Sample records for surface fts stations

  1. Comparison of the GOSAT TANSO-FTS TIR CH volume mixing ratio vertical profiles with those measured by ACE-FTS, ESA MIPAS, IMK-IAA MIPAS, and 16 NDACC stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Olsen


    Full Text Available The primary instrument on the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT is the Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observations (TANSO Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS. TANSO-FTS uses three short-wave infrared (SWIR bands to retrieve total columns of CO2 and CH4 along its optical line of sight and one thermal infrared (TIR channel to retrieve vertical profiles of CO2 and CH4 volume mixing ratios (VMRs in the troposphere. We examine version 1 of the TANSO-FTS TIR CH4 product by comparing co-located CH4 VMR vertical profiles from two other remote-sensing FTS systems: the Canadian Space Agency's Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment FTS (ACE-FTS on SCISAT (version 3.5 and the European Space Agency's Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS on Envisat (ESA ML2PP version 6 and IMK-IAA reduced-resolution version V5R_CH4_224/225, as well as 16 ground stations with the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC. This work follows an initial inter-comparison study over the Arctic, which incorporated a ground-based FTS at the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL at Eureka, Canada, and focuses on tropospheric and lower-stratospheric measurements made at middle and tropical latitudes between 2009 and 2013 (mid-2012 for MIPAS. For comparison, vertical profiles from all instruments are interpolated onto a common pressure grid, and smoothing is applied to ACE-FTS, MIPAS, and NDACC vertical profiles. Smoothing is needed to account for differences between the vertical resolution of each instrument and differences in the dependence on a priori profiles. The smoothing operators use the TANSO-FTS a priori and averaging kernels in all cases. We present zonally averaged mean CH4 differences between each instrument and TANSO-FTS with and without smoothing, and we examine their information content, their sensitive altitude range, their correlation, their a priori dependence, and the

  2. FTS2000 network architecture (United States)

    Klenart, John


    The network architecture of FTS2000 is graphically depicted. A map of network A topology is provided, with interservice nodes. Next, the four basic element of the architecture is laid out. Then, the FTS2000 time line is reproduced. A list of equipment supporting FTS2000 dedicated transmissions is given. Finally, access alternatives are shown.

  3. Solar occultation observations from the international space station: Deployment of a FTS for Atmospheric chemistry and trend studies (United States)

    Rinsland, C. P.; Chu, W. P.; Cunnold, D. M.


    We propose the deployment of SAGE IV on the International Space Station (ISS) for recording solar occultation observations in the 2008-2013 time period. The design of SAGE IV is based on the SAGE III near UV-visible grating spectrometer with a 1.55 μm PIN diode, but also includes a compact Fourier transform spectrometer operating between 740 and 4100 cm-1. The combined instrumentation would focus on obtaining simultaneous high vertical resolution stratospheric profiles of ozone, over 30 other molecules, temperature, density, and aerosols at low to mid-latitudes to monitor the recovery of the ozone layer as the abundances of the chlorofluorocarbons decline. SAGE IV would extend the SAGE III ISS observational record to 2008-2013 with a consistent set of observations and data processing methods.

  4. Radioimmunological dosage of FTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pleau, J.M.; Pasques, D.; Bach, J.F.; Gros, C.; Dray, F.


    The FTS (serum thymidine factor) is a polypeptide implicated in the differentiation of T lymphocytes, the primary sructure of which has been determined. Preliminary studies using a semi-quantitative biological test have shown that the serum FTS level is modified in certain immunological disturbances. A radioimmunological assay of this factor has been developed by the authors. The FTS was made immunogenic by coupling to bovine albumin and labelled with 125 I pre-alkylated with the agent of BOLTON HUNTER. The assay is sensitive enough for the detection of 2 pg FTS. The presence of interfering molecules in the serum therefore makes it necessary to develop an extraction method for the FTS serum assay. (AJ) [de

  5. WebFTS: File Transfer Web Interface for FTS3

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    WebFTS is a web-delivered file transfer and management solution which allows users to invoke reliable, managed data transfers on distributed infrastructures. The fully open source solution offers a simple graphical interface through which the power of the FTS3 service can be accessed without the installation of any special grid tools. Created following simplicity and efficiency criteria, WebFTS allows the user to access and interact with multiple grid and cloud storage. The “transfer engine” used is FTS3, the service responsible for distributing the majority of LHC data across WLCG infrastructure. This provides WebFTS with reliable, multi-protocol, adaptively optimised data transfers.The talk will focus on the recent development which allows transfers from/to Dropbox and CERNBox (CERN ownCloud deployment)

  6. The surface physics work station: final design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landers, R.; Kleiman, G.G.; Castro, S.G.C. de; Douglas, R.A.; Nascente, P.A.P.


    Thanks to funding from FAPESP we will be installing in the beginning of 1997 a work station for electron spectroscopy designed for the study of clean solid surfaces and the modification of these surfaces by deposition in situ of ultra thin metallic films. The main analytical tool will be a high resolution hemispherical analyzer made by VSW-Omicrom (EA 125 HR) which is capable of better than 5 meV resolution and high transmission due to its five channeltron multi detection system. The system will also have a Rear View LEED Optics for single crystal studies. The system will be housed in a 16'' cylindrical chamber with mu metal magnetic shielding having two levels for analysis. The upper level will contain instruments for technique which do not require photons such as LEED and sample cleaning. The lower level will have the electron analyzer, conventional X-ray source (Al/Mg), electron gun for Auger, e-beam evaporators for thin film deposition and ports for the future addition of different detectors. We will have a manipulator with 5 degrees of freedom (thre translation and two rotational) and sample heating and LN cooling. Finally we will have a fast entry/preparation chamber. The pumping system will have a combination of turbomolecular and ion pumps for the main chamber and a turbo for the fast entr/prep chamber. The system will be used initially for the study of surface alloys by XPS and Photoelectron Diffraction but as soon as it is properly characterized it will be open for collaborations with other groups interested in using its capabilities. (author)

  7. The hetero-hexameric nature of a chloroplast AAA+ FtsH protease contributes to its thermodynamic stability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofer Moldavski

    Full Text Available FtsH is an evolutionary conserved membrane-bound metalloprotease complex. While in most prokaryotes FtsH is encoded by a single gene, multiple FtsH genes are found in eukaryotes. Genetic and biochemical data suggest that the Arabidopsis chloroplast FtsH is a hetero-hexamer. This raises the question why photosynthetic organisms require a heteromeric complex, whereas in most bacteria a homomeric one is sufficient. To gain structural information of the possible complexes, the Arabidopsis FtsH2 (type B and FtsH5 (type A were modeled. An in silico study with mixed models of FtsH2/5 suggests that heteromeric hexamer structure with ratio of 4:2 is more likely to exists. Specifically, calculation of the buried surface area at the interfaces between neighboring subunits revealed that a hetero-complex should be thermodynamically more stable than a homo-hexamer, due to the presence of additional hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions. To biochemically assess this model, we generated Arabidopsis transgenic plants, expressing epitope-tagged FtsH2 and immuno-purified the protein. Mass-spectrometry analysis showed that FtsH2 is associated with FtsH1, FtsH5 and FtsH8. Interestingly, we found that 'type B' subunits (FtsH2 and FtsH8 were 2-3 fold more abundant than 'type A' (FtsH1 and FtsH5. The biochemical data corroborate the in silico model and suggest that the thylakoid FtsH hexamer is composed of two 'type A' and four 'type B' subunits.

  8. GLORIA: an airborne imaging FTS (United States)

    Sha, Mahesh K.


    The Gimballed Limb Observer for Radiance Imaging of the Atmosphere (GLORIA) is an imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) which is capable of operating on various airborne platforms. The main scientific focus is on the dynamics and chemistry of the Upper Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere (UTLS) region.

  9. Fine-mapping the contact sites of the Escherichia coli cell division proteins FtsB and FtsL on the FtsQ protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg van Saparoea, H.B.; Glas, M.; Vernooij, I.G.; Bitter, W.; den Blaauwen, T.; Luirink, S.


    Background: Interactions between the components of the divisome are crucial for cell division, but detailed knowledge is lacking. Results: In vivo photo cross-linking revealed two main contact sites of FtsB and FtsL on FtsQ. Conclusion: FtsQ contains an FtsB interaction hot spot. Significance: Our

  10. Variation In Surface Water Vapour Density Over Four Nigerian Stations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The surface water vapour density ρ has been studied using monthly averages of temperature and relative humidity at four selected weather stations in Nigeria for the years 1987 to 1991. It is found that during the dry season months of November to March, ρ is higher at night by an average of about 9.9% than during the day ...

  11. Thermal adaptation of mesophilic and thermophilic FtsZ assembly by modulation of the critical concentration (United States)

    Concha-Marambio, Luis; Maldonado, Paula; Lagos, Rosalba; Monasterio, Octavio


    Cytokinesis is the last stage in the cell cycle. In prokaryotes, the protein FtsZ guides cell constriction by assembling into a contractile ring-shaped structure termed the Z-ring. Constriction of the Z-ring is driven by the GTPase activity of FtsZ that overcomes the energetic barrier between two protein conformations having different propensities to assemble into polymers. FtsZ is found in psychrophilic, mesophilic and thermophilic organisms thereby functioning at temperatures ranging from subzero to >100°C. To gain insight into the functional adaptations enabling assembly of FtsZ in distinct environmental conditions, we analyzed the energetics of FtsZ function from mesophilic Escherichia coli in comparison with FtsZ from thermophilic Methanocaldococcus jannaschii. Presumably, the assembly may be similarly modulated by temperature for both FtsZ orthologs. The temperature dependence of the first-order rates of nucleotide hydrolysis and of polymer disassembly, indicated an entropy-driven destabilization of the FtsZ-GTP intermediate. This destabilization was true for both mesophilic and thermophilic FtsZ, reflecting a conserved mechanism of disassembly. From the temperature dependence of the critical concentrations for polymerization, we detected a change of opposite sign in the heat capacity, that was partially explained by the specific changes in the solvent-accessible surface area between the free and polymerized states of FtsZ. At the physiological temperature, the assembly of both FtsZ orthologs was found to be driven by a small positive entropy. In contrast, the assembly occurred with a negative enthalpy for mesophilic FtsZ and with a positive enthalpy for thermophilic FtsZ. Notably, the assembly of both FtsZ orthologs is characterized by a critical concentration of similar value (1–2 μM) at the environmental temperatures of their host organisms. These findings suggest a simple but robust mechanism of adaptation of FtsZ, previously shown for eukaryotic

  12. Analytical applications of ICP-FTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faires, L.M.; Palmer, B.A.; Cunningham, P.T.


    The Analytical Chemistry Group of the Chemistry Division at Los Alamos National Laboratory has been investigating the analytical utility of the inductively coupled plasma (ICP) - Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) combination. While a new state-of-the-art FTS facility is under construction at Los Alamos, preliminary data has been obtained on the one-meter FTS at the National Solar Observatory at Kitt Peak, Arizona. This paper presents an update of the Los Alamos FTS facility, which is expected to be completed in 1986, and presents data showing the analytical potential of an ICP-FTS system. Some of the potential problems of the multiplex disadvantage are discussed, and the advantages of the high resolution obtainable with the FTS are illustrated

  13. Validation of ACE-FTS N2O measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Stiller


    Full Text Available The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE, also known as SCISAT, was launched on 12 August 2003, carrying two instruments that measure vertical profiles of atmospheric constituents using the solar occultation technique. One of these instruments, the ACE Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS, is measuring volume mixing ratio (VMR profiles of nitrous oxide (N2O from the upper troposphere to the lower mesosphere at a vertical resolution of about 3–4 km. In this study, the quality of the ACE-FTS version 2.2 N2O data is assessed through comparisons with coincident measurements made by other satellite, balloon-borne, aircraft, and ground-based instruments. These consist of vertical profile comparisons with the SMR, MLS, and MIPAS satellite instruments, multiple aircraft flights of ASUR, and single balloon flights of SPIRALE and FIRS-2, and partial column comparisons with a network of ground-based Fourier Transform InfraRed spectrometers (FTIRs. Between 6 and 30 km, the mean absolute differences for the satellite comparisons lie between −42 ppbv and +17 ppbv, with most within ±20 ppbv. This corresponds to relative deviations from the mean that are within ±15%, except for comparisons with MIPAS near 30 km, for which they are as large as 22.5%. Between 18 and 30 km, the mean absolute differences for the satellite comparisons are generally within ±10 ppbv. From 30 to 60 km, the mean absolute differences are within ±4 ppbv, and are mostly between −2 and +1 ppbv. Given the small N2O VMR in this region, the relative deviations from the mean are therefore large at these altitudes, with most suggesting a negative bias in the ACE-FTS data between 30 and 50 km. In the comparisons with the FTIRs, the mean relative differences between the ACE-FTS and FTIR partial columns (which cover a mean altitude range of 14 to 27 km are within ±5.6% for eleven of the twelve contributing stations. This mean relative difference is negative at ten stations

  14. Identification and Partial Characterization of Potential FtsL and FtsQ Homologs of Chlamydia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scot P Ouellette


    Full Text Available Chlamydia is amongst the rare bacteria that lack the critical cell division protein FtsZ. By annotation, Chlamydia also lacks several other essential cell division proteins including the FtsLBQ complex that links the early (e.g. FtsZ and late (e.g. FtsI/Pbp3 components of the division machinery. Here, we report chlamydial FtsL and FtsQ homologs. Ct271 aligned well with E. coli FtsL and shared sequence homology with it, including a predicted leucine-zipper like motif. Based on in silico modeling, we show that Ct764 has structural homology to FtsQ in spite of little sequence similarity. Importantly, ct271/ftsL and ct764/ftsQ are present within all sequenced chlamydial genomes and are expressed during the replicative phase of the chlamydial developmental cycle, two key characteristics for a chlamydial cell division gene. GFP-Ct764 localized to the division septum of dividing transformed chlamydiae, and, importantly, over-expression inhibited chlamydial development. Using a bacterial two-hybrid approach, we show that Ct764 interacted with other components of the chlamydial division apparatus. However, Ct764 was not capable of complementing an E. coli FtsQ depletion strain in spite of its ability to interact with many of the same division proteins as E. coli FtsQ, suggesting that chlamydial FtsQ may function differently. We previously proposed that Chlamydia uses MreB and other rod-shape determining proteins as an alternative system for organizing the division site and its apparatus. Chlamydial FtsL and FtsQ homologs expand the number of identified chlamydial cell division proteins and suggest that Chlamydia has likely kept the late components of the division machinery while substituting the Mre system for the early components.

  15. The laboratory station for tyres grip testing on different surfaces (United States)

    Kalinowski, K.; Grabowik, C.; Janik, W.; Ćwikła, G.; Skowera, M.


    The paper presents the conception of the device for tyre grip testing in the laboratory conditions. The main purpose is to provide a device working in confined spaces, which enables rapid changes of the tested samples of the road surfaces. Among the key assumptions the minimization of the device dimensions and the relative ease of transportation and mobility - the ability to quick assemble and disassemble were also assumed. The main components of the projected workstation includes: the replaceable platform for mounting samples of a road surface, the roller conveyor, the drive of the platform, the wheel mounting assembly and the axial force measuring system. At the design the station a morphological structure method has been used, particular elements have been optimized individually.

  16. Broad Band Data and Noise Observed with Surface Station and Borehole Station (United States)

    Tunc, Suleyman; Ozel, Oguz; Safa Arslan, Mehmet; Behiye Akşahin, Bengi; Hatipoglu, Mustafa; Cagin Yalcintepe, Ragip; Ada, Samim; Meral Ozel, Nurcan


    Marmara region tectonically is very active and many destructive earthquakes happened in the past. North Anatolian Fault Zone crosses the Marmara region and it has three branches. The northern branch passes through Marmara Sea and expected future large earthquake will happen along this fault zone. There is a gap in seismic network in the Marmara region at offshore and onshore areas. We have started broadband borehole seismographic observations to obtain the detailed information about fault geometry and its stick-slip behavior beneath the western Marmara Sea, as a part of the MARsite collaborative Project, namely "New Directions in Seismic Hazard Assessment through Focused Earth Observation in the Marmara Supersite-MARsite". The target area western Marmara of Turkey. In the beginning of the project, we installed eight Broadband surface station around Marmara Sea in April 2014. Then, we added broadband sensor and broadband surface sensor at the same location in November 2014. In this study, we developed a Matlab application to calculate Power Spectral Density against the New Low Noise Model (NLNM) and New High Noise Model (NHNM) determined for one-hour segments of the data. Also we compared ambient noise of broadband borehole sensor and surface broadband sensor.

  17. Index of stations: surface-water data-collection network of Texas, September 1995 (United States)

    Gandara, S.C.; Jones, R.E.


    As of September 30, 1995, the surface-water data-collection network of Texas (table 1) included 305 continuous-recording streamflow stations (D), 28 gageheight record only stations (G), 23 crest-stage partialrecord stations (C), 42 flood-hydrograph partial-record stations (H), 33 low-flow partial-record stations (L), 19 continuous-recording temperature and conductivity stations (M2), 5 continuous-recording temperature, conductivity, and dissolved oxygen stations (M3), 17 continuous-recording temperature, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, and pH stations (M4), 6 daily chemicalquality stations (Q), 143 periodic chemical-quality stations (Qp), 20 reservoir/lake surveys for water quality (Qs), and 64 continuous or daily reservoir-content stations (R). Plate 1 identifies the major river basins in Texas and shows the location of the stations listed in table 1.

  18. Relating FTS Catalyst Properties to Performance (United States)

    Ma, Wenping; Ramana Rao Pendyala, Venkat; Gao, Pei; Jermwongratanachai, Thani; Jacobs, Gary; Davis, Burton H.


    During the reporting period June 23, 2011 to August 31, 2013, CAER researchers carried out research in two areas of fundamental importance to the topic of cobalt-based Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis (FTS): promoters and stability. The first area was research into possible substitute promoters that might be used to replace the expensive promoters (e.g., Pt, Re, and Ru) that are commonly used. To that end, three separate investigations were carried out. Due to the strong support interaction of ?-Al2O3 with cobalt, metal promoters are commonly added to commercial FTS catalysts to facilitate the reduction of cobalt oxides and thereby boost active surface cobalt metal sites. To date, the metal promoters examined have been those up to and including Group 11. Because two Group 11 promoters (i.e., Ag and Au) were identified to exhibit positive impacts on conversion, selectivity, or both, research was undertaken to explore metals in Groups 12 - 14. The three metals selected for this purpose were Cd, In, and Sn. At a higher loading of 25%Co on alumina, 1% addition of Cd, In, or Sn was found to-on average-facilitate reduction by promoting a heterogeneous distribution of cobalt consisting of larger lesser interacting cobalt clusters and smaller strongly interacting cobalt species. The lesser interacting species were identified in TPR profiles, where a sharp low temperature peak occurred for the reduction of larger, weakly interacting, CoO species. In XANES, the Cd, In, and Sn promoters were found to exist as oxides, whereas typical promoters (e.g., Re, Ru, Pt) were previously determined to exist in an metallic state in atomic coordination with cobalt. The larger cobalt clusters significantly decreased the active site density relative to the unpromoted 25%Co/Al2O3 catalyst. Decreasing the cobalt loading to 15%Co eliminated the large non-interacting species. The TPR peak for reduction of strongly interacting CoO in the Cd promoted catalyst occurred at a measurably lower temperature

  19. Station-based Surface Data Value-Added Product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Q. [DOE ARM Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States); Xie, S. [DOE ARM Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States)


    This report describes the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Best Estimate (ARMBE) station-based surface data (ARMBESTNS) value-added product. It is a twin data product of the ARMBE 2-Dimensional gridded (ARMBE2DGRID) data set. Unlike the ARMBE2DGRID data set, ARMBESTNS data are reported at the original site locations and show the original information (except for the interpolation over time). Therefore, the users have the flexibility to process the data with the approach more suitable for their applications. This document provides information about the input data, quality control (QC) method, and output format of this data set. As much of the information is identical to that of the ARMBE2DGRID data, this document will emphasize more on the different aspects of these two data sets.

  20. LARSON FTS SPECTRA V1.0 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains 107 asteroid spectra obtained between the years 1975 and 1982 inclusive, with the infrared fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) of H. P....

  1. Next generation WLCG File Transfer Service (FTS)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    LHC experiments at CERN and worldwide utilize WLCG resources and middleware components to perform distributed computing tasks. One of the most important tasks is reliable file replication. It is a complex problem, suffering from transfer failures, disconnections, transfer duplication, server and network overload, differences in storage systems, etc. To address these problems, EMI and gLite have provided the independent File Transfer Service (FTS) and Grid File Access Library (GFAL) tools. Their development started almost a decade ago, in the meantime, requirements in data management have changed - the old architecture of FTS and GFAL cannot keep support easily these changes. Technology has also been progressing: FTS and GFAL do not fit into the new paradigms (cloud, messaging, for example). To be able to serve the next stage of LHC data collecting (from 2013), we need a new generation of  these tools: FTS 3 and GFAL 2. We envision a service requiring minimal configuration, which can dynamically adapt to the...

  2. Index of stations: surface-water data-collection network of Texas, September 1999 (United States)

    Gandara, Susan C.; Barbie, Dana L.


    As of September 30, 1999, the surface-water data-collection network of Texas (table 1) included 321 continuous-record streamflow stations (D), 20 continuous-record gage-height only stations (G), 24 crest-stage partial-record stations (C), 40 floodhydrograph partial-record stations (H), 25 low-flow partial-record stations (L), 1 continuous-record temperature station (M1), 25 continuous-record temperature and specific conductance stations (M2), 17 continuous-record temperature, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, and pH stations (M4), 4 daily water-quality stations (Qd), 115 periodic water-quality stations (Qp), 17 reservoir/lake surveys for water quality stations (Qs), 85 continuous or daily reservoircontent stations (R), and 10 daily precipitation stations (Pd). Plate 1 identifies the major river basins in Texas and shows the location of the stations listed in table 1. Table 1 shows the station number and name, latitude and longitude, type of station, and office responsible for the collection of the data and maintenance of the record. An 8-digit permanent numerical designation for all gaging stations has been adopted on a nationwide basis; stations are numbered and listed in downstream order. In the downstream direction along the main stem, all stations on a tributary entering between two main-stem stations are listed between these two stations. A similar order is followed in listing stations by first rank, second rank, and other ranks of tributaries. The rank of any tributary, with respect to the stream to which it is an immediate tributary, is indicated by an indention in the table. Each indention represents one rank. This downstream order and system of indention shows which gaging stations are on tributaries between any two stations on a main stem and the rank of the tributary on which each gaging station is situated.

  3. FtsZ-less prokaryotic cell division as well as FtsZ- and dynamin-less chloroplast and non-photosynthetic plastid division

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-Ya eMiyagishima


    Full Text Available The chloroplast division machinery is a mixture of a stromal FtsZ-based complex descended from a cyanobacterial ancestor of chloroplasts and a cytosolic dynamin-related protein (DRP 5B-based complex derived from the eukaryotic host. Molecular genetic studies have shown that each component of the division machinery is normally essential for normal chloroplast division. However, several exceptions have been found. In the absence of the FtsZ ring, nonphotosynthetic plastids are able to proliferate, likely by elongation and budding. Depletion of DRP5B impairs, but does not stop chloroplast division. Chloroplasts in glaucophytes, which possesses a peptidoglycan (PG layer, divide without DRP5B. Certain parasitic eukaryotes possess nonphotosynthetic plastids of secondary endosymbiotic origin, but neither FtsZ nor DRP5B is encoded in their genomes. Elucidation of the FtsZ- and/or DRP5B-less chloroplast division mechanism will lead to a better understanding of the function and evolution of the chloroplast division machinery and the finding of the as-yet-unknown mechanism that is likely involved in chloroplast division. Recent studies have shown that FtsZ was lost from a variety of prokaryotes, many of which lost PG by regressive evolution. In addition, even some of the FtsZ-bearing bacteria are able to divide when FtsZ and PG are depleted experimentally. In some cases, alternative mechanisms for cell division, such as budding by an increase of the cell surface-to-volume ratio, are proposed. Although PG is believed to have been lost from chloroplasts other than in glaucophytes, there is some indirect evidence for the existence of PG in chloroplasts. Such information is also useful for understanding how nonphotosynthetic plastids are able to divide in FtsZ-depleted cells and the reason for the retention of FtsZ in chloroplast division. Here we summarize information to facilitate analyses of FtsZ- and/or DRP5B-less chloroplast and nonphotosynthetic plastid

  4. Microbial Observatory (ISS-MO): Indoor microbiome study of the International Space Station surfaces (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Presented here is the environmental microbiome study of the International Space Station surfaces. The environmental samples were collected with the polyester wipes...

  5. ZipA binds to FtsZ with high affinity and enhances the stability of FtsZ protofilaments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuradha Kuchibhatla

    Full Text Available A bacterial membrane protein ZipA that tethers FtsZ to the membrane is known to promote FtsZ assembly. In this study, the binding of ZipA to FtsZ was monitored using fluorescence spectroscopy. ZipA was found to bind to FtsZ with high affinities at three different (6.0, 6.8 and 8.0 pHs, albeit the binding affinity decreased with increasing pH. Further, thick bundles of FtsZ protofilaments were observed in the presence of ZipA under the pH conditions used in this study indicating that ZipA can promote FtsZ assembly and stabilize FtsZ polymers under unfavorable conditions. Bis-ANS, a hydrophobic probe, decreased the interaction of FtsZ and ZipA indicating that the interaction between FtsZ and ZipA is hydrophobic in nature. ZipA prevented the dilution induced disassembly of FtsZ polymers suggesting that it stabilizes FtsZ protofilaments. Fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled ZipA was found to be uniformly distributed along the length of the FtsZ protofilaments indicating that ZipA stabilizes FtsZ protofilaments by cross-linking them.

  6. Characteristics of greenhouse gas concentrations derived from ground-based FTS spectra at Anmyeondo, South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.-S. Oh


    Full Text Available Since the late 1990s, the meteorological observatory established in Anmyeondo (36.5382° N, 126.3311° E, and 30 m above mean sea level has been monitoring several greenhouse gases such as CO2, CH4, N2O, CFCs, and SF6 as a part of the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW Program. A high resolution ground-based (g-b Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS was installed at this observation site in 2013 and has been operated within the frame work of the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON since August 2014. The solar spectra recorded by the g-b FTS cover the spectral range 3800 to 16 000 cm−1 at a resolution of 0.02 cm−1. In this work, the GGG2014 version of the TCCON standard retrieval algorithm was used to retrieve total column average CO2 and CH4 dry mole fractions (XCO2, XCH4 and from the FTS spectra. Spectral bands of CO2 (at 6220.0 and 6339.5 cm−1 center wavenumbers, CH4 at 6002 cm−1 wavenumber, and O2 near 7880 cm−1 were used to derive the XCO2 and XCH4. In this paper, we provide comparisons of XCO2 and XCH4 between the aircraft observations and g-b FTS over Anmyeondo station. A comparison of 13 coincident observations of XCO2 between g-b FTS and OCO-2 (Orbiting Carbon Observatory satellite measurements are also presented for the measurement period between February 2014 and November 2017. OCO-2 observations are highly correlated with the g-b FTS measurements (r2 = 0.884 and exhibited a small positive bias (0.189 ppm. Both data set capture seasonal variations of the target species with maximum and minimum values in spring and late summer, respectively. In the future, it is planned to further utilize the FTS measurements for the evaluation of satellite observations such as Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT, GOSAT-2. This is the first report of the g-b FTS observations of XCO2 species over the Anmyeondo station.

  7. FtsZ Polymerization Assays : Simple Protocols and Considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Król, Ewa; Scheffers, Dirk-Jan


    During bacterial cell division, the essential protein FtsZ assembles in the middle of the cell to form the so-called Z-ring. FtsZ polymerizes into long filaments in the presence of GTP in vitro, and polymerization is regulated by several accessory proteins. FtsZ polymerization has been extensively

  8. Technologies for protection of the Space Station power system surfaces in atomic oxygen environment (United States)

    Nahra, Henry K.; Rutledge, Sharon K.


    Technologies for protecting Space Station surfaces from degradation caused by atomic oxygen are discussed, stressing protection of the power system surfaces. The Space Station power system is described and research concerning the solar array surfaces and radiator surfaces is examined. The possibility of coating the solar array sufaces with a sputter deposited thin film of silicon oxide containing small concentrations of polytetrafluoroethylene is presented. Hexamethyldisiloxane coating for these surfaces is also considered. For the radiator surfaces, possible coatings include silver teflon thermal coating and zinc orthotitanate.

  9. FtsZ placement in nucleoid-free bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Pazos

    Full Text Available We describe the placement of the cytoplasmic FtsZ protein, an essential component of the division septum, in nucleoid-free Escherichia coli maxicells. The absence of the nucleoid is accompanied in maxicells by degradation of the SlmA protein. This protein, together with the nucleoid, prevents the placement of the septum in the regions occupied by the chromosome by a mechanism called nucleoid occlusion (NO. A second septum placement mechanism, the MinCDE system (Min involving a pole-to-pole oscillation of three proteins, nonetheless remains active in maxicells. Both Min and NO act on the polymerization of FtsZ, preventing its assembly into an FtsZ-ring except at midcell. Our results show that even in the total absence of NO, Min oscillations can direct placement of FtsZ in maxicells. Deletion of the FtsZ carboxyl terminal domain (FtsZ*, a central hub that receives signals from a variety of proteins including MinC, FtsA and ZipA, produces a Min-insensitive form of FtsZ unable to interact with the membrane-anchoring FtsA and ZipA proteins. This protein produces a totally disorganized pattern of FtsZ localization inside the maxicell cytoplasm. In contrast, FtsZ*-VM, an artificially cytoplasmic membrane-anchored variant of FtsZ*, forms helical or repetitive ring structures distributed along the entire length of maxicells even in the absence of NO. These results show that membrane anchoring is needed to organize FtsZ into rings and underscore the role of the C-terminal hub of FtsZ for their correct placement.

  10. FtsZ Placement in Nucleoid-Free Bacteria (United States)

    Pazos, Manuel; Casanova, Mercedes; Palacios, Pilar; Margolin, William; Natale, Paolo; Vicente, Miguel


    We describe the placement of the cytoplasmic FtsZ protein, an essential component of the division septum, in nucleoid-free Escherichia coli maxicells. The absence of the nucleoid is accompanied in maxicells by degradation of the SlmA protein. This protein, together with the nucleoid, prevents the placement of the septum in the regions occupied by the chromosome by a mechanism called nucleoid occlusion (NO). A second septum placement mechanism, the MinCDE system (Min) involving a pole-to-pole oscillation of three proteins, nonetheless remains active in maxicells. Both Min and NO act on the polymerization of FtsZ, preventing its assembly into an FtsZ-ring except at midcell. Our results show that even in the total absence of NO, Min oscillations can direct placement of FtsZ in maxicells. Deletion of the FtsZ carboxyl terminal domain (FtsZ*), a central hub that receives signals from a variety of proteins including MinC, FtsA and ZipA, produces a Min-insensitive form of FtsZ unable to interact with the membrane-anchoring FtsA and ZipA proteins. This protein produces a totally disorganized pattern of FtsZ localization inside the maxicell cytoplasm. In contrast, FtsZ*-VM, an artificially cytoplasmic membrane-anchored variant of FtsZ*, forms helical or repetitive ring structures distributed along the entire length of maxicells even in the absence of NO. These results show that membrane anchoring is needed to organize FtsZ into rings and underscore the role of the C-terminal hub of FtsZ for their correct placement. PMID:24638110

  11. FtsZ placement in nucleoid-free bacteria. (United States)

    Pazos, Manuel; Casanova, Mercedes; Palacios, Pilar; Margolin, William; Natale, Paolo; Vicente, Miguel


    We describe the placement of the cytoplasmic FtsZ protein, an essential component of the division septum, in nucleoid-free Escherichia coli maxicells. The absence of the nucleoid is accompanied in maxicells by degradation of the SlmA protein. This protein, together with the nucleoid, prevents the placement of the septum in the regions occupied by the chromosome by a mechanism called nucleoid occlusion (NO). A second septum placement mechanism, the MinCDE system (Min) involving a pole-to-pole oscillation of three proteins, nonetheless remains active in maxicells. Both Min and NO act on the polymerization of FtsZ, preventing its assembly into an FtsZ-ring except at midcell. Our results show that even in the total absence of NO, Min oscillations can direct placement of FtsZ in maxicells. Deletion of the FtsZ carboxyl terminal domain (FtsZ*), a central hub that receives signals from a variety of proteins including MinC, FtsA and ZipA, produces a Min-insensitive form of FtsZ unable to interact with the membrane-anchoring FtsA and ZipA proteins. This protein produces a totally disorganized pattern of FtsZ localization inside the maxicell cytoplasm. In contrast, FtsZ*-VM, an artificially cytoplasmic membrane-anchored variant of FtsZ*, forms helical or repetitive ring structures distributed along the entire length of maxicells even in the absence of NO. These results show that membrane anchoring is needed to organize FtsZ into rings and underscore the role of the C-terminal hub of FtsZ for their correct placement.

  12. Asynchronous division by non-ring FtsZ in the gammaproteobacterial symbiont of Robbea hypermnestra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leisch, N.; Pende, N.; Weber, P.M.; Gruber-Vodicka, H.R.; Verheul, J.; Vischer, N.O.E.; Abby, S.S.; Geier, B.; den Blaauwen, T.; Bulgheresi, S.


    The reproduction mode of uncultivable microorganisms deserves investigation as it can largely diverge from conventional transverse binary fission. Here, we show that the rod-shaped gammaproteobacterium thriving on the surface of the Robbea hypermnestra nematode divides by FtsZ-based, non-synchronous


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Surface Meteorological station collected at the NOAA Southern Great Plains Facility for the Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) and...

  14. The Space Station Freedom Flight Telerobotic Servicer - The design and evolution of a dexterous space robot (United States)

    Mccain, Harry G.; Andary, James F.; Hewitt, Dennis R.; Haley, Dennis C.


    The Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS) will provide a telerobotic capability to the Space Station in the early assembly phases of the program and will be used for assembly, maintenance, and inspection throughout the lifetime of the Station. Here, the FTS design approach to the development of autonomous capabilities is discussed. The FTS telerobotic workstations for the Shuttle and Space Station, and facility for on-orbit storage are examined. The rationale of the FTS with regard to ease of operation, operational versatility, maintainability, safety, and control is discussed.

  15. Hosting a Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) on CubeSat Spacecraft Platforms for Global Measurements of Three-Dimensional Winds (United States)

    Scott, D. K.; Neilsen, T. L.; Weston, C.; Frazier, C.; Smith, T.; Shumway, A.


    Global measurements of vertically-resolved atmospheric wind profiles offer the potential for improved weather forecasts and superior predictions of atmospheric wind patterns. A small-satellite constellation that uses a Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) instrument onboard 12U CubeSats can provide measurements of global tropospheric wind profiles from space at a very low cost. These small satellites are called FTS CubeSats. This presentation will describe a spacecraft concept that provides a stable, robust platform to host the FTS payload. Of importance to the payload are power, data, station keeping, thermal, and accommodations that enable high spectral measurements to be made from a LEO orbit. The spacecraft concept draws on Space Dynamics Laboratory (SDL) heritage and the recent success of the Dynamic Ionosphere Cubesat Experiment (DICE) and HyperAngular Rainbow Polarimeter (HARP) missions. Working with team members, SDL built a prototype observatory (spacecraft and payload) for testing and proof of concept.

  16. Mycobacterium tuberculosis ClpX interacts with FtsZ and interferes with FtsZ assembly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Dziedzic


    Full Text Available FtsZ assembly at the midcell division site in the form of a Z-ring is crucial for initiation of the cell division process in eubacteria. It is largely unknown how this process is regulated in the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Here we show that the expression of clpX was upregulated upon macrophage infection and exposure to cephalexin antibiotic, the conditions where FtsZ-ring assembly is delayed. Independently, we show using pull-down, solid-phase binding, bacterial two-hybrid and mycobacterial protein fragment complementation assays, that M. tuberculosis FtsZ interacts with ClpX, the substrate recognition domain of the ClpXP protease. Incubation of FtsZ with ClpX increased the critical concentration of GTP-dependent polymerization of FtsZ. Immunoblotting revealed that the intracellular ratio of ClpX to FtsZ in wild type M. tuberculosis is approximately 1:2. Overproduction of ClpX increased cell length and modulated the localization of FtsZ at midcell sites; however, intracellular FtsZ levels were unaffected. A ClpX-CFP fusion protein localized to the cell poles and midcell sites and colocalized with the FtsZ-YFP protein. ClpX also interacted with FtsZ mutant proteins defective for binding to and hydrolyzing GTP and possibly for interactions with other proteins. Taken together, our results suggest that M. tuberculosis ClpX interacts stoichiometrically with FtsZ protomers, independent of its nucleotide-bound state and negatively regulates FtsZ activities, hence cell division.

  17. Effect of Urbanization on Land-Surface Temperature at an Urban Climate Station in North China (United States)

    Bian, Tao; Ren, Guoyu; Yue, Yanxia


    While the land-surface temperature (LST) observed at meteorological stations has significantly increased over the previous few decades, it is still unclear to what extent urbanization has affected these positive trends. Based on the LST data recorded at an urban station in Shijiazhuang in North China, and two rural meteorological stations, the effect of urbanization at the Shijiazhuang station for the period 1965-2012 is examined. We find, (1) a statistically-significant linear trend in annual mean urban-rural LST difference of 0.27°C (10 year)^{-1}, with an urbanization contribution of 100% indicating that the increase in the annual mean LST at the urban station is entirely caused by urbanization. The urbanization effects in spring, summer and autumn on the trends of mean LST are also significant; (2) the urbanization effect is small for time series of the annual mean minimum LST, and statistically marginal for the trend in annual mean maximum LST [0.19°C (10 year)^{-1}]; (3) the urbanization effect on the annual mean diurnal LST range (Δ {LST}) at the urban station is a strongly significant trend of 0.23°C (10 year)^{-1}, with an urbanization contribution of 21%. The urbanization effects on trends in the spring and autumn mean Δ {LST} are also larger and more significant than for the other seasons; (4) the urbanization effects on the long-term LST trends are remarkably different from those on the near-surface air temperature at the same urban station. Nonetheless, the significant warming of the urban boundary layer is expected to affect the urban environment and ecosystems. However, the problem of data representativeness at an urban station for the monitoring and investigation of large-scale climate change remains.

  18. Energy balance of a glacier surface: analysis of Automatic Weather Station data from the Morteratschgletscher, Switzerland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, J.; Klok, E.J.


    We describe and analyze a complete 1-yr data set from an automatic weather station (AWS) located on the snout of the Morteratschgletscher, Switzerland. The AWS stands freely on the glacier surface and measures pressure, windspeed, wind direction, air temperature and humidity, incoming and

  19. On measuring surface wave phase velocity from station–station cross-correlation of ambient signal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boschi, Lapo; Weemstra, Cornelis; Verbeke, Julie


    We apply two different algorithms to measure surface wave phase velocity, as a function of frequency, from seismic ambient noise recorded at pairs of stations from a large European network. The two methods are based on consistent theoretical formulations, but differ in the implementation: one met...

  20. Dimethyl sulphoxide and Ca2+ stimulate assembly of Vibrio cholerae FtsZ. (United States)

    Chatterjee, Abhisek; Chakrabarti, Gopal


    We cloned, overexpressed and purified Vibrio cholerae FtsZ protein for the first time. We used several complementary techniques to probe and compare the comparative assembly properties of recombinant Vibrio cholerae FtsZ (VcFtsZ) and Escherichia coli FtsZ (EcFtsZ). We observed that VcFtsZ polymerized at a slower rate than EcFtsZ and interestingly its polymerization was highly dependent on the presence of Ca(2+) ion. Furthermore, DMSO specifically modulated the polymerization of VcFtsZ, promoted polymer bundling and increased the stability of the VcFtsZ protofilaments. Whereas DMSO showed no significant stimulatory effect on the assembly and bundling of EcFtsZ. Transmission electron microscopy experiments demonstrated that in presence of 8% DMSO the average thickness of the VcFtsZ polymers were increased significantly. DMSO specifically stabilized the VcFtsZ polymers against dilution induced disassembly and it reduced the GTPase activity of VcFtsZ. These results collectively suggested that despite lot of sequence homology, the assembly of VcFtsZ and EcFtsZ are differently regulated processes. We expect to use this knowledge of assembly properties of VcFtsZ for screening of small molecules against VcFtsZ for development of anti-cholera agent. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. FTS3 / WebFTS – A Powerful File Transfer Service for Scientific Communities

    CERN Document Server

    Kiryanov, Andrey; Keeble, Oliver


    FTS3, the service responsible for globally distributing the majority of the LHC data across the WLCG infrastructure, is now available to everybody. Already integrated into LHC experiment frameworks, a new web interface now makes the FTS3's transfer technology directly available to end users. In this article we describe this intuitive new interface, “WebFTS”, which allows users to easily schedule and manage large data transfers right from the browser, profiting from a service which has been proven at the scale of petabytes per month. We will shed light on new development activities to extend FTS3 transfers capabilities outside Grid boundaries with support of non-Grid endpoints like Dropbox and S3. We also describe the latest changes integrated into the transfer engine itself, such as new data management operations like deletions and staging files from archive, all of which may be accessed through our standards-compliant REST API. For the Service Managers, we explain such features as the service's horizonta...

  2. The Space Station Freedom Flight Telerobotic Servicer: the design and evolution of a dexterous space robot (United States)

    McCain, H. G.; Andary, J. F.; Hewitt, D. R.; Haley, D. C.


    The Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS) Project at the Goddard Space Flight Center is developing an advanced telerobotic system to assist in and reduce crew extravehicular activity (EVA) for Space Station) Freedom (SSF). The FTS will provide a telerobotic capability to the Freedom Station in the early assembly phases of the program and will be employed for assembly, maintenance, and inspection applications throughout the lifetime of the space station. Appropriately configured elements of the FTS will also be employed for robotic manipulation in remote satellite servicing applications and possibly the Lunar/Mars Program. In mid-1989, the FTS entered the flight system design and implementation phase (Phase C/D) of development with the signing of the FTS prime contract with Martin Marietta Astronautics Group in Denver, Colorado. The basic FTS design is now established and can be reported on in some detail. This paper will describe the FTS flight system design and the rationale for the specific design approaches and component selections. The current state of space technology and the nature of the FTS task dictate that the FTS be designed with sophisticated teleoperation capabilities for its initial primary operating mode. However, there are technologies, such as advanced computer vision and autonomous planning techniques currently in research and advanced development phases which would greatly enhance the FTS capabilities to perform autonomously in less structured work environments. Therefore, a specific requirement on the initial FTS design is that it has the capability to evolve as new technology becomes available. This paper will describe the FTS design approach for evolution to more autonomous capabilities. Some specific task applications of the FTS and partial automation approaches of these tasks will also be discussed in this paper.

  3. Surface radiation budget and cloud radiative forcing from pan-Arctic Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) stations (United States)

    Cox, C. J.; Long, C. N.; Crepinsek, S.; Maturilli, M.; McComiskey, A. C.; Miller, N.; Konopleva-Akish, E.; Kustov, V. Y.; Shupe, M.; Steffen, K.; Stanitski, D.; Starkweather, S.; Stone, R. S.; Uttal, T.; Walden, V. P.


    Monitoring and forecasting of the seasonal melt of snow and ice in the Arctic is a priority need as Arctic climate changes and the number of stakeholders increases. Seasonal snow and ice melt represent the largest annual perturbation to the surface net radiation budget. Radiative interactions between clouds, the surface and the atmosphere play an important role on scales of minutes to decades, but models insufficiently represent cloud properties. Furthermore, the surface radiation budget is not directly observed from satellite platforms. Direct observations from the surface must therefore be used to document the physical and correlative relationships between variables, and to provide a baseline target for data sets with more comprehensive spatial representation. High-quality, continuous, long-term observations of radiative fluxes are collected from land stations surrounding the Arctic Basin as part of the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN). The International Arctic Systems for Observing the Atmosphere (IASOA) facilitates international collaboration amongst station scientists and other topic experts for the purposes of streamlining pan-Arctic synthesis studies. The IASOA Radiation Working Group is currently analyzing the data acquired from Barrow, Alaska (1993-2015), Alert, Canada (2004-2014), Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard (1993-2015), Eureka, Canada (2007-2015), and Tiksi, Russia (2011-2015). The measurements include upwelling and downwelling longwave and shortwave fluxes, as well as direct and diffuse shortwave flux components, and surface meteorology. The observations are post-processed using the Radiative Flux Analysis (RFA) method, which, in addition to basic quality control, provides value-added metrics such as cloud radiative forcing (CRF), optical depth, and fractional sky cover. Here, we present a spatial and temporal analysis of the surface radiation budget and calculated variables from the pan-Arctic BSRN stations. Particular attention is given to inter

  4. Reassessment of urbanization effect on surface air temperature trends at an urban station of North China (United States)

    Bian, Tao; Ren, Guoyu


    Based on a homogenized data set of monthly mean temperature, minimum temperature, and maximum temperature at Shijiazhuang City Meteorological Station (Shijiazhuang station) and four rural meteorological stations selected applying a more sophisticated methodology, we reanalyzed the urbanization effects on annual, seasonal, and monthly mean surface air temperature (SAT) trends for updated time period 1960-2012 at the typical urban station in North China. The results showed that (1) urbanization effects on the long-term trends of annual mean SAT, minimum SAT, and diurnal temperature range (DTR) in the last 53 years reached 0.25, 0.47, and - 0.50 °C/decade, respectively, all statistically significant at the 0.001 confidence level, with the contributions from urbanization effects to the overall long-term trends reaching 67.8, 78.6, and 100%, respectively; (2) the urbanization effects on the trends of seasonal mean SAT, minimum SAT, and DTR were also large and statistically highly significant. Except for November and December, the urbanization effects on monthly mean SAT, minimum SAT, and DTR were also all statistically significant at the 0.05 confidence level; and (3) the annual, seasonal, and monthly mean maximum SAT series at the urban station registered a generally weaker and non-significant urbanization effect. The updated analysis evidenced that our previous work for this same urban station had underestimated the urbanization effect and its contribution to the overall changes in the SAT series. Many similar urban stations were being included in the current national and regional SAT data sets, and the results of this paper further indicated the importance and urgency for paying more attention to the urbanization bias in the monitoring and detection of global and regional SAT change based on the data sets.

  5. New Scheme for Validating Remote-Sensing Land Surface Temperature Products with Station Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenping Yu


    Full Text Available Continuous land-surface temperature (LST observations from ground-based stations are an important reference dataset for validating remote-sensing LST products. However, a lack of evaluations of the representativeness of station observations limits the reliability of validation results. In this study, a new practical validation scheme is presented for validating remote-sensing LST products that includes a key step: assessing the spatial representativeness of ground-based LST measurements. Three indicators, namely, the dominant land-cover type (DLCT, relative bias (RB, and average structure scale (ASS, are established to quantify the representative levels of station observations based on the land-cover type (LCT and LST reference maps with high spatial resolution. We validated MODIS LSTs using station observations from the Heihe River Basin (HRB in China. The spatial representative evaluation steps show that the representativeness of observations greatly differs among stations and varies with different vegetation growth and other factors. Large differences in the validation results occur when using different representative level observations, which indicates a large potential for large error during the traditional T-based validation scheme. Comparisons show that the new validation scheme greatly improves the reliability of LST product validation through high-level representative observations.

  6. Joint Inversion of Surface Waves Dispersion and Receiver Function at Cuba Seismic Stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, O'Leary; Moreno, Bladimir; Romanelli, Fabio; Panza, Giuliano F.


    Joint inversion of Rayleigh wave group velocity dispersion and receiver functions have been used to estimate the crust and upper mantle structure at eight seismic stations in Cuba. Receiver functions have been computed from teleseismic recordings of earthquakes at epicentral (angular) distances between 30 o and 90 o and Rayleigh wave group velocity dispersion have been taken from a surface-wave tomography study of the Caribbean area. The thickest crust (around 27 km) is found at Cascorro (CCC), Soroa (SOR), Moa (MOA) and Maisi (MAS) stations while the thinnest crust (around 18 km) is found at stations Rio Carpintero (RCC) and Guantanamo Bay (GTBY), in the southeastern of Cuba; this result is in agreement with the southward gradual thinning of the crust revealed by previous studies. The inversion shows a crystalline crust with S-wave velocity between 2.9 km/s and 3.9 km/s and at the crust-mantle transition zone the shear wave velocity varies from 3.9 km/s and 4.3 km/s. The lithospheric thickness varies from 74 km, in the youngest lithosphere, to 200 km in the middle of the Cuban island. Evidences of a subducted slab possibly belonging to the Caribbean plate are present below the stations Las Mercedes (LMG), RCC and GTBY and a thicker slab is present below the SOR station. (author)


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, R; Allen H. Weber, A


    Recently it has been suggested that global warming and a decrease in mean wind speeds over most land masses are related. Decreases in near surface wind speeds have been reported by previous investigators looking at records with time spans of 15 to 30 years. This study focuses on United States (US) surface stations that have little or no location change since the late 1940s or the 1950s--a time range of up to 58 years. Data were selected from 62 stations (24 of which had not changed location) and separated into ten groups for analysis. The group's annual averages of temperature, wind speed, and percentage of Pasquill-Gifford (PG) stability categories were fitted with linear least squares regression lines. The results showed that the temperatures have increased for eight of the ten groups as expected. Wind speeds have decreased for nine of the ten groups. The mean slope of the wind speed trend lines for stations within the coterminous US was -0.77 m s{sup -1} per century. The percentage frequency of occurrence for the neutral (D) PG stability category decreased, while that for the unstable (B) and the stable (F) categories increased in almost all cases except for the group of stations located in Alaska.

  8. Electrostatic Evaluation of the ARES I FTS Antenna Materials (United States)

    Hogue, Michael D.; Calle, Carlos I.


    Surface resistivity and volume resistivity data show all the tested non-metallic materials of the Ares I FTS antenna assembly to be insulative. The external materials (White foam, phenolic) should be able to develop a large surface charge density upon tribocharging with ice crystal impingement. Dielectric breakdown tests on the FTS antenna housing materials show that each of the insulative materials are very resistive to electrical breakdown. The thicknesses of these materials in a nominal housing should protect the antenna from direct breakdown from external triboelectric charging potentials. Per data from the Air Force study, a maximum external electric potential in the range of 100kV can be developed on surfaces tribocharged by ice crystal impingement. Testing showed that under operational pressure ranges, this level of exterior voltage can result in a potential of about 6 kV induced on the electrically floating interior antenna vanes. Testing the vanes up to this voltage level showed that electrostatic discharges can occur between the electrically floating vanes and the center, grounded screw heads. Repeated tests with multiple invisible and visible discharges caused only superficial physical damage to the vanes. Fourier analysis of the discharge signals showed that the frequency range of credible discharges would not interfere with the nominal operation of the FTS antenna. However, due to the limited scope, short timetable, and limited funding of this study, a direct measurement of the triboelectric charge that could be generated on the Ares I antenna housing when the rocket traverses an ice cloud at supersonic speeds was not performed. Instead, data for the limited Air Force study [3] was used as input for our experiments. The Air Force data used was not collected with a sensor located to provide us with the best approximation at the geometry of the Ares I rocket, namely that of the windshield electrometer, because brush discharges to the metal frame of the

  9. A Miniaturized and Robust FTS Sensor, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Vescent Photonics determined the feasibility of a miniaturized, robust, Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) for either in-situ or remote chemical and spectral...

  10. A Miniaturized and Robust FTS Sensor, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Vescent Photonics details a miniaturized and robust Fourier transform spectrometer(FTS) for in-situ chemical and spectral analysis. Phase I research will focus on...

  11. GSFC contamination monitors for Space Station (United States)

    Carosso, P. A.; Tveekrem, J. L.; Coopersmith, J. D.


    This paper describes the Work Package 3 activities in the area of neutral contamination monitoring for the Space Station. Goddard Space Flight Center's responsibilities include the development of the Attached Payload Accommodations Equipment (APAE), the Polar Orbiting Platform (POP), and the Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS). GSFC will also develop the Customer Servicing Facility (CSF) in Phase 2 of the Space Station.

  12. Station-keeping control of an unmanned surface vehicle exposed to current and wind disturbances


    Sarda, Edoardo I.; Qu, Huajin; Bertaska, Ivan R.; von Ellenrieder, Karl D.


    Field trials of a 4 meter long, 180 kilogram, unmanned surface vehicle (USV) have been conducted to evaluate the performance of station-keeping heading and position controllers in an outdoor marine environment disturbed by wind and current. The USV has a twin hull configuration and a custom-designed propulsion system, which consists of two azimuthing thrusters, one for each hull. Nonlinear proportional derivative, backstepping and sliding mode feedback controllers were tested in winds of abou...

  13. Surface flow observations from a gauge-cam station on the Tiber river (United States)

    Tauro, Flavia; Porfiri, Maurizio; Petroselli, Andrea; Grimaldi, Salvatore


    Understanding the kinematic organization of natural water bodies is central to hydrology and environmental engineering practice. Reliable and continuous flow observations are essential to comprehend flood generation and propagation mechanisms, erosion dynamics, sediment transport, and drainage network evolution. In engineering practice, flood warning systems largely rely on real-time discharge measurements, and flow velocity monitoring is important for the design and management of hydraulic structures, such as reservoirs and hydropower plants. Traditionally, gauging stations have been equipped with water level meters, and stage-discharge relationships (rating curves) have been established through few direct discharge measurements. Only in rare instances, monitoring stations have integrated radar technology for local measurement of surface flow velocity. Establishing accurate rating curves depends on the availability of a comprehensive range of discharge values, including measurements recorded during extreme events. However, discharge values during high-flow events are often difficult or even impossible to obtain, thereby hampering the reliability of discharge predictions. Fully remote observations have been enabled in the past ten years through optics-based velocimetry techniques. Such methodologies enable the estimation of the surface flow velocity field over extended regions from the motion of naturally occurring debris or floaters dragged by the current. Resting on the potential demonstrated by such approaches, here, we present a novel permanent gauge-cam station for the observation of the flow velocity field in the Tiber river. This new station captures one-minute videos every 10 minutes over an area of up to 20.6 × 15.5m2. In a feasibility study, we demonstrate that experimental images analyzed via particle tracking velocimetry and particle image velocimetry can be used to obtain accurate surface flow velocity estimations in close agreement with radar records

  14. Multi-layer Retrievals of Greenhouse Gases from a Combined Use of GOSAT TANSO-FTS SWIR and TIR (United States)

    Kikuchi, N.; Kuze, A.; Kataoka, F.; Shiomi, K.; Hashimoto, M.; Suto, H.; Knuteson, R. O.; Iraci, L. T.; Yates, E. L.; Gore, W.; Tanaka, T.; Yokota, T.


    The TANSO-FTS sensor onboard GOSAT has three frequency bands in the shortwave infrared (SWIR) and the fourth band in the thermal infrared (TIR). Observations of high-resolution spectra of reflected sunlight in the SWIR are extensively utilized to retrieve column-averaged concentrations of the major greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (XCO2) and methane (XCH4). Although global XCO2 and XCH4 distribution retrieved from SWIR data can reduce the uncertainty in the current knowledge about sources and sinks of these gases, information on the vertical profiles would be more useful to constrain the surface flux and also to identify the local emission sources. Based on the degrees of freedom for signal, Kulawik et al. (2016, IWGGMS-12 presentation) shows that 2-layer information on the concentration of CO2 can be extracted from TANSO-FTS SWIR measurements, and the retrieval error is predicted to be about 5 ppm in the lower troposphere. In this study, we present multi-layer retrievals of CO2 and CH4 from a combined use of measurements of TANSO-FTS SWIR and TIR. We selected GOSAT observations at Railroad Valley Playa in Nevada, USA, which is a vicarious calibration site for TANSO-FTS, as we have various ancillary data including atmospheric temperature and humidity taken by a radiosonde, surface temperature, and surface emissivity with a ground based FTS. All of these data are useful especially for retrievals using TIR spectra. Currently, we use the 700-800 cm-1 and 1200-1300 cm-1 TIR windows for CO2 and CH4 retrievals, respectively, in addition to the SWIR bands. We found that by adding TIR windows, 3-layer information can be extracted, and the predicted retrieval error in the CO2 concentration was reduced about 1 ppm in the lower troposphere. We expect that the retrieval error could be further reduced by optimizing TIR windows and by reducing systematic forward model errors.

  15. Data Collected in 1959 by English Research Vessels at Serial and Surface Hydrographic Stations (NODC Accession 6900852) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The present volume contains data collected in 1959 by English research vessels at serial and surface hydrographic stations. The data list are preceded by a number of...

  16. A novel quinoline derivative that inhibits mycobacterial FtsZ (United States)

    Mathew, Bini; Ross, Larry; Reynolds, Robert C.


    High throughput phenotypic screening of large commercially available libraries through two NIH programs has produced thousands of potentially interesting hits for further development as antitubercular agents. Unfortunately, these screens do not supply target information, and further follow up target identification is required to allow optimal rational design and development of highly active and selective clinical candidates. Cheminformatic analysis of the quinoline and quinazoline hits from these HTS screens suggested a hypothesis that certain compounds in these two classes may target the mycobacterial tubulin homolog, FtsZ. In this brief communication, activity of a lead quinoline against the target FtsZ from M. tuberculosis (Mtb) is confirmed as well as good in vitro whole cell antibacterial activity against Mtb H37Rv. The identification of a putative target of this highly tractable pharmacophore should help medicinal chemists interested in targeting FtsZ and cell division develop a rational design program to optimize this activity towards a novel drug candidate. PMID:23647650

  17. A Novel RFID Sensing System Using Enhanced Surface Wave Technology for Battery Exchange Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeong-Lin Lai


    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel radio-frequency identification (RFID sensing system using enhanced surface wave technology for battery exchange stations (BESs of electric motorcycles. Ultrahigh-frequency (UHF RFID technology is utilized to automatically track and manage battery and user information without manual operation. The system includes readers, enhanced surface wave leaky cable antennas (ESWLCAs, coupling cable lines (CCLs, and small radiation patches (SRPs. The RFID sensing system overcomes the electromagnetic interference in the metallic environment of a BES cabinet. The developed RFID sensing system can effectively increase the efficiency of BES operation and promote the development of electric vehicles which solve the problem of air pollution as well as protect the environment of the Earth.

  18. Retrieving 4-dimensional atmospheric boundary layer structure from surface observations and profiles over a single station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pu, Zhaoxia [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)


    Most routine measurements from climate study facilities, such as the Department of Energy’s ARM SGP site, come from individual sites over a long period of time. While single-station data are very useful for many studies, it is challenging to obtain 3-dimensional spatial structures of atmospheric boundary layers that include prominent signatures of deep convection from these data. The principal objective of this project is to create realistic estimates of high-resolution (~ 1km × 1km horizontal grids) atmospheric boundary layer structure and the characteristics of precipitating convection. These characteristics include updraft and downdraft cumulus mass fluxes and cold pool properties over a region the size of a GCM grid column from analyses that assimilate surface mesonet observations of wind, temperature, and water vapor mixing ratio and available profiling data from single or multiple surface stations. The ultimate goal of the project is to enhance our understanding of the properties of mesoscale convective systems and also to improve their representation in analysis and numerical simulations. During the proposed period (09/15/2011–09/14/2014) and the no-cost extension period (09/15/2014–09/14/2015), significant accomplishments have been achieved relating to the stated goals. Efforts have been extended to various research and applications. Results have been published in professional journals and presented in related science team meetings and conferences. These are summarized in the report.

  19. Different Multifractal Scaling of the 0 cm Average Ground Surface Temperature of Four Representative Weather Stations over China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Jiang


    Full Text Available The temporal scaling properties of the daily 0 cm average ground surface temperature (AGST records obtained from four selected sites over China are investigated using multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA method. Results show that the AGST records at all four locations exhibit strong persistence features and different scaling behaviors. The differences of the generalized Hurst exponents are very different for the AGST series of each site reflecting the different scaling behaviors of the fluctuation. Furthermore, the strengths of multifractal spectrum are different for different weather stations and indicate that the multifractal behaviors vary from station to station over China.

  20. Development of a Response Surface Thermal Model for Orion Mated to the International Space Station (United States)

    Miller, Stephen W.; Meier, Eric J.


    A study was performed to determine if a Design of Experiments (DOE)/Response Surface Methodology could be applied to on-orbit thermal analysis and produce a set of Response Surface Equations (RSE) that accurately predict vehicle temperatures. The study used an integrated thermal model of the International Space Station and the Orion Outer mold line model. Five separate factors were identified for study: yaw, pitch, roll, beta angle, and the environmental parameters. Twenty external Orion temperatures were selected as the responses. A DOE case matrix of 110 runs was developed. The data from these cases were analyzed to produce an RSE for each of the temperature responses. The initial agreement between the engineering data and the RSE predictions was encouraging, although many RSEs had large uncertainties on their predictions. Fourteen verification cases were developed to test the predictive powers of the RSEs. The verification showed mixed results with some RSE predicting temperatures matching the engineering data within the uncertainty bands, while others had very large errors. While this study to not irrefutably prove that the DOE/RSM approach can be applied to on-orbit thermal analysis, it does demonstrate that technique has the potential to predict temperatures. Additional work is needed to better identify the cases needed to produce the RSEs

  1. Selection of the reference concept for the surface examination stations in the fuels and materials examination facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frandsen, G.B.; Nash, C.R.


    The prototype surface examination station for the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF) will use closed circuit television (CCTV) for routine modes of operation along with a nuclear periscope for special examination needs. The CCTV and the nuclear periscope were evaluated against prescribed station requirements and compared in a side-by-side demonstration. A quantitative evaluation of their outputs showed that both systems were capable of meeting surface anomaly detection requirements. The CCTV system was superior in its ability to collect, suppress and present data into a more useful form for the experimenters

  2. Space solar power stations. Problems of energy generation and using its on the earth surface and nearest cosmos (United States)

    Sinkevich, OA; Gerasimov, DN; Glazkov, VV


    Three important physical and technical problems for solar power stations (SPS) are considered: collection of solar energy and effective conversion of this energy to electricity in space power stations, energy transportation by the microwave beam to the Earth surface and direct utilization of the microwave beam energy for global environmental problems. Effectiveness of solar energy conversion into electricity in space power stations using gas and steam turbines plants, and magneto-hydrodynamic generator (MHDG) are analyzed. The closed cycle MHDG working on non–equilibrium magnetized plasmas of inert gases seeded with the alkaline metal vapors are considered. The special emphases are placed on MHDG and gas-turbine installations that are operating without compressor. Also opportunities for using the produced by space power stations energy for ecological needs on Earth and in Space are discussed.

  3. Statistics of Antarctic surface meteorology based on hourly data in 1957-2007 at Syowa Station (United States)

    Sato, Kaoru; Hirasawa, Naohiko

    Statistical characteristics of the surface meteorology are examined at Syowa Station (69°00‧S, 39°35‧E), which is located on an island near the coastal region of the Antarctic continent, based on operational observations made over the 50-year period from February 1957 through January 2007, which includes missing periods equivalent to 5 years. Statistics are obtained for the surface temperature, sea level pressure (SLP), and horizontal winds in terms of frequency distribution, frequency power spectra, seasonal variation, diurnal variation, inter-annual variation, and trends, using hourly observation data, and several interesting characteristics are elucidated. The mean temperature, SLP, and wind speed over the 50-year period are -10.5 °C, 986 hPa, and 6.6 m s -1, respectively. The frequency distribution of temperature is far from the normal one, because less variation exists in summer at higher temperatures. The predominant wind direction is northeasterly (southwestward), and a weak secondary peak is observed in the southerly (northward) direction in the frequency distribution. The directional constancy of winds is 0.78. The frequency spectra over a wide range of 2 h to 20 years exhibit clearly isolated peaks corresponding to annual and diurnal frequencies and their higher harmonics. An important finding is that the spectral shape is proportional to a power of the frequency with a transition frequency for all physical parameters. The transition frequencies correspond to about 5 days for temperature and winds and 3 days for SLP, most likely due to cyclonic activity. A peak in the 11-year solar cycle is not identified in any spectrum. Another interesting feature is the dominance of semi-annual and semi-diurnal variations in SLP, while annual and diurnal variations are dominant for temperature and winds. Statistically significant trends are not detected for annual mean surface temperature and SLP over the 50-year period, while a positive trend is significant for

  4. Trends in Surface-Water Quality at Selected Ambient-Monitoring Network Stations in Kentucky, 1979-2004 (United States)

    Crain, Angela S.; Martin, Gary R.


    Increasingly complex water-management decisions require water-quality monitoring programs that provide data for multiple purposes, including trend analyses, to detect improvement or deterioration in water quality with time. Understanding surface-water-quality trends assists resource managers in identifying emerging water-quality concerns, planning remediation efforts, and evaluating the effectiveness of the remediation. This report presents the results of a study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Kentucky Energy and Environment Cabinet-Kentucky Division of Water, to analyze and summarize long-term water-quality trends of selected properties and water-quality constituents in selected streams in Kentucky's ambient stream water-quality monitoring network. Trends in surface-water quality for 15 properties and water-quality constituents were analyzed at 37 stations with drainage basins ranging in size from 62 to 6,431 square miles. Analyses of selected physical properties (temperature, specific conductance, pH, dissolved oxygen, hardness, and suspended solids), for major ions (chloride and sulfate), for selected metals (iron and manganese), for nutrients (total phosphorus, total nitrogen, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, nitrite plus nitrate), and for fecal coliform were compiled from the Commonwealth's ambient water-quality monitoring network. Trend analyses were completed using the S-Plus statistical software program S-Estimate Trend (S-ESTREND), which detects trends in water-quality data. The trend-detection techniques supplied by this software include the Seasonal Kendall nonparametric methods for use with uncensored data or data censored with only one reporting limit and the Tobit-regression parametric method for use with data censored with multiple reporting limits. One of these tests was selected for each property and water-quality constituent and applied to all station records so that results of the trend procedure could be compared among

  5. A Polymerization-Associated Structural Switch in FtsZ That Enables Treadmilling of Model Filaments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M. Wagstaff


    Full Text Available Bacterial cell division in many organisms involves a constricting cytokinetic ring that is orchestrated by the tubulin-like protein FtsZ. FtsZ forms dynamic filaments close to the membrane at the site of division that have recently been shown to treadmill around the division ring, guiding septal wall synthesis. Here, using X-ray crystallography of Staphylococcus aureus FtsZ (SaFtsZ, we reveal how an FtsZ can adopt two functionally distinct conformations, open and closed. The open form is found in SaFtsZ filaments formed in crystals and also in soluble filaments of Escherichia coli FtsZ as deduced by electron cryomicroscopy. The closed form is found within several crystal forms of two nonpolymerizing SaFtsZ mutants and corresponds to many previous FtsZ structures from other organisms. We argue that FtsZ’s conformational switch is polymerization-associated, driven by the formation of the longitudinal intersubunit interfaces along the filament. We show that such a switch provides explanations for both how treadmilling may occur within a single-stranded filament and why filament assembly is cooperative.

  6. Urban Climate Station Site Selection Through Combined Digital Surface Model and Sun Angle Calculations (United States)

    Kidd, Chris; Chapman, Lee


    Meteorological measurements within urban areas are becoming increasingly important due to the accentuating effects of climate change upon the Urban Heat Island (UHI). However, ensuring that such measurements are representative of the local area is often difficult due to the diversity of the urban environment. The evaluation of sites is important for both new sites and for the relocation of established sites to ensure that long term changes in the meteorological and climatological conditions continue to be faithfully recorded. Site selection is traditionally carried out in the field using both local knowledge and visual inspection. This paper exploits and assesses the use of lidar-derived digital surface models (DSMs) to quantitatively aid the site selection process. This is acheived by combining the DSM with a solar model, first to generate spatial maps of sky view factors and sun-hour potential and second, to generate site-specific views of the horizon. The results show that such a technique is a useful first-step approach to identify key sites that may be further evaluated for the location of meteorological stations within urban areas.

  7. Effects of various kinetic rates of FtsZ filaments on bacterial cytokinesis. (United States)

    He, Zi; Liu, Zhuan; Guo, Kunkun; Ding, Lina


    Cell morphodynamics during bacterial cytokinesis are theoretically explored by a combination of phase field model for rod-shaped cells and a kinetic description for FtsZ ring maintenance. The division times and cell shapes have been generally decided by the competition between the constriction forces generated by FtsZ rings and the curvature elastic energy for cells. The dependences of cell morphodynamics during bacterial cytokinesis on various kinetic rates of FtsZ filaments are focused in the present study. It is found that the obtained results with the experimental parameters are well comparable to the observed results physiologically. Likewise, the quasi-steady states for FtsZ rings are found to be well consistent with the theoretical results derived from the kinetic description of FtsZ rings. In addition, morphological phase diagram is presented as functions of the membrane associate rate for both short FtsZ filaments and free FtsZ monomers, and the depolymerization rate of GDP-bound FtsZ monomers at the tip of filaments within the ring. Our results would provide a better understanding of the details of in vivo kinetics, including the kinetic rates within FtsZ rings.

  8. An FtsH protease is recruited to the mitochondrion of Plasmodium falciparum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiman Tanveer

    Full Text Available The two organelles, apicoplast and mitochondrion, of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum have unique morphology in liver and blood stages; they undergo complex branching and looping prior to division and segregation into daughter merozoites. Little is known about the molecular processes and proteins involved in organelle biogenesis in the parasite. We report the identification of an AAA+/FtsH protease homolog (PfFtsH1 that exhibits ATP- and Zn(2+-dependent protease activity. PfFtsH1 undergoes processing, forms oligomeric assemblies, and is associated with the membrane fraction of the parasite cell. Generation of a transfectant parasite line with hemagglutinin-tagged PfFtsH1, and immunofluorescence assay with anti-PfFtsH1 Ab demonstrated that the protein localises to P. falciparum mitochondria. Phylogenetic analysis and the single transmembrane region identifiable in PfFtsH1 suggest that it is an i-AAA like inner mitochondrial membrane protein. Expression of PfFtsH1 in Escherichia coli converted a fraction of bacterial cells into division-defective filamentous forms implying a sequestering effect of the Plasmodium factor on the bacterial homolog, indicative of functional conservation with EcFtsH. These results identify a membrane-associated mitochondrial AAA+/FtsH protease as a candidate regulatory protein for organelle biogenesis in P. falciparum.

  9. Coastal Boundary Layer Characteristics of Wind, Turbulence, and Surface Roughness Parameter over the Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. S. Namboodiri


    Full Text Available The study discusses the features of wind, turbulence, and surface roughness parameter over the coastal boundary layer of the Peninsular Indian Station, Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station (TERLS. Every 5 min measurements from an ultrasonic anemometer at 3.3 m agl from May 2007 to December 2012 are used for this work. Symmetries in mesoscale turbulence, stress off-wind angle computations, structure of scalar wind, resultant wind direction, momentum flux (M, Obukhov length (L, frictional velocity (u*, w-component, turbulent heat flux (H, drag coefficient (CD, turbulent intensities, standard deviation of wind directions (σθ, wind steadiness factor-σθ relationship, bivariate normal distribution (BND wind model, surface roughness parameter (z0, z0 and wind direction (θ relationship, and variation of z0 with the Indian South West monsoon activity are discussed.

  10. Confirmatory Survey Results for the Reactor Building Dome Upper Structural Surfaces, Rancho Saco Nuclear Generating Station, Herald, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade C. Adams


    Results from a confirmatory survey of the upper structural surfaces of the Reactor Building Dome at the Rancho Seco Nuclear Generating Station (RSNGS) performed by the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education for the NRC. Also includes results of interlaboratory comparison analyses on several archived soil samples that would be provided by RSNGS personnel. The confirmatory surveys were performed on June 7 and 8, 2006

  11. Cytological Profile of Antibacterial FtsZ Inhibitors and Synthetic Peptide MciZ. (United States)

    Araújo-Bazán, Lidia; Ruiz-Avila, Laura B; Andreu, David; Huecas, Sonia; Andreu, José M


    Cell division protein FtsZ is the organizer of the cytokinetic ring in almost all bacteria and a target for the discovery of new antibacterial agents that are needed to counter widespread antibiotic resistance. Bacterial cytological profiling, using quantitative microscopy, is a powerful approach for identifying the mechanism of action of antibacterial molecules affecting different cellular pathways. We have determined the cytological profile on Bacillus subtilis cells of a selection of small molecule inhibitors targeting FtsZ on different binding sites. FtsZ inhibitors lead to long undivided cells, impair the normal assembly of FtsZ into the midcell Z-rings, induce aberrant ring distributions, punctate FtsZ foci , membrane spots and also modify nucleoid length. Quantitative analysis of cell and nucleoid length combined, or the Z-ring distribution, allows categorizing FtsZ inhibitors and to distinguish them from antibiotics with other mechanisms of action, which should be useful for identifying new antibacterial FtsZ inhibitors. Biochemical assays of FtsZ polymerization and GTPase activity combined explain the cellular effects of the FtsZ polymer stabilizing agent PC190723 and its fragments. MciZ is a 40-aminoacid endogenous inhibitor of cell division normally expressed during sporulation in B. subtilis . Using FtsZ cytological profiling we have determined that exogenous synthetic MciZ is an effective inhibitor of B. subtilis cell division, Z-ring formation and localization. This finding supports our cell-based approach to screen for FtsZ inhibitors and opens new possibilities for peptide inhibitors of bacterial cell division.

  12. Cytological profile of antibacterial FtsZ inhibitors and synthetic peptide MciZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Araujo-Bazan


    Full Text Available Cell division protein FtsZ is the organizer of the cytokinetic ring in almost all bacteria and a target for the discovery of new antibacterial agents that are needed to counter widespread antibiotic resistance. Bacterial cytological profiling, using quantitative microscopy, is a powerful approach for identifying the mechanism of action of antibacterial molecules affecting different cellular pathways. We have determined the cytological profile on Bacillus subtilis cells of a selection of small molecule inhibitors targeting FtsZ on different binding sites. FtsZ inhibitors lead to long undivided cells, impair the normal assembly of FtsZ into the midcell Z-rings, induce aberrant ring distributions, punctate FtsZ foci, membrane spots and also modify nucleoid length. Quantitative analysis of cell and nucleoid length combined, or the Z-ring distribution, allows categorizing FtsZ inhibitors and to distinguish them from antibiotics with other mechanisms of action, which should be useful for identifying new antibacterial FtsZ inhibitors. Biochemical assays of FtsZ polymerization and GTPase activity combined explain the cellular effects of the FtsZ polymer stabilizing agent PC190723 and its fragments. MciZ is a 40-aminoacid endogenous inhibitor of cell division normally expressed during sporulation in B. subtilis. Using FtsZ cytological profiling we have determined that exogenous synthetic MciZ is an effective inhibitor of B. subtilis cell division, Z-ring formation and localization. This finding supports our cell-based approach to screen for FtsZ inhibitors and opens new possibilities for peptide inhibitors of bacterial cell division.

  13. The Nitrosopumilus maritimus CdvB, but Not FtsZ, Assembles into Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kian-Hong Ng


    Full Text Available Euryarchaeota and Crenarchaeota are two major phyla of archaea which use distinct molecular apparatuses for cell division. Euryarchaea make use of the tubulin-related protein FtsZ, while Crenarchaea, which appear to lack functional FtsZ, employ the Cdv (cell division components to divide. Ammonia oxidizing archaeon (AOA Nitrosopumilus maritimus belongs to another archaeal phylum, the Thaumarchaeota, which has both FtsZ and Cdv genes in the genome. Here, we used a heterologous expression system to characterize FtsZ and Cdv proteins from N. maritimus by investigating the ability of these proteins to form polymers. We show that one of the Cdv proteins in N. maritimus, the CdvB (Nmar_0816, is capable of forming stable polymers when expressed in fission yeast. The N. maritimus CdvB is also capable of assembling into filaments in mammalian cells. However, N. maritimus FtsZ does not assemble into polymers in our system. The ability of CdvB, but not FtsZ, to polymerize is consistent with a recent finding showing that several Cdv proteins, but not FtsZ, localize to the mid-cell site in the dividing N. maritimus. Thus, we propose that it is Cdv proteins, rather than FtsZ, that function as the cell division apparatus in N. maritimus.

  14. FtsK translocation on DNA stops at XerCD-dif. (United States)

    Graham, James E; Sivanathan, Viknesh; Sherratt, David J; Arciszewska, Lidia K


    Escherichia coli FtsK is a powerful, fast, double-stranded DNA translocase, which can strip proteins from DNA. FtsK acts in the late stages of chromosome segregation by facilitating sister chromosome unlinking at the division septum. KOPS-guided DNA translocation directs FtsK towards dif, located within the replication terminus region, ter, where FtsK activates XerCD site-specific recombination. Here we show that FtsK translocation stops specifically at XerCD-dif, thereby preventing removal of XerCD from dif and allowing activation of chromosome unlinking by recombination. Stoppage of translocation at XerCD-dif is accompanied by a reduction in FtsK ATPase and is not associated with FtsK dissociation from DNA. Specific stoppage at recombinase-DNA complexes does not require the FtsKgamma regulatory subdomain, which interacts with XerD, and is not dependent on either recombinase-mediated DNA cleavage activity, or the formation of synaptic complexes.

  15. A specific role for the ZipA protein in cell division: stabilization of the FtsZ protein. (United States)

    Pazos, Manuel; Natale, Paolo; Vicente, Miguel


    In Escherichia coli, the cell division protein FtsZ is anchored to the cytoplasmic membrane by the action of the bitopic membrane protein ZipA and the cytoplasmic protein FtsA. Although the presence of both ZipA and FtsA is strictly indispensable for cell division, an FtsA gain-of-function mutant FtsA* (R286W) can bypass the ZipA requirement for cell division. This observation casts doubts on the role of ZipA and its need for cell division. Maxicells are nucleoid-free bacterial cells used as a whole cell in vitro system to probe protein-protein interactions without the need of protein purification. We show that ZipA protects FtsZ from the ClpXP-directed degradation observed in E. coli maxicells and that ZipA-stabilized FtsZ forms membrane-attached spiral-like structures in the bacterial cytoplasm. The overproduction of the FtsZ-binding ZipA domain is sufficient to protect FtsZ from degradation, whereas other C-terminal ZipA partial deletions lacking it are not. Individual overproduction of the proto-ring component FtsA or its gain-of-function mutant FtsA* does not result in FtsZ protection. Overproduction of FtsA or FtsA* together with ZipA does not interfere with the FtsZ protection. Moreover, neither FtsA nor FtsA* protects FtsZ when overproduced together with ZipA mutants lacking the FZB domain. We propose that ZipA protects FtsZ from degradation by ClpP by making the FtsZ site of interaction unavailable to the ClpX moiety of the ClpXP protease. This role cannot be replaced by either FtsA or FtsA*, suggesting a unique function for ZipA in proto-ring stability.

  16. Cloning and characterization of ftsZ and pyrF from the archaeon Thermoplasma acidophilum (United States)

    Yaoi, T.; Laksanalamai, P.; Jiemjit, A.; Kagawa, H. K.; Alton, T.; Trent, J. D.


    To characterize cytoskeletal components of archaea, the ftsZ gene from Thermoplasma acidophilum was cloned and sequenced. In T. acidophilum ftsZ, which is involved in cell division, was found to be in an operon with the pyrF gene, which encodes orotidine-5'-monophosphate decarboxylase (ODC), an essential enzyme in pyrimidine biosynthesis. Both ftsZ and pyrF from T. acidophilum were expressed in Escherichia coli and formed functional proteins. FtsZ expression in wild-type E. coli resulted in the filamentous phenotype characteristic of ftsZ mutants. T. acidophilum pyrF expression in an E. coli mutant lacking pyrF complemented the mutation and rescued the strain. Sequence alignments of ODCs from archaea, bacteria, and eukarya reveal five conserved regions, two of which have homology to 3-hexulose-6-phosphate synthase (HPS), suggesting a common substrate recognition and binding motif. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  17. Localization microscopy study of FtsZ structures in E. coli cells during SOS-response (United States)

    Vedyaykin, A. D.; Sabantsev, A. V.; Vishnyakov, I. E.; Borchsenius, S. N.; Fedorova, Y. V.; Melnikov, A. S.; Serdobintsev, P. Yu; Khodorkovskii, M. A.


    Localization microscopy allows visualization of biological structures with resolution well below the diffraction limit. This is achieved by temporal separation of single fluorophore molecules emission and subsequent localization of them with the precision of few tens of nanometers. This method was previously successfully used to obtain images of FtsZ structures in Escherichia coli cells using FtsZ fusion with fluorescent protein mEos2. In this work we obtained superresolution images of FtsZ structures in fixed E. coli cells using immunocytochemical labeling. Comparison of superresolution FtsZ structures in cells undergoing SOS-response and "healthy" cells shows that FtsZ structures are partially disassembled during SOS-response, but still retain some periodicity.

  18. Synthesis and Evaluation of Quinazolines as Inhibitors of the Bacterial Cell Division Protein FtsZ. (United States)

    Nepomuceno, Gabriella M; Chan, Katie M; Huynh, Valerie; Martin, Kevin S; Moore, Jared T; O'Brien, Terrence E; Pollo, Luiz A E; Sarabia, Francisco J; Tadeus, Clarissa; Yao, Zi; Anderson, David E; Ames, James B; Shaw, Jared T


    The bacterial cell division protein FtsZ is one of many potential targets for the development of novel antibiotics. Recently, zantrin Z3 was shown to be a cross-species inhibitor of FtsZ; however, its specific interactions with the protein are still unknown. Herein we report the synthesis of analogues that contain a more tractable core structure and an analogue with single-digit micromolar inhibition of FtsZ's GTPase activity, which represents the most potent inhibitor of Escherichia coli FtsZ reported to date. In addition, the zantrin Z3 core has been converted to two potential photo-cross-linking reagents for proteomic studies that could shed light on the molecular interactions between FtsZ and molecules related to zantrin Z3.

  19. Seismic velocity site characterization of 10 Arizona strong-motion recording stations by spectral analysis of surface wave dispersion (United States)

    Kayen, Robert E.; Carkin, Brad A.; Corbett, Skye C.


    Vertical one-dimensional shear wave velocity (VS) profiles are presented for strong-motion sites in Arizona for a suite of stations surrounding the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station. The purpose of the study is to determine the detailed site velocity profile, the average velocity in the upper 30 meters of the profile (VS30), the average velocity for the entire profile (VSZ), and the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) site classification. The VS profiles are estimated using a non-invasive continuous-sine-wave method for gathering the dispersion characteristics of surface waves. Shear wave velocity profiles were inverted from the averaged dispersion curves using three independent methods for comparison, and the root-mean-square combined coefficient of variation (COV) of the dispersion and inversion calculations are estimated for each site.

  20. HVRM: a second generation ACE-FTS instrument concept (United States)

    Lavigne, Jean-François; Larouche, Martin; Dupont, Fabien; Girard, Guillaume; Veilleux, James; Buijs, Henry; Desbiens, Raphaël.; Perron, Gaétan; Grandmont, Frédéric; Paradis, Simon; Moreau, Louis; Bourque, Hugo


    The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) is the main instrument on-board the SCISAT-1 satellite, a mission mainly supported by the Canadian Space Agency [1]. It is in Low- Earth Orbit at an altitude of 650 km with an inclination of 74E. Its data has been used to track the vertical profile of more than 30 atmospheric species in the high troposphere and in the stratosphere with the main goal of providing crucial information for the comprehension of chemical and physical processes controlling the ozone life cycle. These atmospheric species are detected using high-resolution (0.02 cm-1) spectra in the 750-4400 cm-1 spectral region. This leads to more than 170 000 spectral channels being acquired in the IR every two seconds. It also measures aerosols and clouds to reduce the uncertainty in their effects on the global energy balance. It is currently the only instrument providing such in-orbit high resolution measurements of the atmospheric chemistry and is often used by international scientists as a unique data set for climate understanding. The satellite is in operation since 2003, exceeding its initially planned lifetime of 2 years by more than a factor of 5. Given its success, its usefulness and the uniqueness of the data it provides, the Canadian Space Agency has founded the development of technologies enabling the second generation of ACE-FTS instruments through the High Vertical Resolution Measurement (HVRM) project but is still waiting for the funding for a mission. This project addresses three major improvements over the ACE-FTS. The first one aims at improving the vertical instantaneous field-of-view (iFoV) from 4.0 km to 1.5 km without affecting the SNR and temporal precision. The second aims at providing precise knowledge on the tangent height of the limb observation from an external method instead of that used in SCISAT-1 where the altitude is typically inferred from the monotonic CO2 concentration seen in the spectra. The

  1. Lack of the host membrane protease FtsH hinders release of the Lactococcus lactis bacteriophage TP712. (United States)

    Roces, Clara; Wegmann, Udo; Campelo, Ana B; García, Pilar; Rodríguez, Ana; Martínez, Beatriz


    The temperate bacteriophage TP712 was unable to plaque on Lactococcus lactis ΔftsH lacking the membrane protease FtsH and complementation in trans restored the WT phenotype. Absence of ftsH did not hinder phage adsorption, phage DNA delivery or activation of the lytic cycle. Thin sections revealed that TP712 virions appeared to be correctly assembled inside the ΔftsH host, but were not released. These virions were infective, demonstrating that a functional host FtsH is required by TP712 to proceed effectively with lysis of the host.

  2. Application of the nonlinear time series prediction method of genetic algorithm for forecasting surface wind of point station in the South China Sea with scatterometer observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Jian; Dong Gang; Sun Yimei; Zhang Zhaoyang; Wu Yuqin


    The present work reports the development of nonlinear time series prediction method of genetic algorithm (GA) with singular spectrum analysis (SSA) for forecasting the surface wind of a point station in the South China Sea (SCS) with scatterometer observations. Before the nonlinear technique GA is used for forecasting the time series of surface wind, the SSA is applied to reduce the noise. The surface wind speed and surface wind components from scatterometer observations at three locations in the SCS have been used to develop and test the technique. The predictions have been compared with persistence forecasts in terms of root mean square error. The predicted surface wind with GA and SSA made up to four days (longer for some point station) in advance have been found to be significantly superior to those made by persistence model. This method can serve as a cost-effective alternate prediction technique for forecasting surface wind of a point station in the SCS basin. (paper)

  3. GOSAT TIR spectral validation with High/Low temperature target using Aircraft base-FTS S-HIS (United States)

    Kataoka, F.; Knuteson, R.; Taylor, J. K.; Kuze, A.; Shiomi, K.; Suto, H.; Yoshida, J.


    The Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) was launched on January 2009. The GOSAT is equipped with TANSO-FTS (Fourier-Transform Spectrometer), which observe reflected solar radiation from the Earth's surface with shortwave infrared (SWIR) band and thermal emission from the Earth's surface and atmosphere with thermal infrared (TIR) band. The TIR band cover wide spectral range (650 - 1800 [cm-1]) with a high spectral resolution (0.2 [cm-1]). The TIR spectral information provide vertical distribution of CO2 and CH4. GOSAT has been operation more than eight years. In this long operation, GOSAT had experienced two big accidents; Rotation of one of the solar paddles stopped and sudden TANSO-FTS operation stop in May 2014 and cryocooler shutdown and restart in August - September 2015. These events affected the operation condition of the TIR photo-conductive (PC)-MCT detector. FTS technology using multiplex wide spectra needs wide dynamic range. PC detector has nonlinearity. Its correction needs accurate estimation of time-dependent offset. In current TIR Level 1B product version (V201), the non-photon level offset (Vdc_offset) estimated from on-orbit deep space calibration data and pre-launch background radiation model. But the background radiation and detector temperature have changed after cryocooler shutdown events. These changes are too small to detect from onboard temperature sensors. The next TIR Level 1B product uses cross calibration data together with deep space calibration data and instrument radiation model has been updated. This work describes the evaluation of new TIR Level 1B spectral quality with aircraft-based FTS; Scanning High-resolution Interferometer Sounder (S-HIS). The S-HIS mounted on the high-altitude ER-2 aircraft and flew at about 20km altitude. Because the observation geometry of GOSAT and S-HIS are quite different, we used the double difference method using atmospheric transfer model. GOSAT TIR band cover wide dynamic range, so we check

  4. Diurnal variability of surface fluxes at an oceanic station in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, Y.V.B.; Rao, D.P.

    November, 1985. During this period the mean heat storage in the upper 125 m water column is found to be 300 W.m-2. The net surface heat fluxes indicate a mean loss of 37 W.m-2 across the sea surface. Estimation of the heat flux divergence at residual from...

  5. UV Climate at Mars Surface: A Proposed Sensor for Both Orbit and Ground Stations (United States)

    Gillotay, D.; Depiesse, C.; Daerden, F.; This, N.; Muller, C.


    The UV conditions on the surface of Mars are of paramount importance for the human exploration of Mars. We propose to measure spectrally the solar direct and diffuse UV and visible radiations from both Mars orbit and surface with light instruments.

  6. FtsZ rings and helices: physical mechanisms for the dynamic alignment of biopolymers in rod-shaped bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer-Friedrich, Elisabeth; Gov, Nir S; Friedrich, Benjamin M


    In many bacterial species, the protein FtsZ forms a cytoskeletal ring that marks the future division site and scaffolds the division machinery. In rod-shaped bacteria, most frequently membrane-attached FtsZ rings or ring fragments are reported and occasionally helices. By contrast, axial FtsZ clusters have never been reported. In this paper, we investigate theoretically how dynamic FtsZ aggregates align in rod-shaped bacteria. We study systematically different physical mechanisms that affect the alignment of FtsZ polymers using a computational model that relies on autocatalytic aggregation of FtsZ filaments at the membrane. Our study identifies a general tool kit of physical and geometrical mechanisms by which rod-shaped cells align biopolymer aggregates. Our analysis compares the relative impact of each mechanism on the circumferential alignment of FtsZ as observed in rod-shaped bacteria. We determine spontaneous curvature of FtsZ polymers and axial confinement of FtsZ on the membrane as the strongest factors. Including Min oscillations in our model, we find that these stabilize axial and helical clusters on short time scales, but promote the formation of an FtsZ ring at the cell middle at longer times. This effect could provide an explanation to the long standing puzzle of transiently observed oscillating FtsZ helices in Escherichia coli cells prior to cell division

  7. The Tool Path Planning for Ring Torus Optical Surface Diamond Turning with Parallel 2DOF Fast Tool Servo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Aiyun


    Full Text Available FTS (Fast Tool Servo has always been an important method for manufacturing non-axisymmetric optical surface. In this paper, a novel tool path planning method is presented which plans tool path in two coordinate directions of a parallel structure 2 DOFs FTS simultaneously. Comparing with single DOF FTS, this method has significantly improved the ability of producing non-axisymmetric optical surface, such as ring torus surface.

  8. Bacillus subtilis SepF binds to the C-terminus of FtsZ. (United States)

    Król, Ewa; van Kessel, Sebastiaan P; van Bezouwen, Laura S; Kumar, Neeraj; Boekema, Egbert J; Scheffers, Dirk-Jan


    Bacterial cell division is mediated by a multi-protein machine known as the "divisome", which assembles at the site of cell division. Formation of the divisome starts with the polymerization of the tubulin-like protein FtsZ into a ring, the Z-ring. Z-ring formation is under tight control to ensure bacteria divide at the right time and place. Several proteins bind to the Z-ring to mediate its membrane association and persistence throughout the division process. A conserved stretch of amino acids at the C-terminus of FtsZ appears to be involved in many interactions with other proteins. Here, we describe a novel pull-down assay to look for binding partners of the FtsZ C-terminus, using a HaloTag affinity tag fused to the C-terminal 69 amino acids of B. subtilis FtsZ. Using lysates of Escherichia coli overexpressing several B. subtilis cell division proteins as prey we show that the FtsZ C-terminus specifically pulls down SepF, but not EzrA or MinC, and that the interaction depends on a conserved 16 amino acid stretch at the extreme C-terminus. In a reverse pull-down SepF binds to full-length FtsZ but not to a FtsZΔC16 truncate or FtsZ with a mutation of a conserved proline in the C-terminus. We show that the FtsZ C-terminus is required for the formation of tubules from FtsZ polymers by SepF rings. An alanine-scan of the conserved 16 amino acid stretch shows that many mutations affect SepF binding. Combined with the observation that SepF also interacts with the C-terminus of E. coli FtsZ, which is not an in vivo binding partner, we propose that the secondary and tertiary structure of the FtsZ C-terminus, rather than specific amino acids, are recognized by SepF.

  9. Bacillus subtilis SepF binds to the C-terminus of FtsZ.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Król

    Full Text Available Bacterial cell division is mediated by a multi-protein machine known as the "divisome", which assembles at the site of cell division. Formation of the divisome starts with the polymerization of the tubulin-like protein FtsZ into a ring, the Z-ring. Z-ring formation is under tight control to ensure bacteria divide at the right time and place. Several proteins bind to the Z-ring to mediate its membrane association and persistence throughout the division process. A conserved stretch of amino acids at the C-terminus of FtsZ appears to be involved in many interactions with other proteins. Here, we describe a novel pull-down assay to look for binding partners of the FtsZ C-terminus, using a HaloTag affinity tag fused to the C-terminal 69 amino acids of B. subtilis FtsZ. Using lysates of Escherichia coli overexpressing several B. subtilis cell division proteins as prey we show that the FtsZ C-terminus specifically pulls down SepF, but not EzrA or MinC, and that the interaction depends on a conserved 16 amino acid stretch at the extreme C-terminus. In a reverse pull-down SepF binds to full-length FtsZ but not to a FtsZΔC16 truncate or FtsZ with a mutation of a conserved proline in the C-terminus. We show that the FtsZ C-terminus is required for the formation of tubules from FtsZ polymers by SepF rings. An alanine-scan of the conserved 16 amino acid stretch shows that many mutations affect SepF binding. Combined with the observation that SepF also interacts with the C-terminus of E. coli FtsZ, which is not an in vivo binding partner, we propose that the secondary and tertiary structure of the FtsZ C-terminus, rather than specific amino acids, are recognized by SepF.

  10. “Sapsan”-carriages defrosting station of Nizhniy Novgorod railway service enterprise and its surface waste water purification (United States)

    Strelkov, Alexander; Teplykh, Svetlana; Gorshkalev, Pavel; Bystranova, Anastasia


    Surface water disposal is one of the most relevant problems for Nizhniy Novgorod railway service enterprises. Waste water must be quickly removed with special drainage devices and water drainage facilities (culverts, slope drains, pipes, ditches, etc.). During “Sapsan”-carriages defrosting watse water is aggregated on railroad tracks. It leads to track bed structure sagging, roadbed washaway and damages to point switches. In this paper the authors describe a concrete system of waste water disposal from railway service enterprises. This system is realized through culverts readjusted at the foot of ballast section. Thereafter, the collected water is pumped into a water collector and to local sewage waste-disposal plants. For railway stations with three or more tracks surface runoff diversion scheme depends on topography, railway tracks types, flow discharge and is compiled individually for each object. This paper examines “Sapsan”-carriages defrosting station of Nizhniy Novgorod railway service enterprise. It presents a technology scheme and equipment consisting of Sand catcher LOS-P, Oil catcher LOS-N, pressure-tight flotation unit; drain feed pump; solution-consuming tank of the coagulant, the solution-consuming tank of flocculant. The proposed technology has been introduced into the project practice.

  11. Seasonal signatures in SFG vibrational spectra of the sea surface nanolayer at Boknis Eck Time Series Station (SW Baltic Sea) (United States)

    Laß, K.; Bange, H. W.; Friedrichs, G.


    The very thin sea surface nanolayer on top of the sea surface microlayer, sometimes just one monomolecular layer thick, forms the interface between ocean and atmosphere. Due to the small dimension and tiny amount of substance, knowledge about the development of the layer in the course of the year is scarce. In this work, the sea surface nanolayer at Boknis Eck Time Series Station (BE), southwestern Baltic Sea, has been investigated over a period of three and a half years. Surface water samples were taken monthly by screen sampling and were analyzed in terms of organic content and composition by sum frequency generation spectroscopy, which is specifically sensitive to interfacial layers. A yearly periodicity has been observed with a pronounced abundance of sea surface nanolayer material (such as carbohydrate-rich material) during the summer months. On the basis of our results we conclude that the abundance of organic material in the nanolayer at Boknis Eck is not directly related to phytoplankton abundance alone. We speculate that indeed sloppy feeding of zooplankton together with photochemical and/or microbial processing of organic precursor compounds is responsible for the pronounced seasonality.

  12. Seasonal features of atmospheric surface-layer characteristics over a tropical coastal station in Southern India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hari Prasad, K.B.R.R.; Srinivas, C.V.; Baskaran, R.; Venkatraman, B.


    Dispersion of air-borne effluents occurs in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) where turbulence is the main physical processes. In the surface layer of ABL, the mechanical (shear) generation of turbulence exceeds the buoyant generation or consumption of turbulence. In this layer, under steady state and horizontally homogeneous conditions various forces in the governing equation can be neglected and one can apply Monin-Obukhov Similarity Theory (MOST) to estimate the turbulent fluxes and other surface layer variables. Understanding the turbulent characteristics of the surface layer is vital for modeling of turbulent diffusion in regional numerical weather and pollution dispersion models. The objective of this study is to verify the validity of the MOST at the coastal site Kalpakkam under various atmospheric stability conditions with respect to different seasons for modeling atmospheric dispersion of radioactive effluents

  13. Trends in surface-water quality at selected National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) stations, in Michigan (United States)

    Syed, Atiq U.; Fogarty, Lisa R.


    -treatment processes, and effective regulations. Phosphorus data for most of the study stations could not be analyzed because of the data limitations for trend tests. The only station with a significant negative trend in total phosphorus concentration is the Clinton River at Mount Clemens. However, scatter-plot analyses of phosphorus data indicate decreasing concentrations with time for most of the study stations. Positive trends in concentration of nitrogen compounds were detected at the Kalamazoo River near Saugatuck and Muskegon River near Bridgeton. Positive trends in both fecal coliform and total fecal coliform were detected at the Tahquamenon River near Paradise. Various different point and nonpoint sources could produce such positive trends, but most commonly the increase in concentrations of nitrogen compounds and fecal coliform bacteria are associated with agricultural practices and sewage-plant discharges. The constituent with the most numerous and geographically widespread significant trend is pH. The pH levels increased at six out of nine stations on all the major rivers in Michigan, with no negative trend at any station. The cause of pH increase is difficult to determine, as it could be related to a combination of anthropogenic activities and natural processes occurring simultaneously in the environment. Trends in concentration of major ions, such as calcium, sodium, magnesium, sulfate, fluoride, chloride, and potassium, were detected at eight out of nine stations. A negative trend was detected only in sulfate and fluoride concentrations; a positive trend was detected only in calcium concentration. The major ions with the most widespread significant trends are sodium and chloride; three positive and two negative trends were detected for sodium, and three negative and two positive trends were detected for chloride. The negative trends in chloride concentrations outnumbered the positive trends. This result indicates a slight improvement in surface-water quality because

  14. Activation of XerCD-dif recombination by the FtsK DNA translocase. (United States)

    Grainge, Ian; Lesterlin, Christian; Sherratt, David J


    The FtsK translocase pumps dsDNA directionally at ∼5 kb/s and facilitates chromosome unlinking by activating XerCD site-specific recombination at dif, located in the replication terminus of the Escherichia coli chromosome. We show directly that the γ regulatory subdomain of FtsK activates XerD catalytic activity to generate Holliday junction intermediates that can then be resolved by XerC. Furthermore, we demonstrate that γ can activate XerCD-dif recombination in the absence of the translocase domain, when it is fused to XerCD, or added in isolation. In these cases the recombination products are topologically complex and would impair chromosome unlinking. We propose that FtsK translocation and activation of unlinking are normally coupled, with the translocation being essential for ensuring that the products of recombination are topologically unlinked, an essential feature of the role of FtsK in chromosome segregation.

  15. CARVE: L1 Spectral Radiances from Airborne FTS, Alaska, 2012-2015 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains Level 1 spectral radiance data collected using the Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) during airborne campaigns over the Alaskan and...

  16. Engineering Model Panchromatic Fourier Transform Spectrometer (PanFTS) Instrument for the GEO-CAPE Mission (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Panchromatic Fourier Transform Spectrometer (PanFTS) is an imaging spectrometer that can measure pollutants, greenhouse gases, and aerosols as called for in the...

  17. Diversity of bacterioplankton in the surface seawaters of Drake Passage near the Chinese Antarctic station. (United States)

    Xing, Mengxin; Li, Zhao; Wang, Wei; Sun, Mi


    The determination of relative abundances and distribution of different bacterial groups is a critical step toward understanding the functions of various bacteria and its surrounding environment. Few studies focus on the taxonomic composition and functional diversity of microbial communities in Drake Passage. In this study, marine bacterioplankton communities from surface seawaters at five locations in Drake Passage were examined by 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses. The results indicated that psychrophilic bacteria were the most abundant group in Drake Passage, and mainly made up of Bacillus, Aeromonas, Psychrobacter, Pseudomonas and Halomonas. Diversity analysis showed that surface seawater communities had no significant correlation with latitudinal gradient. Additionally, a clear difference among five surface seawater communities was evident, with 1.8% OTUs (only two) belonged to Bacillus consistent across five locations and 71% OTUs (80) existed in only one location. However, the few cosmopolitans had the largest population sizes. Our results support the hypothesis that the dominant bacterial groups appear to be analogous between geographical sites, but significant differences may be detected among rare bacterial groups. The microbial diversity of surface seawaters would be liable to be affected by environmental factors. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  18. Multi-station synthesis of early twentieth century surface atmospheric electricity measurements for upper tropospheric properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Harrison


    Full Text Available The vertical columnar current density in the global atmospheric electrical circuit depends on the local columnar resistance. A simple model for the columnar resistance is suggested, which separates the local boundary layer component from the upper troposphere cosmic ray component, and calculates the boundary layer component from a surface measurement of air conductivity. This theory is shown to provide reasonable agreement with observations. One application of the simple columnar model theory is to provide a basis for the synthesis of surface atmospheric electrical measurements made simultaneously at several European sites. Assuming the ionospheric potential to be common above all the sites, the theoretical air-earth current density present in the absence of a boundary layer columnar resistance can be found by extrapolation. This is denoted the free troposphere limit air-earth current density, J0. Using early surface data from 1909 when no ionospheric potential data are available for corroboration, J0 is found to be ~6 pA m−2, although this is subject to uncertainties in the data and limitations in the theory. Later (1966–1971 European balloon and surface data give J0=2.4 pA m−2.

  19. Variations of surface temparature with solar activity at two stations in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria Journal of Pure and Applied Physics ... A consistent and persistent diurnal variation in surface air temperature exists which shows an almost constant level in the early morning hours (0000 0600 hours LT.); a rise at sunrise till about 1500 hr LT., a subsequent fall to the constant level by about 1900 hr LT. at sunset.

  20. A New Business Mode for FTs Chain in an E-Commerce Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xihui Wang


    Full Text Available With the rise in the online demand for fashion and textiles (FTs along with the development of e-commerce, a business mode called drop-shipping mode has emerged. Despite the fact that the drop-shipping mode has many merits, this method has less earning power compared with the traditional business mode. This study proposes a mix business mode for FTs chains in an e-commerce environment. Traditional and drop-shipping modes are special cases of the mix mode. In addition, a generalized model is built to analyze the profitability of FTs chains. Our study shows that, in most cases, the mix mode improves overall profit of FTs chain. Moreover, we consider the seasonality and the short life cycle of fashion items in analyzing the relationship between the e-retailer's optimal inventory level and demand distribution parameters. The numerical example shows that, by changing their inventory level, e-retailers can address the demand fluctuation using the mix mode. The proposed mix mode employs both business modes to enhance the profitability of a FTs chain. As such, the mix mode is an effective method to address demand fluctuation for FTs in an e-commerce environment.

  1. FtsH-dependent degradation of phage shock protein C in Yersinia enterocolitica and Escherichia coli. (United States)

    Singh, Sindhoora; Darwin, Andrew J


    The widely conserved phage shock protein (Psp) extracytoplasmic stress response has been studied extensively in Escherichia coli and Yersinia enterocolitica. Both species have the PspF, -A, -B, and -C proteins, which have been linked to robust phenotypes, including Y. enterocolitica virulence. PspB and PspC are cytoplasmic membrane proteins required for stress-dependent induction of psp gene expression and for bacterial survival during the mislocalization of outer membrane secretin proteins. Previously, we reported that Y. enterocolitica PspB functions to positively control the amount of PspC by an uncharacterized posttranscriptional mechanism. In this study, we have discovered that the cytoplasmic membrane protease FtsH is involved in this phenomenon. FtsH destabilizes PspC in Y. enterocolitica, but coproduction of PspC with its binding partner PspB was sufficient to prevent this destabilization. In contrast, FtsH did not affect any other core component of the Psp system. These data suggested that uncomplexed PspC might be particularly deleterious to the bacterial cell and that FtsH acts as an important quality control mechanism to remove it. This was supported by the observation that toxicity caused by PspC production was reduced either by coproduction of PspB or by increased synthesis of FtsH. We also found that the phenomenon of FtsH-dependent PspC destabilization is conserved between Y. enterocolitica and E. coli.

  2. FtsH-Dependent Degradation of Phage Shock Protein C in Yersinia enterocolitica and Escherichia coli▿ (United States)

    Singh, Sindhoora; Darwin, Andrew J.


    The widely conserved phage shock protein (Psp) extracytoplasmic stress response has been studied extensively in Escherichia coli and Yersinia enterocolitica. Both species have the PspF, -A, -B, and -C proteins, which have been linked to robust phenotypes, including Y. enterocolitica virulence. PspB and PspC are cytoplasmic membrane proteins required for stress-dependent induction of psp gene expression and for bacterial survival during the mislocalization of outer membrane secretin proteins. Previously, we reported that Y. enterocolitica PspB functions to positively control the amount of PspC by an uncharacterized posttranscriptional mechanism. In this study, we have discovered that the cytoplasmic membrane protease FtsH is involved in this phenomenon. FtsH destabilizes PspC in Y. enterocolitica, but coproduction of PspC with its binding partner PspB was sufficient to prevent this destabilization. In contrast, FtsH did not affect any other core component of the Psp system. These data suggested that uncomplexed PspC might be particularly deleterious to the bacterial cell and that FtsH acts as an important quality control mechanism to remove it. This was supported by the observation that toxicity caused by PspC production was reduced either by coproduction of PspB or by increased synthesis of FtsH. We also found that the phenomenon of FtsH-dependent PspC destabilization is conserved between Y. enterocolitica and E. coli. PMID:21965563

  3. Rational design of berberine-based FtsZ inhibitors with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Sun

    Full Text Available Inhibition of the functional activity of Filamenting temperature-sensitive mutant Z (FtsZ protein, an essential and highly conserved bacterial cytokinesis protein, is a promising approach for the development of a new class of antibacterial agents. Berberine, a benzylisoquinoline alkaloid widely used in traditional Chinese and native American medicines for its antimicrobial properties, has been recently reported to inhibit FtsZ. Using a combination of in silico structure-based design and in vitro biological assays, 9-phenoxyalkyl berberine derivatives were identified as potent FtsZ inhibitors. Compared to the parent compound berberine, the derivatives showed a significant enhancement of antibacterial activity against clinically relevant bacteria, and an improved potency against the GTPase activity and polymerization of FtsZ. The most potent compound 2 strongly inhibited the proliferation of Gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus and vancomycin-resistant E. faecium, with MIC values between 2 and 4 µg/mL, and was active against the Gram-negative E. coli and K. pneumoniae, with MIC values of 32 and 64 µg/mL respectively. The compound perturbed the formation of cytokinetic Z-ring in E. coli. Also, the compound interfered with in vitro polymerization of S. aureus FtsZ. Taken together, the chemical modification of berberine with 9-phenoxyalkyl substituent groups greatly improved the antibacterial activity via targeting FtsZ.

  4. Validation of three satellite-derived databases of surface solar radiation using measurements performed at 42 stations in Brazil (United States)

    Thomas, Claire; Wey, Etienne; Blanc, Philippe; Wald, Lucien


    The SoDa website ( is populated with numerous solar-related Web services. Among them, three satellite-derived irradiation databases can be manually or automatically accessed to retrieve radiation values within the geographical coverage of the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite: the two most advanced versions of the HelioClim-3 database (versions 4 and 5, respectively HC3v4 and HC3v5), and the CAMS radiation service. So far, these databases have been validated against measurements of several stations in Europe and North Africa only. As the quality of such databases depends on the geographical regions and the climates, this paper extends this validation campaign and proposes an extensive comparison on Brazil and global irradiation received on a horizontal surface. Eleven stations from the Brazilian Institute of Space Research (INPE) network offer 1 min observations, and thirty-one stations from the Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia (INMET) network offer hourly observations. The satellite-derived estimates have been compared to the corresponding observations on hourly, daily and monthly basis. The bias relative to the mean of the measurements for HC3v5 is mostly comprised between 1 and 3 %, and that for HC3v4 between 2 and 5 %. These are very satisfactory results and they demonstrate that HC3v5, and to a lesser extent HC3v4, may be used in studies of long-term changes in SSI in Brazil. The situation is not so good with CAMS radiation service for which the relative bias is mostly comprised between 5 and 10 %. For hourly irradiation, the relative RMSE ranges from 15 to 33 %. The correlation coefficient is very large for all stations and the three databases, with an average of 0.96. The three databases reproduce well the hour from hour changes in SSI. The errors show a tendency to increase with the viewing angle of the MSG satellite. They are greater in tropical areas where the relative humidity in the atmosphere is important. It is concluded

  5. A Stabilizing Feedback Between Cloud Radiative Effects and Greenland Surface Melt: Verification From Multi-year Automatic Weather Station Measurements (United States)

    Zender, C. S.; Wang, W.; van As, D.


    Clouds have strong impacts on Greenland's surface melt through the interaction with the dry atmosphere and reflective surfaces. However, their effects are uncertain due to the lack of in situ observations. To better quantify cloud radiative effects (CRE) in Greenland, we analyze and interpret multi-year radiation measurements from 30 automatic weather stations encompassing a broad range of climatological and topographical conditions. During melt season, clouds warm surface over most of Greenland, meaning the longwave greenhouse effect outweighs the shortwave shading effect; on the other hand, the spatial variability of net (longwave and shortwave) CRE is dominated by shortwave CRE and in turn by surface albedo, which controls the potential absorption of solar radiation when clouds are absent. The net warming effect decreases with shortwave CRE from high to low altitudes and from north to south (Fig. 1). The spatial correlation between albedo and net CRE is strong (r=0.93, pCRE seasonal trend is controlled by longwave CRE associated with cloud fraction and liquid water content. It becomes stronger from May to July and stays constant in August. In the ablation zone, albedo determines the net CRE seasonal trend, which decreases from May to July and increases afterwards. On an hourly timescale, we find two distinct radiative states in Greenland (Fig. 2). The clear state is characterized by clear-sky conditions or thin clouds, when albedo and solar zenith angle (SZA) weakly correlates with CRE. The cloudy state is characterized by opaque clouds, when the combination of albedo and SZA strongly correlates with CRE (r=0.85, pCRE, the large melt-season variability of these two non-cloud factors, albedo and solar zenith angle, explains the majority of the CRE variation in spatial distribution, seasonal trend in the ablation zone, and in hourly variability in the cloudy radiative state. Clouds warm the brighter and colder surfaces of Greenland, enhance snow melt, and tend to

  6. Monitoring surface-water quality in Arizona: the fixed-station network (United States)

    Tadayon, Saeid


    Arizona is an arid State in which economic development is influenced largely by the quantity and quality of water and the location of adequate water supplies. In 1995, surface water supplied about 58 percent of total withdrawals in Arizona. Of the total amount of surface water used in 1995, about 89 percent was for agriculture, 10 percent for public supply, and 1 percent for industrial supply (including mining and thermoelectric; Solley and others, 1998). As a result of rapid population growth in Arizona, historic agricultural lands in the Phoenix (Maricopa County) and Tucson (Pima County) areas are now being developed for residential and commercial use; thus, the amount of water used for public supply is increasing. The Clean Water Act was established by U.S. Congress (1972) in response to public concern about water-pollution control. The act defines a process by which the United States Congress and the citizens are informed of the Nation’s progress in restoring and maintaining the quality of our waters. The Arizona Department of Environmental Quality (ADEQ) is the State-designated agency for this process and, as a result, has developed a monitoring program to assess water quality in Arizona. The ADEQ is required to submit a water-quality assessment report to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) every 2 years. The USEPA summarizes the reports from each State and submits a report to the Congress characterizing water quality in the United States. These reports serve to inform Congress and the public of the Nation’s progress toward the restoration and maintenance of water quality in the United States (Arizona Department of Environmental Quality, 1998).

  7. Shear wave velocity model beneath CBJI station West Java, Indonesia from joint inversion of teleseismic receiver functions and surface wave dispersion (United States)

    Simanungkalit, R. H.; Anggono, T.; Syuhada; Amran, A.; Supriyanto


    Earthquake signal observations around the world allow seismologists to obtain the information of internal structure of the Earth especially the Earth’s crust. In this study, we used joint inversion of receiver functions and surface wave group velocities to investigate crustal structure beneath CBJI station in West Java, Indonesia. Receiver function were calculated from earthquakes with magnitude more than 5 and at distance 30°-90°. Surface wave group velocities were calculated using frequency time analysis from earthquakes at distance of 30°- 40°. We inverted shear wave velocity model beneath the station by conducting joint inversion from receiver functions and surface wave dispersions. We suggest that the crustal thickness beneath CBJI station, West Java, Indonesia is about 35 km.

  8. Calibration of a TCCON FTS at Armstrong Flight Research Center (AFRC) Using Multiple Airborne Profiles (United States)

    Hillyard, P. W.; Iraci, L. T.; Podolske, J. R.; Tanaka, T.; Yates, E. L.; Roehl, C. M.; Wunch, D.; Wennberg, P. O.; Albertson, R. T.; Blake, D. R.; Meinardi, S.; Marrero, J. E.; Yang, M. M.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Wofsy, S. C.; Pittman, J. V.; Daube, B. C.


    Satellite missions including GOSAT, OCO-2 and ASCENDS measure column abundances of greenhouse gases. It is crucial to have calibrated ground-based measurements to which these satellite measurements can compare and refine their retrieval algorithms. To this end, a Fourier Transform Spectrometer has been deployed to the Armstrong Flight Research Center (AFRC) in Edwards, CA as a member of the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON). This location was selected due to its proximity to a highly reflective lakebed. Such surfaces have proven to be difficult for accurate satellite retrievals. This facility has been in operation since July 2013. The data collected to date at this site will be presented. In order to ensure the validity of the measurements made at this site, multiple vertical profiles have been performed using the Alpha jet, DC-8, and ER-2 as part of the AJAX (ongoing), SEAC4RS (August 2013), and SARP (July 2014) field campaigns. The integrated in-situ vertical profiles for CO2 and CH4 have been analyzed and compared with the TCCON FTS measurements, where good agreement between TCCON data and vertically-integrated aircraft in-situ data has been found.

  9. Improvements to a Response Surface Thermal Model for Orion Mated to the International Space Station (United States)

    Miller, StephenW.; Walker, William Q.


    This study is an extension of previous work to evaluate the applicability of Design of Experiments (DOE)/Response Surface Methodology to on-orbit thermal analysis. The goal was to determine if the methodology could produce a Response Surface Equation (RSE) that predicted the thermal model temperature results within +/-10 F. An RSE is a polynomial expression that can then be used to predict temperatures for a defined range of factor combinations. Based on suggestions received from the previous work, this study used a model with simpler geometry, considered polynomials up to fifth order, and evaluated orbital temperature variations to establish a minimum and maximum temperature for each component. A simplified Outer Mold Line (OML) thermal model of the Orion spacecraft was used in this study. The factors chosen were the vehicle's Yaw, Pitch, and Roll (defining the on-orbit attitude), the Beta angle (restricted to positive beta angles from 0 to 75), and the environmental constants (varying from cold to hot). All factors were normalized from their native ranges to a non-dimensional range from -1.0 to 1.0. Twenty-three components from the OML were chosen and the minimum and maximum orbital temperatures were calculated for each to produce forty-six responses for the DOE model. A customized DOE case matrix of 145 analysis cases was developed which used analysis points at the factor corners, mid-points, and center. From this data set, RSE s were developed which consisted of cubic, quartic, and fifth order polynomials. The results presented are for the fifth order RSE. The RSE results were then evaluated for agreement with the analytical model predictions to produce a +/-3(sigma) error band. Forty of the 46 responses had a +/-3(sigma) value of 10 F or less. Encouraged by this initial success, two additional sets of verification cases were selected. One contained 20 cases, the other 50 cases. These cases were evaluated both with the fifth order RSE and with the analytical

  10. FTS is responsible for radiation-induced nuclear phosphorylation of EGFR and repair of DNA damage in cervical cancer cells. (United States)

    Muthusami, Sridhar; Prabakaran, D S; Yu, Jae-Ran; Park, Woo-Yoon


    Radiation-induced nuclear stabilization and phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) confers radioresistance. Understanding of the factor(s) regulating the nuclear stabilization and phosphorylation of EGFR is important for the modulation of radioresistance. Present study was designed to delineate the regulation of EGFR nuclear stabilization and phosphorylation by fused toes homolog (FTS), an oncoprotein, which is responsible for the radioresistance in cervical cancer cells. A cervical cancer cell line, ME180 was used. Radiation-induced change in the levels of EGFR, p-EGFR and FTS were evaluated in the cytoplasm and nucleus using Western blot analyses. FTS was silenced using siRNA-based approach. Interaction between EGFR and FTS was assessed using immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitation analyses. Double-strand breaks (DSB) of DNA were assessed using γ H2AX. Radiation increased the levels of EGFR and FTS in the cytoplasm and nucleus. EGFR and FTS are in physical association with each other and are co-localized in the cells. FTS silencing largely reduced the nuclear stabilization and phosphorylation of EGFR and DNA-protein kinase along with increased initial and residual DSBs. EGFR and FTS physically associate with each other and FTS silencing radiosensitizes ME180 cells through impaired nuclear EGFR signaling.

  11. Surface wave site characterization at 27 locations near Boston, Massachusetts, including 2 strong-motion stations (United States)

    Thompson, Eric M.; Carkin, Bradley A.; Baise, Laurie G.; Kayen, Robert E.


    microzonation map based on generalized velocity profiles, where the amplifications were computed using Shake (Schnable and others, 1972), along with an assumed input ground motion. The velocities were constrained by only a few local measurements associated with the Central Artery/Tunnel project. The additional VS measurements presented in this report provide a number of benefits. First, these measurements provide improved spatial coverage. Second, the larger sample size provides better constraints on the mean and variance of the VS distribution for each layer, which may be paired with a three-dimensional (3D) model of the stratigraphy to generate one-dimensional (1D) profiles for use in a standard site-response analysis (for example, Britton, 2003). Third, the velocity profiles may also be used, along with a 3D model of the stratigraphy, as input into a 3D simulation of the ground motion to investigate the effects of basin-generated surface waves and the potential focusing of seismic waves.This report begins with a short review of the geology of the study area and the field methods that we used to estimate the velocity profiles. The raw data, processed data, and the interpreted VS profiles are given in appendix 1. Photographs and descriptions of the sites are provided in appendix 2.

  12. MinD directly interacting with FtsZ at the H10 helix suggests a model for robust activation of MinC to destabilize FtsZ polymers. (United States)

    Taviti, Ashoka Chary; Beuria, Tushar Kant


    Cell division in bacteria is a highly controlled and regulated process. FtsZ, a bacterial cytoskeletal protein, forms a ring-like structure known as the Z-ring and recruits more than a dozen other cell division proteins. The Min system oscillates between the poles and inhibits the Z-ring formation at the poles by perturbing FtsZ assembly. This leads to an increase in the FtsZ concentration at the mid-cell and helps in Z-ring positioning. MinC, the effector protein, interferes with Z-ring formation through two different mechanisms mediated by its two domains with the help of MinD. However, the mechanism by which MinD triggers MinC activity is not yet known. We showed that MinD directly interacts with FtsZ with an affinity stronger than the reported MinC-FtsZ interaction. We determined the MinD-binding site of FtsZ using computational, mutational and biochemical analyses. Our study showed that MinD binds to the H10 helix of FtsZ. Single-point mutations at the charged residues in the H10 helix resulted in a decrease in the FtsZ affinity towards MinD. Based on our findings, we propose a novel model for MinCD-FtsZ interaction, where MinD through its direct interaction with FtsZ would trigger MinC activity to inhibit FtsZ functions. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  13. Quasi-periodic oscillations of aerosol backscatter profiles and surface meteorological parameters during winter nights over a tropical station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Manoj


    Full Text Available Atmospheric gravity waves, which are a manifestation of the fluctuations in buoyancy of the air parcels, are well known for their direct influence on concentration of atmospheric trace gases and aerosols, and also on oscillations of meteorological variables such as temperature, wind speed, visibility and so on. The present paper reports quasi-periodic oscillations in the lidar backscatter signal strength due to aerosol fluctuations in the nocturnal boundary layer, studied with a high space-time resolution polarimetric micro pulse lidar and concurrent meteorological parameters over a tropical station in India. The results of the spectral analysis of the data, archived on some typical clear-sky conditions during winter months of 2008 and 2009, exhibit a prominent periodicity of 20–40 min in lidar-observed aerosol variability and show close association with those observed in the near-surface temperature and wind at 5% statistical significance. Moreover, the lidar aerosol backscatter signal strength variations at different altitudes, which have been generated from the height-time series of the one-minute interval profiles at 2.4 m vertical resolution, indicate vertical propagation of these waves, exchanging energy between lower and higher height levels. Such oscillations are favoured by the stable atmospheric background condition and peculiar topography of the experimental site. Accurate representation of these buoyancy waves is essential in predicting the sporadic fluctuations of weather in the tropics.

  14. Simple topology: FtsK-directed recombination at the dif site. (United States)

    Grainge, Ian


    FtsK is a multifunctional protein, which, in Escherichia coli, co-ordinates the essential functions of cell division, DNA unlinking and chromosome segregation. Its C-terminus is a DNA translocase, the fastest yet characterized, which acts as a septum-localized DNA pump. FtsK's C-terminus also interacts with the XerCD site-specific recombinases which act at the dif site, located in the terminus region. The motor domain of FtsK is an active translocase in vitro, and, when incubated with XerCD and a supercoiled plasmid containing two dif sites, recombination occurs to give unlinked circular products. Despite years of research the mechanism for this novel form of topological filter remains unknown.

  15. Mapping CH4 : CO2 ratios in Los Angeles with CLARS-FTS from Mount Wilson, California (United States)

    Wong, K. W.; Fu, D.; Pongetti, T. J.; Newman, S.; Kort, E. A.; Duren, R.; Hsu, Y.-K.; Miller, C. E.; Yung, Y. L.; Sander, S. P.


    The Los Angeles megacity, which is home to more than 40% of the population in California, is the second largest megacity in the United States and an intense source of anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs). Quantifying GHG emissions from the megacity and monitoring their spatiotemporal trends are essential to be able to understand the effectiveness of emission control policies. Here we measure carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) across the Los Angeles megacity using a novel approach - ground-based remote sensing from a mountaintop site. A Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) with agile pointing optics, located on Mount Wilson at 1.67 km above sea level, measures reflected near-infrared sunlight from 29 different surface targets on Mount Wilson and in the Los Angeles megacity to retrieve the slant column abundances of CO2, CH4 and other trace gases above and below Mount Wilson. This technique provides persistent space- and time-resolved observations of path-averaged dry-air GHG concentrations, XGHG, in the Los Angeles megacity and simulates observations from a geostationary satellite. In this study, we combined high-sensitivity measurements from the FTS and the panorama from Mount Wilson to characterize anthropogenic CH4 emissions in the megacity using tracer-tracer correlations. During the period between September 2011 and October 2013, the observed XCH4 : XCO2 excess ratio, assigned to anthropogenic activities, varied from 5.4 to 7.3 ppb CH4 (ppm CO2)-1, with an average of 6.4 ± 0.5 ppb CH4 (ppm CO2)-1 compared to the value of 4.6 ± 0.9 ppb CH4 (ppm CO2)-1 expected from the California Air Resources Board (CARB) bottom-up emission inventory. Persistent elevated XCH4 : XCO2 excess ratios were observed in Pasadena and in the eastern Los Angeles megacity. Using the FTS observations on Mount Wilson and the bottom-up CO2 emission inventory, we derived a top-down CH4 emission of 0.39 ± 0.06 Tg CH4 year-1 in the Los Angeles megacity. This is 18-61% larger than the

  16. Herschel SPIRE FTS spectral line source calibrators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hopwood, Rosalind; Polehampton, Edward; Valtchanov, Ivan


    We present a summary of the Herschel SPIRE/FTS calibration programme to monitor the repeatability of spectral lines. Observations of planetary nebulae and post-AGB stars are used to assess repeatability and model the asymmetry of the instrument line shape.......We present a summary of the Herschel SPIRE/FTS calibration programme to monitor the repeatability of spectral lines. Observations of planetary nebulae and post-AGB stars are used to assess repeatability and model the asymmetry of the instrument line shape....

  17. GTP analogue inhibits polymerization and GTPase activity of the bacterial protein FtsZ without affecting its eukaryotic homologue tubulin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Läppchen, Tilman; Hartog, Aloysius F.; Pinas, Victorine A.; Koomen, Gerrit-Jan; den Blaauwen, Tanneke


    The prokaryotic tubulin homologue FtsZ plays a key role in bacterial cell division. Selective inhibitors of the GTP-dependent polymerization of FtsZ are expected to result in a new class of antibacterial agents. One of the challenges is to identify compounds which do not affect the function of

  18. GTP analogue inhibits polymerization and GTPase activity of the bacterial protein FtsZ without affecting its eukaryotic homologue tubulin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Läppchen, T.; Hartog, A.F.; Pinas, V.; Koomen, G.J.; den Blaauwen, T.


    The prokaryotic tubulin homologue FtsZ plays a key role in bacterial cell division. Selective inhibitors of the GTP-dependent polymerization of FtsZ are expected to result in a new class of antibacterial agents. One of the challenges is to identify compounds which do not affect the function of

  19. De Novo Synthesis of Basal Bacterial Cell Division Proteins FtsZ, FtsA, and ZipA Inside Giant Vesicles. (United States)

    Furusato, Takumi; Horie, Fumihiro; Matsubayashi, Hideaki T; Amikura, Kazuaki; Kuruma, Yutetsu; Ueda, Takuya


    Cell division is the most dynamic event in the cell cycle. Recently, efforts have been made to reconstruct it using the individual component proteins to obtain a better understanding of the process of self-reproduction of cells. However, such reconstruction studies are frequently hampered by difficulties in preparing membrane-associated proteins. Here we demonstrate a de novo synthesis approach based on a cell-free translation system. Genes for fundamental cell division proteins, FtsZ, FtsA, and ZipA, were expressed inside the lipid compartment of giant vesicles (GVs). The synthesized proteins showed polymerization, membrane localization, and eventually membrane deformation. Notably, we found that this morphological change of the vesicle is forced by only FtsZ and ZipA, which form clusters on the membrane at the vesicle interior. Our cell-free approach provides a platform for studying protein dynamics associated with lipid membrane and paves the way to create a synthetic cell that undergoes self-reproduction.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian Yang


    Full Text Available Pipe-roof Pre-construction Method (PPM is regarded as a safer method to construct underground space, especially suitable for the construction sites with dense surface buildings, underground pipelines and complicated geological conditions. Xinleyizhi Station of Shenyang Metro constructed by PPM. In order to ensure safety in construction, the whole construction process was closely monitored. In this paper, monitoring results of surface settlement in PPM is analyzed. According to the monitoring results, the most serious settlement occurred in pipes jacking, which was the first and the most crucial step in PPM. The settlement reasons in each step are discussed, and controlling methods of surface settlement in each step are elaborated. Through close monitoring and timely control, the construction of Xinleyizhi Station completed smoothly. Because of the obvious advantages of PPM, the method will be used more widely in construction of shallow buried excavation under complicated surrounding and geological conditions.

  1. Reduced binding of the endolysin LysTP712 to Lactococcus lactis ΔftsH contributes to phage resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Absence of the membrane protease FtsH in Lactococcus lactis hinders release of the bacteriophage TP712. In this work we have analysed the mechanism responsible for the non-lytic phenotype of L. lactis ΔftsH after phage infection. The lytic cassette of TP712 contains a putative antiholin-pinholin system and a modular endolysin (LysTP712. Inducible expression of the holin gene demonstrated the presence of a dual start motif which is functional in both wildtype and L. lactis ΔftsH cells. Moreover, simulating holin activity with ionophores accelerated lysis of wildtype cells but not L. lactis ΔftsH cells, suggesting inhibition of the endolysin rather than a role of FtsH in holin activation. However, zymograms revealed the synthesis of an active endolysin in both wildtype and L. lactis ΔftsH TP712 lysogens. A reporter protein was generated by fusing the cell wall binding domain of LysTP712 to the fluorescent mCherry protein. Binding of this reporter protein took place at the septa of both wildtype and L. lactis ΔftsH cells as shown by fluorescence microscopy. Nonetheless, fluorescence spectroscopy demonstrated that mutant cells bound 40 % less protein. In conclusion, the non-lytic phenotype of L. lactis ΔftsH is not due to direct action of the FtsH protease on the phage lytic proteins but rather to a putative function of FtsH in modulating the architecture of the L. lactis cell envelope that contributes to a lower affinity of the phage endolysin to its substrate and, likely to its catalytic activity.

  2. Reduced Binding of the Endolysin LysTP712 to Lactococcus lactis ΔftsH Contributes to Phage Resistance. (United States)

    Roces, Clara; Campelo, Ana B; Escobedo, Susana; Wegmann, Udo; García, Pilar; Rodríguez, Ana; Martínez, Beatriz


    Absence of the membrane protease FtsH in Lactococcus lactis hinders release of the bacteriophage TP712. In this work we have analyzed the mechanism responsible for the non-lytic phenotype of L. lactis ΔftsH after phage infection. The lytic cassette of TP712 contains a putative antiholin-pinholin system and a modular endolysin (LysTP712). Inducible expression of the holin gene demonstrated the presence of a dual start motif which is functional in both wildtype and L. lactis ΔftsH cells. Moreover, simulating holin activity with ionophores accelerated lysis of wildtype cells but not L. lactis ΔftsH cells, suggesting inhibition of the endolysin rather than a role of FtsH in holin activation. However, zymograms revealed the synthesis of an active endolysin in both wildtype and L. lactis ΔftsH TP712 lysogens. A reporter protein was generated by fusing the cell wall binding domain of LysTP712 to the fluorescent mCherry protein. Binding of this reporter protein took place at the septa of both wildtype and L. lactis ΔftsH cells as shown by fluorescence microscopy. Nonetheless, fluorescence spectroscopy demonstrated that mutant cells bound 40% less protein. In conclusion, the non-lytic phenotype of L. lactis ΔftsH is not due to direct action of the FtsH protease on the phage lytic proteins but rather to a putative function of FtsH in modulating the architecture of the L. lactis cell envelope that results in a lower affinity of the phage endolysin to its substrate.

  3. ACE-FTS version 3.0 data set: validation and data processing update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Waymark


    Full Text Available On 12 August 2003, the Canadian-led Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE was launched into a 74° inclination orbit at 650 km with the mission objective to measure atmospheric composition using infrared and UV-visible spectroscopy (Bernath et al. 2005. The ACE mission consists of two main instruments, ACE-FTS and MAESTRO (McElroy et al. 2007, which are being used to investigate the chemistry and dynamics of the Earth’s atmosphere.  Here, we focus on the high resolution (0.02 cm-1 infrared Fourier Transform Spectrometer, ACE-FTS, that measures in the 750-4400 cm-1 (2.2 to 13.3 µm spectral region.  This instrument has been making regular solar occultation observations for more than nine years.  The current ACE-FTS data version (version 3.0 provides profiles of temperature and volume mixing ratios (VMRs of more than 30 atmospheric trace gas species, as well as 20 subsidiary isotopologues of the most abundant trace atmospheric constituents over a latitude range of ~85°N to ~85°S.  This letter describes the current data version and recent validation comparisons and provides a description of our planned updates for the ACE-FTS data set. [...

  4. FtsZ from radiation resistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans is different from its characterized homologues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, Kruti P.; Misra, H.S.


    Polymerization/depolymerization dynamics of FtsZ and its GTPase activity are interdependent and the regulation of these processes determines the growth rate in a bacterium. Deinococcus radiodurans R1 that is best known for its extraordinary radiation resistance and efficient DNA double strand break repair is a comparatively slow growing bacterium and its growth gets arrested in response to gamma radiation. Mechanisms of cell division and its regulation under gamma stressed growth condition would be worth investigating. Genome of this bacterium encodes at least all the known components of divisome. Recombinant FtsZ of D. radiodurans (drFtsZ) preferred Mg 2+ for its GTPase activity. Relatively a very low GTPase activity was observed in presence of Mn 2+ , Co 2+ and Ni 2+ while release of inorganic phosphate could not be detected in presence of other divalent ions including Ca 2+ . GTPase activity of drFtsZ was lower than E. coli but higher than Mycobacterium and it required both Mg 2+ and GTP for its polymerization. Its GTPase activity did not increase with increasing concentration of Mg 2+ and correlates with the bundling of protofilaments. Results obtained from transmission electron microscopy and sedimentation analysis supported the reciprocal correlation of polymerization/depolymerization with the levels of GTPase activity. Dynamic light scattering in presence of 5mM or higher concentration of Mg 2+ and Mn 2 showed a characteristic cyclic change in light scattering without addition of extra metal ion or GTP

  5. Pathogenicity of FtsK mutant of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Xiaojing


    Full Text Available Introduction: Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC is a leading cause of extraintestinal infection and heavy economic losses. Imparting immunity after vaccination with live attenuated strain vaccination is an ideal strategy for infection control. This study considers an FtsK knockout mutant strain as a candidate. Material and Methods: An FtsK knockout mutant of APEC strain E058 was constructed and the pathogenicity of the mutant and wild-type strains was further evaluated in chickens. Results: The 50% lethal doses of each strain for one-day-old specific-pathogen-free (SPF chickens challenged experimentally via trachea were 105.5 and 107.0 colony-forming units (CFU respectively. Chickens challenged with the wild-type strain exhibited typical signs and lesions of avian colibacillosis, while those inoculated with the mutant strain showed mild pericarditis and pulmonary congestion. The growth rate of the FtsK mutant strain was much slower than the wild-type strain in the heart, spleen, liver, and lung of infected chickens. Conclusion: These results indicated that the APEC FtsK mutant can be attenuated for chickens, and that this mutant has the potential for the development of an APEC vaccine.

  6. Bacillus subtilis SepF Binds to the C-Terminus of FtsZ

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krol, Ewa; van Kessel, Sebastiaan P.; van Bezouwen, Laura S.; Kumar, Neeraj; Boekema, Egbert J.; Scheffers, Dirk-Jan


    Bacterial cell division is mediated by a multi-protein machine known as the "divisome", which assembles at the site of cell division. Formation of the divisome starts with the polymerization of the tubulin-like protein FtsZ into a ring, the Z-ring. Z-ring formation is under tight control to ensure

  7. The optical design of a far infrared imaging FTS for SPICA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pastor, Carmen; Zuluaga, Pablo; Jellema, Willem; González Fernández, Luis Miguel; Belenguer, Tomas; Torres Redondo, Josefina; Kooijman, Peter Paul; Najarro, Francisco; Eggens, Martin; Roelfsema, Peter; Nakagawa, Takao

    This paper describes the optical design of the far infrared imaging spectrometer for the JAXA's SPICA mission. The SAFARI instrument, is a cryogenic imaging Fourier transform spectrometer (iFTS), designed to perform backgroundlimited spectroscopic and photometric imaging in the band 34-210 μm. The

  8. Large ring polymers align FtsZ polymers for normal septum formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guendogdu, Muhammet E.; Kawai, Yoshikazu; Pavlendova, Nada; Ogasawara, Naotake; Errington, Jeff; Scheffers, Dirk-Jan; Hamoen, Leendert W.; Gündoğdu, Muhammet E.


    Cytokinesis in bacteria is initiated by polymerization of the tubulin homologue FtsZ into a circular structure at midcell, the Z-ring. This structure functions as a scaffold for all other cell division proteins. Several proteins support assembly of the Z-ring, and one such protein, SepF, is required

  9. Continuous atmospheric 222Rn concentration measurements to study surface-air exchange at the station of Gredos and Iruelas, in Central Spain (United States)

    Grossi, Claudia; Morgui, Josep Anton; Àgueda, Alba; Batet, Oscar; Curcoll, Roger; Arias, Rosa; Arnold, Delia; Ealo, Marina; Nofuentes, Manel; Occhipinti, Paola; Sánchez-Garcíaa, Laura; Vargas, Arturo; Rodó, Xavier


    The Gredos and Iruelas station (GIC3) is part of the ClimaDat IC3 network ( This station is located in the Gredos Natural Park at a latitude of 40.22° N and a longitude of -5.14° E in the Spanish central plateau. The ClimaDat network is made by 8 stations distributed around Spain and it has been developed with the aim of studying climatic processes and the responses of impacted systems, at different time and space scales. Since November 2012, measurements of CO2, CH4, and of the natural radioactive gas 222Rn are continuously performed at GIC3 station at 20 m agl and at 1100 m asl . Maximum,minimum and average values of meteorological parameters, such as ambient air humidity and temperature, wind speed and direction are also measured at GIC3 station. Particularly, the concentration series of 222Rn measured at GIC3 station are extremely useful to evaluate the exchange of this noble radioactive gas between the soil surface and the lower troposphere in this area, under different weather situations and environmental conditions. The Gredos Natural Park is located in a granitic basement and this type of soil presents a high porosity and permeability. Furthermore, granitic materials have high activity levels of 228U. These factors enable large amount of radon to escape from the deeper soil, giving radon flux values of 90-100 Bq m-2 h-1 . These radon flux values are much higher than the average radon flux over the Earth, which is about 50 Bq m-2 h-1 (Szegvary et al, 2009). On the other hand, this geographical area is frequently affected by snow and rain events which drastically reduce the local radon exhalation. It is also influenced by winds coming from the Atlantic Ocean, which are poor in radon and strong, causing an important mixing. In addition, the cold nights' stability leads to an observed nocturnal radon accumulation. All the aforementioned conditions influence atmospheric radon concentrations measured at the GIC3 station, enlarging the range

  10. STS-47 MS Jemison works with FTS equipment in SLJ module aboard OV-105 (United States)


    STS-47 Mission Specialist Mae C. Jemison injects a fluid into a mannequin's hand during research in the Spacelab Japan (SLJ) science module aboard the Earth-orbiting Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105. Working at Rack 9, Jemison conducts this Fluid Therapy System (FTS) experiment procedure. FTS will examine the effect of low gravity on the administration of intravenous (IV) fluids in space. Since gravity assists in the delivery and flow of IV fluids on Earth, researchers want to determine what problems the absence of gravity would cause if an IV had to be administrated to an astronaut in space. A new device that converts contaminated water into a sterile solution that can be used in IVs is part of the experiment. MS and Payload Commander Mark C. Lee is partially visible at lower right.

  11. FtsK-dependent XerCD-dif recombination unlinks replication catenanes in a stepwise manner. (United States)

    Shimokawa, Koya; Ishihara, Kai; Grainge, Ian; Sherratt, David J; Vazquez, Mariel


    In Escherichia coli, complete unlinking of newly replicated sister chromosomes is required to ensure their proper segregation at cell division. Whereas replication links are removed primarily by topoisomerase IV, XerC/XerD-dif site-specific recombination can mediate sister chromosome unlinking in Topoisomerase IV-deficient cells. This reaction is activated at the division septum by the DNA translocase FtsK, which coordinates the last stages of chromosome segregation with cell division. It has been proposed that, after being activated by FtsK, XerC/XerD-dif recombination removes DNA links in a stepwise manner. Here, we provide a mathematically rigorous characterization of this topological mechanism of DNA unlinking. We show that stepwise unlinking is the only possible pathway that strictly reduces the complexity of the substrates at each step. Finally, we propose a topological mechanism for this unlinking reaction.

  12. A rhodanine derivative CCR-11 inhibits bacterial proliferation by inhibiting the assembly and GTPase activity of FtsZ. (United States)

    Singh, Parminder; Jindal, Bhavya; Surolia, Avadhesha; Panda, Dulal


    A perturbation of FtsZ assembly dynamics has been shown to inhibit bacterial cytokinesis. In this study, the antibacterial activity of 151 rhodanine compounds was assayed using Bacillus subtilis cells. Of 151 compounds, eight strongly inhibited bacterial proliferation at 2 μM. Subsequently, we used the elongation of B. subtilis cells as a secondary screen to identify potential FtsZ-targeted antibacterial agents. We found that three compounds significantly increased bacterial cell length. One of the three compounds, namely, CCR-11 [(E)-2-thioxo-5-({[3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]furan-2-yl}methylene)thiazolidin-4-one], inhibited the assembly and GTPase activity of FtsZ in vitro. CCR-11 bound to FtsZ with a dissociation constant of 1.5 ± 0.3 μM. A docking analysis indicated that CCR-11 may bind to FtsZ in a cavity adjacent to the T7 loop and that short halogen-oxygen, H-bonding, and hydrophobic interactions might be important for the binding of CCR-11 with FtsZ. CCR-11 inhibited the proliferation of B. subtilis cells with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of 1.2 ± 0.2 μM and a minimal inhibitory concentration of 3 μM. It also potently inhibited proliferation of Mycobacterium smegmatis cells. Further, CCR-11 perturbed Z-ring formation in B. subtilis cells; however, it neither visibly affected nucleoid segregation nor altered the membrane integrity of the cells. CCR-11 inhibited HeLa cell proliferation with an IC(50) value of 18.1 ± 0.2 μM (∼15 × IC(50) of B. subtilis cell proliferation). The results suggested that CCR-11 inhibits bacterial cytokinesis by inhibiting FtsZ assembly, and it can be used as a lead molecule to develop FtsZ-targeted antibacterial agents.

  13. ASOS Station Photos (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The images contained in this library are of stations in the Automated Surface Observing System (ASOS) network. These images were taken between 1998-2001 for the ASOS...

  14. FtsH-mediated repair of the Photosystem II complex in response to light stress

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nixon, P. J.; Barker, M.; Boehm, M.; De Vries, M.; Komenda, Josef


    Roč. 56, č. 411 (2005), s. 357-363 ISSN 0022-0957 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/04/0800; GA MŠk LN00A141 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : cyanobacteria * DegP/HtrA proteases * FtsH proteases Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.336, year: 2005

  15. Roles of the Essential Protein FtsA in Cell Growth and Division in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mura, Andrea; Fadda, D.; Perez, A.J.; Danforth, M.L.; Musu, D.; Rico, A.I.; Krupka, M.; Denapaite, D.; Tsui, H-Ch.T.; Winkler, M.E.; Branny, Pavel; Vicente, M.; Margolin, W.; Massidda, O.


    Roč. 199, č. 3 (2017), č. článku UNSP e00608. ISSN 0021-9193 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP302/12/0256; GA MŠk LH12055 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : FtsA * Gram-positive cocci * Streptococcus pneumoniae Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 3.143, year: 2016

  16. The bacterial tubulin FtsZ requires its intrinsically disordered linker to direct robust cell wall construction. (United States)

    Sundararajan, Kousik; Miguel, Amanda; Desmarais, Samantha M; Meier, Elizabeth L; Casey Huang, Kerwyn; Goley, Erin D


    The bacterial GTPase FtsZ forms a cytokinetic ring at midcell, recruits the division machinery and orchestrates membrane and peptidoglycan cell wall invagination. However, the mechanism for FtsZ regulation of peptidoglycan metabolism is unknown. The FtsZ GTPase domain is separated from its membrane-anchoring C-terminal conserved (CTC) peptide by a disordered C-terminal linker (CTL). Here we investigate CTL function in Caulobacter crescentus. Strikingly, production of FtsZ lacking the CTL (ΔCTL) is lethal: cells become filamentous, form envelope bulges and lyse, resembling treatment with β-lactam antibiotics. This phenotype is produced by FtsZ polymers bearing the CTC and a CTL shorter than 14 residues. Peptidoglycan synthesis still occurs downstream of ΔCTL; however, cells expressing ΔCTL exhibit reduced peptidoglycan crosslinking and longer glycan strands than wild type. Importantly, midcell proteins are still recruited to sites of ΔCTL assembly. We propose that FtsZ regulates peptidoglycan metabolism through a CTL-dependent mechanism that extends beyond simple protein recruitment.

  17. Structural insights of Staphylococcus aureus FtsZ inhibitors through molecular docking, 3D-QSAR and molecular dynamics simulations. (United States)

    Ballu, Srilata; Itteboina, Ramesh; Sivan, Sree Kanth; Manga, Vijjulatha


    Filamentous temperature-sensitive protein Z (FtsZ) is a protein encoded by the FtsZ gene that assembles into a Z-ring at the future site of the septum of bacterial cell division. Structurally, FtsZ is a homolog of eukaryotic tubulin but has low sequence similarity; this makes it possible to obtain FtsZ inhibitors without affecting the eukaryotic cell division. Computational studies were performed on a series of substituted 3-arylalkoxybenzamide derivatives reported as inhibitors of FtsZ activity in Staphylococcus aureus. Quantitative structure-activity relationship models (QSAR) models generated showed good statistical reliability, which is evident from r 2 ncv and r 2 loo values. The predictive ability of these models was determined and an acceptable predictive correlation (r 2 Pred ) values were obtained. Finally, we performed molecular dynamics simulations in order to examine the stability of protein-ligand interactions. This facilitated us to compare free binding energies of cocrystal ligand and newly designed molecule B1. The good concordance between the docking results and comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA)/comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA) contour maps afforded obliging clues for the rational modification of molecules to design more potent FtsZ inhibitors.

  18. Identification of Escherichia coli ZapC (YcbW) as a component of the division apparatus that binds and bundles FtsZ polymers. (United States)

    Hale, Cynthia A; Shiomi, Daisuke; Liu, Bing; Bernhardt, Thomas G; Margolin, William; Niki, Hironori; de Boer, Piet A J


    Assembly of the cell division apparatus in bacteria starts with formation of the Z ring on the cytoplasmic face of the membrane. This process involves the accumulation of FtsZ polymers at midcell and their interaction with several FtsZ-binding proteins that collectively organize the polymers into a membrane-associated ring-like configuration. Three such proteins, FtsA, ZipA, and ZapA, have previously been identified in Escherichia coli. FtsA and ZipA are essential membrane-associated division proteins that help connect FtsZ polymers with the inner membrane. ZapA is a cytoplasmic protein that is not required for the fission process per se but contributes to its efficiency, likely by promoting lateral interactions between FtsZ protofilaments. We report the identification of YcbW (ZapC) as a fourth FtsZ-binding component of the Z ring in E. coli. Binding of ZapC promotes lateral interactions between FtsZ polymers and suppresses FtsZ GTPase activity. This and additional evidence indicate that, like ZapA, ZapC is a nonessential Z-ring component that contributes to the efficiency of the division process by stabilizing the polymeric form of FtsZ.

  19. Thermal stability control system of photo-elastic interferometer in the PEM-FTs (United States)

    Zhang, M. J.; Jing, N.; Li, K. W.; Wang, Z. B.


    A drifting model for the resonant frequency and retardation amplitude of a photo-elastic modulator (PEM) in the photo-elastic modulated Fourier transform spectrometer (PEM-FTs) is presented. A multi-parameter broadband-matching driving control method is proposed to improve the thermal stability of the PEM interferometer. The automatically frequency-modulated technology of the driving signal based on digital phase-locked technology is used to track the PEM's changing resonant frequency. Simultaneously the maximum optical-path-difference of a laser's interferogram is measured to adjust the amplitude of the PEM's driving signal so that the spectral resolution is stable. In the experiment, the multi-parameter broadband-matching control method is applied to the driving control system of the PEM-FTs. Control of resonant frequency and retardation amplitude stabilizes the maximum optical-path-difference to approximately 236 μm and results in a spectral resolution of 42 cm-1. This corresponds to a relative error smaller than 2.16% (4.28 standard deviation). The experiment shows that the method can effectively stabilize the spectral resolution of the PEM-FTs.

  20. Fire Stations (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Fire Stations in the United States Any location where fire fighters are stationed or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their...

  1. Proteolysis-Dependent Remodeling of the Tubulin Homolog FtsZ at the Division Septum in Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marissa G Viola

    Full Text Available During bacterial cell division a dynamic protein structure called the Z-ring assembles at the septum. The major protein in the Z-ring in Escherichia coli is FtsZ, a tubulin homolog that polymerizes with GTP. FtsZ is degraded by the two-component ATP-dependent protease ClpXP. Two regions of FtsZ, located outside of the polymerization domain in the unstructured linker and at the C-terminus, are important for specific recognition and degradation by ClpXP. We engineered a synthetic substrate containing green fluorescent protein (Gfp fused to an extended FtsZ C-terminal tail (residues 317-383, including the unstructured linker and the C-terminal conserved region, but not the polymerization domain, and showed that it is sufficient to target a non-native substrate for degradation in vitro. To determine if FtsZ degradation regulates Z-ring assembly during division, we expressed a full length Gfp-FtsZ fusion protein in wild type and clp deficient strains and monitored fluorescent Z-rings. In cells deleted for clpX or clpP, or cells expressing protease-defective mutant protein ClpP(S97A, Z-rings appear normal; however, after photobleaching a region of the Z-ring, fluorescence recovers ~70% more slowly in cells without functional ClpXP than in wild type cells. Gfp-FtsZ(R379E, which is defective for degradation by ClpXP, also assembles into Z-rings that recover fluorescence ~2-fold more slowly than Z-rings containing Gfp-FtsZ. In vitro, ClpXP cooperatively degrades and disassembles FtsZ polymers. These results demonstrate that ClpXP is a regulator of Z-ring dynamics and that the regulation is proteolysis-dependent. Our results further show that FtsZ-interacting proteins in E. coli fine-tune Z-ring dynamics.

  2. [Study on pollution evaluation of heavy metal in surface soil of the original site of Qingdao North Station]. (United States)

    Zhu, Lei; Jia, Yong-gang; Pan, Yu-ying


    The determination of pollution extent and health risk assessment are the premise of heavy metal contaminated site remediation. The content of Cu, Cr, Pb, Cd, Zn, Ni in Qingdao North Station was detected, and the correlation of the 6 kinds of heavy metal content was analyzed. The pollution extent in excess of background values was characterized by anthropogenic influence multiple, and the pollution of heavy metal in soil was evaluated using geoaccumulation index and a new method which connects geoaccumulation index with Nemero index. Finally, human health risk assessment was carried out with health risk assessment model for heavy metal content. The results showed that Qingdao North Station soil were polluted by heavy metals. Six heavy metal pollution levels were: Cd > Cu > Ni > Pb > Cr > Zn, and Cd had reached the severity pollution level, Cu and Ni followed by, Cr, Pb and Zn were in minor pollution level. The order of coefficient variation in all heavy metals was: Cd > Ni > Cr > Zn > Pb > Cu. Within the study area soil heavy metal distribution was different, but overall discrepancy was small. The order of non-cancer hazards of heavy metals in soil was Cr > Pb > Cu > Ni > Cd > Zn, and the order of carcinogen risks of heavy metals was Ni > Cd. The non-cancer hazard and carcinogen risks values of metals were both lower than that their threshold values. They were not the direct threats to human health.

  3. Site-directed fluorescence labeling reveals a revised N-terminal membrane topology and functional periplasmic residues in the Escherichia coli cell division protein FtsK. (United States)

    Berezuk, Alison M; Goodyear, Mara; Khursigara, Cezar M


    In Escherichia coli, FtsK is a large integral membrane protein that coordinates chromosome segregation and cell division. The N-terminal domain of FtsK (FtsKN) is essential for division, and the C terminus (FtsKC) is a well characterized DNA translocase. Although the function of FtsKN is unknown, it is suggested that FtsK acts as a checkpoint to ensure DNA is properly segregated before septation. This may occur through modulation of protein interactions between FtsKN and other division proteins in both the periplasm and cytoplasm; thus, a clear understanding of how FtsKN is positioned in the membrane is required to characterize these interactions. The membrane topology of FtsKN was initially determined using site-directed reporter fusions; however, questions regarding this topology persist. Here, we report a revised membrane topology generated by site-directed fluorescence labeling. The revised topology confirms the presence of four transmembrane segments and reveals a newly identified periplasmic loop between the third and fourth transmembrane domains. Within this loop, four residues were identified that, when mutated, resulted in the appearance of cellular voids. High resolution transmission electron microscopy of these voids showed asymmetric division of the cytoplasm in the absence of outer membrane invagination or visible cell wall ingrowth. This uncoupling reveals a novel role for FtsK in linking cell envelope septation events and yields further evidence for FtsK as a critical checkpoint of cell division. The revised topology of FtsKN also provides an important platform for future studies on essential interactions required for this process. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Spectral Characterizations of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Thermistor Bolometers using Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) Techniques (United States)

    Thornhill, K. Lee; Bitting, Herbert; Lee, Robert B., III; Paden, Jack; Pandey, Dhirendra K.; Priestley, Kory J.; Thomas, Susan; Wilson, Robert S.


    Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) techniques are being used to characterize the relative spectral response, or sensitivity, of scanning thermistor bolometers in the infrared (IR) region (2 - >= 100-micrometers). The bolometers are being used in the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) program. The CERES measurements are designed to provide precise, long term monitoring of the Earth's atmospheric radiation energy budget. The CERES instrument houses three bolometric radiometers, a total wavelength (0.3- >= 150-micrometers) sensor, a shortwave (0.3-5-micrometers) sensor, and an atmospheric window (8-12-micrometers) sensor. Accurate spectral characterization is necessary for determining filtered radiances for longwave radiometric calibrations. The CERES bolometers spectral response's are measured in the TRW FTS Vacuum Chamber Facility (FTS - VCF), which uses a FTS as the source and a cavity pyroelectric trap detector as the reference. The CERES bolometers and the cavity detector are contained in a vacuum chamber, while the FTS source is housed in a GN2 purged chamber. Due to the thermal time constant of the CERES bolometers, the FTS must be operated in a step mode. Data are acquired in 6 IR spectral bands covering the entire longwave IR region. In this paper, the TRW spectral calibration facility design and data measurement techniques are described. Two approaches are presented which convert the total channel FTS data into the final CERES spectral characterizations, producing the same calibration coefficients (within 0.1 percent). The resulting spectral response curves are shown, along with error sources in the two procedures. Finally, the impact of each spectral response curve on CERES data validation will be examined through analysis of filtered radiance values from various typical scene types.

  5. Elevated guanosine 5'-diphosphate 3'-diphosphate level inhibits bacterial growth and interferes with FtsZ assembly. (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Takayoshi; Iida, Ken-Ichiro; Shiota, Susumu; Nakayama, Hiroaki; Yoshida, Shin-Ichi


    FtsZ, a protein essential for prokaryotic cell division, forms a ring structure known as the Z-ring at the division site. FtsZ has a GTP binding site and is assembled into linear structures in a GTP-dependent manner in vitro. We assessed whether guanosine 5'-diphosphate 3'-diphosphate (ppGpp), a global regulator of gene expression in starved bacteria, affects cell division in Salmonella Paratyphi A. Elevation of intracellular ppGpp levels by using the relA expression vector induced repression of bacterial growth and incorrect FtsZ assembly. We found that FtsZ forms helical structures in the presence of ppGpp by using the GTP binding site; however, ppGpp levels required to form helical structures were at least 20-fold higher than the required GTP levels in vitro. Furthermore, once formed, helical structures did not change to the straight form even after GTP addition. Our data indicate that elevation of the ppGpp level leads to inhibition of bacterial growth and interferes with FtsZ assembly. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  6. Delayed activation of Xer recombination at dif by FtsK during septum assembly in Escherichia coli. (United States)

    Kennedy, Sean P; Chevalier, Fabien; Barre, François-Xavier


    The co-ordination and synchronization of DNA replication, chromosome partitioning and cell division in bacteria are critical to survival. In Escherichia coli, the septal protein FtsK links cell division and chromosome segregation through its integral membrane N-terminal and cytoplasmic C-terminal domains. FtsK is responsible for promoting decatenation and dimer resolution in the later stages of chromosome segregation by activating recombination at dif by the site-specific Xer recombinases. Here, we formally demonstrate, using novel assay based on real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, that dif recombination depends not only on proteins upstream of FtsK in the septum assembly pathway, but also on the activity of downstream proteins. Work in synchronized cell cultures further showed that even though FtsK is recruited early to the septum, dif recombination only occurs shortly before cell division and this activity requires a closing septum. We propose a model whereby septum localization and concentration of FtsK co-ordinate its various roles in chromosome segregation and cell division.

  7. Amtrak Stations (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Updated database of the Federal Railroad Administration's (FRA) Amtrak Station database. This database is a geographic data set containing Amtrak intercity railroad...

  8. The use of vertical and horizontal surface displacements at EPOS GNSS stations in Greenland to study ice sheet mass balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Shfaqat Abbas


    The European Plate Observing System (EPOS) includes e.g. seismic and geodetic permanent national monitoring networks on a European scale. The main purpose is to create data platforms for monitoring and study geophysics processes like earthquakes, volcanoes, surface dynamics and tectonics. Here we...

  9. Conformational transitions during FtsK translocase activation of individual XerCD-dif recombination complexes. (United States)

    Zawadzki, Pawel; May, Peter F J; Baker, Rachel A; Pinkney, Justin N M; Kapanidis, Achillefs N; Sherratt, David J; Arciszewska, Lidia K


    Three single-molecule techniques have been used simultaneously and in tandem to track the formation in vitro of single XerCD-dif recombination complexes. We observed the arrival of the FtsK translocase at individual preformed synaptic complexes and demonstrated the conformational change that occurs during their activation. We then followed the reaction intermediate transitions as Holliday junctions formed through catalysis by XerD, isomerized, and were converted by XerC to reaction products, which then dissociated. These observations, along with the calculated intermediate lifetimes, inform the reaction mechanism, which plays a key role in chromosome unlinking in most bacteria with circular chromosomes.

  10. Assessment of the Suomi NPP VIIRS Land Surface Albedo Data Using Station Measurements and High-Resolution Albedo Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Zhou


    Full Text Available Land surface albedo (LSA, one of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS environmental data records (EDRs, is a fundamental component for linking the land surface and the climate system by regulating shortwave energy exchange between the land and the atmosphere. Currently, the improved bright pixel sub-algorithm (BPSA is a unique algorithm employed by VIIRS to routinely generate LSA EDR from VIIRS top-of-atmosphere (TOA observations. As a product validation procedure, LSA EDR reached validated (V1 stage maturity in December 2014. This study summarizes recent progress in algorithm refinement, and presents comprehensive validation and evaluation results of VIIRS LSA by using extensive field measurements, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS albedo product, and Landsat-retrieved albedo maps. Results indicate that: (1 by testing the updated desert-specific look-up-table (LUT that uses a stricter standard to select the training data specific for desert aerosol type in our local environment, it is found that the VIIRS LSA retrieval accuracy is improved over a desert surface and the absolute root mean square error (RMSE is reduced from 0.036 to 0.023, suggesting the potential of the updated desert LUT to the improve the VIIRS LSA product accuracy; (2 LSA retrieval on snow-covered surfaces is more accurate if the newly developed snow-specific LUT (RMSE = 0.082 replaces the generic LUT (RMSE = 0.093 that is employed in the current operational LSA EDR production; (3 VIIRS LSA is also comparable to high-resolution Landsat albedo retrieval (RMSE < 0.04, although Landsat albedo has a slightly higher accuracy, probably owing to higher spatial resolution with less impacts of mixed pixel; (4 VIIRS LSA retrievals agree well with the MODIS albedo product over various land surface types, with overall RMSE of lower than 0.05 and the overall bias as low as 0.025, demonstrating the comparable data quality between VIIRS and the MODIS LSA

  11. Atmospheric greenhouse gases retrieved from SCIAMACHY: comparison to ground-based FTS measurements and model results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Schneising


    Full Text Available SCIAMACHY onboard ENVISAT (launched in 2002 enables the retrieval of global long-term column-averaged dry air mole fractions of the two most important anthropogenic greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and methane (denoted XCO2 and XCH4. In order to assess the quality of the greenhouse gas data obtained with the recently introduced v2 of the scientific retrieval algorithm WFM-DOAS, we present validations with ground-based Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS measurements and comparisons with model results at eight Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON sites providing realistic error estimates of the satellite data. Such validation is a prerequisite to assess the suitability of data sets for their use in inverse modelling.

    It is shown that there are generally no significant differences between the carbon dioxide annual increases of SCIAMACHY and the assimilation system CarbonTracker (2.00 ± 0.16 ppm yr−1 compared to 1.94 ± 0.03 ppm yr−1 on global average. The XCO2 seasonal cycle amplitudes derived from SCIAMACHY are typically larger than those from TCCON which are in turn larger than those from CarbonTracker. The absolute values of the northern hemispheric TCCON seasonal cycle amplitudes are closer to SCIAMACHY than to CarbonTracker and the corresponding differences are not significant when compared with SCIAMACHY, whereas they can be significant for a subset of the analysed TCCON sites when compared with CarbonTracker. At Darwin we find discrepancies of the seasonal cycle derived from SCIAMACHY compared to the other data sets which can probably be ascribed to occurrences of undetected thin clouds. Based on the comparison with the reference data, we conclude that the carbon dioxide data set can be characterised by a regional relative precision (mean standard deviation of the differences of about 2.2 ppm and a relative accuracy (standard deviation of the mean differences

  12. FtsK translocation permits discrimination between an endogenous and an imported Xer/dif recombination complex. (United States)

    Fournes, Florian; Crozat, Estelles; Pages, Carine; Tardin, Catherine; Salomé, Laurence; Cornet, François; Rousseau, Philippe


    In bacteria, the FtsK/Xer/dif (chromosome dimer resolution site) system is essential for faithful vertical genetic transmission, ensuring the resolution of chromosome dimers during their segregation to daughter cells. This system is also targeted by mobile genetic elements that integrate into chromosomal dif sites. A central question is thus how Xer/dif recombination is tuned to both act in chromosome segregation and stably maintain mobile elements. To explore this question, we focused on pathogenic Neisseria species harboring a genomic island in their dif sites. We show that the FtsK DNA translocase acts differentially at the recombination sites flanking the genomic island. It stops at one Xer/dif complex, activating recombination, but it does not stop on the other site, thus dismantling it. FtsK translocation thus permits cis discrimination between an endogenous and an imported Xer/dif recombination complex.

  13. FtsEX-CwlO regulates biofilm formation by a plant-beneficial rhizobacterium Bacillus velezensis SQR9. (United States)

    Li, Qing; Li, Zunfeng; Li, Xingxing; Xia, Liming; Zhou, Xuan; Xu, Zhihui; Shao, Jiahui; Shen, Qirong; Zhang, Ruifu


    Bacillus velezensis strain SQR9 is a well-investigated rhizobacterium with an outstanding ability to colonize roots, enhance plant growth and suppress soil-borne diseases. The recognition that biofilm formation by plant-beneficial bacteria is crucial for their root colonization and function has resulted in increased interest in understanding molecular mechanisms related to biofilm formation. Here, we report that the gene ftsE, encoding the ATP-binding protein of an FtsEX ABC transporter, is required for efficient SQR9 biofilm formation. FtsEX has been reported to regulate the atolysin CwlO. We provided evidence that FtsEX-CwlO was involved in the regulation of SQR9 biofilm formation; however, this effect has little to do with CwlO autolysin activity. We propose that regulation of biofilm formation by CwlO was exerted through the spo0A pathway, since transcription of spo0A cascade genes was altered and their downstream extracellular matrix genes were downregulated in SQR9 ftsE/cwlO deletion mutants. CwlO was also shown to interact physically with KinB/KinD. CwlO may therefore interact with KinB/KinD to interfere with the spo0A pathway. This study revealed that FtsEX-CwlO plays a previously undiscovered regulatory role in biofilm formation by SQR9 that may enhance root colonization and plant-beneficial functions of SQR9 and other beneficial rhizobacteria as well. Copyright © 2018 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Developing occupational chronologies for surface archaeological deposits from heat retainer hearths on Pine Point and Langwell stations, Far Western New South Wales, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiner, J.


    The archaeological record of arid Australia is dominated by deflated distributions of stone artefacts and heat retainer hearths covering many thousands of square metres. These deposits have often been over-looked by archaeologists in preference for stratified deposits, which are regarded as more appropriate for investigating temporal issues. In recent years this situation had slowly begun to change with the large-scale dating of heat retainer hearths from surface contexts. The work of of Fanning and Holdaway (2001) and Holdaway et al. (2002) in Far Western New South Wales has demonstrated that through the dating of large numbers of hearths it is possible to develop occupational chronologies for surface deposits. At a wider landscape scale these chronologies reflect the timing and tempo of the occupation of different places. A major component of my doctoral fieldwork on Pine Point and Langwell stations, 50 km south of Broken Hill in Western New South Wales, aimed to establish occupational chronologies from hearths for surface archaeological distributions. This paper reports on radiocarbon results from this investigation. (author). 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  15. Examination of Surface Residuals Obtained During Re-Lubrication of the International Space Station (ISS) Solar Alpha Rotary Joint (SARJ) (United States)

    Martinez, J. E.; Golden, J. L.


    The starboard SARJ mechanism on the ISS suffered a premature lubrication failure, resulting in widespread loss of the nitride case layer on its 10.3 meter circumference, 15-5PH steel race ring [1, 2]. To restore functionality, vacuum-stable grease was applied on-orbit, first to the port SARJ mechanism to save it from the damage suffered by the starboard mechanism. After 3 years of greased operation, telemetry indicated that the port mechanism required relubrication, so part of that process included sampling each of the three race ring surfaces to evaluate any wear debris recovered and the state of the originally applied grease. Extensive microscopic examination was conducted, which directed subsequent microanalysis of particulate. Since the SARJ mechanism operates in the vacuum of space, a sampling method and tool had to be developed for use by astronauts while working in the extravehicular mobility unit (EMU). The sampling tool developed was a cotton terry-cloth mitt for the EMU glove, with samples taken by swiping each of the three port SARJ race-ring surfaces. The sample mitts for each surface were folded inward after sampling to preserve sample integrity, for return and ground analysis. The sample mitt for what is termed the outer canted surface of the SARJ race-ring is shown in Figure 1. Figure 1 also demonstrates how increasing levels of magnification were used to survey the contamination removed in sampling, specifically looking for signs of wear debris or other features which could be further evaluated using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) methods. The most surprising overall result at this point in the analysis was the relatively small amounts of grease recovered during sampling. It is clear that the mechanism was not operating with surplus lubricant. Obviously, evidence of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), a major component in the grease applied, was prevalent in the analysis conducted. But a small amount of mechanism wear debris was observed. Figure 2

  16. One-year operation of TANSO-FTS on GOSAT and follow-on mission feasibility (United States)

    Shiomi, Kei; Nakajima, Masakatsu; Kuze, Akihiko; Takeshima, Toshiaki; Kawakami, Shuji; Suto, Hiroshi


    The Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) was developed to contribute to monitoring of carbon dioxide and methane from space [1]. The mission objectives are global greenhouse gas measurements from space with precision of 1 % for CO2 and 2 % for CH4 in seasonal mean. The GOSAT carries Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation (TANSO) for precise measurement of greenhouse gases. Main instrument is Fourier Transfer Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) to observe atmospheric absorption spectra of CO2 and CH4 with high spectral resolution of 0.2 cm-1, broad wavelength coverage of 0.76 - 14.3 microns, wide swath of 790 km and frequent revisit of 3 days. Cloud and Aerosol Imager (TANSO-CAI) is simultaneously on board for cloud detection and correction of optical thin cirrus and aerosol interference within the FTS instantaneous field of view. The GOSAT satellite was launched by H2A-15 rocket on January 23, 2009. The Level 1B products of calibrated spectra were released from September 2009 in public. The Level 2 products of CO2 and CH4 column densities were released from February 2010 [2]. The normal observation data is acquired over one year regularly from April 2009. The mission lifetime is 5 years.

  17. Testing of FTS fingers and interface using a passive compliant robot manipulator. [flight telerobot servicer (United States)

    Nguyen, Charles C.; Antrazi, Sami S.


    This report deals with testing of a pair of robot fingers designed for the Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS) to grasp a cylinder type of Orbital Replaceable Unit (ORU) interface. The report first describes the objectives of the study and then the testbed consisting of a Stewart Platform-based manipulator equipped with a passive compliant platform which also serves as a force/torque sensor. Kinematic analysis is then performed to provide a closed-form solution for the force inverse kinematics and iterative solution for the force forward kinematics using the Newton's Raphson Method. Mathematical expressions are then derived to compute force/torques applied to the FTS fingers during the mating/demating with the interface. The report then presents the three parts of the experimental study on the feasibility and characteristics of the fingers. The first part obtains data of forces applied by the fingers to the interface under various misalignments, the second part determines the maximum allowable capture angles for mating, and the third part processes and interprets the obtained force/torque data.

  18. Inhibiting the growth of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in vitro with antisense peptide nucleic acid conjugates targeting the ftsZ gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shumei Liang


    Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that the potent effects of PNAs on bacterial growth and cell viability were mediated by the down-regulation or even knock-out of ftsZ gene expression. This highlights the utility of ftsZ as a promising target for the development of new antisense antibacterial agents to treat MRSA infections.

  19. ACE-FTS on SCISAT: 10th year on-orbit anniversary (United States)

    Lachance, Richard L.; Buijs, Henry L.; Soucy, Marc-André


    The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) is a mission on-board the Canadian Space Agency's (CSA) SCISAT-1. ACE is composed of a suite of instruments consisting of an infrared Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) coupled with an auxiliary imager monitoring aerosols based on the extinction of solar radiation using two filtered detectors (visible and near infrared). A suntracker is also included to provide fine pointing during occultation. A second instrument, MAESTRO, is a spectrophotometer covering the near ultra-violet to the near infrared. In combination, the instrument payload covers the spectral range from 0.25 to 13.3 μm. The ACE mission came about from a need to better understand the chemical and dynamical processes that control the distribution of ozone in the upper troposphere and stratosphere, with particular emphasis on the Arctic region. Measurement of the vertical distribution of molecular species in these portions of the atmosphere permits elucidation of the key chemical and dynamical processes. The ACE-FTS measures the vertical distributions of trace gases as well as polar stratospheric clouds, aerosols, and temperature by a solar occultation technique from low earth orbit. By measuring solar radiation at high spectral resolution as it passes through different layers of the atmosphere, the absorption thus measured provides information on vertical profiles of atmospheric constituents, temperature, and pressure. Detailed and sensitive vertical distribution of trace gases help to better understand the chemical processes not only for ozone formation and destruction but also for other dynamic processes in the atmosphere. The ACE/SCISAT-1 satellite was successfully launched by NASA on August 12, 2003, and has been successfully operating since, now celebrating its 10th year on-orbit anniversary. This paper presents a summary of the heritage and development history of the ACE-FTS instrument. Design challenges and solutions are related. The actual on

  20. Intercomparison of XH2O Data from the GOSAT TANSO-FTS (TIR and SWIR and Ground-Based FTS Measurements: Impact of the Spatial Variability of XH2O on the Intercomparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirofumi Ohyama


    Full Text Available Spatial and temporal variability of atmospheric water vapor (H2O is extremely high, and therefore it is difficult to accurately evaluate the measurement precision of H2O data by a simple comparison between the data derived from two different instruments. We determined the measurement precisions of column-averaged dry-air mole fractions of H2O (XH2O retrieved independently from spectral radiances in the thermal infrared (TIR and the short-wavelength infrared (SWIR regions measured using a Thermal And Near-infrared Sensor for carbon Observation-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS onboard the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT, by an intercomparison between the two TANSO-FTS XH2O data products and the ground-based FTS XH2O data. Furthermore, the spatial variability of XH2O was also estimated in the intercomparison process. Mutually coincident XH2O data above land for the period ranging from April 2009 to May 2014 were intercompared with different spatial coincidence criteria. We found that the precisions of the TANSO-FTS TIR and TANSO-FTS SWIR XH2O were 7.3%–7.7% and 3.5%–4.5%, respectively, and that the spatial variability of XH2O was 6.7% within a radius of 50 km and 18.5% within a radius of 200 km. These results demonstrate that, in order to accurately evaluate the measurement precision of XH2O, it is necessary to set more rigorous spatial coincidence criteria or to take into account the spatial variability of XH2O as derived in the present study.

  1. Assimilation of MODIS Ice Surface Temperature and Albedo into the Snow and Ice Model CROCUS Over the Greenland Ice Sheet Along the K-transect Stations (United States)

    Navari, M.; Margulis, S. A.; Bateni, S. M.; Alexander, P. M.; Tedesco, M.


    Estimating the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) surface mass balance (SMB) is an important component of current and future projections of sea level rise. In situ measurement provides direct estimates of the SMB, but are inherently limited by their spatial extent and representativeness. Given this limitation, physically based regional climate models (RCMs) are critical for understanding GrIS physical processes and estimating of the GrIS SMB. However, the uncertainty in estimates of SMB from RCMs is still high. Surface remote sensing (RS) has been used as a complimentary tool to characterize various aspects related to the SMB. The difficulty of using these data streams is that the links between them and the SMB terms are most often indirect and implicit. Given the lack of in situ information, imperfect models, and under-utilized RS data it is critical to merge the available data in a systematic way to better characterize the spatial and temporal variation of the GrIS SMB. This work proposes a data assimilation (DA) framework that yields temporally-continuous and physically consistent SMB estimates that benefit from state-of-the-art models and relevant remote sensing data streams. Ice surface temperature (IST) is the most important factor that regulates partitioning of the net radiation into the subsurface snow/ice, sensible and latent heat fluxes and plays a key role in runoff generation. Therefore it can be expected that a better estimate of surface temperature from a data assimilation system would contribute to a better estimate of surface mass fluxes. Albedo plays an important role in the surface energy balance of the GrIS. However, even advanced albedo modules are not adequate to simulate albedo over the GrIS. Therefore, merging remotely sensed albedo product into a physically based model has a potential to improve the estimates of the GrIS SMB. In this work a MODIS-derived IST and a 16-day albedo product are independently assimilated into the snow and ice model CROCUS

  2. Activation of Xer-recombination at dif: structural basis of the FtsKγ-XerD interaction. (United States)

    Keller, Andrew N; Xin, Yue; Boer, Stephanie; Reinhardt, Jonathan; Baker, Rachel; Arciszewska, Lidia K; Lewis, Peter J; Sherratt, David J; Löwe, Jan; Grainge, Ian


    Bacterial chromosomes are most often circular DNA molecules. This can produce a topological problem; a genetic crossover from homologous recombination results in dimerization of the chromosome. A chromosome dimer is lethal unless resolved. A site-specific recombination system catalyses this dimer-resolution reaction at the chromosomal site dif. In Escherichia coli, two tyrosine-family recombinases, XerC and XerD, bind to dif and carry out two pairs of sequential strand exchange reactions. However, what makes the reaction unique among site-specific recombination reactions is that the first step, XerD-mediated strand exchange, relies on interaction with the very C-terminus of the FtsK DNA translocase. FtsK is a powerful molecular motor that functions in cell division, co-ordinating division with clearing chromosomal DNA from the site of septation and also acts to position the dif sites for recombination. This is a model system for unlinking, separating and segregating large DNA molecules. Here we describe the molecular detail of the interaction between XerD and FtsK that leads to activation of recombination as deduced from a co-crystal structure, biochemical and in vivo experiments. FtsKγ interacts with the C-terminal domain of XerD, above a cleft where XerC is thought to bind. We present a model for activation of recombination based on structural data.

  3. Positive control of cell division : FtsZ is recruited by SsgB during sporulation of Streptomyces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemse, J.; Borst, J.W.; Waal, de E.C.; Bisseling, T.; Wezel, van G.P.


    In bacteria that divide by binary fission, cell division starts with the polymerization of the tubulin homolog FtsZ at mid-cell to form a cell division scaffold (the Z ring), followed by recruitment of the other divisome components. The current view of bacterial cell division control starts from the

  4. Positive control of cell division: FtsZ is recruited by SsgB during sporulation of Streptomyces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemse, J.; Borst, J.W.; Waal, de E.; Bisseling, T.; Wezel, van G.P.


    In bacteria that divide by binary fission, cell division starts with the polymerization of the tubulin homolog FtsZ at mid-cell to form a cell division scaffold (the Z ring), followed by recruitment of the other divisome components. The current view of bacterial cell division control starts from the

  5. Calibration of column-averaged CH4 over European TCCON FTS sites with airborne in-situ measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geibel, M. C.; Messerschmidt, J.; Gerbig, C.; Blumenstock, T.; Chen, H.; Hase, F.; Kolle, O.; Lavric, J. V.; Notholt, J.; Palm, M.; Rettinger, M.; Schmidt, Martina; Sussmann, R.; Warneke, T.; Feist, D. G.


    In September/October 2009, six European ground-based Fourier Transform Spectrometers (FTS) of the Total Carbon Column Observation Network (TCCON) were calibrated for the first time using aircraft measurements. The campaign was part of the Infrastructure for Measurement of the European Carbon Cycle

  6. XCO2-measurements with a tabletop FTS using solar absorption spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Simon


    Full Text Available A commercial low-resolution (0.5 cm−1 Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS has been modified and is used for determining the total column XCO2 of the atmosphere by analysing direct solar radiation. The spectrometer has a small home-built solar tracker attached, so that it is a ready-to-use instrument. The results are validated with temporally coinciding on-site measurements taken with a high-resolution Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON FTIR spectrometer. For the whole comparison period of 5 months (26 measurement days an agreement with TCCON results of (0.12 ± 0.08% is achieved. This makes the spectrometer a promising candidate for a low-cost addition to the TCCON core FTIR sites, especially suitable for locations with limited infrastructure. An impressive mechanical and thermal stability is proved, enabling the spectrometer for use in field campaigns and for the monitoring of local sources.

  7. Design, synthesis and antibacterial activity of isatin derivatives as FtsZ inhibitors (United States)

    Lian, Zhi-Min; Sun, Juan; Zhu, Hai-Liang


    Seven isatin derivatives have been designed, and their chemical structures were characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies, 1H NMR, MS, and elemental analysis. Structural stabilization followed by intramolecular as well as intermolecular H-bonds makes these molecules as perfect examples in molecular recognition with self-complementary donor and acceptor units within a single molecule. These compounds were evaluated for antimicrobial activities. Docking simulations have been performed to position compounds into the FtsZ active site to determine their probable binding models. All of the compounds exhibited better antibacterial activities. Interestingly, compound 5c and 5d exhibited better antibacterial activities with IC50 values of 0.03 and 0.05 μmol/mL against Staphylococcus aureus, respectively. Compound 5g displays antibacterial activity with IC50 values of 0.672 and 0.830 μmol/mL against Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, respectively.

  8. A gLite FTS based solution for managing user output in CMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cinquilli, M. [CERN; Riahi, H. [INFN, Perugia; Spiga, D. [CERN; Grandi, C. [INFN, Bologna; Mancinelli, V. [CERN; Mascheroni, M. [CERN; Pepe, F. [INFN, Bologna; Vaandering, E. [Fermilab


    The CMS distributed data analysis workflow assumes that jobs run in a different location from where their results are finally stored. Typically the user output must be transferred across the network from one site to another, possibly on a different continent or over links not necessarily validated for high bandwidth/high reliability transfer. This step is named stage-out and in CMS was originally implemented as a synchronous step of the analysis job execution. However, our experience showed the weakness of this approach both in terms of low total job execution efficiency and failure rates, wasting precious CPU resources. The nature of analysis data makes it inappropriate to use PhEDEx, the core data placement system for CMS. As part of the new generation of CMS Workload Management tools, the Asynchronous Stage-Out system (AsyncStageOut) has been developed to enable third party copy of the user output. The AsyncStageOut component manages glite FTS transfers of data from the temporary store at the site where the job ran to the final location of the data on behalf of that data owner. The tool uses python daemons, built using the WMCore framework, and CouchDB, to manage the queue of work and FTS transfers. CouchDB also provides the platform for a dedicated operations monitoring system. In this paper, we present the motivations of the asynchronous stage-out system. We give an insight into the design and the implementation of key features, describing how it is coupled with the CMS workload management system. Finally, we show the results and the commissioning experience.

  9. The Ras antagonist, farnesylthiosalicylic acid (FTS, decreases fibrosis and improves muscle strength in dy/dy mouse model of muscular dystrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoram Nevo

    Full Text Available The Ras superfamily of guanosine-triphosphate (GTP-binding proteins regulates a diverse spectrum of intracellular processes involved in inflammation and fibrosis. Farnesythiosalicylic acid (FTS is a unique and potent Ras inhibitor which decreased inflammation and fibrosis in experimentally induced liver cirrhosis and ameliorated inflammatory processes in systemic lupus erythematosus, neuritis and nephritis animal models. FTS effect on Ras expression and activity, muscle strength and fibrosis was evaluated in the dy(2J/dy(2J mouse model of merosin deficient congenital muscular dystrophy. The dy(2J/dy(2J mice had significantly increased RAS expression and activity compared with the wild type mice. FTS treatment significantly decreased RAS expression and activity. In addition, phosphorylation of ERK, a Ras downstream protein, was significantly decreased following FTS treatment in the dy(2J/dy(2J mice. Clinically, FTS treated mice showed significant improvement in hind limb muscle strength measured by electronic grip strength meter. Significant reduction of fibrosis was demonstrated in the treated group by quantitative Sirius Red staining and lower muscle collagen content. FTS effect was associated with significantly inhibition of both MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities. We conclude that active RAS inhibition by FTS was associated with attenuated fibrosis and improved muscle strength in the dy(2J/dy(2J mouse model of congenital muscular dystrophy.

  10. Macromolecular interactions of the bacterial division FtsZ protein: from quantitative biochemistry and crowding to reconstructing minimal divisomes in the test tube. (United States)

    Rivas, Germán; Alfonso, Carlos; Jiménez, Mercedes; Monterroso, Begoña; Zorrilla, Silvia


    The division of Escherichia coli is an essential process strictly regulated in time and space. It requires the association of FtsZ with other proteins to assemble a dynamic ring during septation, forming part of the functionally active division machinery, the divisome. FtsZ reversibly interacts with FtsA and ZipA at the cytoplasmic membrane to form a proto-ring, the first molecular assembly of the divisome, which is ultimately joined by the rest of the division-specific proteins. In this review we summarize the quantitative approaches used to study the activity, interactions, and assembly properties of FtsZ under well-defined solution conditions, with the aim of furthering our understanding of how the behavior of FtsZ is controlled by nucleotides and physiological ligands. The modulation of the association and assembly properties of FtsZ by excluded-volume effects, reproducing in part the natural crowded environment in which this protein has evolved to function, will be described. The subsequent studies on the reactivity of FtsZ in membrane-like systems using biochemical, biophysical, and imaging technologies are reported. Finally, we discuss the experimental challenges to be met to achieve construction of the minimum protein set needed to initiate bacterial division, without cells, in a cell-like compartment. This integrated approach, combining quantitative and synthetic strategies, will help to support (or dismiss) conclusions already derived from cellular and molecular analysis and to complete our understanding on how bacterial division works.

  11. Interspecies transfer of the penicillin-binding protein 3-encoding gene ftsI between Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus haemolyticus can confer reduced susceptibility to β-lactam antimicrobial agents. (United States)

    Søndergaard, Annette; Witherden, Elizabeth A; Nørskov-Lauritsen, Niels; Tristram, Stephen G


    Mutations in ftsI, encoding penicillin-binding protein 3, can cause decreased β-lactam susceptibility in Haemophilus influenzae. Sequencing of ftsI from clinical strains has indicated interspecies recombination of ftsI between H. influenzae and Haemophilus haemolyticus. This study documented apparently unrestricted homologous recombination of ftsI between H. influenzae and H. haemolyticus in vitro. Transfer of ftsI from resistant isolates conferred similar but not identical increases in the MICs of susceptible strains of H. influenzae and H. haemolyticus. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Station Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex


    the probability of conflicts and the minimum headway times into account. The last method analyzes how optimal platform tracks are used by examining the arrival and departure pattern of the trains. The developed methods can either be used separately to analyze specific characteristics of the capacity of a station...

  13. Microbial Characterization of Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) Hardware Surfaces after Five Years of Operation in the International Space Station (United States)

    Roman, Monsi C.; Weir, Natalee E.; Wilson, Mark E.; Pyle, Barry H.


    A flex hose assembly containing aqueous coolant from the International Space Station (ISS) Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) consisting of a 2 foot section of Teflon hose and quick disconnects (QDs) and a Special Performance Checkout Unit (SPCU) heat exchanger containing separate channels of IATCS coolant and iodinated water used to cool spacesuits and Extravehicular Mobility Units (EMUS) were returned for destructive analyses on Shuttle return to flight mission STS-114. The original aqueous IATCS coolant used in Node 1, the Laboratory Module, and the Airlock consisted of water, borate (pH buffer), phosphate (corrosion control), and silver sulfate (microbiological control) at a pH of 9.5 +/- 0.5. Chemical changes occurred after on-orbit implementation including a decrease to pH 8.4 due to the diffusion of carbon dioxide through the Teflon hoses, an increase in nickel ions due to general corrosion of heat exchanger braze coatings, a decrease in phosphate concentration due to precipitation of nickel phosphate, and the rapid disappearance of silver ions due to deposition on hardware surfaces. Also associated with the coolant chemistry changes was an increase in planktonic microorganisms from less than 100 colony forming units (CFU) per 100 ml to approximately 1 million CFU per 100 ml. Attachment and growth of microorganisms to the system surfaces (biofilm) was suspected due to the levels of planktonic microorganisms in the coolant. Biofilms can reduce coolant flow, reduce heat transfer, amplify degradation of system materials initiated by chemical corrosion, and enhance mineral scale formation.

  14. Near surface geotechnical and geophysical data cross validated for site characterization applications. The cases of selected accelerometric stations in Crete island (Greece) (United States)

    Loupasakis, Constantinos; Tsangaratos, Paraskevas; Rozos, Dimitrios; Rondoyianni, Theodora; Vafidis, Antonis; Steiakakis, Emanouil; Agioutantis, Zacharias; Savvaidis, Alexandros; Soupios, Pantelis; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Sarris, Apostolos; Mangriotis, Maria-Dafni; Dikmen, Unal


    The near surface ground conditions are highly important for the design of civil constructions. These conditions determine primarily the ability of the foundation formations to bear loads, the stress - strain relations and the corresponding deformations, as well as the soil amplification and corresponding peak ground motion in case of dynamic loading. The static and dynamic geotechnical parameters as well as the ground-type/soil-category can be determined by combining geotechnical and geophysical methods, such as engineering geological surface mapping, geotechnical drilling, in situ and laboratory testing and geophysical investigations. The above mentioned methods were combined for the site characterization in selected sites of the Hellenic Accelerometric Network (HAN) in the area of Crete Island. The combination of the geotechnical and geophysical methods in thirteen (13) sites provided sufficient information about their limitations, setting up the minimum tests requirements in relation to the type of the geological formations. The reduced accuracy of the surface mapping in urban sites, the uncertainties introduced by the geophysical survey in sites with complex geology and the 1-D data provided by the geotechnical drills are some of the causes affecting the right order and the quantity of the necessary investigation methods. Through this study the gradual improvement on the accuracy of the site characterization data in regards to the applied investigation techniques is presented by providing characteristic examples from the total number of thirteen sites. As an example of the gradual improvement of the knowledge about the ground conditions the case of AGN1 strong motion station, located at Agios Nikolaos city (Eastern Crete), is briefly presented. According to the medium scale geological map of IGME the station was supposed to be founded over limestone. The detailed geological mapping reveled that a few meters of loose alluvial deposits occupy the area, expected

  15. Structure of Psb29/Thf1 and its association with the FtsH protease complex involved in photosystem II repair in cyanobacteria. (United States)

    Bec Ková, Martina; Yu, Jianfeng; Krynická, Vendula; Kozlo, Amanda; Shao, Shengxi; Koník, Peter; Komenda, Josef; Murray, James W; Nixon, Peter J


    One strategy for enhancing photosynthesis in crop plants is to improve their ability to repair photosystem II (PSII) in response to irreversible damage by light. Despite the pivotal role of thylakoid-embedded FtsH protease complexes in the selective degradation of PSII subunits during repair, little is known about the factors involved in regulating FtsH expression. Here we show using the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 that the Psb29 subunit, originally identified as a minor component of His-tagged PSII preparations, physically interacts with FtsH complexes in vivo and is required for normal accumulation of the FtsH2/FtsH3 hetero-oligomeric complex involved in PSII repair. We show using X-ray crystallography that Psb29 from Thermosynechococcus elongatus has a unique fold consisting of a helical bundle and an extended C-terminal helix and contains a highly conserved region that might be involved in binding to FtsH. A similar interaction is likely to occur in Arabidopsis chloroplasts between the Psb29 homologue, termed THF1, and the FTSH2/FTSH5 complex. The direct involvement of Psb29/THF1 in FtsH accumulation helps explain why THF1 is a target during the hypersensitive response in plants induced by pathogen infection. Downregulating FtsH function and the PSII repair cycle via THF1 would contribute to the production of reactive oxygen species, the loss of chloroplast function and cell death.This article is part of the themed issue 'Enhancing photosynthesis in crop plants: targets for improvement'. © 2017 The Authors.

  16. Subunit Organization of a Synechocystis Hetero-Oligomeric Thylakoid FtsH Complex Involved in Photosystem II Repair

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Boehm, M.; Yu, J.; Krynická, Vendula; Barker, M.; Tichý, Martin; Komenda, Josef; Nixon, P. J.; Nield, J.


    Roč. 24, č. 9 (2012), s. 3669-3683 ISSN 1040-4651 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED2.1.00/03.0110; GA ČR GBP501/12/G055 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : photosystem II * FtsH metalloproteases * subunit Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 9.251, year: 2012

  17. Influence of Cobalt Precursor on Efficient Production of Commercial Fuels over FTS Co/SiC Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Raquel de la Osa


    Full Text Available β-SiC-supported cobalt catalysts have been prepared from nitrate, acetate, chloride and citrate salts to study the dependence of Fischer–Tropsch synthesis (FTS on the type of precursor. Com/SiC catalysts were synthetized by vacuum-assisted impregnation while N2 adsorption/desorption, XRD, TEM, TPR, O2 pulses and acid/base titrations were used as characterization techniques. FTS catalytic performance was carried out at 220 °C and 250 °C while keeping constant the pressure (20 bar, space velocity (6000 Ncm3/g·h and syngas composition (H2/CO:2. The nature of cobalt precursor was found to influence basic behavior, extent of reduction and metallic particle size. For β-SiC-supported catalysts, the use of cobalt nitrate resulted in big Co crystallites, an enhanced degree of reduction and higher basicity compared to acetate, chloride and citrate-based catalysts. Consequently, cobalt nitrate provided a better activity and selectivity to C5+ (less than 10% methane was formed, which was centered in kerosene-diesel fraction (α = 0.90. On the contrary, catalyst from cobalt citrate, characterized by the highest viscosity and acidity values, presented a highly dispersed distribution of Co nanoparticles leading to a lower reducibility. Therefore, a lower FTS activity was obtained and chain growth probability was shortened as observed from methane and gasoline-kerosene (α = 0.76 production when using cobalt citrate.

  18. The importance of accurate glacier albedo for estimates of surface mass balance on Vatnajökull: evaluating the surface energy budget in a regional climate model with automatic weather station observations (United States)

    Steffensen Schmidt, Louise; Aðalgeirsdóttir, Guðfinna; Guðmundsson, Sverrir; Langen, Peter L.; Pálsson, Finnur; Mottram, Ruth; Gascoin, Simon; Björnsson, Helgi


    A simulation of the surface climate of Vatnajökull ice cap, Iceland, carried out with the regional climate model HIRHAM5 for the period 1980-2014, is used to estimate the evolution of the glacier surface mass balance (SMB). This simulation uses a new snow albedo parameterization that allows albedo to exponentially decay with time and is surface temperature dependent. The albedo scheme utilizes a new background map of the ice albedo created from observed MODIS data. The simulation is evaluated against observed daily values of weather parameters from five automatic weather stations (AWSs) from the period 2001-2014, as well as in situ SMB measurements from the period 1995-2014. The model agrees well with observations at the AWS sites, albeit with a general underestimation of the net radiation. This is due to an underestimation of the incoming radiation and a general overestimation of the albedo. The average modelled albedo is overestimated in the ablation zone, which we attribute to an overestimation of the thickness of the snow layer and not taking the surface darkening from dirt and volcanic ash deposition during dust storms and volcanic eruptions into account. A comparison with the specific summer, winter, and net mass balance for the whole of Vatnajökull (1995-2014) shows a good overall fit during the summer, with a small mass balance underestimation of 0.04 m w.e. on average, whereas the winter mass balance is overestimated by on average 0.5 m w.e. due to too large precipitation at the highest areas of the ice cap. A simple correction of the accumulation at the highest points of the glacier reduces this to 0.15 m w.e. Here, we use HIRHAM5 to simulate the evolution of the SMB of Vatnajökull for the period 1981-2014 and show that the model provides a reasonable representation of the SMB for this period. However, a major source of uncertainty in the representation of the SMB is the representation of the albedo, and processes currently not accounted for in RCMs

  19. The importance of accurate glacier albedo for estimates of surface mass balance on Vatnajökull: evaluating the surface energy budget in a regional climate model with automatic weather station observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Schmidt


    Full Text Available A simulation of the surface climate of Vatnajökull ice cap, Iceland, carried out with the regional climate model HIRHAM5 for the period 1980–2014, is used to estimate the evolution of the glacier surface mass balance (SMB. This simulation uses a new snow albedo parameterization that allows albedo to exponentially decay with time and is surface temperature dependent. The albedo scheme utilizes a new background map of the ice albedo created from observed MODIS data. The simulation is evaluated against observed daily values of weather parameters from five automatic weather stations (AWSs from the period 2001–2014, as well as in situ SMB measurements from the period 1995–2014. The model agrees well with observations at the AWS sites, albeit with a general underestimation of the net radiation. This is due to an underestimation of the incoming radiation and a general overestimation of the albedo. The average modelled albedo is overestimated in the ablation zone, which we attribute to an overestimation of the thickness of the snow layer and not taking the surface darkening from dirt and volcanic ash deposition during dust storms and volcanic eruptions into account. A comparison with the specific summer, winter, and net mass balance for the whole of Vatnajökull (1995–2014 shows a good overall fit during the summer, with a small mass balance underestimation of 0.04 m w.e. on average, whereas the winter mass balance is overestimated by on average 0.5 m w.e. due to too large precipitation at the highest areas of the ice cap. A simple correction of the accumulation at the highest points of the glacier reduces this to 0.15 m w.e. Here, we use HIRHAM5 to simulate the evolution of the SMB of Vatnajökull for the period 1981–2014 and show that the model provides a reasonable representation of the SMB for this period. However, a major source of uncertainty in the representation of the SMB is the representation of the albedo, and processes

  20. Automation And Robotics And Related Technology Issues For Space Station Customer Servicing (United States)

    Cline, Helmut P.


    The evolution of the Space Station's capabilities for customer servicing has been driven by the need to accommodate as broad a set of requirements as possible. At the same time, cost constraints must be weighed against these requirements in order to achieve an affordable program. A thorough analysis of all requirements during the recently completed definition phase of the Space Station Program has led to certain aspects of the Servicing System which will have significant levels of automation associated with them. The key factors which drive these systems in the direction of increasing automation are the limitations inherent in the performance of extravehicular activity (EVA) by the Space Station crew. The Servicing Facility, for example, will incorporate a high degree of automation and teleoperation in its elements in order to free the crew from the burdens associated with EVA. The ultimate goal is to develop the elements of the Servicing System in such a way as to be compatible with and complementary to the Flight Tele-robotic Servicer (FTS). The FTS, being developed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, will evolve to increasing levels of autonomy to allow the virtual elimination of routine EVA. This paper will focus on those aspects of the Servicing System that will incorporate a significant level of automation and the related technology issues that will need to be more fully explored in the upcoming development phase of the Space Station Program.

  1. OH-equivalent temperatures derived from ACE-FTS and SABER temperature profiles – a comparison with OH*(3-1 temperatures from Maynooth (53.2° N, 6.4° W

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. Mulligan


    Full Text Available OH-equivalent temperatures were derived from all of the temperature profiles retrieved in 2004 and 2005 by the ACE-FTS instrument in a 5 degree band of latitude centred on a ground-based observing station at Maynooth. A globally averaged OH volume emission rate (VER profile obtained from WINDII data was employed as a weighting function to compute the equivalent temperatures. The annual cycle of temperature thus produced was compared with the annual cycle of temperatures recorded at the ground-based station more than a decade earlier from the OH*(3-1 Meinel band. Both data sets showed excellent agreement in the absolute value of the temperature minimum (~162 K and in its time of occurrence in the annual cycle at summer solstice. Away from mid-summer, however, the temperatures diverged and reach a maximum disagreement of more than 20 K in mid-winter. Comparison of the Maynooth ground-based data with the corresponding results from two nearby stations in the same time-period indicated that the Maynooth data are consistent with other ground stations. The temperature difference between the satellite and ground-based datasets in winter was reduced to 14–15 K by lowering the peak altitude of the weighting function to 84 km. An unrealistically low peak altitude would be required, however, to bring temperatures derived from the satellite into agreement with the ground-based data. OH equivalent temperatures derived from the SABER instrument using the same weighting function produced results that agreed well with ACE-FTS. When the OH 1.6 μm VER profile measured by SABER was used as the weighting function, the OH equivalent temperatures increased in winter as expected but the summer temperatures were reduced resulting in an approximately constant offset of 8.6±0.8 K between ground and satellite values with the ground values higher. Variability in both the altitude and width of the OH layer within a discernable seasonal variation were responsible for the

  2. Determining Crust and Upper Mantle Structure by Bayesian Joint Inversion of Receiver Functions and Surface Wave Dispersion at a Single Station: Preparation for Data from the InSight Mission (United States)

    Jia, M.; Panning, M. P.; Lekic, V.; Gao, C.


    The InSight (Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport) mission will deploy a geophysical station on Mars in 2018. Using seismology to explore the interior structure of the Mars is one of the main targets, and as part of the mission, we will use 3-component seismic data to constrain the crust and upper mantle structure including P and S wave velocities and densities underneath the station. We will apply a reversible jump Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm in the transdimensional hierarchical Bayesian inversion framework, in which the number of parameters in the model space and the noise level of the observed data are also treated as unknowns in the inversion process. Bayesian based methods produce an ensemble of models which can be analyzed to quantify uncertainties and trade-offs of the model parameters. In order to get better resolution, we will simultaneously invert three different types of seismic data: receiver functions, surface wave dispersion (SWD), and ZH ratios. Because the InSight mission will only deliver a single seismic station to Mars, and both the source location and the interior structure will be unknown, we will jointly invert the ray parameter in our approach. In preparation for this work, we first verify our approach by using a set of synthetic data. We find that SWD can constrain the absolute value of velocities while receiver functions constrain the discontinuities. By joint inversion, the velocity structure in the crust and upper mantle is well recovered. Then, we apply our approach to real data from an earth-based seismic station BFO located in Black Forest Observatory in Germany, as already used in a demonstration study for single station location methods. From the comparison of the results, our hierarchical treatment shows its advantage over the conventional method in which the noise level of observed data is fixed as a prior.

  3. ACE-FTS and MIPAS observations of phosgene (COCl2) and comparisons with SLIMCAT chemical transport model calculations (United States)

    Harrison, Jeremy; Chipperfield, Martyn; Moore, David; Boone, Christopher; Bernath, Peter; Hossaini, Ryan


    The majority of chlorine in the atmosphere has arisen from anthropogenic emissions of 'organic' species such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs). Due to their long lifetimes, many of these species reach the stratosphere where they break down, liberating chlorine which catalyses the destruction of ozone. The principal degradation products of Cl-containing organic species are carbonyl chloride (phosgene, COCl2), carbonyl chloride fluoride (COClF), and hydrogen chloride (HCl). Of these, phosgene is probably the most notorious, having been used as a chemical weapon in World War I. In the lower stratosphere, where the phosgene mixing ratios peak, the principal sources are the photolysis of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and, to a lesser extent, methyl chloroform (CH3CCl3). Smaller contributions arise from very short-lived substances such as CH2Cl2, CHCl3 and C2Cl4. Due to the success of the Montreal Protocol in phasing out the use of CCl4 and CH3CCl3, the abundance of phosgene continues to fall. Observing and understanding phosgene in the stratosphere helps us better understand the chlorine budget, and particularly the atmospheric removal of CCl4, which has attracted particular interest recently on account of the inconsistency between observations of its abundance and estimated sources and sinks. This work presents global distributions and trends of COCl2 using data from two satellite limb instruments: the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier transform spectrometer (ACE-FTS), and the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS). The ACE-FTS instrument, on board the SCISAT satellite, has been recording solar occultation spectra through the Earth's atmosphere since 2004 and continues to take measurements with only minor loss in performance. ACE-FTS time series are available for a range of chlorine 'source' gases, including CCl3F (CFC-11), CCl2F2 (CFC-12), CHF2Cl (HCFC-22) and CCl4, and the chlorine 'product' gases COCl2

  4. The high Arctic in extreme winters: vortex, temperature, and MLS and ACE-FTS trace gas evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. L. Manney


    Full Text Available The first three Arctic winters of the ACE mission represented two extremes of winter variability: Stratospheric sudden warmings (SSWs in 2004 and 2006 were among the strongest, most prolonged on record; 2005 was a record cold winter. Canadian Arctic Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE Validation Campaigns were conducted at Eureka (80° N, 86° W during each of these winters. New satellite measurements from ACE-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS, Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER, and Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS, along with meteorological analyses and Eureka lidar temperatures, are used to detail the meteorology in these winters, to demonstrate its influence on transport, and to provide a context for interpretation of ACE-FTS and validation campaign observations. During the 2004 and 2006 SSWs, the vortex broke down throughout the stratosphere, reformed quickly in the upper stratosphere, and remained weak in the middle and lower stratosphere. The stratopause reformed at very high altitude, near 75 km. ACE measurements covered both vortex and extra-vortex conditions in each winter, except in late-February through mid-March 2004 and 2006, when the strong, pole-centered vortex that reformed after the SSWs resulted in ACE sampling only inside the vortex in the middle through upper stratosphere. The 2004 and 2006 Eureka campaigns were during the recovery from the SSWs, with the redeveloping vortex over Eureka. 2005 was the coldest winter on record in the lower stratosphere, but with an early final warming in mid-March. The vortex was over Eureka at the start of the 2005 campaign, but moved away as it broke up. Disparate temperature profile structure and vortex evolution resulted in much lower (higher temperatures in the upper (lower stratosphere in 2004 and 2006 than in 2005. Satellite temperatures agree well with lidar data up to 50–60 km, and ACE-FTS, MLS and SABER show good agreement in high

  5. Ground-based Total Column and in situ measurements of CO2 and CH4 in the Southern Hemisphere, and an update to GOSAT/ground-based FTS comparisons (United States)

    Deutscher, N. M.; Griffith, D. W.; Jones, N. B.; Sherlock, V.; Smale, D.; Morino, I.; Uchino, O.; Connor, B. J.; Wennberg, P. O.; Wunch, D.; Toon, G. C.; Keppel-Aleks, G.; Macatangay, R.; Robinson, J.


    The Total Carbon Column Observing Network allows retrievals of column-average dry-air mole fractions of CO2 and CH4 with sub-percent precision and accuracy. These ground-based measurements have an important role to play in the validation of CO2 and CH4 retrievals from satellites. We currently operate the only three TCCON sites in the southern hemisphere, at Darwin (12°S, 131°E) and Wollongong (34°S, 151°E) in Australia and Lauder (45°S, 170°E) in New Zealand. In this paper we present and characterize the datasets acquired at these sites, along with complementary surface in situ measurements. We also provide some comparisons with modelled distributions, and an update to comparisons with GOSAT retrievals from the TANSO-FTS instrument.

  6. Warm and cold molecular gas conditions modeled in 87 galaxies observed by the Herschel SPIRE FTS (United States)

    Kamenetzky, Julia; Rangwala, Naseem; Glenn, Jason


    Molecular gas is the raw material for star formation, and like the interstellar medium (ISM) in general, it can exist in regions of higher and lower excitation. Rotational transitions of the CO molecule are bright and sensitive to cold molecular gas. While the majority of the molecular gas exists in the very cold component traced by CO J=1-0, the higher-J lines trace the highly excited gas that may be more indicative of star formation processes. The atmosphere is opaque to these lines, but the launch of the Herschel Space Observatory made them accessible for study of Galactic and extragalactic sources. We have conducted two-component, non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) modeling of the CO lines from J=1‑0 through J=13‑12 in 87 galaxies observed by the Herschel SPIRE Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS). We used the nested sampling algorithm Multinest to compare the measured CO spectral line energy distributions (SLEDs) to the ones produced by a custom version of the non-LTE code RADEX. This allowed us to fully examine the degeneracies in parameter space for kinetic temperature, molecular gas density, CO column density, and area filling factor.Here we discuss the major findings of our study, as well as the important implications of two-component molecular gas modeling. The average pressure of the warm gas is slightly correlated with galaxy LFIR, but that of the cold gas is not. A high-J (such as J=11-10) to J=1-0 line ratio is diagnostic of warm component pressure. We find a very large spread in our derived values of "alpha-CO," with no discernable trend with LFIR, and average molecular gas depletion times that decrease with LFIR. If only a few molecular lines are available in a galaxy's SLED, the limited ability to model only one component will change the results. A one-component fit often underestimates the flux of carbon monoxide (CO) J=1‑0 and the mass. If low-J lines are not included, mass is underestimated by an order of magnitude. Even when

  7. Hydrogen Filling Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, Robert F; Sabacky, Bruce; Anderson II, Everett B; Haberman, David; Al-Hassin, Mowafak; He, Xiaoming; Morriseau, Brian


    future. Project partners also conducted a workshop on hydrogen safety and permitting. This provided an opportunity for the various permitting agencies and end users to gather to share experiences and knowledge. As a result of this workshop, the permitting process for the hydrogen filling station on the Las Vegas Valley Water District’s land was done more efficiently and those who would be responsible for the operation were better educated on the safety and reliability of hydrogen production and storage. The lessons learned in permitting the filling station and conducting this workshop provided a basis for future hydrogen projects in the region. Continuing efforts to increase the working pressure of electrolysis and efficiency have been pursued. Research was also performed on improving the cost, efficiency and durability of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) hydrogen technology. Research elements focused upon PEM membranes, electrodes/catalysts, membrane-electrode assemblies, seals, bipolar plates, utilization of renewable power, reliability issues, scale, and advanced conversion topics. Additionally, direct solar-to-hydrogen conversion research to demonstrate stable and efficient photoelectrochemistry (PEC) hydrogen production systems based on a number of optional concepts was performed. Candidate PEC concepts included technical obstacles such as inefficient photocatalysis, inadequate photocurrent due to non-optimal material band gap energies, rapid electron-hole recombination, reduced hole mobility and diminished operational lifetimes of surface materials exposed to electrolytes. Project Objective 1: Design, build, operate hydrogen filling station Project Objective 2: Perform research and development for utilizing solar technologies on the hydrogen filling station and convert two utility vehicles for use by the station operators Project Objective 3: Increase capacity of hydrogen filling station; add additional vehicle; conduct safety workshop; develop a roadmap for

  8. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from station Schodack Island hydro/weather by Hudson River Environmental Conditions Observing System (HRECOS) and assembled by Mid-Atlantic Regional Association Coastal Ocean Observing System (MARACOOS) in the Hudson River from 2008-04-25 to 2017-05-31 (NCEI Accession 0163416) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0163416 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected at Schodack Island hydro/weather, a fixed station in the Hudson River. These...

  9. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from station Port of Albany weather/hydro by Hudson River Environmental Conditions Observing System (HRECOS) and assembled by Mid-Atlantic Regional Association Coastal Ocean Observing System (MARACOOS) in the Hudson River from 2011-01-04 to 2017-07-31 (NCEI Accession 0163364) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0163364 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected at Port of Albany weather/hydro, a fixed station in the Hudson River. These...

  10. Guidelines for Learning Stations. (United States)

    Fehrle, Carl C.; Schulz, Jolene

    Guidelines for designing and planning learning stations for pupils at the elementary grade level include suggestions on how to develop a station that will be successful in meeting the learners' needs. Instructions for the use of tapes at a station and matching pupils with stations are given, as are guidelines on classroom arrangement and record…

  11. Prediction of Safety Stock Using Fuzzy Time Series (FTS) and Technology of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) for Stock Control at Vendor Managed Inventory (VMI) (United States)

    Mashuri, Chamdan; Suryono; Suseno, Jatmiko Endro


    This research was conducted by prediction of safety stock using Fuzzy Time Series (FTS) and technology of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) for stock control at Vendor Managed Inventory (VMI). Well-controlled stock influenced company revenue and minimized cost. It discussed about information system of safety stock prediction developed through programming language of PHP. Input data consisted of demand got from automatic, online and real time acquisition using technology of RFID, then, sent to server and stored at online database. Furthermore, data of acquisition result was predicted by using algorithm of FTS applying universe of discourse defining and fuzzy sets determination. Fuzzy set result was continued to division process of universe of discourse in order to be to final step. Prediction result was displayed at information system dashboard developed. By using 60 data from demand data, prediction score was 450.331 and safety stock was 135.535. Prediction result was done by error deviation validation using Mean Square Percent Error of 15%. It proved that FTS was good enough in predicting demand and safety stock for stock control. For deeper analysis, researchers used data of demand and universe of discourse U varying at FTS to get various result based on test data used.

  12. TPM analyses reveal that FtsK contributes both to the assembly and the activation of the XerCD-dif recombination synapse. (United States)

    Diagne, Cheikh Tidiane; Salhi, Maya; Crozat, Estelle; Salomé, Laurence; Cornet, Francois; Rousseau, Philippe; Tardin, Catherine


    Circular chromosomes can form dimers during replication and failure to resolve those into monomers prevents chromosome segregation, which leads to cell death. Dimer resolution is catalysed by a highly conserved site-specific recombination system, called XerCD-dif in Escherichia coli. Recombination is activated by the DNA translocase FtsK, which is associated with the division septum, and is thought to contribute to the assembly of the XerCD-dif synapse. In our study, direct observation of the assembly of the XerCD-dif synapse, which had previously eluded other methods, was made possible by the use of Tethered Particle Motion, a single molecule approach. We show that XerC, XerD and two dif sites suffice for the assembly of XerCD-dif synapses in absence of FtsK, but lead to inactive XerCD-dif synapses. We also show that the presence of the γ domain of FtsK increases the rate of synapse formation and convert them into active synapses where recombination occurs. Our results represent the first direct observation of the formation of the XerCD-dif recombination synapse and its activation by FtsK.

  13. Molecular evolution and phylogenetic utility of Wolbachia ftsZ and wsp gene sequences with special reference to the origin of male-killing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulenburg, van de J.H.G.; Hurst, G.D.D.; Huigens, T.M.E.; Meer, van M.M.M.; Jiggins, F.M.; Majerus, M.E.N.


    A detailed assessment of the evolution and phylogenetic utility of two genes, ftsZ and wsp, was used to investigate the origin of male-killing Wolbachia, previously isolated from the ladybird Adalia bipunctata and the butterfly Acraea encedon. The analysis included almost all available sequences of

  14. Role of inter-species recombination of the ftsI gene in the dissemination of altered penicillin-binding-protein-3-mediated resistance in Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus haemolyticus. (United States)

    Witherden, Elizabeth A; Bajanca-Lavado, Maria Paula; Tristram, Stephen G; Nunes, Alexandra


    To screen the ftsI gene sequences obtained from clinical isolates of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) and Haemophilus haemolyticus for the presence of mosaic ftsI gene structures, and to evaluate the role of inter-species recombination of the ftsI gene in the formation and distribution of resistant ftsI genes. The ftsI genes of 100 Haemophilus isolates comprising genetically defined β-lactamase-negative ampicillin-susceptible (gBLNAS), β-lactamase-positive ampicillin-resistant (gBLPAR), β-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant (gBLNAR) and β-lactamase-positive amoxicillin/clavulanate-resistant (gBLPACR) isolates of NTHi (n = 50) and H. haemolyticus (n = 50) were analysed in this study. Both the flanking regions and the full-length ftsI gene sequences of all study isolates were screened for mosaic structures using H. influenzae Rd and H. haemolyticus ATCC 33390 as reference parental sequences, and bioinformatics methods were used for recombination analysis using SimPlot. Of the 100 clinical isolates analysed 34% (34/100) harboured mosaic ftsI gene structures containing distinct ftsI gene fragments similar to both reference parental sequences. The inter-species recombination events were exclusively encountered in the ftsI gene of gBLNAR/gBLPACR isolates of both NTHi and H. haemolyticus, and were always associated with the formation of a mosaic fragment at the 3' end of the ftsI gene. There was no evidence supporting horizontal gene transfer (HGT) involving the entire ftsI gene among the clinical isolates in vivo. We provide evidence for the HGT and inter-species recombination of the ftsI gene among gBLNAR/gBLPACR isolates of NTHi and H. haemolyticus in a clinical setting, highlighting the importance of recombination of the ftsI gene in the emergence of altered penicillin-binding protein 3 and BLNAR-mediated resistance. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All

  15. Adaptive tool servo diamond turning for enhancing machining efficiency and surface quality of freeform optics. (United States)

    Zhu, Zhiwei; To, Suet


    Fast tool servo/ slow tool servo (FTS/STS) diamond turning is a very promising technique for the generation of freeform optics. However, the currently adopted constant scheme for azimuth sampling and side-feeding motion possesses no adaptation to surface shape variation, leading to the non-uniform surface quality and low machining efficiency. To overcome this defect, this paper reports on a novel adaptive tool servo (ATS) diamond turning technique which is essentially based on the novel two-degree-of-freedom (2-DOF) FTS/STS. In the ATS, the sampling interval and the side-feeding motion are actively controlled at any cutting point to adapt the machining process to shape variation of the desired surface, making both the sampling induced interpolation error and the side-feeding induced residual tool mark be within the desired tolerances. Characteristic of the required cutting motion suggests that besides the conventional z-axis servo motion, another servo motion along the x-axis synthesizing by the c-axis is mandatory for implementing the ATS. Comparative studies of surface generation of typical micro-structured surfaces in FTS/STS and ATS are thoroughly conducted both theoretically and experimentally. The result demonstrates that the ATS outperforms the FTS/STS with improved surface quality while simultaneously enhanced machining efficiency.

  16. CO measurements from the ACE-FTS satellite instrument: data analysis and validation using ground-based, airborne and spaceborne observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Clerbaux


    Full Text Available The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE mission was launched in August 2003 to sound the atmosphere by solar occultation. Carbon monoxide (CO, a good tracer of pollution plumes and atmospheric dynamics, is one of the key species provided by the primary instrument, the ACE-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS. This instrument performs measurements in both the CO 1-0 and 2-0 ro-vibrational bands, from which vertically resolved CO concentration profiles are retrieved, from the mid-troposphere to the thermosphere. This paper presents an updated description of the ACE-FTS version 2.2 CO data product, along with a comprehensive validation of these profiles using available observations (February 2004 to December 2006. We have compared the CO partial columns with ground-based measurements using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and millimeter wave radiometry, and the volume mixing ratio profiles with airborne (both high-altitude balloon flight and airplane observations. CO satellite observations provided by nadir-looking instruments (MOPITT and TES as well as limb-viewing remote sensors (MIPAS, SMR and MLS were also compared with the ACE-FTS CO products. We show that the ACE-FTS measurements provide CO profiles with small retrieval errors (better than 5% from the upper troposphere to 40 km, and better than 10% above. These observations agree well with the correlative measurements, considering the rather loose coincidence criteria in some cases. Based on the validation exercise we assess the following uncertainties to the ACE-FTS measurement data: better than 15% in the upper troposphere (8–12 km, than 30% in the lower stratosphere (12–30 km, and than 25% from 30 to 100 km.

  17. The Arabidopsis minE mutation causes new plastid and FtsZ1 localization phenotypes in the leaf epidermis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto T. Fujiwara


    Full Text Available Plastids in the leaf epidermal cells of plants are regarded as immature chloroplasts that, like mesophyll chloroplasts, undergo binary fission. While mesophyll chloroplasts have generally been used to study plastid division, recent studies have suggested the presence of tissue- or plastid type-dependent regulation of plastid division. Here, we report the detailed morphology of plastids and their stromules, and the intraplastidic localization of the chloroplast division-related protein AtFtsZ1-1, in the leaf epidermis of an Arabidopsis mutant that harbors a mutation in the chloroplast division site determinant gene AtMinE1. In atminE1, the size and shape of epidermal plastids varied widely, which contrasts with the plastid phenotype observed in atminE1 mesophyll cells. In particular, atminE1 epidermal plastids occasionally displayed grape-like morphology, a novel phenotype induced by a plastid division mutation. Observation of an atminE1 transgenic line harboring an AtMinE1 promoter::AtMinE1-yellow fluorescent protein fusion gene confirmed the expression and plastidic localization of AtMinE1 in the leaf epidermis. Further examination revealed that constriction of plastids and stromules mediated by the FtsZ1 ring contributed to the plastid pleomorphism in the atminE1 epidermis. These results illustrate that a single plastid division mutation can have dramatic consequences for epidermal plastid morphology, thereby implying that plastid division and morphogenesis are differentially regulated in epidermal and mesophyll plastids.

  18. Prediction of surface air temperatures by neural network, example based on three-year temperature monitoring at Spořilov station

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bodri, L.; Čermák, Vladimír


    Roč. 47, č. 1 (2003), s. 173-184 ISSN 0039-3169 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3012005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3012916 Keywords : surface air temperatures * neural network s * temperature monitoring Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.426, year: 2003

  19. Assembly, translocation, and activation of XerCD-dif recombination by FtsK translocase analyzed in real-time by FRET and two-color tethered fluorophore motion. (United States)

    May, Peter F J; Zawadzki, Pawel; Sherratt, David J; Kapanidis, Achillefs N; Arciszewska, Lidia K


    The FtsK dsDNA translocase functions in bacterial chromosome unlinking by activating XerCD-dif recombination in the replication terminus region. To analyze FtsK assembly and translocation, and the subsequent activation of XerCD-dif recombination, we extended the tethered fluorophore motion technique, using two spectrally distinct fluorophores to monitor two effective lengths along the same tethered DNA molecule. We observed that FtsK assembled stepwise on DNA into a single hexamer, and began translocation rapidly (∼ 0.25 s). Without extruding DNA loops, single FtsK hexamers approached XerCD-dif and resided there for ∼ 0.5 s irrespective of whether XerCD-dif was synapsed or unsynapsed. FtsK then dissociated, rather than reversing. Infrequently, FtsK activated XerCD-dif recombination when it encountered a preformed synaptic complex, and dissociated before the completion of recombination, consistent with each FtsK-XerCD-dif encounter activating only one round of recombination.

  20. Seasonal variation of near surface black carbon and satellite derived vertical distribution of aerosols over a semi-arid station in India (United States)

    Kalluri, Raja Obul Reddy; Gugamsetty, Balakrishnaiah; Kotalo, Rama Gopal; Nagireddy, Siva Kumar Reddy; Tandule, Chakradhar Rao; Thotli, Lokeswara Reddy; Shaik, Nazeer Hussain; Maraka, Vasudeva Reddy; Rajuru, Ramakrishna Reddy; Surendran Nair, Suresh Babu


    Extensive measurements of aerosol black carbon mass concentration (BC) and vertical profiles of atmospheric aerosols have been carried out using Aethalometer and CALIPSO level - 2 satellite data from December 2012 to November 2014 over a semi-arid station, Anantapur. We found a bimodal distribution in the mass concentrations of BC aerosols on a diurnal scale. A sharp peak was observed during morning rush hours (7:00 to 8:00 LT) almost an hour after the local sunrise. After which, a broad nocturnal peak was found during 21:00 to 22:00 LT. The seasonal mean BC concentrations (Mixed layer height (ML)) were found to be 3.45 ± 1.44 μg/m3 (676 ± 117 m), 2.55 ± 0.85 μg/m3 (1215 ± 190 m), 1.22 ± 0.31 μg/m3 (1134 ± 194 m) and 1.75 ± 0.70 μg/m3 (612 ± 135 m), during the winter, summer, monsoon and post-monsoon respectively. The vertical profiles of aerosol extinction coefficient and back scattering ratio profiles were derived from Cloud Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) showed a strong seasonal variation with aerosols mostly confined below 2 km during the post-monsoon and winter seasons whereas in the other two seasons, the aerosol layer expands beyond 6 km. Depolarization ratios (> 0.2) are higher during summer and monsoon at higher altitude regions demonstrate the presence of dust particles, which contribute to the large aerosol extinction at higher levels. These results are further supported by the backward trajectory cluster analysis.

  1. Revised-Confirmatory Survey Report for Portions of the Auxiliary Building Structural Surfaces and Turbine Building Embedded Piping, Rancho Seco Nuclear Generating Station, Herald, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    W. C. Adams


    During the period of October 15 and 18, 2007, ORISE performed confirmatory radiological survey activities which included beta and gamma structural surface scans and beta activity direct measurements within the Auxiliary Building, beta or gamma scans within Turbine Building embedded piping, beta activity determinations within Turbine Building Drain 3-1-27, and gamma scans and the collection of a soil sample from the clay soils adjacent to the Lower Mixing Box

  2. Results of Steam-Water-Oxygen Treatment of the Inside of Heating Surfaces in Heat-Recovery Steam Generators of the PGU-800 Power Unit at the Perm' District Thermal Power Station (United States)

    Ovechkina, O. V.; Zhuravlev, L. S.; Drozdov, A. A.; Solomeina, S. V.


    Prestarting, postinstallation steam-water-oxygen treatment (SWOT) of the natural circulation/steam reheat heat-recovery steam generators (HRSG) manufactured by OAO Krasny Kotelshchik was performed at the PGU-800 power unit of the Perm District Thermal Power Station (GRES). Prior to SWOT, steam-oxygen cleaning, passivation, and preservation of gas condensate heaters (GCH) of HRSGs were performed for 10 h using 1.3MPa/260°C/70 t/h external steam. After that, test specimens were cut out that demonstrated high strength of the passivating film. SWOT of the inside of the heating surfaces was carried out during no-load operation of the gas turbine unit with an exhaust temperature of 280-300°C at the HRSG inlet. The steam turbine was shutdown, and the generated steam was discharged into the atmosphere. Oxygen was metered into the discharge pipeline of the electricity-driven feed pumps and downcomers of the evaporators. The behavior of the concentration by weight of iron compounds and the results of investigation of cutout specimens by the drop or potentiometric method indicate that the steam-water-oxygen process makes it possible to remove corrosion products and reduce the time required to put a boiler into operation. Unlike other processes, SWOT does not require metal-intensive cleaning systems, temporary metering stations, and structures for collection of the waste solution.

  3. Capteurs routiers equipant les stations météoroutières : Evaluation de la qualité des informations des états de surface "sec, humide, mouillé"




    Les capteurs routiers équipant les stations météoroutières implantées sur les réseaux autoroutiers et routiers, délivrent des informations d'état de surface de chaussées plus ou moins riches - sec, humide, mouillé ruisselant, etc -Dans le cadre des travaux PREDIT -accident par temps de pluie- et plus particulièrement le sujet 3 -statistique des hauteurs d'eau sur chaussées-, il a paru intéressant de qualifier ces informations. L'opportunité des essais préalables à la délivrance de l'homologat...

  4. Capteurs routiers équipant les stations météoroutières : Evaluation de la qualité des informations des états de surface "sec, himide, mouillé"




    Les capteurs routiers équipant les stations météoroutières implantées sur les réseaux autoroutiers et routiers, délivrent des informations d'état de surface de chaussées plus ou moins riches - sec, humide, mouillé ruisselant, etc -Dans le cadre des travaux PREDIT -accident par temps de pluie- et plus particulièrement le sujet 3 -statistique des hauteurs d'eau sur chaussées-, il a paru intéressant de qualifier ces informations. L'opportunité des essais préalables à la délivrance de l'homologat...

  5. Water Level Station History (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Images contain station history information for 175 stations in the National Water Level Observation Network (NWLON). The NWLON is a network of long-term,...

  6. Fire Stations - 2009 (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Fire Stations in Kansas Any location where fire fighters are stationed or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their jobs is...

  7. Fire Stations - 2007 (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Fire Station Locations in Kansas Any location where fire fighters are stationed at or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their...

  8. Weather Radar Stations (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — These data represent Next-Generation Radar (NEXRAD) and Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) weather radar stations within the US. The NEXRAD radar stations are...

  9. Newport Research Station (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Newport Research Station is the Center's only ocean-port research facility. This station is located at Oregon State University's Hatfield Marine Science Center,...

  10. Streamflow Gaging Stations (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer shows selected streamflow gaging stations of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands, in 2013. Gaging stations, or gages, measure...

  11. Big Game Reporting Stations (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Point locations of big game reporting stations. Big game reporting stations are places where hunters can legally report harvested deer, bear, or turkey. These are...

  12. Ocean Station Vessel (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ocean Station Vessels (OSV) or Weather Ships captured atmospheric conditions while being stationed continuously in a single location. While While most of the...

  13. Hammond Bay Biological Station (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Hammond Bay Biological Station (HBBS), located near Millersburg, Michigan, is a field station of the USGS Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC). HBBS was established by...

  14. Reference Climatological Stations (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Reference Climatological Stations (RCS) network represents the first effort by NOAA to create and maintain a nationwide network of stations located only in areas...

  15. USINABILITE ET QUALIFICATION DES ETATS DE SURFACE DU CHENE ZEEN ALGERIEN (Quercus canariensis Willd.: cas de la station de Beni Ghobri, wilaya de Tizi Ouzou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available L’objet de notre étude porte sur la caractérisation technologique du chêne Zeen (Quercuscanariensis Willd. dont l’utilisation actuelle, peu valorisante, est la réalisation de traverses de chemin de fer et bois de trituration. La recherche des paramètres a été axée  sur le matériau à usiner par l’étude de ses propriétés physico-chimiques, mécaniques et anatomiques; son usinabilité par la combinaison de trois facteurs de coupe: vitesse d’entraînement, vitesse de rotation, profondeur de passe et enfin, son état de surface où différentes méthodes ont permis son exploration. Concernant l’analyse topographique des surfaces usinées, moyennant un système de vision artificielle, il est apparu une corrélation significative entre les critères d’analyse d’image et l'épaisseur moyenne du copeau. Dans l’ensemble, les méthodes précitées s’accordent pour classer les éprouvettes d’autant plus rugueuses que l’épaisseur moyenne du copeau est importante. Au terme de ce travail, nous avons mesuré la contrainte d’arrachement d’un vernis nitrocellulosique appliqué sur les surfaces usinées. L’analyse des résultats a montré que la force d’arrachement augmente avec la rugosité.

  16. Surface deformation induced by ground water pumping in Taipei Basin: A case study in rban underground construction of Taipei metro station (United States)

    Wu, Pei-Chin; Hu, Jyr-Ching


    Since 1955, the rapid development of population has requested for large amount of water usage in Taipei city. Thus, the overuse of ground water leads to the land subsidence rate up to 5 cm/yr. In 1989, the government stated to put restrictions on water pumping. Consequently, ground water recovered and resulted in the a wideapred uplift in Taipei basin. Due to the underground transportation and wiring, ground water were massively pumped for the safety of construction sites. In this study, persistent scatterer interferometry technique is used for processing 37 high resolution X-band radar images to characterize deformation map in the period from May 2011 to April 2015. From the ground table records of 30 wells in Taipei basin, the results indicated that the main factor to the surface deformation of Taipei basin is the elevation change of water table. In the case of Wuku groundwater well, the elevation change of the ground water table is about 15 m during September 2011 to April 2015. In the same period of the time, the change of surface deformation within 100 m of Wuku groundwater well is consistent to the elevation change of ground water table, and is more than 5 cm along line of sight. The storability is roughly constant across most of the aquifer with values between 0.8 x 10-4 and 1.3 x 10-3. Moreover, in the case of Taipei metro construction, according to the analytical results of radar image and the 380 vertical control points of Taipei, the high water pumping before the underground construction project will inflict surface deformation. It is noticeable that, the Jingmei Formation and the Wuku Formation are composed of the sediments with high porosity. Thus, the actual land subsidence caused by water pumping would be five times than the underground construction areas.

  17. Surface and Curve Skeletonization of Large 3D Models on the GPU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jalba, Andrei C.; Kustra, Jacek; Telea, Alexandru C.

    We present a GPU-based framework for extracting surface and curve skeletons of 3D shapes represented as large polygonal meshes. We use an efficient parallel search strategy to compute point-cloud skeletons and their distance and feature transforms (FTs) with user-defined precision. We regularize

  18. INTERACT Station Catalogue - 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    and research groups. Therefore, INTERACT has produced a catalogue of research stations including descriptions of the physical setting, facilities and services offered at the stations. It is our hope that this catalogue will help researchers identify research stations that suit their specific needs. The 2015......INTERACT stations are located in all major environmental envelopes of the Arctic providing an ideal platform for studying climate change and its impact on the environment and local communities. Since alpine environments face similar changes and challenges as the Arctic, the INTERACT network also...... includes some alpine stations located outside the Arctic. The INTERACT research stations provide an ideal platform for circumarctic research and monitoring. Activities span from small short term research projects to larger long term monitoring programmes. The stations are thus visited by many researchers...

  19. Quantification of strong emissions of methane in the Arctic using spectral measurements from TANSO-FTS and IASI (United States)

    Bourakkadi, Zakia; Payan, Sébastien; Bureau, Jérôme


    Methane is the second most important greenhouse gas after the carbon dioxide but it is 25 times more effective in contributing to the radiative forcing than the carbon dioxide(1). Since the pre-industrial times global methane concentration have more than doubled in the atmosphere. This increase is generally caused by anthropogenic activities like the massif use and extraction of fossil fuel, rice paddy agriculture, emissions from landfills... In recent years, several studies show that climate warming and thawing of permafrost act on the mobilization of old stored carbon in Arctic causing a sustained release of methane to the atmosphere(2),(3),(4). The methane emissions from thawing permafrost and methane hydrates in the northern circumpolar region will become potentially important in the end of the 21st centry because they could increase dramatically due to the rapid climate warming of the Artic and the large carbon pools stored there. The objective of this study is to evaluate and quantify methane strong emissions in this region of the globe using spectral measurements from the Thermal And Near Infrared Sensor for carbon Observations-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) and the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI). We use also the LMDZ-PYVAR model to simulate methane fluxes and to estimate how they could be observed by Infrared Sounders from space. To select spectra with high values of methane we developed a statistical approach based on the singular value decomposition. Using this approach we can identify spectra over the important emission sources of methane and we can by this way reduce the number of spectra to retrieve by an line-by-line radiative transfer model in order to focus on those which contain high amount of methane. In order to estimate the capacity of TANSO-FTS and IASI to detect peaks of methane emission with short duration at quasi-real time, we used data from MACC (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate) simulations

  20. Study and characterization of noble metal deposits on similar rusty surfaces to those of the reactor U-1 type BWR of nuclear power station of Laguna Verde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores S, V. H.


    In the present investigation work, were determined the parameters to simulate the conditions of internal oxidation reactor circulation pipes of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde in Veracruz. We used 304l stainless steel cylinders with two faces prepared with abrasive paper of No. 600, with the finality to obtain similar surface to the internal circulation piping nuclear reactor. Oxides was formed within an autoclave (Autoclave MEX-02 unit B), which is a device that simulates the working conditions of the nuclear reactor, but without radiation generated by the fission reaction within the reactor. The oxidation conditions were a temperature of 280 C and pressure of 8 MPa, similar conditions to the reactor operating in nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde in Veracruz, Mexico (BWR conditions), with an average conductivity of 4.58 ms / cm and 2352 ppb oxygen to simulate normal water chemistry NWC. Were obtained deposits of noble metal oxides formed on 304l stainless steel samples, in a 250 ml autoclave at a temperature range of 180 to 200 C. The elements that were used to deposit platinum-rhodium (Pt-Rh) with aqueous Na 2 Pt (OH) 6 and Na 3 Rh (NO 2 ) 6 , Silver (Ag) with an aqueous solution of AgNO 3 , zirconium (Zr) with aqueous Zr O (NO 3 ) and ZrO 2 , and zinc (Zn) in aqueous solution of Zn (NO 3 ) 2 under conditions of normal water chemistry. Also there was the oxidation of 304l stainless steel specimens in normal water chemistry with a solution of Zinc (Zn) (NWC + Zn). Oxidation of the specimens in water chemistry with a solution of zinc (Zn + NWC) was prepared in two ways: within the MEX-02 autoclave unit A in a solution of zinc and a flask at constant temperature in zinc solution. The oxides formed and deposits were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, elemental field analysis and X-ray diffraction. By other hand was evaluated the electrochemical behavior of the oxides formed on the surface of 304l stainless steel

  1. Spallation Neutron Source Second Target Station Integrated Systems Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ankner, John Francis [ORNL; An, Ke [ORNL; Blokland, Willem [ORNL; Charlton, Timothy R. [ORNL; Coates, Leighton [ORNL; Dayton, Michael J. [ORNL; Dean, Robert A. [ORNL; Dominguez-Ontiveros, Elvis E. [ORNL; Ehlers, Georg [ORNL; Gallmeier, Franz X. [ORNL; Graves, Van B. [ORNL; Heller, William T. [ORNL; Holmes, Jeffrey A. [ORNL; Huq, Ashfia [ORNL; Lumsden, Mark D. [ORNL; McHargue, William M. [ORNL; McManamy, Thomas J. [ORNL; Plum, Michael A. [ORNL; Rajic, Slobodan [ORNL; Remec, Igor [ORNL; Robertson, Lee [ORNL; Sala, Gabriele [ORNL; Stoica, Alexandru Dan [ORNL; Trotter, Steven M. [ORNL; Winn, Barry L. [ORNL; Abudureyimu, Reheman [ORNL; Rennich, Mark J. [ORNL; Herwig, Kenneth W. [ORNL


    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) was designed from the beginning to accommodate both an accelerator upgrade to increase the proton power and a second target station (STS). Four workshops were organized in 2013 and 2014 to identify key science areas and challenges where neutrons will play a vital role [1-4]. Participants concluded that the addition of STS to the existing ORNL neutron sources was needed to complement the strengths of High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and the SNS first target station (FTS). To address the capability gaps identified in the workshops, a study was undertaken to identify instrument concepts that could provide the required new science capabilities. The study outlined 22 instrument concepts and presented an initial science case for STS [5]. These instrument concepts formed the basis of a planning suite of instruments whose requirements determined an initial site layout and moderator selection. An STS Technical Design Report (TDR) documented the STS concept based on those choices [6]. Since issue of the TDR, the STS concept has significantly matured as described in this document.

  2. Long-term trends of surface ozone and its influencing factors at the Mt Waliguan GAW station, China - Part 2: The roles of anthropogenic emissions and climate variability (United States)

    Xu, Wanyun; Xu, Xiaobin; Lin, Meiyun; Lin, Weili; Tarasick, David; Tang, Jie; Ma, Jianzhong; Zheng, Xiangdong


    despite ozone increases in eastern China. Analysis of the Trajectory-mapped Ozonesonde data set for the Stratosphere and Troposphere (TOST) and trajectory residence time reveals increases in direct ozone transport from the eastern sector during autumn, which adds to the autumnal ozone increase. We further examine the links of ozone variability at WLG to the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO), the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM), and the sunspot cycle. Our results suggest that the 2-3-, 3-7-, and 11-year periodicities are linked to the QBO, EASM index, and sunspot cycle, respectively. A multivariate regression analysis is performed to quantify the relative contributions of various factors to surface ozone concentrations at WLG. Through an observational and modelling analysis, this study demonstrates the complex relationships between surface ozone at remote locations and its dynamical and chemical influencing factors.

  3. Two essential FtsH proteases control the level of the Fur repressor during iron deficiency in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krynická, Vendula; Tichý, Martin; Krafl, Jaroslav; Jianfeng, Y.; Kaňa, Radek; Boehm, M.; Nixon, P. J.; Komenda, Josef


    Roč. 94, č. 3 (2014), s. 609-624 ISSN 0950-382X R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0110; GA ČR GBP501/12/G055 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Synechocystis sp. * FtsH proteases * cyanobacterium * iron deficiency Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.419, year: 2014

  4. Non-Coop Station History (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Station history documentation for stations outside the US Cooperative Observer network. Primarily National Weather Service stations assigned WBAN station IDs. Other...

  5. Cytoplasmic Domain of MscS Interacts with Cell Division Protein FtsZ: A Possible Non-Channel Function of the Mechanosensitive Channel in Escherichia Coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Koprowski

    Full Text Available Bacterial mechano-sensitive (MS channels reside in the inner membrane and are considered to act as emergency valves whose role is to lower cell turgor when bacteria enter hypo-osmotic environments. However, there is emerging evidence that members of the Mechano-sensitive channel Small (MscS family play additional roles in bacterial and plant cell physiology. MscS has a large cytoplasmic C-terminal region that changes its shape upon activation and inactivation of the channel. Our pull-down and co-sedimentation assays show that this domain interacts with FtsZ, a bacterial tubulin-like protein. We identify point mutations in the MscS C-terminal domain that reduce binding to FtsZ and show that bacteria expressing these mutants are compromised in growth on sublethal concentrations of β-lactam antibiotics. Our results suggest that interaction between MscS and FtsZ could occur upon inactivation and/or opening of the channel and could be important for the bacterial cell response against sustained stress upon stationary phase and in the presence of β-lactam antibiotics.

  6. Amtrak Rail Stations (National) (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Updated database of the Federal Railroad Administration's (FRA) Amtrak Station database. This database is a geographic data set containing Amtrak intercity railroad...

  7. Cooperative Station History Forms (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Various forms, photographs and correspondence documenting the history of Cooperative station instrumentation, location changes, inspections, and...

  8. Nuclear power stations licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solito, J.


    The judicial aspects of nuclear stations licensing are presented. The licensing systems of the United States, Spain, France and Federal Republic of Germany are focused. The decree n 0 60.824 from July 7 sup(th), 1967 and the following legislation which define the systematic and area of competence in nuclear stations licensing are analysed [pt

  9. Secure base stations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, Peter; Brusilovsky, Alec; McLellan, Rae; Mullender, Sape J.; Polakos, Paul


    With the introduction of the third generation (3G) Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) base station router (BSR) and fourth generation (4G) base stations, such as the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) Long Term Evolution (LTE) Evolved Node B (eNB), it has become important to

  10. Ondergronds Station Blijdorp, Rotterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hijma, M.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/266562426; Cohen, K.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/185633374


    Het is in de herfst van 2005. Een lief meisje, Marieke, rijdt op haar vouwfiets door Rotterdam. Bij het Centraal Station is het al tijden een grote bouwplaats. Onder de nieuwe hal komt een veel groter metrostation en ook onder de Statenweg in Blijdorp is een grote bouwput voor een nieuw station.

  11. SPS rectifier stations

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab


    The first of the twelves SPS rectifier stations for the bending magnets arrived at CERN at the end of the year. The photograph shows a station with the rectifiers on the left and in the other three cubicles the chokes, capacitors and resistor of the passive filter.

  12. Meyrin Petrol Station

    CERN Multimedia


    Please note that the Meyrin petrol station will be closed for maintenance work on Tuesday 19 and Wednesday 20 December 2006. If you require petrol during this period we invite you to use the Prévessin petrol station, which will remain open. TS-IC-LO Section Tel.: 77039 - 73793

  13. The Roman stational liturgy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Mieczkowski


    Full Text Available The papal stational liturgy in Rome was a particular kind of worship service from the Christian Antiquity to the XIV century. Its essential elements are four. Its always took place under the leadership of the pope or his representative. This form of liturgy was mobile: it was celebrated in different basilicas or churches of Rome. Third, the choice of church depended on the feast, liturgical seasons or commemoration being celebrated. Fourth, the stational liturgy was the urban liturgical celebration of the day. The highpoint of this system was Lent. Throughout the entire system Church of Rome manifested its own unity. The station was usually the Pope’s solemn mass in the stational church for the whole city. But on certain days in the year the Pope went in another church (collecta, from which a solemn procession was made to the stational church.

  14. [STEM on Station Education (United States)

    Lundebjerg, Kristen


    The STEM on Station team is part of Education which is part of the External Relations organization (ERO). ERO has traditional goals based around BHAG (Big Hairy Audacious Goal). The BHAG model is simplified to a saying: Everything we do stimulates actions by others to advance human space exploration. The STEM on Station education initiate is a project focused on bringing off the earth research and learning into classrooms. Educational resources such as lesson plans, activities to connect with the space station and STEM related contests are available and hosted by the STEM on Station team along with their partners such as Texas Instruments. These educational activities engage teachers and students in the current happenings aboard the international space station, inspiring the next generation of space explorers.

  15. Analysis of multi-year near-surface ozone observations at the WMO/GAW "Concordia" station (75°06‧S, 123°20‧E, 3280 m a.s.l. - Antarctica) (United States)

    Cristofanelli, Paolo; Putero, Davide; Bonasoni, Paolo; Busetto, Maurizio; Calzolari, Francescopiero; Camporeale, Giuseppe; Grigioni, Paolo; Lupi, Angelo; Petkov, Boyan; Traversi, Rita; Udisti, Roberto; Vitale, Vito


    This work focuses on the near-surface O3 variability over the eastern Antarctic Plateau. In particular, eight years (2006-2013) of continuous observations at the WMO/GAW contributing station "Concordia" (Dome C-DMC: 75°06‧S, 123°20‧E, 3280 m) are presented, in the framework of the Italian Antarctic Research Programme (PNRA). First, the characterization of seasonal and diurnal O3 variability at DMC is provided. Then, for the period of highest data coverage (2008-2013), we investigated the role of specific atmospheric processes in affecting near-surface summer O3 variability, when O3 enhancement events (OEEs) are systematically observed at DMC (average monthly frequency peaking up to 60% in December). As deduced by a statistical selection methodology, these OEEs are affected by a significant interannual variability, both in their average O3 values and in their frequency. To explain part of this variability, we analyzed OEEs as a function of specific atmospheric variables and processes: (i) total column of O3 (TCO) and UV-A irradiance, (ii) long-range transport of air masses over the Antarctic Plateau (by Lagrangian back-trajectory analysis - LAGRANTO), (iii) occurrence of "deep" stratospheric intrusion events (by using the Lagrangian tool STLEFLUX). The overall near-surface O3 variability at DMC is controlled by a day-to-day pattern, which strongly points towards a dominating influence of processes occurring at "synoptic" scales rather than "local" processes. Even if previous studies suggested an inverse relationship between OEEs and TCO, we found a slight tendency for the annual frequency of OEEs to be higher when TCO values are higher over DMC. The annual occurrence of OEEs at DMC seems related to the total time spent by air masses over the Antarctic plateau before their arrival to DMC, suggesting the accumulation of photochemically-produced O3 during the transport, rather than a more efficient local production. Moreover, the identification of recent (i.e., 4

  16. Estimation of Methane Emissions in the Los Angeles Basin using CLARS-FTS Observations (United States)

    Sander, S.; Zeng, Z. C.; Pongetti, T.; Duren, R. M.; Shia, R. L.; Yung, Y. L.; He, L.; Gurney, K. R.


    The Los Angeles Basin (LA Basin), covering almost 10,743 square miles, is home to over 16.8 million people - about half the population of the state of California. It is also the second most populated urban area in the United States and one of the major source of anthropogenic greenhouse gases. Using FTIR observations from the California Laboratory for Atmospheric Remote Sensing (CLARS) located on Mount Wilson at an altitude of 1673m, we measure the reflected near infrared sunlight from 33 surface targets in the Los Angeles megacity including the direct solar beam which gives the free tropospheric background. We then retrieve the excess slant column abundances of important trace gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) in the LA basin. Using atmospheric tracer - tracer correlations for CH4 and CO2 to eliminate the effect of aerosol scattering in the retrieval, we infer methane emissions based on the ratio of XCH4 excess to XCO2 excess. Significant variability is observed in the spatial distributions of excess CH4. Methane emissions in the LA basin show consistent peaks in late summer and winter during the period from Sep 2011 to the present. The strong correlation between natural gas usage data and derived CLARS methane emissions (r2 = 0.5) implies that natural gas leakage during transmission and/or consumption accounts for a significant fraction of the inferred seasonal variability of methane emissions in the LA basin. We will report updated annual trends in CH4 emissions from 2011 to the present. Copyright 2017. All rights reserved.

  17. Optical Bench Breadboard Of An Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (iFTS) For Climate Observations. (United States)

    Singh, G.; McElroy, C. T.; Vaziri, Z.; Barton, D.; Blair, G.; Grandmont, F. J.


    The fifth assessment report (AR5) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) states that the warming of zonal mean surface temperature at higher latitudes exceeds the global average temperature change. This poses a great problem as the warming leads to the thawing of the permafrost in the Arctic region that acts as an envelope to trap greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and methane. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop scientific instruments that can be flown in space over the Arctic to provide atmospheric information to quantify the evolution and transport of these gases. The Laboratory for Atmospheric Remote Sounding from Space (LARSS) at York University is developing an imaging Fourier transform spectrometer (IFTS) for climate observations by atmospheric sounding. The spectrometer has two individual channels, one centred at 1650 nm to measure the atmospheric column of carbon dioxide and methane, and another centred at 762 nm to measure the temperature-pressure profile by making measurements of the O2A band. A Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) modulator has been purchased from ABB Inc. of Quebec City. Interferometers are widely used in many scientific laboratories to measure concentrations of different constituents in a given sample. The performance of these instruments is highly dependent on environmental effects and various properties of the input beam such as coherence, polarity, etc. Thus, the use of such instruments to measure atmospheric concentration is complicated and challenging. The immediate goal of this project is to develop an IFTS system which can measure backscattered radiation in a laboratory environment and develop design elements that will make it operable in the space environment. Progress on the project and information concerning some of the issues listed above will be discussed. The developments which flow from this research project will support efforts by Environment and Climate Change Canada, the Canadian Space

  18. Space station operations management (United States)

    Cannon, Kathleen V.


    Space Station Freedom operations management concepts must be responsive to the unique challenges presented by the permanently manned international laboratory. Space Station Freedom will be assembled over a three year period where the operational environment will change as significant capability plateaus are reached. First Element Launch, Man-Tended Capability, and Permanent Manned Capability, represent milestones in operational capability that is increasing toward mature operations capability. Operations management concepts are being developed to accomodate the varying operational capabilities during assembly, as well as the mature operational environment. This paper describes operations management concepts designed to accomodate the uniqueness of Space Station Freedoom, utilizing tools and processes that seek to control operations costs.

  19. Validation of HNO3, ClONO2, and N2O5 from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Raspollini


    Full Text Available The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE satellite was launched on 12 August 2003. Its two instruments measure vertical profiles of over 30 atmospheric trace gases by analyzing solar occultation spectra in the ultraviolet/visible and infrared wavelength regions. The reservoir gases HNO3, ClONO2, and N2O5 are three of the key species provided by the primary instrument, the ACE Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS. This paper describes the ACE-FTS version 2.2 data products, including the N2O5 update, for the three species and presents validation comparisons with available observations. We have compared volume mixing ratio (VMR profiles of HNO3, ClONO2, and N2O5 with measurements by other satellite instruments (SMR, MLS, MIPAS, aircraft measurements (ASUR, and single balloon-flights (SPIRALE, FIRS-2. Partial columns of HNO3 and ClONO2 were also compared with measurements by ground-based Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR spectrometers. Overall the quality of the ACE-FTS v2.2 HNO3 VMR profiles is good from 18 to 35 km. For the statistical satellite comparisons, the mean absolute differences are generally within ±1 ppbv ±20% from 18 to 35 km. For MIPAS and MLS comparisons only, mean relative differences lie within±10% between 10 and 36 km. ACE-FTS HNO3 partial columns (~15–30 km show a slight negative bias of −1.3% relative to the ground-based FTIRs at latitudes ranging from 77.8° S–76.5° N. Good agreement between ACE-FTS ClONO2 and MIPAS, using the Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung and Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IMK-IAA data processor is seen. Mean absolute differences are typically within ±0.01 ppbv between 16 and 27 km and less than +0.09 ppbv between 27 and 34 km. The ClONO2 partial column comparisons show varying degrees of agreement, depending on the location and the quality of the FTIR measurements. Good agreement was found for the comparisons with the midlatitude Jungfraujoch partial columns for which

  20. Materials Test Station (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — When completed, the Materials Test Station at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center will meet mission need. MTS will provide the only fast-reactor-like irradiation...

  1. MCFRS Incidents by Station (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This dataset contains the monthly summary data indicating incident occurred in each fire station response area. The summary data is the incident count broken down by...

  2. FEMA DFIRM Station Start (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This table contains information about station starting locations. These locations indicate the reference point that was used as the origin for distance measurements...

  3. "Central Station" Londonis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Londoni galeriis Milch seitsme läti, leedu ja eesti kunstniku projekt "Central Station". Kuraatorid Lisa Panting, Sally Tallant. Eestist osalevad Hanno Soans (Catarina Campinoga koostöös valminud video), Kiwa, Kai Kaljo

  4. Mukilteo Research Station (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Research at the Mukilteo Research Station focuses on understanding the life cycle of marine species and the impacts of ecosystem stressors on anadromous and marine...

  5. Routes and Stations (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — he Routes_Stations table is composed of fixed rail transit systems within the Continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico....

  6. Public Transit Stations (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — fixed rail transit stations within the Continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. The modes of transit that are serviced...

  7. Electrostatic pickup station

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab


    Electrostatic pickup station, with 4 interleaved electrodes, to measure beam position in the horizontal and vertical plane. This type is used in the transfer lines leaving the PS (TT2, TT70, TTL2). See also 7904075.

  8. Capacity at Railway Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex


    zone(s) the possible conflicts with other trains (also in the opposite direction) are taken into account leading to more trustworthy results. Although the UIC 406 methodology proposes that the railway network should be divided into line sections when trains turn around and when the train order...... is changed, this paper recommends that the railway lines are not always be divided. In case trains turn around on open (single track) line, the capacity consumption may be too low if a railway line is divided. The same can be the case if only few trains are overtaken at an overtaking station. For dead end......Stations do have other challenges regarding capacity than open lines as it is here the traffic is dispatched. The UIC 406 capacity method that can be used to analyse the capacity consumption can be exposed in different ways at stations which may lead to different results. Therefore, stations need...

  9. Master Station History Report (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Standard/Legacy MSHR, formally identified as the DSI-9767 dataset, is the legacy dataset/report sorted by NCDC Station ID and period of record. This...

  10. Natural Weathering Exposure Station (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Corps of Engineers' Treat Island Natural Weathering Exposure Station is a long-term natural weathering facility used to study concrete durability. Located on the...

  11. Multiple Craft Stations. (United States)

    Johns, Mary Sue


    Described are three craft stations (claywork, papermaking, and stamp designing) for intermediate grade students, to correlate with their classroom study which focused on Ohio: its history, geography, cities, industries, products and famous natives. (KC)

  12. Signal Station Inspection Reports (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Handwritten reports resulting from detailed inspections of US Army Signal Service Stations, 1871-1889. Features reported included instrument exposure and condition,...

  13. Maine Field Station (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — In 2000 NOAA's National Marine Fisheries Service established the Maine Field Station in Orono, ME to have more direct involvement in the conservation of the living...

  14. Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKernan, M.L.


    The Shippingport Atomic Power Station was located on the Ohio River in Shippingport Borough (Beaver County), Pennsylvania, USA. The US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) constructed the plant in the mid-1950s on a seven and half acre parcel of land leased from Duquesne Light Company (DLC). The purposes were to demonstrate and to develop Pressurized Water Recovery technology and to generate electricity. DLC operated the Shippingport plant under supervision of (the successor to AEC) the Department of Energy (DOE)-Naval Reactors (NR) until operations were terminated on October 1, 1982. NR concluded end-of-life testing and defueling in 1984 and transferred the Station's responsibility to DOE Richland Operations Office (RL), Surplus Facility Management Program Office (SFMPO5) on September 5, 1984. SFMPO subsequently established the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project and selected General Electric (GE) as the Decommissioning Operations Contractor. This report is intended to provide an overview of the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project

  15. Space Station galley design (United States)

    Trabanino, Rudy; Murphy, George L.; Yakut, M. M.


    An Advanced Food Hardware System galley for the initial operating capability (IOC) Space Station is discussed. Space Station will employ food hardware items that have never been flown in space, such as a dishwasher, microwave oven, blender/mixer, bulk food and beverage dispensers, automated food inventory management, a trash compactor, and an advanced technology refrigerator/freezer. These new technologies and designs are described and the trades, design, development, and testing associated with each are summarized.

  16. National Seismic Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stokes, P.A.


    The National Seismic Station was developed to meet the needs of regional or worldwide seismic monitoring of underground nuclear explosions to verify compliance with a nuclear test ban treaty. The Station acquires broadband seismic data and transmits it via satellite to a data center. It is capable of unattended operation for periods of at least a year, and will detect any tampering that could result in the transmission of unauthentic seismic data

  17. Gas Stations, US, 2010, NAVTEQ (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Gas_Stations dataset is derived from the Navteq 'AUTOSVC' SDC layer (FAC_TYPE=5540) and contains gas stations and petrol stations. This NAVTEQ dataset is...

  18. Enhanced Master Station History Report (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Enhanced Master Station History Report (EMSHR) is a compiled list of basic, historical information for every station in the station history database, beginning...

  19. ILRS Station Reporting (United States)

    Noll, Carey E.; Pearlman, Michael Reisman; Torrence, Mark H.


    Network stations provided system configuration documentation upon joining the ILRS. This information, found in the various site and system log files available on the ILRS website, is essential to the ILRS analysis centers, combination centers, and general user community. Therefore, it is imperative that the station personnel inform the ILRS community in a timely fashion when changes to the system occur. This poster provides some information about the various documentation that must be maintained. The ILRS network consists of over fifty global sites actively ranging to over sixty satellites as well as five lunar reflectors. Information about these stations are available on the ILRS website ( The ILRS Analysis Centers must have current information about the stations and their system configuration in order to use their data in generation of derived products. However, not all information available on the ILRS website is as up-to-date as necessary for correct analysis of their data.

  20. Integrated Surface Dataset (Global) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Surface (ISD) Dataset (ISD) is composed of worldwide surface weather observations from over 35,000 stations, though the best spatial coverage is...

  1. Telephony Earth Station (United States)

    Morris, Adrian J.; Kay, Stan

    The Telephony Earth Station (TES), a digital full-mesh SCPC (single channel per carrier) system designed for satellite voice and data transmission is described. As compared to companded FM, the advanced speech compression and forward error correction techniques used by TES better achieve the quality, power, and bandwidth ideal for each application. In addition, the TES offers a fully demand-assigned voice call setup, handles point-to-point data channels, supports a variety of signaling schemes, and does not require any separate pilot receivers at the station, while keeping costs low through innovative technology and packaging. The TES can be used for both C-band and Ku-band (domestic or international) applications, and is configurable either as an VSAT (very small aperture terminal) using an SSPA, or as a larger station depending on the capacity requirements. A centralized DAMA processor and network manager is implemented using a workstation.

  2. Waste Transfer Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund


    tion and transport is usually the most costly part of any waste management system; and when waste is transported over a considerable distance or for a long time, transferring the waste from the collection vehicles to more efficient transportation may be economically beneficial. This involves...... a transfer station where the transfer takes place. These stations may also be accessible by private people, offering flexibility to the waste system, including facilities for bulky waste, household hazardous waste and recyclables. Waste transfer may also take place on the collection route from small...... satellite collection vehicles to large compacting vehicles that cannot effectively travel small streets and alleys within the inner city or in residential communities with narrow roads. However, mobile transfer is not dealt with in this chapter, which focuses on stationary transfer stations. This chapter...

  3. TXA709, an FtsZ-Targeting Benzamide Prodrug with Improved Pharmacokinetics and Enhanced In Vivo Efficacy against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus. (United States)

    Kaul, Malvika; Mark, Lilly; Zhang, Yongzheng; Parhi, Ajit K; Lyu, Yi Lisa; Pawlak, Joan; Saravolatz, Stephanie; Saravolatz, Louis D; Weinstein, Melvin P; LaVoie, Edmond J; Pilch, Daniel S


    The clinical development of FtsZ-targeting benzamide compounds like PC190723 has been limited by poor drug-like and pharmacokinetic properties. Development of prodrugs of PC190723 (e.g., TXY541) resulted in enhanced pharmaceutical properties, which, in turn, led to improved intravenous efficacy as well as the first demonstration of oral efficacy in vivo against both methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Despite being efficacious in vivo, TXY541 still suffered from suboptimal pharmacokinetics and the requirement of high efficacious doses. We describe here the design of a new prodrug (TXA709) in which the Cl group on the pyridyl ring has been replaced with a CF3 functionality that is resistant to metabolic attack. As a result of this enhanced metabolic stability, the product of the TXA709 prodrug (TXA707) is associated with improved pharmacokinetic properties (a 6.5-fold-longer half-life and a 3-fold-greater oral bioavailability) and superior in vivo antistaphylococcal efficacy relative to PC190723. We validate FtsZ as the antibacterial target of TXA707 and demonstrate that the compound retains potent bactericidal activity against S. aureus strains resistant to the current standard-of-care drugs vancomycin, daptomycin, and linezolid. These collective properties, coupled with minimal observed toxicity to mammalian cells, establish the prodrug TXA709 as an antistaphylococcal agent worthy of clinical development. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Hydrogen vehicle fueling station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daney, D.E.; Edeskuty, F.J.; Daugherty, M.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others


    Hydrogen fueling stations are an essential element in the practical application of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel, and a number of issues such as safety, efficiency, design, and operating procedures can only be accurately addressed by a practical demonstration. Regardless of whether the vehicle is powered by an internal combustion engine or fuel cell, or whether the vehicle has a liquid or gaseous fuel tank, the fueling station is a critical technology which is the link between the local storage facility and the vehicle. Because most merchant hydrogen delivered in the US today (and in the near future) is in liquid form due to the overall economics of production and delivery, we believe a practical refueling station should be designed to receive liquid. Systems studies confirm this assumption for stations fueling up to about 300 vehicles. Our fueling station, aimed at refueling fleet vehicles, will receive hydrogen as a liquid and dispense it as either liquid, high pressure gas, or low pressure gas. Thus, it can refuel any of the three types of tanks proposed for hydrogen-powered vehicles -- liquid, gaseous, or hydride. The paper discusses the fueling station design. Results of a numerical model of liquid hydrogen vehicle tank filling, with emphasis on no vent filling, are presented to illustrate the usefulness of the model as a design tool. Results of our vehicle performance model illustrate our thesis that it is too early to judge what the preferred method of on-board vehicle fuel storage will be in practice -- thus our decision to accommodate all three methods.

  5. Space Station cupola definition (United States)

    Weaver, Laurie A.


    The concept of a Space Station cupola has evolved from a small bubble-type viewport into the primary location for proximity operations requiring direct unobstructed viewing. Derived from a viewing analysis conducted by the Man-Systems Division at the Johnson Space Center, the cupola represents a solution for out-of-plane viewing which cannot be provided by windows placed in the shell of the habitation and/or laboratory modules. An extended Man-Systems design study resulted in several cupola configurations, each illustrating an alternate solution to the required balance between viewing, projected Space Station operations, and human/machine interface issues.

  6. Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This Topical Report is a synopsis of the decontamination of plant components and structures at the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project (SSDP). The information is provided as a part of the Technology Transfer Program to document the preparation activities in support of the shipment of radioactive wastes and the unconditional release of the site and structural materials. 1 ref., 16 figs., 4 tabs

  7. Designing a Weather Station (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.


    The collection and analysis of weather data is crucial to the location of alternate energy systems like solar and wind. This article presents a design challenge that gives students a chance to design a weather station to collect data in advance of a large wind turbine installation. Data analysis is a crucial part of any science or engineering…

  8. Hydrogen Fuelling Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothuizen, Erasmus Damgaard

    station has been developed in Dymola. The models include the fuelling protocol (J2601) for hydrogen vehicles made by Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) and the thermodynamic property library CoolProp is used for retrieving state point. The components in the hydrogen fuelling library are building up...

  9. Point Lepreau generating station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganong, G.H.D.; Strang, A.E.; Gunter, G.E.; Thompson, T.S.

    Point Lepreau-1 reactor is a 600 MWe generating station expected to be in service by October 1979. New Brunswick is suffering a 'catch up' phenomenon in load growth and needs to decrease dependence on foreign oil. The site is on salt water and extensive study has gone into corrosion control. Project management, financing and scheduling have unique aspects. (E.C.B.)

  10. Avoiding Service Station Fraud. (United States)

    Burton, Grace M.; Burton, John R.


    High school students are warned against service station fraud. A problem-solving section is designed to help students calculate consumer costs for various fraudulent transactions. Several ways of reducing fraud or of lessening the chances of problems are noted. (MP)

  11. The Service Station. (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    The purpose of the teacher's guide is to encourage the primary student to expand his or her awareness of jobs within the community. The role of the service station worker is examined, with emphasis on the goods and services provided. Subject areas for which the materials in this guide have potential are social studies, art, and language. Each set…

  12. Electrostatic pickup station

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab


    Electrostatic pickup station, with 4 electrodes, to measure beam position in the horizontal and vertical plane. This type is used in the transfer lines leaving the PS (TT2, TTL2, TT70). See also 8206063, where the electrode shapes are clearly visible.

  13. Space Station Water Quality (United States)

    Willis, Charles E. (Editor)


    The manned Space Station will exist as an isolated system for periods of up to 90 days. During this period, safe drinking water and breathable air must be provided for an eight member crew. Because of the large mass involved, it is not practical to consider supplying the Space Station with water from Earth. Therefore, it is necessary to depend upon recycled water to meet both the human and nonhuman water needs on the station. Sources of water that will be recycled include hygiene water, urine, and cabin humidity condensate. A certain amount of fresh water can be produced by CO2 reduction process. Additional fresh water will be introduced into the total pool by way of food, because of the free water contained in food and the water liberated by metabolic oxidation of the food. A panel of scientists and engineers with extensive experience in the various aspects of wastewater reuse was assembled for a 2 day workshop at NASA-Johnson. The panel included individuals with expertise in toxicology, chemistry, microbiology, and sanitary engineering. A review of Space Station water reclamation systems was provided.

  14. International Space Station Assembly (United States)


    The International Space Station (ISS) is an unparalleled international scientific and technological cooperative venture that will usher in a new era of human space exploration and research and provide benefits to people on Earth. On-Orbit assembly began on November 20, 1998, with the launch of the first ISS component, Zarya, on a Russian Proton rocket. The Space Shuttle followed on December 4, 1998, carrying the U.S.-built Unity cornecting Module. Sixteen nations are participating in the ISS program: the United States, Canada, Japan, Russia, Brazil, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. The ISS will include six laboratories and be four times larger and more capable than any previous space station. The United States provides two laboratories (United States Laboratory and Centrifuge Accommodation Module) and a habitation module. There will be two Russian research modules, one Japanese laboratory, referred to as the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), and one European Space Agency (ESA) laboratory called the Columbus Orbital Facility (COF). The station's internal volume will be roughly equivalent to the passenger cabin volume of two 747 jets. Over five years, a total of more than 40 space flights by at least three different vehicles - the Space Shuttle, the Russian Proton Rocket, and the Russian Soyuz rocket - will bring together more than 100 different station components and the ISS crew. Astronauts will perform many spacewalks and use new robotics and other technologies to assemble ISS components in space.

  15. Space Station Energy Sizing (United States)

    Rice, R. R.


    A general schematic for a space station power system is described. The major items of interest in the power system are the solar array, transfer devices, energy storage, and conversion equipment. Each item will have losses associated with it and must be utilized in any sizing study, and can be used as a checklist for itemizing the various system components.

  16. Meteorological Automatic Weather Station (MAWS) Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holdridge, Donna J [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kyrouac, Jenni A [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)


    The Meteorological Automatic Weather Station (MAWS) is a surface meteorological station, manufactured by Vaisala, Inc., dedicated to the balloon-borne sounding system (BBSS), providing surface measurements of the thermodynamic state of the atmosphere and the wind speed and direction for each radiosonde profile. These data are automatically provided to the BBSS during the launch procedure and included in the radiosonde profile as the surface measurements of record for the sounding. The MAWS core set of measurements is: Barometric Pressure (hPa), Temperature (°C), Relative Humidity (%), Arithmetic-Averaged Wind Speed (m/s), and Vector-Averaged Wind Direction (deg). The sensors that collect the core variables are mounted at the standard heights defined for each variable.

  17. ALARA review for the deactivation of 105-N Lift Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nellesen, A.L.


    This ALARA review provides a description of the engineering and administrative controls used to manage personnel exposure and to control contamination levels and airborne radioactivity concentrations, while removing water, sludge, stabilizing surfaces, and all other associated work involved in the deactivation of the 105-N Lift Station. The lift station was used as a sump and received contaminated water from the 105-N Fuel Storage Basin weirs and contaminated drains in the 105-N Building. During operation water from the lift station was pumped to the 1310-N and 1325-N cribs. Deactivation of the lift station is a critical step in completing the deactivation of N-Area

  18. Cloud Compute for Global Climate Station Summaries (United States)

    Baldwin, R.; May, B.; Cogbill, P.


    Global Climate Station Summaries are simple indicators of observational normals which include climatic data summarizations and frequency distributions. These typically are statistical analyses of station data over 5-, 10-, 20-, 30-year or longer time periods. The summaries are computed from the global surface hourly dataset. This dataset totaling over 500 gigabytes is comprised of 40 different types of weather observations with 20,000 stations worldwide. NCEI and the U.S. Navy developed these value added products in the form of hourly summaries from many of these observations. Enabling this compute functionality in the cloud is the focus of the project. An overview of approach and challenges associated with application transition to the cloud will be presented.

  19. Mobile environmental radiation monitoring station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assido, H.; Shemesh, Y.; Mazor, T.; Tal, N.; Barak, D.


    A mobile environmental radiation monitoring station has been developed and established for the Israeli Ministry of Environment. The radiation monitoring station is ready for immediate placing in any required location, or can be operated from a vehicle. The station collects data Tom the detector and transfers it via cellular communication network to a Computerized Control Center for data storage, processing, and display . The mobile station is fully controlled from the. Routinely, the mobile station responses to the data request accumulated since the last communication session. In case of fault or alarm condition in the mobile station, a local claim is activated and immediately initiates communication with the via cellular communication network. (authors)

  20. Robotic dissolution station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beugelsdijk, T.J.; Hollen, R.M.; Temer, D.J.; Haggart, R.J.; Erkkila, T.H.


    This invention is comprised of a robotic station for dissolving active metals in acid in an automated fashion. A vessel with cap, containing the active metal is placed onto a shuttle which retracts to a point at which it is directly beneath a cap removing and retaining mechanism. After the cap is removed, a tube carrying an appropriate acid is inserted into the vessel, and the acid is introduced. The structure of the station forms an open hood which is swept of gases generated by the dissolution and the air removed to a remote location for scrubbing. After the reaction is complete, the shuttle extends and the vessel may be removed by a robot arm.

  1. Detection of cross-links between FtsH, YidC, HflK/C suggests a linked role for these proteins in quality control upon insertion of bacterial inner membrane proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bloois, Edwin; Dekker, Henk L.; Fröderberg, Linda; Houben, Edith N. G.; Urbanus, Malene L.; de Koster, Chris G.; de Gier, Jan-Willem; Luirink, Joen


    Little is known about the quality control of proteins upon integration in the inner membrane of Escherichia coli. Here, we demonstrate that YidC and FtsH are adjacent to a nascent, truncated membrane protein using in vitro photo cross-linking. YidC plays a critical but poorly understood role in the

  2. Role of FtsH2 in the repair of Photosystem II in mutants of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC 6803 with impaired assembly or stability of the CaMn4 cluster

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Komenda, Josef; Knoppová, Jana; Krynická, Vendula; Nixon, P. J.; Tichý, Martin


    Roč. 1797, č. 5 (2010), s. 566-575 ISSN 0005-2728 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400200801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : CtpA protease * D1 degradation and maturation * FtsH protease Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 5.132, year: 2010

  3. Shippingport station communications program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stote, J.J.


    The author discusses how the communications program for the Shippingport Atomic Power Station has a long history. It can be traced as far back as 1953, when the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) awarded a contract to Westinghouse Electric to design the nuclear portion of a power plant for electric utility use. During May of the next year, President Eisenhower initiated groundbreaking ceremonies for the construction of the commercial atomic power plant at Shippingport, Pennsylvania

  4. The nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plettner, B.


    The processes taking place in a nuclear power plant and the dangers arising from a nuclear power station are described. The means and methods of controlling, monitoring, and protecting the plant and things that can go wrong are presented. There is also a short discourse on the research carried out in the USA and Germany, aimed at assessing the risks of utilising nuclear energy by means of the incident tree analysis and probability calculations. (DG) [de

  5. Summit Station Skiway Review (United States)


    determine its usefulness for enhancing runway performance. We docu- mented the snow strength with a Rammsonde Cone Penetrometer and de- termined the... Penetrometer and delivered it to Summit during the Phase III turnover in February 2011 so that it would be available for testing during spring skiway...discussed current maintenance practices with the Station Manager, trained staff on proper use of the Rammsonde Cone Penetrometer , inspected current

  6. Automatic Traffic Recorder (ATR) Stations (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The data included in the GIS Traffic Stations Version database have been assimilated from station description files provided by FHWA for Weigh-in-Motion (WIM), and...

  7. Weigh-in-Motion Stations (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The data included in the GIS Traffic Stations Version database have been assimilated from station description files provided by FHWA for Weigh-in-Motion (WIM), and...

  8. Emergency Medical Service (EMS) Stations (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — EMS Locations in Kansas The EMS stations dataset consists of any location where emergency medical services (EMS) personnel are stationed or based out of, or where...

  9. Haze episodes at Syowa Station, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiichiro Hara


    Full Text Available During our aerosol measurement program at Syowa Station, Antarctica in 2004-2007, some low visibility (haze phenomena were observed under conditions with weak wind and without drifting snow and fog in winter-spring. In the "Antarctic haze" phenomenon, the number concentration of aerosol particles and black carbon concentration increased by one-two orders higher relative to background conditions at Syowa Station, while surface O_3 concentration simultaneously dropped especially after polar sunrise. Major aerosol constituents in the haze phenomenon were sea-salts (e.g., Na^+ and Cl^-. From the trajectory analysis and NAAPS model, the plumes from biomass burning in South America and southern Africa were transported to Syowa Station, Antarctic coast, during eastward (occasionally westward approach of cyclones in the Southern Ocean. Thus, poleward flow of the plume from mid-latitudes and injection of sea-salt particles during the transport may lead to the Antarctic haze phenomenon at Syowa Station. The difference of O_3 concentration between the background and the haze conditions tended to be larger in spring (polar sunrise relative to that in winter. Because enhancement of sea-salt particles can play an important role as an additional source of reactive halogen species, the haze episodes might make a significant contribution to surface O_3 depletion during the polar sunrise on the Antarctic coast.

  10. An analysis of spatial representativeness of air temperature monitoring stations (United States)

    Liu, Suhua; Su, Hongbo; Tian, Jing; Wang, Weizhen


    Surface air temperature is an essential variable for monitoring the atmosphere, and it is generally acquired at meteorological stations that can provide information about only a small area within an r m radius ( r-neighborhood) of the station, which is called the representable radius. In studies on a local scale, ground-based observations of surface air temperatures obtained from scattered stations are usually interpolated using a variety of methods without ascertaining their effectiveness. Thus, it is necessary to evaluate the spatial representativeness of ground-based observations of surface air temperature before conducting studies on a local scale. The present study used remote sensing data to estimate the spatial distribution of surface air temperature using the advection-energy balance for air temperature (ADEBAT) model. Two target stations in the study area were selected to conduct an analysis of spatial representativeness. The results showed that one station (AWS 7) had a representable radius of about 400 m with a possible error of less than 1 K, while the other station (AWS 16) had the radius of about 250 m. The representable radius was large when the heterogeneity of land cover around the station was small.

  11. Arabidopsis cpFtsY mutants exhibit pleiotropic defects including an inability to increase iron deficiency-inducible root Fe(III) chelate reductase activity. (United States)

    Durrett, Timothy P; Connolly, Erin L; Rogers, Elizabeth E


    All plants, except for the grasses, must reduce Fe(III) to Fe(II) in order to acquire iron. In Arabidopsis, the enzyme responsible for this reductase activity in the roots is encoded by FRO2. Two Arabidopsis mutants, frd4-1 and frd4-2, were isolated in a screen for plants that do not induce Fe(III) chelate reductase activity in their roots in response to iron deficiency. frd4 mutant plants are chlorotic and grow more slowly than wild-type Col-0 plants. Additionally, frd4 chloroplasts are smaller in size and possess dramatically fewer thylakoid membranes and grana stacks when compared with wild-type chloroplasts. frd4 mutant plants express both FRO2 and IRT1 mRNA normally in their roots under iron deficiency, arguing against any defects in systemic iron-deficiency signaling. Further, transgenic frd4 plants accumulate FRO2-dHA fusion protein under iron-deficient conditions, suggesting that the frd4 mutation acts post-translationally in reducing Fe(III) chelate reductase activity. FRO2-dHA appears to localize to the plasma membrane of root epidermal cells in both Col-0 and frd4-1 transgenic plants when grown under iron-deficient conditions. Map-based cloning revealed that the frd4 mutations reside in cpFtsY, which encodes a component of one of the pathways responsible for the insertion of proteins into the thylakoid membranes of the chloroplast. The presence of cpFtsY mRNA and protein in the roots of wild-type plants suggests additional roles for this protein, in addition to its known function in targeting proteins to the thylakoid membrane in chloroplasts.

  12. Air and radiation monitoring stations

    CERN Multimedia



    CERN has around 100 monitoring stations on and around its sites. New radiation measuring stations, capable of detecting even lower levels of radiation, were installed in 2014. Two members of HE-SEE group (Safety Engineering and Environment group) in front of one of the new monitoring stations.

  13. Southeast Regional Experiment Station (United States)


    This is the final report of the Southeast Regional Experiment Station project. The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC), a research institute of the University of Central Florida (UCF), has operated the Southeast Regional Experiment Station (SE RES) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) since September 1982. Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque (SNLA) provides technical program direction for both the SE RES and the Southwest Regional Experiment Station (SW RES) located at the Southwest Technology Development Institute at Las Cruces, New Mexico. This cooperative effort serves a critical role in the national photovoltaic program by conducting system evaluations, design assistance and technology transfer to enhance the cost-effective utilization and development of photovoltaic technology. Initially, the research focus of the SE RES program centered on utility-connected PV systems and associated issues. In 1987, the SE RES began evaluating amorphous silicon (a-Si) thin-film PV modules for application in utility-interactive systems. Stand-alone PV systems began receiving increased emphasis at the SE RES in 1986. Research projects were initiated that involved evaluation of vaccine refrigeration, water pumping and other stand-alone power systems. The results of this work have led to design optimization techniques and procedures for the sizing and modeling of PV water pumping systems. Later recent research at the SE RES included test and evaluation of batteries and charge controllers for stand-alone PV system applications. The SE RES project provided the foundation on which FSEC achieved national recognition for its expertise in PV systems research and related technology transfer programs. These synergistic products of the SE RES illustrate the high visibility and contributions the FSEC PV program offers to the DOE.

  14. Designing Space Station (United States)


    An overview of preparations for the construction of Space Station Freedom (SSF) is presented. The video includes footage of astronauts testing materials for erectable structures in space both in the Shuttle bay while in orbit and in a neutral buoyancy tank at McDonald Douglas' Underwater Test Facility. Also shown are footage of robot systems that will assist the astronauts in building SSF, a computer simulation of an Orbiting Maneuvering Vehicle, solar dynamic mirrors that will power SSF, and mockups of the living quarters of the SSF.

  15. Nuclear hydrogen power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eroshov, M.E.


    Short information about investigations on hydrogen energetics being carried out in the USSR as well as a review of the world literature on this subject are given. Combined cycles of thermochemical and electrochemical reactions applied for hydrogen and oxigen production from water are shown to be of interest, as a number of reactions in a cycle may be reduced to two, and the temperature of processes may be decreased to the temperature range specific to modern reactors. Construction features of nuclear-hydrogen power stations producing hydrogen through the use of thermo-electro-chemical cycles are considered. It is shown that at this stage it is possible to reduce time and expenses needed for realization of hydrogen production on a wide scale as compared to other reaction cycles requiring high temperatures and consequently, construction of high-temperature reactors. The conditions of energy and water transport at great distances by using hydrogen lines and the possibilities of development of desert and arid lands by using this mode of operation are considered. Possible ecological effect of hydrogen energetics development on the environment is pointed out, in particular, when power complexes are concentrated on a limited area. It is shown that it is reasonable to locate nuclear-hydrogen stations on shores

  16. Nuclear hydrogen power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eroshov, M.E.


    Short information about investigations on hydrogen energetics being carried out in the USSR as well as a review of the world literature on this subject are given. Combined cycles of thermochemical and electrochemical reactions applied for hydrogen and oxygen production from water are shown to be of interest, as a number of reactions in a cycle may be reduced to two, and the temperature of processes may be decreased to the temperature range specific to modern reactors. Construction features of nuclear-hydrogen power stations producing hydrogen through the use of thermo-electrochemical cycles are considered. It is shown that at this stage it is possible to reduce time and expenses needed for realization of hydrogen production on a wide scale as compared to other reaction cycles requiring high temperatures and consequently, construction of high-temperature reactors. The conditions of energy and water transport at great distances by using hydrogen lines and the possibilities of development of desert and arid lands by using this mode of operation are considered. Possible ecological effect of hydrogen energetics development on the environment is pointed out, in particular, when power complexes are concentrated on a limited area. It is shown that it is reasonable to locate nuclear-hydrogen stations on shores

  17. Lunar Base Thermoelectric Power Station Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Determan, William; Frye, Patrick; Mondt, Jack; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre; Johnson, Ken; Stapfer, Gerhard; Brooks, Michael; Heshmatpour, Ben


    Under NASA's Project Prometheus, the Nuclear Space Power Systems Program, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pratt and Whitney Rocketdyne, and Teledyne Energy Systems have teamed with a number of universities, under the Segmented Thermoelectric Multicouple Converter (STMC) Task, to develop the next generation of advanced thermoelectric converters for space reactor power systems. Work on the STMC converter assembly has progressed to the point where the lower temperature stage of the segmented multicouple converter assembly is ready for laboratory testing, and promising candidates for the upper stage materials have been identified and their properties are being characterized. One aspect of the program involves mission application studies to help define the potential benefits from the use of these STMC technologies for designated NASA missions such as a lunar base power station where kilowatts of power would be required to maintain a permanent manned presence on the surface of the moon. A modular 50 kWe thermoelectric power station concept was developed to address a specific set of requirements developed for this particular mission concept. Previous lunar lander concepts had proposed the use of lunar regolith as in-situ radiation shielding material for a reactor power station with a one kilometer exclusion zone radius to minimize astronaut radiation dose rate levels. In the present concept, we will examine the benefits and requirements for a hermetically-sealed reactor thermoelectric power station module suspended within a man-made lunar surface cavity. The concept appears to maximize the shielding capabilities of the lunar regolith while minimizing its handling requirements. Both thermal and nuclear radiation levels from operation of the station, at its 100-m exclusion zone radius, were evaluated and found to be acceptable. Site preparation activities are reviewed as well as transport issues for this concept. The goal of the study was to review the entire life cycle of

  18. Assessing Recent Improvements in the GOSAT TANSO-FTS Thermal InfraRed Emission Spectrum using Satellite Inter-Comparison with NASA AIRS, EUMETSAT IASI, and JPSS CrIS (United States)

    Knuteson, R.; Burgess, G.; Shiomi, K.; Kuze, A.; Yoshida, J.; Kataoka, F.; Suto, H.


    The Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation Fourier-Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) onboard the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) has been providing global space-borne observations of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) since 2009 (Kuze et al. 2012). The TANSO-FTS sensor is an interferometer spectrometer measuring shortwave reflected solar radiation with high spectral resolution in three spectral bands. A bore-sighted band 4 uses the same interferometer to measure thermal infrared radiation (TIR) at the top of the atmosphere. This paper is a comparison of the TANSO-FTS TIR band with coincident measurements of the NASA Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) grating spectrometer. The time and space coincident matchups are at the Simultaneous Nadir Overpass (SNO) locations of the orbits of GOSAT and the NASA AQUA satellite. GOSAT/AQUA SNOs occur at about 40N and 40S latitude. A continuous set of SNO matchups has been found from the start of valid radiance data collection in April 2009 through the end of 2015. UW-SSEC has obtained the time, latitude, and longitude of the SNO location using the ORBNAV software at UW-SSEC obtained the matching AIRS v5 L1B radiances from the NASA archive. JAXA has reprocessed the entire TANSO-FTS TIR band using the previous v161and a new calibration version (v203) which includes calibration parameter optimizations. The TANSO-FTS has been reduced to the AIRS spectral channels using the AIRS spectral response functions (SRFs). This paper will show the time series of observed brightness temperatures from AIRS and GOSAT TANSO-FTS TIR observations from the SNO matchups. Similar results are obtained by comparison with the EUMETSAT Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) on the METOP platform and the JPSS Cross-track InfraRed Sounder (CrIS) on the Suomi-NPP platform. This paper validates the improvements in the GOSAT ground calibration software by providing a reference

  19. Local control stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, W.S.; Higgins, J.C.; Wachtel, J.A.


    This paper describes research concerning the effects of human engineering design at local control stations (i.e., operator interfaces located outside the control room) on human performance and plant safety. The research considered both multifunction panels (e.g. remote shutdown panels) as well as single-function interfaces (e.g., valves, breakers, gauges, etc.). Changes in performance shaping factors associated with variations in human engineering at LCSs were estimated based on expert opinion. By means of a scaling procedure, these estimates were used to modify the human error probabilities in a PRA model, which was then employed to generate estimates of plant risk and scoping-level value/impact ratios for various human engineering upgrades. Recent documentation of human engineering deficiencies at single-function LCSs was also reviewed, and an assessment of the current status of LCSs with respect to human engineering was conducted

  20. Innovative Railway Stations (United States)

    Rzepnicka, Sylwia; Załuski, Daniel


    In relation to modern demographic trends, evolving technologies and environment-friendly solutions increases the potential of rail considered as sustainable form of public transport. Contemporary tendencies of designing railway stations in Europe are focused on lowering energy consumption and reducing carbon emission. The main goal of the designers is to create a friendly and intuitive space for its users and at the same time a building that uses renewable energy sources and minimizes negative impact on the environment by the increase of biologically active areas, reuse of rainwater and greywater, innovative heating and cooling solutions and reduction of energy losses. The optimisation of a life circle in railway architecture introduces new approach to passenger service. Examples mentioned in the content of this article help to synthesize changes in approach to the design within the context of sustainability.

  1. Central Station Design Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The purpose of EDISON Work Package 4.1 is the evaluation of possible Central (charging) Stations design options for making possible the public charging of Electric Vehicles (EVs). A number of scenarios for EVs are assessed, with special emphasis on the options of Fast Charging and Battery Swapping....... With the 3-phase AC quick charging options of 11, 22 kW and 43 kW, (IEC 62196, EN60038, EN 61851) both the Danish and Bornholm environments offer a good chance for EV integration [1]. Dealing with Fast Charging, the study determined that 300kW Fast Charging, which corresponds to 10 minutes charging for a 50...... charging, rated at 50 kW, fast charging would be easier in both Denmark and Bornholm scenarios. For each scenario and charging power level, the possible number of EVs is estimated and finally architectural design options are proposed. Technical assessment is performed for evaluating the benefits...

  2. Development of the Arctic radionuclide monitoring station (United States)

    King, S. E.; Aakenes, U. R.; McCoy, K.; Phillips, G. W.


    The world has learned about the dumping of nuclear reactors and other waste into the Arctic seas by the former Soviet Union. Most of the information on the present levels of radioactivity in the region has been obtained by oceanographic expeditions conducted during the brief Arctic summers. Year-round monitoring of the movement of radioactivity during dynamic seasonal and episodic changes is hampered by the difficulties caused by sea ice, logistics and communication constraints associated with deployment and maintenance of monitoring equipment in this remote region. The authors have designed an autonomous station to measure the benthic gamma-ray emitting radioactivity for periods of at least one year. The station is capable of detecting a 30 Bq/m/sup 3/ increase in the /sup 137/Cs activity in a 24 hour period. After a year-long deployment, the station releases its anchor and rises to the surface to transmit the accumulated spectra and oceanographic data via an Argos satellite link. The design and performance characteristics of the prototype station are discussed.

  3. Uruguay - Surface Weather Observations (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surface weather observation forms for 26 stations in Uruguay. Period of record 1896-2005, with two to eight observations per day. Files created through a...

  4. Discharges from nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    HM Inspectorate of Pollution commissioned, with authorising responsibilities in England and Wales, a study into the discharges of radioactive effluents from Nuclear Power Stations. The study considered arisings from nuclear power stations in Europe and the USA and the technologies to treat and control the radioactive discharges. This report contains details of the technologies used at many nuclear power stations to treat and control radioactive discharges and gives, where information was available, details of discharges and authorised discharge limits. (author)

  5. Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS). This file provides information on the numbers and distribution (latitude/longitude) of air monitoring sites...

  6. MIPAS temperature from the stratosphere to the lower thermosphere: Comparison of vM21 with ACE-FTS, MLS, OSIRIS, SABER, SOFIE and lidar measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. García-Comas


    Full Text Available We present vM21 MIPAS temperatures from the lower stratosphere to the lower thermosphere, which cover all optimized resolution measurements performed by MIPAS in the middle-atmosphere, upper-atmosphere and noctilucent-cloud modes during its lifetime, i.e., from January 2005 to April 2012. The main upgrades with respect to the previous version of MIPAS temperatures (vM11 are the update of the spectroscopic database, the use of a different climatology of atomic oxygen and carbon dioxide, and the improvement in important technical aspects of the retrieval setup (temperature gradient along the line of sight and offset regularizations, apodization accuracy. Additionally, an updated version of ESA-calibrated L1b spectra (5.02/5.06 is used. The vM21 temperatures correct the main systematic errors of the previous version because they provide on average a 1–2 K warmer stratopause and middle mesosphere, and a 6–10 K colder mesopause (except in high-latitude summers and lower thermosphere. These lead to a remarkable improvement in MIPAS comparisons with ACE-FTS, MLS, OSIRIS, SABER, SOFIE and the two Rayleigh lidars at Mauna Loa and Table Mountain, which, with a few specific exceptions, typically exhibit differences smaller than 1 K below 50 km and than 2 K at 50–80 km in spring, autumn and winter at all latitudes, and summer at low to midlatitudes. Differences in the high-latitude summers are typically smaller than 1 K below 50 km, smaller than 2 K at 50–65 km and 5 K at 65–80 km. Differences between MIPAS and the other instruments in the mid-mesosphere are generally negative. MIPAS mesopause is within 4 K of the other instruments measurements, except in the high-latitude summers, when it is within 5–10 K, being warmer there than SABER, MLS and OSIRIS and colder than ACE-FTS and SOFIE. The agreement in the lower thermosphere is typically better than 5 K, except for high latitudes during spring and summer, when MIPAS usually exhibits larger

  7. Station History Of The Seismic Station In Ahmadu Bello University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The station history of the Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria seismic station has been carried out. A total of two hundred and thirty (230) events at epicentral distances between 24o and 180o were selected from recordings covering the period January 1985 to December 1992. Dominants in the selected events are events from ...

  8. Stanwell power station project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, David R; J Dey, Christopher [University of Sidney, Sidney (Australia); Morrison, Graham L [University of New South Wales, Sidney (Australia)


    This paper describes the Compact Linear Fresnel Reflector (CLFR) being developed for installation at the Stanwell power station in Queensland Australia. Stanwell Corporation Limited (SCL). Solahart International, Solsearch Pty. Ltd. And the universities of Sidney and New South Wales are cooperating in the project, and this first plant being partly funded by the Australian Greenhouse Office. The solar plant will be attached to a 1440 MW(e) coal fired plant. The 17000 m{sup 2} array will be the largest array in Australia, producing a peak of 13 MW of thermal energy which will offset the use of coal in the generation of electricity. It will use direct steam generation and will feed either steam or hot water at 265 Celsius degrees directly into the power station preheating cycle. The CLFR system, first developed by the University of Sidney and Solsearch Pty. Ltd., is simple and offers small reflector size, low structural cost, fixed receiver geometry. Initial installed plant costs are approximately US$1000 per kWe, but this includes the effect of high up-front design costs and the cost should drop substantially in the second and subsequent plants. [Spanish] Proyecto de la Planta Electrica Stanwell este articulo describe el Reflector Lineal Compacto Fresnel (CLFR, siglas en ingles) que se esta desarrollando para la instalacion de la planta electrica Stanwell en Queensland, Australia. La Corporacion Stanwell Limited (SCL), Solahart International, Solsearch Pty. Ltd., las universidades de Sidney y de New South Wales estan cooperando en este proyecto, y esta primera planta esta parcialmente auspiciada por la Australian Greenhouse Office. La planta solar sera anexa a una planta de carbon de 1440 MW(e). Este arreglo de 17000 m{sup 2} sera el mayor en Australia y producira un maximo de 13 MW en energia termica la cual contrarrestara el uso del carbon en la generacion de electricidad. Utilizara generacion con vapor directo y alimentara ya sea vapor o agua caliente a 265 grados

  9. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from Oregon Pump Station by City of Oregon and assembled by Great Lakes Observing System (GLOS) in the Great Lakes region from 2015-06-20 to 2017-08-31 (NCEI Accession 0130547) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0130547 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  10. A probe station for testing silicon sensors

    CERN Multimedia

    Caraban Gonzalez, Noemi


    A probe station for testing silicon sensors. The probe station is located inside a dark box that can keep away light during the measurement. The set-up is located in the DSF (Department Silicon Facility). The golden plate is the "chuck" where the sensor is usually placed on. With the help of "manipulators", thin needles can be precisely positioned that can contact the sensor surface. Using these needles and the golden chuck, a high voltage can be applied to the sensor to test its behaviour under high voltage. We will use the silicon sensors that we test here for building prototypes of a highly granular sandwich calorimeter, the CMS HGC (Highly granular Calorimeter) upgrade for High-Luminosity LHC.

  11. Controversial power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcan, P.


    When information on plans to build a power station in Trebisov first appeared reactions differed. A 40-billion investment in a town with more than 20% unemployment seemed attractive. But some people did not like the idea of having a power plant located in the town. Around one year after the investment was officially announced TREND returned to Trebisov. In the meantime the investor has managed to overcome one of the biggest obstacles on its way to building a new power plant. The ministry responsible gave the environmental study a positive rating. But objectors are still not sure that everything is fine. They claim that the study misinterprets data and that the ministry did not show expertise when evaluating it. 'Is it possible that a coal power plant located in a town would have twice as many positive effects on peoples' health than negative ones? Why don't we build them everywhere?'asked the chairman of the civic society, Trebisov nahlas, Gejza Gore. The developer of the project, Ceskoslovenska energeticka spolocnost (CES), Kosice is fighting back and claims that their counterpart lacks professional arguments. In the meantime it is preparing for area management proceedings. Trebisov is also involved in the discussion and claims that the town planning scheme does not include such a project. The Ministry of Construction has a different opinion. In the opinion of the Ministry the town planning scheme allows a 885-megawatt power plant to be built only a few hundred meters away from housing estates. (author)

  12. Swedish encapsulation station review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Sven Olof; Brunzell, P.; Heibel, R.; McCarthy, J.; Pennington, C.; Rusch, C.; Varley, G.


    In the Encapsulation Station (ES) Review performed by NAC International, a number of different areas have been studied. The main objectives with the review have been to: Perform an independent review of the cost estimates for the ES presented in SKB's document 'Plan 1996'. This has been made through comparisons between the ES and BNFL's Waste Encapsulation Plant (WEP) at Sellafield as well as with the CLAB facility. Review the location of the ES (at the CLAB site or at the final repository) and its interaction with other parts of the Swedish system for spent fuel management. Review the logistics and plant capacity of the ES. Identify important safety aspects of the ES as a basis for future licensing activities. Based on NAC International's experience of casks for transport and storage of spent fuel, review the basic design of the copper/steel canister and the transport cask. This review insides design, manufacturing, handling and licensing aspects. Perform an overall comparison between the ES project and the CLAB project with the objective to identify major project risks and discuss their mitigation

  13. Swedish encapsulation station review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Sven Olof; Brunzell, P.; Heibel, R.; McCarthy, J.; Pennington, C.; Rusch, C.; Varley, G. [NAC International, Zuerich (Switzerland)


    In the Encapsulation Station (ES) Review performed by NAC International, a number of different areas have been studied. The main objectives with the review have been to: Perform an independent review of the cost estimates for the ES presented in SKB`s document `Plan 1996`. This has been made through comparisons between the ES and BNFL`s Waste Encapsulation Plant (WEP) at Sellafield as well as with the CLAB facility. Review the location of the ES (at the CLAB site or at the final repository) and its interaction with other parts of the Swedish system for spent fuel management. Review the logistics and plant capacity of the ES. Identify important safety aspects of the ES as a basis for future licensing activities. Based on NAC International`s experience of casks for transport and storage of spent fuel, review the basic design of the copper/steel canister and the transport cask. This review insides design, manufacturing, handling and licensing aspects. Perform an overall comparison between the ES project and the CLAB project with the objective to identify major project risks and discuss their mitigation 19 refs, 9 figs, 35 tabs

  14. Expression of mycobacterial cell division protein, FtsZ, and dormancy proteins, DevR and Acr, within lung granulomas throughout guinea pig infection. (United States)

    Sharma, Deepak; Bose, Arpita; Shakila, H; Das, Taposh K; Tyagi, Jaya Sivaswami; Ramanathan, V D


    The ability of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to persist in a dormant state is a hallmark of tuberculosis. An insight into the expression of mycobacterial proteins will contribute to our understanding of bacterial physiology in vivo. To this end, the expression of FtsZ, Acr and DevR was assessed in the lung granulomas of guinea pigs infected with M. tuberculosis. Antigen immunostaining was then compared with the detection of acid-fast bacilli (AFB) and mycobacterial DNA. Surprisingly, immunostaining for all three antigens was observed throughout the course of infection; maximum expression of all antigens was noted at 20 weeks of infection. The intensity of immunostaining correlated well with the presence of intact bacteria, suggesting that mycobacterial antigens in the extracellular fraction have a short half-life; in contrast to protein, extracellular bacterial DNA was found to be more stable. Immunostaining for bacterial division and dormancy markers could not clearly distinguish between replicating and non-replicating organisms during the course of infection. The detection of Acr and DevR from 4 weeks onwards indicates that the dormancy proteins are expressed from early on in infection. Both antigen staining and DNA detection from intact bacilli were useful for detecting intact mycobacteria in the absence of AFB.

  15. Combining the FtsZ-Targeting Prodrug TXA709 and the Cephalosporin Cefdinir Confers Synergy and Reduces the Frequency of Resistance in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus. (United States)

    Kaul, Malvika; Mark, Lilly; Parhi, Ajit K; LaVoie, Edmond J; Pilch, Daniel S


    Combination therapy of bacterial infections with synergistic drug partners offers distinct advantages over monotherapy. Among these advantages are (i) a reduction of the drug dose required for efficacy, (ii) a reduced potential for drug-induced toxicity, and (iii) a reduced potential for the emergence of resistance. Here, we describe the synergistic actions of the third-generation oral cephalosporin cefdinir and TXA709, a new, FtsZ-targeting prodrug that we have developed with improved pharmacokinetics and enhanced in vivo efficacy against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) relative to earlier agents. We show that the active product of TXA709 (TXA707) acts synergistically with cefdinir in vitro against clinical isolates of MRSA, vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA), vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA), and linezolid-resistant S. aureus (LRSA). In addition, relative to TXA707 alone, the combination of TXA707 and cefdinir significantly reduces or eliminates the detectable emergence of resistance. We also demonstrate synergy in vivo with oral administration of the prodrug TXA709 and cefdinir in mouse models of both systemic and tissue (thigh) infections with MRSA. This synergy reduces the dose of TXA709 required for efficacy 3-fold. Viewed as a whole, our results highlight the potential of TXA709 and cefdinir as a promising combination for the treatment of drug-resistant staphylococcal infections. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Seismometer array station processors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Key, F.A.; Lea, T.G.; Douglas, A.


    A description is given of the design, construction and initial testing of two types of Seismometer Array Station Processor (SASP), one to work with data stored on magnetic tape in analogue form, the other with data in digital form. The purpose of a SASP is to detect the short period P waves recorded by a UK-type array of 20 seismometers and to edit these on to a a digital library tape or disc. The edited data are then processed to obtain a rough location for the source and to produce seismograms (after optimum processing) for analysis by a seismologist. SASPs are an important component in the scheme for monitoring underground explosions advocated by the UK in the Conference of the Committee on Disarmament. With digital input a SASP can operate at 30 times real time using a linear detection process and at 20 times real time using the log detector of Weichert. Although the log detector is slower, it has the advantage over the linear detector that signals with lower signal-to-noise ratio can be detected and spurious large amplitudes are less likely to produce a detection. It is recommended, therefore, that where possible array data should be recorded in digital form for input to a SASP and that the log detector of Weichert be used. Trial runs show that a SASP is capable of detecting signals down to signal-to-noise ratios of about two with very few false detections, and at mid-continental array sites it should be capable of detecting most, if not all, the signals with magnitude above msub(b) 4.5; the UK argues that, given a suitable network, it is realistic to hope that sources of this magnitude and above can be detected and identified by seismological means alone. (author)

  17. Surface characterization protocol for precision aspheric optics (United States)

    Sarepaka, RamaGopal V.; Sakthibalan, Siva; Doodala, Somaiah; Panwar, Rakesh S.; Kotaria, Rajendra


    In Advanced Optical Instrumentation, Aspherics provide an effective performance alternative. The aspheric fabrication and surface metrology, followed by aspheric design are complementary iterative processes for Precision Aspheric development. As in fabrication, a holistic approach of aspheric surface characterization is adopted to evaluate actual surface error and to aim at the deliverance of aspheric optics with desired surface quality. Precision optical surfaces are characterized by profilometry or by interferometry. Aspheric profiles are characterized by contact profilometers, through linear surface scans to analyze their Form, Figure and Finish errors. One must ensure that, the surface characterization procedure does not add to the resident profile errors (generated during the aspheric surface fabrication). This presentation examines the errors introduced post-surface generation and during profilometry of aspheric profiles. This effort is to identify sources of errors and is to optimize the metrology process. The sources of error during profilometry may be due to: profilometer settings, work-piece placement on the profilometer stage, selection of zenith/nadir points of aspheric profiles, metrology protocols, clear aperture - diameter analysis, computational limitations of the profiler and the software issues etc. At OPTICA, a PGI 1200 FTS contact profilometer (Taylor-Hobson make) is used for this study. Precision Optics of various profiles are studied, with due attention to possible sources of errors during characterization, with multi-directional scan approach for uniformity and repeatability of error estimation. This study provides an insight of aspheric surface characterization and helps in optimal aspheric surface production methodology.

  18. Validation of ACE-FTS v2.2 measurements of HCl, HF, CCl3F and CCl2F2 using space-, balloon- and ground-based instrument observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Servais


    Full Text Available Hydrogen chloride (HCl and hydrogen fluoride (HF are respectively the main chlorine and fluorine reservoirs in the Earth's stratosphere. Their buildup resulted from the intensive use of man-made halogenated source gases, in particular CFC-11 (CCl3F and CFC-12 (CCl2F2, during the second half of the 20th century. It is important to continue monitoring the evolution of these source gases and reservoirs, in support of the Montreal Protocol and also indirectly of the Kyoto Protocol. The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS is a space-based instrument that has been performing regular solar occultation measurements of over 30 atmospheric gases since early 2004. In this validation paper, the HCl, HF, CFC-11 and CFC-12 version 2.2 profile data products retrieved from ACE-FTS measurements are evaluated. Volume mixing ratio profiles have been compared to observations made from space by MLS and HALOE, and from stratospheric balloons by SPIRALE, FIRS-2 and Mark-IV. Partial columns derived from the ACE-FTS data were also compared to column measurements from ground-based Fourier transform instruments operated at 12 sites. ACE-FTS data recorded from March 2004 to August 2007 have been used for the comparisons. These data are representative of a variety of atmospheric and chemical situations, with sounded air masses extending from the winter vortex to summer sub-tropical conditions. Typically, the ACE-FTS products are available in the 10–50 km altitude range for HCl and HF, and in the 7–20 and 7–25 km ranges for CFC-11 and -12, respectively. For both reservoirs, comparison results indicate an agreement generally better than 5–10% above 20 km altitude, when accounting for the known offset affecting HALOE measurements of HCl and HF. Larger positive differences are however found for comparisons with single profiles from FIRS-2 and SPIRALE. For CFCs, the few coincident measurements available suggest that the differences

  19. Dan jiang kou hydropower station turbine refurbishment (United States)

    Zhang, R. Y.; Nie, S. Q.; Bazin, D.; Cheng, J. H.


    Dan jiangkou hydropower station refurbished project, isan important project of Chinese refurbishment market. Tianjin Alstom Hydro Co., ltd won this contract by right of good performance and design technology,Its design took into account all the constraints linked to the existing frame. It results in a specific and highly advanced shape.The objective of this paper is to introduce the successful turbine hydraulic design, model test and mechanical design of Dan jiangkou project; and also analyze the cavitation phenomena occurred on runner band surface of Unit 4 after putting into commercial operation. These technology and feedback shall be a good reference and experience for other similar projects

  20. 47 CFR 97.109 - Station control. (United States)


    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station control. 97.109 Section 97.109... SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.109 Station control. (a) Each amateur station must have at least one control point. (b) When a station is being locally controlled, the control operator must be at the...

  1. Torness: proposed nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    The need for and desirability of nuclear power, and in particular the proposed nuclear power station at Torness in Scotland, are questioned. Questions are asked, and answered, on the following topics: position, appearance and cost of the proposed Torness plant, and whether necessary; present availability of electricity, and forecast of future needs, in Scotland; energy conservation and alternative energy sources; radiation hazards from nuclear power stations (outside, inside, and in case of an accident); transport of spent fuel from Torness to Windscale; radioactive waste management; possibility of terrorists making a bomb with radioactive fuel from a nuclear power station; cost of electricity from nuclear power; how to stop Torness. (U.K.)

  2. Space station neutral external environment (United States)

    Ehlers, H.; Leger, L.


    Molecular contamination levels arising from the external induced neutral environment of the Space Station (Phase 1 configuration) were calculated using the MOLFLUX model. Predicted molecular column densities and deposition rates generally meet the Space Station contamination requirements. In the doubtful cases of deposition due to materials outgassing, proper material selection, generally excluding organic products exposed to the external environment, must be considered to meet contamination requirements. It is important that the Space Station configuration, once defined, is not significantly modified to avoid introducing new unacceptable contamination sources.

  3. IMS Seismic and Infrasound Stations Instrumental Challenges (United States)

    Starovoit, Y. O.; Dricker, I. G.; Marty, J.


    The IMS seismic network is a set of monitoring facilities including 50 primary stations and 120 auxiliary stations. Besides the difference in the mode of data transmission to the IDC, technical specifications for seismographic equipment to be installed at both types of stations are essentially the same. The IMS infrasound network comprises 60 facilities with the requirement of continuous data transmission to IDC. The objective of this presentation is to report instrumental challenges associated with both seismic and infrasound technologies. In context of specifications for IMS seismic stations it was stressed that verification seismology is concerned with searching of reliable methods of signal detections at high frequencies. In the meantime MS/mb screening criteria between earthquakes and explosions relies on reliable detection of surface waves. The IMS seismic requirements for instrumental noise and operational range of data logger are defined as certain dB level below minimum background within the required frequency band from 0.02 to 16Hz. The type of sensors response is requested to be flat either in velocity or acceleration. The compliance with IMS specifications may thus introduce a challenging task when low-noise conditions have been recorded at the site. It means that as a station noise PSD approaches the NLNM it requires a high sensitive sensor to be connected to a quiet digitizer which may cause a quick system clip and waste of the available dynamic range. The experience has shown that hybrid frequency response of seismic sensors where combination of flat to velocity and flat to acceleration portions of the sensor frequency response may provide an optimal solution for utilization of the dynamic range and low digitizer noise floor. Vast efforts are also being undertaken and results achieved in the infrasound technology to standardize and optimize the response of the Wind-Noise Reduction System within the IMS infrasound passband from 0.02-4Hz and to deploy

  4. WVU Hydrogen Fuel Dispensing Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, William [West Virginia University Research Corporation, Morgantown, WV (United States)


    The scope of this project was changed during the course of the project. Phase I of the project was to construct a site similar to the site at Central West Virginia Regional Airport in Charleston, WV to show that duplication of the site was a feasible method of conducting hydrogen stations. Phase II of the project was necessitated due to a lack of funding that was planned for the development of the station in Morgantown. The US Department of Energy determined that the station in Charleston would be dismantled and moved to Morgantown and reassembled at the Morgantown site. This necessitated storage of the components of the station for almost a year at the NAFTC Headquarters which caused a number of issues with the equipment that will be discussed in later portions of this report. This report will consist of PHASE I and PHASE II with discussions on each of the tasks scheduled for each phase of the project.

  5. VT Data - Electric Charging Stations (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Locations of Electric Charging Stations provided by the NREL national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy....

  6. Services for nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fremann, M.; Ryckelynck


    This article gives an information as complete as possible about the activities of the french nuclear industry on the export-market. It describes the equipment and services available in the field of services for nuclear power stations [fr

  7. Gravity Station Data for Portugal (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data total 3064 records. This data base was received in April 1997. Principal gravity parameters include Free-air Anomalies which have been...

  8. Gravity Station Data for Spain (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data total 28493 records. This data base was received in April 1997. Principal gravity parameters include Free-air Anomalies which have been...

  9. Space Station Human Factors Research Review. Volume 3: Space Station Habitability and Function: Architectural Research (United States)

    Cohen, Marc M. (Editor); Eichold, Alice (Editor); Heers, Susan (Editor)


    Articles are presented on a space station architectural elements model study, space station group activities habitability module study, full-scale architectural simulation techniques for space stations, and social factors in space station interiors.

  10. Space stations systems and utilization

    CERN Document Server

    Messerschmid, Ernst


    The design of space stations like the recently launched ISS is a highly complex and interdisciplinary task. This book describes component technologies, system integration, and the potential usage of space stations in general and of the ISS in particular. It so adresses students and engineers in space technology. Ernst Messerschmid holds the chair of space systems at the University of Stuttgart and was one of the first German astronauts.

  11. Internationalization of the Space Station (United States)

    Lottmann, R. V.


    Attention is given to the NASA Space Station system elements whose production is under consideration by potential foreign partners. The ESA's Columbus Program declaration encompasses studies of pressurized modules, unmanned payload carriers, and ground support facilities. Canada has expressed interest in construction and servicing facilities, solar arrays, and remote sensing facilities. Japanese studies concern a multipurpose experimental module concept. Each of these foreign investments would expand Space Station capabilities and lay the groundwork for long term partnerships.

  12. 46 CFR 28.395 - Embarkation stations. (United States)


    ... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY UNINSPECTED VESSELS REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING... least one designated survival craft embarkation station and any additional embarkation stations.... Each embarkation station must be arranged to allow the safe boarding of survival craft. ...

  13. Non-Coop Station History (Unindexed) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Station history documentation for stations outside the US Cooperative Observer network. Documents should be compared with those in the Non-Coop Station History...

  14. Advances in power station construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    This book is about power stations - specifically about the construction of modern power stations by the Central Electricity Generating Board in England and Wales over the past decade. It describes the work of the CEGB's Generation Development and Construction Division, perhaps better known throughout the world as simply 'Barnwood' where it has its Headquarters in Gloucester, UK. Barnwood was formed in the early 1970s to concentrate the CEGB's then dispersed engineering construction resources to cope with the smaller number but greatly increased size and complexity of modern power station projects. Perhaps uniquely over the ten years since its formation Barnwood has managed the construction of all types of station; coal-fired, oil-fired, nuclear, pumped storage and hydro. This book tells the story of these various projects and gives detailed descriptions of the respective stations. However, it is not intended as a comprehensive description of power station technology. Rather it is intended to convey the scale of such projects and the many decisions and compromises which have to be made in the course of managing their construction

  15. Probing the cold and warm molecular gas in the Whirlpool Galaxy: Herschel SPIRE-FTS observations of the central region of M51 (NGC 5194) (United States)

    Schirm, M. R. P.; Wilson, C. D.; Kamenetzky, J.; Parkin, T. J.; Glenn, J.; Maloney, P.; Rangwala, N.; Spinoglio, L.; Baes, M.; Boselli, A.; Cooray, A.; De Looze, I.; Fernández-Ontiveros, J. A.; Karczewski, O. Ł.; Wu, R.


    We present Herschel Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE)-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) intermediate-sampled mapping observations of the central ˜8 kpc (˜150 arcsec) of M51, with a spatial resolution of 40 arcsec. We detect four 12CO transitions (J = 4-3 to J = 7-6) and the [C I] 3P2-3P1 and 3P1-3P0 transitions. We supplement these observations with ground-based observations of 12CO J = 1-0 to J = 3-2 and perform a two-component non-local thermodynamic equilibrium analysis. We find that the molecular gas in the nucleus and centre regions has a cool component (Tkin ˜ 10-20 K) with a moderate but poorly constrained density (n(H2) ˜ 103-106 cm-3), as well as significant molecular gas in a warmer (Tkin ˜ 300-3000 K), lower density (n(H2) ˜ 101.6-102.5 cm-3) component. We compare our CO line ratios and calculated densities along with ratios of CO to total infrared luminosity to a grid of photon-dominated region (PDR) models and find that the cold molecular gas likely resides in PDRs with a field strength of G0 ˜ 102. The warm component likely requires an additional source of mechanical heating, from supernovae and stellar winds or possibly shocks produced in the strong spiral density wave. When compared to similar two-component models of other star-forming galaxies published as part of the Very Nearby Galaxies Survey (Arp 220, M82 and NGC 4038/39), M51 has the lowest density for the warm component, while having a warm gas mass fraction that is comparable to those of Arp 220 and M82, and significantly higher than that of NGC 4038/39.

  16. 47 CFR 73.6016 - Digital Class A TV station protection of TV broadcast stations. (United States)


    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Digital Class A TV station protection of TV... Class A TV station protection of TV broadcast stations. Digital Class A TV stations must protect authorized TV broadcast stations, applications for minor changes in authorized TV broadcast stations filed on...

  17. Pumped energy transfer stations (STEP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tournery, Jean-Francois


    As objectives of development are high for renewable energies (they are supposed to cover 50 per cent of new energy needs by 2035), pumped energy transfer stations are to play an important role in this respect. The author first discusses the consequences of the development of renewable energies on the exploitation of electric grids: issue of intermittency for some of them, envisaged solutions. Then, he addresses one of the solutions: the storage of electric power. He notices that increasing the potential energy of a volume of water is presently the most mature solution to face massive needs of the power system. Dams and pumped energy transfer stations represent now almost the whole installed storage power in the world. The author then presents these pumped energy transfer stations: principle, brief history (the first appeared in Italy and Switzerland at the end of the 1890's). He indicates the various parameters of assessment of such stations: maximum stored energy, installed power in pumping mode and turbine mode, time constant, efficiency, level of flexibility. He discusses economic issues. He describes and comments the operation of turbine-pump groups: ternary groups, reversible binary groups. He discusses barriers to be overcome and technical advances to be made for varying speed groups and for marine stations. He finally gives an overview (table with number of stations belonging to different power ranges, remarkable installations) of existing stations in China, USA, Japan, Germany, Austria, Spain, Portugal, Italy, Switzerland, France and UK, and indicate predictions regarding storage needs at the world level. Some data are finally indicated for the six existing French installations

  18. System for a displaying at a remote station data generated at a central station and for powering the remote station from the central station (United States)

    Perry, J. C. (Inventor)


    A system for displaying at a remote station data generated at a central station and for powering the remote station from the central station is presented. A power signal is generated at the central station and time multiplexed with the data and then transmitted to the remote station. An energy storage device at the remote station is responsive to the transmitted power signal to provide energizing power for the circuits at the remote station during the time interval data is being transmitted to the remote station. Energizing power for the circuits at the remote station is provided by the power signal itself during the time this signal is transmitted. Preferably the energy storage device is a capacitor which is charged by the power signal during the time the power is transmitted and is slightly discharged during the time the data is transmitted to energize the circuits at the remote station.

  19. Assessing the near surface sensitivity of SCIAMACHY atmospheric CO2 retrieved using (FSI WFM-DOAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Vinnichenko


    Full Text Available Satellite observations of atmospheric CO2 offer the potential to identify regional carbon surface sources and sinks and to investigate carbon cycle processes. The extent to which satellite measurements are useful however, depends on the near surface sensitivity of the chosen sensor. In this paper, the capability of the SCIAMACHY instrument on board ENVISAT, to observe lower tropospheric and surface CO2 variability is examined. To achieve this, atmospheric CO2 retrieved from SCIAMACHY near infrared (NIR spectral measurements, using the Full Spectral Initiation (FSI WFM-DOAS algorithm, is compared to in-situ aircraft observations over Siberia and additionally to tower and surface CO2 data over Mongolia, Europe and North America. Preliminary validation of daily averaged SCIAMACHY/FSI CO2 against ground based Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS column measurements made at Park Falls, reveal a negative bias of about −2.0% for collocated measurements within ±1.0° of the site. However, at this spatial threshold SCIAMACHY can only capture the variability of the FTS observations at monthly timescales. To observe day to day variability of the FTS observations, the collocation limits must be increased. Furthermore, comparisons to in-situ CO2 observations demonstrate that SCIAMACHY is capable of observing a seasonal signal that is representative of lower tropospheric variability on (at least monthly timescales. Out of seventeen time series comparisons, eleven have correlation coefficients of 0.7 or more, and have similar seasonal cycle amplitudes. Additional evidence of the near surface sensitivity of SCIAMACHY, is provided through the significant correlation of FSI derived CO2 with MODIS vegetation indices at over twenty selected locations in the United States. The SCIAMACHY/MODIS comparison reveals that at many of the sites, the amount of CO2 variability is coincident with the amount of vegetation activity. The presented analysis suggests that

  20. Black carbon at a coastal Antarctic station (Syowa Station: seasonal variation and transport processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiichiro Hara


    Full Text Available Measurement of atmospheric black carbon (BC was carried out at Syowa Station Antarctica (69゜00′S, 39゜35′E from February 2004 until January 2007. The BC concentration at Syowa Station ranged from below detection to 176 ng m^. Higher BC concentrations were observed frequently from April until October. Increase of BC concentration may be associated with poleward flow due to the approach of a cyclone and or blocking event during winter-spring. The BC-rich air masses traveled through the lower troposphere from the Atlantic and Indian Oceans to Syowa (Antarctic coast. During the summer (November-February, the BC concentration showed a diurnal variation together with surface wind speed and increased in the presence of katabatic wind from the Antarctic continent. Considering the low BC source strength over the Antarctic continent, the higher BC concentration in the continental air (katabatic wind might be caused by long range transport of BC via the free troposphere from mid- and low- latitudes. The seasonal variation of BC at Syowa Station had a maximum in July-September, while at the other coastal stations (Halley, Neumayer, and Ferraz and a continental station (Amundsen-Scott, the maximum occurred in October. This difference may result from different transport pathways, significant contribution of source regions and scavenging of BC by precipitation during the transport from the source regions. During the austral summer, long-range transport of BC via the free troposphere is likely to make an important contribution to the ambient BC concentration along the Antarctic coasts.

  1. Shippingport Station decommissioning project overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, J.J.


    The U.S. Department of Energy is in the process of decommissioning the Shippingport Atomic Power Station located on the Ohio River, 30 miles northwest of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The Shippingport Station is the first commercial size nuclear power plant to undergo decommissioning in the United Staes. The plant is located on approximately 7 acres of land owned by the Duquesne Light Company (DLC) and leased to the U.S. Government. DLC operates two nuclear power plants, Beaver Valley 1 and 2, located immediately adjacent to the site and the Bruce Mansfield coal-fired power plant is also within the immediate area. The Station was shutdown in October, 1982. Defueling operations began in 1983 and were completed by September, 1984. The Shippingport Station consists of a 275' x 60' fuel handling building containing the reactor containment chamber, the service building, the turbine building, the radioactive waste processing building, the administration building and other smaller support buildings. The Station has four coolant loops and most of the containment structures are located below grade. Structures owned by the U.S. Government including the fuel handling building, service building, contaminated equipment room, the boiler chambers, the radioactive waste processing building and the decontamination and laydown buildings will be dismantled and removed to 3 feet below grade. The area will then be filled with clean soil and graded. The turbine building, testing and training building and the administration building are owned by DLC and will remain

  2. Mechanical prototype of tracking chamber in station 2 in dimuon ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    However, the mechanical design of the large chamber (diameter ~2 m) for the second tracking station is a challenging task as it concerns good surface planarity to achieve position resolution better than 100. µm (necessary to meet mass resolution about 100 MeV) as well as minimum usage of material to keep radiation ...

  3. Antarctic meteorology, a study with automatic weather stations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijmer, C.H.


    This thesis chiefly addresses a) the use of Automatic Weather Stations (AWS) in determining the near-surface climate and heat budget of Antarctica and, specifically, Dronning Maud Land (DML), and b) the determination of source regions of Antarctic moisture with the aid of a trajectory model and an

  4. Climatic Variation at Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station, India


    K. V. S. Namboodiri; P. K. Dileep; Koshy Mammen


    Long-term (45 years) diversified surface meteorological records from Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station (TERLS), India, were collected and analysed to study the long-term changes in the overall climatology, climatology pertained to a particular observational time, mean daily climatology in temperature, inter-annual variability in temperature, interannual variability in surface pressure, and rainfall for the main Indian seasons—South West and North East monsoons and inter-annual mean m...

  5. Reviewing nuclear power station achievement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howles, L.R.


    For measurement of nuclear power station achievement against original purchase the usual gross output figures are of little value since the term loosely covers many different definitions. An authentically designed output figure has been established which relates to net design output plus house load at full load. Based on these figures both cumulative and moving annual load factors are measured, the latter measuring the achievement over the last year, thus showing trends with time. Calculations have been carried out for all nuclear stations in the Western World with 150 MW(e) gross design output and above. From these are shown: moving annual load factor indicating relative station achievements for all the plants; cumulative load factors from which return of investment can be calculated; average moving annual load factors for the four types of system Magnox, PWR, HWR, and BWR; and a relative comparison of achievement by country in a few cases. (U.K.)

  6. Monitoring of nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ull, E.; Labudda, H.J.


    The purpose of the invention is to create a process for undelayed automated detection and monitoring of accidents in the operation of nuclear power stations. According to the invention, this problem is solved by the relevant local measurements, such as radiation dose, components and type of radiation and additional relevant meteorological parameters being collected by means of wellknown data collection platforms, these being transmitted via transmission channels by means of satellites to suitable worldwide situated receiving stations on the ground, being processed there and being evaluated to recognise accidents. The local data collection platforms are used in the immediate vicinity of the nuclear power station. The use of aircraft, ships and balloons as data collection systems is also intended. (HWJ)

  7. Experiments recently carried out on the photoemission station at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurash Ibrahim; Wu Ziyu; Qian Haijie; Zhang Jing; Abbas, M.I.; Chen Zhigang; Su Run; Liu Fengqin


    With a sustained and steady operation of the photoemission station at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, users from different research fields have carried out their investigation on the electronic structure of metal surface-interface, metal doped fullerene as well as colossal magneto-resistance materials utilizing different experimental modes provided by the photoemission station. In this paper authors would present some representative experimental results obtained on the station

  8. 47 CFR 73.1820 - Station log. (United States)


    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station log. 73.1820 Section 73.1820... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1820 Station log. (a) Entries must be made in the station log either manually by a person designated by the licensee who is in actual charge of the...

  9. 47 CFR 73.1120 - Station location. (United States)


    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station location. 73.1120 Section 73.1120... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1120 Station location. Each AM, FM, TV and Class A TV... be the geographical station location. ...

  10. Long-term trends of surface ozone and its influencing factors at the Mt Waliguan GAW station, China – Part 2: The roles of anthropogenic emissions and climate variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Xu


    summertime ozone measured at WLG shows no significant trend despite ozone increases in eastern China. Analysis of the Trajectory-mapped Ozonesonde data set for the Stratosphere and Troposphere (TOST and trajectory residence time reveals increases in direct ozone transport from the eastern sector during autumn, which adds to the autumnal ozone increase. We further examine the links of ozone variability at WLG to the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO, the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM, and the sunspot cycle. Our results suggest that the 2–3-, 3–7-, and 11-year periodicities are linked to the QBO, EASM index, and sunspot cycle, respectively. A multivariate regression analysis is performed to quantify the relative contributions of various factors to surface ozone concentrations at WLG. Through an observational and modelling analysis, this study demonstrates the complex relationships between surface ozone at remote locations and its dynamical and chemical influencing factors.

  11. A study on variation in position of an Indian station due to solid earth ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of the IGS (International Global Navigational Satellite Systems [GNSS] Service) stations at Hyderabad. (India), Ankara (Turkey) and Beijing Fangshan (China), due to solid earth tides has been studied. Surface tidal displacement of the station has been computed on daily basis for a month, based on the concept of gravity.

  12. "Artificial intelligence" at streamgaging stations (United States)

    R. B. Thomas


    Two types of problems are related to collecting hydrologic data at stream gaging stations. One includes the technical/logistical questions associated with measuring and transferring data for processing. Effort spent on these problems ranges from improving devices for sensing data to using electronic data loggers.

  13. The Medicina Station Status Report (United States)

    Orfei, Alessandro; Orlati, Andrea; Maccaferri, Giuseppe


    General information about the Medicina Radio Astronomy Station, the 32-m antenna status, and the staff in charge of the VLBI observations is provided. In 2012, the data from geodetic VLBI observations were acquired using the Mark 5A recording system with good results. Updates of the hardware were performed and are briefly described.

  14. Remote input/output station

    CERN Multimedia


    A general view of the remote input/output station installed in building 112 (ISR) and used for submitting jobs to the CDC 6500 and 6600. The card reader on the left and the line printer on the right are operated by programmers on a self-service basis.

  15. Performance of Existing Hydrogen Stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprik, Samuel [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurtz, Jennifer M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ainscough, Christopher D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Saur, Genevieve [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Peters, Michael C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    In this presentation, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory presented aggregated analysis results on the performance of existing hydrogen stations, including performance, operation, utilization, maintenance, safety, hydrogen quality, and cost. The U.S. Department of Energy funds technology validation work at NREL through its National Fuel Cell Technology Evaluation Center (NFCTEC).

  16. Delay distributions in railway stations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goverde, R.M.P.; Hansen, I.A.; Hooghiemstra, G.; Lopuhaa, H.P.


    The estimation of the precise arrival and departure times of trains at stations is done by means of a software tool that extracts the occupation and clearance times of each train per track section of the Dutch Railways‘ network. The software tool was applied to the whole automatically collected set

  17. Space station molecular sieve development (United States)

    Chang, C.; Rousseau, J.


    An essential function of a space environmental control system is the removal of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere to control the partial pressure of this gas at levels lower than 3 mm Hg. The use of regenerable solid adsorbents for this purpose was demonstrated effectively during the Skylab mission. Earlier sorbent systems used zeolite molecular sieves. The carbon molecular sieve is a hydrophobic adsorbent with excellent potential for space station application. Although carbon molecular sieves were synthesized and investigated, these sieves were designed to simulate the sieving properties of 5A zeolite and for O2/N2 separation. This program was designed to develop hydrophobic carbon molecular sieves for CO2 removal from a space station crew environment. It is a first phase effort involved in sorbent material development and in demonstrating the utility of such a material for CO2 removal on space stations. The sieve must incorporate the following requirements: it must be hydrophobic; it must have high dynamic capacity for carbon dioxide at the low partial pressure of the space station atmosphere; and it must be chemiclly stable and will not generate contaminants.

  18. 47 CFR 73.6018 - Digital Class A TV station protection of DTV stations. (United States)


    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Digital Class A TV station protection of DTV... TV station protection of DTV stations. Digital Class A TV stations must protect the DTV service that... application for digital operation of an existing Class A TV station or to change the facilities of a digital...

  19. 47 CFR 80.107 - Service of private coast stations and marine-utility stations. (United States)


    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service of private coast stations and marine...) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Operating Requirements and Procedures Operating Procedures-Land Stations § 80.107 Service of private coast stations and marine-utility stations. A...

  20. Siting technology of underground nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motojima, M.; Hibino, S.


    For the site of a nuclear power station, it may be possible to select a seaside mountain area, if the condition is suitable to excavate large rock caverns in which a reactor and other equipments are installed. As the case study on the siting technology for an underground nuclear power station, the following example was investigated. The site is a seaside steep mountain area, and almost all the equipments are installed in plural tunnel type caverns. The depth from the ground surface to the top of the reactor cavern is about 150 m, and the thickness of the rock pillar between the reactor cavern of 33 m W x 82 mH x 79 mD and the neighboring turbine cavern is 60 m. In this paper, the stability of rock caverns in this example, evaluated by numerical analysis, is described. The numerical analysis was carried out on the central cross section of the reactor cavern, taking the turbine cavern, geostress, the mechanical properties of rock mass and the process of excavation works in consideration. By the analysis, the underground caverns in this example were evaluated as stable, if the rock quality is equivalent to C H class or better according to the CRIEPI rock classification. (K.I.)

  1. Tropospheric Aerosol Radiative Forcing Observational eXperiment (TARFOX) - meteorological data from Wallops ground station (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TARFOX_WALLOPS_MET is the Tropospheric Aerosol Radiative Forcing Observational eXperiment (TARFOX) Surface Meteorological data set Wallops ground station.The TARFOX...

  2. New Porta Susa - Turin Railway Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio d'Ascia


    now shared by the ancient railways lines. In that way the city comes inside the station and the station becomes a real part of the city, permeable to pedestrian flows crossed in all directions and at different levels. The internal distribution of the different functional areas is based on a balance program with approximately 10.000 m² of services to travellers and the city (ticket offices, shops, restaurants, bars, terraces, approximately 10.000 m² of hall and public paths and still about 10.000 m² of technical areas, parking and service areas, ... The glass roof (surface of 15.000 m² will be equipped with a photovoltaic system (installed power = 765 kW peak 2300 arranged on the panels that make up 3600 (surface approximately 9.000 m² capable of producing 680,000 KWH’s year of electricity consumed in the public network and corresponding to approximately 35% of domestic needs of future PV, which we hope will become a new symbol for Turin.

  3. Decommissioning of nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, A.R.


    In the United Kingdom the Electricity Boards, the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) and BNFL cooperate on all matters relating to the decommissioning of nuclear plant. The Central Electricity Generating Board's (CEGB) policy endorses the continuing need for nuclear power, the principle of reusing existing sites where possible and the building up of sufficient funds during the operating life of a nuclear power station to meet the cost of its complete clearance in the future. The safety of the plant is the responsibility of the licensee even in the decommissioning phase. The CEGB has carried out decommissioning studies on Magnox stations in general and Bradwell and Berkeley in particular. It has also been involved in the UKAEA Windscale AGR decommissioning programme. The options as to which stage to decommission to are considered. Methods, costs and waste management are also considered. (U.K.)

  4. Space Station trash removal system (United States)

    Petro, Andrew J. (Inventor)


    A trash removal system for space stations is described. The system is comprised of a disposable trash bag member and an attached, compacted large, lightweight inflatable balloon element. When the trash bag member is filled, the astronaut places the bag member into space through an airlock. Once in the vacuum of space, the balloon element inflates. Due to the large cross-sectional area of the balloon element relative to its mass, the combined balloon element and the trash bag member are slowed by atmospheric drag to a much greater extent than the Space Station's. The balloon element and bag member lose altitude and re-enter the atmosphere, and the elements and contents are destroyed by aerodynamic heating. The novelty of this system is in the unique method of using the vacuum of space and aerodynamic heating to dispose of waste material with a minimum of increase in orbital debris.

  5. Space Station Freedom cupola definition (United States)

    Weaver, Laurie A.; Lauger, John


    Following the realization that adequate Space Station Freedom viewing could not be achieved without breaking the plane of the modules, a conceptual design phase for the development of a cupola progressed from the idea of a small, bubble-type canopy to a much larger, two crewmember cupola. The evolving cupola conceptual designs were each evaluated against the requirements for providing a large field-of-view, a complete proximity control workstation with flexible and relocatable restraints, and sufficient volume for two, 95th percentile crewmembers to operate while still maintaining reasonable weight and size restrictions. As the SS Freedom program Preliminary Design Review draws closer, the cupola development phase shifts toward evaluation of viewing and operational capability. The appropriate balance of viewing, structures and operations must be achieved before the program can place confidence in a cupola design providing SS Freedom with a direct viewing workstation capable of supporting the great variety of tasks projected for the life of the station.

  6. Tracing Utopia in 'Utopia Station'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarzbart, Judith

    This paper will discuss how avant-garde rhetoric and working methods are used to rethink exhibition-making in the wake of the ‘relational aesthetics’ and visual art of the 90s. With Utopia Station curated by Molly Nesbit, Hans Ulrich Obrist, and Rirkrit Tiravanija as key example, we will look...... carries the same meaning and function in a contemporary culture. Utopia Station unfolded over a long period of time, starting with different gatherings in 2002, continuing with diverse ‘stations’ at the Venice Biennial (2003), Haus der Kunst in Munich (2004), and the World Social Forum in Porte Alegre......, modes of display, and the particular types of sociality potentially produced in exhibitions. The notion of utopia has moved back into fashion in recent years (with a readers such as Utopia (Documents in Contemporary Art) ed. Richard Noble (2009) and Utopia & Contemporary Art at Arken Museum of Modern...

  7. Space Station tethered elevator system (United States)

    Haddock, Michael H.; Anderson, Loren A.; Hosterman, K.; Decresie, E.; Miranda, P.; Hamilton, R.


    The optimized conceptual engineering design of a space station tethered elevator is presented. The tethered elevator is an unmanned, mobile structure which operates on a ten-kilometer tether spanning the distance between Space Station Freedom and a platform. Its capabilities include providing access to residual gravity levels, remote servicing, and transportation to any point along a tether. The report discusses the potential uses, parameters, and evolution of the spacecraft design. Emphasis is placed on the elevator's structural configuration and three major subsystem designs. First, the design of elevator robotics used to aid in elevator operations and tethered experimentation is presented. Second, the design of drive mechanisms used to propel the vehicle is discussed. Third, the design of an onboard self-sufficient power generation and transmission system is addressed.

  8. Summit Station Skiway Cost Analysis (United States)


    August while the station is open for the summer season. Over the past three seasons, the skiway’s ability to handle this frequency of flights has...Niels Bohr Institute.)........................................ 15 10 NEEM’s Pisten Bully . (Photo courtesy of the Niels Bohr Institute...approximately 200 ft wide by 12,000 ft long at 8150ft elevation (Figure 9). Each season, this skiway is con- structed and maintained by a Pisten Bully 300W

  9. Optimization of station battery replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jancauskas, J.R.; Shook, D.A.


    During a loss of ac power at a nuclear generating station (including diesel generators), batteries provide the source of power which is required to operate safety-related components. Because traditional lead-acid batteries have a qualified life of 20 years, the batteries must be replaced a minimum of once during a station's lifetime, twice if license extension is pursued, and more often depending on actual in-service dates and the results of surveillance tests. Replacement of batteries often occurs prior to 20 years as a result of systems changes caused by factors such as Station Blackout Regulations, control system upgrades, incremental load growth, and changes in the operating times of existing equipment. Many of these replacement decisions are based on the predictive capabilities of manual design basis calculations. The inherent conservatism of manual calculations may result in battery replacements occurring before actually required. Computerized analysis of batteries can aid in optimizing the timing of replacements as well as in interpreting service test data. Computerized analysis also provides large benefits in maintaining the as-configured load profile and corresponding design margins, while also providing the capability of quickly analyze proposed modifications and response to internal and external audits

  10. Pumps for nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogura, Shiro


    16 nuclear power plants are in commercial operation in Japan, and nuclear power generation holds the most important position among various substitute energies. Hereafter also, it is expected that the construction of nuclear power stations will continue because other advantageous energy sources are not found. In this paper, the outline of the pumps used for BWR plants is described. Nuclear power stations tend to be large scale to reduce the construction cost per unit power output, therefore the pumps used are those of large capacity. The conditions to be taken in consideration are high temperature, high pressure, radioactive fluids, high reliability, hydrodynamic performances, aseismatic design, relevant laws and regulations, and quality assurance. Pumps are used for reactor recirculation system, control rod driving hydraulic system, boric acid solution injecting system, reactor coolant purifying system, fuel pool cooling and purifying system, residual heat removing system, low pressure and high pressure core spraying systems, and reactor isolation cooling system, for condensate, feed water, drain and circulating water systems of turbines, for fresh water, sea water, make-up water and fire fighting services, and for radioactive waste treating system. The problems of the pumps used for nuclear power stations are described, for example, the requirement of high reliability, the measures to radioactivity and the aseismatic design. (Kako, I.)

  11. CNG Fuelling Stations Design Philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radwan, H.


    I. Overview (a) Compressed Natural Gas - CNG:- Natural Gas, as an alternative fuel for vehicles, is supplied from the Natural Gas Distribution Network to the CNG fuelling stations to be compressed to 250 bars. It is then dispensed, to be stored on board of the vehicle at about 200 bars in a cylinder installed in the rear, under carriage, or on top of the vehicle. When the Natural Gas is required by the engine, it leaves the cylinder traveling through a high pressure pipe to a high pressure regulator, where the pressure is reduced close to atmospheric pressure, through a specially designed mixer, where it is properly mixed with air. The mixture then flows into the engine's combustion chamber, and is ignited to create the power required to drive the vehicle. (b) CNG Fuelling Stations General Description: as Supply and Metering The incoming gas supply and metering installation primarily depend on the pressure and flow demands of the gas compressor. Natural Gas Compressor In general, gas compressors for natural gas filling stations have relatively low flow rates

  12. Optimization of station battery replacement (United States)

    Jancauskas, J. R.; Shook, D. A.


    During a loss of ac power at a nuclear generating station (including diesel generators), batteries provide the source of power which is required to operate safety-related components. Because traditional lead-acid batteries have a qualified life of 20 years, the batteries must be replaced a minimum of once during a station's lifetime, twice if license extension is pursued, and more often depending on actual in-service dates and the results of surveillance tests. Replacement of batteries often occurs prior to 20 years as a result of systems changes caused by factors such as Station Blackout Regulations, control system upgrades, incremental load growth, and changes in the operating times of existing equipment. Many of these replacement decisions are based on the predictive capabilities of manual design basis calculations. The inherent conservatism of manual calculations may result in battery replacements occurring before actually required. Computerized analysis of batteries can aid in optimizing the timing of replacements as well as in interpreting service test data. Computerized analysis also provides large benefits in maintaining the as-configured load profile and corresponding design margins, while also providing the capability to quickly analyze proposed modifications and respond to internal and external audits.

  13. Space Station atmospheric monitoring systems (United States)

    Buoni, C.; Coutant, R.; Barnes, R.; Slivon, L.


    A technology assessment study on atmospheric monitoring systems was performed by Battelle Columbus Division for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's John F. Kennedy Space Center under Contract No. NAS 10-11033. In this assessment, the objective was to identify, analyze, and recommend systems to sample and measure Space Station atmospheric contaminants and identify where additional research and technology advancements were required. To achieve this objective, it was necessary to define atmospheric monitoring requirements and to assess the state of the art and advanced technology and systems for technical and operational compatibility with monitoring goals. Three technical tasks were defined to support these needs: Definition of Monitoring Requirements, Assessment of Sampling and Analytical Technology, and Technology Screening and Recommendations. Based on the analysis, the principal candidates recommended for development at the Space Station's initial operational capability were: (1) long-path Fourier transform infrared for rapid detection of high-risk contamination incidences, and (2) gas chromatography/mass spectrometry utilizing mass selective detection (or ion-trap) technologies for detailed monitoring of extended crew exposure to low level (ppbv) contamination. The development of a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry/matrix isolation-Fourier transform infrared system was recommended as part of the long range program of upgrading Space Station trace-contaminant monitoring needs.

  14. PV powering a weather station for severe weather

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, W. Jr. [Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States); Schmidt, J. [Joe Schmidt, Inc., Miami, FL (United States)


    A natural disaster, such as Hurricane Andrew, destroys thousands of homes and businesses. The destruction from this storm left thousands of people without communications, potable water, and electrical power. This prompted the Florida Solar Energy Center to study the application of solar electric power for use in disasters. During this same period, volunteers at the Tropical Prediction Center at the National Hurricane Center (NHC), Miami, Florida and the Miami Office of the National Weather Service (NWS) were working to increase the quantity and quality of observations received from home weather stations. Forecasters at NHC have found surface reports from home weather stations a valuable tool in determining the size, strength and course of hurricanes. Home weather stations appear able to record the required information with an adequate level of accuracy. Amateur radio, utilizing the Automatic Packet Report System, (APRS) can be used to transmit this data to weather service offices in virtually real time. Many weather data collecting stations are at remote sites which are not readily serviced by dependable commercial power. Photovoltaic (solar electric) modules generate electricity and when connected to a battery can operate as a stand alone power system. The integration of these components provides an inexpensive standalone system. The system is easy to install, operates automatically and has good communication capabilities. This paper discusses the design criteria, operation, construction and deployment of a prototype solar powered weather station.

  15. Do cities deserve more railway stations? The choice of a departure railway station in a multiple-station region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Givoni, M.; Rietveld, P.


    Promoting the use of rail is an important element in sustainable transport policy. One of the most important decisions to make in planning the railway network is on the number of stations to provide. Stations are the access points to rail services and while each additional station increases rail's

  16. CAMEX-4 MIPS SURFACE STATION 1 V1 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) Mobile Integrated Profiling System (MIPS) is a mobile atmospheric profiling system. It includes a 915 MHz Doppler...

  17. CAMEX-4 MIPS SURFACE STATION 2 V1 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) Mobile Integrated Profiling System (MIPS) is a mobile atmospheric profiling system. It includes a 915 MHz Doppler...

  18. HSIP Fire Stations in New Mexico (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Fire Stations in New Mexico Any location where fire fighters are stationed or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their jobs is...

  19. Open System of Agile Ground Stations Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There is an opportunity to build the HETE-2/TESS network of ground stations into an innovative and powerful Open System of Agile Stations, by developing a low-cost...

  20. 47 CFR 73.1201 - Station identification. (United States)


    ... public file. The notice must state that the station's public file is available for inspection and that consumers can view it at the station's main studio and on its Web site. At least one of the announcements...

  1. Climatic Variation at Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. S. Namboodiri


    Full Text Available Long-term (45 years diversified surface meteorological records from Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station (TERLS, India, were collected and analysed to study the long-term changes in the overall climatology, climatology pertained to a particular observational time, mean daily climatology in temperature, inter-annual variability in temperature, interannual variability in surface pressure, and rainfall for the main Indian seasons—South West and North East monsoons and inter-annual mean monthly anomaly structure in temperature. Results on various analyses show strong and vivid features contributed by climate change for this South Peninsular Indian Arabian Sea Coastal Station, and this paper may be a first time venture which discusses climate change imparted perturbations in several meteorological parameters in different time domains, like a specific time, daily, monthly, and interannually over a station. Being a coastal rocket launching station, climatic change information is crucial for long-term planning of its facilities as well as for various rocket range operational demands.

  2. Ergonomic Application on the Work Station Layout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suharyo Widagdo; Darlis


    Work station layout in the ideal way has been made. The dimension of the work station is 9.4 m x 7.1 m. The workers to be stationed should feel comfort. This can be done by honoring the dimensions and the sum of the tools that should be stationed and also the free space that should be mention between the tools as state in EPRI, NP-2411. (author)

  3. 47 CFR 80.935 - Station clock. (United States)


    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station clock. 80.935 Section 80.935... MARITIME SERVICES Compulsory Radiotelephone Installations for Small Passenger Boats § 80.935 Station clock. Each station subject to this subpart must have a working clock or timepiece readily available to the...

  4. Standardized Curriculum for Service Station Retailing. (United States)

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    This curriculum guide for service station retailing was developed by the state of Mississippi to standardize vocational education course titles and core contents. The objectives contained in this document are common to all service station retailing programs in the state. The guide contains objectives for service station retailing I and II courses.…

  5. 78 FR 21275 - Station Blackout Mitigation Strategies (United States)


    ... 52 [NRC-2011-0299] RIN 3150-AJ08 Station Blackout Mitigation Strategies AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... Regulations (10 CFR) to incorporate requirements involving station blackout mitigation strategies, the NRC is... regulatory basis to incorporate requirements involving station blackout mitigation strategies (ADAMS...

  6. 78 FR 44035 - Station Blackout Mitigation Strategies (United States)


    ... applicants' station blackout mitigation strategies. The issuance of this regulatory basis document is one [email protected] . The regulatory basis document, ``Station Blackout Mitigation Strategies,'' is available in... incorporate requirements involving station blackout mitigation strategies (SBOMS), the NRC is making documents...

  7. 76 FR 3064 - Travelers Information Stations (United States)


    ... to receive these communications. * * * TIS stations provide a communications channel that is diverse... primary purpose of the TIS station is for emergency travel notifications and evacuation information when...- adjacent channel protection standards to ensure lack of interference to AM stations? To what extent could...

  8. Microbial Monitoring of the International Space Station (United States)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Botkin, Douglas J.; Bruce, Rebekah J.; Castro, Victoria A.; Smith, Melanie J.; Oubre, Cherie M.; Ott, C. Mark


    microbial growth. Air filtration can dramatically reduce the number of airborne bacteria, fungi, and particulates in spacecraft breathing air. Waterborne bacteria can be reduced to acceptable levels by thermal inactivation of bacteria during water processing, along with a residual biocide, and filtration at the point of use can ensure safety. System design must include onboard capability to achieve recovery of the system from contamination. Robust housekeeping procedures that include periodic cleaning and disinfection will prevent high levels of microbial growth on surfaces. Food for consumption in space must be thoroughly tested for excessive microbial content and pathogens before launch. Thorough preflight examination of flight crews, consumables, payloads, and the environment can greatly reduce pathogens in spacecraft. Many of the lessons learned from the Space Shuttle and previous programs were applied in the early design phase of the International Space Station, resulting in the safest space habitat to date. This presentation describes the monitoring program for the International Space Station and will summarize results from preflight and on-orbit monitoring.

  9. Nuclear Station Facilities Improvement Planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooks, R. W.; Lunardini, A. L.; Zaben, O.


    An effective facilities improvement program will include a plan for the temporary relocation of personnel during the construction of an adjoining service building addition. Since the smooth continuation of plant operation is of paramount importance, the phasing plan is established to minimize the disruptions in day-to-day station operation and administration. This plan should consider the final occupancy arrangements and the transition to the new structure; for example, computer hookup and phase-in should be considered. The nuclear industry is placing more emphasis on safety and reliability of nuclear power plants. In order to do this, more emphasis is placed on operations and maintenance. This results in increased size of managerial, technical and maintenance staffs. This in turn requires improved office and service facilities. The facilities that require improvement may include training areas, rad waste processing and storage facilities, and maintenance facilities. This paper discusses an approach for developing an effective program to plan and implement these projects. These improvement projects can range in magnitude from modifying a simple system to building a new structure to allocating space for a future project. This paper addresses the planning required for the new structures with emphasis on site location, space allocation, and internal layout. Since facility planning has recently been completed by Sargent and Leyden at six U. S. nuclear stations, specific examples from some of those plants are presented. Site planning and the establishment of long-range goals are of the utmost importance when undertaking a facilities improvement program for a nuclear station. A plan that considers the total site usage will enhance the value of both the new and existing facilities. Proper planning at the beginning of the program can minimize costs and maximize the benefits of the program

  10. The APS optics topography station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasnicki, S.


    An in-house station for topographic testing of x-ray optical elements for the Advanced Photon Source experimental beamlines was set up by the Experimental Facilities Division of Argonne National Laboratory. A new double-crystal x-ray diffractometer was designed and built keeping in mind the need for testing large crystals possibly attached to cooling manifolds and lines. A short description of the new facility is given. The instrument performance fully satisfies imposed requirements, and the machine was successfully used for testing several silicon and diamond crystals

  11. Bioaerosols at Syowa Station, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Nakashima


    Full Text Available Airborne bacterial and fungal numbers in the buildings of Syowa Station in Antarctica were examined for 9 months in 2001. The number concentrations of bacteria and fungi were less than 20 and 70 CFU/m^3, respectively, in the dining room and washroom. The average number concentrations of bacteria and fungi were less than 1/50 or 1/5 of those in Japan and Europe, respectively, and remained constant regardless of season. The number concentrations of airborne microorganisms appeared to depend on drying of the indoor environment by the use of heaters.

  12. Naval Weapons Station Earle Reassessment (United States)


    DISCLAIMER: The contents of this report are not to be used for advertising, publication, or promotional purposes. Citation of trade names does not constitute...Contributing elements are barricades AA1-AA52 and the looped rail network connecting them. HA-1, Transfer Depot: Building HA-1 played a key role in the...Both exhibit the tripartite , flat-roofed ERDC/CERL TR-13-26 16 form, in contrast to the simple gable-roofed form of the majority of the station’s

  13. Arduino adventures escape from Gemini station

    CERN Document Server

    Kelly, James Floyd


    Arduino Adventures: Escape from Gemini Station provides a fun introduction to the Arduino microcontroller by putting you (the reader) into the action of a science fiction adventure story.  You'll find yourself following along as Cade and Elle explore Gemini Station-an orbiting museum dedicated to preserving and sharing technology throughout the centuries. Trouble ensues. The station is evacuated, including Cade and Elle's class that was visiting the station on a field trip. Cade and Elle don't make it aboard their shuttle and are trapped on the station along with a friendly artificial intellig

  14. A customer-friendly Space Station (United States)

    Pivirotto, D. S.


    This paper discusses the relationship of customers to the Space Station Program currently being defined by NASA. Emphasis is on definition of the Program such that the Space Station will be conducive to use by customers, that is by people who utilize the services provided by the Space Station and its associated platforms and vehicles. Potential types of customers are identified. Scenarios are developed for ways in which different types of customers can utilize the Space Station. Both management and technical issues involved in making the Station 'customer friendly' are discussed.

  15. Microdisturbances on the International Space Station during dynamic operations (United States)

    Belyaev, M. Yu.; Volkov, O. N.; Ryabukha, S. B.


    The results of analysis of microdisturbances on the International Space Station (ISS) at performing various dynamic operations are presented. Docking of transfer manned and cargo vehicles Progress and Soyuz to various docking modules of the ISS, docking of the Space Shuttle Discovery, the ISS orbit correction and, also, disturbances at "EVA" (Extra Vehicular Activity) operations during astronauts working on the external ISS surface are considered. The results of measuring microaccelerations by sensors of both Russian and American segments are analyzed.

  16. Contaminated concrete scabbling at the Shippingport station decommissioning project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, R.G.


    The Shippingport atomic power station was the first commercial nuclear power plant in the United States, joining the Duquesne Light Company (DLC) grid in December 1957. The Shippingport station was shut down in October 1982 and defueled in preparation for dismantling. On September 6, 1984, the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project (SSDP) office of the US Department of Energy (DOE) assumed responsibility for the site. At turnover, there were several areas in the plant where radioactive contamination was entrained in concrete surfaces. The removal of contaminated concrete at SSDP was an important part of the decontamination to meet site release criteria, which is a major consideration in the decommissioning of nuclear power reactors. The highlights of this activity include: (1) development and application of remote scabbling tools, which effectively removed the contaminated concrete surfaces, and (2) use of scabblers minimized the removal of noncontaminated concrete by removing shallow layers of the surface and contributed to waste control, since the waste form enabled good packaging efficiency

  17. Testing EDM of Total Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cirbus Ján


    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to testing electrooptical distance measuring devices (EDM built in total stations, than can be used for various tasks in the contemporary geodetic works. A rich market offer and availability of these universal measuring systems with satisfying distance range, excellent accuracy and other parameters, make total stations as dominant terrestrial geodetic instruments.For succesfully applying these instruments, above all for relliable distance measurements, the stability of the modulation frequency is the most important pre-condition. In the article, therefore, there are given some methods to verify the modulation frequency stability. In addition, some ways for determining the EDM distance constant and periodical corrections of the phase measuring unit are introduced for 4 types of EDM : LEICA 1700L, TOPCON GTS6A, TOPCON GTS2, C.ZEISS ELTA50. It were also investigated their possibilities for precise distance survey. Values of the determined constants and periodical corrections are presented in Tab. 2.Based on the investigation results of the 4 EDM types and using the values m obtained for different distances S, equations of the a posteriori standard deviations in form : m = (a+b.S were derived too.

  18. Space station operating system study (United States)

    Horn, Albert E.; Harwell, Morris C.


    The current phase of the Space Station Operating System study is based on the analysis, evaluation, and comparison of the operating systems implemented on the computer systems and workstations in the software development laboratory. Primary emphasis has been placed on the DEC MicroVMS operating system as implemented on the MicroVax II computer, with comparative analysis of the SUN UNIX system on the SUN 3/260 workstation computer, and to a limited extent, the IBM PC/AT microcomputer running PC-DOS. Some benchmark development and testing was also done for the Motorola MC68010 (VM03 system) before the system was taken from the laboratory. These systems were studied with the objective of determining their capability to support Space Station software development requirements, specifically for multi-tasking and real-time applications. The methodology utilized consisted of development, execution, and analysis of benchmark programs and test software, and the experimentation and analysis of specific features of the system or compilers in the study.

  19. Combinations of mutations in envZ, ftsI, mrdA, acrB and acrR can cause high-level carbapenem resistance in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler, Marlen; Anjum, Mehreen; Andersson, Dan I.


    The worldwide spread of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae has led to an increased use of carbapenems, the group of beta-lactams with the broadest spectrum of activity. Bacterial resistance to carbapenems is mainly due to acquired carbapenemases or a combination of ESBL production and reduced drug...... influx via loss of outer-membrane porins. Here, we have studied the development of carbapenem resistance in Escherichia coli in the absence of beta-lactamases. We selected mutants with high-level carbapenem resistance through repeated serial passage in the presence of increasing concentrations...... levels to 23 antibiotics were measured. High-level resistance to carbapenems resulted from a combination of downstream effects of envZ mutation and target mutations in AcrAB-TolC-mediated drug export, together with PBP genes [mrdA (PBP2) after meropenem exposure or ftsI (PBP3) after ertapenem exposure...

  20. SRS station guide. Station 2.3 manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, C.; Miller, M.; Laundy, D.


    The object of the manual is to effectively provide assistance to users so that they can perform successful experiments at station 2.3 during their visits. In order to compile a comprehensive document, the functions of the instrument hardware and software are described in detail. Where appropriate it also contains useful information and other documentation for help and/or reference. In addition, suggestions and instructions are available to overcome problems which inevitably face the users as the instrument is quite advanced in the performing of complex experimental tasks. This document can provide help as part of the overall user support facility and it is therefore intended that the manual is readily available in hardcopy as well as in electronic form. (author)

  1. Influence of urbanization on the thermal environment of meteorological station: Satellite-observed evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Shi


    Full Text Available In this paper, five national meteorological stations in Anhui province are taken as typical examples to explore the effects of local urbanization on their thermal environment by using Landsat data from 1990 to 2010. Satellite-based land use/land cover (LULC, land surface temperature (LST, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI are used to investigate the effects. The study shows that LULC around meteorological stations changed significantly due to urban expansion. Fast urbanization is the main factor that affects the spatial-temporal distribution of thermal environment around meteorological stations. Moreover, the normalized LST and NDVI exhibit strong inverse correlations around meteorological stations, so the variability of LST can be monitored through evaluating the variability of NDVI. In addition, station-relocation plays an important role in improving representativeness of thermal environment. Notably, the environment representativeness was improved, but when using the data from the station to study climate change, the relocation-induced inhomogeneous data should be considered and adjusted. Consequently, controlling the scale and layout of the urban buildings and constructions around meteorological stations is an effective method to ameliorate observational thermal environment and to improve regional representativeness of station observation. The present work provides observational evidences that high resolution Landsat images can be used to evaluate the thermal environment of meteorological stations.

  2. STRUVE arc and EUPOS® stations (United States)

    Lasmane, Ieva; Kaminskis, Janis; Balodis, Janis; Haritonova, Diana


    The Struve Geodetic Arc was developed in Years 1816 to 1855, 200 years ago. Historic information on the points of the Struve Geodetic Arc are included in the UNESCO World Heritage list in 2005. Nevertheless, the sites of many points are still not identified nor included in the data bases nowadays. Originally STRUVE arc consisted of 258 main triangles with 265 triangulation points. Currently 34 of the original station points are identified and included in the in the UNESCO World Heritage list. identified original measurement points of the Meridian Arc are located in Sweden (7 points), Norway (15), Finland (83), Russia (1), Estonia (22), Latvia (16), Lithuania (18), Belorussia (28), Ukraine (59) and Moldova (27). In Year 2002 was initiated another large coverage project - European Position Determination System "EUPOS®". Currently there are about 400 continuously operating GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite Systems) stations covering EU countries Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania and East European countries Ukraine and Moldavia. EUPOS® network is a ground based GNSS augmentation system widely used for geodesy, land surveying, geophysics and navigation. It gives the opportunity for fast and accurate position determination never available before. It is an honorable task to use the EUPOS® system for research of the Struve triangulation former sites. Projects with Struve arc can popularize geodesy, geo-information and its meaning in nowadays GIS and GNSS systems. Struve Arc and its points is unique cooperation cross-border object which deserve special attention because of their natural beauty and historical value for mankind. GNSS in geodesy discovers a powerful tool for the verification and validation of the height values of geodetic leveling benchmarks established historically almost 200 years ago. The differential GNSS and RTK methods appear very useful to identify vertical displacement of landscape by means of

  3. International Space Station: Expedition 2000 (United States)


    Live footage of the International Space Station (ISS) presents an inside look at the groundwork and assembly of the ISS. Footage includes both animation and live shots of a Space Shuttle liftoff. Phil West, Engineer; Dr. Catherine Clark, Chief Scientist ISS; and Joe Edwards, Astronaut, narrate the video. The first topic of discussion is People and Communications. Good communication is a key component in our ISS endeavor. Dr. Catherine Clark uses two soup cans attached by a string to demonstrate communication. Bill Nye the Science Guy talks briefly about science aboard the ISS. Charlie Spencer, Manager of Space Station Simulators, talks about communication aboard the ISS. The second topic of discussion is Engineering. Bonnie Dunbar, Astronaut at Johnson Space Flight Center, gives a tour of the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM). She takes us inside Node 2 and the U.S. Lab Destiny. She also shows where protein crystal growth experiments are performed. Audio terminal units are used for communication in the JEM. A demonstration of solar arrays and how they are tested is shown. Alan Bell, Project Manager MRMDF (Mobile Remote Manipulator Development Facility), describes the robot arm that is used on the ISS and how it maneuvers the Space Station. The third topic of discussion is Science and Technology. Dr. Catherine Clark, using a balloon attached to a weight, drops the apparatus to the ground to demonstrate Microgravity. The bursting of the balloon is observed. Sherri Dunnette, Imaging Technologist, describes the various cameras that are used in space. The types of still cameras used are: 1) 35 mm, 2) medium format cameras, 3) large format cameras, 4) video cameras, and 5) the DV camera. Kumar Krishen, Chief Technologist ISS, explains inframetrics, infrared vision cameras and how they perform. The Short Arm Centrifuge is shown by Dr. Millard Reske, Senior Life Scientist, to subject astronauts to forces greater than 1-g. Reske is interested in the physiological effects of

  4. Effective Scenarios for Exploring Asteroid Surfaces (United States)

    Clark, Pamela E.; Clark, C.; Weisbin, C.


    In response to the proposal that asteroids be the next targets for exploration, we attempt to develop scenarios for exploring previously mapped asteroid 433 Eros, harnessing our recent experience gained planning such activity for return to the lunar surface. The challenges faced in planning Apollo led to the development of a baseline methodology for extraterrestrial field science. What `lessons learned’ can be applied for asteroids? Effective reconnaissance (advanced mapping at tetherable’ and would most likely `station keep’ to maintain a position. The most convenient local mobility mechanism for astronauts/robots would be `hand over hand’ above the surface at a field station supplemented by a `tetherless’ (small rocket-pack) control system for changing station or return to vehicle. Thus, we assume similar mobility constraints (meters to hundreds of meters at a local station, kilometers between stations) as those used for Apollo. We also assume the vehicle could `station keep’ at more than one location separated by tens of kilometers distance.

  5. The remote security station (RSS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pletta, J.B.


    This paper reports that, as an outgrowth of research into physical security systems, Sandia is investigating robotic technologies for improving physical security performance and flexibility. Robotic systems have the potential to allow more effective utilization of security personnel, especially in scenarios where they might be exposed to harm. They also can supplement fixed site installations where sensors have failed or where transient assets are present. The Remote Security Station (RSS) program for the defense Nuclear Agency is developing a proof-of-principle robotic system which will be used to evaluate the role, and associated cost, of robotic technologies in exterior physical security systems. The RSS consists of three primary elements: a fixed but quickly moveable tripod with intrusion detection sensors and assessment camera; a mobile robotic platform with a functionally identical security module; and a control console which allows an operator to perform security functions and teleoperate the mobile platform

  6. The US Space Station programme (United States)

    Hodge, J. D.


    The Manned Space Station (MSS) involves NASA, and other countries, in the operation, maintenance and expansion of a permanent space facility. The extensive use of automation and robotics will advance those fields, and experimentation will be carried out in scientific and potentially commercial projects. The MSS will provide a base for astronomical observations, spacecraft assembly, refurbishment and repair, transportation intersection, staging for interplanetary exploration, and storage. Finally, MSS operations will be performed semi-autonomously from ground control. Phase B analysis is nearing completion, and precedes hardware development. Studies are being performed on generic advanced technologies which can reliably and flexibly be incorporated into the MSS, such as attitude control and stabilization, power, thermal, environmental and life support control, auxiliary propulsion, data management, etc. Guidelines are also being formulated regarding the areas of participation by other nations.

  7. Station Program Note Pull Automation (United States)

    Delgado, Ivan


    Upon commencement of my internship, I was in charge of maintaining the CoFR (Certificate of Flight Readiness) Tool. The tool acquires data from existing Excel workbooks on NASA's and Boeing's databases to create a new spreadsheet listing out all the potential safety concerns for upcoming flights and software transitions. Since the application was written in Visual Basic, I had to learn a new programming language and prepare to handle any malfunctions within the program. Shortly afterwards, I was given the assignment to automate the Station Program Note (SPN) Pull process. I developed an application, in Python, that generated a GUI (Graphical User Interface) that will be used by the International Space Station Safety & Mission Assurance team here at Johnson Space Center. The application will allow its users to download online files with the click of a button, import SPN's based on three different pulls, instantly manipulate and filter spreadsheets, and compare the three sources to determine which active SPN's (Station Program Notes) must be reviewed for any upcoming flights, missions, and/or software transitions. Initially, to perform the NASA SPN pull (one of three), I had created the program to allow the user to login to a secure webpage that stores data, input specific parameters, and retrieve the desired SPN's based on their inputs. However, to avoid any conflicts with sustainment, I altered it so that the user may login and download the NASA file independently. After the user has downloaded the file with the click of a button, I defined the program to check for any outdated or pre-existing files, for successful downloads, to acquire the spreadsheet, convert it from a text file to a comma separated file and finally into an Excel spreadsheet to be filtered and later scrutinized for specific SPN numbers. Once this file has been automatically manipulated to provide only the SPN numbers that are desired, they are stored in a global variable, shown on the GUI, and

  8. ACSSB land mobile earth station (United States)

    Taira, Shinichi; Ikegami, Tetsushi; Suzuki, Ryutaro; Suzuki, Shoichi; Kawahara, Hideki; Tada, Shun-Ichi


    This paper describes the performance of the land mobile earth station using the Amplitude Companded Single Sideband (ACSSB) modulation technique developed for mobile satellite communications and results of the field experiments which were conducted in rural, suburban, and urban areas. This ACSSB system uses a 3-kHz pilot tone, and the voice frequency band is from 300 to 2500 Hz. The experiments show that the required C/N0 for voice communications is 40 dBHz and the required C/N0 for pilot signal tracking is 34 dBHz. Voice quality in rural and suburban areas was degraded slightly. In urban areas shadowings due to the presence of large buildings and trees caused signal losses. A comparison of the ACSSB system with the conventional narrow-band frequency-modulation system indicates that the ACSSB system can transmit voice signals more efficiently.

  9. Space Station Biological Research Project (United States)

    Johnson, Catherine C.; Hargens, Alan R.; Wade, Charles E.


    NASA Ames Research Center is responsible for the development of the Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) which will support non-human life sciences research on the International Space Station Alpha (ISSA). The SSBRP is designed to support both basic research to understand the effect of altered gravity fields on biological systems and applied research to investigate the effects of space flight on biological systems. The SSBRP will provide the necessary habitats to support avian and reptile eggs, cells and tissues, plants and rodents. In addition a habitat to support aquatic specimens will be provided by our international partners. Habitats will be mounted in ISSA compatible racks at u-g and will also be mounted on a 2.5 m diameter centrifuge except for the egg incubator which has an internal centrifuge. The 2.5 m centrifuge will provide artificial gravity levels over the range of 0.01 G to 2 G. The current schedule is to launch the first rack in 1999, the Life Sciences glovebox and a second rack early in 2001, a 4 habitat 2.5 in centrifuge later the same year in its own module, and to upgrade the centrifuge to 8 habitats in 2004. The rodent habitats will be derived from the Advanced Animal Habitat currently under development for the Shuttle program and will be capable of housing either rats or mice individually or in groups (6 rats/group and at least 12 mice/group). The egg incubator will be an upgraded Avian Development Facility also developed for the Shuttle program through a Small Business and Innovative Research grant. The Space Tissue Loss cell culture apparatus, developed by Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, is being considered for the cell and tissue culture habitat. The Life Sciences Glovebox is crucial to all life sciences experiments for specimen manipulation and performance of science procedures. It will provide two levels of containment between the work volume and the crew through the use of seals and negative pressure. The glovebox

  10. UK 2009-2010 repeat station report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J.G. Shanahan


    Full Text Available The British Geological Survey is responsible for conducting the UK geomagnetic repeat station programme. Measurements made at the UK repeat station sites are used in conjunction with the three UK magnetic observatories: Hartland, Eskdalemuir and Lerwick, to produce a regional model of the local field each year. The UK network of repeat stations comprises 41 stations which are occupied at approximately 3-4 year intervals. Practices for conducting repeat station measurements continue to evolve as advances are made in survey instrumentation and as the usage of the data continues to change. Here, a summary of the 2009 and 2010 UK repeat station surveys is presented, highlighting the measurement process and techniques, density of network, reduction process and recent results.

  11. NRC's object-oriented simulator instructor station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, J.I.; Griffin, J.P.


    As part of a comprehensive simulator upgrade program, the simulator computer systems associated with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) nuclear power plant simulators were replaced. Because the original instructor stations for two of the simulators were dependent on the original computer equipment, it was necessary to develop and implement new instructor stations. This report describes the Macintosh-based Instructor Stations developed by NRC engineers for the General Electric (GE) and Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) simulators

  12. Space Station end effector strategy study (United States)

    Katzberg, Stephen J.; Jensen, Robert L.; Willshire, Kelli F.; Satterthwaite, Robert E.


    The results of a study are presented for terminology definition, identification of functional requirements, technolgy assessment, and proposed end effector development strategies for the Space Station Program. The study is composed of a survey of available or under-developed end effector technology, identification of requirements from baselined Space Station documents, a comparative assessment of the match between technology and requirements, and recommended strategies for end effector development for the Space Station Program.

  13. A Novel Methodology for Charging Station Deployment (United States)

    Sun, Zhonghao; Zhao, Yunwei; He, Yueying; Li, Mingzhe


    Lack of charging stations has been a main obstacle to the promotion of electric vehicles. This paper studies deploying charging stations in traffic networks considering grid constraints to balance the charging demand and grid stability. First, we propose a statistical model for charging demand. Then we combine the charging demand model with power grid constraints and give the formulation of the charging station deployment problem. Finally, we propose a theoretical solution for the problem by transforming it to a Markov Decision Process.

  14. Water pollution and thermal power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maini, A.; Harapanahalli, A.B.


    There are a number of thermal power stations dotting the countryside in India for the generation of electricity. The pollution of environment is continuously increasing in the country with the addition of new coal based power stations and causing both a menace and a hazard to the biota. The paper reviews the problems arising out of water pollution from the coal based thermal power stations. (author). 2 tabs

  15. Sources of the wind power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudivani, J.; Huettner, L.


    The paper deals with problems of the wind power stations. Describes the basic properties of wind energy. Shows and describes the different types of electrical machines used as a source of electricity in the wind power stations. Shows magnetic fields synchronous generator with salient poles and permanent magnets in the program FEMM. Describes methods for assessing of reversing the effects of the wind power stations on the distribution network. (Authors)

  16. Surface layer conditions of the atmosphere over western Bay of Bengal during Monex

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Anto, A.F.; Rao, L.V.G.; Somayajulu, Y.K.

    Based on surface meteorological data and wave data collected from 2 stations in the western Bay of Bengal in July 1979, surface layer (SL) conditions of the atmosphere for different situations of surface circulations and the associated sea surface...

  17. Improvements in steam cycle thermal power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The invention provides improvements in steam cycle thermal power stations. The power station adapted to supply a network with variable requirements, is according provided with a heat accumulator. A feed water re-heater using steam taken in the steam generator, is mounted downstream of the water-station. This arrangement permits to substantially increase the temperature of the water admitted into the steam generator and allows the accumulator to restore the heat accumulated at a higher-rate, at peak periods. This can be applied to power stations, the basic thermal source of which is adapted only to moderate working conditions [fr

  18. Live From Space Station Outreach Payload Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Live from Space Station? Outreach Payload (LFSSOP) is a technologically challenging, exciting opportunity for university students to conduct significant research...

  19. Environmental assessment, proposed generating station for Darlington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This document indicates the intention of Ontario Hydro to seek approval from the Provincial Government for its plan to construct and operate a 3400 MWe nuclear generating station at the Darlington site, west of Bowmanville. This preliminary proposal also contains the environmental assessment. The environmental section of this proposal describes and assesses the existing environment and the environmental influences which would occur due to the construction and operation of a nuclear generating station, consisting of four 850 MW units, at the Darlington site. This proposed station is similar to the Bruce GS A station presently under construction. (author)

  20. Frog experiment onboard space station Mir. (United States)

    Izumi-Kurotani, A; Mogami, Y; Okuno, M; Yamashita, M


    Japanese tree frogs (Hyla japonica) showed unique postures and behavior during an 8-day flight to the Russian space station Mir. When floating in the air, the animals arched their back and extended their four limbs. This posture resembles that observed during jumping or parachuting of the animals on the ground. Frog sitting on a surface bent their neck backward sharply, did not fold their hind limbs completely, and pressed their abdomen against the substrate. They walked backwards in this posture. The typical posture resembles that adopted during the emetic behavior process on the ground, although the posture in space lasts much longer. The possible mechanism of induction of this unique posture in orbit is discussed. Frogs in this posture might be in an emetic state, possibly due to motion sickness. Response behavior to some stimuli was observed in orbit. Body color change in response to the background color appeared to be delayed or slowed down. Response behavior to other stimuli showed little change as long as the animal maintained contact with a substrate. Once it left the surface, the floating frog could not control its movements so as to provide coordinated motility for locomotion and orientation. Adaptation to microgravity was observed in the landing behavior after jumping. Readaptation of the frogs to the Earth environment took place within a few hours after return. Postflight histological and biochemical analysis of organs and tissues showed some changes after the 8-day spaceflight. Weakening and density loss in vertebrae was noted. The beta-adrenoreceptor activity of the gastrocnemius was natriuretic decreased. Skin collagen and liver protein synthesis were lowered. The distribution of the atrial factor-like peptides in the brain was changed.

  1. Jet grout strut for deep station boxes of the north/south metro line Amsterdam : Design and back analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delfgaauw, S.; Buykx, S.M.; Bosch, J.W.


    The new North/South metro line in Amsterdam contains several stations, some of which with an excavation depth of 30 m below surface. The design of these station boxes is very much determined by the adjacent historic buildings, high water table and the relatively soft soil. A lot of effort is put

  2. Influence of urbanization on the thermal environment of meteorological station: Satellite-observed evidence


    Shi, Tao; Huang, Yong; Wang, Hong; Shi, Chun-E; Yang, Yuan-Jian


    In this paper, five national meteorological stations in Anhui province are taken as typical examples to explore the effects of local urbanization on their thermal environment by using Landsat data from 1990 to 2010. Satellite-based land use/land cover (LULC), land surface temperature (LST), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) are used to investigate the effects. The study shows that LULC around meteorological stations changed significantly due to urban expansion. Fast urbanization i...

  3. Air temperature and relative humidity in Dome Fuji Station buildings, East Antarctic ice sheet, in 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takao Kameda


    Full Text Available In order to clarify the living condition in Dome Fuji Station in 2003, air temperature and relative humidity in the station were measured. Thermocouples with data logger and a ventilated psychrometer were used for the measurements. Average air temperature from February 11, 2003 to January 14, 2004 (missing period: July 19 to August 17 in the Dome Fuji Station buildings were as follows: Generator room 24.7℃, Dining room 23.5℃, Observation room 21.1℃, Dormitory room 18.2℃, Corridor 18.2℃, Food storage 8.2℃ and Old ice coring site -51.3℃. Average outside air temperature (1.5m height from the snow surface during the period was -54.4℃. A remarkable increase of outside air temperature (+30℃ at maximum due to a blocking high event was observed from October 31, 2003 to November 10, 2003 at Dome Fuji, during which increase of air temperature from 5 to 8°C in the station buildings was recorded. Snow on the station buildings was partly melted and some of the melted water penetrated into the station. This was the only time snow melted during the wintering over party's stay at the station. Average relative humidity in the station buildings obtained using a small humidifier was about 25%; the relative humidity without using the humidifier ranged from 9.0 to 22.9%.

  4. Station Climatic Summaries: China, the Former USSR, and Mongolia (United States)


    TD •PERATURE (OF) EXTRIEMAE 1 32 38 414 62 80 92 92 88 76 60 416 34 92 MEAN DAILY MAX 1 0 6 22 37 52 68 71 61 53 33 19 6 36 MEAN 1 -5 0 15 30 41 60...BASED ONLY ON AVAILABLE DATA, I.E. LT 241 HRS/DAY, O LT 12 Ii0 TH/ IYR SOURCE(S): 1. USAFETAC DATSAV SURFACE JAN 73 - DEC 86, THREE HOURLY 2...STATION: ROVNO-IN"ROVNO USSR STATION 9t 333010 ICAO tD : U/A LOCATION: 50*35N, 26W0OW ELEVATION (iElT)i 766 L.fT - GMT ’ 3 PREPARED 8Y: USAJETAC/ECR, JAN

  5. Next Generation Hydrogen Station Composite Data Products: Retail Stations, Data through Quarter 4 of 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprik, Sam [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurtz, Jennifer [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ainscough, Chris [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Saur, Genevieve [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Peters, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    This publication includes 86 composite data products (CDPs) produced for next generation hydrogen stations, with data through the fourth quarter of 2016. These CDPs include data from retail stations only.

  6. Next Generation Hydrogen Station Composite Data Products: Retail Stations, Data Through Quarter 3 of 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprik, Sam [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurtz, Jennifer [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ainscough, Chris [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Saur, Genevieve [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Peters, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jeffers, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    This publication includes 80 composite data products (CDPs) produced in Spring 2016 for next generation hydrogen stations, with data through the third quarter of 2016. These CDPs include data from retail stations only.

  7. Next Generation Hydrogen Station Composite Data Products: Retail Stations, Data through Quarter 2 of 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprik, Samuel [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurtz, Jennifer M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ainscough, Christopher D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Saur, Genevieve [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Peters, Michael C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    This publication includes 92 composite data products (CDPs) produced for next generation hydrogen stations, with data through the second quarter of 2017. These CDPs include data from retail stations only.

  8. Space Station Freedom - What if...? (United States)

    Grey, Jerry


    The use of novel structural designs and the Energia launch system of the Commonwealth of Independent States for the Space Station Freedom (SSF) program is evaluated by means of a concept analysis. The analysis assumes that: (1) Energia is used for all cargo and logistics resupply missions; (2) the shuttles are launched from the U.S.; and (3) an eight-person assured crew return vehicle is available. This launch/supply scenario reduces the deployment risk from 30 launches to a total of only eight launches reducing the cost by about 15 billion U.S. dollars. The scenario also significantly increases the expected habitable and storage volumes and decreases the deployment time by three years over previous scenarios. The specific payloads are given for Energia launches emphasizing a proposed design for the common module cluster that incorporates direct structural attachment to the truss at midspan. The design is shown to facilitate the accommodation of additional service hangars and to provide a more efficient program for spacecraft habitable space.

  9. High speed imager test station (United States)

    Yates, George J.; Albright, Kevin L.; Turko, Bojan T.


    A test station enables the performance of a solid state imager (herein called a focal plane array or FPA) to be determined at high image frame rates. A programmable waveform generator is adapted to generate clock pulses at determinable rates for clock light-induced charges from a FPA. The FPA is mounted on an imager header board for placing the imager in operable proximity to level shifters for receiving the clock pulses and outputting pulses effective to clock charge from the pixels forming the FPA. Each of the clock level shifters is driven by leading and trailing edge portions of the clock pulses to reduce power dissipation in the FPA. Analog circuits receive output charge pulses clocked from the FPA pixels. The analog circuits condition the charge pulses to cancel noise in the pulses and to determine and hold a peak value of the charge for digitizing. A high speed digitizer receives the peak signal value and outputs a digital representation of each one of the charge pulses. A video system then displays an image associated with the digital representation of the output charge pulses clocked from the FPA. In one embodiment, the FPA image is formatted to a standard video format for display on conventional video equipment.

  10. 1100 MW BWR power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    Now, the start-up test of No. 2 plant in Fukushima No. 2 Nuclear Power Station is smoothly in progress, and the start of its commercial operation is scheduled at the beginning of 1984. Here, the main features of No. 2 plant including piping design are explained. For No. 2 plant, many improving measures were adopted as the base plant of the improvement and standardization project of the Ministry of International Trade and Industry, such as the adoption of Mark-2 improved PCV, the adoption of an intermediate loop in the auxiliary cooling system, one-body forging of the lower end cover of the reactor pressure vessel, the adoption of many curved pipes, the adoption of large one-body structural components in reactor recirculation system piping and so on, which are related to the reduction of radiation exposure and the improvement of plant reliability in operation and regular inspection. Also, in order to do general adjustment in the arrangement of equipment and piping and in route design, and to establish the rational construction work plan, model engineering was adopted. In No. 2 plant, a remote-controlled automatic and semiautomatic ultrasonic flaw detection system was adopted to reduce radiation exposure in in-service inspection. Automatic welding was adopted to improve the quality. (Kako, I.)

  11. Discharge measurements at gaging stations (United States)

    Turnipseed, D. Phil; Sauer, Vernon B.


    The techniques and standards for making discharge measurements at streamflow gaging stations are described in this publication. The vertical axis rotating-element current meter, principally the Price current meter, has been traditionally used for most measurements of discharge; however, advancements in acoustic technology have led to important developments in the use of acoustic Doppler current profilers, acoustic Doppler velocimeters, and other emerging technologies for the measurement of discharge. These new instruments, based on acoustic Doppler theory, have the advantage of no moving parts, and in the case of the acoustic Doppler current profiler, quickly and easily provide three-dimensional stream-velocity profile data through much of the vertical water column. For much of the discussion of acoustic Doppler current profiler moving-boat methodology, the reader is referred to U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods 3-A22 (Mueller and Wagner, 2009). Personal digital assistants (PDAs), electronic field notebooks, and other personal computers provide fast and efficient data-collection methods that are more error-free than traditional hand methods. The use of portable weirs and flumes, floats, volumetric tanks, indirect methods, and tracers in measuring discharge are briefly described.

  12. Simulators of nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanobetti, D.


    The report deals with the simulators of nuclear power stations used for the training of operators and for the analysis of operations. It reviews the development of analogical, hybrid and digital simulators up to the present, indicating the impact resulting from the TMI-2 accident. It indicates, the components of simulators and the present accepted terminology for a classification of the various types of simulators. It reviews the present state of the art of the technology: how a basic mathematical model of a nuclear power system is worked out and what are the technical problems associated with more accurate models. Examples of elaborate models are given: for a PWR pressurizer, for an AGR steam generator. It also discusses certain problems of hardware technology. Characteristics of present replica simulators are given with certain details: simulated transient evolutions and malfunctions, accuracy of simulation. The work concerning the assessment of the validity of certain simulators is reported. A list of simulator manufacturers and a survey of the principal simulators in operation in the countries of the European Community, in the United States, and in certain other countries are presented. Problem associated with the use of simulators as training facilities, and their use as operational devices are discussed. Studies and research in progress for the expected future development of simulators are reviewed

  13. Beaver Valley Power Station and Shippingport Atomic Power Station. 1977 annual environmental report: radiological. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The environmental monitoring conducted during 1977 in the vicinity of the Beaver Valley Power Station and the Shippingport Atomic Power Station is described. The environmental monitoring program consists of onsite sampling of water, gaseous, and air effluents, as well as offsite monitoring of water, air, river sediments, and radiation levels in the vicinity of the site. The report discusses releases of small quantities of radioactivity to the Ohio River from the Beaver Valley Power Station and Shippingport Atomic Power Station during 1977

  14. 47 CFR 90.425 - Station identification. (United States)


    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Operating Requirements § 90.425 Station identification. Stations licensed under... mobile units. (ii) In the Industrial/Business Pool, licensees may request the Commission's local Engineer...

  15. Present trends in HVDC converter station design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Lennart; Asplund, Gunnar; Bjorklund, Hans; Flisberg, Gunnar [ABB Power Systems AB, Ludvika (Sweden)


    HVDC converter station technology has developed rapidly to satisfy increasing requirements during past 10 - 15 years, but there has not been any dramatic changes since thyristor valves were introduced in the mid 70s. This paper describes some recent and expected future developments, that will substantiality change and simplify future converter stations. (author) 4 refs., 7 figs.

  16. S. Pellegrino and Brasimone seismic stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capocecera, P.; Tedeschi, E.; Vitiello, F.


    The paper describes the technical features relative to the S. Pellegrino and Brasimone seismic stations. The stations have been modified in order to realize a central data acquisition system; in this way seismic signals are sent to Brasimone Center through telephone pair and are recorded in continuous form. (author)

  17. 78 FR 50340 - Travelers' Information Stations (United States)


    ... of last resort with regard to the broadcast of emergency information. For example, during Hurricane... 13-98] Travelers' Information Stations AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule... Travelers' Information Stations (TIS), which Public Safety Pool-eligible entities operate to transmit...

  18. Background noise spectra of global seismic stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wada, M.M.; Claassen, J.P.


    Over an extended period of time station noise spectra were collected from various sources for use in estimating the detection and location performance of global networks of seismic stations. As the database of noise spectra enlarged and duplicate entries became available, an effort was mounted to more carefully select station noise spectra while discarding others. This report discusses the methodology and criteria by which the noise spectra were selected. It also identifies and illustrates the station noise spectra which survived the selection process and which currently contribute to the modeling efforts. The resulting catalog of noise statistics not only benefits those who model network performance but also those who wish to select stations on the basis of their noise level as may occur in designing networks or in selecting seismological data for analysis on the basis of station noise level. In view of the various ways by which station noise were estimated by the different contributors, it is advisable that future efforts which predict network performance have available station noise data and spectral estimation methods which are compatible with the statistics underlying seismic noise. This appropriately requires (1) averaging noise over seasonal and/or diurnal cycles, (2) averaging noise over time intervals comparable to those employed by actual detectors, and (3) using logarithmic measures of the noise.

  19. Trash-Disposal Module For Space Station (United States)

    Wissinger, David B.


    Report presents basic engineering concepts of trash-disposal module for Space Station. Module conserves valuable cargo volume and reduces both launching and returning weights of Space Shuttle or other spacecraft carrying materials to and from Space Station. Module relatively cheap and simple to operate.

  20. Rocky Mountain Research Station: 2008 Research Accomplishments (United States)

    Rick Fletcher


    Another year has come and gone and was marked by several milestones for the Rocky Mountain Research Station (RMRS). It was a year of many exciting breakthroughs in our science, effective applications of science tools, starts for new employees, the move of our Station headquarters, reinvigorating existing partnerships, and co-hosting the celebration of the Nation's...

  1. The white SR spectrum experimental station

    CERN Document Server

    Ancharov, A I; Tolochko, B P; Sukhorukov, A V; Baru, S E; Savinov, G A; Kosov, A V; Sheromov, M A; Sikka, S K; Momin, S N


    A new experimental station for working with white synchrotron radiation is described. Radiation from the bending magnet of the VEPP-4 storage ring is used. The station is destined for study of structures at high pressure by energy-dispersive and Laue diffraction methods.

  2. 49 CFR 236.814 - Station, control. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station, control. 236.814 Section 236.814..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.814 Station, control. The place where the control machine of a traffic control system is located. ...

  3. The Sewer Research Station in Frejlev

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld; Hvitved-Jacobsen, T.

    This report for the 2000 activities at the sewer research station in Frejlev. Only few - if any - sewer monitoring stations like the one in Frejlev exist. Without no doubt the field data produced - especially the time series - in the course of time will serve as a unique basis for projects dealin...

  4. The Sewer Research Station in Frejlev

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild; Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld

    This report for the 1999 activities at the sewer research station in Frejlev. Only few - if any - sewer monitoring stations like the one in Frejlev exist. Without no doubt the field data produced - especially the time series - in the course of time will serve as a unigue basis for projects dealin...

  5. Estimating Pedestrian flows at train stations using the Station Transfer Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Heuvel, J.P.A.; Dekkers, K.; De Vos, S.


    Train stations play a vital role in the door to door travel experience of train passengers. From the passengers’ value of time perspective, the station is the weakest link in total time value of the journey. Within the station the transfer function – moving between the various transport modes and

  6. Hydrogen Station Cost Estimates: Comparing Hydrogen Station Cost Calculator Results with other Recent Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Penev, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    This report compares hydrogen station cost estimates conveyed by expert stakeholders through the Hydrogen Station Cost Calculation (HSCC) to a select number of other cost estimates. These other cost estimates include projections based upon cost models and costs associated with recently funded stations.

  7. Changing times at the Rocky Mountain Forest & Range Experiment Station: Station history from 1976 to 1997 (United States)

    R. H. Hamre


    Changing Times includes a review of early Station history, touches on changing societal perspectives and how things are now done differently, how the Station has changed physically and organizationally, technology transfer, a sampling of major characters, how some Station research has been applied, and a timeline of significant and/or interesting events. It includes...

  8. A molecular epidemiological study of methicillin-resistant Staphylococci environmental contamination in railway stations and coach stations in Guangzhou of China. (United States)

    Lin, J L; Peng, Y; Ou, Q T; Lin, D X; Li, Y; Ye, X H; Zhou, J L; Yao, Z J


    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has caused a series of public health problems since it was first found in 1961. However, there are few research studies on the MRSA environmental contamination in railway stations and coach stations. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine MRSA environmental contamination in public transport stations. Between December 2013 and January 2014, 380 surface samples from three railway stations (180) and four coach stations (200) in Guangzhou were collected to isolate and determine the prevalence and characteristics of Staphylococci strains. 39·21% of all samples were Staphylococci isolates, 1·58% of Staphylococci isolates were MRSA isolates, and 6·05% were methicillin-susceptible S. aureus. The proportion of multidrug resistant among 149 Staphylococci isolates was 75·84%. None of MRSA isolates was identified with the Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) genes, and one of them was identified with the qac gene. Four MRSA isolates were Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec IVa, and the other two were nontypeable. Staphylococcus aureus isolates were classified into several sequence types (STs), and STs showed possible cross-transmissions of isolates from various sources. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococci contamination prevalence was high, and the environment of stations may be the vectors transmitting the Staphylococci to passengers. This is the first study to comprehensively report the prevalence, antibiotic resistance, and molecular characteristics of contamination of Staphylococci isolates in railway stations and coach stations of China. It will have great public health implications on infection control in community settings because of the serious hazard of Staphylococci, especially methicillin-resistant Staphylococci. Our findings have provided evidence for relevant departments to reduce the contamination of Staphylococci in environment of public transport stations. © 2016 The Society for Applied

  9. Central station market development strategies for photovoltaics (United States)


    Federal market development strategies designed to accelerate the market penetration of central station applications of photovoltaic energy system are analyzed. Since no specific goals were set for the commercialization of central station applications, strategic principles are explored which, when coupled with specific objectives for central stations, can produce a market development implementation plan. The study includes (1) background information on the National Photovoltaic Program, photovoltaic technology, and central stations; (2) a brief market assessment; (3) a discussion of the viewpoints of the electric utility industry with respect to solar energy; (4) a discussion of commercialization issues; and (5) strategy principles. It is recommended that a set of specific goals and objectives be defined for the photovoltaic central station program, and that these goals and objectives evolve into an implementation plan that identifies the appropriate federal role.

  10. Photovoltaics - solar power stations. Prospects of a cutting edge technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidenreich, M.


    Photovoltaics is the sector of the future in this millennium. The process of human urbanization has led to a high demand for electricity; at the same time high-density urban settlement offers an enormous surface area that could be used for photovoltaic equipment. Such surfaces include rooftops, building facades, parking lots for automobiles, train stations and solar soundproofing walls. According to conservative estimates, Austria has sufficient surface area for a peak solar output of 4,000 MW. This would be sufficient to supply some 1.6 million households with electricity from unlimited solar energy. However, a tremendous marketing effort will be required in order to achieve generation on such a scale. (author)

  11. Revealing the ISM in high redshift starburst galaxies: An analysis of Herschel PACS and SPIRE FTS spectroscopic observations of HerMES and H-ATLAS-selected lensed galaxies (United States)

    Cooray, Asantha

    In the quest to develop a fundamental understanding of galaxy formation and evolution, observations of dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) promise significant progress this decade. The importance of DSFGs is highlighted by the fact that half of the energy emitted by extragalactic sources emerges as dust-reprocessed light at infrared (IR) to sub millimeter wavelength. In the post-herschel\\ era, we are now at a unique position to tackle some of the key questions on galaxy formation and evolution because of the large area Herschel's Key Project surveys (HerMES and H-ATLAS). In particular those surveys have allowed us to identify a sample of 250 strongly gravitationally lensed DSFGs at z > 1. They give us a unique opportunity to dissect the detailed structures and kinematics of DSFGs. The Herschel Science Archive also contains individual follow up data on 44 and 25 of the brightest sources with SPIRE-FTS and PACS, respectively, in the spectroscopy mode, taking over 250 hours in four open-time programs. Only one of the 44 SPIRE FTS targets has yet to appear in the published literature. One of the four include an open-time 2 PACS spectroscopy program that was led at UCI by a former postdoc from the PI's group. That program was initially approved at Priority 2 in 2011, but was triggered in late 2012 and achieved 100% completion during the last two weeks of Herschel lifetime in May 2013. This archival analysis, interpretation, and modeling program involves two parts: (i) PACS spectroscopy in 50 to 200 microns of 25 lensed galaxies in the fine-structure emission lines [SiII]34, [SIII]33, [OIV]26, [OIII]52, [NIII]57 and [OI]63, and the molecular hydrogen H_2 S(0) and S(1). (ii) SPIRE FTS spectroscopy of 44 lensed galaxies, including above 25, over the wavelength range of 200 to 600 microns targeting [CII]158, [OIII]88, [OI]63/145, and [NI]122. The analysis will lead to a better understanding of the ISM of starbursting galaxies that span 1 research supports Goal 2 of the

  12. Innovative Microbial Surface Sampler, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The QS Team will develop an Innovative Microbial Surface Sampling (IMSS) device design and provide prototype kits for use in the International Space Station (ISS)....

  13. Surface Observations from Punta Arenas, Chile (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surface Observations from Punta Arenas, in extreme southern Chile. WMO station ID 85934. Period of record 1896-1954. The original forms were scanned at the Museo...

  14. Tecnology Development for Robotic Surface Inspection (United States)

    Volpe, Richard; Balaram, J. Bob


    For the past three years at JPL, NASA has been sponsoring the Remote Surface Inspection Project to develop the technology needed for doing periodic and on-demand inspection of space borne platforms, in particular Space Station Freedom.

  15. Comparison of CMAM simulations of carbon monoxide (CO, nitrous oxide (N2O, and methane (CH4 with observations from Odin/SMR, ACE-FTS, and Aura/MLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Barret


    Full Text Available Simulations of CO, N2O and CH4 from a coupled chemistry-climate model (CMAM are compared with satellite measurements from Odin Sub-Millimeter Radiometer (Odin/SMR, Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS, and Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (Aura/MLS. Pressure-latitude cross-sections and seasonal time series demonstrate that CMAM reproduces the observed global CO, N2O, and CH4 distributions quite well. Generally, excellent agreement with measurements is found between CO simulations and observations in the stratosphere and mesosphere. Differences between the simulations and the ACE-FTS observations are generally within 30%, and the differences between CMAM results and SMR and MLS observations are slightly larger. These differences are comparable with the difference between the instruments in the upper stratosphere and mesosphere. Comparisons of N2O show that CMAM results are usually within 15% of the measurements in the lower and middle stratosphere, and the observations are close to each other. However, the standard version of CMAM has a low N2O bias in the upper stratosphere. The CMAM CH4 distribution also reproduces the observations in the lower stratosphere, but has a similar but smaller negative bias in the upper stratosphere. The negative bias may be due to that the gravity drag is not fully resolved in the model. The simulated polar CO evolution in the Arctic and Antarctic agrees with the ACE and MLS observations. CO measurements from 2006 show evidence of enhanced descent of air from the mesosphere into the stratosphere in the Arctic after strong stratospheric sudden warmings (SSWs. CMAM also shows strong descent of air after SSWs. In the tropics, CMAM captures the annual oscillation in the lower stratosphere and the semiannual oscillations at the stratopause and mesopause seen in Aura/MLS CO and N2O observations and in Odin/SMR N2O observations. The Odin/SMR and Aura/MLS N2O observations also show a quasi

  16. Smos Land Product Validation Activities at the Valencia Anchor Station (United States)

    Lopez-Baeza, Ernesto

    ABSTRACT Soil moisture is a key parameter controlling the exchanges between the land surface and the atmosphere. In spite of being important for weather and climate modeling, this parameter is not well observed at a global scale. The SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) Mission was designed by the European Space Agency (ESA) to measure soil moisture over continental surfaces as well as surface salinity over the oceans. Since 2001, the Valencia Anchor Station is currently being prepared for the validation of SMOS land products, namely soil moisture content and vegetation water content. The site has recently been selected by the Mission as a core validation site, mainly due to the reasonable homogeneous characteristics of the area which make it appropriate to undertake the validation of SMOS Level 2 land products during the Mission Commissioning Phase, before attempting more complex areas. Close to SMOS launch, ESA has defined and designed a SMOS V alidation Rehearsal C ampaign P lan which purpose is to repeat the Commissioning Phase execution with all centers, all tools, all participants, all structures, all data available, assuming all tools and structures are ready and trying to produce as close as possible the post-launch conditions. The aim is to test the readiness, the ensemble coordination and the speed of operations, and to avoid as far as possible any unexpected deficiencies of the plan and procedure during the real C ommissioning P hase campaigns. For the rehearsal activity, a control area of 10 x 10 km2 has been chosen at the Valencia Anchor Station study area where a network of ground soil moisture measuring stations is being set up based on the definition of homogeneous physio-hydrological units, attending to climatic, soil type, lithology, geology, elevation, slope and vegetation cover conditions. These stations are linked via a wireless communication system to a master post accessible via internet. The ground soil moisture stations will also be used

  17. Analysis of International Space Station Vehicle Materials on MISSE 6 (United States)

    Finckenor, Miria; Golden, Johnny; Kravchenko, Michael; O'Rourke, Mary Jane


    The International Space Station Materials and Processes team has multiple material samples on MISSE 6, 7 and 8 to observe Low Earth Orbit (LEO) environmental effects on Space Station materials. Optical properties, thickness/mass loss, surface elemental analysis, visual and microscopic analysis for surface change are some of the techniques employed in this investigation. Results for the following MISSE 6 samples materials will be presented: deionized water sealed anodized aluminum; Hyzod(tm) polycarbonate used to temporarily protect ISS windows; Russian quartz window material; Beta Cloth with Teflon(tm) reformulated without perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and electroless nickel. Discussion for current and future MISSE materials experiments will be presented. MISSE 7 samples are: more deionized water sealed anodized aluminum, including Photofoil(tm); indium tin oxide (ITO) over-coated Kapton(tm) used as thermo-optical surfaces; mechanically scribed tin-plated beryllium-copper samples for "tin pest" growth (alpha/beta transformation); and beta cloth backed with a black coating rather than aluminization. MISSE 8 samples are: exposed "scrim cloth" (fiberglass weave) from the ISS solar array wing material, protective fiberglass tapes and sleeve materials, and optical witness samples to monitor contamination.

  18. Stations Correction and Earthquake hypocenter relocation in the Kalabsha area, Aswan, Egypt (United States)

    Shater, A.


    343 earthquakes recorded by more than 7 stations from the Aswan seismic network in the Kalabsha area, are relocated and the seismic stations correction for P-wave are estimated using joint hypocenter determination method. Seven stations AHD, SKD, NMR, GMR, KSR,,GRW, and KRL have minus signs in station P-wave travel time corrections and their values - 0.009, -0.178, -0.070, -0.027, -0.344,-0.123, and -0.067. It is possible to assume that the underground structure in this area has a particular characteristic of high velocity structure and other stations WKL, WAL, GAL, KUR, MAN and NAL have positive sign and their values 0.038, 0.158, 0.065, 0.219, 0.197 and 0.057 respectively. It is possible to assume that underground structure in this area has particular characteristic of low velocity structure. The hypocenter location determined by the joint hypocenter determination method is more precise than those determined by other routine work program. The method simultaneously solves for earthquake location and station corrections. The station corrections reflect not only different crustal condition in the vicinity of the stations, but also the difference between actual and model seismic velocities along each of the earthquake - station ray paths. The station corrections obtained correlate with the major surface geological features in the study area. As a result of the relocation, the majority of the hypocenters shifted upward and the relocated epicenters are closer to the faults than those before relocation.

  19. Study on temperature field airborne remote sensing survey along shore nuclear power station in different tide status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Chunli; Li Mingsong


    Nuclear Power Station needs to let large quantity of cooling water to the near sea area when it is running. Whether the cooling water has effect to surrounding environment and the running of Nuclear Power Station needs further research. Temperature Drainage Mathematic Model and Physical Analogue Model need to acquire the distribution characteristic of near Station sea surface temperature field in different seasons and different tide status. Airborne Remote Sending Technique has a advantage in gaining high resolution sea surface temperature in different tide status, and any other manual method with discrete point survey can not reach it. After a successful implementation of airborne remote sensing survey to gain the near-shore temperature drainage information in Qinshan Nuclear Power Station, it provides the reference methods and ideas for temperature drainage remote sensing survey of Nuclear Power Station. (authors)

  20. Characterisation of the inorganic chemistry of surface waters in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main purpose of this study was to determine a simple inorganic chemistry index that can be used for all surface waters in South Africa, in order to characterise the inorganic chemistry of surface waters. Water quality data collected up until 1999 from all sample monitoring stations (2 068 monitoring stations, 364 659 ...

  1. Aseismic foundation system for nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolivet, F.; Richli, M.


    The aseismic foundation system, as described in this paper, is a new development, which makes it possible to build standard nuclear power stations in areas exposed to strong earthquakes. The principle consists in interposing a device between the buildings of the nuclear island and the foundation soil which limits the value of the horizontal acceleration in the nuclear island buildings. The nuclear island foundations consists of a double raft with aseismic bearings interposed between the upper and lower raft. These bearings are placed on top of short concrete pedestals constructed on the lower raft. The space thus provided between the two rafts allows access to the bearings. The bearing consists of two parts: a block of reinforced elastomer, a set of friction plates such as stainless steel+bronze with lead. The reinforced neoprene pad acts as a soft horizontal spring imparting a first mode of translation to the structure with the frequency of about 1 c.p.s. depending only on the characteristics of the bearing. As this first mode is predominant, the value of horizontal accelerations at each level for all buildings are almost identical. The above mentioned frequency has been selected in order to be outside the range of natural frequencies of the buildings themselves and of the frequency of the equipment. The friction plates due to their nature and surface treatment permit to ensure a consistent value of the coefficient of friction 'f' so as to limit the maximum horizontal earthquake forces to values close to fxg. Under a low level earthquake (0.15 g-0.20 g) the structure vibrates and returns to its original position. The temporary relative displacement during such an earthquake can reach about 0.10 m. Under an earthquake of higher level (up to 0.60 g) the vibrating structure slides on the friction plates. The complete detailed design together with experimental evidence have shown that the system is operational

  2. 47 CFR 73.6011 - Protection of TV broadcast stations. (United States)


    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Protection of TV broadcast stations. 73.6011... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Class A Television Broadcast Stations § 73.6011 Protection of TV broadcast stations. Class A TV stations must protect authorized TV broadcast stations, applications for minor changes...

  3. 47 CFR 80.123 - Service to stations on land. (United States)


    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service to stations on land. 80.123 Section 80... STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Operating Requirements and Procedures Special Procedures-Public Coast Stations § 80.123 Service to stations on land. Marine VHF public coast stations, including AMTS coast...

  4. 14 CFR 145.207 - Repair station manual. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Repair station manual. 145.207 Section 145...) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES REPAIR STATIONS Operating Rules § 145.207 Repair station manual. (a) A certificated repair station must prepare and follow a repair station manual acceptable to the...

  5. MHD power station with coal gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brzozowski, W.S.; Dul, J.; Pudlik, W.


    A description is given of the proposed operating method of a MHD-power station including a complete coal gasification into lean gas with a simultaneous partial gas production for the use of outside consumers. A comparison with coal gasification methods actually being used and full capabilities of power stations heated with coal-derived gas shows distinct advantages resulting from applying the method of coal gasification with waste heat from MHD generators working within the boundaries of the thermal-electric power station. (author)

  6. Meteor wind observation at Kyoto Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, S.; Aso, T.; Tsuda, T.


    Meteor wind observation at Kyoto Station has now collected a fairly large amount of data enough to enable to know the basic dynamic state at meteor heights over the station. Tidal and prevailing winds have been detected and their behavior seems now well understood on daily and seasonal basis. A comparison with observations at other stations suggests classical tidal theory to be relevant to explain the average state. Deviations from the mean present problems on the existence of various causes including hydromagnetic effects. Gravity waves would be an interesting subject in future study. (author)

  7. Preparation, surface characterization and performance of a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst of cobalt supported on silica nanosprings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kengne, Blaise-Alexis Fouetio; Alayat, Abdulbaset M.; Luo, Guanqun; McDonald, Armando G.; Brown, Justin; Smotherman, Hayden; McIlroy, David N.


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Determined that the reduction of Co nanoparticles on silica nanosprings 200 °C higher than the reduction temperature of Co in a solgel support. • The high reduction temperature of Co supported on silica nanosprings is attributed to the heat transfer properties of the nanosprings due to their high surface area. Co-silica nanospring Fischer-Tropsch catalyst can be used to produce drop in fuels such as JP-4. - Abstract: The reduction of cobalt (Co) catalyst supported on silica nanosprings for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) has been monitored by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and compared to FT catalytic activity. The cobalt is present in the starting catalyst as a Co 3 O 4 spinel phase. A two-step reduction of Co 3 O 4 to CoO and then to Co 0 is observed, which is consistent with the results of H 2 -temperature programmed reduction. During the reduction the two steps occur concurrently. The deconvolution of the Co 2p core level state for the catalyst reduced at 385 °C and 1.0 × 10 −6 Torr of H 2 revealed signatures of Co 0 , CoO, and Co 3 O 4 . The reduction saturates at a Co o concentration of approximately 41% after 20 h, which correlates with the activity and lifetime of the catalyst during FTS testing. Conversely, at 680 °C and 10 Torr of H 2 , the catalyst is completely reduced after 10 h. The evolution of the Co d-band at the Fermi level in the valence band XPS spectrum definitively verifies the metallic phase of Co. FTS evaluation of the Co/NS catalyst reduced at 609 °C showed higher production rate (3-fold) of C 6 -C 17 hydrocarbons than the catalyst reduced at 409 °C and is consistent with the XPS analysis.

  8. The Effect of Urban Fuel Stations on Soil Contamination with Petroleum Hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Parvizi Mosaed


    Full Text Available Background:A critical environmental impact of the petroleum industry is the contamination of soil by oil and other related products which are highly toxic and exhibit molecular recalcitrance. Therefore, this study focused on investigating the total amount of petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs in soil of urban fuel stations in Hamedan City, Iran. Methods:Thirteen high traffic urban fuel stations were selected and random soil samples were collected from surface soils at selected fuel stations. The physical and chemical proper-ties of the soil samples were determined in the laboratory. The concentration of TPHs in soils was determined by GC/MC. Results: Results showed that concentration of TPHs in all stations was more than the stand-ard level in soil (2000 mg kg-1. The minimum and maximum TPHs concentration observed in No. 5 and No.13 fuel station, respectively. Conclusion: The results showed that spillage in urban fuel stations has clear effect on the content of TPH in soil, as concentration TPH in all of fuel stations was in the upper limit of the standard levels in soil. .Soil pollution with petroleum hydrocarbons has clear effects on soil biological, chemical and physical characteristics and results in decreasedg food elements, productivity and soil plant productions.

  9. CDMP COOP Station History Indexing Guidelines (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Single 66-page document entitled 'Station history COOP Rework via WSSRD and stragglers NC4 & NC3: Keying Rules,' dated December 12, 2003. Contractors with NCDC's...

  10. Weather Station: Palau: Koror: Ngeanges Island (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Since 2007, the Coral Reef Research Foundation (CRRF) has operated a Campbell Scientific automatic weather station (AWS) in Palau designed to measure...

  11. Final report on the portable weather station. (United States)


    This station was required to have air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, and : pavement temperature sensors of similar quality to the traditional RWIS sensors, have an integrated solar : powered battery system, and be trailer...

  12. Weather Station: Hawaii: Oahu: Coconut Island (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology (HIMB) automatic weather station (AWS) records hourly measurements of precipitation, air temperature, wind speed and...

  13. 46 CFR 131.350 - Station bill. (United States)


    ... work of the member. The duties must include at least the following and should comprise any other duties... their immersion suits and lifejackets; and (ii) Directing them to their appointed stations. ...

  14. 47 CFR 22.313 - Station identification. (United States)


    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES... Telephone Radio Systems in the Rural Radiotelephone Service; (5) [Reserved] (6) Stations operating pursuant... delayed to avoid interrupting the continuity of any public communication in progress, provided that...

  15. Non-Coop Station History Forms Digest (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Single 71-page document entitled 'Station history non-COOP Keying Rules & Forms Digest,' dated December 12, 2003. Contractors with NCDC Climate Database...

  16. Weather station for scientific data collection

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desai, R.G.P.; Mehra, P.; Desa, E.; Nagvekar, S.; Kumar, V.

    A state of are automatic weather station has been developed primarily to support, research programs on oceanographic and climatic studies. The basic system includes a suite of sensors for measurement of wind velocity, air temperature, barometric...

  17. The dark river: Kearsley power station


    Darwell, John


    Edition of 150 black and white digital images by John Darwell of the River Irwell area around Kearsley power station, in the North of England. Volume three of five volume set exploring the River Irwell during the 1980s.

  18. 47 CFR 74.783 - Station identification. (United States)


    ... transmitting the call sign in International Morse Code at least once each hour. This transmission may be... made at a code speed not in excess of 20 words per minute; or (2) By arranging for the primary station...

  19. Resident Station Contact Information for Application Developers (United States)

    Social Security Administration — SSA provides a web service and downloadable file for SSA Resident Station locations, telephone numbers, and hours of operation. (Note: If you think an office might...

  20. DMA Reference Base Station Network Data (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data (15,904 records documenting 9,090 worldwide gravity base stations) were gathered by various governmental organizations (and academia) using a variety of...

  1. Urban solar irradiance and power prediction from nearby stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zihao Chen


    Full Text Available With the proliferation of small-scale solar PV installations, global horizontal irradiance (GHI and power predictions are becoming critical elements in the integration of PV generation into the grid. This paper considers short-term prediction, from 5 minutes to a few hours, based on historical meteorological measurement data from weather and power monitoring stations located in the Canberra (Australia region. The specific objective of this study is to produce skilful forecasts for (a generic target station using a minimal amount of observations from nearby stations. Thus, although a large number of weather and power variables are collected and used for developing and testing the prediction algorithms, the ultimate aim is to rely on a few predictors, mainly meteorologically based. This will allow the identification of critical instruments which would need to be installed in order to provide satisfactory PV power predictions while limiting capital and operating costs of monitoring. Relative mean absolute error (rMAE is used here to indicate prediction performance. Three statistical methods are tested for two different seasons, a winter and a summer. The relative importance of predictors and stations is assessed. A conversion from GHI to global irradiance on tilted surfaces, by means of simple geometry arguments and notion of irradiance components at a nearby site, is also introduced and tested. Finally, the prediction accuracy is categorised according to different clear-sky indices. Results show that when the clear-sky index exceeds 0.9 (near-to-cloudless conditions, the prediction performance is distinctly better than at lower clear sky indices, by at least 0.05 and 0.2 in terms of rMAE in summer and winter, respectively.

  2. Chemical characteristics of atmospheric deposition collected at two ENEA stations near Bologna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barilli, L.; Olivieri, P.; Salvi, S.; Morselli, L.; Grandi, E.; Ianuccilli, A.


    This article presents the results of the measurements of the water quality in acid rains, collected by a Wet and Dry Sampler in 1994 and in 1995 at two ENEA stations, Brasimone and Bologna town, belonging to the RIDEP network and characterized by different geography and different anthropogenic sources. In the Bologna station from April 95 an innovative sampler DAS (Dry Deposition on Aquatic Surface) has been activated. The monitoring has allowed determining the wet deposition fluxes in both the stations and pointing out the differences between two areas characterized by different topology. Besides the DAS sampler has allowed evaluating the total deposition fluxes (wet and dry deposition) in the Bologna station and comparing them with the ''critical loads'' pertaining to the examined territory

  3. Description of Measurements on Biogas Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Novosád


    Full Text Available This paper focuses mainly on performance analysis for three biogas stations situated within the territory of the Czech Republic. This paper contains basic details of the individual biogas stations as well as description of their types. It also refers to the general description of the measurement gauge involved, with specifications of its potential use. The final part of this paper deals with the analysis of course data obtained, with special regard to voltage, current, active power and reactive power data.

  4. Solidifying power station resins and sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, A.S.D.; Haigh, C.P.


    Radioactive ion exchange resins and sludges arise at nuclear power stations from various operations associated with effluent treatment and liquid waste management. As the result of an intensive development programme, the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) has designed a process to convert power station resins and sludges into a shielded, packaged solid monolithic form suitable for final disposal. Research and development, the generic CEGB sludge/resin conditioning plant and the CEGB Active Waste Project are described. (U.K.)

  5. Radiation shielded movable work station apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meuschke, R.E.; Andrews, H.N.; Massaro, A.A. Jr.


    A movable work station includes travelling hoist-supported tools and a radiation-shielded enclosure or gondola that may be moved vertically or rotated. The enclosure is divided and accommodates four upright workers in facing pairs at opposite sides of a clearanceway observable and accessible from the gondola interior via lead glass windows and hand holes. The work station is particularly suitable for personnel involved in tube bundle replacement tasks performed within the shell of a nuclear power plant steam generator

  6. The education of power station personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staebler, K.


    The growing demand for greater safety, environmental friendliness and economies for power stations is altering requirements from operating personnel. In-depth technological understanding, the combination of theory and practice, mental capability, systematic utilization of equipment and operational aids, safety and environment consciousness are expressions which characterise the capabilities of operating personnel. Education and further education in the joint central training establishments of the power station owners have proved effective. (orig.) [de

  7. Socioeconomic impacts: nuclear power station siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The rural industrial development literature is used to gain insights on the socioeconomic effects of nuclear power stations. Previous studies of large industrial facilities in small towns have important implications for attempts to understand and anticipate the impacts of nuclear stations. Even a cursory review of the nuclear development literature, however, reveals that industrialization research in rural sociology, economic geography and agricultural economics has been largely ignored

  8. Sewerage pumping station optimization under real conditions


    Chabal, Lukas; Stanko, Stefan


    Construction of a sewer system on a flat area is characterized by a large number of pumping stations (PS), which implies the probability of occurrence of technical problems and increases operational costs. The article focuses on drainage methods for municipalities situated on a flat area where it is necessary to build up a large number of pumping stations. Problems occur in case of multiple serial, parallel or combined connections of PSs. Energy costs can outweigh other costs, especially if t...



    Grigorash O. V.; Kvitko A. V.; Koshko A. R.


    The article deals with one of the promising areas belonging to energy-saving technologies; it is the introduction of biogasoline stations into agricultural production. The analysis of the application in the world has been shown. To determine the cost-effectiveness of biogasoline stations we have shown the data for the calculation of the potential of biomass: organic waste settlements; animal waste; waste of poultry; crop residues; waste processing industry. We have obtained graphic dependence...

  10. Connecting strangers at a train station

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serafin, Stefania; Böttcher, Niels; Pellarin, Lars


    In this paper we describe a virtual instrument or a performance space, placed at Høje Tåstrup train station in Denmark, which is meant to establish communicative connections between strangers, by letting users of the system create soundscapes together across the rails. We discuss mapping...... to the development of an interactive installation which takes place in Hoje Taastrup train station in Denmark....

  11. Predictive Attitude Maintenance For A Space Station (United States)

    Hattis, Philip D.


    Paper provides mathematical basis for predictive management of angular momenta of control-moment gyroscopes (CMG's) to control attitude of orbiting space station. Numerical results presented for pitch control of proposed power-tower space station. Based on prior orbit history and mathematical model of density of atmosphere, predictions made of requirements on dumping and storage of angular momentum in relation to current loading state of CMG's and to acceptable attitude tolerances.

  12. Interpreting carnivore scent-station surveys (United States)

    Sargeant, G.A.; Johnson, D.H.; Berg, W.E.


    The scent-station survey method has been widely used to estimate trends in carnivore abundance. However, statistical properties of scent-station data are poorly understood, and the relation between scent-station indices and carnivore abundance has not been adequately evaluated. We assessed properties of scent-station indices by analyzing data collected in Minnesota during 1986-03. Visits to stations separated by intractable statistical distribution. Dichotomizing results for lines of 10 stations (0 or 21 visits) produced binomially distributed data that were robust to multiple visits by individuals. We abandoned 2-way comparisons among years in favor of tests for population trend, which are less susceptible to bias, and analyzed results separately for biogeographic sections of Minnesota because trends differed among sections. Before drawing inferences about carnivore population trends, we reevaluated published validation experiments. Results implicated low statistical power and confounding as possible explanations for equivocal or conflicting results of validation efforts. Long-term trends in visitation rates probably reflect real changes in populations, but poor spatial and temporal resolution, susceptibility to confounding, and low statistical power limit the usefulness of this survey method.

  13. Station keeping strategies for constellations of satellites (United States)

    Lamy, Alain; Pascal, Stephane

    Communication systems based on constellations of satellite deployed in Low Earth Orbits (LEO) constitute a great number of new space projects. The objectives of these missions are generally expressed in term of global properties: coverage (global or related to specific areas), simultaneous satellite visibilities with ground stations, maximum waiting time. The quality of the service provided by the mission is defined by statistical measurements of these properties (probability of having one satellite in visibility from any point more than 0.8 for example) that must be guaranteed during the mission life-time by adequate station keeping strategies. Immediate solutions for station keeping of constellation are either non-controlled orbits (simple but with uncertain results) or independent orbit control for each satellite (with respect to a nominal orbit). This latter solution is reliable and well known but may overload control stations; so it is necessary to find better strategies, in term of cost (reduction of Delta V or ground segment load), adapted to constellations. Thus, the aim of this paper is to study the feasibility of a global station keeping strategy. Provided that the perturbations affecting each satellite are of the same magnitude (as it is the case for Walker constellations for example), the constellation geometry degrade gracefully as well as its statistical properties. Consequently, the strategy consistes in controlling relative positions of the satellites instead of keeping each satellite in its absolute window. If one takes into account operational station keeping scenarios.

  14. Extension of life of nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Hideaki


    At the time of designing nuclear power stations, as their service life, generally 40 years are taken, and the basic design specifications of machinery and equipment are determined. In USA where atomic energy has been developed, the new construction of nuclear power stations is cased for a while, however, if this situation continues as it is, since old power stations reach the service life of 40 years and are retired in near future, it is feared that the circumstance of the total amount of power generation becoming short will occur. As one of the countermeasures to this, the research on the extension of life of nuclear power stations has been carried out in many fields in USA, and it is expected that the application for extending the life for the power stations constructed in the initial period of development is submitted in 1991. The researches that have been carried out for solving the technical problems in this extension of life and the situation in Japan are reported. The NEC of USA decided that the operation period of nuclear power stations in USA, which is considered to be 40 years so far, can be extended up to the limit of 20 years. The background and circumstances of this problem in USA, Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program, Plant Life Extension Program and so on are reported. (K.I.)

  15. Utilities respond to nuclear station blackout rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, A.M.; Beasley, B.; Tenera, L.P.


    The authors discuss how nuclear plants in the United States have taken actions to respond to the NRC Station Blackout Rule, 10CFR50.63. The rule requires that each light water cooled nuclear power plant licensed to operate must be able to withstand for a specified duration and recover from a station blackout. Station blackout is defined as the complete loss of a-c power to the essential and non-essential switch-gear buses in a nuclear power plant. A station blackout results from the loss of all off-site power as well as the on-site emergency a-c power system. There are two basic approaches to meeting the station blackout rule. One is to cope with a station blackout independent of a-c power. Coping, as it is called, means the ability of a plant to achieve and maintain a safe shutdown condition. The second approach is to provide an alternate a-c power source (AAC)

  16. Operation feedback of hydrogen filling station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pregassame, S.; Barral, K.; Allidieres, L.; Charbonneau, T.; Lacombe, Y.


    One of the technical challenges of hydrogen technology is the development of hydrogen infrastructures which satisfy either safety requirements and reliability of filling processes. AIR LIQUIDE realized an hydrogen filling station in Sassenage (France) operational since September 2003. This station is able to fill 3 buses a day up to 350bar by equilibrium with high pressure buffers. In parallel with commercial stations, the group wanted to create a testing ground in real conditions running with several objectives: validate on a full scale bench a simulation tool able to predict the temperature of both gas and cylinder's materials during filling processes; define the best filling procedures in order to reach mass, temperature and filling time targets; analyse the temperature distribution and evolution inside the cylinder; get a general knowledge about hydrogen stations from safety and reliability point of view; operate the first full scale refuelling station in France. The station is also up-graded for 700bar filling from either a liquid hydrogen source or a gas booster, with cold filling possibility. This paper presents the results concerning 350bar filling : thermal effects, optimal filling procedures and influence of parameters such as climatic conditions are discussed. (author)

  17. Site characterization of the Romanian Seismic Network stations: a national initiative and its first preliminary results (United States)

    Grecu, Bogdan; Zahria, Bogdan; Manea, Elena; Neagoe, Cristian; Borleanu, Felix; Diaconescu, Mihai; Constantinescu, Eduard; Bala, Andrei


    noise H/V ratios in case of the stations with strong site effects. On the contrary, the spectral curves are flat for some stations located on hard rock or show amplifications around two on wide frequency band for stations located on deep sediments. Finally, both active (MASW) and passive (ReMi) surface waves surveys were performed at several sites to estimate the shallow velocity structure beneath the stations.

  18. Alkaline RFC Space Station prototype - 'Next step Space Station'. [Regenerative Fuel Cells (United States)

    Hackler, I. M.


    The regenerative fuel cell, a candidate technology for the Space Station's energy storage system, is described. An advanced development program was initiated to design, manufacture, and integrate a regenerative fuel cell Space Station prototype (RFC SSP). The RFC SSP incorporates long-life fuel cell technology, increased cell area for the fuel cells, and high voltage cell stacks for both units. The RFC SSP's potential for integration with the Space Station's life support and propulsion systems is discussed.

  19. From city’s station to station city. An integrative spatial approach to the (redevelopment of station areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luísa Martins da Conceição


    Full Text Available Since its origin, the railway station has had a complicated relationship with the city, demanding periodical updates, particularly regarding spatial issues. With the aim of improving the liveability of station areas, current redevelopment projects are reconceptualising them as balanced transport ‘nodes’ and ‘places’ in the city. However, the proposed spatial solutions do not fully support the sought after economic, social and environmental performances. These intentions continue to be predominantly bounded with the (abstract planological level, not finding appropriate translation at the (concrete spatial design level. Further, the interdisciplinary nature of the highly complex planning and design processes of station areas, which should contribute to enhance the performance of their spaces, reinforces constraints and relegates architecture to a marginal role in this quest. It is thus necessary to understand how architecture can contribute to the improvement of the spatial performance of contemporary stations areas, supporting their current reconceptualization. To gain this understanding, the research explored the factors which influence the spatial definition and performance of European High Speed Train station areas, using “design research” and “research by design”. Via a theoretical integrative framework, synthesized from knowledge developed by architecture and other sciences, case studies of ‘through’ stations were analysed and compared. Six cases, encapsulating the most recurrent relative positions of the railway (infrastructure and the station building towards the(ir direct built environment, were chosen out of a large sample. For each category (cases with railway tracks at (a ground level, (b elevated level and (c underground level, two cases, featuring an adapted station building and a newly built one, were studied. Their physical and functional characteristics were mapped at several scales and moments (in history, as

  20. International Surface Temperature Initiative (ISTI) Global Land Surface Temperature Databank - Stage 1 Daily (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The global land surface temperature databank contains monthly timescale mean, max, and min temperature for approximately 40,000 stations globally. It was developed...