Sample records for surface generation mechanisms

  1. Characterization of polymer surface structure and surface mechanical behaviour by sum frequency generation surface vibrational spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opdahl, Aric; Koffas, Telly S; Amitay-Sadovsky, Ella; Kim, Joonyeong; Somorjai, Gabor A


    Sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM) have been used to study polymer surface structure and surface mechanical behaviour, specifically to study the relationships between the surface properties of polymers and their bulk compositions and the environment to which the polymer is exposed. The combination of SFG surface vibrational spectroscopy and AFM has been used to study surface segregation behaviour of polyolefin blends at the polymer/air and polymer/solid interfaces. SFG surface vibrational spectroscopy and AFM experiments have also been performed to characterize the properties of polymer/liquid and polymer/polymer interfaces, focusing on hydrogel materials. A method was developed to study the surface properties of hydrogel contact lens materials at various hydration conditions. Finally, the effect of mechanical stretching on the surface composition and surface mechanical behaviour of phase-separated polyurethanes, used in biomedical implant devices, has been studied by both SFG surface vibrational spectroscopy and AFM. (topical review)

  2. Surface acoustic wave opto-mechanical oscillator and frequency comb generator. (United States)

    Savchenkov, A A; Matsko, A B; Ilchenko, V S; Seidel, D; Maleki, L


    We report on realization of an efficient triply resonant coupling between two long lived optical modes and a high frequency surface acoustic wave (SAW) mode of the same monolithic crystalline whispering gallery mode resonator. The coupling results in an opto-mechanical oscillation and generation of a monochromatic SAW. A strong nonlinear interaction of this mechanical mode with other equidistant SAW modes leads to mechanical hyperparametric oscillation and generation of a SAW pulse train and associated frequency comb in the resonator. We visualized the comb by observing the modulation of the light escaping the resonator.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana LUCA


    Full Text Available Let’s consider a mechanism having two driving elements with revolving movements and a RTR dyad, with elements of null length and aesthetic tracks of a point are determined on a rod, for various linear movement laws of driving elements. The generated curves revolve around x and y axes and aesthetic surfaces result.

  4. Dust generation mechanisms under powerful plasma impacts to the tungsten surfaces in ITER ELM simulation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhlaj, V.A.; Garkusha, I.E.; Aksenov, N.N.; Chuvilo, A.A.; Chebotarev, V.V.; Landman, I.; Malykhin, S.V.; Pestchanyi, S.; Pugachov, A.T.


    In recent tokamak simulation experiments with the QSPA Kh-50 facility several mechanisms of dust generation from tungsten surfaces under ITER ELM-like energy loads have been identified. Here cracking and melting are reported. The brittle destruction dominates after a few transient impacts when a network of major cracks forms on the surface. Bifurcation of major cracks results in ejection of dust particles with sizes up to ∼30 μm. Dust generation occurs also after surface melting and following resolidification when fine crack networks along the grain boundaries develop. In this process the destruction is accompanied by bridge formation due to capillary tension across the fine cracks. Next impacts (even weak melt-free ones) can destroy those bridges, which produces considerable amounts of dust particles of nm-size dust. Surface modification after the repetitive plasma pulses also results in creation of nm-size dust

  5. Electrokinetic effect combined with surface-charge assumption: a possible generation mechanism of coseismic EM signals (United States)

    Ren, Hengxin; Wen, Jian; Huang, Qinghua; Chen, Xiaofei


    According to field observations, electromagnetic (EM) signals accompanying seismic waves can be recorded. The orders of magnitude of observed coseismic electric and magnetic signals associated with earthquakes are usually around 1 to 101 mV km-1 and 10-2 to 1 nT, respectively. In this paper, we carry out numerical simulation of coseismic EM signals associated with seismic waves due to electrokinetic effect and compare with field observations. The seismic source is represented by a finite fault measuring 15 × 9 km2 with a max slip displacement 1.5 m, corresponding to a Mw 5.9 earthquake. While using the EM surface boundary condition of continuous horizontal EM components, the magnetic signals only accompany the late-arriving S waves at receiver near the ground surface. This is obviously different from field observations. Thus, we adopt another EM surface boundary condition which assumes the ground surface carries surface charge. For the used half-space model, a surface-charge density magnitude |Qsc| in excess of 10-4 C m-2 is sufficient to make horizontal magnetic components clearly show up at the whole time duration of seismic waves. When |Qsc| increases, the contribution of surface-charge density to coseismic EM signals becomes more and more dominant comparing with that of the seismically induced streaming-current. We estimate the Qsc expected at the Earth's surface might be a value between -5 × 10-4 and -0.1 C m-2 by the comparison between numerical results and field observations. The vertical magnetic signals only accompany the late-arriving seismic waves, because they are theoretically only induced by SH wave. The field observation results of vertical magnetic signals may be resulted from the scattering effect or the seismic dynamo effect. We conclude that electrokinetic effect combined with surface-charge assumption is one possible generation mechanism of the observed coseismic EM signals.

  6. Wear Resistance of Steels with Surface Nanocrystalline Structure Generated by Mechanical-Pulse Treatment. (United States)

    Nykyforchyn, Hryhoriy; Kyryliv, Volodymyr; Maksymiv, Olha


    The influence of the surface mechanical-pulse treatment based on high-speed friction with a rapid cooling by the technological environment on the wear resistance of medium- and high-carbon steels was considered. The treatment due to a severe plastic deformation enabled obtaining the nanocrystalline structure with a grain size of 14-40 nm. A high positive effect of this treatment was obtained not only because of metal nanocrystallization but also thanks to other factors, namely, structural-phase transformations, carbon saturation of the surface due to decomposition of the coolant and the friction coefficient decrease. Higher carbon content leads to better strengthening of the surface, and its microhardness can reach 12 GPa.

  7. Study on generation mechanisms of second-order nonlinear signals in surface acoustic wave devices and their suppression (United States)

    Nakagawa, Ryo; Kyoya, Haruki; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Kihara, Takashi; Hashimoto, Ken-ya


    In this study, we examine the generation mechanisms of the second-order nonlinear signals in surface acoustic wave resonators/duplexers fabricated on a 42°YX-LiTaO3 substrate. It is shown that the crystal asymmetry of the substrate can generate the second-order nonlinear signals. The following two mechanisms mainly contribute to their generation: (a) self-mixing of the electrostatic field and (b) mixing of the electrostatic field with the strain field associated with laterally propagating modes. Both of them occur at the gaps between the electrode tip and the dummy electrode. In addition, an interdigital transducer design that cancels this asymmetry is proposed. The design is applied to a one-port resonator and a duplexer, and the effectiveness of this technique is demonstrated.

  8. The mechanical interactions between an American football cleat and playing surfaces in-situ at loads and rates generated by elite athletes: a comparison of playing surfaces. (United States)

    Kent, Richard; Forman, Jason L; Crandall, Jeff; Lessley, David


    This study quantified the mechanical interactions between an American football cleat and eight surfaces used by professional American football teams. Loading conditions were applied with a custom-built testing apparatus designed to represent play-relevant maneuvers of elite athletes. Two natural grass and six infill artificial surfaces were tested with the cleated portion of a shoe intended for use on either surface type. In translation tests with a 2. 8-kN vertical load, the grass surfaces limited the horizontal force on the cleats by tearing. This tearing was not observed with the artificial surfaces, which allowed less motion and generated greater horizontal force (3.2 kN vs. 4.5 kN, p force on the natural surfaces than on the artificial surfaces (2.4 kN vs. 3.0 kN, p force-limiting mechanism inherent to natural grass surfaces. Future work should consider implications of these findings for performance and injury risk and should evaluate the findings' sensitivity to cleat pattern and playing conditions.

  9. Mechanics of active surfaces (United States)

    Salbreux, Guillaume; Jülicher, Frank


    We derive a fully covariant theory of the mechanics of active surfaces. This theory provides a framework for the study of active biological or chemical processes at surfaces, such as the cell cortex, the mechanics of epithelial tissues, or reconstituted active systems on surfaces. We introduce forces and torques acting on a surface, and derive the associated force balance conditions. We show that surfaces with in-plane rotational symmetry can have broken up-down, chiral, or planar-chiral symmetry. We discuss the rate of entropy production in the surface and write linear constitutive relations that satisfy the Onsager relations. We show that the bending modulus, the spontaneous curvature, and the surface tension of a passive surface are renormalized by active terms. Finally, we identify active terms which are not found in a passive theory and discuss examples of shape instabilities that are related to active processes in the surface.

  10. Towards a better understanding of flood generation and surface water inundation mechanisms using NASA remote sensing data products (United States)

    Lucey, J.; Reager, J. T., II; Lopez, S. R.


    Floods annually cause several weather-related fatalities and financial losses. According to NOAA and FEMA, there were 43 deaths and 18 billion dollars paid out in flood insurance policies during 2005. The goal of this work is to improve flood prediction and flood risk assessment by creating a general model of predictability of extreme runoff generation using various NASA products. Using satellite-based flood inundation observations, we can relate surface water formation processes to changes in other hydrological variables, such as precipitation, storage and soil moisture, and understand how runoff generation response to these forcings is modulated by local topography and land cover. Since it is known that a flood event would cause an abnormal increase in surface water, we examine these underlying physical relationships in comparison with the Dartmouth Flood Observatory archive of historic flood events globally. Using ground water storage observations (GRACE), precipitation (TRMM or GPCP), land use (MODIS), elevation (SRTM) and surface inundation levels (SWAMPS), an assessment of geological and climate conditions can be performed for any location around the world. This project utilizes multiple linear regression analysis evaluating the relationship between surface water inundation, total water storage anomalies and precipitation values, grouped by average slope or land use, to determine their statistical relationships and influences on inundation data. This research demonstrates the potential benefits of using global data products for early flood prediction and will improve our understanding of runoff generation processes.

  11. The diffusion mechanism and convective transport in the formation of surface anomalies of RADON-222 generated at depth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, E.B.; Hamza, V.M.


    A preliminar study on the importance of a thermally-activated convective transport of radon is made in order to explain radon anomalies at surface generated at great depth. It is theoretically shown that convective currents should be of the order of 10 μm/s or larger to explain such anomalies. The influence of surface temperature changes on the convective transport is also discussed. Seasonal changes in temperature typical of climates such as that of southern Brazil can develop thermal inversion layers at depths up to 20 metres. The optimum period of the year for the employment of surface emanometric techniques is during the second and the third months after the winter peak when the thermal inversion barriers are less intense. (Author) [pt

  12. Mechanism of equivalent electric dipole oscillation for high-order harmonic generation from grating-structured solid-surface by femtosecond laser pulse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yang; Song, Hai-Ying; Liu, H.Y.; Liu, Shi-Bing, E-mail:


    Highlights: • Proposed a valid mechanism of high harmonic generation by laser grating target interaction: oscillation of equivalent electric dipole (OEED). • Found that there also exist harmonic emission at large emission angle but not just near-surface direction as the former researches had pointed out. • Show the process of the formation and motion of electron bunches at the grating-target surface irradiating with femtosecond laser pulse. - Abstract: We theoretically study high-order harmonic generation (HHG) from relativistically driven overdense plasma targets with rectangularly grating-structured surfaces by femtosecond laser pulses. Our particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations show that, under the conditions of low laser intensity and plasma density, the harmonics emit principally along small angles deviating from the target surface. Further investigation of the surface electron dynamics reveals that the electron bunches are formed by the interaction between the laser field and the target surface, giving rise to the oscillation of equivalent electric-dipole (OEED), which enhances specific harmonic orders. Our work helps understand the mechanism of harmonic emissions from grating targets and the distinction from the planar harmonic scheme.

  13. Characterization of the molecular structure and mechanical properties of polymer surfaces and protein/polymer interfaces by sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koffas, Telly Stelianos [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and other complementary surface-sensitive techniques have been used to study the surface molecular structure and surface mechanical behavior of biologically-relevant polymer systems. SFG and AFM have emerged as powerful analytical tools to deduce structure/property relationships, in situ, for polymers at air, liquid and solid interfaces. The experiments described in this dissertation have been performed to understand how polymer surface properties are linked to polymer bulk composition, substrate hydrophobicity, changes in the ambient environment (e.g., humidity and temperature), or the adsorption of macromolecules. The correlation of spectroscopic and mechanical data by SFG and AFM can become a powerful methodology to study and engineer materials with tailored surface properties. The overarching theme of this research is the interrogation of systems of increasing structural complexity, which allows us to extend conclusions made on simpler model systems. We begin by systematically describing the surface molecular composition and mechanical properties of polymers, copolymers, and blends having simple linear architectures. Subsequent chapters focus on networked hydrogel materials used as soft contact lenses and the adsorption of protein and surfactant at the polymer/liquid interface. The power of SFG is immediately demonstrated in experiments which identify the chemical parameters that influence the molecular composition and ordering of a polymer chain's side groups at the polymer/air and polymer/liquid interfaces. In general, side groups with increasingly greater hydrophobic character will be more surface active in air. Larger side groups impose steric restrictions, thus they will tend to be more randomly ordered than smaller hydrophobic groups. If exposed to a hydrophilic environment, such as water, the polymer chain will attempt to orient more of its hydrophilic groups to

  14. Statistical mechanics of random surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froehlich, J.


    The statistical mechanics of random surfaces has proven to be of growing importance in quantum field theory (string theory, random surface representations of gauge theory) and condensed matter physics (domain walls and interfaces, incommensurate phases, spin glasses, crystal surfaces, surface phenomena such as wetting, etc.). Various applications to quantum field theory and condensed matter physics are outlined. (Auth.)

  15. Apparatus and method for generating mechanical waves (United States)

    Allensworth, D.L.; Chen, P.J.


    Mechanical waves are generated in a medium by subjecting an electromechanical element to an alternating electric field having a frequency which induces mechanical resonance therein and is below any electrical resonance frequency thereof.

  16. Magneto-Mechanical Surfaces Design. (United States)

    Galera, Andrés C; San Miguel, Verónica; Baselga, Juan


    Magneto-mechanically active surfaces (MMAS) represent a new family of nano/micro-structured surfaces in which motion is induced by an external magnetic field. Under the name of "artificial cilia", "biomimetic cilia", "magnetic actuated patterns", "nanopillars", etc., published works in this area continue their quick growth in number. Notwithstanding their potential application in microfluidic, chemical sensors, catalytic processes and microelectronics to increase device perfomances, there is still a lot to do in the development of these materials. Improvement and optimization of the performance of these structures are essential tasks in order to fulfil their complete development. Along this article, a critical review involving the main aspects in the design of the patterned nanocomposites will be presented. © 2018 The Chemical Society of Japan & Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Surface wave generation due to glacier calving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław R. Massel


    Full Text Available Coastal glaciers reach the ocean in a spectacular process called "calving". Immediately after calving, the impulsive surface waves are generated, sometimes of large height. These waves are particularly dangerous for vessels sailing close to the glacier fronts. The paper presents a theoretical model of surface wave generation due to glacier calving. To explain the wave generation process, four case studies of ice blocks falling into water are discussed: a cylindrical ice block of small thickness impacting on water, an ice column sliding into water without impact, a large ice block falling on to water with a pressure impulse, and an ice column becoming detached from the glacier wall and falling on to the sea surface. These case studies encompass simplified, selected modes of the glacier calving, which can be treated in a theoretical way. Example calculations illustrate the predicted time series of surface elevations for each mode of glacier calving.

  18. Teaching Practice generated stressors and coping mechanisms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Teaching Practice generated stressors and coping mechanisms among student teachers in Zimbabwe. ... South African Journal of Education ... We sought to establish stressors and coping mechanisms for student teachers on Teaching Practice from a Christian-related university and a government-owned teachers' college ...

  19. The Generative Mechanisms of Open Government Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jetzek, Thorhildur; Avital, Michel; Bjørn-Andersen, Niels


    archetypical generative mechanisms. The framework outlines the different pathways to value generation an d highlights the current tension between the private/public and economic/social domains. Second, we offer a conceptual model that provides a systematic way of articulating and examining further...... their data for access and re-use by public and private agents alike. The recent phenomenon of Open Government Data (OGD) has spread around the world, driven by the proposition that opening government data has the ability to generate both economic and social value. However, a review of the academic research...... and the popular press reveals only sporadic attention given to various aspects with no overarching framework that explains how OGD generates value. We apply a critical realist approach to uncover the generative mechanisms that serve to explain this relationship. First, we present a strategic framework with four...

  20. Mechanisms available for cooling plants’ surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prokhorov Alexey Anatolievich


    Full Text Available The essay briefly touches upon the main mechanisms to cool down the plats’ surfaces that lead to condensation of atmospheric moisture; methods for experimental verification of these mechanisms are presented therein.

  1. Trainable Methods for Surface Natural Language Generation


    Ratnaparkhi, Adwait


    We present three systems for surface natural language generation that are trainable from annotated corpora. The first two systems, called NLG1 and NLG2, require a corpus marked only with domain-specific semantic attributes, while the last system, called NLG3, requires a corpus marked with both semantic attributes and syntactic dependency information. All systems attempt to produce a grammatical natural language phrase from a domain-specific semantic representation. NLG1 serves a baseline syst...

  2. Harmonics Generation by Surface Plasmon Polaritons on Single Nanowires. (United States)

    de Hoogh, Anouk; Opheij, Aron; Wulf, Matthias; Rotenberg, Nir; Kuipers, L


    We present experimental observations of visible wavelength second- and third-harmonic generation on single plasmonic nanowires of variable widths. We identify that near-infrared surface plasmon polaritons, which are guided along the nanowire, act as the source of the harmonics generation. We discuss the underlying mechanism of this nonlinear process, using a combination of spatially resolved measurements and numerical simulations to show that the visible harmonics are generated via a combination of both local and propagating plasmonic modes. Our results provide the first demonstration of nanoscale nonlinear optics with guided, propagating plasmonic modes on a lithographically defined chip, opening up new routes toward integrated optical circuits for information processing.

  3. D Surface Generation from Aerial Thermal Imagery (United States)

    Khodaei, B.; Samadzadegan, F.; Dadras Javan, F.; Hasani, H.


    Aerial thermal imagery has been recently applied to quantitative analysis of several scenes. For the mapping purpose based on aerial thermal imagery, high accuracy photogrammetric process is necessary. However, due to low geometric resolution and low contrast of thermal imaging sensors, there are some challenges in precise 3D measurement of objects. In this paper the potential of thermal video in 3D surface generation is evaluated. In the pre-processing step, thermal camera is geometrically calibrated using a calibration grid based on emissivity differences between the background and the targets. Then, Digital Surface Model (DSM) generation from thermal video imagery is performed in four steps. Initially, frames are extracted from video, then tie points are generated by Scale-Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) algorithm. Bundle adjustment is then applied and the camera position and orientation parameters are determined. Finally, multi-resolution dense image matching algorithm is used to create 3D point cloud of the scene. Potential of the proposed method is evaluated based on thermal imaging cover an industrial area. The thermal camera has 640×480 Uncooled Focal Plane Array (UFPA) sensor, equipped with a 25 mm lens which mounted in the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). The obtained results show the comparable accuracy of 3D model generated based on thermal images with respect to DSM generated from visible images, however thermal based DSM is somehow smoother with lower level of texture. Comparing the generated DSM with the 9 measured GCPs in the area shows the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) value is smaller than 5 decimetres in both X and Y directions and 1.6 meters for the Z direction.

  4. Tuning Acoustic Wave Properties by Mechanical Resonators on a Surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dühring, Maria Bayard; Laude, Vincent; Khelif, Abdelkrim

    Vibrations generated by high aspects ratio electrodes are studied by the finite element method. It is found that the modes are combined of a surface wave and vibration in the electrodes. For increasing aspect ratio most of the mechanical energy is confined to the electrodes which act as mechanical...

  5. Hard particle effect on surface generation in nano-cutting (United States)

    Xu, Feifei; Fang, Fengzhou; Zhang, Xiaodong


    The influence of the hard particle on the surface generation, plastic deformation and processing forces in nano-cutting of aluminum is investigated by means of molecular dynamics simulations. In this investigation, a hard particle which is simplified as a diamond ball is embedded under the free surface of workpiece with different depths. The influence of the position of the hard ball on the surface generation and other material removal mechanism, such as the movement of the ball under the action of cutting tool edge, is revealed. The results show that when the hard particle is removed, only a small shallow pit is left on the machined surface. Otherwise, it is pressed down to the subsurface of the workpiece left larger and deeper pit on the generated surface. Besides that, the hard particle in the workpiece would increase the processing force when the cutting tool edge or the plastic carriers interact with the hard particle. It is helpful to optimize the cutting parameters and material properties for obtaining better surface quality in nano-cutting of composites or other materials with micro/nanoscale hard particles in it.

  6. Oxidative nanopatterning of titanium generates mesoporous surfaces with antimicrobial properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Variola F


    Full Text Available Fabio Variola,1,2 Sylvia Francis Zalzal,3 Annie Leduc,3 Jean Barbeau,3 Antonio Nanci31Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, 2Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, 3Faculty of Dental Medicine, Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC, CanadaAbstract: Mesoporous surfaces generated by oxidative nanopatterning have the capacity to selectively regulate cell behavior, but their impact on microorganisms has not yet been explored. The main objective of this study was to test the effects of such surfaces on the adherence of two common bacteria and one yeast strain that are responsible for nosocomial infections in clinical settings and biomedical applications. In addition, because surface characteristics are known to affect bacterial adhesion, we further characterized the physicochemical properties of the mesoporous surfaces. Focused ion beam (FIB was used to generate ultrathin sections for elemental analysis by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, nanobeam electron diffraction (NBED, and high-angle annular dark field (HAADF scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM imaging. The adherence of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans onto titanium disks with mesoporous and polished surfaces was compared. Disks with the two surfaces side-by-side were also used for direct visual comparison. Qualitative and quantitative results from this study indicate that bacterial adhesion is significantly hindered by the mesoporous surface. In addition, we provide evidence that it alters structural parameters of C. albicans that determine its invasiveness potential, suggesting that microorganisms can sense and respond to the mesoporous surface. Our findings demonstrate the efficiency of a simple chemical oxidative treatment in generating nanotextured surfaces with antimicrobial capacity with potential applications in the implant manufacturing industry and hospital setting

  7. The next generation of acetabular shell design and bearing surfaces. (United States)

    Bourne, Robert B; McCalden, Richard W; Naudie, Douglas; Charron, Kory D J; Yuan, Xunhua; Holdsworth, David W


    The R3 Acetabular component represents the next generation of acetabular shell with an enhanced porous ingrowth surface (StikTite, Smith & Nephew, Memphis, Tenn) to meet the needs of both primary and revision hip arthroplasty; an optimized locking mechanism; and the ability to accomodate polyethylene, metal, or ceramic liners. This prospective clinical study reports on the safety and efficacy of the new StikTite porous ingrowth surface using radiostereometric analysis (RSA). StikTite provides a superior "sctratch-fit" due to its greater coefficient of friction and less micromotion using RSA measurements.

  8. Power Generation Using Mechanical Wave Energy Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasan Chandrasekaran


    Full Text Available Ocean wave energy plays a significant role in meeting the growing demand of electric power. Economic, environmental, and technical advantages of wave energy set it apart from other renewable energy resources. Present study describes a newly proposed Mechanical Wave Energy Converter (MEWC that is employed to harness heave motion of floating buoy to generate power. Focus is on the conceptual development of the device, illustrating details of component level analysis. Employed methodology has many advantages such as i simple and easy fabrication; ii easy to control the operations during rough weather; and iii low failure rate during normal sea conditions. Experimental investigations carried out on the scaled model of MWEC show better performance and its capability to generate power at higher efficiency in regular wave fields. Design Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA shows rare failure rates for all components except the floating buoy.

  9. Reaction Mechanism Generator: Automatic construction of chemical kinetic mechanisms (United States)

    Gao, Connie W.; Allen, Joshua W.; Green, William H.; West, Richard H.


    Reaction Mechanism Generator (RMG) constructs kinetic models composed of elementary chemical reaction steps using a general understanding of how molecules react. Species thermochemistry is estimated through Benson group additivity and reaction rate coefficients are estimated using a database of known rate rules and reaction templates. At its core, RMG relies on two fundamental data structures: graphs and trees. Graphs are used to represent chemical structures, and trees are used to represent thermodynamic and kinetic data. Models are generated using a rate-based algorithm which excludes species from the model based on reaction fluxes. RMG can generate reaction mechanisms for species involving carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, sulfur, and nitrogen. It also has capabilities for estimating transport and solvation properties, and it automatically computes pressure-dependent rate coefficients and identifies chemically-activated reaction paths. RMG is an object-oriented program written in Python, which provides a stable, robust programming architecture for developing an extensible and modular code base with a large suite of unit tests. Computationally intensive functions are cythonized for speed improvements.

  10. Neural mechanisms of sequence generation in songbirds (United States)

    Langford, Bruce

    Animal models in research are useful for studying more complex behavior. For example, motor sequence generation of actions requiring good muscle coordination such as writing with a pen, playing an instrument, or speaking, may involve the interaction of many areas in the brain, each a complex system in itself; thus it can be difficult to determine causal relationships between neural behavior and the behavior being studied. Birdsong, however, provides an excellent model behavior for motor sequence learning, memory, and generation. The song consists of learned sequences of notes that are spectrographically stereotyped over multiple renditions of the song, similar to syllables in human speech. The main areas of the songbird brain involve in singing are known, however, the mechanisms by which these systems store and produce song are not well understood. We used a custom built, head-mounted, miniature motorized microdrive to chronically record the neural firing patterns of identified neurons in HVC, a pre-motor cortical nucleus which has been shown to be important in song timing. These were done in Bengalese finch which generate a song made up of stereotyped notes but variable note sequences. We observed song related bursting in neurons projecting to Area X, a homologue to basal ganglia, and tonic firing in HVC interneurons. Interneuron had firing rate patterns that were consistent over multiple renditions of the same note sequence. We also designed and built a light-weight, low-powered wireless programmable neural stimulator using Bluetooth Low Energy Protocol. It was able to generate perturbations in the song when current pulses were administered to RA, which projects to the brainstem nucleus responsible for syringeal muscle control.

  11. Surface mechanics design by cavitation peening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitoshi Soyama


    Full Text Available Although impacts at cavitation bubble collapses cause severe damage in hydraulic machineries, the cavitation impacts can be utilised for surface mechanics design such as introduction of compressive residual stress and/or improvement of fatigue strength. The peening method using the cavitation impacts was called as cavitation peening. In order to reveal the peening intensity of hydrodynamic cavitation and laser cavitation, the arc height of Almen strip and duralumin plate were measured. In the case of hydrodynamic cavitation, cavitation was generated by injecting a high speed water jet into water with a pressurised chamber and an open chamber, and the cavitating jet in air was also examined. The laser cavitation was produced by a pulse laser, and a high speed observation using a high speed video camera was carried out to clarify laser abrasion and laser cavitation with detecting noise by a hydrophone. It was concluded that the peening intensity by using the cavitating jet in water with the pressurized chamber was most aggressive, and the impact induced by the laser cavitation was larger than that of the laser abrasion at the present condition.

  12. Modeling and Generating Strategy Games Mechanics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahlmann, Tobias

    Strategy games are a popular genre of games with a long history, originating from games like Chess or Go. The first strategy games were published as “Kriegspiele” (engl. wargames) in the late 18th century, intended for the education of young cadets. Since then strategy games were refined...... and transformed over two centuries into a medium of entertainment. Today’s computer strategy games have their roots in the board- and roleplaying games of the 20th century and enjoy great popularity. We use strategy games as an application for the procedural generation of game content. Procedural game content...... of the game is, how players may manipulate the game world, etc. We present the Strategy Games Description Language (SGDL), a tree-based approach to model the game mechanics of strategy games. SGDL allows game designers to rapid prototype their game ideas with the help of our customisable game engine. We...

  13. Mechanical and chemical decontamination of surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kienhoefer, M.


    Decontamination does not mean more than a special technique of cleaning surfaces by methods well known in the industry. The main difference consists in the facts that more than just the visible dirt is to be removed and that radioactive contamination cannot be seen. Especially, intensive mechanical and chemical carry-off methods are applied to attack the surfaces. In order to minimize damages caused to the surfaces, the decontamination method is to adapt to the material and the required degree of decontamination. The various methods, their advantages and disadvantages are described, and the best known chemical solutions are shown. (orig./RW)

  14. Mechanisms of nanotoxicity: generation of reactive oxygen species. (United States)

    Fu, Peter P; Xia, Qingsu; Hwang, Huey-Min; Ray, Paresh C; Yu, Hongtao


    Nanotechnology is a rapidly developing field in the 21(st) century, and the commercial use of nanomaterials for novel applications is increasing exponentially. To date, the scientific basis for the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of most manufactured nanomaterials are not understood. The mechanisms underlying the toxicity of nanomaterials have recently been studied intensively. An important mechanism of nanotoxicity is the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Overproduction of ROS can induce oxidative stress, resulting in cells failing to maintain normal physiological redox-regulated functions. This in turn leads to DNA damage, unregulated cell signaling, change in cell motility, cytotoxicity, apoptosis, and cancer initiation. There are critical determinants that can affect the generation of ROS. These critical determinants, discussed briefly here, include: size, shape, particle surface, surface positive charges, surface-containing groups, particle dissolution, metal ion release from nanometals and nanometal oxides, UV light activation, aggregation, mode of interaction with cells, inflammation, and pH of the medium. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Interlinked bistable mechanisms generate robust mitotic transitions. (United States)

    Hutter, Lukas H; Rata, Scott; Hochegger, Helfrid; Novák, Béla


    The transitions between phases of the cell cycle have evolved to be robust and switch-like, which ensures temporal separation of DNA replication, sister chromatid separation, and cell division. Mathematical models describing the biochemical interaction networks of cell cycle regulators attribute these properties to underlying bistable switches, which inherently generate robust, switch-like, and irreversible transitions between states. We have recently presented new mathematical models for two control systems that regulate crucial transitions in the cell cycle: mitotic entry and exit, 1 and the mitotic checkpoint. 2 Each of the two control systems is characterized by two interlinked bistable switches. In the case of mitotic checkpoint control, these switches are mutually activating, whereas in the case of the mitotic entry/exit network, the switches are mutually inhibiting. In this Perspective we describe the qualitative features of these regulatory motifs and show that having two interlinked bistable mechanisms further enhances robustness and irreversibility. We speculate that these network motifs also underlie other cell cycle transitions and cellular transitions between distinct biochemical states.

  16. Noise generation mechanisms in claw pole alternators (United States)

    Eversman, W.; Burns, S.; Pekarek, S.; Bai, Hua; Tichenor, J.


    Noise of claw pole alternators, generated electromagnetically and structurally radiated, has been the subject of an extensive research program. The goal has been to identify and reduce noise radiation mechanisms in claw pole (Lundell) alternators used in automotive applications. Two approaches have been followed. In the first, electromagnetic sources of noise have been investigated by lumped parameter and magnetically equivalent circuit modeling and simulation, and by related experimentation. This is the subject of separate papers. The second, concurrent study reported here has investigated machine and mount responses to an electromagnetically generated torque ripple. Modeling and experimentation has led to the conclusion that there exists a high correlation between electromagnetic sources, torque ripple, and radiated noise. Experimentation also has led to the conclusion that noise characteristics of a given machine are substantially altered by modification of the mounting configuration. The work reported here involves modeling, simulation, and experiment to isolate machine dynamic characteristics and mounting geometries which contribute to strong coupling between torque ripple and machine/mount dynamic response. A low-order model of the alternator which includes shaft flexibility, gyroscopic effects, shaft bearing asymmetry, mounting lug geometry, and mounting structure dynamics has been created. The model provides a rapid simulation of dynamic response in the form of a transfer function between torque ripple and mounting forces. Generic studies of a simplified mounting structure coupled to the machine model are presented here. Acoustic testing of several machine configurations on a production mount has been carried out to investigate 36th order noise in three phase machines and 72nd order noise in six-phase machines. Electromagnetic modeling and dynamic response simulations suggest that the six-phase machine is inherently quieter. This is supported by

  17. Surface generation of negative hydrogen ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bommel, P.J.M. van.


    This thesis describes investigations on negative hydrogen ion sources at the ampere level. Formation of H - ions occurs when positive hydrogen ions capture two electrons at metal surfaces. The negative ionization probability of hydrogen at metal surfaces increases strongly with decreasing work function of the surface. The converters used in this study are covered with cesium. Usually there are 'surface plasma sources' in which the hydrogen source plasma interacts with a converter. In this thesis the author concentrates upon investigating a new concept that has converters outside the plasma. In this approach a positive hydrogen ion beam is extracted from the plasma and is subsequently reflected from a low work function converter surface. (Auth.)

  18. Triangle geometry processing for surface modeling and cartesian grid generation (United States)

    Aftosmis, Michael J [San Mateo, CA; Melton, John E [Hollister, CA; Berger, Marsha J [New York, NY


    Cartesian mesh generation is accomplished for component based geometries, by intersecting components subject to mesh generation to extract wetted surfaces with a geometry engine using adaptive precision arithmetic in a system which automatically breaks ties with respect to geometric degeneracies. During volume mesh generation, intersected surface triangulations are received to enable mesh generation with cell division of an initially coarse grid. The hexagonal cells are resolved, preserving the ability to directionally divide cells which are locally well aligned.

  19. Generation of Articulated Mechanisms by Optimization Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kawamoto, Atsushi


    mechanisms. A critical issue for designing articulated mechanisms is geometric non-linearity in the kinematics. This should be considered for the analysis of mechanisms since the displacements of mechanisms are intrinsically large. The consideration of geometric non-linearity, however, causes numerical...... difficulties relating to the non-convexity of the potential energy defining the equilibrium equations. It is thus essential to implement a numerical method that can – in a consistent way – detect a stable equilibrium point; the quality of the equilibrium analysis not only is important for itself but also...... directly affects the result of the associated sensitivity analysis. Another critical issue for mechanism design is the concept of mechanical degrees of freedom and this should be also considered for obtaining a proper articulated mechanism. The thesis treats this inherently discrete criterion in some...

  20. Real-Time Contour Surface Display Generation, (United States)


    set of trees generated for the two-dimensional grid such that duplicate edges in separate trees are eliminated. This solution has the added benefit that...of SI GGRAPH- ACAI , Vol. 16, No. 3 (July 1982), p, 135. 20. Zyda. Michael J. "Multiprocessor Considerations in the Design of a Readl-Timne Contour

  1. Mechanism of power generation - the MHD way

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangachari, S.; Ramash, V.R.; Subramanian, C.K.


    The basic physical principles of magnetohydrodynamics and the application of this principle for power generation (direct energy conversion) are explained. A magnetohydrodynamic generator (MHDG) is described both in the Faraday and Hall modes. The advantages of the Faraday mode and the Hall mode for different geometries of the generator are mentioned. The conductor used is a fluid - an ionised gas (plasma) or a liquid metal at high temperature. The difficulties in maintaining high temperature and high velocity for the gas and very low temperature at the same time side by side for superconducting magnets to produce a strong magnetic field, are pointed out. The most commonly used gas is purified air. The advantages of MHD generators and the present power crisis have compelled further research in this field in spite of the high costs involved. (A.K.)

  2. Payment mechanisms for micro-generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhury, W.; Andrews, S.


    The Department of Trade and Industry commissioned a study into payment options for the increasing number of micro-generators (in domestic dwellings and where the generating capacity is not more than 5kW i.e. essentially micro-CHP and photovoltaics) supplying power for the national distribution network. It is shown that small generators will impact on all aspects of industry and connection will need to be simplified. The network will call for a more actively managed regime. Metering will need to be more sophisticated and agreement reached on how costs should be allocated when demand is low and surplus electricity is exported to the system. Three options were considered to be viable.

  3. Micropatterned Azopolymer Surfaces Modulate Cell Mechanics and Cytoskeleton Structure. (United States)

    Rianna, Carmela; Ventre, Maurizio; Cavalli, Silvia; Radmacher, Manfred; Netti, Paolo A


    Physical and chemical characteristics of materials are important regulators of cell behavior. In particular, cell elasticity is a fundamental parameter that reflects the state of a cell. Surface topography finely modulates cell fate and function via adhesion mediated signaling and cytoskeleton generated forces. However, how topographies alter cell mechanics is still unclear. In this work we have analyzed the mechanical properties of peripheral and nuclear regions of NIH-3T3 cells on azopolymer substrates with different topographic patterns. Micrometer scale patterns in the form of parallel ridges or square lattices of surface elevations were encoded on light responsive azopolymer films by means of contactless optical methods. Cell mechanics was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Cells and consequently the cell cytoskeleton were oriented along the linear patterns affecting cytoskeletal structures, e.g., formation of actin stress fibers. Our data demonstrate that topographic substrate patterns are recognized by cells and mechanical information is transferred by the cytoskeleton. Furthermore, cytoskeleton generated forces deform the nucleus, changing its morphology that appears to be related to different mechanical properties in the nuclear region.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MEREUTA Elena


    Full Text Available The paper presents some mechanisms used for generating simple or complex curves. The mechanisms are shown in different positions and for some special curves the demonstrations are performed.

  5. Mechanism and modulation of terahertz generation from a semimetal - graphite (United States)

    Ye, Tong; Meng, Sheng; Zhang, Jin; E, Yiwen; Yang, Yuping; Liu, Wuming; Yin, Yan; Wang, Li


    Semi-metals might offer a stronger interaction and a better confinement for terahertz wave than semiconductors, while preserve tunability. Particularly, graphene-based materials are envisioned as terahertz modulators, filters and ultra-broadband sources. However, the understanding of terahertz generation from those materials is still not clear, thus limits us recognizing the potential and improving device performances. Graphite, the mother material of graphene and a typical bulk semi-metal, is a good system to study semi-metals and graphene-based materials. Here we experimentally modulate and maximize the terahertz signal from graphite surface, thus reveal the mechanism - surface field driving photon induced carriers into transient current to radiate terahertz wave. We also discuss the differences between graphite and semiconductors; particularly graphite shows very weak temperature dependency from room temperature to 80 °C. Above knowledge will help us understand terahertz generations, achieve maximum output and electric modulation, in semi-metal or graphene based devices. PMID:26972818

  6. Circular arc snakes and kinematic surface generation

    KAUST Repository

    Barton, Michael


    We discuss the theory, discretization, and numerics of curves which are evolving such that part of their shape, or at least their curvature as a function of arc length, remains unchanged. The discretization of a curve as a smooth sequence of circular arcs is well suited for such purposes, and allows us to reduce evolution of curves to the evolution of a control point collection in a certain finite-dimensional shape space. We approach this evolution by a 2-step process: linearized evolution via optimized velocity fields, followed by optimization in order to exactly fulfill all geometric side conditions. We give applications to freeform architecture, including "rationalization" of a surface by congruent arcs, form finding and, most interestingly, non-static architecture. © 2013 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2013 The Eurographics Association and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu ANTONESCU


    Full Text Available The curve line translation motion can be generated in the particular form of the circular translation, through mono-mobile mechanisms with articulated links of simple parallelogram type (with a fixed side or through transmission with toothed belt with a fixed wheel. Also, the circular translation can be generated through planar mechanisms with two cylindrical gears with a fixed central wheel. It is mentioned that the two cylindrical gearings of the Fergusson mechanisms are both exterior and interior.

  8. Mechanical cleaning of steam generators in PWR nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Xunshen; Li Sujia


    The mechanical cleaning of steam generators and its equipment currently employed internationally and in Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant are described. The site mechanical cleaning practices for nuclear power plant are also introduced. A number of remarks on mechanical cleaning, chemical cleaning, TV inspection of cleanness and withdrawal of foreign materials are given

  9. Second harmonic generation spectroscopy on Si surfaces and interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kjeld


    Optical second harmonic generation (SHG) spectroscopy studies of Si(111) surfaces and interfaces are reviewed for two types of systems: (1) clean 7 x 7 and root 3 x root 3-Ag reconstructed surfaces prepared under ultra-high vacuum conditions where surface states are excited and (2) interfaces...... in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) structures and thin metal films on Si surfaces where several interfaces contribute to the SHG. In all the systems resonances are seen at interband transitions near the bulk critical points E-1 and E-2. On the clean surfaces a number of resonances appear below the onset of bulk...

  10. Organometallic rotaxane dendrimers with fourth-generation mechanically interlocked branches (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Chen, Li-Jun; Wang, Xu-Qing; Sun, Bin; Li, Xiaopeng; Zhang, Yanyan; Shi, Jiameng; Yu, Yihua; Zhang, Li; Liu, Minghua; Yang, Hai-Bo


    Mechanically interlocked molecules, such as catenanes, rotaxanes, and knots, have applications in information storage, switching devices, and chemical catalysis. Rotaxanes are dumbbell-shaped molecules that are threaded through a large ring, and the relative motion of the two components along each other can respond to external stimuli. Multiple rotaxane units can amplify responsiveness, and repetitively branched molecules—dendrimers—can serve as vehicles for assembly of many rotaxanes on single, monodisperse compounds. Here, we report the synthesis of higher-generation rotaxane dendrimers by a divergent approach. Linkages were introduced as spacer elements to reduce crowding and to facilitate rotaxane motion, even at the congested periphery of the compounds up to the fourth generation. The structures were characterized by 1D multinuclear (1H, 13C, and 31P) and 2D NMR spectroscopy, MALDI-TOF-MS, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and microscopy-based methods including atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). AFM and TEM studies of rotaxane dendrimers vs. model dendrimers show that the rotaxane units enhance the rigidity and reduce the tendency of these assemblies to collapse by self-folding. Surface functionalization of the dendrimers with ferrocenes as termini produced electrochemically active assemblies. The preparation of dendrimers with a well-defined topological structure, enhanced rigidity, and diverse functional groups opens previously unidentified avenues for the application of these materials in molecular electronics and materials science. PMID:25902491

  11. Modifing the Surface Layers of Mechanical Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Slanec


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the creation of thin surface layers prepared by the Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapour Deposition Method (PACVD. Polished sample surfaces made of tool steel were used. An investigation of the dependence of layer thickness on process duration was carried out. The structure of the original surface and the structure of the coated surface were evaluated and compared. The microhardness of the surface areas was also measured.

  12. Geometry of surfaces a practical guide for mechanical engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Radzevich, Stephen P


    Presents an in-depth analysis of geometry of part surfaces and provides the tools for solving complex engineering problems Geometry of Surfaces: A Practical Guide for Mechanical Engineers is a comprehensive guide to applied geometry of surfaces with focus on practical applications in various areas of mechanical engineering. The book is divided into three parts on Part Surfaces, Geometry of Contact of Part Surfaces and Mapping of the Contacting Part Surfaces. Geometry of Surfaces: A Practical Guide for Mechanical Engineers combines differential geometry and gearing theory and presents new developments in the elementary theory of enveloping surfaces. Written by a leading expert of the field, this book also provides the reader with the tools for solving complex engineering problems in the field of mechanical engineering. Presents an in-depth analysis of geometry of part surfaces Provides tools for solving complex engineering problems in the field of mechanical engineering Combines differential geometry an...

  13. Fluid Mechanics of Biological Surfaces and their Technological Application (United States)

    Bechert, D. W.; Bruse, M.; Hage, W.; Meyer, R.

    A survey is given on fluid-dynamic effects caused by the structure and properties of biological surfaces. It is demonstrated that the results of investigations aiming at technological applications can also provide insights into biophysical phenomena. Techniques are described both for reducing wall shear stresses and for controlling boundary-layer separation. (a) Wall shear stress reduction was investigated experimentally for various riblet surfaces including a shark skin replica. The latter consists of 800 plastic model scales with compliant anchoring. Hairy surfaces are also considered, and surfaces in which the no-slip condition is modified. Self-cleaning surfaces such as that of lotus leaves represent an interesting option to avoid fluid-dynamic deterioration by the agglomeration of dirt. An example of technological implementation is discussed for riblets in long-range commercial aircraft. (b) Separation control is also an important issue in biology. After a few brief comments on vortex generators, the mechanism of separation control by bird feathers is described in detail. Self-activated movable flaps (=artificial bird feathers) represent a high-lift system enhancing the maximum lift of airfoils by about 20%. This is achieved without perceivable deleterious effects under cruise conditions. Finally, flight experiments on an aircraft with laminar wing and movable flaps are presented.

  14. Generation of gear tooth surfaces by application of CNC machines (United States)

    Litvin, F. L.; Chen, N. X.


    This study will demonstrate the importance of application of computer numerically controlled (CNC) machines in generation of gear tooth surfaces with new topology. This topology decreases gear vibration and will extend the gear capacity and service life. A preliminary investigation by a tooth contact analysis (TCA) program has shown that gear tooth surfaces in line contact (for instance, involute helical gears with parallel axes, worm gear drives with cylindrical worms, etc.) are very sensitive to angular errors of misalignment that cause edge contact and an unfavorable shape of transmission errors and vibration. The new topology of gear tooth surfaces is based on the localization of bearing contact, and the synthesis of a predesigned parabolic function of transmission errors that is able to absorb a piecewise linear function of transmission errors caused by gear misalignment. The report will describe the following topics: description of kinematics of CNC machines with six degrees of freedom that can be applied for generation of gear tooth surfaces with new topology. A new method for grinding of gear tooth surfaces by a cone surface or surface of revolution based on application of CNC machines is described. This method provides an optimal approximation of the ground surface to the given one. This method is especially beneficial when undeveloped ruled surfaces are to be ground. Execution of motions of the CNC machine is also described. The solution to this problem can be applied as well for the transfer of machine tool settings from a conventional generator to the CNC machine. The developed theory required the derivation of a modified equation of meshing based on application of the concept of space curves, space curves represented on surfaces, geodesic curvature, surface torsion, etc. Condensed information on these topics of differential geometry is provided as well.

  15. Airfoil Trailing Edge Noise Generation and Its Surface Pressure Fluctuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong


    where the time history pressure data are recorded by the surface pressure microphones. After the flow-field is stabilized, the generated noise from the airfoil Trailing Edge (TE) is predicted using the acoustic analogy solver, where the results from LES are the input. It is found that there is a strong......In the present work, Large Eddy Simulation (LES) of turbulent flows over a NACA 0015 airfoil is performed. The purpose of such numerical study is to relate the aerodynamic surface pressure with the noise generation. The results from LES are validated against detailed surface pressure measurements...... relation between TE noise and the aerodynamic pressure. The results of power spectrum density show that the fluctuation of aerodynamic pressure is responsible for noise generation....

  16. Oscillon dynamics and rogue wave generation in Faraday surface ripples. (United States)

    Xia, H; Maimbourg, T; Punzmann, H; Shats, M


    We report new experimental results which suggest that the generation of extreme wave events in the Faraday surface ripples is related to the increase in the horizontal mobility of oscillating solitons (oscillons). The analysis of the oscillon trajectories in a horizontal plane shows that at higher vertical acceleration, oscillons move chaotically, merge and form enclosed areas on the water surface. The probability of the formation of such craters, which precede large wave events, increases with the increase in horizontal mobility.

  17. Mechanized inspection of steam generator components during manufacture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otte, H.-J.; Leupoldt, K.; Meister, W.


    Steam Generator (SG) parts are intensively inspected by UT in the course of the manufacturing process. These inspections - mostly performed manually using different codes - are time consuming and call for a sophisticated documentation, figuring part of the life time documentation package. In order to reduce time and costs mechanized inspection equipment is introduced, combining short inspection times, avoiding influence of the human factor and providing proper electronic storage of all inspection results prepared for comparison with data generated during in-service inspection. Since 2001 Cegelec delivered various UT systems for gas turbine disks and rotor ends called SIRO-MAN. Within only a few years the majority of important providers of such components successfully switched from manual inspection to mechanized inspection following the requirements of manufacturers like ALSTOM, GE and Siemens. The SIRO-MAN is now adapted to the needs of mechanized inspection of SG components. The inspection is performed on the products during rotation around the vertical axis. The multi - probe assemblies are manoeuvred on the products by a manipulator system backed by a NC control unit. Acoustic coupling of UT probes to the product surface is performed with oil or water in a closed circuit. UT and - if requested ET - data along with position information of the probe assembly provided by the control unit are acquired, processed and evaluated by an UT / ET electronic system delivered by either Olympus or ZETEC. As performed already on rotor ends a sequence of inspections using different parameter settings can be programmed with simple means (Teach In) so that such inspection sequence can be executed without operating personnel. Probe assemblies allow for individual operation of probes out of the probe assembly according to the individual needs. Conventional UT and phased array applications or combination of both techniques can be provided. The UT / ET electronic equipment offers

  18. New perspectives on mechanisms of sound generation in songbirds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goller, Franz; Larsen, Ole Næsbye


    -tone mechanism similar to human phonation with the labia forming a pneumatic valve. The classical avian model proposed that vibrations of the thin medial tympaniform membranes are the primary sound generating mechanism. As a direct test of these two hypotheses we ablated the medial tympaniform membranes in two......The physical mechanisms of sound generation in the vocal organ, the syrinx, of songbirds have been investigated mostly with indirect methods. Recent direct endoscopic observation identified vibrations of the labia as the principal sound source. This model suggests sound generation in a pulse...... atmosphere) as well as direct (labial vibration during tonal sound) measurements of syringeal vibrations support a vibration-based soundgenerating mechanism even for tonal sounds....

  19. Electrical power generation by mechanically modulating electrical double layers. (United States)

    Moon, Jong Kyun; Jeong, Jaeki; Lee, Dongyun; Pak, Hyuk Kyu


    Since Michael Faraday and Joseph Henry made their great discovery of electromagnetic induction, there have been continuous developments in electrical power generation. Most people today get electricity from thermal, hydroelectric, or nuclear power generation systems, which use this electromagnetic induction phenomenon. Here we propose a new method for electrical power generation, without using electromagnetic induction, by mechanically modulating the electrical double layers at the interfacial areas of a water bridge between two conducting plates. We find that when the height of the water bridge is mechanically modulated, the electrical double layer capacitors formed on the two interfacial areas are continuously charged and discharged at different phases from each other, thus generating an AC electric current across the plates. We use a resistor-capacitor circuit model to explain the results of this experiment. This observation could be useful for constructing a micro-fluidic power generation system in the near future.

  20. Self-generation of colligative properties at hydrophilic surfaces


    Chaplin, Martin


    The generally accepted view of osmotic pressure is that it is a colligative property, along with freezing point depression, boiling point elevation and vapour pressure lowering. These properties ideally depend on the concentration of dissolved solute molecules. Osmotic pressure, however, is also generated, without any solute, at hydrophilic surfaces. Here is presented a rationale and explanation for this phenomenon.

  1. Phase spectral composition of wind generated ocean surface waves

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.

    A study of the composition of the phase spectra of wind generated ocean surface waves is carried out using wave records collected employing a ship borne wave recorder. It is found that the raw phase spectral estimates could be fitted by the Uniform...

  2. Interpretation of nonlinearity in wind generated ocean surface waves

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.

    This study attempts to resolve a mix-up between a physical process and its mathematical interpretation in the context of wind waves on ocean surface. Wind generated wave systems, are conventionally interpreted as a result of interaction of a number...

  3. Influence of the carbon fiber surface microstructure on the surface chemistry generated by a thermo-chemical surface treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vautard, F.; Ozcan, S.; Paulauskas, F.; Spruiell, J.E.; Meyer, H.; Lance, M.J.


    Highlights: ► Continuous thermo-chemical surface treatment used to functionalize different types of carbon fibers. ► Surface density of functional groups directly correlated to the size of the surface microstructure. ► Preferential creation of hydroxyls and carboxylic acids confirmed regardless of the type of carbon fiber. ► Effective surface treatment regardless of the fiber surface microstructure. ► Potential alternative to electro-chemical surface treatment. - Abstract: Carbon fibers made of textile and aerospace grade polyacrylonitrile precursor fibers were surface treated by a continuous gas phase thermochemical treatment. The surface chemistry generated by the surface treatment was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The surface and the average entire microstructure of the fibers were characterized by Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, respectively. Depending on the grade of the precursor, the final surface concentration of oxygen was comprised between 14% and 24%, whereas the typical commercial electrochemical surface treatments led to concentrations of around 8% with the same fibers. The final concentration of oxygen was directly correlated to the size of the crystallites which was a function of the grade of the polyacrylonitrile precursor and to the corresponding surface microstructure. The thermochemical surface treatment enabled a better control of the nature of the oxygen-containing functionalities as well. Whatever the grade of the precursor, desired hydroxyl groups and carboxylic acid functionalities were preferably generated, which is observed to be difficult with electrochemical surface treatments.

  4. Mechanisms of Surface-Mediated DNA Hybridization (United States)


    Single-molecule total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy was employed in conjunction with resonance energy transfer (RET) to observe the dynamic behavior of donor-labeled ssDNA at the interface between aqueous solution and a solid surface decorated with complementary acceptor-labeled ssDNA. At least 100 000 molecular trajectories were determined for both complementary strands and negative control ssDNA. RET was used to identify trajectory segments corresponding to the hybridized state. The vast majority of molecules from solution adsorbed nonspecifically to the surface, where a brief two-dimensional search was performed with a 7% chance of hybridization. Successful hybridization events occurred with a characteristic search time of ∼0.1 s, and unsuccessful searches resulted in desorption from the surface, ultimately repeating the adsorption and search process. Hybridization was reversible, and two distinct modes of melting (i.e., dehybridization) were observed, corresponding to long-lived (∼15 s) and short-lived (∼1.4 s) hybridized time intervals. A strand that melted back onto the surface could rehybridize after a brief search or desorb from the interface. These mechanistic observations provide guidance for technologies that involve DNA interactions in the near-surface region, suggesting a need to design surfaces that both enhance the complex multidimensional search process and stabilize the hybridized state. PMID:24708278

  5. Nano surface generation of grinding process using carbon nano tubes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nano surface finish has become an important parameter in the semiconductor, optical, electrical and mechanical industries. The materials used in these industries are classified as difficult to machine materials such as ceramics, glasses and silicon wafers. Machining of these materials up to nano accuracy is a great ...

  6. Recovery of condensate water quality in power generator's surface condenser (United States)

    Kurniawan, Lilik Adib


    In PT Badak NGL Plant, steam turbines are used to drive major power generators, compressors, and pumps. Steam exiting the turbines is condensed in surface condensers to be returned to boilers. Therefore, surface condenser performance and quality of condensate water are very important. One of the recent problem was caused by the leak of a surface condenser of Steam Turbine Power Generator. Thesteam turbine was overhauled, leaving the surface condenser idle and exposed to air for more than 1.5 years. Sea water ingress due to tube leaks worsens the corrosionof the condenser shell. The combination of mineral scale and corrosion product resulting high conductivity condensate at outlet condenser when we restarted up, beyond the acceptable limit. After assessing several options, chemical cleaning was the best way to overcome the problem according to condenser configuration. An 8 hour circulation of 5%wt citric acid had succeed reducing water conductivity from 50 μmhos/cm to below 5 μmhos/cm. The condensate water, then meets the required quality, i.e. pH 8.3 - 9.0; conductivity ≤ 5 μmhos/cm, therefore the power generator can be operated normally without any concern until now.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Pararas-Carayannis


    Full Text Available Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, volcanic island flank failures and underwater slides have generated numerous destructive tsunamis in the Caribbean region. Convergent, compressional and collisional tectonic activity caused primarily from the eastward movement of the Caribbean Plate in relation to the North American, Atlantic and South American Plates, is responsible for zones of subduction in the region, the formation of island arcs and the evolution of particular volcanic centers on the overlying plate. The inter-plate tectonic interaction and deformation along these marginal boundaries result in moderate seismic and volcanic events that can generate tsunamis by a number of different mechanisms. The active geo-dynamic processes have created the Lesser Antilles, an arc of small islands with volcanoes characterized by both effusive and explosive activity. Eruption mechanisms of these Caribbean volcanoes are complex and often anomalous. Collapses of lava domes often precede major eruptions, which may vary in intensity from Strombolian to Plinian. Locally catastrophic, short-period tsunami-like waves can be generated directly by lateral, direct or channelized volcanic blast episodes, or in combination with collateral air pressure perturbations, nuéss ardentes, pyroclastic flows, lahars, or cascading debris avalanches. Submarine volcanic caldera collapses can also generate locally destructive tsunami waves. Volcanoes in the Eastern Caribbean Region have unstable flanks. Destructive local tsunamis may be generated from aerial and submarine volcanic edifice mass edifice flank failures, which may be triggered by volcanic episodes, lava dome collapses, or simply by gravitational instabilities. The present report evaluates volcanic mechanisms, resulting flank failure processes and their potential for tsunami generation. More specifically, the report evaluates recent volcanic eruption mechanisms of the Soufriere Hills volcano on Montserrat, of Mt. Pel

  8. Mechanism of drag reduction for circular cylinders with patterned surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butt, U.; Jehring, L.; Egbers, C.


    Highlights: • Reduced drag of patterned cylinders over a wide range of Re numbers. • Hexagonal patterns cannot be characterized as roughness structures. • Hexagonal bumps affect the flow like spherical dimples of smaller k/d ratio do. • Main separation is delayed caused by a partial separation. • Angle of a separation line is not constant over the length of cylinder. -- Abstract: In this paper, the flow over cylinders with a patterned surface (k/d = 1.98 × 10 −2 ) is investigated in a subsonic wind tunnel over Reynolds numbers ranging from 3.14 × 10 4 to 2.77 × 10 5 by measuring drag, flow visualization and measuring velocity profiles above the surface of the cylinders, to observe the effect of hexagonal patterns on the flow of air. These patterns can also be referred as hexagonal dimples or bumps depending on their configuration. The investigations revealed that a patterned cylinder with patterns pressed outwards has a drag coefficient of about 0.65 times of a smooth one. Flow visualization techniques including surface oil-film technique and velocity profile measurement were employed to elucidate this effect, and hence present the mechanism of drag reduction. The measurement of velocity profiles using hot-wire anemometry above the surface reveal that a hexagonal bump cause local separation generating large turbulence intensity along the separating shear layer. Due to this increased turbulence, the flow reattaches to the surface with higher momentum and become able to withstand the pressure gradient delaying the main separation significantly. Besides that, the separation does not appear to occur in a straight line along the length of the cylinder as in case of most passive drag control methods, but follow exactly the hexagonal patterns forming a wave with its crest at 115° and trough at 110°, in contrast to the laminar separation line at 85° for a smooth cylinder

  9. Repeatable change in electrical resistance of Si surface by mechanical and electrical nanoprocessing. (United States)

    Miyake, Shojiro; Suzuki, Shota


    The properties of mechanically and electrically processed silicon surfaces were evaluated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Silicon specimens were processed using an electrically conductive diamond tip with and without vibration. After the electrical processing, protuberances were generated and the electric current through the silicon surface decreased because of local anodic oxidation. Grooves were formed by mechanical processing without vibration, and the electric current increased. In contrast, mechanical processing with vibration caused the surface to protuberate and the electrical resistance increased similar to that observed for electrical processing. With sequential processing, the local oxide layer formed by electrical processing can be removed by mechanical processing using the same tip without vibration. Although the electrical resistance is decreased by the mechanical processing without vibration, additional electrical processing on the mechanically processed area further increases the electrical resistance of the surface.

  10. Superhydrophobic surfaces: from fluid mechanics to optics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rathgen, H.


    In this thesis optical diraction was used to study the static and dynamic properties of microscopic liquid-gas interfaces that span between adjacent ridges of a superhydrophobic surface. An observed interference phenomenon at grazing incident angle led to the development of optical gratings with a

  11. Linear modeling of possible mechanisms for parkinson tremor generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lohnberg, P.


    The power of Parkinson tremor is expressed in terms of possibly changed frequency response functions between relevant variables in the neuromuscular system. The derivation starts out from a linear loopless equivalent model of mechanisms for general tremor generation. Hypothetical changes in this

  12. Effect of mechanical vibration generated in oscillating/vibratory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Whole body vibration (WBV) exercise has been used in health sciences. Authors have reported that changes on the concentration of plasma biomarkers could be associated with the WBV effects. The aim of this investigation is to assess the consequences of exposition of 25 Hz mechanical vibration generated ...

  13. Surface plasmon polariton-induced hot carrier generation for photocatalysis. (United States)

    Ahn, Wonmi; Ratchford, Daniel C; Pehrsson, Pehr E; Simpkins, Blake S


    Non-radiative plasmon decay in noble metals generates highly energetic carriers under visible light irradiation, which opens new prospects in the fields of photocatalysis, photovoltaics, and photodetection. While localized surface plasmon-induced hot carrier generation occurs in diverse metal nanostructures, inhomogeneities typical of many metal-semiconductor plasmonic nanostructures hinder predictable control of photocarrier generation and therefore reproducible carrier-mediated photochemistry. Here, we generate traveling surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) at the interface between a noble metal/titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) heterostructure film and aqueous solution, enabling simultaneous optical and electrochemical interrogation of plasmon-mediated chemistry in a system whose resonance may be continuously tuned via the incident optical excitation angle. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first experimental demonstration of SPP-induced hot carrier generation for photocatalysis. We found electrochemical photovoltage and photocurrent responses as SPP-induced hot carriers drive both solution-based oxidation of methanol and the anodic half-reaction of photoelectrochemical water-splitting in sodium hydroxide solution. A strong excitation angle dependence and linear power dependence in the electrochemical photocurrent confirm that the photoelectrochemical reactions are SPP-driven. SPP-generated hot carrier chemistry was recorded on gold and silver and with two different excitation wavelengths, demonstrating potential for mapping resonant charge transfer processes with this technique. These results will provide the design criteria for a metal-semiconductor hybrid system with enhanced hot carrier generation and transport, which is important for the understanding and application of plasmon-induced photocatalysis.

  14. Mechanisms of elastic wave generation in solids by ion impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deemer, B.; Murphy, J.; Claytor, T.


    This study is directed at understanding the mechanisms of acoustic signal generation by modulated beams of energetic ions as a function of ion energy. Interaction of ions with solids initiates a range of processes including sputtering, ion implantation, ionization, both internal and external, as well as thermal deposition in the solid. Accumulated internal stress also occurs by generation of dislocations resulting from, inelastic nuclear scattering of the incident ion beam. With respect to elastic wave generation, two potential mechanisms are thermoelastic induced stress and momentum transfer. The latter process includes contributions of momentum transfer from the incident beam and from ions ejected via sputtering. Other aspects of the generation process include the potential for shock wave generation since the mean particle velocity for a wide range of ion energies exceeds the velocity of sound in solids. This study seeks to distinguish the contribution of these mechanisms by studying the signature, angular distribution and energy dependence of the elastic wave response in the time domain and to use this information to understand technologically important processes such as implantation and sputtering

  15. [Non-nascent hydrogen mechanism of plumbane generation]. (United States)

    Zou, Yan; Jin, Fu-xia; Chen, Zhi-jiang; Qiu, De-ren; Yang, Peng-yuan


    The mechanism of plumbane generation in dichromate system was studied via investigation of the relationship between the plumbane yield and the molar number of the reactants. A flow injection hydride generator was used in the study. Reactant moler number was calculated by the injected volume and the reactant concentration, and the plumbane yield was measured via an AAS spectrometer equipped with an electrothermal quartz tube atomizer. Experimental results show that the acid was first used for the neutralization of NaOH and successively participated in the redox reaction of borohydride with dichromate with a constant molar ratio of 9.95 +/- 0.42 (expressed in terms of mean +/- standard deviation). At the same time, plumbane generation was displayed as synchronously taking place with the redox reaction, and the yield increased with the increase of acid. The mechanism of plumbane generation was thus deduced as an induced reaction or a catalytic reaction by the redox reaction. Up to this end, the non-nascent hydrogen mechanism of hydride generation has been verified for all the IVA elements.

  16. Evaluation of Wear on Macro-Surface Textures Generated by ns Fiber Laser (United States)

    Harish, V.; Soundarapandian, S.; Vijayaraghavan, L.; Bharatish, A.


    The demand for improved performance and long term reliability of mechanical systems dictate the use of advanced materials and surface engineering techniques. A small change in the surface topography can lead to substantial improvements in the tribological behaviour of the contact surfaces. One way of altering the surface topography is by surface texturing by introducing dimples or channels on the surfaces. Surface texturing is already a successful technique which finds a wide area of applications ranging from heavy industries to small scale devices. This paper reports the effect of macro texture shapes generated using a nanosecond fiber laser on wear of high carbon chromium steel used in large size bearings having rolling contacts. Circular and square shaped dimples were generated on the surface to assess the effect of sliding velocities on friction coefficient. Graphite was used as solid lubricant to minimise the effect of wear on textured surfaces. The laser parameters such as power, scan speed and passes were optimised to obtain macro circular and square dimples which was characterised using a laser confocal microscope. The friction coefficients of the circular and square dimples were observed to lie in the same range due to minimum wear on the surface. On the contrary, at medium and higher sliding velocities, square dimples exhibited lower friction coefficient values compared to circular dimples. The morphology of textured specimen was characterised using Scanning Electron Microscope.

  17. Evaluation of Wear on Macro-Surface Textures Generated by ns Fiber Laser (United States)

    Harish, V.; Soundarapandian, S.; Vijayaraghavan, L.; Bharatish, A.


    The demand for improved performance and long term reliability of mechanical systems dictate the use of advanced materials and surface engineering techniques. A small change in the surface topography can lead to substantial improvements in the tribological behaviour of the contact surfaces. One way of altering the surface topography is by surface texturing by introducing dimples or channels on the surfaces. Surface texturing is already a successful technique which finds a wide area of applications ranging from heavy industries to small scale devices. This paper reports the effect of macro texture shapes generated using a nanosecond fiber laser on wear of high carbon chromium steel used in large size bearings having rolling contacts. Circular and square shaped dimples were generated on the surface to assess the effect of sliding velocities on friction coefficient. Graphite was used as solid lubricant to minimise the effect of wear on textured surfaces. The laser parameters such as power, scan speed and passes were optimised to obtain macro circular and square dimples which was characterised using a laser confocal microscope. The friction coefficients of the circular and square dimples were observed to lie in the same range due to minimum wear on the surface. On the contrary, at medium and higher sliding velocities, square dimples exhibited lower friction coefficient values compared to circular dimples. The morphology of textured specimen was characterised using Scanning Electron Microscope.

  18. Surface renewal as a significant mechanism for dust emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Zhang


    Full Text Available Wind tunnel experiments of dust emissions from different soil surfaces are carried out to better understand dust emission mechanisms. The effects of surface renewal on aerodynamic entrainment and saltation bombardment are analyzed in detail. It is found that flow conditions, surface particle motions (saltation and creep, soil dust content and ground obstacles all strongly affect dust emission, causing its rate to vary over orders of magnitude. Aerodynamic entrainment is highly effective, if dust supply is unlimited, as in the first 2–3 min of our wind tunnel runs. While aerodynamic entrainment is suppressed by dust supply limits, surface renewal through the motion of surface particles appears to be an effective pathway to remove the supply limit. Surface renewal is also found to be important to the efficiency of saltation bombardment. We demonstrate that surface renewal is a significant mechanism affecting dust emission and recommend that this mechanism be included in future dust models.

  19. Test data on electrical contacts at high surface velocities and high current densities for homopolar generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennan, M.; Tolk, K.M.; Weldon, W.F.; Rylander, H.G.; Woodson, H.H.


    Test data is presented for one grade of copper graphite brush material, Morganite CMlS, over a wide range of surface velocities, atmospheres, and current densities that are expected for fast discharge (<100 ms) homopolar generators. The brushes were run on a copper coated 7075-T6 aluminum disk at surface speeds up to 277 m/sec. One electroplated copper and three flame sprayed copper coatings were used during the tests. Significant differences in contact voltage drops and surface mechanical properties of the copper coatings were observed

  20. Abrasive wear mechanisms and surface layer structure of refractory materials after mechanical working

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milman, Y.V.; Lotsko, D.V.


    The mechanisms of abrasive wear and surface layer structure formation after different kinds of mechanical working are considered in terms of fracture and plastic deformation mechanisms for various refractory materials. The principles for classification of abrasive wear mechanisms are proposed, the four types of wear mechanisms are distinguished for various combinations of fractures and plastic deformation types. The concept of characteristic deformation temperature t * (knee temperature) is used. Detailed examples are given of investigating the surface layer structures in grinded crystals of sapphire and molybdenum. The amorphisation tendency of the thinnest surface layer while mechanical polishing is discussed separately. 19 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs. (Author)

  1. Generation of spin currents due to mechanical rotation (United States)

    Matsuo, Mamoru; Ieda, Jun'ichi; Saitoh, Eiji; Maekawa, Sadamichi


    In the frontier of spintronics, much attention is paid on the control and generation of spin currents. Due to the exciting progress of nanomechatrononics, the importance of mechanical manipulation of electron spin will increase. We discuss theoretically effects of mechanical rotation on spin currents using generally covariant Dirac equation with gauge fields in the non-relativistic limit. We derive semi-classical equations of motion for a wavepacket of electrons in two dimentional planes subject to the spin-orbit interaction argumented by a mechanical rotation. We show that a circular spin current is created by the mechanical rotation with a magnetic field. The magnitude of the spin current becomes 108A/m2 in Pt with the magnetic field ~ 1 T and the rotational velocity ~ 1 kHz.

  2. Hydrogen generation due to water splitting on Si - terminated 4H-Sic(0001) surfaces (United States)

    Li, Qingfang; Li, Qiqi; Yang, Cuihong; Rao, Weifeng


    The chemical reactions of hydrogen gas generation via water splitting on Si-terminated 4H-SiC surfaces with or without C/Si vacancies were studied by using first-principles. We studied the reaction mechanisms of hydrogen generation on the 4H-SiC(0001) surface. Our calculations demonstrate that there are major rearrangements in surface when H2O approaches the SiC(0001) surface. The first H splitting from water can occur with ground-state electronic structures. The second H splitting involves an energy barrier of 0.65 eV. However, the energy barrier for two H atoms desorbing from the Si-face and forming H2 gas is 3.04 eV. In addition, it is found that C and Si vacancies can form easier in SiC(0001)surfaces than in SiC bulk and nanoribbons. The C/Si vacancies introduced can enhance photocatalytic activities. It is easier to split OH on SiC(0001) surface with vacancies compared to the case of clean SiC surface. H2 can form on the 4H-SiC(0001) surface with C and Si vacancies if the energy barriers of 1.02 and 2.28 eV are surmounted, respectively. Therefore, SiC(0001) surface with C vacancy has potential applications in photocatalytic water-splitting.

  3. Mechanism and Simulation of Generating Pulsed Strong Magnetic Field (United States)

    Yang, Xian-Jun; Wang, Shuai-Chuang; Deng, Ai-Dong; Gu, Zhuo-Wei; Luo, Hao


    A strong magnetic field (over 1000 T) was recently experimentally produced at the Academy of Engineering Physics in China. The theoretical methods, which include a simple model and MHD code, are discussed to investigate the physical mechanism and dynamics of generating the strong magnetic field. The analysis and simulation results show that nonlinear magnetic diffusion contributes less as compared to the linear magnetic diffusion. This indicates that the compressible hydrodynamic effect and solid imploding compression may have a large influence on strong magnetic field generation.

  4. A Conjectural Generating Function for Numbers of Curves on Surfaces (United States)

    Göttsche, Lothar

    I give a conjectural generating function for the numbers of δ-nodal curves in a linear system of dimension δ on an algebraic surface. It reproduces the results of Vainsencher [V] for the case δ &\\le 6 and Kleiman-Piene [K-P] for the case δ &\\le 8. The numbers of curves are expressed in terms of five universal power series, three of which I give explicitly as quasimodular forms. This gives in particular the numbers of curves of arbitrary genus on a K3 surface and an abelian surface in terms of quasimodular forms, generalizing the formula of Yau-Zaslow for rational curves on K3 surfaces. The coefficients of the other two power series can be determined by comparing with the recursive formulas of Caporaso-Harris for the Severi degrees in 2. We verify the conjecture for genus 2 curves on an abelian surface. We also discuss a link of this problem with Hilbert schemes of points.

  5. Grid-Connected Distributed Generation: Compensation Mechanism Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aznar, Alexandra Y [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); ; ; ; Zinaman, Owen R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    This short report defines compensation mechanisms for grid-connected, behind-the-meter distributed generation (DG) systems as instruments that comprise three core elements: (1) metering and billing arrangements, (2) sell rate design, and (3) retail rate design. This report describes metering and billing arrangements, with some limited discussion of sell rate design. We detail the three possible arrangements for metering and billing of DG: net energy metering (NEM); buy all, sell all; and net billing.

  6. Operating experience with the Harwell thermo-mechanical generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooke-Yarborough, E.H.


    The Stirling-cycle thermo-mechanical generator (TMG) provides small amounts of electrical power continuously over long periods, while requiring much less fuel than other power sources running from hydrocarbon fuel or radio-isotopes. Two of these 25-watt generators, fuelled by propane, have been used to power the UK National Buoy on two successive missions. A total of more than three years experience at sea has now been accumulated. In addition, a 60-watt version has provided the power for a major lighthouse for more than a year. An early development version of the Thermo-mechanical Generator, adapted to run from the heat of a radio-isotope source, was loaded with strontium 90 titanate in October 1974 and has run continuously in the laboratory ever since. The improvements and changes found necessary in the course of 90,000 generator-hours of running time are described, and the improvements in operational performance and reliability which have resulted are outlined. (author)

  7. Adaptive Dynamic Surface Control for Generator Excitation Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xiu-yu


    Full Text Available For the generator excitation control system which is equipped with static var compensator (SVC and unknown parameters, a novel adaptive dynamic surface control scheme is proposed based on neural network and tracking error transformed function with the following features: (1 the transformation of the excitation generator model to the linear systems is omitted; (2 the prespecified performance of the tracking error can be guaranteed by combining with the tracking error transformed function; (3 the computational burden is greatly reduced by estimating the norm of the weighted vector of neural network instead of the weighted vector itself; therefore, it is more suitable for the real time control; and (4 the explosion of complicity problem inherent in the backstepping control can be eliminated. It is proved that the new scheme can make the system semiglobally uniformly ultimately bounded. Simulation results show the effectiveness of this control scheme.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ramírez-Núñez


    Full Text Available This research provides a wave flood simulation using a high resolution LiDAR Digital Terrain Model. The simulation is based on the generation of waves of different amplitudes that modify the river level in such a way that water invades the adjacent areas. The proposed algorithm firstly reconstitutes the original river surface of the studied river section and then defines the percentage of water loss when the wave floods move downstream. This procedure was applied to a gently slope area in the lower basin of Coatzacoalcos river, Veracruz (Mexico defining the successive areas where lateral flooding occurs on its downstream movement.

  9. Lateral Flooding Associated to Wave Flood Generation on River Surface (United States)

    Ramírez-Núñez, C.; Parrot, J.-F.


    This research provides a wave flood simulation using a high resolution LiDAR Digital Terrain Model. The simulation is based on the generation of waves of different amplitudes that modify the river level in such a way that water invades the adjacent areas. The proposed algorithm firstly reconstitutes the original river surface of the studied river section and then defines the percentage of water loss when the wave floods move downstream. This procedure was applied to a gently slope area in the lower basin of Coatzacoalcos river, Veracruz (Mexico) defining the successive areas where lateral flooding occurs on its downstream movement.

  10. Surface- and interface-engineered heterostructures for solar hydrogen generation (United States)

    Chen, Xiangyan; Li, Yanrui; Shen, Shaohua


    Photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting based on semiconductor photoelectrodes provides a promising platform for reducing environmental pollution and solving the energy crisis by developing clean, sustainable and environmentally friendly hydrogen energy. In this context, metal oxides with their advantages including low cost, good chemical stability and environmental friendliness, have attracted extensive attention among the investigated candidates. However, the large bandgap, poor charge transfer ability and high charge recombination rate limit the PEC performance of metal oxides as photoelectrodes. To solve this limitation, many approaches toward enhanced PEC water splitting performance, which focus on surface and interface engineering, have been presented. In this topical review, we concentrate on the heterostructure design of some typical metal oxides with narrow bandgaps (e.g. Fe2O3, WO3, BiVO4 and Cu2O) as photoelectrodes. An overview of the surface- and interface-engineered heterostructures, including semiconductor heterojunctions, surface protection, surface passivation and cocatalyst decoration, will be given to introduce the recent advances in metal oxide heterostructures for PEC water splitting. This article aims to provide fundamental references and principles for designing metal oxide heterostructures with high activity and stability as photoelectrodes for PEC solar hydrogen generation.

  11. Side Flow Effect on Surface Generation in Nano Cutting. (United States)

    Xu, Feifei; Fang, Fengzhou; Zhang, Xiaodong


    The side flow of material in nano cutting is one of the most important factors that deteriorate the machined surface quality. The effects of the crystallographic orientation, feed, and the cutting tool geometry, including tool edge radius, rake angle and inclination angle, on the side flow are investigated employing molecular dynamics simulation. The results show that the stagnation region is formed in front of tool edge and it is characterized by the stagnation radius R s and stagnation height h s . The side flow is formed because the material at or under the stagnation region is extruded by the tool edge to flow to the side of the tool edge. Higher stagnation height would increase the size of the side flow. The anisotropic nature of the material which partly determines the stagnation region also influences the side flow due to the different deformation mechanism under the action of the tool edge. At different cutting directions, the size of the side flow has a great difference which would finally affect the machined surface quality. The cutting directions of {100} , {110} , and {110}  are beneficial to obtain a better surface quality with small side flow. Besides that, the side flow could be suppressed by reducing the feed and optimizing the cutting tool geometry. Cutting tool with small edge radius, large positive rake angle, and inclination angle would decrease the side flow and consequently improve the machined surface quality.

  12. Conciliating surface superhydrophobicities and mechanical strength of porous silicon films (United States)

    Wang, Fuguo; Zhao, Kun; Cheng, Jinchun; Zhang, Junyan


    Hydrophobic surfaces on Mechanical stable macroporous silicon films were prepared by electrochemical etching with subsequent octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) modification. The surface morphologies were controlled by current densities and the mechanical properties were adjusted by their corresponding porosities. Contrast with the smooth macroporous silicon films with lower porosities (34.1%) and microporous silicon with higher porosities (97%), the macroporous film with a rough three-dimension (3D) surface and a moderate pore to cross-section area ratio (37.8%, PSi2‧) exhibited both good mechanical strength (Yong' modulus, shear modulus and collapse strength are 64.2, 24.1 and 0.32 GPa, respectively) and surface superhydrophobicity (water contact angle is 158.4 ± 2° and sliding angle is 2.7 ± 1°). This result revealed that the surface hydrophobicities (or the surface roughness) and mechanical strength of porous films could be conciliated by pore to cross-section area ratios control and 3D structures construction. Thus, the superhydrophobic surfaces on mechanical stable porous films could be obtained by 3D structures fabrication on porous film with proper pore to cross-section area ratios.

  13. Full bundle mechanical cleaning of pressurized water reactor steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinhardt, M.; Lewis, G.


    An improved system for cleaning the upper bundle region of pressurized water reactor steam generators is now available. This system employs high pressure water jets to remove sludge and scale from tube and support plate surfaces and from the broach holes throughout the upper bundle region of steam generators. Benefits of sludge removal can include mitigation of the corrosion process, improvement of plant performance and increased operational stability. The cleaning equipment is installed through existing handholes in the tubesheet region and accesses the upper bundle through flow slots in the tube support plates. The system includes a Bulk Cleaning Head which directs high pressure water jets into the tube bundle, a Vertical Deployment System which delivers and positions the head at the desired locations in the upper bundle region, and a high pressure water pumping and sludge processing system. This paper describes the system, several key components, overall system operation, safety issues, and field use chronology. Specific performance issues that are discussed include the cleaning coverage achieved, the time required to clean a steam generator, and cleaning effectiveness. The Upper Bundle Hydraulic Cleaning System described in this paper is available for use in several types of steam generators

  14. Generation Mechanism for Interlinked Flux Tubes on the Magnetopause (United States)

    Farinas Perez, G.; Cardoso, F. R.; Sibeck, D.; Gonzalez, W. D.; Facskó, G.; Coxon, J. C.; Pembroke, A. D.


    We use a global magnetohydrodynamics simulation to analyze transient magnetic reconnection processes at the magnetopause. The solar wind conditions have been kept constant, and an interplanetary magnetic field with large duskward BY and southward BZ components has been imposed. Five flux transfer events (FTEs) with clear bipolar magnetic field signatures have been observed. We observed a peculiar structure defined as interlinked flux tubes (IFTs) in the first and fourth FTE, which had very different generation mechanisms. The first FTE originates as an IFTs and remains with this configuration until its final moment. However, the fourth FTE develops as a classical flux rope but changes its 3-D magnetic configuration to that of IFTs. This work studies the mechanism for generating IFTs. The growth of the resistive tearing instability has been identified as the cause for the first IFTs formation. We believe that the instability has been triggered by the accumulation of interplanetary magnetic field at the subsolar point where the grid resolution is very high. The evidence shows that two new reconnection lines form northward and southward of the subsolar region. The IFTs have been generated with all the classical signatures of a single flux rope. The other IFTs detected in the fourth FTE developed as a result of magnetic reconnection inside its complex and twisted magnetic fields, which leads to a change in the magnetic configuration from a flux rope of twisted magnetic field lines to IFTs.

  15. Reforming water to generate hydrogen using mechanical alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pena F, D. L.


    The objective of this research was to generate a hydrogen production system by means of mechanical milling, in which 0.1 g of magnesium were weighed using a volume of 300 μL for each water solvent (H 2 O) and methanol (CH 3 OH) in a container to start mechanical milling for 2, 4 and 6 h. Once the mechanical milling was finished, the hydrogen that was produced every two hours was measured to determine the appropriate milling time in the production, also in each period of time samples of the powders produced during the milling of Mg were taken, in this process we used characterization techniques such as: X-ray diffraction at an angle of 2θi 5 and 2θf 90 degrees and scanning electron microscopy, taking micrographs of 100, 500, 1000 and 5000 magnifications. According to the mechanical milling results hydrogen was obtained when using water, as well as with methanol. In the techniques of X-ray diffraction characterization different results were obtained before and after the milling, since by the diffractogram s is possible to observe how the magnesium to be put in the mechanical milling along with the water and methanol was diminishing to be transformed into hydroxide and magnesium oxide, as well as in the micrographs taken with scanning electron microscopy the change in the magnesium morphology to hydroxide and magnesium oxide is observed. (Author)


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    Ab initio calculations on surface diffusion of Cu adatoms on Cu(001) are presented. The hopping mechanism with a calculated energy barrier of 0.69 eV is found to be favorable over the exchange mechanism with 0.97 eV. We find from the geometry relaxations that adatoms are significantly attracted to

  17. The Value Generating Mechanisms of Open Government Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jetzek, Thorhildur


    social progress, to an interconnected, networked world of shared resources and co-creation. One of the trends driving this change is open government data. This paper presents a framework of four value generating mechanisms from use of OGD. The framework makes it easier to compare and communicate......Recent trends towards openness and technical connectivity have offered the ability to drive massive social and economic change; however they demand a redefinition of relationships. We have observed a move from a polarized world where companies operate in economic markets while governments drive...... different pathways to value generation, while highlighting the current tensions between the private/public and economic/social domains. Our proposition is that these tensions bring about possibilites for synergies and value enhancement....


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ju


    Full Text Available Bridge areas present difficulties for orthophotos generation and to avoid “collapsed” bridges in the orthoimage, operator assistance is required to create the precise DBM (Digital Bridge Model, which is, subsequently, used for the orthoimage generation. In this paper, a new approach of DBM generation, based on fusing LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging data and aerial imagery, is proposed. The no precise exterior orientation of the aerial image is required for the DBM generation. First, a coarse DBM is produced from LiDAR data. Then, a robust co-registration between LiDAR intensity and aerial image using the orientation constraint is performed. The from-coarse-to-fine hybrid co-registration approach includes LPFFT (Log-Polar Fast Fourier Transform, Harris Corners, PDF (Probability Density Function feature descriptor mean-shift matching, and RANSAC (RANdom Sample Consensus as main components. After that, bridge ROI (Region Of Interest from LiDAR data domain is projected to the aerial image domain as the ROI in the aerial image. Hough transform linear features are extracted in the aerial image ROI. For the straight bridge, the 1st order polynomial function is used; whereas, for the curved bridge, 2nd order polynomial function is used to fit those endpoints of Hough linear features. The last step is the transformation of the smooth bridge boundaries from aerial image back to LiDAR data domain and merge them with the coarse DBM. Based on our experiments, this new approach is capable of providing precise DBM which can be further merged with DTM (Digital Terrain Model derived from LiDAR data to obtain the precise DSM (Digital Surface Model. Such a precise DSM can be used to improve the orthophoto product quality.

  19. Analytical generation of the dynamical equations for mechanical manipulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geir Horn


    Full Text Available A package to generate the symbolic dynamic equations describing the relation between forces and movements for serial mechanical linkages with rigid constituents is presented. The relative movement between the rigid parts is assumed to be either a rotation about an axis or a translation along an axis. Two algorithms are implemented, a Lagrange-Euler method and a Newton-Euler method. The former can be used to solve both the inverse and the forward dynamics problems, while the latter requires fewer arithmetical operations but only allows solution of the inverse dynamics problem. Two test examples are presented, the double pendulum and the modified Stanford manipulator.

  20. Generation of easily accessible human kidney tubules on two-dimensional surfaces in vitro. (United States)

    Zhang, Huishi; Lau, Samantha Fong-Ting; Heng, Ber Fong; Teo, Pei Yun; Alahakoon, P K D Thilini; Ni, Ming; Tasnim, Farah; Ying, Jackie Y; Zink, Daniele


    The generation of tissue-like structures in vitro is of major interest for various fields of research including in vitro toxicology, regenerative therapies and tissue engineering. Usually 3D matrices are used to engineer tissue-like structures in vitro, and for the generation of kidney tubules, 3D gels are employed. Kidney tubules embedded within 3D gels are difficult to access for manipulations and imaging. Here we show how large and functional human kidney tubules can be generated in vitro on 2D surfaces, without the use of 3D matrices. The mechanism used by human primary renal proximal tubule cells for tubulogenesis on 2D surfaces appears to be distinct from the mechanism employed in 3D gels, and tubulogenesis on 2D surfaces involves interactions between epithelial and mesenchymal cells. The process is induced by transforming growth factor-β(1), and enhanced by a 3D substrate architecture. However, after triggering the process, the formation of renal tubules occurs with remarkable independence from the substrate architecture. Human proximal tubules generated on 2D surfaces typically have a length of several millimetres, and are easily accessible for manipulations and imaging, which makes them attractive for basic research and in vitro nephrotoxicology. The experimental system described also allows for in vitro studies on how primary human kidney cells regenerate renal structures after organ disruption. The finding that human kidney cells organize tissue-like structures independently from the substrate architecture has important consequences for kidney tissue engineering, and it will be important, for instance, to inhibit the process of tubulogenesis on 2D surfaces in bioartificial kidneys. © 2011 The Authors Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine © 2011 Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Numerical study of surface water waves generated by mass movement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghozlani, Belgacem; Hafsia, Zouhaier; Maalel, Khlifa, E-mail: [Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Tunis, Laboratoire de Modelisation en ' Hydraulique et Environnement, BP 37, Le Belvedere, 1002 Tunis (Tunisia)


    In this paper waves generated by two-dimensional mass movement are simulated using a numerical model based on the full hydrodynamic coupling between rigid-body motion and ambient fluid flow. This approach has the capability to represent the dynamics of the moving rigid body, which avoids the need to prescribe the body velocity based on the data measurements. This model is implemented in the CFX code and uses the Reynolds average Navier-Stokes equations solver coupled to the recently developed immersed solid technique. The latter technique allows us to follow implicitly the motion of the solid block based on the rigid body solver. The volume-of-fluid method is used to track the free surface locations. The accuracy of the present model is firstly examined against the simple physical case of a freely falling rigid body into water reproducing Scott Russell's solitary waves. More complex and realistic simulations of aerial and submarine mass-movement, simulated by a rigid wedge sliding into water along a 45 Degree-Sign slope, are then performed. Simulated results of the aerial mass movement show the complex flow patterns in terms of the velocity fields and free surface profiles. Results are in good agreement with the available experimental data. In addition, the physical processes associated with the generation of water wave by two-dimensional submarine mass-movement are explored. The effects of the initial submergence and specific gravity on the slide mass kinematics and maximum wave amplitude are investigated. The terminal velocity and initial acceleration of the slide mass are well predicted when compared to experimental results. It is found that the initial submergence did not have a significant effect on the initial acceleration of the slide block centre of mass. However, it depends nonlinearly on the specific gravity. The maximum wave amplitude and the time at which it occurred are also presented as a function of the initial submergence and specific gravity

  2. A novel approach to generate random surface thermal loads in piping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa Garrido, Oriol, E-mail:; El Shawish, Samir; Cizelj, Leon


    Highlights: • Approach for generating continuous and time-dependent random thermal fields. • Temperature fields simulate fluid mixing thermal loads at fluid–wall interface. • Through plane-wave decomposition, experimental temperature statistics are reproduced. • Validation of the approach with a case study from literature. • Random surface thermal loads generation for future thermal fatigue analyses of piping. - Abstract: There is a need to perform three-dimensional mechanical analyses of pipes, subjected to complex thermo-mechanical loadings such as the ones evolving from turbulent fluid mixing in a T-junction. A novel approach is proposed in this paper for fast and reliable generation of random thermal loads at the pipe surface. The resultant continuous and time-dependent temperature fields simulate the fluid mixing thermal loads at the fluid–wall interface. The approach is based on reproducing discrete fluid temperature statistics, from experimental readings or computational fluid dynamic simulation's results, at interface locations through plane-wave decomposition of temperature fluctuations. The obtained random thermal fields contain large scale instabilities such as cold and hot spots traveling at flow velocities. These low frequency instabilities are believed to be among the major causes of the thermal fatigue in T-junction configurations. The case study found in the literature has been used to demonstrate the generation of random surface thermal loads. The thermal fields generated with the proposed approach are statistically equivalent (within the first two moments) to those from CFD simulations results of similar characteristics. The fields maintain the input data at field locations for a large set of parameters used to generate the thermal loads. This feature will be of great advantage in future sensitivity fatigue analyses of three-dimensional pipe structures.

  3. Generating families of surface triangulations. The case of punctured surfaces with inner degree at least 4


    Chávez de Diego, María José; Negami, Seiya; Quintero Toscano, Antonio Rafael; Villar Liñán, María Trinidad


    We present two versions of a method for generating all triangulations of any punctured surface in each of these two families: (1) triangulations with inner vertices of degree ≥ 4 and boundary vertices of degree ≥ 3 and (2) triangulations with all vertices of degree ≥ 4. The method is based on a series of reversible operations, termed reductions, which lead to a minimal set of triangulations in each family. Throughout the process the triangulations remain within the corresponding family. Mo...

  4. Formation of multiscale surface structures on nickel via above surface growth and below surface growth mechanisms using femtosecond laser pulses. (United States)

    Zuhlke, Craig A; Anderson, Troy P; Alexander, Dennis R


    The formation of self-organized micro- and nano-structured surfaces on nickel via both above surface growth (ASG) and below surface growth (BSG) mechanisms using femtosecond laser pulse illumination is reported. Detailed stepped growth experiments demonstrate that conical mound-shaped surface structure development is characterized by a balance of growth mechanisms including scattering from surface structures and geometric effects causing preferential ablation of the valleys, flow of the surface melt, and redeposition of ablated material; all of which are influenced by the laser fluence and the number of laser shots on the sample. BSG-mound formation is dominated by scattering, while ASG-mound formation is dominated by material flow and redeposition. This is the first demonstration to our knowledge of the use of femtosecond laser pulses to fabricate metallic surface structures that rise above the original surface. These results are useful in understanding the details of multi-pulse femtosecond laser interaction with metals.

  5. Energy storage and dispersion of surface acoustic waves trapped in a periodic array of mechanical resonators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dühring, Maria Bayard; Laude, Vincent; Khelif, Abdelkrim


    confined to the electrode as compared to the total mechanical energy is calculated and is found to be increasing for increasing aspect ratio and to tend to a definite limit for the two families of surface waves. This observation is in support of the interpretation that high aspect ratio electrodes act......It has been shown previously that surface acoustic waves can be efficiently trapped and slowed by steep ridges on a piezoelectric substrate, giving rise to two families of shear-horizontal and vertically polarized surface waves. The mechanisms of energy storage and dispersion are explored by using...... the finite element method to model surface acoustic waves generated by high aspect ratio electrodes. A periodic model is proposed including a perfectly matched layer to simulate radiation conditions away from the sources, from which the modal distributions are found. The ratio of the mechanical energy...

  6. Generation Mechanism of Alternans in Luo-Rudy Model (United States)

    Kitajima, Hiroyuki; Ioka, Eri; Yazawa, Toru

    Electrical alternans is the alternating amplitude from beat to beat in the action potential of the cardiac cell. It has been associated with ventricular arrhythmias in many clinical studies; however, its dynamical mechanisms remain unknown. The reason is that we do not have realistic network models of the heart system. Recently, Yazawa clarified the network structure of the heart and the central nerve system in the crustacean heart. In this study, we construct a simple model of the heart system based on Yazawa’s experimental data. Using this model, we clarify that two parameters (the conductance of sodium ions and free concentration of potassium ions in the extracellular compartment) play the key roles of generating alternans. In particular, we clarify that the inactivation gate of the time-independent potassium channel is the most important parameter. Moreover, interaction between the membrane potential and potassium ionic currents is significant for generating alternate rhythms. This result indicates that if the muscle cell has problems such as channelopathies, there is great risk of generating alternans.

  7. Water Surface Ripples Generated by the Turbulent Boundary Layer of a Surface-Piercing Moving Wall (United States)

    Washuta, N.; Masnadi, N.; Duncan, J. H.


    Free surface ripples created by subsurface turbulence along a surface-piercing moving wall are studied experimentally. In this experiment, a meter-wide stainless steel belt travels horizontally in a loop around two rollers with vertically oriented axes, which are separated by 7.5 meters. One of the two 7.5-m-long belt sections between the rollers is in contact with the water in a large open-surface water tank and the water level is adjusted so that the top of the belt pierces the water free surface. The belt is launched from rest with a 3 g acceleration in order to quickly reach a steady state velocity. This belt motion creates a temporally evolving boundary layer analogous to the spatially evolving boundary layer created along the side of a ship hull moving at the belt velocity, with a length equivalent to the length of belt that has passed the measurement region. The water surface ripples generated by the subsurface turbulence are measured in a plane normal to the belt using a cinematic LIF technique. It is found that the overall RMS surface fluctuations increase linearly with belt speed and that the spatial distributions of the fluctuations show a sharp increase near the wall. The support of the Office of Naval Research is gratefully acknowledged.

  8. Surface functionalization of titanium dioxide nanoparticles: Photo-stability and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation (United States)

    Louis, Kacie M.

    Metal oxide nanoparticles are becoming increasingly prevalent in society for applications of sunscreens, cosmetics, paints, biomedical imaging, and photovoltaics. Due to the increased surface area to volume ratio of nanoparticles compared to bulk materials, it is important to know the health and safety impacts of these materials. One mechanism of toxicity of nominally "safe" materials such as TiO 2 is through the photocatalytic generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS production and ligand degradation can affect the bioavailability of these particles in aqueous organisms. We have investigated ROS generation by functionalized TiO2 nanoparticles and its influence on aggregation and bioavailability and toxicity to zebrafish embryos/larvae. For these studies we investigated anatase TiO2 nanoparticles. For application purposes and solution stability, the TiO2 nanoparticles were functionalized with a variety of ligands such as citrate, 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde, and ascorbate. We quantitatively examined the amount of ROS produced in aqueous solution using fluorescent probes and see that more ROS is produced under UV light than in the dark control. Our measurements show that TiO2 toxicity reaches a maximum for nanoparticles with smaller diameters, and is correlated with surface area dependent changes in ROS generation. In an effort to reduce toxicity through control of the surface and surface ligands, we synthesized anatase nanoparticles of different sizes, functionalized them with different ligands, and examined the resulting ROS generation and ligand stability. Using a modular ligand containing a hydrophobic inner region and a hydrophilic outer region, we synthesized water-stable nanoparticles, via two different chemical reactions, having much-reduced ROS generation and thus reduced toxicity. These results suggest new strategies for making safer nanoparticles while still retaining their desired properties. We also examine the degradation of the different ligands

  9. Mechanisms of generation of local ΔpH in mitochondria and bacteria. (United States)

    Medvedev, E S; Stuchebrukhov, A A


    The concepts of global and local coupling between proton generators, the enzymes of the respiratory chain, and the consumer, the ATP synthase, coexist in the theory of oxidative phosphorylation. Global coupling is trivial proton transport via the aqueous medium, whereas local coupling implies that the protons pumped are consumed before they escape to the bulk phase. In this work, the conditions for the occurrence of local coupling are explored. It is supposed that the membrane retains protons near its surface and that the proton current generated by the proton pumps rapidly decreases with increasing proton motive force (pmf). It is shown that the competition between the processes of proton translocation across the membrane and their dissipation from the surface to the bulk can result in transient generation of a local ΔpH in reply to a sharp change in pmf; the appearance of local ΔpH, in turn, leads to rapid recovery of the pmf, and hence, it provides for stabilization of the potential at the membrane. Two mechanisms of such kind are discussed: 1) pH changes in the surface area due to proton pumping develop faster than those due to proton escape to the bulk; 2) the former does not take place, but the protons leaving the surface do not equilibrate with the bulk immediately; rather, they give rise to a non-equilibrium concentration near the surface and, as a result, to a back proton flow to the surface. The first mechanism is more efficient, but it does not occur in mitochondria and neutrophilic bacteria, whereas the second can produce ΔpH on the order of unity. In the absence of proton retardation at the surface, local ΔpH does not arise, whereas the formation of global ΔpH is possible only at buffer concentration of less than 10 mM. The role of the mechanisms proposed in transitions between States 3 and 4 of the respiratory chain is discussed. The main conclusion is that surface protons, under conditions where they play a role, support stabilization of the

  10. Contact mechanics for layered materials with randomly rough surfaces. (United States)

    Persson, B N J


    The contact mechanics model of Persson is applied to layered materials. We calculate the M function, which relates the surface stress to the surface displacement, for a layered material, where the top layer (thickness d) has different elastic properties than the semi-infinite solid below. Numerical results for the contact area as a function of the magnification are presented for several cases. As an application, we calculate the fluid leak rate for laminated rubber seals.

  11. Tuning Mechanisms in a Corrugated Origami Frequency Selective Surface (Preprint) (United States)


    AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2017-0298 TUNING MECHANISMS IN A CORRUGATED ORIGAMI FREQUENCY SELECTIVE SURFACE (PREPRINT) Kazuko Fuchi UDRI... SURFACE (PREPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8650-15-D-5405-0002 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 1) Kazuko Fuchi...Clearance Date: 12 Jan 2017. This document contains color. The U.S. Government is joint author of the work and has the right to use, modify, reproduce

  12. Investigation of the sound generation mechanisms for in-duct orifice plates. (United States)

    Tao, Fuyang; Joseph, Phillip; Zhang, Xin; Stalnov, Oksana; Siercke, Matthias; Scheel, Henning


    Sound generation due to an orifice plate in a hard-walled flow duct which is commonly used in air distribution systems (ADS) and flow meters is investigated. The aim is to provide an understanding of this noise generation mechanism based on measurements of the source pressure distribution over the orifice plate. A simple model based on Curle's acoustic analogy is described that relates the broadband in-duct sound field to the surface pressure cross spectrum on both sides of the orifice plate. This work describes careful measurements of the surface pressure cross spectrum over the orifice plate from which the surface pressure distribution and correlation length is deduced. This information is then used to predict the radiated in-duct sound field. Agreement within 3 dB between the predicted and directly measured sound fields is obtained, providing direct confirmation that the surface pressure fluctuations acting over the orifice plates are the main noise sources. Based on the developed model, the contributions to the sound field from different radial locations of the orifice plate are calculated. The surface pressure is shown to follow a U 3.9 velocity scaling law and the area over which the surface sources are correlated follows a U 1.8 velocity scaling law.

  13. On the mechanics of thin films and growing surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Holland, M. A.


    Many living structures are coated by thin films, which have distinct mechanical properties from the bulk. In particular, these thin layers may grow faster or slower than the inner core. Differential growth creates a balanced interplay between tension and compression and plays a critical role in enhancing structural rigidity. Typical examples with a compressive outer surface and a tensile inner core are the petioles of celery, caladium, or rhubarb. While plant physiologists have studied the impact of tissue tension on plant rigidity for more than a century, the fundamental theory of growing surfaces remains poorly understood. Here, we establish a theoretical and computational framework for continua with growing surfaces and demonstrate its application to classical phenomena in plant growth. To allow the surface to grow independently of the bulk, we equip it with its own potential energy and its own surface stress. We derive the governing equations for growing surfaces of zero thickness and obtain their spatial discretization using the finite-element method. To illustrate the features of our new surface growth model we simulate the effects of growth-induced longitudinal tissue tension in a stalk of rhubarb. Our results demonstrate that different growth rates create a mechanical environment of axial tissue tension and residual stress, which can be released by peeling off the outer layer. Our novel framework for continua with growing surfaces has immediate biomedical applications beyond these classical model problems in botany: it can be easily extended to model and predict surface growth in asthma, gastritis, obstructive sleep apnoea, brain development, and tumor invasion. Beyond biology and medicine, surface growth models are valuable tools for material scientists when designing functionalized surfaces with distinct user-defined properties. © The Author(s) 2013.

  14. Surface layer softing in mechanically polished molybdenum monocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivashchenko, R.K.; Kostyuchenko, V.G.; Lotsko, D.V.; Lukinov, I.V.; Mil'man, Yu.V.; Novikov, G.A.


    Softening of the surface layer together with growth of dislocation density is found in molybdenum single crystals mechanically polished with diamond suspension in water solution of CuSO 4 . The penetration of small amount of copper into molybdenum is observed by SIMS. A supposition has been made about molybdenum solid solution softening influenced by copper penetrating into molybdenum by means of a dynamic dislocation mechanism

  15. Reaction mechanisms for on-surface synthesis of covalent nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Björk, J


    In recent years, on-surface synthesis has become an increasingly popular strategy to form covalent nanostructures. The approach has great prospects for facilitating the manufacture of a range of fascinating materials with atomic precision. However, the on-surface reactions are enigmatic to control, currently restricting its bright perspectives and there is a great need to explore how the reactions are governed. The objective of this topical review is to summarize theoretical work that has focused on comprehending on-surface synthesis protocols through studies of reaction mechanisms. (topical review)

  16. Mechanisms of polymer degradation using an oxygen plasma generator (United States)

    Colony, Joe A.; Sanford, Edward L.


    An RF oxygen plasma generator was used to produce polymer degradation which appears to be similar to that which has been observed in low Earth orbit. Mechanisms of this type of degradation were studied by collecting the reaction products in a cryogenic trap and identifying the molecular species using infrared, mass spectral, and X-ray diffraction techniques. No structurally dependent species were found from Kapton, Teflon, or Saran polymers. However, very reactive free radical entities are produced during the polymer degradation, as well as carbon dioxide and water. Reactions of the free radicals with the glass reaction vessel, with copper metal in the cold trap, and with a triphenyl phosphate scavenger in the cold trap, demonstrated the reactivity of the primary products.

  17. Material, Mechanical, and Tribological Characterization of Laser-Treated Surfaces (United States)

    Yilbas, Bekir Sami; Kumar, Aditya; Bhushan, Bharat; Aleem, B. J. Abdul


    Laser treatment under nitrogen assisting gas environment of cobalt-nickel-chromium-tungsten-based superalloy and high-velocity oxygen-fuel thermal spray coating of nickel-chromium-based superalloy on carbon steel was carried out to improve mechanical and tribological properties. Superalloy surface was preprepared to include B4C particles at the surface prior to the laser treatment process. Material and morphological changes in the laser-treated samples were examined using scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Residual stresses present at the surface region of the laser-treated layer were determined from the XRD data. The microhardness of the laser-treated surface was measured by indentation tests. Fracture toughness of the coating surfaces before and after laser treatment were also measured using overload indentation tests. Macrowear and macrofriction characterization were carried out using pin-on-disk tests.

  18. Generation of nanometer structures on surfaces of ionic solids generated by laser and electron beam irradiation (United States)

    Dawes, M. L.; Langford, S. C.; Dickinson, J. Thomas


    Radiation effects on hydrated single crystals are poorly understood. We find that dense arrays of nanoscale conical structures, with aspect ratios on the order of 200, are produced when single crystal brushite (CaHPO_4^.2H_2O) is exposed to energetic electrons (2 keV). Other three dimensional nanostructures are generated by exposing brushite to excimer laser irradiation. We show that the mechanism involves: (a) photo/electron stimulated decomposition of the matrix, and (b) thermally stimulated migration of water (in this case, crystalline) and ionic material. We have isolated these factors to some extent and present plausible mechanisms for structure formation. In addition, we have recently exposed non-hydrated ionic crystals to radiation in the presence of background water (pp_water ~ 10-7 Torr), which produces exceedingly fine structures (sub-10 nm). The optical and luminescence properties of these features will be presented. An example of a “stealth surface” will be given with possible applications for the laser generation of x-rays.

  19. On the generation mechanism of ULF seismogenic electromagnetic emissions (United States)

    Molchanov, O. A.; Hayakawa, M.

    Microfracturing electrification is suggested as a possible mechanism for explaining ULF electromagnetic emissions observed before and after the earthquakes. This effect appears as fast fluctuation of microcracks and leads to the origination of wideband electromagnetic noise. This noise dissipates outside the source region and produces ULF emissions on the ground surface with an upper cutoff frequency ˜1 Hz due to the skin depth attenuation. Each microcurrent results from charge relaxation during microcrack opening and depends on the time of opening and conductivity of the rock medium. The normal size distribution of microcracks, their fast opening and healing (intermittence), and average size progression due to stress corrosion are assumed. Using this model, it is possible to compare these theoretical explanations with the observational results with reference to the intensity, frequency spectrum and temporal development of ULF magnetic field variations.

  20. Feedbacks Between Shallow Groundwater Dynamics and Surface Topography on Runoff Generation in Flat Fields (United States)

    Appels, Willemijn M.; Bogaart, Patrick W.; van der Zee, Sjoerd E. A. T. M.


    In winter, saturation excess (SE) ponding is observed regularly in temperate lowland regions. Surface runoff dynamics are controlled by small topographical features that are unaccounted for in hydrological models. To better understand storage and routing effects of small-scale topography and their interaction with shallow groundwater under SE conditions, we developed a model of reduced complexity to investigate SE runoff generation, emphasizing feedbacks between shallow groundwater dynamics and mesotopography. The dynamic specific yield affected unsaturated zone water storage, causing rapid switches between negative and positive head and a flatter groundwater mound than predicted by analytical agrohydrological models. Accordingly, saturated areas were larger and local groundwater fluxes smaller than predicted, leading to surface runoff generation. Mesotopographic features routed water over larger distances, providing a feedback mechanism that amplified changes to the shape of the groundwater mound. This in turn enhanced runoff generation, but whether it also resulted in runoff events depended on the geometry and location of the depressions. Whereas conditions favorable to runoff generation may abound during winter, these feedbacks profoundly reduce the predictability of SE runoff: statistically identical rainfall series may result in completely different runoff generation. The model results indicate that waterlogged areas in any given rainfall event are larger than those predicted by current analytical groundwater models used for drainage design. This change in the groundwater mound extent has implications for crop growth and damage assessments.

  1. Mechanical and tribological properties of ion beam-processed surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kodali, Padma [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)


    The intent of this work was to broaden the applications of well-established surface modification techniques and to elucidate the various wear mechanisms that occur in sliding contact of ion-beam processed surfaces. The investigation included characterization and evaluation of coatings and modified surfaces synthesized by three surface engineering methods; namely, beam-line ion implantation, plasma-source ion implantation, and DC magnetron sputtering. Correlation among measured properties such as surface hardness, fracture toughness, and wear behavior was also examined. This dissertation focused on the following areas of research: (1) investigating the mechanical and tribological properties of mixed implantation of carbon and nitrogen into single crystal silicon by beam-line implantation; (2) characterizing the mechanical and tribological properties of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings processed by plasma source ion implantation; and (3) developing and evaluating metastable boron-carbon-nitrogen (BCN) compound coatings for mechanical and tribological properties. The surface hardness of a mixed carbon-nitrogen implant sample improved significantly compared to the unimplanted sample. However, the enhancement in the wear factor of this sample was found to be less significant than carbon-implanted samples. The presence of nitrogen might be responsible for the degraded wear behavior since nitrogen-implantation alone resulted in no improvement in the wear factor. DLC coatings have low friction, low wear factor, and high hardness. The fracture toughness of DLC coatings has been estimated for the first time. The wear mechanism in DLC coatings investigated with a ruby slider under a contact stress of 1 GPa was determined to be plastic deformation. The preliminary data on metastable BCN compound coatings indicated high friction, low wear factor, and high hardness.

  2. Mechanical and tribological properties of ion beam-processed surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodali, P.


    The intent of this work was to broaden the applications of well-established surface modification techniques and to elucidate the various wear mechanisms that occur in sliding contact of ion-beam processed surfaces. The investigation included characterization and evaluation of coatings and modified surfaces synthesized by three surface engineering methods; namely, beam-line ion implantation, plasma-source ion implantation, and DC magnetron sputtering. Correlation among measured properties such as surface hardness, fracture toughness, and wear behavior was also examined. This dissertation focused on the following areas of research: (1) investigating the mechanical and tribological properties of mixed implantation of carbon and nitrogen into single crystal silicon by beam-line implantation; (2) characterizing the mechanical and tribological properties of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings processed by plasma source ion implantation; and (3) developing and evaluating metastable boron-carbon-nitrogen (BCN) compound coatings for mechanical and tribological properties. The surface hardness of a mixed carbon-nitrogen implant sample improved significantly compared to the unimplanted sample. However, the enhancement in the wear factor of this sample was found to be less significant than carbon-implanted samples. The presence of nitrogen might be responsible for the degraded wear behavior since nitrogen-implantation alone resulted in no improvement in the wear factor. DLC coatings have low friction, low wear factor, and high hardness. The fracture toughness of DLC coatings has been estimated for the first time. The wear mechanism in DLC coatings investigated with a ruby slider under a contact stress of 1 GPa was determined to be plastic deformation. The preliminary data on metastable BCN compound coatings indicated high friction, low wear factor, and high hardness

  3. Study on cavitation effect of mechanical seals with laser-textured porous surface (United States)

    Liu, T.; Chen, H. l.; Liu, Y. H.; Wang, Q.; Liu, Z. B.; Hou, D. H.


    Study on the mechanisms underlying generation of hydrodynamic pressure effect associated with laser-textured porous surface on mechanical seal, is the key to seal and lubricant properties. The theory model of mechanical seals with laser-textured porous surface (LES-MS) based on cavitation model was established. The LST-MS was calculated and analyzed by using Fluent software with full cavitation model and non-cavitation model and film thickness was predicted by the dynamic mesh technique. The results indicate that the effect of hydrodynamic pressure and cavitation are the important reasons to generate liquid film opening force on LST-MS; Cavitation effect can enhance hydrodynamic pressure effect of LST-MS; The thickness of liquid film could be well predicted with the method of dynamic mesh technique on Fluent and it becomes larger as the increasing of shaft speed and the decreasing of pressure.

  4. Study on cavitation effect of mechanical seals with laser-textured porous surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, T; Chen, H l; Liu, Y H; Wang, Q; Liu, Z B; Hou, D H


    Study on the mechanisms underlying generation of hydrodynamic pressure effect associated with laser-textured porous surface on mechanical seal, is the key to seal and lubricant properties. The theory model of mechanical seals with laser-textured porous surface (LES-MS) based on cavitation model was established. The LST-MS was calculated and analyzed by using Fluent software with full cavitation model and non-cavitation model and film thickness was predicted by the dynamic mesh technique. The results indicate that the effect of hydrodynamic pressure and cavitation are the important reasons to generate liquid film opening force on LST-MS; Cavitation effect can enhance hydrodynamic pressure effect of LST-MS; The thickness of liquid film could be well predicted with the method of dynamic mesh technique on Fluent and it becomes larger as the increasing of shaft speed and the decreasing of pressure.

  5. Mechanisms regulating osteoblast response to surface microtopography and vitamin D (United States)

    Bell, Bryan Frederick, Jr.

    A comprehensive understanding of the interactions between orthopaedic and dental implant surfaces with the surrounding host tissue is essential in the design of advanced biomaterials that better promote bone growth and osseointegration of implants. Dental implants with roughened surfaces and high surface energy are well known to promote osteoblast differentiation in vitro and promote increased bone-to-implant contact in vivo. In addition, increased surface roughness increases osteoblasts response to the vitamin D metabolite 1alpha,25(OH)2D3. However, the exact mechanisms mediating cell response to surface properties and 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 are still being elucidated. The central aim of the thesis is to investigate whether integrin signaling in response to rough surface microtopography enhances osteoblast differentiation and responsiveness to 1alpha,25(OH)2D3. The hypothesis is that the integrin alpha5beta1 plays a role in osteoblast response to surface microtopography and that 1alpha,25(OH) 2D3 acts through VDR-independent pathways involving caveolae to synergistically enhance osteoblast response to surface roughness and 1alpha,25(OH) 2D3. To test this hypothesis the objectives of the studies performed in this thesis were: (1) to determine if alpha5beta 1 signaling is required for osteoblast response to surface microstructure; (2) to determine if increased responsiveness to 1alpha,25(OH)2D 3 requires the vitamin D receptor, (3) to determine if rough titanium surfaces functionalized with the peptides targeting integrins (RGD) and transmembrane proteoglycans (KRSR) will enhance both osteoblast proliferation and differentiation, and (4) to determine whether caveolae, which are associated with integrin and 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 signaling, are required for enhance osteogenic response to surface microstructure and 1alpha,25(OH)2D 3. The results demonstrate that integrins, VDR, and caveolae play important roles in mediating osteoblast response to surface properties and 1alpha,25

  6. The gluon mass generation mechanism: A concise primer (United States)

    Aguilar, A. C.; Binosi, D.; Papavassiliou, J.


    We present a pedagogical overview of the nonperturbative mechanism that endows gluons with a dynamical mass. This analysis is performed based on pure Yang-Mills theories in the Landau gauge, within the theoretical framework that emerges from the combination of the pinch technique with the background field method. In particular, we concentrate on the Schwinger-Dyson equation satisfied by the gluon propagator and examine the necessary conditions for obtaining finite solutions within the infrared region. The role of seagull diagrams receives particular attention, as do the identities that enforce the cancellation of all potential quadratic divergences.We stress the necessity of introducing nonperturbative massless poles in the fully dressed vertices of the theory in order to trigger the Schwinger mechanism, and explain in detail the instrumental role of these poles in maintaining the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin symmetry at every step of the mass-generating procedure. The dynamical equation governing the evolution of the gluon mass is derived, and its solutions are determined numerically following implementation of a set of simplifying assumptions. The obtained mass function is positive definite, and exhibits a power law running that is consistent with general arguments based on the operator product expansion in the ultraviolet region. A possible connection between confinement and the presence of an inflection point in the gluon propagator is briefly discussed.

  7. Steam Generator Analysis Tools and Modeling of Degradation Mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yetisir, M.; Pietralik, J.; Tapping, R.L.


    The degradation of steam generators (SGs) has a significant effect on nuclear heat transport system effectiveness and the lifetime and overall efficiency of a nuclear power plant. Hence, quantification of the effects of degradation mechanisms is an integral part of a SG degradation management strategy. Numerical analysis tools such as THIRST, a 3-dimensional (3D) thermal hydraulics code for recirculating SGs; SLUDGE, a 3D sludge prediction code; CHECWORKS a flow-accelerated corrosion prediction code for nuclear piping, PIPO-FE, a SG tube vibration code; and VIBIC and H3DMAP, 3D non-linear finite-element codes to predict SG tube fretting wear can be used to assess the impacts of various maintenance activities on SG thermal performance. These tools are also found to be invaluable at the design stage to influence the design by determining margins or by helping the designers minimize or avoid known degradation mechanisms. In this paper, the aforementioned numerical tools and their application to degradation mechanisms in CANDU recirculating SGs are described. In addition, the following degradation mechanisms are identified and their effect on SG thermal efficiency and lifetime are quantified: primary-side fouling, secondary-side fouling, fretting wear, and flow-accelerated corrosion (FAC). Primary-side tube inner diameter fouling has been a major contributor to SG thermal degradation. Using the results of thermalhydraulic analysis and field data, fouling margins are calculated. Individual effects of primary- and secondary-side fouling are separated through analyses, which allow station operators to decide what type of maintenance activity to perform and when to perform the maintenance activity. Prediction of the fretting-wear rate of tubes allows designers to decide on the number and locations of support plates and U-bend supports. The prediction of FAC rates for SG internals allows designers to select proper materials, and allows operators to adjust the SG maintenance

  8. Spectroscopic Study of the Surface Oxidation of Mechanically Activated Sulphides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Godočíková, E.; Baláž, P.; Bastl, Zdeněk; Brabec, Libor


    Roč. 200, č. 1 (2002), s. 36-47 ISSN 0169-4332 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : mechanical activation * surface oxidation * sulphide minerals Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.295, year: 2002

  9. Mechanisms of subthreshold atomic emission from solid surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiv, A.E.; Elango, M.A.; Britavskaya, E.P.; Zaharchenko, I.G.


    Computer simulation of the dynamics of ions and atoms on the surfaces of solids has been carried out. The Coulomb, Pauli, exchange and Van der Waals potentials have been taken into account. The semi-empirical quantum-chemical method has been used also. In the case of alkali halide surfaces it is shown that if recharge of an anion (X - → X + ) occurs in two surface layers, it may initiate the ejection of positive metal ions (M + ) and, assisted by the capture of an electron by a departing M + , of metal atoms M 0 . Besides the Coulomb repulsion the Pauli shock is shown to play an essential role in the driving of the ejection process. This mechanism of desorption has large efficiency when the excitation of a core electron occurs in case of alkali halide crystals and has a strong dependence on the crystal ionicity. We obtained the energy distribution of ejected particles for different mechanisms of electron-ion emission. (orig.)

  10. Effect of surface structure on catalytic reactions: A sum frequency generation surface vibrational spectroscopy study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCrea, Keith Ryan [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    In the results discussed above, it is clear that Sum Frequency Generation (SFG) is a unique tool that allows the detection of vibrational spectra of adsorbed molecules present on single crystal surfaces under catalytic reaction conditions. Not only is it possible to detect active surface intermediates, it is also possible to detect spectator species which are not responsible for the measured turnover rates. By correlating high-pressure SFG spectra under reaction conditions and gas chromatography (GC) kinetic data, it is possible to determine which species are important under reaction intermediates. Because of the flexibility of this technique for studying surface intermediates, it is possible to determine how the structures of single crystal surfaces affect the observed rates of catalytic reactions. As an example of a structure insensitive reaction, ethylene hydrogenation was explored on both Pt(111) and Pt(100). The rates were determined to be essentially the same. It was observed that both ethylidyne and di-σ bonded ethylene were present on the surface under reaction conditions on both crystals, although in different concentrations. This result shows that these two species are not responsible for the measured turnover rate, as it would be expected that one of the two crystals would be more active than the other, since the concentration of the surface intermediate would be different on the two crystals. The most likely active intermediates are weakly adsorbed molecules such as π-bonded ethylene and ethyl. These species are not easily detected because their concentration lies at the detection limit of SFG. The SFG spectra and GC data essentially show that ethylene hydrogenation is structure insensitive for Pt(111) and Pt(100). SFG has proven to be a unique and excellent technique for studying adsorbed species on single crystal surfaces under high-pressure catalytic reactions. Coupled with kinetic data obtained from gas chromatography measurements, it can give

  11. Evaluation of Surface Runoff Generation Processes Using a Rainfall Simulator: A Small Scale Laboratory Experiment (United States)

    Danáčová, Michaela; Valent, Peter; Výleta, Roman


    Nowadays, rainfall simulators are being used by many researchers in field or laboratory experiments. The main objective of most of these experiments is to better understand the underlying runoff generation processes, and to use the results in the process of calibration and validation of hydrological models. Many research groups have assembled their own rainfall simulators, which comply with their understanding of rainfall processes, and the requirements of their experiments. Most often, the existing rainfall simulators differ mainly in the size of the irrigated area, and the way they generate rain drops. They can be characterized by the accuracy, with which they produce a rainfall of a given intensity, the size of the irrigated area, and the rain drop generating mechanism. Rainfall simulation experiments can provide valuable information about the genesis of surface runoff, infiltration of water into soil and rainfall erodibility. Apart from the impact of physical properties of soil, its moisture and compaction on the generation of surface runoff and the amount of eroded particles, some studies also investigate the impact of vegetation cover of the whole area of interest. In this study, the rainfall simulator was used to simulate the impact of the slope gradient of the irrigated area on the amount of generated runoff and sediment yield. In order to eliminate the impact of external factors and to improve the reproducibility of the initial conditions, the experiments were conducted in laboratory conditions. The laboratory experiments were carried out using a commercial rainfall simulator, which was connected to an external peristaltic pump. The pump maintained a constant and adjustable inflow of water, which enabled to overcome the maximum volume of simulated precipitation of 2.3 l, given by the construction of the rainfall simulator, while maintaining constant characteristics of the simulated precipitation. In this study a 12-minute rainfall with a constant intensity

  12. Surface scattering mechanisms of tantalum nitride thin film resistor. (United States)

    Chen, Huey-Ru; Chen, Ying-Chung; Chang, Ting-Chang; Chang, Kuan-Chang; Tsai, Tsung-Ming; Chu, Tian-Jian; Shih, Chih-Cheng; Chuang, Nai-Chuan; Wang, Kao-Yuan


    In this letter, we utilize an electrical analysis method to develop a TaN thin film resistor with a stricter spec and near-zero temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) for car-used electronic applications. Simultaneously, we also propose a physical mechanism mode to explain the origin of near-zero TCR for the TaN thin film resistor (TFR). Through current fitting, the carrier conduction mechanism of the TaN TFR changes from hopping to surface scattering and finally to ohmic conduction for different TaN TFRs with different TaN microstructures. Experimental data of current-voltage measurement under successive increasing temperature confirm the conduction mechanism transition. A model of TaN grain boundary isolation ability is eventually proposed to influence the carrier transport in the TaN thin film resistor, which causes different current conduction mechanisms.

  13. Surface and mechanical properties of polypropylene/clay nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dibaei Asl Husein


    Full Text Available Huge consumption of polypropylene in the industries like automotive motivates academic and industrial R&Ds to find new and excellent approaches to improve the mechanical properties of this polymer, which has no degradation effect on other required performance properties like impact resistance, controlled crystallinity, toughness and shrinkage. Nowadays, nanoparticles play a key role in improving the mechanical and surface properties of polypropylene. In this study, three compositions of "Polypropylene/nanoclay", containing 0%, 2% and 5% of nanoclay were prepared in internal mixer. For characterizing the nanoclay dispersion in polymer bulk, TEM and XRD tests were used. For scratch resistance test, scratch lines were created on the load of 900 grain on sheets and SEM images were taken and compared with neat PP scratch image. Crystallinity and mechanical behavior were studied. The results showed that mechanical properties and scratch resistance of the composites have been improved.

  14. Thermal mechanical analysis of applications with internal heat generation (United States)

    Govindarajan, Srisharan Garg

    control blade, spatial variations in temperature within the control blade occur from the non-uniform heat generation within the BORAL as a result of the non-uniform thermal neutron flux along the longitudinal direction when the control blade is partially withdrawn. There is also variation in the heating profile through the thickness and about the circumferential width of the control blade. Mathematical curve-fits are generated for the non-uniform volumetric heat generation profile caused by the thermal neutron absorption and the functions are applied as heating conditions within a finite element model of the control blade built using the commercial finite element code Abaqus FEA. The finite element model is solved as a fully coupled thermal mechanical problem as in the case of the annular target. The resulting deflection is compared with the channel gap to determine if there is a significant risk of the control blade binding during reactor operation. Hence, this dissertation will consist of two sections. The first section will seek to present the thermal and structural safety analyses of the annular targets for the production of molybdenum-99. Since there hasn't been any detailed, documented, study on these annular targets in the past, the work complied in this dissertation will help to understand the thermal-mechanical behavior and failure margins of the target during in-vessel irradiation. As the work presented in this dissertation provides a general performance analysis envelope for the annular target, the tools developed in the process can also be used as useful references for future analyses that are specific to any reactor. The numerical analysis approach adopted and the analytical models developed, can also be applied to other applications, outside the Mo-99 project domain, where internal heat generation exists such as in electronic components and nuclear reactor control blades. The second section will focus on estimating the thermally induced deflection and hence

  15. Neutralization mechanisms in He+-Al surface collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajales, N.; Ferron, J.; Goldberg, E.C.


    From a quantum mechanical calculation where the populations of He ground and first excited states are properly taken into account, we can identify for the first time the neutralization to the He first excited state as an operative mechanism in He + -Al surface collisions. This identification allows us to understand the presence of high energy electrons in the ion induced electron emission spectra, through the inclusion of Auger deexcitation as an electron emission source, as well as to suggest a possible cause for the disagreement still found between theory and experiments in low energy ion scattering (LEIS) for this system

  16. Microfluidic droplet generator with controlled break-up mechanism

    KAUST Repository

    Gonzalez, David Conchouso


    Droplet generation devices and systems that parallelize droplet generation devices are provided. The droplet generation devices can include a symmetric block-and-break system and a tapered droplet generation zone. The symmetric block-and-break system can include a pair of break channels and a pair of bypass channels symmetrically arranged with respect to the dispersed-phase input channel and the output channel. The droplet generation devices can generate monodisperse droplets with a predefined volume over a range of flow rates, pressures, and fluid properties. The droplet generation devices are therefore capable of parallelization to achieve large-capacity droplet generation, e.g. greater than 1 L/hr, with small overall coefficients of variation.

  17. Photoelectrochemical etching of gallium nitride surface by complexation dissolution mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Miao-Rong [Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 215123 Suzhou (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100049 Beijing (China); Hou, Fei; Wang, Zu-Gang; Zhang, Shao-Hui [Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 215123 Suzhou (China); Changchun University of Science and Technology, 130022 Changchun (China); Pan, Ge-Bo, E-mail: [Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 215123 Suzhou (China)


    Graphical abstract: GaN surface was etched by 0.3 M EDTA-2Na. The proposed complexation dissolution mechanism can be applicable to almost all neutral etchants under the prerequisite of strong light and electric field. - Highlights: • GaN surface was etched by EDTA-2Na. • GaN may be dissolved into EDTA-2Na by forming Ga–EDTA complex. • We propose the complexation dissolution mechanism for the first time. - Abstract: Gallium nitride (GaN) surface was etched by 0.3 M ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid disodium (EDTA-2Na) via photoelectrochemical etching technique. SEM images reveal the etched GaN surface becomes rough and irregular. The pore density is up to 1.9 × 10{sup 9} per square centimeter after simple acid post-treatment. The difference of XPS spectra of Ga 3d, N 1s and O 1s between the non-etched and freshly etched GaN surfaces can be attributed to the formation of Ga–EDTA complex at the etching interface between GaN and EDTA-2Na. The proposed complexation dissolution mechanism can be broadly applicable to almost all neutral etchants under the prerequisite of strong light and electric field. From the point of view of environment, safety and energy, EDTA-2Na has obvious advantages over conventionally corrosive etchants. Moreover, as the further and deeper study of such nearly neutral etchants, GaN etching technology has better application prospect in photoelectric micro-device fabrication.

  18. Photoelectrochemical etching of gallium nitride surface by complexation dissolution mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Miao-Rong; Hou, Fei; Wang, Zu-Gang; Zhang, Shao-Hui; Pan, Ge-Bo


    Graphical abstract: GaN surface was etched by 0.3 M EDTA-2Na. The proposed complexation dissolution mechanism can be applicable to almost all neutral etchants under the prerequisite of strong light and electric field. - Highlights: • GaN surface was etched by EDTA-2Na. • GaN may be dissolved into EDTA-2Na by forming Ga–EDTA complex. • We propose the complexation dissolution mechanism for the first time. - Abstract: Gallium nitride (GaN) surface was etched by 0.3 M ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid disodium (EDTA-2Na) via photoelectrochemical etching technique. SEM images reveal the etched GaN surface becomes rough and irregular. The pore density is up to 1.9 × 10 9 per square centimeter after simple acid post-treatment. The difference of XPS spectra of Ga 3d, N 1s and O 1s between the non-etched and freshly etched GaN surfaces can be attributed to the formation of Ga–EDTA complex at the etching interface between GaN and EDTA-2Na. The proposed complexation dissolution mechanism can be broadly applicable to almost all neutral etchants under the prerequisite of strong light and electric field. From the point of view of environment, safety and energy, EDTA-2Na has obvious advantages over conventionally corrosive etchants. Moreover, as the further and deeper study of such nearly neutral etchants, GaN etching technology has better application prospect in photoelectric micro-device fabrication.

  19. Investigate the complex process in particle-fluid based surface generation technology using reactive molecular dynamics method (United States)

    Han, Xuesong; Li, Haiyan; Zhao, Fu


    Particle-fluid based surface generation process has already become one of the most important materials processing technology for many advanced materials such as optical crystal, ceramics and so on. Most of the particle-fluid based surface generation technology involves two key process: chemical reaction which is responsible for surface softening; physical behavior which is responsible for materials removal/deformation. Presently, researchers cannot give a reasonable explanation about the complex process in the particle-fluid based surface generation technology because of the small temporal-spatial scale and the concurrent influence of physical-chemical process. Molecular dynamics (MD) method has already been proved to be a promising approach for constructing effective model of atomic scale phenomenon and can serve as a predicting simulation tool in analyzing the complex surface generation mechanism and is employed in this research to study the essence of surface generation. The deformation and piles of water molecule is induced with the feeding of abrasive particle which justifies the property mutation of water at nanometer scale. There are little silica molecule aggregation or materials removal because the water-layer greatly reduce the strength of mechanical interaction between particle and materials surface and minimize the stress concentration. Furthermore, chemical effect is also observed at the interface: stable chemical bond is generated between water and silica which lead to the formation of silconl and the reaction rate changes with the amount of water molecules in the local environment. Novel ring structure is observed in the silica surface and it is justified to be favored of chemical reaction with water molecule. The siloxane bond formation process quickly strengthened across the interface with the feeding of abrasive particle because of the compressive stress resulted by the impacting behavior.

  20. Investigate the complex process in particle-fluid based surface generation technology using reactive molecular dynamics method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuesong Han


    Full Text Available Particle-fluid based surface generation process has already become one of the most important materials processing technology for many advanced materials such as optical crystal, ceramics and so on. Most of the particle-fluid based surface generation technology involves two key process: chemical reaction which is responsible for surface softening; physical behavior which is responsible for materials removal/deformation. Presently, researchers cannot give a reasonable explanation about the complex process in the particle-fluid based surface generation technology because of the small temporal-spatial scale and the concurrent influence of physical-chemical process. Molecular dynamics (MD method has already been proved to be a promising approach for constructing effective model of atomic scale phenomenon and can serve as a predicting simulation tool in analyzing the complex surface generation mechanism and is employed in this research to study the essence of surface generation. The deformation and piles of water molecule is induced with the feeding of abrasive particle which justifies the property mutation of water at nanometer scale. There are little silica molecule aggregation or materials removal because the water-layer greatly reduce the strength of mechanical interaction between particle and materials surface and minimize the stress concentration. Furthermore, chemical effect is also observed at the interface: stable chemical bond is generated between water and silica which lead to the formation of silconl and the reaction rate changes with the amount of water molecules in the local environment. Novel ring structure is observed in the silica surface and it is justified to be favored of chemical reaction with water molecule. The siloxane bond formation process quickly strengthened across the interface with the feeding of abrasive particle because of the compressive stress resulted by the impacting behavior.

  1. Mechanical stability of surface architecture--consequences for superhydrophobicity. (United States)

    Dyett, Brendan P; Wu, Alex H; Lamb, Robert N


    Wet chemistry methods such as sol-gel provide a facile means of preparing coatings with controlled surface chemistry and architecture. The manipulation of colloidal "building blocks," film constituents, and reaction conditions makes it a promising method for simple, scalable, and routine production of superhydrophobic coatings. Despite all of this, the practical application of superhydrophobic coatings remains limited by low mechanical durability. The translation of chemistry to mechanical strength within superhydrophobic films is severely hindered by the requisite physical structure. More specifically, porosity and the surface architecture of roughness in sol-gel-derived films contribute significantly to poor mechanical properties. These physical effects emphasize that collective structure and chemistry-based strategies are required. This challenge is not unique to superhydrophobics, and there are many principles that can be drawn upon to greatly improve performance. The delicate interplay between chemistry and physical structure has been highlighted through theory and characterization of porous and rough interfaces within and outside the framework of superhydrophobics. Insights can further be drawn from biology. Nature's capacity for self-repair remains extremely challenging to mimic in materials. However, nature does demonstrate strategies for structuring nano- and microbuilding blocks to achieve generally mutually exclusive properties. Difficulties with characterization and example mechanical characterization methods have also been emphasized.

  2. Mechanical stress-controlled tunable active frequency-selective surface (United States)

    Huang, Bo-Cin; Hong, Jian-Wei; Lo, Cheng-Yao


    This study proposes a tunable active frequency-selective surface (AFSS) realized by mechanically expanding or contracting a split-ring resonator (SRR) array. The proposed AFSS transfers mechanical stress from its elastic substrate to the top of the SRR, thereby achieving electromagnetic (EM) modulation without the need for an additional external power supply, meeting the requirements for the target application: the invisibility cloak. The operating mechanism of the proposed AFSS differs from those of other AFSSs, supporting modulations in arbitrary frequencies in the target range. The proposed stress-controlled or strain-induced EM modulation proves the existence of an identical and linear relationship between the strain gradient and the frequency shift, implying its suitability for other EM modulation ranges and applications.

  3. Mechanism of glucose electrochemical oxidation on gold surface

    KAUST Repository

    Pasta, Mauro


    The complex oxidation of glucose at the surface of gold electrodes was studied in detail in different conditions of pH, buffer and halide concentration. As observed in previous studies, an oxidative current peak occurs during the cathodic sweep showing a highly linear dependence on glucose concentration, when other electrolyte conditions are unchanged. The effect of the different conditions on the intensity of this peak has stressed the limitations of the previously proposed mechanisms. A mechanism able to explain the presence of this oxidative peak was proposed. The mechanism takes into account ion-sorption and electrochemical adsorption of OH-, buffer species (K2HPO4/KH2PO4) and halides. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT) on microhardness, surface roughness and wettability of AISI 316L

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arifvianto, B.; Suyitno, [No Value; Mahardika, M.; Dewo, P.; Iswanto, P. T.; Salim, U. A.


    Surface roughness and wettability are among the surface properties which determine the service lifetime of materials. Mechanical treatments subjected to the surface layer of materials are often performed to obtain the desired surface properties and to enhance the mechanical strength of materials. In

  5. Analysis of mechanical behavior and hysteresis heat generating mechanism of PDM motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Changshuai; Zhu, Xiaohua; Tang, Liping [Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu (China); Deng, Juan [Avic Chengdu Engine (Group) Co.,Ltd, Chengdu (China)


    Positive displacement motor (PDM), which is prone to high temperature fatigue failure, can be weakened in its application in deep and superdeep well. In order to study the forced state, deformation regularity and thermal hysteresis of PDM motor, the paper established the three-dimensional thermal-mechanical coupled Finite element model (FEM). Based on the theoretical research, experimental study and numerical simulation, the study found that the displacement of stator lining shows a sinusoidal variation under internal pressure, when adapting the general form of sine function to fitting inner contour line deformation function. Then the paper analyzed the hysteresis heat generating mechanism of the motor, learning that hysteresis thermogenous of stator lining occurs due to the viscoelastic of rubber material and cyclic loading of stator lining. A heartburn happens gradually in the center of the thickest part of the stator lining as temperature increases, which means work efficiency and service life of PDM will be decreased when used in deep or superdeep well. In this paper, we established a theory equation for the choice of interference fit and motor line type optimization design, showing hysteresis heat generating analyzing model and method are reasonable enough to significantly improve PDM’s structure and help better use PDM in deep and surdeep well.

  6. Mechanical Properties of Laminate Materials: From Surface Waves to Bloch Oscillations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liang, Z.; Willatzen, Morten; Christensen, Johan


    for designing Bloch oscillations in classical plate structures and show how mechanical Bloch oscillations can be generated in arrays of solid plates when the modal wavelength is gradually reduced. The design recipe describes how Bloch oscillations in classical structures of arbitrary dimensions can be generated......We propose hitherto unexplored and fully analytical insights into laminate elastic materials in a true condensed-matter-physics spirit. Pure mechanical surface waves that decay as evanescent waves from the interface are discussed, and we demonstrate how these designer Scholte waves are controlled......, and we demonstrate this numerically for structures with millimeter and centimeter dimensions in the kilohertz to megahertz range. Analytical predictions agree entirely with full wave simulations showing how elastodynamics can mimic quantum-mechanical condensed-matter phenomena....

  7. Effect of vortex generators on the closing transient flow of bileaflet mechanical heart valves (United States)

    Murphy, David; Dasi, Lakshmi; Yoganathan, Ajit; Glezer, Ari


    The time-periodic closing of bileaflet mechanical heart valves is accompanied by a strong flow transient that is associated with the formation of a counter-rotating vortex pair near the b-datum line of leaflet edges. The strong transitory shear that is generated by these vortices may be damaging to blood elements and may result in platelet activation. In the present work, these flow transients are mitigated using miniature vortex generator arrays that are embedded on the surface of the leaflets. Two vortex generator designs were investigated: one design comprised staggered rectangular fins and the other one staggered hemispheres. The closing transients in the absence and presence of the passive vortex generators are characterized using phase locked PIV measurements. The study utilizes a 25 mm St. Jude Medical valve placed in the aortic position of the Georgia Tech left heart simulator. Measurements of the velocity field in the center plane of the leaflets demonstrate that the dynamics of the transient vortices that precede the formation of the leakage jets can be significantly altered and controlled by relatively simple passive modifications of existing valve designs. Human blood experiments validated the effectiveness of miniature vortex generators in reducing thrombus formation by over 42 percent.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry S. Ivanov


    Full Text Available We have completed modeling of a laser pulse influence on a gold target. We have applied a hybrid atomistic-continuum model to analyze the physical mechanisms responsible for the process of nanostructuring. The model combines the advantages of Molecular Dynamics and Two Temperature Model. We have carried out a direct comparison of the modeling results and experimental data on nano-modification due to a single ps laser pulse at the energy densities significantly exceeding the melting threshold. The experimental data is obtained due to a laser pulse irradiation at the wavelength of 248 nm and duration of 1.6 ps. The mask projection (diffraction grating creates the sinusoidal intensity distribution on a gold surface with periods of 270 nm, 350 nm, and 500 nm. The experimental data and modeling results have demonstrated a good match subject to complex interrelations between a fast material response to the laser excitation, generation of crystal defects, phase transitions and hydrodynamic motion of matter under condition of strong laser-induced non-equilibrium. The performed work confirms the proposed approach as a powerful tool for revealing the physical mechanisms underlying the process of nanostructuring of metal surfaces. Detailed understanding of the dynamics of these processes gives the possibility for designing the topology of functional surfaces on nano- and micro-scales.

  9. Heterogeneous structure and surface tension effects on mechanical response in pulmonary acinus: A finite element analysis. (United States)

    Koshiyama, Kenichiro; Nishimoto, Keisuke; Ii, Satoshi; Sera, Toshihiro; Wada, Shigeo


    The pulmonary acinus is a dead-end microstructure that consists of ducts and alveoli. High-resolution micro-CT imaging has recently provided detailed anatomical information of a complete in vivo acinus, but relating its mechanical response with its detailed acinar structure remains challenging. This study aimed to investigate the mechanical response of acinar tissue in a whole acinus for static inflation using computational approaches. We performed finite element analysis of a whole acinus for static inflation. The acinar structure model was generated based on micro-CT images of an intact acinus. A continuum mechanics model of the lung parenchyma was used for acinar tissue material model, and surface tension effects were explicitly included. An anisotropic mechanical field analysis based on a stretch tensor was combined with a curvature-based local structure analysis. The airspace of the acinus exhibited nonspherical deformation as a result of the anisotropic deformation of acinar tissue. A strain hotspot occurred at the ridge-shaped region caused by a rod-like deformation of acinar tissue on the ridge. The local structure becomes bowl-shaped for inflation and, without surface tension effects, the surface of the bowl-shaped region primarily experiences isotropic deformation. Surface tension effects suppressed the increase in airspace volume and inner surface area, while facilitating anisotropic deformation on the alveolar surface. In the lungs, the heterogeneous acinar structure and surface tension induce anisotropic deformation at the acinar and alveolar scales. Further research is needed on structural variation of acini, inter-acini connectivity, or dynamic behavior to understand multiscale lung mechanics. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of ion irradiation on the surface, structural and mechanical properties of brass (United States)

    Ahmad, Shahbaz; Bashir, Shazia; Ali, Nisar; Umm-i-Kalsoom; Yousaf, Daniel; Faizan-ul-Haq; Naeem, Athar; Ahmad, Riaz; Khlaeeq-ur-Rahman, M.


    Modifications to the surface, structural and mechanical properties of brass after ion irradiation have been investigated. Brass targets were bombarded by carbon ions of 2 MeV energy from a Pelletron linear accelerator for various fluences ranging from 56 × 1012 to 26 × 1013 ions/cm2. A scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffractometer were utilized to analyze the surface morphology and crystallographic structure respectively. To explore the mechanical properties e.g., yield stress, ultimate tensile strength and microhardness of irradiated brass, an universal tensile testing machine and Vickers microhardness tester were used. Scanning electron microscopy results revealed an irregular and randomly distributed sputter morphology for a lower ion fluence. With increasing ion fluence, the incoherently shaped structures were transformed into dendritic structures. Nano/micro sized craters and voids, along with the appearance of pits, were observed at the maximum ion fluence. From X-ray diffraction results, no new phases were observed to be formed in the brass upon irradiation. However, a change in the peak intensity and higher and lower angle shifting were observed, which represents the generation of ion-induced defects and stresses. Analyses confirmed modifications in the mechanical properties of irradiated brass. The yield stress, ultimate tensile strength and hardness initially decreased and then increased with increasing ion fluence. The changes in the mechanical properties of irradiated brass are well correlated with surface and crystallographic modifications and are attributed to the generation, augmentation, recombination and annihilation of the ion-induced defects.

  11. Superhydrophobic NiTi shape memory alloy surfaces fabricated by anodization and surface mechanical attrition treatment (United States)

    Ou, Shih-Fu; Wang, Kuang-Kuo; Hsu, Yen-Chi


    This paper describes the fabrication of superhydrophobic NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA) surfaces using an environmentally friendly method based on an economical anodizing process. Perfluorooctyltriethoxysilane was used to reduce the surface energy of the anodized surfaces. The wettability, morphology, composition, and microstructure of the surfaces were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The surface of the treated NiTi SMA exhibited superhydrophobicity, with a water contact angle of 150.6° and sliding angle of 8°. The anodic film on the NiTi SMA comprised of TiO2 and NiO, as well as traces of TiCl3. In addition, before the NiTi SMA was anodized, it underwent a surface mechanical attrition treatment to grain-refine its surface. This method efficiently enhanced the growth rate of the anodic oxide film, and improved the hydrophobic uniformity of the anodized NiTi-SMA-surface.

  12. Improving Acousto-Optical Interaction by Mechanical Resonators on a Surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dühring, Maria Bayard; Laude, Vincent; Khelif, Abdelkrim

    The finite element method is employed to model surface acoustic waves generated by high aspect ratio electrodes and their interaction with an optical wave in a waveguide. With a periodic model it is first shown that these electrodes act as a mechanical resonator, which introduces several confined...... modes with slow phase velocities because of mechanical energy storage. The periodic model is extended to a finite model by using perfectly matched layers at the boundaries and the periodic and the finite model are in fine agreement. The finite model is then employed to study the acousto...

  13. Surface sensitization mechanism on negative electron affinity p-GaN nanowires (United States)

    Diao, Yu; Liu, Lei; Xia, Sihao; Feng, Shu; Lu, Feifei


    The surface sensitization is the key to prepare negative electron affinity photocathode. The thesis emphasizes on the study of surface sensitization mechanism of p-type doping GaN nanowires utilizing first principles based on density function theory. The adsorption energy, work function, dipole moment, geometry structure, electronic structure and optical properties of Mg-doped GaN nanowires surfaces with various coverages of Cs atoms are investigated. The GaN nanowire with Mg doped in core position is taken as the sensitization base. At the initial stage of sensitization, the best adsorption site for Cs atom on GaN nanowire surface is BN, the bridge site of two adjacent N atoms. Surface sensitization generates a p-type internal surface with an n-type surface state, introducing a band bending region which can help reduce surface barrier and work function. With increasing Cs coverage, work functions decrease monotonously and the "Cs-kill" phenomenon disappears. For Cs coverage of 0.75 ML and 1 ML, the corresponding sensitization systems reach negative electron affinity state. Through surface sensitization, the absorption curves are red shifted and the absorption coefficient is cut down. All theoretical calculations can guide the design of negative electron affinity Mg doped GaN nanowires photocathode.

  14. Effect of atmospheric oxidative plasma treatments on polypropylenic fibers surface: Characterization and reaction mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisticò, Roberto; Magnacca, Giuliana; Faga, Maria Giulia; Gautier, Giovanna; D’Angelo, Domenico; Ciancio, Emanuele; Lamberti, Roberta; Martorana, Selanna


    Atmospheric pressure plasma-dielectric barrier discharge (APP-DBD, open chamber configuration) was used to functionalize polypropylene (PP) fibers surface in order to generate oxidized-reactive groups such as hydroperoxides, alcohols and carbonyl species (i.e. ketones and others). Such a species increased the surface polarity, without causing material degradation. Three different types of plasma mixture (He, He/O 2 , He/O 2 /H 2 O) under three different values of applied power (750, 1050, 1400 W) were investigated. The formed plasma species (O 2 + , O single atom and OH radical) and their distribution were monitored via optical emission spectrometry (OES) measurements, and the plasma effects on PP surface species formation were followed by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS). Results allowed to better understand the reaction pathways between plasma phase and PP fibers. In fact, two reaction mechanisms were proposed, the first one concerning the plasma phase reactions and the second one involving material surface modifications.

  15. Size Effects on Surface Elastic Waves in a Semi-Infinite Medium with Atomic Defect Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Mirzade


    Full Text Available The paper investigates small-scale effects on the Rayleigh-type surface wave propagation in an isotopic elastic half-space upon laser irradiation. Based on Eringen’s theory of nonlocal continuum mechanics, the basic equations of wave motion and laser-induced atomic defect dynamics are derived. Dispersion equation that governs the Rayleigh surface waves in the considered medium is derived and analyzed. Explicit expressions for phase velocity and attenuation (amplification coefficients which characterize surface waves are obtained. It is shown that if the generation rate is above the critical value, due to concentration-elastic instability, nanometer sized ordered concentration-strain structures on the surface or volume of solids arise. The spatial scale of these structures is proportional to the characteristic length of defect-atom interaction and increases with the increase of the temperature of the medium. The critical value of the pump parameter is directly proportional to recombination rate and inversely proportional to deformational potentials of defects.

  16. Microstructure and surface mechanical properties of pulse electrodeposited nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ul-Hamid, A., E-mail: [Center of Research Excellence in Corrosion (CoRE-C), Research Institute, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, P.O. Box 1073, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Dafalla, H.; Quddus, A.; Saricimen, H.; Al-Hadhrami, L.M. [Center of Research Excellence in Corrosion (CoRE-C), Research Institute, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, P.O. Box 1073, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)


    The surface of carbon steel was modified by electrochemical deposition of Ni in a standard Watt's bath using dc and pulse plating electrodeposition. The aim was to compare the microstructure and surface mechanical properties of the deposit obtained by both techniques. Materials characterization was conducted using field emission scanning electron microscope fitted with scanning transmission electron detector, atomic force microscope and X-ray diffractometer. Nanoindentation hardness, elastic modulus, adhesion, coefficients of friction and wear rates were determined for both dc and pulse electrodeposits. Experimental results indicate that pulse electrodeposition produced finer Ni grains compared to dc plating. Size of Ni grains increased with deposition. Both dc and pulse deposition resulted in grain growth in preferred (2 0 0) orientation. However, presence of Ni (1 1 1) grains increased in deposits produced by pulse deposition. Pulse plated Ni exhibited higher hardness, creep and coefficient of friction and lower modulus of elasticity compared to dc plated Ni.

  17. High-speed 3D surface measurement with mechanical projector (United States)

    Hyun, Jae-Sang; Zhang, Song


    This paper presents a method to overcome the light spectral range limitation of using digital-light-processing (DLP) projector for 3D shape measurement by developing a mechanical projector. The mechanical projector enables much broader spectral range of light than that the DLP projector allows. The rapidly spinning disk with binary structures can generate desired sinusoidal patterns at a frequency of 10 kHz or higher with a single DC motor. By precisely synchronizing the camera with the projector, phase-shifted fringe patterns can be accurately captured for high-accuracy 3D shape measurement. We further employed a computational framework that could enable absolute phase and thus absolute 3D shape measurement. We developed such prototype system that experimentally demonstrated the success of the proposed method.

  18. Biomechanical analysis of surface-athlete impacts on third-generation artificial turf. (United States)

    McGhie, David; Ettema, Gertjan


    Excessive repetitive loads are widely believed to be the cause of overload or overuse injuries. On third-generation artificial turf, impacts have been found to vary with surface and shoe properties. Mechanical devices are considered not representative for measuring impact absorption during athletic movements, and pressure insoles have been shown as inaccurate with regard to magnitude of force. To compare impact properties between different third-generation artificial turf systems in combination with various cleat configurations in vivo using force plate technology. Controlled laboratory study. Twenty-two male soccer players (mean ± SD: age, 23.1 ± 2.8 y; height, 1.81 ± 0.1 m; body mass, 77.5 ± 6.0 kg) performed 10 short sprints, 5 straight with a sudden stop and 5 with a 90° cut, over a force plate covered with artificial turf for each combination of 3 turf systems and 3 cleat configurations. During stop sprints, peak impact was significantly higher on a recreational-level turf system than professional-level turf systems with and without an underlying shock pad (3.12 body weight [W] vs 3.01 W and 3.02 W, respectively). During cut sprints, peak impact was significantly higher with traditional round cleats than with turf cleats and bladed cleats (2.99 W vs 2.84 W and 2.87 W, respectively). The results indicate that both an increase in assumed impact-absorbing surface properties and a larger distribution of shorter cleats produced lower impacts during standardized athletic movements. Regardless, none of the shoe-surface combinations yielded peak impacts of an assumed hazardous magnitude. The study provides information on the extent to which various third-generation artificial turf systems and cleat configurations affect impact force, widely believed to be a causative factor for overload and overuse injuries.

  19. Nonlinear mechanism of tsunami wave generation by atmospheric disturbances


    Pelinovsky, E.; Talipova, T.; Kurkin, A.; Kharif, C.


    The problem of tsunami wave generation by variable meteo-conditions is discussed. The simplified linear and nonlinear shallow water models are derived, and their analytical solutions for a basin of constant depth are discussed. The shallow-water model describes well the properties of the generated tsunami waves for all regimes, except the resonance case. The nonlinear-dispersive model based on the forced Korteweg-de Vries equation ...

  20. Effect of ion irradiation on the surface, structural and mechanical properties of brass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Shahbaz; Bashir, Shazia, E-mail:; Ali, Nisar; Umm-i-Kalsoom,; Yousaf, Daniel; Faizan-ul-Haq,; Naeem, Athar; Ahmad, Riaz; Khlaeeq-ur-Rahman, M.


    Highlights: • Brass targets were exposed to carbon ions of energy 2 MeV. • The effect of ion dose has been investigated. • The surface morphology is investigated by SEM analysis. • XRD analysis is performed to reveal structural modification. • Mechanical properties were investigated by tensile testing and microhardness testing. - Abstract: Modifications to the surface, structural and mechanical properties of brass after ion irradiation have been investigated. Brass targets were bombarded by carbon ions of 2 MeV energy from a Pelletron linear accelerator for various fluences ranging from 56 × 10{sup 12} to 26 × 10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2}. A scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffractometer were utilized to analyze the surface morphology and crystallographic structure respectively. To explore the mechanical properties e.g., yield stress, ultimate tensile strength and microhardness of irradiated brass, an universal tensile testing machine and Vickers microhardness tester were used. Scanning electron microscopy results revealed an irregular and randomly distributed sputter morphology for a lower ion fluence. With increasing ion fluence, the incoherently shaped structures were transformed into dendritic structures. Nano/micro sized craters and voids, along with the appearance of pits, were observed at the maximum ion fluence. From X-ray diffraction results, no new phases were observed to be formed in the brass upon irradiation. However, a change in the peak intensity and higher and lower angle shifting were observed, which represents the generation of ion-induced defects and stresses. Analyses confirmed modifications in the mechanical properties of irradiated brass. The yield stress, ultimate tensile strength and hardness initially decreased and then increased with increasing ion fluence. The changes in the mechanical properties of irradiated brass are well correlated with surface and crystallographic modifications and are attributed to the generation

  1. Generation and Decay Mechanisms of Ningaloo Niño/Niña (United States)

    Kataoka, Takahito; Tozuka, Tomoki; Yamagata, Toshio


    Using an ocean model, generation and decay mechanisms of warm/cool sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTAs) off Western Australia, or Ningaloo Niño/Niña, are investigated through the calculation of a mixed-layer temperature (MLT) balance taking the mixed-layer depth (MLD) variation into account. Since Ningaloo Niño/Niña develops owing to local air-sea interaction and/or remote forcing, events are classified into two cases based on alongshore wind anomalies and analyzed separately. It is revealed that the anomalous meridional advection associated with the stronger Leeuwin Current and the enhanced warming by the climatological shortwave radiation because of the shallower MLD generate warm SSTAs in the coastal region for both cases of Ningaloo Niño. On the other hand, the latent heat flux damps SSTAs only in a case without northerly alongshore wind anomalies. In the decay, larger sensible heat loss is important. Because of the reduced meridional temperature gradient, the meridional advection eventually damps SSTAs. The sensitivity change to the climatological shortwave radiation owing to MLD anomalies explains offshore MLT tendency anomalies for both cases throughout the events. The mechanisms for Ningaloo Niña are close to a mirror image of Ningaloo Niño but differ in that the latent heat flux damps offshore SSTAs. The seasonal phase-locking nature of Ningaloo Niño/Niña is related to the seasonal variations of MLD and surface heat fluxes, which regulate the amplitude and sign of the sensitivity change to surface heat fluxes. It is also related to the seasonal variations of the Leeuwin Current and meridional temperature gradient through advection anomalies.

  2. Nano surface generation of grinding process using carbon nano tubes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cations of carbon nanotubes, with the aim of drawing attention to useful available information and to enhancing ... of AISI D2 tool steel machined by the electrical discharge machining (EDM) process were analysed by .... dimensions, the force loading mechanism, the probe-sample-position control system allow. Figure 3.

  3. Auto-recognition of surfaces and auto-generation of material removal volume for finishing process (United States)

    Kataraki, Pramod S.; Salman Abu Mansor, Mohd


    Auto-recognition of a surface and auto-generation of material removal volumes for the so recognised surfaces has become a need to achieve successful downstream manufacturing activities like automated process planning and scheduling. Few researchers have contributed to generation of material removal volume for a product but resulted in material removal volume discontinuity between two adjacent material removal volumes generated from two adjacent faces that form convex geometry. The need for limitation free material removal volume generation was attempted and an algorithm that automatically recognises computer aided design (CAD) model’s surface and also auto-generate material removal volume for finishing process of the recognised surfaces was developed. The surfaces of CAD model are successfully recognised by the developed algorithm and required material removal volume is obtained. The material removal volume discontinuity limitation that occurred in fewer studies is eliminated.

  4. Ascent Velocity of Plasmoids Generated by Surface Discharges (United States)

    Wenzel, Uwe

    The ascent velocity of long-lived plasmoids generated under atmospheric conditions to simulate ball lightning was estimated in [Fussmann et al., Phys. Unserer Zeit 39, 246 (2008) and Jegorov et al., Tech. Phys. 53, 688 (2008): Refs. 1 and 2 in the text, respectively], using a rigid sphere model with poor agreement with the experiment. The plasmoids were, however, deformed. Much better agreement is obtained using the Davies and Taylor formula, which describes the ascent velocity of large spherical-cap bubbles.

  5. Modeling Turbulence Generation in the Atmospheric Surface and Boundary Layers (United States)


    ZT ). The initial acceleration of the rising buoyant air will be a = g∆T/TA. This is simply Archimedes ’ principle applied to the buoyant air. The... applications . 1 Various rules are employed to model C2n in the surface layer, but a key question is how to extend this estimation technique into the terms of wind turbulence the structure of the fluctuations produces a Reynolds stress tensor whose principle axes are not equal, meaning that at the

  6. Frequency Selective Surface Bandpass Filters Applied To Thermophotovoltaic Generators (United States)

    Horne, W. E.; Morgan, Mark D.; Horne, W. Paul; Sundaram, Vasan S.


    EDTEK, Inc. is developing three TPV applications, a portable diesel fueled generator for military and remote users, a hybrid solar-gas fueled power system intended for light industry and commercial 24-hour use, and a radioisotope fueled generator for deep-space spacecraft. The application of FSS bandpass filters for spectral control in these three different TPV applications has been analyzed. It has been determined that the design of the filter cannot be evaluated solely on the parameters of the filter itself. The interactions between the filter and the emitter and the TPV cells must be taken into account. In addition to the technical analysis of the converter, the overall system losses must be included in the analysis and the design requirements such as fuel efficiency, weight, generator size, cost and other factors must be included in the analysis. The analysis shows that the FSS filters are useful for producing the three systems with good efficiencies; however, different designs are required for the filters for each application.

  7. High-frequency Surface Wave Measurements of Micro-tunamis generated by Glacier Calving (United States)

    Minowa, Masahiro; Sugiyama, Shin; Sakakibara, Daiki; Podolskiy, Evgeny; Ohashi, Yoshihiko; Skvarca, Pedro


    Calving plays a key role in recent rapid retreat of glaciers in Greenland, Alaska and Patagonia. However, processes related to calving are poorly understood since direct observations are difficult. When calving occurred at the glacier front, ice hits water surface and generates surface wave or micro-tsunami. Because characteristics of the micro-tsunami are dependent on the impact on water, it is expected that analysis of the wave provides useful information on the size and type of calving. To study the calving processes from surface wave, we performed field observations at Glaciar Perito Moreno, a freshwater calving glacier in the Southern Patagonia Icefield. We measured the surface level by recording water pressure every 2 s (0.5 Hz), using a sensor installed in a lake 300 m from the calving front. Spectral and statistical analyses were performed on the wave data. We also carried out time-lapse photography, ice speed and water temperature measurements. The time-lapse photographs were used to identify the types of observed calving events (1. Subaqueous, 2. Topple, 3. Drop, 4. Small serac failure). During summer (15 December 2013-4 January 2014) and spring (6-20 October 2014) field campaigns, 640 (30 events d-1) and 195 (12 events d-1) calving events were recorded by the pressure sensor, respectively. The number of calving events varied in time (from 0 to 6 events h-1) and this variation correlates well with lakewater temperature. Subaqueous calving account for only 2.4 % of calving events recorded during the field campaigns (7 out of 364 events). These results imply importance of melting at/under water surface as a triggering mechanism of calving. Waves generated by subaerial calving events (type 2, 3 and 4) showed similar frequency spectrums, whereas those by subaqueous calving had smaller power in frequency range between 0.12-0.25 Hz. The amplitude of the surface waves increased with size of calving, which was quantified by the time-lapse photographs. Our results

  8. Dust generation at interaction of plasma jet with surfaces (United States)

    Ticos, Catalin; Toader, Dorina; Banu, Nicoleta; Scurtu, Adrian; Oane, Mihai


    Coatings of W and C with widths of a few microns will be exposed to plasma jet for studying the erosion of the surface and detachment of micron size dust particles. A coaxial plasma gun has been built inside a vacuum chamber for producing supersonic plasma jets. Its design is based on a 50 kJ coaxial plasma gun which has been successfully used for accelerating hypervelocity dust. Initial shots were carried out for a capacitor bank with C = 12 μF and charged up to 2 kV. Currents of tens of amps were measured with a Rogowsky coil and plasma flow speeds of 4 km/s were inferred from high-speed images of jet propagation. An upgrade consisting in adding capacitors in parallel will be performed in order to increase the energy up to 2 kJ. A coil will be installed at the gun muzzle to compress the plasma flow and increase the energy density of the jet on the sample surface. A CCD camera with a maximum recording speed of 100 k fps and a maximum resolution of 1024 × 1024 pixels was set for image acquisition of the plasma and dust. A laser system used to illuminate the ejected dust from the surface includes a laser diode emitting at 650 nm with a beam power of 25 mW. The authors acknowledge support from EURATOM WP13-IPH-A03-P2-02-BS22.

  9. Finite element analysis of laser-generated ultrasound for characterizing surface-breaking cracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Hyun Jo


    A finite element method was used to simulate the wave propagation of laser-generated ultrasound and its interaction with surface breaking cracks in an elastic material. Thermoelastic laser line source on the material surface was approximated as a shear dipole and loaded as nodal forces in the plane-strain Finite Element (FE) model. The shear dipole-FE model was tested for the generation of ultrasound on the surface with no defect. The model was found to generate the Rayleigh surface wave. The model was then extended to examine the interaction of laser generated ultrasound with surface-breaking cracks of various depths. The crack-scattered waves were monitored to size the crack depth. The proposed model clearly reproduced the experimentally observed features that can be used to characterize the presence of surface-breaking cracks

  10. Dust Tolerant Commodity Transfer Interface Mechanisms for Planetary Surfaces (United States)

    Townsend, Ivan I.; Mueller, Robert P.; Tamasy, Gabor J.


    Regolith is present on most planetary surfaces such as Earth's moon, Mars, and Asteroids. If human crews and robotic machinery are to operate on these regolith covered surfaces, they must face the consequences of interacting with regolith fines which consist of particles below 100 microns in diameter down to as small as submicron scale particles. Such fine dust will intrude into mechanisms and interfaces causing a variety of problems such as contamination of clean fluid lines, jamming of mechanisms and damaging connector seals and couplings. Since multiple elements must be assembled in space for system level functionality, it will be inevitable that interfaces will be necessary for structural connections, and to pass commodities such as cryogenic liquid propellants, purge and buffer gases, water, breathing air, pressurizing gases, heat exchange fluids, power and data. When fine regolith dust is present in the environment it can be lofted into interfaces where it can compromise the utility of the interface by preventing the connections from being successfully mated, or by inducing fluid leaks or degradation of power and data transmission. A dust tolerant, hand held "quick-disconnect" cryogenic fluids connector housing has been developed at NASA KSC which can be used by astronaut crews to connect flex lines that will transfer propellants and other useful fluids to the end user. In addition, a dust tolerant, automated, cryogenic fluid, multiple connector, power and data interface mechanism prototype has been developed, fabricated and demonstrated by NASA at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The design and operation of these prototypes are explained and discussed.

  11. Clays causing adhesion with tool surfaces during mechanical tunnel driving (United States)

    Spagnoli, G.; Fernández-Steeger, T.; Stanjek, H.; Feinendegen, M.; Post, C.; Azzam, R.


    During mechanical excavation with a tunnel boring machine (TBM) it is possible that clays stick to the cutting wheel and to other metal parts. The resulting delays in the progress of construction work, cause great economic damage and often disputes between the public awarding authorities and executing companies. One of the most important factors to reduce successfully the clay adhesion is the use of special polymers and foams. But why does the clay stick to the metal parts? A first step is to recognize which kind of clay mineralogy shows serious adhesion problems. The mechanical properties of clay and clay suspensions are primarily determined by surface chemistry and charge distribution at the interfaces, which in turn affect the arrangement of the clay structure. As we know, clay is a multi-phase material and its behaviour depends on numerous parameters such as: clay mineralogy, clay fraction, silt fraction, sand fraction, water content, water saturation, Atterberg limits, sticky limit, activity, cation exchange capacity, degree of consolidation and stress state. It is therefore likely that adhesion of clay on steel is also affected by these clay parameters. Samples of clay formations, which caused problems during tunnel driving, will be analyzed in laboratory. Mineralogical analyses (diffractometry, etc.) will be carried out to observe which minerals are responsible for adherence problems. To manipulate the physical properties, batch tests will be carried out in order to eliminate or reduce the adhesion on tool surfaces through variation of the zeta potential. Second step is the performance of vane shear tests on clay samples. Different pore fluid (distilled water, pure NaCl solution, ethanol and methanol) will be used to study the variation of the mechanical behaviour of clay depending on the dielectric constant of the fluids. This project is funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) and the DFG (German Research Foundation) in the

  12. Study on Crystallographic Orientation Effect on Surface Generation of Aluminum in Nano-cutting. (United States)

    Xu, Feifei; Fang, Fengzhou; Zhu, Yuanqing; Zhang, Xiaodong


    The material characteristics such as size effect are one of the most important factors that could not be neglected in cutting the material at nanoscale. The effects of anisotropic nature of single crystal materials in nano-cutting are investigated employing the molecular dynamics simulation. Results show that the size effect of the plastic deformation is based on different plastic carriers, such as the twin, stacking faults, and dislocations. The minimum uncut chip thickness is dependent on cutting direction, where even a negative value is obtained when the cutting direction is {110}. It also determines the material deformation and removal mechanism (e.g., shearing, extruding, and rubbing mechanism) with a decrease in uncut chip thickness. When material is deformed by shearing, the primary shearing zone expands from the stagnation point or the tip of stagnation zone. When a material is deformed by extruding and rubbing, the primary deformation zone almost parallels to the cutting direction and expands from the bottom of the cutting edge merging with the tertiary deformation zone. The generated surface quality relates to the crystallographic orientation and the minimum uncut chip thickness. The cutting directions of {110}, {110}, and {111}, whose minimum uncut chip thickness is relatively small, have better surface qualities compared to the other cutting direction.

  13. Corrosion mechanism of a Ni-based alloy in supercritical water: Impact of surface plastic deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payet, Mickaël; Marchetti, Loïc; Tabarant, Michel; Chevalier, Jean-Pierre


    Highlights: • The dissolution of Ni and Fe cations occurs during corrosion of Ni-based alloys in SCW. • The nature of the oxide layer depends locally on the alloy microstructure. • The corrosion mechanism changes when cold-work increases leading to internal oxidation. - Abstract: Ni–Fe–Cr alloys are expected to be a candidate material for the generation IV nuclear reactors that use supercritical water at temperatures up to 600 °C and pressures of 25 MPa. The corrosion resistance of Alloy 690 in these extreme conditions was studied considering the surface finish of the alloy. The oxide scale could suffer from dissolution or from internal oxidation. The presence of a work-hardened zone reveals the competition between the selective oxidation of chromium with respect to the oxidation of nickel and iron. Finally, corrosion mechanisms for Ni based alloys are proposed considering the effects of plastically deformed surfaces and the dissolution.

  14. Biomimetic self-cleaning surfaces: synthesis, mechanism and applications. (United States)

    Xu, Quan; Zhang, Wenwen; Dong, Chenbo; Sreeprasad, Theruvakkattil Sreenivasan; Xia, Zhenhai


    With millions of years of natural evolution, organisms have achieved sophisticated structures, patterns or textures with complex, spontaneous multifunctionality. Among all the fascinating characteristics observed in biosystems, self-cleaning ability is regarded as one of the most interesting topics in biomimicry because of its potential applications in various fields such as aerospace, energy conversion and biomedical and environmental protection. Recently, in-depth studies have been carried out on various compelling biostructures including lotus leaves, shark skins, butterfly wings and gecko feet. To understand and mimic their self-cleaning mechanisms in artificial structures, in this article, recent progress in self-cleaning techniques is discussed and summarized. Based on the underlying self-cleaning mechanisms, the methods are classified into two categories: self-cleaning with water and without water. The review gives a succinct account of the detailed mechanisms and biomimetic processes applied to create artificial self-cleaning materials and surfaces, and provides some examples of cutting-edge applications such as anti-reflection, water repellence, self-healing, anti-fogging and micro-manipulators. The prospectives and directions of future development are also briefly proposed. © 2016 The Author(s).

  15. Mechanisms of THz generation from silver nanoparticle and nanohole arrays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polyushkin, D.K.; Marton, I.; Racz, P.; Dombi, P.; Hendry, E.; Barnes, William Leslie


    We study THz pulses generated from plasmonic metal nanostructures under femtosecond illumination of near-IR light. We find two regimes of excitation, according to the order of the dependence of the THz fluence on the incident near-IR intensity: less then second order at low intensities, changing to

  16. Origin and generation mechanisms of geopressures in shale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the Niger Delta, Gulf of Mexico, and indeed worldwide, the generation of geopressure is often related to the sedimentation rate, while its dissipation depends on the hydrological properties of the sediments(that is porosity, permeability, etc).Geopressures influences many fluid related aspects of petroleum geology ...

  17. Breakage mechanics for granular materials in surface-reactive environments (United States)

    Zhang, Yida; Buscarnera, Giuseppe


    It is known that the crushing behaviour of granular materials is sensitive to the state of the fluids occupying the pore space. Here, a thermomechanical theory is developed to link such macroscopic observations with the physico-chemical processes operating at the microcracks of individual grains. The theory relies on the hypothesis that subcritical fracture propagation at intra-particle scale is the controlling mechanism for the rate-dependent, water-sensitive compression of granular specimens. First, the fracture of uniaxially compressed particles in surface-reactive environments is studied in light of irreversible thermodynamics. Such analysis recovers the Gibbs adsorption isotherm as a central component linking the reduction of the fracture toughness of a solid to the increase of vapour concentration. The same methodology is then extended to assemblies immersed in wet air, for which solid-fluid interfaces have been treated as a separate phase. It is shown that this choice brings the solid surface energy into the dissipation equations of the granular matrix, thus providing a pathway to (i) integrate the Gibbs isotherm with the continuum description of particle assemblies and (ii) reproduce the reduction of their yield strength in presence of high relative humidity. The rate-effects involved in the propagation of cracks and the evolution of breakage have been recovered by considering non-homogenous dissipation potentials associated with the creation of surface area at both scales. It is shown that the proposed model captures satisfactorily the compression response of different types of granular materials subjected to varying relative humidity. This result was achieved simply by using parameters based on the actual adsorption characteristics of the constituting minerals. The theory therefore provides a physically sound and thermodynamically consistent framework to study the behaviour of granular solids in surface-reactive environments.

  18. Theoretical Study of Sodium-Water Surface Reaction Mechanism (United States)

    Kikuchi, Shin; Kurihara, Akikazu; Ohshima, Hiroyuki; Hashimoto, Kenro

    Computational study of the sodium-water reaction at the gas (water) - liquid (sodium) interface has been carried out using the ab initio (first-principle) method. A possible reaction channel has been identified for the stepwise OH bond dissociations of a single water molecule. The energetics including the binding energy of a water molecule on the sodium surface, the activation energies of the bond cleavages, and the reaction energies, have been evaluated, and the rate constants of the first and second OH bond-breakings have been compared. It was found that the estimated rate constant of the former was much larger than the latter. The results are the basis for constructing the chemical reaction model used in a multi-dimensional sodium-water reaction code, SERAPHIM, being developed by Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) toward the safety assessment of the steam generator (SG) in a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR).

  19. Theoretical study of sodium-water surface reaction mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Shin; Kurihara, Akikazu; Ohshima, Hiroyuki; Hashimoto, Kenro


    Computational study of the sodium-water reaction at the gas (water) - liquid (sodium) interface has been carried out using the ab initio (first-principle) method. A possible reaction channel has been identified for the stepwise OH bond dissociations of a single water molecule. The energetics including the binding energy of a water molecule on the sodium surface, the activation energies of the bond cleavages, and the reaction energies, have been evaluated, and the rate constants of the first and second OH bond-breakings have been compared. It was found that the estimated rate constant of the former was much larger than the latter. The results are the basis for constructing the chemical reaction model used in a multi-dimensional sodium-water reaction code, SERAPHIM, being developed by Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) toward the safety assessment of the steam generator (SG) in a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR). (author)

  20. Mobile colloid generation induced by a cementitious plume: mineral surface-charge controls on mobilization. (United States)

    Li, Dien; Kaplan, Daniel I; Roberts, Kimberly A; Seaman, John C


    Cementitious materials are increasingly used as engineered barriers and waste forms for radiological waste disposal. Yet their potential effect on mobile colloid generation is not well-known, especially as it may influence colloid-facilitated contaminant transport. Whereas previous papers have studied the introduction of cement colloids into sediments, this study examined the influence of cement leachate chemistry on the mobilization of colloids from a subsurface sediment collected from the Savannah River Site, USA. A sharp mobile colloid plume formed with the introduction of a cement leachate simulant. Colloid concentrations decreased to background concentrations even though the aqueous chemical conditions (pH and ionic strength) remained unchanged. Mobile colloids were mainly goethite and to a lesser extent kaolinite. The released colloids had negative surface charges and the mean particle sizes ranged primarily from 200 to 470 nm. Inherent mineralogical electrostatic forces appeared to be the controlling colloid removal mechanism in this system. In the background pH of ~6.0, goethite had a positive surface charge, whereas quartz (the dominant mineral in the immobile sediment) and kaolinite had negative surface charges. Goethite acted as a cementing agent, holding kaolinite and itself onto the quartz surfaces due to the electrostatic attraction. Once the pH of the system was elevated, as in the cementitious high pH plume front, the goethite reversed to a negative charge, along with quartz and kaolinite, then goethite and kaolinite colloids were mobilized and a sharp spike in turbidity was observed. Simulating conditions away from the cementitious source, essentially no colloids were mobilized at 1:1000 dilution of the cement leachate or when the leachate pH was ≤ 8. Extreme alkaline pH environments of cementitious leachate may change mineral surface charges, temporarily promoting the formation of mobile colloids.

  1. Surface Modification and Heat Generation of FePt Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Hua Wei


    Full Text Available The chemical reduction of ferric acetylacetonate (Fe(acac3 and platinum acetylacetonate (Pt(acac2 using the polyol solvent of phenyl ether as an agent as well as an effective surfactant has successfully yielded monodispersive FePt nanoparticles (NPs with a hydrophobic ligand and a size of approximately 3.8 nm. The present FePt NPs synthesized using oleic acid and oleylamine as the stabilizers under identical conditions were achieved with a simple method. The surface modification of FePt NPs by using mercaptoacetic acid (thiol as a phase transfer reagent through ligand exchange turned the NPs hydrophilic, and the FePt NPs were water-dispersible. The hydrophilic NPs indicated slight agglomeration which was observed by transmission electron microscopy images. The thiol functional group bond to the FePt atoms of the surface was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR spectra. The water-dispersible FePt NPs employed as a heating agent could reach the requirement of biocompatibility and produce a sufficient heat response of 45 °C for magnetically induced hyperthermia in tumor treatment fields.

  2. Nanoscale chemical and mechanical characterization of thin films:sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy at buriedinterfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kweskin, Sasha Joseph [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Sum frequency generation (SFG) surface vibrational spectroscopy was used to characterize interfaces pertinent to current surface engineering applications, such as thin film polymers and novel catalysts. An array of advanced surface science techniques like scanning probe microscopy (SPM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), gas chromatography (GC) and electron microscopy were used to obtain experimental measurements complementary to SFG data elucidating polymer and catalyst surface composition, surface structure, and surface mechanical behavior. Experiments reported in this dissertation concentrate on three fundamental questions: (1) How does the interfacial molecular structure differ from that of the bulk in real world applications? (2) How do differences in chemical environment affect interface composition or conformation? (3) How do these changes correlate to properties such as mechanical or catalytic performance? The density, surface energy and bonding at a solid interface dramatically alter the polymer configuration, physics and mechanical properties such as surface glass transition, adhesion and hardness. The enhanced sensitivity of SFG at the buried interface is applied to three systems: a series of acrylates under compression, the compositions and segregation behavior of binary polymer polyolefin blends, and the changes in surface structure of a hydrogel as a function of hydration. In addition, a catalytically active thin film of polymer coated nanoparticles is investigated to evaluate the efficacy of SFG to provide in situ information for catalytic reactions involving small mass adsorption and/or product development. Through the use of SFG, in situ total internal reflection (TIR) was used to increase the sensitivity of SFG and provide the necessary specificity to investigate interfaces of thin polymer films and nanostructures previously considered unfeasible. The dynamic nature of thin film surfaces is examined and it is found that the non

  3. NREL Next Generation Drivetrain: Mechanical Design and Test Plan (Poster)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, J.; Halse, C.


    The Department of Energy and industry partners are sponsoring a $3m project for design and testing of a 'Next Generation' wind turbine drivetrain at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). This poster focuses on innovative aspects of the gearbox design, completed as part of an end-to-end systems engineering approach incorporating innovations that increase drivetrain reliability, efficiency, torque density and minimize capital cost.

  4. Mechanisms for formation and disruption of surface oxides: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumsden, J.B.


    Mill-annealed alloys 600, 690 and 800 were exposed to 10 and 50% caustic solutions containing 1% Na 2 CO 3 to initiate IGA. IGA reproducibly occurred in all three alloys in the 10% caustic solution at 350 0 C after a 240 h exposure and in the 50% caustic solution at 320 0 C after a 120 h exposure. Reproducible IGA did not occur in the 10% caustic solution at 320 0 C after a 120 h exposure. IGA was not observed in mill annealed plus thermally treated alloys 600 and 690 after exposure to any of the test conditions. IGA initiation was correlated with a dealloying mechanism in which the more active alloying metals, iron and chromium, selectively dissolve. Boric acid and calcium hydroxide additives were found to slow or prevent IGA by inhibiting dealloying. Titanates prevented IGA in alloys 600, 690 and 800, passivating the surface with a nickel titanate film

  5. Nutrients and Hydrology Indicate the Driving Mechanisms of Peatland Surface Patterning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eppinga, M.B.; Ruiter, de P.C.; Wassen, M.J.; Rietkerk, M.


    Peatland surface patterning motivates studies that identify underlying structuring mechanisms. Theoretical studies so far suggest that different mechanisms may drive similar types of patterning. The long time span associated with peatland surface pattern formation, however, limits possibilities for

  6. Next Generation Structural Composite Using Surface Grown Carbon Nanotubes (United States)


    strength  of  FRP  prestressing  strands in anchorage zones which is a major problem in FRP  prestressing . Further research  is warranted  in these fields to...used to enhance the performance of FRP  lap splice  in applications governed  by energy absorption such as seismic retrofit of reinforced  concrete  (RC...growth at the crack  tip. The addition of MWCNTs provides additional energy consumption mechanism due to the  bridging   effect of the MWCNTs at the

  7. Effect of surface loading on the hydro-mechanical response of a tunnel in saturated ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Heru Prassetyo


    Full Text Available The design of underground spaces in urban areas must account not only for the current overburden load but also for future surface loads, such as from construction of high-rise buildings above underground structures. In saturated ground, the surface load will generate an additional mechanical response through stress changes and ground displacement, as well as a hydraulic response through pore pressure changes. These hydro-mechanical (H-M changes can severely influence tunnel stability. This paper examines the effect of surface loading on the H-M response of a typical horseshoe-shaped tunnel in saturated ground. Two tunnel models were created in the computer code Fast Lagrangian Analysis of Continua (FLAC. One model represented weak and low permeability ground (stiff clay, and the other represented strong and high permeability ground (weathered granite. Each of the models was run under two liner permeabilities: permeable and impermeable. Two main cases were compared. In Case 1, the surface load was applied 10 years after tunnel construction. In Case 2, the surface load was applied after the steady state pore pressure condition was achieved. The simulation results show that tunnels with impermeable liners experienced the most severe influence from the surface loading, with high pore pressures, large inward displacement around the tunnels, and high bending moments in the liner. In addition, the severity of the response increased toward steady state. This induced H-M response was worse for tunnels in clay than for those in granite. Furthermore, the long-term liner stabilities in Case 1 and Case 2 were similar, indicating that the influence of the length of time between when the tunnel was completed and when the surface load was applied was negligible. These findings suggest that under surface loading, in addition to the ground strength, tunnel stability in saturated ground is largely influenced by liner permeability and the long-term H-M response of

  8. Mechanical Design of a Second Generation LHC IR Quadrupole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caspi, S.; Bartlett, S.E.; Dietderich, D.R.; Ferracin, P.; Gourlay, S.A.; Hafalia, R.R.; Hannaford, C.R.; Lietzke, A.F.; McInturff, A.D.; Sabbi, G.; Scanlan, R.M.


    One of the proposed options to increase the LHC luminosity is the replacement of the existing inner triplets at the Interaction Regions with new low-beta larger aperture quadrupoles operating at the same gradient. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) is carrying out preliminary studies of a large-bore Nb 3 Sn quadrupole. The mechanical design presents a support structure based on the use of keys and bladders without self-supporting collars. This technology has been proven effective in several successful common coil Nb 3 Sn dipoles built at LBNL, and it is for the first time applied to a cos(2(var t heta)) design. In this paper we present a detailed analysis of the quadrupole mechanical behavior, demonstrating the possibility of delivering, through this method, well-controlled coil precompression during assembly, cool-down and excitation. The study has been performed with the finite element program ANSYS

  9. Vector vortex beam generation with dolphin-shaped cell meta-surface. (United States)

    Yang, Zhuo; Kuang, Deng-Feng; Cheng, Fang


    We present a dolphin-shaped cell meta-surface, which is a combination of dolphin-shaped metallic cells and dielectric substrate, for vector vortex beam generation with the illumination of linearly polarized light. Surface plasmon polaritons are excited at the boundary of the metallic cells, then guided by the metallic structures, and finally squeezed to the tips to form highly localized strong electromagnetic fields, which generate the intensity of vector vortex beams at z component. Synchronously, the abrupt phase change produced by the meta-surface is utilized to explain the vortex phase generated by elements. The new kind of structure can be utilized for communication, bioscience, and materiality.

  10. Surface accuracy of a large-scale compact antenna test range considering mechanism, metrology and alignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Guofeng; Li, Xiaoxing; Li, Dongsheng; Luan, Jingdong; Zhao, Jinze


    A large compact range (CR) having a width of 23 m and height of 16 m that will generate a Φ15 m quiet zone is presented. The antenna consists of 30 blocks and 76 serrated reflectors. Its mechanical accuracy is reflected in two aspects: surface precision and gap precision. In addition, the root-mean-square (RMS) surface accuracy should be less than or equal to 0.075 mm for achieving the highest operating frequency of 40 GHz, and the gaps between two segments should be controlled strictly to the tolerance of 0.4 ± 0.2 mm for avoiding gap diffraction and compensating for inter-block interference due to thermal deformation. The surface accuracy in terms of mechanical structure, metrology and alignment approach is very tight. First, a high-accuracy honeycomb sandwich panel, anisotropic back structure and spatial parallel adjustment mechanism are introduced, and the error contributions of these three mechanisms are 0.03 mm, 0.01 mm and 0.005 mm, respectively. Second, a measurement network based on laser tracker metrology was established, and the RMS error of the measurement system is controlled to 0.025 mm through the optimization of the measuring stations and weighted coordinate regression. Third, an original alignment approach that divides the entire assembly into three key phases by marked point edge-constrained surface is proposed. By performing a few iterations of onsite adjustment, the reflectors were aligned in the prescribed positions, and the gap quality was controlled effectively. Finally, the on-site alignment of the large CR is introduced. The final antenna surface RMS accuracy was up to 0.054 mm, and the gaps achieved the desired design index. (paper)

  11. Active oxygen generation as a possible mechanism of selenium toxicity. (United States)

    Seko, Y; Imura, N


    Selenium plays an important role in scavenging active oxygen (AO) species as an essential constituent of glutathione peroxidase. On the other hand, several reports proposed a possible induction of toxic AO by selenium compounds in vitro. However, some of these experiments including ours, were revealed to conclude on the basis of experimental artifacts, and to have problems in the interpretation of data. Methods or principles so far used for the detection of AO species generated by selenium compound were measurement of chemiluminescence from lucigenin or luminol by AO species, the spectrophotometric analysis of reduction of ferricytochrome c or nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) by superoxide anion (O2-), electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra using dimethylpyrroline oxide (DMPO) as a spin trapping agent, the deoxyribose decomposition by hydroxyl radical (HO.), the salicylate hydroxylation by HO., and the strand breakage of DNA by AO. Many of these methods together with their principles seem to have some defects which prevent clear conclusion as stated below. (i) Lucigenin was found to mediate the formation of O2- in the presence of selenite and reduced glutathione (GSH). Therefore, lucigenin is not a suitable reagent. (ii) Luminol may also mediate O2- generation in the presence of HO.. (iii) ferricytochrome c can be reduced to ferrocytochrome c in the mixture of selenite and GSH in the absence of oxygen. Moreover, the spectrophotometric method is interfered by turbidity of elemental selenium formed under some conditions in the reaction mixture containing selenite and GSH. (iv) NBT is also reduced by selenium compounds in the absence of O2. (v) ESR signals of AO species were obtained in the reaction mixture containing selenite and GSH, or in the solution of hydrogen selenide in the presence of O2. However, selenide decomposed spin adduct of DMPO with HO. (DMPO-OH). Therefore, the intensity of the signals is not quantitative. (vi) CuZn-SOD is not necessarily a good tool to

  12. X-ray evaluation of residual stress distributions within surface machined layer generated by surface machining and sequential welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniguchi, Yuu; Okano, Shigetaka; Mochizuki, Masahito


    The excessive tensile residual stress generated by welding after surface machining may be an important factor to cause stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in nuclear power plants. Therefore we need to understand and control the residual stress distribution appropriately. In this study, residual stress distributions within surface machined layer generated by surface machining and sequential welding were evaluated by X-ray diffraction method. Depth directional distributions were also investigated by electrolytic polishing. In addition, to consider the effect of work hardened layer on the residual stress distributions, we also measured full width at half maximum (FWHM) obtained from X-ray diffraction. Testing material was a low-carbon austenitic stainless steel type SUS316L. Test specimens were prepared by surface machining with different cutting conditions. Then, bead-on-plate welding under the same welding condition was carried out on the test specimens with different surface machined layer. As a result, the tensile residual stress generated by surface machining increased with increasing cutting speed and showed nearly uniform distributions on the surface. Furthermore, the tensile residual stress drastically decreased with increasing measurement depth within surface machined layer. Then, the residual stress approached 0 MPa after the compressive value showed. FWHM also decreased drastically with increasing measurement depth and almost constant value from a certain depth, which was almost equal regardless of the machining condition, within surface machined layer in all specimens. After welding, the transverse distribution of the longitudinal residual stress varied in the area apart from the weld center according to machining conditions and had a maximum value in heat affected zone. The magnitude of the maximum residual stress was almost equal regardless of the machining condition and decreased with increasing measurement depth within surface machined layer. Finally, the

  13. Curved mesh generation and mesh refinement using Lagrangian solid mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, P.-O.; Peraire, J.


    We propose a method for generating well-shaped curved unstructured meshes using a nonlinear elasticity analogy. The geometry of the domain to be meshed is represented as an elastic solid. The undeformed geometry is the initial mesh of linear triangular or tetrahedral elements. The external loading results from prescribing a boundary displacement to be that of the curved geometry, and the final configuration is determined by solving for the equilibrium configuration. The deformations are represented using piecewise polynomials within each element of the original mesh. When the mesh is sufficiently fine to resolve the solid deformation, this method guarantees non-intersecting elements even for highly distorted or anisotropic initial meshes. We describe the method and the solution procedures, and we show a number of examples of two and three dimensional simplex meshes with curved boundaries. We also demonstrate how to use the technique for local refinement of non-curved meshes in the presence of curved boundaries.

  14. Tsunamis: stochastic models of occurrence and generation mechanisms (United States)

    Geist, Eric L.; Oglesby, David D.


    The devastating consequences of the 2004 Indian Ocean and 2011 Japan tsunamis have led to increased research into many different aspects of the tsunami phenomenon. In this entry, we review research related to the observed complexity and uncertainty associated with tsunami generation, propagation, and occurrence described and analyzed using a variety of stochastic methods. In each case, seismogenic tsunamis are primarily considered. Stochastic models are developed from the physical theories that govern tsunami evolution combined with empirical models fitted to seismic and tsunami observations, as well as tsunami catalogs. These stochastic methods are key to providing probabilistic forecasts and hazard assessments for tsunamis. The stochastic methods described here are similar to those described for earthquakes (Vere-Jones 2013) and volcanoes (Bebbington 2013) in this encyclopedia.

  15. Numerical generation of boundary-fitted curvilinear coordinate systems for arbitrarily curved surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, T.; Miki, K.; Chen, B.C.J.; Sha, W.T.


    A new method is presented for numerically generating boundary-fitted coordinate systems for arbitrarily curved surfaces. The three-dimensional surface has been expressed by functions of two parameters using the geometrical modeling techniques in computer graphics. This leads to new quasi-one- and two-dimensional elliptic partial differential equations for coordinate transformation. Since the equations involve the derivatives of the surface expressions, the grids geneated by the equations distribute on the surface depending on its slope and curvature. A computer program GRID-CS based on the method was developed and applied to a surface of the second order, a torus and a surface of a primary containment vessel for a nuclear reactor. These applications confirm that GRID-CS is a convenient and efficient tool for grid generation on arbitrarily curved surfaces

  16. Evaluation on mechanical and corrosion properties of steam generator tubing materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, In Sup; Lee, Byong Whi; Lee, Sang Kyu; Lee, Young Ho; Kim, Jun Whan; Lee, Ju Seok; Kwon, Hyuk Sang; Kim, Su Jung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    Steam generator is one of the major components of nuclear reactor pressure boundary. It's main function os transferring heat which generated in the reactor to turbine generator through steam generator tube. In these days, steam generator tubing materials of operating plant are used Inconel 600 alloys. But according to the operation time, there are many degradation phenomena which included mechanical damage due to flow induced vibration and corrosion damage due to PWSCC, IGA/SCC and pitting etc. Recently Inconel 690 alloys are selected as new and replacement steam generator tubes for domestic nuclear power plant. But there are few study about mechanical and corrosion properties of Inconel 600 and 690. The objectives of this study is to evaluate and compare mechanical and corrosion propertied of steam generator tube materials.

  17. Surface Ripples Generated in a Couette Flow with a Free Surface (United States)

    Masnadi, N.; Washuta, N.; Duncan, J. H.


    Free surface ripples created by subsurface turbulence in the gap between a vertical surface-piercing moving wall and a parallel fixed wall are studied experimentally. The moving wall is created with the aide of a meter-wide stainless steel belt that travels horizontally in a loop around two rollers with vertically oriented axes, which are separated by 7.5 meters. One of the two 7.5-m-long belt sections between the rollers is in contact with the water in a large open-surface water tank and forms the moving wall. The fixed wall is an acrylic plate located 4 cm from the belt surface. The water surface ripples are measured in a plane normal to the belt using a cinematic LIF technique. Measurements are done at a location about 100 gap widths downstream of the leading edge of the fixed plate in order to have a fully developed flow condition. It is found that the overall RMS surface fluctuations increase linearly with belt speed. The frequency-domain spectra of the surface height fluctuation and its temporal derivative are computed at locations across the gap width and are used to explore the physics of the free surface motions. The support of the Office of Naval Research is gratefully acknowledged.

  18. Surface enhanced second harmonic generation from macrocycle, catenane, and rotaxane thin films : Experiments and theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arfaoui, I.; Bermudez, V.; Bottari, G.; De Nadai, C.; Jalkanen, J.P.; Kajzar, F.; Leigh, D.A.; Lubomska, M.; Mendoza, S.M.; Niziol, J.; Rudolf, Petra; Zerbetto, F.


    Surface enhanced second harmonic generation (SE SHG) experiments on molecular structures, macrocycles, catenanes, and rotaxanes, deposited as monolayers and multilayers by vacuum sublimation on silver, are reported. The measurements show that the molecules form ordered thin films, where the highest

  19. Ultrashort Laser Pulses and Electromagnetic Pulse Generation in Air and on Dielectric Surfaces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sprangle, Phillip


    ...). The purpose of this paper is to analyze EMP generation from the interaction of ultrashort laser pulses with air and with dielectric surfaces and to determine the efficiency of conversion of laser energy to EMP energy...

  20. Surface runoff generation in a small watershed covered by sugarcane and riparian forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Pires Fernandes


    Full Text Available Since an understanding of how runoff is generated is of great importance to soil conservation, to water availability and to the management of a watershed, the objective of this study was to understand the generation of surface runoff in a watershed covered by sugarcane and riparian forest. Nine surface runoff plots were set up, evenly distributed on the lower, middle and upper slopes. The lower portion was covered by riparian forest. We showed that the average surface runoff coefficient along the slope in the present study was higher than in other studies under different land uses. Furthermore, the surface runoff was higher under sugarcane compared to the riparian forest, especially after sugarcane harvesting. Besides land cover, other factors such as the characteristics of rainfall events, relief and physical soil characteristics such as soil bulk density and saturated hydraulic conductivity influenced the surface runoff generation.

  1. Surface-wave generation by underground nuclear explosions releasing tectonic strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patton, H.J.


    Seismic surface-wave generation by underground nuclear explosions releasing tectonic strain is studied through a series of synthetic radiation-pattern calculations based on the earthquake-trigger model. From amplitude and phase radiation patterns for 20-s Rayleigh waves, inferences are made about effects on surface-wave magnitude, M/sub s/, and waveform character. The focus of this study is a comparison between two mechanisms of tectonic strain release: strike-slip motion on vertical faults and thrust motion on 45 0 dipping faults. The results of our calculations show that Rayleigh-wave amplitudes of the dip-slip model at F values between 0.75 and 1.5 are significantly lower than amplitudes of the strike-slip model or of the explosion source alone. This effect translates into M/sub s/ values about 0.5 units lower than M/sub s/ of the explosion alone. Waveform polarity reversals occur in two of four azimuthal quadrants for the strike-slip model and in all azimuths of the dip-slip-thrust model for F values above about 3. A cursory examination of waveforms from presumed explosions in eastern Kazakhstan suggests that releases of tectonic strain are accompanying the detonation of many of these explosions. Qualitatively, the observations seem to favor the dip-slip-thrust model, which, in the case of a few explosions, must have F values above 3

  2. A proposal for a dipole-generated BLUF domain mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilo eMathes


    Full Text Available The resting and signaling structures of the blue-light sensing using flavin (BLUF photoreceptor domains are still controversially debated due to differences in the molecular models obtained by crystal and NMR structures. Photocycles for the given preferred structural framework have been established, but a unifying picture combining experiment and theory remains elusive. We summarize present work on the AppA BLUF domain from both experiment and theory. We focus on IR and UV/vis spectra, and to what extent theory was able to reproduce experimental data and predict the structural changes upon formation of the signaling state. We find that the experimental observables can be theoretically reproduced employing any structural model, as long as the orientation of the signaling essential Gln63 and its tautomer state are a choice of the modeler. We also observe that few approaches are comparative, e.g. by considering all structures in the same context. Based on recent experimental findings and a few basic calculations, we suggest the possibility for a BLUF activation mechanism that only relies on electron transfer and its effect on the local electrostatics, not requiring an associated proton transfer. In this regard, we investigate the impact of dispersion correction on the interaction energies arising from weakly bound amino acids.

  3. HeldenSurface: A CAD Tool to Generate High-Quality Surfaces, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — One of the primary shortcomings identified during the NASA sponsored CFD Vision 2030 Study conducted during 2012-2014 was that the generation of meshes suitable for...

  4. Generating surface states in a Weyl semimetal by applying electromagnetic radiation (United States)

    Deb, Oindrila; Sen, Diptiman


    We show that the application of circularly polarized electromagnetic radiation on the surface of a Weyl semimetal can generate states at that surface. These states can be characterized by their surface momentum. The Floquet eigenvalues ei θ of these states come in complex conjugate pairs rather than being equal to ±1 . If the amplitude of the radiation is small, we find some unusual bulk-boundary relations: the values of θ of the surface states lie at the extrema of the θ 's of the bulk system, and the peaks of the Fourier transforms of the surface state wave functions lie at the momenta where the bulk θ 's have extrema. For the case of zero surface momentum, we can analytically derive scaling relations between the decay length of the surface states and the amplitude and penetration length of the radiation. For topological insulators, we again find that circularly polarized radiation can generate states on the top surface; these states have much larger decay lengths than the surface states which are present even in the absence of radiation. Finally, we show that radiation can generate surface states for trivial insulators also.

  5. Erosion resistant anti-ice surfaces generated by ultra short laser pulses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Del Cerro, D.A.; Römer, G.R.B.E.; Huis in't Veld, A.J.


    Wetting properties of a wide range of materials can be modified by accurate laser micromachining with ultra short laser pulses. Controlling the surface topography in a micro and sub-micrometer scale allows the generation of water-repellent surfaces, which remain dry and prevent ice accumulation

  6. Analytical modelling for ultrasonic surface mechanical attrition treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan-Rong Huang


    Full Text Available The grain refinement, gradient structure, fatigue limit, hardness, and tensile strength of metallic materials can be effectively enhanced by ultrasonic surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT, however, never before has SMAT been treated with rigorous analytical modelling such as the connection among the input energy and power and resultant temperature of metallic materials subjected to SMAT. Therefore, a systematic SMAT model is actually needed. In this article, we have calculated the averaged speed, duration time of a cycle, kinetic energy and kinetic energy loss of flying balls in SMAT for structural metallic materials. The connection among the quantities such as the frequency and amplitude of attrition ultrasonic vibration motor, the diameter, mass and density of balls, the sample mass, and the height of chamber have been considered and modelled in details. And we have introduced the one-dimensional heat equation with heat source within uniform-distributed depth in estimating the temperature distribution and heat energy of sample. In this approach, there exists a condition for the frequency of flying balls reaching a steady speed. With these known quantities, we can estimate the strain rate, hardness, and grain size of sample.

  7. A Robust Mechanical Sensing System for Unmanned Sea Surface Vehicles (United States)

    Kulczycki, Eric A.; Magnone, Lee J.; Huntsberger, Terrance; Aghazarian, Hrand; Padgett, Curtis W.; Trotz, David C.; Garrett, Michael S.


    The need for autonomous navigation and intelligent control of unmanned sea surface vehicles requires a mechanically robust sensing architecture that is watertight, durable, and insensitive to vibration and shock loading. The sensing system developed here comprises four black and white cameras and a single color camera. The cameras are rigidly mounted to a camera bar that can be reconfigured to mount multiple vehicles, and act as both navigational cameras and application cameras. The cameras are housed in watertight casings to protect them and their electronics from moisture and wave splashes. Two of the black and white cameras are positioned to provide lateral vision. They are angled away from the front of the vehicle at horizontal angles to provide ideal fields of view for mapping and autonomous navigation. The other two black and white cameras are positioned at an angle into the color camera's field of view to support vehicle applications. These two cameras provide an overlap, as well as a backup to the front camera. The color camera is positioned directly in the middle of the bar, aimed straight ahead. This system is applicable to any sea-going vehicle, both on Earth and in space.

  8. Apoptosis generates mechanical forces that close the lens vesicle in the chick embryo (United States)

    Oltean, Alina; Taber, Larry A.


    During the initial stages of eye development, optic vesicles grow laterally outward from both sides of the forebrain and come into contact with the surrounding surface ectoderm (SE). Within the region of contact, these layers then thicken locally to create placodes and invaginate to form the optic cup (primitive retina) and lens vesicle (LV), respectively. This paper examines the biophysical mechanisms involved in LV formation, which consists of three phases: (1) lens placode formation; (2) invagination to create the lens pit (LP); and (3) closure to form a complete ellipsoidally shaped LV. Previous studies have suggested that extracellular matrix deposited between the SE and optic vesicle causes the lens placode to form by locally constraining expansion of the SE as it grows, while actomyosin contraction causes this structure to invaginate. Here, using computational modeling and experiments on chick embryos, we confirm that these mechanisms for Phases 1 and 2 are physically plausible. Our results also suggest, however, that they are not sufficient to close the LP during Phase 3. We postulate that apoptosis provides an additional mechanism by removing cells near the LP opening, thereby decreasing its circumference and generating tension that closes the LP. This hypothesis is supported by staining that shows a ring of cell death located around the LP opening during closure. Inhibiting apoptosis in cultured embryos using caspase inhibitors significantly reduced LP closure, and results from a finite-element model indicate that closure driven by cell death is plausible. Taken together, our results suggest an important mechanical role for apoptosis in lens development.

  9. Explicit polarization: a quantum mechanical framework for developing next generation force fields. (United States)

    Gao, Jiali; Truhlar, Donald G; Wang, Yingjie; Mazack, Michael J M; Löffler, Patrick; Provorse, Makenzie R; Rehak, Pavel


    Conspectus Molecular mechanical force fields have been successfully used to model condensed-phase and biological systems for a half century. By means of careful parametrization, such classical force fields can be used to provide useful interpretations of experimental findings and predictions of certain properties. Yet, there is a need to further improve computational accuracy for the quantitative prediction of biomolecular interactions and to model properties that depend on the wave functions and not just the energy terms. A new strategy called explicit polarization (X-Pol) has been developed to construct the potential energy surface and wave functions for macromolecular and liquid-phase simulations on the basis of quantum mechanics rather than only using quantum mechanical results to fit analytic force fields. In this spirit, this approach is called a quantum mechanical force field (QMFF). X-Pol is a general fragment method for electronic structure calculations based on the partition of a condensed-phase or macromolecular system into subsystems ("fragments") to achieve computational efficiency. Here, intrafragment energy and the mutual electronic polarization of interfragment interactions are treated explicitly using quantum mechanics. X-Pol can be used as a general, multilevel electronic structure model for macromolecular systems, and it can also serve as a new-generation force field. As a quantum chemical model, a variational many-body (VMB) expansion approach is used to systematically improve interfragment interactions, including exchange repulsion, charge delocalization, dispersion, and other correlation energies. As a quantum mechanical force field, these energy terms are approximated by empirical functions in the spirit of conventional molecular mechanics. This Account first reviews the formulation of X-Pol, in the full variationally correct version, in the faster embedded version, and with systematic many-body improvements. We discuss illustrative examples

  10. Generation of Graphene Surface Plasmons and Their Applications in Beam Steering

    KAUST Repository

    Farhat, Mohamed


    We propose a novel concept that uses mechanical and electronic properties of graphene to efficiently couple light to surface plasmon polaritons. A graphene-based infrared beam-former based on the concept of surface leaky-wave is also discussed. © OSA 2015.

  11. Surface mediated cooperative interactions of drugs enhance mechanical forces for antibiotic action (United States)

    Ndieyira, Joseph W.; Bailey, Joe; Patil, Samadhan B.; Vögtli, Manuel; Cooper, Matthew A.; Abell, Chris; McKendry, Rachel A.; Aeppli, Gabriel


    The alarming increase of pathogenic bacteria that are resistant to multiple antibiotics is now recognized as a major health issue fuelling demand for new drugs. Bacterial resistance is often caused by molecular changes at the bacterial surface, which alter the nature of specific drug-target interactions. Here, we identify a novel mechanism by which drug-target interactions in resistant bacteria can be enhanced. We examined the surface forces generated by four antibiotics; vancomycin, ristomycin, chloroeremomycin and oritavancin against drug-susceptible and drug-resistant targets on a cantilever and demonstrated significant differences in mechanical response when drug-resistant targets are challenged with different antibiotics although no significant differences were observed when using susceptible targets. Remarkably, the binding affinity for oritavancin against drug-resistant targets (70 nM) was found to be 11,000 times stronger than for vancomycin (800 μM), a powerful antibiotic used as the last resort treatment for streptococcal and staphylococcal bacteria including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Using an exactly solvable model, which takes into account the solvent and membrane effects, we demonstrate that drug-target interactions are strengthened by pronounced polyvalent interactions catalyzed by the surface itself. These findings further enhance our understanding of antibiotic mode of action and will enable development of more effective therapies.

  12. Study of the Mechanical Properties of a Nanostructured Surface Layer on 316L Stainless Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. C. Lang


    Full Text Available A nanostructured surface layer (NSSL was generated on a 316L stainless steel plate through surface nanocrystallization (SNC. The grains of the surface layer were refined to nanoscale after SNC treatment. Moreover, the microstructure and mechanical properties of NSSL were analyzed with a transmission electron microscope (TEM and scanning electron microscope (SEM, through nanoindentation, and through reverse analysis of finite element method (FEM. TEM results showed that the grains in the NSSL measured 8 nm. In addition, these nanocrystalline grains took the form of random crystallographic orientation and were roughly equiaxed in shape. In situ SEM observations of the tensile process confirmed that the motions of the dislocations were determined from within the material and that the motions were blocked by the NSSL, thus improving overall yielding stress. Meanwhile, the nanohardness and the elastic modulus of the NSSL, as well as those of the matrix, were obtained with nanoindentation technology. The reverse analysis of FEM was conducted with MARC software, and the process of nanoindentation on the NSSL and the matrix was simulated. The plastic mechanical properties of NSSL can be derived from the simulation by comparing the results of the simulation and of actual nanoindentation.

  13. Generating a Simulated Fluid Flow Over an Aircraft Surface Using Anisotropic Diffusion (United States)

    Rodriguez, David L. (Inventor); Sturdza, Peter (Inventor)


    A fluid-flow simulation over a computer-generated aircraft surface is generated using a diffusion technique. The surface is comprised of a surface mesh of polygons. A boundary-layer fluid property is obtained for a subset of the polygons of the surface mesh. A pressure-gradient vector is determined for a selected polygon, the selected polygon belonging to the surface mesh but not one of the subset of polygons. A maximum and minimum diffusion rate is determined along directions determined using a pressure gradient vector corresponding to the selected polygon. A diffusion-path vector is defined between a point in the selected polygon and a neighboring point in a neighboring polygon. An updated fluid property is determined for the selected polygon using a variable diffusion rate, the variable diffusion rate based on the minimum diffusion rate, maximum diffusion rate, and angular difference between the diffusion-path vector and the pressure-gradient vector.

  14. Generating a Simulated Fluid Flow over a Surface Using Anisotropic Diffusion (United States)

    Rodriguez, David L. (Inventor); Sturdza, Peter (Inventor)


    A fluid-flow simulation over a computer-generated surface is generated using a diffusion technique. The surface is comprised of a surface mesh of polygons. A boundary-layer fluid property is obtained for a subset of the polygons of the surface mesh. A gradient vector is determined for a selected polygon, the selected polygon belonging to the surface mesh but not one of the subset of polygons. A maximum and minimum diffusion rate is determined along directions determined using the gradient vector corresponding to the selected polygon. A diffusion-path vector is defined between a point in the selected polygon and a neighboring point in a neighboring polygon. An updated fluid property is determined for the selected polygon using a variable diffusion rate, the variable diffusion rate based on the minimum diffusion rate, maximum diffusion rate, and the gradient vector.

  15. On the generation of surface depressions in polishing polycrystalline diamond compacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Fengzai; Chen, Yiqing; Zhang, Liangchi


    This paper investigates the surface depressions generated during the polishing of the (1 1 1) surfaces of polycrystalline diamond (PCD) compacts when using the dynamic friction polishing (DFP) method. It was found that surface depressions of six-sided faces along octahedral planes were the typical features created by the DFP. Although the size of the well-developed depressions can vary significantly, the rectilinear edges are always aligned with the directions. Pronounced {1 1 1} planar defects (i.e., twins) were revealed underneath a depression apex. The interception of the defect plane with the polished surface accounts for the generation of the aligned depressions and for the discernible asymmetry of the pyramidal faces with respect to the (1 1 1) plane. It was revealed that the attached debris layer on the PCD surfaces contained sp 2 -bounded amorphous carbon and nano-sized crystals. (paper)

  16. Variate generation for probabilistic fracture mechanics and fitness-for-service studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, J.R.


    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited is conducting studies in Probabilistic Fracture Mechanics. These studies are being conducted as part of a fitness-for-service programme in support of CANDU reactors. The Monte Carlo analyses, which form part of the Probabilistic Fracture Mechanics studies, require that variates can be sampled from probability density functions. Accurate pseudo-random numbers are necessary for accurate variate generation. This report details the principles of variate generation, and describes the production and testing of pseudo-random numbers. A new algorithm has been produced for the correct performance of the lattice test for the independence of pseudo-random numbers. Two new pseudo-random number generators have been produced. These generators have excellent randomness properties and can be made fully machine-independent. Versions, in FORTRAN, for VAX and CDC computers are given. Accurate and efficient algorithms for the generation of variates from the specialized probability density functions of Probabilistic Fracture Mechanics are given. 38 refs

  17. Model Selection and Quality Estimation of Time Series Models for Artificial Technical Surface Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Eifler


    Full Text Available Standard compliant parameter calculation in surface topography analysis takes the manufacturing process into account. Thus, the measurement technician can be supported with automated suggestions for preprocessing, filtering and evaluation of the measurement data based on the character of the surface topography. Artificial neuronal networks (ANN are one approach for the recognition or classification of technical surfaces. However the required set of training data for ANN is often not available, especially when data acquisition is time consuming or expensive—as e.g., measuring surface topography. Thus, generation of artificial (simulated data becomes of interest. An approach from time series analysis is chosen and examined regarding its suitability for the description of technical surfaces: the ARMAsel model, an approach for time series modelling which is capable of choosing the statistical model with the smallest prediction error and the best number of coefficients for a certain surface. With a reliable model which features the relevant stochastic properties of a surface, a generation of training data for classifiers of artificial neural networks is possible. Based on the determined ARMA-coefficients from the ARMAsel-approach, with only few measured datasets many different artificial surfaces can be generated which can be used for training classifiers of an artificial neural network. In doing so, an improved calculation of the model input data for the generation of artificial surfaces is possible as the training data generation is based on actual measurement data. The trained artificial neural network is tested with actual measurement data of surfaces that were manufactured with varying manufacturing methods and a recognition rate of the according manufacturing principle between 60% and 78% can be determined. This means that based on only few measured datasets, stochastic surface information of various manufacturing principles can be extracted

  18. Thermal generation of the magnetic field in the surface layers of massive stars (United States)

    Urpin, V.


    A new magnetic field-generation mechanism based on the Nernst effect is considered in hot massive stars. This mechanism can operate in the upper atmospheres of O and B stars where departures from the LTE form a region with the inverse temperature gradient.

  19. Mechanisms of interfacial reactivity in near surface and extreme environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Ying [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Balaska, Eric [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Weare, John [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Fulton, John [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bogatko, Stuart [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Balasubramanian, Mahalingam [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cauet, Emilie [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Kerisit, Sebastien [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Felmy, Andrew [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Schenter, Gregory [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Weare, Jonathan [U of Chicago


    The local water structure surrounding ions in aqueous solutions greatly affects their chemical properties such as reaction rates, ion association, and proton and electron transport. These properties result in the behavior of ions in natural aqueous environments. For example ore transport is facilitated by chloride ion pair formation and the reaction of ions in an interface is strongly dependent on the dehydration of the ion hydration shell. We are developing the use of high-­resolution XAFS observations and 1st principles based MD-­XAFS analysis (spectra simulated using 1st principle methods with no adjustable parameters, AIMD) to interpret the solution properties of strongly interacting aqueous solutes under arbitrary pressure and temperature conditions. In the 1st principle MD-­XAFS method density functional theory (DFT) based MD simulations(Car and Parrinello, 1985) are used to generate a large ensemble of structural snap shots of the hydration region. These are then used to generate scattering intensities. I emphasize three points about this novel approach to analyzing XAFS data. 1st: As illustrated in Figure 1, the level of agreement between the calculated and observed intensities is considerably higher than has been obtained by any XAFS analysis to date (note 2nd shell region, R> 2 Å). 2nd: This result was obtained from a parameter free simulation with no fitting of the interaction potentials to any data. This supports the use of these methods for more difficult environments and more complex solutes (polyions). 3rd: New information about the shell structure (Figure 1) is now available because of this more detailed agreement. We note also that both multiple scattering and second shell features are well represented in the analysis. As far as we know this is the 1st analysis of second shell structure and multiple scattering. Excellent agreement has been obtained for most of the third row metal ions: Ca2+, Zn2+, Cu2+, Ni2

  20. Acoustic emission-based in-process monitoring of surface generation in robot-assisted polishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilny, Lukas; Bissacco, Giuliano; De Chiffre, Leonardo


    The applicability of acoustic emission (AE) measurements for in-process monitoring of surface generation in the robot-assisted polishing (RAP) was investigated. Surface roughness measurements require interruption of the process, proper surface cleaning and measurements that sometimes necessitate......-process determination of the process endpoint. This makes it possible to reliably determine the right time for changing the polishing media to finer abrasive when applying a given set of parameters is no longer effective to create a smoother surface, thus improving the efficiency of the process. The findings enabling...

  1. Laser-induced generation of surface periodic structures in media with nonlinear diffusion (United States)

    Zhuravlev, V. M.; Zolotovskii, I. O.; Korobko, D. A.; Morozov, V. M.; Svetukhin, V. V.; Yavtushenko, I. O.; Yavtushenko, M. S.


    A model of fast formation of high-contrast periodic structure appearing on a semiconductor surface under action of laser radiation is proposed. The process of growing a surface structure due to the interaction surface plasmon- polaritons excited on nonequilibrium electrons with incident laser radiation are considered in the framework of a medium with nonlinear diffusion of nonequilibrium carriers (defects). A resonance effect of superfast pico- and subpicosecond amplification of the plasmon-polariton structure generated on the surface, the realization of which can result in a high-contrast defect lattice.

  2. Surface plasma wave assisted second harmonic generation of laser over a metal film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauhan, Santosh; Parashar, J.


    Second harmonic generation of laser mode converted surface plasma wave (SPW) over a corrugated metal film is studied. The laser, impinged on the metal film, under attenuated total reflection configuration, excites SPW over the metal–vacuum interface. The excited SPW extends over a much wider surface area than the laser spot cross-section. It exerts a second harmonic ponderomotive force on metal electrons, imparting them velocity that beats with the surface ripple to produce a nonlinear current, driving resonant second harmonic surface plasma wave

  3. Heat generation/absorption and nonlinear radiation effects on stagnation point flow of nanofluid along a moving surface (United States)

    Soomro, Feroz Ahmed; Haq, Rizwan Ul; Al-Mdallal, Qasem M.; Zhang, Qiang


    In this study, heat generation/absorption effects are studied in the presence of nonlinear thermal radiation along a moving slip surface. Uniform magnetic field and convective condition along the stretching surface are adjusted to deal the slip mechanisms in term of Brownian motion and thermophoresis for nanofluid. The mathematical model is constructed in the form of coupled partial differential equations. By introducing the suitable similarity transformation, system of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations are obtained. Finite difference approach is implemented to obtain the unknown functions of velocity, temperature, nanoparticle concentration. To deduct the effects at the surface, physical quantities of interest are computed under the effects of controlled physical parameters. Present numerical solutions are validated via numerical comparison with existing published work for limiting cases. Present study indicates that due to increase in both Brownian motion and thermophoresis, the Nusselt number decreases while Sherwood number shows the gradual increase.

  4. Mechanisms of Residual Stress Generation in Mechanical Surface Treatment: the Role of Cyclic Plasticity and Texture (United States)


    and texture S. Zabeen M. K. Khan M. E. Fitzpatrick THE OPEN UNIVERSITY WALTON HALL MILTON KEYNES MK7 6AA UNITED KINGDOM...toughness of 6061-T6 aluminum alloy", Materials Science and Engineering A, vol. 386, no. 1-2, pp. 291-295. Ruschau, J.J., John , R., Thompson, S.R

  5. Molecular dimensions and surface diffusion assisted mechanically robust slippery perfluoropolyether impregnated mesoporous alumina interfaces (United States)

    Rowthu, Sriharitha; Balic, Edin E.; Hoffmann, Patrik


    Accomplishing mechanically robust omniphobic surfaces is a long-existing challenge, and can potentially find applications in bioengineering, tribology and paint industries. Slippery liquid impregnated mesoporous α-Al2O3 interfaces are achieved with water, alkanes, water based and oil based high viscosity acrylic paints. Incredibly high abrasion-resistance (wear coefficients ≤10‑8 mm3 N‑1 m‑1) and ultra-low friction coefficients (≥0.025) are attained, attributing to the hard alumina matrix and continuous replenishment of perfluoropolyether aided by capillarity and surface diffusion processes. A variety of impregnating liquids employed suggest that large molecules, faster surface diffusion and lowest evaporation rate generate the rare combination of high wear-resistance and omniphobicity. It is noteworthy that these novel liquid impregnated Al2O3 composites exhibit outstanding load bearing capacity up to 350 MPa; three orders of magnitude higher than achievable by the state of the art omniphobic surfaces. Further, our developed thermodynamic calculations suggest that the relative thermodynamic stability of liquid impregnated composites is linearly proportional to the spreading coefficient (S) of the impregnating liquid with the matrix material and is an important tool for the selection of an appropriate matrix material for a given liquid.

  6. Alternative mechanism for coffee-ring deposition based on active role of free surface (United States)

    Jafari Kang, Saeed; Vandadi, Vahid; Felske, James D.; Masoud, Hassan


    When a colloidal sessile droplet dries on a substrate, the particles suspended in it usually deposit in a ringlike pattern. This phenomenon is commonly referred to as the "coffee-ring" effect. One paradigm for why this occurs is as a consequence of the solutes being transported towards the pinned contact line by the flow inside the drop, which is induced by surface evaporation. From this perspective, the role of the liquid-gas interface in shaping the deposition pattern is somewhat minimized. Here, we propose an alternative mechanism for the coffee-ring deposition. It is based on the bulk flow within the drop transporting particles to the interface where they are captured by the receding free surface and subsequently transported along the interface until they are deposited near the contact line. That the interface captures the solutes as the evaporation proceeds is supported by a Lagrangian tracing of particles advected by the flow field within the droplet. We model the interfacial adsorption and transport of particles as a one-dimensional advection-generation process in toroidal coordinates and show that the theory reproduces ring-shaped depositions. Using this model, deposition patterns on both hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces are examined in which the evaporation is modeled as being either diffusive or uniform over the surface.

  7. Development of an in-orbit refocusing mechanism for the meteosat second generation weather satellites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff, P.; Mierlo, H.A. van; Braam, B.C.; Hopman, J.; Werkhoven, W.P. van; Kluse, M. le


    A Refocusing Mechanism (REM) has been designed and built for the SEVIRI instrument, the imager in the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite. The purpose of the mechanism is in-orbit focal adjustment of a mirror assembly which forms part of SEVIRI. As the MSG satellite observes the earth and its

  8. Mechanism of Hydrophilicity by Radiation-Induced Surface Activation (United States)

    Honjo, Yoshio; Furuya, Masahiro; Takamasa, Tomoji; Okamoto, Koji

    When a metal oxide is irradiated by gamma rays, the irradiated surface becomes hydrophilic. This surface phenomenon is called as radiation-induced surface activation (RISA) hydrophilicity. In order to investigate gamma ray-induced and photoinduced hydrophilicity, the contact angles of water droplets on a titanium dioxide surface were measured in terms of irradiation intensity and time for gamma rays of cobalt-60 and for ultraviolet rays. Reciprocals of the contact angles increased in proportion to the irradiation time before the contact angles reached its super-hydrophilic state. The irradiation time dependency is equal to each other qualitatively. In addition, an effect of ambient gas was investigated. In pure argon gas, the contact angle remains the same against the irradiation time. This clearly indicates that certain humidity is required in ambient gas to take place of RISA hydrophilicity. A single crystal titanium dioxide (100) surface was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS). After irradiation with gamma rays, a peak was found in the O1s spectrum, which indicates the adsorption of dissociative water to a surface 5-fold coordinate titanium site, and the formation of a surface hydroxyl group. We conclude that the RISA hydrophilicity is caused by chemisorption of the hydroxyl group on the surface.

  9. Experimental Assessment of Mechanical Night Ventilation on Inner Wall Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenhui, Ji; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Wang, Houhua


    The cooling potential of night ventilation largely depends on the heat exchange at the internal room surfaces. During night time, increased heat transfer on a vertical wall is expected due to cool supply air that flows along the internal wall surface from the top of the wall. This paper presents ...

  10. A Quantitative Comparison of some Mechanisms Generating Overpressure in Sedimentary Basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wangen, Magnus


    Expulsion of fluids in low permeable rock generate overpressure. Several mechanisms are suggested for fluid expulsion and overpressure build-up, and some of them have here been studied and compared. These are mechanical compaction, aquathermal pressuring, dehydration of clays, hydrocarbon generation and cementation of the pore space. A single pressure equation for these fluid expulsion processes has been studied. In particular, the source term in this pressure equation is studied carefully, because the source term consists of separate terms representing each mechanism for pressure build-up. The amount of fluid expelled from each mechanism is obtained from these individual contributions to the source term. It is shown that the rate of change of porosity can be expressed in at least two different ways for dehydration reactions and oil generation. One way in which the reduction in the solid volume enhances the porosity, and another where the porosity remains constant. A gravity number is defined by the permeability and the Darcy flux of the expelled fluid. The gravity number is shown to be a useful indicator for overpressure build-up. The gravity number is also used to estimate the thickness a seal needs for overpressure to rise from almost hydrostatic conditions above the seal to almost lithostatic conditions below the seal. Simple expressions for the Darcy fluxes caused by mechanical compaction, dehydration of clays, hydrocarbon generation and cementation of the pore space are derived. It is shown how these expressions can be combined with the gravity number to obtain an upper bound for the permeability for overpressure build-up to take place. Mechanical compaction and cementation of the pore space are shown to be the strongest expulsion mechanisms. Although most mechanisms can generate overpressure alone given a sufficiently low permeability, it is concluded that cementation of pore space is the most likely mechanism for overpressure generation in deeply buried

  11. Thermal analysis experiment for elucidating sodium-water chemical reaction mechanism in steam generator of sodium-cooled fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Shin; Kurihara, Akikazu; Ohshima, Hiroyuki


    For the purpose of elucidating the mechanism of the sodium-water surface reaction in a steam generator of sodium-cooled fast reactors, kinetic study of the sodium (Na)-sodium hydroxide (NaOH) reaction has been carried out by using Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) technique. The parameters, including melting points of Na and NaOH, phase transition temperature of NaOH, Na-NaOH reaction temperature, and decomposition temperature of sodium hydride (NaH) have been identified from DTA curves. Based on the measured reaction temperature, rate constant of sodium monoxide (Na 2 O) generation was obtained. Thermal analysis results indicated that Na 2 O generation at the secondary overall reaction should be considered during the sodium-water reaction. (author)

  12. Study of the relation between evaluation of strain distribution on superconducting coil and mechanical heat generation (United States)

    Seino, Hiroshi; Kurihara, Minoru; Herai, Toshiki; Suzuki, Eiji


    In the superconducting Maglev system, on-board superconducting magnets (SCMs) are vibrated at various frequencies according to the train speed by the electromagnetic disturbance which is caused when the train passes over ground coils. Then a mechanical loss is generated inside the inner vessel in the SCM. This phenomenon increases the heat load on the cryogenic equipment in the SCM. It has been surmised that the mechanical heat inside the inner vessel is generated by the frictional heat caused by the relative microscopic slips between fasteners and superconducting coil (SC coil). Nevertheless, heat generation mechanisms inside the inner vessel have not been studied sufficiently. In this study, we suggest a hypothesis that the frictional heat generated by the relative microscopic slips between fasteners and a SC coil will be indicated if the calculated strain distribution on the SC coil is evaluated. The results of this study supported this hypothesis.

  13. Determination of Mechanical and Surface Properties of Semicrystalline Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxane (POSS) Nanocomposites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moody, Laura E; Marchant, Darrell; Grabow, Wade W; Lee, Andre Y; Mabry, Joseph M


    INTRODUCTION: (1) Nanomodification of semicrystalline polymers -- unequalled thermal, mechanical and surface properties at low volume fractions that cannot be obtained using conventional fillers; (2...

  14. Determination of Mechanical and Surface Properties of Semicrystalline Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsequioxane (POSS) Nanocomposites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moody, Laura E; Marchant, Darrell; Grabow, Wade W; Lee, Andre Y; Mabry, Joseph M


    .... This study examines the ability of POSS to improve the mechanical and surface properties of three semicrystalline polymers, fluorinated ethylene-propylene (FEP), poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF...

  15. Generation of H-, D- ions on composite surfaces with application to surface/plasma ion source systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiskes, J.R.; Karo, A.M.; Wimmer, E.; Freeman, A.J.; Chubb, S.R.


    We review some salient features of the experimental and theoretical data pertaining to hydrogen negative ion generation on minimum-work-function composite surfaces consisting of Cs/transition metal substrates. Cesium or hydrogen ion bombardment of a cesium-activated negatively-biased electrode exposed to a cesium-hydrogen discharge results in the release of hydrogen negative ions. These ions originate through desorbtion of hydrogen particles by incident cesium ions, desorbtion by incident hydrogen ions, and by backscattering of incident hydrogen. Each process is characterized by a specific energy and angular distribution. The calculation of ion formation in the crystal selvage region is discussed for different approximations to the surface potential. An ab initio, all-electron, local density functional model for the composite surface electronics is discussed

  16. Surface plasmon polariton excitation by second harmonic generation in single organic nanofibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simesen, Paw; Søndergaard, Thomas; Skovsen, Esben


    Coherent local excitation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) by second-harmonic generation (SHG) in individual aligned crystalline organic functionalized para-phenylene nanofibers deposited on a thin silver film is demonstrated. The SH-SPP generation is considered theoretically and investigated...... experimentally with angular-resolved leakage radiation spectroscopy for normal incidence of the excitation beam. Both measurements and simulations show asymmetric excitation of left- and right-propagating SH-SPPs, which is explained as an effect of fiber molecules being oriented at an angle relative...... to the silver film surface....

  17. Feasibility Analysis of Liquefying Oxygen Generated from Water Electrolysis Units on Lunar Surface (United States)

    Jeng, Frank F.


    Concepts for liquefying oxygen (O2) generated from water electrolysis subsystems on the Lunar surface were explored. Concepts for O2 liquefaction units capable of generating 1.38 lb/hr (0.63 kg/hr) liquid oxygen (LOX) were developed. Heat and mass balance calculations for the liquefaction concepts were conducted. Stream properties, duties of radiators, heat exchangers and compressors for the selected concepts were calculated and compared.

  18. An experimental study of the surface elevation probability distribution and statistics of wind-generated waves (United States)

    Huang, N. E.; Long, S. R.


    Laboratory experiments were performed to measure the surface elevation probability density function and associated statistical properties for a wind-generated wave field. The laboratory data along with some limited field data were compared. The statistical properties of the surface elevation were processed for comparison with the results derived from the Longuet-Higgins (1963) theory. It is found that, even for the highly non-Gaussian cases, the distribution function proposed by Longuet-Higgins still gives good approximations.

  19. Simulation Tool to Assess Mechanical and Electrical Stresses on Wind Turbine Generators: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, M.; Muljadi, E.; Gevorgian, V.; Jonkman, J.


    Wind turbine generators (WTGs) consist of many different components to convert kinetic energy of the wind into electrical energy for end users. Wind energy is accessed to provide mechanical torque for driving the shaft of the electrical generator. The conversion from wind power to mechanical power is governed by the aerodynamic conversion. The aerodynamic-electrical-conversion efficiency of a WTGis influenced by the efficiency of the blades, the gearbox, the generator, and the power converter. This paper describes the use of MATLAB/Simulink to simulate the electrical and grid-related aspects of a WTG coupled with the FAST aero-elastic wind turbine computer-aided engineering tool to simulate the aerodynamic and mechanical aspects of a WTG. The combination of the two enables studiesinvolving both electrical and mechanical aspects of a WTG. This digest includes some examples of the capabilities of the FAST and MATLAB coupling, namely the effects of electrical faults on the blade moments.

  20. Generation mechanism of nonlinear ultrasonic Lamb waves in thin plates with randomly distributed micro-cracks. (United States)

    Zhao, Youxuan; Li, Feilong; Cao, Peng; Liu, Yaolu; Zhang, Jianyu; Fu, Shaoyun; Zhang, Jun; Hu, Ning


    Since the identification of micro-cracks in engineering materials is very valuable in understanding the initial and slight changes in mechanical properties of materials under complex working environments, numerical simulations on the propagation of the low frequency S 0 Lamb wave in thin plates with randomly distributed micro-cracks were performed to study the behavior of nonlinear Lamb waves. The results showed that while the influence of the randomly distributed micro-cracks on the phase velocity of the low frequency S 0 fundamental waves could be neglected, significant ultrasonic nonlinear effects caused by the randomly distributed micro-cracks was discovered, which mainly presented as a second harmonic generation. By using a Monte Carlo simulation method, we found that the acoustic nonlinear parameter increased linearly with the micro-crack density and the size of micro-crack zone, and it was also related to the excitation frequency and friction coefficient of the micro-crack surfaces. In addition, it was found that the nonlinear effect of waves reflected by the micro-cracks was more noticeable than that of the transmitted waves. This study theoretically reveals that the low frequency S 0 mode of Lamb waves can be used as the fundamental waves to quantitatively identify micro-cracks in thin plates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Benefits of integrating chemical and mechanical cleaning processes for steam generator sludge removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varrin, R.D.; Ferriter, A.M.; Oliver, T.W.; Le Surf, J.E.


    This paper discusses the benefits of performing in-bundle tubesheet lancing in conjunction with chemical cleaning of PWR and PHWR steam generators in which a hard sludge pile is known to exist. The primary benefits of in-bundle lancing are to: (1) increase the exposed area of the sludge pile by cutting furrows in the surface thereby enhancing dissolution of sludge, (2) reduce the volume of solvents required since material removed by lancing does not have to be dissolved chemically, (3) improve rinsing and removal of residual solvent between iron and copper dissolution steps, and (4) allow for verification of process effectiveness by providing high quality in-bundle visual inspection. The reduction in solvent volumes can lead to a significant reduction in solvent costs and waste processing. A case study which includes an economic evaluation for a combined chemical and mechanical cleaning shows a potential cost saving of up to US$ 300,000 over use of chemical cleaning alone. 14 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  2. Second generation diffusion model of interacting gravity waves on the surface of deep fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pushkarev


    Full Text Available We propose a second generation phenomenological model for nonlinear interaction of gravity waves on the surface of deep water. This model takes into account the effects of non-locality of the original Hasselmann diffusion equation still preserving important properties of the first generation model: physically consistent scaling, adherence to conservation laws and the existence of Kolmogorov-Zakharov solutions. Numerical comparison of both models with the original Hasselmann equation shows that the second generation models improves the angular distribution in the evolving wave energy spectrum.

  3. Air-coupled acoustic radiation force for non-contact generation of broadband mechanical waves in soft media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambroziński, Łukasz [Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); AGH University of Science and Technology, Krakow 30059 (Poland); Pelivanov, Ivan, E-mail: [Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Faculty of Physics, Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Song, Shaozhen; Yoon, Soon Joon; Gao, Liang; O' Donnell, Matthew [Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Li, David [Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Washington Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Shen, Tueng T.; Wang, Ruikang K. [Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Department of Ophthalmology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98104 (United States)


    A non-contact method for efficient, non-invasive excitation of mechanical waves in soft media is proposed, in which we focus an ultrasound (US) signal through air onto the surface of a medium under study. The US wave reflected from the air/medium interface provides radiation force to the medium surface that launches a transient mechanical wave in the transverse (lateral) direction. The type of mechanical wave is determined by boundary conditions. To prove this concept, a home-made 1 MHz piezo-ceramic transducer with a matching layer to air sends a chirped US signal centered at 1 MHz to a 1.6 mm thick gelatin phantom mimicking soft biological tissue. A phase-sensitive (PhS)-optical coherence tomography system is used to track/image the mechanical wave. The reconstructed transient displacement of the mechanical wave in space and time demonstrates highly efficient generation, thus offering great promise for non-contact, non-invasive characterization of soft media, in general, and for elasticity measurements in delicate soft tissues and organs in bio-medicine, in particular.

  4. Mechanical Q-factor measurements on a test mass with a structured surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nawrodt, R [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Helmholtzweg 5, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Zimmer, A [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Helmholtzweg 5, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Koettig, T [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Helmholtzweg 5, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Clausnitzer, T [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Bunkowski, A [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik (Albert-Einstein-Institut) and Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Callinstr. 38, D-30167 Hannover (Germany); Kley, E B [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Schnabel, R [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik (Albert-Einstein-Institut) and Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Callinstr. 38, D-30167 Hannover (Germany); Danzmann, K [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik (Albert-Einstein-Institut) and Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Callinstr. 38, D-30167 Hannover (Germany); Nietzsche, S [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Helmholtzweg 5, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Vodel, W [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Helmholtzweg 5, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Tuennermann, A [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Seidel, P [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Helmholtzweg 5, D-07743 Jena (Germany)


    We present mechanical Q-factors (quality factors) of a crystalline quartz test mass with a nano-structured surface, measured in the temperature regime from 5 to 300 K. The nano-structure was a grating with a period of 2 {mu}m and a depth of about 0.1 {mu}m. Comparative measurements were performed on the plain substrate and on the structured test mass with different numbers of SiO{sub 2}/Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} coating layers. The measurements at different stages of the test mass fabrication process show that the surface distortion induced by the nanostructure does not severely lower the mechanical Q-factor of the substrate. Damping due to a multi-layer coating stack was found to be orders of magnitude higher. The results provide vital information concerning the potential usage of low-thermal noise nano-structured test masses in future generations of high-precision laser interferometers and in current attempts to measure quantum effects of macroscopic mirror oscillators.

  5. On a mechanism of NPP steam generator cleaning using chelating agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zverev, V.A.; Margulova, T.Kh.


    The experience of steam generator cleaning at the Novovoronezh NPP by means of chelating agents is briefly described. The cleaning process was carried out with the NPP being operative. Examination of surfaces after shutdown shows an essenial decrease in the surface fouling. The heat exchange surface of the steam generator is made of 08Kh18N10T austenitic stainless steel, and the reactor vessel-of pealitic steel. In-operation cleaning in the presence of two different steels consists in hematite removal from the 08Kh18N10T steel with the ferrum chelating agent formation and thermal decomposition of the latter in water and on the vessel pearlitic steel surface with the magnetite layer formation on it

  6. Mechanism of heat generation from loading gaseous hydrogen isotopes into palladium nanoparticles (United States)

    Dmitriyeva, Olga

    I have carried out the study of hydrogen isotope reactions in the presence of palladium nanoparticles impregnated into oxide powder. My goal was to explain the mechanisms of heat generation in those systems as a result of exposure to deuterium gas. Some researchers have associated this heating with a nuclear reaction in the Pd lattice. While some earlier experiments showed a correlation between the generation of excess heat and helium production as possible evidence of a nuclear reaction, the results of that research have not been replicated by the other groups and the search for radiation was unsuccessful. Therefore, the unknown origin of the excess heat produced by these systems is of great interest. I synthesized different types of Pd and Pt-impregnated oxide samples similar to those used by other research groups. I used different characterization techniques to confirm that the fabrication method I used is capable of producing Pd nanoparticles on the surface of alumina support. I used a custom built gas-loading system to pressurize the material with hydrogen and deuterium gas while measuring heat output as a result of these pressurizations. My initial study confirmed the excess heat generation in the presence of deuterium. However, the in-situ radiometry and alpha-particle measurements did not show any abnormal increase in counts above the background level. In the absence of nuclear reaction products, I decided to look for a conventional chemical process that could account for the excess heat generation. It was earlier suggested that Pd in its nanoparticle form catalyzes hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange reactions in the material. To prove the chemical nature of the observed phenomena I demonstrated that the reaction can be either exo- or endothermic based on the water isotope trapped in the material and the type of gas provided to the system. The H/D exchange was confirmed by RGA, NMR and FTIR analysis. I quantified the amount of energy that can be released due

  7. Influence of viscoelastic property on laser-generated surface acoustic waves in coating-substrate systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Hongxiang; Zhang Shuyi; Xu Baiqiang


    Taking account of the viscoelasticity of materials, the pulsed laser generation of surface acoustic waves in coating-substrate systems has been investigated quantitatively by using the finite element method. The displacement spectra of the surface acoustic waves have been calculated in frequency domain for different coating-substrate systems, in which the viscoelastic properties of the coatings and substrates are considered separately. Meanwhile, the temporal displacement waveforms have been obtained by applying inverse fast Fourier transforms. The numerical results of the normal surface displacements are presented for different configurations: a single plate, a slow coating on a fast substrate, and a fast coating on a slow substrate. The influences of the viscoelastic properties of the coating and the substrate on the attenuation of the surface acoustic waves have been studied. In addition, the influence of the coating thickness on the attenuation of the surface acoustic waves has been also investigated in detail.

  8. Electricity Generation Characteristics of Energy-Harvesting System with Piezoelectric Element Using Mechanical-Acoustic Coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotarou Tsuchiya


    Full Text Available This paper describes the electricity generation characteristics of a new energy-harvesting system with piezoelectric elements. The proposed system is composed of a rigid cylinder and thin plates at both ends. The piezoelectric elements are installed at the centers of both plates, and one side of each plate is subjected to a harmonic point force. In this system, vibration energy is converted into electrical energy via electromechanical coupling between the plate vibration and piezoelectric effect. In addition, the plate vibration excited by the point force induces a self-sustained vibration at the other plate via mechanical-acoustic coupling between the plate vibrations and an internal sound field into the cylindrical enclosure. Therefore, the electricity generation characteristics should be considered as an electromechanical-acoustic coupling problem. The characteristics are estimated theoretically and experimentally from the electric power in the electricity generation, the mechanical power supplied to the plate, and the electricity generation efficiency that is derived from the ratio of both power. In particular, the electricity generation efficiency is one of the most appropriate factors to evaluate a performance of electricity generation systems. Thus, the effect of mechanical-acoustic coupling is principally evaluated by examining the electricity generation efficiency.

  9. Screening for new surface washing agents and mechanisms of action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.; Liu, H.


    Surface washing agents (SWAs) for oil spills were screened using the inclined through method developed by Environment Canada. There are two categories of SWAs, i.e. non-surfactant based solvents, and surface active agents (surfactants). Results showed that among the SWAs tested, the systems based on a normal alkane solvent, including POD20, BOD123, and BOD124, had the best performance and the lowest toxicity. The optimum hydrophilic/lipophilic (HLB) value of hydrocarbon-based SWAs was found to fall in the range of 11 and 13, which is the HLB range between dispersants and detergents. The importance of reducing the interfacial tension between oil and water, and of making solid substrate surface water-wettable was also identified. The use of low-concentration aqueous surfactant solutions as rinsing water was found to improve effectiveness under field conditions. 10 refs., 21 figs

  10. Thermomechanical Mechanisms of Reducing Ice Adhesion on Superhydrophobic Surfaces. (United States)

    Cohen, N; Dotan, A; Dodiuk, H; Kenig, S


    Superhydrophobic (SH) coatings have been shown to reduce freezing and ice nucleation rates, by means of low surface energy chemistry tailored with nano/micro roughness. Durability enhancement of SH surfaces is a crucial issue. Consequently, the present research on reducing ice adhesion is based on radiation-induced radical reaction for covalently bonding SiO2 nanoparticles to polymer coatings to obtain durable roughness. Results indicated that the proposed approach resulted in SH surfaces having high contact angles (>155°) and low sliding angles (reduction of shear adhesion to a variety of SH treated substrates having low thermal expansion coefficient (copper and aluminum) and high thermal expansion coefficient (polycarbonate and poly(methyl methacrylate)). It was concluded that the thermal mismatch between the adhering ice and the various substrates and its resultant interfacial thermal stresses affect the adhesion strength of the ice to the respective substrate.

  11. Two-surface Monte Carlo with basin hopping: quantum mechanical trajectory and multiple stationary points of water cluster. (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Pradipta


    The efficiency of the two-surface monte carlo (TSMC) method depends on the closeness of the actual potential and the biasing potential used to propagate the system of interest. In this work, it is shown that by combining the basin hopping method with TSMC, the efficiency of the method can be increased by several folds. TSMC with basin hopping is used to generate quantum mechanical trajectory and large number of stationary points of water clusters.

  12. Second-Harmonic Generation Scanning Microscopy on Domains in Al Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kjeld; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.


    Scanning optical second-harmonic generation microscopy has been used to investigate domains in the surface of polycrystaline Al. Strong contrast among the crystalline grains is obtained due to variations in their crystallographic orientations and thus also nonlinear response. The origin of the co...

  13. Balanced gait generations of a two-legged robot on sloping surface

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    legged robot moving up and down through the sloping surface is presented. The gait of the lower links during locomotion is obtained after assuming suitable trajectories for the swing leg and hip joint. The trunk motion is initially generated based on ...

  14. Simulation of an Underwater Acoustic Communication Channel Characterized by Wind-Generated Surface Waves and Bubbles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dol, H.S.; Colin, M.E.G.D.; Ainslie, M.A.; Walree, P.A. van; Janmaat, J.


    Abstract—Sea-surface scattering by wind-generated waves and bubbles is regarded to be the main nonplatform related cause of the time variability of shallow acoustic communication channels. Simulations for predicting the quality of acoustic communication links in such channels thus require adequate

  15. Simulation of an Underwater Acoustic Communication Channel Characterized by Wind-Generated Surface Waves and Bubbles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dol, H.S.; Ainslie, M.A.; Colin, M.E.G.D.; Janmaat, J.


    Sea surface scattering by wind-generated waves and bubbles is regarded to be the main nonplatform-related cause of the time variability of shallow acoustic communication channels. Simulations for predicting the quality of acoustic communication links in such channels thus require adequate modelling

  16. A semi-analytical decomposition analysis of surface plasmon generation and the optimal nanoledge plasmonic device. (United States)

    Zeng, Zheng; Mendis, Madu N; Waldeck, David H; Wei, Jianjun

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of nanostructured thin metal films (so-called nanoplasmonics) has attracted intense attention due to its versatility for optical sensing and chip-based device integration. Understanding the underlying physics and developing applications of nanoplasmonic devices with desirable optical properties, e.g. intensity of light scattering and high refractive index (RI) sensitivity at the perforated metal film, is crucial for practical uses in physics, biomedical detection, and environmental monitoring. This work presents a semi-analytical model that enables decomposition and quantitative analysis of surface plasmon generation at a new complex nanoledge aperture structure under plane-wave illumination, thus providing insight on how to optimize plasmonic devices for optimal plasmonic generation efficiencies and RI sensitivity. A factor analysis of parameters (geometric, dielectric-RI, and incident wavelength) relevant to surface plasmon generation is quantitatively investigated to predict the surface plasmon polariton (SPP) generation efficiency. In concert with the analytical treatment, a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation is used to model the optical transmission spectra and RI sensitivity as a function of the nanoledge device's geometric parameters, and it shows good agreement with the analytical model. Further validation of the analytical approach is provided by fabricating subwavelength nanoledge devices and testing their optical transmission and RI sensitivity.

  17. Literature Survey Concerning State of the Art and Surface Generation in High Speed Milling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bissacco, Giuliano

    This report constitutes a short description of a literature survey concerning the state of the art and latest achievements on the rather new and powerful technology of high speed milling and its modelling, particularly looking at modelling of the generated surfaces. This task has been conducted...

  18. Biomimetic walking trajectory generation of humanoid robot on an inclined surface using Fourier series. (United States)

    Park, Ill-Woo; Kim, Jung-Yup


    This article describes a novel method to generate a biomimetic walking trajectory for a biped humanoid robot on an inclined surface. We assume that the configuration of the inclined surface is known, and we solve the human-like walking trajectory generation problem by obtaining the solution from the desired zero moment point (ZMP) trajectory to the center of gravity (CoG) trajectory. We present an analytic solution for the walking trajectory generation by using Fourier series. From the given ZMP trajectory biomimetically represented by the Fourier series, we focus on how to find the CoG trajectory in an analytical way. A time-segmentation based approach is adopted for generating the trajectories. The trajectory functions need to be continuous between the segments; thus, the solution is found by calculating the coefficients under these connectivity conditions. We derive a general form of the ZMP equation using a simple inverted pendulum model (SIPM), which includes the ZMP and the CoG trajectories in the horizontal and vertical directions to quantify the walking parameters on the inclined surface. The performance of the proposed approach is verified by conducting walking simulations using a full-body dynamic simulator on three different inclined surfaces and comparing them to the authors' previous approach.

  19. Dispersion analysis of passive surface-wave noise generated during hydraulic-fracturing operations (United States)

    Forghani-Arani, Farnoush; Willis, Mark; Snieder, Roel; Haines, Seth S.; Behura, Jyoti; Batzle, Mike; Davidson, Michael


    Surface-wave dispersion analysis is useful for estimating near-surface shear-wave velocity models, designing receiver arrays, and suppressing surface waves. Here, we analyze whether passive seismic noise generated during hydraulic-fracturing operations can be used to extract surface-wave dispersion characteristics. Applying seismic interferometry to noise measurements, we extract surface waves by cross-correlating several minutes of passive records; this approach is distinct from previous studies that used hours or days of passive records for cross-correlation. For comparison, we also perform dispersion analysis for an active-source array that has some receivers in common with the passive array. The active and passive data show good agreement in the dispersive character of the fundamental-mode surface-waves. For the higher mode surface waves, however, active and passive data resolve the dispersive properties at different frequency ranges. To demonstrate an application of dispersion analysis, we invert the observed surface-wave dispersion characteristics to determine the near-surface, one-dimensional shear-wave velocity.

  20. Storing data generated by optical surface scanners using DICOM: a work item proposal (United States)

    Burgert, Oliver; Treichel, Thomas; Dressler, Christian; Gessat, Michael


    In CAS literature, one finds numerous examples of the usage of directly measured surfaces. Those surfaces are usually measured using so called "Surface Scanners" which employ structured light (pattern projection or laser) to measure the surface. From an integration standpoint, it would be beneficial for many applications to have all patient data in a common repository and since in many cases radiology images are involved as well, a PACS is a natural option for storage of this data. DICOM - the major standard used for storage and transmission of data within a PACS - has recently been extended by the option to store surface meshes using a newly introduced data structure. This new Surface Mesh Module can serve as a basis for storage of data generated by an optical surface scanner. Nonetheless, a new Information Object Definition for this kind of data has to be introduced to reflect the specific needs: Device specific parameters have to be stored and, in addition to the Surface Mesh Module, there must be the possibility to store textures as well. This paper gives an overview about the specific requirements and an outline of a Work Item leading to an Optical Surface Scan Information Object Definition (IOD).

  1. Plasma-surface interaction and mechanisms of dust production in ITER ELM simulation experiments with QSPA Kh-50

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhlaj, V.A.; Garkusha, I.E.; Aksenov, N.N.; Byrka, O.V.; Lebedev, S.I.; Shevchuk, P.B.; Landman, I.


    Experimental simulations of ITER transient events with relevant surface heat load parameters (energy density and the pulse duration) were carried out with a quasi-stationary plasma accelerator QSPA Kh-50. The several mechanisms of dust generation from tungsten surfaces were identified. The major cracks development and it bifurcation led to generation dust particles with sizes up to tens μ. Melting of surface and development of fine meshes of cracks along the grain boundaries are accompanied by resolidified bridges formation through the fine cracks. Such bridges produce nm-size dust. Appearance of sub-micron and nanometer-size cellular structures under plasma irradiation can leads to the intensification of the dust formation.

  2. The effect of plutonium dioxide water surface coverage on the generation of hydrogen and oxygen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veirs, Douglas K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Berg, John M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Crowder, Mark L. [Savannah River National Laboratory


    The conditions for the production of oxygen during radiolysis of water adsorbed onto plutonium dioxide powder are discussed. Studies in the literature investigating the radiolysis of water show that both oxygen and hydrogen can be generated from water adsorbed on high-purity plutonium dioxide powder. These studies indicate that there is a threshold in the amount of water below which oxygen is not generated. The threshold is associated with the number of monolayers of adsorbed water and is shown to occur at approximately two monolayers of molecularly adsorbed water. Material in equilibrium with 50% relative humidity (RH) will be at the threshold for oxygen generation. Using two monolayers of molecularly adsorbed water as the threshold for oxygen production, the total pressure under various conditions is calculated assuming stoichiometric production of hydrogen and oxygen. The specific surface area of the oxide has a strong effect on the final partial pressure. The specific surface areas resulting in the highest pressures within a 3013 container are evaluated. The potential for oxygen generation is mitigated by reduced relative humidity, and hence moisture adsorption, at the oxide surface which occurs if the oxide is warmer than the ambient air. The potential for oxygen generation approaches zero as the temperature difference between the ambient air and the material approaches 6 C.

  3. Rendering of surface-geometries at job-generation level for camouflaging the layered nature of Additively Manufactured parts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, D. B.; Hansen, H. N.; Nielsen, J. S.


    ] It is proposed to camouflage these layers in order to produce parts with a better visual appeal, and to add functional surface structures. In order to generate such surface structures without adding a challenging computational overhead at job-generation, inspiration from Computer Generated Imaging (CGI) is found...

  4. Mechanism of negative ion emission from surfaces of ferroelectrics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šroubek, Zdeněk


    Roč. 606, 15-16 (2012), s. 1327-1330 ISSN 0039-6028 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : Surface of ferroelectrics * Ion emission Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.838, year: 2012

  5. Mechanism of action of pefloxacin on surface morphology, DNA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was observed that the site of pefloxacin action was intracellular and it caused surface alterations. The present investigation also showed the effect of Quinolone pefloxacin on DNA gyrase activity of K. aerogenes. DNA gyrase was purified by affinity chromatography and inhibition of pefloxacin on supercoiling activity of DNA ...

  6. The impact of mechanical log surface damage on chip size ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mechanised harvesting operations are becoming more prevalent in South Africa with the realisation that motormanual and manual harvesting operations pose significant health and safety risks to workers. The damage inflicted by single-grip harvester feed rollers and delimbing knives on log surfaces during debranching ...

  7. Adsorption mechanisms of carboxymethyl cellulose on mineral surfaces.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogendam, C.W.; Keizer, de A.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.; Bijsterbosch, B.H.; Batelaan, J.G.; Horst, van der P.M.


    The adsorption behavior of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) on inorganic surfaces (TiO2 and -Fe2O3) in aqueous solution has been studied systematically. The general trends are that the adsorbed amount decreases with increasing pH, whereas increasing the electrolyte (NaCl) concentration causes the

  8. Mechanical Properties of Glass Surfaces Coated with Tin Oxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swindlehurst, W. E.; Cantor, B.


    The effect of tin oxide coatings on the coefficient of friction and fracture strength of glass surfaces is studied. Experiments were performed partly on commercially treated glass bottles and partly on laboratory prepared microscope slides. Coatings were applied in the laboratory by decomposition...

  9. Topological Fluid Mechanics with Applications to Free Surfaces and Axisymmetric Flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøns, Morten


    Topological fluid mechanics is the study of qualitative features of fluid patterns. We discuss applications to the flow beneath a stagnant surface film, and to patterns in axisymmetric flow.......Topological fluid mechanics is the study of qualitative features of fluid patterns. We discuss applications to the flow beneath a stagnant surface film, and to patterns in axisymmetric flow....

  10. Cell surface protein disulfide isomerase regulates natriuretic peptide generation of cyclic guanosine monophosphate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuchong Pan

    Full Text Available The family of natriuretic peptides (NPs, including atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP, B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP, and C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP, exert important and diverse actions for cardiovascular and renal homeostasis. The autocrine and paracrine functions of the NPs are primarily mediated through the cellular membrane bound guanylyl cyclase-linked receptors GC-A (NPR-A and GC-B (NPR-B. As the ligands and receptors each contain disulfide bonds, a regulatory role for the cell surface protein disulfide isomerase (PDI was investigated.We utilized complementary in vitro and in vivo models to determine the potential role of PDI in regulating the ability of the NPs to generate its second messenger, cyclic guanosine monophosphate.Inhibition of PDI attenuated the ability of ANP, BNP and CNP to generate cGMP in human mesangial cells (HMCs, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs, and human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs, each of which were shown to express PDI. In LLC-PK1 cells, where PDI expression was undetectable by immunoblotting, PDI inhibition had a minimal effect on cGMP generation. Addition of PDI to cultured LLC-PK1 cells increased intracellular cGMP generation mediated by ANP. Inhibition of PDI in vivo attenuated NP-mediated generation of cGMP by ANP. Surface Plasmon Resonance demonstrated modest and differential binding of the natriuretic peptides with immobilized PDI in a cell free system. However, PDI was shown to co-localize on the surface of cells with GC-A and GC-B by co-immunoprecpitation and immunohistochemistry.These data demonstrate for the first time that cell surface PDI expression and function regulate the capacity of natriuretic peptides to generate cGMP through interaction with their receptors.

  11. Immune evasion proteins of murine cytomegalovirus preferentially affect cell surface display of recently generated peptide presentation complexes. (United States)

    Lemmermann, Niels A W; Gergely, Kerstin; Böhm, Verena; Deegen, Petra; Däubner, Torsten; Reddehase, Matthias J


    For recognition of infected cells by CD8 T cells, antigenic peptides are presented at the cell surface, bound to major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) molecules. Downmodulation of cell surface MHC-I molecules is regarded as a hallmark function of cytomegalovirus-encoded immunoevasins. The molecular mechanisms by which immunoevasins interfere with the MHC-I pathway suggest, however, that this downmodulation may be secondary to an interruption of turnover replenishment and that hindrance of the vesicular transport of recently generated peptide-MHC (pMHC) complexes to the cell surface is the actual function of immunoevasins. Here we have used the model of murine cytomegalovirus (mCMV) infection to provide experimental evidence for this hypothesis. To quantitate pMHC complexes at the cell surface after infection in the presence and absence of immunoevasins, we generated the recombinant viruses mCMV-SIINFEKL and mCMV-Deltam06m152-SIINFEKL, respectively, expressing the K(b)-presented peptide SIINFEKL with early-phase kinetics in place of an immunodominant peptide of the viral carrier protein gp36.5/m164. The data revealed approximately 10,000 K(b) molecules presenting SIINFEKL in the absence of immunoevasins, which is an occupancy of approximately 10% of all cell surface K(b) molecules, whereas immunoevasins reduced this number to almost the detection limit. To selectively evaluate their effect on preexisting pMHC complexes, cells were exogenously loaded with SIINFEKL peptide shortly after infection with mCMV-SIINFEKA, in which endogenous presentation is prevented by an L174A mutation of the C-terminal MHC-I anchor residue. The data suggest that pMHC complexes present at the cell surface in advance of immunoevasin gene expression are downmodulated due to constitutive turnover in the absence of resupply.

  12. The control mechanism of surface traps on surface charge behavior in alumina-filled epoxy composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Chuanyang; Hu, Jun; Lin, Chuanjie; He, Jinliang


    To investigate the role surface traps play in the charge injection and transfer behavior of alumina-filled epoxy composites, surface traps with different trap levels are introduced by different surface modification methods which include dielectric barrier discharges plasma, direct fluorination, and Cr 2 O 3 coating. The resulting surface physicochemical characteristics of experimental samples were observed using atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The surface potential under dc voltage was detected and the trap level distribution was measured. The results suggest that the surface morphology of the experimental samples differs dramatically after treatment with different surface modification methods. Different surface trap distributions directly determine the charge injection and transfer property along the surface. Shallow traps with trap level of 1.03–1.11 eV and 1.06–1.13 eV introduced by plasma and fluorination modifications are conducive for charge transport along the insulating surface, and the surface potential can be modified, producing a smoother potential curve. The Cr 2 O 3 coating can introduce a large number of deep traps with energy levels ranging from 1.09 to 1.15 eV. These can prevent charge injection through the reversed electric field formed by intensive trapped charges in the Cr 2 O 3 coatings. (paper)

  13. Effects of the different frequencies and loads of ultrasonic surface rolling on surface mechanical properties and fretting wear resistance of HIP Ti–6Al–4V alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, G., E-mail:; Qu, S.G., E-mail:; Pan, Y.X.; Li, X.Q.


    Highlights: • Effects of MUSR frequency and load on surface properties of HIP Ti-6Al-4V investigated. • The grains in surface-modified layer were refined and appeared twins and many dense dislocations. • The hardened layer depth and surface residual stress of MUSR- treated samples were significantly improved. • MUSR- treated samples showed the good fretting friction and wear resistance. • The best microstructure and properties of surface-modified layer obtained by sample treated by 30 kHz and 900 N. - Abstract: The main purpose of this paper was to investigate the effects of the different frequencies and loads of multi-pass ultrasonic surface rolling (MUSR) on surface layer mechanical properties, microstructure and fretting friction and wear characteristics of HIP (hot isostatic pressing) Ti–6Al–4 V alloy. Some microscopic analysis methods (SEM, TEM and EDS) were used to characterize the modified surface layer of material after MUSR treatment. The results indicated that the material in sample surface layer experienced a certain extent plastic deformation, and accompanied by some dense dislocations and twins generation. Moreover surface microhardness and residual stress of samples treated by MUSR were also greatly improved compared with the untreated. The fretting friction and wear properties of samples treated by MUSR in different conditions are tested at 10 and 15 N in dry friction conditions. It could be found that friction coefficient and wear volume loss were significantly declined in the optimal result. The main wear mechanism of MUSR-treated samples included abrasive wear, adhesion and spalling.

  14. Effects of Chemical Surface Treatment on Mechanical Properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The morphology of the materials was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The fibre chemical modification improves its adhesion to the matrix as well as the mechanical properties of the composites. Keywords: Scanning Electron Microscopy, Sisal fiber, Tensile test, Unsaturated polyester resin ...

  15. Mechanical Characteristics of Chemically Degraded Surface Layers of Wood

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frankl, Jiří; Kloiber, Michal; Drdácký, Miloš; Tippner, J.; Bryscejn, Jan


    Roč. 2, č. 11 (2012), s. 694-700 ISSN 2159-5275 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GPP105/11/P628 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : wood * corrosion * defibering * mechanical properties Subject RIV: JN - Civil Engineering

  16. Influence of surface activated carbon nano fibres on mechanical properties of poly ether ketone (PEK) (United States)

    Ajeesh, G.; Bhowmik, S.; Sivakumar, V.; Varshney, L.


    This investigation highlights different surface functionalization processes of Carbon Nano Fibres (CNF’s) and their effects on mechanical properties of Polyetherketone (PEK) nano composite. Surfaces of CNF’s were modified by low pressure plasma process. There is a significant change in physico-chemical characteristics of CNF’s after low plasma treatment as evident from Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Fourier Transform infrared Spectroscopic (FTIR) studies. Significant modification in surface morphology and oxygen functionalities are observed as a result of surface modification. There is a significant increase in mechanical properties of high performance polymeric nano composites when surface functionalized CNF’s are dispersed in polymeric matrix.

  17. A novel holding mechanism for next generation active wireless capsule endoscopy. (United States)

    Woods, Stephen P; Constandinou, Timothy G


    This paper proposes that next generation wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) technology will feature active mechanical components (i.e. actuated) as opposed to current systems that are predominantly passive (e.g. for imaging purposes). Future systems will integrate microsystems that use micro-actuators to, for example, perform micro-surgery, take tissue samples, deliver medication, etc. In this paper we detail a novel, ultra-compact integrated mechanism for resisting peristalsis and describe how this can be fabricated in Nylon 6 using CNC milling. The holding action is achieved by extending an "anchor" spanning an effective 60.4mm circumference, for a 11.0mm diameter WCE. This function is achieved by a mechanism that occupies only 347.0mm(3) volume, including mechanics and actuator. This shows how exploiting conventional manufacturing processes can result in a radical change in the capabilities of WCE systems and empower the next generation of active devices.

  18. Simultaneous type and dimensional synthesis of articulated mechanisms for path-generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kawamoto, Atsushi


    This paper deals with a path-generation problem for articulated mechanisms using a truss-based ground-structure representation. The proposed method uses both cross-sectional areas and nodal positions as design variables and thus leads to a simultaneous type and dimensional synthesis. For the anal......This paper deals with a path-generation problem for articulated mechanisms using a truss-based ground-structure representation. The proposed method uses both cross-sectional areas and nodal positions as design variables and thus leads to a simultaneous type and dimensional synthesis....... For the analysis part, it is essential to control the mechanism configurations so that the mechanism should stay within the same configuration space, thus stabilizing the optimization process and resulting in a realistic solution....

  19. Mechanics of fluid flow over compliant wrinkled polymeric surfaces (United States)

    Raayai, Shabnam; McKinley, Gareth; Boyce, Mary


    Skin friction coefficients (based on frontal area) of sharks and dolphins are lower than birds, fish and swimming beetles. By either exploiting flow-induced changes in their flexible skin or microscale textures, dolphins and sharks can change the structure of the fluid flow around them and thus reduce viscous drag forces on their bodies. Inspired by this ability, investigators have tried using compliant walls and riblet-like textures as drag reduction methods in aircraft and marine industries and have been able to achieve reductions up to 19%. Here we investigate flow-structure interaction and wrinkling of soft polymer surfaces that can emulate shark riblets and dolphin's flexible skin. Wrinkling arises spontaneously as the result of mismatched deformation of a thin stiff coating bound to a thick soft elastic substrate. Wrinkles can be fabricated by controlling the ratio of the stiffness of the coating and substrate, the applied displacement and the thickness of the coating. In this work we will examine the evolution in the kinematic structures associated with steady viscous flow over the polymer wrinkled surfaces and in particular compare the skin friction with corresponding results for flow over non-textured and rigid surfaces.

  20. Mechanical properties and surface characteristics of three archwire alloys. (United States)

    Krishnan, Vinod; Kumar, K Jyothindra


    Recent developments in material science have presented newer archwire materials as well as improvements in the properties of existing ones. Proper selection and understanding of the biomechanical requirement of each case requires proper characterization studies on archwire alloys. The present study characterizes and compares three orthodontic archwire alloys, stainless steel, beta titanium alloy (TMA), and a newly introduced titanium alloy (TiMolium), for the parameters (1) ultimate tensile strength (UTS), 0.02% offset yield strength (YS), and modulus of elasticity (E); (2) load deflection characteristics; (3) frictional properties; (4) surface characteristics and (5) elemental analysis for TiMolium. Seven specimens of each archwire alloy were used for evaluating each parameter. An instron universal testing machine was used for tensile testing, three-point bend testing, and evaluation of frictional characteristics. Scanning electron microscope was used for surface evaluation and X-ray fluorescence for elemental analysis of TiMolium wire specimens. Stainless steel was the strongest archwire alloy with high UTS, E, 0.02% offset YS, and less friction at the archwire-bracket interface. TMA wires exhibited better load deflection characteristics with less stiffness than the other two wires. The surface of TMA appeared rough and exhibited very high values for friction at the archwire-bracket interface. TiMolium appeared to be an alpha-beta titanium alloy composed of titanium, aluminum, and vanadium and intermediate in nature for all the parameters evaluated.

  1. Elastic hydrogel as a sensor for detection of mechanical stress generated by single cells grown in three-dimensional environment. (United States)

    Huang, Jianyong; Wang, Liangli; Xiong, Chunyang; Yuan, Fan


    Cell volume growth occurs in all living tissues. The growth exerts mechanical stresses on surrounding tissues that may alter tissue microenvironment, and have significant implications in health and diseases. However, the level of growth stress generated by single cells in three-dimensional (3D) environment remains to be determined. To this end, we developed a growth force microscopy technique to determine 3D distribution of the stress. The technique was based on encapsulation of cells in elastic hydrogels, and involved 3D particle tracking and mechanical analysis of gel deformation. Data from the study demonstrated that the growth stress was dynamic, and the stress distribution at the gel-cell interface was correlated inversely to the mean surface curvature or the distance to the geometric center of the cell. The stress averaged over the cell surface increased with increasing gel stiffness, suggesting that cells could alter growth stress in response to stiffness change in microenvironment. These findings suggested that the elastic hydrogel-based microscopy technique had a potential to provide new insights into mechanisms of mechanical interactions between cell and its microenvironment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. On the Mechanisms of Hydrogen Implantation Induced Silicon Surface Layer Cleavage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochbauer, Tobias [Univ. of Marburg (Germany)


    The “Ion-Cut”, a layer splitting process by hydrogen ion implantation and subsequent annealing is a versatile and efficient technique of transferring thin silicon surface layers from bulk substrates onto other substrates, thus enabling the production of silicon-oninsulator (SOI) materials. Cleavage is induced by the coalescence of the highly pressurized sub-surface H2-gas bubbles, which form upon thermal annealing. A fundamental understanding of the basic mechanisms on how the cutting process occurs is still unclear, inhibiting further optimization of the Ion-Cut process. This work elucidates the physical mechanisms behind the Ion-Cut process in hydrogen-implanted silicon. The investigation of the cleavage process reveals the cut to be largely controlled by the lattice damage, generated by the hydrogen ion irradiation process, and its effects on the local stress field and the fracture toughness within the implantation zone rather than by the depth of maximum H-concentration. Furthermore, this work elucidates the different kinetics in the H-complex formations in silicon crystals with different conductivity types, and examines the mechanically induced damage accumulation caused by the crack propagation through the silicon sample in the splitting step of the Ion-Cut process. Additionally, the influence of boron pre-implantation on the Ion-Cut in hydrogen implanted silicon is investigated. These studies reveal, that both, the atomic interaction between the boron implant and the hydrogen implant and the shift of the Fermi level due to the electrical activation of the implanted boron have a tremendous enhancing effect on the Ion-Cut process.

  3. On the Mechanisms of Hydrogen Implantation Induced Silicon Surface Layer Cleavage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochbauer, Tobias Franz [Univ. of Marburg (Germany)


    The “Ion-Cut”, a layer splitting process by hydrogen ion implantation and subsequent annealing is a versatile and efficient technique of transferring thin silicon surface layers from bulk substrates onto other substrates, thus enabling the production of silicon-oninsulator (SOI) materials. Cleavage is induced by the coalescence of the highly pressurized sub-surface H2-gas bubbles, which form upon thermal annealing. A fundamental understanding of the basic mechanisms on how the cutting process occurs is still unclear, inhibiting further optimization of the Ion-Cut process. This work elucidates the physical mechanisms behind the Ion-Cut process in hydrogen-implanted silicon. The investigation of the cleavage process reveals the cut to be largely controlled by the lattice damage, generated by the hydrogen ion irradiation process, and its effects on the local stress field and the fracture toughness within the implantation zone rather than by the depth of maximum H-concentration. Furthermore, this work elucidates the different kinetics in the H-complex formations in silicon crystals with different conductivity types, and examines the mechanically induced damage accumulation caused by the crack propagation through the silicon sample in the splitting step of the Ion-Cut process. Additionally, the influence of boron pre-implantation on the Ion-Cut in hydrogen implanted silicon is investigated. These studies reveal, that both, the atomic interaction between the boron implant and the hydrogen implant and the shift of the Fermi level due to the electrical activation of the implanted boron have a tremendous enhancing effect on the Ion-Cut process.

  4. Generation of Bessel Surface Plasmon Polaritons in a Finite-Thickness Metal Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Kurilkina


    Full Text Available A theory of generation of low- and high-index Bessel surface plasmon polaritons and their superposition in a metal film of a finite thickness is developed. Correct analytical expressions are obtained for the field of two families of Bessel surface plasmon polariton modes formed inside and outside the metal layer. The intensity distribution near the boundary of the layer has been calculated and analyzed. A scheme for the experimental realization of a superposition of Bessel surface plasmon polaritons is suggested. Our study demonstrates that it is feasible to use the superposition of Bessel surface plasmon polaritons as a virtual tip for near-field optical microscopy with a nanoscale resolution.

  5. Small leak detection by measuring surface oscillation during sodium-water reaction in steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nei, Hiromichi; Hori, Masao


    Small leak sodium-water reaction tests were conducted to develop various kinds of leak detectors for the sodium-heated steam generator in FBR. The super-heated steam was injected into sodium in a reaction vessel having a sodium free surface, simulating the steam generator. The level gauge in the reaction vessel generated the most reliable signal among detectors, as long as the leak rates were relatively high. The level gauge signal was estimated to be the sodium surface oscillation caused by hydrogen bubbles produced in sodium-water reaction. Experimental correlation was derived, predicting the amplitude as a function of leak rate, hydrogen dissolution ratio, bubble rise velocity and other parameters concerned, assuming that the surface oscillation is in proportion to the gas hold-up. The noise amplitude under normal operation without water leak was increased with sodium flow rate and found to be well correlated with Froud number. These two correlations predict that a water leak in a ''MONJU'' class (300 MWe) steam generator could possibly be detected by level gauges at a leak rate above 2 g/sec. (auth.)

  6. Support mechanism for a mirrored surface or other arrangement (United States)

    Cutburth, Ronald W.


    An adjustment mechanism such as a three point spherical mount for adjustably supporting a planer mirror or other type of arrangement relative to a plane defined by a given pair of intersecting perpendicular axes is disclosed herein. This mechanism includes first means for fixedly supporting the mirror or other arrangement such that the latter is positionable within the plane defined by the given pair of intersecting perpendicular axes. This latter means and the mirror or other such arrangement are supported by second means for limited movement back and forth about either of the intersecting axes. Moreover, this second means supports the first means and the mirror or other arrangement such that the latter is not movable in any other way whereby the point on the mirror or other arrangement coinciding with the intersection of the given axes does not move or float, thereby making the ability to adjust the mirror or other such arrangement more precise and accurate.

  7. Surface modification, microstructure and mechanical properties of investment cast superalloy


    M. Zielińska; K. Kubiak; J. Sieniawski


    Purpose: The aim of this work is to determine physical and chemical properties of cobalt aluminate (CoAl2O4) modifiers produced by different companies and the influence of different types of modifiers on the grain size, the microstructure and mechanical properties of high temperature creep resisting superalloy René 77.Design/methodology/approach: The first stage of the research work took over the investigations of physical and chemical properties of cobalt aluminate manufactured by three diff...

  8. The electricity generation adequacy problem: Assessing dynamic effects of capacity remuneration mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hary, Nicolas; Rious, Vincent; Saguan, Marcelo


    Following liberalization reforms, the ability of power markets to provide satisfactory incentives for capacity investments has become a major concern. In particular, current energy markets can exhibit a phenomenon of investment cycles, which generate phases of under and over-capacity, and hence additional costs and risks for generation adequacy. To cope with these issues, new mechanisms, called capacity remuneration mechanisms (CRM), have been (or will be) implemented. This paper assesses the dynamic effects of two CRMs, the capacity market and the strategic reserve mechanism, and studies to what extent they can reduce the investment cycles. Generation costs and shortage costs of both mechanisms are also compared to conclude on their effectivity and economic efficiency. A simulation model, based on system dynamics, is developed to study the functioning of both CRMs and the related investment decisions. The results highlight the benefits of deploying CRMs to solve the adequacy issue: shortages are strongly reduced compared to an energy-only market. Besides, the capacity market appears to be more beneficial, since it experiences fewer shortages and generation costs are lower. These comparisons can be used by policy makers (in particular in Europe, where these two CRMs are mainly debated) to determine which CRM to adopt. - Highlights: •A study of the dynamic effects of CRMs on generation investments is provided. •Capacity market and strategic reserve mechanism are compared. •Both CRMs reduce the cyclical tendencies prone to appear in energy-only market. •The capacity market experiences fewer shortages and generation costs are lower.

  9. Comparison of mechanical properties of surface layers with use of nanoindentation and microindentation tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zeleňák


    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is a mutual comparison of different methods for evaluation of mechanical properties of surface layers. Mechanical properties were tested with the use of nanoindentation and microindentation tests. Different loads and constant deformation speed were used in both cases. For the evaluation of mechanical properties, the AISI 304 type Chromium-Nickel steel commonly used in mechanical engineering industry was tested. Knowledge of relations and differences between nano and micromechanical properties is necessary for understanding of mechanical processes continuously occurring in surface layers during cutting processes.

  10. Mechanical Properties of Glass Surfaces Coated with Tin Oxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swindlehurst, W. E.; Cantor, B.


    The effect of tin oxide coatings on the coefficient of friction and fracture strength of glass surfaces is studied. Experiments were performed partly on commercially treated glass bottles and partly on laboratory prepared microscope slides. Coatings were applied in the laboratory by decomposition...... of tin tetrachloride on industrial soda glass at ~800K to thicknesses of ~3×10-8 and 3×10 -7 m, commercially by the `titanising' process on industrial soda glass at ~800K to a thickness of ~3.10-9 m, and in the laboratory by radio frequency sputtering from tin oxide powder over a range of glass...

  11. Characterising urban zinc generation to identify surface pollutant hotspots in a low intensity rainfall climate. (United States)

    Charters, F J; Cochrane, T A; O'Sullivan, A D


    Characterising stormwater runoff quality provides useful insights into the dynamics of pollutant generation and wash off rates. These can be used to prioritise stormwater management strategies. This study examined the effects of a low intensity rainfall climate on zinc contributions from different impermeable urban surface types. First flush (FF) and steady state samples were collected from seven different surfaces for characterisation, and the data were also used to calibrate an event-based pollutant load model to predict individual 'hotspot' surfaces across the catchment. Unpainted galvanised roofs generated very high concentrations of zinc, primarily in the more biologically available dissolved form. An older, unpainted galvanised roof had FF concentrations averaging 32,338 μg/L, while the new unpainted roof averaged 4,782 μg/L. Roads and carparks also had elevated zinc, but FF concentrations averaged only 822-1,584 μg/L. Modelling and mapping expected zinc loads from individual impermeable surfaces across the catchment identified specific commercial roof surfaces to be targeted for zinc management. The results validate a policy strategy to replace old galvanised roof materials and avoid unpainted galvanised roofing in future urban development for better urban water quality outcomes. In the interim, readily-implemented treatment options are required to help mitigate chronic zinc impacts on receiving waterways.

  12. Secondary electron emission from rough metal surfaces: a multi-generation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Meng; Zhang, Na; Wang, Fang; Hu, Tian-Cun; Cui, Wan-Zhao


    We develop a multi-generation model to examine secondary electron emission (SEE) from a rough metal surface. In this model, the traces of both primary electrons (PEs) and secondary electrons (SEs) are tracked by combining the electron scattering in the material and the multi-interaction with the rough surface. The effective secondary electron emission yield (SEY) is then obtained from the final states of the multi-generation SEs. Using this model, the SEE properties of the surfaces with rectangular and triangular grooves have been examined. We find that a rectangular groove can be used for effective SEE suppression. For a triangular groove, the criterion of SEY enhancement/suppression has been achieved, indicating that a small groove angle is required for effective SEE suppression, especially for a high PE energy. Furthermore, the SEE properties for some random rough surfaces are examined and some preliminary results are presented. Accordingly, our model and results could provide a powerful tool to give a comprehensive insight into the SEE of rough metal surfaces. (paper)

  13. A review and outlook for the removal of radon-generated Po-210 surface contamination (United States)

    Guiseppe, V. E.; Christofferson, C. D.; Hair, K. R.; Adams, F. M.


    The next generation low-background detectors operating deep underground aim for unprecedented low levels of radioactive backgrounds. The deposition and presence of radon progeny on detector surfaces is an added source of energetic background events. In addition to limiting the detector material's radon exposure in order to reduce potential surface backgrounds, it is just as important to clean surfaces to remove inevitable contamination. Such studies of radon progeny removal have generally found that a form of etching is effective at removing some of the progeny (Bi and Pb), however more aggressive techniques, including electropolishing, have been shown to effectively remove the Po atoms. In the absence of an aggressive etch, a significant fraction of the Po atoms are believed to either remain behind within the surface or redeposit from the etching solution back onto the surface. We explore the chemical nature of the aqueous Po ions and the effect of the oxidation state of Po to maximize the Po ions remaining in the etching solution of contaminated Cu surfaces. We present a review of the previous studies of surface radon progeny removal and our findings on the role of oxidizing agents and a cell potential in the preparation of a clean etching technique.

  14. Mechanics of curved surfaces, with application to surface-parallel cracks (United States)

    Martel, Stephen J.


    The surfaces of many bodies are weakened by shallow enigmatic cracks that parallel the surface. A re-formulation of the static equilibrium equations in a curvilinear reference frame shows that a tension perpendicular to a traction-free surface can arise at shallow depths even under the influence of gravity. This condition occurs if σ11k1 + σ22k2 > ρg cosβ, where k1 and k2 are the principal curvatures (negative if convex) at the surface, σ11 and σ22 are tensile (positive) or compressive (negative) stresses parallel to the respective principal curvature arcs, ρ is material density, g is gravitational acceleration, and β is the surface slope. The curvature terms do not appear in equilibrium equations in a Cartesian reference frame. Compression parallel to a convex surface thus can cause subsurface cracks to open. A quantitative test of the relationship above accounts for where sheeting joints (prominent shallow surface-parallel fractures in rock) are abundant and for where they are scarce or absent in the varied topography of Yosemite National Park, resolving key aspects of a classic problem in geology: the formation of sheeting joints. Moreover, since the equilibrium equations are independent of rheology, the relationship above can be applied to delamination or spalling caused by surface-parallel cracks in many materials.

  15. Phase study of the generated surface plasmon waves in light transmission through a subwavelength aperture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashemi, Mahdieh; Xiao, Sanshui; Farzad, Mahmood Hosseini


    Interference of surface plasmon (SP) waves plays a key role in light transmission through a subwavelength aperture surrounded by groove structures. In order to characterize interference of the hole and groove-generated SP waves, their phase information was carefully investigated using finite...... difference time domain simulations. In a structure with only one groove, constructive interference of the generated SP waves will enhance transmitted light by a factor of 5.4 compared with that of a single hole. Increasing the groove number to 3 in the design, which supports constructive interference of SP...... waves, will enhance the transmission coefficient to 10.5 times that for the single-hole transmission coefficient....

  16. Construction of mechanically durable superhydrophobic surfaces by thermal spray deposition and further surface modification (United States)

    Chen, Xiuyong; Gong, Yongfeng; Suo, Xinkun; Huang, Jing; Liu, Yi; Li, Hua


    Here we report a simple and cost-effective technical route for constructing superhydrophobic surfaces with excellent abrasion resistance on various substrates. Rough surface structures were fabricated by thermal spray deposition of a variety of inorganic materials, and further surface modification was made by applying a thin layer of polytetrafluoroethylene. Results show that the Al, Cu, or NiCrBSi coatings with the surface roughness of up to 13.8 μm offer rough surface profile to complement the topographical morphology in micro-/nano-scaled sizes, and the hydrophobic molecules facilitate the hydrophobicity. The contact angles of water droplets of ∼155° with a sliding angle of up to 3.5° on the samples have been achieved. The newly constructed superhydrophobic coatings tolerate strong abrasion, giving clear insight into their long-term functional applications.

  17. Impact of Conflict Management Strategies on the Generation Mechanism of Miners' Unsafe Behavior Tendency (United States)

    Li, Ji-Zu; Zhang, Ya-Ping; Liu, Xiao-Guang; Liu, Yao-Long; Wang, Tian-Ri


    In this paper, we examine the relationship between the generation mechanism of miners' unsafe behavior tendency and conflict management strategies, including cooperative conflict management strategy, competitive conflict management strategy and avoidant conflict management strategy. Miners from 3 collieries in Shanxi province completed a…

  18. Hierarchy of mechanisms involved in generating Na/K-ATPase polarity in MDCK epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mays, R.W.; Siemers, K.A.; Fritz, B.A.; Lowe, A.W.; van Meer, G.; Nelson, W.J.


    We have studied mechanisms involved in generating a polarized distribution of Na/K-ATPase in the basal-lateral membrane of two clones of MDCK II cells. Both clones exhibit polarized distributions of marker proteins of the apical and basal-lateral membranes, including Na/K-ATPase, at steady state.

  19. Impacts of Surface Site Coordination on Arsenate Adsorption: Macroscopic Uptake and Binding Mechanisms on Aluminum Hydroxide Surfaces. (United States)

    Xu, Tingying; Catalano, Jeffrey G


    Aluminum hydroxides play important roles in regulating the fate and transport of contaminants and nutrients in soils and aquatic systems. Like many metal oxides, these minerals display surface functional groups in a series of coordination states, each of which may differ in its affinity for adsorbates. The distribution of functional group types varies among distinct surfaces of aluminum hydroxides, and we thus hypothesize that the adsorption behavior and mechanisms will show a dependence on particle morphology. To test this hypothesis, we investigate arsenate adsorption on two aluminum hydroxide polymorphs with distinct particle morphologies, gibbsite [γ-Al(OH) 3 ] and bayerite [α-Al(OH) 3 ], at pH 4 and 7. Synthetic gibbsite platelets expose large (001) basal surfaces predicted to be terminated by doubly coordinated functional groups (>Al 2 OH). In contrast, synthetic bayerite microrods display mainly edge surfaces (parallel to the c axis) containing abundant singly coordinated functional groups (>AlOH 2 ). Macroscopic adsorption studies show that gibbsite adsorbs less arsenate per unit surface area than bayerite at both pH values and suggest that two surface complexes form on each material. Similar electrokinetic behavior is displayed at the same relative coverages of arsenate, suggesting that similar reactive surface groups (>AlOH 2 ) control the surface charging on both particles. EXAFS spectroscopy shows that there is no variation in arsenate surface speciation on a given mineral with surface coverage or pH. Whereas bidentate binuclear inner-sphere species are the dominant complexes present, the EXAFS result suggest that outer-sphere species also occur on both minerals, with a greater abundance on gibbsite. This binding mode likely involves adsorption to >Al 2 OH sites, which have a slow ligand exchange rate that inhibits inner-sphere binding. These results demonstrate that adsorption mechanisms and capacity, even when normalized for specific surface area

  20. Spatiotemporal impacts of LULC changes on hydrology from the perspective of runoff generation mechanism using SWAT model with evolving parameters (United States)

    Li, Y.; Chang, J.; Luo, L.


    It is of great importance for water resources management to model the truly hydrological process under changing environment, especially under significant changes of underlying surfaces like the Wei River Bain (WRB) where the subsurface hydrology is highly influenced by human activities, and to systematically investigate the interactions among LULC change, streamflow variation and changes in runoff generation process. Therefore, we proposed the idea of evolving parameters in hydrological model (SWAT) to reflect the changes in physical environment with different LULC conditions. Then with these evolving parameters, the spatiotemporal impacts of LULC changes on streamflow were quantified, and qualitative analysis was conducted to further explore how LULC changes affect the streamflow from the perspective of runoff generation mechanism. Results indicate the following: 1) evolving parameter calibration is not only effective but necessary to ensure the validity of the model when dealing with significant changes in underlying surfaces due to human activities. 2) compared to the baseline period, the streamflow in wet seasons increased in the 1990s but decreased in the 2000s. While at yearly and dry seasonal scales, the streamflow decreased in both two decades; 3) the expansion of cropland is the major contributor to the reduction of surface water component, thus causing the decline in streamflow at yearly and dry seasonal scales. While compared to the 1990s, the expansions of woodland in the middle stream and grassland in the downstream are the main stressors that increased the soil water component, thus leading to the more decline of the streamflow in the 2000s.

  1. Second-Harmonic Generation Scanning Microscopy on Domains in Al Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kjeld; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.


    Scanning optical second-harmonic generation microscopy has been used to investigate domains in the surface of polycrystaline Al. Strong contrast among the crystalline grains is obtained due to variations in their crystallographic orientations and thus also nonlinear response. The origin of the co......Scanning optical second-harmonic generation microscopy has been used to investigate domains in the surface of polycrystaline Al. Strong contrast among the crystalline grains is obtained due to variations in their crystallographic orientations and thus also nonlinear response. The origin...... of the contrast is discussed in terms of previous theoretical and experimenatal studies of different faces of Al single crystals. Information about local crystallographic orientations is obtained by probing the rotational anisotropy of individual grains. It is demonstrated that when a probe beam covering several...

  2. Frictional melt generated by the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake and its faulting mechanisms (United States)

    Wang, H.; Li, H.; Si, J.; Sun, Z.; Zhang, L.; He, X.


    Fault-related pseudotachylytes are considered as fossil earthquakes, conveying significant information that provide improved insight into fault behaviors and their mechanical properties. The WFSD project was carried out right after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, detailed research was conducted in the drilling cores. 2 mm rigid black layer with fresh slickenlines was observed at 732.6 m in WFSD-1 cores drilled at the southern Yingxiu-Beichuan fault (YBF). Evidence of optical microscopy, FESEM and FIB-TEM show it's frictional melt (pseudotachylyte). In the northern part of YBF, 4 mm fresh melt was found at 1084 m with similar structures in WFSD-4S cores. The melts contain numerous microcracks. Considering that (1) the highly unstable property of the frictional melt (easily be altered or devitrified) under geological conditions; (2) the unfilled microcracks; (3) fresh slickenlines and (4) recent large earthquake in this area, we believe that 2-4 mm melt was produced by the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. This is the first report of fresh pseudotachylyte with slickenlines in natural fault that generated by modern earthquake. Geochemical analyses show that fault rocks at 732.6 m are enriched in CaO, Fe2O3, FeO, H2O+ and LOI, whereas depleted in SiO2. XRF results show that Ca and Fe are enriched obviously in the 2.5 cm fine-grained fault rocks and Ba enriched in the slip surface. The melt has a higher magnetic susceptibility value, which may due to neoformed magnetite and metallic iron formed in fault frictional melt. Frictional melt visible in both southern and northern part of YBF reveals that frictional melt lubrication played a major role in the Wenchuan earthquake. Instead of vesicles and microlites, numerous randomly oriented microcracks in the melt, exhibiting a quenching texture. The quenching texture suggests the frictional melt was generated under rapid heat-dissipation condition, implying vigorous fluid circulation during the earthquake. We surmise that during

  3. Design mechanic generator under speed bumper to support electricity recourse for urban traffic light (United States)

    Sabri, M.; Lauzuardy, Jason; Syam, Bustami


    The electrical energy needs for the traffic lights in some cities of developing countries cannot be achieved continuously due to limited capacity and interruption of electricity distribution, the main power plant. This issues can lead to congestion at the crossroads. To overcome the problem of street chaos due to power failure, we can cultivate to provide electrical energy from other sources such as using the bumper to generate kinetic energy, which can be converted into electrical energy. This study designed a generator mechanic that will be mounted on the bumper construction to generate electricity for the purposes of traffic lights at the crossroads. The Mechanical generator is composed of springs, levers, sprockets, chains, flywheel and customize power generator. Through the rotation of the flywheel, we can earned 9 Volt DC voltage and electrical current of 5.89 Ampere. This achievement can be used to charge the accumulator which can be used to power the traffic lights, and to charge the accumulator capacity of 6 Ah, the generator works in the charging time for 1.01 hours.

  4. Novel mechanism of network protection against the new generation of cyber attacks (United States)

    Milovanov, Alexander; Bukshpun, Leonid; Pradhan, Ranjit


    A new intelligent mechanism is presented to protect networks against the new generation of cyber attacks. This mechanism integrates TCP/UDP/IP protocol stack protection and attacker/intruder deception to eliminate existing TCP/UDP/IP protocol stack vulnerabilities. It allows to detect currently undetectable, highly distributed, low-frequency attacks such as distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks, coordinated attacks, botnet, and stealth network reconnaissance. The mechanism also allows insulating attacker/intruder from the network and redirecting the attack to a simulated network acting as a decoy. As a result, network security personnel gain sufficient time to defend the network and collect the attack information. The presented approach can be incorporated into wireless or wired networks that require protection against known and the new generation of cyber attacks.

  5. Local excitation of surface plasmon polaritons by second-harmonic generation in crystalline organic nanofibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsen, Esben; Søndergaard, Thomas; Fiutowski, Jacek


    Coherent local excitation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) by second-harmonic generation (SHG) in aligned crystalline organic functionalized para-phenylene nanofibers deposited on a thin silver film is demonstrated. The excited SPPs are characterized using angle-resolved leakage radiation....... This is explained both as a consequence of approaching the peak of the fibers nonlinear response at the wavelength 772 nm, and as a consequence of better coupling to SPPs due to their stronger confinement. © 2012 Optical Society...

  6. A Method for a Multi-Platform Approach to Generate Gridded Surface Evaporation (United States)

    Badger, A.; Livneh, B.; Small, E. E.; Abolafia-Rosenzweig, R.


    Evapotranspiration is an integral component of the surface water balance. While there are many estimates of evapotranspiration, there are fewer estimates that partition evapotranspiration into evaporation and transpiration components. This study aims to generate a CONUS-scale, observationally-based soil evaporation dataset by using the time difference of surface soil moisture by Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite with adjustments for transpiration and a bottom flux out of the surface layer. In concert with SMAP, the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite, North American Land Data Assimilation Systems (NLDAS) and the Hydrus-1D model are used to fully analyze the surface water balance. A biome specific estimate of the total terrestrial ET is calculated through a variation of the Penman-Monteith equation with NLDAS forcing and NLDAS Noah Model output for meteorological variables. A root density restriction and SMAP-based soil moisture restriction are applied to obtain terrestrial transpiration estimates. By forcing Hydrus-1D with NLDAS meteorology and our terrestrial transpiration estimates, an estimate of the flux between the soil surface and root zone layers (qbot) will dictate the proportion of water that is available for soil evaporation. After constraining transpiration and the bottom flux from the surface layer, we estimate soil evaporation as the residual of the surface water balance. Application of this method at Fluxnet sites shows soil evaporation estimates of approximately 0­3 mm/day and less than ET estimates. Expanding this methodology to produce a gridded product for CONUS, and eventually a global-scale product, will enable a better understanding of water balance processes and contribute a dataset to validate land-surface model's surface flux processes.

  7. Mechanism analysis of the affect the copper line surface roughness after FA/O alkaline barrier CMP (United States)

    Jiaojiao, Gao; Yuling, Liu; Chenwei, Wang; Jin, Cui


    The surface roughness seriously affects the performance of devices after barrier CMP. Due to the high surface roughness of copper line, the local resistance of a device will be high when working, then the copper line will overheat prompting the generation of electro-migration and the circuit will lose efficacy. Reducing the surface roughness of the copper line in barrier CMP is still an important research topic. The main factors influencing the surface roughness of copper line in alkaline barrier slurry are analyzed in the paper. Aimed at influencing the law on the surface roughness of copper line, using a new type of alkaline barrier slurry with a different pH of the chelating agent and changing the content of non-ionic surfactant, we then analyze the influencing law both on the surface roughness of copper line, and the influence mechanism. The experimental results show that with a chelating agent with a low pH value in the barrier slurry, the surface roughness of the copper line is 1.03 nm and it is the lowest in all of the barrier slurries, and with the increase of non-ionic surfactant concentration, the surface roughness of copper line is reduced to 0.43 nm, meeting the demand of further development of integrated circuits.

  8. Numerical and Experimental Investigation for Heat Transfer Enhancement by Dimpled Surface Heat Exchanger in Thermoelectric Generator (United States)

    Wang, Yiping; Li, Shuai; Yang, Xue; Deng, Yadong; Su, Chuqi


    For vehicle thermoelectric exhaust energy recovery, the temperature difference between the heat exchanger and the coolant has a strong influence on the electric power generation, and ribs are often employed to enhance the heat transfer of the heat exchanger. However, the introduction of ribs will result in a large unwanted pressure drop in the exhaust system which is unfavorable for the engine's efficiency. Therefore, how to enhance the heat transfer and control the pressure drop in the exhaust system is quite important for thermoelectric generators (TEG). In the current study, a symmetrical arrangement of dimpled surfaces staggered in the upper and lower surfaces of the heat exchanger was proposed to augment heat transfer rates with minimal pressure drop penalties. The turbulent flow characteristics and heat transfer performance of turbulent flow over the dimpled surface in a flat heat exchanger was investigated by numerical simulation and temperature measurements. The heat transfer capacity in terms of Nusselt number and the pressure loss in terms of Fanning friction factors of the exchanger were compared with those of the flat plate. The pressure loss and heat transfer characteristics of dimples with a depth-to-diameter ratio ( h/D) at 0.2 were investigated. Finally, a quite good heat transfer performance with minimal pressure drop heat exchanger in a vehicle TEG was obtained. And based on the area-averaged surface temperature of the heat exchanger and the Seeback effect, the power generation can be improved by about 15% at Re = 25,000 compared to a heat exchanger with a flat surface.

  9. Enhanced protein loading on a planar Si(111)-H surface with second generation NTA (United States)

    Liu, Xiang; Han, Huan-Mei; Liu, Hong-Bo; Xiao, Shou-jun


    A Si(111)-H surface was modified via a direct reaction between Si-H and 1-undecylenic acid (UA) under microwave irradiation to form molecular monolayers with terminal carboxyl groups. After esterifying carboxylic acid being esterified with N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS), aminobutyl nitrilotriacetic acid (ANTA) was bound to the silicon surface through amidation (pH = 8.0) between its primary amino group and NHS-ester, producing nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) anions. Then hexa-histidine tagged thioredoxin-urodilatin (his-tagged protein) and FITC-labeled hexa-histidine tagged thioredoxin-urodilatin (FITC-his-tagged protein) can be anchored after NTA was coordinated with Ni 2+. Furthermore, the NTA-terminated chip was acidified with 0.1 M HCl and subsequently esterified with NHS and then amidated with ANTA again to produce a second generation NTA. Thus the surface density of nitrilotriacetic acid anions was improved and resultantly that of anchored proteins was also enhanced through the iterative reactions. Both multiple transmission-reflection infrared spectroscopy (MTR-IR) and fluorescence scanning measurements demonstrated a proximate 1.63 times of anchored proteins on the second generation NTA/Ni 2+ as that on the first generation NTA/Ni 2+ monolayer.

  10. Mechanical Behavior of Ultrafine Gradient Grain Structures Produced via Ambient and Cryogenic Surface Mechanical Attrition Treatment in Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather A. Murdoch


    Full Text Available Ambient and cryogenic surface mechanical attrition treatments (SMAT are applied to bcc iron plate. Both processes result in significant surface grain refinement down to the ultrafine-grained regime; the cryogenic treatment results in a 45% greater grain size reduction. However, the refined region is shallower in the cryogenic SMAT process. The tensile ductility of the grain size gradient remains low (<10%, in line with the expected behavior of the refined surface grains. Good tensile ductility in a grain size gradient requires the continuation of the gradient into an undeformed region.

  11. Surface trapping phenomena in thermionic emission generating l/f noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanescu, A.


    A general expression of the power spectrum of''flicker noise'', involving stochastic trapping phenomena and calculated on the basis of a two parameter model, is applied in the case of thermoionic emission from cathode surface. The fluctuation of the work function over the cathode surface is interpreted as being due to a trapping process of foreign atoms by the cathode. Taking into account the very physical nature of the trapping mechanism, under self-consistent assumptions, a 1/f power spectrum is obtained in a certain range of frequency. The two parameter model removes some discrepancies involved in the preceding theories. (author)

  12. Influence of electropolishing current densities on sulfur generation at niobium surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyagi, P.V., E-mail: [The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Nishiwaki, M.; Noguchi, T.; Sawabe, M.; Saeki, T.; Hayano, H.; Kato, S. [KEK, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)


    We report the effect of different current densities on sulfur generation at Nb surface in the electropolishing (EP) with aged electrolyte. In this regard, we conducted a series of electropolishing (EP) experiments in aged EP electrolyte with high (≈50 mA/cm{sup 2}) and low (≈30 mA/cm{sup 2}) current densities on Nb surfaces. The experiments were carried out both for laboratory coupons and a real Nb single cell cavity with six witness samples located at three typical positions (equator, iris and beam pipe). Sample's surfaces were investigated by XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy), SEM (scanning electron microscope) and EDX (energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy). The surface analysis showed that the EP with a high current density produced a huge amount of sulfate/sulfite particles at Nb surface whereas the EP with a low current density was very helpful to mitigate sulfate/sulfite at Nb surface in both the experiments.

  13. Thermodynamics of a tropical cyclone: generation and dissipation of mechanical energy in a self-driven convection system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisashi Ozawa


    Full Text Available The formation process of circulatory motion of a tropical cyclone is investigated from a thermodynamic viewpoint. The generation rate of mechanical energy by a fluid motion under diabatic heating and cooling, and the dissipation rate of this energy due to irreversible processes are formulated from the first and second laws of thermodynamics. This formulation is applied to a tropical cyclone, and the formation process of the circulatory motion is examined from a balance between the generation and dissipation rates of mechanical energy in the fluid system. We find from this formulation and data analysis that the thermodynamic efficiency of tropical cyclones is about 40% lower than the Carnot maximum efficiency because of the presence of thermal dissipation due to irreversible transport of sensible and latent heat in the atmosphere. We show that a tropical cyclone tends to develop within a few days through a feedback supply of mechanical energy when the sea surface temperature is higher than 300 K, and when the horizontal scale of circulation becomes larger than the vertical height of the troposphere. This result is consistent with the critical radius of 50 km and the corresponding central pressure of about 995 hPa found in statistical properties of typhoons observed in the western North Pacific.

  14. Dynamical mechanism of symmetry breaking and particle mass generation in gauge field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranskij, V.A.; Fomin, P.I.


    The dynamics of the spotaneous symmetry breaking and the particle mass generation in gauge theories with no fundamental scalar fields is considered. The emphasis is on the consideration of the symmetry breaking mechanism connected with the dynamics of the supercritical Coulomb-like forces caused by the gauge boson exchange between fermions. This mechanism is applied to different gauge theories, in particular, to the description of the spontaneous chira symmetry breaking in quantum chromodynamics. The mass relations for pseudoscalar meson nonet are obtained and it is shown that this mechanism resuls in the dynamical realisation of the hypothesis of the partial conservation of the axial-vector currents. The qualitative description of scalar mesons is given. The nature of the ultraviolet divergencies in quantum electrodynamics (QED) is investigated from the viewpoint of the dynamics of the fermion mass generation. The mechanism of the appearance of the additional (in comparison with perturbation theory) ultraviolet divergencies in QED with large bare coupling constant is indicated. The physical phenomenon underlying this mechanism is identified as the field theory analogue of the quantum mechanical ''fall into the centre'' (collapse) phenomenon. The similr phenomenon is shown to take place in some two-dimensional quantum field models. The dynamics of the bifermion condensates formation in tumblin gauge theories is briefly discussed

  15. Third-harmonic generation at a silver/vacuum interface using surface plasmon polaritons. (United States)

    Guo, Yan; Deutsch, Miriam


    We present an analytical study of a third-harmonic generation process by surface plasmon polaritons at a Kerr-nonlinear-metal/dielectric interface. Using a planar silver/vacuum interface, we obtain a solution to the frequency-tripling process, showing a semibound third-harmonic surface wave. Unlike the fundamental surface-bound mode, the nonlinear signal radiates into the metal, while remaining bound at the dielectric side of the interface. The propagation of the tripled frequency wave into the metal is generally lossy, except within a narrow range of ultraviolet frequencies, where it is minimally attenuated. The latter is enabled by a transparency window that is unique to the permittivity of silver.

  16. Generation of Electricity at Graphene Interface Governed by Underlying Surface Dipole Induced Ion Adsorption (United States)

    Yang, Shanshan; Su, Yudan; Wu, Qiong; Zhang, Yuanbo; Tian, Chuanshan

    Aqueous droplet moving along graphene surface can produce electricity This interesting phenomenon provided environment-friendly means to harvest energy from graphene interface in contact with sea wave or rain droplets. However, microscopically, the nature of charge adsorption at the graphene interface is still unclear. Here, utilizing sum-frequency spectroscopy in combined with measurement of electrical power generation, the origin of charge adsorption on graphene was investigated. It was found that the direct ion-graphene interaction is negligibly small, contrary to the early speculation, but the ordered surface dipole from the supporting substrate, such as PET, is responsible for ion adsorption at the interface. Graphene serves as a conductive layer with mild screening of Coulomb interaction when aqueous droplet slips over the surface. These results pave the way for optimization of energy harvesting efficiency of graphene-based device.

  17. Effect of mechanical denaturation on surface free energy of protein powders. (United States)

    Mohammad, Mohammad Amin; Grimsey, Ian M; Forbes, Robert T; Blagbrough, Ian S; Conway, Barbara R


    Globular proteins are important both as therapeutic agents and excipients. However, their fragile native conformations can be denatured during pharmaceutical processing, which leads to modification of the surface energy of their powders and hence their performance. Lyophilized powders of hen egg-white lysozyme and β-galactosidase from Aspergillus oryzae were used as models to study the effects of mechanical denaturation on the surface energies of basic and acidic protein powders, respectively. Their mechanical denaturation upon milling was confirmed by the absence of their thermal unfolding transition phases and by the changes in their secondary and tertiary structures. Inverse gas chromatography detected differences between both unprocessed protein powders and the changes induced by their mechanical denaturation. The surfaces of the acidic and basic protein powders were relatively basic, however the surface acidity of β-galactosidase was higher than that of lysozyme. Also, the surface of β-galactosidase powder had a higher dispersive energy compared to lysozyme. The mechanical denaturation decreased the dispersive energy and the basicity of the surfaces of both protein powders. The amino acid composition and molecular conformation of the proteins explained the surface energy data measured by inverse gas chromatography. The biological activity of mechanically denatured protein powders can either be reversible (lysozyme) or irreversible (β-galactosidase) upon hydration. Our surface data can be exploited to understand and predict the performance of protein powders within pharmaceutical dosage forms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Surface composition, chemistry, and structure of polystyrene modified by electron-beam-generated plasma. (United States)

    Lock, Evgeniya H; Petrovykh, Dmitri Y; Mack, Paul; Carney, Tim; White, Richard G; Walton, Scott G; Fernsler, Richard F


    Polystyrene (PS) surfaces were treated by electron-beam-generated plasmas in argon/oxygen, argon/nitrogen, and argon/sulfur hexafluoride environments. The resulting modifications of the polymer surface energy, morphology, and chemical composition were analyzed by a suite of complementary analytical techniques: contact angle goniometry, atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy (REELS). The plasma treatments produced only minimal increases in the surface roughness while introducing the expected chemical modifications: oxygen-based after Ar/O(2) plasma, oxygen- and nitrogen-based after Ar/N(2) plasma, and fluorine-based after Ar/SF(6) plasma. Fluorinated PS surfaces became hydrophobic and did not significantly change their properties over time. In contrast, polymer treated in Ar/O(2) and Ar/N(2) plasmas initially became hydrophilic but underwent hydrophobic recovery after 28 days of aging. The aromatic carbon chemistry in the top 1 nm of these aged surfaces clearly indicated that the hydrophobic recovery was produced by reorientation/diffusion of undamaged aromatic polymer fragments from the bulk rather than by contamination. Nondestructive depth profiles of aged plasma-treated PS films were reconstructed from parallel angle-resolved XPS (ARXPS) measurements using a maximum-entropy algorithm. The salient features of reconstructed profiles were confirmed by sputter profiles obtained with 200 eV Ar ions. Both types of depth profiles showed that the electron-beam-generated plasma modifications are confined to the topmost 3-4 nm of the polymer surface, while valence band measurements and unsaturated carbon signatures in ARXPS and REELS data indicated that much of the PS structure was preserved below 9 nm.

  19. GIS based optimal impervious surface map generation using various spatial data for urban nonpoint source management. (United States)

    Lee, Cholyoung; Kim, Kyehyun; Lee, Hyuk


    Impervious surfaces are mainly artificial structures such as rooftops, roads, and parking lots that are covered by impenetrable materials. These surfaces are becoming the major causes of nonpoint source (NPS) pollution in urban areas. The rapid progress of urban development is increasing the total amount of impervious surfaces and NPS pollution. Therefore, many cities worldwide have adopted a stormwater utility fee (SUF) that generates funds needed to manage NPS pollution. The amount of SUF is estimated based on the impervious ratio, which is calculated by dividing the total impervious surface area by the net area of an individual land parcel. Hence, in order to identify the exact impervious ratio, large-scale impervious surface maps (ISMs) are necessary. This study proposes and assesses various methods for generating large-scale ISMs for urban areas by using existing GIS data. Bupyeong-gu, a district in the city of Incheon, South Korea, was selected as the study area. Spatial data that were freely offered by national/local governments in S. Korea were collected. First, three types of ISMs were generated by using the land-cover map, digital topographic map, and orthophotographs, to validate three methods that had been proposed conceptually by Korea Environment Corporation. Then, to generate an ISM of higher accuracy, an integration method using all data was proposed. Error matrices were made and Kappa statistics were calculated to evaluate the accuracy. Overlay analyses were performed to examine the distribution of misclassified areas. From the results, the integration method delivered the highest accuracy (Kappa statistic of 0.99) compared to the three methods that use a single type of spatial data. However, a longer production time and higher cost were limiting factors. Among the three methods using a single type of data, the land-cover map showed the highest accuracy with a Kappa statistic of 0.91. Thus, it was judged that the mapping method using the land

  20. Layer-by-layer generation of PEG-based regenerable immunosensing surfaces for small-sized analytes. (United States)

    Huebner, Maria; Ben Haddada, Maroua; Méthivier, Christophe; Niessner, Reinhard; Knopp, Dietmar; Boujday, Souhir


    Small molecules (haptens) like pharmaceuticals or peptides can serve as targets for antibody binding in competitive immunoassay-based flow-through assays. In this work, a strategy for preparing polyethylene glycol (PEG) coatings for subsequent hapten immobilization on glass-type silica surfaces is presented and characterized in detail. Two substrates bearing terminal silanol groups were utilized, a glass slide and a silicon wafer. First, surfaces were thoroughly cleaned and pretreated to generate additional silanol groups. Then, a silane layer with terminal epoxy groups was created using 3-glycidyloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GOPTS). Epoxy groups were used to bind a layer of diamino-poly(ethylene glycol) (DAPEG) with terminal amino groups. Finally, the low molecular weight compound diclofenac was bound to the surface to be used as model ligand for competitive biosensing of haptens. The elementary steps were characterized using atomic force microscopy (AFM), water contact angle measurement, grazing-angle attenuated total reflection (GA-ATR) FT-IR spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The data collected using these techniques have confirmed the successive grafting of the molecular species, evidencing, that homogeneous monolayers were created on the silica surfaces and validated the proposed mechanism of functionalization. The resulting surfaces were used to investigate polyclonal anti-diclofenac antibodies recognition and reversibility using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) measurements or an automated flow-through immunoassay with chemiluminescence (CL) read-out. For both techniques, recognition and reversibility of the antibody binding were observed. The stability of sensors over time was also assessed and no decrease in CL response was observed upon 14 days in aqueous solution. The herein presented strategy for surface functionalization can be used in the future as reproducible and reusable universal platform for hapten

  1. Diversity Generator Mechanisms Are Essential Components of Biological Systems: The Two Queen Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Muraille


    Full Text Available Diversity is widely known to fuel adaptation and evolutionary processes and increase robustness at the population, species and ecosystem levels. The Neo-Darwinian paradigm proposes that the diversity of biological entities is the consequence of genetic changes arising spontaneously and randomly, without regard for their usefulness. However, a growing body of evidence demonstrates that the evolutionary process has shaped mechanisms, such as horizontal gene transfer mechanisms, meiosis and the adaptive immune system, which has resulted in the regulated generation of diversity among populations. Though their origins are unrelated, these diversity generator (DG mechanisms share common functional properties. They (i contribute to the great unpredictability of the composition and/or behavior of biological systems, (ii favor robustness and collectivism among populations and (iii operate mainly by manipulating the systems that control the interaction of living beings with their environment. The definition proposed here for DGs is based on these properties and can be used to identify them according to function. Interestingly, prokaryotic DGs appear to be mainly reactive, as they generate diversity in response to environmental stress. They are involved in the widely described Red Queen/arms race/Cairnsian dynamic. The emergence of multicellular organisms harboring K selection traits (longer reproductive life cycle and smaller population size has led to the acquisition of a new class of DGs that act anticipatively to stress pressures and generate a distinct dynamic called the “White Queen” here. The existence of DGs leads to the view of evolution as a more “intelligent” and Lamarckian-like process. Their repeated selection during evolution could be a neglected example of convergent evolution and suggests that some parts of the evolutionary process are tightly constrained by ecological factors, such as the population size, the generation time and

  2. Diversity Generator Mechanisms Are Essential Components of Biological Systems: The Two Queen Hypothesis. (United States)

    Muraille, Eric


    Diversity is widely known to fuel adaptation and evolutionary processes and increase robustness at the population, species and ecosystem levels. The Neo-Darwinian paradigm proposes that the diversity of biological entities is the consequence of genetic changes arising spontaneously and randomly, without regard for their usefulness. However, a growing body of evidence demonstrates that the evolutionary process has shaped mechanisms, such as horizontal gene transfer mechanisms, meiosis and the adaptive immune system, which has resulted in the regulated generation of diversity among populations. Though their origins are unrelated, these diversity generator (DG) mechanisms share common functional properties. They (i) contribute to the great unpredictability of the composition and/or behavior of biological systems, (ii) favor robustness and collectivism among populations and (iii) operate mainly by manipulating the systems that control the interaction of living beings with their environment. The definition proposed here for DGs is based on these properties and can be used to identify them according to function. Interestingly, prokaryotic DGs appear to be mainly reactive, as they generate diversity in response to environmental stress. They are involved in the widely described Red Queen/arms race/Cairnsian dynamic. The emergence of multicellular organisms harboring K selection traits (longer reproductive life cycle and smaller population size) has led to the acquisition of a new class of DGs that act anticipatively to stress pressures and generate a distinct dynamic called the "White Queen" here. The existence of DGs leads to the view of evolution as a more "intelligent" and Lamarckian-like process. Their repeated selection during evolution could be a neglected example of convergent evolution and suggests that some parts of the evolutionary process are tightly constrained by ecological factors, such as the population size, the generation time and the intensity of

  3. Beyond pure offsetting: Assessing options to generate Net-Mitigation-Effects in carbon market mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warnecke, Carsten; Wartmann, Sina; Höhne, Niklas; Blok, Kornelis


    The current project-based carbon market mechanisms such as the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and the Joint Implementation (JI) do not have a direct impact on global greenhouse gas emission levels, because they only replace or offset emissions. Nor do they contribute to host country's national greenhouse gas emission reduction targets. Contributions to net emission reductions in host countries is likely to become mandatory in new mechanisms under development such as in the framework for various approaches, a new market-based mechanism and even in a reformed JI. This research analysed the question if approaches for carbon market-based mechanisms exist that allow the generation of net emission reductions in host countries while keeping project initiation attractive. We present a criteria-based assessment method and apply it for four generic options in existing mechanisms and derive implications for future mechanism frameworks. We identified the application of “discounts” on the amount of avoided emissions for the issuance of carbon credits and “standardisation below business as usual” as most promising options over “limiting the crediting period” and “over-conservativeness”. We propose to apply these options differentiated over project types based on internal rate of return to ensure cost-efficiency and attractiveness. - Highlights: • Options for net emission reductions of market-based mechanisms are assessed. • Research combines past and current views for project and sector-based mechanisms. • Implementation ensures initiation of mitigation activities is not discouraged. • Important insights for methodological design of new market-based mechanisms. • Profitability-based approach for project-based mechanisms suggested

  4. Dynamic model of Stirling engine crank mechanism with connected electric generator


    Vlach R.; Sikora M.


    This paper treats of a numerical dynamic model of Stirling engine crank mechanism. The model is included in the complex model of combined heat and power unit. The unit is composed of the Stirling engine and of attached three-phase synchronous generator. This generator should start the Stirling engine in motor mode as well. It is necessary to combine the crank shaft dynamic model and the complete thermal model of Stirling engine for simulations and analyses of engine run. Our aim is to create ...

  5. PES Surface Modification Using Green Chemistry: New Generation of Antifouling Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norhan Nady


    Full Text Available A major limitation in using membrane-based separation processes is the loss of performance due to membrane fouling. This drawback can be addressed thanks to surface modification treatments. A new and promising surface modification using green chemistry has been recently investigated. This modification is carried out at room temperature and in aqueous medium using green catalyst (enzyme and nontoxic modifier, which can be safely labelled “green surface modification”. This modification can be considered as a nucleus of new generation of antifouling membranes and surfaces. In the current research, ferulic acid modifier and laccase bio-catalyst were used to make poly(ethersulfone (PES membrane less vulnerable to protein adsorption. The blank and modified PES membranes are evaluated based on e.g., their flux and protein repellence. Both the blank and the modified PES membranes (or laminated PES on silicon dioxide surface are characterized using many techniques e.g., SEM, EDX, XPS and SPM, etc. The pure water flux of the most modified membranes was reduced by 10% on average relative to the blank membrane, and around a 94% reduction in protein adsorption was determined. In the conclusions section, a comparison between three modifiers—ferulic acid, and two other previously used modifiers (4-hydroxybenzoic acid and gallic acid—is presented.

  6. PES Surface Modification Using Green Chemistry: New Generation of Antifouling Membranes. (United States)

    Nady, Norhan


    A major limitation in using membrane-based separation processes is the loss of performance due to membrane fouling. This drawback can be addressed thanks to surface modification treatments. A new and promising surface modification using green chemistry has been recently investigated. This modification is carried out at room temperature and in aqueous medium using green catalyst (enzyme) and nontoxic modifier, which can be safely labelled "green surface modification". This modification can be considered as a nucleus of new generation of antifouling membranes and surfaces. In the current research, ferulic acid modifier and laccase bio-catalyst were used to make poly(ethersulfone) (PES) membrane less vulnerable to protein adsorption. The blank and modified PES membranes are evaluated based on e.g., their flux and protein repellence. Both the blank and the modified PES membranes (or laminated PES on silicon dioxide surface) are characterized using many techniques e.g., SEM, EDX, XPS and SPM, etc. The pure water flux of the most modified membranes was reduced by 10% on average relative to the blank membrane, and around a 94% reduction in protein adsorption was determined. In the conclusions section, a comparison between three modifiers-ferulic acid, and two other previously used modifiers (4-hydroxybenzoic acid and gallic acid)-is presented.

  7. A quantum-mechanical test for a LiHCl semi-empirical surface (United States)

    Ciccarelli, L.; Garcia, E.; Laganà, A.


    A study of the Li+CIH collinear reaction has been carried out on a semi-empirical surface in order to assess the suitability of this potential energy surface for further quantum-mechanical calculations and to investigate the reactive dynamics of an asymmetric exchange of a heavy atom.

  8. General contact mechanics theory for randomly rough surfaces with application to rubber friction


    Scaraggi, Michele; Persson, Bo N. J.


    We generalize the Persson contact mechanics and rubber friction theory to the case where both surfaces have surface roughness. The solids can be rigid, elastic or viscoelastic, and can be homogeneous or layered. We calculate the contact area, the viscoelastic contribution to the friction force, and the average interfacial separation as a function of the sliding speed and the nominal contact pressure. We illustrate the theory with numerical results for a rubber block sliding on a road surface....

  9. Hot Electron Photoemission from Plasmonic Nanoparticles: Role of Transient Absorption in Surface Mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uskov, Alexander V.; Protsenko, Igor E.; Ikhsanov, Renat S.


    We analyze and compare surface- and vol ume-based internal photoelectric effects from spherical nanoparticles, obtaining analytical expression s for the photoemission rate in both cases. Similar to results for a flat metal surface, one can show that the surface mechanism preva ils, since it is un...... it is unaffected by detrimental hot electron collisions. Transient ab sorption results from dielectric permittivity discontinuity at the nanoparticle boundary and leads to a substantial (by ~5 times) increase of the photoelectron emission rate....

  10. Second Generation MOSAIC:A Novel Mechanism Based on Reference Database for Map Updating (United States)

    Hu, G.; Bignone, F.


    A totally new automatic workflow mechanism, named Second generation Mosaic module, based on the well-known Pixel Factory system, will be introduced here, which enables existing digital orthoimages and mosaics to be quickly updated. The process extracts all required parameters from the reference database to be able to perform automatic bundle adjustment and radiometric adaptation.In this paper, two examples for both satellite data and aerial data processed based on this mechanism will be presented here and discussed. Finally, the cost reduction will also be analysed according to the real mapping updating project.In a final statement, this paper will present an integrated solution named second generation mosaic module based on the well-known Pixel Factory system which is completely dedicated to fast processing of photogrammetric products Thanks to this integrated hardware and software solution, it is even possible to manage large data volume quickly in order to have precise map updating information as soon as possible after acquisition.

  11. Mechanism for Formation of Surface Scale during Directional Solidification of Ni-Base Superalloys (United States)

    Brewster, G.; D'Souza, N.; Ryder, K. S.; Simmonds, S.; Dong, H. B.


    Surface scale occurs on the external surface of directionally solidified, single-crystal turbine components. It is one of the most important casting defects because it affects the grain orientation assessment and causes incipient surface melting during heat treatment. The formation of surface scale comprises a three-stage process: (1) formation of a 0.5- to 1.5- μm Al2O3 layer around the external surface of liquid metal as a result of the mold/metal reaction between the liquid and the mold prime coat; (2) separation of the solidified metal from the mold wall during cooling, where the Al2O3 layer is stripped away from the metal surface but remains adhered to the mold; and (3) subsequent oxidation of the "bare" metal to form an oxide scale at the surface. The scale comprises a mixture of oxides. It is found that TiO2, Cr2O3, and Al2O3 form on components cast using the 1st generation alloy, SRR99; however, in the case of castings using the 3rd-generation alloy, CMSX10N it is a predominately nickel-rich oxide (likely to be NiO). On the unscaled surface, the mold and metal are in intimate contact during casting, and subsequent cooling and the Al2O3 layer around the external surface prevents subsequent oxidation of the casting surface.

  12. Speckle noise reduction for computer generated holograms of objects with diffuse surfaces (United States)

    Symeonidou, Athanasia; Blinder, David; Ahar, Ayyoub; Schretter, Colas; Munteanu, Adrian; Schelkens, Peter


    Digital holography is mainly used today for metrology and microscopic imaging and is emerging as an important potential technology for future holographic television. To generate the holographic content, computer-generated holography (CGH) techniques convert geometric descriptions of a 3D scene content. To model different surface types, an accurate model of light propagation has to be considered, including for example, specular and diffuse reflection. In previous work, we proposed a fast CGH method for point cloud data using multiple wavefront recording planes, look-up tables (LUTs) and occlusion processing. This work extends our method to account for diffuse reflections, enabling rendering of deep 3D scenes in high resolution with wide viewing angle support. This is achieved by modifying the spectral response of the light propagation kernels contained by the look-up tables. However, holograms encoding diffuse reflective surfaces depict significant amounts of speckle noise, a problem inherent to holography. Hence, techniques to improve the reduce speckle noise are evaluated in this paper. Moreover, we propose as well a technique to suppress the aperture diffraction during numerical, viewdependent rendering by apodizing the hologram. Results are compared visually and in terms of their respective computational efficiency. The experiments show that by modelling diffuse reflection in the LUTs, a more realistic yet computationally efficient framework for generating high-resolution CGH is achieved.

  13. Sum frequency and second harmonic generation from the surface of a liquid microjet (United States)

    Smolentsev, Nikolay; Chen, Yixing; Jena, Kailash C.; Brown, Matthew A.; Roke, Sylvie


    The use of a liquid microjet as a possible source of interest for Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) and Sum Frequency Generation (SFG) spectroscopy is examined. We measured non-resonant SHG scattering patterns from the air/water interface of a microjet of pure water and observe a strong enhancement of the SHG signal for certain scattering angles. These enhancements can be explained by the optical properties and the shape of the liquid microjet. SFG experiments at the surface of a liquid microjet of ethanol in air show that it is also possible to measure the coherent vibrational SFG spectrum of the ethanol/air interface in this way. Our findings are useful for future far-UV or X-ray based nonlinear optical surface experiments on liquid jets. In addition, combined X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and SHG/SFG measurements are feasible, which will be very useful in improving our understanding of the molecular foundations of electrostatic and chemical surface properties and phenomena.

  14. Candida albicans CUG mistranslation is a mechanism to create cell surface variation. (United States)

    Miranda, Isabel; Silva-Dias, Ana; Rocha, Rita; Teixeira-Santos, Rita; Coelho, Carolina; Gonçalves, Teresa; Santos, Manuel A S; Pina-Vaz, Cidália; Solis, Norma V; Filler, Scott G; Rodrigues, Acácio G


    In the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans, the CUG codon is translated 97% of the time as serine and 3% of the time as leucine, which potentially originates an array of proteins resulting from the translation of a single gene. Genes encoding cell surface proteins are enriched in CUG codons; thus, CUG mistranslation may influence the interactions of the organism with the host. To investigate this, we compared a C. albicans strain that misincorporates 28% of leucine at CUGs with a wild-type parental strain. The first strain displayed increased adherence to inert and host molecules. In addition, it was less susceptible to phagocytosis by murine macrophages, probably due to reduced exposure of cell surface β-glucans. To prove that these phenotypes occurred due to serine/leucine exchange, the C. albicans adhesin and invasin ALS3 was expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae in its two natural isoforms (Als3p-Leu and Als3p-Ser). The cells with heterologous expression of Als3p-Leu showed increased adherence to host substrates and flocculation. We propose that CUG mistranslation has been maintained during the evolution of C. albicans due to its potential to generate cell surface variability, which significantly alters fungus-host interactions. The translation of genetic information into proteins is a highly accurate cellular process. In the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans, a unique mistranslation event involving the CUG codon occurs. The CUG codon is mainly translated as serine but can also be translated as leucine. Leucine and serine are two biochemically distinct amino acids, hydrophobic and hydrophilic, respectively. The increased rate of leucine incorporation at CUG decoding triggers C. albicans virulence attributes, such as morphogenesis, phenotypic switching, and adhesion. Here, we show that CUG mistranslation masks the fungal cell wall molecule β-glucan that is normally recognized by the host immune system, delaying its response. Furthermore, we demonstrate

  15. Assessment of the mechanical properties of area-elastic sport surfaces with video analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Koning, J.J.; Nigg, B.M.; Gerritsen, K.G.M.


    Mechanical properties of a surface are assumed to he of importance with respect to injuries, comfort, and performance in sport. For a better understanding of the factors that do influence the etiology of injuries as well as comfort, a method was developed to compare mechanical characteristics of

  16. Influence of mechanical and chemical degradation on surface gloss of resin composite materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ardu, S.; Braut, V.; Uhac, I.; Benbachir, N.; Feilzer, A.J.; Krejci, I.


    Purpose: To determine the changes in surface gloss of different composite materials after simulation of mechanical and chemical aging mechanisms. Methods: 36 specimens were fabricated for each material and polished with 120-, 220-, 500-, 1200-, 2400- and 4000- grit SiC abrasive paper, respectively.

  17. A discrete mechanics approach to gait generation for the compass-type biped robot (United States)

    Kai, Tatsuya; Shintani, Takeshi

    In this paper, we develop a new approach based on discrete mechanics to a gait generation problem for the compass-type biped robot. First, both continuous-time and discrete-time models of the compass-type biped robot are derived. We next formulate a discrete gait generation problem for the discrete compass-type biped robot as a finite dimensional nonlinear optimal control problem and show an algorithm to solve the problem based on the sequential quadratic programming. Then, we propose a transformation method that converts a discrete-time control input into a continuous-time zero-order hold one and apply it to gait generation for the continuous compass-type biped robot. Some simulations are also shown in order to verify the effectiveness of our new approach.

  18. Effect of electropulsing on surface mechanical properties and microstructure of AISI 304 stainless steel during ultrasonic surface rolling process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Haibo [Advanced Materials Institute, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Song, Guolin [Advanced Materials Institute, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Tang, Guoyi, E-mail: [Advanced Materials Institute, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)


    The present work integrates 3D digital optical microscopy (OM), nano-indentation, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to systematically investigate the effect of electropulsing on the surface mechanical properties and microstructure of AISI 304 stainless steel during the ultrasonic surface rolling process (USRP). Compared with the original USRP, the introduction of electropulsing with optimal parameters can effectively facilitate surface crack healing and improve surface hardness and wear resistance dramatically, and the residual compressive stress is further enhanced. Meanwhile, more martensite phase and fewer deformation twins can be found in the strengthened layer. Rapid improvement of the surface mechanical properties should be attributed to the ultra-refined grains, accelerated martensitic phase transformation and suppressed deformation twining induced by the coupling effect of USRP and electropulsing. The high strain rate given by USRP, increased stacking fault energy and accelerated dislocation mobility caused by electropulsing are likely the primary intrinsic reasons for the observed phenomena.

  19. Generalized generating functional for mixed-representation Green's functions: A quantum-mechanical approach (United States)

    Blasone, Massimo; Jizba, Petr; Smaldone, Luca


    When one tries to take into account the nontrivial vacuum structure of quantum field theory, the standard functional-integral tools, such as generating functionals or transitional amplitudes, are often quite inadequate for such purposes. Here we propose a generalized generating functional for Green's functions which allows one to easily distinguish among a continuous set of vacua that are mutually connected via unitary canonical transformations. In order to keep our discussion as simple as possible, we limit ourselves to quantum mechanics where the generating functional of Green's functions is constructed by means of phase-space path integrals. The quantum-mechanical setting allows us to accentuate the main logical steps involved without embarking on technical complications such as renormalization or inequivalent representations that should otherwise be addressed in the full-fledged quantum field theory. We illustrate the inner workings of the generating functional obtained by discussing Green's functions among vacua that are mutually connected via translations and dilatations. Salient issues, including connection with quantum field theory, vacuum-to-vacuum transition amplitudes, and perturbation expansion in the vacuum parameter, are also briefly discussed.

  20. Various bio-mechanical factors affecting heat generation during osteotomy preparation: A systematic review. (United States)

    Chauhan, Chirag J; Shah, Darshana N; Sutaria, Foram B


    As implant site preparation and bone are critical precursors to primary healing, thermal and mechanical damage to the bone must be minimized during the preparation of the implant site. Moreover, excessively traumatic surgery can adversely affect the maturation of bone tissue at the bone/implant interface and consequently diminish the predictability of osseointegration. So, this study was carried out to evaluate the various biological and mechanical factors responsible for heat generation during osteotomy site preparation to reduce the same for successful osseointegration of dental implants. A broad search of the dental literature in PubMed added by manual search was performed for articles published between 1992 and December 2015. Various bio-mechanical factors related to dental implant osteotomy preparation such as dental implant drill designs/material/wear, drilling methods, type of irrigation, and bone quality were reviewed. Titles and abstracts were screened and articles which fulfilled the inclusion criteria were selected for a full-text reading. The initial database search yielded 123 titles, of which 59 titles were discarded after reading the titles and abstracts, 30 articles were again excluded based on inclusion and exclusion criteria, and finally 34 articles were selected for data extraction. Many biological and mechanical factors responsible for heat generation were found. Literatures of this review study have indicated that there are various bio-mechanical reasons, which affect the temperature rise during osteotomy and suggest that the amount of heat generation is a multifactorial in nature and it should be minimized for better primary healing of the implant site.

  1. Various bio-mechanical factors affecting heat generation during osteotomy preparation: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirag J Chauhan


    Full Text Available Background: As implant site preparation and bone are critical precursors to primary healing, thermal and mechanical damage to the bone must be minimized during the preparation of the implant site. Moreover, excessively traumatic surgery can adversely affect the maturation of bone tissue at the bone/implant interface and consequently diminish the predictability of osseointegration. So, this study was carried out to evaluate the various biological and mechanical factors responsible for heat generation during osteotomy site preparation to reduce the same for successful osseointegration of dental implants. Study Design: A broad search of the dental literature in PubMed added by manual search was performed for articles published between 1992 and December 2015. Various bio-mechanical factors related to dental implant osteotomy preparation such as dental implant drill designs/material/wear, drilling methods, type of irrigation, and bone quality were reviewed. Titles and abstracts were screened and articles which fulfilled the inclusion criteria were selected for a full-text reading. Results: The initial database search yielded 123 titles, of which 59 titles were discarded after reading the titles and abstracts, 30 articles were again excluded based on inclusion and exclusion criteria, and finally 34 articles were selected for data extraction. Many biological and mechanical factors responsible for heat generation were found. Conclusion: Literatures of this review study have indicated that there are various bio-mechanical reasons, which affect the temperature rise during osteotomy and suggest that the amount of heat generation is a multifactorial in nature and it should be minimized for better primary healing of the implant site.

  2. Affirming independence: Exploring mechanisms underlying a values affirmation intervention for first-generation students. (United States)

    Tibbetts, Yoi; Harackiewicz, Judith M; Canning, Elizabeth A; Boston, Jilana S; Priniski, Stacy J; Hyde, Janet S


    First-generation college students (students for whom neither parent has a 4-year college degree) earn lower grades and worry more about whether they belong in college, compared with continuing-generation students (who have at least 1 parent with a 4-year college degree). We conducted a longitudinal follow-up of participants from a study in which a values-affirmation intervention improved performance in a biology course for first-generation college students, and found that the treatment effect on grades persisted 3 years later. First-generation students in the treatment condition obtained a GPA that was, on average, .18 points higher than first-generation students in the control condition, 3 years after values affirmation was implemented (Study 1A). We explored mechanisms by testing whether the values-affirmation effects were predicated on first-generation students reflecting on interdependent values (thus affirming their values that are consistent with working-class culture) or independent values (thus affirming their values that are consistent with the culture of higher education). We found that when first-generation students wrote about their independence, they obtained higher grades (both in the semester in which values affirmation was implemented and in subsequent semesters) and felt less concerned about their background. In a separate laboratory experiment (Study 2) we manipulated the extent to which participants wrote about independence and found that encouraging first-generation students to write more about their independence improved their performance on a math test. These studies highlight the potential of having FG students focus on their own independence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Reaction mechanism and influence factors analysis for calcium sulfide generation in the process of phosphogypsum decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Liping, E-mail: [Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); Niu, Xuekui; Hou, Juan; Zheng, Shaocong; Xu, Wenjuan [Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reusing phosphogypsum is to decompose and recycle Ca and sulfur. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FactSage6.1 software was used to simulate the decomposition reactions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Experiments had been taken with high sulfur concentration coal as reducing agent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The reaction mechanism of CaS generation had been analysis, 1100 Degree-Sign C could be the best temperature for PG decomposition. - Abstract: FactSage6.1 software simulation and experiments had been used to analysis the reaction mechanism and influence factors for CaS generation during the process of phosphogypsum decomposition. Thermodynamic calculation showed that the reaction for CaS generation was very complex and CaS was generated mainly through solid-solid reaction and gas-solid reaction. The proper CO and CO{sub 2} have benefit for improving the decomposition effects of phosphogypsum and reducing the generation of CaS at 1100 Degree-Sign C. Using high sulfur concentration coal as reducer, the proper reaction conditions to control the generation of CaS were: the coal particle size was between 60 mesh and 100 mesh, reaction temperature was above 1100 Degree-Sign C and the heating rate was 5 Degree-Sign C/min. Experimental and theoretical calculation indicated that the concentration of CaS was only ten percents in the solid product at 1100 Degree-Sign C, which is favorable for the further cement producing using solid production.

  4. Acoustic-gravity waves generated by atmospheric and near-surface sources (United States)

    Kunitsyn, Viacheslav E.; Kholodov, Alexander S.; Krysanov, Boris Yu.; Andreeva, Elena S.; Nesterov, Ivan A.; Vorontsov, Artem M.


    Numerical simulation of the acoustic-gravity waves (AGW) generated by long-period oscillations of the Earth's (oceanic) surface, earthquakes, explosions, thermal heating, seiches, and tsunami is carried out. Wavelike disturbances are quite frequent phenomena in the atmosphere and ionosphere. These events can be caused by the impacts from space and atmosphere, by oscillations of the Earth'as surface and other near-surface events. These wavelike phenomena in the atmosphere and ionosphere appear as the alternating areas of enhanced and depleted density (in the atmosphere) or electron concentration (in the ionosphere). In the paper, AGW with typical frequencies of a few hertz - millihertz are analyzed. AGW are often observed after the atmospheric perturbations, during the earthquakes, and some time (a few days to hours) in advance of the earthquakes. Numerical simulation of the generation of AGW by long-period oscillations of the Earth's and oceanic surface, earthquakes, explosions, thermal heating, seiches, and tsunami is carried out. The AGW generated by the near-surface phenomena within a few hertz-millihertz frequency range build up at the mid-atmospheric and ionospheric altitudes, where they assume their typical spatial scales of the order of a few hundred kilometers. Oscillations of the ionospheric plasma within a few hertz-millihertz frequency range generate electromagnetic waves with corresponding frequencies as well as travelling ionospheric irregularities (TIDs). Such structures can be successfully monitored using satellite radio tomography (RT) techniques. For the purposes of RT diagnostics, 150/400 MHz transmissions from low-orbiting navigational satellites flying in polar orbits at the altitudes of about 1000 km as well as 1.2-1.5 GHz signals form high-orbiting (orbital altitudes about 20000 km) navigation systems like GPS/GLONASS are used. The results of experimental studies on generation of wavelike disturbances by particle precipitation are presented

  5. Research of the elastic waves generated by a pulse laser. Excitation mechanism of elastic waves and application to nondestructive testing; Pulse laser de reikishita danseiha ni kansuru kenkyu. Danseiha reiki no mechanism to hihakai kensa eno oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, H.; Takemoto, M. [Aoyama Gakuin University, Tokyo (Japan). College of Science and Engineering


    A bulk wave is generated when a pulse laser is irradiated to the material, and the characteristics of a Young`s modulus and Poisson`s ratio can be nondestructively estimated from the bulk wave. The generation mechanism of laser ultrasonic waves must be first clarified for such application. In this paper, fundamental research was conducted to study the generation mechanism of the elastic waves excited by a Q-switched Nd-YAG laser, and the generation method and characteristics of Rayleigh waves. The following result was obtained. A bulk wave is generated by the disk-like adiabatic expansion near the surface if the laser power is small when a spot-shape pulse laser was irradiated. A bulk wave is generated by the thin disk-like adiabatic expansion beneath the surface due to the thermal diffusion in the depth direction of a base material when the laser power becomes large. Moreover, a bulk wave is generated by the impact force due to abrasion and plasma when the power becomes still larger. The information on the bulk wave characteristics and Rayleigh wave was also obtained. 25 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Ab initio Algorithmic Causal Deconvolution of Intertwined Programs and Networks by Generative Mechanism

    KAUST Repository

    Zenil, Hector


    To extract and learn representations leading to generative mechanisms from data, especially without making arbitrary decisions and biased assumptions, is a central challenge in most areas of scientific research particularly in connection to current major limitations of influential topics and methods of machine and deep learning as they have often lost sight of the model component. Complex data is usually produced by interacting sources with different mechanisms. Here we introduce a parameter-free model-based approach, based upon the seminal concept of Algorithmic Probability, that decomposes an observation and signal into its most likely algorithmic generative mechanisms. Our methods use a causal calculus to infer model representations. We demonstrate the method ability to distinguish interacting mechanisms and deconvolve them, regardless of whether the objects produce strings, space-time evolution diagrams, images or networks. We numerically test and evaluate our method and find that it can disentangle observations from discrete dynamic systems, random and complex networks. We think that these causal inference techniques can contribute as key pieces of information for estimations of probability distributions complementing other more statistical-oriented techniques that otherwise lack model inference capabilities.

  7. The third generation multi-purpose plasma immersion ion implanter for surface modification of materials

    CERN Document Server

    Tang Bao Yin; Wang Xiao Feng; Gan Kong Yin; Wang Song Yan; Chu, P K; Huang Nian Ning; Sun Hong


    The third generation multi-purpose plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) equipment has been successfully used for research and development of surface modification of biomedical materials, metals and their alloys in the Southwest Jiaotong University. The implanter equipped with intense current, pulsed cathodic arc metal plasma sources which have both strong coating function and gas and metal ion implantation function. Its pulse high voltage power supply can provide big output current. It can acquire very good implantation dose uniformity. The equipment can both perform ion implantation and combine ion implantation with sputtering deposition and coating to form many kinds of synthetic surface modification techniques. The main design principles, features of important components and achievement of research works in recent time have been described

  8. Cellular Cancer Vaccines: an Update on the Development of Vaccines Generated from Cell Surface Antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr G. Lokhov, Elena E. Balashova


    Full Text Available A recent advance in anti-cancer therapies has been the use of cancer cells to develop vaccines. However, immunization with cancer cell-based vaccines has not resulted in significant long-term therapeutic benefits. A possible reason for this is that while cancer cells provide surface antigens that are targets for a desired immune response, they also contain a high abundance of housekeeping proteins, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, lipids, and other intracellular contents that are ubiquitous in all mammalian cells. These ubiquitous molecules are not the intended targets of this therapy approach, and thus, the immune response generated is not sufficient to eliminate the cancer cells present. In this review, a discussion of the cell surface of cancer cells is presented in relation to the goals of improving antigen composition of cancer cell-based vaccines. Strategies to enrich vaccines for cancer-specific antigens are also discussed.

  9. Self-Similar Micron-Size and Nanosize Drops of Liquid Generated by Surface Acoustic Waves (United States)

    Taller, Daniel; Go, David B.; Chang, Hsueh-Chia


    A planar surface acoustic wave on a solid substrate and its radiated sound into a static liquid drop produce time-averaged, exponentially decaying acoustic and electric Maxwell pressures near the contact line. These localized contact-line pressures are shown to generate two sequences of hemispherical satellite droplets at the tens of microns and submicron scales, both obeying self-similar exponential scaling but with distinct exponents that correspond to viscous dissipation and field leakage length scales, respectively. The acoustic pressure becomes dominant when the film thickness exceeds (1/4π) of the surface acoustic wave wavelength and it affects the shape and stability of the mother drop. The Maxwell pressure of the nanodrops, which exceeds ten atmospheres, is sensitive to the contact angle.

  10. From Geodesic Flow on a Surface of Negative Curvature to Electronic Generator of Robust Chaos (United States)

    Kuznetsov, Sergey P.


    Departing from the geodesic flow on a surface of negative curvature as a classic example of the hyperbolic chaotic dynamics, we propose an electronic circuit operating as a generator of rough chaos. Circuit simulation in NI Multisim software package and numerical integration of the model equations are provided. Results of computations (phase trajectories, time dependencies of variables, Lyapunov exponents and Fourier spectra) show good correspondence between the chaotic dynamics on the attractor of the proposed system and of the Anosov dynamics for the original geodesic flow.

  11. Dual-affinity peptides to generate dense surface coverages of nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Re, Julia; Blum, Amy Szuchmacher


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Stable nanoparticles were created with the Flg-A3 fusion peptide as a ligand. • Interactions of transition metal ions with Flg control aggregation of the nanoparticles in solution. • The QBP1-A3 fusion peptide improves surface attachment of gold nanoparticles. • Solution pre-aggregation of nanoparticles results in dense surface coverage. - Abstract: Depositing gold nanoparticles is of great interest because of the many potential applications of nanoparticle films; however, generating dense surface nanoparticle coverage remains a difficult challenge. Using dual-affinity peptides we have synthesized gold nanoparticles and then pre-aggregated the particles in solution via interactions with metal ions. These nanoparticle aggregates were then deposited onto silicon dioxide surfaces using another dual-affinity peptide to control binding to the substrate. The results demonstrate that when divalent ions like Zn 2+ or Ni 2+ are used, densely packed gold nanoparticle monolayers are formed on the silicon dioxide substrate, which may have applications in fields like molecular electronics

  12. Influence of Workpiece Surface Topography on the Mechanisms of Liquid Lubrication in Strip Drawing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shimizu, I; Andreasen, Jan Lasson; Bech, Jakob Ilsted


    Plasto HydroDynamic Lubrication (MPHDL). On the other hand, when the radius on the edge is small MPHDL is impeded and MicroPlasto HydroStatic Lubrication (MPHSL) appears instead implying forward escape of the lubricant. The occurrence of these mechanisms are quantitatively explained by a mathematical model......The workpiece surface topography is an important factor controlling the mechanisms of lubrication in metal forming processes. In the present work, the microscopic lubrication mechanisms induced by lubricant trapped in pockets of the surface in strip drawing are studied. The experiments...... are performed with macroscopic model pockets in the surface studying the influence of the shape of the pockets on the lubrication mechanisms. A large radius of curvature on the rear edge and a small angle to the edge of the lubricant pocket induce a large area of backward escape of lubricant caused by Micro...

  13. Methylation on RNA: A Potential Mechanism Related to Immune Priming within But Not across Generations. (United States)

    Castro-Vargas, Cynthia; Linares-López, César; López-Torres, Adolfo; Wrobel, Katarzyna; Torres-Guzmán, Juan C; Hernández, Gloria A G; Wrobel, Kazimierz; Lanz-Mendoza, Humberto; Contreras-Garduño, Jorge


    Invertebrate immune priming is a growing field in immunology. This phenomenon refers to the ability of invertebrates to generate a more vigorous immune response to a second encounter with a specific pathogen and can occur within and across generations. Although the precise mechanism has not been elucidated, it has been suggested that methylation of DNA is a cornerstone for this phenomenon. Here, using a novel method of analytical chemistry (a reversed-phase liquid chromatography procedure) and the beetle Tenebrio molitor as a model system, we did not find evidence to support this hypothesis taking into account the percentage of methylated cytosine entities in DNA (5mdC) within or across generations. However, we found a lower percentage of methylated cytosine entities in RNA (5mC) within but not across generations in immune priming experiments with adults against the bacteria Micrococcus lysodeikticus and larvae against the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae . To our knowledge, this is the first report suggesting a role of differential methylation on RNA during immune priming within generations.

  14. A review on the mechanical and thermodynamic robustness of superhydrophobic surfaces. (United States)

    Scarratt, Liam R J; Steiner, Ullrich; Neto, Chiara


    Advancements in the fabrication and study of superhydrophobic surfaces have been significant over the past 10years, and some 20years after the discovery of the lotus effect, the study of special wettability surfaces can be considered mainstream. While the fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces is well advanced and the physical properties of superhydrophobic surfaces well-understood, the robustness of these surfaces, both in terms of mechanical and thermodynamic properties, are only recently getting attention in the literature. In this review we cover publications that appeared over the past ten years on the thermodynamic and mechanical robustness of superhydrophobic surfaces, by which we mean the long term stability under conditions of wear, shear and pressure. The review is divided into two parts, the first dedicated to thermodynamic robustness and the second dedicated to mechanical robustness of these complex surfaces. Our work is intended as an introductory review for researchers interested in addressing longevity and stability of superhydrophobic surfaces, and provides an outlook on outstanding aspects of investigation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Mechanism study of initial filamentary damage in optical components owing to surface contamination particles (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoyan; Lei, Zemin; Lu, Xingqiang; Fan, Dianyuan


    Contaminations existing inevitably in high-power laser facilities modulate laser beams and decrease beam quality. This study set up a detection system to study the mechanism of initial filamentary damage in optical components induced by surface contaminations. The effect of ordinary solid particles, liquid particles, and solid-liquid mixed particles on the near-field intensity distribution of laser beam was studied and analyzed statistically. The experiment results show that pure solid particles make the beam generate diffraction rings with dark center usually in the shadow of the particles which is a weak intensity modulation; pure liquid particles focus the localized beam into a bright spot rapidly, but it is diffracted away soon; solid-liquid mixed particles cause diffraction rings with strongly bright center, but the high local intensity can be diffracted away only after a longer distance, which is one of the reason that induces the initial filamentary damage to optical components. The research results can predict the likelihood of component damage, and the corresponding preventive measures help to keep the safe operation of high-power laser facilities.

  16. Microscopic degradation mechanism of polyimide film caused by surface discharge under bipolar continuous square impulse voltage (United States)

    Luo, Yang; Wu, Guang-Ning; Liu, Ji-Wu; Peng, Jia; Gao, Guo-Qiang; Zhu, Guang-Ya; Wang, Peng; Cao, Kai-Jiang


    Polyimide (PI) film is an important type of insulating material used in inverter-fed motors. Partial discharge (PD) under a sequence of high-frequency square impulses is one of the key factors that lead to premature failures in insulation systems of inverter-fed motors. In order to explore the damage mechanism of PI film caused by discharge, an aging system of surface discharge under bipolar continuous square impulse voltage (BCSIV) is designed based on the ASTM 2275 01 standard and the electrical aging tests of PI film samples are performed above the partial discharge inception voltage (PDIV). The chemical bonds of PI polymer chains are analyzed through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and the dielectric properties of unaged and aged PI samples are investigated by LCR testers HIOKI 3532-50. Finally, the micro-morphology and micro-structure changes of PI film samples are observed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that the physical and chemical effects of discharge cut off the chemical bonds of PI polymer chains. The fractures of ether bond (C—O—C) and imide ring (C—N—C) on the backbone of a PI polymer chain leads to the decrease of molecular weight, which results in the degradation of PI polymers and the generation of new chemical groups and materials, like carboxylic acid, ketone, aldehydes, etc. The variation of microscopic structure of PI polymers can change the orientation ability of polarizable units when the samples are under an AC electric field, which would cause the dielectric constant ɛ to increase and dielectric loss tan δ to decrease. The SEM images show that the degradation path of PI film is initiated from the surface and then gradually extends to the interior with continuous aging. The injection charge could result in the PI macromolecular chain degradation and increase the trap density in the PI polymer bulk.

  17. Molecular dynamics study on mechanism of preformed particle gel transporting through nanopores: Surface chemistry and heterogeneity (United States)

    Cui, Peng; Zhang, Heng; Ma, Ying; Hao, Qingquan; Liu, Gang; Sun, Jichao; Yuan, Shiling


    The translocation behavior of preformed particle gel (PPG) in porous media is crucial for its application in enhanced oil recovery. By means of non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation, the translocation mechanism of PPG confined in different silica nanopores were investigated. The influence of surface chemistry and chemical heterogeneity of silica nanopore on the translocation process was revealed. As the degree of surface hydroxylation increases and the heterogeneity decreases, the pulling force needed to drive PPG decreases. We infer that the nanopore's surface (i.e. surface chemistry and heterogeneity) affects the translocation of PPG indirectly by forming different hydration layers.

  18. Local inertial oscillations in the surface ocean generated by time-varying winds (United States)

    Chen, Shengli; Polton, Jeff A.; Hu, Jianyu; Xing, Jiuxing


    A new relationship is presented to give a review study on the evolution of inertial oscillations in the surface ocean locally generated by time-varying wind stress. The inertial oscillation is expressed as the superposition of a previous oscillation and a newly generated oscillation, which depends upon the time-varying wind stress. This relationship is employed to investigate some idealized wind change events. For a wind series varying temporally with different rates, the induced inertial oscillation is dominated by the wind with the greatest variation. The resonant wind, which rotates anti-cyclonically at the local inertial frequency with time, produces maximal amplitude of inertial oscillations, which grows monotonically. For the wind rotating at non-inertial frequencies, the responses vary periodically, with wind injecting inertial energy when it is in phase with the currents, but removing inertial energy when it is out of phase. The wind rotating anti-cyclonically with time is much more favorable to generate inertial oscillations than the cyclonic rotating wind. The wind with a frequency closer to the inertial frequency generates stronger inertial oscillations. For a diurnal wind, the induced inertial oscillation is dependent on latitude and is most significant at 30 °. This relationship is also applied to examine idealized moving cyclones. The inertial oscillation is much stronger on the right-hand side of the cyclone path than on the left-hand side (in the northern hemisphere). This is due to the wind being anti-cyclonic with time on the right-hand side, but cyclonic on the other side. The inertial oscillation varies with the cyclone translation speed. The optimal translation speed generating the greatest inertial oscillations is 2 m/s at the latitude of 10 ° and gradually increases to 6 m/s at the latitude of 30 °.

  19. Generator, mechanical, smoke: For dual-purpose unit, XM56, Yuma Proving Ground, Yuma, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driver, C.J.; Ligotke, M.W.; Moore, E.B. Jr. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Bowers, J.F. (Dugway Proving Ground, UT (United States))


    The US Army Chemical Research, Development and Engineering Center (CRDEC) is planning to perform a field test of the XM56 smoke generator at the US Army Yuma Proving Ground (YPG), Arizona. The XM56, enabling the use of fog oil in combination with other materials, such as graphite flakes, is part of an effort to improve the efficiency of smoke generation and to extend the effectiveness of the resulting obscurant cloud to include the infrared spectrum. The plan field operation includes a road test and concurrent smoke- generation trials. Three M1037 vehicles with operation XM56 generators will be road-tested for 100 h. Smoke will be generated for 30 min from a single stationary XM56 four times during the road test, resulting in a total of 120 min of smoke generation. The total aerial release of obscurant materials during this test is expected to be 556 kg (1,220 lb) of fog oil and 547 kg (1,200 lb) of graphite flakes. This environmental assessment has evaluated the consequences of the proposed action. Air concentrations and surface deposition levels were estimated using an atmospheric dispersion model. Degradation of fog oil and incorporation of graphite in the soil column will limit the residual impacts of the planned action. No significant impacts to air, water, and soil quality are anticipated. risks to the environment posed by the proposed action were determined to be minimal or below levels previously found to pose measurable impacts. Cultural resources are present on YPG and have been identified in adjacent areas; therefore, off-road activities should be preceded by a cultural resource survey. A Finding of No Significant Impact is recommended. 61 refs., 1 fig.

  20. Generating Inviscid and Viscous Fluid Flow Simulations over a Surface Using a Quasi-simultaneous Technique (United States)

    Sturdza, Peter (Inventor); Martins-Rivas, Herve (Inventor); Suzuki, Yoshifumi (Inventor)


    A fluid-flow simulation over a computer-generated surface is generated using a quasi-simultaneous technique. The simulation includes a fluid-flow mesh of inviscid and boundary-layer fluid cells. An initial fluid property for an inviscid fluid cell is determined using an inviscid fluid simulation that does not simulate fluid viscous effects. An initial boundary-layer fluid property a boundary-layer fluid cell is determined using the initial fluid property and a viscous fluid simulation that simulates fluid viscous effects. An updated boundary-layer fluid property is determined for the boundary-layer fluid cell using the initial fluid property, initial boundary-layer fluid property, and an interaction law. The interaction law approximates the inviscid fluid simulation using a matrix of aerodynamic influence coefficients computed using a two-dimensional surface panel technique and a fluid-property vector. An updated fluid property is determined for the inviscid fluid cell using the updated boundary-layer fluid property.

  1. Enhanced Efficiency of Thermoelectric Generator by Optimizing Mechanical and Electrical Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinlong Chen


    Full Text Available Much attention has been paid to the application of low temperature thermal resources, especially for power generation in recent years. Most of the current commercialized thermal (including geothermal power-generation technologies convert thermal energy to electric energy indirectly, that is, making mechanical work before producing electricity. Technology using a thermoelectric generator (TEG, however, can directly transform thermal energy into electricity through the Seebeck effect. TEG technology has many advantages such as compactness, quietness, and reliability because there are no moving parts. One of the biggest disadvantages of TEGs is the low efficiency from thermal to electric energy. For this reason, we redesigned and modified our previous 1 KW (at a temperature difference of around 120 °C TEG system. The output power of the system was improved significantly, about 34.6% greater; the instantaneous efficiency of the TEG system could reach about 6.5%. Laboratory experiments have been conducted to measure the output power at different conditions: different connection modes between TEG modules, different mechanical structures, and different temperature differences between hot and cold sides. The TEG apparatus has been tested and the data have been presented. This kind of TEG power system can be applied in many thermal and geothermal sites with low temperature resources, including oil fields where fossil and geothermal energies are coproduced.

  2. Real-time transient stabilization and voltage regulation of power generators with unknown mechanical power input

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenne, Godpromesse; Goma, Raphael; Nkwawo, Homere; Lamnabhi-Lagarrigue, Francoise; Arzande, Amir; Vannier, Jean Claude


    A nonlinear adaptive excitation controller is proposed to enhance the transient stability and voltage regulation of synchronous generators with unknown power angle and mechanical power input. The proposed method is based on a standard third-order model of a synchronous generator which requires only information about the physical available measurements of relative angular speed, active electric power, infinite bus and generator terminal voltages. The operating conditions are computed online using the above physical available measurements, the terminal voltage reference value and the estimate of the mechanical power input. The proposed design is therefore capable of providing satisfactory voltage in the presence of unknown variations of the power system operating conditions. Using the concept of sliding mode equivalent control techniques, a robust decentralized adaptive controller which insures the exponential convergence of the outputs to the desired ones, is obtained. Real-time experimental results are reported, comparing the performance of the proposed adaptive nonlinear control scheme to one of the conventional AVR/PSS controller. The high simplicity of the overall adaptive control scheme and its robustness with respect to line impedance variation including critical unbalanced operating condition and temporary turbine fault, constitute the main positive features of the proposed approach.

  3. Fracture Mechanics Method for Word Embedding Generation of Neural Probabilistic Linguistic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Size Bi


    Full Text Available Word embedding, a lexical vector representation generated via the neural linguistic model (NLM, is empirically demonstrated to be appropriate for improvement of the performance of traditional language model. However, the supreme dimensionality that is inherent in NLM contributes to the problems of hyperparameters and long-time training in modeling. Here, we propose a force-directed method to improve such problems for simplifying the generation of word embedding. In this framework, each word is assumed as a point in the real world; thus it can approximately simulate the physical movement following certain mechanics. To simulate the variation of meaning in phrases, we use the fracture mechanics to do the formation and breakdown of meaning combined by a 2-gram word group. With the experiments on the natural linguistic tasks of part-of-speech tagging, named entity recognition and semantic role labeling, the result demonstrated that the 2-dimensional word embedding can rival the word embeddings generated by classic NLMs, in terms of accuracy, recall, and text visualization.

  4. Overland flow generation mechanisms affected by topsoil treatment: Application to soil conservation (United States)

    González Paloma, Hueso; Juan Francisco, Martinez-Murillo; Damian, Ruiz-Sinoga Jose; Hanoch, Lavee


    decreased from 5 to 10 cm depth. According to the results, the hydrological and erosive response in the five treatments showed dissimilarities, despite having similar rainfall exposure and the same original soil properties. This means that the differences between the treatments play a key role in the soil moisture, overland flow and sediment yield values. The study has demonstrated the effects of various treatments on the generation of overland flow, and hence the sediment yield. In the C and HP plots, relatively large amounts of overland flow rapidly developed. This cannot be explained by saturation conditions, as the soil moisture content was highest near the surface and decreased with depth in the profile. This, together with the relatively low macro-porosity, proved that the mechanism of overland flow generation was of the Hortonian type. On the other hand, in the SM and PM plots, the high level of macro-porosity, together with the increase in soil moisture content with depth, explained the small quantities of overland flow and sediment yield. In the rare case that overland flow developed in these plots, it was minor in amount, and yielded little sediment because of saturation conditions. The processes in the RU plots were more complicated; from 10 cm depth the soil moisture content always increased with further depth, usually rapidly. Thus, water infiltrated continuously and there was no rainfall excess. Therefore, in terms of overland flow and sediment yield, the RU plots behaved in a similar way to the SM and PM plots. The fact that the soil moisture content was low at depths of 10 cm is because of the uptake of water at these depths by the roots of Carlina hispanica Lam. From a land management standpoint, the SM, PM and RU treatments were the most effective in reducing overland flow and sediment yield following afforestation. In addition, the soil profile became more wettable, which provided more water to support plant survival. However, when afforestation was

  5. Perchlorate formation on Mars through surface radiolysis-initiated atmospheric chemistry: A potential mechanism (United States)

    Wilson, Eric H.; Atreya, Sushil K.; Kaiser, Ralf I.; Mahaffy, Paul R.


    Recent observations of the Martian surface by the Phoenix lander and the Sample Analysis at Mars indicate the presence of perchlorate (ClO4-). The abundance and isotopic composition of these perchlorates suggest that the mechanisms responsible for their formation in the Martian environment may be unique in our solar system. With this in mind, we propose a potential mechanism for the production of Martian perchlorate: the radiolysis of the Martian surface by galactic cosmic rays, followed by the sublimation of chlorine oxides into the atmosphere and their subsequent synthesis to form perchloric acid (HClO4) in the atmosphere, and the surface deposition and subsequent mineralization of HClO4 in the regolith to form surface perchlorates. To evaluate the viability of this mechanism, we employ a one-dimensional chemical model, examining chlorine chemistry in the context of Martian atmospheric chemistry. Considering the chlorine oxide, OClO, we find that an OClO flux as low as 3.2 × 107 molecules cm-2 s-1 sublimated into the atmosphere from the surface could produce sufficient HClO4 to explain the perchlorate concentration on Mars, assuming an accumulation depth of 30 cm and integrated over the Amazonian period. Radiolysis provides an efficient pathway for the oxidation of chlorine, bypassing the efficient Cl/HCl recycling mechanism that characterizes HClO4 formation mechanisms proposed for the Earth but not Mars.

  6. A Robust Method to Generate Mechanically Anisotropic Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Sheets for Vascular Tissue Engineering. (United States)

    Backman, Daniel E; LeSavage, Bauer L; Shah, Shivem B; Wong, Joyce Y


    In arterial tissue engineering, mimicking native structure and mechanical properties is essential because compliance mismatch can lead to graft failure and further disease. With bottom-up tissue engineering approaches, designing tissue components with proper microscale mechanical properties is crucial to achieve the necessary macroscale properties in the final implant. This study develops a thermoresponsive cell culture platform for growing aligned vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) sheets by photografting N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) onto micropatterned poly(dimethysiloxane) (PDMS). The grafting process is experimentally and computationally optimized to produce PNIPAAm-PDMS substrates optimal for VSMC attachment. To allow long-term VSMC sheet culture and increase the rate of VSMC sheet formation, PNIPAAm-PDMS surfaces were further modified with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane yielding a robust, thermoresponsive cell culture platform for culturing VSMC sheets. VSMC cell sheets cultured on patterned thermoresponsive substrates exhibit cellular and collagen alignment in the direction of the micropattern. Mechanical characterization of patterned, single-layer VSMC sheets reveals increased stiffness in the aligned direction compared to the perpendicular direction whereas nonpatterned cell sheets exhibit no directional dependence. Structural and mechanical anisotropy of aligned, single-layer VSMC sheets makes this platform an attractive microstructural building block for engineering a vascular graft to match the in vivo mechanical properties of native arterial tissue. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Mechanical energy generation and transfer in the racket arm during table tennis topspin backhands. (United States)

    Iino, Yoichi; Kojima, Takeji


    The ability to generate a high racket speed and a large amount of racket kinetic energy on impact is important for table tennis players. The purpose of this study was to understand how mechanical energy is generated and transferred in the racket arm during table tennis backhands. Ten male advanced right-handed table tennis players hit topspin backhands against pre-impact topspin and backspin balls. The joint kinetics at the shoulder, elbow and wrist of the racket arm was determined using inverse dynamics. A majority of the mechanical energy of the racket arm acquired during forward swing (65 and 77% against topspin and backspin, respectively) was due to energy transfer from the trunk. Energy transfer by the shoulder joint force in the vertical direction was the largest contributor to the mechanical energy of the racket arm against both spins and was greater against backspin than against topspin (34 and 28%, respectively). The shoulder joint force directed to the right, which peaked just before impact, transferred additional energy to the racket. Our results suggest that the upward thrust of the shoulder and the late timing of the axial rotation of the upper trunk are important for an effective topspin backhand.

  8. Mechanically durable underwater superoleophobic surfaces based on hydrophilic bulk metals for oil/water separation (United States)

    Yu, Huadong; Lian, Zhongxu; Xu, Jinkai; Wan, Yanling; Wang, Zuobin; Li, Yiquan; Yu, Zhanjiang; Weng, Zhankun


    Despite the success of previous methods for fabricating underwater superoleophobic surfaces, most of the surfaces based on soft materials are prone to collapse and deformation due to their mechanically fragile nature, and they fail to perform their designed functions after the surface materials are damaged in water. In this work, the nanosecond laser-induced oxide coatings on hydrophilic bulk metals are reported which overcomes the limitation and shows the robust underwater superoleophobicity to a mechanical challenge encountered by surfaces deployed in water environment. The results show that the surface materials have the advantage that the underwater superoleophobicity is still preserved after the surfaces are scratched by knife or sandpaper and even completely destroyed because of the hydrophilic property of damaged materials in water. It is important that the results provide a guide for the design of durable underwater superoleophobic surfaces, and the development of superoleophobic materials in many potential applications such as the oil-repellent and the oil/water separation. Additionally, the nanosecond laser technology is simple, cost-effective and suitable for the large-area and mass fabrication of mechanically durable underwater superoleophobic metal materials.

  9. Impact of surface porosity and topography on the mechanical behavior of high strength biomedical polymers. (United States)

    Evans, Nathan T; Irvin, Cameron W; Safranski, David L; Gall, Ken


    The ability to control the surface topography of orthopedic implant materials is desired to improve osseointegration but is often at the expense of mechanical performance in load bearing environments. Here we investigate the effects of surface modifications, roughness and porosity, on the mechanical properties of a set of polymers with diverse chemistry and structure. Both roughness and surface porosity resulted in samples with lower strength, failure strain and fatigue life due to stress concentrations at the surface; however, the decrease in ductility and fatigue strength were greater than the decrease in monotonic strength. The fatigue properties of the injection molded polymers did not correlate with yield strength as would be traditionally observed in metals. Rather, the fatigue properties and the capacity to maintain properties with the introduction of surface porosity correlated with the fracture toughness of the polymers. Polymer structure impacted the materials relative capacity to maintain monotonic and cyclic properties in the face of surface texture and porosity. Generally, amorphous polymers with large ratios of upper to lower yield points demonstrated a more significant drop in ductility and fatigue strength with the introduction of porosity compared to crystalline polymers with smaller ratios in their upper to lower yield strength. The latter materials have more effective dissipation mechanisms to minimize the impact of surface porosity on both monotonic and cyclic damage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Spatial and Temporal Homogeneity of Solar Surface Irradiance across Satellite Generations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebekka Posselt


    Full Text Available Solar surface irradiance (SIS is an essential variable in the radiation budget of the Earth. Climate data records (CDR’s of SIS are required for climate monitoring, for climate model evaluation and for solar energy applications. A 23 year long (1983–2005 continuous and validated SIS CDR based on the visible channel (0.45–1 μm of the MVIRI instruments onboard the first generation of Meteosat satellites has recently been generated using a climate version of the well established Heliosat method. This version of the Heliosat method includes a newly developed self-calibration algorithm and an improved algorithm to determine the clear sky reflection. The climate Heliosat version is also applied to the visible narrow-band channels of SEVIRI onboard the Meteosat Second Generation Satellites (2004–present. The respective channels are observing the Earth in the wavelength region at about 0.6 μm and 0.8 μm. SIS values of the overlapping time period are used to analyse whether a homogeneous extension of the MVIRI CDR is possible with the SEVIRI narrowband channels. It is demonstrated that the spectral differences between the used visible channels leads to significant differences in the solar surface irradiance in specific regions. Especially, over vegetated areas the reflectance exhibits a high spectral dependency resulting in large differences in the retrieved SIS. The applied self-calibration method alone is not able to compensate the spectral differences of the channels. Furthermore, the extended range of the input values (satellite counts enhances the cloud detection of the SEVIRI instruments resulting in lower values for SIS, on average. Our findings have implications for the application of the Heliosat method to data from other geostationary satellites (e.g., GOES, GMS. They demonstrate the need for a careful analysis of the effect of spectral and technological differences in visible channels on the retrieved solar irradiance.

  11. Effects of surface roughness and vortex generators on the LS(1)-0417MOD airfoil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reuss, R.L.; Hoffman, M.J.; Gregorek, G.M. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)


    An 18-inch constant-chord model of the LS(l)-0417MOD airfoil section was tested under two dimensional steady state conditions ate University 7{times}10 Subsonic Wind Tunnel. The objective was to document section lift and moment characteristics model and air flow conditions. Surface pressure data was acquired at {minus}60{degrees} through + 230{degrees} geometric angles of attack, at a nominal 1 million Reynolds number. Cases with and without leading edge grit roughness were investigated. The leading edge mulated blade conditions in the field. Additionally, surface pressure data were acquired for Reynolds numbers of 1.5 and 2.0 million, with and without leading edge grit roughness; the angle of attack was limited to a {minus}20{degrees} to 40{degrees} range. In general, results showed lift curve slope sensitivities to Reynolds number and roughness. The maximum lift coefficient was reduced as much as 29% by leading edge roughness. Moment coefficient showed little sensitivity to roughness beyond 50{degrees} angle of attack, but the expected decambering effect of a thicker boundary layer with roughness did show at lower angles. Tests were also conducted with vortex generators located at the 30% chord location on the upper surface only, at 1 and 1.5 million Reynolds numbers, with and without leading edge grit roughness. In general, with leading edge grit roughness applied, the vortex generators restored 85 percent of the baseline level of maximum lift coefficient but with a more sudden stall break and at a higher angle of attack than the baseline.

  12. Computational Models Describing Possible Mechanisms for Generation of Excessive Beta Oscillations in Parkinson's Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Pavlides


    Full Text Available In Parkinson's disease, an increase in beta oscillations within the basal ganglia nuclei has been shown to be associated with difficulty in movement initiation. An important role in the generation of these oscillations is thought to be played by the motor cortex and by a network composed of the subthalamic nucleus (STN and the external segment of globus pallidus (GPe. Several alternative models have been proposed to describe the mechanisms for generation of the Parkinsonian beta oscillations. However, a recent experimental study of Tachibana and colleagues yielded results which are challenging for all published computational models of beta generation. That study investigated how the presence of beta oscillations in a primate model of Parkinson's disease is affected by blocking different connections of the STN-GPe circuit. Due to a large number of experimental conditions, the study provides strong constraints that any mechanistic model of beta generation should satisfy. In this paper we present two models consistent with the data of Tachibana et al. The first model assumes that Parkinsonian beta oscillation are generated in the cortex and the STN-GPe circuits resonates at this frequency. The second model additionally assumes that the feedback from STN-GPe circuit to cortex is important for maintaining the oscillations in the network. Predictions are made about experimental evidence that is required to differentiate between the two models, both of which are able to reproduce firing rates, oscillation frequency and effects of lesions carried out by Tachibana and colleagues. Furthermore, an analysis of the models reveals how the amplitude and frequency of the generated oscillations depend on parameters.

  13. Surface-treated commercially pure titanium for biomedical applications: Electrochemical, structural, mechanical and chemical characterizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Erika S.; Matos, Adaias O.; Beline, Thamara; Marques, Isabella S.V.; Sukotjo, Cortino; Mathew, Mathew T.; Rangel, Elidiane C.; Cruz, Nilson C.; Mesquita, Marcelo F.; Consani, Rafael X.


    Modified surfaces have improved the biological performance and biomechanical fixation of dental implants compared to machined (polished) surfaces. However, there is a lack of knowledge about the surface properties of titanium (Ti) as a function of different surface treatment. This study investigated the role of surface treatments on the electrochemical, structural, mechanical and chemical properties of commercial pure titanium (cp-Ti) under different electrolytes. Cp-Ti discs were divided into 6 groups (n = 5): machined (M—control); etched with HCl + H 2 O 2 (Cl), H 2 SO 4 + H 2 O 2 (S); sandblasted with Al 2 O 3 (Sb), Al 2 O 3 followed by HCl + H 2 O 2 (SbCl), and Al 2 O 3 followed by H 2 SO 4 + H 2 O 2 (SbS). Electrochemical tests were conducted in artificial saliva (pHs 3; 6.5 and 9) and simulated body fluid (SBF—pH 7.4). All surfaces were characterized before and after corrosion tests using atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive microscopy, X-ray diffraction, surface roughness, Vickers microhardness and surface free energy. The results indicated that Cl group exhibited the highest polarization resistance (R p ) and the lowest capacitance (Q) and corrosion current density (I corr ) values. Reduced corrosion stability was noted for the sandblasted groups. Acidic artificial saliva decreased the R p values of cp-Ti surfaces and produced the highest I corr values. Also, the surface treatment and corrosion process influenced the surface roughness, Vickers microhardness and surface free energy. Based on these results, it can be concluded that acid-etching treatment improved the electrochemical stability of cp-Ti and all treated surfaces behaved negatively in acidic artificial saliva. - Highlights: • Characterization of surface treatment for biomedical implants was investigated. • Sandblasting reduced the corrosion stability of cp-Ti. • Acid etching is a promising dental implants surface treatment.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Capaldo


    Full Text Available The interest for the radargrammetric approach to Digital Surface Models (DSMs generation has been growing in last years thanks to the availability of very high resolution imagery acquired by new SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar sensors, as COSMO-SkyMed, Radarsat-2 and TerraSAR-X, which are able to supply imagery up to 1 m ground resolution. DSMs radargrammetric generation approach consists of two basic steps, as for the standard photogrammetry applied to optical imagery: the imagery (at least a stereo pair orientation and the image matching for the generation of the points cloud. The steps of the radargrammetric DSMs generation have been implemented into SISAR (Software per Immagini Satellitari ad Alta Risoluzione, a scientific software developed at Geodesy and Geomatics Institute of the University of Rome “La Sapienza”. Moreover, starting from the radargrammetric orientation model, a tool for the Rational Polynomial Coefficients (RPCs for SAR images have been implemented. The possibility to generate RPCs, re-parametrizing a rigorous orientation model through a standardized set of coefficients which can be managed by a Rational Polynomial Coefficients (RPFs model (similarly to optical high resolution imagery sounds of particular interest since, at present, the most part of SAR imagery (except from Radarsat-2 is not supplied with RPCs, although the corresponding RPFs model is available in several commercial software. In particular the RPCs model has been used in the matching process and in the stereo restitution for the DSMs generation, with the advantage of shorter computational time. This paper discusses the application and the results of the implemented algorithm for radargrammetric DSMs generation from TerraSAR-X SpotLight imagery, acquired in Spotlight mode over Trento (Northern Italy. Urban and extra-urban (forested, cultivated areas were considered in two different tiles, and a final overall accuracy ranging from 4.5 to 6 meters was

  15. Granulometric characterization of sediments transported by surface runoff generated by moving storms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. M. P. de Lima


    Full Text Available Due to the combined effect of wind and rain, the importance of storm movement to surface flow has long been recognized, at scales ranging from headwater scales to large basins. This study presents the results of laboratory experiments designed to investigate the influence of moving rainfall storms on the dynamics of sediment transport by surface runoff. Experiments were carried out, using a rain simulator and a soil flume. The movement of rainfall was generated by moving the rain simulator at a constant speed in the upstream and downstream directions along the flume. The main objective of the study was to characterize, in laboratory conditions, the distribution of sediment grain-size transported by rainfall-induced overland flow and its temporal evolution. Grain-size distribution of the eroded material is governed by the capacity of flow that transports sediments. Granulometric curves were constructed using conventional hand sieving and a laser diffraction particle size analyser (material below 0.250 mm for overland flow and sediment deliveries collected at the flume outlet. Surface slope was set at 2%, 7% and 14%. Rainstorms were moved with a constant speed, upslope and downslope, along the flume or were kept static. The results of laboratory experiments show that storm movement, affecting the spatial and temporal distribution of rainfall, has a marked influence on the grain-size characteristics of sediments transported by overland flow. The downstream-moving rainfall storms have higher stream power than do other storm types.

  16. Surface Generated Acoustic Wave Biosensors for the Detection of Pathogens: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Arnau-Vives


    Full Text Available This review presents a deep insight into the Surface Generated Acoustic Wave (SGAW technology for biosensing applications, based on more than 40 years of technological and scientific developments. In the last 20 years, SGAWs have been attracting the attention of the biochemical scientific community, due to the fact that some of these devices - Shear Horizontal Surface Acoustic Wave (SH-SAW, Surface Transverse Wave (STW, Love Wave (LW, Flexural Plate Wave (FPW, Shear Horizontal Acoustic Plate Mode (SH-APM and Layered Guided Acoustic Plate Mode (LG-APM - have demonstrated a high sensitivity in the detection of biorelevant molecules in liquid media. In addition, complementary efforts to improve the sensing films have been done during these years. All these developments have been made with the aim of achieving, in a future, a highly sensitive, low cost, small size, multi-channel, portable, reliable and commercially established SGAW biosensor. A setup with these features could significantly contribute to future developments in the health, food and environmental industries. The second purpose of this work is to describe the state-of-the-art of SGAW biosensors for the detection of pathogens, being this topic an issue of extremely importance for the human health. Finally, the review discuses the commercial availability, trends and future challenges of the SGAW biosensors for such applications.

  17. Generating Converged Accurate Free Energy Surfaces for Chemical Reactions with a Force-Matched Semiempirical Model. (United States)

    Kroonblawd, Matthew P; Pietrucci, Fabio; Saitta, Antonino Marco; Goldman, Nir


    We demonstrate the capability of creating robust density functional tight binding (DFTB) models for chemical reactivity in prebiotic mixtures through force matching to short time scale quantum free energy estimates. Molecular dynamics using density functional theory (DFT) is a highly accurate approach to generate free energy surfaces for chemical reactions, but the extreme computational cost often limits the time scales and range of thermodynamic states that can feasibly be studied. In contrast, DFTB is a semiempirical quantum method that affords up to a thousandfold reduction in cost and can recover DFT-level accuracy. Here, we show that a force-matched DFTB model for aqueous glycine condensation reactions yields free energy surfaces that are consistent with experimental observations of reaction energetics. Convergence analysis reveals that multiple nanoseconds of combined trajectory are needed to reach a steady-fluctuating free energy estimate for glycine condensation. Predictive accuracy of force-matched DFTB is demonstrated by direct comparison to DFT, with the two approaches yielding surfaces with large regions that differ by only a few kcal mol -1 .

  18. Overview on the Surface Functionalization Mechanism and Determination of Surface Functional Groups of Plasma Treated Carbon Nanotubes. (United States)

    Saka, Cafer


    The use of carbon materials for many applications is due to the unique diversity of structures and properties ranging from chemical bonds between the carbon atoms of the materials to nanostructures, crystallite alignment, and microstructures. Carbon nanotubes and other nanoscale carbonaceous materials draw much attention due to their physical and chemical properties, such as high strength, high resistance to corrosion, electrical and thermal conductivity, stability and a qualified adsorbent. Carbon-based nanomaterials, which have a relatively large specific area and layered structure, can be used as an adsorbent for efficient removal of organic and inorganic contaminants. However, one of the biggest obstacles to the development of carbon-based nanomaterials adsorbents is insolubility and the lack of functional groups on the surface. There are several approaches to introduce functional groups on carbon nanotubes. One of these approaches, plasma applications, now has an important place in the creation of surface functional groups as a flexible, fast, and environmentally friendly method. This review focuses on recent information concerning the surface functionalization and modification of plasma treated carbon nanotube. This review considers the surface properties, advantages, and disadvantages of plasma-applied carbon nanotubes. It also examines the reaction mechanisms involved in the functional groups on the surface.

  19. Development of simulation technique and examination of mechanism for swelling of steam generator tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seon Jin; Kim, Ki Nam; Park, Myung Chul; Shin, Gyeong Su; Cho, Jae Hwan


    This study was aimed at identifying the mechanism of the swelling through the development of simulation techniques for the swelling of steam generator tubes and correct understanding of swelling so as to evaluate the effect of swelling on soundness of steam generator based on results of the study. Test apparatus designed to simulate the tube swelling was fabricated and through a number of preliminary experiments at different conditions, swelling simulation was successfully completed. A tube swelling phenomenon is caused by a sort of ratcheting which is analyzable and is considered as a sort of fatigue phenomenon in which the stress is accumulated by action/reaction moment resulting from repeated impact of low energy, despite of hoop stress by internal pressure is significantly lower than yield strength of the material which has effect on hoop stress, overcoming the yield strength and causing the tubes to suffer plastic deformation

  20. Growth mechanisms for Si epitaxy on O atomic layers: Impact of O-content and surface structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayachandran, Suseendran, E-mail: [Imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); KU Leuven (University of Leuven), Department of Metallurgy and Materials, Castle Arenberg 44, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Billen, Arne [Imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); KU Leuven (University of Leuven), Department of Chemistry, Celestijnenlaan 200F, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Douhard, Bastien; Conard, Thierry; Meersschaut, Johan; Moussa, Alain; Caymax, Matty; Bender, Hugo [Imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Vandervorst, Wilfried [Imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); KU Leuven (University of Leuven), Department of Physics and Astronomy, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Heyns, Marc [Imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); KU Leuven (University of Leuven), Department of Metallurgy and Materials, Castle Arenberg 44, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Delabie, Annelies [Imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); KU Leuven (University of Leuven), Department of Chemistry, Celestijnenlaan 200F, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)


    Highlights: • O{sub 3} or O{sub 2} exposures on H-Si(100) result in O ALs with different surface structures. • Si-EPI on O AL using O{sub 3} process is by direct epitaxial growth mechanism. • Si-EPI on O AL using O{sub 2} process is by epitaxial lateral overgrowth mechanism. • Distortions by O AL, SiH{sub 4} flux rate and Si thickness has an impact on Si-EPI quality. - Abstract: The epitaxial growth of Si layers on Si substrates in the presence of O atoms is generally considered a challenge, as O atoms degrade the epitaxial quality by generating defects. Here, we investigate the growth mechanisms for Si epitaxy on O atomic layers (ALs) with different O-contents and structures. O ALs are deposited by ozone (O{sub 3}) or oxygen (O{sub 2}) exposure on H-terminated Si at 50 °C and 300 °C respectively. Epitaxial Si is deposited by chemical vapor deposition using silane (SiH{sub 4}) at 500 °C. After O{sub 3} exposure, the O atoms are uniformly distributed in Si-Si dimer/back bonds. This O layer still allows epitaxial seeding of Si. The epitaxial quality is enhanced by lowering the surface distortions due to O atoms and by decreasing the arrival rate of SiH{sub 4} reactants, allowing more time for surface diffusion. After O{sub 2} exposure, the O atoms are present in the form of SiO{sub x} clusters. Regions of hydrogen-terminated Si remain present between the SiO{sub x} clusters. The epitaxial seeding of Si in these structures is realized on H-Si regions, and an epitaxial layer grows by a lateral overgrowth mechanism. A breakdown in the epitaxial ordering occurs at a critical Si thickness, presumably by accumulation of surface roughness.

  1. Control mechanisms in the third-generation planning. Case study: Control to realize sustainable cities (United States)

    Wicaksono, A. D.


    Since the last few years, Indonesia has experienced important events that bring significant changes to the social, political and economic life. The changes directly or indirectly impact the field of planning. With the challenging condition which grows fast and is more complex ahead, and the greater demands on the role of planning, it is required that planning should have higher quality. This paper seeks to answer some questions as follows: (i) How are changes in paradigm and also the development of planning model for the current transition era?, (ii) What is the best way to improve the quality of planning control on the last generation planning model to realize sustainable city?. Analysis steps that will be used to achieve the paper objectives are: (i) Review of planning and sustainable cities theory, (ii) Pattern recognition, (iii) Identifying control mechanisms and sustainable urban forms, (iv) conceptualization. Based on discussion about sustainable cities and control mechanism, some conclusions can be generated as follows: (i) The third generation planning model is based on the theory of expanded system, emphasizing on the constraint of capacity and the ability of planners within the context of larger environment, (ii) There are various theoretical studies that recommend prescriptive model or solution for sustainable urban form and structure. The concepts of Sustainable Cities can be grouped in Neotraditional Development, Urban Containment, Compact City and The Eco-City. The four models above have criteria, namely (i) high density; (ii) a high level of diversity; (iii) mixed land use; (iv) compactness; (5) sustainable transport; (6) passive solar design; (7) Greening Ecological Design. The three main activities in control mechanisms are: Monitoring and Recommendation; a comparative review of the facts (conditions that exist or are developing) with the purpose (expected conditions, set out in urban planning) and recommendations; Evaluation, a review on the

  2. Adsorption Mechanism of Inhibitor and Guest Molecules on the Surface of Gas Hydrates. (United States)

    Yagasaki, Takuma; Matsumoto, Masakazu; Tanaka, Hideki


    The adsorption of guest and kinetic inhibitor molecules on the surface of methane hydrate is investigated by using molecular dynamics simulations. We calculate the free energy profile for transferring a solute molecule from bulk water to the hydrate surface for various molecules. Spherical solutes with a diameter of ∼0.5 nm are significantly stabilized at the hydrate surface, whereas smaller and larger solutes exhibit lower adsorption affinity than the solutes of intermediate size. The range of the attractive force is subnanoscale, implying that this force has no effect on the macroscopic mass transfer of guest molecules in crystal growth processes of gas hydrates. We also examine the adsorption mechanism of a kinetic hydrate inhibitor. It is found that a monomer of the kinetic hydrate inhibitor is strongly adsorbed on the hydrate surface. However, the hydrogen bonding between the amide group of the inhibitor and water molecules on the hydrate surface, which was believed to be the driving force for the adsorption, makes no contribution to the adsorption affinity. The preferential adsorption of both the kinetic inhibitor and the spherical molecules to the surface is mainly due to the entropic stabilization arising from the presence of cavities at the hydrate surface. The dependence of surface affinity on the size of adsorbed molecules is also explained by this mechanism.

  3. Preparation and formation mechanisms of metallic particles with controlled size, shape, structure and surface functionality (United States)

    Lu, Lu

    Due to their excellent conductivity and chemical stability, particles of silver (Ag), gold (Au), copper (Cu) and their alloys are widely used in the electronic industry. Other unique properties extend their uses to the biomedical, optical and catalysis fields. All of these applications rely on particles with well controlled size, morphology, structure, and surface properties. Chemical precipitation from homogeneous solutions was selected as the synthetic route for the investigations described in this work. Based on the evaluation of key process parameters (temperature, reactant concentrations, reactant addition rate, mixing, etc.) the general formation mechanisms of metallic particles in various selected precipitation systems were investigated and elucidated. Five different systems for preparing particles with controlled size, morphology, structure and surface functionality are discussed. The first system involves the precipitation of Ag nanoparticles with spherical and anisotropic (platy or fiber-like) morphology. It will be shown that the formation of a stable Ag/Daxad complex has a significant impact on the reaction kinetics, and that the chromonic properties of Daxad molecules are responsible for the particle anisotropy. In the second system, Au-Ag core-shell nanoparticles were prepared in aqueous solution by a two-step precipitation process. The optical properties of these particles can be tailored by varying the thickness of the Ag shell. It was also determined that the stability of the bimetallic metallic sols depends on the Cl-ion concentration in solution. The third system discussed deals with preparation by the polyol process of well dispersed Cu nanospheres with high crystallinity and excellent oxidation resistance. We show that the heterogeneous nucleation (seeding) approach has significant merit in controlling particle size and uniformity. The functionalization of Au nanoparticle surfaces with glutathione molecules is discussed in the next section. The

  4. Application of probabilistic fracture mechanics to optimize the maintenance of PWR steam generator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitner, P.; Riffard, T.


    This paper describes the COMPROMIS code developed by Electricite de France (EDF) to optimize the tube bundle maintenance of steam generators (SG). The model, based on probabilistic fracture mechanics, makes it possible to quantify the influence of in-service inspections and maintenance work on the risk of an SG tube rupture, taking all significant parameters into account as random variables (initial defect size distribution, reliability of nondestructive detection and sizing, crack initiation and propagation, critical sizes, leak before risk of break, etc). (authors). 14 figs., 4 tabs., 12 refs

  5. Application of probabilistic fracture mechanics to estimate the risk of rupture of PWR steam generator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitner, P.; Riffard, T.; Granger, B.


    This paper describes the COMPROMIS code developed by Electricite de France (EDF) to optimize the tube bundle maintenance of steam generators. The model, based on probabilistic fracture mechanics, makes it possible to quantify the influence of in-service inspections and maintenance work on the risk of an SG tube rupture, taking all significant parameters into account as random variables (initial defect size distribution, reliability of non-destructive detection and sizing, crack initiation and propagation, critical sizes, leak before risk of break, etc.). (authors). 5 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  6. Flow focusing geometry generates droplets through a plug and squeeze mechanism. (United States)

    Romero, Philip A; Abate, Adam R


    Microdroplets are typically generated by one of two microfluidic geometries, the T-junction and flow focusing. These two geometries are often thought to form drops through different mechanisms. Here, by directly measuring the pressures in the drop maker, we show that flow focus devices exhibit pressure fluctuations that are essentially identical to those found in T-junctions, suggesting that, in these devices and low-to-moderate capillary number, the drop formation process is also dominated by interfacial stresses and proceeds through a plugging-squeezing process.

  7. Study on tsunami damage mechanism in Fukushima Prefecture focusing on the generation of bores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuma, Shohei; Sato, Shinji; Yamanaka, Yusuke; Sanuki, Hiroshi


    Destruction mechanisms of coastal structures due to the 2011 Tohoku Tsunami were investigated on the basis of field surveys in Fukushima Prefecture. Severe destruction appeared to be developed by the action of breaking bores. Laboratory experiments demonstrated that the angle of the tsunami front was an essential parameter for the generation of breaking bores. Larger wave force was observed as the angle of the tsunami front became steeper. Numerical simulation revealed that such a steep tsunami was developed in the central part of Fukushima Prefecture, where the reflection of the preceding tsunami by coastal cliff enhanced the steepness of the largest tsunami. (author)

  8. Deteriorating mechanisms of electric generators; Mecanismos de deterioro de generadores electricos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Tevillo, Arturo; Reyes Martinez, Oscar Alfonso; Robles Pimentel, Edgar Guillermo; Esparza Saucedo, Marcos; Lopez Azamar, Jose Ernesto; Medina Flores, Alfredo; Uribe Martinez, Manuel O. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)


    It is of the greatest importance to know the deteriorating mechanisms that an electric generator undergoes, in order to take corrective measures to stop the process in order to avoid catastrophic damages that imply non scheduled interruptions for maintenance, or inclusively, to carry on the overhaul. In this paper are discussed the deteriorating mechanisms that have been found in the stator (winding and core) and the rotor of thermoelectric and hydroelectric power stations by the natural aging process and abnormal operation. [Espanol] Es de suma importancia conocer los mecanismos de deterioro que sufre un generador, para tomar medidas correctivas que detengan el proceso, con el fin de evitar danos catastroficos que impliquen salidas no programadas para dar mantenimiento, o incluso, para efectuar la rehabilitacion. En este articulo se discuten los mecanismos de deterioro que se han encontrado en el estator (devanado y nucleo) y el rotor de generadores termicos e hidroelectricos por el proceso natural de envejecimiento y por operacion anormal.

  9. Trajectory Generation and Stability Analysis for Reconfigurable Klann Mechanism Based Walking Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaichandar Kulandaidaasan Sheba


    Full Text Available Reconfigurable legged robots based on one degree of freedom are highly desired because they are effective on rough and irregular terrains and they provide mobility in such terrain with simple control schemes. It is necessary that reconfigurable legged robots should maintain stability during rest and motion, with a minimum number of legs while maintaining their full range of walking patterns resulting from different gait configuration. In this paper we present a method to generate input trajectory for reconfigurable quadruped robots based on Klann mechanism to properly synchronize movement. Six useful gait cycles based on this reconfigurable Klann mechanism for quadruped robots has been clearly shown here. The platform stability for these six useful gait cycles are validated through simulated results which clearly shows the capabilities of reconfigurable design.

  10. Physical fracture properties (fracture surfaces as information sources; crackgrowth and fracture mechanisms; exemples of cracks)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meny, Lucienne.


    Fracture surfaces are considered as a useful source of informations: an introduction to fractography is presented; the fracture surface may be observed through X ray microanalysis, and other physical methods such as Auger electron spectroscopy or secundary ion emission. The mechanisms of macroscopic and microscopic crackgrowth and fracture are described, in the case of unstable fracture (cleavage, ductile with shear, intergranular brittleness) and of progressive crack propagation (creep, fatigue). Exemples of cracks are presented in the last chapter [fr

  11. Reducing Entropy Generation in MHD Fluid Flow over Open Parallel Microchannels Embedded in a Micropatterned Permeable Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishak Hashim


    Full Text Available The present study examines embedded open parallel microchannels within a micropatterned permeable surface for reducing entropy generation in MHD fluid flow in microscale systems. A local similarity solution for the transformed governing equations is obtained. The governing partial differential equations along with the boundary conditions are first cast into a dimensionless form and then the reduced ordinary differential equations are solved numerically via the Dormand-Prince pair and shooting method. The dimensionless entropy generation number is formulated by an integral of the local rate of entropy generation along the width of the surface based on an equal number of microchannels and no-slip gaps interspersed between those microchannels. Finally, the entropy generation numbers, as well as the Bejan number, are investigated. It is seen that surface-embedded microchannels can successfully reduce entropy generation in the presence of an applied magnetic field.

  12. A Theoretical and Experimental Investigation of Mechanical Damage to Rodent Sperm Generated by Microscale Ice Formation. (United States)

    Han, X; Critser, J K

      BACKGROUND: Rodent sperm cryopreservation is of critical importance for the maintenance of lines or strains of genetically engineered mice and rats. However, rodent sperm are extremely mechanically sensitive due to their unusual morphology, and are severely damaged using current methods of cryopreservation. Those methods result in poor post thaw motility (PTM) for mouse. To investigate the mechanism of mechanical damage introduced to rodent sperm during freezing, a micro-mechanical model was established to analyze the sperm radial and axial thermal stresses generated by microscale extracellular ice formation. PTM of mouse sperm cryopreserved in capillaries of different radii (100, 200, 344, 526, 775µm) was measured using a standard computer-assisted sperm analysis system. The model predicts that when one of the inner dimensions of the containers (the inner diameter of plastic straws or straw capillaries) is on the same order of magnitude of sperm length, axial stress is significantly increased. The experimental results showed that the value of PTM was decreased from 38 ± 8 % in the larger (775µm) capillaries to 0 ± 0 % in the smaller (100 µm) ones. Theoretical analysis based on the established model were experimentally validated and can be used to guide the design of novel devices to improve the efficiency of rodent sperm cryopreservation.

  13. Generating Sub-nanometer Displacement Using Reduction Mechanism Consisting of Torsional Leaf Spring Hinges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukuda Makoto


    Full Text Available Recent demand on the measurement resolution of precise positioning comes up to tens of picometers. Some distinguished researches have been performed to measure the displacement in picometer order, however, few of them can verify the measurement performance as available tools in industry. This is not only because the picometer displacement is not yet required for industrial use, but also due to the lack of standard tools to verify such precise displacement. We proposed a displacement reduction mechanism for generating precise displacement using torsional leaf spring hinges (TLSHs that consist of four leaf springs arranged radially. It has been demonstrated that a prototype of the reduction mechanism was able to provide one-nanometer displacement with 1/1000 reduction rate by a piezoelectric actuator. In order to clarify the potential of the reduction mechanism, a displacement reduction table that can be mounted on AFM stage was newly developed using TLSHs. This paper describes the design of the reduction mechanism and the sub-nanometer displacement performance of the table obtained from its dynamic and static characteristics measured by displacement sensors and from the AFM images

  14. Cell-surface metalloprotease ADAM12 is internalized by a clathrin- and Grb2-dependent mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Dorte Stautz; Leyme, Anthony; Grandal, Michael Vibo


    ADAM12 (A Disintegrin And Metalloprotease 12), a member of the ADAMs family of transmembrane proteins, is involved in ectodomain shedding, cell-adhesion and signaling, with important implications in cancer. Therefore, mechanisms that regulate the levels and activity of ADAM12 at the cell...... that regulates ADAM cell surface levels and show that ADAM12 internalization involves the clathrin-dependent pathway and Grb2.......-surface are possibly crucial in these contexts. We here investigated internalization and subsequent recycling or degradation of ADAM12 as a potentially important regulatory mechanism. Our results show that ADAM12 is constitutively internalized primarily via the clathrin-dependent pathway and is subsequently detected...

  15. Irradiation effects on the mechanical and thermal properties and surface tension of plasticised PVC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellili, Nadira; Djidjelli, Hocine; Boukerrou, Amar


    Irradiation effects on the mechanical and thermal properties and surface tension of plasticised PVC. The mechanical and thermal behavior of 1 mm thick sheets of plasticised PVC after gamma irradiation at doses of 10 and 70 kGy was studied and compared to untreated PVC. The use of gamma irradiation treatment as plasticised PVC induces better mechanical properties, good thermal stability, with an increase in its wettability as compared to untreated PVC. The results showed that gamma irradiation PVC film improved mechanical properties. Young's modulus and tensile strength increased respectively from 297 MPa to 189 and 24 to 28 MPa, respectively, and the ultimate elongation increased from 124 to 154%. The gamma irradiation of the polyvinyl chloride caused significant increase of the surface tension, from 3 mN/m for the unirradiated to 5 to 11 mN/m up to 10 after irradiation at 70 kGy. (authors)

  16. A mechanism for bringing ice and brines to the near surface of Mars (United States)

    Travis, Bryan J.; Feldman, William C.; Maurice, Sylvestre


    discovery of transient ice deposits uncovered by five small craters between 40 and 55°N latitude, reinterpretation of MONS neutron data that indicate the wide-spread presence of ice within 1 m of the surface at midlatitudes (down to 30°N) of Mars, and evidence of recent periglacial activity within 10°N of the equator, all suggest ice may be or recently was present at latitudes where it is not expected and at unexplained abundance. As ice may be unstable under present Mars climatic conditions, a mechanism may be needed to explain the presence of ice in the near surface at these latitudes. Water release history, chemical composition, and heat fluxes are variable over the surface of Mars, and there could be more than one mechanism responsible for near-surface ice. The purpose of this study is to show that hydrothermal circulation of brines in the subsurface of Mars is a possible mechanism that can deposit ice and brine, close to, or even at, the surface of Mars. Furthermore, the action of brine convection can be related to some of the surface features associated with subsurface water during previous or even present epochs, such as polygonal ground and sorted stone circles.

  17. Enhancing the Mechanical Durability of Icephobic Surfaces by Introducing Autonomous Self-Healing Function. (United States)

    Zhuo, Yizhi; Håkonsen, Verner; He, Zhiwei; Xiao, Senbo; He, Jianying; Zhang, Zhiliang


    Ice accretion presents a severe risk for human safety. Although great efforts have been made for developing icephobic surfaces (the surface with an ice adhesion strength below 100 kPa), expanding the lifetime of state-of-the-art icephobic surfaces still remains a critical unsolved issue. Herein, a novel icephobic material is designed by integrating an interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) into an autonomous self-healing elastomer, which is applied in anti-icing for enhancing the mechanical durability. The molecular structure, surface morphology, mechanical properties, and durable icephobicity of the material were studied. The creep behaviors of the new icephobic material, which were absent in most relevant studies on self-healing materials, were also investigated in this work. Significantly, the material showed great potentials for anti-icing applications with an ultralow ice adhesion strength of 6.0 ± 0.9 kPa, outperforming many other icephobic surfaces. The material also exhibited an extraordinary durability, showing a very low long-term ice adhesion strength of ∼12.2 kPa after 50 icing/deicing cycles. Most importantly, the material was able to exhibit a self-healing property from mechanical damages in a sufficiently short time, which shed light on the longevity of icephobic surfaces in practical applications.

  18. Quinones as photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy: ROS generation, mechanism and detection methods. (United States)

    Rajendran, M


    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is based on the dye-sensitized photooxidation of biological matter in the target tissue, and utilizes light activated drugs for the treatment of a wide variety of malignancies. Quinones and porphyrins moiety are available naturally and involved in the biological process. Quinone metabolites perform a variety of key functions in plants which includes pathogen protection, oxidative phosphorylation, and redox signaling. Quinones and porphyrin are biologically accessible and will not create any allergic effects. In the field of photodynamic therapy, porphyrin derivatives are widely used, because it absorb in the photodynamic therapy window region (600-900 nm). Hence, researchers synthesize drugs based on porphyrin structure. Benzoquinone and its simple polycyclic derivatives such as naphthaquinone and anthraquinones absorb at lower wavelength region (300-400 nm), which is lower than porphyrin. Hence they are not involved in PDT studies. However, higher polycyclic quinones absorb in the photodynamic therapy window region (600-900 nm), because of its conjugation and can be used as PDT agents. Redox cycling has been proposed as a possible mechanism of action for many quinone species. Quinones are involved in the photodynamic as well as enzymatic generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Generations of ROS may be measured by optical, phosphorescence and EPR methods. The photodynamically generated ROS are also involved in many biological events. The photo-induced DNA cleavage by quinones correlates with the ROS generating efficiencies of the quinones. In this review basic reactions involving photodynamic generation of ROS by quinones and their biological applications were discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Accumulation mechanism of tight sandstone gas in low gas generation intensity area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fudong Zhang


    Full Text Available Before 11th five-year plan, geologists proposed the viewpoint that the gas generation intensity that's more than 20 × 108 m3/km2 was an important condition for forming conventional large gas fields. However, recent exploration findings indicate that large-area tight sandstone gas that has a gas generation intensity of less than 20 × 108 m3/km2 can still form reserves. This is an area worth exploring. Through innovative accumulation simulation, microscopic pore throat analysis of reservoirs, and dissection of typical gas reservoirs, several factors have been established, including the comprehensive evaluation models involving gas charging pressure, reservoir physical properties, and lower gas generation limit. In addition, the paper has made it certain that the tight sandstone gas in a low gas generation intensity area has accumulation characteristics such as “partial water displacing, long-term gas supply, gas control by tight reservoirs of scale, gas abundance control by physical properties, combined control and enrichment of dominant resources, etc.”, and has proposed the viewpoint that this area has the accumulation mechanism that of a “non-dominant transportation, long-term continuous charging, reservoir controlling by physical property difference, and enrichment in partial sweet spots” and shows discontinuous “patchy distribution” on the plane. This is of much significance to fine exploration and development of the trillion cubic meter resources of the low gas generation intensity areas in the west of Sulige gas field.

  20. Drop entrainment from the surface of oil mist filters: mechanisms, kinetics, and drop spectra


    Wurster, S.; Kolb, H.; Meyer, J.; Kasper, G.


    Oil entrainment from coalescence filters has been characterized by different techniques. Drop spectra and entrainment rates were measured by a combination of techniques from 1 mm over long periods of time. Dominant entrainment mechanism(s) are identified on the basis of comparisons of entrainment rates measured in different regions of the filter surface with rates of air bubble formation, measurements of oil film thickness, as well as visual observations. Experiments are supported by force es...

  1. Correlation between the wear behaviour and the mechanical properties of several surface treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lelait, L.; Lina, A.; Rezakhanlou, R.; Duysen, J.C. van; Stebut, J. von


    Surface mechanical strength of chromium base (electrolytic and plasma sprayed) coatings is studied for friction and wear applications in nuclear environment. Indentation, scratch, and wear testing results are compared. In particular intrinsic coating brittleness is investigated as a mechanism responsible for impact wear. Electrolytic, hard chromium plate has a wear resistance well below that of the spray coated specimens studied. Acoustic emission level and brittle damage features are shown to be correlated. (orig.)

  2. Transition absorption as a mechanism of surface photoelectron emission from metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhukovsky, Sergei; Protsenko, Igor E.; Ikhsanov, Renat Sh


    Transition absorption of a photon by an electron passingthrough a boundary between two media with different permit-tivities is described both classically and quantum mechani-cally. Transition absorption is shown to make a substantialcontribution to photoelectron emission at a metal....../semicon-ductor interface in nanoplasmonic systems, and is put forth asa possible microscopic mechanism of the surface photoelec-tric effect in photodetectors and solar cells containing plas-monic nanoparticles....

  3. Sorption of pollutants on crystal surfaces studied by second-harmonic generation spectroscopy; Sorption de polluants sur des surfaces cristallines etudiee par spectroscopie de generation de seconde harmonique (GSH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cremel, S.; Dossot, M.; Grausem, J.; Ehrhardt, J.J. [Universite Henri Poincare, UMR CNRS 7564, 54 - Villers les Nancy (France)


    Sorption of pollutants on crystalline surfaces studied by second harmonic generation spectroscopy (SHG) This article enlightens a non linear spectroscopy that reveals to be useful to study the sorption of molecules of pollutants in solution onto crystalline surfaces. The capabilities of second harmonic generation (SHG) spectroscopy are illustrated by two experimental examples: the monitoring of a kinetics of adsorption of dodecane-thiol on polycrystalline gold, and the change of surface symmetry of a rutile TiO{sub 2} (110) face after absorption of uranyl cations UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}. (authors)

  4. Contact mechanics and rubber friction for randomly rough surfaces with anisotropic statistical properties. (United States)

    Carbone, G; Lorenz, B; Persson, B N J; Wohlers, A


    In this paper we extend the theory of contact mechanics and rubber friction developed by one of us (B.N.J. Persson, J. Chem. Phys. 115, 3840 (2001)) to the case of surfaces with anisotropic surface roughness. As an application we calculate the viscoelastic contribution to the rubber friction. We show that the friction coefficient may depend significantly on the sliding direction, while the area of contact depends weakly on the sliding direction. We have carried out experiments for rubber blocks sliding on unidirectionally polished steel surfaces. The experimental data are in a good qualitative agreement with the theory.

  5. Durability and Mechanical Performance of PMMA/Stone Sludge Nanocomposites for Acrylic Solid Surface Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samah EL-Bashir


    Full Text Available Acrylic solid surface sheets were prepared by mixing different kinds of stone sludge fillers (SSF in Poly (methyl methacrylate (PMMA nanocomposites. PMMA nanocomposite syrups were made using free radical polymerization of methylmethacrylate (MMA, then two kinds of nanofillers were added, namely, hydrophilic nanosilica and clay Halloysite nanotubules (HNTs. Acrylic solid surface sheets were manufactured by mixing the syrups with SSFs. The morphology of the produced sheets was studied using optical, and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM that revealed the uniform distribution of stone sludge in the polymeric matrix. The study of the physical properties showed promising mechanical performance and durability of PMMA/SSF nanocomposites for acrylic solid surface applications.

  6. On the mechanics of continua with boundary energies and growing surfaces (United States)

    Papastavrou, Areti; Steinmann, Paul; Kuhl, Ellen


    Many biological systems are coated by thin films for protection, selective absorption, or transmembrane transport. A typical example is the mucous membrane covering the airways, the esophagus, and the intestine. Biological surfaces typically display a distinct mechanical behavior from the bulk; in particular, they may grow at different rates. Growth, morphological instabilities, and buckling of biological surfaces have been studied intensely by approximating the surface as a layer of finite thickness; however, growth has never been attributed to the surface itself. Here, we establish a theory of continua with boundary energies and growing surfaces of zero thickness in which the surface is equipped with its own potential energy and is allowed to grow independently of the bulk. In complete analogy to the kinematic equations, the balance equations, and the constitutive equations of a growing solid body, we derive the governing equations for a growing surface. We illustrate their spatial discretization using the finite element method, and discuss their consistent algorithmic linearization. To demonstrate the conceptual differences between volume and surface growth, we simulate the constrained growth of the inner layer of a cylindrical tube. Our novel approach toward continua with growing surfaces is capable of predicting extreme growth of the inner cylindrical surface, which more than doubles its initial area. The underlying algorithmic framework is robust and stable; it allows to predict morphological changes due to surface growth during the onset of buckling and beyond. The modeling of surface growth has immediate biomedical applications in the diagnosis and treatment of asthma, gastritis, obstructive sleep apnoea, and tumor invasion. Beyond biomedical applications, the scientific understanding of growth-induced morphological instabilities and surface wrinkling has important implications in material sciences, manufacturing, and microfabrication, with applications in


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Hu


    Full Text Available A totally new automatic workflow mechanism, named Second generation Mosaic module, based on the well-known Pixel Factory system, will be introduced here, which enables existing digital orthoimages and mosaics to be quickly updated. The process extracts all required parameters from the reference database to be able to perform automatic bundle adjustment and radiometric adaptation.In this paper, two examples for both satellite data and aerial data processed based on this mechanism will be presented here and discussed. Finally, the cost reduction will also be analysed according to the real mapping updating project.In a final statement, this paper will present an integrated solution named second generation mosaic module based on the well-known Pixel Factory system which is completely dedicated to fast processing of photogrammetric products Thanks to this integrated hardware and software solution, it is even possible to manage large data volume quickly in order to have precise map updating information as soon as possible after acquisition.

  8. Study on thermal and mechanical properties of U-tube materials for steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rheu, Woo Suk; Kang, Young Hwan; Park, Jong Man; Joo, Ki Nam; Kim, Sung Soo; Maeng, Wan Young; Park, Se Jin


    Most of domestic nuclear plants have used I600 TT material for steam generator U-tube, and piled up the field experience. I600 HTMA and I690 TT, however, are recommended for an alternative of U-tube by ABB-CE since YK-3 and 4. Field experience of I600 HTMA and I690 TT have not compiled in the country, so it is concerned to select the future materials for U-tube. Thus, database on the thermal and mechanical properties of U-tube materials is very necessary for design documentations. In this study, the thermal, mechanical and metallugical properties were tested and evaluated to establish the database for steam generator U-tube. In addition, thermal conductivity of I600 and I690 was measured and compared statistically, providing a basic document for applying I690 to U-tube. The results will be used to improve the manufacturing process in order to increase the integrity of U-tube. (Author)

  9. Potential of different mechanical and thermal treatments to control off-flavour generation in broccoli puree. (United States)

    Koutidou, Maria; Grauwet, Tara; Van Loey, Ann; Acharya, Parag


    The aim of this study was scientifically investigate the impact of the sequence of different thermo-mechanical treatments on the volatile profile of differently processed broccoli puree, and to investigate if any relationship persists between detected off-flavour changes and microstructural changes as a function of selected process conditions. Comparison of the headspace GC-MS fingerprinting of the differently processed broccoli purees revealed that an adequate combination of processing steps allows to reduce the level of off-flavour volatiles. Moreover, applying mechanical processing before or after the thermal processing at 90°C determines the pattern of broccoli tissue disruption, resulting into different microstructures and various enzymatic reactions inducing volatile generation. These results may aid the identification of optimal process conditions generating a reduced level of off-flavour in processed broccoli. In this way, broccoli can be incorporated as a food ingredient into mixed food products with limited implications on sensorial consumer acceptance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. An Experimental Investigation of Wind- and Mechanically Generated Short Wavelength Spilling Breakers (United States)

    Diorio, J. D.; Liu, X.; Duncan, J. H.


    Short wavelength spilling breakers are studied in a wind wave tank that is 12.8 m long and 1.15 m wide and 0.91 m deep. The crest profile histories during breaking are measured with a photographic technique that employs a high-speed digital movie camera, a laser light sheet, and fluorescent dye. The photographic system is mounted on an instrument carriage that is set to move along the tank in phase with the crests of the breaking waves. In the first step in the experiment, breakers generated by the wind are measured at three wind speeds and three fetches at each wind speed. In the second step in the experiment, a mechanical wave maker is used without wind to generate a wave train consisting of a dominant wave and two unstable sidebands. The amplitudes and frequencies of these wave components are adjusted to create breakers at the various fetches and dominant wave frequencies found in the wind wave experiments. The similarities and differences between the ripple patterns at the crest during breaking between the wind wave and mechanical wave cases are discussed.

  11. Undulations in a weakly interacting mechanically generated molecular braid under tension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O’ Lee, D J


    We consider mechanically generated molecular braids composed of two molecules where long range interactions between them can be considered to be very weak. We describe a model that takes account of the thermal fluctuations of the braid, steric interactions between the molecules, and external mechanical forces. In this model, both sets of ends, of the two molecules, are considered to be separated by a fixed distance much larger than the radius of the braid. One set of ends is rotated to generate a braid of a certain number of pitches (or turns), while the other set remains fixed. This model may describe the situation in which the ends of each molecule are attached to a substrate and a magnetic bead; to the latter a pulling force and rotational torque can be applied. We discuss various aspects of our model. Most importantly, an expression for the free energy is given, from which equations, determining the various geometric parameters of the braid, can be obtained. By numerically solving these equations, we give predictions from the model for the external torque needed to produce a braid with a certain number of turns per bending persistence length, as well as the end to end extension of the two molecules for a given pulling force. Other geometric parameters, as well as the lateral force required to keep the ends of the two molecules apart, are also calculated. (paper)

  12. Mechanical splitting of microtubules into protofilament bundles by surface-bound kinesin-1. (United States)

    VanDelinder, Virginia; Adams, Peter G; Bachand, George D


    The fundamental biophysics of gliding microtubule (MT) motility by surface-tethered kinesin-1 motor proteins has been widely studied, as well as applied to capture and transport analytes in bioanalytical microdevices. In these systems, phenomena such as molecular wear and fracture into shorter MTs have been reported due the mechanical forces applied on the MT during transport. In the present work, we show that MTs can be split longitudinally into protofilament bundles (PFBs) by the work performed by surface-bound kinesin motors. We examine the properties of these PFBs using several techniques (e.g., fluorescence microscopy, SEM, AFM), and show that the PFBs continue to be mobile on the surface and display very high curvature compared to MT. Further, higher surface density of kinesin motors and shorter kinesin-surface tethers promote PFB formation, whereas modifying MT with GMPCPP or higher paclitaxel concentrations did not affect PFB formation.

  13. Adsorption mechanism of ribosomal protein L2 onto a silica surface: a molecular dynamics simulation study. (United States)

    Tosaka, Ryo; Yamamoto, Hideaki; Ohdomari, Iwao; Watanabe, Takanobu


    A large-scale molecular dynamics simulation was carried out in order to investigate the adsorption mechanism of ribosomal protein L2 (RPL2) onto a silica surface at various pH values. RPL2 is a constituent protein of the 50S large ribosomal subunit, and a recent experimental report showed that it adsorbs strongly to silica surfaces and that it can be used to immobilize proteins on silica surfaces. The simulation results show that RPL2, especially domains 1 (residues 1-60) and 3 (residues 203-273), adsorbed more tightly to the silica surface above pH 7. We found that a major driving force for the adsorption of RPL2 onto the silica surface is the electrostatic interaction and that the structural flexibility of domains 1 and 3 may further contribute to the high affinity.

  14. Surface morphological, mechanical and thermal characterization of electron beam irradiated fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hae Young; Han, Seong Ok; Lee, Jung Soon


    The surface morphology of henequen irradiated by electron beam has been investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Also, the extents to which electron beam irradiation affected the tensile and thermal properties of henequen fiber were investigated with Instron tensile tests and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The AFM studies showed that the pectin, waxy and primary layers (P) of henequen fiber, which have heterogeneous structures, were removed from the fiber surface by electron beam irradiation. The tensile strength and thermal stability of henequen fiber decreased with increasing dose of electron beam. At the irradiation of 10 kGy, the surface roughness increased because of the removal of the pectin, waxy and P layer, but the tensile strength of henequen irradiated with 10 kGy were maintained. It has been suggested that the use of a 10 kGy dose of electron beam to modify the henequen fiber surface can improve the surface properties and preserve the fibers' mechanical and thermal properties.

  15. Enterococcus faecalis surface proteins determine its adhesion mechanism to bile drain materials. (United States)

    Waar, Karola; van der Mei, Henny C; Harmsen, Hermie J M; Degener, John E; Busscher, Henk J


    An important step in infections associated with biliary drains is adhesion of micro-organisms to the surface. In this study the role of three surface proteins of Enterococcus faecalis (enterococcal surface protein, aggregation substances 1 and 373) in the adhesion to silicone rubber, fluoro-ethylene-propylene and polyethylene was examined. Four isogenic E. faecalis strains with and without aggregation substances and one strain expressing enterococcal surface protein were used. The kinetics of enterococcal adhesion to the materials was measured in situ in a parallel plate flow chamber. Initial deposition rates were similar for all strains, whereas the presence of surface proteins increased the total number of adhering bacteria. Nearest neighbour analysis demonstrated that enterococci expressing the whole sex-pheromone plasmid encoding aggregation substances 1 or 373 adhered in higher numbers through mechanisms of positive cooperativity, which means that adhesion of bacteria enhances the probability of adhesion of other bacteria near these bacteria. Enterococci with the enterococcal surface protein did not adhere through this mechanism. These findings indicate that the surface proteins of E. faecalis play a key role in the adhesion to bile drains and bile drain associated infections.

  16. Sub-discretized surface model with application to contact mechanics in multi-body simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, S; Williams, J


    The mechanics of contact between rough and imperfectly spherical adhesive powder grains are often complicated by a variety of factors, including several which vary over sub-grain length scales. These include several traction factors that vary spatially over the surface of the individual grains, including high energy electron and acceptor sites (electrostatic), hydrophobic and hydrophilic sites (electrostatic and capillary), surface energy (general adhesion), geometry (van der Waals and mechanical), and elasto-plastic deformation (mechanical). For mechanical deformation and reaction, coupled motions, such as twisting with bending and sliding, as well as surface roughness add an asymmetry to the contact force which invalidates assumptions for popular models of contact, such as the Hertzian and its derivatives, for the non-adhesive case, and the JKR and DMT models for adhesive contacts. Though several contact laws have been offered to ameliorate these drawbacks, they are often constrained to particular loading paths (most often normal loading) and are relatively complicated for computational implementation. This paper offers a simple and general computational method for augmenting contact law predictions in multi-body simulations through characterization of the contact surfaces using a hierarchically-defined surface sub-discretization. For the case of adhesive contact between powder grains in low stress regimes, this technique can allow a variety of existing contact laws to be resolved across scales, allowing for moments and torques about the contact area as well as normal and tangential tractions to be resolved. This is especially useful for multi-body simulation applications where the modeler desires statistical distributions and calibration for parameters in contact laws commonly used for resolving near-surface contact mechanics. The approach is verified against analytical results for the case of rough, elastic spheres.

  17. Smooth, All-Solid, Low-Hysteresis, Omniphobic Surfaces with Enhanced Mechanical Durability. (United States)

    Boban, Mathew; Golovin, Kevin; Tobelmann, Brian; Gupte, Omkar; Mabry, Joseph M; Tuteja, Anish


    The utility of omniphobic surfaces stems from their ability to repel a multitude of liquids, possessing a broad range of surface tensions and polarities, by causing them to bead up and either roll or slide off. These surfaces may be self-cleaning, corrosion-resistant, heat-transfer enhancing, stain-resistant or resistant to mineral- or bio-fouling. The majority of reported omniphobic surfaces use texture, lubricants, and/or grafted monolayers to engender these repellent properties. Unfortunately, these approaches often produce surfaces with deficiencies in long-term stability, durability, scalability, or applicability to a wide range of substrates. To overcome these limitations, we have fabricated an all-solid, substrate-independent, smooth, omniphobic coating composed of a fluorinated polyurethane and fluorodecyl polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane. Liquids of varying surface tension, including water, hexadecane, ethanol, and silicone oil, exhibit low contact angle hysteresis (< 15°) on these surfaces, allowing liquid droplets to slide off, leaving no residue. Moreover, we demonstrate that these robust surfaces retained their repellent properties more effectively than textured or lubricated omniphobic surfaces after being subjected to mechanical abrasion.

  18. A study on the deformation mechanism of inconel alloys for steam generator tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, S. H.; Kim, H. Y.; Ahn, Y. C.; Lee, H. S.; Sohn, W. H.; Cha, S. I.; Bae, Y. H. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejeon (Korea)


    The microstructure and the mechanical properties of lnconel 600 and 690 steam generator tube were investigated to develop the lnconel steam generator tube for nuclear power plant. The grain size and shape of lnconel 690 alloy were dependent on Mill Annealing temperature. It is shown that the smaller grain and the more serrated grain boundary, the higher tensile strength and creep resistance. The carbides were analyzed by using SEM and TEM after Thermal Treatment. Also, the quantitative analysis of carbide precipitation with Thermal Treatment was conducted by SPEED method. Thermal Treatment temperature was 705 deg C for lnconel 600 alloy and 720 deg C for lnconel 690 alloy. It is observed by XRD that the M{sub 23}C{sub 6} type and M{sub 7}C{sub 3}-type carbides were simultaneously precipitated in lnconel 600 alloy and only M{sub 23}C{sub 6}-type carbides were precipitated in lnconel 690 alloy. While the carbide length and thickness increased with increasing Thermal Treatment time, the growth rate of carbide length was higher than that of carbide thickness. The distance between carbides decreased for the first 15 hour Thermal Treatment for lnconel 600 alloy and 10 hour for lnconel 690 alloy, respectively, and then increased again. The distance between carbides decreased until the carbide precipitation reached at 90% of maximum precipitation because the carbides were precipitated and grown simultaneously. After 90% precipitation time, the precipitation ceased and only growth of the carbides took place, so the distance between carbides decreased. The serrations in stress-strain curves of in lnconel 690 could be interpreted in the temperature range from 200 deg C to 600 deg C. The phenomena and controlling mechanism of serrations were analyzed by investigating the critical strains for the onset of the serrations. The controlling mechanism for A1 serration was generation of vacancy by deformation, and those for A2 serration and B serrations were diffusion of

  19. The grand unified link between the Peccei-Quinn mechanism and the generation puzzle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, A.; Wali, K.C.


    The essential ingredients of the Peccei-Quinn mechanism are shown to be dictated by a proper choice of a grand unification scheme. The presence of U(1)sub(PQ) gives rise to the possibility that the same physics which resolves the strong CP-violation problem may decode the generation puzzle with no extra cost. Multigenerational signatures of the invisible axion scenario, such as the canonical fermion mass matrix, are discussed. The uniqueness and the special values of the quantized PQ-assignments, namely 1,-3,5-7,... for successive generations, acquire an automatic explanation once the idea of ''horizontal compositeness'' is invoked. A characteristic feature then is that the muon appears to have a less complicated structure than the electron. Furthermore, U(1)sub(PQ) chooses SO(10) to be its only tenable gauge symmetry partner, and at the same time crucially restricts the associated Higgs system. All this finally results in a consistent fermion mass hierarchy with log m, to the crudest estimation, varying linearly with respect to the generation index. (author)

  20. Possible Mechanism for the Generation of a Fundamental Unit of Charge (long version)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lestone, John Paul [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Various methods for calculating particle-emission rates from hot systems are reviewed. Semi-classically derived photon-emission rates often contain the term exp(-ε/T) which needs to be replaced with the corresponding Planckian factor of [exp(-ε/T)-1]-1 to obtain the correct rate. This replacement is associated with the existence of stimulated emission. Simple arguments are used to demonstrate that black holes can also undergo stimulated emission, as previously determined by others. We extend these concepts to fundamental particles, and assume they can be stimulated to emit virtual photons with a cross section of πλ2, in the case of an isolated particle when the incident virtual-photon energy is < 2πmc2. Stimulated-virtual photons can be exchanged with other particles generating a force. With the inclusion of near-field effects, the model choices presented give a calculated fundamental unit of charge of 1.6022x10-19 C. If these choices are corroborated by detailed calculations then an understanding of the numerical value of the fine structure constant may emerge. The present study suggests charge might be an emergent property generated by a simple interaction mechanism between point-like particles and the electromagnetic vacuum, similar to the process that generates the Lamb shift.

  1. Generation mechanism of RANKL(+) effector memory B cells: relevance to the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. (United States)

    Ota, Yuri; Niiro, Hiroaki; Ota, Shun-Ichiro; Ueki, Naoko; Tsuzuki, Hirofumi; Nakayama, Tsuyoshi; Mishima, Koji; Higashioka, Kazuhiko; Jabbarzadeh-Tabrizi, Siamak; Mitoma, Hiroki; Akahoshi, Mitsuteru; Arinobu, Yojiro; Kukita, Akiko; Yamada, Hisakata; Tsukamoto, Hiroshi; Akashi, Koichi


    The efficacy of B cell-depleting therapies for rheumatoid arthritis underscores antibody-independent functions of effector B cells such as cognate T-B interactions and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL) is a key cytokine involved in bone destruction and is highly expressed in synovial fluid B cells in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. In this study we sought to clarify the generation mechanism of RANKL(+) effector B cells and their impacts on osteoclast differentiation. Peripheral blood and synovial fluid B cells from healthy controls and patients with rheumatoid arthritis were isolated using cell sorter. mRNA expression of RANKL, osteoprotegerin, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and Blimp-1 was analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Levels of RANKL, CD80, CD86, and CXCR3 were analyzed using flow cytometry. Functional analysis of osteoclastogenesis was carried out in the co-culture system using macrophage RAW264 reporter cells. RANKL expression was accentuated in CD80(+)CD86(+) B cells, a highly activated B-cell subset more abundantly observed in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Upon activation via B-cell receptor and CD40, switched-memory B cells predominantly expressed RANKL, which was further augmented by interferon-γ (IFN-γ) but suppressed by interleukin-21. Strikingly, IFN-γ also enhanced TNF-α expression, while it strongly suppressed osteoprotegerin expression in B cells. IFN-γ increased the generation of CXCR3(+)RANKL(+) effector B cells, mimicking the synovial B cell phenotype in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Finally, RANKL(+) effector B cells in concert with TNF-α facilitated osteoclast differentiation in vitro. Our current findings have shed light on the generation mechanism of pathogenic RANKL(+) effector B cells that would be an ideal therapeutic target for rheumatoid arthritis in the future.

  2. Insights into the mechanisms of absence seizure generation provided by EEG with Functional MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick William Carney


    Full Text Available Absence seizures are brief epileptic events characterized by loss of awareness with subtle motor features. They may be very frequent, and impact on attention, learning and memory. A number of pathophysiological models have been developed to explain the mechanism of absence seizure generation which rely heavily on observations from animal studies. Studying the structural and functional relationships between large-scale brain networks in humans is only practical with non-invasive whole brain techniques. EEG with functional MRI (EEG-fMRI is one such technique that provides an opportunity to explore the interactions between brain structures involved in AS generation. A number of fMRI techniques including event-related analysis, time course analysis and functional connectivity have identified a common network of structures involved in AS seizures. This network comprises the thalamus, midline and lateral parietal cortex (the default mode network [DMN], caudate nuclei and the reticular structures of the pons. The main component displaying an increase in BOLD signal relative to the resting state, in group studies, is the thalamus while the most consistent cortical change is reduced BOLD signal in the DMN. Time course analysis shows that, rather than some structures being activated or inactivated during AS, there appears to be increase in activity across components of the network preceding or following the electro-clinical onset of the seizure. The earliest change in BOLD signal occurs in the DMN, prior to the onset of epileptiform events. This region also shows altered functional connectivity in patients with absence seizures. Hence it appears that engagement of this network is central to absence seizures. In this review we will explore the insights EEG-fMRI studies into the mechanisms of AS and considers how the DMN is likely to be the major large scale brain network central to both seizure generation and the seizure manifestations.

  3. Enhancing biodegradation and energy generation via roughened surface graphite electrode in microbial desalination cell. (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Atieh; Yousefi Kebria, Daryoush; Najafpour Darzi, Ghasem


    The microbial desalination cell (MDC) is known as a newly developed technology for water and wastewater treatment. In this study, desalination rate, organic matter removal and energy production in the reactors with and without desalination function were compared. Herein, a new design of plain graphite called roughened surface graphite (RSG) was used as the anode electrode in both microbial fuel cell (MFC) and MDC reactors for the first time. Among the three type of anode electrodes investigated in this study, RSG electrode produced the highest power density and salt removal rate of 10.81 W/m 3 and 77.6%, respectively. Such a power density was 2.33 times higher than the MFC reactor due to the junction potential effect. In addition, adding the desalination function to the MFC reactor enhanced columbic efficiency from 21.8 to 31.4%. These results provided a proof-of-concept that the use of MDC instead of MFC would improve wastewater treatment efficiency and power generation, with an added benefit of water desalination. Furthermore, RSG can successfully be employed in an MDC or MFC, enhancing the bio-electricity generation and salt removal.

  4. Influence of steam generator surface state on corrosion and oxide formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazenc, Arnaud; Leclercq, Stephanie; Seyeux, Antoine; Galtayries, Anouk; Marcus, Philippe


    The corrosion and release of nickel-based alloy Steam Generator tubes are partly due to their surface state. Among the most important parameters influencing the corrosion, the effect of grain size and the effect of grain crystallographic orientation have been chosen to be studied. The aim of this study is to determine how these parameters have an impact on the corrosion of Steam Generator tubes. Thermal treatments (700 deg. C and 1050 deg. C) have been performed on several samples in Alloy 690 to obtain homogeneous grain sizes, varying from 25 μm to 110 μm. Two samples have been oxidised for four days in a recirculating autoclave, reproducing primary conditions. The changes of oxide composition and thickness were examined by ToF-SIMS on samples exposed to primary water conditions. The intensity profiles versus thicknesses of characteristic oxide anions, such as CrO - , NiO - or FeO - enable us to evaluate the effect of grain size and crystallographic orientation on the formation of an enriched inner chromium layer. As regards to the grain size, there was no effect on the growth, but smaller grains led to a chromium-rich oxide layer. The effect of crystallographic orientation was observed on the oxidation kinetics and the composition of oxide scales. (authors)

  5. Fatigue crack growth and fracture mechanics analysis of a working roll surface layer material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Drobne


    Full Text Available Fatigue crack growth and fracture mechanics analysis of a working roll surface layer material is presented in this paper. The research is done on a hot strip mill working roll where High Chromium Steel is used for roll’s shell material. To obtain corresponding parameters, a rectangular single edge notched bend specimens – SENB, according to standard BS 7448, were used. The fatigue crack growth analysis was done on a resonant testing machine with use of special crack gauges, while for fracture mechanics parameters the electro–mechanical testing machine was used.

  6. Engineering mechanical gradients in next generation biomaterials - Lessons learned from medical textile design. (United States)

    Ng, Joanna L; Collins, Ciara E; Knothe Tate, Melissa L


    Nonwoven and textile membranes have been applied both externally and internally to prescribe boundary conditions for medical conditions as diverse as oedema and tissue defects. Incorporation of mechanical gradients in next generation medical membrane design offers great potential to enhance function in a dynamic, physiological context. Yet the gradient properties and resulting mechanical performance of current membranes are not well described. To bridge this knowledge gap, we tested and compared the mechanical properties of bounding membranes used in both external (compression sleeves for oedema, exercise bands) and internal (surgical membranes) physiological contexts. We showed that anisotropic compression garment textiles, isotropic exercise bands and surgical membranes exhibit similar ranges of resistance to tension under physiologic strains. However, their mechanical gradients and resulting stress-strain relationships show differences in work capacity and energy expenditure. Exercise bands' moduli of elasticity and respective thicknesses allow for controlled, incremental increases in loading to facilitate healing as injured tissues return to normal structure and function. In contrast, the gradients intrinsic to compression sleeve design exhibit gaps in the middle range (1-5N) of physiological strains and also inconsistencies along the length of the sleeve, resulting in less than optimal performance of these devices. These current shortcomings in compression textile and garment design may be addressed in the future through implementation of novel approaches. For example, patterns, fibre compositions, and fibre anisotropy can be incorporated into biomaterial design to achieve seamless mechanical gradients in structure and resulting dynamic function, which would be particularly useful in physiological contexts. These concepts can be applied further to biomaterial design to deliver pressure gradients during movement of oedematous limbs (compression garments) and

  7. Thermal crackling: study of the mechanical effects of quick temperature fluctuations on metallic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradel, P.


    After a brief overview of the thermohydraulical conditions of liquid sodium leading to important temperature fluctuations near the metallic surfaces, the author examines the transfer modes of these fluctuations in the structure thickness and the long term mechanical effects. Dimensioning models based on thermal and metallurgical properties are under study for structures subject to such sodium loads [fr

  8. Quantum-Mechanical Particle Confined to Surfaces of Revolution - Truncated Cone and Elliptic Torus Case Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, Jens; Willatzen, Morten; Voon, L.C. Lew Yan


    The theory of a quantum-mechanical particle confined to a surface of revolution is described using differential geometry methods including the derivation of a general set of three ordinary differential equations in curved coordinates. The problem is shown to be completely separable with the present...

  9. Simple One-Dimensional Quantum-Mechanical Model for a Particle Attached to a Surface (United States)

    Fernandez, Francisco M.


    We present a simple one-dimensional quantum-mechanical model for a particle attached to a surface. It leads to the Schrodinger equation for a harmonic oscillator bounded on one side that we solve in terms of Weber functions and discuss the behaviour of the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions. We derive the virial theorem and other exact relationships…

  10. Modification of the iron mechanical- and corrosion features by ion implantation in surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumvol, I.J.R.


    The physical mechanisms responsable by the tin ion implantation in the iron surface at moderated doses are studied. Several techniques are used such as alpha-particle Rutherford backscattering, conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. (L.C.) [pt

  11. A Computational Study of Plastic Deformation in AISI 304 Induced by Surface Mechanical Attrition Treatment (United States)

    Zhang, X. C.; Lu, J.; Shi, S. Q.


    As a technique of grain refinement process by plastic deformation, surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT) has been developed to be one of the most effective ways to optimize the mechanical properties of various materials including pure metals and alloys. SMAT can significantly reduce grain size into nanometer regime in the surface layer of bulk materials, providing tremendous opportunities for improving physical, chemical and mechanical properties of the materials. In this work, a computational modeling of the surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT) process is presented, in which Johnson-Cook plasticity model and the finite element method were employed to study the high strain rate, elastic-plastic dynamic process of ball impact on a metallic target. AISI 304 steel with low stacking fault energy was chosen as the target material. First, a random impact model was used to analyze the statistic characteristics of ball impact, and then the plastic deformation behavior and residual stress distribution in AISI 304 stainless steel during SMAT were studied. The simulation results show that the compressive residual stress and vertical deformation of the surface structures were directly affected by ball impact frequency, incident impact angle and ball diameter used in SMAT process.

  12. Influence of autoclave sterilization on the surface parameters and mechanical properties of six orthodontic wires. (United States)

    Pernier, C; Grosgogeat, B; Ponsonnet, L; Benay, G; Lissac, M


    Orthodontic wires are frequently packaged in individual sealed bags in order to avoid cross-contamination. The instructions on the wrapper generally advise autoclave sterilization of the package and its contents if additional protection is desired. However, sterilization can modify the surface parameters and the mechanical properties of many types of material. The aim of this research was to determine the influence of one of the most widely used sterilization processes, autoclaving (18 minutes at 134 degrees C, as recommended by the French Ministry of Health), on the surface parameters and mechanical properties of six wires currently used in orthodontics (one stainless steel alloy: Tru-Chrome RMO; two nickel-titanium shape memory alloys: Neo Sentalloy and Neo Sentalloy with Ionguard GAC; and three titanium-molybdenum alloys: TMA(R) and Low Friction TMA Ormco and Resolve GAC). The alloys were analysed on receipt and after sterilization, using surface structure observation techniques, including optical, scanning electron and atomic force microscopy and profilometry. The mechanical properties were assessed by three-point bending tests. The results showed that autoclave sterilization had no adverse effects on the surface parameters or on the selected mechanical properties. This supports the possibility for practitioners to systematically sterilize wires before placing them in the oral environment.

  13. Comparison Of Light Scattering From Rough Surfaces With Optical And Mechanical Profilometry (United States)

    Brodmann, Rainer; Allgaeuer, Michael


    Light scattering and non-contact sensing of rough surfaces with a laser focus are two optical methods which recently have also become available as commercial instruments. Optical measurements are compared with mechanical stylus measurements and the results are discussed under consideration of the physics of the different measuring principles.

  14. Evaluation of the user interface simplicity in the modern generation of mechanical ventilators. (United States)

    Uzawa, Yoshihiro; Yamada, Yoshitsugu; Suzukawa, Masayuki


    We designed this study to evaluate the simplicity of the user interface in modern-generation mechanical ventilators. We hypothesized that different designs in the user interface could result in different rates of operational failures. A laboratory in a tertiary teaching hospital. Crossover design. Twenty-one medical resident physicians who did not possess operating experience with any of the selected ventilators. Four modern mechanical ventilators were selected: Dräger Evita XL, Maquet Servo-i, Newport e500, and Puritan Bennett 840. Each subject was requested to perform 8 tasks on each ventilator. Two objective variables (the number of successfully completed tasks without operational failures and the operational time) and the overall subjective rating of the ease of use, measured with a 100-mm visual analog scale were recorded. The total percentage of operational failures made for all subjects, for all tasks, was 23%. There were significant differences in the rates of operational failures and operational time among the 4 ventilators. Subjects made more operational failures in setting up the ventilators and in making ventilator-setting changes than in reacting to alarms. The subjective feeling of the ease of use was also significantly different among the ventilators. The design of the user interface is relevant to the occurrence of operational failures. Our data indicate that ventilator designers could optimize the user-interface design to reduce the operational failures; therefore, basic user interface should be standardized among the clinically used mechanical ventilators.

  15. Determination of elastic mechanical characteristics of surface coatings from analysis of signals obtained by impulse excitation (United States)

    Nyaguly, E.; Craştiu, I.; Deac, S.; Gozman-Pop, C.; Drăgănescu, G.; Bereteu, L.


    Most of the surface coatings are based on the synthetic polymers, which are substances composed from very large molecules that form tough, flexible, adhesive films when applied to surfaces. The other components of surface coverings materials are pigments that provide colour, opacity, gloss and other properties. Surface coatings are two-phase composite materials: constitute a polymer matrix on the one side, and on the other side of the pigments and additives dispersed in the matrix. Their role is not only aesthetically but also to ensure anticorrosive protection or even improve some mechanical properties of coated surfaces. In this paper it will follow, starting from the mechanical properties of the substrate, the metallic sheet in general, to determine the new properties of the assembly of substrate and the two coating layers, also the determination of mechanical properties of the layers. From the analysis of vibroacoustic signals obtained by the impulse excitation of the sample, one can determine the elasticity modulus. These results come to validate the results based on finite element analysis (FEA) of the same samples.

  16. The generation and management of references with the Online Mechanism for References - MORE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Proxério Manoel Felisberto


    Full Text Available The scientific production and the development of academic papers have their own formalities. In this paper, is sought seek from these formalities for the ones that refers to the way of granting merits to the authors of the works used in the theoretical basis, through quotations and references. The goal is to help users of libraries to generate and manage references using a web tool developed for this purpose. There are many applications, in desktop and web platforms, that could be used to do this task. However, some of them require the payment of an expensive license to be fully functional. Others offers free versions, but they are very limited and often do not generate references specified by ABNT. There are others that do not store the generate references for later use. In order to fill this gap, the Online Mechanism for References (MORE was developed and made available to the general public in the web. Even so, the fast technological advances combined with a high number of users demanded an update to the application, done recently. It is important to state that all the work was developed exclusively with proven and free to use technologies. Initially, sought up identified the main tools available to generate and manage references and which free technologies could be used to build interactive web applications. This paper briefly describes the reengineering process that MORE was submitted, its new structure, new requirements met and its expanded portfolio of features. Finally, the results achieved after the reengineering are compared to indicators of its previous version.

  17. A Facile Method and Novel Mechanism Using Microneedle-Structured PDMS for Triboelectric Generator Applications. (United States)

    Trinh, Van-Long; Chung, Chen-Kuei


    The triboelectric generator (TEG) is a cost-effective, multi-fabricated, friendly mechanical-energy-harvesting device. The traditional TEG, generally formed by two triboelectric materials in multilayers or a simple pattern, generated triboelectricity as it worked in the cycling contact-separation operation. This paper demonstrates a novel, high-aspect-ratio, microneedle (MN)-structured polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based triboelectric generator (MN-TEG) by means of a low-cost, simple fabrication using CO 2 laser ablation on the polymethyl methacrylate substrate and a molding process. The MN-TEG, consisting of an aluminum foil and a microneedle-structured PDMS (MN-PDMS) film, generates an output performance with an open-circuit voltage up to 102.8 V, and a short-circuit current of 43.1 µA, corresponding to the current density of 1.5 µA cm -2 . With introducing MN-PDMS into the MN-TEG, a great increase of randomly closed bending-friction-deformation (BFD) behavior of MNs leads to highly enhanced triboelectric performance of the MN-TEG. The BFD keeps increasingly on in-contact between MN with Al that results in enhancement of electrical capacitance of PDMS. The effect of aspect ratio and density of MN morphology on the output performance of MN-PDMS TEG is studied further. The MN-TEG can rapidly charge electric energy on a 0.1 µF capacitor up to 2.1 V in about 0.56 s. The MN-TEG source under tapping can light up 53 light-emitting diodes with different colors, connected in series. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Examination of incentive mechanisms for innovative technologies applicable to utility and nonutility power generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDermott, K.A. [Illinois Commerce Commission, Springfield, IL (United States); Bailey, K.A.; South, D.W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment and Information Sciences Div.


    Innovative technologies, built by either utility or nonutility power generators, have the potential to lower costs with less environmental emissions than conventional technologies. However, the public-good nature of information, along with uncertain costs, performance, and reliability, discourages rapid adoption of these technologies. The effect of regulation of electricity production may also have an adverse impact on motivation to innovate. Slower penetration of cleaner, more efficient technologies could result in greater levels of pollution, higher electricity prices, and a reduction in international competitiveness. Regulatory incentives could encourage adoption and deployment of innovative technologies of all kinds, inducting clean coal technologies. Such incentives must be designed to offset risks inherent in innovative technology and encourage cost-effective behavior. To evaluate innovative and conventional technologies equally, the incremental cost of risk (ICR) of adopting the innovative technology must be determined. Through the ICR, the magnitude of incentive required to make a utility (or nonutility) power generator equally motivated to use either conventional or innovative technologies can be derived. Two technology risks are examined: A construction risk, represented by a 15% cost overrun, and an operating risk, represented by a increased forced outage rate (decreased capacity factor). Different incentive mechanisms and measurement criteria are used to assess the effects of these risks on ratepayers and shareholders. In most cases, a regulatory incentive could offset the perceived risks while encouraging cost-effective behavior by both utility and nonutility power generators. Not only would the required incentive be recouped, but the revenue requirements would be less for the innovative technology; also, less environmental pollution would be generated. In the long term, ratepayers and society would benefit from innovative technologies.

  19. Bioadhesion of mussels and geckos: Molecular mechanics, surface chemistry, and nanoadhesives (United States)

    Lee, Haeshin

    The adhesive strategies of living creatures are diverse, ranging from temporary to permanent adhesions with various functions such as locomotion, self-defense, communication, colony formation, and so on. The classic example of temporary adhesion is the gecko, which is known for its ability to walk along vertical and even inverted surfaces; this remarkable adhesion arises from the interfacial weak interactions of van der Waals and capillary forces. In contrast, a celerbrated example of permanent adhesion is found in marine mussels which secrete protein adhesives that function in aqueous environments without mechanical failure against turbulent conditions on the seashore. In addition, mussel adhesives stick to virtually all inorganic and organic surfaces. However, most commonly used man-made adhesives lack such unique adhesion properties compared to their natural counterparts. For example, many commercial adhesives quickly lose their adhesive strength when exposed to solvents, particularly water. The first part of this thesis focused on adhesion mechanics of mussels at a single-molecule level, in which the adhesive molecule showed surprisingly strong yet reversible adhesion on inorganic surfaces but exhibited irreversible covalent bond formation on organic surfaces. Strong and reversible adhesion on mucin surfaces was found, indicating potential application for drug delivery via mucus layers. Next, inspired by the mussel's versatile adhesion on a wide variety of material surfaces, a material-independent surface modification chemistry called 'polydopamine coating' is described. This concept was subsequently adapted to develop a surface-independent polymeric primer for layer-by-layer assembly of multifunctional coatings. Finally, a new bio-hybrid adhesive 'geckel' was developed by the functional combination of adhesion strategies of geckos and mussels. The new bio-inspired adhesive and material-independent surface chemistry can revolutionize the research areas such as

  20. Development of next generation consumable technologies for chemical mechanical planarization of copper/low K devices (United States)

    Keleher, Jason J.

    Chemical Mechanical Planarization (CMP) has become the key planarization technology for the fabrication of ultra large-scale integration (ULSI) silicon devices that contain sub-quarter micron metal and dielectric lines. The rapid integration of copper as the interconnect material into IC production has placed a high demand on Cu CMP slurry development. Key issues in CMP today include reduction of surface defectivity and enhancement of planarization efficiency. More specifically, the polished surface should be free of defects such as scratches, pits, corrosion spots, trench copper loss, and residue particles. This dissertation will explore the use of Abrasive Free and Novel Abrasive systems as a plausible solution for the planarization Cu/low K devices. For copper/low K CMP, one of the most promising strategies to accomplishing these goals is an Abrasive-Free Process (AFP). By eliminating abrasive particles from the process, either free or fixed to the pad, it has been anticipated and realized that defects such as severe scratching, particle contamination and slurry instability via particle aggregation or settling will be significantly reduced. In addition, with proper formulation, an abrasive free process can also yield an excellent over polishing window and desired step function of pressure for material removal rate. Coupled with a supramolecular design, some of the characteristic advantages seen in abrasive containing systems, such as step height reduction efficiency, can be realized without the side effects often introduced from solid particles. The second portion of this dissertation deals with the use of novel hydrophobic particles such as diamond and boron nitride. Hydrophobic particles have received much less attention because of issues related to the stability when placed in an aqueous media as well as the inability of the particles to interact with the abraded material. In general the ability of the hydrophobic particle to interact with the oxidized or

  1. Study the bonding mechanism of binders on hydroxyapatite surface and mechanical properties for 3DP fabrication bone scaffolds. (United States)

    Wei, Qinghua; Wang, Yanen; Li, Xinpei; Yang, Mingming; Chai, Weihong; Wang, Kai; zhang, Yingfeng


    In 3DP fabricating artificial bone scaffolds process, the interaction mechanism between binder and bioceramics power determines the microstructure and macro mechanical properties of Hydroxyapatite (HA) bone scaffold. In this study, we applied Molecular Dynamics (MD) methods to investigating the bonding mechanism and essence of binders on the HA crystallographic planes for 3DP fabrication bone scaffolds. The cohesive energy densities of binders and the binding energies, PCFs g(r), mechanical properties of binder/HA interaction models were analyzed through the MD simulation. Additionally, we prepared the HA bone scaffold specimens with different glues by 3DP additive manufacturing, and tested their mechanical properties by the electronic universal testing machine. The simulation results revealed that the relationship of the binding energies between binders and HA surface is consistent with the cohesive energy densities of binders, which is PAM/HA>PVA/HA>PVP/HA. The PCFs g(r) indicated that their interfacial interactions mainly attribute to the ionic bonds and hydrogen bonds which formed between the polar atoms, functional groups in binder polymer and the Ca, -OH in HA. The results of mechanical experiments verified the relationship of Young׳s modulus for three interaction models in simulation, which is PVA/HA>PAM/HA>PVP/HA. But the trend of compressive strength is PAM/HA>PVA/HA>PVP/HA, this is consistent with the binding energies of simulation. Therefore, the Young׳s modulus of bone scaffolds are limited by the Young׳s modulus of binders, and the compressive strength is mainly decided by the viscosity of binder. Finally, the major reasons for differences in mechanical properties between simulation and experiment were found, the space among HA pellets and the incomplete infiltration of glue were the main reasons influencing the mechanical properties of 3DP fabrication HA bone scaffolds. These results provide useful information in choosing binder for 3DP fabrication

  2. Microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of Ti–Zr beta titanium alloy after laser surface remelting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Y.; Li, X.; Wang, Y.Y.; Zhao, W.; Li, G.; Liu, R.P.


    Highlights: • The surface mechanical properties of the alloy have been greatly improved. • Its grain size was decreased from 100 μm to 10 μm. • The metastable ω with the size of 20–50 nm was observed in the alloy after LSR. • The strengthening effect is mainly due to fine microstructure and strengthened phase. -- Abstract: The effects of laser surface remelting (LSR) on the microstructural evolution and surface mechanical properties of Ti–Zr beta titanium alloy were investigated. The surfaces of the Ti–Zr alloy was re-melted using a CO 2 laser. X-ray diffraction, Scanning electron microscope, Transmission electron microscope, nanoindentation, and microhardness analyses were performed to evaluate the microstructural and mechanical properties of the alloy. The results showed that the alloy microstructure in the remelting region was greatly refined and homogeneous compared with that in the base material because of the rapid remelting and resolidifying. Meanwhile, the metastable hexagonal ω phases with the size of 20–50 nm was found and uniformly distributed throughout the β matrix after LSR. Phase transformation and microstructural refinement were the major microstructural changes in the alloys after LSR. The microhardness and elastic modulus in the remelted region clearly increased by 92.9% and 21.78%, respectively, compared with those in the region without laser processing. The strengthening effect of LSR on the mechanical properties of the Ti–Zr alloy was also addressed. Our results indicated that LSR was an effective method of improving the surface mechanical properties of alloys

  3. Understanding the mechanisms of solid-water reactions through analysis of surface topography. (United States)

    Bandstra, Joel Z; Brantley, Susan L


    The topography of a reactive surface contains information about the reactions that form or modify the surface and, therefore, it should be possible to characterize reactivity using topography parameters such as surface area, roughness, or fractal dimension. As a test of this idea, we consider a two-dimensional (2D) lattice model for crystal dissolution and examine a suite of topography parameters to determine which may be useful for predicting rates and mechanisms of dissolution. The model is based on the assumption that the reactivity of a surface site decreases with the number of nearest neighbors. We show that the steady-state surface topography in our model system is a function of, at most, two variables: the ratio of the rate of loss of sites with two neighbors versus three neighbors (d(2)/d(3)) and the ratio of the rate of loss of sites with one neighbor versus three neighbors (d(1)/d(3)). This means that relative rates can be determined from two parameters characterizing the topography of a surface provided that the two parameters are independent of one another. It also means that absolute rates cannot be determined from measurements of surface topography alone. To identify independent sets of topography parameters, we simulated surfaces from a broad range of d(1)/d(3) and d(2)/d(3) and computed a suite of common topography parameters for each surface. Our results indicate that the fractal dimension D and the average spacing between steps, E[s], can serve to uniquely determine d(1)/d(3) and d(2)/d(3) provided that sufficiently strong correlations exist between the steps. Sufficiently strong correlations exist in our model system when D>1.5 (which corresponds to D>2.5 for real 3D reactive surfaces). When steps are uncorrelated, surface topography becomes independent of step retreat rate and D is equal to 1.5. Under these conditions, measures of surface topography are not independent and any single topography parameter contains all of the available mechanistic

  4. Evaluation of Mechanical Property of Carbon Fiber/Polypropylene Composite According to Carbon Fiber Surface Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Song Hee; Oh, Hyun Ju; Kim, Seong Su


    In this study, the mechanical properties of a carbon fiber/polypropylene composite were evaluated according to the carbon fiber surface treatment. Carbon fiber surface treatments such as silane coupling agents and plasma treatment were performed to enhance the interfacial strength between carbon fibers and polypropylene. The treated carbon fiber surface was characterized by XP S, Sem, and single-filament tensile test. The interlaminar shear strength (Ilks) of the composite with respect to the surface treatment was determined by a short beam shear test. The test results showed that the Ilks of the plasma-treated specimen increased with the treatment time. The Ilks of the specimen treated with a silane coupling agent after plasma treatment increased by 48.7% compared to that of the untreated specimen

  5. Effect of conditioner load on the polishing pad surface during chemical mechanical planarization process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Cheol Min; Qin, Hong Yi; Hong, Seok Jun; Jeon, Sang Hyuk; Kulkarni, Atul; Kim, Tae Sun [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)


    During the Chemical mechanical planarization (CMP), the pad conditioning process can affect the pad surface characteristics. Among many CMP process parameters, the improper applied load on the conditioner arm may have adverse effects on the polyurethane pad. In this work, we evaluated the pad surface properties under the various conditioner arm applied during pad conditioning process. The conditioning pads were evaluated for surface topography, surface roughness parameters such as Rt and Rvk and Material removal rate (MRR) and within-wafer non-uniformity after wafer polishing. We observed that, the pad asperities were collapsed in the direction of conditioner rotation and blocks the pad pores applied conditioner load. The Rvk value and MRR were founded to be in relation with 4 > 1 > 7 kgF conditioner load. Hence, this study shows that, 4 kgF applied load by conditioner is most suitable for the pad conditioning during CMP.

  6. A distinct translation initiation mechanism generates cryptic peptides for immune surveillance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelley R Starck

    Full Text Available MHC class I molecules present a comprehensive mixture of peptides on the cell surface for immune surveillance. The peptides represent the intracellular protein milieu produced by translation of endogenous mRNAs. Unexpectedly, the peptides are encoded not only in conventional AUG initiated translational reading frames but also in alternative cryptic reading frames. Here, we analyzed how ribosomes recognize and use cryptic initiation codons in the mRNA. We find that translation initiation complexes assemble at non-AUG codons but differ from canonical AUG initiation in response to specific inhibitors acting within the peptidyl transferase and decoding centers of the ribosome. Thus, cryptic translation at non-AUG start codons can utilize a distinct initiation mechanism which could be differentially regulated to provide peptides for immune surveillance.

  7. Instantaneous generation of charge-separated state on TiO₂ surface sensitized with plasmonic nanoparticles. (United States)

    Long, Run; Prezhdo, Oleg V


    Photoexcitation of the plasmon band in metallic nanoparticles adsorbed on a TiO2 surface initiates many important photovoltaic and photocatalytic processes. The traditional view on the photoinduced charge separation involves excitation of a surface plasmon, its subsequent dephasing into electron-hole pairs, followed by electron transfer (ET) from the metal nanoparticle into TiO2. We use nonadiabatic molecular dynamics combined with time-domain density functional theory to demonstrate that an electron appears inside TiO2 immediately upon photoexcitation with a high probability (~50%), bypassing the intermediate step of electron-hole thermalization inside the nanoparticle. By providing a detailed, atomistic description of the charge separation, energy relaxation, and electron-hole recombination processes, the simulation rationalizes why the experimentally observed ultrafast photoinduced ET in an Au-TiO2 system is possible in spite of the fast energy relaxation. The simulation shows that the photogenerated plasmon is highly delocalized onto TiO2, and thus, it is shared by the electron donor and acceptor materials. In the 50% of the cases remaining after the instantaneous photogeneration of the charge-separated state, the electron injects into TiO2 on a sub-100 fs time scale by the nonadiabatic mechanism due to high density of acceptor states. The electron-phonon relaxation parallels the injection and is slower, resulting in a transient heating of the TiO2 surface by 40 K. Driven by entropy, the electron moves further into TiO2 bulk. If the electron remains trapped at the TiO2 surface, it recombines with the hole on a picosecond time scale. The obtained ET and recombination times are in excellent agreement with the experiment. The delocalized plasmon state observed in our study establishes a novel concept for plasmonic photosensitization of wide band gap semiconductors, leading to efficient conversion of photons to charge carriers and to hybrid materials with a wide

  8. Research and Improvement on Characteristics of Emergency Diesel Generating Set Mechanical Support System in Nuclear Power Plant (United States)

    Zhe, Yang


    There are often mechanical problems of emergency power generation units in nuclear power plant, which bring a great threat to nuclear safety. Through analyzing the influence factors caused by mechanical failure, the existing defects of the design of mechanical support system are determined, and the design idea has caused the direction misleading in the field of maintenance and transformation. In this paper, research analysis is made on basic support design of diesel generator set, main pipe support design and important components of supercharger support design. And this paper points out the specific design flaws and shortcomings, and proposes targeted improvement program. Through the implementation of improvement programs, vibration level of unit and mechanical failure rate are reduced effectively. At the same time, it also provides guidance for design, maintenance and renovation of diesel generator mechanical support system of nuclear power plants in the future.

  9. Surface-treated commercially pure titanium for biomedical applications: Electrochemical, structural, mechanical and chemical characterizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Erika S.; Matos, Adaias O.; Beline, Thamara [Department of Prosthodontics and Periodontology, Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Av Limeira, 901, Piracicaba, São Paulo 13414-903 (Brazil); IBTN/Br—Institute of Biomaterials, Tribocorrosion and Nanomedicine—Brazilian Branch (Brazil); Marques, Isabella S.V. [Department of Prosthodontics and Periodontology, Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Av Limeira, 901, Piracicaba, São Paulo 13414-903 (Brazil); Sukotjo, Cortino [Department of Restorative Dentistry, University of Illinois at Chicago, College of Dentistry, 801 S Paulina, Chicago, IL, USA, 60612 (United States); IBTN—Institute of Biomaterials, Tribocorrosion and Nanomedicine (United States); Mathew, Mathew T. [IBTN—Institute of Biomaterials, Tribocorrosion and Nanomedicine (United States); Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Illinois, College of Medicine at Rockford, 1601 Parkview Avenue, Rockford, IL, USA, 61107 (United States); Rangel, Elidiane C.; Cruz, Nilson C. [IBTN/Br—Institute of Biomaterials, Tribocorrosion and Nanomedicine—Brazilian Branch (Brazil); Laboratory of Technological Plasmas, Engineering College, Univ Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Av Três de Março, 511, Sorocaba, São Paulo 18087-180 (Brazil); Mesquita, Marcelo F.; Consani, Rafael X. [Department of Prosthodontics and Periodontology, Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Av Limeira, 901, Piracicaba, São Paulo 13414-903 (Brazil); and others


    Modified surfaces have improved the biological performance and biomechanical fixation of dental implants compared to machined (polished) surfaces. However, there is a lack of knowledge about the surface properties of titanium (Ti) as a function of different surface treatment. This study investigated the role of surface treatments on the electrochemical, structural, mechanical and chemical properties of commercial pure titanium (cp-Ti) under different electrolytes. Cp-Ti discs were divided into 6 groups (n = 5): machined (M—control); etched with HCl + H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (Cl), H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (S); sandblasted with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (Sb), Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} followed by HCl + H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (SbCl), and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} followed by H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (SbS). Electrochemical tests were conducted in artificial saliva (pHs 3; 6.5 and 9) and simulated body fluid (SBF—pH 7.4). All surfaces were characterized before and after corrosion tests using atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive microscopy, X-ray diffraction, surface roughness, Vickers microhardness and surface free energy. The results indicated that Cl group exhibited the highest polarization resistance (R{sub p}) and the lowest capacitance (Q) and corrosion current density (I{sub corr}) values. Reduced corrosion stability was noted for the sandblasted groups. Acidic artificial saliva decreased the R{sub p} values of cp-Ti surfaces and produced the highest I{sub corr} values. Also, the surface treatment and corrosion process influenced the surface roughness, Vickers microhardness and surface free energy. Based on these results, it can be concluded that acid-etching treatment improved the electrochemical stability of cp-Ti and all treated surfaces behaved negatively in acidic artificial saliva. - Highlights: • Characterization of surface treatment for biomedical implants was investigated. • Sandblasting reduced the corrosion stability of cp

  10. Gas Supply, Pricing Mechanism and the Economics of Power Generation in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanxin Liu


    Full Text Available During the “13th Five-Year Plan” period, green energy is the top priority for China. China has realized that natural gas, as a low-carbon energy source, fits with the nation’s energy demand and will play a critical role in the energy transition, but the actual industry development is slower than expected. By analyzing the major gas corporations around the world, the paper finds that the key factors of the sector are supply and price of the energy resource. A comprehensive analysis on domestic and foreign imported gas reveals a trend of oversupply in China in the future. Given the critical import dependence, China has introduced a series of gas price reforms since 2013, which have led to negative impacts on important gas consumption sectors including power generation. With the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE model, we find that under the prevailing gas supply structure and price level, the economy of utility gas power generation will remain unprofitable, while combined cooling heating and power (CCHP is only commercially feasible in coastal developed regions. If continuing, such a trend will not only bring forth disastrous consequences to gas power industry, but also damage the upstream gas industry, more importantly, impede the energy transition. We conclude the paper with policy implications on pricing mechanism reform, developing domestic unconventional gas and the R&D of gas turbine.

  11. Conserved mechanisms of microtubule-stimulated ADP release, ATP binding, and force generation in transport kinesins. (United States)

    Atherton, Joseph; Farabella, Irene; Yu, I-Mei; Rosenfeld, Steven S; Houdusse, Anne; Topf, Maya; Moores, Carolyn A


    Kinesins are a superfamily of microtubule-based ATP-powered motors, important for multiple, essential cellular functions. How microtubule binding stimulates their ATPase and controls force generation is not understood. To address this fundamental question, we visualized microtubule-bound kinesin-1 and kinesin-3 motor domains at multiple steps in their ATPase cycles--including their nucleotide-free states--at ∼ 7 Å resolution using cryo-electron microscopy. In both motors, microtubule binding promotes ordered conformations of conserved loops that stimulate ADP release, enhance microtubule affinity and prime the catalytic site for ATP binding. ATP binding causes only small shifts of these nucleotide-coordinating loops but induces large conformational changes elsewhere that allow force generation and neck linker docking towards the microtubule plus end. Family-specific differences across the kinesin-microtubule interface account for the distinctive properties of each motor. Our data thus provide evidence for a conserved ATP-driven mechanism for kinesins and reveal the critical mechanistic contribution of the microtubule interface.

  12. Mitigation of Shear-Induced Blood Damage of Mechanical Bileaflet Heart Valves using Embedded Vortex Generators (United States)

    Hidalgo, Pablo; Arjunon, Sivakkumar; Saikrishnan, Neelakantan; Yoganathan, Ajit; Glezer, Ari


    The strong transitory shear stress generated during the time-periodic closing of the mechanical prosthetic bileaflet aortic heart valve, is considered to be one of the main factors responsible for complications, associated with thrombosis and thromboembolism. These flow transients are investigated using phase and time-averaged PIV in a low-volume (about 150 ml) test setup that simulates the pulsatile physiological conditions associated with a 23 mm St. Jude Medical valve. The PIV measurements are accompanied by continuous monitoring of the ventricular and aortic pressures and valve flow rate. Following the valve closure, the leakage flow between the valve leaflets is caused by the pressure buildup across the leaflets, leading to the formation of a regurgitation jet starting from the BMHV B-datum line. As in a typical starting jet, a counter-rotating vortex pair is formed along each leaflet edge and the vorticity sheet is associated with high shear stress that may be result in blood platelet activation. The present investigation demonstrates that the placement of arrays of mm-scale vortex generators near the edges of the leaflets diffuses the vortex sheet and suppresses the formation of these vortices, weakening the local velocity gradients and small-scale vortical structures. Supported by NIH and NSF.

  13. Surface-modified polymeric pads for enhanced performance during chemical mechanical planarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshpande, S.; Dakshinamurthy, S.; Kuiry, S.C.; Vaidyanathan, R.; Obeng, Y.S.; Seal, S.


    The chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) process occurs at an atomic level at the slurry/wafer interface and hence slurries and polishing pads play a critical role in their successful implementation. Polyurethane is a commonly used polymer in the manufacturing of CMP pads. These pads are incompatible with some chemicals present in the CMP slurries, such as hydrogen peroxide. To overcome these problems, Psiloquest has developed new Application Specific Pads (ASP). Surface of such pads has been modified by depositing a thin film of tetraethyl orthosilicate using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) process. In the present study, mechanical properties of such coated pads have been investigated using nanoindentation. The surface morphology and the chemistry of the ASP were studied using scanning electron microcopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy techniques. It was observed that mechanical and chemical properties of the pad top surface are a function of the PECVD coating time. Such PECVD-treated pads are found to be hydrophilic and do not require storage in aqueous media during the not-in-use period. The metal removal rate using such surface-modified polishing pads was found to increase linearly with the PECVD coating time

  14. The thumb carpometacarpal joint: curvature morphology of the articulating surfaces, mathematical description and mechanical functioning. (United States)

    Dathe, Henning; Dumont, Clemens; Perplies, Rainer; Fanghänel, Jochen; Kubein-Meesenburg, Dietmar; Nägerl, Hans; Wachowski, Martin M


    The purpose is to present a mathematical model of the function of the thumb carpometacarpal joint (TCMCJ) based on measurements of human joints. In the TCMCJ both articulating surfaces are saddle-shaped. The aim was to geometrically survey the shapes of the articulating surfaces using precise replicas of 28 TCMCJs. None of these 56 articulating surfaces did mathematically extend the differential geometrical neighbourhood around the main saddle point so that each surface could be characterised by three main parameters: the two extreme radii of curvature in the main saddle point and the angle between the saddles' asymptotics (straight lines). The articulating surfaces, when contacting at the respective main saddle points, are incongruent. Hence, the TCMCJ has functionally five kinematical degrees of freedom (DOF); two DOF belong to flexion/extension, two to ab-/adduction. These four DOF are controlled by the muscular apparatus. The fifth DOF, axial rotation, cannot be adjusted but stabilized by the muscular apparatus so that physiologically under compressive load axial rotation does not exceed an angle of approximately ±3°. The TCMCJ can be stimulated by the muscular apparatus to circumduct. The mechanisms are traced back to the curvature incongruity of the saddle surfaces. Hence we mathematically proved that none of the individual saddle surfaces can be described by a quadratic saddle surface as is often assumed in literature. We derived an algebraic formula with which the articulating surfaces in the TCMCJ can be quantitatively described. This formula can be used to shape the articulating surfaces in physiologically equivalent TCMCJ-prostheses.

  15. Compressive Fracture of Brittle Geomaterial: Fractal Features of Compression-Induced Fracture Surfaces and Failure Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ren


    Full Text Available Compressive fracture is one of the most common failure patterns in geotechnical engineering. For better understanding of the local failure mechanism of compressive fractures of brittle geomaterials, three compressive fracture tests were conducted on sandstone. Edge cracked semicircular bend specimens were used and, consequently, fresh and unfilled compressive fracture surfaces were obtained. A laser profilometer was employed to measure the topography of each rough fracture surface, followed by fractal analysis of the irregularities of the obtained compression-induced fracture surfaces using the cubic cover method. To carry out a contrastive analysis with the results of compressive fracture tests, three tension mode fracture tests were also conducted and the fractal features of the obtained fracture surfaces were determined. The obtained average result of the fractal dimensions of the compression-induced surfaces was 2.070, whereas the average result was 2.067 for the tension-induced fracture surfaces. No remarkable differences between the fractal dimensions of the compression-induced and tension-induced fracture surfaces may indicate that compressive fracture may occur, at least on the investigative scale of this work, in a similar manner to tension fracture.

  16. Mechanically robust superhydrophobic steel surface with anti-icing, UV-durability, and corrosion resistance properties. (United States)

    Wang, Nan; Xiong, Dangsheng; Deng, Yaling; Shi, Yan; Wang, Kun


    A superhydrophobic steel surface was prepared through a facile method: combining hydrogen peroxide and an acid (hydrochloric acid or nitric acid) to obtain hierarchical structures on steel, followed by a surface modification treatment. Empirical grid maps based on different volumes of H2O2/acid were presented, revealing a wettability gradient from "hydrophobic" to "rose effect" and finally to "lotus effect". Surface grafting has been demonstrated to be realized only on the oxidized area. As-prepared superhydrophobic surfaces exhibited excellent anti-icing properties according to the water-dripping test under overcooled conditions and the artificial "steam-freezing" (from 50 °C with 90% humidity to the -20 °C condition) test. In addition, the surfaces could withstand peeling with 3M adhesive tape at least 70 times with an applied pressure of 31.2 kPa, abrasion by 400 grid SiC sandpaper for 110 cm under 16 kPa, or water impacting for 3 h without losing superhydrophobicity, suggesting superior mechanical durability. Moreover, outstanding corrosion resistance and UV-durability were obtained on the prepared surface. This successful fabrication of a robust, anti-icing, UV-durable, and anticorrosion superhydrophobic surface could yield a prospective candidate for various practical applications.

  17. Understanding the Acute Skin Injury Mechanism Caused by Player-Surface Contact During Soccer (United States)

    van den Eijnde, Wilbert A.J.; Peppelman, Malou; Lamers, Edwin A.D.; van de Kerkhof, Peter C.M.; van Erp, Piet E.J.


    Background: Superficial skin injuries are considered minor, and their incidence is probably underestimated. Insight into the incidence and mechanism of acute skin injury can be helpful in developing suitable preventive measures and safer playing surfaces for soccer and other field sports. Purpose: To gain insight into the incidence and severity of skin injuries related to soccer and to describe the skin injury mechanism due to player-surface contact. Study Design: Systematic review; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: The prevention model by van Mechelen et al (1992) combined with the injury causation model of Bahr and Krosshaug (2005) were used as a framework for the survey to describe the skin injury incidence and mechanism caused by player-surface contact. Results: The reviewed literature showed that common injury reporting methods are mainly based on time lost from participation or the need for medical attention. Because skin abrasions seldom lead to absence or medical attention, they are often not reported. When reported, the incidence of abrasion/laceration injuries varies from 0.8 to 6.1 injuries per 1000 player-hours. Wound assessment techniques such as the Skin Damage Area and Severity Index can be a valuable tool to obtain a more accurate estimation of the incidence and severity of acute skin injuries. Conclusion: The use of protective equipment, a skin lubricant, or wet surface conditions has a positive effect on preventing abrasion-type injuries from artificial turf surfaces. The literature also shows that essential biomechanical information of the sliding event is lacking, such as how energy is transferred to the area of contact. From a clinical and histological perspective, there are strong indications that a sliding-induced skin lesion is caused by mechanical rather than thermal injury to the skin. PMID:26535330

  18. Dense framelets with two generators and their application in mechanical fault diagnosis (United States)

    Qin, Yi; Wang, Jiaxu; Mao, Yongfang


    Wavelet analysis has been widely applied to mechanical fault diagnosis. Aiming at the problems of current wavelet basis, such as low time-frequency sampling, asymmetry and poor shift-invariance, this paper develops a new family of dense framelets with two generators and some desirable properties. To perform the corresponding framelet transform, three-channel iterated filterbank should be used, where the first and the third channel is decimated while the second channel is undecimated. This arrangement is very helpful for extracting the fault feature of the mid and low frequency band signal components and obtaining some symmetric framelets. To obtain framelets with high symmetry and a specified number of vanishing moments, B-spline and maximally flat linear FIR filter are, respectively, used to design filterbank. Three symmetric framelets and one framelets with symmetric low-pass filter and high-pass filter are constructed. Compared with the higher density framelets and orthonormal wavelets, the proposed framelets have better shift-invariance and denoising performance. Finally, the proposed framelets are applied to fault diagnosis of two gearboxes. The results show that the proposed framelets can be effectively applied to mechanical fault diagnosis and is superior to other commonly-used framelets/wavelets.

  19. Aerosciences, Aero-Propulsion and Flight Mechanics Technology Development for NASA's Next Generation Launch Technology Program (United States)

    Cockrell, Charles E., Jr.


    The Next Generation Launch Technology (NGLT) program, Vehicle Systems Research and Technology (VSR&T) project is pursuing technology advancements in aerothermodynamics, aeropropulsion and flight mechanics to enable development of future reusable launch vehicle (RLV) systems. The current design trade space includes rocket-propelled, hypersonic airbreathing and hybrid systems in two-stage and single-stage configurations. Aerothermodynamics technologies include experimental and computational databases to evaluate stage separation of two-stage vehicles as well as computational and trajectory simulation tools for this problem. Additionally, advancements in high-fidelity computational tools and measurement techniques are being pursued along with the study of flow physics phenomena, such as boundary-layer transition. Aero-propulsion technology development includes scramjet flowpath development and integration, with a current emphasis on hypervelocity (Mach 10 and above) operation, as well as the study of aero-propulsive interactions and the impact on overall vehicle performance. Flight mechanics technology development is focused on advanced guidance, navigation and control (GN&C) algorithms and adaptive flight control systems for both rocket-propelled and airbreathing vehicles.

  20. Mechanochemistry at Solid Surfaces: Polymerization of Adsorbed Molecules by Mechanical Shear at Tribological Interfaces. (United States)

    Yeon, Jejoon; He, Xin; Martini, Ashlie; Kim, Seong H


    Polymerization of allyl alcohol adsorbed and sheared at a silicon oxide interface is studied using tribo-tests in vapor phase lubrication conditions and reactive molecular dynamics simulations. The load dependences of product formation obtained from experiments and simulations were consistent, indicating that the atomic-scale processes observable in the simulations were relevant to the experiments. Analysis of the experimental results in the context of mechanically assisted thermal reaction theory, combined with the atomistic details available from the simulations, suggested that the association reaction pathway of allyl alcohol molecules induced by mechanical shear is quite different from chemically induced polymerization reactions. Findings suggested that some degree of distortion of the molecule from its equilibrium state is necessary for mechanically induced chemical reactions to occur and such a distortion occurs during mechanical shear when molecules are covalently anchored to one of the sliding surfaces.

  1. Tribochemical interaction between nanoparticles and surfaces of selective layer during chemical mechanical polishing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilie, Filip, E-mail: [Polytechnic University of Bucharest, Department of Machine Elements and Tribology (Romania)


    Nanoparticles have been widely used in polish slurries such as those in the chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) process. For understanding the mechanisms of CMP, an atomic force microscope (AFM) is used to characterize polished surfaces of selective layers, after a set of polishing experiments. To optimize the CMP polishing process, one needs to get information on the interaction between the nano-abrasive slurry nanoparticles and the surface of selective layer being polished. The slurry used in CMP process of the solid surfaces is slurry with large nanoparticle size colloidal silica sol nano-abrasives. Silica sol nano-abrasives with large nanoparticle are prepared and characterized by transmission electron microscopy, particles colloidal size, and Zeta potential in this paper. The movement of nanoparticles in liquid and the interaction between nanoparticles and solid surfaces coating with selective layer are very important to obtain an atomic alloy smooth surface in the CMP process. We investigate the nanoparticle adhesion and removal processes during CMP and post-CMP cleaning. The mechanical interaction between nanoparticles and the wafer surface was studied using a microcontact wear model. This model considers the nanoparticle effects between the polishing interfaces during load balancing. Experimental results on polishing and cleaning are compared with numerical analysis. This paper suggests that during post-CMP cleaning, a combined effort in chemical and mechanical interaction (tribochemical interactions) would be effective in removal of small nanoparticles during cleaning. For large nanoparticles, more mechanical forces would be more effective. CMP results show that the removal rate has been improved to 367 nm/min and root mean square (RMS) of roughness has been reduced from 4.4 to 0.80 nm. Also, the results show that the silica sol nano-abrasives about 100 nm are of higher stability (Zeta potential is −65 mV) and narrow distribution of nanoparticle

  2. The opto-mechanical design for GMOX: a next-generation instrument concept for Gemini (United States)

    Smee, Stephen A.; Barkhouser, Robert; Robberto, Massimo; Ninkov, Zoran; Gennaro, Mario; Heckman, Timothy M.


    We present the opto-mechanical design of GMOX, the Gemini Multi-Object eXtra-wide-band spectrograph, a potential next-generation (Gen-4 #3) facility-class instrument for Gemini. GMOX is a wide-band, multi-object, spectrograph with spectral coverage spanning 350 nm to 2.4 um with a nominal resolving power of R 5000. Through the use of Digital Micromirror Device (DMD) technology, GMOX will be able to acquire spectra from hundreds of sources simultaneously, offering unparalleled flexibility in target selection. Utilizing this technology, GMOX can rapidly adapt individual slits to either seeing-limited or diffraction-limited conditions. The optical design splits the bandpass into three arms, blue, red, and near infrared, with the near-infrared arm being split into three channels covering the Y+J band, H band, and K band. A slit viewing camera in each arm provides imaging capability for target acquisition and fast-feedback for adaptive optics control with either ALTAIR (Gemini North) or GeMS (Gemini South). Mounted at the Cassegrain focus, GMOX is a large (1.3 m x 2.8 m x 2.0 m) complex instrument, with six dichroics, three DMDs (one per arm), five science cameras, and three acquisition cameras. Roughly half of these optics, including one DMD, operate at cryogenic temperature. To maximize stiffness and simplify assembly and alignment, the opto-mechanics are divided into three main sub-assemblies, including a near-infrared cryostat, each having sub-benches to facilitate ease of alignment and testing of the optics. In this paper we present the conceptual opto-mechanical design of GMOX, with an emphasis on the mounting strategy for the optics and the thermal design details related to the near-infrared cryostat.

  3. Modifications of mechanical characteristics and iron corrosion by ionic implantation on surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumvol, I.J.


    Tin ionic implantation on pure iron surface at moderate doses (5x10 15 to 5x10 16 ) Sn + Cu -2 ) has proven to be very efficient in improving the metal characteristics to oxidation and abrasion at high temperature. The abrasion volumetric coefficient K v , is reduced from up to 100 times, and the oxidation tax constant is reduced from up to 10 times. The physical mechanisms responsible for these phenomena are studied using different techniques of surface analysis; as Rutherford backscattering of alpha particles, Moessbauer spectroscopy of conversion electrons and sweeping electronic microscopy. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  4. The mechanism of the surface alloy layer creation for cast steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Walasek


    Full Text Available The paper presents a detailed description of the process of creation of a surface alloy layer (using high-carbon ferrochromium on the cast steel casting. The mechanism of the surface alloy layer is based on the known theories [5,6]. The proposed course of formation of the layers has been extended to decarburization stage of steel. The research included proving the presence of carbon-lean zone. The experiment included the analysis of the distribution of elements and microhardness measurement.

  5. Nano-diamonds surface modifications: understanding of electron exchange mechanisms and evidence of a therapeutic effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, Tristan


    In this thesis, a therapeutic effect of nano-diamonds (NDs) has been evidenced by investigating the role of NDs surface chemistry on their electronic properties. More precisely, the generation of reactive oxygen species from detonation NDs under ionizing radiation, which could improve current radiotherapy treatments, has been demonstrated. To this end, surface treatments facilitating electron transfer from NDs to their environment, namely hydrogenation and surface graphitization, were developed. Experimental conditions ensuring an efficient hydrogenation by hydrogen plasma were determined under ultrahigh vacuum, before being used to prepare large quantities of NDs in powder phase. A similar procedure was applied to the surface graphitization of NDs, performed by annealing under vacuum at high temperature. The impact of such surface treatments on the electronic interaction properties of NDs has been investigated under ambient air and after dispersion in water. These surface treatments induce a positive Zeta potential to NDs in water, which origin has been discussed. Finally, their interactions with human tumor cells were observed. Radiosensitization of tumor cells using NDs under gamma irradiation was demonstrated, opening new perspectives for NDs in nano-medicine. (author) [fr

  6. A simple distributed mechanism for accounting system self-configuration in next-generation charging and billing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kühne, R.; Huitema, G.B.; Carle, G.


    Modern communication systems are becoming increasingly dynamic and complex. In this article a novel mechanism for next generation charging and billing is presented that enables self-configurability for accounting systems consisting of heterogeneous components. The mechanism is required to be simple,

  7. Online Monitoring of Laser-Generated XUV Radiation Spectra by Surface Reflectivity Measurements with Particle Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Hoffmann


    Full Text Available In this contribution, we present a wavelength-sensitive method for the detection of extreme ultraviolet (XUV photon energies between 30 eV and 120 eV. The method is based on 45° reflectivity from either a cesium iodide-coated or an uncoated metal surface, which directs the XUV beam onto an electron or ion detector and its signal is used to monitor the XUV beam. The benefits of our approach are a spectrally sensitive diagnosis of the XUV radiation at the interaction place of time-resolved XUV experiments and the detection of infrared leak light though metal filters in high-harmonic generation (HHG experiments. Both features were tested using spectrally shaped XUV pulses from HHG in a capillary, and we have achieved excellent agreement with XUV spectrometer measurements and reflectivity calculations. Our obtained results are of interest for time-resolved XUV experiments presenting an additional diagnostic directly in the interaction region and for small footprint XUV beamline diagnostics.

  8. Entropy Generation Analysis of Open Parallel Microchannels Embedded Within a Permeable Continuous Moving Surface: Application to Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad H. Yazdi


    Full Text Available This paper presents a new design of open parallel microchannels embedded within a permeable continuous moving surface due to reduction of exergy losses in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD flow at a prescribed surface temperature (PST. The entropy generation number is formulated by an integral of the local rate of entropy generation along the width of the surface based on an equal number of microchannels and no-slip gaps interspersed between those microchannels. The velocity, the temperature, the velocity gradient and the temperature gradient adjacent to the wall are substituted into this equation resulting from the momentum and energy equations obtained numerically by an explicit Runge-Kutta (4, 5 formula, the Dormand-Prince pair and shooting method. The entropy generation number, as well as the Bejan number, for various values of the involved parameters of the problem are also presented and discussed in detail.

  9. Topography and Mechanical Property Mapping of International Simple Glass Surfaces with Atomic Force Microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, Eric M [ORNL


    Quantitative Nanomechanical Peak Force (PF-QNM) TappingModeTM atomic force microscopy measurements are presented for the first time on polished glass surfaces. The PF-QNM technique allows for topography and mechanical property information to be measured simultaneously at each pixel. Results for the international simple glass which represents a simplified version of SON68 glass suggests an average Young s modulus of 78.8 15.1 GPa is within the experimental error of the modulus measured for SON68 glass (83.6 2 GPa) with conventional approaches. Application of the PF-QNM technique will be extended to in situ glass corrosion experiments with the goal of gaining atomic-scale insights into altered layer development by exploiting the mechanical property differences that exist between silica gel (e.g., altered layer) and pristine glass surface.

  10. Acetone gas sensing mechanism on zinc oxide surfaces: A first principles calculation (United States)

    Sadeghian Lemraski, M.; Nadimi, E.


    Semiconducting metal oxide gas sensors have attracted growing interest as a result of their outstanding performance in the bio and industrial applications. Nevertheless, the sensing mechanism is yet not totally understood. In this study, we extensively investigate the adsorption mechanism of acetone molecule on ZnO-based thin film sensors by performing ab initio density functional theory calculations and employing quantum molecular dynamic simulations. Since the sensitivity of a metal oxide sensor is exceedingly depends on molecular oxygen exposure and operating temperature, we explore the competitive adsorption of acetone and oxygen molecule on the most stable orientation of ZnO surface (10 1 ̅ 0) at different temperatures. Results indicate that at elevated temperatures acetone gains required thermal energy to remove preadsorbed oxygen molecule from the surface in a competitive process. We will show that this competition is responsible for the resistive switching behavior in the ZnO-based gas sensors.

  11. Optical, chemical and mechanical modifications induced by ion implantation on glass surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinellato, V.; Nicoletti, F.; Polato, P.; Gottardi, V.


    Soda-lime glasses have been implanted with 50 keV Ar ions. Modifications induced on the glass surface have been studied as a function of implanted dose, with particular regard to optical, chemical, and mechanical properties. Optical measurements indicate a reduction of the refractive index, connected to the surface sodium content. The sodium profile has been measured using the Na 23 (p,α)Ne 20 nuclear reaction. An improvement of the mechanical resistance has been observed at low implantation dose, together with a change of the chemical durability. An expansion of glass has been observed by S.E.M. and interferometric microscopy for 80 keV implantation energy. (author)

  12. Expressions to Rayleigh circumferential phase velocity and dispersion relation for a cylindrical surface under mechanical pressure (United States)

    Sebold, Jean Eduardo; de Lacerda, Luiz Alkimin


    This paper describes a substantiated mathematical theory for Rayleigh waves propagated on some types of metal cylinders. More specifically, it presents not only a new way to express the dispersion relation of Rayleigh waves propagated on the cylindrical surface, but also how it can be used to construct a mathematical equation showing that the applied static mechanical pressure affects the shear modulus of the metal cylinder. All steps, required to conclude the process, consider the equation of motion as a function of radial and circumferential coordinates only, while the axial component can be overlooked without causing any problems. Some numerical experiments are done to illustrate the changes in the Rayleigh circumferential phase velocity in a metal cylindrical section due to static mechanical pressure around its external surface.

  13. Early stages of Cs adsorption mechanism for GaAs nanowire surface (United States)

    Diao, Yu; Liu, Lei; Xia, Sihao; Feng, Shu


    In this study, the adsorption mechanism of Cs adatoms on the (100) surface of GaAs nanowire with [0001] growth direction is investigated utilizing first principles method based on density function theory. The adsorption energy, work function, atomic structure and electronic property of clean surface and Cs-covered surfaces with different coverage are discussed. Results show that when only one Cs is adsorbed on the surface, the most favorable adsorption site is BGa-As. With increasing Cs coverage, work function gradually decreases and gets its minimum at 0.75 ML, then rises slightly when Cs coverage comes to 1 ML, indicating the existence of 'Cs-kill' phenomenon. According to further analysis, Cs activation process can effectively reduce the work function due to the formation of a downward band bending region and surface dipole moment directing from Cs adatom to the surface. As Cs coverage increases, the conduction band minimum and valence band maximum both shift towards lower energy side, contributed by the orbital hybridization between Cs-5s, Cs-5p states and Ga-4p, As-4s, As-4p states near Fermi level. The theoretical calculations and analysis in this study can improve the Cs activation technology for negative electron affinity optoelectronic devices based on GaAs nanowires, and also provide a reference for the further Cs/O or Cs/NF3 activation process.

  14. Generation of synthetic surface electromyography signals under fatigue conditions for varying force inputs using feedback control algorithm. (United States)

    Venugopal, G; Deepak, P; Ghosh, Diptasree M; Ramakrishnan, S


    Surface electromyography is a non-invasive technique used for recording the electrical activity of neuromuscular systems. These signals are random, complex and multi-component. There are several techniques to extract information about the force exerted by muscles during any activity. This work attempts to generate surface electromyography signals for various magnitudes of force under isometric non-fatigue and fatigue conditions using a feedback model. The model is based on existing current distribution, volume conductor relations, the feedback control algorithm for rate coding and generation of firing pattern. The result shows that synthetic surface electromyography signals are highly complex in both non-fatigue and fatigue conditions. Furthermore, surface electromyography signals have higher amplitude and lower frequency under fatigue condition. This model can be used to study the influence of various signal parameters under fatigue and non-fatigue conditions.

  15. The Effect of Thermal Radiation on Entropy Generation Due to Micro-Polar Fluid Flow Along a Wavy Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuei-Hao Chang


    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of thermal radiation on micro-polar fluid flow over a wavy surface is studied. The optically thick limit approximation for the radiation flux is assumed. Prandtl’s transposition theorem is used to stretch the ordinary coordinate system in certain directions. The wavy surface can be transferred into a calculable plane coordinate system. The governing equations of micro-polar fluid along a wavy surface are derived from the complete Navier-Stokes equations. A simple transformation is proposed to transform the governing equations into boundary layer equations so they can be solved numerically by the cubic spline collocation method. A modified form for the entropy generation equation is derived. Effects of thermal radiation on the temperature and the vortex viscosity parameter and the effects of the wavy surface on the velocity are all included in the modified entropy generation equation.

  16. The effect of crack propagation mechanism on the fractal dimension of fracture surfaces in steels

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dlouhý, Ivo; Strnadel, B.


    Roč. 75, č. 3-4 (2008), s. 726-738 ISSN 0013-7944 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA106/06/0646; GA AV ČR IAA200410502 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : low-alloyed steel * fracture surface * fractography Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 1.713, year: 2008

  17. Development of an in vitro pump: mechanical characterization and surface engineering of elastomeric membranes


    Paik, Isha


    In vitro modelling offers the potential of recapitulating human degenerate tissue for physiological studies and pharmacological screening. Yet, few systems have been developed to date, primarily due to the lack of vascularisation in engineered tissue. Here, the development of an in vitro pump is addressed. This will be the first component of a long term strategy to build internal circulatory systems for in vitro engineered tissue. Firstly, mechanical characterisation and surface biocompatibil...

  18. Investigation of peptide based surface functionalization for copper ions detection using an ultrasensitive mechanical microresonator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cagliani, Alberto; Fischer, Lee MacKenzie; Rasmussen, Jakob Lyager


    In the framework of developing a portable label-free sensor for multi arrayed detection of heavy metals in drinking water, we present a mechanical resonator-based copper ions sensor, which uses a recently synthesized peptide Cysteine–Glycine–Glycine–Histidine (CGGH) and the l-Cysteine (Cys) peptide...... devices to detect a concentration of 10μM of copper in water, we regenerate the surface by removing the copper ions from the functionalization layer using EDTA....

  19. Oxidation and metal-insertion in molybdenite surfaces: evaluation of charge-transfer mechanisms and dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shutthanandan V


    Full Text Available Abstract Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2, a layered transition-metal dichalcogenide, has been of special importance to the research community of geochemistry, materials and environmental chemistry, and geotechnical engineering. Understanding the oxidation behavior and charge-transfer mechanisms in MoS2 is important to gain better insight into the degradation of this mineral in the environment. In addition, understanding the insertion of metals into molybdenite and evaluation of charge-transfer mechanism and dynamics is important to utilize these minerals in technological applications. Furthermore, a detailed investigation of thermal oxidation behavior and metal-insertion will provide a basis to further explore and model the mechanism of adsorption of metal ions onto geomedia. The present work was performed to understand thermal oxidation and metal-insertion processes of molybdenite surfaces. The analysis was performed using atomic force microscopy (AFM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS, and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA. Structural studies using SEM and TEM indicate the local-disordering of the structure as a result of charge-transfer process between the inserted lithium and the molybdenite layer. Selected area electron diffraction measurements indicate the large variations in the diffusivity of lithium confirming that the charge-transfer is different along and perpendicular to the layers in molybdenite. Thermal heating of molybenite surface in air at 400°C induces surface oxidation, which is slow during the first hour of heating and then increases significantly. The SEM results indicate that the crystals formed on the molybdenite surface as a result of thermal oxidation exhibit regular thin-elongated shape. The average size and density of the crystals on the surface is dependent on the time of annealing; smaller size and high density during the first one-hour and

  20. Generation of ultrahydrophobic properties of aluminium - a first step to self-cleaning transparently coated metal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thieme, M.; Worch, H.; Scharnweber, D. [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstoffwissenschaft; Frenzel, R.; Schmidt, S.; Simon, F.; Hennig, A.; Lunkwitz, K. [Inst. fuer Polymerforschung Dresden e.V., Dresden (Germany)


    In the last few years, significant efforts have been made to provide surfaces with self-cleaning properties. This approach utilises principles which have been discovered in nature, like the well known 'Lotus-effect'. The transformation of this strategy to metallic surfaces is a scientifically and technologically challenging target. This publication focuses on the investigation of different routes for the generation of the necessary micro-morphological properties of Al. (orig.)

  1. Optical absorption of epoxy resin and its role in the laser ultrasonic generation mechanism in composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stratoudaki, T.; Edwards, C.; Dixon, S.; Palmer, S.B.


    Epoxy resins are used in various applications and are essential to the fabrication of carbon fibre reinforced composite materials (CFRCs). This paper investigates laser generated ultrasound in epoxy resins using three different lasers, a TEA CO2, a Nd:YAG and a XeCl excimer. In these partially transparent materials the ultrasonic generation mechanism is directly related to the optical absorption depth which can therefore be measured directly from the ultrasonic waveforms using for example a Michelson interferometer as detector. The present work aims firstly to relate the observed amplitude of the longitudinal wave to the optical absorption depth of the epoxy and secondly to evaluate the role of the epoxy resin to the generation of the ultrasound in CFRCs. For the latter, comparative results of generation efficiency between the three wavelengths are presented and an attempt is made to understand the way that the resin matrix influences the generation mechanism of ultrasound in composite materials

  2. The relationship between the particle properties, mechanical behavior, and surface roughness of some pharmaceutical excipient compacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayan, Padma; Hancock, Bruno C.


    Several common pharmaceutical excipient powders were compacted at a constant solid fraction (SF) in order to study the relationship between powder properties, compact surface roughness, and compact mechanical properties such as hardness, elasticity, and brittleness. The materials used in this study included microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), fumaric acid, mannitol, lactose monohydrate, spray dried lactose, sucrose, and dibasic calcium phosphate dihydrate. A slow consolidation process was used to make compacts at a SF of 0.85 (typical for most pharmaceutical tablets) from single excipient components. A model was proposed to describe the surface roughness of compacts based on the brittle or ductile deformation tendencies of the powder materials. The roughness profile would also be dependent upon the magnitude of the compression stress in relation to the yield stress (onset of irreversible deformation) values of the excipients. It was hypothesized that brittle materials would produce smooth compacts with high surface variability due to particle fracture, and the converse would apply for ductile materials. Compact surfaces should be smoother if the materials were compressed above their yield pressure values. Non-contact optical profilometry was used along with scanning electron microscopy to quantify and characterize the surface morphology of the excipient compacts. The roughness parameters R a (average roughness), R q (RMS roughness), R q /R a (ratio describing surface variability), and R sk (skewness) were found to correlate with the deformation properties of the excipients. Brittle materials such as lactose, sucrose, and calcium phosphate produced compacts with low values of R a and R q , high variability, and negative R sk . The opposite was found with plastic materials such as MCC, mannitol, and fumaric acid. The highly negative skewness values for brittle material compacts may indicate their propensity to be vulnerable to cracks or surface defects. These findings

  3. Optically transparent, mechanically durable, nanostructured superhydrophobic surfaces enabled by spinodally phase-separated glass thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aytug, Tolga; Simpson, John T; Lupini, Andrew R; Trejo, Rosa M; Jellison, Gerald E; Ivanov, Ilia N; Pennycook, Stephen J; Hillesheim, Daniel A; Winter, Kyle O; Christen, David K; Hunter, Scott R; Allen Haynes, J


    We describe the formation and properties of atomically bonded, optical quality, nanostructured thin glass film coatings on glass plates, utilizing phase separation by spinodal decomposition in a sodium borosilicate glass system. Following deposition via magnetron sputtering, thermal processing and differential etching, these coatings are structurally superhydrophilic (i.e., display anti-fogging functionality) and demonstrate robust mechanical properties and superior abrasion resistance. After appropriate chemical surface modification, the surfaces display a stable, non-wetting Cassie–Baxter state and exhibit exceptional superhydrophobic performance, with water droplet contact angles as large as 172°. As an added benefit, in both superhydrophobic and superhydrophilic states these nanostructured surfaces can block ultraviolet radiation and can be engineered to be anti-reflective with broadband and omnidirectional transparency. Thus, the present approach could be tailored toward distinct coatings for numerous markets, such as residential windows, windshields, specialty optics, goggles, electronic and photovoltaic cover glasses, and optical components used throughout the US military. (paper)

  4. Atomic force microscopy studies of bioprocess engineering surfaces - imaging, interactions and mechanical properties mediating bacterial adhesion. (United States)

    James, Sean A; Hilal, Nidal; Wright, Chris J


    The detrimental effect of bacterial biofilms on process engineering surfaces is well documented. Thus, interest in the early stages of bacterial biofilm formation; in particular bacterial adhesion and the production of anti-fouling coatings has grown exponentially as a field. During this time, Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has emerged as a critical tool for the evaluation of bacterial adhesion. Due to its versatility AFM offers not only insight into the topographical landscape and mechanical properties of the engineering surfaces, but elucidates, through direct quantification the topographical and biomechnical properties of the foulants The aim of this review is to collate the current research on bacterial adhesion, both theoretical and practical, and outline how AFM as a technique is uniquely equipped to provide further insight into the nanoscale world at the bioprocess engineering surface. Copyright © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. General contact mechanics theory for randomly rough surfaces with application to rubber friction (United States)

    Scaraggi, M.; Persson, B. N. J.


    We generalize the Persson contact mechanics and rubber friction theory to the case where both surfaces have surface roughness. The solids can be rigid, elastic, or viscoelastic and can be homogeneous or layered. We calculate the contact area, the viscoelastic contribution to the friction force, and the average interface separation as a function of the sliding speed and the nominal contact pressure. We illustrate the theory with numerical results for the classical case of a rubber block sliding on a road surface. We find that with increasing sliding speed, the influence of the roughness on the rubber block decreases to the extent that only the roughness of the stiff counter face needs to be considered.

  6. Electron beam irradiation effects on the mechanical, thermal and surface properties of a fluoroelastomer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovedi, Claudia; Pino, Eddy Segura; Rossi, Marcelo Rabello; Machado, Luci Diva Brocardo


    Fluoroelastomer can be used as a sealing material for different purposes. The aim of this work is the evaluation of the effects of the ionizing radiation of an electron beam (EB) on the mechanical, thermal and surface properties of a commercial fluoroelastomer containing carbon black and inorganic fillers. The material was irradiated with overall doses between 10 and 250 kGy. Tensile strength (stress and strain at break), hardness (Shore A) and compression set were evaluated. Thermal behavior was evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. Surface modifications were inspected using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical microscopy. The experiments have shown that EB irradiation promotes beneficial changes in the fluoroelastomer tensile strength behavior while compression set remain constant and the glass transition temperature increases. The SEM micrographs have shown compactness in the irradiated samples, although optical observations showed no surface morphology changes

  7. Mechanisms for SAR imaging of ocean surface phenomena: Theory and experiment (United States)

    Vesecky, J. F.


    Understanding the SAR response to surface wave is a central issue in the analysis of SAR ocean images. The imaging mechanism for gravity waves and the practical question of just which characteristics of the ocean wave field can be measured remotely using SAR were examined. Assessments of wave imaging theory are based primarily on comparisons of the directional wave height variance spectrum psi (K) measured by in situ buoys with estimates from SAR images. Other criteria are also recommended, e.g., the effects of focus adjustments. It is assumed that fluctuations in SAR image intensity are proportional to fluctuations in ocean surface height. If this were true, the Fourier power spectrum of a SAR image and corresponding surface measurements of psi would coincide. Differences between SAR estimates based on this hypothesis and buoy measurements of psi are then used to begin the assessment of rival wave imaging theories.

  8. Natural weathering effects on the mechanical and surface properties of polyphenylene sulphide (PPS) composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinmazcelik, Tamer [Mechanical Engineering Department, Kocaeli University, Veziroglu Campus, izmit 41040 (Turkey): TUBITAK-MRC, MCTRI, P.O. Box 21, 41470 Gebze (Turkey)]. E-mail:


    In this paper, Natural weathering effects on the mechanical and surface properties of polyphenylene sulphide (PPS) composites were studied. Injection moulded short glass fibre and short glass fibre/calcium carbonate particle filled (hybrid) PPS composites were investigated. These specimens were subjected to natural weathering in izmit, Turkey for 3216 h. Instrumented charpy impact tests were performed on a charpy pendulum type tester. The surfaces of the samples were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It is demonstrated that particle reinforcement (additional to the random oriented short glass fibre) reduces the impact performance of composite material but the material becomes more resistant to weathering. Percentage decrease in the impact strength after natural weathering of fibre/particle filled PPS composite is smaller compared to short fibre filled PPS composite. On the other hand, surface morphology of CaCO{sub 3} particle reinforced PPS composite is affected less from natural weathering and this material should be considered for outdoor applications.

  9. Optically transparent, mechanically durable, nanostructured superhydrophobic surfaces enabled by spinodally phase-separated glass thin films (United States)

    Aytug, Tolga; Simpson, John T.; Lupini, Andrew R.; Trejo, Rosa M.; Jellison, Gerald E.; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Pennycook, Stephen J.; Hillesheim, Daniel A.; Winter, Kyle O.; Christen, David K.; Hunter, Scott R.; Haynes, J. Allen


    We describe the formation and properties of atomically bonded, optical quality, nanostructured thin glass film coatings on glass plates, utilizing phase separation by spinodal decomposition in a sodium borosilicate glass system. Following deposition via magnetron sputtering, thermal processing and differential etching, these coatings are structurally superhydrophilic (i.e., display anti-fogging functionality) and demonstrate robust mechanical properties and superior abrasion resistance. After appropriate chemical surface modification, the surfaces display a stable, non-wetting Cassie-Baxter state and exhibit exceptional superhydrophobic performance, with water droplet contact angles as large as 172°. As an added benefit, in both superhydrophobic and superhydrophilic states these nanostructured surfaces can block ultraviolet radiation and can be engineered to be anti-reflective with broadband and omnidirectional transparency. Thus, the present approach could be tailored toward distinct coatings for numerous markets, such as residential windows, windshields, specialty optics, goggles, electronic and photovoltaic cover glasses, and optical components used throughout the US military.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bukowska


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to manufacture amorphous Co22Y54Al24 alloy in a form of thin ribbons and to investigate their properties. The investigated ribbons were prepared by rapid solidification of molten metal on a rotating copper cylinder (melt-spinning. In order to obtain the material with amorphous structure, the cooling rate of the liquid alloy should vary in a range from 104 to 106 K/s. The microstructure studies were performed using X-ray diffractometery. The mechanical properties were investigated by metallographic studies, micro-hardness and tribological resistance tests moreover the surface roughness profile were analyzed. All studies were performed for two sides of tapes, since the differences in ribbons surface, related with manufacturing process, are clearly visible. The surface from the bottom (drum side was glossy and from the top side it was shiny.

  11. Corrosive inorganic contamination on wafer surfaces after nickel-iron electroplating formation mechanisms and prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kritzer, P. [Freudenberg Nonwovens KG, Technical Nonwovens Div., Weinheim (Germany); Diel, W.; Barber, P.H. [IBM Speichersysteme Deutschland GmbH, Mainz (Germany); Romankiw, L.T. [IBM Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY (United States)


    Electroplating of Nickel-Iron alloys is widely used in the production of magnetic heads for storage systems. Usually, the plating process is performed in acidic, salt-containing solutions. After the plating step, a complete removal of the plating salts is necessary to receive a clean surface. In disadvantageous cases, a precipitation of sticky particles is observed that cannot be removed from the plated surface without damaging the surface. Some of these substances (esp. nickel sulfates) might lead to severe local corrosion and thus might act as ''time-bomb'' in the later product. Non-corrosive precipitations (i.e. nickel hydroxides) strongly hinder or even prevent the following production steps. In the present paper, the mechanisms of the origin of the different kinds of precipitation are described and the principle actions for their prevention are given. An outlook is given for other possible technical applications. (orig.)

  12. Introduction to conformal invariance in statistical mechanics and to random surface models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, F.


    In the first part of these lectures I give a brief and somewhat superficial introduction to the techniques of conformal invariance and to a few applications in statistical mechanics in two dimensions. My purpose is to introduce the basic ideas and some standard results for the students who are not familiar with the theory, and to introduce concepts and tools which will be useful for the other lecturers, rather than to give a complete and up to date review of the subject. In the second part I discuss several problems in the statistical mechanics of two dimensional random surfaces and membranes. As an introduction, I present some basic facts about the statistical mechanics of one-dimensional objects and polymers, which are classical examples of objects with critical properties. Then I emphasize the special role of curvature energy and of the elastic energy associated with the internal structure of membranes, and the corresponding models of random surfaces. Finally, I discuss the specific problem of self-avoiding tethered surfaces, whose critical properties are still poorly understood, and for which the applicability of some basic techniques of field theory, such as renormalization group calculations, has been understood only recently. (orig.)

  13. Effect of a surface oxide-dispersion-strengthened layer on mechanical strength of zircaloy-4 tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang-Il Jung


    Full Text Available An oxide-dispersion-strengthened (ODS layer was formed on Zircaloy-4 tubes by a laser beam scanning process to increase mechanical strength. Laser beam was used to scan the yttrium oxide (Y2O3–coated Zircaloy-4 tube to induce the penetration of Y2O3 particles into Zircaloy-4. Laser surface treatment resulted in the formation of an ODS layer as well as microstructural phase transformation at the surface of the tube. The mechanical strength of Zircaloy-4 increased with the formation of the ODS layer. The ring-tensile strength of Zircaloy-4 increased from 790 to 870 MPa at room temperature, from 500 to 575 MPa at 380°C, and from 385 to 470 MPa at 500°C. Strengthening became more effective as the test temperature increased. It was noted that brittle fracture occurred at room temperature, which was not observed at elevated temperatures. Resistance to dynamic high-temperature bursting improved. The burst temperature increased from 760 to 830°C at a heating rate of 5°C/s and internal pressure of 8.3 MPa. The burst opening was also smaller than those in fresh Zircaloy-4 tubes. This method is expected to enhance the safety of Zr fuel cladding tubes owing to the improvement of their mechanical properties. Keywords: Laser Surface Treatment, Microstructure, Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Alloy, Tensile Strength, Zirconium Alloy

  14. Dense surface seismic data confirm non-double-couple source mechanisms induced by hydraulic fracturing (United States)

    Pesicek, Jeremy; Cieślik, Konrad; Lambert, Marc-André; Carrillo, Pedro; Birkelo, Brad


    We have determined source mechanisms for nine high-quality microseismic events induced during hydraulic fracturing of the Montney Shale in Canada. Seismic data were recorded using a dense regularly spaced grid of sensors at the surface. The design and geometry of the survey are such that the recorded P-wave amplitudes essentially map the upper focal hemisphere, allowing the source mechanism to be interpreted directly from the data. Given the inherent difficulties of computing reliable moment tensors (MTs) from high-frequency microseismic data, the surface amplitude and polarity maps provide important additional confirmation of the source mechanisms. This is especially critical when interpreting non-shear source processes, which are notoriously susceptible to artifacts due to incomplete or inaccurate source modeling. We have found that most of the nine events contain significant non-double-couple (DC) components, as evident in the surface amplitude data and the resulting MT models. Furthermore, we found that source models that are constrained to be purely shear do not explain the data for most events. Thus, even though non-DC components of MTs can often be attributed to modeling artifacts, we argue that they are required by the data in some cases, and can be reliably computed and confidently interpreted under favorable conditions.

  15. Mechanical polishing as an improved surface treatment for platinum screen-printed electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junqiao Lee


    Full Text Available The viability of mechanical polishing as a surface pre-treatment method for commercially available platinum screen-printed electrodes (SPEs was investigated and compared to a range of other pre-treatment methods (UV-Ozone treatment, soaking in N,N-dimethylformamide, soaking and anodizing in aqueous NaOH solution, and ultrasonication in tetrahydrofuran. Conventional electrochemical activation of platinum SPEs in 0.5 M H2SO4 solution was ineffective for the removal of contaminants found to be passivating the screen-printed surfaces. However, mechanical polishing showed a significant improvement in hydrogen adsorption and in electrochemically active surface areas (probed by two different redox couples due to the effective removal of surface contaminants. Results are also presented that suggest that SPEs are highly susceptible to degradation by strong acidic or caustic solutions, and could potentially lead to instability in long-term applications due to continual etching of the binding materials. The ability of SPEs to be polished effectively extends the reusability of these traditionally “single-use” devices. Keywords: Screen-printed electrodes, Polishing, Platinum, Activation, Pre-treatment, Cyclic voltammetry

  16. Formation Mechanism of Surface Metamorphic Layer on Turning End Face of GH4169 Superalloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YAO Changfeng


    Full Text Available Turning experiments and Deform-3D finite element methods were used to study the formation mechanism of surface metamorphic layer on turning GH4169 processed. The investigations were carried out by analyzing the changing of cutting force, the temperature and strain field, the residual stress, micro-hardness, microstructure, as well as the distribution of the above all along the direction of the depth under various process parameters. The results show that the surface metamorphic layer is formed due to the thermal-mechanical coupled effects on the microstructure of the material in the machining process. The cutting force, heat and strain of surface material are increased with the increase of machining intensity. Besides the higher strength of machining, the greater changes of plastic deformation, metallographic and grain deformation are acquired. In the range of processing parameters, the temperature layer is 130-200 μm,the strain layer is 100-220 μm, the residual stress layer is 80-110 μm, the depth of hardening layer is 50-80 μm, and the depth of surface metamorphic layer is 2.5-5μm.

  17. CO adsorption, dissociation and coupling formation mechanisms on Fe2C(001) surface (United States)

    Yu, Xiaohu; Zhang, Xuemei; Meng, Yan; Zhao, Yaoping; Li, Yuan; Xu, Wei; Liu, Zhong


    By means of density functional theory calculations and atomic thermodynamics, we systematically investigated the CO adsorption on the Fe2C(001) surface at different coverage. It has been found that CO prefers to adsorb on the surface iron atom at low coverage (1-8 CO); CO prefers to adsorb at the bridge site of Fe and C atoms at high coverage (9-12 CO). Eight CO molecules binding on the Fe2C(001) surface is favorable thermodynamically as indicated by the stepwise adsorption energy. The phase diagram shows that addition of more CO molecules up to a number of 8 is thermodynamically favorable, and that the incremental energy gained by adding one more CO molecule is almost constant up to 4 CO molecules, decreases up to 8 CO molecules, after which it becomes thermodynamically unfavorable to add more CO molecules. Probability distribution of different singe-CO adsorbed states on the Fe2C(001) surface as function of temperature shows that CO dissociation and coupling are least preferred, indicating that carbide mechanism is not dominant in the iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis reaction. The projected density of states (PDOS) was used to analyze the CO adsorption mechanism.

  18. Study on the mechanism of surface modification of magnesium oxysulfate whisker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dang, Li [Qinghai Institute of Salt Lakes, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xining 810008 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Nai, Xueying; Zhu, Donghai [Qinghai Institute of Salt Lakes, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xining 810008 (China); Jing, Yanwei [Qinghai Institute of Salt Lakes, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xining 810008 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Liu, Xin; Dong, Yaping [Qinghai Institute of Salt Lakes, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xining 810008 (China); Li, Wu, E-mail: [Qinghai Institute of Salt Lakes, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xining 810008 (China)


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Physisorbed lauric acid was ruled out by FT-IR spectroscopy. • The inexistence of physisorbed magnesium laurate was proved by DSC analyses. • {sup 13}C NMR further verified the formation of COO–Mg< bonds on the surface of MOSw. • “Acid-base neutralization” was proved by the pH meter monitoring synchronously. • The type of surface modification of MOSw was proved to be chemical adsorption only. - Abstract: Hydrophobic-lipophilic magnesium oxysulfate whisker (MOSw) was prepared by surface modification with lauric acid and the surface morphology of MOSw was examined with field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) was used to characterize the crystalline degree of MOSw and modified MOSw (MOSw-LA). Both FESEM and XRD suggested that modification occurred on the surface of MOSw exclusively. The inexistence of physisorbed lauric acid was proved by Fouier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Thermogravimetric analyses ruled out the possibility that magnesium laurate (LA-Mg) physisorbed on the surface of MOSw-LA. Solid state {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 13}C NMR) further verified the formation of COO–Mg< bonds based on the significant changes of chemical shift and decrease in intensity. Hence, we confirmed that the type of surface modification of MOSw with lauric acid was chemical adsorption taken place between lauric acid and Mg<. In order to study the dynamic state approach of this reaction, a pH meter was employed to monitor the reaction process synchronously, and then we proposed a reaction mechanism which was similar to the “acid-base neutralization”. This research provides a detailed explanation for a kind of surface modification, which may be further used in the performance of whisker/polymer matrix composites.

  19. Diagnostic examination of Generation 2 lithium-ion cells and assessment ofperformance degradation mechanisms.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, D. P.; Dees, D. W.; Knuth, J.; Reynolds, E.; Gerald, R.; Hyung,Y.-E.; Belharouak, I.; Stoll, M.; Sammann, E.; MacLaren, S.; Haasch, R.; Twesten,R.; Sardela, M.; Battaglia, V.; Cairns, E.; Kerr, J.; Kerlau, M.; Kostecki, R.; Lei,J.; McCarthy, K.; McLarnon, F.; Reimer, J.; Richardson, T.; Ross, P.; Sloop,S.; Song, X.; Zhuang, V.; Balasubramanian, M.; McBreen, J.; Chung, K.-Y.; Yang, X.Q.; Yoon, W.-S.; Norin, L.


    The Advanced Technology Development (ATD) Program is a multilaboratory effort to assist industrial developers of high-power lithium-ion batteries overcome the barriers of cost, calendar life, abuse tolerance, and low-temperature performance so that this technology may be rendered practical for use in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Included in the ATD Program is a comprehensive diagnostics effort conducted by researchers at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The goals of this effort are to identify and characterize processes that limit lithium-ion battery performance and calendar life, and ultimately to describe the specific mechanisms that cause performance degradation. This report is a compilation of the diagnostics effort conducted since spring 2001 to characterize Generation 2 ATD cells and cell components. The report is divided into a main body and appendices. Information on the diagnostic approach, details from individual diagnostic techniques, and details on the phenomenological model used to link the diagnostic data to the loss of 18650-cell electrochemical performance are included in the appendices. The main body of the report includes an overview of the 18650-cell test data, summarizes diagnostic data and modeling information contained in the appendices, and provides an assessment of the various mechanisms that have been postulated to explain performance degradation of the 18650 cells during accelerated aging. This report is intended to serve as a ready reference on ATD Generation 2 18650-cell performance and provide information on the tools for diagnostic examination and relevance of the acquired data. A comprehensive account of our experimental procedures and resulting data may be obtained by consulting the various references listed in the text. We hope that this report will serve as a roadmap for the diagnostic analyses of other lithium-ion technologies being

  20. Mechanisms and timescales of generating eruptible rhyolitic magmas at Yellowstone caldera from zircon and sanidine geochronology and geochemistry (United States)

    Stelten, Mark; Cooper, Kari M.; Vazquez, Jorge A.; Calvert, Andrew T.; Glessner, Justin G


    We constrain the physical nature of the magma reservoir and the mechanisms of rhyolite generation at Yellowstone caldera via detailed characterization of zircon and sanidine crystals hosted in three rhyolites erupted during the (ca. 170 – 70 ka) Central Plateau Member eruptive episode – the most recent post-caldera magmatism at Yellowstone. We present 238U-230Th crystallization ages and trace-element compositions of the interiors and surfaces (i.e., unpolished rims) of individual zircon crystals from each rhyolite. We compare these zircon data to 238U- 230Th crystallization ages of bulk sanidine separates coupled with chemical and isotopic data from single sanidine crystals. Zircon age and trace-element data demonstrate that the magma reservoir that sourced the Central Plateau Member rhyolites was long-lived (150 – 250 kyr) and genetically related to the preceding episode of magmatism, which occurred ca. 256 ka. The interiors of most zircons in each rhyolite were inherited from unerupted material related to older stages of Central Plateau Member magmatism or the preceding late Upper Basin Member magmatism (i.e., are antecrysts). Conversely, most zircon surfaces crystallized near the time of eruption from their host liquids (i.e., are autocrystic). The repeated recycling of zircon interiors from older stages of magmatism demonstrates that sequentially erupted Central Plateau Member rhyolites are genetically related. Sanidine separates from each rhyolite yield 238U-230Th crystallization ages at or near the eruption age of their host magmas, coeval with the coexisting zircon surfaces, but are younger than the coexisting zircon interiors. Chemical and isotopic data from single sanidine crystals demonstrate that the sanidines in each rhyolite are in equilibrium with their host melts, which considered along with their near-eruption crystallization ages suggests that nearly all CPM sanidines are autocrystic. The paucity of antecrystic sanidine crystals relative to