limiting surface tension compared to MHS (34.8-35.0 mN/m and 37.7-38.8 mN/m, respectively, as confirmed by both drop tensiometry and the Wilhelmy plate method. LNCs have exhibited a saturated interfacial concentration (SIC that was 10-fold higher than the critical micellar concentration (CMC of MHS or the SIC of binary and ternary mixtures of LNC ingredients. The SIC of the LNC formulations depended on the mass mixing ratio of the MHS/triglycerides but not on the presence of lecithin. The CMC/SIC values measured by the Wilhelmy plate method were higher than those obtained using drop tensiometry because of the longer duration of the tensiometry measurement. In conclusion, the surfactant-like properties of the LNCs offer new possibilities for medical and pharmaceutical applications.

  18. Cumulative impacts of mountaintop mining on an Appalachian watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, T Ty; Bernhardt, Emily S; Bier, Raven; Helton, A M; Merola, R Brittany; Vengosh, Avner; Di Giulio, Richard T

    2011-12-27

    Mountaintop mining is the dominant form of coal mining and the largest driver of land cover change in the central Appalachians. The waste rock from these surface mines is disposed of in the adjacent river valleys, leading to a burial of headwater streams and dramatic increases in salinity and trace metal concentrations immediately downstream. In this synoptic study we document the cumulative impact of more than 100 mining discharge outlets and approximately 28 km(2) of active and reclaimed surface coal mines on the Upper Mud River of West Virginia. We measured the concentrations of major and trace elements within the tributaries and the mainstem and found that upstream of the mines water quality was equivalent to state reference sites. However, as eight separate mining-impacted tributaries contributed their flow, conductivity and the concentrations of selenium, sulfate, magnesium, and other inorganic solutes increased at a rate directly proportional to the upstream areal extent of mining. We found strong linear correlations between the concentrations of these contaminants in the river and the proportion of the contributing watershed in surface mines. All tributaries draining mountaintop-mining-impacted catchments were characterized by high conductivity and increased sulfate concentration, while concentrations of some solutes such as Se, Sr, and N were lower in the two tributaries draining reclaimed mines. Our results demonstrate the cumulative impact of multiple mines within a single catchment and provide evidence that mines reclaimed nearly two decades ago continue to contribute significantly to water quality degradation within this watershed.

  19. High contamination in the areas surrounding abandoned mines and mining activities: An impact assessment of the Dilala, Luilu and Mpingiri Rivers, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atibu, Emmanuel K; Lacroix, Pierre; Sivalingam, Periyasamy; Ray, Nicolas; Giuliani, Gregory; Mulaji, Crispin K; Otamonga, Jean-Paul; Mpiana, Pius T; Slaveykova, Vera I; Poté, John

    2018-01-01

    Abandoned mines and mining activities constitute important sources of toxic metals and Rare Earth Elements (REEs) affecting surrounding environmental compartments and biota. This study investigates the contamination degree and distribution of toxic metals and REEs in contrasting sediment, soil and plant samples surrounding rivers in the African copperbelt area characterized by the presence of numerous abandoned mines, artisanal and industrial mining activities. ICP-MS results highlighted the highest concentration of Cu, Co and Pb in sediments reaching values of 146,801, 18,434 and 899 mg kg -1 , respectively. In soil, the values of 175,859, 21,134 and 1164 mg kg -1 were found for Cu, Co and Pb, respectively. These values are much higher than the sediment guidelines for the protection of aquatic life and international soil clean-up standards. Enrichment factor and geoaccumulation index results indicated important contribution of mining activities to the study sites pollution in addition to natural background. Highest metal accumulation in leaves of Phalaris arundinacea L., was observed, reaching values of 34,061, 5050 and 230 mg kg -1 for Cu, Co, and Pb, respectively. The ∑REE concentration reached values of 2306, 733, 2796 mg kg -1 in sediment, soil and plant samples, respectively. The above results were combined with geographical information including satellite imagery, hydrography and mining concessions. Maps were produced to present the results in a comprehensive and compelling visual format. The results will be disseminated through an innovative mapping online platform to simplify access to data and to facilitate dialogue between stakeholders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Mining continuous activity patterns from animal trajectory data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Luo, Ze; Baoping, Yan; Takekawa, John Y.; Prosser, Diann J.; Newman, Scott H.

    2014-01-01

    The increasing availability of animal tracking data brings us opportunities and challenges to intuitively understand the mechanisms of animal activities. In this paper, we aim to discover animal movement patterns from animal trajectory data. In particular, we propose a notion of continuous activity pattern as the concise representation of underlying similar spatio-temporal movements, and develop an extension and refinement framework to discover the patterns. We first preprocess the trajectories into significant semantic locations with time property. Then, we apply a projection-based approach to generate candidate patterns and refine them to generate true patterns. A sequence graph structure and a simple and effective processing strategy is further developed to reduce the computational overhead. The proposed approaches are extensively validated on both real GPS datasets and large synthetic datasets.

  1. Evaluating the Use of Tree Shelters for Direct Seeding of Castanea on a Surface Mine in Appalachia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Barton

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available American chestnut (Castanea dentata, once a primary constituent of the eastern hardwood forest ecosystem, was nearly extirpated from the forest canopy by the accidental introduction of chestnut blight (Cryphonectria parasitica. An intensive breeding program has sought to breed blight resistance from Chinese chestnut into American chestnuts, while maintaining as much of the desirable American chestnut phenotypes as possible. Previous studies suggest that these blight resistant American chestnuts, termed “restoration chestnuts”, are capable of thriving on reclaimed surface mines. We direct seeded pure Chinese, pure American, and three backcross lines into brown sandstone minesoil on a mine site in Pike County, KY. To investigate the effects of tree sheltering on survival and growth, we installed tree shelters on half the plots, and left the rest of the plots unsheltered. Results indicated that shelters were highly effective at reducing initial mortality. In addition, while pure Chinese chestnut survival was highest, the three backcross lines have also survived well on this site. Our study demonstrates that American, Chinese, and backcrossed chestnuts can survive through five growing seasons on reclaimed surface mines with the use of tree shelters.

  2. Impact assessment of mine drainage water and municipal wastewater on the surface water in the vicinity of Bor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gardić Vojka R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mining and copper production in Bor, in the past hundred years, had a huge impact on the environment of town, but also in a wide region. In the area of Bor, in the zone of Mining and Smelting Company (RTB activity, over 29,000 ha of land under forests and fields is degraded. The area of degraded agricultural land in the Bor municipality is over 60% of total agricultural land. Wastewater, generated in the sites of RTB Bor, pollute the Bor River and Krivelj River, which still flow into the Timok River and Danube River. These pollutions are often presented by low pH value, increased content of heavy metal ions, suspended particles and fine particles of flotation tailings, which is deposited in the valleys of these rivers on the area of over 2000 hectares. During the decades of exploitation of ore from the open pit Bor at different locations ("Visoki Planir" - also called “Oštreljski planir”, "Severni planir" dump of ore body "H" (RTH gangue and tailings were delayed. The largest amount of tailings, about 150 million tons, was postponed on location Visoki planir. The effect of the mining waste and the impact of the whole process of processing copper ore to the final products on the environment, was conducted during the 4th study period of the project "Management of mining waste-tailing dump in the Bor region," supported by the Japan Society for the Promotion Science (Eng. Japan Society for the Promotion of Science and the Japan international cooperation Agency and the Ministry of environment, Mining and Spatial planning of the Republic of Serbia. Influence of season on the level of pollutants in soil and water, the impact on water quality in the river Timok and the River Danube, was conducted during first three periods of project. This paper presents the results of the third study period. The third period of research, which was conducted over a period of 17. 10. 2012 to 17. 01.2013 year, included a review of pollution sources and define their

  3. Effects of surface coal mining and reclamation on the geohydrology of six small watersheds in west-central Indiana. Chapter B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.D.; Duwelius, R.F.; Crawford, C.G.

    1990-01-01

    Coal has been and will continue to be a major source of energy in the United States for the foreseeable future. Surface mining is presently the most efficient method of extracting coal. The mining practice, however, usually has a detrimental effect on the environment by altering topography and ecologic systems. Surface coal mining also can degrade surface- and ground-water quality and quantity. The U.S. Geological Survey began a study in 1979 to identify changes in the quantity of surface- and ground-water resources caused by surface coal mining in Indiana. As part of the study, six small watersheds in west-central Indiana were instrumented for the collection of hydrologic and meteorologic data. The Water-Supply Paper comprises two reports resulting from the investigation. The physical environment and coal mining history of west-central Indiana and the six small watersheds selected for intensive study are described in chapter A. The surface- and ground-water systems of each of the small watersheds and the hydrologic effects of coal mining and reclamation are described in chapter B

  4. Genetic Algorithm Calibration of Probabilistic Cellular Automata for Modeling Mining Permit Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, S.J.; Raines, G.L.

    2003-01-01

    We use a genetic algorithm to calibrate a spatially and temporally resolved cellular automata to model mining activity on public land in Idaho and western Montana. The genetic algorithm searches through a space of transition rule parameters of a two dimensional cellular automata model to find rule parameters that fit observed mining activity data. Previous work by one of the authors in calibrating the cellular automaton took weeks - the genetic algorithm takes a day and produces rules leading to about the same (or better) fit to observed data. These preliminary results indicate that genetic algorithms are a viable tool in calibrating cellular automata for this application. Experience gained during the calibration of this cellular automata suggests that mineral resource information is a critical factor in the quality of the results. With automated calibration, further refinements of how the mineral-resource information is provided to the cellular automaton will probably improve our model.

  5. Investigation of environmental activity levels of bone-coal mining area in five provinces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Jida; Wu Zongmei; Kong Lingli; Shi Jinhua; Li Ying; Jiang Shan; Zhang Liang

    2005-01-01

    During 1991-1993, the activity levels of the bone-coal mines were investigated in Zhejiang, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi and Anhui Province, respectively, where the reserve of bone-coal is about 90% of our country's total reserve. The average of γ radiation dose rate level measured for bone-coal, bone-coal cinder (BCC) and bone-coal cinder brick (BCCB) in these provinces is about 500 nGy/h, 400 nGy/h and 700 nGy/h respectively, while that for fields, roads and houses made of BCCB in corresponding regions of these provinces is about 200 nGy/h, 260 nGy/h and 300 nGy/h respectively. It is shown that the environmental activity level of bone-coal mining area is about 3 times higher than the reference spots. (authors)

  6. Cd pollution and ecological risk assessment for mining activity zone in Karst Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, B.; He, J. L.; Wen, X. M.; Tan, H.

    2017-08-01

    The monitored soil samples were collected from farmland in the area with mining activity in Karst area in Liupanshui. In this article, moss bag technology and TSP were used simultaneously for Cd transportation and deposition in the study area. Geostatistics and GIS were then used for the spatial distribution of Cd in the soil. Afterwards, Cd pollution to the soil environment and human health was studied by using the geo-accumulation index and potential ecological risk index methods. The results indicated that atmospheric deposition is the major route of Cd pollution. A moderate to strong pollution of Cd in the area and the degree of potential ecological risk was in a high level in the study area. Furthermore, Cd pollution in Liupanshui may originate from mining activity and atmospheric deposition.

  7. Ergonomics - Using Ergonomics to Enhance Safe Production at a Surface Coal Mine - A Case Study with Powder Crews

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torma-Krajewski, J.; Wiehagen, W.; Etcheverry, A.; Turin, F.; Unger, R. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Job tasks that involve exposure to work-related musculoskeletal disorder (WMSD) risk factors may impact both the risk of injury and production downtime. Common WMSD risks factors associated with mining tasks include forceful exertions, awkward postures, repetitive motion, jolting and jarring, forceful gripping, contact stress, and whole body and segmental vibration. Mining environments that expose workers to temperature/humidity extremes, windy conditions, and slippery and uneven walking surfaces also contribute to injury risk. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) researchers worked with powder crew members from the Bridger Coal Company to identify and rank routine work tasks based on perceived exposure to WMSD risk factors. This article presents the process followed to identify tasks that workers believed involved the greatest exposure to risk factors and discusses risk reduction strategies. Specifically, the proposed prill truck design changes addressed cab ingress/egress, loading blast holes, and access to the upper deck of the prill truck.

  8. Deep coal mining and meningococcal meningitis in England and Wales, 1931-38: Ecological study, with implications for deep shaft mining activities worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallman-Raynor, Matthew R; Cliff, Andrew D

    2017-09-01

    The hypothesized role of deep coal mining in the development of community-based outbreaks of meningococcal meningitis has gone largely unexplored. Taking the coalfields of Britain as a historical testbed, techniques of linear and binomial logistic regression were used to assess the association between meningococcal meningitis rates and male occupation rates for coal mining in England and Wales during the national epidemic of 1931-32 and in its aftermath. Adjusting for the epidemiological effects of age, residential density, recent changes in the number of families, housing stock and low social class, the analysis yielded evidence of a significant and positive association between coal mining occupation rates and notified levels of meningitis activity in the epidemic period. Communities in areas of the world that currently maintain substantial deep coal extraction industries may be at increased risk for the epidemic transmission of meningococcal meningitis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Unexpected hydrologic perturbation in an abandoned underground coal mine: Response to surface reclamation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, D.; Olyphant, G.A.; Hartke, E.J.

    1990-01-01

    A reclamation project at the abandoned Blackhawk Mine site near Terre Haute, Indiana, lasted about four months and involved the burial of coarse mine refuse in shallow (less than 9 m) pits excavated into loess and till in an area of about 16 ha. An abandoned flooded underground coal mine underlies the reclamation site at a depth of about 38 m; the total area underlain by the mine is about 10 km2. The potentiometric levels associated with the mine indicate a significant (2.7 m) and prolonged perturbation of the deeper confined groundwater system; 14 months after completing reclamation, the levels began to rise linearly (at an average rate of 0.85 cm/d) for 11 months, then fell exponentially for 25 months, and are now nearly stable. Prominent subsidence features exist near the reclamation site. Subsidence-related fractures were observed in cores from the site, and such fractures may have provided a connection between the shallower and deeper groundwater systems. ?? 1990 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  10. Infrared active thermography for surface layer characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semerok, A.; Fomichev, S.; Farcage, D.; Sortais, C.; Courtois, X.

    2006-05-01

    Deposited layer characterization was stated as the main goal of our studies for 2006. The investigations by DRFC/SIPP/GCFP (CEA Cadarache) were performed with the procedure of surface temperature measurements based on infrared thermography with synchronous demodulation (Lock-in Thermography). It was applied to provide the temperature surface monitoring during the modulated heating by illumination. The obtained 2D-cartography revealed the zones with a weak heat transfer resulting from a low layer/surface adhesion or poor layer thermal conductivity. The obtained lock-in cartography data should be regarded only as qualitative. For deposited layers characterization (layer depth, adhesion with the substrate), the active laser pyrometer measurements with the developed experimental device were made in LILM laboratory (CEA Saclay). Active surface pyrometry with repetitive laser heating can provide both qualitative and quantitative data on the first layer and the interface with the substrate. A 3D-numerical model of graphite deposited layer heating by a pulsed high repetition rate laser beam was developed to determine the heated surface temperature with a high temporal and spatial resolution. The theoretical data obtained with 3D-numerical model for surface heating were compared with the experimental results. It was demonstrated that for the given optical and thermo-physical parameters of materials, the theoretical temperatures may be fitted with the experimental results to assess certain unknown parameters of the layer (thermal contact resistance, diffusivity, thickness, porosity, ). Based on the comparison of the obtained experimental and theoretical results, the deposited layer characterization was made. The results of the investigations on Active Laser Pyrometry and Lock-in Thermography demonstrated that the methods can provide qualitative and quantitative data on the deposited layer and on the layer/substrate interface. The correlation and cross-check of the results

  11. Arsenic distribution in a pasture area impacted by past mining activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad-Valle, P; Álvarez-Ayuso, E; Murciego, A; Muñoz-Centeno, L M; Alonso-Rojo, P; Villar-Alonso, P

    2018-01-01

    Former mine exploitations entail a serious threat to surrounding ecosystems as after closure of mining activities their unmanaged wastes can be a continuous source of toxic trace elements. Quite often these mine sites are found within agricultural farming areas, involving serious hazards as regards product (feed/food) quality. In this work a grazing land impacted by the abandoned mine exploitation of an arsenical deposit was studied so as to evaluate the fate of arsenic (As) and other trace elements and the potential risks involved. With this aim, profile soil samples (0-50cm) and pasture plant species (Agrostis truncatula, Holcus annus and Leontodon longirostris) were collected at different distances (0-100m) from the mine waste dump and analyzed for their trace element content and distribution. Likewise, plant trace element accumulation from impacted grazing soils and plant trace element translocation were assessed. The exposure of livestock grazing animals to As was also evaluated, establishing its acceptability regarding food safety and animal health. International soil guideline values for As in grazing land soils (50mgkg -1 ) resulted greatly exceeded (up to about 20-fold) in the studied mining-affected soils. Moreover, As showed a high mobilization potential under circumstances such as phosphate application or establishment of reducing conditions. Arsenic exhibited relatively high translocation factor (TF) values (up to 0.32-0.89) in pasture plant species, reaching unsafe concentrations in their above-ground tissues (up to 32.9, 16.9 and 9.0mgkg -1 in Agrostis truncatula, Leontodon longirostris and Holcus annus, respectively). Such concentrations represent an elevated risk of As transfer to the high trophic-chain levels as established by international legislation. The limited fraction of arsenite found in plant roots should play an important role in the relatively high As root-to-shoot translocation shown by these plant species. Both soil ingestion and

  12. Effects of potential surface coal mining on dissolved solids in Otter Creek and in the Otter Creek alluvial aquifer, southeastern Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, M.R.

    1985-01-01

    Otter Creek drains an area of 709 square miles in the coal-rich Powder River structural basin of southeastern Montana. The Knobloch coal beds in the Tongue River Member of the Paleocene Fort Union Formation is a shallow aquifer and a target for future surface mining in the downstream part of the Otter Creek basin. A mass-balance model was used to estimate the effects of potential mining on the dissolved solids concentration in Otter Creek and in the alluvial aquifer in the Otter Creek valley. With extensive mining of the Knobloch coal beds, the annual load of dissolved solids to Otter Creek at Ashland at median streamflow could increase by 2,873 tons, or a 32-percent increase compared to the annual pre-mining load. Increased monthly loads of Otter Creek, at the median streamflow, could range from 15 percent in February to 208 percent in August. The post-mining dissolved solids load to the subirrigated part of the alluvial valley could increase by 71 percent. The median dissolved solids concentration in the subirrigated part of the valley could be 4,430 milligrams per liter, compared to the pre-mining median concentration of 2,590 milligrams per liter. Post-mining loads from the potentially mined landscape were calculated using saturated-paste-extract data from 506 overburdened samples collected from 26 wells and test holes. Post-mining loads to the Otter Creek valley likely would continue at increased rates for hundreds of years after mining. If the actual area of Knobloch coal disturbed by mining were less than that used in the model, post-mining loads to the Otter Creek valley would be proportionally smaller. (USGS)

  13. 30 CFR 75.1003-2 - Requirements for movement of off-track mining equipment in areas of active workings where...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Trolley Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 75.1003-2 Requirements for movement of off-track mining equipment in areas of active workings where energized trolley wires or trolley... or transporting any unit of off-track mining equipment in areas of the active workings where...

  14. Risk: For Whom? Representations of Mining Activity by Different Social Actors in the Molango Manganese District of Hidalgo, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalán-Vázquez, Minerva; Riojas-Rodríguez, Horacio; Pelcastre-Villafuerte, Blanca Estela

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown high levels of manganese exposure and neurocognitive damage in the population living in the mining zone in Molango, Mexico. One of the objectives of the Intersectoral Group on Environmental Management for the mining district has been to provide public participation in the risk management plan. To achieve this, it is important to know how the different social actors represent the mining activity. The objectives of this study were to characterize the social representations of the mining activity by different social actors. A qualitative design was used based on in-depth interviews of residents, public officials, and a mining company representative. The analysis was conducted according to themes for each group of actors. Essentially, distinct social representations of the different mining activities were identified. Residents viewed mining activities as synonymous with contamination and, therefore, as having affected all areas of their environment, health, and daily life. These activities were seen as a collective risk. The public officials and the mining company held that there was no evidence of harm and saw mining activities as a generator of regional development. Harm to health and the environment were seen as a stance taken by the communities in order to obtain economic benefits from the company. These images of the "other" are shaped by social, political, and cultural factors. They make it difficult for the actors to reach cooperative agreements and thereby affect progress on the risk management plan. Decisionmakers need to take these differences into account when promoting social participation. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  15. Mining Emerging Patterns for Recognizing Activities of Multiple Users in Pervasive Computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gu, Tao; Wu, Zhanqing; Wang, Liang

    2009-01-01

    Understanding and recognizing human activities from sensor readings is an important task in pervasive computing. Existing work on activity recognition mainly focuses on recognizing activities for a single user in a smart home environment. However, in real life, there are often multiple inhabitants...... activity models, and propose an Emerging Pattern based Multi-user Activity Recognizer (epMAR) to recognize both single-user and multiuser activities. We conduct our empirical studies by collecting real-world activity traces done by two volunteers over a period of two weeks in a smart home environment...... sensor readings in a home environment, and propose a novel pattern mining approach to recognize both single-user and multi-user activities in a unified solution. We exploit Emerging Pattern – a type of knowledge pattern that describes significant changes between classes of data – for constructing our...

  16. Economics of mine water treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Dvořáček, Jaroslav; Vidlář, Jiří; Štěrba, Jiří; Heviánková, Silvie; Vaněk, Michal; Barták, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    Mine water poses a significant problem in lignite coal mining. The drainage of mine water is the fundamental prerequisite of mining operations. Under the legislation of the Czech Republic, mine water that discharges into surface watercourse is subject to the permission of the state administration body in the water management sector. The permission also stipulates the limits for mine water pollution. Therefore, mine water has to be purified prior to discharge. Although all...

  17. Implementation of the Additional Protocol: Verification activities at uranium mines and mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bragin, V.; Carlson, J.; Leslie, R.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The mining and milling of uranium is the first in a long chain of processes required to produce nuclear materials in a form suitable for use in nuclear weapons. Misuse of a declared uranium mining/milling facility, in the form of understatement of production, would be hard to detect with the same high level of confidence as afforded by classical safeguards on other parts of the nuclear fuel cycle. For these reasons, it would not be cost-effective to apply verification techniques based on classical safeguards concepts to a mining/milling facility in order to derive assurance of the absence of misuse. Indeed, these observations have been recognised in the Model Protocol (INFCIRC/540): 'the Agency shall not mechanistically or systematically seek to verify' information provided to it by States (Article 4.a.). Nevertheless, complementary access to uranium mining/milling sites 'on a selective basis in order to assure the absence of undeclared nuclear material and activities' (Article 4.a.(i)) is provided for. On this basis, therefore, this paper will focus predominantly on options other than site access, which are available to the Agency for deriving assurance that declared mining/milling operations are not misused. Such options entail the interpretation and analysis of information provided to the Agency including, for example, from declarations, monitoring import/export data, open source reports, commercial satellite imagery, aerial photographs, and information provided by Member States. Uranium mining techniques are diverse, and the inventories, flows and uranium assays which arise at various points in the process will vary considerably between mines, and over the operating cycle of an individual mine. Thus it is essentially impossible to infer any information, which can be used precisely to confirm, or otherwise, declared production by measuring or estimating any of those parameters at points within the mining/milling process. The task of attempting to

  18. Installation of a permeable reactive barrier at the mining complex facility in Los Gigantes - Cordoba : Monitoring plan of surface and underground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grande Cobian, Juan D.; Sanchez Proano, Paula; Cicerone, Daniel S.

    2009-01-01

    The Argentine National Atomic Energy Commission declares under its Environmental policy the commitment to restore those sites where activities concerning Uranium mining were developed. It makes it beyond the scope of the Project of Environmental Restitution of the Uranium Mining (PRAMU from its Spanish abbreviation). The Chemistry of Water and Soil Division at the Environmental Chemistry and Energy Generation Department belonging to the Chemistry Management Office assist the PRAMU on the installation of an hydroxyapatite permeable reactive barrier (PRB) inside the Mining Complex facility placed at Los Gigantes in the Argentine province of Cordoba (in advance named the site). Among the preliminary assessment activities that are being carried out before the installation of the PRB, it has been prepared a monitoring program of surface water and groundwater useful to develop an environmental baseline suitable for the efficiency assessment of the corrective action to be applied. An exploratory campaign was conducted in the site with the aim of establishing a monitoring net of meteorological and hydrological, as well as physical, chemical and biological parameters in matrixes of sediments, water and suspended particulate matter collected on a regular time basis from its surface water and groundwater bodies. The processed results turn into useful environmental information to: a) determine the status of the environmental baseline of the site, b) establish a water quality index (WQI) to manage the natural resource quality according to a rational basis, c) plan experiments related to the design process of a biogenic hydroxyapatite PRB and d) apply chemometric and mechanistic models to forecast the contaminants mobilization through different scenarios and improve the engineering design of the PRB. Once achieved the hydrogeological characterisation of the site and taking into account the originality of the system the following results have been reached: 1) The boundaries of

  19. Review : Pollution due to Coal Mining Activity and its Impact on Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Arif Setiawan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of natural resources in the form of coal mines has a positive impact on economic and energy development, in addition to coal mining activities have a negative impact on the environment that result in environmental pollution in soil, water, and air. Pollution begins when clearing land, taking exploitation, transporting, stockpile and when the coal is burned. When land clearing causes damage to forest ecosystems. At the time of exploitation impact on air pollution by coal dust particles, the erosion, siltation of the river, the pollution of heavy metals and the formation of acid mine drainage (AMD. The high acid conditions cause the faster heavy metals such as Hg, Cd, Pb, Cr, Cu, Zn and Ni present in the coal dissolved and carried to the waters. Coal stockpile activity also causes pollution in the air, soil, and water. At the time the coal is burned as an energy source causes the emission of hazardous materials into the air of Hg, As, Se and CO2 gas, NOx, SO2. This condition has an impact on the environment and ultimately on human health.

  20. Activation of the soil-forming processes in the rehabilitation of areas degrades by mining activities. A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GArcia Alvarez, A.; Mejuto Mendieta, M.; Riego, L. del; Cardona, A. I.; Diaz Puente, F. J.; Rdoriguez Gallego, V.; Schimid, T.; Millan Gomez, R.

    2009-01-01

    Is being made a pilot for the rehabilitation of tailings that come from coal mining in the region of El Bierzo, for which we have designed a protocol that puts a special emphasis on activating the processes of soil formation as an essential part in its evolution, culminating in their integration into the global dynamics of the landscape that takes place in that territory. (Author)

  1. Bioassessment of heavy metals in the surface soil layer of an opencast mine aimed for its rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ličina, Vlado; Akšić, Milica Fotirić; Tomić, Zorica; Trajković, Ivana; Antić Mladenović, Svetlana; Marjanović, Milena; Rinklebe, Jörg

    2017-01-15

    The contemporary reclamation method in an opencast coal mine closure comprises the use of the preserved surface soil layer (SSL) before mining, and can be directly returned to the areas being rehabilitated. The present study emphasizes a risk in the use of such a SSL in mine rehabilitation due to the possible excessive amount of heavy metals which usually derives from a metal-rich sediment or fluvial character of overburden material. This indication was approved by the bioassessment of cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) in root and aerial parts of maize (Zea mays), alfalfa (Medicago sativa), sweet clover (Melilotus officinalis), wheat (Triticum aestivum), barley (Hordeum sativum), white clover (Trifolium repens), pasture (Poales sp.), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), potato (Solanum tuberosum) and carrot (Daucus carota) grown on SSL in the opencast mine area. The fluvial layers of the investigated mine SSL revealed the excessive existence of Ni and Cr, probably of geogenic origin, according to the X-ray diffraction (XRD) which detected Ni- and Cr-bearing minerals in soil fractions. In addition, the highest residual fraction of these two heavy metals, obtained by sequential extraction analyses, together with all other tested soil parameters, supported this assumption. Nevertheless, the accumulations of Cr in tomato fruit (2.93 mg kg -1 ), potato tuber (5.89 mg kg -1 ) and carrot root (7.35 mg kg -1 ) grown on the investigated SSL were found to exceed a critical level of this element for human nutrition. However, despite the evident excess of Ni in the investigated SSL, a similar trend was not found in edible part of plants. The transfer and mobility of the investigated metals was evaluated using the accumulation factor (AF < 1.0) where the root were the preferential organ for the storage of heavy metals. This investigation could bring an important input for its acceptability of use in soil restoration

  2. Recovery and reuse of sludge from active and passive treatment of mine drainage-impacted waters: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakotonimaro, Tsiverihasina V; Neculita, Carmen Mihaela; Bussière, Bruno; Benzaazoua, Mostafa; Zagury, Gérald J

    2017-01-01

    The treatment of mine drainage-impacted waters generates considerable amounts of sludge, which raises several concerns, such as storage and disposal, stability, and potential social and environmental impacts. To alleviate the storage and management costs, as well as to give the mine sludge a second life, recovery and reuse have recently become interesting options. In this review, different recovery and reuse options of sludge originating from active and passive treatment of mine drainage are identified and thoroughly discussed, based on available laboratory and field studies. The most valuable products presently recovered from the mine sludge are the iron oxy-hydroxides (ochre). Other by-products include metals, elemental sulfur, and calcium carbonate. Mine sludge reuse includes the removal of contaminants, such as As, P, dye, and rare earth elements. Mine sludge can also be reused as stabilizer for contaminated soil, as fertilizer in agriculture/horticulture, as substitute material in construction, as cover over tailings for acid mine drainage prevention and control, as material to sequester carbon dioxide, and in cement and pigment industries. The review also stresses out some of the current challenges and research needs. Finally, in order to move forward, studies are needed to better estimate the contribution of sludge recovery/reuse to the overall costs of mine water treatment.

  3. Restoration and revitalization of areas of the Severoceske doly a.s. Chomutov company damaged by mining activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ondracek, V.; Brabenec, J. [North Bohemian Mines, Chomutov (Czech Republic); Rehor, M. [Brown Coal Research Inst., Most (Czech Republic)

    2010-07-01

    Brown coal is of significant importance as a raw material to the Czech Republic as a result of increasing energy demands. It is the primary fossil fuel of homes in the Czech Republic, without which it would become fully dependent on energy source imports. Founded in 1994, the Severoceske doly a.s. company is the greatest mining company of the Czech Republic. The Severoceske doly, a.s. Chomutov joint stock company mining is drawn up in open pit mines and uses continual technology with excavators, long distance conveyers, and stackers. Large area external and internal dumps remain after the final stages of mining and quarrying. This paper summarized the basic facts about Severoceske doly a.s mining company, with particular reference to revitalization and restoration activities. The paper focused on restoration efforts in the Bilina Mines localities and Nastup Tusimice Mines, and on modern restoration methodology, and the application of research and science. It was concluded that a solution can be found that would fundamentally limit negative impacts to the landscape of brown coal areas using knowledge of rock characteristics relocated by mining and all the relationships in the area's surroundings. 4 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs.

  4. Current Activities of the Ministry of Mines, Islamic Republic of Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adel, M.

    2008-12-01

    Beginning in late 2001, the Afghanistan government started developing plans for the revitalization of the Natural Resources sector. This revitalization included the rebuilding and reorganization of the capabilities of the Ministry of Mines and Industries (now the Ministry of Mines) and the Afghan Geological Survey and several other Afghan ministries. The initial focus was on the development of new mining and hydrocarbon laws, which were supported by the World Bank. Concurrent with these activities was the recognized need to identify, organize and compile existing data and information on the natural resources of the country. This has been followed by the use of these data and information to provide preliminary assessments of the oil and gas resources, mineral resources, water resources, coal resources, and earthquake hazards, all based on existing data. A large part of these assessment efforts required the development of a geospatial infrastructure through the use of satellite imagery and other remote sensing technologies. Institutional and capacity building were integral parts of all efforts. With the assessment and law activities ongoing, the Ministry of Mine has now turned to the development of a leasing framework, which address the critical need of transparency of leasing, lease management, and royalty collection. This new leasing system was implemented in spring 2008 with the leasing of the Aynak Copper Deposit, which is located about 25 miles south of Kabul. At the moment, a second world class mineral deposit is being considered for leasing within the next year. Oil and gas lease tracts are also under development in the northern oil and gas basins of Afghanistan. With the support of the Afghan government, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has recently completed the gathering of new data and information in support of the Natural Resources Sector. These data gathering missions include gravity, magnetics, radar, and hyperspectral data, which were gathered through

  5. Determination of Seismic Safety Zones during the Surface Mining Operation Development in the Case of the “Buvač” Open Pit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Malbasic

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Determination of the blasting safety area is a very important step in the process of drilling and blasting works, and the preparation of solid rock materials for loading. Through monitoring and analysis of the negative seismic effects to the objects and infrastructures around and at the mine area, we were able to adapt the drilling and blasting parameters and organization of drilling and blasting operation according to the mining progress so that the affected infrastructures could be protected. This paper analyses the safety distances and model safety zones of drilling and blasting for the period 2013–2018 at the open pit at “Buvač”, Omarska. This mathematical calculation procedure can be used during the whole life of the mine. By monitoring of the blasting seismic influence in first years of the mine's work, as well as by using recorded vibration velocities, mathematical dependence of the important parameters can be defined. Additionally, the level and laws of distribution and intensity of the seismic activity can be defined. On one hand, those are known quantities of the explosive and the distances between blasting location and endangered objects. On the other hand, those are coefficients of the manner of blasting and the environment where blasting is done, K, as well as the coefficient of the weakening of seismic waves as they spread, n. With the usage of the allowed vibration velocities, based on certain safety criteria and mathematical formulas of laws of spreading and intensity of seismic influence for a concrete case, it is possible to calculate explosive quantities and distances, with numerically-defined values of parameter K and n. Minimum distances are calculated based on defined or projected explosive quantities. Additionally, we calculate the maximum allowed explosive quantities based on known distances which can be used based on projected drilling-blasting parameters. For the purpose of the planning of drilling and blasting

  6. Determination of granite rock massif weathering and cracking of surface layers in the oldest parts of medieval mine depending on used mining method

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lednická, Markéta; Kaláb, Zdeněk

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 2 (2016), s. 381-395 ISSN 0860-7001 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1406; GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : Jeroným Mine * non-destructive testing * granite Subject RIV: DH - Mining, incl. Coal Mining Impact factor: 0.550, year: 2016 http://archiwum.img-pan.krakow.pl/index.php/AMS/article/view/785/692

  7. Sampling and sample handling procedures for priority pollutants in surface coal mining wastewaters. [Detailed list to be analyzed for

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayden, R. S.; Johnson, D. O.; Henricks, J. D.

    1979-03-01

    The report describes the procedures used by Argonne National Laboratory to sample surface coal mine effluents in order to obtain field and laboratory data on 110 organic compounds or classes of compounds and 14 metals and minerals that are known as priority pollutants, plus 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD/sub 5/), total organic carbon (TOC), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total dissolved solids (TDS), and total suspended solids (TSS). Included are directions for preparation of sampling containers and equipment, methods of sampling and sample preservation, and field and laboratory protocols, including chain-of-custody procedures. Actual analytical procedures are not described, but their sources are referenced.

  8. Mining Emerging Patterns for Recognizing Activities of Multiple Users in Pervasive Computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gu, Tao; Wu, Zhanqing; Wang, Liang

    2009-01-01

    Understanding and recognizing human activities from sensor readings is an important task in pervasive computing. Existing work on activity recognition mainly focuses on recognizing activities for a single user in a smart home environment. However, in real life, there are often multiple inhabitants...... sensor readings in a home environment, and propose a novel pattern mining approach to recognize both single-user and multi-user activities in a unified solution. We exploit Emerging Pattern – a type of knowledge pattern that describes significant changes between classes of data – for constructing our...... live in such an environment. Recognizing activities of not only a single user, but also multiple users is essential to the development of practical context-aware applications in pervasive computing. In this paper, we investigate the fundamental problem of recognizing activities for multiple users from...

  9. Responsible Development of Areva's Mining Activities. Report 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-09-01

    This annual report, prepared by the Corporate Social Responsibility Department of Areva Mines, is the result of the mobilization of all our teams present at Areva's mining sites as well as those in Areva corporate support functions (compliance, sustainable development, etc). The data given cover the assets for which Areva acts as operator in uranium mining activities: exploration, project development, production and rehabilitation. The consolidated data target activities in France, Canada, Niger, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Gabon and Namibia. Activities in the Central African Republic and those linked to La Mancha no longer fall within the scope of this report (sale of assets in 2012). By defining Areva's strategy and policies, this report aims to demonstrate Areva's performance in the key areas of mining activity responsibility: ethics and governance, social report, the environment, occupational health and safety, community involvement, commitments to stakeholders. This report is the third edition of this annual exercise. The results for Areva's main performance indicators are shown for the last three years (2010 to 2012). Some important information relates to the first half of 2013. Areva is a member of the International Council on Mining and Metals (ICMM). In this context, Areva's policies and commitments in terms of social responsibility are based on the ten sustainable development principles defined by the ICMM, as well as the associated 'position statement' documents. To this end, Areva's specialists are involved in the different working groups that bring together ICMM members to discuss the various sustainable development issues encountered in the extractive sector. Members of our top-level management form part of the Council of this organization. More generally, Areva has made a large number of commitments and works with professional organizations and international institutions. A file listing these various commitments is

  10. Hydrogeochemical processes governing the origin, transport and fate of major and trace elements from mine wastes and mineralized rock to surface waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordstrom, D. Kirk

    2011-01-01

    The formation of acid mine drainage from metals extraction or natural acid rock drainage and its mixing with surface waters is a complex process that depends on petrology and mineralogy, structural geology, geomorphology, surface-water hydrology, hydrogeology, climatology, microbiology, chemistry, and mining and mineral processing history. The concentrations of metals, metalloids, acidity, alkalinity, Cl-, F- and SO42- found in receiving streams, rivers, and lakes are affected by all of these factors and their interactions. Remediation of mine sites is an engineering concern but to design a remediation plan without understanding the hydrogeochemical processes of contaminant mobilization can lead to ineffective and excessively costly remediation. Furthermore, remediation needs a goal commensurate with natural background conditions rather than water-quality standards that might bear little relation to conditions of a highly mineralized terrain. This paper reviews hydrogeochemical generalizations, primarily from US Geological Survey research, that enhance our understanding of the origin, transport, and fate of contaminants released from mined and mineralized areas.

  11. Revealing Significant Relations between Chemical/Biological Features and Activity: Associative Classification Mining for Drug Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Pulan

    2012-01-01

    Classification, clustering and association mining are major tasks of data mining and have been widely used for knowledge discovery. Associative classification mining, the combination of both association rule mining and classification, has emerged as an indispensable way to support decision making and scientific research. In particular, it offers a…

  12. Second-Generation Thermal Neutron Activation Sensor for Confirmatory Land-Mine Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edward Clifford; Harry Ing; John McFee; H. Robert Andrews; Tom Cousins

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the development of the Improved Land-Mine Detector System (ILDS), a vehicle-mounted nonmetallic land-mine detector. The ILDS consists of a custom teleoperated vehicle carrying an infrared imager, an electromagnetic induction detector, and a ground probing radar-which scan the ground in front of the vehicle. Custom navigation and data fusion software combine information from scanning sensors and navigation systems to detect and automatically track suspect targets until the confirmation detector at the rear of the system is positioned to within 30 cm of the target location. The confirmation detector, using thermal neutron activation (TNA) to detect bulk nitrogen in explosives, then dwells over the target for 10 to 120 s. In U.S. government tests (summer 1998), the ILDS advanced development model (ADM) placed first or second out of five competitors on every test. The construction of the second-generation TNA detector and preliminary testing should be complete by March 2000. Testing on real mines is expected to start in summer 2000

  13. Mercury speciation and dispersion from an active gold mine at the West Wits area, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusilao-Makiese, J G; Tessier, E; Amouroux, D; Tutu, H; Chimuka, L; Weiersbye, I; Cukrowska, E M

    2016-01-01

    Total mercury (HgTOT), inorganic mercury (IHg), and methylmercury (MHg) were determined in dry season waters, sediments, and tailings from an active mine which has long history of gold exploitation. Although HgTOT in waters was generally low (0.03 to 19.60 ng L(-1)), the majority of the samples had proportions of MHg of at least 90 % of HgTOT which denotes a substantial methylation potential of the mine watersheds. Mercury was relatively high in tailing materials (up to 867 μg kg(-1)) and also in the mine sediments (up to 837 μg kg(-1)) especially in samples collected near tailing storage facilities and within a receiving water dam. Sediment profiles revealed mercury enrichment and enhanced methylation rate at deeper layers. The presence of IHg and decaying plants (organic matter) in the watersheds as well as the anoxic conditions of bulk sediments are believed to be some of the key factors favoring the mercury methylation at the site.

  14. Adhesion characterization of tungsten mine waste geopolymeric binder. Influence of OPC concrete substance surface treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Torgal, Fernando Pacheco; Gomes, J. P. Castro; Jalali, Said

    2008-01-01

    Tungsten mine waste mud (TMWM) was investigated for its potential use as repair material of ordinary portland cement (OPC) concrete. Bond strength between OPC concrete substrate and three repair materials was analysed. TMWM geopolymeric binder and two commercial repair products were used as repair materials. Bond strength behaviour was assessed from slant shear tests. A total of 128 slant shear specimens were made in order to evaluate bond strength at 1, 3, 7 and 28 days curing. Four ki...

  15. Environmental condition and impact of inactive uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hans, J.M. Jr.; Eadie, G.E.; O'Connell, M.F.

    1981-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was required to provide a report to Congress identifying the location, and potential health, safety and environmental hazards of uranium mine wastes together with recommendations, if any, for a program to eliminate the hazards. The approach taken to prepare this report was to develop model active and inactive mines and locate them in a typical mining area to estimate their environmental impact. The inactive mines were separated from the list and sorted into surface and underground categories. A literature search was conducted to obtain and consolidate available information concerning the environmental aspects of uranium mining and short-term field surveys and studies were conducted to augment this information base. Radioactivity emission rates were measured or estimated for each mining category and were entered into computer codes to assess population exposures and subsequent health risks. The general environmental condition of inactive uranium mines was determined by walk-through surveys in several mining areas

  16. Using radar interferometry and SBAS technique to detect surface subsidence relating to coal mining in Upper Silesia from 1993-2000 and 2003-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nádudvari Ádám

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the presented research ERS1-2 and Envisat ASAR archive data were used for the periods 1993 – 2000 and 2003 – 2010. The radar images were acquired over Upper Silesia in southern Poland. DinSAR (Differential InSAR and SBAS (Small Baseline Subset methods were applied for the detection of the most subsided areas. The DinSAR images were layer stacked for an image using 26 interferometry pairs of ERS1-2 SAR and 16 pairs from Envisat ASAR images in an ascending-descending orbit combination. The stacking of these images showed the most subsided parts of these cities even under low coherent areas, but the results are less precise. In the Upper Silesian Coal Basin, intensive underground coal exploitation has resulted in several surface deformations under Bytom (~8-17 km2, Piekary Śląskie (~9-15 km2, Ruda Śląska (~32-42 km2 and Katowice (~20-23 km2 with 25-40 cm of subsidence (in general in the studied time periods. The SBAS technique has also shown that coal mining caused subsidence in the cities of Bytom, Katowice, and Piekary Śląskie of 5-7 cm/yr. The presented SBAS method did not work for low coherent areas, e.g. dense forested areas. DInSAR data also pointed to several decreasingly less active mining areas, which relate to the mine closures in Bytom and Ruda Śląska, which is also verified by the time series analysis.

  17. Microbial functional diversity and enzymatic activity of soil degraded by sulphur mining reclaimed with various waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joniec, Jolanta; Frąc, Magdalena

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate microbial functional diversity based on community level physiological profiling and β-glucosidase activity changes in soil degraded by sulphur mining and subjected to reclamation with various waste. The experiment was set up in the area of the former `Jeziórko' Sulphur Mine (Poland), on a soilless substrate with a particle size distribution of slightly loamy sand. The experimental variants included the application of post-flotation lime, sewage sludge and mineral wool. The analyses of soil samples included the assessment of the following microbiological indices: β-glucosidase activity and functional diversity average well color development and richness). The results indicate that sewage sludge did not exert a significant impact on the functional diversity of microorganisms present in the reclaimed soil. In turn, the application of other types of waste contributed to a significant increase in the parameters of total metabolic activity and functional diversity of the reclaimed soil. However, the temporal analysis of the metabolic profile of soil microorganisms demonstrated that a single application of waste did not yield a durable, stable metabolic profile in the reclaimed soil. Still, there was an increase in β-glucosidase activity, especially in objects treated with sewage sludge.

  18. First-Year Vitality of Reforestation Plantings in Response to Herbivore Exclusion on Reclaimed Appalachian Surface-Mined Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary J. Hackworth

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Conventional Appalachian surface-mine reclamation techniques repress natural forest regeneration, and tree plantings are often necessary for reforestation. Reclaimed Appalachian surface mines harbor a suite of mammal herbivores that forage on recently planted seedlings. Anecdotal reports across Appalachia have implicated herbivory in the hindrance and failure of reforestation efforts, yet empirical evaluation of herbivory impacts on planted seedling vitality in this region remains relatively uninitiated. First growing-season survival, height growth, and mammal herbivory damage of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L., shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill., and white oak (Quercus alba L. are presented in response to varying intensities of herbivore exclusion. Seedling survival was generally high, and height growth was positive for all species. The highest herbivory incidence of all tree species was observed in treatments offering no herbivore exclusion. While seedling protectors lowered herbivory incidence compared with no exclusion, full exclusion treatments resulted in the greatest reduction of herbivore damage. Although herbivory from rabbits, small mammals, and domestic animals was observed, cervids (deer and elk were responsible for 95.8% of all damaged seedlings. This study indicates that cervids forage heavily on planted seedlings during the first growing-season, but exclusion is effective at reducing herbivory.

  19. Water-quality data for two surface coal mines reclaimed with alkaline waste or urban sewage sludge, Clarion County, Pennsylvania, May 1983 through November 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugas, D.L.; Cravotta, C.A.; Saad, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    Water-quality and other hydrologic data for two surface coal mines in Clarion County, Pa., were collected during 1983-89 as part of studies conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources. Water samples were collected from streams, seeps, monitor wells, and lysimeters on a monthly basis to evaluate changes in water quality resulting from the addition of alkaline waste or urban sewage sludge to the reclaimed mine-spoil surface. The mines are about 3.5 miles apart and were mined for bituminous coal of the upper and lower Clarion seams of the Allegheny Group of Pennsylvanian age. The coal had high sulfur (greater than 2 weight percent) concentrations. Acidic mine drainage is present at both mines. At one mine, about 8 years after mining was completed, large quantities (greater than 400 tons per acre) of alkaline waste consisting of limestone and lime-kiln flue dust were applied on two 2.5-acre plots within the 65-acre mine area. Water-quality data for the alkaline-addition plots and surrounding area were collected for 1 year before and 3 years after application of the alkaline additives (May 1983-July 1987). Data collected for the alkaline-addition study include ground-water level, surface-water discharge rate, temperature, specific conductance, pH, and concentrations of alkalinity, acidity, sulfate, iron (total and ferrous), manganese, aluminum, calcium, and magnesium. At the other mine, about 3.5 years after mining was completed, urban sewage sludge was applied over 60 acres within the 150-acre mine area. Waterquality data for the sludge-addition study were collected for 3.5 years after the application of the sludge (June 1986-December 1989). Data collected for the sludge-addition study include the above constituents plus dissolved oxygen, redox potential (Eh), and concentrations of dissolved solids, phosphorus, nitrogen species, sulfide, chloride, silica, sodium, potassium, cyanide, arsenic, barium

  20. Uranium mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The economic and environmental sustainability of uranium mining has been analysed by Monash University researcher Dr Gavin Mudd in a paper that challenges the perception that uranium mining is an 'infinite quality source' that provides solutions to the world's demand for energy. Dr Mudd says information on the uranium industry touted by politicians and mining companies is not necessarily inaccurate, but it does not tell the whole story, being often just an average snapshot of the costs of uranium mining today without reflecting the escalating costs associated with the process in years to come. 'From a sustainability perspective, it is critical to evaluate accurately the true lifecycle costs of all forms of electricity production, especially with respect to greenhouse emissions, ' he says. 'For nuclear power, a significant proportion of greenhouse emissions are derived from the fuel supply, including uranium mining, milling, enrichment and fuel manufacture.' Dr Mudd found that financial and environmental costs escalate dramatically as the uranium ore is used. The deeper the mining process required to extract the ore, the higher the cost for mining companies, the greater the impact on the environment and the more resources needed to obtain the product. I t is clear that there is a strong sensitivity of energy and water consumption and greenhouse emissions to ore grade, and that ore grades are likely to continue to decline gradually in the medium to long term. These issues are critical to the current debate over nuclear power and greenhouse emissions, especially with respect to ascribing sustainability to such activities as uranium mining and milling. For example, mining at Roxby Downs is responsible for the emission of over one million tonnes of greenhouse gases per year and this could increase to four million tonnes if the mine is expanded.'

  1. Does Titan have an Active Surface?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, R.

    2009-12-01

    ammonia, a compound expected in Titan’s interior. This, combined with the previous evidence from VIMS and RADAR images, creates a strong case for Titan having a presently active surface, possibly due to cryovolcanism. Cassini encountered Titan at very close range on 2008-11-19-13:58 and again on 2008-12-05-12:38. These epochs are called T47 and T48. Comparison of earlier lower resolution data (T5) with the recent T47 and T48 data reveal changes of the surface reflectance and morphology in the Hotei region. This is the first evidence from VIMS that confirms the RADAR report that Hotei Reggio has morphology consistent with volcanic terrain. It has not escaped our attention that ammonia, in association with methane and nitrogen, the principal species of Titan’s atmosphere, closely replicates the environment at the time that live first emerged on earth. If Titan is currently active then these results raise the following questions: What is the full extent of current geologic activity? What are the ongoing processes? Are Titan’s chemical processes today supporting a prebiotic chemistry similar to that under which life evolved on Earth? This work done at JPL under contract with NASA. Refs: [1]R. M. Nelson et al., Icarus 199 (2009) 429-441. [2]R. M. Nelson et al., GRL, VOL. 36, L04202, doi:10.1029/2008GL036206, 2009. [3]S. D. Wall GRL, VOL. 36, L04203, doi:10.1029/2008GL036415, 2009

  2. Public drinking water violations in mountaintop coal mining areas of West Virginia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountaintop coal mining (MTM) has adverse impacts on surface and ground water quality. Instances of domestic well water contamination from mining activities have been documented, but possible mining impacts on public water treatment systems are unknown. We analyzed the U.S. Envir...

  3. Process mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Aalst, W.M.P.; Rubin, V.; Verbeek, H.M.W.

    2010-01-01

    Process mining includes the automated discovery of processes from event logs. Based on observed events (e.g., activities being executed or messages being exchanged) a process model is constructed. One of the essential problems in process mining is that one cannot assume to have seen all possible...... behavior. At best, one has seen a representative subset. Therefore, classical synthesis techniques are not suitable as they aim at finding a model that is able to exactly reproduce the log. Existing process mining techniques try to avoid such “overfitting” by generalizing the model to allow for more...

  4. THE DASHBOARD - STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT TOOL OF ACTIVITIES IN THE COAL MINING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DINA IONELA-CLAUDIA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve the objectives at all levels and categories of functions in the unit, use multiple information systems, including the dashboard which is one of the management tools that responds very well to the rationale and supporting data of management decisions complementary to those provided by other media. In this respect, we try to calculate indicators organization currently working compartments of the coal mining units and will propose a series of indicators whose calculation we consider would be necessary for a detailed presentation as activity carried out and the improvement of management.

  5. Application of MIKE SHE to study the impact of coal mining on river runoff in Gujiao mining area, Shanxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Jianhua; Yan, Shiyan; Gu, Pan; Wu, Zening; Hu, Caihong

    2017-01-01

    Coal mining is one of the core industries that contribute to the economic development of a country but deteriorate the environment. Being the primary source of energy, coal has become essential to meet the energy demand of a country. It is excavated by both opencast and underground mining methods and affects the environment, especially hydrological cycle, by discharging huge amounts of mine water. Natural hydrological processes have been well known to be vulnerable to human activities, especially large scale mining activities, which inevitably generate surface cracks and subsidence. It is therefore valuable to assess the impact of mining on river runoff for the sustainable development of regional economy. In this paper, the impact of coal mining on river runoff is assessed in one of the national key coal mining sites, Gujiao mining area, Shanxi Province, China. The characteristics of water cycle are described, the similarities and differences of runoff formation are analyzed in both coal mining and pre-mining periods. The integrated distributed hydrological model named MIKE SHE is employed to simulate and evaluate the influence of coal mining on river runoff. The study shows that mining one ton of raw coal leads to the reduction of river runoff by 2.87 m3 between 1981 and 2008, of which the surface runoff decreases by 0.24 m3 and the baseflow by 2.63 m3. The reduction degree of river runoff for mining one ton of raw coal shows an increasing trend over years. The current study also reveals that large scale coal mining initiates the formation of surface cracks and subsidence, which intercepts overland flow and enhances precipitation infiltration. Together with mine drainage, the natural hydrological processes and the stream flows have been altered and the river run off has been greatly reduced.

  6. Application of MIKE SHE to study the impact of coal mining on river runoff in Gujiao mining area, Shanxi, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Ping

    Full Text Available Coal mining is one of the core industries that contribute to the economic development of a country but deteriorate the environment. Being the primary source of energy, coal has become essential to meet the energy demand of a country. It is excavated by both opencast and underground mining methods and affects the environment, especially hydrological cycle, by discharging huge amounts of mine water. Natural hydrological processes have been well known to be vulnerable to human activities, especially large scale mining activities, which inevitably generate surface cracks and subsidence. It is therefore valuable to assess the impact of mining on river runoff for the sustainable development of regional economy. In this paper, the impact of coal mining on river runoff is assessed in one of the national key coal mining sites, Gujiao mining area, Shanxi Province, China. The characteristics of water cycle are described, the similarities and differences of runoff formation are analyzed in both coal mining and pre-mining periods. The integrated distributed hydrological model named MIKE SHE is employed to simulate and evaluate the influence of coal mining on river runoff. The study shows that mining one ton of raw coal leads to the reduction of river runoff by 2.87 m3 between 1981 and 2008, of which the surface runoff decreases by 0.24 m3 and the baseflow by 2.63 m3. The reduction degree of river runoff for mining one ton of raw coal shows an increasing trend over years. The current study also reveals that large scale coal mining initiates the formation of surface cracks and subsidence, which intercepts overland flow and enhances precipitation infiltration. Together with mine drainage, the natural hydrological processes and the stream flows have been altered and the river run off has been greatly reduced.

  7. Application of MIKE SHE to study the impact of coal mining on river runoff in Gujiao mining area, Shanxi, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Jianhua; Yan, Shiyan; Gu, Pan; Wu, Zening; Hu, Caihong

    2017-01-01

    Coal mining is one of the core industries that contribute to the economic development of a country but deteriorate the environment. Being the primary source of energy, coal has become essential to meet the energy demand of a country. It is excavated by both opencast and underground mining methods and affects the environment, especially hydrological cycle, by discharging huge amounts of mine water. Natural hydrological processes have been well known to be vulnerable to human activities, especially large scale mining activities, which inevitably generate surface cracks and subsidence. It is therefore valuable to assess the impact of mining on river runoff for the sustainable development of regional economy. In this paper, the impact of coal mining on river runoff is assessed in one of the national key coal mining sites, Gujiao mining area, Shanxi Province, China. The characteristics of water cycle are described, the similarities and differences of runoff formation are analyzed in both coal mining and pre-mining periods. The integrated distributed hydrological model named MIKE SHE is employed to simulate and evaluate the influence of coal mining on river runoff. The study shows that mining one ton of raw coal leads to the reduction of river runoff by 2.87 m3 between 1981 and 2008, of which the surface runoff decreases by 0.24 m3 and the baseflow by 2.63 m3. The reduction degree of river runoff for mining one ton of raw coal shows an increasing trend over years. The current study also reveals that large scale coal mining initiates the formation of surface cracks and subsidence, which intercepts overland flow and enhances precipitation infiltration. Together with mine drainage, the natural hydrological processes and the stream flows have been altered and the river run off has been greatly reduced. PMID:29267313

  8. Determination of activity concentration levels of (238)U, (232)Th, and (40)K in drinking water in a gold mine in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awudu, A R; Darko, E O; Schandorf, C; Hayford, E K; Abekoe, M K; Ofori-Danson, P K

    2010-08-01

    The study of the activity concentration levels of uranium, thorium and potassium in drinking water from different locations in a gold mine in the Ashanti Region of Ghana was conducted using gamma spectrometry. The mean outdoor absorbed gamma dose rates at 1 m from the water were 0.524 nGy h, 0.422 nGy h, and 0.252 nGy h for groundwater, surface water, and treated water, respectively. The results obtained for the activity concentration levels of U and Th are found to be within the maximum acceptable concentration levels of 3.0 Bq L and 0.6 Bq L, respectively, recommended by the World Health Organization. The overall mean outdoor gamma dose rate is 0.41 nGy h and the corresponding outdoor annual effective dose obtained for adult members of the public for drinking water from the mines is 3.58 muSv y. This value is found to be within the 10.0 muSv per annum (0.01 mSv per annum) for public exposure control set by the World Health Organization. Therefore, the mining activities on drinking water studied did not show any significant radiological health implications on the public.

  9. Evaluation of surface water quality in aquatic bodies under the influence of uranium mining (MG, Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgher, Suzelei; de Azevedo, Heliana; Ferrari, Carla Rolim; Roque, Cláudio Vítor; Ronqui, Leilane Barbosa; de Campos, Michelle Burato; Nascimento, Marcos Roberto Lopes

    2013-03-01

    The quality of the water in a uranium-ore-mining area located in Caldas (Minas Gerais State, Brazil) and in a reservoir (Antas reservoir) that receives the neutralized acid solution leaching from the waste heaps generated by uranium mining was investigated. The samples were collected during four periods (October 2008, January, April and July 2009) from six sampling stations. Physical and chemical analyses were performed on the water samples, and the data obtained were compared with those of the Brazilian Environmental Standards and WHO standard. The water samples obtained from waste rock piles showed high uranium concentrations (5.62 mg L(-1)), high manganese values (75 mg L(-1)) and low average pH values (3.4). The evaluation of the water quality at the point considered the limit between the Ore Treatment Unit of the Brazilian Nuclear Industries and the environment (Consulta Creek) indicated contamination by fluoride, manganese, uranium and zinc. The Antas reservoir showed seasonal variations in water quality, with mean concentrations for fluoride (0.50 mg L(-1)), sulfate (16 mg L(-1)) and hardness (20 mg L(-1)) which were low in January, evidencing the effect of rainwater flowing into the system. The concentrations for fluoride, sulfate and manganese were close or above to the limits established by current legislation at the point where the treated mining effluent was discharged and downstream from this point. This study demonstrated that the effluent discharged by the UTM affected the quality of the water in the Antas reservoir, and thus the treatments currently used for effluent need to be reviewed.

  10. Effects of coal mine subsidence in the Sheridan, Wyoming, area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunrud, C. Richard; Osterwald, Frank W.

    1980-01-01

    Analyses of the surface effects of past underground coal mining in the Sheridan, Wyoming, area suggest that underground mining of strippable coal deposits may damage the environment more over long periods of time than would modern surface mining, provided proper restoration procedures are followed after surface mining. Subsidence depressions and pits are a continuing hazard to the environment and to man's activities in the Sheridan, Wyo., area above abandoned underground mines in weak overburden less than about 60 m thick and where the overburden is less than about 10-15 times the thickness of coal mined. In addition, fires commonly start by spontaneous ignition when water and air enter the abandoned mine workings via subsidence cracks and pits. The fires can then spread to unmined coal as they create more cavities, more subsidence, and more cracks and pits through which air can circulate. In modern surface mining operations the total land surface underlain by minable coal is removed to expose the coal. The coal is removed, the overburden and topsoil are replaced, and the land is regraded and revegetated. The land, although disturbed, can be more easily restored and put back into use than can land underlain by abandoned underground mine workings in areas where the overburden is less than about 60 m thick or less than about 10-15 times the thickness of coal mined. The resource recovery of modern surface mining commonly is much greater than that of underground mining procedures. Although present-day underground mining technology is advanced as compared to that of 25-80 years ago, subsidence resulting from underground mining of thick coal beds beneath overburden less than about 60 m thick can still cause greater damage to surface drainage, ground water, and vegetation than can properly designed surface mining operations. This report discusses (11 the geology and surface and underground effects of former large-scale underground coal mining in a 50-km 2 area 5-20 km

  11. Landscape management in an area affected by surface brown coal mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vráblíková, J.; Wildová, E.; Vráblík, P.; Blažková, M.

    2017-10-01

    The contribution summarizes results of a project concentrated on landscape management of an area affected by brown coal mining located in northern Bohemia (The Most basin) focusing on restoration and reclamation processes. It describes in particular the shares of individual types of reclamations in the area of interest. A strategic document that also supports landscape restoration in anthropogenically burdened regions was written within the project called “Restart” and the second part of the contribution is focused on its chapters which address this issue.

  12. Surface and interface electronic structure: Three year activity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kevan, S.D.

    1992-01-01

    The 3-year activity report covers surface structure and phonon anomalies (surface reconstruction on W(001) and Mo(001), adsorbate lateral ordering, surface Fermi contours and phonon anomalies on Pt(111) and Pd(001)), adsorbate vibrational damping, charge transfer in momentum space: W(011)-K, surface states and resonances (relativistic effects ampersand computations, surface resonances)

  13. Enzyme activity as an indicator of soil-rehabilitation processes at a zinc and lead ore mining and processing area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciarkowska, Krystyna; Sołek-Podwika, Katarzyna; Wieczorek, Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    The activities of soil enzymes in relation to the changes occurring in the soil on a degraded area in southern Poland after zinc and lead mining were analyzed. An evaluation of the usefulness of urease and invertase activities for estimating the progress of the rehabilitation processes in degraded soil was performed. The data show that the soil samples differed significantly in organic carbon (0.68-104.0 g kg(-1)) and total nitrogen (0.03-8.64 g kg(-1)) content in their surface horizons. All of the soil samples (apart from one covered with forest) had very high total concentrations of zinc (4050-10,884 mg kg(-1)), lead (959-6661 mg kg(-1)) and cadmium (24.4-174.3 mg kg(-1)) in their surface horizons, and similar concentrations in their deeper horizons. Nevertheless, the amounts of the soluble forms of the above-mentioned heavy metals were quite low and they accounted for only a small percentage of the total concentrations: 1.4% for Zn, 0.01% for Pb and 2.6% for Cd. Urease activities were ranked as follows: soil from flotation settler (0.88-1.78 μg N-NH4(+) 2h(-1) g(-1))inverted sugar, but they were much lower in soil from the flotation settler (0.12-6.95 mg of the inverted sugar). The results demonstrated that heavy pollution with Zn, Pb and Cd slightly decreased the activities of urease and invertase. It is thought that it resulted from the enzyme reactions occurring in slightly acidic or alkaline soil conditions. Under such conditions, heavy metals occur mainly in insoluble forms. The activities of these enzymes are strongly dependent on the content and decomposition of organic matter in the soil. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Data-mining of potential antitubercular activities from molecular ingredients of traditional Chinese medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal, Salma; Scaria, Vinod

    2014-01-01

    Background. Traditional Chinese medicine encompasses a well established alternate system of medicine based on a broad range of herbal formulations and is practiced extensively in the region for the treatment of a wide variety of diseases. In recent years, several reports describe in depth studies of the molecular ingredients of traditional Chinese medicines on the biological activities including anti-bacterial activities. The availability of a well-curated dataset of molecular ingredients of traditional Chinese medicines and accurate in-silico cheminformatics models for data mining for antitubercular agents and computational filters to prioritize molecules has prompted us to search for potential hits from these datasets. Results. We used a consensus approach to predict molecules with potential antitubercular activities from a large dataset of molecular ingredients of traditional Chinese medicines available in the public domain. We further prioritized 160 molecules based on five computational filters (SMARTSfilter) so as to avoid potentially undesirable molecules. We further examined the molecules for permeability across Mycobacterial cell wall and for potential activities against non-replicating and drug tolerant Mycobacteria. Additional in-depth literature surveys for the reported antitubercular activities of the molecular ingredients and their sources were considered for drawing support to prioritization. Conclusions. Our analysis suggests that datasets of molecular ingredients of traditional Chinese medicines offer a new opportunity to mine for potential biological activities. In this report, we suggest a proof-of-concept methodology to prioritize molecules for further experimental assays using a variety of computational tools. We also additionally suggest that a subset of prioritized molecules could be used for evaluation for tuberculosis due to their additional effect against non-replicating tuberculosis as well as the additional hepato-protection offered by

  15. Mountaintop mining consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.A. Palmer; E.S. Bernhardt; W.H. Schlesinger; K.N. Eshleman; E. Foufoula-Georgiou; M.S. Hendryx; A.D. Lemly; G.E. Likens; O.L. Loucks; M.E. Power; P.S. White; P.R. Wilcock

    2010-01-01

    There has been a global, 30-year increase in surface mining (1), which is now the dominant driver of land-use change in the central Appalachian ecoregion of the United States (2). One major form of such mining, mountaintop mining with valley fills (MTM/VF) (3), is widespread throughout eastern Kentucky, West Virginia (WV), and southwestern Virginia. Upper elevation...

  16. Social responsibility of public accountant in carrying out his work in mining activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rocío Acevedo-Pérez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The accounting professional in recent times, as a major player, has been questioned in the performance of his work and even frequently involved with corporate financial scandals, putting into question the social responsibility of his profession. However, here, the analysis of the accounting profession is directed specifically to watch the behavior of the accountant in a particular sector such as mining, mainly in relation to the advise in the exploitation of coal. This paper presents the results of the investigation on public accountants who provide advisory services to entrepreneurs in the mining sector. It inquires also on issues related to the level and quality of the advice that they provide in different topics such as economic, administrative , tax, labor , social and environmental issues in relation to the development of the activity.  Similarly the accountant has an ethical commitment to both organizations and the different groups that are linked directly or indirectly to maintain balance in organizations through the provision of information to related parties on their rights that correspond to them in the development of the activity, and as an administrator and manager of information in decision-making contributes to the generation of the common welfare.  Finally, the social responsibility of the public accountant goes beyond the commitment to the State and the organizations in which they work, because there is a commitment to other stakeholders including the environment and society.

  17. Final geological and mining exploration and reasons for the brown coal mine Laško closure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Strgar

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Final surface and underground geological and mine exploration data of the brown coalmine LaŠko are presented. The data refer to the period between 1978 and 1990 when most intensive and systematic exploration took place.In more than 225 years of activity, the brown coal mine Laško had many longer or shorter interruptions and oscillations of coal production. The coal from the Laško brown coal mine has always been known to be of the highest quality among the Slovenian browncoals, mostly due to its high calorific value (ARB and low sulphur content. Because of its quality, coal sales on the domestic market were never poor. Because of the energy crisis at the beginning of the 1970-ies, the decision was made to close the mine. The mine closure took a long period in spite of the mine company plans and activities forits restructure, so that the brown coal from Laško was mined until the middle of 1992. The ultimate mine closure reasons were technical and economic conditions of underground mining.After the final decision for closing the mine was made, the production was suspended, and extended underground mine closure and surface reclamation works were carried out.

  18. Detecting surface coal mining areas from remote sensing imagery: an approach based on object-oriented decision trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiaoji; Liu, Zhifeng; He, Chunyang; Ma, Qun; Wu, Jianguo

    2017-01-01

    Detecting surface coal mining areas (SCMAs) using remote sensing data in a timely and an accurate manner is necessary for coal industry management and environmental assessment. We developed an approach to effectively extract SCMAs from remote sensing imagery based on object-oriented decision trees (OODT). This OODT approach involves three main steps: object-oriented segmentation, calculation of spectral characteristics, and extraction of SCMAs. The advantage of this approach lies in its effective integration of the spectral and spatial characteristics of SCMAs so as to distinguish the mining areas (i.e., the extracting areas, stripped areas, and dumping areas) from other areas that exhibit similar spectral features (e.g., bare soils and built-up areas). We implemented this method to extract SCMAs in the eastern part of Ordos City in Inner Mongolia, China. Our results had an overall accuracy of 97.07% and a kappa coefficient of 0.80. As compared with three other spectral information-based methods, our OODT approach is more accurate in quantifying the amount and spatial pattern of SCMAs in dryland regions.

  19. 78 FR 39531 - Mine Rescue Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    ... Requirements for Underground Coal Mine Operators and Mine Rescue Teams Type of mine rescue team Requirement Mine-site Composite Contract State-sponsored * * * * * * * Team must include at least two YES active employees from each covered large mine and at least one active employee from each covered small mine. Team...

  20. 76 FR 27355 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Mine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ... mandate to reduce work-related injuries and illnesses among the nation's miners. Accident, injury, and...; Mine Accident, Injury & Illness Report and Quarterly Mine Employment and Coal Production Report ACTION... Administration (MSHA) sponsored information collection request (ICR) titled, ``Mine Accident, Injury & Illness...

  1. 78 FR 45566 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Coal Mine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ... for OMB Review; Comment Request; Coal Mine Dust Sampling Devices ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... information collection request (ICR) titled, ``Coal Mine Dust Sampling Devices,'' to the Office of Management...) determine the concentration of respirable dust in coal mines. CPDMs must be designed and constructed for...

  2. Establishing Pine Monocultures and Mixed Pine-Hardwood Stands on Reclaimed Surface Mined Land in Eastern Kentucky: Implications for Forest Resilience in a Changing Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Bell

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Surface mining and mine reclamation practices have caused significant forest loss and forest fragmentation in Appalachia. Shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata is threatened by a variety of stresses, including diseases, pests, poor management, altered fire regimes, and climate change, and the species is the subject of a widescale restoration effort. Surface mines may present opportunity for shortleaf pine restoration; however, the survival and growth of shortleaf pine on these harsh sites has not been critically evaluated. This paper presents first-year survival and growth of native shortleaf pine planted on a reclaimed surface mine, compared to non-native loblolly pine (Pinus taeda, which has been highly successful in previous mined land reclamation plantings. Pine monoculture plots are also compared to pine-hardwood polyculture plots to evaluate effects of planting mix on tree growth and survival, as well as soil health. Initial survival of shortleaf pine is low (42%, but height growth is similar to that of loblolly pine. No differences in survival or growth were observed between monoculture and polyculture treatments. Additional surveys in coming years will address longer-term growth and survival patterns of these species, as well as changes to relevant soil health endpoints, such as soil carbon.

  3. Potential effects of surface coal mining on the hydrology of the Corral Creek area, Hanging Woman Creek coal field, southeastern Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClymonds, N.E.

    1984-01-01

    The Corral Creek area of the Hanging Woman Creek coal field, 9 miles east of the Decker coal mines near the Tongue River, contains large reserves of Federal coal that have been identified for potential lease sale. A hydrologic study was conducted in the area to describe existing hydrologic systems and to study assess potential impacts of surface coal mining on local water resources. Hydrogeologic data collected indicate that aquifers are coal and sandstone beds within the Tongue River Member of the Fort Union Formation (Paleocene age) and sand and gravel in valley alluvium (Pleistocene and Holocene age). Surface-water resources are limited to a few spring-fed stock ponds in the higher parts of the area and the intermittent flow of Corral Creek near the mouth. Most of the stock ponds in the area become dry by midsummer. Mining of the Anderson coal bed would remove three stock wells and would lower the potentiometric surface within the coal and sandstone aquifers. The alluvial aquifer beneath Corral Creek and South Fork would be removed. Although mining would alter the existing hydrologic systems and remove several shallow wells, alternative ground-water supplies are available that could be developed to replace those lost by mining. (USGS)

  4. Mine drainage treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Golomeova, Mirjana; Zendelska, Afrodita; Krstev, Boris; Golomeov, Blagoj; Krstev, Aleksandar

    2012-01-01

    Water flowing from underground and surface mines and contains high concentrations of dissolved metals is called mine drainage. Mine drainage can be categorized into several basic types by their alkalinity or acidity. Sulfide rich and carbonate poor materials are expected to produce acidic drainage, and alkaline rich materials, even with significant sulfide concentrations, often produce net alkaline water. Mine drainages are dangerous because pollutants may decompose in the environment. In...

  5. The role of School of Mines in regional and national environmental protection endeavours. An outline of past and on-going project activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinkala, T; Simukanga, S.

    2002-01-01

    This paper outlines the contribution of the School of Mines in national and regional environmental protection activities. Projects include those undertaken under the Southern African Network for Training on the environment (SANTREN), Southern African Development Community (SADC), the Ministry of Mines and Mineral Development, and the Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources. Issues include mining and the environment, small scale mining, environmental impact assessments, river systems, water quality, air quality and environmental technologies. The paper is concluded by pointing out the efforts by the School to introduce a Mining and Environment Program in the wake of the need to promote public awareness at tertiary level. (authors)

  6. Failure of man-made cavities in salt and surface subsidence due to sulfur mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coates, G.K.; Lee, C.A.; McClain, W.C.; Senseny, P.E.

    1981-01-01

    An engineering data base relevant to subsidence due to sulfur mining and to structural failure of cavities in salt is established, evaluated and documented. Nineteen failure events are discussed. Based on these documented failure events, capabilities of and inputs to a mathematical model of cavity failure are determined. Two failure events are adequately documented for use in model verification studies. A conclusion of this study that is pertinent to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve is that cavity failures in dome salt are fairly rare, but that as the number of large cavities (especially those having large roof spans) increases, failures will probably be more common unless stability and failure mechanisms of cavities are better understood.

  7. Geologic setting and water quality of selected basins in the active coal-mining areas of Ohio, 1987-88

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedam, A.C.

    1991-01-01

    This report presents hydrologic data from selected drainage basins in the active coal-mining areas of Ohio from July 1987 through October 1988. The study area is mostly within the unglaciated part of eastern Ohio along the western edge of the Appalachian Plateaus physiographic province. The 1987-88 work is the second phase of a 7-year study to assess baseline water quality in Ohio's coal region. The data collection network consisted of 41 long-term surface-water sites in 21 basins. The sites were measured and sampled twice yearly at low flow. In addition, six individual basins (three each year) selected for a more detailed representation of surface-water and ground-water quality. In 1987, the Sandy Creek, Middle Tuscarawas River and Sugar Creek, and Lower Tuscarawas River basins were chosen. In 1988, the Short and Wheeling Creeks, Upper Wills Creek, and Upper Raccoon Creek basins were chosen. Because of their proximity to the glaciated region and outwash drainage, the basins studied intensively in 1987 contain more shallow productive aquifers than do the basins studied in detail for 1988, in which shallow ground-water sources are very localized. Chemical analyses for 202 surface-water and 24 ground-water samples are presented. For field measurements made at surface-water sites, the specific conductance ranged from 295 to 3150 ? S/cm (microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius). For pH, the range was 2.8 to 8.6. Alkalinity ranged from 5 to 305 mg/L (milligrams per liter) as CaCO3.

  8. Mineral Classification of Land Surface Using Multispectral LWIR and Hyperspectral SWIR Remote-Sensing Data. A Case Study over the Sokolov Lignite Open-Pit Mines, the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gila Notesco

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Remote-sensing techniques offer an efficient alternative for mapping mining environments and assessing the impacts of mining activities. Airborne multispectral data in the thermal region and hyperspectral data in the optical region, acquired with the Airborne Hyperspectral Scanner (AHS sensor over the Sokolov lignite open-pit mines in the Czech Republic, were analyzed. The emissivity spectrum was calculated for each vegetation-free land pixel in the longwave infrared (LWIR-region image using the surface-emitted radiation, and the reflectance spectrum was derived from the visible, near-infrared and shortwave-infrared (VNIR–SWIR-region image using the solar radiation reflected from the surface, after applying atmospheric correction. The combination of calculated emissivity, with the ability to detect quartz, and SWIR reflectance spectra, detecting phyllosilicates and kaolinite in particular, enabled estimating the content of the dominant minerals in the exposed surface. The difference between the emissivity values at λ = 9.68 µm and 8.77 µm was found to be a useful index for estimating the relative amount of quartz in each land pixel in the LWIR image. The absorption depth at around 2.2 µm in the reflectance spectra was used to estimate the relative amount of kaolinite in each land pixel in the SWIR image. The resulting maps of the spatial distribution of quartz and kaolinite were found to be in accordance with the geological nature and origin of the exposed surfaces and demonstrated the benefit of using data from both thermal and optical spectral regions to map the abundance of the major minerals around the mines.

  9. Design criteria applicable to the environmental restoration of sites affected by uranium mining activities in the past

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carboneras, P.; Sanchez, M.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper the authors discuss the basic aspects to be considered while evaluating different alternatives to perform environmental restoration of sites affected by naturally occurring radionuclides, enhanced by human actions, as is the case in some old uranium mining activities. The discussion is confined to sites where radiation hazards had existed forever (sites with uranium deposits) and where the mining activities have introduced several factors modifying the initial situation, leading to the now existing one, requiring intervention as decided by the relevant authorities, in accordance with recommendations of ICRP60

  10. Design criteria applicable to the environmental restoration of sites affected by uranium mining activities in the past

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carboneras, P. [ENRESA, Madrid (Spain); Sanchez, M. [INITEC, Madrid (Spain)

    1993-12-31

    In this paper the authors discuss the basic aspects to be considered while evaluating different alternatives to perform environmental restoration of sites affected by naturally occurring radionuclides, enhanced by human actions, as is the case in some old uranium mining activities. The discussion is confined to sites where radiation hazards had existed forever (sites with uranium deposits) and where the mining activities have introduced several factors modifying the initial situation, leading to the now existing one, requiring intervention as decided by the relevant authorities, in accordance with recommendations of ICRP60.

  11. India's manganese nodule mine site in the Central Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banakar, V.K.

    This commentary highlights the activities of massive exploration programme for manganese nodule deposits in the Central Indian Basin located 5 km below the ocean surface and India's claim for mine site development and registration with UNCLOS...

  12. Assessment of radioactivity concentration in soil of some mining ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K natural activity concentrations in surface soils/sediments of some mining areas in Central Nasarawa State Nigeria, using Sodium Iodide-Thallium Gamma Spectroscopy. Seven major sites were identified from the highly mining areas of the zone and a total of ...

  13. Doomed reservoirs in Kansas, USA? Climate change and groundwater mining on the Great Plains lead to unsustainable surface water storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brikowski, T. H.

    2008-06-01

    SummaryStreamflow declines on the Great Plains of the US are causing many Federal reservoirs to become profoundly inefficient, and will eventually drive them into unsustainability as negative annual reservoir water budgets become more common. The streamflow declines are historically related to groundwater mining, but since the mid-1980s correlate increasingly with climate. This study highlights that progression toward unsustainability, and shows that future climate change will continue streamflow declines at historical rates, with severe consequences for surface water supply. An object lesson is Optima Lake in the Oklahoma Panhandle, where streamflows have declined 99% since the 1960s and the reservoir has never been more than 5% full. Water balances for the four westernmost Federal reservoirs in Kansas (Cedar Bluff, Keith Sebelius, Webster and Kirwin) show similar tendencies. For these four, reservoir inflow has declined by 92%, 73%, 81% and 64% respectively since the 1950s. Since 1990 total evaporated volumes relative to total inflows amounted to 68%, 83%, 24% and 44% respectively. Predictions of streamflow and reservoir performance based on climate change models indicate 70% chance of steady decline after 2007, with a ˜50% chance of failure (releases by gravity flow impossible) of Cedar Bluff Reservoir between 2007 and 2050. Paradoxically, a 30% chance of storage increase prior 2020 is indicated, followed by steady declines through 2100. Within 95% confidence the models predict >50% decline in surface water resources between 2007 and 2050. Ultimately, surface storage of water resources may prove unsustainable in this region, forcing conversion to subsurface storage.

  14. Groundwater management for pollution control: a case study for oil shale mining in Northeast Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erg, K.; Raukas, A.

    2001-01-01

    In Estonia oil shale is produced by underground and surface mining. The excavation methods used cause serious damage to the environment, especially to the topography, which hampers the further use of the mined-out areas. The oil shale mining has a serious impact on the environment also due to the pollution of surface and groundwater by polluted mine drainage waters, lowering of groundwater level, changing of soil properties and high air pollution rate. Decline in mining activities and the introduction of new technologies together with economic measures has improved the situation but much should be done during coming years. (author)

  15. Impact of Coal Mining on Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sribas Goswami

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Coal mining adversely affects the eco-system as a whole. On the unstable earth, the unresting mankind constantly uses a variety of resources for daily lives. Coal is recognized to have been the main source of energy in India for many decades and contributes to nearly 27 % of the world’s commercial energy requirement. Coal is mainly mined using two methods- surface or ‘opencast’ and underground mining. The geological condition determines the method of mining. Coal mining is usually associated with the degradation of natural resources and the destruction of habitat. This causes invasive species to occupy the area, thus posing a threat to biodiversity. Huge quantities of waste material are produced by several mining activities in the coal mining region. If proper care is not taken for waste disposal, mining will degrade the surrounding environment. The method of waste disposal affects land, water and air and in turns the quality of life of the people in the adjacent areas. This paper throws lights on the burning issues of coal mines and its impact on the environment.

  16. The use of landscape fabric and supplemental irrigation to enhance survival and growth of woody perennials planted on reclaimed surface mine lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    R .C. Musselman; F. W. Smith; W. D. Shepperd; L. A. Asherin; B. W. Gee

    2009-01-01

    A study was initiated to determine the effectiveness of landscape fabric and supplemental irrigation in survival and growth of woody perennials planted on reclaimed surface coal mine lands. The study compared growth and survival of nursery grown potted aspen and serviceberry planted with or without landscape fabric, and with or without biweekly supplemental irrigation...

  17. One-year response of American sycamore (Platanus occidentalis L.) and black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) to granular fertilizer applications on a reclaimed surface mine in eastern Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josh Brinks; John Lhotka; Chris. Barton

    2011-01-01

    The establishment of intensively managed woody energy crops on reclaimed surface mine lands provides an opportunity to diversify domestic biomass sources, while increasing the productivity and economic value of underutilized land. Our objective is to test the effect of fertilization on the growth and biomass accumulation of American sycamore (Platanus...

  18. Optimisation of reclamation approaches to land affected by surface coal mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabrna, M.; Hendrychova, M. [Vyzkumny ustav pro hnede uhli a.s. (Czech Republic); Czech Univ. of Life Sciences, Prague (Czech Republic). Faculty of Environmental Science; Salek, M. [Czech Univ. of Life Sciences, Prague (Czech Republic). Faculty of Environmental Science; Rehor, M. [Vyzkumny ustav pro hnede uhli a.s. (Czech Republic)

    2009-07-01

    Since the 1950s, reclamation of land affected by brown coal mining in the Czech Republic has been conducted. Since this time, there has been significant improvement in quality development of reclamation measures. This paper discussed the results of different studies where technically reclaimed sites as well as naturally developed sites were investigated. The paper discussed the methodology of the study as well as results of succession versus reclamation and next preferences. One of the studies that was examined involved four groups of animals that have a close relation to soil and plant vegetation. These included ground beetles, bugs, molluscs, and birds. This study found that the spontaneously developed sites could be characterized by the same or a higher biodiversity than those technically reclaimed. The second study examined bird nest preferences either to domestic or to exotic trees. The results showed that although exotic trees dominate on reclaimed sites, the birds preferred the domestic trees for nesting. It was concluded that the natural succession could play a significant role within reclamation practices, particularly on those sites where higher species diversity is desirable. 10 refs., 2 figs.

  19. 30 CFR 77.1712 - Reopening mines; notification; inspection prior to mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to mining. 77.1712 Section 77.1712 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... prior to mining. Prior to reopening any surface coal mine after it has been abandoned or declared... an authorized representative of the Secretary before any mining operations in such mine are...

  20. 30 CFR 819.21 - Auger mining: Protection of underground mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auger mining: Protection of underground mining. 819.21 Section 819.21 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT... STANDARDS-AUGER MINING § 819.21 Auger mining: Protection of underground mining. Auger holes shall not extend...