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Sample records for surface growth process

  1. Scaling behaviour of randomly alternating surface growth processes

    CERN Document Server

    Raychaudhuri, S

    2002-01-01

    The scaling properties of the roughness of surfaces grown by two different processes randomly alternating in time are addressed. The duration of each application of the two primary processes is assumed to be independently drawn from given distribution functions. We analytically address processes in which the two primary processes are linear and extend the conclusions to nonlinear processes as well. The growth scaling exponent of the average roughness with the number of applications is found to be determined by the long time tail of the distribution functions. For processes in which both mean application times are finite, the scaling behaviour follows that of the corresponding cyclical process in which the uniform application time of each primary process is given by its mean. If the distribution functions decay with a small enough power law for the mean application times to diverge, the growth exponent is found to depend continuously on this power-law exponent. In contrast, the roughness exponent does not depe...

  2. Scaling behaviour of randomly alternating surface growth processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raychaudhuri, Subhadip; Shapir, Yonathan

    2002-01-01

    The scaling properties of the roughness of surfaces grown by two different processes randomly alternating in time are addressed. The duration of each application of the two primary processes is assumed to be independently drawn from given distribution functions. We analytically address processes in which the two primary processes are linear and extend the conclusions to nonlinear processes as well. The growth scaling exponent of the average roughness with the number of applications is found to be determined by the long time tail of the distribution functions. For processes in which both mean application times are finite, the scaling behaviour follows that of the corresponding cyclical process in which the uniform application time of each primary process is given by its mean. If the distribution functions decay with a small enough power law for the mean application times to diverge, the growth exponent is found to depend continuously on this power-law exponent. In contrast, the roughness exponent does not depend on the timing of the applications. The analytical results are supported by numerical simulations of various pairs of primary processes and with different distribution functions. Self-affine surfaces grown by two randomly alternating processes are common in nature (e.g., due to randomly changing weather conditions) and in man-made devices such as rechargeable batteries

  3. Theoretical studies of growth processes and electronic properties of nanostructures on surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Yina

    Low dimensional nanostructures have been of particular interest because of their potential applications in both theoretical studies and industrial use. Although great efforts have been put into obtaining better understanding of the formation and properties of these materials, many questions still remain unanswered. This thesis work has focused on theoretical studies of (1) the growth processes of magnetic nanowires on transition-metal surfaces, (2) the dynamics of pentacene thin-film growth and island structures on inert surfaces, and (3) our proposal of a new type of semiconducting nanotube. In the first study, we elucidated a novel and intriguing kinetic pathway for the formation of Fe nanowires on the upper edge of a monatomic-layer-high step on Cu(111) using first-principles calculations. The identification of a hidden fundamental Fe basal line within the Cu steps prior to the formation of the apparent upper step edge Fe wire produces a totally different view of step-decorating wire structures and offers new possibilities for the study of the properties of these wires. Subsequent experiments with scanning tunneling microscopy unambiguously established the essential role of embedded Fe atoms as precursors to monatomic wire growth. A more general study of adatom behavior near transition-metal step edges illustrated a systematic trend in the adatom energetics and kinetics, resulted from the electronic interactions between the adatom and the surfaces. This work opens the possibility of controlled manufacturing of one-dimensional nanowires. In the second study, we investigated pentacene thin-films on H-diamond, H-silica and OH-silica surfaces via force field molecular dynamics simulations. Pentacene island structures on these surfaces were identified and found to have a 90-degree rotation relative to the structure proposed by some experimental groups. Our work may facilitate the design and control of experimental pentacene thin-film growth, and thus the development

  4. Optical monitoring of surface processes relevant to thin film growth by chemical vapour deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simcock, Michael Neil

    2002-01-01

    This thesis reports on the investigation of the use of reflectance anisotropy spectroscopy (RAS) as an in-situ monitor for the preparation and oxidation of GaAs(100) c(4x4) surfaces using a CVD 2000 MOCVD reactor. These surfaces were oxidised using air. It was found that it was possible to follow surface degradation using RA transients at 2.6eV and 4eV. From this data it was possible to speculate on the nature of the surface oxidation process. A study was performed into the rate of surface degradation under different concentrations of air, it was found that the relation between the air concentration and the surface degradation was complicated but that the behaviour of the first third of the degradation approximated a first order behaviour. An estimation of the activation energy of the process was then made, and an assessment of the potential use of the glove-box for STM studies which is an integral part of the MOCVD equipment was also made. Following this, a description is given of the construction of an interferometer for monitoring thin film growth. An investigation is also described into two techniques designed to evaluate the changes in reflected intensity as measured by an interferometer. The first technique uses an iteration procedure to determine the film thickness from the reflection data. This is done using a Taylor series expansion of the thin film reflection function to iterate for the thickness. Problems were found with the iteration when applied to noisy data, these were solved by using a least squares fit to smooth the data. Problems were also found with the iteration at the turning points these were solved using the derivative of the function and by anticipating the position of the turning points. The second procedure uses the virtual interface method to determine the optical constants of the topmost deposited material, the virtual substrate, and the growth rate. This method is applied by using a Taylor series expansion of the thin film reflection

  5. Lattice Gas Model Based Optimization of Plasma-Surface Processes for GaN-Based Compound Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonokawa, Kiyohide; Suzuki, Takuma; Kitamori, Kazutaka; Sawada, Takayuki

    2001-10-01

    Progress of the epitaxial growth technique for GaN-based compounds makes these materials attractive for applications in high temperature/high-power electronic devices as well as in short-wavelength optoelectronic devices. For MBE growth of GaN epilayer, atomic nitrogen is usually supplied from ECR-plasma while atomic Ga is supplied from conventional K-cell. To grow high-quality epilayer, fundamental knowledge of the detailed atomic process, such as adsorption, surface migration, incorporation, desorption and so forth, is required. We have studied the influence of growth conditions on the flatness of the growth front surface and the growth rate using Monte Carlo simulation based on the lattice gas model. Under the fixed Ga flux condition, the lower the nitrogen flux and/or the higher the growth temperature, the better the flatness of the front surface at the sacrifice of the growth rate of the epilayer. When the nitrogen flux is increased, the growth rate reaches saturation value determined from the Ga flux. At a fixed growth temperature, increasing of nitrogen to Ga flux ratio results in rough surface owing to 3-dimensional island formation. Other characteristics of MBE-GaN growth using ECR-plasma can be well reproduced.

  6. Variations in calcite growth kinetics with surface topography: molecular dynamics simulations and process-based growth kinetics modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolthers, M.; Di Tommaso, D.; Du, Zhimei; de Leeuw, Nora H.

    2013-01-01

    It is generally accepted that cation dehydration is the rate-limiting step to crystal growth from aqueous solution. Here we employ classical molecular dynamics simulations to show that the water exchange frequency at structurally distinct calcium sites in the calcite surface varies by about two

  7. Exploration of the growth process of ultrathin silica shells on the surface of gold nanorods by the localized surface plasmon resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Chong; Li, Yujie; Ling, Yunyang; Lai, Yangwei; Wu, Chuanliu; Zhao, Yibing

    2014-01-01

    Ultrathin silica coating (UTSC) has emerged as an effective way to improve the compatibility and stability of nanoparticles without attenuating their intrinsic optical properties. Exploration strategies to probe the growth process of ultrathin silica shells on the surface of nanoparticles would represent a valuable innovation that would benefit the development of ultrathin silica coated nanoparticles and their relevant applications. In this work, we report a unique, very effective and straightforward strategy for probing the growth of ultrathin silica shells on the surface of gold nanorods (Au NRs), which exploits the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) as a reporting signal. The thickness of the ultrathin silica shells on the surface of Au NRs can be quantitatively measured and predicted in the range of 0.5–3.5 nm. It is demonstrated that the LSPR shift accurately reflects the real-time change in the thickness of the ultrathin silica shells on Au NRs during the growth process. By using the developed strategy, we further analyze the growth of UTSC on the surface of Au NRs via feeding of Na 2 SiO 3 in a stepwise manner. The responsiveness analysis of LSPR also provides important insight into the shielding effect of UTSC on the surface of Au NRs that is not accessible with conventional strategies. This LSPR-based strategy permits exploration of the surface-mediated sol–gel reactions of silica from a new point of view. (paper)

  8. Surface morphology study on chromium oxide growth on Cr films by Nd-YAG laser oxidation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Qizhi; Hu Jiandong; Guo Zuoxing; Lian Jianshe; Chen Jiwei; Chen Bo

    2002-01-01

    Grain sized (60-100 nm) Cr 2 O 3 thin films were prepared on Cr thin film surfaces by Nd-YAG laser photothermal oxidation process. Surface morphology study showed crack-free short plateau-like oxide films formed. Increase of dislocation density after pulsed laser irradiation was found. Thin film external surfaces, grain boundaries and dislocations are main paths of laser surface oxidation. Pinning and sealing of grain boundary was the reason that deeper oxidation did not produce. Grain growth and agglomeration of Cr sub-layer yielded tensile stress on the surface Cr 2 O 3 thin film. It was the reason that short plateau-like surface morphology formed and cracks appeared sometimes. In oxygen annealing at 700 deg. C, grain boundaries were considered not to be pinned at the surface, mixture diffusion was main mechanism in growth of oxide. Compression stress development in whole film led to extrusion of grains that was the reason that multiple appearances such as pyramid-like and nutshell-like morphology formed

  9. Growth morphologies of crystal surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Rong-Fu; Alexander, J. Iwan D.; Rosenberger, Franz

    1991-03-01

    We have expanded our earlier Monte Carlo model [Phys. Rev. A 38, 2447 (1988); J. Crystal Growth 100, 313 (1990)] to three dimensions and included reevaporation after accommodation and growth on dislocation-induced steps. We found again that, for a given set of growth parameters, the critical size, beyond which a crystal cannot retain its macroscopically faceted shape, scales linearly with the mean free path in the vapor. However, the three-dimensional (3D) the systems show increased shape stability compared to corresponding 2D cases. Extrapolation of the model results to mean-free-path conditions used in morphological stability experiments leads to order-of-magnitude agreement of the predicted critical size with experimental findings. The stability region for macroscopically smooth (faceted) surfaces in the parameter space of temperature and supersaturation depends on both the surface and bulk diffusion. While surface diffusion is seen to smooth the growth morphology on the scale of the surface diffusion length, bulk diffusion is always destabilizing. The atomic surface roughness increases with increase in growth temperature and supersaturation. That is, the tendency of surface kinetics anisotropies to stabilize the growth shape is reduced through thermal and kinetic roughening. It is also found that the solid-on-solid assumption, which can be advantageously used at low temperatures and supersaturations, is insufficient to describe the growth dynamics of atomically rough interfaces where bulk diffusion governs the process. For surfaces with an emerging screw dislocation, we find that the spiral growth mechanism dominates at low temperatures and supersaturations. The polygonization of a growth spiral decreases with increasing temperature or supersaturation. When the mean free path in the nutrient is comparable to the lattice constant, the combined effect of bulk and surface diffusion reduces the terrace width of a growth spiral in its center region. At elevated

  10. Self-diffusion dynamics processes relevant to 2D homoepitaxy growth of Ni adatom on Ni(111) surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Fusheng [College of Metallurgical Engineering, Hunan University of Technology, Zhuzhou 412007 (China); Chen, Yifeng, E-mail: yefengc63@sina.com [College of Metallurgical Engineering, Hunan University of Technology, Zhuzhou 412007 (China); Wang, Yufei, E-mail: yejin802@126.com [College of Metallurgical Engineering, Hunan University of Technology, Zhuzhou 412007 (China); Liu, Zhulin; Hu, Zhongliang [College of Metallurgical Engineering, Hunan University of Technology, Zhuzhou 412007 (China); Yang, Xiyuan [Department of Physics, Hunan University of Arts and Science, Changde 415000 (China); Luo, Wenhua [Department of Physics and Electronic Information Science, Hunan Institute of Science and Technology, Yueyang 414006 (China)

    2014-07-01

    Using molecular dynamics and modified analytic embedded atom methods, the atomic self-diffusion dynamics behaviors relevant to 2D crystal growth on Ni(111) surface have been studied between 150 and 600 K. On perfect Ni(111) surface, the activation energy and prefactor are 0.058±0.001 eV and 4.2×10{sup −4} cm{sup 2}/s between 150 and 350 K, and 0.082±0.003 eV and 7.8×10{sup −4} cm{sup 2}/s from 400 to 600 K. Ni adatom just hops along the directions of close-packed steps on stepped Ni(111) surface, the corresponding activation energies and prefactors are 0.188±0.002 eV and (3.8–4.4)×10{sup −3} cm{sup 2}/s along the direction of A-type step, 0.140±0.001 eV and (1.1–1.2)×10{sup −3} cm{sup 2}/s along the direction of B-type step, and both fitting lines of Arrhenius law intersect at T{sub c}=420–440 K. Our results show that the atomic growth dynamics under nonequilibrium conditions is gradually dominated by the prefactor with increasing temperature. In addition, the shape-change of the 2D nanometer-size island has been discussed on stepped Ni(111) surface in different temperature range.

  11. The mechanical problems on additive manufacturing of viscoelastic solids with integral conditions on a surface increasing in the growth process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parshin, D. A.; Manzhirov, A. V.

    2018-04-01

    Quasistatic mechanical problems on additive manufacturing aging viscoelastic solids are investigated. The processes of piecewise-continuous accretion of such solids are considered. The consideration is carried out in the framework of linear mechanics of growing solids. A theorem about commutativity of the integration over an arbitrary surface increasing in the solid growing process and the time-derived integral operator of viscoelasticity with a limit depending on the solid point is proved. This theorem provides an efficient way to construct on the basis of Saint-Venant principle solutions of nonclassical boundary-value problems for describing the mechanical behaviour of additively formed solids with integral satisfaction of boundary conditions on the surfaces expanding due to the additional material influx to the formed solid. The constructed solutions will retrace the evolution of the stress-strain state of the solids under consideration during and after the processes of their additive formation. An example of applying the proved theorem is given.

  12. Self-construction of core-shell and hollow zeolite analcime icositetrahedra: a reversed crystal growth process via oriented aggregation of nanocrystallites and recrystallization from surface to core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xueying; Qiao, Minghua; Xie, Songhai; Fan, Kangnian; Zhou, Wuzong; He, Heyong

    2007-10-31

    Zeolite analcime with a core-shell and hollow icositetrahedron architecture was prepared by a one-pot hydrothermal route in the presence of ethylamine and Raney Ni. Detailed investigations on samples at different preparation stages revealed that the growth of the complex single crystalline geometrical structure did not follow the classic crystal growth route, i.e., a crystal with a highly symmetric morphology (such as polyhedra) is normally developed by attachment of atoms or ions to a nucleus. A reversed crystal growth process through oriented aggregation of nanocrystallites and surface recrystallization was observed. The whole process can be described by the following four successive steps. (1) Primary analcime nanoplatelets undergo oriented aggregation to yield discus-shaped particles. (2) These disci further assemble into polycrystalline microspheres. (3) The relatively large platelets grow into nanorods by consuming the smaller ones, and meanwhile, the surface of the microspheres recrystallizes into a thin single crystalline icositetrahedral shell via Ostwald ripening. (4) Recrystallization continues from the surface to the core at the expense of the nanorods, and the thickness of the monocrystalline shell keeps on increasing until all the nanorods are consumed, leading to hollow single crystalline analcime icositetrahedra. The present work adds new useful information for the understanding of the principles of zeolite growth.

  13. Adsorption, Desorption, Surface Diffusion, Lattice Defect Formation, and Kink Incorporation Processes of Particles on Growth Interfaces of Colloidal Crystals with Attractive Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihisa Suzuki

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Good model systems are required in order to understand crystal growth processes because, in many cases, precise incorporation processes of atoms or molecules cannot be visualized easily at the atomic or molecular level. Using a transmission-type optical microscope, we have successfully observed in situ adsorption, desorption, surface diffusion, lattice defect formation, and kink incorporation of particles on growth interfaces of colloidal crystals of polystyrene particles in aqueous sodium polyacrylate solutions. Precise surface transportation and kink incorporation processes of the particles into the colloidal crystals with attractive interactions were observed in situ at the particle level. In particular, contrary to the conventional expectations, the diffusion of particles along steps around a two-dimensional island of the growth interface was not the main route for kink incorporation. This is probably due to the number of bonds between adsorbed particles and particles in a crystal; the number exceeds the limit at which a particle easily exchanges its position to the adjacent one along the step. We also found novel desorption processes of particles from steps to terraces, attributing them to the assistance of attractive forces from additionally adsorbing particles to the particles on the steps.

  14. Surface growth kinematics via local curve evolution

    KAUST Repository

    Moulton, Derek E.

    2012-11-18

    A mathematical framework is developed to model the kinematics of surface growth for objects that can be generated by evolving a curve in space, such as seashells and horns. Growth is dictated by a growth velocity vector field defined at every point on a generating curve. A local orthonormal basis is attached to each point of the generating curve and the velocity field is given in terms of the local coordinate directions, leading to a fully local and elegant mathematical structure. Several examples of increasing complexity are provided, and we demonstrate how biologically relevant structures such as logarithmic shells and horns emerge as analytical solutions of the kinematics equations with a small number of parameters that can be linked to the underlying growth process. Direct access to cell tracks and local orientation enables for connections to be made to the underlying growth process. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  15. An important atomic process in the CVD growth of graphene: Sinking and up-floating of carbon atom on copper surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yingfeng; Li, Meicheng; Gu, TianSheng; Bai, Fan; Yu, Yue; Trevor, Mwenya; Yu, Yangxin

    2013-01-01

    By density functional theory (DFT) calculations, the early stages of the growth of graphene on copper (1 1 1) surface are investigated. At the very first time of graphene growth, the carbon atom sinks into subsurface. As more carbon atoms are adsorbed nearby the site, the sunken carbon atom will spontaneously form a dimer with one of the newly adsorbed carbon atoms, and the formed dimer will up-float on the top of the surface. We emphasize the role of the co-operative relaxation of the co-adsorbed carbon atoms in facilitating the sinking and up-floating of carbon atoms. In detail: when two carbon atoms are co-adsorbed, their co-operative relaxation will result in different carbon–copper interactions for the co-adsorbed carbon atoms. This difference facilitates the sinking of a single carbon atom into the subsurface. As a third carbon atom is co-adsorbed nearby, it draws the sunken carbon atom on top of the surface, forming a dimer. Co-operative relaxations of the surface involving all adsorbed carbon atoms and their copper neighbors facilitate these sinking and up-floating processes. This investigation is helpful for the deeper understanding of graphene synthesis and the choosing of optimal carbon sources or process.

  16. Alloyed surfaces: New substrates for graphene growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tresca, C.; Verbitskiy, N. I.; Fedorov, A.; Grüneis, A.; Profeta, G.

    2017-11-01

    We report a systematic ab-initio density functional theory investigation of Ni(111) surface alloyed with elements of group IV (Si, Ge and Sn), demonstrating the possibility to use it to grow high quality graphene. Ni(111) surface represents an ideal substrate for graphene, due to its catalytic properties and perfect matching with the graphene lattice constant. However, Dirac bands of graphene growth on Ni(111) are completely destroyed due to the strong hybridization between carbon pz and Ni d orbitals. Group IV atoms, namely Si, Ge and Sn, once deposited on Ni(111) surface, form an ordered alloyed surface with √{ 3} ×√{ 3} -R30° reconstruction. We demonstrate that, at variance with the pure Ni(111) surface, alloyed surfaces effectively decouple graphene from the substrate, resulting unstrained due to the nearly perfect lattice matching and preserves linear Dirac bands without the strong hybridization with Ni d states. The proposed surfaces can be prepared before graphene growth without resorting on post-growth processes which necessarily alter the electronic and structural properties of graphene.

  17. KMC Simulation of Surface Growth of Semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esen, M.

    2004-01-01

    In this work we have studied the growth and equilibration of semiconductor surfaces consisting of monoatomic steps separated by flat terraces using kinetic Monte Carlo method. Atomistic processes such as diffusion on terraces, attachment/detachment particles to/from step edges, attachment of particles from an upper terrace to a bounding step, diffusion of particles along step edges are considered. A rate equation for each, these processes is written and the overall transition probabilities are calculated where processes are ordered to make the distinction between slow and fast processes Iractal The interaction of steps is also included in the calculation of rate equations. The growth of such a surface is simulated when there is a particle flux to the surface. The rough of the surface and its dependence on both temperature and kinetic parameters such edge diffusion barrier are investigated. The formation of islands on terraces is prohibited and the distribution of their number and sizes are investigated as a function of temperature and appropriate kinetic parameters. In the absence of a flux to the surface, the equilibration of the surface is investigated paying particular attention to the top of the profile when the initial surface is a periodic profile where parallel monoatomic steps separated by terraces. It is observed that during equilibration of the profile, the topmost step disintegrates quickly and leads to many islands on the top of the profile due to. collision and annihilation of step edges of opposite sign. The islands then quickly disintegrate due to the line tension effect and this scenario repeats itself until the surface completely flattens

  18. Graphene growth and stability at nickel surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahiri, Jayeeta; S Miller, Travis; J Ross, Andrew; Adamska, Lyudmyla; Oleynik, Ivan I; Batzill, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    The formation of single-layer graphene by exposure of a Ni(111) surface to ethylene at low pressure has been investigated. Two different growth regimes were found. At temperatures between 480 and 650 deg. C, graphene grows on a pure Ni(111) surface in the absence of a carbide. Below 480 deg. C, graphene growth competes with the formation of a surface Ni 2 C carbide. This Ni 2 C phase suppresses the nucleation of graphene. Destabilization of the surface carbide by the addition of Cu to the surface layer facilitates the nucleation and growth of graphene at temperatures below 480 deg. C. In addition to the growth of graphene on Ni substrates, the interaction between graphene and Ni was also studied. This was done both experimentally by Ni deposition on Ni-supported graphene and by density functional theory calculation of the work of adhesion between graphene and Ni. For graphene sandwiched between two Ni-layers, the work of adhesion between graphene and the Ni substrate was found to be four times as large as that for the Ni-supported graphene without a top layer. This stronger interaction may cause the destruction of graphene that is shown experimentally to occur at ∼200 0 C when Ni is deposited on top of Ni-supported graphene. The destruction of graphene allows the Ni deposits to merge with the substrate Ni. After the completion of this process, the graphene sheet is re-formed on top of the Ni substrate, leaving no Ni at the surface.

  19. Crystallite growth kinetics of TiO2 surface modification with 9 mol% ZnO prepared by a coprecipitation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Horng-Huey; Hsi, Chi-Shiung; Wang, Moo-Chin; Zhao, Xiujian

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • TiO 2 powder surface modification with 9 mol% ZnO was obtained. • Phase transformation from anatase to rutile was hindered by ZnO added. • Growth kinetic of anatase TiO 2 nanocrystallites in T-9Z powders was described as: D A,9 2 =2.42×10 5 ×exp(-39.9×10 3 /RT). • Growth kinetic of rutile TiO 2 nanocrystallites in T-9Z powders was described as: D R,9 2 =8.49×10 5 ×exp(-47.6×10 3 /RT) rutile TiO 2 . -- Abstract: The nanocrystallite growth of TiO 2 surface modification with 9 mol% ZnO prepared by a coprecipitation process has been studied. Thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and UV–VIS–NIR spectrophotometry have been utilized to characterize the TiO 2 nanocrystallites surface modification with 9 mol% ZnO (denoted by T-9Z). The DTA result shows that the anatase TiO 2 first formed at 533 K and the completion of anatase TiO 2 crystallization occurred at 745 K for the T-9Z freeze-dried precursor powders. XRD results reveal that the anatase and rutile TiO 2 coexist when the T-9Z freeze-dried precursor powders were calcined at 523–973 K for 2 h. When the T-9Z freeze-dried precursor powders were calcined at 973 K for 2 h, rutile TiO 2 was the major phase, and the minor phases were anatase TiO 2 and Zn 2 Ti 3 O 8 . The phase was composed of the rutile TiO 2 and Zn 2 TiO 4 for the T-9Z freeze-dried precursor powders after calcination at 1273 K for 2 h. The growth kinetics of TiO 2 nanocrystallites in T-9Z powders were described as: D A,9 2 =2.42×10 5 ×exp(-39.9×10 3 /RT)and D R,9 2 =8.49×10 5 ×exp(-47.6×10 3 /RT) for anatase and rutile TiO 2 nanocrystallites respectively. The analysis results of UV/VIS/NIR spectra reveal that the T-9Z freeze-dried precursor powders after calcination have a red-shifted effect with increasing calcination temperature and can be used as a UVA-attenuating agent

  20. Optimization of Al-CVD process based on elementary reaction simulation and experimental verification: From the growth rate to the surface morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Masakazu; Iino, Tomohisa; Nakajima, Tohru; Tanaka, Takeshi; Egashira, Yasuyuki; Yamashita, Kohichi; Komiyama, Hiroshi; Shimogaki, Yukihiro

    2006-01-01

    We propose a method to reduce the surface roughness of Al film in the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using dimethyl-aluminum-hydride (DMAH) as the precursor. An elementary reaction simulation was executed not only to predict the deposition rate but also to predict the coverage of the film by surface adsorbates. It was assumed that high surface coverage is essential in order to deposit smooth films because the adsorbates protect the surface from oxidation which causes discontinuous growth of crystal grains. According to this principle, the condition, that realizes both high surface coverage and high deposition rate at the same time by using the elementary reaction simulation, was sought. A nozzle inlet was used instead of a conventional showerhead. This drastically improved the surface morphology, showing the effectiveness of this theoretical optimization procedure

  1. Crystallite growth kinetics of TiO{sub 2} surface modification with 9 mol% ZnO prepared by a coprecipitation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Horng-Huey [Department of Fragrance and Cosmetic Science, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100 Shih-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); Hsi, Chi-Shiung [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National United University, 1 Lein-Da, Kung-Ching Li, Miao-Li 36003, Taiwan (China); Wang, Moo-Chin, E-mail: mcwang@kmu.edu.tw [Department of Fragrance and Cosmetic Science, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100 Shih-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); Zhao, Xiujian, E-mail: opluse@whut.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Silicate Materials for Architectures, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2014-03-05

    Highlights: • TiO{sub 2} powder surface modification with 9 mol% ZnO was obtained. • Phase transformation from anatase to rutile was hindered by ZnO added. • Growth kinetic of anatase TiO{sub 2} nanocrystallites in T-9Z powders was described as: D{sub A,9}{sup 2}=2.42×10{sup 5}×exp(-39.9×10{sup 3}/RT). • Growth kinetic of rutile TiO{sub 2} nanocrystallites in T-9Z powders was described as: D{sub R,9}{sup 2}=8.49×10{sup 5}×exp(-47.6×10{sup 3}/RT) rutile TiO{sub 2}. -- Abstract: The nanocrystallite growth of TiO{sub 2} surface modification with 9 mol% ZnO prepared by a coprecipitation process has been studied. Thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and UV–VIS–NIR spectrophotometry have been utilized to characterize the TiO{sub 2} nanocrystallites surface modification with 9 mol% ZnO (denoted by T-9Z). The DTA result shows that the anatase TiO{sub 2} first formed at 533 K and the completion of anatase TiO{sub 2} crystallization occurred at 745 K for the T-9Z freeze-dried precursor powders. XRD results reveal that the anatase and rutile TiO{sub 2} coexist when the T-9Z freeze-dried precursor powders were calcined at 523–973 K for 2 h. When the T-9Z freeze-dried precursor powders were calcined at 973 K for 2 h, rutile TiO{sub 2} was the major phase, and the minor phases were anatase TiO{sub 2} and Zn{sub 2}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 8}. The phase was composed of the rutile TiO{sub 2} and Zn{sub 2}TiO{sub 4} for the T-9Z freeze-dried precursor powders after calcination at 1273 K for 2 h. The growth kinetics of TiO{sub 2} nanocrystallites in T-9Z powders were described as: D{sub A,9}{sup 2}=2.42×10{sup 5}×exp(-39.9×10{sup 3}/RT)and D{sub R,9}{sup 2}=8.49×10{sup 5}×exp(-47.6×10{sup 3}/RT) for anatase and rutile TiO{sub 2} nanocrystallites respectively. The analysis results of UV/VIS/NIR spectra reveal that the T-9Z freeze

  2. Theoretical study of fractal growth and stability on surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dick, Veronika V.; Solov'yov, Ilia; Solov'yov, Andrey V.

    2009-01-01

    We perform a theoretical study of the fractal growing process on surface by using the deposition, diffusion, aggregation method. We present a detailed analysis of the post-growth processes occurring in a nanofractal on surface. For this study we developed a method which describes the internal...... dynamics of particles in a fractal and accounts for their diffusion and detachment. We demonstrate that these kinetic processes are responsible for the formation of the final shape of the islands on surface after the post-growth relaxation....

  3. Influence of growth parameters on the surface morphology and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    surface features of the grown film like terracing, inclusions, meniscus lines, etc are ... Recently, studies carried out on the growth of InSb ..... is a critical factor in any epitaxial growth process and can ... However, this approach can lead to.

  4. Mechanisms and energetics of surface atomic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsong, T.T.

    1991-01-01

    The energies involved in various surface atomic processes such as surface diffusion, the binding of small atomic clusters on the surface, the interaction between two adsorbed atoms, the dissociation of an atom from a small cluster or from a surface layer, the binding of kink size atoms or atoms at different adsorption sites to the surface etc., can be derived from an analysis of atomically resolved field ion microscope images and a kinetic energy measurement of low temperature field desorbed ions using the time-of-flight atom-probe field ion microscope. These energies can be used to compare with theories and to understand the transport of atoms on the surface in atomic reconstructions, epitaxial growth of surface layers and crystal growth, adsorption layer superstructure formation, and also why an atomic ordering or atomic reconstruction at the surface is energetically favored. Mechanisms of some of the surface atomic processes are also clarified from these quantitative, atomic resolution studies. In this paper work in this area is bris briefly reviewed

  5. Adhesion and biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus from food processing plants as affected by growth medium, surface type and incubation temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloísa Maria Ângelo Jerônimo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the effect of different growth media [BHI broth, BHI broth plus glucose (10 g/100 mL and BHI broth plus NaCl (5 g/100 mL] and incubation temperatures (28 or 37 ºC on the adherence, detachment and biofilm formation on polypropylene and stainless steel surfaces (2 x 2 cm coupons for a prolonged period (24-72 h by some strains of Staphylococcus aureus (S3, S28 and S54 from food processing plants. The efficacy of the sanitizers sodium hypochlorite (250 mg/mL and peracetic acid (30 mg/mL in reducing the number of viable bacterial cells in a preformed biofilm was also evaluated. S. aureus strains adhered in highest numbers in BHI broth, regardless of the type of surface or incubation temperature. Cell detachment from surfaces revealed high persistence over the incubation period. The number of cells needed for biofilm formation was noted in all experimental systems after 3 days. Peracetic acid and sodium hypochlorite were not efficient in completely removing the cells of S. aureus adhered onto polypropylene and stainless steel surfaces. From these results, the assayed strains revealed high capacities to adhere and form biofilms on polypropylene and stainless steel surfaces under the different growth conditions, and the cells in biofilm matrixes were resistant to total removal when exposed to the sanitizers sodium hypochlorite and peracetic acid.Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de diferentes meios de crescimento [caldo BHI, caldo BHI adicionado de glucose (10 g/100 mL e caldo BHI adicionado de NaCl (5 g/100 mL] e temperaturas de incubação (28 e 37 ºC sobre a adesão, separação e formação de biofilme sobre superfícies (2 x 2 cm de polipropileno e aço inoxidável durante longo tempo de incubação (24-72 h por parte de cepas de Staphylococcus aureus (S3, S58 e S54 isoladas de plantas de processamento de alimentos. Também foi avaliada a eficácia dos sanitizantes hipoclorito de sódio (250 mg/mL e ácido perac

  6. Intrinsic geometry of biological surface growth

    CERN Document Server

    Todd, Philip H

    1986-01-01

    1.1 General Introduction The work which comprises this essay formed part of a multidiscip­ linary project investigating the folding of the developing cerebral cortex in the ferret. The project as a whole combined a study, at the histological level, of the cytoarchitectural development concom­ itant with folding and a mathematical study of folding viewed from the perspective of differential geometry. We here concentrate on the differential geometry of brain folding. Histological results which have some significance to the geometry of the cortex are re­ ferred to, but are not discussed in any depth. As with any truly multidisciplinary work, this essay has objectives which lie in each of its constituent disciplines. From a neuroana­ tomical point of view, the work explores the use of the surface geo­ metry of the developing cortex as a parameter for the underlying growth process. Geometrical parameters of particular interest and theoretical importance are surface curvatures. Our experimental portion reports...

  7. Factors influencing graphene growth on metal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loginova, E; Bartelt, N C; McCarty, K F [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States); Feibelman, P J [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)], E-mail: mccarty@sandia.gov

    2009-06-15

    Graphene forms from a relatively dense, tightly bound C-adatom gas when elemental C is deposited on or segregates to the Ru(0001) surface. Nonlinearity of the graphene growth rate with C-adatom density suggests that growth proceeds by addition of C atom clusters to the graphene edge. The generality of this picture has now been studied by use of low-energy electron microscopy (LEEM) to observe graphene formation when Ru(0001) and Ir(111) surfaces are exposed to ethylene. The finding that graphene growth velocities and nucleation rates on Ru have precisely the same dependence on adatom concentration as for elemental C deposition implies that hydrocarbon decomposition only affects graphene growth through the rate of adatom formation. For ethylene, that rate decreases with increasing adatom concentration and graphene coverage. Initially, graphene growth on Ir(111) is like that on Ru: the growth velocity is the same nonlinear function of adatom concentration (albeit with much smaller equilibrium adatom concentrations, as we explain with DFT calculations of adatom formation energies). In the later stages of growth, graphene crystals that are rotated relative to the initial nuclei nucleate and grow. The rotated nuclei grow much faster. This difference suggests firstly, that the edge-orientation of the graphene sheets relative to the substrate plays an important role in the growth mechanism, and secondly, that attachment of the clusters to the graphene is the slowest step in cluster addition, rather than formation of clusters on the terraces.

  8. Transient disturbance growth in flows over convex surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Michael; Hack, M. J. Philipp

    2017-11-01

    Flows over curved surfaces occur in a wide range of applications including airfoils, compressor and turbine vanes as well as aerial, naval and ground vehicles. In most of these applications the surface has convex curvature, while concave surfaces are less common. Since monotonic boundary-layer flows over convex surfaces are exponentially stable, they have received considerably less attention than flows over concave walls which are destabilized by centrifugal forces. Non-modal mechanisms may nonetheless enable significant disturbance growth which can make the flow susceptible to secondary instabilities. A parametric investigation of the transient growth and secondary instability of flows over convex surfaces is performed. The specific conditions yielding the maximal transient growth and strongest instability are identified. The effect of wall-normal and spanwise inflection points on the instability process is discussed. Finally, the role and significance of additional parameters, such as the geometry and pressure gradient, is analyzed.

  9. Superhydrophobic surfaces by electrochemical processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmanin, Thierry; Taffin de Givenchy, Elisabeth; Amigoni, Sonia; Guittard, Frederic

    2013-03-13

    This review is an exhaustive representation of the electrochemical processes reported in the literature to produce superhydrophobic surfaces. Due to the intensive demand in the elaboration of superhydrophobic materials using low-cost, reproducible and fast methods, the use of strategies based on electrochemical processes have exponentially grown these last five years. These strategies are separated in two parts: the oxidation processes, such as oxidation of metals in solution, the anodization of metals or the electrodeposition of conducting polymers, and the reduction processed such as the electrodeposition of metals or the galvanic deposition. One of the main advantages of the electrochemical processes is the relative easiness to produce various surface morphologies and a precise control of the structures at a micro- or a nanoscale. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Growth of organic films on indoor surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weschler, Charles J.; Nazaroff, W. W.

    2017-01-01

    predictions indicate that film growth would primarily be influenced by the gas-phase concentration of SVOCs with octanol-air partitioning (Koa) values in the approximate range 10≤log Koa≤13. Within the relevant range, SVOCs with lower values will equilibrate with the surface film more rapidly. Over time...

  11. Nanoscale processes on insulating surfaces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gnecco, Enrico; Szymoński, Marek

    2009-01-01

    ... the group of Prof. Ernst Meyer in Basel, where he investigated friction processes on alkali halide surfaces in ultra high vacuum (UHV). The main result was the observation of a logarithmic velocity dependence of atomic friction, which was interpreted within a combination of the classical Tomlinson and Eyring models. After his Ph.D. he joined the ...

  12. The effect of substrate modification on microbial growth on surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Angela Ann

    1998-01-01

    The principle aim of the program was to produce a novel, non-leaching antimicrobial surface for commercial development and future use in the liquid food packaging industry. Antimicrobial surfaces which exist presently have been produced to combat the growth of prokaryotic organisms and usually function as slow release systems. A system which could inhibit eukaryotic growth without contaminating the surrounding 'environment' with the inhibitor was considered of great commercial importance. The remit of this study was concerned with creating a surface which could control the growth of eukaryotic organisms found in fruit juice with particular interest in the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Putative antimicrobial surfaces were created by the chemical modification of the test substrate polymers; nylon and ethylvinyl alcohol (EVOH). Surfaces were chemically modified by the covalent coupling of antimicrobial agents known to be active against the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as ascertained by the screening process determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of agents in the desired test medium. During the study it was found that a number of surfaces did appear to inhibit yeast growth in fruit juice, however on further investigation the apparent inhibitory effect was discovered to be the result of un-bound material free in the test medium. On removing the possibility of any un-bound material present on the test surface, by a series of surface washings, the inhibitory effect on yeast growth was eliminated. Of the agents tested only one appeared to have an inhibitory effect which could be attributed to a true antimicrobial surface effect, Amical 48. As there is little known about this agent in the literature, its affect on yeast growth was examined and in particular a proposal for the mode of action on yeast is discussed, providing a plausible explanation for the inhibitory effect observed when this agent is covalently immobilised onto nylon. (author)

  13. Development of silicon growth techniques from melt with surface heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravtsov, Anatoly

    2018-05-01

    The paper contains literary and personal data on the development history of silicon-growing technology with volumetric and surface melt heating. It discusses the advantages and disadvantages of surface-heating technology. Examples are given of the implementation of such processes in the 60s-70s of the last century, and the reasons for the discontinuation of the relevant work. It describes the main solutions for the implementation of crystal growth process with the electron-beam heating of the melt surface, implemented by KEPP EU (Latvia). It discusses differences in the management of the growth process for the crystals with constant diameters compared to the Czochralski method. It lists geometrical and electro-physical properties of the obtained crystals. It describes the possible use of such crystals and the immediate challenges of technology development.

  14. He atom-surface scattering: Surface dynamics of insulators, overlayers and crystal growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Investigations in this laboratory have focused on the surface structure and dynamics of ionic insulators and on epitaxial growth onto alkali halide crystals. In the later the homoepitaxial growth of NaCl/NaCl(001) and the heteroepitaxial growth of KBr/NaCl(001), NaCl/KBr(001) and KBr/RbCl(001) have been studied by monitoring the specular He scattering as a function of the coverage and by measuring the angular and energy distributions of the scattered He atoms. These data provide information on the surface structure, defect densities, island sizes and surface strain during the layer-by-layer growth. The temperature dependence of these measurements also provides information on the mobilities of the admolecules. He atom scattering is unique among surface probes because the low-energy, inert atoms are sensitive only to the electronic structure of the topmost surface layer and are equally applicable to all crystalline materials. It is proposed for the next year to exploit further the variety of combinations possible with the alkali halides in order to carry out a definitive study of epitaxial growth in the ionic insulators. The work completed so far, including measurements of the Bragg diffraction and surface dispersion at various stages of growth, appears to be exceptionally rich in detail, which is particularly promising for theoretical modeling. In addition, because epitaxial growth conditions over a wide range of lattice mismatches is possible with these materials, size effects in growth processes can be explored in great depth. Further, as some of the alkali halides have the CsCl structure instead of the NaCl structure, we can investigate the effects of the heteroepitaxy with materials having different lattice preferences. Finally, by using co-deposition of different alkali halides, one can investigate the formation and stability of alloys and even alkali halide superlattices

  15. Growth of crystalline semiconductor materials on crystal surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Aleksandrov, L

    2013-01-01

    Written for physicists, chemists, and engineers specialising in crystal and film growth, semiconductor electronics, and various applications of thin films, this book reviews promising scientific and engineering trends in thin films and thin-films materials science. The first part discusses the physical characteristics of the processes occurring during the deposition and growth of films, the principal methods of obtaining semiconductor films and of reparing substrate surfaces on which crystalline films are grown, and the main applications of films. The second part contains data on epitaxial i

  16. A simple route to vertical array of quasi-1D ZnO nanofilms on FTO surfaces: 1D-crystal growth of nanoseeds under ammonia-assisted hydrolysis process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd Rahman Mohd Yusri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A simple method for the synthesis of ZnO nanofilms composed of vertical array of quasi-1D ZnO nanostructures (quasi-NRs on the surface was demonstrated via a 1D crystal growth of the attached nanoseeds under a rapid hydrolysis process of zinc salts in the presence of ammonia at room temperature. In a typical procedure, by simply controlling the concentration of zinc acetate and ammonia in the reaction, a high density of vertically oriented nanorod-like morphology could be successfully obtained in a relatively short growth period (approximately 4 to 5 min and at a room-temperature process. The average diameter and the length of the nanostructures are approximately 30 and 110 nm, respectively. The as-prepared quasi-NRs products were pure ZnO phase in nature without the presence of any zinc complexes as confirmed by the XRD characterisation. Room-temperature optical absorption spectroscopy exhibits the presence of two separate excitonic characters inferring that the as-prepared ZnO quasi-NRs are high-crystallinity properties in nature. The mechanism of growth for the ZnO quasi-NRs will be proposed. Due to their simplicity, the method should become a potential alternative for a rapid and cost-effective preparation of high-quality ZnO quasi-NRs nanofilms for use in photovoltaic or photocatalytics applications. PACS: 81.07.Bc; 81.16.-c; 81.07.Gf.

  17. A theoretical model of semi-elliptic surface crack growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Kaikai

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical model of semi-elliptic surface crack growth based on the low cycle strain damage accumulation near the crack tip along the cracking direction and the Newman–Raju formula is developed. The crack is regarded as a sharp notch with a small curvature radius and the process zone is assumed to be the size of cyclic plastic zone. The modified Hutchinson, Rice and Rosengren (HRR formulations are used in the presented study. Assuming that the shape of surface crack front is controlled by two critical points: the deepest point and the surface point. The theoretical model is applied to semi-elliptic surface cracked Al 7075-T6 alloy plate under cyclic loading, and five different initial crack shapes are discussed in present study. Good agreement between experimental and theoretical results is obtained.

  18. Advanced Materials Growth and Processing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This most extensive of U.S. Army materials growth and processing facilities houses seven dedicated, state-of-the-art, molecular beam epitaxy and three metal organic...

  19. Surface migration in sorption processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmuson, A.; Neretnieks, J.

    1983-03-01

    Diffusion rates of sorbing chemical species in granites and clays are in several experiments within the KBS study, higher than can be explained by pore diffusion only. One possible additional transport mechanism is transport of of sorbed molecules/ions along the intrapore surfaces. As a first step a literature investigation on on solid surfaces has been conducted. A lot of experimental evidence of the mobility of the sorbed molecules has been gathered through the years, particulary for metal surfaces and chemical engineering systems. For clays however, there are only a few articles, and for granites none. Two types of surface migration models have been proposed in the litterature: i) Surface flow as a result of a gradient in spreading pressure. ii) Surface diffusion as a result of a gradient in concentration. The surface flow model has only been applied to gaseous systems. However, it should be equally applicable to liquid systems. The models i) and ii) are conceptually very different. However, the resulting expressions for surface flux are complicated and it will not be an easy task to distinguish between them. There seem to be three ways of discriminating between the transport mechanisms: a) Temperature dependence. b) Concentration dependence. c) Order of magnitude. (Forf)

  20. Re-imagining the Growth Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clarke, Jean; Holt, Robin; Blundel, Richard

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the role and influence of the biological metaphor 'growth' in studies of organizations, specifically in entrepreneurial settings. We argue that we need to reconsider metaphorical expressions of growth processes in entrepreneurship studies in order to better understand growth...... in the light of contemporary challenges, such as environmental concerns. Our argument is developed in two stages: first, we review the role of metaphor in organization and entrepreneurship studies. Second, we reflect critically on three conceptualizations of growth that have drawn on biological metaphors......: the growing organism, natural selection and co-evolution. We find the metaphor of co-evolution heuristically valuable but under-used and in need of further refinement. We propose three characteristics of the co-evolutionary metaphor that might enrich our understanding of entrepreneurial growth: relational...

  1. Surface studies of plasma processed Nb samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyagi, Puneet V.; Doleans, Marc; Hannah, Brian S.; Afanador, Ralph; Stewart, Stephen; Mammosser, John; Howell, Matthew P; Saunders, Jeffrey W; Degraff, Brian D; Kim, Sang-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Contaminants present at top surface of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities can act as field emitters and restrict the cavity accelerating gradient. A room temperature in-situ plasma processing technology for SRF cavities aiming to clean hydrocarbons from inner surface of cavities has been recently developed at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). Surface studies of the plasma-processed Nb samples by Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and Scanning Kelvin Probe (SKP) showed that the NeO_2 plasma processing is very effective to remove carbonaceous contaminants from top surface and improves the surface work function by 0.5 to 1.0 eV.

  2. Growth of fibroblasts and endothelial cells on wettability gradient surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruardy, TG; Moorlag, HE; Schakenraad, JM; VanderMei, HC; Busscher, HJ

    1997-01-01

    The growth, spreading, and shape of human skin fibroblasts (PK 84) and human umbilical cord endothelial cells on dichlorodimethylsilane (DDS) and dimethyloctadecylchlorosilane (DOGS) gradient surfaces were investigated in the presence of serum proteins. Gradient surfaces were prepared on glass using

  3. Surface Modification and Surface - Subsurface Exchange Processes on Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, C. B.; Molaro, J.; Hand, K. P.

    2017-12-01

    The surface of Jupiter's moon Europa is modified by exogenic processes such as sputtering, gardening, radiolysis, sulfur ion implantation, and thermal processing, as well as endogenic processes including tidal shaking, mass wasting, and the effects of subsurface tectonic and perhaps cryovolcanic activity. New materials are created or deposited on the surface (radiolysis, micrometeorite impacts, sulfur ion implantation, cryovolcanic plume deposits), modified in place (thermal segregation, sintering), transported either vertically or horizontally (sputtering, gardening, mass wasting, tectonic and cryovolcanic activity), or lost from Europa completely (sputtering, plumes, larger impacts). Some of these processes vary spatially, as visible in Europa's leading-trailing hemisphere brightness asymmetry. Endogenic geologic processes also vary spatially, depending on terrain type. The surface can be classified into general landform categories that include tectonic features (ridges, bands, cracks); disrupted "chaos-type" terrain (chaos blocks, matrix, domes, pits, spots); and impact craters (simple, complex, multi-ring). The spatial distribution of these terrain types is relatively random, with some differences in apex-antiapex cratering rates and latitudinal variation in chaos vs. tectonic features. In this work, we extrapolate surface processes and rates from the top meter of the surface in conjunction with global estimates of transport and resurfacing rates. We combine near-surface modification with an estimate of surface-subsurface (and vice versa) transport rates for various geologic terrains based on an average of proposed formation mechanisms, and a spatial distribution of each landform type over Europa's surface area. Understanding the rates and mass balance for each of these processes, as well as their spatial and temporal variability, allows us to estimate surface - subsurface exchange rates over the average surface age ( 50myr) of Europa. Quantifying the timescale

  4. Growth of Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} coherent layers on UO{sub 2} microsphere surface via sol-gel process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Luciana S.; Silva, Edilaine F.; Oliveira, Felipe W.F.; Pereira, Yara S.; Brandão, Alisson F.C.; Santos, Ana Maria M.; Lameiras, Fernando S.; Reis, Sergio C.; Pedrosa, Tércio A.; Santos, Armindo, E-mail: santosa@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    In this work, we synthesized and characterized UO{sub 2}-Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} nuclear fuel via three routes, aiming to solve the problems arising from the addition of Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} in UO{sub 2} matrix. By the industrial route, the mixture of powders (UO{sub 2}, <90 μ and 6 wt% Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} <10 μm) results in pellets with 91% TD at 1677 °C/H{sub 2}/4 h. By the mixed route, the formation of Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} coherent layers on UO{sub 2} powder (particles <90 μ) and microsphere (225 μm) surface produced UO{sub 2} - 6 wt% Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} pellets with 95% (powder; 1625 °C/H{sub 2}/4 hr) and 83% (microsphere; 1677°C/H{sub 2}/4 hr) TD. By the sol-gel route, we obtained UO{sub 2} - 6 wt% Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} in a deagglomerated (powder; <70 μm) or agglomerated microsphere 232 μm) form whose pellets reached > 97% (powder) and >98% (microsphere) TI) at 1677 °C/H{sub 2}/4h. According to XRD, OM, and SEM/EDS analysis, the referred three routes do not form a complete solid solution of UO{sub 2}-Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} at the temperatures and time of sintering used; Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} granule islands are present in the pellets originating from these routes. The obtained results suggest that the topological arrangement and the deficient nanostructuring of UO{sub 2} and Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} phases, either in the raw material (powder and microsphere) as in their compacts, are the cause of low densification and irregular distribution of Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} in UO{sub 2} matrix; mixing of U and Gd at the molecular level does not form a solid solution; and the mixed route is a good alternative to the industrial route. (author)

  5. Description of two-process surface topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabon, W; Pawlus, P

    2014-01-01

    After two machining processes, a large number of surface topography measurements were made using Talyscan 150 stylus measuring equipment. The measured samples were divided into two groups. The first group contained two-process surfaces of random nature, while the second group used random-deterministic textures of random plateau parts and portions of deterministic valleys. For comparison, one-process surfaces were also analysed. Correlation and regression analysis was used to study the dependencies among surface texture parameters in 2D and 3D systems. As the result of this study, sets of parameters describing multi-process surface topography were obtained for two-process surfaces of random and of random-deterministic types. (papers)

  6. Surface engineering of glazing materials and structures using plasma processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anders, Andre; Monteiro, Othon R.

    2003-01-01

    A variety of coatings is commercially produced on a very large scale, including transparent conducting oxides and multi-layer silver-based low-emissivity and solar control coatings. A very brief review of materials and manufacturing process is presented and illustrated by ultrathin silver films and chevron copper films. Understanding the close relation between manufacturing processes and bulk and surface properties of materials is crucial for film growth and self-assembly processes

  7. Determining of the growth mechanisms in the MBE growth of ternary Cd1-xAxTe (A = Zn, Mn, Hg) compounds. Part I - Methods of analysis of surface processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadowski, J.T.

    1999-01-01

    This paper is the first part of an extended abstract of the PhD thesis entitled 'Determining of the growth mechanisms in MBE growth of ternary Cd 1-x A x Te (A = Zn, Mn, Hg) compounds' written on the base of experiments performed in the MBE Lab. in Institute of Vacuum Technology, Warsaw. In that paper, the scientific problems to be solved in thesis are described. Also the analytical techniques (reflection quadrupole mass spectroscopy (REMS), reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED), and laser interferometry (LI)) used in investigation and its implementation to 'in situ' measurements in MBE growth system are depicted. The experiments and extracted scientific results will be presented in the following paper, in next Elektronika issue. (author)

  8. Earth Surface Processes, Landforms and Sediment Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridge, John; Demicco, Robert

    Earth surface processes, landforms and sediment deposits are intimately related - involving erosion of rocks, generation of sediment, and transport and deposition of sediment through various Earth surface environments. These processes, and the landforms and deposits that they generate, have a fundamental bearing on engineering, environmental and public safety issues; on recovery of economic resources; and on our understanding of Earth history. This unique textbook brings together the traditional disciplines of sedimentology and geomorphology to explain Earth surface processes, landforms and sediment deposits in a comprehensive and integrated way. It is the ideal resource for a two-semester course in sedimentology, stratigraphy, geomorphology, and Earth surface processes from the intermediate undergraduate to beginning graduate level. The book is also accompanied by a website hosting illustrations and material on field and laboratory methods for measuring, describing and analyzing Earth surface processes, landforms and sediments.

  9. Bubble growth and detachment between two close surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fath, H.E.S.

    1985-01-01

    Nucleate boiling is an efficient heat transfer process both as a mean of achieving high heat flux at moderate surface temperature and as a mean of generating steam. The ability to predict nucleate boiling heat flux depends on many interconnected factors such as the number of active sites, the frequency of bubble emission at these sites, and the heat transfer associated with a single bubble. Therefore, the determination of the bubble shape, growth, detachment diameter, and detachment time plays an important role in understanding the boiling mechanisms and in predicting the heat transfer rates. Although much research have been carried-out for the study of free bubble dynamics, the analysis of such problem in a narrow gap-between two close and parallel surfaces (as the gaps between steam generator tubes and tube sheet) has not been attempted, so far as the author is aware. This paper represents an attempt to shed some light on this complex problem. (author)

  10. Plasma surface interaction processes and possible synergisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrisch, R.; Roberto, J.B.

    1984-08-01

    The process determining the plasma surface interaction in today's high temperature plasma experiments are investigated following several lines. First, in plasma devices, the particle and energy fluxes to the different first wall areas the fluxes from the walls back into the plasma are measured and the boundary plasma parameters are determined. The surface composition and structure of the walls, limiters and divertor plates are analyzed following exposure to many discharges. Secondly, the different surface processes which are expected to contribute to the plasma surface interaction (particularly to hydrogen particle balance and impurity introduction) are studied in simulation experiments using well defined particle beams

  11. Evolution effects of the copper surface morphology on the nucleation density and growth of graphene domains at different growth pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedayat, Seyed Mahdi [Transport Phenomena & Nanotechnology Lab., School of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Karimi-Sabet, Javad, E-mail: j_karimi@alum.sharif.edu [NFCRS, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shariaty-Niassar, Mojtaba, E-mail: mshariat@ut.ac.ir [Transport Phenomena & Nanotechnology Lab., School of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-03-31

    Highlights: • Manipulation of the Cu surface morphology in a wide range by electropolishing treatment. • Comparison of the nucleation density of graphene at low pressure and atmospheric pressure CVD processes. • Controlling the evolution of the Cu surface morphology inside a novel confined space. • Growth of large-size graphene domains. - Abstract: In this work, we study the influence of the surface morphology of the catalytic copper substrate on the nucleation density and the growth rate of graphene domains at low and atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD and APCVD) processes. In order to obtain a wide range of initial surface morphology, precisely controlled electropolishing methods were developed to manipulate the roughntreess value of the as-received Cu substrate (RMS = 30 nm) to ultra-rough (RMS = 130 nm) and ultra-smooth (RMS = 2 nm) surfaces. The nucleation and growth of graphene domains show obviously different trends at LPCVD and APCVD conditions. In contrast to APCVD condition, the nucleation density of graphene domains is almost equal in substrates with different initial roughness values at LPCVD condition. We show that this is due to the evolution of the surface morphology of the Cu substrate during the graphene growth steps. By stopping the surface sublimation of copper substrate in a confined space saturated with Cu atoms, the evolution of the Cu surface was impeded. This results in the reduction of the nucleation density of graphene domains up to 24 times in the pre-smoothed Cu substrates at LPCVD condition.

  12. Evolution effects of the copper surface morphology on the nucleation density and growth of graphene domains at different growth pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedayat, Seyed Mahdi; Karimi-Sabet, Javad; Shariaty-Niassar, Mojtaba

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Manipulation of the Cu surface morphology in a wide range by electropolishing treatment. • Comparison of the nucleation density of graphene at low pressure and atmospheric pressure CVD processes. • Controlling the evolution of the Cu surface morphology inside a novel confined space. • Growth of large-size graphene domains. - Abstract: In this work, we study the influence of the surface morphology of the catalytic copper substrate on the nucleation density and the growth rate of graphene domains at low and atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD and APCVD) processes. In order to obtain a wide range of initial surface morphology, precisely controlled electropolishing methods were developed to manipulate the roughntreess value of the as-received Cu substrate (RMS = 30 nm) to ultra-rough (RMS = 130 nm) and ultra-smooth (RMS = 2 nm) surfaces. The nucleation and growth of graphene domains show obviously different trends at LPCVD and APCVD conditions. In contrast to APCVD condition, the nucleation density of graphene domains is almost equal in substrates with different initial roughness values at LPCVD condition. We show that this is due to the evolution of the surface morphology of the Cu substrate during the graphene growth steps. By stopping the surface sublimation of copper substrate in a confined space saturated with Cu atoms, the evolution of the Cu surface was impeded. This results in the reduction of the nucleation density of graphene domains up to 24 times in the pre-smoothed Cu substrates at LPCVD condition.

  13. Surface Energy and Setting Process of Contacting Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Musokhranov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with a challenge in terms of ensuring an accuracy of the relative position of the conjugated surfaces that is to determine a coefficient of friction. To solve it, there is a proposal to use the surface energy, as a tool that influences the contacting parts nature. Presently, energy of the surface layers at best is only stated, but not used in practice.Analysis of the conditions of interaction between two contacting surfaces, such as seizing and setting cannot be explained only from the position of the roughness parameters. It is found that these phenomena are explained by the appearing gripe (setting bridges, which result from the energy of interaction between two or more adjacent surfaces. The emerging phenomenon such as micro welding, i.e. occurring bonds, is caused by the overflow of energy, according to the theory of physics, from the surface with a high level of energy to the surface with the smaller one to balance the system as a whole.The paper shows that through the use of process, controlling the depth of the surface layer and creating a certain structure, the energy level of the material as a whole can be specified. And this will allow us to provide the necessary performance and mechanical properties. It means to create as many gripe bridges as possible to ensure continuous positioning i.e. a fixed connection of the contacting surfaces.It was determined that to increase a value of the friction coefficient, the physical and mechanical properties of the surface layer of the parts material must be taken into account, namely, in the part body accumulate the energy to be consumed for forming the surface.The paper gives recommendations for including the parts of the surface energy in the qualitative indicators of characteristics. This will make a technologist, when routing a process, to choose such operations and modes to provide the designer-specified parameters not only of the accuracy and surface finish, but also of the

  14. Processing and finishing of granite surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Klich, J. (Jiří); Hlaváček, P. (Petr); Ščučka, J. (Jiří); Sitek, L. (Libor); Foldyna, J. (Josef); Georgiovská, L. (Lucie); Souček, K. (Kamil); Staš, L. (Lubomír); Bortolussi, A.

    2013-01-01

    The article deals with granite surface processing and finishing by various methods including bush hammering, flaming, polishing, continuous and pulsating water jetting. Both optical and CT X-ray methods are used for analysis of surface and subsurface areas of tested samples. Advantages of pulsating water jetting compared to other techniques are discussed.

  15. Radon transport processes below the earth's surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkening, M.

    1980-01-01

    Processes by which 222 Rn is transported from the soil to the earth's surface are reviewed. The mechanisms effective in transporting 222 Rn to the surface are related to the size and configuration of the spaces occupied by the soil gas which may vary from molecular interstices to large underground caverns. The near-surface transport processes are divided into two categories: (1) a microscopic process that includes molecular diffusion and viscous flow in fine capillaries and (2) macroscopic flow in fissures and channels. Underground air rich in 222 Rn can also reach the surface through cracks, fissures, and underground channels. This type of transport is shown for (1) a horizontal tunnel penetrating a fractured hillside, (2) a large underground cave, and (3) volcanic activity. Pressure differentials having various natural origins and thermal gradients are responsible for the transport in these examples. 222 Rn transport by ordinary molecular diffusion appears to be the dominant process

  16. Conditions for mould growth on typical interior surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Eva B.; Andersen, Birgitte; Rode, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    Prediction of the risk for mould growth is an important parameter for the analysis and design of the hygrothermal performance of building constructions. However, in practice the mould growth does not always follow the predicted behavior described by the mould growth models. This is often explained...... by uncertainty in the real conditions of exposure. In this study, laboratory experiments were designed to determine mould growth at controlled transient climate compared to growth at constant climate. The experiment included three building materials with four different surface treatments. The samples were...

  17. Anisotropic cell growth-regulated surface micropatterns in flower petals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Huang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Flower petals have not only diverse macroscopic morphologies but are rich in microscopic surface patterns, which are crucial to their biological functions. Both experimental measurements and theoretical analysis are conducted to reveal the physical mechanisms underlying the formation of minute wrinkles on flower petals. Three representative flowers, daisy, kalanchoe blossfeldiana, and Eustoma grandiflorum, are investigated as examples. A surface wrinkling model, incorporating the measured mechanical properties and growth ratio, is used to elucidate the difference in their surface morphologies. The mismatch between the anisotropic epidermal cell growth and the isotropic secretion of surficial wax is found to dictate the surface patterns.

  18. Surface preparation for the heteroepitactic growth of ceramic thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norton, M.G.; Summerfelt, S.R.; Carter, C.B.

    1990-01-01

    The morphology, composition, and crystallographic orientation of the substrate influence the nucleation and growth of deposited thin films. A method for the preparation of controlled, characteristic surfaces is reported. The surfaces are suitable for the heteroepitactic growth of thin films. When used in the formation of electron-transparent thin foils, the substrates can be used to investigate the very early stages of film growth using transmission electron microscopy. The substrate preparation involves the cleaning and subsequent annealing to generate a surface consisting of a series of steps. The step terraces are formed on the energetically stable surface, and controlled nucleation and growth of films at step edges is found. The substrate materials prepared using this technique include (001) MgO, (001) SrTiO 3 , and (001) LaAlO 3

  19. Visualization modeling of thin film growth in photodeposition processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirchin, N.; Sidi, M.; Muchnik, Y.; Peled, A.

    2003-01-01

    A computer visualization technique, which analyzes and predicts the spatio-temporal evolution of thin film deposition and growth processes is given. It relies on microscopy sampled or computer generated synthetic micrographs of particles. These are then simulated for deposition, aggregation and coagulation during thin film growth by frequency domain transform techniques. Particle sources and diffusion operators on surfaces are used to predict with high temporal resolution, unattained by real world microscopy the surface structure evolution as time samples and time movies. The simulation program was used to investigate deposition and diffusive profiles in photodeposition experiments, starting from initial synthetic micrographs based on real world scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. The surface microstructure time 'tracking' scheme described here relies on transforming the original image of the deposited particles into a Fourier spatial frequency domain image. The physical models used are that of a material random deposition source and subsequent surface redistribution due to diffusion and other coalescence material surface flow mechanisms. The 2-D inverse Fourier transform (IFT) is finally used to obtain back the real space-time images representing the surface spatio-temporal films morphology changes. False color representation of the images allows for a better discrimination of the films growing details especially during the fast pre-compact thin film layer formation on the substrate

  20. Visualization modeling of thin film growth in photodeposition processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirchin, N.; Sidi, M.; Muchnik, Y.; Peled, A

    2003-03-15

    A computer visualization technique, which analyzes and predicts the spatio-temporal evolution of thin film deposition and growth processes is given. It relies on microscopy sampled or computer generated synthetic micrographs of particles. These are then simulated for deposition, aggregation and coagulation during thin film growth by frequency domain transform techniques. Particle sources and diffusion operators on surfaces are used to predict with high temporal resolution, unattained by real world microscopy the surface structure evolution as time samples and time movies. The simulation program was used to investigate deposition and diffusive profiles in photodeposition experiments, starting from initial synthetic micrographs based on real world scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. The surface microstructure time 'tracking' scheme described here relies on transforming the original image of the deposited particles into a Fourier spatial frequency domain image. The physical models used are that of a material random deposition source and subsequent surface redistribution due to diffusion and other coalescence material surface flow mechanisms. The 2-D inverse Fourier transform (IFT) is finally used to obtain back the real space-time images representing the surface spatio-temporal films morphology changes. False color representation of the images allows for a better discrimination of the films growing details especially during the fast pre-compact thin film layer formation on the substrate.

  1. Growth process of helium bubbles in aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiraishi, Haruki; Sakairi, Hideo; Yagi, Eiichi; Karasawa, Takashi; Hashiguti, R.R.

    1975-01-01

    The growth process of helium bubbles in α-particle bombarded pure aluminum during isothermal anneal ranging 200 to 645 0 C and 1 to 100 hr was observed by a transmission electron microscope and the possible growth mechanisms are discussed. The effects of helium concentration and cold work were investigated. The helium bubbles are detectable only at the anneal above 550 0 C in both annealed and cold worked samples. The cold work does not cause any extra coarsening trend of bubbles. The observed types of bubble distribution in the grain interior are divided into two categories, irrespective of helium concentration and cold work; (1) the fine and uniform bubble distribution, in which case the average size is limited to about 200 A or less in diameter even at the anneal just below the melting point, and (2) the coarsened and non-uniform bubble distribution ranging 500 to 4000 A in diameter. The intermediate size bubbles are scarcely found in any cases. In the above fine bubble distribution, the increase of helium concentration by a factor of two increases the density by the same factor of two, but does not change the mean size of bubbles. Corresponding to the above two characteristic bubble distributions, it is concluded that two different mechanisms are operative in this experiment; (1) the growth of bubbles by the Brownian motion, in which the growth rate of bubbles is decreased to almost zero by bubble faceting and this results in the bubble size constancy during the prolonged annealing, and (2) the growth of bubbles by the grain boundary sweep-out mechanism, by which the abrupt coarsening of bubbles is caused. The lack of existence of the intermediate size bubbles is explained in this way. (auth.)

  2. Quantitative Modeling of Earth Surface Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Jon D.

    This textbook describes some of the most effective and straightforward quantitative techniques for modeling Earth surface processes. By emphasizing a core set of equations and solution techniques, the book presents state-of-the-art models currently employed in Earth surface process research, as well as a set of simple but practical research tools. Detailed case studies demonstrate application of the methods to a wide variety of processes including hillslope, fluvial, aeolian, glacial, tectonic, and climatic systems. Exercises at the end of each chapter begin with simple calculations and then progress to more sophisticated problems that require computer programming. All the necessary computer codes are available online at www.cambridge.org/9780521855976. Assuming some knowledge of calculus and basic programming experience, this quantitative textbook is designed for advanced geomorphology courses and as a reference book for professional researchers in Earth and planetary science looking for a quantitative approach to Earth surface processes. More details...

  3. Integrated Intelligent Modeling, Design and Control of Crystal Growth Processes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Prasad, V

    2000-01-01

    .... This MURI program took an integrated approach towards modeling, design and control of crystal growth processes and in conjunction with growth and characterization experiments developed much better...

  4. Continuum damage mechanics method for fatigue growth of surface cracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Xiqiao; He Shuyan

    1997-01-01

    With the background of leak-before-break (LBB) analysis of pressurized vessels and pipes in nuclear plants, the fatigue growth problem of either circumferential or longitudinal semi-elliptical surface cracks subjected to cyclic loading is studied by using a continuum damage mechanics method. The fatigue damage is described by a scalar damage variable. From the damage evolution equation at the crack tip, a crack growth equation similar to famous Paris' formula is derived, which shows the physical meaning of Paris' formula. Thereby, a continuum damage mechanics approach is developed to analyze the configuration evolution of surface cracks during fatigue growth

  5. Delayed frost growth on jumping-drop superhydrophobic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boreyko, Jonathan B; Collier, C Patrick

    2013-02-26

    Self-propelled jumping drops are continuously removed from a condensing superhydrophobic surface to enable a micrometric steady-state drop size. Here, we report that subcooled condensate on a chilled superhydrophobic surface are able to repeatedly jump off the surface before heterogeneous ice nucleation occurs. Frost still forms on the superhydrophobic surface due to ice nucleation at neighboring edge defects, which eventually spreads over the entire surface via an interdrop frost wave. The growth of this interdrop frost front is shown to be up to 3 times slower on the superhydrophobic surface compared to a control hydrophobic surface, due to the jumping-drop effect dynamically minimizing the average drop size and surface coverage of the condensate. A simple scaling model is developed to relate the success and speed of interdrop ice bridging to the drop size distribution. While other reports of condensation frosting on superhydrophobic surfaces have focused exclusively on liquid-solid ice nucleation for isolated drops, these findings reveal that the growth of frost is an interdrop phenomenon that is strongly coupled to the wettability and drop size distribution of the surface. A jumping-drop superhydrophobic condenser minimized frost formation relative to a conventional dropwise condenser in two respects: preventing heterogeneous ice nucleation by continuously removing subcooled condensate, and delaying frost growth by limiting the success of interdrop ice bridge formation.

  6. A record-driven growth process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godrèche, C; Luck, J M

    2008-01-01

    We introduce a novel stochastic growth process, the record-driven growth process, which originates from the analysis of a class of growing networks in a universal limiting regime. Nodes are added one by one to a network, each node possessing a quality. The new incoming node connects to the pre-existing node with best quality, that is, with record value for the quality. The emergent structure is that of a growing network, where groups are formed around record nodes (nodes endowed with the best intrinsic qualities). Special emphasis is put on the statistics of leaders (nodes whose degrees are the largest). The asymptotic probability for a node to be a leader is equal to the Golomb–Dickman constant ω = 0.624 329 ..., which arises in problems of combinatorial nature. This outcome solves the problem of the determination of the record breaking rate for the sequence of correlated inter-record intervals. The process exhibits temporal self-similarity in the late-time regime. Connections with the statistics of the cycles of random permutations, the statistical properties of randomly broken intervals, and the Kesten variable are given

  7. Surface quality in rapid prototype MMD process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisandro Vargas Henríquez

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This article summarises a Manufacturing Materials and Processes MSc thesis written for the Mechanical and Electrical Engineering Department. The paper shows the interaction of process, gap (deposition distance and extursion terminal velocity modelled process parameters for CEIF's (Centro de Equipos Interfacultades rapid prototype molten material deposit (MMD Titan SH-1 machine by analysing prototupes improved surface quality and resistence to tension and characterising material. The project applies experimental design criteria for orientating the selection of experimental process parameters. Acrylonitrile-buttadin-styrene (ABS had alredy been mechanically and physicochemically characterised (i.e the material used in the MMD process.

  8. THE PRODUCT DESIGN PROCESS USING STYLISTIC SURFACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Gita

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing consumer requirements for the way what everyday use products look like, forces manufacturers to put more emphasis on product design. Constructors, apart from the functional aspects of the parts created, are forced to pay attention to the aesthetic aspects. Software for designing A-class surfaces is very helpful in this case. Extensive quality analysis modules facilitate the work and allow getting models with specific visual features. The authors present a design process of the product using stylistic surfaces based on the front panel of the moped casing. In addition, methods of analysis of the design surface and product technology are presented.

  9. Impact of vegetation growth on urban surface temperature distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buyadi, S N A; Mohd, W M N W; Misni, A

    2014-01-01

    Earlier studies have indicated that, the temperature distribution in the urban area is significantly warmer than its surrounding suburban areas. The process of urbanization has created urban heat island (UHI). As a city expands, trees are cut down to accommodate commercial development, industrial areas, roads, and suburban growth. Trees or green areas normally play a vital role in mitigating the UHI effects especially in regulating high temperature in saturated urban areas. This study attempts to assess the effects of vegetation growth on land surface temperature (LST) distribution in urban areas. An area within the City of Shah Alam, Selangor has been selected as the study area. Land use/land cover and LST maps of two different dates are generated from Landsat 5 TM images of the year 1991 and 2009. Only five major land cover classes are considered in this study. Mono-window algorithm is used to generate the LST maps. Landsat 5 TM images are also used to generate the NDVI maps. Results from this study have shown that there are significant land use changes within the study area. Although the conversion of green areas into residential and commercial areas significantly increase the LST, matured trees will help to mitigate the effects of UHI

  10. Surface analytical techniques applied to minerals processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smart, R.St.C.

    1991-01-01

    An understanding of the chemical and physical forms of the chemically altered layers on the surfaces of base metal sulphides, particularly in the form of hydroxides, oxyhydroxides and oxides, and the changes that occur in them during minerals processing lies at the core of a complete description of flotation chemistry. This paper reviews the application of a variety of surface-sensitive techniques and methodologies applied to the study of surface layers on single minerals, mixed minerals, synthetic ores and real ores. Evidence from combined XPS/SAM/SEM studies have provided images and analyses of three forms of oxide, oxyhydroxide and hydroxide products on the surfaces of single sulphide minerals, mineral mixtures and complex sulphide ores. 4 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs

  11. Process for cleaning radioactively contaminated metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihram, R.G.; Snyder, G.A.

    1975-01-01

    A process is described for removing radioactive scale from a ferrous metal surface, including the steps of initially preconditioning the surface by contacting it with an oxidizing solution (such as an aqueous solution of an alkali metal permanganate or hydrogen peroxide), then, after removal or decomposition of the oxidizing solution, the metallic surface is contacted with a cleaning solution which is a mixture of a mineral acid and a complexing agent (such as sulfuric acid and oxalic acid), and which preferably contains a corrosion inhibitor. A final step in the process is the treatment of the spent cleaning solution containing radioactive waste materials in solution by adding a reagent selected from the group consisting of calcium hydroxide or potassium permanganate and an alkali metal hydroxide to thereby form easily recovered metallic compounds containing substantially all of the dissolved metals and radioactivity. (auth)

  12. Surface smoothening effects on growth of diamond films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshi, Bilal Ahmad; Kumar, Shyam; Kartha, Moses J.; Varma, Raghava

    2018-04-01

    We have carried out a detailed study of the growth dynamics of the diamond film during initial time on diamond substrates. The diamond films are deposited using Microwave Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition (MPCVD) method for different times. Surface morphology and its correlation with the number of hours of growth of thin films was invested using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Diamond films have smooth interface with average roughness of 48.6873nm. The initial growth dynamics of the thin film is investigated. Interestingly, it is found that there is a decrease in the surface roughness of the film. Thus a smoothening effect is observed in the grown films. The film enters into the growth regime in the later times. Our results also find application in building diamond detector.

  13. UV irradiation assisted growth of ZnO nanowires on optical fiber surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Bo; Shi, Tielin; Liao, Guanglan; Li, Xiaoping; Huang, Jie; Zhou, Temgyuan; Tang, Zirong, E-mail: zirong@mail.hust.edu.cn

    2017-06-01

    Highlights: • A new fabrication process combined a hydrothermal process with UV irradiation from optical fiber is developed. • The growth of ZnO nanowires is efficient in the utilization of UV light. • A novel hybrid structure which integrates ZnO nanowires on optical fiber surface is synthesized. • The UV assisted growth of ZnO nanowires shows preferred orientation and better quality. • A mechanism of growing ZnO nanowires under UV irradiation is proposed. - Abstract: In this paper, a novel approach was developed for the enhanced growth of ZnO nanowires on optical fiber surface. The method combined a hydrothermal process with the efficient UV irradiation from the fiber core, and the effects of UV irradiation on the growth behavior of ZnO nanowires were investigated. The results show that UV irradiation had great effects on the preferred growth orientation and the quality of the ZnO nanowires. The crystallization velocity along the c-axis would increase rapidly with the increase of the irradiation power, while the growth process in the lateral direction was marginally affected by the irradiation. The structure of ZnO nanowires also shows less oxygen vacancy with UV irradiation of higher power. The developed approach is applicable for the efficient growth of nanowires on the fiber surface, and the ZnO nanowires/optical fiber hybrid structures have great potentials for a wide variety of applications such as optical fiber sensors and probes.

  14. Surface-Assisted Dynamic Search Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jaeoh; Kolomeisky, Anatoly B

    2018-03-01

    Many chemical and biological systems exhibit intermittent search phenomena when participating particles alternate between dynamic regimes with different dimensionalities. Here we investigate theoretically a dynamic search process of finding a small target on a two-dimensional surface starting from a bulk solution, which is an example of such an intermittent search process. Both continuum and discrete-state stochastic descriptions are developed. It is found that depending on the scanning length λ, which describes the area visited by the reacting molecule during one search cycle, the system can exhibit three different search regimes: (i) For small λ values, the reactant finds the target mostly via three-dimensional bulk diffusion; (ii) for large λ values, the reactant molecule associates to the target mostly via surface diffusion; and (iii) for intermediate λ values, the reactant reaches the target via a combination of three-dimensional and two-dimensional search cycles. Our analysis also shows that the mean search times have different scalings as a function of the size of the surface segment depending on the nature of the dynamic search regime. Search dynamics are also sensitive to the position of the target for large scanning lengths. In addition, it is argued that the continuum description underestimates mean search times and does not always correctly describe the most optimal conditions for the surface-assisted dynamic processes. The importance of our findings for real natural systems is discussed.

  15. Ge growth on vicinal si(001) surfaces: island's shape and pair interaction versus miscut angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persichetti, L; Sgarlata, A; Fanfoni, M; Balzarotti, A

    2011-10-01

    A complete description of Ge growth on vicinal Si(001) surfaces is provided. The distinctive mechanisms of the epitaxial growth process on vicinal surfaces are clarified from the very early stages of Ge deposition to the nucleation of 3D islands. By interpolating high-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy measurements with continuum elasticity modeling, we assess the dependence of island's shape and elastic interaction on the substrate misorientation. Our results confirm that vicinal surfaces offer an additional degree of control over the shape and symmetry of self-assembled nanostructures.

  16. Urbanization Process and Variation of Energy Budget of Land Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Gardi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Urban areas are increasing at a rate much higher than human population growth in many part of the world; actually more than 73 towns in the world are larger than 1000 km2. The European Environmental Agency indicates an urban area average growth rate, over the last 20 years, of 20%. The urbanization process, and the consequent soil sealing, determines not only the losses of the ecological functions of the soil, but also a variation of the energy budget of land surfaces, that affect the microclimatic conditions (heat islands. The alteration of the energy budget are determined by the variations of albedo and roughness of surfaces, but especially by the net losses of evapotranspirating areas. In the present research we have assessed the variation of Parma territory energy budget, induced by the change in land use over the last 122 years. The urban area increase between 1881 and 2003 was 535%.

  17. Array processing for seismic surface waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marano, S.

    2013-07-01

    This dissertation submitted to the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH in Zurich takes a look at the analysis of surface wave properties which allows geophysicists to gain insight into the structure of the subsoil, thus avoiding more expensive invasive techniques such as borehole drilling. This thesis aims at improving signal processing techniques for the analysis of surface waves in various directions. One main contribution of this work is the development of a method for the analysis of seismic surface waves. The method also deals with the simultaneous presence of multiple waves. Several computational approaches to minimize costs are presented and compared. Finally, numerical experiments that verify the effectiveness of the proposed cost function and resulting array geometry designs are presented. These lead to greatly improved estimation performance in comparison to arbitrary array geometries.

  18. Array processing for seismic surface waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marano, S.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation submitted to the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH in Zurich takes a look at the analysis of surface wave properties which allows geophysicists to gain insight into the structure of the subsoil, thus avoiding more expensive invasive techniques such as borehole drilling. This thesis aims at improving signal processing techniques for the analysis of surface waves in various directions. One main contribution of this work is the development of a method for the analysis of seismic surface waves. The method also deals with the simultaneous presence of multiple waves. Several computational approaches to minimize costs are presented and compared. Finally, numerical experiments that verify the effectiveness of the proposed cost function and resulting array geometry designs are presented. These lead to greatly improved estimation performance in comparison to arbitrary array geometries

  19. Electrolytic plasma processing of steel surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bejar, M.A; Araya, R.N; Baeza, B

    2006-01-01

    The thermo-chemical treatments of steels with plasma is normally carried out in low-pressure ionized gaseous atmospheres. Among the treatments used most often are: nitruration, carburization and boronized. A plasma can also generate at atmospheric pressure. One way to produce it is with an electrochemical cell that works at a relatively high inter-electrode voltage and under conditions of heavy gas generation. This type of plasma is known as electrolytic plasma. This work studies the feasibility of using electrolytic plasma for the surface processing of steels. Two processes were selected: boronized and nitruration., for the hardening of two types of steel: one with low carbon (1020) and one with low alloy (4140). In the case of the nitruration, the 1020 steel was first aluminized. The electrolytes were aqueous solutions of borax for the boronizing and urea for the nitruration. The electrolytic plasmas were classified qualitatively, in relation with their luminosity by low, medium and high intensity. The boronizing was carried out with low intensity plasmas for a period of one hour. The nitruration was performed with plasmas of different intensities and for period of a few minutes to half an hour. The test pieces processed by electrolytic plasma were characterized by micro-hardness tests and X-ray diffraction. The maximum surface hardnesses obtained for the 1020 and 4140 steels were the following: 300 and 700 HV for the boronizing, and 1650 and 1200 HV for the nitruration, respectively. The utilization of an electrolytic plasma permits the surface processing of steels, noticeably increasing their hardness. With this type of plasma some thermo-chemical surface treatments can be done very rapidly as well (CW)

  20. Epitaxial growth of fcc Ti films on Al(001) surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh, A.A.; Shutthanandan, V.; Shivaparan, N.R.; Smith, R.J.; Tran, T.T.; Chambers, S.A.

    1997-01-01

    High-energy ion scattering (HEIS), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron diffraction (XPD) were used to study the growth of thin Ti films on Al(001) surfaces. The Al surface peak area in the backscattered ion spectrum of MeV He + ions, incident along the [00 bar 1] direction, was used to monitor the atomic structure of the Ti films during growth. An initial decrease in the area was observed indicating epitaxial film growth. This decrease continued up to a critical film thickness of about 5.5 ML, after which point the structure of the film changed. Titanium films 3, 5, and 9 ML thick were characterized using XPD in the same chamber. Both the HEIS and XPD results show that the Ti films grow with an fcc structure on Al(001). A tetragonal distortion of 2.4% in the fcc Ti film was measured using ions incident along the [10 bar 1] direction. Although there is a general similarity of fcc Ti growth on both Al(001) and Al(110), the submonolayer growth regime does show differences for the two surfaces. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  1. ENVISAT Land Surface Processes. Phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    vandenHurk, B. J. J. M.; Su, Z.; Verhoef, W.; Menenti, M.; Li, Z.-L.; Wan, Z.; Moene, A. F.; Roerink, G.; Jia, I.

    2002-01-01

    This is a progress report of the 2nd phase of the project ENVISAT- Land Surface Processes, which has a 3-year scope. In this project, preparative research is carried out aiming at the retrieval of land surface characteristics from the ENVISAT sensors MERIS and AATSR, for assimilation into a system for Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP). Where in the 1st phase a number of first shot experiments were carried out (aiming at gaining experience with the retrievals and data assimilation procedures), the current 2nd phase has put more emphasis on the assessment and improvement of the quality of the retrieved products. The forthcoming phase will be devoted mainly to the data assimilation experiments and the assessment of the added value of the future ENVISAT products for NWP forecast skill. Referring to the retrieval of albedo, leaf area index and atmospheric corrections, preliminary radiative transfer calculations have been carried out that should enable the retrieval of these parameters once AATSR and MERIS data become available. However, much of this work is still to be carried out. An essential part of work in this area is the design and implementation of software that enables an efficient use of MODTRAN(sub 4) radiative transfer code, and during the current project phase familiarization with these new components has been achieved. Significant progress has been made with the retrieval of component temperatures from directional ATSR-images, and the calculation of surface turbulent heat fluxes from these data. The impact of vegetation cover on the retrieved component temperatures appears manageable, and preliminary comparison of foliage temperature to air temperatures were encouraging. The calculation of surface fluxes using the SEBI concept,which includes a detailed model of the surface roughness ratio, appeared to give results that were in reasonable agreement with local measurements with scintillometer devices. The specification of the atmospheric boundary conditions

  2. Fructose-enhanced reduction of bacterial growth on nanorough surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durmus NG

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Naside Gozde Durmus1, Erik N Taylor1, Fatih Inci3,4, Kim M Kummer1, Keiko M Tarquinio5, Thomas J Webster1,21School of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA; 2Department of Orthopedics, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA; 3Bio-Acoustic-MEMS in Medicine (BAMM Laboratory, Center for Biomedical Engineering, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard-MIT Health Sciences and Technology, Harvard Medical School, MA, USA; 4Istanbul Technical University, Molecular Biology-Genetics and Biotechnology Program, Mobgam, Maslak, Istanbul, Turkey; 5Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Rhode Island Hospital, Providence, RI, USAAbstract: Patients on mechanical ventilators for extended periods of time often face the risk of developing ventilator-associated pneumonia. During the ventilation process, patients incapable of breathing are intubated with polyvinyl chloride (PVC endotracheal tubes (ETTs. PVC ETTs provide surfaces where bacteria can attach and proliferate from the contaminated oropharyngeal space to the sterile bronchoalveolar area. To overcome this problem, ETTs can be coated with antimicrobial agents. However, such coatings may easily delaminate during use. Recently, it has been shown that changes in material topography at the nanometer level can provide antibacterial properties. In addition, some metabolites, such as fructose, have been found to increase the efficiency of antibiotics used to treat Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus infections. In this study, we combined the antibacterial effect of nanorough ETT topographies with sugar metabolites to decrease bacterial growth and biofilm formation on ETTs. We present for the first time that the presence of fructose on the nanorough surfaces decreases the number of planktonic S. aureus bacteria in the solution and biofilm formation on the surface after 24 hours. We thus envision that this method has the potential to impact the future of surface engineering of

  3. Two photon processes in surface photovoltage spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, R.P.; Thurgate, S.M.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: A significant mid-gap effect has been found in Surface Photovoltage Spectroscopy measurements of cleaved GaAs, InP and Si wafer which is normally interpreted as arising from transitions between surface states and band edges. This large mid-gap effect common to various materials is puzzling as such a high proportion of mid-gap states seems unlikely. Most theories of surface states predict states that tail from the band edges into the gap or states that have a well defined energy in the gap. None propose a large state exactly at E G /2. We recently investigated the variation in SPS spectra with flux density. We find a non-linear correlation in the magnitude of Band-Bending arising from mid-gap and band-gap photon energies. We suggest that the mid-gap feature is due to a two photon absorption process leading to carrier pair generation mediated by mid-gap states in the continuum of band-gap surface states

  4. Methods for growth of relatively large step-free SiC crystal surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neudeck, Philip G. (Inventor); Powell, J. Anthony (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A method for growing arrays of large-area device-size films of step-free (i.e., atomically flat) SiC surfaces for semiconductor electronic device applications is disclosed. This method utilizes a lateral growth process that better overcomes the effect of extended defects in the seed crystal substrate that limited the obtainable step-free area achievable by prior art processes. The step-free SiC surface is particularly suited for the heteroepitaxial growth of 3C (cubic) SiC, AlN, and GaN films used for the fabrication of both surface-sensitive devices (i.e., surface channel field effect transistors such as HEMT's and MOSFET's) as well as high-electric field devices (pn diodes and other solid-state power switching devices) that are sensitive to extended crystal defects.

  5. Applied electric field enhances DRG neurite growth: influence of stimulation media, surface coating and growth supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Matthew D.; Willits, Rebecca Kuntz

    2009-08-01

    Electrical therapies have been found to aid repair of nerve injuries and have been shown to increase and direct neurite outgrowth during stimulation. This enhanced neural growth existed even after the electric field (EF) or stimulation was removed, but the factors that may influence the enhanced growth, such as stimulation media or surface coating, have not been fully investigated. This study characterized neurite outgrowth and branching under various conditions: EF magnitude and application time, ECM surface coating, medium during EF application and growth supplements. A uniform, low-magnitude EF (24 or 44 V m-1) was applied to dissociated chick embryo dorsal root ganglia seeded on collagen or laminin-coated surfaces. During the growth period, cells were either exposed to NGF or N2, and during stimulation cells were exposed to either unsupplemented media (Ca2+) or PBS (no Ca2+). Parallel controls for each experiment included cells exposed to the chamber with no stimulation and cells remaining outside the chamber. After brief electrical stimulation (10 min), neurite length significantly increased 24 h after application for all conditions studied. Of particular interest, increased stimulation time (10-100 min) further enhanced neurite length on laminin but not on collagen surfaces. Neurite branching was not affected by stimulation on any surface, and no preferential growth of neurites was noted after stimulation. Overall, the results of this report suggest that short-duration electric stimulation is sufficient to enhance neurite length under a variety of conditions. While further data are needed to fully elucidate a mechanism for this increased growth, these data suggest that one focus of those investigations should be the interaction between the growth cone and the substrata.

  6. Surface nanotopography of an anodized Ti–6Al–7Nb alloy enhances cell growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Her-Hsiung [Department of Dentistry, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Basic Medical Science, China Medical University, Taichung 404, Taiwan (China); Department of Biomedical Informatics, Asia University, Taichung 413, Taiwan (China); Department of Stomatology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Wu, Chia-Ping [Institute of Oral Biology, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Sun, Ying-Sui [Department of Dentistry, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Yang, Wei-En [Institute of Oral Biology, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Lee, Tzu-Hsin, E-mail: biomaterials@hotmail.com [School of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Oral Medicine Center, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • An electrochemical anodization was applied to α/β-type Ti–6Al–7Nb alloy surface. • Anodized surface had a nontoxic nanoporous topography. • Anodized surface increased proteins adsorption due to nanotopography. • Anodized surface enhanced cell growth due to nanotopography. • Electrochemical anodization has potential as implant surface treatment. - Abstract: The α/β-type Ti–6Al–7Nb alloy is a potential replacement for α/β-type Ti–6Al–4V alloy, which is widely used in biomedical implant applications. The biological response to implant material is dependent on the surface characteristics of the material. In the present study, a simple and fast process was developed to perform an electrochemical anodization treatment on Ti–6Al–7Nb alloy. The proposed process yielded a thin surface nanotopography, which enhanced cell growth on the Ti–6Al–7Nb alloy. The surface characteristics, including the morphology, wettability, and protein adsorption, were investigated, and the cytotoxicity was evaluated according to International Organization for Standardization 10993-5 specifications. Cell adhesion of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on the test specimens was observed via fluorescence microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The anodization process produced a surface nanotopography (pore size <100 nm) on anodized Ti–6Al–7Nb alloy, which enhanced the wettability, protein adsorption, cell adhesion, cell migration, and cell mineralization. The results showed that the surface nanotopography produced using the proposed electrochemical anodization process enhanced cell growth on anodized Ti–6Al–7Nb alloy for implant applications.

  7. Surface nanotopography of an anodized Ti–6Al–7Nb alloy enhances cell growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Her-Hsiung; Wu, Chia-Ping; Sun, Ying-Sui; Yang, Wei-En; Lee, Tzu-Hsin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • An electrochemical anodization was applied to α/β-type Ti–6Al–7Nb alloy surface. • Anodized surface had a nontoxic nanoporous topography. • Anodized surface increased proteins adsorption due to nanotopography. • Anodized surface enhanced cell growth due to nanotopography. • Electrochemical anodization has potential as implant surface treatment. - Abstract: The α/β-type Ti–6Al–7Nb alloy is a potential replacement for α/β-type Ti–6Al–4V alloy, which is widely used in biomedical implant applications. The biological response to implant material is dependent on the surface characteristics of the material. In the present study, a simple and fast process was developed to perform an electrochemical anodization treatment on Ti–6Al–7Nb alloy. The proposed process yielded a thin surface nanotopography, which enhanced cell growth on the Ti–6Al–7Nb alloy. The surface characteristics, including the morphology, wettability, and protein adsorption, were investigated, and the cytotoxicity was evaluated according to International Organization for Standardization 10993-5 specifications. Cell adhesion of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on the test specimens was observed via fluorescence microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The anodization process produced a surface nanotopography (pore size <100 nm) on anodized Ti–6Al–7Nb alloy, which enhanced the wettability, protein adsorption, cell adhesion, cell migration, and cell mineralization. The results showed that the surface nanotopography produced using the proposed electrochemical anodization process enhanced cell growth on anodized Ti–6Al–7Nb alloy for implant applications

  8. Nucleation, aggregative growth and detachment of metal nanoparticles during electrodeposition at electrode surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lai, Stanley; Lazenby, R.A.; Kirkman, P.M.; Unwin, P.R.

    2015-01-01

    The nucleation and growth of metal nanoparticles (NPs) on surfaces is of considerable interest with regard to creating functional interfaces with myriad applications. Yet, key features of these processes remain elusive and are undergoing revision. Here, the mechanism of the electrodeposition of

  9. Thermally controlled growth of surface nanostructures on ion-modified AIII-BV semiconductor crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trynkiewicz, Elzbieta; Jany, Benedykt R.; Wrana, Dominik; Krok, Franciszek

    2018-01-01

    The primary motivation for our systematic study is to provide a comprehensive overview of the role of sample temperature on the pattern evolution of several AIII-BV semiconductor crystal (001) surfaces (i.e., InSb, InP, InAs, GaSb) in terms of their response to low-energy Ar+ ion irradiation conditions. The surface morphology and the chemical diversity of such ion-modified binary materials has been characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In general, all surface textures following ion irradiation exhibit transitional behavior from small islands, via vertically oriented 3D nanostructures, to smoothened surface when the sample temperature is increased. This result reinforces our conviction that the mass redistribution of adatoms along the surface plays a vital role during the formation and growth process of surface nanostructures. We would like to emphasize that this paper addresses in detail for the first time the topic of the growth kinetics of the nanostructures with regard to thermal surface diffusion, while simultaneously offering some possible approaches to supplementing previous studies and therein gaining a new insight into this complex issue. The experimental results are discussed with reference to models of the pillars growth, abutting on preferential sputtering, the self-sustained etch masking effect and the redeposition process recently proposed to elucidate the observed nanostructuring mechanism.

  10. Growth of pentacene on clean and modified gold surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaefer, Daniel; Ruppel, Lars; Witte, Gregor

    2007-01-01

    The growth and evolution of pentacene films on gold substrates have been studied. By combining complementary techniques including scanning tunneling microscopy, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, near-edge x-ray-absorption fine structure, and x-ray diffraction, the molecular orientation, crystalline structure, and morphology of the organic films were characterized as a function of film thickness and growth parameters (temperature and rate) for different gold substrates ranging from Au(111) single crystals to polycrystalline gold. Moreover, the influence of precoating the various gold substrates with self-assembled monolayers (SAM's) of organothiols with different chemical terminations has been studied. On bare gold the growth of pentacene films is characterized by a pronounced dewetting while the molecular orientation within the resulting crystalline three-dimensional islands depends distinctly on the roughness and cleanliness of the substrate surface. After completion of the first wetting layer where molecules adopt a planar orientation parallel to the surface the molecules continue to grow in a tilted fashion: on Au(111) the long molecular axis is oriented parallel to the surface while on polycrystalline gold it is upstanding oriented and thus parallels the crystalline orientation of pentacene films grown on SiO 2 . On SAM pretreated gold substrates the formation of a wetting layer is effectively suppressed and pentacene grows in a quasi-layer-by-layer fashion with an upstanding orientation leading to rather smooth films. The latter growth mode is observed independently of the chemical termination of the SAM's and the roughness of the gold substrate. Possible reasons for the different growth mechanism as well as consequences for the assignment of spectroscopic data of thin pentacene film are discussed

  11. Surface processing by high power excimer laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stehle, M [SOPRA, 92 - Bois-Colombes (France)

    1995-03-01

    Surface processing with lasers is a promising field of research and applications because lasers bring substantial advantages : laser beams work at distance, laser treatments are clean in respect of environment consideration and they offer innovative capabilities for surface treatment which cannot be reached by other way. Excimer lasers are pulsed, gaseous lasers which emit in UV spectral range - the most common are XeCl (308 nm), KrF (248 nm), ArF (193 nm). From 1980 up to 1994, many of them have been used for research, medical and industrial applications such as spectroscopy, PRK (photo-refractive keratotomy) and micro-machining. In the last six years, from 1987 up to 1993, efforts have been done in order to jump from 100 W average power up to 1 kW for XeCl laser at {lambda} = 308 nm. It was the aim of AMMTRA project in Japan as EU205 and EU213 Eureka projects in Europe. In this framework, SOPRA developed VEL (Very large Excimer Laser). In 1992, 1 kW (10 J x 100 Hz) millstone has been reached for the first time, this technology is based on X-Ray preionization and large laser medium (5 liters). Surface treatments based on this laser source are the main purpose of VEL Lasers. Some of them are given for instance : (a) Turbine blades made with metallic substrate and ceramic coatings on the top, are glazed in order to increase corrosion resistance of ceramic and metal sandwich. (b) Selective ablation of organic coatings deposited on fragile composite material is investigated in Aerospace industry. (c) Chock hardening of bulk metallic materials or alloys are investigated for automotive industry in order to increase wear resistance. (d) Ablation of thin surface oxides of polluted steels are under investigation in nuclear industry for decontamination. (J.P.N.).

  12. Surface processing by high power excimer laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stehle, M.

    1995-01-01

    Surface processing with lasers is a promising field of research and applications because lasers bring substantial advantages : laser beams work at distance, laser treatments are clean in respect of environment consideration and they offer innovative capabilities for surface treatment which cannot be reached by other way. Excimer lasers are pulsed, gaseous lasers which emit in UV spectral range - the most common are XeCl (308 nm), KrF (248 nm), ArF (193 nm). From 1980 up to 1994, many of them have been used for research, medical and industrial applications such as spectroscopy, PRK (photo-refractive keratotomy) and micro-machining. In the last six years, from 1987 up to 1993, efforts have been done in order to jump from 100 W average power up to 1 kW for XeCl laser at λ = 308 nm. It was the aim of AMMTRA project in Japan as EU205 and EU213 Eureka projects in Europe. In this framework, SOPRA developed VEL (Very large Excimer Laser). In 1992, 1 kW (10 J x 100 Hz) millstone has been reached for the first time, this technology is based on X-Ray preionization and large laser medium (5 liters). Surface treatments based on this laser source are the main purpose of VEL Lasers. Some of them are given for instance : a) Turbine blades made with metallic substrate and ceramic coatings on the top, are glazed in order to increase corrosion resistance of ceramic and metal sandwich. b) Selective ablation of organic coatings deposited on fragile composite material is investigated in Aerospace industry. c) Chock hardening of bulk metallic materials or alloys are investigated for automotive industry in order to increase wear resistance. d) Ablation of thin surface oxides of polluted steels are under investigation in nuclear industry for decontamination. (J.P.N.)

  13. Development of Auto-Seeding System Using Image Processing Technology in the Sapphire Crystal Growth Process via the Kyropoulos Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Churl Min Kim

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The Kyropoulos (Ky and Czochralski (Cz methods of crystal growth are used for large-diameter single crystals. The seeding process in these methods must induce initial crystallization by initiating contact between the seed crystals and the surface of the melted material. In the Ky and Cz methods, the seeding process lays the foundation for ingot growth during the entire growth process. When any defect occurs in this process, it is likely to spread to the entire ingot. In this paper, a vision system was constructed for auto seeding and for observing the surface of the melt in the Ky method. An algorithm was developed to detect the time when the internal convection of the melt is stabilized by observing the shape of the spoke pattern on the melt material surface. Then, the vision system and algorithm were applied to the growth furnace, and the possibility of process automation was examined for sapphire growth. To confirm that the convection of the melt was stabilized, the position of the island (i.e., the center of a spoke pattern was detected using the vision system and image processing. When the observed coordinates for the center of the island were compared with the coordinates detected from the image processing algorithm, there was an average error of 1.87 mm (based on an image with 1024 × 768 pixels.

  14. Preferred hydride growth orientations on oxide-coated gadolinium surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benamar, G.M.; Schweke, D.; Kimmel, G.; Mintz, M.H.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The preferred hydride growth orientations on gadolinium metal coated by a thin oxide layer are presented. ► A preferred growth of the (1 0 0) h plane of the face centered cubic (FCC) GdH 2 is observed for the hydride spots forming below the oxidation layer. ► A change to the (1 1 1) h plane of the cubic hydride dominates for the hydride's Growth Centers. ► The texture change is attributed to the surface normal compressive stress component exerted by the oxidation layer on the developing hydride. - Abstract: The initial development of hydrides on polycrystalline gadolinium (Gd), as on some other hydride forming metals, is characterized by two sequential steps. The first step involves the rapid formation of a dense pattern of small hydride spots (referred to as the “small family” of hydrides) below the native oxidation layer. The second stage takes place when some of the “small family” nucleants (referred to as “growth centers”, GCs) break the oxide layer, leading to their rapid growth and finally to the massive hydriding of the sample. In the present study, the texture of the two hydride families was studied, by combining X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis with a microscopic analysis of the hydride, using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). It has been observed that for the “small family”, a preferred growth of the (1 0 0) h plane of the cubic GdH 2 takes place, whereas for the GCs, a change to the (1 1 1) h plane of the cubic hydride dominates. These preferred growth orientations were analyzed by their structure relation with the (0 0 .1) m basal plane of the Gd metal. It has been concluded that the above texture change is due to the surface normal compressive stress component exerted by the oxidation overlayer on the developing hydride, preventing the (0 0 .1) m ||(1 1 1) h growth orientation. This stress is relieved upon the rupture of that overlayer and the development of the GCs, leading to

  15. Arabidopsis Growth Simulation Using Image Processing Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junmei Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to provide a method to represent the virtual Arabidopsis plant at each growth stage. It includes simulating the shape and providing growth parameters. The shape is described with elliptic Fourier descriptors. First, the plant is segmented from the background with the chromatic coordinates. With the segmentation result, the outer boundary series are obtained by using boundary tracking algorithm. The elliptic Fourier analysis is then carried out to extract the coefficients of the contour. The coefficients require less storage than the original contour points and can be used to simulate the shape of the plant. The growth parameters include total area and the number of leaves of the plant. The total area is obtained with the number of the plant pixels and the image calibration result. The number of leaves is derived by detecting the apex of each leaf. It is achieved by using wavelet transform to identify the local maximum of the distance signal between the contour points and the region centroid. Experiment result shows that this method can record the growth stage of Arabidopsis plant with fewer data and provide a visual platform for plant growth research.

  16. Surface-bounded growth modeling applied to human mandibles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Per Rønsholt

    1999-01-01

    This thesis presents mathematical and computational techniques for three dimensional growth modeling applied to human mandibles. The longitudinal shape changes make the mandible a complex bone. The teeth erupt and the condylar processes change direction, from pointing predominantly backward...... of the common features. 3.model the process that moves the matched points (growth modeling). A local shape feature called crest line has shown itself to be structurally stable on mandibles. Registration of crest lines (from different mandibles) results in a sparse deformation field, which must be interpolated...... old mandible based on the 3 month old scan. When using successively more recent scans as basis for the model the error drops to 2.0 mm for the 11 years old scan. Thus, it seems reasonable to assume that the mandibular growth is linear....

  17. Surface Reaction Kinetics of Ga(1-x)In(x)P Growth During Pulsed Chemical Beam Epitaxy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dietz, N; Beeler, S. C; Schmidt, J. W; Tran, H. T

    2000-01-01

    ... into the surface reaction kinetics during an organometallic deposition process. These insights will allow us to move the control point closer to the point where the growth occurs, which in a chemical been epitaxy process is a surface reaction layer (SRL...

  18. Surfacing the Depths: Thoughts on Imitation, Resonance and Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Music, Graham

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines some of the research on imitation that shows it to be much more than simply a behavioural or reflex response, but rather an aspect of the growth of genuine social and psychological interaction and part of an intersubjective process that includes the representation of object relationships. Differentiations between mind,…

  19. A nonlinear model for surface segregation and solute trapping during planar film growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Xiaoying; Spencer, Brian J.

    2007-01-01

    Surface segregation and solute trapping during planar film growth is one of the important issues in molecular beam epitaxy, yet the study on surface composition has been largely restricted to experimental work. This paper introduces some mathematical models of surface composition during planar film growth. Analytical solutions are obtained for the surface composition during growth

  20. Intrinsic stress evolution during amorphous oxide film growth on Al surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flötotto, D.; Wang, Z. M.; Jeurgens, L. P. H.; Mittemeijer, E. J.

    2014-01-01

    The intrinsic stress evolution during formation of ultrathin amorphous oxide films on Al(111) and Al(100) surfaces by thermal oxidation at room temperature was investigated in real-time by in-situ substrate curvature measurements and detailed atomic-scale microstructural analyses. During thickening of the oxide a considerable amount of growth stresses is generated in, remarkably even amorphous, ultrathin Al 2 O 3 films. The surface orientation-dependent stress evolutions during O adsorption on the bare Al surfaces and during subsequent oxide-film growth can be interpreted as a result of (i) adsorption-induced surface stress changes and (ii) competing processes of free volume generation and structural relaxation, respectively

  1. Hydroxyapatite growth induced by native extracellular matrix deposition on solid surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramatarova L.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Biological systems have a remarkable capability to produce perfect fine structures such as seashells, pearls, bones, teeth and corals. These structures are composites of interacting inorganic (calcium phosphate or carbonate minerals and organic counterparts. It is difficult to say with certainty which part has the primary role. For example, the growth of molluscan shell crystals is thought to be initiated from a solution by the extracellular organic matrix (ECM. According to this theory, the matrix induces nucleation of calcium containing crystals. Recently, an alternative theory has been put forward, stating that a class of granulocytic hemocytes would be directly involved in shell crystal production in oysters. In the work presented here the surface of AISI 316 stainless steel was modified by deposition of ECM proteins. The ability of the modified substrates to induce nucleation and growth of hydroxyapatite (HA from simulated body fluid (SBF was examined by a kinetic study using two methods: (1 a simple soaking process in SBF and (2 a laser-liquid-solid interaction (LLSI process which allows interaction between a scanning laser beam and a solid substrate immersed in SBF. The deposited HA layers were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. It was found that a coating of stainless steel surface with native ECM proteins induced nucleation and growth of HA and facilitated its crystallization. By the process of simple soaking of the samples, irrespective of their horizontal or vertical position in the solution, HA layers were grown due to the reactive ECM-coated stainless steel surface. It was shown that the process occurring in the first stages of the growth was not only a result of the force of gravity. The application of the LLSI process strongly influenced HA formation on the ECM-modified substrates by promoting and enhancing the HA nucleation and growth through a synergistic effect

  2. Surface photo reaction processes using synchrotron radiation; Hoshako reiki ni yoru hyomenko hanno process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imaizumi, Y. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Institute for Materials Research; Yoshigoe, A. [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan); Urisu, T. [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan). Institute for Molecular Science

    1997-08-20

    This paper introduces the surface photo reaction processes using synchrotron radiation, and its application. A synchrotron radiation process using soft X-rays contained in electron synchrotron radiated light as an excited light source has a possibility of high-resolution processing because of its short wave length. The radiated light can excite efficiently the electronic state of a substance, and can induce a variety of photochemical reactions. In addition, it can excite inner shell electrons efficiently. In the aspect of its application, it has been found that, if radiated light is irradiated on surfaces of solids under fluorine-based reaction gas or Cl2, the surfaces can be etched. This technology is utilized practically. With regard to radiated light excited CVD process, it may be said that anything that can be deposited by the ordinary plasma CVD process can be deposited. Its application to epitaxial crystal growth may be said a nano processing application in thickness direction, such as forming an ultra-lattice structure, the application being subjected to expectation. In micromachine fabricating technologies, a possibility is searched on application of a photo reaction process of the radiated light. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  3. Growth process for gallium nitride porous nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildeson, Isaac Harshman; Sands, Timothy David

    2015-03-24

    A GaN nanorod and formation method. Formation includes providing a substrate having a GaN film, depositing SiN.sub.x on the GaN film, etching a growth opening through the SiN.sub.x and into the GaN film, growing a GaN nanorod through the growth opening, the nanorod having a nanopore running substantially through its centerline. Focused ion beam etching can be used. The growing can be done using organometallic vapor phase epitaxy. The nanopore diameter can be controlled using the growth opening diameter or the growing step duration. The GaN nanorods can be removed from the substrate. The SiN.sub.x layer can be removed after the growing step. A SiO.sub.x template can be formed on the GaN film and the GaN can be grown to cover the SiO.sub.x template before depositing SiN.sub.x on the GaN film. The SiO.sub.x template can be removed after growing the nanorods.

  4. Different growth mechanisms of Ge by Stranski-Krastanow on Si (111) and (001) surfaces: An STM study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teys, S.A., E-mail: teys@isp.nsc.ru

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Different atomic mechanisms of transition from two-dimensional to three-dimensional-layer growth on Sransky-Krastanov observed. • The transition from 2D–3D Ge growth on Si (111) and (001) is very different. • Various changes in morphology, surface structures and sequence Ge redistribution during the growth shown. • The sequence of appearance of different incorporation places of Ge atoms was shown. - Abstract: Structural and morphological features of the wetting layer formation and the transition to the three-dimensional Ge growth on (111) and (100) Si surfaces under quasi-equilibrium growth conditions were studied by means of scanning tunneling microscopy. The mechanism of the transition from the wetting layer to the three-dimensional Ge growth on Si was demonstrated. The principal differences and general trends of the atomic processes involved in the wetting layers formation on substrates with different orientations were demonstrated. The Ge growth is accompanied by the Ge atom redistribution and partial strain relaxation due to the formation of new surfaces, vacancies and surface structures of a decreased density. The analysis of three-dimensional Ge islands sites nucleation of after the wetting layer formation was carried out on the (111) surface. The transition to the three-dimensional growth at the Si(100) surface begins with single {105} facets nucleation on the rough Ge(100) surface.

  5. Different growth mechanisms of Ge by Stranski-Krastanow on Si (111) and (001) surfaces: An STM study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teys, S.A.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Different atomic mechanisms of transition from two-dimensional to three-dimensional-layer growth on Sransky-Krastanov observed. • The transition from 2D–3D Ge growth on Si (111) and (001) is very different. • Various changes in morphology, surface structures and sequence Ge redistribution during the growth shown. • The sequence of appearance of different incorporation places of Ge atoms was shown. - Abstract: Structural and morphological features of the wetting layer formation and the transition to the three-dimensional Ge growth on (111) and (100) Si surfaces under quasi-equilibrium growth conditions were studied by means of scanning tunneling microscopy. The mechanism of the transition from the wetting layer to the three-dimensional Ge growth on Si was demonstrated. The principal differences and general trends of the atomic processes involved in the wetting layers formation on substrates with different orientations were demonstrated. The Ge growth is accompanied by the Ge atom redistribution and partial strain relaxation due to the formation of new surfaces, vacancies and surface structures of a decreased density. The analysis of three-dimensional Ge islands sites nucleation of after the wetting layer formation was carried out on the (111) surface. The transition to the three-dimensional growth at the Si(100) surface begins with single {105} facets nucleation on the rough Ge(100) surface.

  6. Modified inorganic surfaces as a model for hydroxyapatite growth

    CERN Document Server

    Pramatarova, Lilyana

    2006-01-01

    The process by which organisms in Nature create minerals is known as biomineralization - a process that involves complex interactions between inorganic ions, crystals and organic molecules; resulting in a controlled nucleation and growth of minerals from aqueous solutions. During the last few decades, biomineralization has been intensively studied, due to its involvement in a wide range of biological events; starting with the formation of bones, teeth, cartilage, shells, coral (so-called physiological mineralization) and encompassing pathological mineralization, i.e. the formation of kidney st

  7. Silver Nanocube and Nanobar Growth via Anisotropic Monomer Addition and Particle Attachment Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Dongdong; Wu, Zhigang; Song, Miao; Chun, Jaehun; Schenter, Gregory K; Li, Dongsheng

    2018-01-30

    Understanding the growth mechanism of noble metal nanocrystals during solution synthesis is of significant importance for shape and property control. However, much remains unknown about the growth pathways of metal nanoparticles due to the lack of direct observation. Using an in situ transmission electron microscopy technique, we directly observed Ag nanocube and nanobar growth in an aqueous solution through both classical monomer-by-monomer addition and nonclassical particle attachment processes. During the particle attachment process, Ag nanocubes and nanobars were formed via both oriented and nonoriented attachment. Our calculations, along with the dynamics of the observed attachment, showed that the van der Waals force overcomes hydrodynamic and friction forces and drives the particles toward each other at separations of 10-100 nm in our experiments. During classical growth, anisotropic growth was also revealed, and the resulting unsymmetrical shape constituted an intermediate state for Ag nanocube growth. We hypothesized that the temporary symmetry breaking resulted from different growth rates on (001) surfaces due to a local surface concentration variation caused by the imbalance between the consumption of Ag + near the surface and the diffusion of Ag + from the bulk to the surface.

  8. Silver Nanocube and Nanobar Growth via Anisotropic Monomer Addition and Particle Attachment Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Dongdong [Physical; Wu, Zhigang [School; Song, Miao [Physical; Chun, Jaehun [Physical; Schenter, Gregory K. [Physical; Li, Dongsheng [Physical

    2018-01-11

    Understanding the growth mechanism of noble metal nanocrystals during solution synthesis is of significant importance for shape and property control. However, much remains unknown about the growth pathways of metal nanoparticles due to lack of direct observation. Using an in-situ transmission electron microscopy technique, we directly observed Ag nanocube and nanobar growth in aqueous solution through both classical monomer-by-monomer addition and non-classical particle attachment processes. During the particle attachment process, Ag nanocubes and nanobars formed via both oriented and non-oriented attachment. Our calculations, along with dynamics of the observed attachment, showed that van der Waals force overcame hydrodynamic and friction forces and drove the particles toward each other. During classical growth, an anisotropic growth was also revealed, and the resulting unsymmetrical shape constituted an intermediate state for Ag nanocube growth. We hypothesized that the temporary symmetry breaking resulted from different growth rates on {001} surfaces due to a local surface concentration variation caused by the imbalance between the consumption of Ag+ near the surface and the diffusion of Ag+ from bulk to surface.

  9. Investigation of Mediational Processes Using Parallel Process Latent Growth Curve Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, JeeWon; MacKinnon, David P.; Khoo, Siek Toon

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated a method to evaluate mediational processes using latent growth curve modeling. The mediator and the outcome measured across multiple time points were viewed as 2 separate parallel processes. The mediational process was defined as the independent variable influencing the growth of the mediator, which, in turn, affected the growth of the outcome. To illustrate modeling procedures, empirical data from a longitudinal drug prevention program, Adolescents Training and Learning to Avoid Steroids, were used. The program effects on the growth of the mediator and the growth of the outcome were examined first in a 2-group structural equation model. The mediational process was then modeled and tested in a parallel process latent growth curve model by relating the prevention program condition, the growth rate factor of the mediator, and the growth rate factor of the outcome. PMID:20157639

  10. Photochemical Transformation Processes in Sunlit Surface Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vione, D.

    2012-12-01

    Photochemical reactions are major processes in the transformation of hardly biodegradable xenobiotics in surface waters. They are usually classified into direct photolysis and indirect or sensitised degradation. Direct photolysis requires xenobiotic compounds to absorb sunlight, and to get transformed as a consequence. Sensitised transformation involves reaction with transient species (e.g. °OH, CO3-°, 1O2 and triplet states of chromophoric dissolved organic matter, 3CDOM*), photogenerated by so-called photosensitisers (nitrate, nitrite and CDOM). CDOM is a major photosensitiser: is it on average the main source of °OH (and of CO3-° as a consequence, which is mainly produced upon oxidation by °OH of carbonate and bicarbonate) and the only important source of 1O2 and 3CDOM* [1, 2]. CDOM origin plays a key role in sensitised processes: allochthonous CDOM derived from soil runoff and rich in fulvic and humic substances is usually more photoactive than autochthonous CDOM (produced by in-water biological processes and mainly consisting of protein-like material) or of CDOM derived from atmospheric deposition. An interesting gradual evolution of CDOM origin and photochemistry can be found in mountain lakes across the treeline, which afford a gradual transition of allochthonous- autochtonous - atmopheric CDOM when passing from trees to alpine meadows to exposed rocks [3]. Another important issue is the sites of reactive species photoproduction in CDOM. While there is evidence that smaller molecular weight fractions are more photoactive, some studies have reported considerable 1O2 reactivity in CDOM hydrophobic sites and inside particles [4]. We have recently addressed the problem and found that dissolved species in standard humic acids (hydrodynamic diameter pollutants to be assessed and modelled. For instance, it is possible to predict pollutant half-life times by knowing absorption spectrum, direct photolysis quantum yield and reaction rate constants with °OH, CO3

  11. Surface chemistry and growth mechanisms studies of homo epitaxial (1 0 0) GaAs by laser molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Dawei; Wu Weidong; Zhang Hong; Wang Xuemin; Zhang Hongliang; Zhang Weibin; Xiong Zhengwei; Wang Yuying; Shen Changle; Peng Liping; Han Shangjun; Zhou Minjie

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, GaAs thin film has been deposited on thermally desorbed (1 0 0) GaAs substrate using laser molecular beam epitaxy. Scanning electron microscopy, in situ reflection high energy electron diffraction and in situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy are applied for evaluation of the surface morphology and chemistry during growth process. The results show that a high density of pits is formed on the surface of GaAs substrate after thermal treatment and the epitaxial thin film heals itself by a step flow growth, resulting in a smoother surface morphology. Moreover, it is found that the incorporation of As species into GaAs epilayer is more efficient in laser molecular beam epitaxy than conventional molecular beam epitaxy. We suggest the growth process is impacted by surface chemistry and morphology of GaAs substrate after thermal treatment and the growth mechanisms are discussed in details.

  12. Graphene growth process modeling: a physical-statistical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian; Huang, Qiang

    2014-09-01

    As a zero-band semiconductor, graphene is an attractive material for a wide variety of applications such as optoelectronics. Among various techniques developed for graphene synthesis, chemical vapor deposition on copper foils shows high potential for producing few-layer and large-area graphene. Since fabrication of high-quality graphene sheets requires the understanding of growth mechanisms, and methods of characterization and control of grain size of graphene flakes, analytical modeling of graphene growth process is therefore essential for controlled fabrication. The graphene growth process starts with randomly nucleated islands that gradually develop into complex shapes, grow in size, and eventually connect together to cover the copper foil. To model this complex process, we develop a physical-statistical approach under the assumption of self-similarity during graphene growth. The growth kinetics is uncovered by separating island shapes from area growth rate. We propose to characterize the area growth velocity using a confined exponential model, which not only has clear physical explanation, but also fits the real data well. For the shape modeling, we develop a parametric shape model which can be well explained by the angular-dependent growth rate. This work can provide useful information for the control and optimization of graphene growth process on Cu foil.

  13. Digital signal processing - growth of a technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peek, J.B.H.

    1985-01-01

    The rapid development of microelectronics has led to an increasing extent in circuits and systems for digital signal processing. This happened first in professional applications, e.g. geophysics, astronomy and space flight, and now, with the Compact Disc player, these techniques have entered the consumer field. In the near future digital TV applications will undoubtedly follow. This article outlines a number of the developments behind the advancing 'digitization' of modern technology. The article also considers the main advantages and disadvantages of digital signal processing the main modules now used and some common applications. Particular attention is paid to medical applications. (Auth.)

  14. Excimer laser surface modification: Process and properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jervis, T.R.; Nastasi, M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Hirvonen, J.P. [Technical Research Institute, Espoo (Finland). Metallurgy Lab.

    1992-12-01

    Surface modification can improve materials for structural, tribological, and corrosion applications. Excimer laser light has been shown to provide a rapid means of modifying surfaces through heat treating, surface zone refining, and mixing. Laser pulses at modest power levels can easily melt the surfaces of many materials. Mixing within the molten layer or with the gas ambient may occur, if thermodynamically allowed, followed by rapid solidification. The high temperatures allow the system to overcome kinetic barriers found in some ion mixing experiments. Alternatively, surface zone refinement may result from repeated melting-solidification cycles. Ultraviolet laser light couples energy efficiently to the surface of metallic and ceramic materials. The nature of the modification that follows depends on the properties of the surface and substrate materials. Alloying from both gas and predeposited layer sources has been observed in metals, semiconductors, and ceramics as has surface enrichment of Cr by zone refinement of stainless steel. Rapid solidification after melting often results in the formation of nonequilibrium phases, including amorphous materials. Improved surface properties, including tribology and corrosion resistance, are observed in these materials.

  15. He atom-surface scattering: Surface dynamics of insulators, overlayers and crystal growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safron, S.A.; Skofronick, J.G.

    1994-01-01

    This progress report describes work carried out in the study of surface structure and dynamics of ionic insulators, the microscopic interactions controlling epitaxial growth and the formation of overlayers, and energy exchange in multiphonon surface scattering. The approach used is to employ high resolution helium atom scattering to study the geometry and structural features of the surfaces. Experiments have been carried out on the surface dynamics of RbCl and preliminary studies done on CoO and NiO. Epitaxial growth and overlayer dynamics experiments on the systems NaCl/NaCl(001), KBr/NaCl(001), NaCl/KBr(001) and KBr/RbCl(001) have been performed. They have collaborated with two theoretical groups to explore models of overlayer dynamics with which to compare and to interpret their experimental results. They have carried out extensive experiments on the multiphonon scattering of helium atoms from NaCl and, particularly, LiF. Work has begun on self-assembling organic films on gold and silver surfaces (alkyl thiols/Au(111) and Ag(111))

  16. Process for producing vegetative and tuber growth regulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutte, Gary W. (Inventor); Yorio, Neil C. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A process of making a vegetative and tuber growth regulator. The vegetative and tuber growth regulator is made by growing potato plants in a recirculating hydroponic system for a sufficient time to produce the growth regulator. Also, the use of the vegetative and growth regulator on solanaceous plants, tuber forming plants and ornamental seedlings by contacting the roots or shoots of the plant with a sufficient amount of the growth regulator to regulate the growth of the plant and one more of canopy size, plant height, stem length, internode number and presence of tubers in fresh mass. Finally, a method for regulating the growth of potato plants using a recirculating hydroponic system is described.

  17. Growth mechanism of graphene on platinum: Surface catalysis and carbon segregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Jie; Lindvall, Niclas; Yurgens, August; Nam, Youngwoo; Cole, Matthew T.; Teo, Kenneth B. K.; Woo Park, Yung

    2014-01-01

    A model of the graphene growth mechanism of chemical vapor deposition on platinum is proposed and verified by experiments. Surface catalysis and carbon segregation occur, respectively, at high and low temperatures in the process, representing the so-called balance and segregation regimes. Catalysis leads to self-limiting formation of large area monolayer graphene, whereas segregation results in multilayers, which evidently “grow from below.” By controlling kinetic factors, dominantly monolayer graphene whose high quality has been confirmed by quantum Hall measurement can be deposited on platinum with hydrogen-rich environment, quench cooling, tiny but continuous methane flow and about 1000 °C growth temperature

  18. Frost Growth and Densification in Laminar Flow Over Flat Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandula, Max

    2011-01-01

    One-dimensional frost growth and densification in laminar flow over flat surfaces has been theoretically investigated. Improved representations of frost density and effective thermal conductivity applicable to a wide range of frost circumstances have been incorporated. The validity of the proposed model considering heat and mass diffusion in the frost layer is tested by a comparison of the predictions with data from various investigators for frost parameters including frost thickness, frost surface temperature, frost density and heat flux. The test conditions cover a range of wall temperature, air humidity ratio, air velocity, and air temperature, and the effect of these variables on the frost parameters has been exemplified. Satisfactory agreement is achieved between the model predictions and the various test data considered. The prevailing uncertainties concerning the role air velocity and air temperature on frost development have been elucidated. It is concluded that that for flat surfaces increases in air velocity have no appreciable effect on frost thickness but contribute to significant frost densification, while increase in air temperatures results in a slight increase the frost thickness and appreciable frost densification.

  19. Process of treating surfaces of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, T.; Murao, A.; Kuwahara, T.

    1975-01-01

    Both higher corrosion resistance and paint adherence are given to films formed on the surfaces of metals by treating the surfaces with aqueous solutions of one or more materials selected from the group consisting of water soluble vinyl monomer or water soluble high polymer and then irradiating with ionizing radioactive rays on the nearly dried surface film. When a water soluble inorganic compound is mixed with the above mentioned aqueous solution, the film properties are greatly improved. The inorganic ionic material should contain a cation from the group consisting of Ca, Mg, Zn, Cr, Al, Fe, and Ni. Electron beams may be used. (U.S.)

  20. Modification of surfaces and surface layers by non equilibrium processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beamson, G.; Brennan, W.J.; Clark, D.T.; Howard, J.

    1988-01-01

    Plasmas are examples of non-equilibrium phenomena which are being used increasingly for the synthesis and modification of materials impossible by conventional routes. This paper introduces methods available by describing the construction and characteristics of some equipment used for the production of different types of plasmas and other non-equilibrium phenomena. This includes high energy ion beams. The special features, advantages and disadvantages of the techniques will be described. There are a multitude of potential application relevant to electronic, metallic, ceramic, and polymeric materials. However, scale-up from the laboratory to production equipment depends on establishing a better understanding of both the physics and chemistry of plasma as well as plasma-solid interactions. Examples are given of how such an understanding can be gained. The chemical analysis of polymer surfaces undergoing modification by inert gas, hydrogen or oxygen plasmas is shown to give physical information regarding the relative roles of diffusion of active species, and direct and radiative energy transfer from the plasma. Surface modification by plasma depositing a new material onto an existing substrate is discussed with particular reference to the deposition of amorphous carbon films. Applications of the unique properties of these films are outlined together with our current understanding of these properties based on chemical and physical methods of analysis of both the films and the plasmas producing them. Finally, surface modification by ion beams is briefly illustrated using examples from the electronics and metals industries where the modification has had a largely physical rather than chemical effect on the starting material. (orig.)

  1. Diffusion processes in bombardment-induced surface topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, R.S.

    1984-01-01

    A treatment is given of the problem of surface diffusion processes occurring during surface topography development, whenever a surface is simultaneously seeded with impurities and ion bombarded. The development of controllable topography and the importance of surface diffusion parameters, which can be obtained during these studies, are also analyzed. 101 refs.; 7 figs.; 2 tabs

  2. Modeling of metal nanocluster growth on patterned substrates and surface pattern formation under ion bombardment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Numazawa, Satoshi

    2012-11-01

    This work addresses the metal nanocluster growth process on prepatterned substrates, the development of atomistic simulation method with respect to an acceleration of the atomistic transition states, and the continuum model of the ion-beam inducing semiconductor surface pattern formation mechanism. Experimentally, highly ordered Ag nanocluster structures have been grown on pre-patterned amorphous SiO{sub 2} surfaces by oblique angle physical vapor deposition at room temperature. Despite the small undulation of the rippled surface, the stripe-like Ag nanoclusters are very pronounced, reproducible and well-separated. The first topic is the investigation of this growth process with a continuum theoretical approach to the surface gas condensation as well as an atomistic cluster growth model. The atomistic simulation model is a lattice-based kinetic Monte-Carlo (KMC) method using a combination of a simplified inter-atomic potential and experimental transition barriers taken from the literature. An effective transition event classification method is introduced which allows a boost factor of several thousand compared to a traditional KMC approach, thus allowing experimental time scales to be modeled. The simulation predicts a low sticking probability for the arriving atoms, millisecond order lifetimes for single Ag monomers and {approx}1 nm square surface migration ranges of Ag monomers. The simulations give excellent reproduction of the experimentally observed nanocluster growth patterns. The second topic specifies the acceleration scheme utilized in the metallic cluster growth model. Concerning the atomistic movements, a classical harmonic transition state theory is considered and applied in discrete lattice cells with hierarchical transition levels. The model results in an effective reduction of KMC simulation steps by utilizing a classification scheme of transition levels for thermally activated atomistic diffusion processes. Thermally activated atomistic movements

  3. Modeling of metal nanocluster growth on patterned substrates and surface pattern formation under ion bombardment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Numazawa, Satoshi

    2012-11-01

    This work addresses the metal nanocluster growth process on prepatterned substrates, the development of atomistic simulation method with respect to an acceleration of the atomistic transition states, and the continuum model of the ion-beam inducing semiconductor surface pattern formation mechanism. Experimentally, highly ordered Ag nanocluster structures have been grown on pre-patterned amorphous SiO{sub 2} surfaces by oblique angle physical vapor deposition at room temperature. Despite the small undulation of the rippled surface, the stripe-like Ag nanoclusters are very pronounced, reproducible and well-separated. The first topic is the investigation of this growth process with a continuum theoretical approach to the surface gas condensation as well as an atomistic cluster growth model. The atomistic simulation model is a lattice-based kinetic Monte-Carlo (KMC) method using a combination of a simplified inter-atomic potential and experimental transition barriers taken from the literature. An effective transition event classification method is introduced which allows a boost factor of several thousand compared to a traditional KMC approach, thus allowing experimental time scales to be modeled. The simulation predicts a low sticking probability for the arriving atoms, millisecond order lifetimes for single Ag monomers and {approx}1 nm square surface migration ranges of Ag monomers. The simulations give excellent reproduction of the experimentally observed nanocluster growth patterns. The second topic specifies the acceleration scheme utilized in the metallic cluster growth model. Concerning the atomistic movements, a classical harmonic transition state theory is considered and applied in discrete lattice cells with hierarchical transition levels. The model results in an effective reduction of KMC simulation steps by utilizing a classification scheme of transition levels for thermally activated atomistic diffusion processes. Thermally activated atomistic movements

  4. Evolution and the Growth Process: Natural Selection of Entrepreneurial Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galor, Oded; Michalopoulos, Stelios

    2012-03-01

    This research suggests that a Darwinian evolution of entrepreneurial spirit played a significant role in the process of economic development and the dynamics of inequality within and across societies. The study argues that entrepreneurial spirit evolved non-monotonically in the course of human history. In early stages of development, risk-tolerant, growth promoting traits generated an evolutionary advantage and their increased representation accelerated the pace of technological progress and the process of economic development. In mature stages of development, however, risk-averse traits gained an evolutionary advantage, diminishing the growth potential of advanced economies and contributing to convergence in economic growth across countries.

  5. Evolution and the Growth Process: Natural Selection of Entrepreneurial Traits*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galor, Oded; Michalopoulos, Stelios

    2013-01-01

    This research suggests that a Darwinian evolution of entrepreneurial spirit played a significant role in the process of economic development and the dynamics of inequality within and across societies. The study argues that entrepreneurial spirit evolved non-monotonically in the course of human history. In early stages of development, risk-tolerant, growth promoting traits generated an evolutionary advantage and their increased representation accelerated the pace of technological progress and the process of economic development. In mature stages of development, however, risk-averse traits gained an evolutionary advantage, diminishing the growth potential of advanced economies and contributing to convergence in economic growth across countries. PMID:25089059

  6. In Situ Growth of Mesoporous Silica with Drugs on Titanium Surface and Its Biomedical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Mimi; Zhang, Jin; Wang, Qi; Zhan, Shuyue; Chen, Xudong; Mao, Chun; Liu, Yuhong; Shen, Jian

    2017-06-07

    Mesoporous silica has been developed for the modification of titanium surfaces that are used as implant materials. Yet, the traditional modification methods failed to effectively construct mesoporous silica on the titanium surface evenly and firmly, in which the interaction between mesoporous silica and titanium was mainly physical. Here, in situ growth of mesoporous silica on a titanium surface was performed using a simple evaporation-induced self-assembly strategy. Meantime, in situ introduction of drugs (heparin and vancomycin) to mesoporous silica was also adopted to improve the drug-loading amount. Both the above-mentioned processes were completed at the same time. Transmission electron microscopy, N 2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and water contact angle measurements were used to characterize the structure of the mesoporous silica film. Results indicated that the mesoporous silica film that in situ grew on the titanium surface was smooth, thin, transparent, and stable. Cytotoxicity, proliferation performance of osteoblast cells, and in vitro and in vivo studies of the antibacterial activity of the coating were tested. This is the first study to modify the titanium surface by the in situ growth of a mesoporous silica coating with two kinds of drugs. The stability of the mesoporous silica coating can be attributed to the chemical bonding between dopamine and silicon hydroxyl of the mesoporous silica coating, and the smooth surface of mesoporous silica is a result of the method of in situ growth. The large amount of drug-loading also could be ascribed to the in situ introduction of drugs during the synthetic process. The strategy proposed in this work will bring more possibilities for the preparation of advanced functional materials based on the combination of mesoporous structure and metallic materials.

  7. Ab initio-based approach to structural change of compound semiconductor surfaces during MBE growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Tomonori; Akiyama, Toru; Nakamura, Kohji

    2009-01-01

    Phase diagrams of GaAs and GaN surfaces are systematically investigated by using our ab initio-based approach in conjunction with molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The phase diagrams are obtained as a function of growth parameters such as temperature and beam equivalent pressure (BEP). The versatility of our approach is exemplified by the phase diagram calculations for GaAs(0 0 1) surfaces, where the stable phases and those phase boundaries are successfully determined as functions of temperature and As 2 and As 4 BEPs. The initial growth processes are clarified by the phase diagram calculations for GaAs(1 1 1)B-(2×2). The calculated results demonstrate that the As-trimer desorption on the GaAs(1 1 1)B-(2×2) with Ga adatoms occurs beyond 500-700 K while the desorption without Ga adatoms does beyond 800-1000 K. This self-surfactant effect induced by Ga adsorption crucially affects the initial growth of GaAs on the GaAs(1 1 1)B-(2×2). Furthermore, the phase diagram calculations for GaN(0 0 0 1) suggests that Ga adsorption or desorption during GaN MBE growth can easily change the pseudo-(1×1) to the (2×2)-Ga via newly found (1×1) and vice versa. On the basis of this finding, the possibility of ghost island formation during MBE growth is discussed.

  8. Control of the graphene growth rate on capped SiC surface under strong Si confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Çelebi, C.; Yanık, C.; Demirkol, A.G.; Kaya, İsmet İ.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Graphene is grown on capped SiC surface with well defined cavity size. ► Graphene growth rate linearly increases with the cavity height. ► Graphene uniformity is reduced with thickness. - Abstract: The effect of the degree of Si confinement on the thickness and morphology of UHV grown epitaxial graphene on (0 0 0 −1) SiC is investigated by using atomic force microscopy and Raman spectroscopy measurements. Prior to the graphene growth process, the C-face surface of a SiC substrate is capped by another SiC comprising three cavities on its Si-rich surface with depths varying from 0.5 to 2 microns. The Si atoms, thermally decomposed from the sample surface during high temperature annealing of the SiC cap /SiC sample stack, are separately trapped inside these individual cavities at the sample/cap interface. Our analyses show that the growth rate linearly increases with the cavity height. It was also found that stronger Si confinement yields more uniform graphene layers.

  9. Carbon out-diffusion mechanism for direct graphene growth on a silicon surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byung-Sung; Lee, Jong Woon; Jang, Yamujin; Choi, Soon Hyung; Cha, Seung Nam; Sohn, Jung Inn; Kim, Jong Min; Joo, Won-Jae; Hwang, Sungwoo; Whang, Dongmok

    2015-01-01

    Direct growth of graphene on silicon (Si) through chemical vapor deposition has predominantly focused on surface-mediated processes due to the low carbon (C) solubility in Si. However, a considerable quantity of C atoms was incorporated in Si and formed Si 1−x C x alloy with a reduced lattice dimension even in the initial stage of direct graphene growth. Subsequent high temperature annealing promoted active C out-diffusion, resulting in the formation of a graphitic layer on the Si surface. Furthermore, the significantly low thermal conductivity of the Si 1−x C x alloy shows that the incorporated C atoms affect the properties of a semiconductor adjacent to the graphene. These findings provide a key guideline for controlling desirable properties of graphene and designing hybrid semiconductor/graphene architectures for various applications

  10. Mineralogy of the Martian Surface: Crustal Composition to Surface Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustard, John F.

    1999-01-01

    Over the course of this award we have: 1) Completed and published the results of a study of the effects of hyperfine particles on reflectance spectra of olivine and quartz, which included the development of scattering codes. Research has also progressed in the analysis of the effects of fine particle sizes on clay spectra. 2) Completed the analysis of the mineralogy of dark regions, showed the insitu compositions are highly correlated to the SNC meteorites, and determined that the martian mantle was depleted in aluminum prior to 2-3 GA ago; Studies of the mineralogic heterogeneity of surficial materials on Mars have also been conducted. and 3) Performed initial work on the study of the physical and chemical processes likely to form and modify duricrust. This includes assessments of erosion rates, solubility and transport of iron in soil environments, and models of pedogenic crust formation.

  11. Surface processing: existing and potential applications of ultraviolet light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzocco, Lara; Nicoli, Maria Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Solid foods represent optimal matrices for ultraviolet processing with effects well beyond nonthermal surface disinfection. UV radiation favors hormetic response in plant tissues and degradation of toxic compound on the product surface. Photoinduced reactions can also provide unexplored possibilities to steer structure and functionality of food biopolymers. The possibility to extensively exploit this technology will depend on availability of robust information about efficacious processing conditions and adequate strategies to completely and homogeneously process food surface.

  12. Stochastic process corrosion growth models for pipeline reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazán, Felipe Alexander Vargas; Beck, André Teófilo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Novel non-linear stochastic process corrosion growth model is proposed. •Corrosion rate modeled as random Poisson pulses. •Time to corrosion initiation and inherent time-variability properly represented. •Continuous corrosion growth histories obtained. •Model is shown to precisely fit actual corrosion data at two time points. -- Abstract: Linear random variable corrosion models are extensively employed in reliability analysis of pipelines. However, linear models grossly neglect well-known characteristics of the corrosion process. Herein, a non-linear model is proposed, where corrosion rate is represented as a Poisson square wave process. The resulting model represents inherent time-variability of corrosion growth, produces continuous growth and leads to mean growth at less-than-one power of time. Different corrosion models are adjusted to the same set of actual corrosion data for two inspections. The proposed non-linear random process corrosion growth model leads to the best fit to the data, while better representing problem physics

  13. Food-safe modification of stainless steel food processing surfaces to reduce bacterial biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Tarek Samir; Asker, Dalal; Hatton, Benjamin D

    2018-06-11

    Biofilm formation on stainless steel (SS) surfaces of food processing plants, leading to foodborne illness outbreaks, is enabled by the attachment and confinement within microscale cavities of surface roughness (grooves, scratches). We report Foodsafe Oil-based Slippery Coatings (FOSCs) for food processing surfaces that suppress bacterial adherence and biofilm formation by trapping residual oil lubricant within these surface cavities to block microbial growth. SS surfaces were chemically functionalized with alkylphosphonic acid to preferentially wet a layer of food grade oil. FOSCs reduced the effective surface roughness, the adhesion of organic food residue, and bacteria. FOSCs significantly reduced Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation on standard roughness SS-316 by 5 log CFU cm-2, and by 3 log CFU cm-2 for mirror-finished SS. FOSCs also enhanced surface cleanability, which we measured by bacterial counts after conventional detergent cleaning. Importantly, both SS grades maintained their anti-biofilm activity after erosion of the oil layer by surface wear with glass beads, which suggests there is a residual volume of oil that remains to block surface cavity defects. These results indicate the potential of such low-cost, scalable approaches to enhance the cleanability of SS food processing surfaces and improve food safety by reducing biofilm growth.

  14. Prediction of residual stress distributions due to surface machining and welding and crack growth simulation under residual stress distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihara, Ryohei; Katsuyama, JInya; Onizawa, Kunio; Hashimoto, Tadafumi; Mikami, Yoshiki; Mochizuki, Masahito

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Residual stress distributions due to welding and machining are evaluated by XRD and FEM. → Residual stress due to machining shows higher tensile stress than welding near the surface. → Crack growth analysis is performed using calculated residual stress. → Crack growth result is affected machining rather than welding. → Machining is an important factor for crack growth. - Abstract: In nuclear power plants, stress corrosion cracking (SCC) has been observed near the weld zone of the core shroud and primary loop recirculation (PLR) pipes made of low-carbon austenitic stainless steel Type 316L. The joining process of pipes usually includes surface machining and welding. Both processes induce residual stresses, and residual stresses are thus important factors in the occurrence and propagation of SCC. In this study, the finite element method (FEM) was used to estimate residual stress distributions generated by butt welding and surface machining. The thermoelastic-plastic analysis was performed for the welding simulation, and the thermo-mechanical coupled analysis based on the Johnson-Cook material model was performed for the surface machining simulation. In addition, a crack growth analysis based on the stress intensity factor (SIF) calculation was performed using the calculated residual stress distributions that are generated by welding and surface machining. The surface machining analysis showed that tensile residual stress due to surface machining only exists approximately 0.2 mm from the machined surface, and the surface residual stress increases with cutting speed. The crack growth analysis showed that the crack depth is affected by both surface machining and welding, and the crack length is more affected by surface machining than by welding.

  15. Zerodur polishing process for high surface quality and high efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tesar, A.; Fuchs, B.

    1992-08-01

    Zerodur is a glass-ceramic composite importance in applications where temperature instabilities influence optical and mechanical performance, such as in earthbound and spaceborne telescope mirror substrates. Polished Zerodur surfaces of high quality have been required for laser gyro mirrors. Polished surface quality of substrates affects performance of high reflection coatings. Thus, the interest in improving Zerodur polished surface quality has become more general. Beyond eliminating subsurface damage, high quality surfaces are produced by reducing the amount of hydrated material redeposited on the surface during polishing. With the proper control of polishing parameters, such surfaces exhibit roughnesses of < l Angstrom rms. Zerodur polishing was studied to recommend a high surface quality polishing process which could be easily adapted to standard planetary continuous polishing machines and spindles. This summary contains information on a polishing process developed at LLNL which reproducibly provides high quality polished Zerodur surfaces at very high polishing efficiencies

  16. Experimental identification for physical mechanism of fiber-form nanostructure growth on metal surfaces with helium plasma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takamura, S., E-mail: takamura@aitech.ac.jp [Faculty of Engineering, Aichi Institute of Technology, Yakusa-cho, Toyota 470-0392 (Japan); Uesugi, Y. [Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Institute of Science and Engineering, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan)

    2015-11-30

    Highlights: • Initial growth process of fiber-form nanostructure on metal surfaces under helium ion irradiation is given based on experimental knowledge, where the pitting of original surface and forming nano-walls and/or loop-like nanostructure works as precursors. • The physical mechanism of fiber growth is discussed in terms of shear modulus of metals influenced by helium content as well as surface temperature. • The physical model explains the reason why tantalum does not make sufficiently grown nano-fibers, and the temperature dependence of surface morphology of titanium. - Abstract: The initial stage of fiber-form nanostructure growth on metal surface with helium plasma irradiation is illustrated, taking recent research knowledge using a flux gradient technique, and including loop-like nano-scale structure as precursors. The growth mechanism of fibers is discussed in terms of the shear modulus of various materials that is influenced by the helium content as well as the surface temperature, and the mobility of helium atoms, clusters and/or nano-bubbles in the bulk, loops and fibers. This model may explain the reason why tantalum does not provide fiber-form nanostructure although the loop-like structure was identified. The model also suggests the mechanism of an existence of two kinds of nanostructure of titanium depending on surface temperature. Industrial applications of such nanostructures are suggested in the properties and the possibilities of its growth on other basic materials.

  17. Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Jones; George A. Schier

    1985-01-01

    This chapter considers aspen growth as a process, and discusses some characteristics of the growth and development of trees and stands. For the most part, factors affecting growth are discussed elsewhere, particularly in the GENETICS AND VARIATION chapter and in chapters in PART 11. ECOLOGY. Aspen growth as it relates to wood production is examined in the WOOD RESOURCE...

  18. Simple and convenient preparation of Au-Pt core-shell nanoparticles on surface via a seed growth method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Lei; Sha Yufang; Yang Xiurong

    2006-01-01

    Au-Pt core-shell nanoparticles were prepared on glass surface by a seed growth method. Gold nanoparticles were used as seeds and ascorbic acid-H 2 PtCl 6 solutions as growth solutions to deposit Pt shell on the surface of gold nanoparticles. These core-shell nanoparticles and their growth process were examined by UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and field-emission environmental scanning electron microscopy and the results indicated that the deposition speed was fast and nanoparticles with obvious core-shell structure could be obtained after 2 min. Moreover, this seed growth method for preparation of the core-shell nanoparticles is simple and convenient compared with other seed growth methods with NH 4 OH as a mild reductant. In addition, electrochemical experiments indicated that these Au-Pt core-shell nanoparticles had similar electrochemical properties to those of the bulk Pt electrode

  19. Auger processes in ion-surface collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zampieri, Guillermo.

    1985-01-01

    Bombardment of solid targets with low-energy noble gas ions can produce Auger electron emission from the target atoms and/or from the projectiles. In the case of Auger emission from the projectile, Auger emission was observed during the bombardment of Na, Mg, Al and Si with Ne + ions. This emission was studied as a function of the energy, incidence angle and charge state of the projectile. From the analysis, it is concluded that the emission originates in the decay in vacuum of excited and reflected Ne atoms, moving outside the surface. Auger emission was not observed during the bombardment of K, V and Ni with Ar + ions; Zr and Cs with Kr + , and Xe + ions, respectively; and Li and Be with He + ions. In the case of Auger emission from the target, studies of certain aspects of the Na, Mg and Al Auger electron emission spectra were made. The results allow to identify two components in the Auger feature, coresponding to two kinds of Auger transition. The total spectra results from the superposition of both kinds of emission. Auger spectra from K obtained during Ar + and K + bombardment of K-implanted Be, Mg, Al and Cu were also analyzed. Similar to the Na, Mg and Al Auger spectra, the K Auger feature is composed of an atomic like peak superimposed on a bandlike structure. Both components correspond to Auger transitions in K atoms with a 3p vacancy, occuring in vacuum and inside the solid, respectively. (M.E.L.) [es

  20. Understanding the growth mechanism of graphene on Ge/Si(001) surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabrowski, J; Lippert, G; Avila, J; Baringhaus, J; Colambo, I; Dedkov, Yu S; Herziger, F; Lupina, G; Maultzsch, J; Schaffus, T; Schroeder, T; Kot, M; Tegenkamp, C; Vignaud, D; Asensio, M-C

    2016-08-17

    The practical difficulties to use graphene in microelectronics and optoelectronics is that the available methods to grow graphene are not easily integrated in the mainstream technologies. A growth method that could overcome at least some of these problems is chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of graphene directly on semiconducting (Si or Ge) substrates. Here we report on the comparison of the CVD and molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) growth of graphene on the technologically relevant Ge(001)/Si(001) substrate from ethene (C2H4) precursor and describe the physical properties of the films as well as we discuss the surface reaction and diffusion processes that may be responsible for the observed behavior. Using nano angle resolved photoemission (nanoARPES) complemented by transport studies and Raman spectroscopy as well as density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we report the direct observation of massless Dirac particles in monolayer graphene, providing a comprehensive mapping of their low-hole doped Dirac electron bands. The micrometric graphene flakes are oriented along two predominant directions rotated by 30° with respect to each other. The growth mode is attributed to the mechanism when small graphene "molecules" nucleate on the Ge(001) surface and it is found that hydrogen plays a significant role in this process.

  1. Surface growth mechanisms and structural faulting in the growth of large single and spherulitic titanosilicate ETS-4 crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miraglia, Peter Q.; Yilmaz, Bilge; Warzywoda, Juliusz; Sacco, Albert

    2004-10-01

    Morphological, surface and crystallographic analyses of titanosilicate ETS-4 products, with diverse habits ranging from spherulitic particles composed of submicron crystallites to large single crystals, are presented. Pole figures revealed that crystal surfaces with a-, b- and c- axes corresponded to , and directions, respectively. Thus, technologically important 8-membered ring pores and titania chains in ETS-4 run along the b-axis of single crystals and terminate at the smallest crystal face. Height of the spiral growth steps observed on {1 0 0} and {0 0 1} surfaces corresponded to the interplanar spacings associated with their crystallographic orientation, and is equivalent to the thickness of building units that form the ETS-4 framework. Data suggest that the more viscous synthesis mixtures, with a large driving force for growth, increased the two- and three-dimensional nucleation, while limiting the transport of nutrients to the growth surface. These conditions increase the tendency for stacking fault formation on {1 0 0} surfaces and small angle branching, which eventually results in spherulitic growth. The growth of high quality ETS-4 single crystals (from less viscous synthesis mixtures) occurred at lower surface nucleation rates. Data suggest that these high quality, large crystals grew due to one-dimensional nucleation at spiral hillocks, and indicate that under these conditions un-faulted growth is preferred.

  2. A Monte Carlo/response surface strategy for sensitivity analysis: application to a dynamic model of vegetative plant growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, J. T.; Gold, H. J.; Wilkerson, G. G.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Raper CD, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1989-01-01

    We describe the application of a strategy for conducting a sensitivity analysis for a complex dynamic model. The procedure involves preliminary screening of parameter sensitivities by numerical estimation of linear sensitivity coefficients, followed by generation of a response surface based on Monte Carlo simulation. Application is to a physiological model of the vegetative growth of soybean plants. The analysis provides insights as to the relative importance of certain physiological processes in controlling plant growth. Advantages and disadvantages of the strategy are discussed.

  3. Nucleation and growth of vapor bubbles in the liquid bulk and at a solid surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagov, V.V.

    1977-01-01

    The main achievements in the study of the vapor phase origin in liquid and the subsequent growth of the vapor bubbles are presented briefly, and a number of issues on which there is no single opinion as yet are also outlined. The theory of homogeneous nucleation and a great number of experiments make it possible not only to explain qualitatively the causes of spontaneous formation of vapor nucleation centers in the metastable liquid but provides a simple computational relation for the estimating the intensity of this process. None of the existing hypotheses, however, can give a complete answer to the question of the mechanism of the vapor phase nucleation on a solid surface under ''pure conditions'', although this is a more pressing problem. At the same time, the role of cavities of reservoir type (with a narrow orifice) on the surface under heating as reliable stabilizers of the vapor formation (especially in liquid metals) is clarified from the practical point of view. Thus, the identification of technology for production of such cavities would make it possible to increase substantially the efficiency of heat transferring surfaces. Any computational relations for the growth of bubbles on the heating surface also are (and, according to the author, necessarily will be) approximate ones, although considerable success has been achieved in this field

  4. Dynamic growth of slip surfaces in catastrophic landslides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germanovich, Leonid N; Kim, Sihyun; Puzrin, Alexander M

    2016-01-01

    This work considers a landslide caused by the shear band that emerges along the potential slip (rupture) surface. The material above the band slides downwards, causing the band to grow along the slope. This growth may first be stable (progressive), but eventually becomes dynamic (catastrophic). The landslide body acquires a finite velocity before it separates from the substrata. The corresponding initial-boundary value problem for a dynamic shear band is formulated within the framework of Palmer & Rice's ( Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 332 , 527-548. (doi:10.1098/rspa.1973.0040)) approach, which is generalized to the dynamic case. We obtain the exact, closed-form solution for the band velocity and slip rate. This solution assesses when the slope fails owing to a limiting condition near the propagating tip of the shear band. Our results are applicable to both submarine and subaerial landslides of this type. It appears that neglecting dynamic (inertia) effects can lead to a significant underestimation of the slide size, and that the volumes of catastrophic slides can exceed the volumes of progressive slides by nearly a factor of 2. As examples, we consider the Gaviota and Humboldt slides offshore of California, and discuss landslides in normally consolidated sediments and sensitive clays. In particular, it is conceivable that Humboldt slide is unfinished and may still displace a large volume of sediments, which could generate a considerable tsunami. We show that in the case of submarine slides, the effect of water resistance on the shear band dynamics may frequently be limited during the slope failure stage. For a varying slope angle, we formulate a condition of slide cessation.

  5. Effect of Cassava Processing Effluent on Soil Properties, Growth and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study, comprising a survey, greenhouse and field experiments was conducted to examine the effect of Cassava Processing Effluent (CPE) on soil chemical properties, maize growth performances and grain yield. In the survey, soil samples were taken (0-15 and 15 – 30cm) of CPE contaminated and non contaminated ...

  6. Becoming Counselors through Growth and Learning: The Entry Transition Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Holly H.; Hill, Nicole R.

    2015-01-01

    This article explored counselor development within the entry transition into counselor education programs using 4 interviews and interpretive dialogues with 8 beginning counselors. Six categories resulted from the authors' grounded theory analysis: Anticipation, Evolving Identity, Growth and Learning, Coping, Choosing to Trust the Process, and…

  7. He atom surface scattering: Surface dynamics of insulators, overlayers and crystal growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Investigations have focused primarily on surface structure and dynamics of ionic insulators, epitaxial growth onto alkali halide crystals and multiphoton studies. The surface dynamics of RbCl has been re-examined. We have developed a simple force constant model which provides insight into the dynamics of KBr overlayers on NaCl(001), a system with a large lattice mismatch. The KBr/NaCl(001) results are compared to Na/Cu(001) and NaCl/Ge(001). We have completed epitaxial growth experiments for KBr onto RbCl(001). Slab dynamics calculations using a shell model for this system with very small lattice mismatch are being carried out in collaboration with Professor Manson of Clemson University and with Professor Schroeder in Regensburg, Germany. Extensive experiments on multiphoton scattering of helium atoms onto NaCl and, particularly, LiF have been carried out and the theory has been developed to a rather advanced stage by Professor Manson. This work will permit the extraction of more information from time-of-flight spectra. It is shown that the theoretical model provides a very good description of the multiphoton scattering from organic films. Work has started on self-assembling organic films on gold (alkyl thiols/Au(111)). We have begun to prepare and characterize the gold crystal; one of the group members has spent two weeks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory learning the proper Au(111) preparation techniques. One of our students has carried out neutron scattering experiments on NiO, measuring both bulk phonon and magnon dispersion curves

  8. Morphology and grain structure evolution during epitaxial growth of Ag films on native-oxide-covered Si surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hur, Tae-Bong; Kim, Hong Koo; Perello, David; Yun, Minhee; Kulovits, Andreas; Wiezorek, Joerg

    2008-01-01

    Epitaxial nanocrystalline Ag films were grown on initially native-oxide-covered Si(001) substrates using radio-frequency magnetron sputtering. Mechanisms of grain growth and morphology evolution were investigated. An epitaxially oriented Ag layer (∼5 nm thick) formed on the oxide-desorbed Si surface during the initial growth phase. After a period of growth instability, characterized as kinetic roughening, grain growth stagnation, and increase of step-edge density, a layer of nanocrystalline Ag grains with a uniform size distribution appeared on the quasi-two-dimensional layer. This hierarchical process of film formation is attributed to the dynamic interplay between incoming energetic Ag particles and native oxide. The cyclic interaction (desorption and migration) of the oxide with the growing Ag film is found to play a crucial role in the characteristic evolution of grain growth and morphology change involving an interval of grain growth stagnation

  9. Osteoblast growth behavior on porous-structure titanium surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Yuan; Ding Siyang; Peng Hui; Lu Shanming; Wang Guoping; Xia Lu; Wang Peizhi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Micro-arc oxidation technology formed a porous feature on titanium surface. ► This porous surface accelerated adhesion, proliferation and differentiation compared with smooth surface. ► Osteogenesis-related proteins and genes were up regulated by this porous surface. ► It is anticipated that micro-arc oxidation surface could enhance osteoblastic activity and bone regeneration. - Abstract: A bioavailable surface generated by nano-technology could accelerate implant osteointegration, reduce healing time and enable implants to bear early loading. In this study, a nano-porous surface of titanium wafers was modified using micro-arc oxidation technique; surface of smooth titanium was used as control group. Surface characteristic was evaluated by investigating morphology, roughness and hydrophilicity of titanium wafers. In vitro studies, osteoblastic adhesion, proliferation and ALP activity, as well as gene and protein expressions relative to mineralization were assayed. Our results showed that a crater-liked nano-porous surface with greater roughness and better hydrophilicity were fabricated by micro-arc oxidation. It was further indicated that nano-porous surface could enhance adhesion, proliferation and ALP activity of osteoblasts compared with smooth surfaces. In addition, gene and protein expression of collagen-I, osteocalcin and osteopontin were also obviously increased. In summary, micro-arc oxidized techniques could form an irregular nano-porous morphology on implant surface which is favorable to improve osteoblastic function and prospected to be a potent modification of dental implant.

  10. Superhydrophobic coatings for aluminium surfaces synthesized by chemical etching process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Varshney

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the superhydrophobic coatings on aluminium surfaces were prepared by two-step (chemical etching followed by coating and one-step (chemical etching and coating in a single step processes using potassium hydroxide and lauric acid. Besides, surface immersion time in solutions was varied in both processes. Wettability and surface morphologies of treated aluminium surfaces were characterized using contact angle measurement technique and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. Microstructures are formed on the treated aluminium surfaces which lead to increase in contact angle of the surface (>150°. Also on increasing immersion time, contact angle further increases due to increase in size and depth of microstructures. Additionally, these superhydrophobic coatings show excellent self-cleaning and corrosion-resistant behavior. Water jet impact, floatation on water surface, and low temperature condensation tests assert the excellent water-repellent nature of coatings. Further, coatings are to be found mechanically, thermally, and ultraviolet stable. Along with, these coatings are found to be excellent regeneration ability as verified experimentally. Although aforesaid both processes generate durable and regenerable superhydrophobic aluminium surfaces with excellent self-cleaning, corrosion-resistant, and water-repellent characteristics, but one-step process is proved more efficient and less time consuming than two-step process and promises to produce superhydrophobic coatings for industrial applications.

  11. Modelisation and numerical simulation for bulk crystal growth processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffar, F.; Dusserre, P.; Barat, C.; Nabot, J.P.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this work is to study the relevance of numerical simulation for improving the process control in the field of crystal growth. This investigation focused on the growth of semiconductor and halide crystals by the Bridgman solidification technique, the principle of which is to cool a seeded feed material contained in a crucible, either by pulling the crucible or by decreasing the temperature in the furnace. Calculations are performed with the finite element method, and for comparison, experiments are carried out on Bridgman pulling machines operating either in a laboratory or in industrial plants. Calculations and experimental data have shown a good agreement and a satisfactory reliability

  12. Rare behavior of growth processes via umbrella sampling of trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klymko, Katherine; Geissler, Phillip L.; Garrahan, Juan P.; Whitelam, Stephen

    2018-03-01

    We compute probability distributions of trajectory observables for reversible and irreversible growth processes. These results reveal a correspondence between reversible and irreversible processes, at particular points in parameter space, in terms of their typical and atypical trajectories. Thus key features of growth processes can be insensitive to the precise form of the rate constants used to generate them, recalling the insensitivity to microscopic details of certain equilibrium behavior. We obtained these results using a sampling method, inspired by the "s -ensemble" large-deviation formalism, that amounts to umbrella sampling in trajectory space. The method is a simple variant of existing approaches, and applies to ensembles of trajectories controlled by the total number of events. It can be used to determine large-deviation rate functions for trajectory observables in or out of equilibrium.

  13. SURFACE CAST IRON STRENGTHENING USING COMBINED LASER AND ULTRASONIC PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. G. Devojno

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides an analysis of ultrasonic surface plastic deformation and subsequent laser thermal strengthening of gray cast iron parts in the regime of hardening from a solid state with the purpose to obtain strengthened surface layers of bigger depth and less roughness of the processed surface. Program complex ANSYS 11.0 has been used for calculation of temperature fields induced by laser exposure.  The appropriate regime of laser processing without surface fusion has been selected on the basis of the applied complex. The possibility of displacement in the bottom boundary of α–γ-transformation temperature  for СЧ20 with 900 °С up to 800 °С is confirmed due to preliminary ultrasonic surface plastic deformation of the surface that allows to expand technological opportunities of laser quenching  of gray  cast iron from a solid state. 

  14. Non-linear self-reinforced growth of tearing modes with multiple rational surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maschke, E.K.; Persson, M.; Dewar, R.L.; Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT

    1993-06-01

    The non-linear evolution of tearing modes with multiple rational surfaces is discussed. It is demonstrated that, in the presence of small differential rotation, the non-linear growth might be faster than exponential. This growth occurs as the rotation frequencies of the plasma at the different rational surfaces go into equilibrium

  15. Simulating the growth process of aromatic polyamide layer by monomer concentration controlling method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Yan [Vontron Technology Co., Ltd., Guiyang 550018, Guizhou (China); Liang, Songmiao, E-mail: liangsongmiao@vontron.com.cn [Vontron Technology Co., Ltd., Guiyang 550018, Guizhou (China); Wu, Zongce; Cai, Zhiqi [Vontron Technology Co., Ltd., Guiyang 550018, Guizhou (China); Zhao, Ning [National Laboratory of Molecular Sciences, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences (ICCAS), Beijing 100190 (China)

    2014-09-30

    Highlights: • A concentration controlling method to simulate the growth process of polyamide layer was developed. • The surface structure features and properties of polyamide layer at its different growth stages were systematically investigated. • Structure transition from spherical aggregator to leaf-like to typical ridge-and-valley was observed. • The performance of RO membrane is closely related to the structure of polyamide. - Abstract: With the wide distribution and gradual increase of TMC concentration (C{sub TMC}) from 1 × 10{sup −4} wt% to 2.5 × 10{sup −1} wt%, the main purpose of this work is to simulate the surface structure and properties of polyamide layer of reverse osmosis membranes at its different growth stage. The surface structure and properties of the resulted membranes were then characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), attenuated total reflectance infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy, drop shape analysis system and electrokinetic analyzer. The structure growth of polyamide layer underwent in turn three different stages including spherical aggregator, leaf-like and typical ridge-valley structure. Spherical aggregator is the intrinsic structure in the inner layer of polyamide while leaf-like structure is transitional on the outmost polyamide layer. Furthermore, to clarify the effect of the structure change on the properties of polyamide layer, contact angle and zeta potential in the surface of polyamide layer were studied. Hydrophilic surface of polyamide layer is accessible at higher TMC concentration because of the presence of negative charged groups. Performances of the membranes were further measured with an emphasis on studying its structure–performance relationship during the growth process of polyamide layer.

  16. Tungsten surface evolution by helium bubble nucleation, growth and rupture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sefta, Faiza; Wirth, Brian D.; Hammond, Karl D.; Juslin, Niklas

    2013-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations reveal sub-surface mechanisms likely involved in the initial formation of nanometre-sized ‘fuzz’ in tungsten exposed to low-energy helium plasmas. Helium clusters grow to over-pressurized bubbles as a result of repeated cycles of helium absorption and Frenkel pair formation. The self-interstitials either reach the surface as isolated adatoms or trap at the bubble periphery before organizing into prismatic 〈1 1 1〉 dislocation loops. Surface roughening occurs as single adatoms migrate to the surface, prismatic loops glide to the surface to form adatom islands, and ultimately as over-pressurized gas bubbles burst. (paper)

  17. Growth kinetics of metastable (331) nanofacet on Au and Pt(110) surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ndongmouo, U.T.; Houngninou, E.; Hontinfinde, F.

    2006-12-01

    A theoretical epitaxial growth model with realistic barriers for surface diffusion is investigated by means of kinetic Monte Carlo simulations to study the growth modes of metastable (331) nanofacets on Au and Pt(110) surfaces. The results show that under experimental atomic fluxes, the (331) nanofacets grow by 2D nucleation at low temperature in the submonolayer regime. A metastable growth phase diagram that can be useful to experimentalists is presented and looks similar to the one found for the stationary growth of the bcc(001) surface in the kinetic 6-vertex model. (author)

  18. Diffusion processes in bombardment-induced surface topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, R.S.

    1984-01-01

    The bombardment of surfaces with moderate energy ions can lead to the development of various micron-sized surface structures. These structures include ridges, ledges, flat planes, pits and cones. The causal phenomena in the production of these features are sputtering, ion reflection, redeposition of sputtered material, and surface diffusion of both impurity and target-atom species. The authors concentrate on the formation of ion bombardment-induced surface topography wherein surface diffusion is a dominant process. The most thoroughly understood aspect of this topography development is the generation of cone-like structures during sputtering. The formation of cones during sputtering has been attributed to three effects. These are: (1) the presence of asperities, defects, or micro-inclusions in the surface layers, (2) the presence of impurities on the surfaces, and (3) particular crystal orientations. (Auth.)

  19. Osteoblast growth behavior on porous-structure titanium surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian Yuan; Ding Siyang; Peng Hui; Lu Shanming; Wang Guoping [Research Institute of Stomatology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Xia Lu, E-mail: shelueia@yahoo.com.cn [Research Institute of Stomatology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Wang Peizhi, E-mail: wangpzi@sina.com [Research Institute of Stomatology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Micro-arc oxidation technology formed a porous feature on titanium surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This porous surface accelerated adhesion, proliferation and differentiation compared with smooth surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Osteogenesis-related proteins and genes were up regulated by this porous surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is anticipated that micro-arc oxidation surface could enhance osteoblastic activity and bone regeneration. - Abstract: A bioavailable surface generated by nano-technology could accelerate implant osteointegration, reduce healing time and enable implants to bear early loading. In this study, a nano-porous surface of titanium wafers was modified using micro-arc oxidation technique; surface of smooth titanium was used as control group. Surface characteristic was evaluated by investigating morphology, roughness and hydrophilicity of titanium wafers. In vitro studies, osteoblastic adhesion, proliferation and ALP activity, as well as gene and protein expressions relative to mineralization were assayed. Our results showed that a crater-liked nano-porous surface with greater roughness and better hydrophilicity were fabricated by micro-arc oxidation. It was further indicated that nano-porous surface could enhance adhesion, proliferation and ALP activity of osteoblasts compared with smooth surfaces. In addition, gene and protein expression of collagen-I, osteocalcin and osteopontin were also obviously increased. In summary, micro-arc oxidized techniques could form an irregular nano-porous morphology on implant surface which is favorable to improve osteoblastic function and prospected to be a potent modification of dental implant.

  20. Influence of growth temperature on bulk and surface defects in hybrid lead halide perovskite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Weina; Anand, Benoy; Liu, Lihong; Sampat, Siddharth; Bearden, Brandon E.; Malko, Anton V.; Chabal, Yves J.

    2016-01-01

    The rapid development of perovskite solar cells has focused its attention on defects in perovskites, which are gradually realized to strongly control the device performance. A fundamental understanding is therefore needed for further improvement in this field. Recent efforts have mainly focused on minimizing the surface defects and grain boundaries in thin films. Using time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy, we show that bulk defects in perovskite samples prepared using vapor assisted solution process (VASP) play a key role in addition to surface and grain boundary defects. The defect state density of samples prepared at 150 °C (~1017 cm-3) increases by 5 fold at 175 °C even though the average grains size increases slightly, ruling out grain boundary defects as the main mechanism for the observed differences in PL properties upon annealing. Upon surface passivation using water molecules, the PL intensity and lifetime of samples prepared at 200 °C are only partially improved, remaining significantly lower than those prepared at 150 °C. Thus, the present study indicates that the majority of these defect states observed at elevated growth temperatures originates from bulk defects and underscores the importance to control the formation of bulk defects together with grain boundary and surface defects to further improve the optoelectronic properties of perovskites.The rapid development of perovskite solar cells has focused its attention on defects in perovskites, which are gradually realized to strongly control the device performance. A fundamental understanding is therefore needed for further improvement in this field. Recent efforts have mainly focused on minimizing the surface defects and grain boundaries in thin films. Using time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy, we show that bulk defects in perovskite samples prepared using vapor assisted solution process (VASP) play a key role in addition to surface and grain boundary defects. The defect state

  1. Estimation of algal colonization growth on mortar surface using a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thu-Hien Tran

    a hybridization of machine learning and metaheuristic optimization ... support vector regression (LS-SVR) for modelling the growth time of the green alga Klebsormidium flaccidum ...... 2012 Landslide susceptibility assessment in the Hoa Binh.

  2. Land Surface Process and Air Quality Research and Applications at MSFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale; Khan, Maudood

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides an overview of land surface process and air quality research at MSFC including atmospheric modeling and ongoing research whose objective is to undertake a comprehensive spatiotemporal analysis of the effects of accurate land surface characterization on atmospheric modeling results, and public health applications. Land use maps as well as 10 meter air temperature, surface wind, PBL mean difference heights, NOx, ozone, and O3+NO2 plots as well as spatial growth model outputs are included. Emissions and general air quality modeling are also discussed.

  3. 3C-SiC nanocrystal growth on 10° miscut Si(001) surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deokar, Geetanjali, E-mail: gitudeo@gmail.com [INSP, UPMC, CNRS UMR 7588, 4 place Jussieu, Paris F-75005 (France); D' Angelo, Marie; Demaille, Dominique [INSP, UPMC, CNRS UMR 7588, 4 place Jussieu, Paris F-75005 (France); Cavellin, Catherine Deville [INSP, UPMC, CNRS UMR 7588, 4 place Jussieu, Paris F-75005 (France); Faculté des Sciences et Technologie UPEC, 61 av. De Gaulle, Créteil F-94010 (France)

    2014-04-01

    The growth of 3C-SiC nano-crystal (NC) on 10° miscut Si(001) substrate by CO{sub 2} thermal treatment is investigated by scanning and high resolution transmission electron microscopies. The vicinal Si(001) surface was thermally oxidized prior to the annealing at 1100 °C under CO{sub 2} atmosphere. The influence of the atomic steps at the vicinal SiO{sub 2}/Si interface on the SiC NC growth is studied by comparison with the results obtained for fundamental Si(001) substrates in the same conditions. For Si miscut substrate, a substantial enhancement in the density of the SiC NCs and a tendency of preferential alignment of them along the atomic step edges is observed. The SiC/Si interface is abrupt, without any steps and epitaxial growth with full relaxation of 3C-SiC occurs by domain matching epitaxy. The CO{sub 2} pressure and annealing time effect on NC growth is analyzed. The as-prepared SiC NCs can be engineered further for potential application in optoelectronic devices and/or as a seed for homoepitaxial SiC or heteroepitaxial GaN film growth. - Highlights: • Synthesis of 3C-SiC nanocrystals epitaxied on miscut-Si using a simple technique • Evidence of domain matching epitaxy at the SiC/Si interface • SiC growth proceeds along the (001) plane of host Si. • Substantial enhancement of the SiC nanocrystal density due to the miscut • Effect of the process parameters (CO{sub 2} pressure and annealing duration)

  4. Nucleation and growth of copper phthalocyanine aggregates deposited from solution on planar surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghani, Fatemeh [Department of Theory & Bio-Systems, Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, Am Mühlenberg 1 Golm, 14476 Potsdam (Germany); Gojzewski, Hubert, E-mail: hubert.gojzewski@put.poznan.pl [Department of Theory & Bio-Systems, Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, Am Mühlenberg 1 Golm, 14476 Potsdam (Germany); Institute of Physics, Poznan University of Technology, Piotrowo 3, 60-965 Poznan (Poland); Riegler, Hans [Department of Theory & Bio-Systems, Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, Am Mühlenberg 1 Golm, 14476 Potsdam (Germany)

    2015-10-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Copper phthalocyanine deposited on planar surfaces by 3 solution process methods. • Aggregate morphology examined for coverage extending over 3 orders of magnitude. • Morphologies vary from small individual domains to mesh-like multilayers. • Nucleation and growth model explains the observed deposit morphologies. - Abstract: Copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) dissolved in trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) is deposited on solid SiO{sub 2} surfaces by solvent evaporation. The deposited CuPc aggregates are investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The CuPc deposits were prepared by spin casting, dip coating, and spray deposition. Depending on the amount of deposited CuPc the aggregate morphology ranges from small individual domains to mesh-like multilayers. Each domain/layer consists of many parallel stacks of CuPc molecules with the square, plate-like molecules piled face-wise within each stack. The parallel stacks are attached sideways (i.e., edgewise attachment molecularly) to the substrate forming “nanoribbons” with uniform thickness of about 1 nm and varying width. The thickness reflects the length of a molecular edge, the width the number of stacks. A nucleation and growth model is presented that explains the observed aggregate and multilayer morphologies as result of the combination of nucleation, transport processes and a consequence of the anisotropic intermolecular interactions due to the shape of the CuPc molecule.

  5. Nucleation and growth of microdroplets of ionic liquids deposited by physical vapor method onto different surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, José C. S.; Coelho, Ana F. S. M. G.; Mendes, Adélio; Santos, Luís M. N. B. F.

    2018-01-01

    Nanoscience and technology has generated an important area of research in the field of properties and functionality of ionic liquids (ILs) based materials and their thin films. This work explores the deposition process of ILs droplets as precursors for the fabrication of thin films, by means of physical vapor deposition (PVD). It was found that the deposition (by PVD on glass, indium tin oxide, graphene/nickel and gold-coated quartz crystal surfaces) of imidazolium [C4mim][NTf2] and pyrrolidinium [C4C1Pyrr][NTf2] based ILs generates micro/nanodroplets with a shape, size distribution and surface coverage that could be controlled by the evaporation flow rate and deposition time. No indication of the formation of a wetting-layer prior to the island growth was found. Based on the time-dependent morphological analysis of the micro/nanodroplets, a simple model for the description of the nucleation process and growth of ILs droplets is presented. The proposed model is based on three main steps: minimum free area to promote nucleation; first order coalescence; second order coalescence.

  6. Apparatus and process for the surface treatment of carbon fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulauskas, Felix Leonard; Ozcan, Soydan; Naskar, Amit K.

    2016-05-17

    A method for surface treating a carbon-containing material in which carbon-containing material is reacted with decomposing ozone in a reactor (e.g., a hollow tube reactor), wherein a concentration of ozone is maintained throughout the reactor by appropriate selection of at least processing temperature, gas stream flow rate, reactor dimensions, ozone concentration entering the reactor, and position of one or more ozone inlets (ports) in the reactor, wherein the method produces a surface-oxidized carbon or carbon-containing material, preferably having a surface atomic oxygen content of at least 15%. The resulting surface-oxidized carbon material and solid composites made therefrom are also described.

  7. An investigation of laser processing of silica surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, A.J.; Stewart, A.F.; Exarhos, G.J.; Stowell, W.K.

    1988-01-01

    An initial set of experiments has been conducted to determine the practicality of laser processing of optical substrates. In contrast to earlier work, a high average power CO 2 laser was used to flood load the entire surface of each test sample. Fused silica substrates were laser polished on both surfaces at power densities ranging from 150 to 350 W/cm 2 . During each test sequence sample surface temperatures were recorded using a thermal imaging system. Extensive pre- and post-test characterization revealed that surface roughness and scattering of bare silica surfaces were reduced while internal stress increased. Laser damage thresholds were found to increase only for certain conditions. Changes in the microstructure were observed. These preliminary experiments demonstrate that laser processing can dramatically improve the optical properties of fused silica substrates

  8. An Experimental Study of the Dropwise Condensation on Physically Processed Surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jaeyoung; Chang, Soonheung; Watanabe, N.; Sambuichi, T.; Shiota, D.; Aritomi, M.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research by Kawakubo et al. derived empirical condensation heat transfer correlation suitable for wider range of operating condition in presence of non-condensable gas. However, their proposals of PCCS are focused on plane tube surface. To design better PCCS heat exchanger with high heat transfer coefficient new treatment on condensation surface can be considered in order to maintain dropwise condensation, the heat transfer coefficient of which has an order of magnitude larger than those of film condensation. Advanced research measure dropwise condensation heat transfer coefficient of Au and Cr coated surface based on number of droplet and droplet growth rate. However, coated surface is not desirable in power plant due to its duration of few years. On the other hand, physical processing (micro holes and patterns) on stainless steel and titanium surface is expected to perform better heat transfer, also is durable for the whole reactor lifetime. Since there is no published research about dropwise condensation for physically processed surface on SUS and Ti, the purposes of this research are to measure the condensation heat transfer coefficient and analyze its mechanism of enhanced heat transfer of treated SUS and Ti commonly used to nuclear plant. In the comparison of theoretical equation and experiment, it shows same result that heat transfer coefficient is proportional to maximum droplet diameter power to -0.321. Moreover, in the comparison of bare and processed surface, heat transfer coefficient decreases in processed surface

  9. Bacterial growth on a superhydrophobic surface containing silver nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinonen, S; Nikkanen, J-P; Laakso, J; Levänen, E; Raulio, M; Priha, O

    2013-01-01

    The antibacterial effect of silver can be exploited in the food and beverage industry and medicinal applications to reduce biofouling of surfaces. Very small amount of silver ions are enough to destructively affect the metabolism of bacteria. Moreover, superhydrophobic properties could reduce bacterial adhesion to the surface. In this study we fabricated superhydrophobic surfaces that contained nanosized silver particles. The superhydrophobic surfaces were manufactured onto stainless steel as combination of ceramic nanotopography and hydrophobication by fluorosilane. Silver nanoparticles were precipitated onto the surface by a chemical method. The dissolution of silver from the surface was tested in an aqueous environment under pH values of 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11 and 13. The pH value was adjusted with nitric acid and ammonia. It was found that dissolution rate of silver increased as the pH of the solution altered from the pH of de-ionized water to lower and higher pH values but dissolution occurred also in de-ionized water. The antimicrobial potential of this coating was investigated using bacterial strains isolated from the brewery equipment surfaces. The results showed that the number of bacteria adhering onto steel surface was significantly reduced (88%) on the superhydrophobic silver containing coating

  10. Bacterial growth on a superhydrophobic surface containing silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen, S.; Nikkanen, J.-P.; Laakso, J.; Raulio, M.; Priha, O.; Levänen, E.

    2013-12-01

    The antibacterial effect of silver can be exploited in the food and beverage industry and medicinal applications to reduce biofouling of surfaces. Very small amount of silver ions are enough to destructively affect the metabolism of bacteria. Moreover, superhydrophobic properties could reduce bacterial adhesion to the surface. In this study we fabricated superhydrophobic surfaces that contained nanosized silver particles. The superhydrophobic surfaces were manufactured onto stainless steel as combination of ceramic nanotopography and hydrophobication by fluorosilane. Silver nanoparticles were precipitated onto the surface by a chemical method. The dissolution of silver from the surface was tested in an aqueous environment under pH values of 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11 and 13. The pH value was adjusted with nitric acid and ammonia. It was found that dissolution rate of silver increased as the pH of the solution altered from the pH of de-ionized water to lower and higher pH values but dissolution occurred also in de-ionized water. The antimicrobial potential of this coating was investigated using bacterial strains isolated from the brewery equipment surfaces. The results showed that the number of bacteria adhering onto steel surface was significantly reduced (88%) on the superhydrophobic silver containing coating.

  11. Industrialization drive of radiation processing for economic growth in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Yanxiao

    1996-12-01

    The transfer of research and development achievements of radiation processing to routine industrial applications in China is reviewed. While making a brief survey of historical background, the paper indicates the different roles that various domestic organizations played in the industrialization drive of radiation processing. Among them the Government's role is the most important one. In accordance with recent growth of the number of industrial radiation facilities (e.g. cobalt-60 irradiators and electron beam accelerators) and current application of radiation processing in main fields in different parts of the country, it can be said that a new radiation processing industry is shaping up in its developing stage to satisfy the growing requirements for economic booming in China. (16 refs.)

  12. Analysis of the Growth Process of Neural Cells in Culture Environment Using Image Processing Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirsafianf, Atefeh S.; Isfahani, Shirin N.; Kasaei, Shohreh; Mobasheri, Hamid

    Here we present an approach for processing neural cells images to analyze their growth process in culture environment. We have applied several image processing techniques for: 1- Environmental noise reduction, 2- Neural cells segmentation, 3- Neural cells classification based on their dendrites' growth conditions, and 4- neurons' features Extraction and measurement (e.g., like cell body area, number of dendrites, axon's length, and so on). Due to the large amount of noise in the images, we have used feed forward artificial neural networks to detect edges more precisely.

  13. Small-Angle Neutron Scattering Investigation of Growth Modifiers on Hydrate Crystal Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Thomas; Hutter, Jeffrey L.; Lin, M.; King, H. E., Jr.

    1998-03-01

    Hydrates are crystals consisting of small molecules enclathrated within an ice-like water cage. Suppression of their growth is important in the oil industry. The presence of small quantities of specific polymers during hydrate crystallization can induce a transition from an octahedral to planar growth habit. This symmetry breaking is surprising because of the suppression of two 111 planes relative to the other six crystallographically equivalent faces. To better understand the surface effects leading to this behavior, we have studied the surface adsorption of these growth-modifing polymers onto the hydrate crytals using SANS. The total hydrate surface area, as measured by Porod scattering, increases in the presence of the growth modifier, but, no significant increase in polymer concentration on the crystal surfaces is found. Implications for possible growth mechanisms will be discussed.

  14. Step driven competitive epitaxial and self-limited growth of graphene on copper surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Fan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The existence of surface steps was found to have significant function and influence on the growth of graphene on copper via chemical vapor deposition. The two typical growth modes involved were found to be influenced by the step morphologies on copper surface, which led to our proposed step driven competitive growth mechanism. We also discovered a protective role of graphene in preserving steps on copper surface. Our results showed that wide and high steps promoted epitaxial growth and yielded multilayer graphene domains with regular shape, while dense and low steps favored self-limited growth and led to large-area monolayer graphene films. We have demonstrated that controllable growth of graphene domains of specific shape and large-area continuous graphene films are feasible.

  15. Metal thin film growth on multimetallic surfaces: From quaternary metallic glass to binary crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing, Dapeng [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2010-01-01

    length while keeping the corresponding island width constant. Third, LEED indicates that, up to about 6 BL (12 ML), the Ag film adopts the (110) structure on lattice matched NiAl(110) surface, supporting the previous assignment based upon island heights measured in STM. Starting at 4.5 to 6 BL, (111) diffraction pattern is detected. This is also in agreement with previous STM study. Careful examinations of the LEED patterns reveal the slight difference in lattice constants between bulk Ag and bulk NiAl. At last, we performed STM studies of Ni deposition on NiAl(110) in the temperature range from 200 K to 400 K. Ni forms 'dense' Ni(100)-like islands on NiAl(110) with a zig-zag shaped stripe feature which is probably due to strain relief. DFT analysis provides insights into the island growth shapes, which are rationalized by the thermodynamics and kinetics of the film growth process. For thick Ni films (coverage exceeding 6 ML), a Ni(111)-like structure developed. Traditional MF theory is applied to analyze island density at 200 K. Deviation from homogeneous nucleation behavior for island size distribution and island density reveals the presence of heterogeneous nucleation mediated by the Ni antisite point defects on NiAl(110) surface.

  16. Plasma nitriding - an eco friendly surface hardening process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, S.

    2015-01-01

    Surface hardening is a process of heating the metal such that the surface gets only hardened. This process is adopted for many components like gears, cams, and crankshafts, which desire high hardness on the outer surface with a softer core to withstand the shocks. So, to attain such properties processes like carburising, nitriding, flame hardening and induction hardening are employed. Amongst these processes nitriding is the most commonly used process by many industries. In nitriding process the steel material is heated to a temperature of around 550 C and then exposed to atomic nitrogen. This atomic nitrogen reacts with iron and other alloying elements and forms nitrides, which are very hard in nature. By this process both wear resistance and hardness of the product can be increased. The atomic nitrogen required for this process can be obtained using ammonia gas (gas nitriding), cyanide based salt bath (liquid nitriding) and plasma medium (plasma nitriding). However, plasma nitriding has recently received considerable industrial interest owing to its characteristic of faster nitrogen penetration, short treatment time, low process temperature, minimal distortion, low energy use and easier control of layer formation compared with conventional techniques such as gas and liquid nitriding. This process can be used for all ferrous materials including stainless steels. Plasma nitriding is carried out using a gas mixture of nitrogen and hydrogen gas at sub atmospheric pressures hence, making it eco-friendly in nature. Plasma nitriding allows modification of the surface layers and hardness profiles by changing the gas mixture and temperature. The wide applicable temperature range enables a multitude of applications, beyond the possibilities of gas or salt bath processes. This has led to numerous applications of this process in industries such as the manufacture of machine parts for plastics and food processing, packaging and tooling as well as pumps and hydraulic, machine

  17. Atomic force microscopy investigation of growth process of organic TCNQ aggregates on SiO2 and mica substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huan, Qing; Hu, Hao; Pan, Li-Da; Xiao, Jiang; Du, Shi-Xuan; Gao, Hong-Jun

    2010-08-01

    Deposition patterns of tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) molecules on different surfaces are investigated by atomic force microscopy. A homemade physical vapour deposition system allows the better control of molecule deposition. Taking advantage of this system, we investigate TCNQ thin film growth on both SiO2 and mica surfaces. It is found that dense island patterns form at a high deposition rate, and a unique seahorse-like pattern forms at a low deposition rate. Growth patterns on different substrates suggest that the fractal pattern formation is dominated by molecule-molecule interaction. Finally, a phenomenal “two-branch" model is proposed to simulate the growth process of the seahorse pattern.

  18. Atomic force microscopy investigation of growth process of organic TCNQ aggregates on SiO2 and mica substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qing, Huan; Hao, Hu; Li-Da, Pan; Jiang, Xiao; Shi-Xuan, Du; Hong-Jun, Gao

    2010-01-01

    Deposition patterns of tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) molecules on different surfaces are investigated by atomic force microscopy. A homemade physical vapour deposition system allows the better control of molecule deposition. Taking advantage of this system, we investigate TCNQ thin film growth on both SiO 2 and mica surfaces. It is found that dense island patterns form at a high deposition rate, and a unique seahorse-like pattern forms at a low deposition rate. Growth patterns on different substrates suggest that the fractal pattern formation is dominated by molecule–molecule interaction. Finally, a phenomenal “two-branch” model is proposed to simulate the growth process of the seahorse pattern. (general)

  19. Surface processing for bulk niobium superconducting radio frequency cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, M. P.; Reid, T.

    2017-04-01

    The majority of niobium cavities for superconducting particle accelerators continue to be fabricated from thin-walled (2-4 mm) polycrystalline niobium sheet and, as a final step, require material removal from the radio frequency (RF) surface in order to achieve performance needed for use as practical accelerator devices. More recently bulk niobium in the form of, single- or large-grain slices cut from an ingot has become a viable alternative for some cavity types. In both cases the so-called damaged layer must be chemically etched or electrochemically polished away. The methods for doing this date back at least four decades, however, vigorous empirical studies on real cavities and more fundamental studies on niobium samples at laboratories worldwide have led to seemingly modest improvements that, when taken together, constitute a substantial advance in the reproducibility for surface processing techniques and overall cavity performance. This article reviews the development of niobium cavity surface processing, and summarizes results of recent studies. We place some emphasis on practical details for real cavity processing systems which are difficult to find in the literature but are, nonetheless, crucial for achieving the good and reproducible cavity performance. New approaches for bulk niobium surface treatment which aim to reduce cost or increase performance, including alternate chemical recipes, barrel polishing and ‘nitrogen doping’ of the RF surface, continue to be pursued and are closely linked to the requirements for surface processing.

  20. Inferring time derivatives including cell growth rates using Gaussian processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Peter S.; Stevenson, Keiran; Leary, Allen; Montano-Gutierrez, Luis F.; Clark, Ivan B. N.; Vogel, Jackie; Pilizota, Teuta

    2016-12-01

    Often the time derivative of a measured variable is of as much interest as the variable itself. For a growing population of biological cells, for example, the population's growth rate is typically more important than its size. Here we introduce a non-parametric method to infer first and second time derivatives as a function of time from time-series data. Our approach is based on Gaussian processes and applies to a wide range of data. In tests, the method is at least as accurate as others, but has several advantages: it estimates errors both in the inference and in any summary statistics, such as lag times, and allows interpolation with the corresponding error estimation. As illustrations, we infer growth rates of microbial cells, the rate of assembly of an amyloid fibril and both the speed and acceleration of two separating spindle pole bodies. Our algorithm should thus be broadly applicable.

  1. Surface topography of parallel grinding process for nonaxisymmetric aspheric lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ningning; Wang Zhenzhong; Pan Ri; Wang Chunjin; Guo Yinbiao

    2012-01-01

    Workpiece surface profile, texture and roughness can be predicted by modeling the topography of wheel surface and modeling kinematics of grinding process, which compose an important part of precision grinding process theory. Parallel grinding technology is an important method for nonaxisymmetric aspheric lens machining, but there is few report on relevant simulation. In this paper, a simulation method based on parallel grinding for precision machining of aspheric lens is proposed. The method combines modeling the random surface of wheel and modeling the single grain track based on arc wheel contact points. Then, a mathematical algorithm for surface topography is proposed and applied in conditions of different machining parameters. The consistence between the results of simulation and test proves that the algorithm is correct and efficient. (authors)

  2. Plasma assisted surface coating/modification processes: An emerging technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalvins, T.

    1986-01-01

    A broad understanding of the numerous ion or plasma assisted surface coating/modification processes is sought. An awareness of the principles of these processes is needed before discussing in detail the ion nitriding technology. On the basis of surface modifications arising from ion or plasma energizing and interactions, it can be broadly classified as deposition of distinct overlay coatings (sputtering-dc, radio frequency, magnetron, reactive; ion plating-diode, triode) and surface property modification without forming a discrete coating (ion implantation, ion beam mixing, laser beam irradiation, ion nitriding, ion carburizing, plasma oxidation). These techniques offer a great flexibility and are capable in tailoring desirable chemical and structural surface properties independent of the bulk properties.

  3. Plasma assisted surface coating/modification processes - An emerging technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalvins, T.

    1987-01-01

    A broad understanding of the numerous ion or plasma assisted surface coating/modification processes is sought. An awareness of the principles of these processes is needed before discussing in detail the ion nitriding technology. On the basis of surface modifications arising from ion or plasma energizing and interactions, it can be broadly classified as deposition of distinct overlay coatings (sputtering-dc, radio frequency, magnetron, reactive; ion plating-diode, triode) and surface property modification without forming a discrete coating (ion implantation, ion beam mixing, laser beam irradiation, ion nitriding, ion carburizing, plasma oxidation. These techniques offer a great flexibility and are capable in tailoring desirable chemical and structural surface properties independent of the bulk properties.

  4. ANFIS Modeling of the Surface Roughness in Grinding Process

    OpenAIRE

    H. Baseri; G. Alinejad

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to design an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) for estimation of surface roughness in grinding process. The Used data have been generated from experimental observations when the wheel has been dressed using a rotary diamond disc dresser. The input parameters of model are dressing speed ratio, dressing depth and dresser cross-feed rate and output parameter is surface roughness. In the experimental procedure the grinding conditions...

  5. UV-Surface Treatment of Fungal Resistant Polyether Polyurethane Film-Induced Growth of Entomopathogenic Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lando, Gabriela Albara; Marconatto, Letícia; Kessler, Felipe; Lopes, William; Schrank, Augusto; Vainstein, Marilene Henning; Weibel, Daniel Eduardo

    2017-07-18

    Synthetic polymers are the cause of some major environmental impacts due to their low degradation rates. Polyurethanes (PU) are widely used synthetic polymers, and their growing use in industry has produced an increase in plastic waste. A commercial polyether-based thermoplastic PU with hydrolytic stability and fungus resistance was only attacked by an entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhiziumanisopliae , when the films were pre-treated with Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation in the presence of reactive atmospheres. Water contact angle, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in attenuated total reflection mode (FTIR-ATR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and profilometer measurements were mainly used for analysis. Permanent hydrophilic PU films were produced by the UV-assisted treatments. Pristine polyether PU films incubated for 10, 30, and 60 days did not show any indication of fungal growth. On the contrary, when using oxygen in the UV pre-treatment a layer of fungi spores covered the sample, indicating a great adherence of the microorganisms to the polymer. However, if acrylic acid vapors were used during the UV pre-treatment, a visible attack by the entomopathogenic fungi was observed. SEM and FTIR-ATR data showed clear evidence of fungal development: growth and ramifications of hyphae on the polymer surface with the increase in UV pre-treatment time and fungus incubation time. The results indicated that the simple UV surface activation process has proven to be a promising alternative for polyether PU waste management.

  6. Plasma Rich in Growth Factors for the Treatment of Ocular Surface Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitua, Eduardo; Muruzabal, Francisco; de la Fuente, María; Merayo, Jesús; Durán, Juan; Orive, Gorka

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this work is to describe and review the technology of plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF), a novel blood derivative product, in the treatment of ocular surface disorders. To demonstrate the importance of this technology in the treatment of ocular pathologies, a thorough review of the preclinical and clinical literature results obtained following use of the different therapeutic formulations of PRGF was carried out. A literature search for applications of PGRF plasma in the ophthalmology field was carried out using the PubMed database. PRGF involves the use of patient's own biologically active proteins, growth factors, and biomaterial scaffolds for therapeutic purposes. This procedural technology is gaining interest in regenerative medicine due to its potential to stimulate and accelerate the tissue healing processes. The versatility and biocompatibility of this technology opens the door to a personalized medicine on ocular tissue regeneration. This review discusses the state of the art of the new treatments and technologies developed to promote ocular surface tissue regeneration. The standardized protocol that has been developed to source eye drops from PRGF technology is also described. The preclinical research, together with the most relevant clinical applications are summarized and discussed. The preliminary results suggest that the use of PRGF to enhance ocular tissue regeneration is safe and efficient.

  7. UV-Surface Treatment of Fungal Resistant Polyether Polyurethane Film-Induced Growth of Entomopathogenic Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Albara Lando

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic polymers are the cause of some major environmental impacts due to their low degradation rates. Polyurethanes (PU are widely used synthetic polymers, and their growing use in industry has produced an increase in plastic waste. A commercial polyether-based thermoplastic PU with hydrolytic stability and fungus resistance was only attacked by an entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhiziumanisopliae, when the films were pre-treated with Ultraviolet (UV irradiation in the presence of reactive atmospheres. Water contact angle, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in attenuated total reflection mode (FTIR-ATR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and profilometer measurements were mainly used for analysis. Permanent hydrophilic PU films were produced by the UV-assisted treatments. Pristine polyether PU films incubated for 10, 30, and 60 days did not show any indication of fungal growth. On the contrary, when using oxygen in the UV pre-treatment a layer of fungi spores covered the sample, indicating a great adherence of the microorganisms to the polymer. However, if acrylic acid vapors were used during the UV pre-treatment, a visible attack by the entomopathogenic fungi was observed. SEM and FTIR-ATR data showed clear evidence of fungal development: growth and ramifications of hyphae on the polymer surface with the increase in UV pre-treatment time and fungus incubation time. The results indicated that the simple UV surface activation process has proven to be a promising alternative for polyether PU waste management.

  8. Growth and surface topography of WSe_2 single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixit, Vijay; Vyas, Chirag; Pataniya, Pratik; Jani, Mihir; Pathak, Vishal; Patel, Abhishek; Pathak, V. M.; Patel, K. D.; Solanki, G. K.

    2016-01-01

    Tungsten Di-Selenide belongs to the family of TMDCs showing their potential applications in the fields of Optoelectronics and PEC solar cells. Here in the present investigation single crystals of WSe_2 were grown by Direct Vapour Transport Technique in a dual zone furnace having temperature difference of 50 K between the two zones. These single crystals were characterized by EDAX which confirms the stiochiometry of the grown crystals. Surface topography of the crystal was studied by optical micrograph showing the left handed spirals on the surface of WSe_2 crystals. Single crystalline nature of the crystals was confirmed by SAED.

  9. Modelling the growth process of porous aluminum oxide film during anodization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aryslanova, E M; Alfimov, A V; Chivilikhin, S A

    2015-01-01

    Currently it has become important for the development of metamaterials and nanotechnology to obtain regular self-assembled structures. One such structure is porous anodic alumina film that consists of hexagonally packed cylindrical pores. In this work we consider the anodization process, our model takes into account the influence of layers of aluminum and electrolyte on the rate of growth of aluminum oxide, as well as the effect of surface diffusion. In present work we consider those effects. And as a result of our model we obtain the minimum distance between centers of alumina pores in the beginning of anodizing process. (paper)

  10. Modelling the growth process of porous aluminum oxide film during anodization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryslanova, E. M.; Alfimov, A. V.; Chivilikhin, S. A.

    2015-11-01

    Currently it has become important for the development of metamaterials and nanotechnology to obtain regular self-assembled structures. One such structure is porous anodic alumina film that consists of hexagonally packed cylindrical pores. In this work we consider the anodization process, our model takes into account the influence of layers of aluminum and electrolyte on the rate of growth of aluminum oxide, as well as the effect of surface diffusion. In present work we consider those effects. And as a result of our model we obtain the minimum distance between centers of alumina pores in the beginning of anodizing process.

  11. Receptor-like kinases as surface regulators for RAC/ROP-mediated pollen tube growth and interaction with the pistil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yanjiao; Aggarwal, Mini; Zheng, Wen-Guang; Wu, Hen-Ming; Cheung, Alice Y.

    2011-01-01

    Background RAC/ROPs are RHO-type GTPases and are known to play diverse signalling roles in plants. Cytoplasmic RAC/ROPs are recruited to the cell membrane and activated in response to extracellular signals perceived and mediated by cell surface-located signalling assemblies, transducing the signals to regulate cellular processes. More than any other cell types in plants, pollen tubes depend on continuous interactions with an extracellular environment produced by their surrounding tissues as they grow within the female organ pistil to deliver sperm to the female gametophyte for fertilization. Scope We review studies on pollen tube growth that provide compelling evidence indicating that RAC/ROPs are crucial for regulating the cellular processes that underlie the polarized cell growth process. Efforts to identify cell surface regulators that mediate extracellular signals also point to RAC/ROPs being the molecular switches targeted by growth-regulating female factors for modulation to mediate pollination and fertilization. We discuss a large volume of work spanning more than two decades on a family of pollen-specific receptor kinases and some recent studies on members of the FERONIA family of receptor-like kinases (RLKs). Significance The research described shows the crucial roles that two RLK families play in transducing signals from growth regulatory factors to the RAC/ROP switch at the pollen tube apex to mediate and target pollen tube growth to the female gametophyte and signal its disintegration to achieve fertilization once inside the female chamber. PMID:22476487

  12. Facile modification of gelatin-based microcarriers with multiporous surface and proliferative growth factors delivery to enhance cell growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Sha [Department of Oral Histology and Pathology, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Research and Development Center for Tissue Engineering, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Wang Yijuan [Key Laboratory for Macromolecular Science of Shaanxi Province, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China); Deng, Tianzheng [Research and Development Center for Tissue Engineering, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Jin Fang [Department of Orthodontics, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an, 710032 (China); Liu Shouxin [Key Laboratory for Macromolecular Science of Shaanxi Province, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China); Zhang Yongjie [Department of Oral Histology and Pathology, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Research and Development Center for Tissue Engineering, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Feng Feng [Research and Development Center for Tissue Engineering, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Department of Dermatology, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710038 (China); Jin Yan [Department of Oral Histology and Pathology, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Research and Development Center for Tissue Engineering, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China)], E-mail: yanjin@fmmu.edu.cn

    2008-07-28

    The design of microcarriers plays an important role in the success of cell expansion. The present article provides a facile approach to modify the gelatin-based particles and investigates the feasibility of their acting as microcarriers for cell attachment and growth. Gelatin particles (150-320 {mu}m) were modified by cryogenic treatment and lyophilization to develop the surface with the features of multiporous morphology and were incorporated with proliferative growth factors (bFGF) by adsorption during the post-preparation, which enables them to serve as microcarriers for cells amplification, together with the advantages of larger cell-surface contact area and capability of promoting cell propagation. The microstructure and release assay of the modified microcarriers demonstrated that the pores on surface were uniform and bFGF was released in a controlled manner. Through in vitro fibroblast culture, these features resulted in a prominent increase in the cell attachment rate and cell growth rate relative to the conditions without modification. Although the scanning electron microscopy and optical microscopy analysis results indicated that cells attached, spread, and proliferated on all the microcarriers, cell growth clearly showed a significant correlation with the multiporous structure of microcarriers, in particular on bFGF combined ones. These results validate our previous assumption that the facile modification could improve cell growth on the gelatin-based microcarriers obviously and the novel microcarriers may be a promising candidate in tissue engineering.

  13. Facile modification of gelatin-based microcarriers with multiporous surface and proliferative growth factors delivery to enhance cell growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Sha; Wang Yijuan; Deng, Tianzheng; Jin Fang; Liu Shouxin; Zhang Yongjie; Feng Feng; Jin Yan

    2008-01-01

    The design of microcarriers plays an important role in the success of cell expansion. The present article provides a facile approach to modify the gelatin-based particles and investigates the feasibility of their acting as microcarriers for cell attachment and growth. Gelatin particles (150-320 μm) were modified by cryogenic treatment and lyophilization to develop the surface with the features of multiporous morphology and were incorporated with proliferative growth factors (bFGF) by adsorption during the post-preparation, which enables them to serve as microcarriers for cells amplification, together with the advantages of larger cell-surface contact area and capability of promoting cell propagation. The microstructure and release assay of the modified microcarriers demonstrated that the pores on surface were uniform and bFGF was released in a controlled manner. Through in vitro fibroblast culture, these features resulted in a prominent increase in the cell attachment rate and cell growth rate relative to the conditions without modification. Although the scanning electron microscopy and optical microscopy analysis results indicated that cells attached, spread, and proliferated on all the microcarriers, cell growth clearly showed a significant correlation with the multiporous structure of microcarriers, in particular on bFGF combined ones. These results validate our previous assumption that the facile modification could improve cell growth on the gelatin-based microcarriers obviously and the novel microcarriers may be a promising candidate in tissue engineering

  14. Quantized layer growth at liquid-crystal surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ocko, B. M.; Braslau, A.; Pershan, P. S.

    1986-01-01

    of the specular reflectivity is consistent with a sinusoidal density modulation, starting at the surface and terminating abruptly, after an integral number of bilayers. As the transition is approached the number of layers increases in quantized steps from zero to five before the bulk undergoes a first...

  15. High surface area carbon and process for its production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanos, Jimmy; Burress, Jacob; Pfeifer, Peter; Rash, Tyler; Shah, Parag; Suppes, Galen

    2016-12-13

    Activated carbon materials and methods of producing and using activated carbon materials are provided. In particular, biomass-derived activated carbon materials and processes of producing the activated carbon materials with prespecified surface areas and pore size distributions are provided. Activated carbon materials with preselected high specific surface areas, porosities, sub-nm (<1 nm) pore volumes, and supra-nm (1-5 nm) pore volumes may be achieved by controlling the degree of carbon consumption and metallic potassium intercalation into the carbon lattice during the activation process.

  16. Growth of contact area between rough surfaces under normal stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stesky, R. M.; Hannan, S. S.

    1987-05-01

    The contact area between deforming rough surfaces in marble, alabaster, and quartz was measured from thin sections of surfaces bonded under load with low viscosity resin epoxy. The marble and alabaster samples had contact areas that increased with stress at an accelerating rate. This result suggests that the strength of the asperity contacts decreased progressively during the deformation, following some form of strain weakening relationship. This conclusion is supported by petrographic observation of the thin sections that indicate that much of the deformation was cataclastic, with minor twinning of calcite and kinking of gypsum. In the case of the quartz, the observed contact area was small and increased approximately linearly with normal stress. Only the irreversible cataclastic deformation was observed; however strain-induced birefringence and cracking of the epoxy, not observed with the other rocks, suggests that significant elastic deformation occurred, but recovered during unloading.

  17. Recent developments on the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang surface-growth equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wio, Horacio S; Escudero, Carlos; Revelli, Jorge A; Deza, Roberto R; de la Lama, Marta S

    2011-01-28

    The stochastic nonlinear partial differential equation known as the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) equation is a highly successful phenomenological mesoscopic model of surface and interface growth processes. Its suitability for analytical work, its explicit symmetries and its prediction of an exact dynamic scaling relation for a one-dimensional substratum led people to adopt it as a 'standard' model in the field during the last quarter of a century. At the same time, several conjectures deserving closer scrutiny were established as dogmas throughout the community. Among these, we find the beliefs that 'genuine' non-equilibrium processes are non-variational in essence, and that the exactness of the dynamic scaling relation owes its existence to a Galilean symmetry. Additionally, the equivalence among planar and radial interface profiles has been generally assumed in the literature throughout the years. Here--among other topics--we introduce a variational formulation of the KPZ equation, remark on the importance of consistency in discretization and challenge the mainstream view on the necessity for scaling of both Galilean symmetry and the one-dimensional fluctuation-dissipation theorem. We also derive the KPZ equation on a growing domain as a first approximation to radial growth, and outline the differences with respect to the classical case that arises in this new situation.

  18. EXPERIMENTAL VALIDATION OF CUMULATIVE SURFACE LOCATION ERROR FOR TURNING PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam K. Kiss

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to create a mechanical model which is suitable to investigate the surface quality in turning processes, based on the Cumulative Surface Location Error (CSLE, which describes the series of the consecutive Surface Location Errors (SLE in roughing operations. In the established model, the investigated CSLE depends on the currently and the previously resulted SLE by means of the variation of the width of cut. The phenomenon of the system can be described as an implicit discrete map. The stationary Surface Location Error and its bifurcations were analysed and flip-type bifurcation was observed for CSLE. Experimental verification of the theoretical results was carried out.

  19. Particle dry deposition to water surfaces: Processes and consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pryor, S.C.; Barthelmie, R.J.

    2000-01-01

    flux to coastal waters, atmosphere-surface exchange represents a significant component of the total flux and may be particularly critical during the summertime when both the riverine input and ambient nutrient concentrations are often at a minimum. In this chapter, we present an overview...... of the physical and chemical processes which dictate the quantity (and direction) of atmosphere-surface fluxes of trace chemicals to (and above) water surfaces with particular emphasis on the role of particles. Dry deposition (transfer to the surface in the absence of precipitation) of particles is determined...... efforts to simulate and measure fluxes close to the coastline. These arise in part from the complexity of atmospheric flow in this region where energy and chemical fluxes are highly inhomogeneous in space and time and thermally generated atmospheric circulations are commonplace. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science...

  20. Monitoring tablet surface roughness during the film coating process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seitavuopio, Paulus; Heinämäki, Jyrki; Rantanen, Jukka

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the change of surface roughness and the development of the film during the film coating process using laser profilometer roughness measurements, SEM imaging, and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. Surface roughness and texture changes developing during...... the process of film coating tablets were studied by noncontact laser profilometry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). An EDX analysis was used to monitor the magnesium stearate and titanium dioxide of the tablets. The tablet cores were film coated with aqueous hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, and the film...... coating was performed using an instrumented pilot-scale side-vented drum coater. The SEM images of the film-coated tablets showed that within the first 30 minutes, the surface of the tablet cores was completely covered with a thin film. The magnesium signal that was monitored by SEM-EDX disappeared after...

  1. The use of low energy ion beams for the growth and processing of solid materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armour, D.G.; Al-Bayati, A.H.; Gordon, J.S.

    1992-01-01

    Low energy ion bombardment forms the basis of ion assisted etching and growth of materials in plasma and ion beam systems. The growing demands for low temperature, highly controlled processing has led a rapid increase in both the application of low energy beams and the study of the fundamental ion surface interactions involved. The growth in the practical applications of ion beams in the few eV to a few hundred eV range has presented new problems in the production and transport of ion beams and has led to the development of highly specialised, ultra-low energy systems. These technological developments, in conjunction with the improvements in understanding of fundamental processes have widened the range of applications of low energy beams. (author) 52 refs

  2. Surface Dynamic Process Simulation with the Use of Cellular Automata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamska-Szatko, M.; Bala, J.

    2010-01-01

    Cellular automata are known for many applications, especially for physical and biological simulations. Universal cellular automata can be used for modelling complex natural phenomena. The paper presents simulation of surface dynamic process. Simulation uses 2-dimensional cellular automata algorithm. Modelling and visualisation were created by in-house developed software with standard OpenGL graphic library. (authors)

  3. The effect of entrainment through atmospheric boundary layer growth on observed and modeled surface ozone in the Colorado Front Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaser, L.; Patton, E. G.; Pfister, G. G.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Montzka, D. D.; Flocke, F.; Thompson, A. M.; Stauffer, R. M.; Halliday, H. S.

    2017-06-01

    Ozone concentrations at the Earth's surface are controlled by meteorological and chemical processes and are a function of advection, entrainment, deposition, and net chemical production/loss. The relative contributions of these processes vary in time and space. Understanding the relative importance of these processes controlling surface ozone concentrations is an essential component for designing effective regulatory strategies. Here we focus on the diurnal cycle of entrainment through atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) growth in the Colorado Front Range. Aircraft soundings and surface observations collected in July/August 2014 during the DISCOVER-AQ/FRAPPÉ (Deriving Information on Surface conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality/Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Éxperiment) campaigns and equivalent data simulated by a regional chemical transport model are analyzed. Entrainment through ABL growth is most important in the early morning, fumigating the surface at a rate of 5 ppbv/h. The fumigation effect weakens near noon and changes sign to become a small dilution effect in the afternoon on the order of -1 ppbv/h. The chemical transport model WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting Model with chemistry) underestimates ozone at all altitudes during this study on the order of 10-15 ppbv. The entrainment through ABL growth is overestimated by the model in the order of 0.6-0.8 ppbv/h. This results from differences in boundary layer growth in the morning and ozone concentration jump across the ABL top in the afternoon. This implicates stronger modeled fumigation in the morning and weaker modeled dilution after 11:00 LT.

  4. Directed Growth of Virus Nanofilaments on a Superhydrophobic Surface

    KAUST Repository

    Marinaro, Giovanni

    2015-06-17

    The evaporation of single droplets of colloidal tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) nanoparticles on a superhydrophobic surface with a hexagonal pillar-pattern results in the formation of coffee-ring type residues. We imaged surface features by optical, scanning electron, and atomic force microscopies. Bulk features were probed by raster-scan X-ray nanodiffraction. At ∼100 pg/μL nanoparticle concentration, the rim of the residue connects to neighboring pillars via fibrous extensions containing flow-aligned crystalline domains. At ∼1 pg/μL nanoparticle concentration, nanofilaments of ¥80 nm diameter and ∼20 μm length are formed, extending normal to the residue-rim across a range of pillars. X-ray scattering is dominated by the nanofilament form-factor but some evidence for crystallinity has been obtained. The observation of sheets composed of stacks of self-assembled nanoparticles deposited on pillars suggests that the nanofilaments are drawn from a structured droplet interface. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

  5. Directed Growth of Virus Nanofilaments on a Superhydrophobic Surface

    KAUST Repository

    Marinaro, Giovanni; Burghammer, Manfred; Costa, Luca; Dane, Thomas; De Angelis, Francesco; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.; Riekel, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The evaporation of single droplets of colloidal tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) nanoparticles on a superhydrophobic surface with a hexagonal pillar-pattern results in the formation of coffee-ring type residues. We imaged surface features by optical, scanning electron, and atomic force microscopies. Bulk features were probed by raster-scan X-ray nanodiffraction. At ∼100 pg/μL nanoparticle concentration, the rim of the residue connects to neighboring pillars via fibrous extensions containing flow-aligned crystalline domains. At ∼1 pg/μL nanoparticle concentration, nanofilaments of ¥80 nm diameter and ∼20 μm length are formed, extending normal to the residue-rim across a range of pillars. X-ray scattering is dominated by the nanofilament form-factor but some evidence for crystallinity has been obtained. The observation of sheets composed of stacks of self-assembled nanoparticles deposited on pillars suggests that the nanofilaments are drawn from a structured droplet interface. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

  6. Thermal system design and modeling of meniscus controlled silicon growth process for solar applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenlei

    The direct conversion of solar radiation to electricity by photovoltaics has a number of significant advantages as an electricity generator. That is, solar photovoltaic conversion systems tap an inexhaustible resource which is free of charge and available anywhere in the world. Roofing tile photovoltaic generation, for example, saves excess thermal heat and preserves the local heat balance. This means that a considerable reduction of thermal pollution in densely populated city areas can be attained. A semiconductor can only convert photons with the energy of the band gap with good efficiency. It is known that silicon is not at the maximum efficiency but relatively close to it. There are several main parts for the photovoltaic materials, which include, single- and poly-crystalline silicon, ribbon silicon, crystalline thin-film silicon, amorphous silicon, copper indium diselenide and related compounds, cadmium telluride, et al. In this dissertation, we focus on melt growth of the single- and poly-crystalline silicon manufactured by Czochralski (Cz) crystal growth process, and ribbon silicon produced by the edge-defined film-fed growth (EFG) process. These two methods are the most commonly used techniques for growing photovoltaic semiconductors. For each crystal growth process, we introduce the growth mechanism, growth system design, general application, and progress in the numerical simulation. Simulation results are shown for both Czochralski and EFG systems including temperature distribution of the growth system, velocity field inside the silicon melt and electromagnetic field for the EFG growth system. Magnetic field is applied on Cz system to reduce the melt convection inside crucible and this has been simulated in our numerical model. Parametric studies are performed through numerical and analytical models to investigate the relationship between heater power levels and solidification interface movement and shape. An inverse problem control scheme is developed to

  7. Growth factor delivery: How surface interactions modulate release in vitro and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, William J.; Krebsbach, Paul H.

    2013-01-01

    Biomaterial scaffolds have been extensively used to deliver growth factors to induce new bone formation. The pharmacokinetics of growth factor delivery has been a critical regulator of their clinical success. This review will focus on the surface interactions that control the non-covalent incorporation of growth factors into scaffolds and the mechanisms that control growth factor release from clinically relevant biomaterials. We will focus on the delivery of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 from materials currently used in the clinical practice, but also suggest how general mechanisms that control growth factor incorporation and release delineated with this growth factor could extend to other systems. A better understanding of the changing mechanisms that control growth factor release during the different stages of preclinical development could instruct the development of future scaffolds for currently untreatable injuries and diseases. PMID:22433783

  8. Process-based modelling of tree and stand growth: towards a hierarchical treatment of multiscale processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makela, A.

    2003-01-01

    A generally accepted method has not emerged for managing the different temporal and spatial scales in a forest ecosystem. This paper reviews a hierarchical-modular modelling tradition, with the main focus on individual tree growth throughout the rotation. At this scale, model performance requires (i) realistic long-term dynamic properties, (ii) realistic responses of growth and mortality of competing individuals, and (iii) realistic responses to ecophysio-logical inputs. Model development and validation are illustrated through allocation patterns, height growth, and size-related feedbacks. Empirical work to test the approach is reviewed. In this approach, finer scale effects are embedded in parameters calculated using more detailed, interacting modules. This is exemplified by (i) the within-year effect of weather on annual photosynthesis, (ii) the effects of fast soil processes on carbon allocation and photosynthesis, and (iii) the utilization of detailed stem structure to predict wood quality. Prevailing management paradigms are reflected in growth modelling. A shift of emphasis has occurred from productivity in homogeneous canopies towards, e.g., wood quality versus total yield, spatially more explicit models, and growth decline in old-growth forests. The new problems emphasize the hierarchy of the system and interscale interactions, suggesting that the hierarchical-modular approach could prove constructive. (author)

  9. Ions, metabolites, and cells: Water as a reporter of surface conditions during bacterial growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarisz, Tasha A.; Lane, Sarah; Gozdzialski, Lea; Hore, Dennis K.

    2018-06-01

    Surface-specific nonlinear vibrational spectroscopy, combined with bulk solution measurements and imaging, is used to study the surface conditions during the growth of E. coli. As a result of the silica high surface charge density, the water structure at the silica-aqueous interface is known to be especially sensitive to pH and ionic strength, and surface concentration profiles develop that can be appreciably different from the bulk solution conditions. We illustrate that, in the presence of growing cells, a unique surface micro-environment is established as a result of metabolites accumulating on the silica surface. Even in the subsequent absence of the cells, this surface layer works to reduce the interfacial ionic strength as revealed by the enhanced signal from surface water molecules. In the presence of growing cells, an additional boost in surface water signal is attributed to a local pH that is higher than that of the bulk solution.

  10. Control of bacterial biofilm growth on surfaces by nanostructural mechanics and geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, A K; Hochbaum, A I; Kim, Philseok; Aizenberg, J

    2011-01-01

    Surface-associated communities of bacteria, called biofilms, pervade natural and anthropogenic environments. Mature biofilms are resistant to a wide range of antimicrobial treatments and therefore pose persistent pathogenic threats. The use of surface chemistry to inhibit biofilm growth has been found to only transiently affect initial attachment. In this work, we investigate the tunable effects of physical surface properties, including high-aspect-ratio (HAR) surface nanostructure arrays recently reported to induce long-range spontaneous spatial patterning of bacteria on the surface. The functional parameters and length scale regimes that control such artificial patterning for the rod-shaped pathogenic species Pseudomonas aeruginosa are elucidated through a combinatorial approach. We further report a crossover regime of biofilm growth on a HAR nanostructured surface versus the nanostructure effective stiffness. When the 'softness' of the hair-like nanoarray is increased beyond a threshold value, biofilm growth is inhibited as compared to a flat control surface. This result is consistent with the mechanoselective adhesion of bacteria to surfaces. Therefore by combining nanoarray-induced bacterial patterning and modulating the effective stiffness of the nanoarray—thus mimicking an extremely compliant flat surface—bacterial mechanoselective adhesion can be exploited to control and inhibit biofilm growth.

  11. Low-temperature α-alumina thin film growth: ab initio studies of Al adatom surface migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallin, E; Helmersson, U; Muenger, E P; Chirita, V

    2009-01-01

    Investigations of activation energy barriers for Al surface hopping on α-Al 2 O 3 (0 0 0 1) surfaces have been carried out by means of first-principles density functional theory calculations and the nudged elastic band method. Results show that surface diffusion on the (most stable) Al-terminated surface is relatively fast with an energy barrier of 0.75 eV, whereas Al hopping on the O-terminated surface is slower, with barriers for jumps from the two metastable positions existing on this surface to the stable site of 0.31 and 0.99 eV. Based on this study and on the literature, the governing mechanisms during low-temperature α-alumina thin film growth are summarized and discussed. Our results support suggestions made in some previous experimental studies, pointing out that limited surface diffusivity is not the main obstacle for α-alumina growth at low-to-moderate temperatures, and that other effects should primarily be considered when designing novel processes for low-temperature α-alumina deposition.

  12. Why in situ, real-time characterization of thin film growth processes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auciello, O.; Krauss, A.R.

    1995-01-01

    Since thin-film growth occurs at the surface, the analytical methods should be highly surface-specific. although subsurface diffusion and chemical processes also affect film properties. Sampling depth and ambient-gas is compatibility are key factors which must be considered when choosing in situ probes of thin-film growth phenomena. In most cases, the sampling depth depends on the mean range of the exit species (ion, photon, or electron) in the sample. The techniques that are discussed in this issue of the MRS Bulletin (1) have been chosen because they may be used for in situ, real-time analysis of film-growth phenomena in vacuum and in the presence of ambient gases resulting either from the deposition process or as a requirement for the production of the desired chemical phase. A second criterion for inclusion is that the instrumentation be sufficiently compact and inexpensive to permit use as a dedicated tool in a thin-film deposition system

  13. Sub-monolayer growth of Ag on flat and nanorippled SiO{sub 2} surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatnagar, Mukul; Ranjan, Mukesh; Mukherjee, Subroto [FCIPT, Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar 382428, Gujarat (India); Nirma University, Ahmedabad 382481, Gujarat (India); Jolley, Kenny; Smith, Roger [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Loughborough University, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)

    2016-05-30

    In-situ Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) and Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations have been used to investigate the growth dynamics of silver on a flat and the rippled silica surface. The calculated sticking coefficient of silver over a range of incidence angles shows a similar behaviour to the experimental results for an average surface binding energy of a silver adatom of 0.2 eV. This value was used to parameterise the MD model of the cumulative deposition of silver in order to understand the growth mechanisms. Both the model and the RBS results show marginal difference between the atomic concentration of silver on the flat and the rippled silica surface, for the same growth conditions. For oblique incidence, cluster growth occurs mainly on the leading edge of the rippled structure.

  14. Influence of the growth-surface on the incorporation of phosphorus in SiC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauls, E.; Gerstmann, U.; Frauenheim, Th.

    2005-01-01

    Phosphorus is a common and desired n-type dopant of SiC, but it turned out that doping by diffusion or during growth is rarely successful. To avoid the efforts and the creation of damage if ion implantation is used instead, these techniques were, though, highly desirable. In this work, we have investigated theoretically the experimental observation that phosphorus obviously hardly diffuses into the material. Not the diffusivity of the dopant but its addiction to occupy a three-fold coordinated surface site are critical, together with the way the surface affects the bulk migration barriers of the dopants. Whereas the most common growth direction for 4H-SiC, the polar silicon terminated (0001) surface, seems to be least appropriate for the incorporation of phosphorus atoms, growth along the nonpolar [112-bar 0] provides a good possibility to achieve efficient P-doping during growth

  15. Selective growth of two-dimensional phosphorene on catalyst surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, L; Dong, J C; Ding, F

    2018-02-01

    Although the study of black phosphorene (BP) and its isomers has attracted enormous attention, the method of synthesizing high-quality samples in a large area is still pending. Here we explore the potential of using the chemical vapor deposition method to synthesize large-area two-dimensional (2D) phosphorene films on metal surfaces. Our ab initio calculations show that BP can be synthesized by using tin (Sn) as a catalyst, while one of its isomers, blue phosphorene (BLP), is very possible to be synthesized by using most other metals, such as Ag and Au. Besides, our study also suggests that the large binding energy between the 2D phosphorene and the active metal substrate may prohibit the exfoliation of the 2D phosphorene for real applications and, therefore, tin, silver and gold are predicted to be the most suitable catalysts for the synthesis of BP and BLP.

  16. The esa earth explorer land surface processes and interactions mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labandibar, Jean-Yves; Jubineau, Franck; Silvestrin, Pierluigi; Del Bello, Umberto

    2017-11-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) is defining candidate missions for Earth Observation. In the class of the Earth Explorer missions, dedicated to research and pre-operational demonstration, the Land Surface Processes and Interactions Mission (LSPIM) will acquire the accurate quantitative measurements needed to improve our understanding of the nature and evolution of biosphere-atmosphere interactions and to contribute significantly to a solution of the scaling problems for energy, water and carbon fluxes at the Earth's surface. The mission is intended to provide detailed observations of the surface of the Earth and to collect data related to ecosystem processes and radiation balance. It is also intended to address a range of issues important for environmental monitoring, renewable resources assessment and climate models. The mission involves a dedicated maneuvering satellite which provides multi-directional observations for systematic measurement of Land Surface BRDF (BiDirectional Reflectance Distribution Function) of selected sites on Earth. The satellite carries an optical payload : PRISM (Processes Research by an Imaging Space Mission), a multispectral imager providing reasonably high spatial resolution images (50 m over 50 km swath) in the whole optical spectral domain (from 450 nm to 2.35 μm with a resolution close to 10 nm, and two thermal bands from 8.1 to 9.1 μm). This paper presents the results of the Phase A study awarded by ESA, led by ALCATEL Space Industries and concerning the design of LSPIM.

  17. Bacterial growth on surfaces: Automated image analysis for quantification of growth rate-related parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, S.; Sternberg, Claus; Poulsen, L. K.

    1995-01-01

    species-specific hybridizations with fluorescence-labelled ribosomal probes to estimate the single-cell concentration of RNA. By automated analysis of digitized images of stained cells, we determined four independent growth rate-related parameters: cellular RNA and DNA contents, cell volume......, and the frequency of dividing cells in a cell population. These parameters were used to compare physiological states of liquid-suspended and surfacegrowing Pseudomonas putida KT2442 in chemostat cultures. The major finding is that the correlation between substrate availability and cellular growth rate found...

  18. Immobilization of epidermal growth factor on titanium and stainless steel surfaces via dopamine treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Jeonghwa [Nano Medical Engineering Laboratory, RIKEN Advanced Science Institute, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama, 351-0198 (Japan); Department of Biological Sciences, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 1-1 Minami-Osawa, Tokyo, 192-0397 Japan (Japan); Sakuragi, Makoto; Shibata, Aya; Abe, Hiroshi; Kitajima, Takashi; Tada, Seiichi [Nano Medical Engineering Laboratory, RIKEN Advanced Science Institute, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama, 351-0198 (Japan); Mizutani, Masayoshi; Ohmori, Hitoshi [Material Fabrication Laboratory, RIKEN Advanced Science Institute, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama, 351-0198 (Japan); Ayame, Hirohito [Diagnostic Biochip Laboratory, RIKEN Center for Intellectual Property Strategies, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama, 351-0198 (Japan); Son, Tae Il [Bioscience and Biotechnology, Chung-Ang University, 40-1 San, Nae-Ri, Daeduck-myun, Ansung-si, Kyungki-do, 456-756 (Korea, Republic of); Aigaki, Toshiro [Department of Biological Sciences, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 1-1 Minami-Osawa, Tokyo, 192-0397 Japan (Japan); Ito, Yoshihiro, E-mail: y-ito@riken.jp [Nano Medical Engineering Laboratory, RIKEN Advanced Science Institute, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama, 351-0198 (Japan); Department of Biological Sciences, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 1-1 Minami-Osawa, Tokyo, 192-0397 Japan (Japan); Diagnostic Biochip Laboratory, RIKEN Center for Intellectual Property Strategies, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama, 351-0198 (Japan)

    2012-12-01

    Titanium and stainless steel were modified with dopamine for the immobilization of biomolecules, epidermal growth factor (EGF). First, the treatment of metal surfaces with a dopamine solution under different pH conditions was investigated. At higher pH, the dopamine solution turned brown and formed precipitates. Treatment of the metals with dopamine at pH 8.5 also resulted in the development of brown color at the surface of the metals. The hydrophobicity of the surfaces increased after treatment with dopamine, independently of pH. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed the formation of a significant amount of an organic layer on both surfaces at pH 8.5. According to ellipsometry measurements, the organic layer formed at pH 8.5 was about 1000 times as thick as that formed at pH 4.5. The amount of amino groups in the layer formed at pH 8.5 was also higher than that observed in the layer formed at pH 4.5. EGF molecules were immobilized onto the dopamine-treated surfaces via a coupling reaction using carbodiimide. A greater amount of EGF was immobilized on surfaces treated at pH 8.5 compared with pH 4.5. Significantly higher growth of rat fibroblast cells was observed on the two EGF-immobilized surfaces compared with non-immobilized surfaces in the presence of EGF. The present study demonstrated that metals can become bioactive via the surface immobilization of a growth factor and that the effect of the immobilized growth factor on metals was greater than that of soluble growth factor. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Epidermal growth factor was covalently immobilized on titan or stainless steel surfaces. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Amino groups were formed on the surfaces by the treatment and the growth factor was immobilized through amide bonds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The immobilized epidermal growth factor accelerated cell proliferation more than soluble ones on the surfaces.

  19. Surface structure deduced differences of copper foil and film for graphene CVD growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Junjun [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Hu, Baoshan, E-mail: hubaoshan@cqu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Wei, Zidong; Jin, Yan [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Luo, Zhengtang [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The Hongkong University of Science and Technology, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Xia, Meirong [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Pan, Qingjiang [Key Laboratory of Functional Inorganic Material Chemistry, Ministry of Education, Heilongjiang University, Harbin 150080 (China); Liu, Yunling [State Key Laboratory of Inorganic Synthesis and Preparative Chemistry, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • We demonstrate the significant differences between Cu foil and film in the surface morphology and crystal orientation distribution. • The different surface structure leads to the distinctive influences of the CH₄ and H₂ concentrations on the thickness and quality of as-grown graphene. • Nucleation densities and growth rate differences at the initial growth stages on the Cu foil and film were investigated and discussed. Abstract: Graphene was synthesized on Cu foil and film by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (CVD) with CH₄ as carbon source. Electron backscattered scattering diffraction (EBSD) characterization demonstrates that the Cu foil surface after the H₂-assisted pre-annealing was almost composed of Cu(1 0 0) crystal facet with larger grain size of ~100 μm; meanwhile, the Cu film surface involved a variety of crystal facets of Cu(1 1 1), Cu(1 0 0), and Cu(1 1 0), with the relatively small grain size of ~10 μm. The different surface structure led to the distinctive influences of the CH₄ and H₂ concentrations on the thickness and quality of as-grown graphene. Further data demonstrate that the Cu foil enabled more nucleation densities and faster growth rates at the initial growth stages than the Cu film. Our results are beneficial for understanding the relationship between the metal surface structure and graphene CVD growth.

  20. Integrated system of production information processing for surface mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, K.; Wang, S.; Zeng, Z.; Wei, J.; Ren, Z. [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China). Dept of Mining Engineering

    2000-09-01

    Based on the concept of geological statistic, mathematical program, condition simulation, system engineering, and the features and duties of each main department in surface mine production, an integrated system for surface mine production information was studied systematically and developed by using the technology of data warehousing, CAD, object-oriented and system integration, which leads to the systematizing and automating of the information management, data processing, optimization computing and plotting. In this paper, its overall object, system design, structure and functions and some key techniques were described. 2 refs., 3 figs.

  1. Electronic dissipation processes during chemical reactions on surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Stella, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Hauptbeschreibung Every day in our life is larded with a huge number of chemical reactions on surfaces. Some reactions occur immediately, for others an activation energy has to be supplied. Thus it happens that though a reaction should thermodynamically run off, it is kinetically hindered. Meaning the partners react only to the thermodynamically more stable product state within a mentionable time if the activation energy of the reaction is supplied. With the help of catalysts the activation energy of a reaction can be lowered. Such catalytic processes on surfaces are widely used in industry. A

  2. Effect of diffusion from a lateral surface on the rate of GaN nanowire growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sibirev, N. V.; Tchernycheva, M.; Cirlin, G. E.; Patriarche, G.; Harmand, J. C.; Dubrovskii, V. G.

    2012-01-01

    The kinetics of the growth of GaN crystalline nanowires on a Si (111) surface with no catalyst is studied experimentally and theoretically. Noncatalytic GaN nanowires were grown by molecular-beam epitaxy with AlN inserts, which makes it possible to determine the rate of the vertical growth of nanowires. A model for the formation of GaN nanowires is developed, and an expression for their rate of growth is derived. It is shown that, in the general case, the dependence of the rate of growth on the nanowire diameter has a minimum. The diameter corresponding to the experimentally observed minimum of the rate of growth steadily increases with increasing diffusion flux from the lateral surface.

  3. Thin film growth behaviors on strained fcc(111) surface by kinetic Monte Carlo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Y; Matsunaka, D; Shibutani, Y

    2009-01-01

    We study Ag islands grown on strained Ag(111) surfaces using kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations. We employed KMC parameters of activation energy and attempt frequency estimated by nudged elastic band (NEB) method and vibration analyses. We investigate influences of surface strain and substrate temperature on film growth. As the biaxial surface strain increases, the island density increases. As temperature increases, the shape of the island changes from dendric to hexagonal and the island density increases.

  4. Probability of growth of small damage sites on the exit surface of fused silica optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negres, Raluca A; Abdulla, Ghaleb M; Cross, David A; Liao, Zhi M; Carr, Christopher W

    2012-06-04

    Growth of laser damage on fused silica optical components depends on several key parameters including laser fluence, wavelength, pulse duration, and site size. Here we investigate the growth behavior of small damage sites on the exit surface of SiO₂ optics under exposure to tightly controlled laser pulses. Results demonstrate that the onset of damage growth is not governed by a threshold, but is probabilistic in nature and depends both on the current size of a damage site and the laser fluence to which it is exposed. We also develop models for use in growth prediction. In addition, we show that laser exposure history also influences the behavior of individual sites.

  5. Microstructure and initial growth characteristics of the low temperature microcrystalline silicon films on silicon nitride surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Young-Bae; Rhee, Shi-Woo

    2001-01-01

    Microstructure and initial growth characteristics of the hydrogenated microcrystalline Si (μc-Si:H) films grown on hydrogenated amorphous silicon nitride (a-SiN x :H) surface at low temperature were investigated using high resolution transmission electron microscope and micro-Raman spectroscopy. With increasing the Si and Si - H contents in the SiN x :H surfaces, μc-Si crystallites, a few nanometers in size, were directly grown on amorphous nitride surfaces. It is believed that the crystallites were grown through the nucleation and phase transition from amorphous to crystal in a hydrogen-rich ambient of gas phase and growing surface. The crystallite growth characteristics on the dielectric surface were dependent on the stoichiometric (x=N/Si) ratio corresponding hydrogen bond configuration of the SiN x :H surface. Surface facetting and anisotropic growth of the Si crystallites resulted from the different growth rate on the different lattice planes of Si. No twins and stacking faults were observed in the (111) lattice planes of the Si crystallites surrounding the a-Si matrix. This atomic-scale structure was considered to be the characteristic of the low temperature crystallization of the μc-Si:H by the strain relaxation of crystallites in the a-Si:H matrix. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  6. Microbe-surface interactions in biofouling and biocorrosion processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beech, Iwona B; Sunner, Jan A; Hiraoka, Kenzo

    2005-09-01

    The presence of microorganisms on material surfaces can have a profound effect on materials performance. Surface-associated microbial growth, i.e. a biofilm, is known to instigate biofouling. The presence of biofilms may promote interfacial physico-chemical reactions that are not favored under abiotic conditions. In the case of metallic materials, undesirable changes in material properties due to a biofilm (or a biofouling layer) are referred to as biocorrosion or microbially influenced corrosion (MIC). Biofouling and biocorrosion occur in aquatic and terrestrial habitats varying in nutrient content, temperature, pressure and pH. Interfacial chemistry in such systems reflects a wide variety of physiological activities carried out by diverse microbial populations thriving within biofilms. Biocorrosion can be viewed as a consequence of coupled biological and abiotic electron-transfer reactions, i.e. redox reactions of metals, enabled by microbial ecology. Microbially produced extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), which comprise different macromolecules, mediate initial cell adhesion to the material surface and constitute a biofilm matrix. Despite their unquestionable importance in biofilm development, the extent to which EPS contribute to biocorrosion is not well-understood. This review offers a current perspective on material/microbe interactions pertinent to biocorrosion and biofouling, with EPS as a focal point, while emphasizing the role atomic force spectroscopy and mass spectrometry techniques can play in elucidating such interactions.

  7. Mechanical and tribological properties of ion beam-processed surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodali, P.

    1998-01-01

    The intent of this work was to broaden the applications of well-established surface modification techniques and to elucidate the various wear mechanisms that occur in sliding contact of ion-beam processed surfaces. The investigation included characterization and evaluation of coatings and modified surfaces synthesized by three surface engineering methods; namely, beam-line ion implantation, plasma-source ion implantation, and DC magnetron sputtering. Correlation among measured properties such as surface hardness, fracture toughness, and wear behavior was also examined. This dissertation focused on the following areas of research: (1) investigating the mechanical and tribological properties of mixed implantation of carbon and nitrogen into single crystal silicon by beam-line implantation; (2) characterizing the mechanical and tribological properties of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings processed by plasma source ion implantation; and (3) developing and evaluating metastable boron-carbon-nitrogen (BCN) compound coatings for mechanical and tribological properties. The surface hardness of a mixed carbon-nitrogen implant sample improved significantly compared to the unimplanted sample. However, the enhancement in the wear factor of this sample was found to be less significant than carbon-implanted samples. The presence of nitrogen might be responsible for the degraded wear behavior since nitrogen-implantation alone resulted in no improvement in the wear factor. DLC coatings have low friction, low wear factor, and high hardness. The fracture toughness of DLC coatings has been estimated for the first time. The wear mechanism in DLC coatings investigated with a ruby slider under a contact stress of 1 GPa was determined to be plastic deformation. The preliminary data on metastable BCN compound coatings indicated high friction, low wear factor, and high hardness

  8. Growth process and structure of Er/Si(100) thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, S.; Michishita, Y.; Miyamae, N.; Suto, H.; Honda, S.; Okado, H.; Oura, K.; Katayama, M.

    2006-01-01

    The solid-phase reactive epitaxial growth processes and structures of Er/Si(100) thin films were investigated by coaxial impact-collision ion scattering spectroscopy (CAICISS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The as-deposited Er film grown at room temperature was transformed into crystalline rectangular-shaped islands after annealing at 900 deg. C. These islands have a hexagonal AlB 2 -type structure and the epitaxial relationship is determined to be ErSi 2 (011-bar0)[0001]//Si(100)[011-bar]. It has been revealed that the surface of the Er silicide island is terminated with an Er plane

  9. Surface processes during purification of InP quantum dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Mordvinova

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a new simple and fast method for the synthesis of InP quantum dots by using phosphine as phosphorous precursor and myristic acid as surface stabilizer was reported. Purification after synthesis is necessary to obtain samples with good optical properties. Two methods of purification were compared and the surface processes which occur during purification were studied. Traditional precipitation with acetone is accompanied by a small increase in photoluminescence. It occurs that during the purification the hydrolysis of the indium precursor takes place, which leads to a better surface passivation. The electrophoretic purification technique does not increase luminescence efficiency but yields very pure quantum dots in only a few minutes. Additionally, the formation of In(OH3 during the low temperature synthesis was explained. Purification of quantum dots is a very significant part of postsynthetical treatment that determines the properties of the material. But this subject is not sufficiently discussed in the literature. The paper is devoted to the processes that occur at the surface of quantum dots during purification. A new method of purification, electrophoresis, is investigated and described in particular.

  10. Application of Anodization Process for Cast Aluminium Surface Properties Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Włodarczyk-Fligier A.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available An huge interest is observed in last years in metal matrix composite, mostly light metal based, which have found their applications in many industry branches, among others in the aircraft industry, automotive-, and armaments ones, as well as in electrical engineering and electronics, where one of the most important issue is related to the corrosion resistance, especially on the surface layer of the used aluminium alloys. This elaboration presents the influence of ceramic phase on the corrosion resistance, quality of the surface layer its thickness and structure of an anodic layer formed on aluminium alloys. As test materials it was applied the aluminium alloys Al-Si-Cu and Al-Cu-Mg, for which heat treatment processes and corrosion tests were carried out. It was presented herein grindability test results and metallographic examination, as well. Hardness of the treated alloys with those ones subjected to corrosion process were compared.

  11. Estimation of surface absorptivity in laser surface heating process with experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, H-T; Wu, X-Y

    2006-01-01

    This study applies a hybrid technique of the Laplace transform and finite-difference methods in conjunction with the least-squares method and experimental temperature data inside the test material to predict the unknown surface temperature, heat flux and absorptivity for various surface conditions in the laser surface heating process. In this study, the functional form of the surface temperature is unknown a priori and is assumed to be a function of time before performing the inverse calculation. In addition, the whole time domain is divided into several analysis sub-time intervals and then these unknown estimates on each analysis interval can be predicted. In order to show the accuracy of the present inverse method, comparisons are made among the present estimates, direct results and previous results, showing that the present estimates agree with the direct results for the simulated problem. However, the present estimates of the surface absorptivity deviate slightly from previous estimated results under the assumption of constant thermal properties. The effect of the surface conditions on the surface absorptivity and temperature is not negligible

  12. Effect of laser shock processing on fatigue crack growth of duplex stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubio-Gonzalez, C.; Felix-Martinez, C.; Gomez-Rosas, G.; Ocana, J.L.; Morales, M.; Porro, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → LSP is an effective surface treatment to improve fatigue properties of duplex stainless steel. → Increasing pulse density, fatigue crack growth rate is reduced. → Microstructure is not affected by LSP. → Compressive residual stresses increases increasing pulse density. - Abstract: Duplex stainless steels have wide application in different fields like the ship, petrochemical and chemical industries that is due to their high strength and excellent toughness properties as well as their high corrosion resistance. In this work an investigation is performed to evaluate the effect of laser shock processing on some mechanical properties of 2205 duplex stainless steel. Laser shock processing (LSP) or laser shock peening is a new technique for strengthening metals. This process induces a compressive residual stress field which increases fatigue crack initiation life and reduces fatigue crack growth rate. A convergent lens is used to deliver 2.5 J, 8 ns laser pulses by a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser, operating at 10 Hz with infrared (1064 nm) radiation. The pulses are focused to a diameter of 1.5 mm. Effect of pulse density in the residual stress field is evaluated. Residual stress distribution as a function of depth is determined by the contour method. It is observed that the higher the pulse density the greater the compressive residual stress. Pulse densities of 900, 1600 and 2500 pul/cm 2 are used. Pre-cracked compact tension specimens were subjected to LSP process and then tested under cyclic loading with R = 0.1. Fatigue crack growth rate is determined and the effect of LSP process parameters is evaluated. In addition fracture toughness is determined in specimens with and without LSP treatment. It is observed that LSP reduces fatigue crack growth and increases fracture toughness if this steel.

  13. Probing Interfacial Processes on Graphene Surface by Mass Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakenov, Nurbek; Kocabas, Coskun

    2013-03-01

    In this work we studied the mass density of graphene, probed interfacial processes on graphene surface and examined the formation of graphene oxide by mass detection. The graphene layers were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition method on copper foils and transfer-printed on a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). The mass density of single layer graphene was measured by investigating the mechanical resonance of the QCM. Moreover, we extended the developed technique to probe the binding dynamics of proteins on the surface of graphene, were able to obtain nonspecific binding constant of BSA protein of graphene surface in aqueous solution. The time trace of resonance signal showed that the BSA molecules rapidly saturated by filling the available binding sites on graphene surface. Furthermore, we monitored oxidation of graphene surface under oxygen plasma by tracing the changes of interfacial mass of the graphene controlled by the shifts in Raman spectra. Three regimes were observed the formation of graphene oxide which increases the interfacial mass, the release of carbon dioxide and the removal of small graphene/graphene oxide flakes. Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) grant no. 110T304, 109T209, Marie Curie International Reintegration Grant (IRG) grant no 256458, Turkish Academy of Science (TUBA-Gebip).

  14. Modelling the growth of Listeria monocytogenes on the surface of smear- or mould-ripened cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sol eSchvartzman

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Surface-ripened cheeses are matured by means of manual or mechanical technologies posing a risk of cross-contamination, if any cheeses are contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes. In predictive microbiology, primary models are used to describe microbial responses, such as growth rate over time and secondary models explain how those responses change with environmental factors. In this way, primary models were used to assess the growth rate of L. monocytogenes during ripening of the cheeses and the secondary models to test how much the growth rate was affected by either the pH and/or the water activity (aw of the cheeses. The two models combined can be used to predict outcomes. The purpose of these experiments was to test three primary (the modified Gompertz equation, the Baranyi and Roberts model and the Logistic model and three secondary (the Cardinal model, the Ratowski model and the Presser model mathematical models in order to define which combination of models would best predict the growth of L. monocytogenes on the surface of artificially contaminated surface-ripened cheeses. Growth on the surface of the cheese was assessed and modelled. The primary models were firstly fitted to the data and the effects of pH and aw on the growth rate (μmax were incorporated and assessed one by one with the secondary models. The Logistic primary model by itself did not show a better fit of the data among the other primary models tested, but the inclusion of the Cardinal secondary model improved the final fit. The aw was not related to the growth of Listeria. This study suggests that surface-ripened cheese should be separately regulated within EU microbiological food legislation and results expressed as counts per surface area rather than per gram.

  15. Modeling the growth of Listeria monocytogenes on the surface of smear- or mold-ripened cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schvartzman, M Sol; Gonzalez-Barron, Ursula; Butler, Francis; Jordan, Kieran

    2014-01-01

    Surface-ripened cheeses are matured by means of manual or mechanical technologies posing a risk of cross-contamination, if any cheeses are contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes. In predictive microbiology, primary models are used to describe microbial responses, such as growth rate over time and secondary models explain how those responses change with environmental factors. In this way, primary models were used to assess the growth rate of L. monocytogenes during ripening of the cheeses and the secondary models to test how much the growth rate was affected by either the pH and/or the water activity (aw) of the cheeses. The two models combined can be used to predict outcomes. The purpose of these experiments was to test three primary (the modified Gompertz equation, the Baranyi and Roberts model, and the Logistic model) and three secondary (the Cardinal model, the Ratowski model, and the Presser model) mathematical models in order to define which combination of models would best predict the growth of L. monocytogenes on the surface of artificially contaminated surface-ripened cheeses. Growth on the surface of the cheese was assessed and modeled. The primary models were firstly fitted to the data and the effects of pH and aw on the growth rate (μmax) were incorporated and assessed one by one with the secondary models. The Logistic primary model by itself did not show a better fit of the data among the other primary models tested, but the inclusion of the Cardinal secondary model improved the final fit. The aw was not related to the growth of Listeria. This study suggests that surface-ripened cheese should be separately regulated within EU microbiological food legislation and results expressed as counts per surface area rather than per gram.

  16. XPS analysis of the carbon fibers surface modified via HMDSO to carbon nanotube growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, L.D.R.; Gomes, M.C.B.; Trava-Airoldi, V.J.; Corat, E.J.; Lugo, D.C. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: Carbon fibers (CF) have been widely used to reinforce structural composites. Due to their strength-to-weight properties, CF composites are finding increased structural uses in areas such as aerospace, aeronautical, automobile and others. The strength of the fiber-resin interface bond has been found to be the limiting factor to the mechanical properties of CF-epoxy materials, due to their non-polar nature that limit the affinity of CF to bind chemically to any matrix. The growth of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on the surface of CF is a promising approach for improving mechanical, electrical and thermal properties of structural composites. However growing CNTs on CF presents some obstacles, such as diffusion of metal catalyst particles on CF, uneven CNT growth and loss of mechanical properties of CF. To avoid the diffusion of catalyst particles we modified the CF surface with hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) at low temperature (400 °C), also preventing the loss of mechanical properties and allowing uniform CNTs growth. We deposited CNTs via floating catalyst method, with ferrocene providing the catalyst particle and the oxidative dehydrogenation reaction of acetylene providing the carbon. The CF surface modification was analyzed via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and CNTs growth via scanning electron microscopy with field emission gun. The XPS analysis showed that HMDSO promotes the binding of oxygen to carbon and silicon present on CF surface, the chemical modification of the surface of the CF enables the uniform growth of carbon nanotubes. (author)

  17. XPS analysis of the carbon fibers surface modified via HMDSO to carbon nanotube growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, L.D.R.; Gomes, M.C.B.; Trava-Airoldi, V.J.; Corat, E.J.; Lugo, D.C.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Carbon fibers (CF) have been widely used to reinforce structural composites. Due to their strength-to-weight properties, CF composites are finding increased structural uses in areas such as aerospace, aeronautical, automobile and others. The strength of the fiber-resin interface bond has been found to be the limiting factor to the mechanical properties of CF-epoxy materials, due to their non-polar nature that limit the affinity of CF to bind chemically to any matrix. The growth of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on the surface of CF is a promising approach for improving mechanical, electrical and thermal properties of structural composites. However growing CNTs on CF presents some obstacles, such as diffusion of metal catalyst particles on CF, uneven CNT growth and loss of mechanical properties of CF. To avoid the diffusion of catalyst particles we modified the CF surface with hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) at low temperature (400 °C), also preventing the loss of mechanical properties and allowing uniform CNTs growth. We deposited CNTs via floating catalyst method, with ferrocene providing the catalyst particle and the oxidative dehydrogenation reaction of acetylene providing the carbon. The CF surface modification was analyzed via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and CNTs growth via scanning electron microscopy with field emission gun. The XPS analysis showed that HMDSO promotes the binding of oxygen to carbon and silicon present on CF surface, the chemical modification of the surface of the CF enables the uniform growth of carbon nanotubes. (author)

  18. Laterally enhanced growth of electrodeposited Au to form ultrathin films on nonconductive surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Chiaki; Saito, Mikiko; Homma, Takayuki

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the laterally enhanced growth of electrodeposited Au for fabricating nanogap electrodes. To enhance the lateral growth, we carried out electrodeposition over patterned electrodes onto a SiO 2 surface modified with self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) or dendrimers with amine groups. The morphology and thickness of the Au films were controlled by adjusting deposition conditions such as duration, applied potential, and Au ion concentration in the bath. To investigate the mechanism of the laterally enhanced growth, the surface states of SAM- or dendrimer-modified SiO 2 were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The XPS results indicate the existence of organic molecules and Au ions on the SiO 2 surface, which suggests that laterally enhanced growth is induced by the Au ions coordinated on the amine groups of the organic molecules. To further analyze the mechanism of the laterally enhanced growth, we investigated the relationship between the morphology of the laterally enhanced growth of Au and the amount of Au ions on organic molecules. The laterally enhanced growth of Au is expected to be useful for fabricating thin film nanogap electrodes.

  19. The effect of growth phase on the surface properties of three oleaginous microalgae (Botryococcus sp. FACGB-762, Chlorella sp. XJ-445 and Desmodesmus bijugatus XJ-231).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ling; Huang, Rong; Li, Yinta; Song, Shaoxian

    2017-01-01

    The effects of growth phase on the lipid content and surface properties of oleaginous microalgae Botryococcus sp. FACGB-762, Chlorella sp. XJ-445 and Desmodesmus bijugatus XJ-231 were investigated in this study. The results showed that throughout the growth phases, the lipid content of microalgae increased. The surface properties like particle size, the degree of hydrophobicity, and the total concentration of functional groups increased while net surface zeta potential decreased. The results suggested that the growth stage had significant influence not only on the lipid content but also on the surface characteristics. Moreover, the lipid content was significantly positively related to the concentration of hydroxyl functional groups in spite of algal strains or growth phases. These results provided a basis for further studies on the refinery process using oleaginous microalgae for biofuel production.

  20. Monitoring massive fracture growth at 2-km depths using surface tiltmeter arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, M.D.

    1979-01-01

    Tilt due to massive hydraulic fractures induced in sedimentary rocks at depths of up to 2.2 km have been recorded by surface tiltmeters. Injection of fluid volumes up to 4 ?? 105 liters and masses of propping agent up to 5 ?? 105 kg is designed to produce fractures approximately 1 km long, 50-100 m high and about 1 cm wide. The surface tilt data adequately fit a dislocation model of a tensional fault in a half-space. Theoretical and observational results indicate that maximum tilt occurs at a distance off the strike of the fracture equivalent to 0.4 of the depth to the fracture. Azimuth and extent of the fracture deduced from the geometry of the tilt field agree with other kinds of geophysical measurements. Detailed correlation of the tilt signatures with pumping parameters (pressure, rate, volume, mass) have provided details on asymmetry in geometry and growth rate. Whereas amplitude variations in tilt vary inversely with the square of the depth, changes in flow rate or pressure gradient can produce a cubic change in width. These studies offer a large-scale experimental approach to the study of problems involving fracturing, mass transport, and dilatancy processes. ?? 1979.

  1. Growth and relaxation processes in Ge nanocrystals on free-standing Si(001) nanopillars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, G; Zaumseil, P; Schubert, M A; Yamamoto, Y; Bauer, J; Schülli, T U; Tillack, B; Schroeder, T

    2012-03-23

    We study the growth and relaxation processes of Ge crystals selectively grown by chemical vapour deposition on free-standing 90 nm wide Si(001) nanopillars. Epi-Ge with thickness ranging from 4 to 80 nm was characterized by synchrotron based x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. We found that the strain in Ge nanostructures is plastically released by nucleation of misfit dislocations, leading to degrees of relaxation ranging from 50 to 100%. The growth of Ge nanocrystals follows the equilibrium crystal shape terminated by low surface energy (001) and {113} facets. Although the volumes of Ge nanocrystals are homogeneous, their shape is not uniform and the crystal quality is limited by volume defects on {111} planes. This is not the case for the Ge/Si nanostructures subjected to thermal treatment. Here, improved structure quality together with high levels of uniformity of the size and shape is observed.

  2. Sequential growth in solution of NiFe Prussian blue coordination network nano-layers on Si(100) surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tricard, Simon; Costa-Coquelard, Claire; Volatron, Florence; Fleury, Benoit; Huc, Vincent; Mallah, Talal; Albouy, Pierre-Antoine; David, Christophe; Miserque, Frederic; Jegou, Pascale; Palacin, Serge

    2012-01-01

    Controlling the elaboration of Coordination Networks (CoNet) on surfaces at the nano-scale remains a challenge. One suitable technique is the Sequential Growth in Solution (SGS), which has the advantage to be simple, cheap and fast. We addressed two issues in this article: i) the controlled synthesis of ultra thin films of CoNet (thickness lower than 10 nm), and ii) the investigation of the influence of the precursors' concentration on the growth process. Si(100) was used because it is possible to prepare atomically flat Si-H surfaces, which is necessary for the growth of ultrathin films. We used, as a model system, the sequential reactions of K 4 [Fe(II)(CN) 6 ] and [Ni(II)(H 2 O) 6 ]Cl 2 that occur by the substitution of the water molecules in the coordination sphere of Ni(II) by the nitrogen atoms of ferrocyanide. We demonstrated that the nature of the deposited film depends mainly on the relative concentration of the anchoring sites versus the precursors' solution. Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transformed Infra Red (ATR-FTIR), X-ray reflectivity, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) were used to characterize the steps of the growth process. (authors)

  3. Detection of cracks on concrete surfaces by hyperspectral image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Bruno O.; Valença, Jonatas; Júlio, Eduardo

    2017-06-01

    All large infrastructures worldwide must have a suitable monitoring and maintenance plan, aiming to evaluate their behaviour and predict timely interventions. In the particular case of concrete infrastructures, the detection and characterization of crack patterns is a major indicator of their structural response. In this scope, methods based on image processing have been applied and presented. Usually, methods focus on image binarization followed by applications of mathematical morphology to identify cracks on concrete surface. In most cases, publications are focused on restricted areas of concrete surfaces and in a single crack. On-site, the methods and algorithms have to deal with several factors that interfere with the results, namely dirt and biological colonization. Thus, the automation of a procedure for on-site characterization of crack patterns is of great interest. This advance may result in an effective tool to support maintenance strategies and interventions planning. This paper presents a research based on the analysis and processing of hyper-spectral images for detection and classification of cracks on concrete structures. The objective of the study is to evaluate the applicability of several wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum for classification of cracks in concrete surfaces. An image survey considering highly discretized wavelengths between 425 nm and 950 nm was performed on concrete specimens, with bandwidths of 25 nm. The concrete specimens were produced with a crack pattern induced by applying a load with displacement control. The tests were conducted to simulate usual on-site drawbacks. In this context, the surface of the specimen was subjected to biological colonization (leaves and moss). To evaluate the results and enhance crack patterns a clustering method, namely k-means algorithm, is being applied. The research conducted allows to define the suitability of using clustering k-means algorithm combined with hyper-spectral images highly

  4. Transient surface states during the CBE growth of GaAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, T.; Hill, D.; Joyce, T. B.; Bullough, T. J.; Weightman, P.

    1997-05-01

    We report the occurrence of a transient surface state during the initial stages of CBE GaAs(0 0 1) growth. The state was detected in real-time reflectance ( R) and reflectance anisotropy spectroscopy (RAS) growth monitoring. At low growth rates, less than 1 μm/h, beam equivalent pressure (BEP) of triethylgallium (TEG) BEPs there was a rapid increase in R at all monitoring wavelengths, followed by a monotonic decay to its pre-growth value. This transient increase in R was accompanied by a change in the RAS signal, the magnitude and sign of which varied with wavelength. The initial increase in R is shown to be associated with the development of a metallic-like surface whereas the changes in the RAS signal are consistent with the formation of Ga dimers.

  5. Novel CNC Grinding Process Control for Nanometric Surface Roughness for Aspheric Space Optical Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Yeol Han

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Optics fabrication process for precision space optical parts includes bound abrasive grinding, loose abrasive lapping and polishing. The traditional bound abrasive grinding with bronze bond cupped diamond wheel leaves the machine marks of about 20 μm rms in height and the subsurface damage of about 1 μm rms in height to be removed by subsequent loose abrasive lapping. We explored an efficient quantitative control of precision CNC grinding. The machining parameters such as grain size, work-piece rotation speed and feed rate were altered while grinding the work-piece surfaces of 20-100 mm in diameter. The input grinding variables and the resulting surface quality data were used to build grinding prediction models using empirical and multi-variable regression analysis. The effectiveness of such grinding prediction models was then examined by running a series of precision CNC grinding operation with a set of controlled input variables and predicted output surface quality indicators. The experiment achieved the predictability down to ±20 nm in height and the surface roughness down to 36 nm in height. This study contributed to improvement of the process efficiency reaching directly the polishing and figuring process without the need for the loose abrasive lapping stage.

  6. Dynamics of gas-surface interactions atomic-level understanding of scattering processes at surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Díez Muniño, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    This book gives a representative survey of the state of the art of research on gas-surface interactions. It provides an overview of the current understanding of gas surface dynamics and, in particular, of the reactive and non-reactive processes of atoms and small molecules at surfaces. Leading scientists in the field, both from the theoretical and the experimental sides, write in this book about their most recent advances. Surface science grew as an interdisciplinary research area over the last decades, mostly because of new experimental technologies (ultra-high vacuum, for instance), as well as because of a novel paradigm, the ‘surface science’ approach. The book describes the second transformation which is now taking place pushed by the availability of powerful quantum-mechanical theoretical methods implemented numerically. In the book, experiment and theory progress hand in hand with an unprecedented degree of accuracy and control. The book presents how modern surface science targets the atomic-level u...

  7. Absence of surface stress change during pentacene thin film growth on the Si(111)-(7 x 7) surface: a buried reconstruction interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kury, P; Horn von Hoegen, M; Heringdorf, F-J Meyer zu; Roos, K R

    2008-01-01

    We use high-resolution surface stress measurements to monitor the surface stress during the growth of pentacene (C 22 H 14 ) on the (7x7) reconstructed silicon (111) surface. No significant change in the surface stress is observed during the pentacene growth. Compared to the changes in the surface stress observed for Si and Ge deposition on the Si(111)-(7x7) surface, the insignificant change in the surface stress observed for the pentacene growth suggests that the pentacene molecules of the first adsorbate layer, although forming strong covalent bonds with the Si adatoms, do not alter the structure of the (7x7) reconstruction. The (7x7) reconstruction remains intact and, with subsequent deposition of pentacene, eventually becomes buried under the growing film. This failure of the pentacene to affect the structure of the reconstruction may represent a fundamental difference between the growth of organic thin films and that of inorganic thin films on semiconductor surfaces

  8. Surface reconstruction: An effective method for the growth of mismatched materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yu; Zheng, Beining; Wu, Xiaofeng; Yuan, Long; Wu, Jie; Guo, Hongping; Huang, Keke; Feng, Shouhua, E-mail: shfeng@mail.jlu.edu.cn

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: High quality thin film of GaSb was fabricated with molecular beam epitaxy technique on the reconstructed Si(1 1 1) surface. - Highlights: • Surface reconstruction formed by different surface treatments controls the heteroepitaxial growth. • Mismatched stress can be effectively released when the mismatched material epi-film tilts out of the epitaxial interface plane to create a coincidence-site lattice. • GaSb films grown on Si(1 1 1)-(5√3 × 5√3)-Sb surface show better crystal quality and morphology for its self-assembled 2D fishbone structure. - Abstract: The crystalline quality of epitaxial films depends on the degree of lattice match between substrates and films. Here, we report a growth strategy for large mismatched epi-films to grow GaSb films on Si(1 1 1) substrates. The epitaxial strategy can be influenced by controlling the surface reconstructions of Sb-treated Si(1 1 1). The film with the best quality was grown on Si(1 1 1)-(5√3 × 5√3)-Sb surface due to the stress release and the formation of a self-assembled 2D fishbone structure. Controlled surface engineering provides an effective pathway towards the growth of the large mismatched materials.

  9. A conserved fungal glycosyltransferase facilitates pathogenesis of plants by enabling hyphal growth on solid surfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert King

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenic fungi must extend filamentous hyphae across solid surfaces to cause diseases of plants. However, the full inventory of genes which support this is incomplete and many may be currently concealed due to their essentiality for the hyphal growth form. During a random T-DNA mutagenesis screen performed on the pleomorphic wheat (Triticum aestivum pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici, we acquired a mutant unable to extend hyphae specifically when on solid surfaces. In contrast "yeast-like" growth, and all other growth forms, were unaffected. The inability to extend surface hyphae resulted in a complete loss of virulence on plants. The affected gene encoded a predicted type 2 glycosyltransferase (ZtGT2. Analysis of >800 genomes from taxonomically diverse fungi highlighted a generally widespread, but discontinuous, distribution of ZtGT2 orthologues, and a complete absence of any similar proteins in non-filamentous ascomycete yeasts. Deletion mutants of the ZtGT2 orthologue in the taxonomically un-related fungus Fusarium graminearum were also severely impaired in hyphal growth and non-pathogenic on wheat ears. ZtGT2 expression increased during filamentous growth and electron microscopy on deletion mutants (ΔZtGT2 suggested the protein functions to maintain the outermost surface of the fungal cell wall. Despite this, adhesion to leaf surfaces was unaffected in ΔZtGT2 mutants and global RNAseq-based gene expression profiling highlighted that surface-sensing and protein secretion was also largely unaffected. However, ΔZtGT2 mutants constitutively overexpressed several transmembrane and secreted proteins, including an important LysM-domain chitin-binding virulence effector, Zt3LysM. ZtGT2 likely functions in the synthesis of a currently unknown, potentially minor but widespread, extracellular or outer cell wall polysaccharide which plays a key role in facilitating many interactions between plants and fungi by enabling hyphal growth on solid matrices.

  10. A conserved fungal glycosyltransferase facilitates pathogenesis of plants by enabling hyphal growth on solid surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Amy; Halsey, Kirstie; Lovegrove, Alison; Hammond-Kosack, Kim

    2017-01-01

    Pathogenic fungi must extend filamentous hyphae across solid surfaces to cause diseases of plants. However, the full inventory of genes which support this is incomplete and many may be currently concealed due to their essentiality for the hyphal growth form. During a random T-DNA mutagenesis screen performed on the pleomorphic wheat (Triticum aestivum) pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici, we acquired a mutant unable to extend hyphae specifically when on solid surfaces. In contrast “yeast-like” growth, and all other growth forms, were unaffected. The inability to extend surface hyphae resulted in a complete loss of virulence on plants. The affected gene encoded a predicted type 2 glycosyltransferase (ZtGT2). Analysis of >800 genomes from taxonomically diverse fungi highlighted a generally widespread, but discontinuous, distribution of ZtGT2 orthologues, and a complete absence of any similar proteins in non-filamentous ascomycete yeasts. Deletion mutants of the ZtGT2 orthologue in the taxonomically un-related fungus Fusarium graminearum were also severely impaired in hyphal growth and non-pathogenic on wheat ears. ZtGT2 expression increased during filamentous growth and electron microscopy on deletion mutants (ΔZtGT2) suggested the protein functions to maintain the outermost surface of the fungal cell wall. Despite this, adhesion to leaf surfaces was unaffected in ΔZtGT2 mutants and global RNAseq-based gene expression profiling highlighted that surface-sensing and protein secretion was also largely unaffected. However, ΔZtGT2 mutants constitutively overexpressed several transmembrane and secreted proteins, including an important LysM-domain chitin-binding virulence effector, Zt3LysM. ZtGT2 likely functions in the synthesis of a currently unknown, potentially minor but widespread, extracellular or outer cell wall polysaccharide which plays a key role in facilitating many interactions between plants and fungi by enabling hyphal growth on solid matrices. PMID:29020037

  11. UMTRA Surface Project management action process document: Final. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-06-01

    Title 1 of the UMTRCA authorized the DOE to undertake remedial actions at these designed sites and associated vicinity properties (VP), which contain uranium mill tailings and other residual radioactive materials (RRM) derived from the processing sites. Title 2 of the UMTRCA addresses uranium mill sites that were licensed at the time the UMTRCA was enacted. Cleanup of these Title 2 sites is the responsibility of the licensees. The cleanup of the Title 1 sites has been split into two separate projects: the Surface Project, which deals with the mill buildings, tailings, and contaminated soils at the sites and VPs; and the Ground Water Project, which is limited to the contaminated ground water at the sites. This management action process (MAP) document discusses the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Surface Project. Since its inception through March 1996, the Surface Project (hereinafter called the Project) has cleaned up 16 of the 24 designated processing sites and approximately 5,000 VPs, reducing the risk to human health and the environment posed by the uranium mill tailings. Two of the 24 sites, Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota, will not be remediated at the request of the state, reducing the total number of sites to 22. By the start of FY1998, the remaining 6 processing sites and associated VPs will be cleaned up. The remedial action activities to be funded in FY1998 by the FY1998 budget request are remediation of the remaining Grand Junction, Colorado, VPs; closure of the Cheney disposal cell in Grand Junction, Colorado; and preparation of the completion reports for 4 completed sites

  12. UMTRA Surface Project management action process document: Final. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    Title 1 of the UMTRCA authorized the DOE to undertake remedial actions at these designed sites and associated vicinity properties (VP), which contain uranium mill tailings and other residual radioactive materials (RRM) derived from the processing sites. Title 2 of the UMTRCA addresses uranium mill sites that were licensed at the time the UMTRCA was enacted. Cleanup of these Title 2 sites is the responsibility of the licensees. The cleanup of the Title 1 sites has been split into two separate projects: the Surface Project, which deals with the mill buildings, tailings, and contaminated soils at the sites and VPs; and the Ground Water Project, which is limited to the contaminated ground water at the sites. This management action process (MAP) document discusses the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Surface Project. Since its inception through March 1996, the Surface Project (hereinafter called the Project) has cleaned up 16 of the 24 designated processing sites and approximately 5,000 VPs, reducing the risk to human health and the environment posed by the uranium mill tailings. Two of the 24 sites, Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota, will not be remediated at the request of the state, reducing the total number of sites to 22. By the start of FY1998, the remaining 6 processing sites and associated VPs will be cleaned up. The remedial action activities to be funded in FY1998 by the FY1998 budget request are remediation of the remaining Grand Junction, Colorado, VPs; closure of the Cheney disposal cell in Grand Junction, Colorado; and preparation of the completion reports for 4 completed sites.

  13. Using infrared thermography for understanding and quantifying soil surface processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, João L. M. P.

    2017-04-01

    At present, our understanding of the soil hydrologic response is restricted by measurement limitations. In the literature, there have been repeatedly calls for interdisciplinary approaches to expand our knowledge in this field and eventually overcome the limitations that are inherent to conventional measuring techniques used, for example, for tracing water at the basin, hillslope and even field or plot scales. Infrared thermography is a versatile, accurate and fast technique of monitoring surface temperature and has been used in a variety of fields, such as military surveillance, medical diagnosis, industrial processes optimisation, building inspections and agriculture. However, many applications are still to be fully explored. In surface hydrology, it has been successfully employed as a high spatial and temporal resolution non-invasive and non-destructive imaging tool to e.g. access groundwater discharges into waterbodies or quantify thermal heterogeneities of streams. It is believed that thermal infrared imagery can grasp the spatial and temporal variability of many processes at the soil surface. Thermography interprets the heat signals and can provide an attractive view for identifying both areas where water is flowing or has infiltrated more, or accumulated temporarily in depressions or macropores. Therefore, we hope to demonstrate the potential for thermal infrared imagery to indirectly make a quantitative estimation of several hydrologic processes. Applications include: e.g. mapping infiltration, microrelief and macropores; estimating flow velocities; defining sampling strategies; identifying water sources, accumulation of waters or even connectivity. Protocols for the assessment of several hydrologic processes with the help of IR thermography will be briefly explained, presenting some examples from laboratory soil flumes and field.

  14. Influence of surface coverage on the chemical desorption process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minissale, M.; Dulieu, F., E-mail: francois.dulieu@obspm.fr [LERMA, Université de Cergy Pontoise et Observatoire de Paris, UMR 8112 du CNRS. 5, mail Gay Lussac, 95031 Cergy Pontoise (France)

    2014-07-07

    In cold astrophysical environments, some molecules are observed in the gas phase whereas they should have been depleted, frozen on dust grains. In order to solve this problem, astrochemists have proposed that a fraction of molecules synthesized on the surface of dust grains could desorb just after their formation. Recently the chemical desorption process has been demonstrated experimentally, but the key parameters at play have not yet been fully understood. In this article, we propose a new procedure to analyze the ratio of di-oxygen and ozone synthesized after O atoms adsorption on oxidized graphite. We demonstrate that the chemical desorption efficiency of the two reaction paths (O+O and O+O{sub 2}) is different by one order of magnitude. We show the importance of the surface coverage: for the O+O reaction, the chemical desorption efficiency is close to 80% at zero coverage and tends to zero at one monolayer coverage. The coverage dependence of O+O chemical desorption is proved by varying the amount of pre-adsorbed N{sub 2} on the substrate from 0 to 1.5 ML. Finally, we discuss the relevance of the different physical parameters that could play a role in the chemical desorption process: binding energy, enthalpy of formation, and energy transfer from the new molecule to the surface or to other adsorbates.

  15. Decontamination Efficiency of Fish Bacterial Flora from Processing Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birna Guðbjörnsdóttir

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous parameters that can influence bacterial decontamination during washing of machinery and equipment in a food processing establishment. Incomplete decontamination of bacteria will increase the risk of biofilm formation and consequently increase the risk of pathogen contamination or prevalence of other undesirable microorganisms such as spoilage bacteria in the processing line. The efficiency of a typical washing protocol has been determined by testing three critical parameters and their effects on bacterial decontamination. Two surface materials (plastic and stainless steel, water temperatures (7 and 25 °C and detergent concentrations (2 and 4 % were used for this purpose in combination with two types of detergents. Biofilm was prepared on the surfaces with undefined bacterial flora obtained from minced cod fillets. The bacterial flora of the biofilm was characterised by cultivation and molecular analysis of 16S rRNA genes. All different combinations of washing protocols tested were able to remove more than 99.9 % of the bacteria in the biofilm and reduce the cell number from 7 to 0 or 2 log units of bacteria/cm2. The results show that it is possible to use less diluted detergents than recommended with comparable success, and it is easier to clean surface material made of stainless steel compared to polyethylene plastic.

  16. Seasonal variations in ectotherm growth rates: Quantifying growth as an intermittent non steady state compensatory process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarini, J.-M.; Chauvaud, Laurent; Cloern, J.E.; Clavier, J.; Coston-Guarini, J.; Patry, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Generally, growth rates of living organisms are considered to be at steady state, varying only under environmental forcing factors. For example, these rates may be described as a function of light for plants or organic food resources for animals and these could be regulated (or not) by temperature or other conditions. But, what are the consequences for an individual's growth (and also for the population growth) if growth rate variations are themselves dynamic and not steady state? For organisms presenting phases of dormancy or long periods of stress, this is a crucial question. A dynamic perspective for quantifying short-term growth was explored using the daily growth record of the scallop Pecten maximus (L.). This species is a good biological model for ectotherm growth because the shell records growth striae daily. Independently, a generic mathematical function representing the dynamics of mean daily growth rate (MDGR) was implemented to simulate a diverse set of growth patterns. Once the function was calibrated with the striae patterns, the growth rate dynamics appeared as a forced damped oscillation during the growth period having a basic periodicity during two transitory phases (mean duration 43. days) and appearing at both growth start and growth end. This phase is most likely due to the internal dynamics of energy transfer within the organism rather than to external forcing factors. After growth restart, the transitory regime represents successive phases of over-growth and regulation. This pattern corresponds to a typical representation of compensatory growth, which from an evolutionary perspective can be interpreted as an adaptive strategy to coping with a fluctuating environment. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  17. Quantification of deexcitation processes for analyzing liquid surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgner, H.

    2014-01-01

    In the last two decades the mathematical tools for quantitative data evaluation have been developed for several surface spectroscopic techniques like Angular Resolved X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (ARXPS), Neutral Impact Collision Ion Scattering Spectroscopy (NICISS) and Metastable Induced Electron Spectroscopy (MIES). Provided that the experimental data are of good quality, quantitative data processing can add a lot to the information that can be gained from surface spectroscopy. We give a selection of references that contain information on these methods. The emphasis of this contribution aims at providing motivation to apply quantitative data evaluation by presenting a few examples. We try to demonstrate, that careful data evaluation may lead to interesting insight into basic concepts as well as to results that are useful for practical applications

  18. Quantification of deexcitation processes for analyzing liquid surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgner, H., E-mail: hmorgner@rz.uni-leipzig.de

    2014-12-01

    In the last two decades the mathematical tools for quantitative data evaluation have been developed for several surface spectroscopic techniques like Angular Resolved X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (ARXPS), Neutral Impact Collision Ion Scattering Spectroscopy (NICISS) and Metastable Induced Electron Spectroscopy (MIES). Provided that the experimental data are of good quality, quantitative data processing can add a lot to the information that can be gained from surface spectroscopy. We give a selection of references that contain information on these methods. The emphasis of this contribution aims at providing motivation to apply quantitative data evaluation by presenting a few examples. We try to demonstrate, that careful data evaluation may lead to interesting insight into basic concepts as well as to results that are useful for practical applications.

  19. Surface nucleation and independent growth of Ce(OH)4 within confinement space on modified carbon black surface to prepare nano-CeO2 without agglomeration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinyue; Xia, Chunhui; Li, Kaitao; Lin, Yanjun

    2018-04-01

    Highly dispersed negative carboxyl groups can be formed on carbon black (CB) surface modified with strong nitric acid. Therefore positive cations can be uniformly absorbed by carboxyl groups and precipitated within a confinement space on modified CB surface to prepare highly dispersed nanomaterials. In this paper, the formation and dispersion status of surface negative carboxyl groups, adsorption status of Ce3+, surface confinement nucleation, crystallization and calcination process were studied by EDS, SEM, and laser particle size analysis. The results show that the carboxyl groups formed on modified CB surface are highly dispersed, and Ce3+ cations can be uniformly anchored by carboxyl groups. Therefore, highly dispersed Ce3+ can react with OH- within a confinement surface region to form positive nano-Ce(OH)4 nuclei which also can be adsorbed by electrostatic attraction. After independent growth of Ce(OH)4 without agglomeration, highly dispersed CeO2 nanoparticles without agglomeration can be prepared together with the help of effectively isolates by CO2 released in the combustion of CB.

  20. Aerosol chemistry in Titan's ionosphere: simultaneous growth and etching processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Nathalie; Cernogora, Guy; Jomard, François; Etcheberry, Arnaud; Vigneron, Jackie

    2016-10-01

    Since the Cassini-CAPS measurements, organic aerosols are known to be present and formed at high altitudes in the diluted and partially ionized medium that is Titan's ionosphere [1]. This unexpected chemistry can be further investigated in the laboratory with plasma experiments simulating the complex ion-neutral chemistry starting from N2-CH4 [2]. Two sorts of solid organic samples can be produced in laboratory experiments simulating Titan's atmospheric reactivity: grains in the volume and thin films on the reactor walls. We expect that grains are more representative of Titan's atmospheric aerosols, but films are used to provide optical indices for radiative models of Titan's atmosphere.The aim of the present study is to address if these two sorts of analogues are chemically equivalent or not, when produced in the same N2-CH4 plasma discharge. The chemical compositions of both these materials are measured by using elemental analysis, XPS analysis and Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry. We find that films are homogeneous but significantly less rich in nitrogen and hydrogen than grains produced in the same experimental conditions. This surprising difference in their chemical compositions is explained by the efficient etching occurring on the films, which stay in the discharge during the whole plasma duration, whereas the grains are ejected after a few minutes [3]. The impact for our understanding of Titan's aerosols chemical composition is important. Our study shows that chemical growth and etching process are simultaneously at stake in Titan's ionosphere. The more the aerosols stay in the ionosphere, the more graphitized they get through etching process. In order to infer Titan's aerosols composition, our work highlights a need for constraints on the residence time of aerosols in Titan's ionosphere. [1] Waite et al. (2009) Science , 316, p. 870[2] Szopa et al. (2006) PSS, 54, p. 394[3] Carrasco et al. (2016) PSS, 128, p. 52

  1. The effect of cation:anion ratio in solution on the mechanism of barite growth at constant supersaturation: Role of the desolvation process on the growth kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowacz, M.; Putnis, C. V.; Putnis, A.

    2007-11-01

    The mechanism of barite growth has been investigated in a fluid cell of an Atomic Force Microscope by passing solutions of constant supersaturation ( Ω) but variable ion activity ratio ( r=a/a) over a barite substrate.The observed dependence of step-spreading velocity on solution stoichiometry can be explained by considering non-equivalent attachment frequency factors for the cation and anion. We show that the potential for two-dimensional nucleation changes under a constant thermodynamic driving force due to the kinetics of barium integration into the surface, and that the growth mode changes from preexisting step advancement to island spreading as the cation/anion activity ratio increases. Scanning electron microscopy studies of crystals grown in bulk solutions support our findings that matching the ion ratio in the fluid to that of the crystal lattice does not result in maximum growth and nucleation rates. Significantly more rapid rates correspond to solution stoichiometries where [Ba 2+] is in excess with respect to [ SO42-]. Experiments performed in dilute aqueous solutions of methanol show that even 0.02 molar fraction of organic cosolvent in the growth solution significantly accelerates step growth velocity and nucleation rates (while keeping Ω the same as in the reference solution in water). Our observations suggest that the effect of methanol on barite growth results first of all from reduction of the barrier that prevents the Ba 2+ from reaching the surface and corroborate the hypothesis that desolvation of the cation and of the surface is the rate limiting kinetic process for two-dimensional nucleation and for crystal growth.

  2. Surface hardening of two cast irons by friction stir processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Hidetoshi; Kikuchi, Toshifumi; Nogi, Kiyoshi; Yamaguchi, Yasufumi; Kiguchi, Shoji

    2009-01-01

    The Friction Stir Processing (FSP) was applied to the surface hardening of cast irons. Flake graphite cast iron (FC300) and nodular graphite cast iron (FCD700) were used to investigate the validity of this method. The matrices of the FC300 and FC700 cast irons are pearlite. The rotary tool is a 25mm diameter cylindrical tool, and the travelling speed was varied between 50 and 150mm/min in order to control the heat input at the constant rotation speed of 900rpm. As a result, it has been clarified that a Vickers hardness of about 700HV is obtained for both cast irons. It is considered that a very fine martensite structure is formed because the FSP generates the heat very locally, and a very high cooling rate is constantly obtained. When a tool without an umbo (probe) is used, the domain in which graphite is crushed and striated is minimized. This leads to obtaining a much harder sample. The hardness change depends on the size of the martensite, which can be controlled by the process conditions, such as the tool traveling speed and the load. Based on these results, it was clarified that the FSP has many advantages for cast irons, such as a higher hardness and lower distortion. As a result, no post surface heat treatment and no post machining are required to obtain the required hardness, while these processes are generally required when using the traditional methods.

  3. Whisker growth: a new mechanism for helium blistering of surfaces in complex radiation environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonell, W.R.

    1978-01-01

    Implantation of helium concurrent with the generation of large numbers of displaced atoms in surface layers of materials exposed to 252 Cf α-particles and fission fragments produces a unique form of low temperature surface blistering. The purpose of this paper is to formulate a basis for the whisker-growth mechanism for helium blistering as an aid to the specification of conditions under which the mechanism might apply

  4. A novel growth mode of alkane films on a SiO2 surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mo, H.; Taub, H.; Volkmann, U.G.

    2003-01-01

    on the SiO2 surface with the long-axis of the C32 molecules oriented parallel to the interface followed by a C32 monolayer with the long-axis perpendicular to it. Finally, preferentially oriented bulk particles nucleate having two different crystal structures. This growth model differs from that found...... previously for shorter alkanes deposited from the vapor phase onto solid surfaces....

  5. The microfluidic probe: operation and use for localized surface processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrault, Cecile M; Qasaimeh, Mohammad A; Juncker, David

    2009-06-04

    Microfluidic devices allow assays to be performed using minute amounts of sample and have recently been used to control the microenvironment of cells. Microfluidics is commonly associated with closed microchannels which limit their use to samples that can be introduced, and cultured in the case of cells, within a confined volume. On the other hand, micropipetting system have been used to locally perfuse cells and surfaces, notably using push-pull setups where one pipette acts as source and the other one as sink, but the confinement of the flow is difficult in three dimensions. Furthermore, pipettes are fragile and difficult to position and hence are used in static configuration only. The microfluidic probe (MFP) circumvents the constraints imposed by the construction of closed microfluidic channels and instead of enclosing the sample into the microfluidic system, the microfluidic flow can be directly delivered onto the sample, and scanned across the sample, using the MFP. . The injection and aspiration openings are located within a few tens of micrometers of one another so that a microjet injected into the gap is confined by the hydrodynamic forces of the surrounding liquid and entirely aspirated back into the other opening. The microjet can be flushed across the substrate surface and provides a precise tool for localized deposition/delivery of reagents which can be used over large areas by scanning the probe across the surface. In this video we present the microfluidic probe (MFP). We explain in detail how to assemble the MFP, mount it atop an inverted microscope, and align it relative to the substrate surface, and finally show how to use it to process a substrate surface immersed in a buffer.

  6. Interdependencies of Arctic land surface processes: A uniquely sensitive environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowling, L. C.

    2007-12-01

    The circumpolar arctic drainage basin is composed of several distinct ecoregions including steppe grassland and cropland, boreal forest and tundra. Land surface hydrology throughout this diverse region shares several unique features such as dramatic seasonal runoff differences controlled by snowmelt and ice break-up; the storage of significant portions of annual precipitation as snow and in lakes and wetlands; and the effects of ephemeral and permanently frozen soils. These arctic land processes are delicately balanced with the climate and are therefore important indicators of change. The litany of recently-detected changes in the Arctic includes changes in snow precipitation, trends and seasonal shifts in river discharge, increases and decreases in the extent of surface water, and warming soil temperatures. Although not unique to the arctic, increasing anthropogenic pressures represent an additional element of change in the form of resource extraction, fire threat and reservoir construction. The interdependence of the physical, biological and social systems mean that changes in primary indicators have large implications for land cover, animal populations and the regional carbon balance, all of which have the potential to feed back and induce further change. In fact, the complex relationships between the hydrological processes that make the Artic unique also render observed historical change difficult to interpret and predict, leading to conflicting explanations. For example, a decrease in snow accumulation may provide less insulation to the underlying soil resulting in greater frost development and increased spring runoff. Similarly, melting permafrost and ground ice may lead to ground subsidence and increased surface saturation and methane production, while more complete thaw may enhance drainage and result in drier soil conditions. The threshold nature of phase change around the freezing point makes the system especially sensitive to change. In addition, spatial

  7. Surfaces: processing, coating, decontamination, pollution, etc. Surface mastering to prevent component corrosion; Surfaces: traitement, revetements, decontamination, pollution, etc. Maitrise de la surface pour prevenir la corrosion des composants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foucault, M. [Departement Corrosion Chimie, AREVA Centre Technique, BP 181, 71205 Le Creusot (France)

    2012-07-01

    In the primary and secondary circuits of nuclear Pressurized Water Reactors, AREVA uses several nickel-based alloys or austenitic stainless steels for the manufacture of safety components. The experience feedback of the last twenty years allows us to point out the major role hold by the component surface state in their life duration. In this paper, we present four examples of problem encountered and solved by a surface study and the definition and implementation of processes for the surface control of the repaired components. Then, we propose some ideas about the present needs in term of analysis means to improve the surface knowledge and control of the manufactured components. (author)

  8. Textural Analysis of Fatique Crack Surfaces: Image Pre-processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Lauschmann

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available For the fatique crack history reconstitution, new methods of quantitative microfractography are beeing developed based on the image processing and textural analysis. SEM magnifications between micro- and macrofractography are used. Two image pre-processing operatins were suggested and proved to prepare the crack surface images for analytical treatment: 1. Normalization is used to transform the image to a stationary form. Compared to the generally used equalization, it conserves the shape of brightness distribution and saves the character of the texture. 2. Binarization is used to transform the grayscale image to a system of thick fibres. An objective criterion for the threshold brightness value was found as that resulting into the maximum number of objects. Both methods were succesfully applied together with the following textural analysis.

  9. Fracture processes and mechanisms of crack growth resistance in human enamel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Devendra; Park, Saejin; Quinn, George D.; Arola, Dwayne

    2010-07-01

    Human enamel has a complex micro-structure that varies with distance from the tooth’s outer surface. But contributions from the microstructure to the fracture toughness and the mechanisms of crack growth resistance have not been explored in detail. In this investigation the apparent fracture toughness of human enamel and the mechanisms of crack growth resistance were evaluated using the indentation fracture approach and an incremental crack growth technique. Indentation cracks were introduced on polished surfaces of enamel at selected distances from the occlusal surface. In addition, an incremental crack growth approach using compact tension specimens was used to quantify the crack growth resistance as a Junction of distance from the occlusal surface. There were significant differences in the apparent toughness estimated using the two approaches, which was attributed to the active crack length and corresponding scale of the toughening mechanisms.

  10. Dual Electrolytic Plasma Processing for Steel Surface Cleaning and Passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, L.; Zhang, P.; Shi, J.; Liang, J.; Tian, W. B.; Zhang, Y. M.; Sun, Z. M.

    2017-10-01

    To remove the rust on rebars and passivate the fresh surfaces, electrodes reversing electrolytic plasma processing (EPP) was proposed and conducted in a 10 wt.% Na2CO3 aqueous solution. The morphology and the composition of the surface were investigated by SEM and XPS. Experimental results show that the rust on the surface was removed effectively by cathode EPP, and a passive film containing Cr2O3 was achieved by the succeeding anode EPP treatment, by a simple operation of reversing the bias. The corrosion resistance was evaluated in a 3.5 wt.% NaCl aqueous solution using an electrochemical workstation. In comparison, the corrosion resistance was improved by the succeeding anode EPP treatment, which is evidenced by a positive shift of the open-circuit potential, an increase in the electrochemical impedance representing the inner layer by 76.8% and the decrease in the corrosion current density by 49.6%. This is an effective and environment-friendly technique to clean and passivate rebars and similar steel materials.

  11. Land use and surface process domains on alpine hillslopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Nikolaus J.; Caviezel, Chatrina; Hunziker, Matthias

    2015-04-01

    Shrubs and trees are generally considered to protect hillslopes from erosion. As a consequence, shrub encroachment on mountain pastures after abandoning grazing is not considered a threat to soils. However, the abandonment of mown or grazed grasslands causes a shift in vegetation composition and thus a change in landscape ecology and geomorphology. On many alpine slopes, current changes in land use and vegetation cover are accompanied by climate change, potentially generating a new geomorphic regime. Most of the debate focuses on the effect of land abandonment on water erosion rates. Generally, an established perennial vegetation cover improves the mechanical anchoring of the soil and the regulation of the soil water budget, including runoff generation and erosion. However, changing vegetation composition affects many other above- and below-ground properties like root density, -diversity and -geometry, soil structure, pore volume and acidity. Each combination of these properties can lead to a distinct scenario of dominating surface processes, often not reflected by common erosion risk assessment procedures. The study of soil properties along a chronosequence of green alder (alnusviridis) encroachment on the Unteralptal in central Switzerland reveals that shrub encroachment changes soil and vegetation properties towards an increase of resistance to run-off related erosion processes, but a decrease of slope stability against shallow landslides. The latter are a particular threat because of the currently increasing frequency of slide-triggering high magnitude rainfalls. The potential change of process domain on alpine pastures highlights the need for a careful use of erosion models when assessing future land use and climate scenarios. In mountains, but also other intensively managed agricultural landscapes, risk assessment without the appropriate reflection on the shifting relevance of surface processes carries the risk of missing future threats to environmental

  12. Preservation of the Pt(100) surface reconstruction after growth of a continuous layer of graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Louis; Andersen, Mie; Bjerre, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Scanning tunneling microscopy shows that a layer of graphene can be grown on the hex-reconstructed Pt(100) surface and that the reconstruction is preserved after growth. A continuous sheet of graphene can be grown across domain boundaries and step edges without loss of periodicity or change in di...

  13. Morphology of Laplacian growth processes and statistics of equivalent many-body systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumenfeld, R.

    1994-01-01

    The authors proposes a theory for the nonlinear evolution of two dimensional interfaces in Laplacian fields. The growing region is conformally mapped onto the unit disk, generating an equivalent many-body system whose dynamics and statistics are studied. The process is shown to be Hamiltonian, with the Hamiltonian being the imaginary part of the complex electrostatic potential. Surface effects are introduced through the Hamiltonian as an external field. An extension to a continuous density of particles is presented. The results are used to study the morphology of the interface using statistical mechanics for the many-body system. The distribution of the curvature and the moments of the growth probability along the interface are calculated exactly from the distribution of the particles. In the dilute limit, the distribution of the curvature is shown to develop algebraic tails, which may, for the first time, explain the origin of fractality in diffusion controlled processes

  14. Effect of process parameters on surface oxides on chromium-alloyed steel powder during sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chasoglou, D.; Hryha, E.; Nyborg, L.

    2013-01-01

    The use of chromium in the PM steel industry today puts high demands on the choice and control of the atmosphere during the sintering process due to its high affinity to oxygen. Particular attention is required in order to control the surface chemistry of the powder which in turn is the key factor for the successful sintering and production of PM parts. Different atmosphere compositions, heating rates and green densities were employed while performing sintering trials on water atomized steel powder pre-alloyed with 3 wt.% Cr in order to evaluate the effect on surface chemical reactions. Fracture surfaces of sintered samples were examined using high resolution scanning electron microscopy combined with X-ray microanalysis. The investigation was complemented with thermogravimetric (TG) studies. Reaction products in particulate form containing strong-oxide forming elements such as Cr, Si and Mn were formed during sintering for all conditions. Processing in vacuum results in intensive inter-particle neck development during the heating stage and consequently in the excessive enclosure of surface oxide which is reflected in less good final mechanical properties. Enhanced oxide reduction was observed in samples processed in hydrogen-containing atmospheres independent of the actual content in the range of 3–10 vol.%. An optimum heating rate was required for balancing reduction/oxidation processes. A simple model for the enclosure and growth of oxide inclusions during the sinter-neck development is proposed. The obtained results show that significant reduction of the oxygen content can be achieved by adjusting the atmosphere purity/composition. - Highlights: ► A local atmosphere microclimate is very important for sintering of PM steels. ► High risk of surface oxide enclosure between 800 and 1000 °C. ► Coalescence and agglomeration of enclosed oxides take place during sintering. ► The effect of different process parameters on the oxide reduction is examined. ► A

  15. Investigation of ammonia air-surface exchange processes in a ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent assessments of atmospheric deposition in North America note the increasing importance of reduced (NHx = NH3 + NH4+) forms of nitrogen (N) relative to oxidized forms. This shift in in the composition of inorganic nitrogen deposition has both ecological and policy implications. Deposition budgets developed from inferential models applied at the landscape scale, as well as regional and global chemical transport models, indicate that NH3 dry deposition contributes a significant portion of inorganic N deposition in many areas. However, the bidirectional NH3 flux algorithms employed in these models have not been extensively evaluated for North American conditions (e.g, atmospheric chemistry, meteorology, biogeochemistry). Further understanding of the processes controlling NH3 air-surface exchange in natural systems is critically needed. Based on preliminary results from the Southern Appalachian Nitrogen Deposition Study (SANDS), this presentation examines processes of NH3 air-surface exchange in a deciduous montane forest at the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory in western North Carolina. A combination of measurements and modeling are used to investigate net fluxes of NH3 above the forest and sources and sinks of NH3 within the canopy and forest floor. Measurements of biogeochemical NH4+ pools are used to characterize emission potential and NH3 compensation points of canopy foliage (i.e., green vegetation), leaf litter, and soil and their relation to NH3 fluxes

  16. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Express Type 1 Fimbriae Only in Surface Adherent Populations Under Physiological Growth Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stærk, Kristian; Kolmos, Hans Jørn; Khandige, Surabhi

    2016-01-01

    were correlated with the ability to adhere to and invade cultured human bladder cells. RESULTS:  Although inactive during planktonic growth in urine, T1F expression occurs when UPEC settles on and infects bladder epithelial cells or colonizes catheters. As a result, UPEC in these sessile populations...... with increased expression during surface growth adaptation and infection of uroepithelial cells. This leads to separation of UPEC into low-expression planktonic populations and high-expression sessile populations....... enhances bladder cell adhesion and invasion potential. Only T1F-negative UPEC are subsequently released to the urine, thus limiting T1F expression to surface-associated UPEC alone. CONCLUSION:  Our results demonstrate that T1F expression is strictly regulated under physiological growth conditions...

  17. Nucleation and Early Stages of Layer-by-Layer Growth of Metal Organic Frameworks on Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    High resolution atomic force microscopy (AFM) is used to resolve the evolution of crystallites of a metal organic framework (HKUST-1) grown on Au(111) using a liquid-phase layer-by-layer methodology. The nucleation and faceting of individual crystallites is followed by repeatedly imaging the same submicron region after each cycle of growth and we find that the growing surface is terminated by {111} facets leading to the formation of pyramidal nanostructures for [100] oriented crystallites, and triangular [111] islands with typical lateral dimensions of tens of nanometres. AFM images reveal that crystallites can grow by 5–10 layers in each cycle. The growth rate depends on crystallographic orientation and the morphology of the gold substrate, and we demonstrate that under these conditions the growth is nanocrystalline with a morphology determined by the minimum energy surface. PMID:26709359

  18. Fatigue test results of flat plate specimens with surface cracks and evaluation of crack growth in structural components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Katsuyuki; Yokoyama, Norio; Ohba, Toshihiro; Kawamura, Takaichi; Miyazono, Shohachiro

    1982-12-01

    Part-through surface cracks are most frequently observed in the inspection of structural components, and it is one of the important subjects in the assessment of safety to evaluate appropriately the growth of such cracks during the service life of structural components. Due to the complexity of the stress at the front free surface, the crack growth at the surface shows a different behavior from the other part. Besides, an effect of interaction is caused in the growth of multiple surface cracks. These effects should be included in the growth analysis of surface part-through cracks. Authors have carried out a series of fatigue tests on some kinds of pipes with multiple cracks in the inner surface, and subsequently the fatigue test of flat plate specimens, made of Type 304L stainless steel, with a single or double surface cracks was carried out to study the basic characteristics in the growth of multiple surface cracks. Based on the results of the flat plate test. the correction factors for the front free surface (Cs) and interaction (Ci) of surface cracks were derived quantitatively by the following empirical expressions; Cs = 0.824. Ci = (0.227(a/b) 2 (sec(PI X/2) - 1) + 1)sup(1/m). Using these two correction factors, a procedure to predict the growth of surface cracks was developed by applying the crack growth formula to both the thickness and surface directions. Besides, the crack growth predictions based on the procedure of ASME Code Sex. XI, and the above procedure without the correction of the free surface and interactions on the crack growth behaviors were compared with the test results of flat plate specimens. The crack growth behavior predicted by the procedure described in this report showed the best agreement with the test results in respects of the crack growth life and the change in the crack shape. The criteria of the ASME Code did not agree with the test results. (author)

  19. Process for growing a film epitaxially upon an oxide surface and structures formed with the process

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Rodney A.; Walker, Frederick J.

    1995-01-01

    A process and structure wherein a film comprised of a perovskite or a spinel is built epitaxially upon a surface, such as an alkaline earth oxide surface, involves the epitaxial build up of alternating constituent metal oxide planes of the perovskite or spinel. The first layer of metal oxide built upon the surface includes a metal element which provides a small cation in the crystalline structure of the perovskite or spinel, and the second layer of metal oxide built upon the surface includes a metal element which provides a large cation in the crystalline structure of the perovskite or spinel. The layering sequence involved in the film build up reduces problems which would otherwise result from the interfacial electrostatics at the first atomic layers, and these oxides can be stabilized as commensurate thin films at a unit cell thickness or grown with high crystal quality to thicknesses of 0.5-0.7 .mu.m for optical device applications.

  20. Antimicrobial activity of transition metal acid MoO3 prevents microbial growth on material surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zollfrank, Cordt; Gutbrod, Kai; Wechsler, Peter; Guggenbichler, Josef Peter

    2012-01-01

    Serious infectious complications of patients in healthcare settings are often transmitted by materials and devices colonised by microorganisms (nosocomial infections). Current strategies to generate material surfaces with an antimicrobial activity suffer from the consumption of the antimicrobial agent and emerging multidrug-resistant pathogens amongst others. Consequently, materials surfaces exhibiting a permanent antimicrobial activity without the risk of generating resistant microorganisms are desirable. This publication reports on the extraordinary efficient antimicrobial properties of transition metal acids such as molybdic acid (H 2 MoO 4 ), which is based on molybdenum trioxide (MoO 3 ). The modification of various materials (e.g. polymers, metals) with MoO 3 particles or sol–gel derived coatings showed that the modified materials surfaces were practically free of microorganisms six hours after contamination with infectious agents. The antimicrobial activity is based on the formation of an acidic surface deteriorating cell growth and proliferation. The application of transition metal acids as antimicrobial surface agents is an innovative approach to prevent the dissemination of microorganisms in healthcare units and public environments. Highlights: ► The presented modifications of materials surfaces with MoO 3 are non-cytotoxic and decrease biofilm growth and bacteria transmission. ► The material is insensitive towards emerging resistances of bacteria. ► Strong potential to reduce spreading of infectious agents on inanimate surfaces.

  1. Stochastic growth logistic model with aftereffect for batch fermentation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosli, Norhayati; Ayoubi, Tawfiqullah; Bahar, Arifah; Rahman, Haliza Abdul; Salleh, Madihah Md

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, the stochastic growth logistic model with aftereffect for the cell growth of C. acetobutylicum P262 and Luedeking-Piret equations for solvent production in batch fermentation system is introduced. The parameters values of the mathematical models are estimated via Levenberg-Marquardt optimization method of non-linear least squares. We apply Milstein scheme for solving the stochastic models numerically. The effciency of mathematical models is measured by comparing the simulated result and the experimental data of the microbial growth and solvent production in batch system. Low values of Root Mean-Square Error (RMSE) of stochastic models with aftereffect indicate good fits.

  2. Stochastic growth logistic model with aftereffect for batch fermentation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosli, Norhayati; Ayoubi, Tawfiqullah; Bahar, Arifah; Rahman, Haliza Abdul; Salleh, Madihah Md

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the stochastic growth logistic model with aftereffect for the cell growth of C. acetobutylicum P262 and Luedeking-Piret equations for solvent production in batch fermentation system is introduced. The parameters values of the mathematical models are estimated via Levenberg-Marquardt optimization method of non-linear least squares. We apply Milstein scheme for solving the stochastic models numerically. The effciency of mathematical models is measured by comparing the simulated result and the experimental data of the microbial growth and solvent production in batch system. Low values of Root Mean-Square Error (RMSE) of stochastic models with aftereffect indicate good fits

  3. Stochastic growth logistic model with aftereffect for batch fermentation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosli, Norhayati; Ayoubi, Tawfiqullah [Faculty of Industrial Sciences and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Lebuhraya Tun Razak, 26300 Gambang, Pahang (Malaysia); Bahar, Arifah; Rahman, Haliza Abdul [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Salleh, Madihah Md [Department of Biotechnology Industry, Faculty of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia)

    2014-06-19

    In this paper, the stochastic growth logistic model with aftereffect for the cell growth of C. acetobutylicum P262 and Luedeking-Piret equations for solvent production in batch fermentation system is introduced. The parameters values of the mathematical models are estimated via Levenberg-Marquardt optimization method of non-linear least squares. We apply Milstein scheme for solving the stochastic models numerically. The effciency of mathematical models is measured by comparing the simulated result and the experimental data of the microbial growth and solvent production in batch system. Low values of Root Mean-Square Error (RMSE) of stochastic models with aftereffect indicate good fits.

  4. The Modification of Orographic Snow Growth Processes by Cloud Nucleating Aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, W. R.; Saleeby, S.

    2011-12-01

    Cloud nucleating aerosols have been found to modify the amount and spatial distribution of snowfall in mountainous areas where riming growth of snow crystals is known to contribute substantially to the total snow water equivalent precipitation. In the Park Range of Colorado, a 2km deep supercooled liquid water orographic cloud frequently enshrouds the mountaintop during snowfall events. This leads to a seeder-feeder growth regime in which snow falls through the orographic cloud and collects cloud water prior to surface deposition. The addition of higher concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) modifies the cloud droplet spectrum toward smaller size droplets and suppresses riming growth. Without rime growth, the density of snow crystals remains low and horizontal trajectories carry them further downwind due to slower vertical fall speeds. This leads to a downwind shift in snowfall accumulation at high CCN concentrations. Cloud resolving model simulations were performed (at 600m horizontal grid spacing) for six snowfall events over the Park Range. The chosen events were well simulated and occurred during intensive observations periods as part of two winter field campaigns in 2007 and 2010 based at Storm Peak Laboratory in Steamboat Springs, CO. For each event, sensitivity simulations were run with various initial CCN concentration vertical profiles that represent clean to polluted aerosol environments. Microphysical budget analyses were performed for these simulations in order to determine the relative importance of the various cloud properties and growth processes that contribute to precipitation production. Observations and modeling results indicate that initial vapor depositional growth of snow tends to be maximized within about 1km of mountaintop above the windward slope while the majority of riming growth occurs within 500m of mountaintop. This suggests that precipitation production is predominantly driven by locally enhanced orography. The large scale

  5. Synthesis of Ag-coated polystyrene colloids by an improved surface seeding and shell growth technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Chungui; Wang Enbo; Kang Zhenhui; Mao Baodong; Zhang Chao; Lan Yang; Wang Chunlei; Song Yanli

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, an improved surface seeding and shell growth technique was developed to prepare Ag-polystyrene core shell composite. Polyethyleneimine (PEI) could act as the linker between Ag ions (Ag nanoparticles) and polystyrene (PS) colloids and the reducing agent in the formation of Ag nanoparticles. Due to the multi-functional characteristic of PEI, Ag seeds formed in-situ and were immobilized on the surface of PEI-modified PS colloids and no free Ag clusters coexist with the Ag 'seeding' PS colloids in the system. Then, the additional agents could be added into the resulting dispersions straightly to produce a thick Ag nanoshell. The Ag nanoshell with controllable thickness was formed on the surface of PS by the 'one-pot' surface seeding and shell growth method. The Ag-coverage increased gradually with the increasing of mass ratio of AgNO 3 /PS. The optical properties of the Ag-PS colloids could be tailored by changing the coverage of Ag. - Graphical abstract: An improved surface seeding and shell growth technique was developed to prepare Ag-polystyrene core shell composite. The optical properties of the Ag-PS colloids could be tailored by changing the coverage of Ag. Display Omitted

  6. Epitaxial growth of lithium fluoride on the (1 1 1) surface of CaF 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klumpp, St; Dabringhaus, H.

    1999-08-01

    Growth of lithium fluoride by molecular beam epitaxy on the (1 1 1) surface of calcium fluoride crystals was studied by TEM and LEED for crystal temperatures from 400 to 773 K and impinging lithium fluoride fluxes from 3×10 11 to 3×10 14 cm -2 s -1. Growth starts, usually, at the steps on the (1 1 1) surface of CaF 2. For larger step distances and at later growth stages also growth on the terraces between the steps is found. Preferably, longish, roof-like crystallites are formed, which can be interpreted by growth of LiF(2 0 1¯)[0 1 0] parallel to CaF 2(1 1 1)[ 1¯ 0 1]. To a lesser extent square crystallites, i.e. growth with LiF(0 0 1), and, rarely, three-folded pyramidal crystallites, i.e. growth with LiF(1 1 1) parallel to CaF 2(1 1 1), are observed. While the pyramidal crystallites show strict epitaxial orientation with LiF[ 1¯ 0 1]‖CaF 2[ 1¯ 0 1] and LiF[ 1¯ 0 1]‖CaF 2[1 2¯ 1], only about 80% of the square crystallites exhibit an epitaxial alignment, where LiF[1 0 0]‖CaF 2[ 1¯ 0 1] is preferred to LiF[1 1 0]‖CaF 2[ 1¯ 0 1]. The epitaxial relationships are discussed on the basis of theoretically calculated adsorption positions of the lithium fluoride monomer and dimer on the terrace and at the steps of the CaF 2(1 1 1) surface.

  7. Studies on the controlled growth of InAs nanostructures on scission surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, J.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was the controlled alignment of self-assembled InAs nano-structures on a {110}-oriented surface. The surface is prestructured with the atomic precision offered by molecular beam epitaxy, using the cleaved edge overgrowth-technique. On all samples grown within this work, the epitaxial template in the first growth step was deposited on a (001)GaAs substrate, while the InAs-layer forming the nanostructures during the second growth step was grown on cleaved {110}-GaAs surfaces. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) investigations demonstrate the formation of quantum dot (QD)-like nanostructures on top of the AlAs-stripes. X-ray diffraction measurements on large arrays of aligned quantum dots demonstrate that the quantum dots are formed of pure InAs. First investigations on the optical properties of these nanostructures were done using microphotoluminescence-spectroscopy with both high spatial and spectral resolution. (orig.)

  8. HFCVD growth of various carbon nanostructures on SWCNT paper controlled by surface treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varga, M.; Izak, T.; Kromka, A.; Kotlar, M.; Vretenar, V.; Ledinsky, M.; Michalka, M.; Skakalova, V.; Vesely, M.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we investigate the nanocomposite material formation, particularly the deposition of nanocrystalline diamond and carbon nanowalls (CNWs) on single-wall carbon nanotubes buckypaper (BP). One part of the buckypaper substrate was nucleated by nanodiamond powder. The growth was carried out in a hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) system. Contact angle measurements, scanning electron microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy were used for the surface morphology analysis and characterization of carbon phases. Due to a different surface pretreatment, different carbon nanostructures were formed: diamond film was grown on the nucleated BP area; non-treated area of the BP was covered with a dense field of CNWs. Covering a part of the BP surface prevented an access of the HF-plasma and so the growth of any carbon structures. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Surface uplift in the Central Andes driven by growth of the Altiplano Puna Magma Body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Jonathan P; Ward, Kevin M; de Silva, Shanaka L; Zandt, George; Beck, Susan L; Finnegan, Noah J

    2016-10-25

    The Altiplano-Puna Magma Body (APMB) in the Central Andes is the largest imaged magma reservoir on Earth, and is located within the second highest orogenic plateau on Earth, the Altiplano-Puna. Although the APMB is a first-order geologic feature similar to the Sierra Nevada batholith, its role in the surface uplift history of the Central Andes remains uncertain. Here we show that a long-wavelength topographic dome overlies the seismically measured extent of the APMB, and gravity data suggest that the uplift is isostatically compensated. Isostatic modelling of the magmatic contribution to dome growth yields melt volumes comparable to those estimated from tomography, and suggests that the APMB growth rate exceeds the peak Cretaceous magmatic flare-up in the Sierran batholith. Our analysis reveals that magmatic addition may provide a contribution to surface uplift on par with lithospheric removal, and illustrates that surface topography may help constrain the magnitude of pluton-scale melt production.

  10. Improved cell viability and hydroxyapatite growth on nitrogen ion-implanted surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafique, Muhammad Ahsan; Murtaza, G.; Saadat, Shahzad; Uddin, Muhammad K. H.; Ahmad, Riaz

    2017-08-01

    Stainless steel 306 is implanted with various doses of nitrogen ions using a 2 MV pelletron accelerator for the improvement of its surface biomedical properties. Raman spectroscopy reveals incubation of hydroxyapatite (HA) on all the samples and it is found that the growth of incubated HA is greater in higher ion dose samples. SEM profiles depict uniform growth and greater spread of HA with higher ion implantation. Human oral fibroblast response is also found consistent with Raman spectroscopy and SEM results; the cell viability is found maximum in samples treated with the highest (more than 300%) dose. XRD profiles signified greater peak intensity of HA with ion implantation; a contact angle study revealed hydrophilic behavior of all the samples but the treated samples were found to be lesser hydrophilic compared to the control samples. Nitrogen implantation yields greater bioactivity, improved surface affinity for HA incubation and improved hardness of the surface.

  11. Growth mechanism and surface atomic structure of AgInSe{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena Martin, Pamela; Rockett, Angus A.; Lyding, Joseph [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1304 W. Green St., Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and the Beckman Institute, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 405 N. Matthews St., Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2012-07-15

    The growth of (112)A-oriented AgInSe{sub 2} on GaAs (111)A and its surface reconstruction were studied by scanning tunneling microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and other techniques. Films were grown by a sputtering and evaporation method. Topographic STM images reveal that the film grew by atomic incorporation into surface steps resulting from screw dislocations on the surface. The screw dislocation density was {approx}10{sup 10} cm{sup 2}. Atomically resolved images also show that the surface atomic arrangement appears to be similar to that of the bulk, with a spacing of 0.35-0.41 nm. There is no observable reconstruction, which is unexpected for a polar semiconductor surface.

  12. Centriolar CPAP/SAS-4 Imparts Slow Processive Microtubule Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharma, Ashwani; Aher, Amol; Dynes, Nicola J; Frey, Daniel; Katrukha, Eugene A; Jaussi, Rolf; Grigoriev, Ilya; Croisier, Marie; Kammerer, Richard A; Akhmanova, Anna; Gönczy, Pierre; Steinmetz, Michel O

    2016-01-01

    Centrioles are fundamental and evolutionarily conserved microtubule-based organelles whose assembly is characterized by microtubule growth rates that are orders of magnitude slower than those of cytoplasmic microtubules. Several centriolar proteins can interact with tubulin or microtubules, but how

  13. Growth mechanisms for Si epitaxy on O atomic layers: Impact of O-content and surface structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayachandran, Suseendran, E-mail: suseendran.jayachandran@imec.be [Imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); KU Leuven (University of Leuven), Department of Metallurgy and Materials, Castle Arenberg 44, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Billen, Arne [Imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); KU Leuven (University of Leuven), Department of Chemistry, Celestijnenlaan 200F, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Douhard, Bastien; Conard, Thierry; Meersschaut, Johan; Moussa, Alain; Caymax, Matty; Bender, Hugo [Imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Vandervorst, Wilfried [Imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); KU Leuven (University of Leuven), Department of Physics and Astronomy, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Heyns, Marc [Imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); KU Leuven (University of Leuven), Department of Metallurgy and Materials, Castle Arenberg 44, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Delabie, Annelies [Imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); KU Leuven (University of Leuven), Department of Chemistry, Celestijnenlaan 200F, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2016-10-30

    Highlights: • O{sub 3} or O{sub 2} exposures on H-Si(100) result in O ALs with different surface structures. • Si-EPI on O AL using O{sub 3} process is by direct epitaxial growth mechanism. • Si-EPI on O AL using O{sub 2} process is by epitaxial lateral overgrowth mechanism. • Distortions by O AL, SiH{sub 4} flux rate and Si thickness has an impact on Si-EPI quality. - Abstract: The epitaxial growth of Si layers on Si substrates in the presence of O atoms is generally considered a challenge, as O atoms degrade the epitaxial quality by generating defects. Here, we investigate the growth mechanisms for Si epitaxy on O atomic layers (ALs) with different O-contents and structures. O ALs are deposited by ozone (O{sub 3}) or oxygen (O{sub 2}) exposure on H-terminated Si at 50 °C and 300 °C respectively. Epitaxial Si is deposited by chemical vapor deposition using silane (SiH{sub 4}) at 500 °C. After O{sub 3} exposure, the O atoms are uniformly distributed in Si-Si dimer/back bonds. This O layer still allows epitaxial seeding of Si. The epitaxial quality is enhanced by lowering the surface distortions due to O atoms and by decreasing the arrival rate of SiH{sub 4} reactants, allowing more time for surface diffusion. After O{sub 2} exposure, the O atoms are present in the form of SiO{sub x} clusters. Regions of hydrogen-terminated Si remain present between the SiO{sub x} clusters. The epitaxial seeding of Si in these structures is realized on H-Si regions, and an epitaxial layer grows by a lateral overgrowth mechanism. A breakdown in the epitaxial ordering occurs at a critical Si thickness, presumably by accumulation of surface roughness.

  14. MarsSI: Martian surface data processing information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantin-Nataf, C.; Lozac'h, L.; Thollot, P.; Loizeau, D.; Bultel, B.; Fernando, J.; Allemand, P.; Dubuffet, F.; Poulet, F.; Ody, A.; Clenet, H.; Leyrat, C.; Harrisson, S.

    2018-01-01

    MarsSI (Acronym for Mars System of Information, https://emars.univ-lyon1.fr/MarsSI/, is a web Geographic Information System application which helps managing and processing martian orbital data. The MarsSI facility is part of the web portal called PSUP (Planetary SUrface Portal) developed by the Observatories of Paris Sud (OSUPS) and Lyon (OSUL) to provide users with efficient and easy access to data products dedicated to the martian surface. The portal proposes 1) the management and processing of data thanks to MarsSI and 2) the visualization and merging of high level (imagery, spectral, and topographic) products and catalogs via a web-based user interface (MarsVisu). The portal PSUP as well as the facility MarsVisu is detailed in a companion paper (Poulet et al., 2018). The purpose of this paper is to describe the facility MarsSI. From this application, users are able to easily and rapidly select observations, process raw data via automatic pipelines, and get back final products which can be visualized under Geographic Information Systems. Moreover, MarsSI also contains an automatic stereo-restitution pipeline in order to produce Digital Terrain Models (DTM) on demand from HiRISE (High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment) or CTX (Context Camera) pair-images. This application is funded by the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) (ERC project eMars, No. 280168) and has been developed in the scope of Mars, but the design is applicable to any other planetary body of the solar system.

  15. AES study of growth process of al thin films on uranium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Wei; Liu Kezhao; Yang Jiangrong; Xiao Hong

    2009-01-01

    Metallic uranium was exposed to 40 languirs of oxygen at room temperature in order to form UO 2 on the surface of metallic U. And thin layers of aluminum on UO 2 were prepared by sputter deposition under ultra high vacuum conditions. Process of Al thin film growth and its interaction with UO 2 were investigated by auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). It was shown that the Al thin film growth underwent via the Volmer-Weber (VW) mode. At room temperature, Al and UO 2 interact with each other, electrons transfer occurres from Al atoms to uranium ions, and a few of Al 2 O 3 exist in the region of UO 2 /Al interface due to O 2 adsorption to the surface. Inter-diffusion between UO 2 and Al is observable. Aluminum diffuses into interface region of UO 2 and U. It results in the formation of a coexistence regime containing uranium oxide, metallic U and Al. (authors)

  16. Optimization of vibratory welding process parameters using response surface methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Pravin Kumar; Kumar, S. Deepak; Patel, D.; Prasad, S. B. [National Institute of Technology Jamshedpur, Jharkhand (India)

    2017-05-15

    The current investigation was carried out to study the effect of vibratory welding technique on mechanical properties of 6 mm thick butt welded mild steel plates. A new concept of vibratory welding technique has been designed and developed which is capable to transfer vibrations, having resonance frequency of 300 Hz, into the molten weld pool before it solidifies during the Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) process. The important process parameters of vibratory welding technique namely welding current, welding speed and frequency of the vibrations induced in molten weld pool were optimized using Taguchi’s analysis and Response surface methodology (RSM). The effect of process parameters on tensile strength and hardness were evaluated using optimization techniques. Applying RSM, the effect of vibratory welding parameters on tensile strength and hardness were obtained through two separate regression equations. Results showed that, the most influencing factor for the desired tensile strength and hardness is frequency at its resonance value, i.e. 300 Hz. The micro-hardness and microstructures of the vibratory welded joints were studied in detail and compared with those of conventional SMAW joints. Comparatively, uniform and fine grain structure has been found in vibratory welded joints.

  17. Growth studies of Mytilus californianus using satellite surface temperatures and chlorophyll data for coastal Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, J.; Lakshmi, V.

    2013-12-01

    The advancement of remote sensing technology has led to better understanding of the spatial and temporal variation in many physical and biological parameters, such as, temperature, salinity, soil moisture, vegetation cover, and community composition. This research takes a novel approach in understanding the temporal and spatial variability of mussel body growth using remotely sensed surface temperatures and chlorophyll-a concentration. Within marine rocky intertidal ecosystems, temperature and food availability influence species abundance, physiological performance, and distribution of mussel species. Current methods to determine the temperature mussel species experience range from in-situ field observations, temperature loggers, temperature models, and using other temperature variables. However, since the temperature that mussel species experience is different from the air temperature due to physical and biological characteristics (size, color, gaping, etc.), it is difficult to accurately predict the thermal stresses they experience. Methods to determine food availability (chlorophyll-a concentration used as a proxy) for mussel species are mostly done at specific study sites using water sampling. This implies that analysis of temperature and food availability across large spatial scales and long temporal scales is not a trivial task given spatial heterogeneity. However, this is an essential step in determination of the impact of changing climate on vulnerable ecosystems such as the marine rocky intertidal system. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of using remotely sensed surface temperatures and chlorophyll-a concentration to better understand the temporal and spatial variability of the body growth of the ecologically and economically important rocky intertidal mussel species, Mytilus californianus. Remotely sensed sea surface temperature (SST), land surface temperature (LST), intertidal surface temperature (IST), chlorophyll

  18. Characteristics of the Dendrite Growth in the Electrochemical Alane Production Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Hyun-Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical alane production process was proposed for a feasible production of alane. The operation of process was difficult because of short circuit by a dendrite growth in the reactor. Therefore, characteristics of the dendrite growth in the process were investigated. We conducted the electrochemical alane production process using Teflon block for inhibition of the dendrite growth. The obtained dendrite was characterized by XRD, SEM and ICP-AES. It was concluded that the dendrite growth was attributed to a melting and agglomeration of Al fine particles existed in the solution.

  19. Modeling of thin films growth processes in the early stage for atoms with covalent bonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tupik, V A; Margolin, V I; Su, Chu Trong

    2017-01-01

    Computer simulation for obtaining thin film’s growth process at an early stage with the proposed model of atoms with isotropic and anisotropic interactions been considered. Carrying out the procedure for analyzing the problem on the basis of the program being implemented, computer simulation of thin film growth processes has been carried out on several examples. The results of computer simulation of the growth process of thin film on a given substrate and an aggregate in a vacuum condition are shown. Some characteristic distributions of the obtained structure have been carried out to evaluate the proposed adequate model and to reflect the high complexity of thin films growth process. (paper)

  20. Broad beam ion sources and some surface processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumann, H.; Scholze, F.; Tarz, M.; Schindler, A.; Wiese, R.; Nestler, M.; Blum, T.

    2005-01-01

    Modern broad-beam multi-aperture ion sources are widely used in material and surface technology applications. Customizing the generated ion beam properties (i. e. the ion current density profile) for specific demands of the application is a main challenge in the improvement of the ion beam technologies. First we introduce ion sources based on different plasma excitation principles shortly. An overview of source plasma and ion beam measurement methods deliver input data for modelling methods. This beam profile modelling using numerical trajectory codes and the validation of the results by Faraday cup measurements as a basis for ion beam profile design are described. Furthermore possibilities for ex situ and in situ beam profile control are demonstrated, like a special method for in situ control of a linear ion source beam profile, a grid modification for circular beam profile design and a cluster principle for broad beam sources. By means of these methods, the beam shape may be adapted to specific technological demands. Examples of broad beam source application in ion beam figuring of optical surfaces, modification of stainless steel, photo voltaic processes and deposition of EUVL-multilayer stacks are finally presented. (Author)

  1. Use of Radiotracers to Study Surface Water Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-03-01

    This publication represents a sound knowledge base for the conduct of radiotracer studies in the environment, with papers on radiotracer methodology, radiation protection and regulation, data analysis and modelling. Environmental case histories from five Member States - Australia, Brazil, France, the Republic of Korea and Sweden - provide information on conducting studies involving he use of radioactive tracers. These case histories are not meant as guidelines for preparing a field study but can rather serve as examples of the type, caution and extent of work involved in environmental studies using radiotracers. This publication can provide guidance for conducting potential future training events in the use of radioactive traces in the environment and can serve as a key reference to all concerned directly with surface water processes

  2. Multi-surface topography targeted plateau honing for the processing of cylinder liner surfaces of automotive engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, K. Deepak; Ramamoorthy, B.

    2016-03-01

    Cylinder bores of automotive engines are 'engineered' surfaces that are processed using multi-stage honing process to generate multiple layers of micro geometry for meeting the different functional requirements of the piston assembly system. The final processed surfaces should comply with several surface topographic specifications that are relevant for the good tribological performance of the engine. Selection of the process parameters in three stages of honing to obtain multiple surface topographic characteristics simultaneously within the specification tolerance is an important module of the process planning and is often posed as a challenging task for the process engineers. This paper presents a strategy by combining the robust process design and gray-relational analysis to evolve the operating levels of honing process parameters in rough, finish and plateau honing stages targeting to meet multiple surface topographic specifications on the final running surface of the cylinder bores. Honing experiments were conducted in three stages namely rough, finish and plateau honing on cast iron cylinder liners by varying four honing process parameters such as rotational speed, oscillatory speed, pressure and honing time. Abbott-Firestone curve based functional parameters (Rk, Rpk, Rvk, Mr1 and Mr2) coupled with mean roughness depth (Rz, DIN/ISO) and honing angle were measured and identified as the surface quality performance targets to be achieved. The experimental results have shown that the proposed approach is effective to generate cylinder liner surface that would simultaneously meet the explicit surface topographic specifications currently practiced by the industry.

  3. Nonlinear mechanics of surface growth for cylindrical and spherical elastic bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sozio, Fabio; Yavari, Arash

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we formulate the initial-boundary value problems of accreting cylindrical and spherical nonlinear elastic solids in a geometric framework. It is assumed that the body grows as a result of addition of new (stress-free or pre-stressed) material on part of its boundary. We construct Riemannian material manifolds for a growing body with metrics explicitly depending on the history of applied external loads and deformation during accretion and the growth velocity. We numerically solve the governing equilibrium equations in the case of neo-Hookean solids and compare the accretion and residual stresses with those calculated using the linear mechanics of surface growth.

  4. Sub-surface Fatigue Crack Growth at Alumina Inclusions in AISI 52100 Roller Bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerullo, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Sub-surface fatigue crack growth at non metallic inclusions is studied in AISI 52100 bearing steel under typical rolling contact loads. A first 2D plane strain finite element analysis is carried out to compute the stress history in the innner race at a characteristic depth, where the Dang Van...... damage factor is highest. Subsequently the stress history is imposed as boundary conditions in a periodic unit cell model, where an alumina inclusion is embedded in a AISI 52100 matrix. Cracks are assumed to grow radially from the inclusion under cyclic loading. The growth is predicted by means...

  5. Herbicidal effects of effluent from processed cassava on growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGO

    2007-03-19

    Mar 19, 2007 ... reducing the cost of crop production (Khan et al., 1985;. Mohammed and Nour ... the second week, the pots were cleared of all emerged weed seedlings and the surface ..... biodegradable (Figure 4). Results of this study ...

  6. The Effect of Growth Temperature and V/III Flux Ratio of MOCVD Antimony Based Semiconductors on Growth Rate and Surface Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramelan Ari Handono

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Epitaxial Alx Ga1-x Sb layers on GaSb and GaAs substrates have been grown by atmospheric pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition using TMAl, TMGa and TMSb. Nomarski microscope and a profiler were employed to examine the surface morphology and growth rate of the samples. We report the effect of growth temperature and V/III flux ratio on growth rate and surface morphology. Growth temperatures in the range of 520°C and 680°C and V/III ratios from 1 to 5 have been investigated. A growth rate activation energy of 0.73 eV was found. At low growth temperatures between 520 and 540°C, the surface morphology is poor due to antimonide precipitates associated with incomplete decomposition of the TMSb. For layers grown on GaAs at 580°C and 600°C with a V/III ratio of 3 a high quality surface morphology is typical, with a mirror-like surface and good composition control. It was found that a suitable growth temperature and V/III flux ratio was beneficial for producing good AlGaSb layers. Undoped AlGaSb grown at 580°C with a V/III flux ratio of 3 at the rate of 3.5 μm/hour shows p-type conductivity with smooth surface morphology

  7. Gestalten of today: early processing of visual contours and surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, I

    1996-12-01

    While much is known about the specialized, parallel processing streams of low-level vision that extract primary visual cues, there is only limited knowledge about the dynamic interactions between them. How are the fragments, caught by local analyzers, assembled together to provide us with a unified percept? How are local discontinuities in texture, motion or depth evaluated with respect to object boundaries and surface properties? These questions are presented within the framework of orientation-specific spatial interactions of early vision. Key observations of psychophysics, anatomy and neurophysiology on interactions of various spatial and temporal ranges are reviewed. Aspects of the functional architecture and possible neural substrates of local orientation-specific interactions are discussed, underlining their role in the integration of information across the visual field, and particularly in contour integration. Examples are provided demonstrating that global context, such as contour closure and figure-ground assignment, affects these local interactions. It is illustrated that figure-ground assignment is realized early in visual processing, and that the pattern of early interactions also brings about an effective and sparse coding of visual shape. Finally, it is concluded that the underlying functional architecture is not only dynamic and context dependent, but the pattern of connectivity depends as much on past experience as on actual stimulation.

  8. Process for integrating surface drainage constraints on mine planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawatsky, L.F; Ade, F.L.; McDonald, D.M.; Pullman, B.J. [Golder Associates Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Surface drainage for mine closures must be considered during all phases of mine planning and design in order to minimize environmental impacts and reduce costs. This paper discussed methods of integrating mine drainage criteria and associated mine planning constraints into the mine planning process. Drainage constraints included stream diversions; fish compensation channels; collection receptacles for the re-use of process water; separation of closed circuit water from fresh water; and the provision of storage ponds. The geomorphic approach replicated the ability of natural channels to respond to local and regional changes in hydrology as well as channel disturbances from extreme flood events, sedimentation, debris, ice jams, and beaver activity. The approach was designed to enable a sustainable system and provide conveyance capacity for extreme floods without spillage to adjacent watersheds. Channel dimensions, bank and bed materials, sediment loads, bed material supplies and the hydrologic conditions of the analogue stream were considered. Hydrologic analyses were conducted to determine design flood flow. Channel routes, valley slopes, sinuosity, width, and depth were established. It was concluded that by incorporating the geomorphic technique, mine operators and designers can construct self-sustaining drainage systems that require little or no maintenance in the long-term. 7 refs.

  9. Growth Mechanism and Surface Structure of Ge Nanocrystals Prepared by Thermal Annealing of Cosputtered GeSiO Ternary Precursor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ge nanocrystals (Ge-ncs embedded in a SiO2 superlattice structure were prepared by magnetron cosputtering and postdeposition annealing. The formation of spherical nanocrystals was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and their growth process was studied by a combination of spectroscopic techniques. The crystallinity volume fraction of Ge component was found to increase with crystallite size, but its overall low values indicated a coexistence of crystalline and noncrystalline phases. A reduction of Ge-O species was observed in the superlattice during thermal annealing, accompanied by a transition from oxygen-deficient silicon oxide to silicon dioxide. A growth mechanism involving phase separation of Ge suboxides (GeOx was then proposed to explain these findings and supplement the existing growth models for Ge-ncs in SiO2 films. Further analysis of the bonding structure of Ge atoms suggested that Ge-ncs are likely to have a core-shell structure with an amorphous-like surface layer, which is composed of GeSiO ternary complex. The surface layer thickness was extracted to be a few angstroms and equivalent to several atomic layer thicknesses.

  10. Catalyst free growth of CNTs by CVD on nanoscale rough surfaces of silicon substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damodar, D.; Sahoo, R. K.; Jacob, C.

    2013-06-01

    Catalyst free growth of carbon nanotubes (CNT) has been achieved using atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) on surface modified Si(111) substrates. The effect of the substrate surface has been observed by partially etching with KOH (potassium hydroxide) solution which is an anisotropic etchant. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirmed the formation of CNTs over most of the area of the substrate where substrates were anisotropically etched. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to observe the internal structure of the CNTs. Raman spectroscopy further confirmed the formation of the carbon nanostructures and also their graphitic crystallinity.

  11. Electronic and structural characterizations of unreconstructed {0001} surfaces and the growth of graphene overlayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emtsev, Konstantin

    2009-01-01

    The present work is focused on the characterization of the clean unreconstructed SiC{0001} surfaces and the growth of graphene overlayers thereon. Electronic properties of SiC surfaces and their interfaces with graphene and few layer graphene films were investigated by means of angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and low energy electron diffraction. Structural characterizations of the epitaxial graphene films grown on SiC were carried out by atomic force microscopy and low energy electron microscopy. Supplementary data was obtained by scanning tunneling microscopy. (orig.)

  12. Heat and mass transfer in semiconductor melts during single-crystal growth processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakimoto, Koichi

    1995-03-01

    The quality of large semiconductor crystals grown from melts is significantly affected by the heat and mass transfer in the melts. The current understanding of the phenomena, especially melt convection, is reviewed starting from the results of visualization using model fluids or silicon melt, and continuing to the detailed numerical calculations needed for quantitative modeling of processing with solidification. The characteristics of silicon flows are also reviewed by focusing on the Coriolis force in the rotating melt. Descriptions of flow instabilities are included that show the level of understanding of melt convection with a low Prandtl number. Based on hydrodynamics, the origin of the silicon flow structure is reviewed, and it is discussed whether silicon flow is completely turbulent or has an ordered structure. The phase transition from axisymmetric to nonaxisymmetric flow is discussed using different geometries. Additionally, surface-tension-driven flow is reviewed for Czochralski crystal growth systems.

  13. On the growth mechanisms of polar (100) surfaces of ceria on copper (100)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackl, Johanna; Duchoň, Tomáš; Gottlob, Daniel M.; Cramm, Stefan; Veltruská, Kateřina; Matolín, Vladimír; Nemšák, Slavomír; Schneider, Claus M.

    2018-05-01

    We present a study of temperature dependent growth of nano-sized ceria islands on a Cu (100) substrate. Low-energy electron microscopy, micro-electron diffraction, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and photoemission electron microscopy are used to determine the morphology, shape, chemical state, and crystal structure of the grown islands. Utilizing real-time observation capabilities, we reveal a three-way interaction between the ceria, substrate, and local oxygen chemical potential. The interaction manifests in the reorientation of terrace boundaries on the Cu (100) substrate, characteristic of the transition between oxidized and metallic surface. The reorientation is initiated at nucleation sites of ceria islands, whose growth direction is influenced by the proximity of the terrace boundaries. The grown ceria islands were identified as fully stoichiometric CeO2 (100) surfaces with a (2 × 2) reconstruction.

  14. Rotation Disk Process to Assess the Influence of Metals and Voltage on the Growth of Biofilm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana M. Barry

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Biofilms consist of not only bacteria but also extracellular polymer substrates (EPS. They are groups of microorganisms that adhere to each other on a surface, especially as a result of exposure to water and bacteria. They can pose health risks to humans as they grow in hospital settings that include medical supplies and devices. In a previous study, the researchers discovered that bacteria/biofilm grew well on wetted external latex, male catheters. These results concerned the investigators and encouraged them to find ways for prohibiting the growth of bacteria/biofilm on the male catheters (which are made of natural rubber. They carried out a new study to assess the influence of metals and voltage for the growth of bacteria on these latex samples. For this purpose, a unique Rotation Disk Reactor was used to accelerate biofilm formation on external male catheter samples. This setup included a dip tank containing water and a rotating wheel with the attached latex samples (some of which had single electrodes while others had paired electrodes with applied voltage. The process allowed the samples to become wetted and also exposed them to microorganisms in the ambient air during each revolution of the wheel. The results (as viewed from SEM images showed that when compared to the control sample, the presence of metals (brass, stainless steel, and silver was generally effective in preventing bacterial growth. Also the use of voltage (9.5 volt battery essentially eliminated the appearance of rod shaped bacteria in some of the samples. It can be concluded that the presence of metals significantly reduced bacterial growth on latex and the application of voltage was able to essentially eliminate bacteria, providing appropriate electrode combinations were used.

  15. Evolution of Cell Size Homeostasis and Growth Rate Diversity during Initial Surface Colonization of Shewanella oneidensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Calvin K; Kim, Alexander J; Santos, Giancarlo S; Lai, Peter Y; Lee, Stella Y; Qiao, David F; Anda, Jaime De; Young, Thomas D; Chen, Yujie; Rowe, Annette R; Nealson, Kenneth H; Weiss, Paul S; Wong, Gerard C L

    2016-09-06

    Cell size control and homeostasis are fundamental features of bacterial metabolism. Recent work suggests that cells add a constant size between birth and division ("adder" model). However, it is not known how cell size homeostasis is influenced by the existence of heterogeneous microenvironments, such as those during biofilm formation. Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 can use diverse energy sources on a range of surfaces via extracellular electron transport (EET), which can impact growth, metabolism, and size diversity. Here, we track bacterial surface communities at single-cell resolution to show that not only do bacterial motility appendages influence the transition from two- to three-dimensional biofilm growth and control postdivisional cell fates, they strongly impact cell size homeostasis. For every generation, we find that the average growth rate for cells that stay on the surface and continue to divide (nondetaching population) and that for cells that detach before their next division (detaching population) are roughly constant. However, the growth rate distribution is narrow for the nondetaching population, but broad for the detaching population in each generation. Interestingly, the appendage deletion mutants (ΔpilA, ΔmshA-D, Δflg) have significantly broader growth rate distributions than that of the wild type for both detaching and nondetaching populations, which suggests that Shewanella appendages are important for sensing and integrating environmental inputs that contribute to size homeostasis. Moreover, our results suggest multiplexing of appendages for sensing and motility functions contributes to cell size dysregulation. These results can potentially provide a framework for generating metabolic diversity in S. oneidensis populations to optimize EET in heterogeneous environments.

  16. Growth initiation processes for GaAs and AlGaAs in CBE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, D.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the nature of the transient period found in reflectance anisotropy (RA) measurements of high III:V BEP ratio growth of gallium arsenide (GaAs) and aluminium gallium arsenide (AIGaAs) by chemical beam epitaxy (CBE). Growth at substrate temperatures between 510-610 deg C with arsine (AsH 3 ) thermally cracked to As 2 , triethylgallium (TEGa), trimethylgallium (TMGa), trimethylaminealane (TMAA) and diethylmethylaminealane (DEMAA) at high III:V BEP ratios reveals that the transition from 'pre-growth' to 'in-growth' reconstructions is not as straightforward as that for lower III:V BEP ratio growth. Instead of the reconstruction changing directly to the usual 2x4 'in-growth' reconstruction over 1-2 seconds it passes through several other transient reconstructions over a period of up to and greater than 60s, firstly the Ga rich 4x2 then several other 2x4 As-stable reconstructions. It has been shown that at the III:V BEP ratios and substrate temperatures used in this work growth is taking place in a transitional area of the phase diagram for 'in-growth' reconstructions. At higher III:V BEP ratio growth the transition is believed to be direct, from the 'pre-growth' reconstruction to a 4x2 Ga-rich 'in-growth' reconstruction. The surfaces grown with any of the precursors are initially saturated with Ga and then as the As coverage gradually increases the reconstructions change until enough As is present on the surface for usual 2x4 'in-growth' reconstruction to stabilise. However unlike for TMGa, GaAs growth with TEGa proceeds by a non-self limiting growth mode and TEGa rapidly dissociates. The result of this is that TEGa decomposes on top of other TEGa molecules, or their fragments and due to the high flux rate this leads to a 'stacking-up' of Ga on the surface. The presence of excess Ga provides a rapid increase of surface reflectance and then its subsequent decay as the excess Ga is incorporated by the increasing As content of the

  17. Impacts of Ambient and Ablation Plasmas on Short- and Ultrashort-Pulse Laser Processing of Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda M. Bulgakova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the fact that more than five decades have passed since the invention of laser, some topics of laser-matter interaction still remain incompletely studied. One of such topics is plasma impact on the overall phenomenon of the interaction and its particular features, including influence of the laser-excited plasma re-radiation, back flux of energetic plasma species, and massive material redeposition, on the surface quality and processing efficiency. In this paper, we analyze different plasma aspects, which go beyond a simple consideration of the well-known effect of plasma shielding of laser radiation. The following effects are considered: ambient gas ionization above the target on material processing with formation of a “plasma pipe”; back heating of the target by both laser-driven ambient and ablation plasmas through conductive and radiative heat transfer; plasma chemical effects on surface processing including microstructure growth on liquid metals; complicated dynamics of the ablation plasma flow interacting with an ambient gas that can result in substantial redeposition of material around the ablation spot. Together with a review summarizing our main to-date achievements and outlining research directions, we present new results underlining importance of laser plasma dynamics and photoionization of the gas environment upon laser processing of materials.

  18. In situ spectroscopic ellipsometry as a surface sensitive tool to probe thin film growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, C.

    1999-01-01

    Sputtered thin film and multilayer x-ray mirrors are made routinely at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) for the APS users. Precise film growth control and characterization are very critical in fabricating high-quality x-ray mirrors. Film thickness calibrations are carried out using in situ and ex situ spectroscopic ellipsometry, interferometry, and x-ray scattering. To better understand the growth and optical properties of different thin film systems, we have carried out a systematic study of sputtered thin films of Au, Rh, Pg Pd, Cu, and Cr, using in situ ellipsometry. Multiple data sets were obtained in situ for each film material with incremental thicknesses and were analyzed with their correlation in mind. We found that in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry as a surface-sensitive tool can also be used to probe the growth and morphology of the thin film system. This application of in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry for metal thin film systems will be discussed

  19. 2D problems of surface growth theory with applications to additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzhirov, A. V.; Mikhin, M. N.

    2018-04-01

    We study 2D problems of surface growth theory of deformable solids and their applications to the analysis of the stress-strain state of AM fabricated products and structures. Statements of the problems are given, and a solution method based on the approaches of the theory of functions of a complex variable is suggested. Computations are carried out for model problems. Qualitative and quantitative results are discussed.

  20. Growth of Radiation Processing Plant, Vashi - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Ranjeet

    2014-01-01

    Radiation Processing Plant, Vashi (RPP) is the first commercial scale Gamma Irradiator for food processing in India. The facility was commissioned on 1 st January 2000 with the mandate of showcasing commercial viability of food processing using gamma radiation. Some of the food products that are processed at RPP, Vashi include dehydrated onion powder, coriander, turmeric, black pepper, cumin, pet food and dried seafood items. RPP, Vashi is the largest radiation processor of food products in the country. More than 95% of the quantity processed is exported to various countries generating millions of foreign exchange annually

  1. Attachment and growth behaviour of human gingival fibroblasts on titanium and zirconia ceramic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pae, Ahran; Kim, Hyeong-Seob; Woo, Yi-Hyung; Lee, Heesu; Kwon, Yong-Dae

    2009-01-01

    The attachment, growth behaviour and the genetic effect of human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) cultured on titanium and different zirconia surfaces were investigated. HGF cells were cultured on (1) titanium discs with a machined surface, (2) yttrium-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystals (Y-TZP) with a smooth surface and (3) Y-TZP with 100 μm grooves. The cell proliferation activity was evaluated through a MTT assay at 24 h and 48 h, and the cell morphology was examined by SEM. The mRNA expression of integrin-β1, type I and III collagen, laminin and fibronectin in HGF were evaluated by RT-PCR after 24 h. From the MTT assay, the mean optical density values for the titanium and grooved zirconia surfaces after 48 h of HGF adhesion were greater than the values obtained for the smooth zirconia surfaces. SEM images showed that more cells were attached to the grooves, and the cells appeared to follow the direction of the grooves. The results of RT-PCR suggest that all groups showed comparable fibroblast-specific gene expression. A zirconia ceramic surface with grooves showed biological responses that were comparable to those obtained with HGF on a titanium surface.

  2. A Marketing approach on how continuous processes improvement can contribute to hotel business Organic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Ioana-Simona IVASCIUC; Gheorghe EPURAN

    2015-01-01

    Generating sustainable growth and profits is like finding a unicorn for most managers. Organic growth should be considered as an alternative for long-term growth in the hotel business. Designing the service process to deliver what customers expect from the hotel offer is a crucial component of encounter marketing. Hotels need to embrace the changes and ensure that their internal processes are aligned not just to current trends, but also to the expected future changes. Keeping u...

  3. Bridging process-based and empirical approaches to modeling tree growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harry T. Valentine; Annikki Makela; Annikki Makela

    2005-01-01

    The gulf between process-based and empirical approaches to modeling tree growth may be bridged, in part, by the use of a common model. To this end, we have formulated a process-based model of tree growth that can be fitted and applied in an empirical mode. The growth model is grounded in pipe model theory and an optimal control model of crown development. Together, the...

  4. Surface passivation process of compound semiconductor material using UV photosulfidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, Carol I. H.

    1995-01-01

    A method for passivating compound semiconductor surfaces by photolytically disrupting molecular sulfur vapor with ultraviolet radiation to form reactive sulfur which then reacts with and passivates the surface of compound semiconductors.

  5. Manufacturing process to reduce large grain growth in zirconium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosecrans, P.M.

    1987-01-01

    A method is described of treating cold worked zirconium alloys to reduce large grain growth during thermal treatment above its recrystallization temperature. The method comprises heating the zirconium alloy at a temperature of about 1300 0 F. to 1350 0 F. for about 1 to 3 hours subsequent to cold working the zirconium alloy and prior to the thermal treatment at a temperature of between 1450 0 -1550 0 F., the thermal treatment temperature being above the recrystallization temperature

  6. Shewanella putrefaciens adhesion and biofilm formation on food processing surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagge, Dorthe; Hjelm, M.; Johansen, C.

    2001-01-01

    Laboratory model systems were developed for studying Shewanella putrefaciens adhesion and biofilm formation under batch and flow conditions. S. putrefaciens plays a major role in food spoilage and may cause microbially induced corrosion on steel surfaces. S. putrefaciens bacteria suspended in buf...... from surfaces, and indirect conductometry and found this combination sufficient to quantify bacteria on surfaces...

  7. YBCO bulk material processed in an oxygen controlled melt-growth process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovannelli, F.; Monot-Laffez, I.

    2002-01-01

    YBCO pellets have been submitted to the top-seeding melt-textured growth process under a reduced oxygen atmosphere (1% O 2 in Ar). Ce and (Ce, Sn) doping have been investigated. In the Ce-doped sample, a fishtail has been observed when the thermal cycle maximal temperature of 1020 deg. C is used. However, the microstructure exhibits large Y211 particles under these processing conditions. When the maximal temperature is 1000 deg. C, the size of Y211 decreases and the critical current density (J c ) is enhanced. The effect observed under a field is a shoulder in the J c curve. The same effect is observed in the (Ce, Sn)-doped sample. The Ce-doped and (Ce, Sn)-doped samples exhibit J c under a self-field of 90 000 A cm -2 and 84 000 A cm -2 , respectively. Moreover, when the pre-sintering step is suppressed, the values of J c are improved and the samples present a J c of 100 000 A cm -2 under a self-field. (author)

  8. Colonial vs planktonic type of growth: mathematical modeling of microbial dynamics on surfaces and in liquid, semi-liquid and solid foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis N. Skandamis

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Predictive models are mathematical expressions that describe the growth, survival, inactivation or biochemical processes of foodborne bacteria. During processing of contaminated raw materials and food preparation, bacteria are entrapped into the food residues, potentially transferred to the equipment surfaces (abiotic or inert surfaces or cross-contaminate other foods (biotic surfaces. Growth of bacterial cells can either occur planktonically in liquid or immobilized as colonies. Colonies are on the surface or confined in the interior (submerged colonies of structured foods. For low initial levels of bacterial population leading to large colonies, the immobilized growth differs from planktonic growth due to physical constrains and to diffusion limitations within the structured foods. Indeed, cells in colonies experience substrate starvation and/or stresses from the accumulation of toxic metabolites such as lactic acid. Furthermore, the micro-architecture of foods also influences the rate and extent of growth. The micro-architecture is determined by (i the non-aqueous phase with the distribution and size of oil particles and the pore size of the network when proteins or gelling agent are solidified, and by (ii the available aqueous phase within which bacteria may swarm or swim. As a consequence, the micro-environment of bacterial cells when they grow in colonies might greatly differs from that when they grow planktonically. The broth-based data used for modeling (lag time and generation time, the growth rate and population level are poorly transferable to solid foods. It may lead to an over-estimation or under-estimation of the predicted population compared to the observed population in food. If the growth prediction concerns pathogen bacteria, it is a major importance for the safety of foods to improve the knowledge on immobilized growth. In this review, the different types of models are presented taking into account the stochastic behavior of

  9. Acoustic emission-based in-process monitoring of surface generation in robot-assisted polishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilny, Lukas; Bissacco, Giuliano; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    The applicability of acoustic emission (AE) measurements for in-process monitoring of surface generation in the robot-assisted polishing (RAP) was investigated. Surface roughness measurements require interruption of the process, proper surface cleaning and measurements that sometimes necessitate...... automatic detection of optimal process endpoint allow intelligent process control, creating fundamental elements in development of robust fully automated RAP process for its widespread industrial application....... removal of the part from the machine tool. In this study, stabilisation of surface roughness during polishing rotational symmetric surfaces by the RAP process was monitored by AE measurements. An AE sensor was placed on a polishing arm in direct contact with a bonded abrasive polishing tool...

  10. Using OSL dating to quantify rates of Earth surface processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, E. J.; Rittenour, T. M.

    2010-12-01

    In Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL), the dating signal is reset when mineral grains are exposed to light or heat, and gradually rebuilds during subsequent burial by interaction with ionising radiation. Quartz and feldspar provide useful OSL signals demonstrating rapid signal reduction in only seconds of light exposure. Age estimates ranging from under 1 year to around 200,000 years can be determined for a wide range of sedimentary contexts, including dunes, marine deposits, fluvial and glacial environments, and recent developments provide the framework for low temperature thermochronometric applications on timescales comparable with rapid climate fluctuations. In this presentation, we explore the range of applications for determining rates of Earth surface processes using OSL. We examine technical limitations, and provide a framework for overcoming current difficulties experienced in several specific regions and contexts. We will focus on OSL dating applications to glacigenic and fluvial records, along with use of the technique in tectonic and paleoseismic contexts. In many ways, these represent the most challenging environments for OSL; rapid high energy deposition is associated with incomplete signal zeroing, and the characteristics of quartz in many of these environments make it difficult to derive precise age estimates using this mineral. We will introduce innovative methods to overcome these limitations, both existing and those under development.

  11. Optimizing pentacene thin-film transistor performance: Temperature and surface condition induced layer growth modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassnig, R; Hollerer, M; Striedinger, B; Fian, A; Stadlober, B; Winkler, A

    2015-11-01

    In this work we present in situ electrical and surface analytical, as well as ex situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies on temperature and surface condition induced pentacene layer growth modifications, leading to the selection of optimized deposition conditions and entailing performance improvements. We prepared p ++ -silicon/silicon dioxide bottom-gate, gold bottom-contact transistor samples and evaluated the pentacene layer growth for three different surface conditions (sputtered, sputtered + carbon and unsputtered + carbon) at sample temperatures during deposition of 200 K, 300 K and 350 K. The AFM investigations focused on the gold contacts, the silicon dioxide channel region and the highly critical transition area. Evaluations of coverage dependent saturation mobilities, threshold voltages and corresponding AFM analysis were able to confirm that the first 3-4 full monolayers contribute to the majority of charge transport within the channel region. At high temperatures and on sputtered surfaces uniform layer formation in the contact-channel transition area is limited by dewetting, leading to the formation of trenches and the partial development of double layer islands within the channel region instead of full wetting layers. By combining the advantages of an initial high temperature deposition (well-ordered islands in the channel) and a subsequent low temperature deposition (continuous film formation for low contact resistance) we were able to prepare very thin (8 ML) pentacene transistors of comparably high mobility.

  12. Air plasma processing of poly(methyl methacrylate) micro-beads: Surface characterisations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chaozong; Cui Naiyi; Osbeck, Susan; Liang He

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► PMMA micro-beads were processed using a rotary air plasma reactor. ► Surface chemistry and surface texture of PMMA micro-beads were characterised. ► Surface wettability was evaluated using “floating” water contact angle method. ► Surface oxidation and texture changes induced by air plasma attributed to the improvement of surface wettability. - Abstract: This paper reports the surface processing of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) micro-beads by using a rotary air plasma reactor, and its effects on surface properties. The surface properties, including surface wettability, surface chemistry and textures of the PMMA beads, were characterised. It was observed that the air plasma processing can improve the surface wettability of the PMMA microbeads significantly. A 15 min plasma processing can reduce the surface water contact angle of PMMA beads to about 50° from its original value of 80.3°. This was accompanied by about 8% increase in surface oxygen concentration as confirmed by XPS analysis. The optical profilometry examination revealed the air plasma processing resulted in a rougher surface that has a “delicate” surface texture. It is concluded that the surface chemistry and texture, induced by air plasma processing, co-contributed to the surface wettability improvement of PMMA micro-beads.

  13. On the influence of the environment on modeling the fatigue crack growth process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mc Evily, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of the environment at room and elevated temperature were considered with respect to the influence exerted on the basic mechanical aspects of the fatigue crack growth process. An experimental assessment of this influence was obtained by conducting fatigue crack growth tests both in air and vacuum and the results of such experiments are given. Topics considered include crack closure, short crack growth in notched and unnotched specimens, Mode II crack growth, and the effects of oxidation at elevated temperatures. It is shown that the basic mechanisms of fatigue crack growth can be greatly altered by the presence of oxide films at the fatigue crack tip. Modeling the mechanical aspects of the crack growth process is by itself a challenging task. In addition, the environmental considerations adds to the complexity of the modeling process. (Author)

  14. Nanocrystalline diamond surfaces for adhesion and growth of primary neurons, conflicting results and rational explanation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviya Mikhailovna Ojovan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Using a variety of proliferating cell types, it was shown that the surface of nanocrystalline-diamond (NCD provides a permissive substrate for cell adhesion and development without the need of complex chemical functionalization prior to cell seeding. In an extensive series of experiments we found that, unlike proliferating cells, post-mitotic primary neurons do not adhere to bare NCD surfaces when cultured in defined medium. These observations raise questions on the potential use of bare NCD as an interfacing layer for neuronal devices. Nevertheless, we also found that classical chemical functionalization methods render the hostile bare NCD surfaces with adhesive properties that match those of classically functionalized substrates used extensively in biomedical research and applications. Based on the results, we propose a mechanism that accounts for the conflicting results; which on one hand claim that un-functionalized NCD provides a permissive substrate for cell adhesion and growth, while other reports demonstrate the opposite.

  15. In-situ, real-time, studies of film growth processes using ion scattering and direct recoil spectroscopy techniques.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smentkowski, V. S.

    1999-04-22

    Time-of-flight ion scattering and recoil spectroscopy (TOF-ISARS) enables the characterization of the composition and structure of surfaces with 1-2 monolayer specificity. It will be shown that surface analysis is possible at ambient pressures greater than 3 mTorr using TOF-ISARS techniques; allowing for real-time, in situ studies of film growth processes. TOF-ISARS comprises three analytical techniques: ion scattering spectroscopy (ISS), which detects the backscattered primary ion beam; direct recoil spectroscopy (DRS), which detects the surface species recoiled into the forward scattering direction; and mass spectroscopy of recoiled ions (MSRI), which is 3 variant of DRS capable of isotopic resolution for all surface species--including H and He. The advantages and limitations of each of these techniques will be discussed. The use of the three TOF-ISARS methods for real-time, in situ film growth studies at high ambient pressures will be illustrated. It will be shown that MSRI analysis is possible during sputter deposition. It will be also be demonstrated that the analyzer used for MSRI can also be used for time of flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (TOF-SIMS) under high vacuum conditions. The use of a single analyzer to perform the complimentary surface analytical techniques of MSRI and SIMS is unique. The dwd functionality of the MSRI analyzer provides surface information not obtained when either MSRI or SIMS is used independently.

  16. Photochemical Transformation Processes in Sunlit Surface Waters (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vione, D.

    2013-12-01

    Photochemical reactions are major processes in the transformation of hardly biodegradable xenobiotics in surface waters. They are usually classified into direct photolysis and indirect or sensitised degradation. Direct photolysis requires xenobiotic compounds to absorb sunlight, and to get transformed as a consequence. Sensitised transformation involves reaction with transient species (e.g. °OH, CO3-°, 1O2 and triplet states of chromophoric dissolved organic matter, 3CDOM*), photogenerated by so-called photosensitisers (nitrate, nitrite and CDOM). CDOM is a major photosensitiser: is it on average the main source of °OH (and of CO3-° as a consequence, which is mainly produced upon oxidation by °OH of carbonate and bicarbonate) and the only important source of 1O2 and 3CDOM* [1, 2]. CDOM origin plays a key role in sensitised processes: allochthonous CDOM derived from soil runoff and rich in fulvic and humic substances is usually more photoactive than autochthonous CDOM (produced by in-water biological processes and mainly consisting of protein-like material) or of CDOM derived from atmospheric deposition. An interesting gradual evolution of CDOM origin and photochemistry can be found in mountain lakes across the treeline, which afford a gradual transition of allochthonous- autochtonous - atmopheric CDOM when passing from trees to alpine meadows to exposed rocks [3]. Another important issue is the sites of reactive species photoproduction in CDOM. While there is evidence that smaller molecular weight fractions are more photoactive, some studies have reported considerable 1O2 reactivity in CDOM hydrophobic sites and inside particles [4]. We have recently addressed the problem and found that dissolved species in standard humic acids (hydrodynamic diameter pollutants to be assessed and modelled. For instance, it is possible to predict pollutant half-life times by knowing absorption spectrum, direct photolysis quantum yield and reaction rate constants with °OH, CO3

  17. A sensitive electrochemiluminescence cytosensor for quantitative evaluation of epidermal growth factor receptor expressed on cell surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Yanjuan; Zhang, Shaolian; Wen, Qingqing; Huang, Hongxing; Yang, Peihui, E-mail: typh@jnu.edu.cn

    2015-06-30

    Highlights: • EGF-cytosensor was used for evaluating EGFR expression level on cell surfaces. • CdSQDs and EGF were coated on magnetic beads (MBs) for ECL-probe. • Good sensitivity was achieved due to the signal amplification of ECL-probe. - Abstract: A sensitive electrochemiluminescence (ECL) strategy for evaluating the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression level on cell surfaces was designed by integrating the specific recognition of EGFR expressed on MCF-7 cell surfaces with an epidermal growth factor (EGF)-funtionalized CdS quantum dots (CdSQDs)-capped magnetic bead (MB) probe. The high sensitivity of ECL probe of EGF-funtionalized CdSQD-capped-MB was used for competitive recognition with EGFR expressed on cell surfaces with recombinant EGFR protein. The changes of ECL intensity depended on both the cell number and the expression level of EGFR receptor on cell surfaces. A wide linear response to cells ranging from 80 to 4 × 10{sup 6} cells mL{sup −1} with a detection limit of 40 cells mL{sup −1} was obtained. The EGF-cytosensor was used to evaluate EGFR expression levels on MCF-7 cells, and the average number of EGFR receptor on single MCF-7 cells was 1.35 × 10{sup 5} with the relative standard deviation of 4.3%. This strategy was further used for in-situ and real-time evaluating EGFR receptor expressed on cell surfaces in response to drugs stimulation at different concentration and incubation time. The proposed method provided potential applications in the detection of receptors on cancer cells and anticancer drugs screening.

  18. Influence of composite processing on the properties of CNT grown on carbon surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guignier, Claire; Bueno, Marie-Ange; Camillieri, Brigitte; Durand, Bernard

    2018-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) grafted on carbon fibres (CF) are the subject of more and more studies on the reinforcement of composite materials thanks to the CNT' mechanical properties. This study concerns the growth of CNT directly on CF by the flame method, which is an assembly-line process. However the industrial-scale use of this method and of the composite processing leads to stresses on the CNT-grafted fabrics, such as friction and pulling-out. The aim of this study is to determine the behaviour of the CNT under these kinds of stresses and to study theirs consequences in composite processing. For this purpose, adhesion tests and friction tests were performed as well as analysis of the surface by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). In friction tests, CNT formed a transfer film, and its effect on the wettability of the fabric with epoxy resin is determined. Finally, the wear of the CNT does not influence the wettability of the fabric. Furthermore, it is proven that the nature of the catalyst needed to grow the CNT modifies the behaviour of the surface.

  19. Understanding the growth of micro and nano-crystalline AlN by thermal plasma process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanhe, Nilesh S.; Nawale, Ashok B.; Gawade, Rupesh L.; Puranik, Vedavati G.; Bhoraskar, Sudha V.; Das, Asoka K.; Mathe, Vikas L.

    2012-01-01

    We report the studies related to the growth of crystalline AlN in a DC thermal plasma reactor, operated by a transferred arc plasma torch. The reactor is capable of producing the nanoparticles of Al and AlN depending on the composition of the reacting gas. Al and AlN micro crystals are formed at the anode placed on the graphite and nano crystalline Al and AlN gets deposited on the inner surface of the plasma reactor. X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy analysis, single crystal X-ray diffraction and TGA-DTA techniques are used to infer the purity of post process crystals as a hexagonal AlN. The average particle size using SEM was found to be around 30 μm. The morphology of nanoparticles of Al and AlN, nucleated by gas phase condensation in a homogeneous medium were studied by transmission electron microscopy analysis. The particle ranged in size between 15 and 80 nm in diameter. The possible growth mechanism of crystalline AlN at the anode has been explained on the basis of non-equilibrium processes in the core of the plasma and steep temperature gradient near its periphery. The gas phase species of AlN and various constituent were computed using Murphy code based on minimization of free energy. The process provides 50% yield of microcrystalline AlN and remaining of Al at anode and that of nanocrystalline h-AlN and c-Al collected from the walls of the chamber is about 33% and 67%, respectively.

  20. Metal Halide Perovskite Single Crystals: From Growth Process to Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuigen Li

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available As a strong competitor in the field of optoelectronic applications, organic-inorganic metal hybrid perovskites have been paid much attention because of their superior characteristics, which include broad absorption from visible to near-infrared region, tunable optical and electronic properties, high charge mobility, long exciton diffusion length and carrier recombination lifetime, etc. It is noted that perovskite single crystals show remarkably low trap-state densities and long carrier diffusion lengths, which are even comparable with the best photovoltaic-quality silicon, and thus are expected to provide better optoelectronic performance. This paper reviews the recent development of crystal growth in single-, mixed-organic-cation and fully inorganic halide perovskite single crystals, in particular the solution approach. Furthermore, the application of metal hybrid perovskite single crystals and future perspectives are also highlighted.

  1. Electron beam processed plasticized epoxy coatings for surface protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, Mervat S.; Mohamed, Heba A.; Kandile, Nadia G.; Said, Hossam M.; Mohamed, Issa M.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: · Coating formulations with EA 70%, HD 20%, and castor oil 10% under 1 Mrad pass -1 irradiation dose showed the best adhesion and passed bending tests. · The prepared EP-SF-An adduct improve anti-corrosion properties of coatings without any significant effect on physical, mechanical and chemical properties of the cured film. The optimum amount of aniline adduct as corrosion inhibitor was found to be 0.4 g for 100 g of coating formulation. · The corrosion inhibition efficiency of the prepared adduct competed the commercial efficiency. - Abstract: Epoxy acrylate oligomer (EA) was plasticized by adding different plasticizers such as epoxidized soybean oil, glycerol and castor oil and cured by electron beam (EB). Different irradiation doses (1, 2.5 and 5 Mrad pass -1 ) were used in the curing process. The effect of both different irradiation doses and plasticizers on the end use performance properties of epoxy acrylate coating namely, pencil hardness, bending test, adhesion test, acid and alkali resistance test were studied. It was observed that incorporation of castor oil in epoxy acrylate diluted by 1,6-hexanediol diacrylate (HD) monomer with a ratio (EA 70%, HD 20%, castor oil 10%) under 1 Mrad pass -1 irradiation dose improved the physical, chemical and mechanical properties of cured films than the other plasticizer. Sunflower free fatty acid was epoxidized in situ under well established conditions. The epoxidized sunflower free fatty acids (ESFA) were subjected to react with aniline in sealed ampoules under inert atmosphere at 140 deg. C. The produced adducts were added at different concentrations to epoxy acrylate coatings under certain EB irradiation dose and then evaluated as corrosion inhibitors for carbon steel surfaces in terms of weight loss measurements and corrosion resistance tests. It was found that, addition of 0.4 g of aniline adduct to 100 g epoxy acrylate formula may give the best corrosion protection for carbon steel and compete the

  2. Electrochemical and morphological analyses on the titanium surface modified by shot blasting and anodic oxidation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szesz, Eduardo M., E-mail: eszesz@neoortho.com.br [Neoortho Research Institute, Rua Ângelo Domingos Durigan, 607-Cascatinha, CEP 82025-100 Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Pereira, Bruno L., E-mail: brnl7@hotmail.com [Physics Department, Universidade Federal do Paraná, 81531-980 Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Kuromoto, Neide K., E-mail: kuromoto@fisica.ufpr.br [Physics Department, Universidade Federal do Paraná, 81531-980 Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Marino, Claudia E.B., E-mail: claudiamarino@yahoo.com [Mechanical Engineering Department, Universidade Federal do Paraná, 81531-980 Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Souza, Gelson B. de, E-mail: gelsonbs@uepg.br [Physics Department, Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, 84051-510 Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil); Soares, Paulo, E-mail: pa.soares@pucpr.br [Mechanical Engineering Department, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná, 80215-901 Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, many surface modification processes have been developed in order to induce the osseointegration on titanium surface and thus to improve the implants' biocompatibility. In this work, Ti surface has been modified by shot blasting followed by anodic oxidation process in order to associate the good surface characteristics of both processes to obtain a rough and porous surface able to promote the titanium surface bioactivity. Commercially pure titanium (grade 2) plates were used on the surface treatments that were as follows: Shot blasting (SB) performed using alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) particles, and anodic oxidation (AO) using NaOH electrolyte. The morphology, structural changes and the open-circuit potentials (OCP) of the surfaces were analyzed. It can be observed that an increase on the roughness of the blasted surface and a rough and porous surface happens after the AO process. The anodic film produced is thin and followed the blasted surface topography. It can be observed that there are small pores with regular shape covering the entire surface. X-ray diffraction results showed the presence of the anatase and rutile phases on the blasted and anodized surface after heat treatment at 600 °C/1 h. Concerning electrochemical measurements, when the different samples were submitted to open-circuit conditions in a physiological electrolyte, the protective effect increases with the oxidation process due to the oxide layer. When the surface was blasted, the OCP was more negative when compared with the Ti surface without surface treatments. - Highlights: ► A combination of shot blasting and anodic oxidation surface treatments is proposed. ► Both processes produced an increase in roughness compared to the polished surface. ► The combination of processes produced a rough and porous surface. ► Open circuit results show that the protective effect increases with oxidation process. ► The combination of processes presents the better results in this

  3. Vanadium and molybdenum oxide thin films on Au(111). Growth and surface characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimond, Sebastien

    2009-06-04

    The growth and the surface structure of well-ordered V{sub 2}O{sub 3}, V{sub 2}O{sub 5} and MoO{sub 3} thin films have been investigated in this work. These films are seen as model systems for the study of elementary reaction steps occurring on vanadia and molybdena-based selective oxidation catalysts. It is shown that well-ordered V{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001) thin films can be prepared on Au(111). The films are terminated by vanadyl groups which are not part of the V{sub 2}O{sub 3} bulk structure. Electron irradiation specifically removes the oxygen atoms of the vanadyl groups, resulting in a V-terminated surface. The fraction of removed vanadyl groups is controlled by the electron dose. Such surfaces constitute interesting models to probe the relative role of both the vanadyl groups and the undercoordinated V ions at the surface of vanadia catalysts. The growth of well-ordered V{sub 2}O{sub 5}(001) and MoO{sub 3}(010) thin films containing few point defects is reported here for the first time. These films were grown on Au(111) by oxidation under 50 mbar O{sub 2} in a dedicated high pressure cell. Contrary to some of the results found in the literature, the films are not easily reduced by annealing in UHV. This evidences the contribution of radiation and surface contamination in some of the reported thermal reduction experiments. The growth of ultrathin V{sub 2}O{sub 5} and MoO{sub 3} layers on Au(111) results in formation of interface-specific monolayer structures. These layers are coincidence lattices and they do not correspond to any known oxide bulk structure. They are assumed to be stabilized by electronic interaction with Au(111). Their formation illustrates the polymorphic character and the ease of coordination units rearrangement which are characteristic of both oxides. The formation of a second layer apparently precedes the growth of bulk-like crystallites for both oxides. This observation is at odds with a common assumption that crystals nucleate as soon as a

  4. Vanadium and molybdenum oxide thin films on Au(111). Growth and surface characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimond, Sebastien

    2009-01-01

    The growth and the surface structure of well-ordered V 2 O 3 , V 2 O 5 and MoO 3 thin films have been investigated in this work. These films are seen as model systems for the study of elementary reaction steps occurring on vanadia and molybdena-based selective oxidation catalysts. It is shown that well-ordered V 2 O 3 (0001) thin films can be prepared on Au(111). The films are terminated by vanadyl groups which are not part of the V 2 O 3 bulk structure. Electron irradiation specifically removes the oxygen atoms of the vanadyl groups, resulting in a V-terminated surface. The fraction of removed vanadyl groups is controlled by the electron dose. Such surfaces constitute interesting models to probe the relative role of both the vanadyl groups and the undercoordinated V ions at the surface of vanadia catalysts. The growth of well-ordered V 2 O 5 (001) and MoO 3 (010) thin films containing few point defects is reported here for the first time. These films were grown on Au(111) by oxidation under 50 mbar O 2 in a dedicated high pressure cell. Contrary to some of the results found in the literature, the films are not easily reduced by annealing in UHV. This evidences the contribution of radiation and surface contamination in some of the reported thermal reduction experiments. The growth of ultrathin V 2 O 5 and MoO 3 layers on Au(111) results in formation of interface-specific monolayer structures. These layers are coincidence lattices and they do not correspond to any known oxide bulk structure. They are assumed to be stabilized by electronic interaction with Au(111). Their formation illustrates the polymorphic character and the ease of coordination units rearrangement which are characteristic of both oxides. The formation of a second layer apparently precedes the growth of bulk-like crystallites for both oxides. This observation is at odds with a common assumption that crystals nucleate as soon as a monolayer is formed dur-ing the preparation of supported vanadia

  5. Thin film surface processing by ultrashort laser pulses (USLP)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scorticati, D.; Skolski, J.Z.P.; Romer, G.R.B.E.; Huis in 't Veld, A.J.; Workum, M.J.; Theelen, M.J.; Zeman, M.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we studied the feasibility of surface texturing of thin molybdenum layers on a borosilicate glass substrate with Ultra-Short Laser Pulses (USLP). Large areas of regular diffraction gratings were produced consisting of Laserinduced periodic surface structures (LIPSS). A short pulsed

  6. Study on initial stage of hetero-epitaxial growth by glancing angle scattering of fast ions from surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Yoshikazu; Toba, Kazuaki; Narumi, Kazumasa; Kimura, Kenji; Mannami, Michihiko

    1993-01-01

    Initial stages of epitaxial growth of lead chalcogenides on the (100) surface of SnTe under UHV conditions are studied from the angular distribution of scattered ions at glancing angle incidence of 0.7 MeV He ions on the growing surfaces. Real time measurement of the angular distribution is performed during the growth. Anomalous broadening of the angular distribution is observed at the initial stage of the growth. The broadening is attributed to the surface wrinkles induced by a square network of misfit edge dislocations. (author)

  7. Simulation of Nanowires on Metal Vicinal Surfaces: Effect of Growth Parameters and Energetic Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamouda, Ajmi B. H.; Blel, Sonia; Einstein, T. L.

    2012-02-01

    Growing one-dimensional metal structures is an important task in the investigation of the electronic and magnetic properties of new devices. We used kinetic Monte-Carlo (kMC) method to simulate the formation of nanowires of several metallic and non-metallic adatoms on Cu and Pt vicinal surfaces. We found that mono-atomic chains form on step-edges due to energetic barriers (the so-called Ehrlich-shwoebel and exchange barriers) on step-edge. Creation of perfect wires is found to depend on growth parameters and binding energies. We measure the filling ratio of nanowires for different chemical species in a wide range of temperature and flux. Perfect wires were obtained at lower deposition rate for all tested adatoms, however we notice different temperature ranges. Our results were compared with experimental ones [Gambardella et al., Surf. Sci.449, 93-103 (2000), PRB 61, 2254-2262, (2000)]. We review the role of impurities in nanostructuring of surfaces [Hamouda et al., Phys. Rev. B 83, 035423, (2011)] and discuss the effect of their energetic barriers on the obtained quality of nanowires. Our work provides experimentalists with optimum growth parameters for the creation of a uniform distribution of wires on surfaces.

  8. Responses of herbaceous plants to urban air pollution: Effects on growth, phenology and leaf surface characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honour, Sarah L.; Bell, J. Nigel B.; Ashenden, Trevor W.; Cape, J. Neil; Power, Sally A.

    2009-01-01

    Vehicle exhaust emissions are a dominant feature of urban environments and are widely believed to have detrimental effects on plants. The effects of diesel exhaust emissions on 12 herbaceous species were studied with respect to growth, flower development, leaf senescence and leaf surface wax characteristics. A diesel generator was used to produce concentrations of nitrogen oxides (NO x ) representative of urban conditions, in solardome chambers. Annual mean NO x concentrations ranged from 77 nl l -l to 98 nl l -1 , with NO:NO 2 ratios of 1.4-2.2, providing a good experimental simulation of polluted roadside environments. Pollutant exposure resulted in species-specific changes in growth and phenology, with a consistent trend for accelerated senescence and delayed flowering. Leaf surface characteristics were also affected; contact angle measurements indicated changes in surface wax structure following pollutant exposure. The study demonstrated clearly the potential for realistic levels of vehicle exhaust pollution to have direct adverse effects on urban vegetation. - Fumigation experiments demonstrate adverse effects of exhaust emissions on urban vegetation

  9. Surface crack growth in cylindrical hollow specimen subject to tension and torsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Shlyannikov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The subject for studies is an aluminium cylindrical hollow specimen with external axial and part circumferential semi-elliptical surface crack undergoing fatigue loads. Both the optical microscope measurements and the crack opening displacement (COD method are used to monitor and calculate both crack depth and crack length during the tests. The variation of crack growth behaviour is studied under cyclic axial tension, pure torsion and combined tension+torsion fatigue loading. For the particular surface flaw geometries considered, the elastic and plastic in-plane and out-of-plane constraint parameters, as well as the governing parameter for stress fields in the form of In-integral and plastic stress intensity factor, are obtained as a function of the aspect ratio, dimensionless crack length and crack depth. The combined effect of tension and torsion loading and initial surface flaw orientation on the crack growth for two type of aluminium alloys is made explicit. The experimental and numerical results of the present study provided the opportunity to explore the suggestion that fatigue crack propagation may be governed more strongly by the plastic stress intensity factor rather than the magnitude of the elastic SIFs alone. One advantage of the plastic SIF is its sensitivity to combined loading due to accounting for the plastic properties of the material.

  10. Epitaxial growth of pentacene on alkali halide surfaces studied by Kelvin probe force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Julia L; Milde, Peter; León, Carmen Pérez; Kundrat, Matthew D; Eng, Lukas M; Jacob, Christoph R; Hoffmann-Vogel, Regina

    2014-04-22

    In the field of molecular electronics, thin films of molecules adsorbed on insulating surfaces are used as the functional building blocks of electronic devices. Control of the structural and electronic properties of the thin films is required for reliably operating devices. Here, noncontact atomic force and Kelvin probe force microscopies have been used to investigate the growth and electrostatic landscape of pentacene on KBr(001) and KCl(001) surfaces. We have found that, together with molecular islands of upright standing pentacene, a new phase of tilted molecules appears near step edges on KBr. Local contact potential differences (LCPD) have been studied with both Kelvin experiments and density functional theory calculations. Our images reveal that differently oriented molecules display different LCPD and that their value is independent of the number of molecular layers. These results point to the formation of an interface dipole, which may be explained by a partial charge transfer from the pentacene to the surface. Moreover, the monitoring of the evolution of the pentacene islands shows that they are strongly affected by dewetting: Multilayers build up at the expense of monolayers, and in the Kelvin images, previously unknown line defects appear, which reveal the epitaxial growth of pentacene crystals.

  11. Fatigue crack growth from handling surface anomalies in a nickel based superalloy at high temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gourdin Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aircraft engine manufacturers have to demonstrate that handling surface anomalies in sensitive areas of discs are not critical for in-service life of a component. Currently, the models used consider anomalies as long cracks propagating from the first cycle, which introduces a certain degree of conservatism when calculating the fatigue life of surface flaws. Preliminary studies have shown that the first stages of crack propagation from surface anomalies are responsible for the conservative results. Thus, the aim of the study is to characterize the crack propagation from typical surface anomalies and to establish a new crack growth model, which can account for the micro-propagation stage. To separate the effects of the geometry of the anomalies and the residual stress state after introduction of the surface flaws, two V-type anomalies are studied: scratches and dents. Different studies have shown that the residual stresses beneath the anomalies seem to control the fatigue life of samples exhibiting scratches and dents. In order to monitor the crack micro-propagation, a direct current potential drop technique, coupled with heat tints is used during fatigue tests at elevated temperature. Thermal treatments releasing the residual stresses are also used to decouple the effect of crack morphology and residual stresses.

  12. Suppression of tumor growth and angiogenesis by a specific antagonist of the cell-surface expressed nucleolin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien Destouches

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Emerging evidences suggest that nucleolin expressed on the cell surface is implicated in growth of tumor cells and angiogenesis. Nucleolin is one of the major proteins of the nucleolus, but it is also expressed on the cell surface where is serves as a binding protein for variety of ligands implicated in cell proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, mitogenesis and angiogenesis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By using a specific antagonist that binds the C-terminal tail of nucleolin, the HB-19 pseudopeptide, here we show that the growth of tumor cells and angiogenesis are suppressed in various in vitro and in vivo experimental models. HB-19 inhibited colony formation in soft agar of tumor cell lines, impaired migration of endothelial cells and formation of capillary-like structures in collagen gel, and reduced blood vessel branching in the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane. In athymic nude mice, HB-19 treatment markedly suppressed the progression of established human breast tumor cell xenografts in nude mice, and in some cases eliminated measurable tumors while displaying no toxicity to normal tissue. This potent antitumoral effect is attributed to the direct inhibitory action of HB-19 on both tumor and endothelial cells by blocking and down regulating surface nucleolin, but without any apparent effect on nucleolar nucleolin. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results illustrate the dual inhibitory action of HB-19 on the tumor development and the neovascularization process, thus validating the cell-surface expressed nucleolin as a strategic target for an effective cancer drug. Consequently, the HB-19 pseudopeptide provides a unique candidate to consider for innovative cancer therapy.

  13. Epitaxial growth of a methoxy-functionalized quaterphenylene on alkali halide surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balzer, F., E-mail: fbalzer@mci.sdu.dk [University of Southern Denmark, Mads Clausen Institute, Alsion 2, DK-6400 Sønderborg (Denmark); Sun, R. [University of Southern Denmark, Mads Clausen Institute, Alsion 2, DK-6400 Sønderborg (Denmark); Parisi, J. [University of Oldenburg, Energy and Semiconductor Research Laboratory, Institute of Physics, Carl-von-Ossietzky-Str. 9-11, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany); Rubahn, H.-G. [University of Southern Denmark, Mads Clausen Institute, Alsion 2, DK-6400 Sønderborg (Denmark); Lützen, A. [University of Bonn, Kekulé Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, Gerhard-Domagk-Str. 1, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Schiek, M. [University of Oldenburg, Energy and Semiconductor Research Laboratory, Institute of Physics, Carl-von-Ossietzky-Str. 9-11, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany)

    2015-12-31

    The epitaxial growth of the methoxy functionalized para-quaterphenylene (MOP4) on the (001) faces of the alkali halides NaCl and KCl and on glass is investigated by a combination of low energy electron diffraction (LEED), polarized light microscopy (PLM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Both domains from upright molecules as well as fiber-like crystallites from lying molecules form. Neither a wetting layer from lying molecules nor widespread epitaxial fiber growth on the substrates is detected. Our results focus on the upright standing molecules, which condense into a thin film phase with an enlarged layer spacing compared to the bulk phase. - Highlights: • Growth of a methoxy-functionalized para-phenylene on dielectric surfaces is investigated. • Low-energy electron diffraction and X-ray diffraction techniques are employed for structural characterization. • Epitaxial growth of upright molecules only is documented. • Polarized optical microscopy together with atomic force microscopy complements the findings.

  14. Epitaxial growth of a methoxy-functionalized quaterphenylene on alkali halide surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balzer, F.; Sun, R.; Parisi, J.; Rubahn, H.-G.; Lützen, A.; Schiek, M.

    2015-01-01

    The epitaxial growth of the methoxy functionalized para-quaterphenylene (MOP4) on the (001) faces of the alkali halides NaCl and KCl and on glass is investigated by a combination of low energy electron diffraction (LEED), polarized light microscopy (PLM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Both domains from upright molecules as well as fiber-like crystallites from lying molecules form. Neither a wetting layer from lying molecules nor widespread epitaxial fiber growth on the substrates is detected. Our results focus on the upright standing molecules, which condense into a thin film phase with an enlarged layer spacing compared to the bulk phase. - Highlights: • Growth of a methoxy-functionalized para-phenylene on dielectric surfaces is investigated. • Low-energy electron diffraction and X-ray diffraction techniques are employed for structural characterization. • Epitaxial growth of upright molecules only is documented. • Polarized optical microscopy together with atomic force microscopy complements the findings.

  15. Handbook of compound semiconductors growth, processing, characterization, and devices

    CERN Document Server

    Holloway, Paul H

    1996-01-01

    This book reviews the recent advances and current technologies used to produce microelectronic and optoelectronic devices from compound semiconductors. It provides a complete overview of the technologies necessary to grow bulk single-crystal substrates, grow hetero-or homoepitaxial films, and process advanced devices such as HBT's, QW diode lasers, etc.

  16. Growth response of rabbits fed graded levels of processed and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of processed and undehulled sunflower seed (PUSS) as feed supplement, on the performance of growing rabbits was studied.The eight weeks feeding trial involving twenty four, six weeks old male and female New Zealand white rabbits weighing 600-650g in a completely randomized design were feed three ...

  17. Growth Dynamics of Dairy Processing Firms in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gardebroek, C.; Turi, K.N.; Wijnands, J.H.M.

    2010-01-01

    The structure of the dairy processing industry in the European Union has changed enormously in recent decades. In many countries, the industry is characterized by a few large companies with a big market share accompanied by many small processors that often produce for niche markets. This article

  18. Growth Mechanism of Cluster-Assembled Surfaces: From Submonolayer to Thin-Film Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, Francesca; Podestà, Alessandro; Piazzoni, Claudio; Milani, Paolo

    2018-04-01

    Nanostructured films obtained by assembling preformed atomic clusters are of strategic importance for a wide variety of applications. The deposition of clusters produced in the gas phase onto a substrate offers the possibility to control and engineer the structural and functional properties of the cluster-assembled films. To date, the microscopic mechanisms underlying the growth and structuring of cluster-assembled films are poorly understood, and, in particular, the transition from the submonolayer to the thin-film regime is experimentally unexplored. Here we report the systematic characterization by atomic force microscopy of the evolution of the structural properties of cluster-assembled films deposited by supersonic cluster beam deposition. As a paradigm of nanostructured systems, we focus our attention on cluster-assembled zirconia films, investigating the influence of the building block dimensions on the growth mechanisms and roughening of the thin films, following the growth process from the early stages of the submonolayer to the thin-film regime. Our results demonstrate that the growth dynamics in the submonolayer regime determines different morphological properties of the cluster-assembled thin film. The evolution of the roughness with the number of deposited clusters reproduces the growth exponent of the ballistic deposition in the 2 +1 model from the submonolayer to the thin-film regime.

  19. Growth and demography of the solitary scleractinian coral Leptopsammia pruvoti along a sea surface temperature gradient in the Mediterranean Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Caroselli

    Full Text Available The demographic traits of the solitary azooxanthellate scleractinian Leptopsammia pruvoti were determined in six populations on a sea surface temperature (SST gradient along the western Italian coasts. This is the first investigation of the growth and demography characteristics of an azooxanthellate scleractinian along a natural SST gradient. Growth rate was homogeneous across all populations, which spanned 7 degrees of latitude. Population age structures differed between populations, but none of the considered demographic parameters correlated with SST, indicating possible effects of local environmental conditions. Compared to another Mediterranean solitary scleractinian, Balanophyllia europaea, zooxanthellate and whose growth, demography and calcification have been studied in the same sites, L. pruvoti seems more tolerant to temperature increase. The higher tolerance of L. pruvoti, relative to B. europaea, may rely on the absence of symbionts, and thus the lack of an inhibition of host physiological processes by the heat-stressed zooxanthellae. However, the comparison between the two species must be taken cautiously, due to the likely temperature differences between the two sampling depths. Increasing research effort on determining the effects of temperature on the poorly studied azooxanthellate scleractinians may shed light on the possible species assemblage shifts that are likely to occur during the current century as a consequence of global climatic change.

  20. Steps in growth of Nb-doped layered titanates with very high surface area suitable for water purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milanović, Marija; Nikolić, Ljubica M.; Stijepović, Ivan; Kontos, Athanassios G.; Giannakopoulos, Konstantinos P.

    2014-01-01

    Nb-doped layered titanates, as highly efficient adsorbents, have been synthesized by hydrothermal reaction for variable duration and at 150 °C in a highly alkaline solution with NbCl 5 as the Nb source. The results have shown the formation of nanosheets already after 1 h of hydrothermal processing, but morphology and phase composition change as the reaction proceeds. The prepared layered titanates have been structurally investigated via scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, as well as Raman and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopies. The steps of layered titanate growth have been followed and an intermediate layered anatase phase is identified. Thus optimized growth of mesoporous titanate materials with 10% Nb atomic content present very high specific surface area of 345.3 m 2  g −1 , and perform as very efficient adsorbents for wastewater treatment applications. - Highlights: • Nb-doped layered titanates have been prepared by a hydrothermal procedure. • Introduction of Nb to precursor lowers the rate of layered titanate formation. • Steps in growth of Nb-doped layered titanates are considered. • Nb-doped layered titanates show high/fast MB adsorption from concentrated solution

  1. Cleaning and Disinfection of Biofilms Composed of Listeria monocytogenes and Background Microbiota from Meat Processing Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møretrø, Trond; Heir, Even; Briandet, Romain; Langsrud, Solveig

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Surfaces of food processing premises are exposed to regular cleaning and disinfection (C&D) regimes, using biocides that are highly effective against bacteria growing as planktonic cells. However, bacteria growing in surface-associated communities (biofilms) are typically more tolerant toward C&D than their individual free-cell counterparts, and survival of pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes may be affected by interspecies interactions within biofilms. In this study, Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter were the most frequently isolated genera surviving on conveyor belts subjected to C&D in meat processing plants. In the laboratory, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, and L. monocytogenes dominated the community, both in suspensions and in biofilms formed on conveyor belts, when cultures were inoculated with eleven-genus cocktails of representative bacterial strains from the identified background flora. When biofilms were exposed to daily C&D cycles mimicking treatments used in food industry, the levels of Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas mandelii diminished, and biofilms were instead dominated by Pseudomonas putida (65 to 76%), Pseudomonas fluorescens (11 to 15%) and L. monocytogenes (3 to 11%). The dominance of certain species after daily C&D correlated with high planktonic growth rates at 12°C and tolerance to C&D. In single-species biofilms, L. monocytogenes developed higher tolerance to C&D over time, for both the peracetic acid and quaternary ammonium disinfectants, indicating that a broad-spectrum mechanism was involved. Survival after C&D appeared to be a common property of L. monocytogenes strains, as persistent and sporadic subtypes showed equal survival rates in complex biofilms. Biofilms established preferentially in surface irregularities of conveyor belts, potentially constituting harborage sites for persistent contamination. IMPORTANCE In the food industry, efficient production hygiene is a key measure to avoid the accumulation of spoilage bacteria and

  2. Cleaning and disinfection of biofilms composed of Listeria monocytogenes and background microbiota from meat processing surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagerlund, Annette; Møretrø, Trond; Heir, Even; Briandet, Romain; Langsrud, Solveig

    2017-06-30

    Surfaces of food processing premises are exposed to regular cleaning and disinfection (C&D) regimes, using biocides that are highly effective against bacteria growing as planktonic cells. However, bacteria growing in surface associated communities (biofilms) are typically more tolerant towards C&D than their individual free cells counterparts, and survival of pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes may be affected by interspecies interactions within biofilms. In this study, Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter were the most frequently isolated genera surviving on conveyor belts subjected to C&D in meat processing plants. In the laboratory, Pseudomonas , Acinetobacter and L. monocytogenes dominated the community both in suspensions and in biofilms formed on conveyor belts, when cultures were inoculated with eleven-genera cocktails of representative bacterial strains from the identified background flora. When biofilms were exposed to daily C&D cycles, mimicking treatments used in food industry, the levels of Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas mandelii diminished, and biofilms were instead dominated by Pseudomonas putida (65-76%), Pseudomonas fluorescens (11-15%) and L. monocytogenes (3-11%). The dominance of certain species after daily C&D correlated with high planktonic growth rates at 12°C and tolerance to C&D. In single-species biofilms, L. monocytogenes developed higher tolerance to C&D over time, both for the peracetic acid and quaternary ammonium disinfectant, indicating that a broad-spectrum mechanism was involved. Survival after C&D appeared to be a common property of L. monocytogenes strains, as both persistent and sporadic subtypes showed equal survival in complex biofilms. Biofilms established preferentially in surface irregularities of conveyor belts, potentially constituting harborage sites for persistent contamination. IMPORTANCE In food industry, efficient production hygiene is a key measure to avoid accumulation of spoilage bacteria and eliminate pathogens

  3. Improving the work function of the niobium surface of SRF cavities by plasma processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, P. V.; Doleans, M.; Hannah, B.; Afanador, R.; McMahan, C.; Stewart, S.; Mammosser, J.; Howell, M.; Saunders, J.; Degraff, B.; Kim, S.-H.

    2016-04-01

    An in situ plasma processing technique using chemically reactive oxygen plasma to remove hydrocarbons from superconducting radio frequency cavity surfaces at room temperature has been developed at the spallation neutron source, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. To understand better the interaction between the plasma and niobium surface, surface studies on small samples were performed. In this article, we report the results from those surface studies. The results show that plasma processing removes hydrocarbons from top surface and improves the surface work function by 0.5-1.0 eV. Improving the work function of RF surface of cavities can help to improve their operational performance.

  4. Proteolytic processing of epidermal growth factor within endosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorman, R.M.; Savage, C.R. Jr.; Poretz, R.D.; Schaudies, R.P.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have reported previously that EGF enters 3 biochemically distinct non-lysosomal intracellular compartments prior to detection within lysosomes. Earlier studies have demonstrated that EGF is processes by sequential removal of 1, 4 and 1 aminoacyl residues at the C-terminus. The final form, which lacks the 6 residues, accumulates in secondary lysosomes. After subcellular fractionation of fibroblasts exposed to 125 I-EGF, ligand is detected with 3 non-lysosomal endocytic compartments and is fully processed prior to entrance into secondary lysosome. Following internalization, EGF enters an early endosomal compartment (E 1 ). The composition of the ligand (60%, -1 form; 40%, native form) represents an enhancement of the -1 form relative to that on the plasma membrane following the 90 min, 0 0 binding period. The proportion of different EGF forms in E 1 remains constant through the 2 min pulse and chase periods up to 30 min. However, in the ultimate endosomal compartment, E 4 , the proportion of the -6 form increases from 25% at 15 min to greater than 75% in 30 min, with a concomitant decrease of the -1 and -5 forms. Secondary lysosomes contain an EGF composition similar to that found in E 4 at 30 min. Accordingly, it appears that EGF is processed to the -6 form following passage through E 1 and during its tenure in E 4

  5. Surface-initiated growth of thin oxide coatings for Li-sulfur battery cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyu Tae; Black, Robert; Yim, Taeeun; Ji, Xiulei; Nazar, Linda F. [University of Waterloo, Department of Chemistry, Waterloo, ON (Canada)

    2012-12-15

    The concept of surface-initiated growth of oxides on functionalized carbons is introduced as a method to inhibit the dissolution of polysulfide ions in Li-S battery cathode materials. MO{sub x} (M: Si, V) thin layers are homogeneously coated on nanostructured carbon-sulfur composites. The coating significantly inhibits the dissolution of polysulfides on cycling, resulting in enhanced cycle performance and coulombic efficiency of the Li-S battery. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Growth of binary solid solution single crystals and calculation of melt surface displacement velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agamaliyev, Z.A.; Tahirov, V.I.; Hasanov, Z.Y.; Quliyev, A.F.

    2007-01-01

    A binary solid solution single crystal growth method has been worked out. Cylinder feeding alloy with complex content distribution and truncated cone crucible are used. Second component distribution coefficient is more than unit. Content distribution along grown crystal is found by solving continuity equation. After reaching dynamic equilibrium state second component concentration in grown crystal is saturated the value of which is less than the average ona in the feeding alloy. Using the method Ge-Si perfect single crystals has been grown. Calculation method of melt surface displacement velocity has been offered as well

  7. Optimization of Growth Medium for Efficient Cultivation of Lactobacillus salivarius i 24 using Response Surface Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim, C. H.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of Lactobacillus salivarius i 24, a probiotic strain for chicken, was studied in batch fermentation using 500 mL Erlenmeyer flask. Response surface method (RSM was used to optimize the medium for efficient cultivation of the bacterium. The factors investigated were yeast extract, glucose and initial culture pH. A polynomial regression model with cubic and quartic terms was used for the analysis of the experimental data. Estimated optimal conditions of the factors for growth of L. salivarius i 24 were; 3.32 % (w/v glucose, 4.31 % (w/v yeast extract and initial culture pH of 6.10.

  8. Facilitating control of fed-batch fermentation processes by monitoring the growth rates of saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulers, M.L.B.; Ariaans, L.J.J.M.; Soeterboek, R.; Giuseppin, M.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we present a growth rate controller for a fed-batch bioprocess. An observer estimates the growth rate. The observer is based on knowledge about the stoichiometric relations of the process. Furthermore, the observer needs online measurements of the oxygen uptake rate and the

  9. Manufacture of functional surfaces through combined application of tool manufacturing processes and Robot Assisted Polishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Rasmus Solmer; Arentoft, Mogens; Grønbæk, J.

    2012-01-01

    The tool surface topography is often a key parameter in the tribological performance of modern metal forming tools. A new generation of multifunctional surfaces is achieved by combination of conventional tool manufacturing processes with a novel Robot Assisted Polishing process. This novel surface...

  10. Polarity control and growth mode of InN on yttria-stabilized zirconia (111) surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Atsushi; Okubo, Kana; Ohta, Jitsuo; Oshima, Masaharu; Fujioka, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    We have found that polarity of epitaxial InN layers has been controlled by choice of a capping material during high-temperature annealing of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) (111) substrates in air. Angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy has revealed that the amount of segregation of Y atoms to the YSZ surface depended on the capping material of the substrates. In-polar and N-polar InN have been reproducibly grown on Y-segregated and Y-segregation-free YSZ surfaces, respectively. We have also found that the growth of the first monolayer (ML) of N-polar InN proceeds in a step-flow mode which then switches to layer-by-layer mode after the coverage by 1-ML-thick InN. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. Growth of pentacene on Ag(1 1 1) surface: A NEXAFS study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedio, M.; Doyle, B.; Mahne, N.; Giglia, A.; Borgatti, F.; Nannarone, S.; Henze, S.K.M.; Temirov, R.; Tautz, F.S.; Casalis, L.; Hudej, R.; Danisman, M.F.; Nickel, B.

    2007-01-01

    Thin films of pentacene (C 22 H 14 ) have become widely used in the field of organic electronics. Here films of C 22 H 14 of thickness ranging from submonolayer to multilayer were thermally deposited on Ag(1 1 1) surface. The determination of molecular geometry in pentacene films on Ag(1 1 1) studied by X-ray absorption at different stages of growth up to one monolayer is presented. XAS spectra at the C K-edge were collected as a function of the direction of the electric field at the surface. The different features of the spectra were assigned to resonances related to the various molecular unoccupied states by the comparison with the absorption coefficient of the pentacene gas phase. The transitions involving antibonding π states show a pronounced angular dependence for all the measured coverages, from submonolayer to multilayer. The spectra analysis indicates a nearly planar chemisorption of the first pentacene layer with a tilt angle of 10 o

  12. Reconciling Estimates of Earnings Processes in Growth Rates and Levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daly, Moira; Hryshko, Dmytro; Manovskii, Iourii

    The stochastic process for earnings is the key element of incomplete markets models in modern quantitative macroeconomics. It determines both the equilibrium distributions of endogenous outcomes and the design of optimal policies. Yet, there is no consensus in the literature on the relative...... magnitudes of the permanent and transitory innovations in earnings. When estimation is based on the earnings moments in levels, the variance of transitory shocks is found to be relatively high. When the moments in differences are used, the variance of the permanent component is relatively high instead. We...

  13. Chemical structural analysis of diamondlike carbon films: I. Surface growth model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takabayashi, Susumu; Ješko, Radek; Shinohara, Masanori; Hayashi, Hiroyuki; Sugimoto, Rintaro; Ogawa, Shuichi; Takakuwa, Yuji

    2018-02-01

    The surface growth mechanisms of diamondlike carbon (DLC) films has been clarified. DLC films were synthesized in atmospheres with a fixed methane-to-argon ratio at different temperatures up to 700 °C by the photoemission-assisted glow discharge of photoemission-assisted plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The electrical resistivity of the films decreased logarithmically as the synthesis temperature was increased. Conversely, the dielectric constant of the films increased and became divergent at high temperature. However, the very high electrical resistivity of the film synthesized at 150 °C was retained even after post-annealing treatments at temperatures up to 500 °C, and divergence of the dielectric constant was not observed. Such films exhibited excellent thermal stability and retained large amounts of hydrogen, even after post-annealing treatments. These results suggest that numerous hydrogen atoms were incorporated into the DLC films during synthesis at low temperatures. Hydrogen atoms terminate carbon dangling bonds in the films to restrict π-conjugated growth. During synthesis at high temperature, hydrogen was desorbed from the interior of the growing films and π-conjugated conductive films were formed. Moreover, hydrogen radicals were chemisorbed by carbon atoms at the growing DLC surface, leading to removal of carbon atoms from the surface as methane gas. The methane molecules decomposed into hydrocarbons and hydrogen radicals through the attack of electrons above the surface. Hydrogen radicals contributed to the etching reaction cycle of the film; the hydrocarbon radicals were polymerized by reacting with other radicals and the methane source. The polymer radicals remained above the film, preventing the supply of the methane source and disrupting the action of argon ions. At high temperatures, the resultant DLC films were rough and thin.

  14. Investigation on the growth of DAST crystals of large surface area for THz applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijay, R. Jerald; Melikechi, N.; Thomas, Tina; Gunaseelan, R.; Arockiaraj, M. Antony; Sagayaraj, P.

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: It is evident from the photographs that the crystal tend to grow as a needle (Fig. 1a) in the lower concentration region (2–3 g/200 mL); whereas, in the high concentration region (5 g/200 mL) though there is a marked enlargement in the size of the crystal, the morphology of the resulting DAST crystal is slightly irregular (Fig. 1d) in nature. Among the four concentrations employed, best result was obtained with the DAST–methanol solution of concentration 4 g/200 mL; which resulted in the DAST crystal of large surface area (270 mm 2 ) with high transparency and nearly square shape (Fig. 1c) in a growth period of 20–25 days. Highlights: ► DAST crystals of different sizes are obtained for different concentrations. ► The main focus is to grow DAST crystals with large surface area. ► Structural, optical, thermal and mechanical properties are investigated. - Abstract: The growth of high quality 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4-N-methyl-stilbazoliumtosylate (DAST) crystal with large surface area is reported by adopting the slope nucleation coupled slow evaporation method (SNM-SE). The structure and composition of the crystal are studied by single crystal X-ray diffraction and CHN analyses. The linear optical properties are investigated by UV–vis absorption. The melting point and thermal behavior of DAST are investigated using differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) and thermogravimetric analyses (TGA). The Vickers microhardness number (VHN) and work hardening coefficient of the grown crystal have been determined. The surface features of the DAST crystal are analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and it confirmed the presence of narrow line defects (NLDs) in the sample.

  15. Colonial vs. planktonic type of growth: mathematical modeling of microbial dynamics on surfaces and in liquid, semi-liquid and solid foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skandamis, Panagiotis N; Jeanson, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Predictive models are mathematical expressions that describe the growth, survival, inactivation, or biochemical processes of foodborne bacteria. During processing of contaminated raw materials and food preparation, bacteria are entrapped into the food residues, potentially transferred to the equipment surfaces (abiotic or inert surfaces) or cross-contaminate other foods (biotic surfaces). Growth of bacterial cells can either occur planktonically in liquid or immobilized as colonies. Colonies are on the surface or confined in the interior (submerged colonies) of structured foods. For low initial levels of bacterial population leading to large colonies, the immobilized growth differs from planktonic growth due to physical constrains and to diffusion limitations within the structured foods. Indeed, cells in colonies experience substrate starvation and/or stresses from the accumulation of toxic metabolites such as lactic acid. Furthermore, the micro-architecture of foods also influences the rate and extent of growth. The micro-architecture is determined by (i) the non-aqueous phase with the distribution and size of oil particles and the pore size of the network when proteins or gelling agent are solidified, and by (ii) the available aqueous phase within which bacteria may swarm or swim. As a consequence, the micro-environment of bacterial cells when they grow in colonies might greatly differs from that when they grow planktonically. The broth-based data used for modeling (lag time and generation time, the growth rate, and population level) are poorly transferable to solid foods. It may lead to an over-estimation or under-estimation of the predicted population compared to the observed population in food. If the growth prediction concerns pathogen bacteria, it is a major importance for the safety of foods to improve the knowledge on immobilized growth. In this review, the different types of models are presented taking into account the stochastic behavior of single cells

  16. A Low-Cost System Based on Image Analysis for Monitoring the Crystal Growth Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venâncio, Fabrício; Rosário, Francisca F do; Cajaiba, João

    2017-05-31

    Many techniques are used to monitor one or more of the phenomena involved in the crystallization process. One of the challenges in crystal growth monitoring is finding techniques that allow direct interpretation of the data. The present study used a low-cost system, composed of a commercial webcam and a simple white LED (Light Emitting Diode) illuminator, to follow the calcium carbonate crystal growth process. The experiments were followed with focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM), a common technique for obtaining information about the formation and growth of crystals. The images obtained in real time were treated with the red, blue, and green (RGB) system. The results showed a qualitative response of the system to crystal formation and growth processes, as there was an observed decrease in the signal as the growth process occurred. Control of the crystal growth was managed by increasing the viscosity of the test solution with the addition of monoethylene glycol (MEG) at 30% and 70% in a mass to mass relationship, providing different profiles of the RGB average curves. The decrease in the average RGB value became slower as the concentration of MEG was increased; this reflected a lag in the growth process that was proven by the FBRM.

  17. Coronal Structures as Tracers of Sub-Surface Processes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    dramatic differences in appearance and physical processes, all these structures share a common ... mena that indicate a close relationship between coronal and sub-photo- spheric processes. .... 8) maintaining the same chirality. Large scale ...

  18. Ice-surface adsorption enhanced colligative effect of antifreeze proteins in ice growth inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yougang; Ba, Yong

    2006-09-01

    This Communication describes a mechanism to explain antifreeze protein's function to inhibit the growth of ice crystals. We propose that the adsorption of antifreeze protein (AFP) molecules on an ice surface induces a dense AFP-water layer, which can significantly decrease the mole fraction of the interfacial water and, thus, lower the temperature for a seed ice crystal to grow in a super-cooled AFP solution. This mechanism can also explain the nearly unchanged melting point for the ice crystal due to the AFP's ice-surface adsorption. A mathematical model combining the Langmuir theory of adsorption and the colligative effect of thermodynamics has been proposed to find the equilibrium constants of the ice-surface adsorptions, and the interfacial concentrations of AFPs through fitting the theoretical curves to the experimental thermal hysteresis data. This model has been demonstrated by using the experimental data of serial size-mutated beetle Tenebrio molitor (Tm) AFPs. It was found that the AFP's ice-surface adsorptions could increase the interfacial AFP's concentrations by 3 to 4 orders compared with those in the bulk AFP solutions.

  19. Adhesion strength and spreading characteristics of EPS on membrane surfaces during lateral and central growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansel, Berrin; Tansel, Derya Z

    2013-11-01

    Deposition of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) on membrane surfaces is a precursor step for bacterial attachment. The purpose of this study was to analyze the morphological changes on a clean polysulfone ultrafilration membrane after exposure to effluent from a membrane bioreactor. The effluent was filtered to remove bacteria before exposing the membrane. The morphological characterization was performed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The lateral (2D) and central growth characteristics (3D) of the EPS deposits were evaluated by section and topographical analyses of the height images. The contact angle of single EPS units was 9.07 ± 0.50° which increased to 24.41 ± 1.00° for large clusters (over 10 units) and decreased to 18.68 ± 1.00° for the multilayered clusters. The surface tension of the single EPS units was 49.34 ± 1.70 mNm(-1). The surface tension of single layered small and large EPS clusters were 51.26 ± 2.05 and 53.48 ± 2.01 mNm(-1), respectively. For the multilayered clusters, the surface tension was 51.43 ± 2.05 mNm(-1). The spreading values were negative for all deposits on the polysulfone membrane indicating that the EPS clusters did not have tendency to spread but preferred to retain their shapes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Nanoparticle growth and surface chemistry changes in cell-conditioned culture medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Michaela; Hodges, Nikolas J; Whitwell, Harry; Tyrrell, Jess; Cangul, Hakan

    2015-02-05

    When biomolecules attach to engineered nanoparticle (ENP) surfaces, they confer the particles with a new biological identity. Physical format may also radically alter, changing ENP stability and agglomeration state within seconds. In order to measure which biomolecules are associated with early ENP growth, we studied ENPs in conditioned medium from A549 cell culture, using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and linear trap quadrupole electron transfer dissociation mass spectrometry. Two types of 100 nm polystyrene particles (one uncoated and one with an amine functionalized surface) were used to measure the influence of surface type. In identically prepared conditioned medium, agglomeration was visible in all samples after 1 h, but was variable, indicating inter-sample variability in secretion rates and extracellular medium conditions. In samples conditioned for 1 h or more, ENP agglomeration rates varied significantly. Agglomerate size measured by DLS was well correlated with surface sequestered peptide number for uncoated but not for amine coated polystyrene ENPs. Amine-coated ENPs grew much faster and into larger agglomerates associated with fewer sequestered peptides, but including significant sequestered lactose dehydrogenase. We conclude that interference with extracellular peptide balance and oxidoreductase activity via sequestration is worthy of further study, as increased oxidative stress via this new mechanism may be important for cell toxicity. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  1. Lunar rock surfaces as detectors of solar processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartung, J.B.; Hunter College, New York, NY)

    1980-01-01

    Lunar rock surfaces exposed at or just below the lunar surface are considered as detectors of the solar wind, solar flares and solar-derived magnetic fields through their interactions with galactic cosmic rays. The degradation of the solar detector capabilities of lunar surface rocks by meteoroid impact erosion, accreta deposition, loose dust, and sputtering, amorphous layer formation and accelerated diffusion due to solar particles and illumination is discussed, and it is noted that the complex interactions of factors affecting the outer micron of exposed surface material has so far prevented the development of a satisfactory model for a particle detector on the submicron scale. Methods for the determination of surface exposure ages based on the accumulation of light solar wind noble gases, Fe and Mg, impact craters, solar flare tracks, and cosmogenic Kr isotopes are examined, and the systematic variations in the ages determined by the various clocks are discussed. It is concluded that a means of obtaining satisfactory quantitative rate or flux data has not yet been established

  2. Surface processing with ionized cluster beams: computer simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Insepov, Z.; Yamada, I.

    1999-01-01

    Molecular Dynamics (MD) and Monte Carlo (MC) models of energetic gas cluster irradiation of a solid surface have been developed to investigate the phenomena of crater formation, sputtering, surface treatment, and the material hardness evaluation by irradiation with cluster ions. Theoretical estimation of crater dimensions formed with Ar gas cluster ion irradiation of different substrates, based on hydrodynamics and MD simulation, are presented. The atomic scale shock waves arising from cluster impact were obtained by calculating the pressure, temperature and mass-velocity of the target atoms. The crater depth is given as a unique 1/3 dependence on the cluster energy and on the cold material Brinell hardness number (BHN). A new 'true material hardness' scale which can be very useful for example for thin film coatings deposited on a soft substrate, is defined. This finding could be used as a new technique for measuring of a material hardness. Evolution of surface morphology under cluster ion irradiation was described by the surface relaxation equation which contains a term of crater formation at cluster impact. The formation of ripples on a surface irradiated with oblique cluster ion beams was predicted. MD and MC models of Decaborane ion (B 10 H 14 ) implantation into Si and the following rapid thermal annealing (RTA) have been developed

  3. Epitaxial growth and processing of InP films in a ``novel`` remote plasma-MOCVD apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruno, G. [Bari Univ. (Italy). Centro di Studio per la Chimica; Losurdo, M. [Bari Univ. (Italy). Centro di Studio per la Chimica; Capezzuto, P. [Bari Univ. (Italy). Centro di Studio per la Chimica; Capozzi, V. [Bari Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica; Lorusso, F.G. [Bari Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica; Minafra, A. [Bari Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica

    1996-06-01

    A new remote plasma MOCVD apparatus for the treatment and deposition of III-V materials and, specifically, of indium phosphide, has been developed. The plasma source is used to produce hydrogen atoms and to predissociate phosphine for, respectively, the reduction of native oxide on InP substrate surface and the InP deposition. In situ diagnostics by optical emission spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and spectroscopic ellipsometry are used to fingerprint the gas phase and the growth surface. The plasma cleaning process effectively reduce the InP oxide layer without surface damage. Indium phosphide epilayers deposited from trimethylindium and plasma activated PH{sub 3} show singular photoluminescence spectra with signal intensity higher than that of the best InP film deposited under conventional MOCVD condition (without PH{sub 3} plasma preactivation). (orig.)

  4. Applying Central Composite Design and Response Surface Methodology to Optimize Growth and Biomass Production of Haemophilus influenzae Type b.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momen, Seyed Bahman; Siadat, Seyed Davar; Akbari, Neda; Ranjbar, Bijan; Khajeh, Khosro

    2016-06-01

    Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) is the leading cause of bacterial meningitis, otitis media, pneumonia, cellulitis, bacteremia, and septic arthritis in infants and young children. The Hib capsule contains the major virulence factor, and is composed of polyribosyl ribitol phosphate (PRP) that can induce immune system response. Vaccines consisting of Hib capsular polysaccharide (PRP) conjugated to a carrier protein are effective in the prevention of the infections. However, due to costly processes in PRP production, these vaccines are too expensive. To enhance biomass, in this research we focused on optimizing Hib growth with respect to physical factors such as pH, temperature, and agitation by using a response surface methodology (RSM). We employed a central composite design (CCD) and a response surface methodology to determine the optimum cultivation conditions for growth and biomass production of H. influenzae type b. The treatment factors investigated were initial pH, agitation, and temperature, using shaking flasks. After Hib cultivation and determination of dry biomass, analysis of experimental data was performed by the RSM-CCD. The model showed that temperature and pH had an interactive effect on Hib biomass production. The dry biomass produced in shaking flasks was about 5470 mg/L, which was under an initial pH of 8.5, at 250 rpm and 35° C. We found CCD and RSM very effective in optimizing Hib culture conditions, and Hib biomass production was greatly influenced by pH and incubation temperature. Therefore, optimization of the growth factors to maximize Hib production can lead to 1) an increase in bacterial biomass and PRP productions, 2) lower vaccine prices, 3) vaccination of more susceptible populations, and 4) lower risk of Hib infections.

  5. The immobilization of filamentous fungi by cellular adherence and surface film growth on radiopolymerized hydrogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petre, M.; Zarnea, G.; Adrian, P.; Gheorghiu, E.; Gheordunescu, V.

    1998-01-01

    The continuous biodegradation processes of cellulose wastes, from wine-producing industry and canned food processing were performed using immobilized fungal cells on complex polyhydrogels such as: collagen-polyacrylamide (CPAA), elastin-polyacrylamide (EPAA), gelatin-polyacrylamide (GPAA) and poly-hydroxy-ethyl-methyl-methacrylate (PHEMA) which were prepared by experimental radiopolymerization methods using a 60 Co radioactive source. The experiments were performed using cellulolytic micro- and macrofungal species and the immobilization methods were applied in connection with morphogenetic characteristics of each one of these species that were used as inoculum. A flow-cascade bioreactor was achieved as a research laboratory tool in order to control the cellulose waste biodegradation in continuous processes using immobilized fungal cells on complex polyhydrogels. In this way the continuous control was possible for fungal metabolic activity during the cellulose biodegradation processes by microscopical hyphal growth measurements inside the polyhydrogels and, also, by mycelial protein content analysis. The tested fungal species were Pleurotus ostreatus and Pleurotus florida from macromycetes and Trichoderma viride from micromycetes. There were noticed significant differences in biodegradation rate of cellulose wastes between 'in vitro' immobilized fungal cultures and free fungal cells cultures used as control samples to be compared with cellulose biodegradation processes in natural conditions of polluted ecosystems. The fungal growth displayed by soluble mycelial protein were compared with cellulose biodegradation rates which were expressed by cellulose weight loss in the culture medium. (authors)

  6. Advantages of surface treatment processes by ionic sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gantois, M.

    1976-01-01

    The use of high intensity glow-discharge permits to realize a superficial thermochemical treatment. Ions formed by discharge are accelerated against the surfaces to be treated; by effect of ion bombardment, surfaces get heated and a chemical reaction is developed depending on the composition of the ionized gas. The technique presents advantages, as the potential of the active gas might be freely chosen, and as many gases might be used, the decomposition of gases by pyrolysis and a homogeneous treatment (concerning nature of phases and thickness) all over the surface being not necessary. It is possible to develop layers of various nature, looking for those which offer the best properties to solve a technological problem (wear, friction, fatigue toughness, etc.). Some examples of nitruration, carbonitruration are considered [fr

  7. Upper Meter Processes: Short Wind Waves, Surface Flow, and Micro-Turbulence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jaehne, Bernd

    2000-01-01

    The primary goal of this project was to advance the knowledge of small-scale air-sea interaction processes at the ocean surface, focussing on the dynamics of short waves, the surface flow field and the micro-turbulence...

  8. Shewanella putrefaciens Adhesion and Biofilm Formation on Food Processing Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagge, Dorthe; Hjelm, Mette; Johansen, Charlotte; Huber, Ingrid; Gram, Lone

    2001-01-01

    Laboratory model systems were developed for studying Shewanella putrefaciens adhesion and biofilm formation under batch and flow conditions. S. putrefaciens plays a major role in food spoilage and may cause microbially induced corrosion on steel surfaces. S. putrefaciens bacteria suspended in buffer adhered readily to stainless steel surfaces. Maximum numbers of adherent bacteria per square centimeter were reached in 8 h at 25°C and reflected the cell density in suspension. Numbers of adhering bacteria from a suspension containing 108 CFU/ml were much lower in a laminar flow system (modified Robbins device) (reaching 102 CFU/cm2) than in a batch system (reaching 107 CFU/cm2), and maximum numbers were reached after 24 h. When nutrients were supplied, S. putrefaciens grew in biofilms with layers of bacteria. The rate of biofilm formation and the thickness of the film were not dependent on the availability of carbohydrate (lactate or glucose) or on iron starvation. The number of S. putrefaciens bacteria on the surface was partly influenced by the presence of other bacteria (Pseudomonas fluorescens) which reduced the numbers of S. putrefaciens bacteria in the biofilm. Numbers of bacteria on the surface must be quantified to evaluate the influence of environmental factors on adhesion and biofilm formation. We used a combination of fluorescence microscopy (4′,6′-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining and in situ hybridization, for mixed-culture studies), ultrasonic removal of bacteria from surfaces, and indirect conductometry and found this combination sufficient to quantify bacteria on surfaces. PMID:11319118

  9. Micro/nanostructures formation by femtosecond laser surface processing on amorphous and polycrystalline Ni{sub 60}Nb{sub 40}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Edwin, E-mail: edwin.peng@huskers.unl.edu [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68588 (United States); Tsubaki, Alfred; Zuhlke, Craig A. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68588 (United States); Wang, Meiyu [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68588 (United States); Bell, Ryan [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68588 (United States); Lucis, Michael J. [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68588 (United States); Anderson, Troy P.; Alexander, Dennis R. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68588 (United States); Gogos, George; Shield, Jeffrey E. [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68588 (United States)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • Femtosecond laser processing of glass-forming Ni{sub 60}Nb{sub 40} produce surface structures. • Cross sectioning, imaging, & TEM sample preparation with dual-beam SEM. • Low laser fluence surface structures’ form by ablation. • High laserfluence surface structures form by ablation and fluid flow. - Abstract: Femtosecond laser surface processing is a technology that can be used to functionalize many surfaces, imparting specialized properties such as increased broadband optical absorption or superhydrophilicity/superhydrophobicity. In this study, two unique classes of surface structures, below surface growth (BSG) and above surface growth (ASG) mounds, were formed by femtosecond laser surface processing on amorphous and polycrystalline Ni{sub 60}Nb{sub 40} with two different grain sizes. Cross sectional imaging of these mounds revealed thermal evidence of the unique formation processes for each class of surface structure. BSG mounds formed on all three substrates using the same laser parameters had similar surface morphology. The microstructures in the mounds were unaltered compared with the substrate before laser processing, suggesting their formation was dominated by preferential valley ablation. ASG mounds had similar morphology when formed on the polycrystalline Ni{sub 60}Nb{sub 40} substrates with 100 nm and 2 μm grain size. However, the ASG mounds had significantly wider diameter and higher peak-to-valley heights when the substrate was amorphous Ni{sub 60}Nb{sub 40}. Hydrodynamic melting was primarily responsible for ASG mound formation. On amorphous Ni{sub 60}Nb{sub 40} substrates, the ASG mounds are most likely larger due to lower thermal diffusivity. There was clear difference in growth mechanism of femtosecond laser processed BSG and ASG mounds, and grain size does not appear to be a factor.

  10. Controlling the growth of epitaxial graphene on metalized diamond (111) surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooil, S. P.; Wells, J. W.; Hu, D.; Evans, D. A.; Niu, Y. R.; Zakharov, A. A.; Bianchi, M.

    2015-01-01

    The 2-dimensional transformation of the diamond (111) surface to graphene has been demonstrated using ultrathin Fe films that catalytically reduce the reaction temperature needed for the conversion of sp 3 to sp 2 carbon. An epitaxial system is formed, which involves the re-crystallization of carbon at the Fe/vacuum interface and that enables the controlled growth of monolayer and multilayer graphene films. In order to study the initial stages of single and multilayer graphene growth, real time monitoring of the system was preformed within a photoemission and low energy electron microscope. It was found that the initial graphene growth occurred at temperatures as low as 500 °C, whilst increasing the temperature to 560 °C was required to produce multi-layer graphene of high structural quality. Angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy was used to study the electronic properties of the grown material, where a graphene-like energy momentum dispersion was observed. The Dirac point for the first layer is located at 2.5 eV below the Fermi level, indicating an n-type doping of the graphene due to substrate interactions, while that of the second graphene layer lies close to the Fermi level

  11. Experimental and numerical investigations of stable crack growth of axial surface flaws in a pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brocks, W.; Krafka, H.; Mueller, W.; Wobst, K.

    1988-01-01

    In connection with the problem of the transferability of parameters obtained experimentally with the help of fracture-mechanical test specimens and used for the initiation and the stable propagation of cracks in cases of pulsating stress and of the elasto-plastic behaviour of construction components, a pressure vessel with an inside diameter of 1500 mm, a cylindrical length of 3000 mm and a wall thickness of 40 mm was hydraulically loaded with the help of internal pressure in the first stage, to attain an average crack growth of 1 mm at Δ a ≅, the loading taking place at about 21deg C. This stress-free annealed vessel exhibited an axial semielliptical vibration-induced surface crack about 181 mm long and 20 mm deep, as a test defect, in a welded circular blank made of the steel 20MnMoNi 55. The fractographic analysis of the first stable crack revealed that its growth rate of Δa was highest in the area of transition from the weak to the strong bend of the crack front (55deg m /σ v (average principal stress: σ m , Mises' reference stress: σ v v). A comparison of the experimental with the numerical results from the first stable crack shows that the local stable crack growth Δa cannot be calculated solely with reference to J, because Δa appears to depend essentially on the quotient σ m /σ v . (orig./MM) [de

  12. Surface morphology and preferential orientation growth of TaC crystals formed by chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong Xiang, E-mail: Xiong228@sina.co [State Key Lab for Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Chen Zhaoke; Huang Baiyun; Li Guodong [State Key Lab for Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Zheng Feng [School of Material Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Xiao Peng; Zhang Hongbo [State Key Lab for Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2009-04-02

    TaC film was deposited on (002) graphite sheet by isothermal chemical vapor deposition using TaCl{sub 5}-Ar-C{sub 3}H{sub 6} mixtures, with deposition temperature 1200 {sup o}C and pressure about 200 Pa. The influence of deposition position (or deposition rate) on preferential orientation and surface morphology of TaC crystals were investigated by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy methods. The deposits are TaC plus trace of C. The crystals are large individual columns with pyramidal-shape at deposition rate of 32.4-37.3 {mu}m/h, complex columnar at 37.3-45.6 {mu}m/h, lenticular-like at 45.6-54.6 {mu}m/h and cauliflower-like at 54.6-77.3 {mu}m/h, with <001>, near <001>, <110> and no clear preferential orientation, respectively. These results agree in part with the preditions of the Pangarov's model of the relationship between deposition rate and preferential growth orientation. The growth mechanism of TaC crystals in <001>, near <001>, <111> and no clear preferential orientation can be fairly explained by the growth parameter {alpha} with Van der Drift's model, deterioration model and Meakin model. Furthermore, a nucleation and coalescence model is also proposed to explain the formation mechanism of <110> lenticular-like crystals.

  13. Effect of finishing process on the surface quality of Co-Cr-Mo dental alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Klimecka -Tatar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Preparatory procedures for the material have a significant influence on the surface stereometry of the material. This study investigated the effect of the electropolishing process on the surface quality of metallic prosthetic constructions based on Co-Cr-Mo alloys. It has been found that the process of electropolishing prevents to excessive development of the surface of a material and consequently improves surface quality.

  14. Rapid growth of amorphous carbon films on the inner surface of micron-thick and hollow-core fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Longfei [Fujian Key Laboratory for Plasma and Magnetic Resonance, Department of Electric Science, School of Physics and Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600 (China); School of Science, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun, Jilin 130022 (China); Liu, Dongping, E-mail: Dongping.liu@dlnu.edu.cn [Fujian Key Laboratory for Plasma and Magnetic Resonance, Department of Electric Science, School of Physics and Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600 (China); School of Science, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun, Jilin 130022 (China); Zhou, Xinwei [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Zhejiang University, Zhejiang 310007 (China); Song, Ying [School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600 (China); School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China); Ni, Weiyuan [School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600 (China); School of Science, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun, Jilin 130022 (China); Niu, Jinhai; Fan, Hongyu [School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600 (China)

    2013-10-01

    Ultrathick (> 25 μm) carbon films were obtained on the inner surface of hollow and micron-thick quartz fibers by confining CH{sub 4}/He or C{sub 2}H{sub 2}/He microplasmas in their hollow cores. The resulting carbon films were studied by using scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The microplasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique resulted in the uniform growth of amorphous carbon films on the inner surface of very long (> 1 m) hollow-core fibers. Film deposition is performed by using microplasmas at atmospheric pressure and at 50 Pa. The carbon films obtained with the latter show the smooth inner surfaces and the well continuity across the film/optical fiber. Low-pressure CH{sub 4}/He and C{sub 2}H{sub 2}/He microplasmas can lead to a rapid growth (∼ 2.00 μm/min) of carbon films with their thickness of > 25 μm. The optical emission measurements show that various hydrocarbon species were formed in these depositing microplasmas due to the collisions between CH{sub 4}/C{sub 2}H{sub 2} molecules and energetic species. The microplasma-enhanced CVD technique running without the complicated fabrication processes shows its potentials for rapidly depositing the overlong carbon tubes with their inner diameters of tens of microns. - Highlights: • The microplasma device is applied for coating deposition inside hollow-core fibers. • The microplasma device results in > 25 μm-thick carbon films. • The microplasma device is simple for deposition of ultralong carbon tubes.

  15. Bacterial desorption from food container and food processing surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEldowney, S; Fletcher, M

    1988-03-01

    The desorption ofStaphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, and a coryneform from the surfaces of materials used for manufacturing food containers (glass, tin plate, and polypropylene) or postprocess canning factory conveyor belts (stainless steel and nylon) was investigated. The effect of time, pH, temperature, and adsorbed organic layers on desorption was studied.S. aureus did not detach from the substrata at any pH investigated (between pH 5 and 9).A. calcoaceticus and the coryneform in some cases detached, depending upon pH and substratum composition. The degree of bacterial detachment from the substrata was not related to bacterial respiration at experimental pH values. Bacterial desorption was not affected by temperature (4-30°C) nor by an adsorbed layer of peptone and yeast extract on the substrata. The results indicate that bacterial desorption, hence bacterial removal during cleaning or their transfer via liquids flowing over colonized surfaces, is likely to vary with the surface composition and the bacterial species colonizing the surfaces.

  16. Nano surface generation of grinding process using carbon nano tubes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nano surface finish has become an important parameter in the semiconductor, optical, electrical and mechanical industries. The materials used in these industries are classified as difficult to machine materials such as ceramics, glasses and silicon wafers. Machining of these materials up to nano accuracy is a great ...

  17. Influence of surface effects on subsecond processes in liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tkachenko, S.I.; Vorob'ev, V.S.; Khishchenko, K.V.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text: We discuss a problem of experimental-data interpretation during subsecond measurements of thermophysical properties of matter at high temperatures and pressures. Peculiarity of these measurements is optical opaqueness of matter under interesting conditions (T∼1 eV, ρ∼10 4 kg m -3 ), so only at assuming of bulk specimen uniformity one can obtain a temperature dependencies of the specific properties of matter. Changing circuit current and changing sample geometry we can avoid a development of hydromagnetic instability and decrease a nonuniform heating due to skin effect. As temperature of wire surface reaches the boiling temperature under normal pressure so part of internal energy is lost because of evaporation and surface radiation at high temperature. So one can register a surface temperature and ascribe it to the whole sample bulk. Computer simulation of wire explosion taking into account surface radiation losses was carried out. Typical phase tracks for matter were obtained in both case as in consideration of radiation losses as without it. Comparison of the results with data concerning to isobaric-expansion experiments and semi-empirical multi-phase equation of state were carried out. It was proposed uniformity criterion for investigation of thermophysical properties of liquid metal by subsecond wire explosion. (author)

  18. Areal density evolution of isolated surface perturbations at the onset of x-ray ablation Richtmyer-Meshkov growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loomis, E. N.; Batha, S. H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States); Braun, D.; Sorce, C.; Landen, O. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 95281 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Isolated defects on inertial confinement fusion ignition capsules are a concern as defects taller than a few hundred nanometers are calculated to form jets of high-Z material, which enter the main fuel. If this mixing of high-Z material is not controlled, a serious degradation in thermonuclear burn can occur. A path towards controlling the growth of defects on the outer surface of plastic capsules is currently under development, but requires accurate predictions of defect evolution driven by the early time ablative Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) effect. The chief uncertainty is the Equation of State (EOS) for polystyrene and its effect on ablative RM. We report on measurements of the growth of isolated defects made at the onset of ablative RM oscillations driven by x-ray ablation to differentiate between EOS models used in design calculations. Experiments at the OMEGA laser [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)] used on-axis area backlighting radiography and x-ray framing cameras to determine bump areal densities at discrete times. Bumps 12 and 14 {mu}m tall and 33 {mu}m FWHM were found to grow to 2 x their initial areal density by 3 ns after the start of the drive laser pulse. Shock speed measurements established target conditions resulting from the ablation process. The tabular LEOS 5310 [D. Young and E. Corey, J. Appl. Phys. 78, 3748 (1995)] model shows good agreement with measured shock speeds and bump growth whereas the QEOS model [R. More et al., Phys. Fluids 31, 3059 (1988)] over predicts shock speed and under predicts bump growth by 6x. Differences in ablative RM behavior were also found for x-ray ablation compared to laser ablation, which result in an overestimation (or non-existence) of oscillation frequency for x-ray ablation as predicted by theory.

  19. Earthquake rupture process recreated from a natural fault surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Thomas E.; Minasian, Diane L.

    2015-01-01

    What exactly happens on the rupture surface as an earthquake nucleates, spreads, and stops? We cannot observe this directly, and models depend on assumptions about physical conditions and geometry at depth. We thus measure a natural fault surface and use its 3D coordinates to construct a replica at 0.1 m resolution to obviate geometry uncertainty. We can recreate stick-slip behavior on the resulting finite element model that depends solely on observed fault geometry. We clamp the fault together and apply steady state tectonic stress until seismic slip initiates and terminates. Our recreated M~1 earthquake initiates at contact points where there are steep surface gradients because infinitesimal lateral displacements reduce clamping stress most efficiently there. Unclamping enables accelerating slip to spread across the surface, but the fault soon jams up because its uneven, anisotropic shape begins to juxtapose new high-relief sticking points. These contacts would ultimately need to be sheared off or strongly deformed before another similar earthquake could occur. Our model shows that an important role is played by fault-wall geometry, though we do not include effects of varying fluid pressure or exotic rheologies on the fault surfaces. We extrapolate our results to large fault systems using observed self-similarity properties, and suggest that larger ruptures might begin and end in a similar way, though the scale of geometrical variation in fault shape that can arrest a rupture necessarily scales with magnitude. In other words, fault segmentation may be a magnitude dependent phenomenon and could vary with each subsequent rupture.

  20. Improving the work function of the niobium surface of SRF cavities by plasma processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyagi, P.V.; Doleans, M.; Hannah, B.; Afanador, R.; McMahan, C.; Stewart, S.; Mammosser, J.; Howell, M.; Saunders, J.; Degraff, B.; Kim, S.-H.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An in situ plasma processing for SNS SRF cavities has been developed to remove hydrocarbons from cavity surface. • Reactive oxygen plasma is very effective to remove hydrocarbons from niobium top surface. • Reactive oxygen plasma processing increases the work function of niobium surface in the range of 0.5–1.0 eV. • It was observed that hydrocarbons can migrate at plasma cleaned top surface from near surface regions when waiting in vacuum at room temperature. • Multiple cycles of plasma processing with waiting periods in between was found beneficial to mitigate such hydrocarbons migration at plasma cleaned surface. - Abstract: An in situ plasma processing technique using chemically reactive oxygen plasma to remove hydrocarbons from superconducting radio frequency cavity surfaces at room temperature has been developed at the spallation neutron source, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. To understand better the interaction between the plasma and niobium surface, surface studies on small samples were performed. In this article, we report the results from those surface studies. The results show that plasma processing removes hydrocarbons from top surface and improves the surface work function by 0.5–1.0 eV. Improving the work function of RF surface of cavities can help to improve their operational performance.

  1. Surface enhancement of cold work tool steels by friction stir processing with a pinless tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, M. I.; Verdera, D.; Vieira, M. T.; Rodrigues, D. M.

    2014-03-01

    The microstructure and mechanical properties of enhanced tool steel (AISI D2) surfaces produced using a friction stir welding (FSW) related procedure, called friction stir processing (FSP), are analysed in this work. The surface of the tool steel samples was processed using a WC-Co pinless tool and varying processing conditions. Microstructural analysis revealed that meanwhile the original substrate structure consisted of a heterogeneous distribution of coarse carbides in a ferritic matrix, the transformed surfaces consisted of very small carbides, homogenously distributed in a ferrite- bainite- martensite matrix. The morphology of the surfaces, as well as its mechanical properties, evaluated by hardness and tensile testing, were found to vary with increasing tool rotation speed. Surface hardness was drastically increased, relative to the initial hardness of bulk steel. This was attributed to ferrite and carbide refinement, as well as to martensite formation during solid state processing. At the highest rotation rates, tool sliding during processing deeply compromised the characteristics of the processed surfaces.

  2. Influence of growth conditions and surface reaction byproducts on GaN grown via metal organic molecular beam epitaxy: Toward an understanding of surface reaction chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchett, David; Henderson, Walter; Burnham, Shawn D.; Doolittle, W. Alan

    2006-04-01

    The surface reaction byproducts during the growth of GaN films via metal organic molecular beam epitaxy (MOMBE) were investigated as a means to optimize material properties. Ethylene and ethane were identified as the dominant surface reaction hydrocarbon byproducts, averaging 27.63% and 7.15% of the total gas content present during growth. Intense ultraviolet (UV) photoexcitation during growth was found to significantly increase the abundance of ethylene and ethane while reducing the presence of H2 and N2. At 920°C, UV excitation was shown to enhance growth rate and crystalline quality while reducing carbon incorporation. Over a limited growth condition range, a 4.5×1019-3.4×1020 cm-3 variation in carbon incorporation was achieved at constant high vacuum. Coupled with growth rate gains, UV excitation yielded films with ˜58% less integrated carbon content. Structural material property variations are reported for various ammonia flows and growth temperatures. The results suggest that high carbon incorporation can be achieved and regulated during MOMBE growth and that in-situ optimization through hydrocarbon analysis may provide further enhancement in the allowable carbon concentration range.

  3. Early stage oxynitridation process of Si(001) surface by NO gas: Reactive molecular dynamics simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Haining; Kim, Seungchul; Lee, Kwang-Ryeol; Srivastava, Pooja; Choi, Keunsu

    2016-01-01

    Initial stage of oxynitridation process of Si substrate is of crucial importance in fabricating the ultrathin gate dielectric layer of high quality in advanced MOSFET devices. The oxynitridation reaction on a relaxed Si(001) surface is investigated via reactive molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. A total of 1120 events of a single nitric oxide (NO) molecule reaction at temperatures ranging from 300 to 1000 K are statistically analyzed. The observed reaction kinetics are consistent with the previous experimental or calculation results, which show the viability of the reactive MD technique to study the NO dissociation reaction on Si. We suggest the reaction pathway for NO dissociation that is characterized by the inter-dimer bridge of a NO molecule as the intermediate state prior to NO dissociation. Although the energy of the inter-dimer bridge is higher than that of the intra-dimer one, our suggestion is supported by the ab initio nudged elastic band calculations showing that the energy barrier for the inter-dimer bridge formation is much lower. The growth mechanism of an ultrathin Si oxynitride layer is also investigated via consecutive NO reactions simulation. The simulation reveals the mechanism of self-limiting reaction at low temperature and the time evolution of the depth profile of N and O atoms depending on the process temperature, which would guide to optimize the oxynitridation process condition.

  4. Early stage oxynitridation process of Si(001) surface by NO gas: Reactive molecular dynamics simulation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Haining; Kim, Seungchul; Lee, Kwang-Ryeol, E-mail: krlee@kist.re.kr [Computational Science Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, 5, Hwarangno 14-gil, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 02792 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nanomaterial Science and Technology, Korea University of Science and Technology, 217 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34113 (Korea, Republic of); Srivastava, Pooja; Choi, Keunsu [Computational Science Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, 5, Hwarangno 14-gil, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 02792 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-28

    Initial stage of oxynitridation process of Si substrate is of crucial importance in fabricating the ultrathin gate dielectric layer of high quality in advanced MOSFET devices. The oxynitridation reaction on a relaxed Si(001) surface is investigated via reactive molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. A total of 1120 events of a single nitric oxide (NO) molecule reaction at temperatures ranging from 300 to 1000 K are statistically analyzed. The observed reaction kinetics are consistent with the previous experimental or calculation results, which show the viability of the reactive MD technique to study the NO dissociation reaction on Si. We suggest the reaction pathway for NO dissociation that is characterized by the inter-dimer bridge of a NO molecule as the intermediate state prior to NO dissociation. Although the energy of the inter-dimer bridge is higher than that of the intra-dimer one, our suggestion is supported by the ab initio nudged elastic band calculations showing that the energy barrier for the inter-dimer bridge formation is much lower. The growth mechanism of an ultrathin Si oxynitride layer is also investigated via consecutive NO reactions simulation. The simulation reveals the mechanism of self-limiting reaction at low temperature and the time evolution of the depth profile of N and O atoms depending on the process temperature, which would guide to optimize the oxynitridation process condition.

  5. Laser surface processing with controlled nitrogen-argon concentration levels for regulated surface life time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeidi, M. Ahmed; McCarthy, E.; Brabazon, D.

    2018-03-01

    Laser surface modification can be used to enhance the mechanical properties of a material, such as hardness, toughness, fatigue strength, and corrosion resistance. Surface nitriding is a widely used thermochemical method of surface modification, in which nitrogen is introduced into a metal or other material at an elevated temperature within a furnace. It is used on parts where there is a need for increased wear resistance, corrosion resistance, fatigue life, and hardness. Laser nitriding is a novel method of nitriding where the surface is heated locally by a laser, either in an atmosphere of nitrogen or with a jet of nitrogen delivered to the laser heated site. It combines the benefits of laser modification with those of nitriding. Recent work on high toughness tool steel samples has shown promising results due to the increased nitrogen gas impingement onto the laser heated region. Increased surface activity and nitrogen adsorption was achieved which resulted in a deeper and harder surface compared to conventional hardening methods. In this work, the effects of the laser power, pulse repetition frequency, and overlap percentage on laser surface treatment of 316 L SST steel samples with an argon-nitrogen jet will be presented. Resulting microstructure, phase type, microhardness, and wear resistance are presented.

  6. Surface modification of the metal plates using continuous electron beam process (CEBP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jisoo; Kim, Jin-Seok; Kang, Eun-Goo; Park, Hyung Wook

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We performed surface modification of SM20C, SUS303, and Al6061 using CEBP. • We analyzed surface properties and microstructure after electron-beam irradiation. • The surface quality was improved after electron-beam irradiation. • The surface hardness for SM20C was increased by ∼50% after CEBP irradiation. - Abstract: The finishing process is an important component of the quality-control procedure for final products in manufacturing applications. In this study, we evaluated the performance of continuous electron-beam process as the final process for finishing SM20C (steel alloy), SUS303 (stainless steel alloy), and Al6061 (aluminum alloy) surfaces both on the initially smooth and rough surfaces. Surface modification of the metals was carried out by varying the feed and frequency of the continuous electron-beam irradiation procedure. The resulting surface roughness was examined with respect to the initial surface roughness of the metals. SM20C and SUS303 experienced an improvement in surface roughness, particularly for initially rough surfaces. Continuous electron-beam process produced craters during the process and the effect of this phenomenon on the resulting surface roughness was relatively large with the initially smooth SM20C and SUS303 alloy surfaces. For Al6061, the continuous electron-beam process was effective at improving its surface roughness even with the initially smooth surface under the optimized conditions of process; this was attributed to its low melting point. Scanning electron microscopy was used to identify metallurgical variation within the thin melted and re-solidification layers of the tested alloys. Changes in the surface contact angle and hardness before and after electron-beam irradiation were also examined

  7. Surface modification of the metal plates using continuous electron beam process (CEBP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jisoo, E-mail: kimjisu16@unist.ac.kr [School of Mechanical and Advanced Materials Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, UNIST-gil 50, Eonyang-eup, Ulju-gun, Ulsan Metropolitan City 689-798 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin-Seok, E-mail: totoro22@kitech.re.kr [Korea Institute of Industrial Technology (KITECH), KITECH Cheonan Headquarters 35-3 Hongcheon-ri, Ipjang-myeon, Cheonan-si, Chungcheongnam-do 330-825 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Eun-Goo, E-mail: egkang@kitech.re.kr [Korea Institute of Industrial Technology (KITECH), KITECH Cheonan Headquarters 35-3 Hongcheon-ri, Ipjang-myeon, Cheonan-si, Chungcheongnam-do 330-825 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hyung Wook, E-mail: hwpark@unist.ac.kr [School of Mechanical and Advanced Materials Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, UNIST-gil 50, Eonyang-eup, Ulju-gun, Ulsan Metropolitan City 689-798 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-30

    Highlights: • We performed surface modification of SM20C, SUS303, and Al6061 using CEBP. • We analyzed surface properties and microstructure after electron-beam irradiation. • The surface quality was improved after electron-beam irradiation. • The surface hardness for SM20C was increased by ∼50% after CEBP irradiation. - Abstract: The finishing process is an important component of the quality-control procedure for final products in manufacturing applications. In this study, we evaluated the performance of continuous electron-beam process as the final process for finishing SM20C (steel alloy), SUS303 (stainless steel alloy), and Al6061 (aluminum alloy) surfaces both on the initially smooth and rough surfaces. Surface modification of the metals was carried out by varying the feed and frequency of the continuous electron-beam irradiation procedure. The resulting surface roughness was examined with respect to the initial surface roughness of the metals. SM20C and SUS303 experienced an improvement in surface roughness, particularly for initially rough surfaces. Continuous electron-beam process produced craters during the process and the effect of this phenomenon on the resulting surface roughness was relatively large with the initially smooth SM20C and SUS303 alloy surfaces. For Al6061, the continuous electron-beam process was effective at improving its surface roughness even with the initially smooth surface under the optimized conditions of process; this was attributed to its low melting point. Scanning electron microscopy was used to identify metallurgical variation within the thin melted and re-solidification layers of the tested alloys. Changes in the surface contact angle and hardness before and after electron-beam irradiation were also examined.

  8. Wet-cleaning of MgO(001): Modification of surface chemistry and effects on thin film growth investigated by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Le Febvrier, Arnaud; Jensen, Jens; Eklund, Per

    2017-01-01

    The effect of the wet-cleaning process using solvents and detergent on the surface chemistry of MgO(001) substrate for film deposition was investigated. Six different wet-cleaning processes using solvent and detergent were compared. The effect on film growth was studied by the example system ScN. The surface chemistry of the cleaned surface was studied by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and the film/substrate interface after film growth was investigated by time-of-flight secondary ion mass s...

  9. Effect of Surface Diffusion on Transfer Processes in Heterogeneous Systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Levdansky, V.V.; Smolík, Jiří; Moravec, Pavel

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 51, 9-10 (2008), s. 2471-2481 ISSN 0017-9310 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/05/2214; GA ČR(CZ) GA101/05/2524; GA ČR GA104/07/1093 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : adsorption * gas flow * surface diffusion Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.894, year: 2008

  10. Prospects of DLC coating as environment friendly surface treatment process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S W; Kim, S G

    2011-06-01

    After first commercialization in 90's, the applications of diamond-like carbon (DLC) have been significantly expanded to tool, automobile parts, machineries and moulds to enhance wear and friction properties. Although DLC has many advantages like high hardness, low friction electrical insulating and chemical stability and has the possible market, its application in the field is still very limited due to the gaps of understanding between end-user and developer of its advantage of costing. Recently, one of the most popular issues in the surface modification is providing the long lasting super-hydrophilic or -hydrophobic properties on the material surface for the outdoor usage. A lot of material loss is caused due to water corrosion which has to do with the flow and contacts of water like fuel cell separator and air conditioner parts. The consequence of development of functional surface based on the hydrophilic or hydrophobic design for the important parts would be really helpful for materials to be cleaner and more energy effective. Here, we first reviewed the DLC technology and then examined the kind of surface modification as well as its merits and disadvantage. We also looked at how we can improve super-hydrophilic and super hydrophobic for the DLC coating layer as well as current status of technology and arts of DLC. In the end, we would like to suggest it as one of the environmental friendly industrial technology. Copyright © 2011 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Multiseeding with (100)/(100) Grain Junctions in Top Seeded Melt Growth Processed YBCO Superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, C.J.; Gee, Y.A.; Hong, G.W. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea); Kim, H.J.; Joo, J.H. [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea); Han, S.C.; Han, Y.H.; Sung, T.H.; Kim, S.J. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    2000-06-01

    Multiseeding with (100)/(100) grain junctions of top-seeded melt growth (TSMG) processed YBCO superconductors was studied. Multiple seeding shortened the processing time for the fabrication of TSMG-processed YBCO superconductors. The relationship among the number of seeds, the levitation forces and the trapped magnetic fields of the TSMG-processed YBCO samples is reported. The characteristic of the (100)/(100) grain junction is discussed in terms of a wetting angle of a melt. (author). 25 refs., 7 figs.

  12. An SU-8-based microprobe with a nanostructured surface enhances neuronal cell attachment and growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunhee; Kim, Jin-Young; Choi, Hongsoo

    2017-12-01

    Microprobes are used to repair neuronal injury by recording electrical signals from neuronal cells around the surface of the device. Following implantation into the brain, the immune response results in formation of scar tissue around the microprobe. However, neurons must be in close proximity to the microprobe to enable signal recording. A common reason for failure of microprobes is impaired signal recording due to scar tissue, which is not related to the microprobe itself. Therefore, the device-cell interface must be improved to increase the number of neurons in contact with the surface. In this study, we developed nanostructured SU-8 microprobes to support neuronal growth. Nanostructures of 200 nm diameter and depth were applied to the surface of microprobes, and the attachment and neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells on the microprobes were evaluated. Neuronal attachment and neurite outgrowth on the nanostructured microprobes were significantly greater than those on non-nanostructured microprobes. The enhanced neuronal attachment and neurite outgrowth on the nanostructured microprobes occurred in the absence of an adhesive coating, such as poly- l-lysine, and so may be useful for implantable devices for long-term use. Therefore, nanostructured microprobes can be implanted without adhesive coating, which can cause problems in vivo over the long term.

  13. Surface modification of PLGA nanoparticles to deliver nitric oxide to inhibit Escherichia coli growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reger, Nina A. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, PA 15282 (United States); Meng, Wilson S. [Division of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, PA 15282 (United States); Gawalt, Ellen S., E-mail: gawalte@duq.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, PA 15282 (United States); McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15219 (United States)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Thin film functionalized PLGA nanoparticles were modified to release nitric oxide from an s-nitrosothiol donor. • The nitric oxide modified nanoparticles were bacteriostatic against Escherichia coli. • The nitric oxide modified nanoparticles increased the effectiveness of tetracycline against Escherichia coli. • The modified nitric oxide nanoparticles did not exhibit cytotoxic effects against fibroblasts. - Abstract: Polymer nanoparticles consisting of poly (DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) were surface functionalized to deliver nitric oxide. These biodegradable and biocompatible nanoparticles were modified with an S-nitrosothiol molecule, S-nitrosocysteamine, as the nitric oxide delivery molecule. S-nitrosocysteamine was covalently immobilized on the nanoparticle surface using small organic molecule linkers and carbodiimide coupling. Nanoparticle size, zeta potential, and morphology were determined using dynamic light scattering and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. Subsequent attachment of the S-nitrosothiol resulted in a nitric oxide release of 37.1 ± 1.1 nmol per milligram of nanoparticles under physiological conditions. This low concentration of nitric oxide reduced Escherichia coli culture growth by 31.8%, indicating that the nitric oxide donor was effective at releasing nitric oxide even after attachment to the nanoparticle surface. Combining the nitric oxide modified nanoparticles with tetracycline, a commonly prescribed antibiotic for E. coli infections, increased the effectiveness of the antibiotic by 87.8%, which allows for lower doses of antibiotics to be used in order to achieve the same effect. The functionalized nanoparticles were not cytotoxic to mouse fibroblasts.

  14. Surface modification of PLGA nanoparticles to deliver nitric oxide to inhibit Escherichia coli growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reger, Nina A.; Meng, Wilson S.; Gawalt, Ellen S.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Thin film functionalized PLGA nanoparticles were modified to release nitric oxide from an s-nitrosothiol donor. • The nitric oxide modified nanoparticles were bacteriostatic against Escherichia coli. • The nitric oxide modified nanoparticles increased the effectiveness of tetracycline against Escherichia coli. • The modified nitric oxide nanoparticles did not exhibit cytotoxic effects against fibroblasts. - Abstract: Polymer nanoparticles consisting of poly (DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) were surface functionalized to deliver nitric oxide. These biodegradable and biocompatible nanoparticles were modified with an S-nitrosothiol molecule, S-nitrosocysteamine, as the nitric oxide delivery molecule. S-nitrosocysteamine was covalently immobilized on the nanoparticle surface using small organic molecule linkers and carbodiimide coupling. Nanoparticle size, zeta potential, and morphology were determined using dynamic light scattering and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. Subsequent attachment of the S-nitrosothiol resulted in a nitric oxide release of 37.1 ± 1.1 nmol per milligram of nanoparticles under physiological conditions. This low concentration of nitric oxide reduced Escherichia coli culture growth by 31.8%, indicating that the nitric oxide donor was effective at releasing nitric oxide even after attachment to the nanoparticle surface. Combining the nitric oxide modified nanoparticles with tetracycline, a commonly prescribed antibiotic for E. coli infections, increased the effectiveness of the antibiotic by 87.8%, which allows for lower doses of antibiotics to be used in order to achieve the same effect. The functionalized nanoparticles were not cytotoxic to mouse fibroblasts.

  15. On fatigue crack growth mechanisms of MMC: Reflection on analysis of 'multi surface initiations'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mkaddem, A.; El Mansori, M.

    2009-01-01

    This work attempts to examine the mechanisms of fatigue when cracks synergetically initiate in more than one site at the specimen surface. The metal matrix composites (MMC) i.e. silicon carbide particles reinforced aluminium matrix composites (Al/SiC p -MMC), seem to be good candidates to accelerate fatigue failures following multi surface initiations (MSI). Closure effects of MSI mechanisms on the variation of fatigue behaviour are explored for various stress states. Experiments were carried out using non pre-treated and pre-treated specimens. Using an Equivalent Ellipse Method (EEM), it is shown that the aspect of surface finish of specimen plays an important role on crack growth. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) inspections have lead to distinguishing the initiation regions from propagation regions and final separation regions. It is also revealed that the total lifetime of specimens is sensitive to heat treatment. Moreover, it is found that the appearance of MSI in cycled materials is more probable at high level of fatigue loads.

  16. A kinetic Monte Carlo simulation method of van der Waals epitaxy for atomistic nucleation-growth processes of transition metal dichalcogenides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Yifan; Liang, Chaoping; Cha, Pil-Ryung; Colombo, Luigi; Wallace, Robert M; Cho, Kyeongjae

    2017-06-07

    Controlled growth of crystalline solids is critical for device applications, and atomistic modeling methods have been developed for bulk crystalline solids. Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulation method provides detailed atomic scale processes during a solid growth over realistic time scales, but its application to the growth modeling of van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures has not yet been developed. Specifically, the growth of single-layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) is currently facing tremendous challenges, and a detailed understanding based on KMC simulations would provide critical guidance to enable controlled growth of vdW heterostructures. In this work, a KMC simulation method is developed for the growth modeling on the vdW epitaxy of TMDs. The KMC method has introduced full material parameters for TMDs in bottom-up synthesis: metal and chalcogen adsorption/desorption/diffusion on substrate and grown TMD surface, TMD stacking sequence, chalcogen/metal ratio, flake edge diffusion and vacancy diffusion. The KMC processes result in multiple kinetic behaviors associated with various growth behaviors observed in experiments. Different phenomena observed during vdW epitaxy process are analysed in terms of complex competitions among multiple kinetic processes. The KMC method is used in the investigation and prediction of growth mechanisms, which provide qualitative suggestions to guide experimental study.

  17. Nanostructured surface processing by an intense pulsed ion beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yatsuzuka, M.; Masuda, T.; Yamasaki, T.; Uchida, H.; Nobuhara, S.; Hashimoto, Y.; Yoshihara, Y.

    1997-01-01

    Metal surface modification by irradiating an intense pulsed ion beam (IPIB) with short pulse width has been studied experimentally. An IPIB irradiation to a target leads to rapid heating above its melting point. After the beam is turned off, the heated region is immediately cooled by thermal conduction at a cooling rate of typically 10 10 K/s. This rapid cooling and resolidification results in generation of nanostructured phase in the top of surface. The typical hydrogen IPIB parameters are 200 kV of energy, 500 A/cm 2 of current density and 70 ns of pulsewidth. The IPIB was irradiated on a pure titanium to generate nanocrystalline phase. The IPIB-irradiated surface was examined with X-ray diffraction, SEM, and HR-TEM. The randomly oriented lattice fringes as well as a halo diffraction pattern are observed in the HR-TEM micrograph of IPIB-irradiated titanium. The average grain size is found to be 32 nanometers

  18. Free energy surfaces from nonequilibrium processes without work measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adib, Artur B.

    2006-04-01

    Recent developments in statistical mechanics have allowed the estimation of equilibrium free energies from the statistics of work measurements during processes that drive the system out of equilibrium. Here a different class of processes is considered, wherein the system is prepared and released from a nonequilibrium state, and no external work is involved during its observation. For such "clamp-and-release" processes, a simple strategy for the estimation of equilibrium free energies is offered. The method is illustrated with numerical simulations and analyzed in the context of tethered single-molecule experiments.

  19. Big-data reflection high energy electron diffraction analysis for understanding epitaxial film growth processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudevan, Rama K; Tselev, Alexander; Baddorf, Arthur P; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2014-10-28

    Reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) has by now become a standard tool for in situ monitoring of film growth by pulsed laser deposition and molecular beam epitaxy. Yet despite the widespread adoption and wealth of information in RHEED images, most applications are limited to observing intensity oscillations of the specular spot, and much additional information on growth is discarded. With ease of data acquisition and increased computation speeds, statistical methods to rapidly mine the data set are now feasible. Here, we develop such an approach to the analysis of the fundamental growth processes through multivariate statistical analysis of a RHEED image sequence. This approach is illustrated for growth of La(x)Ca(1-x)MnO(3) films grown on etched (001) SrTiO(3) substrates, but is universal. The multivariate methods including principal component analysis and k-means clustering provide insight into the relevant behaviors, the timing and nature of a disordered to ordered growth change, and highlight statistically significant patterns. Fourier analysis yields the harmonic components of the signal and allows separation of the relevant components and baselines, isolating the asymmetric nature of the step density function and the transmission spots from the imperfect layer-by-layer (LBL) growth. These studies show the promise of big data approaches to obtaining more insight into film properties during and after epitaxial film growth. Furthermore, these studies open the pathway to use forward prediction methods to potentially allow significantly more control over growth process and hence final film quality.

  20. Correlation between Fatigue Crack Growth Behavior and Fracture Surface Roughness on Cold-Rolled Austenitic Stainless Steels in Gaseous Hydrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-Cheng Chen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Austenitic stainless steels are often considered candidate materials for use in hydrogen-containing environments because of their low hydrogen embrittlement susceptibility. In this study, the fatigue crack growth behavior of the solution-annealed and cold-rolled 301, 304L, and 310S austenitic stainless steels was characterized in 0.2 MPa gaseous hydrogen to evaluate the hydrogen-assisted fatigue crack growth and correlate the fatigue crack growth rates with the fracture feature or fracture surface roughness. Regardless of the testing conditions, higher fracture surface roughness could be obtained in a higher stress intensity factor (∆K range and for the counterpart cold-rolled specimen in hydrogen. The accelerated fatigue crack growth of 301 and 304L in hydrogen was accompanied by high fracture surface roughness and was associated with strain-induced martensitic transformation in the plastic zone ahead of the fatigue crack tip.

  1. Facile preparation of self-healing superhydrophobic CeO2 surface by electrochemical processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Katsutoshi; Hiraga, Takuya; Zhu, Chunyu; Tsuji, Etsushi; Aoki, Yoshitaka; Habazaki, Hiroki

    2017-11-01

    Herein we report simple electrochemical processes to fabricate a self-healing superhydrophobic CeO2 coating on Type 304 stainless steel. The CeO2 surface anodically deposited on flat stainless steel surface is hydrophilic, although high temperature-sintered and sputter-deposited CeO2 surface was reported to be hydrophobic. The anodically deposited hydrophilic CeO2 surface is transformed to hydrophobic during air exposure. Specific accumulation of contaminant hydrocarbon on the CeO2 surface is responsible for the transformation to hydrophobic state. The deposition of CeO2 on hierarchically rough stainless steel surface produces superhydrophobic CeO2 surface, which also shows self-healing ability; the surface changes to superhydrophilic after oxygen plasma treatment but superhydrophobic state is recovered repeatedly by air exposure. This work provides a facile method for preparing a self-healing superhydrophobic surface using practical electrochemical processes.

  2. Parametric Investigation of the Isothermal Kinetics of Growth of Graphene on a Nickel Catalyst in the Process of Chemical Vapor Deposition of Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futko, S. I.; Shulitskii, B. G.; Labunov, V. A.; Ermolaeva, E. M.

    2016-11-01

    A kinetic model of isothermal synthesis of multilayer graphene on the surface of a nickel foil in the process of chemical vapor deposition, on it, of hydrocarbons supplied in the pulsed regime is considered. The dependences of the number of graphene layers formed and the time of their growth on the temperature of the process, the concentration of acetylene, and the thickness of the nickel foil were calculated. The regime parameters of the process of chemical vapor deposition, at which single-layer graphene and bi-layer graphene are formed, were determined. The dynamics of growth of graphene domains at chemical-vapor-deposition parameters changing in wide ranges was investigated. It is shown that the time dependences of the rates of growth of single-layer graphene and bi-layer graphene are nonlinear in character and that they are determined by the kinetics of nucleation and growth of graphene and the diffusion flow of carbon atoms in the nickel foil.

  3. Surface Distresses Detection of Pavement Based on Digital Image Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Ouyang , Aiguo; Luo , Chagen; Zhou , Chao

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Pavement crack is the main form of early diseases of pavement. The use of digital photography to record pavement images and subsequent crack detection and classification has undergone continuous improvements over the past decade. Digital image processing has been applied to detect the pavement crack for its advantages of large amount of information and automatic detection. The applications of digital image processing in pavement crack detection, distresses classificati...

  4. Improvement in Surface Characterisitcs of Polymers for Subsequent Electroless Plating Using Liquid Assisted Laser Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marla, Deepak; Zhang, Yang; Jabbaribehnam, Mirmasoud

    2016-01-01

    Metallization of polymers is a widely used process in the electronic industry that involves their surface modification as a pre-treatment step. Laser-based surface modification is one of the commonly used techniques for polymers due to its speed and precision. The process involves laser heating...... of the polymer surface to generate a rough or porous surface. Laser processing in liquid generates superior surface characteristics that result in better metal deposition. In this study, a comparison of the surface characteristics obtained by laser processing in water vis-à-vis air along with the deposition...... characteristics are presented. In addition, a numerical model based on the finite volume method is developed to predict the temperature profile during the process. Based on the model results, it is hypothesized that physical phenomena such as vapor bubble generation and plasma formation may occur in the presence...

  5. Simple processing of back-contacted silicon heterojunction solar cells using selective-area crystalline growth

    KAUST Repository

    Tomasi, Andrea; Paviet-Salomon, Bertrand; Jeangros, Quentin; Haschke, Jan; Christmann, Gabriel; Barraud, Loris; Descoeudres, Antoine; Seif, Johannes Peter; Nicolay, Sylvain; Despeisse, Matthieu; De Wolf, Stefaan; Ballif, Christophe

    2017-01-01

    For crystalline-silicon solar cells, voltages close to the theoretical limit are nowadays readily achievable when using passivating contacts. Conversely, maximal current generation requires the integration of the electron and hole contacts at the back of the solar cell to liberate its front from any shadowing loss. Recently, the world-record efficiency for crystalline-silicon single-junction solar cells was achieved by merging these two approaches in a single device; however, the complexity of fabricating this class of devices raises concerns about their commercial potential. Here we show a contacting method that substantially simplifies the architecture and fabrication of back-contacted silicon solar cells. We exploit the surface-dependent growth of silicon thin films, deposited by plasma processes, to eliminate the patterning of one of the doped carrier-collecting layers. Then, using only one alignment step for electrode definition, we fabricate a proof-of-concept 9-cm2 tunnel-interdigitated back-contact solar cell with a certified conversion efficiency >22.5%.

  6. Correlation between substrate bias, growth process and structural properties of phosphorus incorporated tetrahedral amorphous carbon films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Aiping; Zhu Jiaqi; Han Jiecai; Wu Huaping; Jia Zechun

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the growth process and structural properties of phosphorus incorporated tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C:P) films which are deposited at different substrate biases by filtered cathodic vacuum arc technique with PH 3 as the dopant source. The films are characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, residual stress measurement, UV/VIS/NIR absorption spectroscopy and temperature-dependent conductivity measurement. The atomic fraction of phosphorus in the films as a function of substrate bias is obtained by XPS analysis. The optimum bias for phosphorus incorporation is about -80 V. Raman spectra show that the amorphous structures of all samples with atomic-scaled smooth surface are not remarkably changed when PH 3 is implanted, but some small graphitic crystallites are formed. Moreover, phosphorus impurities and higher-energetic impinging ions are favorable for the clustering of sp 2 sites dispersed in sp 3 skeleton and increase the level of structural ordering for ta-C:P films, which further releases the compressive stress and enhances the conductivity of the films. Our analysis establishes an interrelationship between microstructure, stress state, electrical properties, and substrate bias, which helps to understand the deposition mechanism of ta-C:P films

  7. Simple processing of back-contacted silicon heterojunction solar cells using selective-area crystalline growth

    KAUST Repository

    Tomasi, Andrea

    2017-04-24

    For crystalline-silicon solar cells, voltages close to the theoretical limit are nowadays readily achievable when using passivating contacts. Conversely, maximal current generation requires the integration of the electron and hole contacts at the back of the solar cell to liberate its front from any shadowing loss. Recently, the world-record efficiency for crystalline-silicon single-junction solar cells was achieved by merging these two approaches in a single device; however, the complexity of fabricating this class of devices raises concerns about their commercial potential. Here we show a contacting method that substantially simplifies the architecture and fabrication of back-contacted silicon solar cells. We exploit the surface-dependent growth of silicon thin films, deposited by plasma processes, to eliminate the patterning of one of the doped carrier-collecting layers. Then, using only one alignment step for electrode definition, we fabricate a proof-of-concept 9-cm2 tunnel-interdigitated back-contact solar cell with a certified conversion efficiency >22.5%.

  8. Stochastic Modeling and Deterministic Limit of Catalytic Surface Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starke, Jens; Reichert, Christian; Eiswirth, Markus

    2007-01-01

    Three levels of modeling, microscopic, mesoscopic and macroscopic are discussed for the CO oxidation on low-index platinum single crystal surfaces. The introduced models on the microscopic and mesoscopic level are stochastic while the model on the macroscopic level is deterministic. It can......, such that in contrast to the microscopic model the spatial resolution is reduced. The derivation of deterministic limit equations is in correspondence with the successful description of experiments under low-pressure conditions by deterministic reaction-diffusion equations while for intermediate pressures phenomena...

  9. Statistical and signal-processing concepts in surface metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Church, E.L.; Takacs, P.Z.

    1986-03-01

    This paper proposes the use of a simple two-scale model of surface roughness for testing and specifying the topographic figure and finish of synchrotron-radiation mirrors. In this approach the effects of figure and finish are described in terms of their slope distribution and power spectrum, respectively, which are then combined with the system point spread function to produce a composite image. The result can be used to predict mirror performance or to translate design requirements into manufacturing specifications. Pacing problems in this approach are the development of a practical long-trace slope-profiling instrument and realistic statistical models for figure and finish errors

  10. Statistical and signal-processing concepts in surface metrology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Church, E.L.; Takacs, P.Z.

    1986-03-01

    This paper proposes the use of a simple two-scale model of surface roughness for testing and specifying the topographic figure and finish of synchrotron-radiation mirrors. In this approach the effects of figure and finish are described in terms of their slope distribution and power spectrum, respectively, which are then combined with the system point spread function to produce a composite image. The result can be used to predict mirror performance or to translate design requirements into manufacturing specifications. Pacing problems in this approach are the development of a practical long-trace slope-profiling instrument and realistic statistical models for figure and finish errors.

  11. Time delay and noise explaining the behaviour of the cell growth in fermentation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayuobi, Tawfiqullah; Rosli, Norhayati; Bahar, Arifah; Salleh, Madihah Md

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes to investigate the interplay between time delay and external noise in explaining the behaviour of the microbial growth in batch fermentation process. Time delay and noise are modelled jointly via stochastic delay differential equations (SDDEs). The typical behaviour of cell concentration in batch fermentation process under this model is investigated. Milstein scheme is applied for solving this model numerically. Simulation results illustrate the effects of time delay and external noise in explaining the lag and stationary phases, respectively for the cell growth of fermentation process

  12. Time delay and noise explaining the behaviour of the cell growth in fermentation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayuobi, Tawfiqullah; Rosli, Norhayati; Bahar, Arifah; Salleh, Madihah Md

    2015-02-01

    This paper proposes to investigate the interplay between time delay and external noise in explaining the behaviour of the microbial growth in batch fermentation process. Time delay and noise are modelled jointly via stochastic delay differential equations (SDDEs). The typical behaviour of cell concentration in batch fermentation process under this model is investigated. Milstein scheme is applied for solving this model numerically. Simulation results illustrate the effects of time delay and external noise in explaining the lag and stationary phases, respectively for the cell growth of fermentation process.

  13. Time delay and noise explaining the behaviour of the cell growth in fermentation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayuobi, Tawfiqullah; Rosli, Norhayati [Faculty of Industrial Sciences and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Lebuhraya Tun Razak, 26300 Gambang, Pahang (Malaysia); Bahar, Arifah [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Salleh, Madihah Md [Department of Biotechnology Industry, Faculty of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia)

    2015-02-03

    This paper proposes to investigate the interplay between time delay and external noise in explaining the behaviour of the microbial growth in batch fermentation process. Time delay and noise are modelled jointly via stochastic delay differential equations (SDDEs). The typical behaviour of cell concentration in batch fermentation process under this model is investigated. Milstein scheme is applied for solving this model numerically. Simulation results illustrate the effects of time delay and external noise in explaining the lag and stationary phases, respectively for the cell growth of fermentation process.

  14. Coexistence and competition of surface diffusion and geometric shielding in the growth of 1D bismuth nanostructures and their ohmic contact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Ye; Jiang, Lianjun; Zhang, Xuejun; Deng, Yangbao; Deng, Shuguang

    2014-01-01

    We study the physical-vapor-deposition of 1D bismuth nanostructures. Bi nanowire elongating along [012] and/or [110] direction as well as anisotropic Bi nano-columns are physical-vapor-deposited successfully. The coexistence and competition of surface diffusion and geometric shielding are critical to their formation as well as growth mode transition among them. Since physical-vapor-deposition is a vacuum process, we make use of it to fabricate the ohmic contact to prevent the damage to the bismuth nanostructures brought by the etching to their thick surface oxide layer. (paper)

  15. Simulation of the Dynamics of Isothermal Growth of Single-Layer Graphene on a Copper Catalyst in the Process of Chemical Vapor Deposition of Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futko, S. I.; Shulitskii, B. G.; Labunov, V. A.; Ermolaeva, E. M.

    2018-01-01

    A new kinetic model of isothermal growth of single-layer graphene on a copper catalyst as a result of the chemical vapor deposition of hydrocarbons on it at a low pressure has been developed on the basis of in situ measurements of the growth of graphene in the process of its synthesis. This model defines the synthesis of graphene with regard for the chemisorption and catalytic decomposition of ethylene on the surface of a copper catalyst, the diffusion of carbon atoms in the radial direction to the nucleation centers within the thin melted near-surface copper layer, and the nucleation and autocatalytic growth of graphene domains. It is shown that the time dependence of the rate of growth of a graphene domain has a characteristic asymmetrical bell-like shape. The dependences of the surface area and size of a graphene domain and the rate of its growth on the time at different synthesis temperatures and ethylene concentrations have been obtained. Time characteristics of the growth of graphene domains depending on the parameters of their synthesis were calculated. The results obtained can be used for determining optimum regimes of synthesis of graphene in the process of chemical vapor deposition of hydrocarbons on different catalysts with a low solubility of carbon.

  16. Influence of growth conditions on adhesion of yeast Candida spp. and Pichia spp. to stainless steel surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomičić, Ružica; Raspor, Peter

    2017-08-01

    An understanding of adhesion behavior of Candida and Pichia yeast under different environmental conditions is key to the development of effective preventive measures against biofilm-associated infection. Hence in this study we investigated the impact of growth medium and temperature on Candida and Pichia adherence using stainless steel (AISI 304) discs with different degrees of surface roughness (Ra = 25.20-961.9 nm), material typical for the food processing industry as well as medical devices. The adhesion of the yeast strains to stainless steel surfaces grown in Malt Extract broth (MEB) or YPD broth at three temperatures (7 °C, 37 °C, 43 °C for Candida strains and 7 °C, 27 °C, 32 °C for Pichia strains) was assessed by crystal violet staining. The results showed that the nutrient content of medium significantly influenced the quantity of adhered cells by the tested yeasts. Adhesion of C. albicans and C. glabrata on stainless steel surfaces were significantly higher in MEB, whereas for C. parapsilosis and C. krusei it was YPD broth. In the case with P. pijperi and P. membranifaciens, YPD broth was more effective in promoting adhesion than MEB. On the other hand, our data indicated that temperature is a very important factor which considerably affects the adhesion of these yeast. There was also significant difference in cell adhesion on all types of stainless steel surfaces for all tested yeast. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Nucleation and growth kinetics for intercalated islands during deposition on layered materials with isolated pointlike surface defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Yong; Lii-Rosales, A.; Zhou, Y.; Wang, C.-J.

    2017-01-01

    Theory and stochastic lattice-gas modeling is developed for the formation of intercalated metal islands in the gallery between the top layer and the underlying layer at the surface of layered materials. Our model for this process involves deposition of atoms, some fraction of which then enter the gallery through well-separated pointlike defects in the top layer. Subsequently, these atoms diffuse within the subsurface gallery leading to nucleation and growth of intercalated islands nearby the defect point source. For the case of a single point defect, continuum diffusion equation analysis provides insight into the nucleation kinetics. However, complementary tailored lattice-gas modeling produces a more comprehensive and quantitative characterization. We analyze the large spread in nucleation times and positions relative to the defect for the first nucleated island. We also consider the formation of subsequent islands and the evolution of island growth shapes. The shapes reflect in part our natural adoption of a hexagonal close-packed island structure. As a result, motivation and support for the model is provided by scanning tunneling microscopy observations of the formation of intercalated metal islands in highly-ordered pyrolytic graphite at higher temperatures.

  18. Gradient nanostructured surface of a Cu plate processed by incremental frictional sliding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hong, Chuanshi; Huang, Xiaoxu; Hansen, Niels

    2015-01-01

    The flat surface of a Cu plate was processed by incremental frictional sliding at liquid nitrogen temperature. The surface treatment results in a hardened gradient surface layer as thick as 1 mm in the Cu plate, which contains a nanostructured layer on the top with a boundary spacing of the order...

  19. Surface conductivity dependent dynamic behaviour of an ultrafine atmospheric pressure plasma jet for microscale surface processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abuzairi, Tomy [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan); Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Depok 16424 (Indonesia); Okada, Mitsuru [Department of Engineering, Shizuoka University, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan); Bhattacharjee, Sudeep [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208016 (India); Nagatsu, Masaaki, E-mail: nagatsu.masaaki@shizuoka.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan); Department of Engineering, Shizuoka University, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan); Research Institute of Electronics, Shizuoka University, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • Spatio-temporal behaviors of capillary APPJs are studied for various substrates. • Plasma irradiation area depended on the substrate conductivity and permittivity. • Surface irradiation area was significantly broadened in polymer-like substrate. • Effect of applying a substrate bias on the APPJ irradiation area was investigated. - Abstract: An experimental study on the dynamic behaviour of microcapillary atmospheric pressure plasma jets (APPJs) with 5 μm tip size for surfaces of different conductivity is reported. Electrical and spatio-temporal characteristics of the APPJs are monitored using high voltage probe, current monitor and high speed intensified charge couple device camera. From these experimental results, we presented a simple model to understand the electrical discharge characteristics of the capillary APPJs with double electrodes, and estimated the velocity of the ionization fronts in the jet and the electron density to be 3.5–4.2 km/s and 2–7 × 10{sup 17} m{sup −3}. By analyzing the dynamics of the microcapillary APPJs for different substrate materials, it was found that the surface irradiation area strongly depended on the substrate conductivity and permittivity, especially in the case of polymer-like substrate, surface irradiation area was significantly broadened probably due to the repelling behaviour of the plasma jets from the accumulated electrical charges on the polymer surface. The effect of applying a substrate bias in the range from −900 V to +900 V on the plasma irradiation onto the substrates was also investigated. From the knowledge of the present results, it is helpful for choosing the substrate materials for microscale surface modification.

  20. Surface conductivity dependent dynamic behaviour of an ultrafine atmospheric pressure plasma jet for microscale surface processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abuzairi, Tomy; Okada, Mitsuru; Bhattacharjee, Sudeep; Nagatsu, Masaaki

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Spatio-temporal behaviors of capillary APPJs are studied for various substrates. • Plasma irradiation area depended on the substrate conductivity and permittivity. • Surface irradiation area was significantly broadened in polymer-like substrate. • Effect of applying a substrate bias on the APPJ irradiation area was investigated. - Abstract: An experimental study on the dynamic behaviour of microcapillary atmospheric pressure plasma jets (APPJs) with 5 μm tip size for surfaces of different conductivity is reported. Electrical and spatio-temporal characteristics of the APPJs are monitored using high voltage probe, current monitor and high speed intensified charge couple device camera. From these experimental results, we presented a simple model to understand the electrical discharge characteristics of the capillary APPJs with double electrodes, and estimated the velocity of the ionization fronts in the jet and the electron density to be 3.5–4.2 km/s and 2–7 × 10"1"7 m"−"3. By analyzing the dynamics of the microcapillary APPJs for different substrate materials, it was found that the surface irradiation area strongly depended on the substrate conductivity and permittivity, especially in the case of polymer-like substrate, surface irradiation area was significantly broadened probably due to the repelling behaviour of the plasma jets from the accumulated electrical charges on the polymer surface. The effect of applying a substrate bias in the range from −900 V to +900 V on the plasma irradiation onto the substrates was also investigated. From the knowledge of the present results, it is helpful for choosing the substrate materials for microscale surface modification.

  1. A Marketing approach on how continuous processes improvement can contribute to hotel business Organic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana-Simona IVASCIUC

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Generating sustainable growth and profits is like finding a unicorn for most managers. Organic growth should be considered as an alternative for long-term growth in the hotel business. Designing the service process to deliver what customers expect from the hotel offer is a crucial component of encounter marketing. Hotels need to embrace the changes and ensure that their internal processes are aligned not just to current trends, but also to the expected future changes. Keeping up with global changes and trends of any kind, evaluating their impact on your business, continuous improving of the services using PDCA cycle, Six Sigma or Lean principles, are the keys to long-term organic growth.

  2. Surface light scattering: integrated technology and signal processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lading, L.; Dam-Hansen, C.; Rasmussen, E.

    1997-01-01

    systems representing increasing levels of integration are considered. It is demonstrated that efficient signal and data processing can be achieved by evaluation of the statistics of the derivative of the instantaneous phase of the detector signal. (C) 1997 Optical Society of America....

  3. Surface modification of hydroturbine steel using friction stir processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewal, H. S.; Arora, H. S.; Singh, H.; Agrawal, A.

    2013-03-01

    Friction stir processing (FSP) has proved to be a viable tool for enhancing the mechanical properties of materials, however, the major focus has been upon improving the bulk properties of light metals and their alloys. Hydroturbines are susceptible to damage owing to slurry and cavitation erosion. In this study, FSP of a commonly employed hydroturbine steel, 13Cr4Ni was undertaken. Microstructural characterization of the processed steel was conducted using optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron back scatter diffraction (EBSD) techniques. Mechanical characterization of the steel was undertaken in terms of microhardness and resistance to cavitation erosion (CE). FSP resulted in the refinement of the microstructure with reduction in grain size by a factor of 10. EBSD results confirmed the existence of submicron and ultrafine grained microstructure. The microhardness of the steel was found to enhance by 2.6 times after processing. The processed steel also showed 2.4 times higher resistance against cavitation erosion in comparison to unprocessed steel. The primary erosion mechanism for both the steels was identical in nature, with plastic deformation responsible for the loss of material.

  4. Surface morphology evolution in silicon during ion beam processing; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedrossian P; Caturla, M; Diaz de la Rubia, T; Johnson, M

    1999-01-01

    The Semiconductor Industry Association (SIA) projects that the semiconductor chips used in personal computers and scientific workstations will reach five times the speed and ten times the memory capacity of the current pentium-class processor by the year 2007. However, 1 GHz on-chip clock speeds and 64 Gbits/Chip DRAM technology will not come easy and without a price. Such technologies will require scaling the minimum feature size of CMOS devices (the transistors in the silicon chip) down to below 100nm from the current 180 to 250 nm. This requirement has profound implications for device manufacturing. Existing processing techniques must increasingly be understood quantitatively and modeled with unprecedented precision. Indeed, revolutionary advances in the development of physics-based process simulation tools will be required to achieve the goals for cost efficient manufacturing, and to satisfy the needs of the defense industrial base. These advances will necessitate a fundamental improvement in our basic understanding of microstructure evolution during processing. In order to cut development time and costs, the semiconductor industry makes extensive use of simple models of dopant implantation, and of phenomenological models of defect annealing and diffusion. However, the production of a single device often requires more than 200 processing steps, and the cumulative effects of the various steps are far too complex to be treated with these models. The lack of accurate process modeling simulators is proving to be a serious impediment to the development of next generation devices. New atomic-level models are required to describe the point defect distributions produced by the implantation process, and the defect and dopant diffusion resulting from rapid thermal annealing steps. In this LDRD project, we investigated the migration kinetics of defects and dopants in silicon both experimentally and theoretically to provide a fundamental database for use in the development

  5. Glial processes at the Drosophila larval neuromuscular junction match synaptic growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deidre L Brink

    Full Text Available Glia are integral participants in synaptic physiology, remodeling and maturation from blowflies to humans, yet how glial structure is coordinated with synaptic growth is unknown. To investigate the dynamics of glial development at the Drosophila larval neuromuscular junction (NMJ, we developed a live imaging system to establish the relationship between glia, neuronal boutons, and the muscle subsynaptic reticulum. Using this system we observed processes from two classes of peripheral glia present at the NMJ. Processes from the subperineurial glia formed a blood-nerve barrier around the axon proximal to the first bouton. Processes from the perineurial glial extended beyond the end of the blood-nerve barrier into the NMJ where they contacted synapses and extended across non-synaptic muscle. Growth of the glial processes was coordinated with NMJ growth and synaptic activity. Increasing synaptic size through elevated temperature or the highwire mutation increased the extent of glial processes at the NMJ and conversely blocking synaptic activity and size decreased the presence and size of glial processes. We found that elevated temperature was required during embryogenesis in order to increase glial expansion at the nmj. Therefore, in our live imaging system, glial processes at the NMJ are likely indirectly regulated by synaptic changes to ensure the coordinated growth of all components of the tripartite larval NMJ.

  6. The change of intracellular NAD level at the process of fusarium sambucinum growth and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulyamova, T.G.; Ehshtukhtarova, M.Kh.; Umarova, G.D.; Kerbalaeva, A.M.; Khalmuradov, A.G.

    1996-01-01

    Alterations of intracellular NAD(Nicotinamide-Adenine Dinucleotide) level have been studied in the process of growth and development of Fusanium sambucinum, selected earlier as a potential NAD producer. It was established that essential fluctuations of NAD concentration are dependent on growth phase, morphological cell type and DNA biosynthesis, that allowed to propose a real linkage between coenzyme pool and replicative activity of cells. (author). 7 refs., 2 figs

  7. Validation of mathematical model for CZ process using small-scale laboratory crystal growth furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergfelds, Kristaps; Sabanskis, Andrejs; Virbulis, Janis

    2018-05-01

    The present material is focused on the modelling of small-scale laboratory NaCl-RbCl crystal growth furnace. First steps towards fully transient simulations are taken in the form of stationary simulations that deal with the optimization of material properties to match the model to experimental conditions. For this purpose, simulation software primarily used for the modelling of industrial-scale silicon crystal growth process was successfully applied. Finally, transient simulations of the crystal growth are presented, giving a sufficient agreement to experimental results.

  8. Thermal Diffusion Processes in Metal-Tip-Surface Interactions: Contact Formation and Adatom Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mads Reinholdt; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel; Jonsson, Hannes

    1996-01-01

    and the surface can occur by a sequence of atomic hop and exchange processes which become active on a millisecond time scale when the tip is about 3-5 Angstrom from the surface. Adatoms on the surface are stabilized by the presence of the tip and energy barriers for diffusion processes in the region under the tip......We have carried out computer simulations to identify and characterize various thermally activated atomic scale processes that can play an important role in room temperature experiments where a metal tip is brought close to a metal surface. We find that contact formation between the tip...

  9. A high volume cost efficient production macrostructuring process. [for silicon solar cell surface treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitre, S. R.

    1978-01-01

    The paper presents an experimentally developed surface macro-structuring process suitable for high volume production of silicon solar cells. The process lends itself easily to automation for high throughput to meet low-cost solar array goals. The tetrahedron structure observed is 0.5 - 12 micron high. The surface has minimal pitting with virtually no or very few undeveloped areas across the surface. This process has been developed for (100) oriented as cut silicon. Chemi-etched, hydrophobic and lapped surfaces were successfully texturized. A cost analysis as per Samics is presented.

  10. Growth kinetics of boride coatings formed at the surface AISI M2 during dehydrated paste pack boriding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doñu Ruiz, M.A., E-mail: mdonur0800@alumno.ipn.mx [Universidad Politécnica del Valle de México UPVM, Grupo Ciencia e Ingeniería de Materiales, Av. Mexiquense S/N Esquina Av. Universidad Politécnica, Col Villa Esmeralda, 54910 Tultitlan (Mexico); López Perrusquia, N.; Sánchez Huerta, D. [Universidad Politécnica del Valle de México UPVM, Grupo Ciencia e Ingeniería de Materiales, Av. Mexiquense S/N Esquina Av. Universidad Politécnica, Col Villa Esmeralda, 54910 Tultitlan (Mexico); Torres San Miguel, C.R.; Urriolagoitia Calderón, G.M. [Instituto Politécnico Nacional, SEPI-ESIME, Unidad Profesional Adolfo López Mateos Zacatenco, Edificio 5, 2do. Piso, Col. Lindavista, CP 07738 México, D.F. (Mexico); Cerillo Moreno, E.A. [Universidad Politécnica del Valle de México UPVM, Grupo Ciencia e Ingeniería de Materiales, Av. Mexiquense S/N Esquina Av. Universidad Politécnica, Col Villa Esmeralda, 54910 Tultitlan (Mexico); Cortes Suarez, J.V. [Univerisdad Autónoma Metropolitana Unidad Azcapotzalco, Av. San Pablo 180 Azcapotzalco 02200, Área de Ciencia de los Materiales, México, D.F. (Mexico)

    2015-12-01

    The growth kinetics of the boride coatings (FeB and Fe{sub 2}B) at the surface of AISI M2 high speed steels were studied in this work. Boriding thermochemical treatment was carried out by dehydrated paste pack at three different temperatures 1173, 1223, and 1273 K and four exposure times 1, 3, 5, and 7 h, respectively. The presence of FeB and Fe{sub 2}B phases was identified by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and X-ray diffraction method. In order to obtain the boron diffusion coefficients at the FeB/Fe{sub 2}B boride coatings, a mathematical model based on the mass balance at the growing interfaces was proposed under certain assumptions. Likewise the parabolic growth constants and the boride incubation time were established as a function of the parameters η (T) and ε (T). The activation energy values estimated for the FeB and Fe{sub 2}B layers were 233.42 and 211.89 kJ mol{sup −1} respectively. A good agreement was obtained between the simulated values of boride layer thicknesses and the experimental results. Finally, empirical relationships of boride coating thickness as a function of boriding temperature and time are presented. - Highlights: • Formed boride coatings at the surface of AISI M2 high speed steels by new process dehydrated paste pack boriding. • The model was based on the mass balance equation at the FeB/Fe{sub 2}B and Fe{sub 2}B/Fe interfaces by considering the boride incubation time. • A good agreement was obtained between the simulated values of boride layers coatings and the experimental results.

  11. Tribological investigations of the applicability of surface functionalization for dry extrusion processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teller, Marco; Prünte, Stephan; Ross, Ingo; Temmler, André; Schneider, Jochen M.; Hirt, Gerhard

    2017-10-01

    Cold extrusion processes are characterized by large relative contact stresses combined with a severe surface enlargement of the workpiece. Under these process conditions a high risk for galling of workpiece material to the tool steel occurs especially in processing of aluminum and aluminum alloys. In order to reduce adhesive wear lubricants for separation of workpiece and tool surfaces are used. As a consequence additional process steps (e.g. preparation and cleaning of workpieces) are necessary. Thus, the realization of a dry forming process is aspired from an environmental and economic perspective. In this paper a surface functionalization with self-assembled-monolayers (SAM) of the tool steels AISI D2 (DIN 1.2379) and AISI H11 (DIN 1.2343) is evaluated by a process-oriented tribological test. The tribological experiment is able to resemble and scale the process conditions of cold extrusion related to relative contact stress and surface enlargement for the forming of pure aluminum (Al99.5). The effect of reduced relative contact stress, surface enlargement and relative velocity on adhesive wear and tool lifetime is evaluated. Similar process conditions are achievable by different die designs with decreased extrusion ratios and adjusted die angles. The effect of surface functionalization critically depends on the substrate material. The different microstructure and the resulting differences in surface chemistry of the two tested tool steels appear to affect the performance of the tool surface functionalization with SAM.

  12. Surface Nano Structures Manufacture Using Batch Chemical Processing Methods for Tooling Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Calaon, Matteo; Gavillet, J.

    2011-01-01

    The patterning of large surface areas with nano structures by using chemical batch processes to avoid using highenergy intensive nano machining processes was investigated. The capability of different surface treatment methods of creating micro and nano structured adaptable mould inserts for subse...

  13. Effect of the Surface Layer of Iron Casting on the Growth of Protective Coating During Hot-Dip Galvanizing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopyciński D.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of investigations of the growth of protective coating on the surface of ductile iron casting during the hot-dip galvanizing treatment. Ductile iron of the EN-GJS-600-3 grade was melted and two moulds made by different technologies were poured to obtain castings with different surface roughness parameters. After the determination of surface roughness, the hot-dip galvanizing treatment was carried out. Based on the results of investigations, the effect of casting surface roughness on the kinetics of the zinc coating growth was evaluated. It was found that surface roughness exerts an important effect on the thickness of produced zinc coating.

  14. Processing and properties of electrodeposited layered surface coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsewell, Andy

    1998-01-01

    Hard chromium, produced by conventional dir ect curl ent (DC) electrodeposition, cannot be deposited to thicknesses gl enter than about 5 mu m because of the buildup of processing stresses which cause channel cracks in the coating. Much thicker chromium coatings map be produced by depositing a la...... geometry is almost always analogous to bending, and fracture resistance is provided through deviation of the channel crack by weak interfaces, resulting in 'terrace cracking'....

  15. Recycling and surface erosion processes in contemporary tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCracken, G.M.

    1979-03-01

    A number of global models have recently had considerable success in describing recycling. These are briefly reviewed. It is shown that large gas concentrations can build up in the walls and that these concentrations are seriously affected by erosion and deposition processes and by deliberate gettering with titanium. Finally, the measurement of the concentration of hydrogen in probes is discussed as a means of measuring plasma edge characteristics

  16. Growth, viability and architecture of biofilms of Listeria monocytogenes formed on abiotic surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Barbosa dos Reis-Teixeira

    Full Text Available Abstract The pathogenic bacterium Listeria monocytogenes can persist in food processing plants for many years, even when appropriate hygienic measures are in place, with potential for contaminating ready-to-eat products and, its ability to form biofilms on abiotic surfaces certainly contributes for the environmental persistence. In this research, L. monocytogenes was grown in biofilms up 8 days attached to stainless steel and glass surfaces, contributing for advancing the knowledge on architecture of mature biofilms, since many literature studies carried out on this topic considered only early stages of cell adhesion. In this study, biofilm populations of two strains of L. monocytogenes (serotypes 1/2a and 4b on stainless steel coupons and glass were examined using regular fluorescence microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy and classic culture method. The biofilms formed were not very dense and microscopic observations revealed uneven biofilm structures, with presence of exopolymeric matrix surrounding single cells, small aggregates and microcolonies, in a honeycomb-like arrangement. Moreover, planktonic population of L. monocytogenes (present in broth media covering the abiotic surface remained stable throughout the incubation time, which indicates an efficient dispersal mechanism, since the culture medium was replaced daily. In conclusion, even if these strains of L. monocytogenes were not able to form thick multilayer biofilms, it was noticeable their high persistence on abiotic surfaces, reinforcing the need to focus on measures to avoid biofilm formation, instead of trying to eradicate mature biofilms.

  17. Growth, viability and architecture of biofilms of Listeria monocytogenes formed on abiotic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis-Teixeira, Fernanda Barbosa Dos; Alves, Virgínia Farias; de Martinis, Elaine Cristina Pereira

    The pathogenic bacterium Listeria monocytogenes can persist in food processing plants for many years, even when appropriate hygienic measures are in place, with potential for contaminating ready-to-eat products and, its ability to form biofilms on abiotic surfaces certainly contributes for the environmental persistence. In this research, L. monocytogenes was grown in biofilms up 8 days attached to stainless steel and glass surfaces, contributing for advancing the knowledge on architecture of mature biofilms, since many literature studies carried out on this topic considered only early stages of cell adhesion. In this study, biofilm populations of two strains of L. monocytogenes (serotypes 1/2a and 4b) on stainless steel coupons and glass were examined using regular fluorescence microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy and classic culture method. The biofilms formed were not very dense and microscopic observations revealed uneven biofilm structures, with presence of exopolymeric matrix surrounding single cells, small aggregates and microcolonies, in a honeycomb-like arrangement. Moreover, planktonic population of L. monocytogenes (present in broth media covering the abiotic surface) remained stable throughout the incubation time, which indicates an efficient dispersal mechanism, since the culture medium was replaced daily. In conclusion, even if these strains of L. monocytogenes were not able to form thick multilayer biofilms, it was noticeable their high persistence on abiotic surfaces, reinforcing the need to focus on measures to avoid biofilm formation, instead of trying to eradicate mature biofilms. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  18. Influence of the surface layer characteristics on the regularities of the cutting process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krainev Dmitriy V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the influence of the surface layer characteristics on the regularities of the cutting process and the formation of the quality of the surface machined. This effect has been confirmed by the study results of the combined cutting method with advanced plastic deformation (APD. The work estimates the impact of the change in the surface layer properties on the forces and temperature of cutting, stability of the chip formation and quality parameters of the surface machined.

  19. Tip-Selective Growth of Silver on Gold Nanostars for Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiqing; Liu, Jie; Niu, Wenxin; Yan, Heng; Lu, Xianmao; Liu, Bin

    2018-04-19

    Nanogaps as "hot spots" with highly localized surface plasmon can generate ultrastrong electromagnetic fields. Superior to the exterior nanogaps obtained via aggregation and self-assembly, interior nanogaps within Au and Ag nanostructures give stable and reproducible surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) signals. However, the synthesis of nanostructures with interior hot spots is still challenging because of the lack of high-yield strategies and clear design principles. Herein, gold-silver nanoclusters (Au-Ag NCs) with multiple interior hot spots were fabricated as SERS platforms via selective growth of Ag nanoparticles on the tips of Au nanostars (Au NSs). Furthermore, the interior gap sizes of Au-Ag NCs can be facilely tuned by changing the amount of AgNO 3 used. Upon 785 nm excitation, single Au-Ag NC 350 exhibits 43-fold larger SERS enhancement factor and the optimal signal reproducibility relative to single Au NS. The SERS enhancement factors and signal reproducibility of Au-Ag NCs increase with the decrease of gap sizes. Collectively, the Au-Ag NCs could serve as a flexible, reproducible, and active platform for SERS investigation.

  20. Linking atmospheric synoptic transport, cloud phase, surface energy fluxes, and sea-ice growth: observations of midwinter SHEBA conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, P. Ola G.; Shupe, Matthew D.; Perovich, Don; Solomon, Amy

    2017-08-01

    Observations from the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean (SHEBA) project are used to describe a sequence of events linking midwinter long-range advection of atmospheric heat and moisture into the Arctic Basin, formation of supercooled liquid water clouds, enhancement of net surface energy fluxes through increased downwelling longwave radiation, and reduction in near-surface conductive heat flux loss due to a warming of the surface, thereby leading to a reduction in sea-ice bottom growth. The analyses provide details of two events during Jan. 1-12, 1998, one entering the Arctic through Fram Strait and the other from northeast Siberia; winter statistics extend the results. Both deep, precipitating frontal clouds and post-frontal stratocumulus clouds impact the surface radiation and energy budget. Cloud liquid water, occurring preferentially in stratocumulus clouds extending into the base of the inversion, provides the strongest impact on surface radiation and hence modulates the surface forcing, as found previously. The observations suggest a minimum water vapor threshold, likely case dependent, for producing liquid water clouds. Through responses to the radiative forcing and surface warming, this cloud liquid water also modulates the turbulent and conductive heat fluxes, and produces a thermal wave penetrating into the sea ice. About 20-33 % of the observed variations of bottom ice growth can be directly linked to variations in surface conductive heat flux, with retarded ice growth occurring several days after these moisture plumes reduce the surface conductive heat flux. This sequence of events modulate pack-ice wintertime environmental conditions and total ice growth, and has implications for the annual sea-ice evolution, especially for the current conditions of extensive thinner ice.

  1. Effect of different machining processes on the tool surface integrity and fatigue life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Chuan Liang [College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Nanchang University, Nanchang (China); Zhang, Xianglin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China)

    2016-08-15

    Ultra-precision grinding, wire-cut electro discharge machining and lapping are often used to machine the tools in fine blanking industry. And the surface integrity from these machining processes causes great concerns in the research field. To study the effect of processing surface integrity on the fine blanking tool life, the surface integrity of different tool materials under different processing conditions and its influence on fatigue life were thoroughly analyzed in the present study. The result shows that the surface integrity of different materials was quite different on the same processing condition. For the same tool material, the surface integrity on varying processing conditions was quite different too and deeply influenced the fatigue life.

  2. Soil-surface CO2 flux and growth in a boreal Norway spruce stand: Effects of soil warming and nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroemgren, M.

    2001-01-01

    Global warming is predicted to affect the carbon balance of forests. A change in the carbon balance would give a positive or negative feedback to the greenhouse effect, which would affect global warming. The effects of long-term soil warming on growth, nutrient and soil-surface CO 2 flux (R) dynamics were studied in irrigated (I) and irrigated-fertilised (IL) stands of Norway spruce in northern Sweden. Soil temperature on heated plots (Ih and ILh) was maintained 5 deg C above that on unheated plots (Ic and ILc) from May to October, by heating cables. After six years' soil warming, stemwood production increased by 100% and 50% in the I and IL treatment, respectively. The main production increase occurred at the beginning of the season, probably as an effect of the earlier increase in soil temperature. In the 1h treatment, however, the growth increase was evident during the entire season. The effect of increased nitrogen (N) mineralisation on annual growth appeared to be stronger than the direct effect of warming. From 1995-2000, the total amount of N stored in aboveground tree parts increased by 100 and 475 kg N/ha on Ic and ILc plots, respectively. During the same period, 450 kg N fertiliser was added to the ILc plot. Soil warming increased the total amount of N stored in aboveground tree parts by 50 kg N/ha, independently of nutrient treatment. Soil warming did not significantly increase R, except in early spring, when R was 30-50% higher on heated compared to unheated plots. The extended growing season, however, increased annual respiration (RA) by 12-30% throughout. RA losses were estimated to be 0.6-0.7 kg C/ha/year. Use of relationships between R and soil temperature, derived from unheated plots, overestimated RA on heated plots by 50-80%. These results suggest that acclimation of root or microbial respiration or both to temperature had occurred, but the exact process(es) and their relative contribution are still unclear. In conclusion, the study showed that

  3. Structure and wettability property of the growth and nucleation surfaces of thermally treated freestanding CVD diamond films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Xiaoqiang; Cheng, Shaoheng; Ma, Yibo; Wu, Danfeng; Liu, Junsong; Wang, Qiliang; Yang, Yizhou; Li, Hongdong

    2015-08-01

    This paper reports the surface features and wettability properties of the (1 0 0)-textured freestanding chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond films after thermal exposure in air at high temperature. Thermal oxidation at proper conditions eliminates selectively nanodiamonds and non-diamond carbons in the films. The growth side of the films contains (1 0 0)-oriented micrometer-sized columns, while its nucleation side is formed of nano-sized tips. The examined wettability properties of the as-treated diamond films reveal a hydrophilicity and superhydrophilicity on the growth surface and nucleation surface, respectively, which is determined by oxygen termination and geometry structure of the surface. When the surface termination is hydrogenated, the wettability of nucleation side converted from superhydrophilicity to high hydrophobicity, while the hydrophilicity of the growth side does not change significantly. The findings open a possibility for realizing freestanding diamond films having not only novel surface structures but also multifunction applications, especially proposed on the selected growth side or nucleation side in one product.

  4. Microscopic investigation of RF surfaces of 3 GHz niobium accelerator cavities following RF processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graber, J.; Barnes, P.; Flynn, T.; Kirchgessner, J.; Knobloch, J.; Moffat, D.; Muller, H.; Padamsee, H.; Sears, J.

    1993-01-01

    RF processing of Superconducting accelerating cavities is achieved through a change in the electron field emission (FE) characteristics of the RF surface. The authors have examined the RF surfaces of several single-cell 3 GHz cavities, following RF processing, in a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The RF processing sessions included both High Peak Power (P ≤ 50 kW) pulsed processing, and low power (≤ 20 W) continuous wave processing. The experimental apparatus also included a thermometer array on the cavity outer wall, allowing temperature maps to characterize the emission before and after RF processing gains. Multiple sites have been located in cavities which showed improvements in cavity behavior due to RF processing. Several SEM-located sites can be correlated with changes in thermometer signals, indicating a direct relationship between the surface site and emission reduction due to RF processing. Information gained from the SEM investigations and thermometry are used to enhance the theoretical model of RF processing

  5. Dependence of the cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus on hydrogen peroxide scavenging microbes for growth at the ocean's surface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Jeffrey Morris

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The phytoplankton community in the oligotrophic open ocean is numerically dominated by the cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus, accounting for approximately half of all photosynthesis. In the illuminated euphotic zone where Prochlorococcus grows, reactive oxygen species are continuously generated via photochemical reactions with dissolved organic matter. However, Prochlorococcus genomes lack catalase and additional protective mechanisms common in other aerobes, and this genus is highly susceptible to oxidative damage from hydrogen peroxide (HOOH. In this study we showed that the extant microbial community plays a vital, previously unrecognized role in cross-protecting Prochlorococcus from oxidative damage in the surface mixed layer of the oligotrophic ocean. Microbes are the primary HOOH sink in marine systems, and in the absence of the microbial community, surface waters in the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean accumulated HOOH to concentrations that were lethal for Prochlorococcus cultures. In laboratory experiments with the marine heterotroph Alteromonas sp., serving as a proxy for the natural community of HOOH-degrading microbes, bacterial depletion of HOOH from the extracellular milieu prevented oxidative damage to the cell envelope and photosystems of co-cultured Prochlorococcus, and facilitated the growth of Prochlorococcus at ecologically-relevant cell concentrations. Curiously, the more recently evolved lineages of Prochlorococcus that exploit the surface mixed layer niche were also the most sensitive to HOOH. The genomic streamlining of these evolved lineages during adaptation to the high-light exposed upper euphotic zone thus appears to be coincident with an acquired dependency on the extant HOOH-consuming community. These results underscore the importance of (indirect biotic interactions in establishing niche boundaries, and highlight the impacts that community-level responses to stress may have in the ecological and evolutionary outcomes for co

  6. Development of sustainable paper coatings using nanoscale industrial surface processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markert, Frank; Breedveld, Leo; Lahti, Johanna

    in the PlasmaNice project, as environmental and social aspects are addressed using methods like life cycle check (LCC), life cycle assessment (LCA), and industrial risk assessment (RA) within the boundary of an economical production for different market segments. The results are intended to be used partly...... products, and the process and material developers providing new coatings with specific properties. The combination of RA and LCA/LCC within the early stages of product development provide a more holistic approach, It is commonly believed to be also economical beneficial as changes are easier to implement...

  7. Air/surface exchange processes of mercury and their linkage to atmospheric pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahlmann, Enno; Ebinghaus, Ralf

    2001-01-01

    The atmospheric mercury cycle is strongly linked to the terrestrial, aquatic and biologic cycle of mercury via air/surface exchange processes. In order to quantify mercury fluxes from and to the atmosphere to predict local and regional source contributions the methods for flux measurements as well as the physicochemical factors controlling air/surface exchange processes must be assessed. We will describe methods for the determination of mercury and mercury species in ambient air which are basic for investigation of air/surface exchange processes. Further on we will describe approaches for studying the physicochemical factors controlling this processes by using a new laboratory flux measurement system. (author)

  8. Modeling the Non-Equilibrium Process of the Chemical Adsorption of Ammonia on GaN(0001) Reconstructed Surfaces Based on Steepest-Entropy-Ascent Quantum Thermodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Kusaba, Akira; Li, Guanchen; von Spakovsky, Michael R.; Kangawa, Yoshihiro; Kakimoto, Koichi

    2017-01-01

    Clearly understanding elementary growth processes that depend on surface reconstruction is essential to controlling vapor-phase epitaxy more precisely. In this study, ammonia chemical adsorption on GaN(0001) reconstructed surfaces under metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) conditions (3Ga-H and Nad-H + Ga-H on a 2 × 2 unit cell) is investigated using steepest-entropy-ascent quantum thermodynamics (SEAQT). SEAQT is a thermodynamic-ensemble based, first-principles framework that can predict...

  9. Influence of lake surface area and total phosphorus on annual bluegill growth in small impoundments of central Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Cecil A.; Sundmark, Aaron P.

    2017-01-01

    The relationships between environmental variables and the growth rates of fishes are important and rapidly expanding topics in fisheries ecology. We used an informationtheoretic approach to evaluate the influence of lake surface area and total phosphorus on the age-specific growth rates of Lepomis macrochirus (Bluegill) in 6 small impoundments in central Georgia. We used model averaging to create composite models and determine the relative importance of the variables within each model. Results indicated that surface area was the most important factor in the models predicting growth of Bluegills aged 1–4 years; total phosphorus was also an important predictor for the same age-classes. These results suggest that managers can use water quality and lake morphometry variables to create predictive models specific to their waterbody or region to help develop lake-specific management plans that select for and optimize local-level habitat factors for enhancing Bluegill growth.

  10. Improvement of Surface Properties of CP-Titanium by Thermo-Chemical Treatment (TCT) Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Hyeon-Gyeong; Hur, Bo-Young; Lee, Dong-Geun; Lee, Yong-Tai; Yaskiv, O.

    2011-01-01

    The thermo-chemical treatment (TCT) process was applied to achieve surface hardening of CP titanium. The following three different surface modification conditions were tested so that the best surface hardening process could be selected:(a) PVD, (b) TCT+PVD, and (c) TCT+Aging+PVD. These specimens were tested and analyzed in terms of surface roughness, wear, friction coefficient, and the gradient of hardening from the surface of the matrix. The three test conditions were all beneficial to improve the surface hardness of CP titanium. Moreover, the TCT treated specimens, that is, (b) and (c), showed significantly improved surface hardness and low friction coefficients through the thickness up to 100um. This is due to the functionally gradient hardened surface improvement by the diffused interstitial elements. The hardened surface also showed improvement in bonding between the PVD and TCT surface, and this leads to improvement in wear resistance. However, TCT after aging treatment did not show much improvement in surface properties compared to TCT only. For the best surface hardening on CP titanium, TCT+PVD has advantages in surface durability and economics.

  11. Thermal-capillary analysis of Czochralski and liquid encapsulated Czochralski crystal growth. II - Processing strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derby, J. J.; Brown, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    The pseudosteady-state heat transfer model developed in a previous paper is augmented with constraints for constant crystal radius and melt/solid interface deflection. Combinations of growth rate, and crucible and bottom-heater temperatures are tested as processing parameters for satisfying the constrained thermal-capillary problem over a range of melt volumes corresponding to the sequence occuring during the batchwise Czochralski growth of a small-diameter silicon crystal. The applicability of each processing strategy is judged by the range of existence of the solution, in terms of melt volume and the values of the axial and radial temperature gradients in the crystal.

  12. Growth specificity of vertical ZnO nanorods on patterned seeded substrates through integrated chemical process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, P. Suresh [Thin Film and Nanomaterials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641 046 (India); Maniam, S.M. [Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Sundaramurthy, J. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, National University of Singapore (NUS) (Singapore); Arokiaraj, J. [3M R and D Center (Singapore); Mangalaraj, D., E-mail: dmraj800@yahoo.com [Department of Nanoscience and Technology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641046 (India); Rajarathnam, D. [CERAR, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA-5095 (Australia); Srinivasan, M.P. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, National University of Singapore (NUS) (Singapore); Jian, L.K. [Singapore Synchrotron Light Source (SSLS), National University of Singapore (NUS) (Singapore)

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Simple integrated chemical process was adopted for specific ZnO nanorod growth. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Size and orientation of nanorods are well controlled by optimum reaction time and temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different site-selective ZnO nanorod growths are demonstrated. - Abstract: A simple and cost effective method has been employed for the random growth and oriented ZnO nanorod arrays over as-prepared and patterned seeded glass substrates by low temperature two step growth process and growth specificity by direct laser writing (DLW) process. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images and X-ray diffraction analysis confirm the growth of vertical ZnO nanorods with perfect (0 0 2) orientation along c-axis which is in conjunction with optimizing the parameters at different reaction times and temperatures. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images show the formation of vertical ZnO nanorods with diameter and length of {approx}120 nm and {approx}400 nm respectively. Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopic studies show a narrow emission at {approx}385 nm and a broad visible emission from 450 to 600 nm. Further, site-selective ZnO nanorod growth is demonstrated for its high degree of control over size, orientation, uniformity, and periodicity on a positive photoresist ZnO seed layer by simple geometrical (line, circle and ring) patterns of 10 {mu}m and 5 {mu}m dimensions. The demonstrated control over size, orientation and periodicity of ZnO nanorods process opens up an opportunity to develop multifunctional properties which promises their potential applications in sensor, piezoelectric, and optoelectronic devices.

  13. Inhibition of the Processes of Growth and Differentiation in the Embryonic Development of the Axolotl (Ambystma mexicanum)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolk, Anth.

    1954-01-01

    The problem of the retardation of the processes of growth and differentiation is certainly as important as the processes of growth and differentiation themselves. It is striking, therefore, that whereas the analysis of growth has been carried out for a considerable period of time already, the

  14. Numerical simulation of the bubble growth due to hydrogen isotopes inventory processes in plasma-irradiated tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sang, Chaofeng; Sun, Jizhong; Bonnin, Xavier; Liu, Shengguang; Wang, Dezhen

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogen isotopes (HI) inventory is a key issue for fusion devices like ITER. It is especially urgent to understand how HI are retained in tungsten since it currently is the most important candidate material for the plasma-facing wall. Bubble growth is an important experimental complication that yet prevents a full understanding of HI retention processes in tungsten walls and most critically the divertor elements. In this work, we develop a model based on rate equations, which includes the bubble growth in tungsten being exposed to a HI plasma. In the model, HI molecules can be produced through recombination processes on the inner surface of a bubble, and HI molecules can also dissociate themselves to solute atoms, and the latter diffuse into the bulk wall because of very high pressures inside the bubble. The present model is applied to simulate how HI are retained in plasma-irradiated tungsten in the form of molecules to explain the wall temperature, trap concentration, incident HI flux and fluence dependencies of bubble growth

  15. Carbon activation process for increased surface accessibility in electrochemical capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, Daniel H.; Eisenmann, Erhard T.

    2001-01-01

    A process for making carbon film or powder suitable for double capacitor electrodes having a capacitance of up to about 300 F/cm.sup.3 is disclosed. This is accomplished by treating in aqueous nitric acid for a period of about 5 to 15 minutes thin carbon films obtained by carbonizing carbon-containing polymeric material having a high degree of molecular directionality, such as polyimide film, then heating the treated carbon film in a non-oxidizing atmosphere at a non-graphitizing temperature of at least 350.degree. C. for about 20 minutes, and repeating alternately the nitric acid step and the heating step from 7 to 10 times. Capacitors made with this carbon may find uses ranging from electronic devices to electric vehicle applications.

  16. The effect of changes in sea surface temperature on linear growth of Porites coral in Ambon Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corvianawatie, Corry; Putri, Mutiara R.; Cahyarini, Sri Y.

    2015-01-01

    Coral is one of the most important organisms in the coral reef ecosystem. There are several factors affecting coral growth, one of them is changes in sea surface temperature (SST). The purpose of this research is to understand the influence of SST variability on the annual linear growth of Porites coral taken from Ambon Bay. The annual coral linear growth was calculated and compared to the annual SST from the Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature version 3b (ERSST v3b) model. Coral growth was calculated by using Coral X-radiograph Density System (CoralXDS) software. Coral sample X-radiographs were used as input data. Chronology was developed by calculating the coral’s annual growth bands. A pair of high and low density banding patterns observed in the coral’s X-radiograph represent one year of coral growth. The results of this study shows that Porites coral extents from 2001-2009 and had an average growth rate of 1.46 cm/year. Statistical analysis shows that the annual coral linear growth declined by 0.015 cm/year while the annual SST declined by 0.013°C/year. SST and the annual linear growth of Porites coral in the Ambon Bay is insignificantly correlated with r=0.304 (n=9, p>0.05). This indicates that annual SST variability does not significantly influence the linear growth of Porites coral from Ambon Bay. It is suggested that sedimentation load, salinity, pH or other environmental factors may affect annual linear coral growth

  17. The effect of changes in sea surface temperature on linear growth of Porites coral in Ambon Bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corvianawatie, Corry, E-mail: corvianawatie@students.itb.ac.id; Putri, Mutiara R., E-mail: mutiara.putri@fitb.itb.ac.id [Oceanography Study Program, Bandung Institute of Technology (ITB), Jl. Ganesha 10 Bandung (Indonesia); Cahyarini, Sri Y., E-mail: yuda@geotek.lipi.go.id [Research Center for Geotechnology, Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI), Bandung (Indonesia)

    2015-09-30

    Coral is one of the most important organisms in the coral reef ecosystem. There are several factors affecting coral growth, one of them is changes in sea surface temperature (SST). The purpose of this research is to understand the influence of SST variability on the annual linear growth of Porites coral taken from Ambon Bay. The annual coral linear growth was calculated and compared to the annual SST from the Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature version 3b (ERSST v3b) model. Coral growth was calculated by using Coral X-radiograph Density System (CoralXDS) software. Coral sample X-radiographs were used as input data. Chronology was developed by calculating the coral’s annual growth bands. A pair of high and low density banding patterns observed in the coral’s X-radiograph represent one year of coral growth. The results of this study shows that Porites coral extents from 2001-2009 and had an average growth rate of 1.46 cm/year. Statistical analysis shows that the annual coral linear growth declined by 0.015 cm/year while the annual SST declined by 0.013°C/year. SST and the annual linear growth of Porites coral in the Ambon Bay is insignificantly correlated with r=0.304 (n=9, p>0.05). This indicates that annual SST variability does not significantly influence the linear growth of Porites coral from Ambon Bay. It is suggested that sedimentation load, salinity, pH or other environmental factors may affect annual linear coral growth.

  18. Study of the processes of adsorption of amine-containing surface-active substance on the surface of Aluminum powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonina Dyuryagina

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Equilibrium characteristics of adsorption on a surface of a pigment depending on concentration factors and temperature of the dispersive environment are defined. Kinetic laws of superficial activity of binary, threefold homogeneous and heterogeneous modeling systems are studied. The estimation of mechanisms of process of adsorption is carried out.

  19. The process development of laser surface modification of commercially pure titanium (Grade 2) with rhenium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobiela, K.; Smolina, I.; Dziedzic, R.; Szymczyk, P.; Kurzynowski, T.; Chlebus, E.

    2016-12-01

    The paper presents the results of the process development of laser surface modification of commercially pure titanium with rhenium. The criterion of the successful/optimal process is the repetitive geometry of the surface, characterized by predictable and repetitive chemical composition over its entire surface as well as special mechanical properties (hardness and wear resistance). The analysis of surface geometry concluded measurements of laser penetration depth and heat affected zone (HAZ), the width of a single track as well as width of a clad. The diode laser installed on the industrial robot carried out the laser treatment. This solution made possible the continuous supply of powder to the substrate during the process. The aim of an investigation is find out the possibility of improving the tribological characteristics of the surface due to the rhenium alloying. The verification of the surface properties (tribological) concluded geometry measurements, microstructure observation, hardness tests and evaluation of wear resistance.

  20. A post-processing study on aluminum surface by fiber laser: Removing face milling patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayahan, Ersin

    2018-05-01

    The face milling process of the metal surface is a well-known machining process of using rotary cutters to remove material from a workpiece. Flat metal surfaces can be produced by a face milling process. However, in practice, visible, traced marks following the motion of points on the cutter's face are usually apparent. In this study, it was shown that milled patterns can be removed by means of 20 W fiber laser on the aluminum surface (AA7075). Experimental results also showed that roughened and hydrophobic surface can be produced with optimized laser parameters. It is a new approach to remove the patterns from the metal surface and can be explained through roughening by re-melting instead of ablation. The new method is a strong candidate to replace sandblasting the metal surface. It is also cheap and environmentally friendly.

  1. The theory of development of surface morphology by sputter erosion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, G.; Nobes, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    When a surface is bombarded by an energetic ion flux a rich variety of surface structures are observed to develop at the atomic, microscopic and macroscopic scales. Such structures include elevated, with respect to the surrounding surface, features such as mesas or plateaux, ridges, cones and pyramids and depressed features such as etch pits and cavities. These elementary features may be isolated or in profusion and frequently repetitive patterns of coordinated pyramidal structures, etch pits, surface ledges or facets and ripple or wave-like structures occur. The majority of the features arise rather directly from the erosion action of the sputtering process, particularly from differential erosion processes at different surface localities. The authors outline a general approach to sputter erosion induced surface morphology development based on the concept of the surface as an advancing wave. (Auth.)

  2. Surfactant-induced layered growth in homoepitaxy of Fe on Fe(100)-c(2 x 2)O reconstruction surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiko, Masao; Mizuno, Hiroyuki; Chihaya, Hiroaki; Xu, Junhua; Kojima, Isao; Yamamoto, Ryoichi

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the effects of several surfactants (Pb, Bi, and Ag) on the homoepitaxial growth of Fe(100) were studied and compared. The reflection high-energy electron diffraction measurements clearly reveal that these surfactants enhance the layer-by-layer growth of Fe on an Fe(100)-c(2 x 2)O reconstruction surface. The dependence of growth on the surfactant layer thickness suggests that there exists a suitable amount of surfactant layer that induces a smoother layer-by-layer growth. Comparisons between the atomic force microscopy images reveal that the root-mean-square surface roughness of Fe films mediated by Pb and Bi surfactants are considerably smaller than those of the films mediated by Ag surfactant. The Auger electron spectra show that Pb and Bi segregate at the top of the surface. It has been concluded that Pb and Bi are effective surfactants for enhancing layer-by-layer growth in Fe homoepitaxy. Ag has the same effect, but it is less efficient due to the weak surface segregation of Ag

  3. Simulation of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7}/MgO surface growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammadizadeh, M.R. [Superconductivity Research Laboratory (SRL), Department of Physics, University of Tehran, North Karegar Ave., P.O. Box 14395-547, Tehran (Iran); Computational Physical Sciences Research Laboratory, Department of Nano-Science, Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics (IPM), P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran); Safari, N.; Kia, M.; Savaloni, H. [Superconductivity Research Laboratory (SRL), Department of Physics, University of Tehran, North Karegar Ave., P.O. Box 14395-547, Tehran (Iran)

    2006-09-15

    For surface growth simulation of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} on MgO substrate, binding energies between each two different Y, Ba, Cu, O, and Mg atoms were calculated by ab initio pseudopotential density functional theory approach. Then, simulation of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} growth was performed by a simple two dimensional model based on the ballistic aggregation of hard discs. By increasing the substrate temperature, the atomic layers distribution is more condensed and the nanometric surface roughness decreases. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  4. Growth of 1.5 micron gallium indium nitrogen arsenic antimonide vertical cavity surface emitting lasers by molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wistey, Mark Allan

    Fiber optics has revolutionized long distance communication and long haul networks, allowing unimaginable data speeds and noise-free telephone calls around the world for mere pennies per hour at the trunk level. But the high speeds of optical fiber generally do not extend to individual workstations or to the home, in large part because it has been difficult and expensive to produce lasers which emitted light at wavelengths which could take advantage of optical fiber. One of the most promising solutions to this problem is the development of a new class of semiconductors known as dilute nitrides. Dilute nitrides such as GaInNAs can be grown directly on gallium arsenide, which allows well-established processing techniques. More important, gallium arsenide allows the growth of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs), which can be grown in dense, 2D arrays on each wafer, providing tremendous economies of scale for manufacturing, testing, and packaging. Unfortunately, GaInNAs lasers have suffered from what has been dubbed the "nitrogen penalty," with high thresholds and low efficiency as the fraction of nitrogen in the semiconductor was increased. This thesis describes the steps taken to identify and essentially eliminate the nitrogen penalty. Protecting the wafer surface from plasma ignition, using an arsenic cap, greatly improved material quality. Using a Langmuir probe, we further found that the nitrogen plasma source produced a large number of ions which damaged the wafer during growth. The ions were dramatically reduced using deflection plates. Low voltage deflection plates were found to be preferable to high voltages, and simulations showed low voltages to be adequate for ion removal. The long wavelengths from dilute nitrides can be partly explained by wafer damage during growth. As a result of these studies, we demonstrated the first CW, room temperature lasers at wavelengths beyond 1.5mum on gallium arsenide, and the first GaInNAs(Sb) VCSELs beyond 1

  5. Nucleation and growth of C60 overlayers on the Ag/Pt(111) dislocation network surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ait-Mansour, K; Ruffieux, P; Xiao, W; Fasel, R; Groening, P; Groening, O

    2007-01-01

    We have investigated the room temperature growth of C 60 overlayers on the strainrelief dislocation network formed by two monolayers of Ag on Pt(111) by means of scanning tunneling microscopy. Extended domains of highly ordered dislocation networks with a typical superlattice parameter of 6.8 nm have been prepared, serving as templates for subsequent C 60 depositions. For low C 60 coverages, the molecules decorate the step-edges, where also the first islands nucleate. This indicates that at room temperature the C 60 molecules are sufficiently mobile to cross the dislocation lines and to diffuse to the step-edges. For C 60 coverages of 0.4 monolayer, besides the islands nucleated at the step-edges, C 60 islands also grow in the middle of terraces. The C 60 islands typically extend over several unit cells of the dislocation network and show an unusual orientation of the hexagonally close-packed C 60 lattice as compared to that found on the bare Ag(111) surface. Whereas C 60 grows preferentially in a (2 √3 x 2 √3) R30 0 structure on Ag(111), on the Ag/Pt(111) dislocation network the C 60 lattice adopts an orientation rotated by 30 0 , with the close-packed C 60 rows aligned along the dislocations which themselves are aligned along the Ag(1-10) directions. For higher coverages in the range of 1-2 monolayers, the growth of C 60 continues in a layer-by-layer fashion

  6. Neurotrophins differentially stimulate the growth of cochlear neurites on collagen surfaces and in gels☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Joanna; Pak, Kwang; Evans, Amaretta; Kamgar-Parsi, Andy; Fausti, Stephe