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Sample records for surface force method

  1. Continuous surface force based lattice Boltzmann equation method for simulating thermocapillary flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Lin, E-mail: lz@njust.edu.cn [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Zheng, Song [School of Mathematics and Statistics, Zhejiang University of Finance and Economics, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Zhai, Qinglan [School of Economics Management and Law, Chaohu University, Chaohu 238000 (China)

    2016-02-05

    In this paper, we extend a lattice Boltzmann equation (LBE) with continuous surface force (CSF) to simulate thermocapillary flows. The model is designed on our previous CSF LBE for athermal two phase flow, in which the interfacial tension forces and the Marangoni stresses as the results of the interface interactions between different phases are described by a conception of CSF. In this model, the sharp interfaces between different phases are separated by a narrow transition layers, and the kinetics and morphology evolution of phase separation would be characterized by an order parameter via Cahn–Hilliard equation which is solved in the frame work of LBE. The scalar convection–diffusion equation for temperature field is resolved by thermal LBE. The models are validated by thermal two layered Poiseuille flow, and two superimposed planar fluids at negligibly small Reynolds and Marangoni numbers for the thermocapillary driven convection, which have analytical solutions for the velocity and temperature. Then thermocapillary migration of two/three dimensional deformable droplet are simulated. Numerical results show that the predictions of present LBE agreed with the analytical solution/other numerical results. - Highlights: • A CSF LBE to thermocapillary flows. • Thermal layered Poiseuille flows. • Thermocapillary migration.

  2. Continuous surface force based lattice Boltzmann equation method for simulating thermocapillary flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Lin; Zheng, Song; Zhai, Qinglan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we extend a lattice Boltzmann equation (LBE) with continuous surface force (CSF) to simulate thermocapillary flows. The model is designed on our previous CSF LBE for athermal two phase flow, in which the interfacial tension forces and the Marangoni stresses as the results of the interface interactions between different phases are described by a conception of CSF. In this model, the sharp interfaces between different phases are separated by a narrow transition layers, and the kinetics and morphology evolution of phase separation would be characterized by an order parameter via Cahn–Hilliard equation which is solved in the frame work of LBE. The scalar convection–diffusion equation for temperature field is resolved by thermal LBE. The models are validated by thermal two layered Poiseuille flow, and two superimposed planar fluids at negligibly small Reynolds and Marangoni numbers for the thermocapillary driven convection, which have analytical solutions for the velocity and temperature. Then thermocapillary migration of two/three dimensional deformable droplet are simulated. Numerical results show that the predictions of present LBE agreed with the analytical solution/other numerical results. - Highlights: • A CSF LBE to thermocapillary flows. • Thermal layered Poiseuille flows. • Thermocapillary migration.

  3. Measuring the sizes of nanospheres on a rough surface by using atomic force microscopy and a curvature-reconstruction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oikawa, Koudai; Kim, Hyonchol; Watanabe, Naoya; Shigeno, Masatsugu; Shirakawabe, Yoshiharu; Yasuda, Kenji

    2007-01-01

    One of the advantages of atomic force microscopy (AFM) is that it can accurately measure the heights of targets on flat substrates. It is difficult, however, to determine the shape of nanoparticles on rough surfaces. We therefore propose a curvature-reconstruction method that estimates the sizes of particles by fitting sphere curvatures acquired from raw AFM data. We evaluated this fitting estimation using 15-, 30-, and 50-nm gold nanoparticles on mica and confirmed that particle sizes could be estimated within 5% from 20% of their curvature measured using a carbon nanotube (CNT) tip. We also estimated the sizes of nanoparticles on the rough surface of dried cells and found we also can estimate the size of those particles within 5%, which is difficult when we only used the height information. The results indicate the size of nanoparticles even on rough surfaces can be measured by using our method and a CNT tip

  4. Visual and digital comparative tooth colour assessment methods and atomic force microscopy surface roughness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundlingh, A A; Grossman, E S; Shrivastava, S; Witcomb, M J

    2013-10-01

    This study compared digital and visual colour tooth colour assessment methods in a sample of 99 teeth consisting of incisors, canines and pre-molars. The teeth were equally divided between Control, Ozicure Oxygen Activator bleach and Opalescence Quick bleach and subjected to three treatments. Colour readings were recorded at nine intervals by two assessment methods, VITA Easyshade and VITAPAN 3D MASTER TOOTH GUIDE, giving a total of 1782 colour readings. Descriptive and statistical analysis was undertaken using a GLM test for Analysis of Variance for a Fractional Design set at a significance of P colour assessment showed significance for the independent variables of treatment, number of treatments, tooth type and the combination tooth type and treatment. Digital colour assessment indicated treatment and tooth type to be of significance in tooth colour change. Poor agreement was found between visual and digital colour assessment methods for Control and Ozicure Oxygen Activator treatments. Surface roughness values increased two-fold for Opalescence Quick specimens over the two other treatments, implying that increased light scattering improved digital colour reading. Both digital and visual colour matching methods should be used in tooth bleaching studies to complement each other and to compensate for deficiencies.

  5. Intermolecular and surface forces

    CERN Document Server

    Israelachvili, Jacob N

    2011-01-01

    This reference describes the role of various intermolecular and interparticle forces in determining the properties of simple systems such as gases, liquids and solids, with a special focus on more complex colloidal, polymeric and biological systems. The book provides a thorough foundation in theories and concepts of intermolecular forces, allowing researchers and students to recognize which forces are important in any particular system, as well as how to control these forces. This third edition is expanded into three sections and contains five new chapters over the previous edition.· starts fr

  6. Capacitance dilatometry in a surface force apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, A.M.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: A variant of the surface force apparatus has been developed which enables measurements of the forces between opaque surfaces to be obtained. A capacitance dilatometry attachment for the surface force apparatus has been constructed in which the surface that moves under the influence of the applied force is attached to one plate of a capacitor whose capacitance thereby changes. In order to detect movements of 0.1 nm of the plates of a capacitor with gap 0.1 mm the capacitance has to be measured to one part in one million, noting further that the measured capacitance is several hundred times smaller than the associated stray capacitances. This resolution is achieved by means of a transformer ratio bridge and, provided that adequate vibration isolation can be achieved, displacements of 0.1 nm can be resolved reliably. This is the case even with air between the surfaces, air giving much less vibrational damping than liquids. The method has been applied to measure the forces between mica in electrolyte and to measure dispersion forces of mica and silica in air. In the latter case the results are of unprecedented accuracy for this technique and show unambiguously that for surface separations greater than 10 nm the retarded form of the dispersion force fits the measurements much better than the non-retarded form

  7. Sample preparation method for scanning force microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Jankov, I R; Szente, R N; Carreno, M N P; Swart, J W; Landers, R

    2001-01-01

    We present a method of sample preparation for studies of ion implantation on metal surfaces. The method, employing a mechanical mask, is specially adapted for samples analysed by Scanning Force Microscopy. It was successfully tested on polycrystalline copper substrates implanted with phosphorus ions at an acceleration voltage of 39 keV. The changes of the electrical properties of the surface were measured by Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy and the surface composition was analysed by Auger Electron Spectroscopy.

  8. Investigation of the range of validity of the pairwise summation method applied to the calculation of the surface roughness correction to the van der Waals force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusso, André; Burnham, Nancy A.

    2016-09-01

    It has long been recognized that stochastic surface roughness can considerably change the van der Waals (vdW) force between interacting surfaces and particles. However, few analytical expressions for the vdW force between rough surfaces have been presented in the literature. Because they have been derived using perturbative methods or the proximity force approximation the expressions are valid when the roughness correction is small and for a limited range of roughness parameters and surface separation. In this work, a nonperturbative approach, the effective density method (EDM) is proposed to circumvent some of these limitations. The method simplifies the calculations of the roughness correction based on pairwise summation (PWS), and allows us to derive simple expressions for the vdW force and energy between two semispaces covered with stochastic rough surfaces. Because the range of applicability of PWS and, therefore, of our results, are not known a priori, we compare the predictions based on the EDM with those based on the multilayer effective medium model, whose range of validity can be defined more properly and which is valid when the roughness correction is comparatively large. We conclude that the PWS can be used for roughness characterized by a correlation length of the order of its rms amplitude, when this amplitude is of the order of or smaller than a few nanometers, and only for typically insulating materials such as silicon dioxide, silicon nitride, diamond, and certain glasses, polymers and ceramics. The results are relevant for the correct modeling of systems where the vdW force can play a significant role such as micro and nanodevices, for the calculation of the tip-sample force in atomic force microscopy, and in problems involving adhesion.

  9. Prediction of the shape of inline wave force and free surface elevation using First Order Reliability Method (FORM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghadirian, Amin; Bredmose, Henrik; Schløer, Signe

    2017-01-01

    In design of substructures for offshore wind turbines, the extreme wave loads which are of interest in Ultimate Limit States are often estimated by choosing extreme events from linear random sea states and replacing them by either stream function wave theory or the NewWave theory of a certain...... as the free surface elevation time series. The discrepancies between the FORM results and the measurements is found to be a result of more nonlinearity in the selected events than second order and negligence of the drag forces above still water level in the present analysis. This paper is one step toward more...... precise prediction of extreme wave shape and loads. Ultimately such waves can be used in the design process of offshore structures. The approach can be generalized to fully nonlinear models....

  10. Forces due to surface water measured by force microscopy. Consequences for anchoring biological cells to surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilcher, K.

    1997-05-01

    Interaction forces in 'Scanning Force Microscopy' (SFM). Force curves revealed exponentially decaying, attractive forces between silicon tip and silicon sample in aqueous media. Replacing the silicon sample by a sheet of mica, the interaction forces had both, an attractive and a repulsive component. Addition of salts generally reduced the forces. At 500 mM salt concentration, the attractive force became quantized with a residual force value of 23 pN. The attractive force is attributed to the gain in energy of water molecules which are released from surface water into free water during tip-sample approach. This conclusion is supported by a statistical model. The repulsive force contribution in the case of mica, is caused by hydration forces due to the spatial organization of crystalline water on the mica surface. Anchoring of biological cells. Molecular resolution of cell surfaces by SFM requires cell anchoring without interference with cell physiology. For this a novel strategy, 'hydrophobic anchoring' was designed. It avoids strong attractive forces between cell and by using a flexible spacer molecule. It establishes anchoring by a lipid (bound to the spacer), which weakly interacts with the hydrophobic core of the cell membrane. The method was subjected to tests using RBL-2H3, CH0 αβ and HEK-293 cells. The strength of cell anchoring was assayed by shear forces. In all cases 'hydrophobic anchoring' via a spacer caused elective anchoring much beyond controls. Such cell anchoring was employed for the imaging of RBL-2H3 cells by SFM. Images showed considerable finer details than images of loosely adsorbed cells. With about 50 rim resolution, SFM succeeded in imaging microvilli, filopodia, single cytoskeletal fibers (microtubules, microfilaments) and vesicles. In addition, as a consequence of cell stimulation upon ionomycin treatment, lamellae formation and the appearance of secretory granules on top of them were observed which indicates the viability of anchored

  11. Measuring Forces between Oxide Surfaces Using the Atomic Force Microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik Guldberg; Høj, Jakob Weiland

    1996-01-01

    The interactions between colloidal particles play a major role in processing of ceramics, especially in casting processes. With the Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) it is possible to measure the inter-action force between a small oxide particle (a few micron) and a surface as function of surface...

  12. Probing Anisotropic Surface Properties and Surface Forces of Fluorite Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhiyong; Xie, Lei; Cui, Xin; Hu, Yuehua; Sun, Wei; Zeng, Hongbo

    2018-02-20

    Fluorite is the most important mineral source for producing fluorine-based chemicals and materials in a wide range of engineering and technological applications. In this work, atomic force microscopy was employed, for the first time, to probe the surface interactions and adhesion energy of model oleic acid (a commonly used surface modification organics for fluorite) molecules on fluorite surfaces with different orientations in both air and aqueous solutions at different pH conditions. Fitted with the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek theory, the force results during surface approaching demonstrate the anisotropy in the surface charge of different orientations, with the {111} surface exhibiting a higher magnitude of surface charge, which could be attributed to the difference in the atomic composition. The adhesion measured during surface retraction shows that model oleic acid molecules have a stronger adhesion with the {100} surface than with the {111} surface in both air and aqueous solutions. The anisotropic adhesion energy was analyzed in relation to the surface atom (especially calcium) activity, which was supported by the surface free energy results calculated based on a three-probe-liquid method. Each calcium atom on the {100} surface with four dangling bonds is more active than the calcium atom on the {111} surface with only one dangling bond, supported by a larger value of the Lewis acid component for the {100} surface. The model oleic acid molecules present in the ionic form at pH 9 exhibit a higher adhesion energy with fluorite surfaces as compared to their molecular form at pH 6, which was related to the surface activity of different forms. The adhesion energy measured in solution is much lower than that in air, indicating that the solvent exerts an important influence on the interactions of organic molecules with mineral surfaces. The results provide useful information on the fundamental understanding of surface interactions and adhesion energy of organic

  13. Preparation of stable silica surfaces for surface forces measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Huai-Yin; Mizukami, Masashi; Kurihara, Kazue

    2017-09-01

    A surface forces apparatus (SFA) measures the forces between two surfaces as a function of the surface separation distance. It is regarded as an essential tool for studying the interactions between two surfaces. However, sample surfaces used for the conventional SFA measurements have been mostly limited to thin (ca. 2-3 μm) micas, which are coated with silver layers (ca. 50 nm) on their back, due to the requirement of the distance determination by transmission mode optical interferometry called FECO (fringes of equal chromatic order). The FECO method has the advantage of determining the absolute distance, so it should be important to increase the availability of samples other than mica, which is chemically nonreactive and also requires significant efforts for cleaving. Recently, silica sheets have been occasionally used in place of mica, which increases the possibility of surface modification. However, in this case, the silver layer side of the sheet is glued on a cylindrical quartz disc using epoxy resin, which is not stable in organic solvents and can be easily swollen or dissolved. The preparation of substrates more stable under severe conditions, such as in organic solvents, is necessary for extending application of the measurement. In this study, we report an easy method for preparing stable silica layers of ca. 2 μm in thickness deposited on gold layers (41 nm)/silica discs by sputtering, then annealed to enhance the stability. The obtained silica layers were stable and showed no swelling in organic solvents such as ethanol and toluene.

  14. Theoretical Models for Surface Forces and Adhesion and Their Measurement Using Atomic Force Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Fabio L.; Bueno, Carolina C.; Da Róz, Alessandra L.; Ziemath, Ervino C.; Oliveira, Osvaldo N.

    2012-01-01

    The increasing importance of studies on soft matter and their impact on new technologies, including those associated with nanotechnology, has brought intermolecular and surface forces to the forefront of physics and materials science, for these are the prevailing forces in micro and nanosystems. With experimental methods such as the atomic force spectroscopy (AFS), it is now possible to measure these forces accurately, in addition to providing information on local material properties such as elasticity, hardness and adhesion. This review provides the theoretical and experimental background of AFS, adhesion forces, intermolecular interactions and surface forces in air, vacuum and in solution. PMID:23202925

  15. Theoretical models for surface forces and adhesion and their measurement using atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Fabio L; Bueno, Carolina C; Da Róz, Alessandra L; Ziemath, Ervino C; Oliveira, Osvaldo N

    2012-10-08

    The increasing importance of studies on soft matter and their impact on new technologies, including those associated with nanotechnology, has brought intermolecular and surface forces to the forefront of physics and materials science, for these are the prevailing forces in micro and nanosystems. With experimental methods such as the atomic force spectroscopy (AFS), it is now possible to measure these forces accurately, in addition to providing information on local material properties such as elasticity, hardness and adhesion. This review provides the theoretical and experimental background of afs, adhesion forces, intermolecular interactions and surface forces in air, vacuum and in solution.

  16. Roughness in Surface Force Measurements: Extension of DLVO Theory To Describe the Forces between Hafnia Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Namsoon; Parsons, Drew F; Craig, Vincent S J

    2017-07-06

    The interaction between colloidal particles is commonly viewed through the lens of DLVO theory, whereby the interaction is described as the sum of the electrostatic and dispersion forces. For similar materials acting across a medium at pH values remote from the isoelectric point the theory typically involves an electrostatic repulsion that is overcome by dispersion forces at very small separations. However, the dominance of the dispersion forces at short separations is generally not seen in force measurements, with the exception of the interaction between mica surfaces. The discrepancy for silica surfaces has been attributed to hydration forces, but this does not explain the situation for titania surfaces where the dispersion forces are very much larger. Here, the interaction forces between very smooth hafnia surfaces have been measured using the colloid probe technique and the forces evaluated within the DLVO framework, including both hydration forces and the influence of roughness. The measured forces across a wide range of pH at different salt concentrations are well described with a single parameter for the surface roughness. These findings show that even small degrees of surface roughness significantly alter the form of the interaction force and therefore indicate that surface roughness needs to be included in the evaluation of surface forces between all surfaces that are not ideally smooth.

  17. Theoretical Investigation of Hydrogen Adsorption and Dissociation on Iron and Iron Carbide Surfaces Using the ReaxFF Reactive Force Field Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Chenyu; van Duin, Adri C.T.; Sorescu, Dan C.

    2012-06-01

    We have developed a ReaxFF reactive force field to describe hydrogen adsorption and dissociation on iron and iron carbide surfaces relevant for simulation of Fischer–Tropsch (FT) synthesis on iron catalysts. This force field enables large system (>>1000 atoms) simulations of hydrogen related reactions with iron. The ReaxFF force field parameters are trained against a substantial amount of structural and energetic data including the equations of state and heats of formation of iron and iron carbide related materials, as well as hydrogen interaction with iron surfaces and different phases of bulk iron. We have validated the accuracy and applicability of ReaxFF force field by carrying out molecular dynamics simulations of hydrogen adsorption, dissociation and recombination on iron and iron carbide surfaces. The barriers and reaction energies for molecular dissociation on these two types of surfaces have been compared and the effect of subsurface carbon on hydrogen interaction with iron surface is evaluated. We found that existence of carbon atoms at subsurface iron sites tends to increase the hydrogen dissociation energy barrier on the surface, and also makes the corresponding hydrogen dissociative state relatively more stable compared to that on bare iron. These properties of iron carbide will affect the dissociation rate of H{sub 2} and will retain more surface hydride species, thus influencing the dynamics of the FT synthesis process.

  18. An improved method for calculation of interface pressure force in PLIC-VOF methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sefollahi, M.; Shirani, E.

    2004-08-01

    Conventional methods for the modeling of surface tension force in Piecewise Linear Interface Calculation-Volume of Fluid (PLIC-VOF) methods, such as Continuum Surface Force (CSF), Continuum Surface Stress (CSS) and also Meier's method, convert the surface tension force into a body force. Not only do they include the force in the interfacial cells but also in the neighboring cells. Thus they produce spurious currents. Also the pressure jump, due to the surface tension, is not calculated accurately in these methods. In this paper a more accurate method for the application of interface force in the computational modeling of free surfaces and interfaces which use PLIC-VOF methods is developed. This method is based on the evaluation of the surface tension force only in the interfacial cells and not the neighboring cells. Also the normal and the interface surface area needed for the calculation of the surface tension force is calculated more accurately. The present method is applied to a two-dimensional motionless drop of liquid and a bubble of gas as well as a non-circular two-dimensional drop, which oscillates due to the surface tension force, in an initially stagnant fluid with no gravity force. The results are compared with the results of the cases when CSF, CSS and Meier's methods are used. It is shown that the present method calculates pressure jump at the interface more accurately and produces less spurious currents comparing to CSS an CSF models. (author)

  19. Method of Calibrating a Force Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Peter A. (Inventor); Rhew, Ray D. (Inventor); Johnson, Thomas H. (Inventor); Landman, Drew (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A calibration system and method utilizes acceleration of a mass to generate a force on the mass. An expected value of the force is calculated based on the magnitude and acceleration of the mass. A fixture is utilized to mount the mass to a force balance, and the force balance is calibrated to provide a reading consistent with the expected force determined for a given acceleration. The acceleration can be varied to provide different expected forces, and the force balance can be calibrated for different applied forces. The acceleration may result from linear acceleration of the mass or rotational movement of the mass.

  20. Reynolds analogy for subcooled surface boiling under forced convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avdeev, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    For the case of subcooled surface boiling under forced convection the analytic expression of analogy between the heat transfer and carry pulse (Reynolds analogy) is derived. It is concluded that the obtained dependence creates the basis for solution of a series of problems of surface boiling physics. On the basis of the performed analysis the method of coordinate calculation of the origin of intensive vapour generation is developed and the formula for calculation of the broken-off-bubble radius under forced convection is derived [ru

  1. Molecular Tension Probes for Imaging Forces at the Cell Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Galior, Kornelia; Ma, Victor Pui-Yan; Salaita, Khalid

    2017-12-19

    Mechanical forces are essential for a variety of biological processes ranging from transcription and translation to cell adhesion, migration, and differentiation. Through the activation of mechanosensitive signaling pathways, cells sense and respond to physical stimuli from the surrounding environment, a process widely known as mechanotransduction. At the cell membrane, many signaling receptors, such as integrins, cadherins and T- or B-cell receptors, bind to their ligands on the surface of adjacent cells or the extracellular matrix (ECM) to mediate mechanotransduction. Upon ligation, these receptor-ligand bonds transmit piconewton (pN) mechanical forces that are generated, in part, by the cytoskeleton. Importantly, these forces expose cryptic sites within mechanosensitive proteins and modulate the binding kinetics (on/off rate) of receptor-ligand complexes to further fine-tune mechanotransduction and the corresponding cell behavior. Over the past three decades, two categories of methods have been developed to measure cell receptor forces. The first class is traction force microscopy (TFM) and micropost array detectors (mPADs). In these methods, cells are cultured on elastic polymers or microstructures that deform under mechanical forces. The second category of techniques is single molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS) including atomic force microscopy (AFM), optical or magnetic tweezers, and biomembrane force probe (BFP). In SMFS, the experimenter applies external forces to probe the mechanics of individual cells or single receptor-ligand complexes, serially, one bond at a time. Although these techniques are powerful, the limited throughput of SMFS and the nN force sensitivity of TFM have hindered further elucidation of the molecular mechanisms of mechanotransduction. In this Account, we introduce the recent advent of molecular tension fluorescence microscopy (MTFM) as an emerging tool for molecular imaging of receptor mechanics in living cells. MTFM probes are

  2. Method for lateral force calibration in atomic force microscope using MEMS microforce sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziekoński, Cezary; Dera, Wojciech; Jarząbek, Dariusz M

    2017-11-01

    In this paper we present a simple and direct method for the lateral force calibration constant determination. Our procedure does not require any knowledge about material or geometrical parameters of an investigated cantilever. We apply a commercially available microforce sensor with advanced electronics for direct measurement of the friction force applied by the cantilever's tip to a flat surface of the microforce sensor measuring beam. Due to the third law of dynamics, the friction force of the equal value tilts the AFM cantilever. Therefore, torsional (lateral force) signal is compared with the signal from the microforce sensor and the lateral force calibration constant is determined. The method is easy to perform and could be widely used for the lateral force calibration constant determination in many types of atomic force microscopes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Nonlinear structural analysis using integrated force method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Force method in the pre-computer era was the popular analysis tool for civil, mechanical and aerospace engineering structures. This popularity can be attributed to its ability to determine accurate estimates of forces in the structure. During the formulative period of structural analysis by matrix methods, earnest research was ...

  4. Nonlinear structural analysis using integrated force method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    During the formulative period of structural analysis by matrix methods, earnest research was directed to automate the force ... (1973) for the analysis of discrete and continuous systems. IFM is a force method of .... (Nagabhushanam & Patnaik 1989) are being developed, which helps the use of efficient solution techniques for ...

  5. Understanding nanorheology and surface forces of confined thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jun; Yan, Bin; Faghihnejad, Ali; Xu, Haolan; Zeng, Hongbo

    2014-02-01

    Understanding the nanorheology and associated intermolecular/surface forces of fluids in confined geometries or porous media is of both fundamental and practical importance, providing significant insights into various applications such as lubrication and micro/nanoelectromechanical systems. In this work, we briefly reviewed the fundamentals of nanoreheolgy, advances in experimental techniques and theoretical simulation methods, as well as important progress in the nanorheology of confined thin films. The advent of advanced experimental techniques such as surface forces apparatus (SFA), X-ray surface forces apparatus (XSFA) and atomic force microscope (AFM) and computational methods such as molecular dynamics simulations provides powerful tools to study a wide range of rheological phenomena at molecular level and nano scale. One of the most challenging issues unresolved is to elucidate the relationship between the rheological properties and structural evolution of the confined fluid films and particles suspensions. Some of the emerging research areas in the nanorheology field include, but are not limited to, the development of more advanced characterization techniques, design of multifunctional rheological fluids, bio-related nanorheology, and polymer brushes.

  6. Multilevel Summation Method for Electrostatic Force Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The multilevel summation method (MSM) offers an efficient algorithm utilizing convolution for evaluating long-range forces arising in molecular dynamics simulations. Shifting the balance of computation and communication, MSM provides key advantages over the ubiquitous particle–mesh Ewald (PME) method, offering better scaling on parallel computers and permitting more modeling flexibility, with support for periodic systems as does PME but also for semiperiodic and nonperiodic systems. The version of MSM available in the simulation program NAMD is described, and its performance and accuracy are compared with the PME method. The accuracy feasible for MSM in practical applications reproduces PME results for water property calculations of density, diffusion constant, dielectric constant, surface tension, radial distribution function, and distance-dependent Kirkwood factor, even though the numerical accuracy of PME is higher than that of MSM. Excellent agreement between MSM and PME is found also for interface potentials of air–water and membrane–water interfaces, where long-range Coulombic interactions are crucial. Applications demonstrate also the suitability of MSM for systems with semiperiodic and nonperiodic boundaries. For this purpose, simulations have been performed with periodic boundaries along directions parallel to a membrane surface but not along the surface normal, yielding membrane pore formation induced by an imbalance of charge across the membrane. Using a similar semiperiodic boundary condition, ion conduction through a graphene nanopore driven by an ion gradient has been simulated. Furthermore, proteins have been simulated inside a single spherical water droplet. Finally, parallel scalability results show the ability of MSM to outperform PME when scaling a system of modest size (less than 100 K atoms) to over a thousand processors, demonstrating the suitability of MSM for large-scale parallel simulation. PMID:25691833

  7. Surface energy budget responses to radiative forcing at Summit, Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Nathaniel B.; Shupe, Matthew D.; Cox, Christopher J.; Noone, David; Persson, P. Ola G.; Steffen, Konrad

    2017-02-01

    Greenland Ice Sheet surface temperatures are controlled by an exchange of energy at the surface, which includes radiative, turbulent, and ground heat fluxes. Data collected by multiple projects are leveraged to calculate all surface energy budget (SEB) terms at Summit, Greenland, for the full annual cycle from July 2013 to June 2014 and extend to longer periods for the radiative and turbulent SEB terms. Radiative fluxes are measured directly by a suite of broadband radiometers. Turbulent sensible heat flux is estimated via the bulk aerodynamic and eddy correlation methods, and the turbulent latent heat flux is calculated via a two-level approach using measurements at 10 and 2 m. The subsurface heat flux is calculated using a string of thermistors buried in the snow pack. Extensive quality-control data processing produced a data set in which all terms of the SEB are present 75 % of the full annual cycle, despite the harsh conditions. By including a storage term for a near-surface layer, the SEB is balanced in this data set to within the aggregated uncertainties for the individual terms. November and August case studies illustrate that surface radiative forcing is driven by synoptically forced cloud characteristics, especially by low-level, liquid-bearing clouds. The annual cycle and seasonal diurnal cycles of all SEB components indicate that the non-radiative terms are anticorrelated to changes in the total radiative flux and are hence responding to cloud radiative forcing. Generally, the non-radiative SEB terms and the upwelling longwave radiation component compensate for changes in downwelling radiation, although exact partitioning of energy in the response terms varies with season and near-surface characteristics such as stability and moisture availability. Substantial surface warming from low-level clouds typically leads to a change from a very stable to a weakly stable near-surface regime with no solar radiation or from a weakly stable to neutral

  8. Quantitative assessment of contact and non-contact lateral force calibration methods for atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Khac, Bien Cuong; Chung, Koo-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) has been widely used for measuring friction force at the nano-scale. However, one of the key challenges faced by AFM researchers is to calibrate an AFM system to interpret a lateral force signal as a quantifiable force. In this study, five rectangular cantilevers were used to quantitatively compare three different lateral force calibration methods to demonstrate the legitimacy and to establish confidence in the quantitative integrity of the proposed methods. The Flat-Wedge method is based on a variation of the lateral output on a surface with flat and changing slopes, the Multi-Load Pivot method is based on taking pivot measurements at several locations along the cantilever length, and the Lateral AFM Thermal-Sader method is based on determining the optical lever sensitivity from the thermal noise spectrum of the first torsional mode with a known torsional spring constant from the Sader method. The results of the calibration using the Flat-Wedge and Multi-Load Pivot methods were found to be consistent within experimental uncertainties, and the experimental uncertainties of the two methods were found to be less than 15%. However, the lateral force sensitivity determined by the Lateral AFM Thermal-Sader method was found to be 8–29% smaller than those obtained from the other two methods. This discrepancy decreased to 3–19% when the torsional mode correction factor for an ideal cantilever was used, which suggests that the torsional mode correction should be taken into account to establish confidence in Lateral AFM Thermal-Sader method. - Highlights: • Quantitative assessment of three lateral force calibration methods for AFM. • Advantages and disadvantages of three different lateral force calibration method. • Implementation of Multi-Load Pivot method as non-contact calibration technique. • The torsional mode correction for Lateral AFM Thermal-Sader method.

  9. Quantitative assessment of contact and non-contact lateral force calibration methods for atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran Khac, Bien Cuong; Chung, Koo-Hyun, E-mail: khchung@ulsan.ac.kr

    2016-02-15

    Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) has been widely used for measuring friction force at the nano-scale. However, one of the key challenges faced by AFM researchers is to calibrate an AFM system to interpret a lateral force signal as a quantifiable force. In this study, five rectangular cantilevers were used to quantitatively compare three different lateral force calibration methods to demonstrate the legitimacy and to establish confidence in the quantitative integrity of the proposed methods. The Flat-Wedge method is based on a variation of the lateral output on a surface with flat and changing slopes, the Multi-Load Pivot method is based on taking pivot measurements at several locations along the cantilever length, and the Lateral AFM Thermal-Sader method is based on determining the optical lever sensitivity from the thermal noise spectrum of the first torsional mode with a known torsional spring constant from the Sader method. The results of the calibration using the Flat-Wedge and Multi-Load Pivot methods were found to be consistent within experimental uncertainties, and the experimental uncertainties of the two methods were found to be less than 15%. However, the lateral force sensitivity determined by the Lateral AFM Thermal-Sader method was found to be 8–29% smaller than those obtained from the other two methods. This discrepancy decreased to 3–19% when the torsional mode correction factor for an ideal cantilever was used, which suggests that the torsional mode correction should be taken into account to establish confidence in Lateral AFM Thermal-Sader method. - Highlights: • Quantitative assessment of three lateral force calibration methods for AFM. • Advantages and disadvantages of three different lateral force calibration method. • Implementation of Multi-Load Pivot method as non-contact calibration technique. • The torsional mode correction for Lateral AFM Thermal-Sader method.

  10. Surface chemical reactions probed with scanning force microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werts, M.P L; van der Vegte, E.W.; Hadziioannou, G

    1997-01-01

    In this letter we report the study of surface chemical reactions with scanning force microscopy (SFM) with chemical specificity. Using chemically modified SFM probes, we can determine the local surface reaction conversion during a chemical surface modification. The adhesion forces between a

  11. Surface structure investigations using noncontact atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolodziej, J.J.; Such, B.; Goryl, M.; Krok, F.; Piatkowski, P.; Szymonski, M.

    2006-01-01

    Surfaces of several A III B V compound semiconductors (InSb, GaAs, InP, InAs) of the (0 0 1) orientation have been studied with noncontact atomic force microscopy (NC-AFM). Obtained atomically resolved patterns have been compared with structural models available in the literature. It is shown that NC-AFM is an efficient tool for imaging complex surface structures in real space. It is also demonstrated that the recent structural models of III-V compound surfaces provide a sound base for interpretation of majority of features present in recorded patterns. However, there are also many new findings revealed by the NC-AFM method that is still new experimental technique in the context of surface structure determination

  12. Characterization of polymer surface structure and surface mechanical behaviour by sum frequency generation surface vibrational spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opdahl, Aric; Koffas, Telly S; Amitay-Sadovsky, Ella; Kim, Joonyeong; Somorjai, Gabor A

    2004-01-01

    Sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM) have been used to study polymer surface structure and surface mechanical behaviour, specifically to study the relationships between the surface properties of polymers and their bulk compositions and the environment to which the polymer is exposed. The combination of SFG surface vibrational spectroscopy and AFM has been used to study surface segregation behaviour of polyolefin blends at the polymer/air and polymer/solid interfaces. SFG surface vibrational spectroscopy and AFM experiments have also been performed to characterize the properties of polymer/liquid and polymer/polymer interfaces, focusing on hydrogel materials. A method was developed to study the surface properties of hydrogel contact lens materials at various hydration conditions. Finally, the effect of mechanical stretching on the surface composition and surface mechanical behaviour of phase-separated polyurethanes, used in biomedical implant devices, has been studied by both SFG surface vibrational spectroscopy and AFM. (topical review)

  13. Surface Force of Polystyrene Latex Particles in Aqueous Anionic Amphipathic Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Masatoshi; Hamochi, Nagisa; Kato, Tadashi

    2008-07-01

    The surface forces between a polystyrene particle (negatively charged surface) of latex and a flat silica plate for several concentrations of aqueous solution of anionic amphipathic molecules (sodium dodecylsulfonate) were investigated using an atomic force microscope (AFM) colloidal probe method. In the lower concentration region approximately 1-2 mM, the surface force showed general repulsive profiles according to normal Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory between the surfaces having the same sign of surface charge under an electrolyte aqueous solution. While in the higher concentration region at less than the critical micelle concentration (cmc), the surface force showed attractive profiles. Findings suggest that the anionic amphipathic molecules adsorbed to the polystyrene particle in the higher concentration region and induced changes in the surface morphology and properties of the surface region. The change in the surface morphology is believed to be one of the origins of the attractive interaction.

  14. Adhesion force between cyclopentane hydrate and mineral surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aman, Zachary M; Leith, William J; Grasso, Giovanny A; Sloan, E Dendy; Sum, Amadeu K; Koh, Carolyn A

    2013-12-17

    Clathrate hydrate adhesion forces play a critical role in describing aggregation and deposition behavior in conventional energy production and transportation. This manuscript uses a unique micromechanical force apparatus to measure the adhesion force between cyclopentane hydrate and heterogeneous quartz and calcite substrates. The latter substrates represent models for coproduced sand and scale often present during conventional energy production and transportation. Micromechanical adhesion force data indicate that clathrate hydrate adhesive forces are 5-10× larger for calcite and quartz minerals than stainless steel. Adhesive forces further increased by 3-15× when increasing surface contact time from 10 to 30 s. In some cases, liquid water from within the hydrate shell contacted the mineral surface and rapidly converted to clathrate hydrate. Further measurements on mineral surfaces with physical control of surface roughness showed a nonlinear dependence of water wetting angle on surface roughness. Existing adhesive force theory correctly predicted the dependence of clathrate hydrate adhesive force on calcite wettability, but did not accurately capture the dependence on quartz wettability. This comparison suggests that the substrate surface may not be inert, and may contribute positively to the strength of the capillary bridge formed between hydrate particles and solid surfaces.

  15. Modeling Enzymatic Transition States by Force Field Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mikkel Bo; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aagaard; Jensen, Frank

    2009-01-01

    The SEAM method, which models a transition structure as a minimum on the seam of two diabatic surfaces represented by force field functions, has been used to generate 20 transition structures for the decarboxylation of orotidine by the orotidine-5'-monophosphate decarboxylase enzyme. The dependence...... by various electronic structure methods, where part of the enzyme is represented by a force field description and the effects of the solvent are represented by a continuum model. The relative energies vary by several hundreds of kJ/mol between the transition structures, and tests showed that a large part...

  16. The extended surface forces apparatus. IV. Precision static pressure control

    OpenAIRE

    Schurtenberger E; Heuberger M

    2011-01-01

    We report on design and performance of an extended surface forces apparatus (eSFA) built into a pressurized system. The aim of this instrument is to provide control over static pressure and temperature to facilitate direct surface force experiments in equilibrium with fluids at different loci of their phase diagram. We built an autoclave that can bear a miniature eSFA. To avoid mechanical or electrical feedtroughs the miniature apparatus uses an external surface coarse approach stage under am...

  17. Computing Method of Forces on Rivet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion DIMA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to provide a quick methodology of forces calculation on rivet in single shear using the finite element method (FEM – NASTRAN/PATRAN. These forces can be used for the calculus of bearing, inter rivet buckling and riveting check. For this method to be efficient and fast, a macro has been developed based on this methodology described in the article. The macro was wrote in Visual Basic with Excel interface. In the beginning phase of any aircraft project, when the rivets type and position are not yet precisely known, the modelling of rivets, as attachment elements between items, is made node on node in the finite element model, without taking account of the rivets position. Although the rivets are not modelled in the finite element model, this method together with the macro enable a quick extraction and calculation of the forces on the rivet. This calculation of forces on rivet is intended to critical case, selected from the stress plots of NASTRAN for max. /min. principal stress and shear.

  18. Surface Force Strategy: Return to Sea Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    the freedom of the seas provided by the U.S. Navy. Threats ranging from low-end piracy to well-armed non-state militant groups, to the navies of...improvements to mission planning software , battle management software for Warfare Commanders, and tools to manage unit and force level emissions. The

  19. A relationship between three-dimensional surface hydration structures and force distribution measured by atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, Keisuke; Kobayashi, Naritaka; Watkins, Matthew; Shluger, Alexander L.; Amano, Ken-Ichi; Fukuma, Takeshi

    2016-03-01

    Hydration plays important roles in various solid-liquid interfacial phenomena. Very recently, three-dimensional scanning force microscopy (3D-SFM) has been proposed as a tool to visualise solvated surfaces and their hydration structures with lateral and vertical (sub) molecular resolution. However, the relationship between the 3D force map obtained and the equilibrium water density, ρ(r), distribution above the surface remains an open question. Here, we investigate this relationship at an interface of an inorganic mineral, fluorite, and water. The force maps measured in pure water are directly compared to force maps generated using the solvent tip approximation (STA) model and from explicit molecular dynamics simulations. The results show that the simulated STA force map describes the major features of the experimentally obtained force image. The agreement between the STA data and the experiment establishes the correspondence between the water density used as an input to the STA model and the experimental hydration structure and thus provides a tool to bridge the experimental force data and atomistic solvation structures. Further applications of this method should improve the accuracy and reliability of both interpretation of 3D-SFM force maps and atomistic simulations in a wide range of solid-liquid interfacial phenomena.Hydration plays important roles in various solid-liquid interfacial phenomena. Very recently, three-dimensional scanning force microscopy (3D-SFM) has been proposed as a tool to visualise solvated surfaces and their hydration structures with lateral and vertical (sub) molecular resolution. However, the relationship between the 3D force map obtained and the equilibrium water density, ρ(r), distribution above the surface remains an open question. Here, we investigate this relationship at an interface of an inorganic mineral, fluorite, and water. The force maps measured in pure water are directly compared to force maps generated using the solvent

  20. Shear force microscopy using piezoresistive cantilevers in surface metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotszalk, Teodor; Kopiec, Daniel; Sierakowski, Andrzej; Janus, Paweł; Grabiec, Piotr; Rangelow, Ivo W.

    2014-09-01

    In this article we describe application of piezoresistive cantilevers in surface investigations carried out with the use of shear force microscopy (ShFM). The novel piezoresistive cantilevers integrate a Wheatstone piezoresistive bridge was used to detect the cantilever deflection, thermal deflection detector and planar tip protruding out of the spring beam. Because the planar tip deflection can be detected and controlled electronically the described technology is very flexible and can be applied in many surface investigations. In this article we will present operation theory of the described solution, experimental setup, methods for calibration of the tip deflection detection and actuation The analysis will be illustrated with example results of topography measurements performed using the described technology.

  1. Frictional forces between hydrophilic and hydrophobic particle coated nanostructured surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansson, Petra M; Claesson, Per M.; Swerin, Agne

    2013-01-01

    Friction forces have long been associated with the famous Amontons' rule that states that the friction force is linearly dependent on the applied normal load, with the proportionality constant being known as the friction coefficient. Amontons' rule is however purely phenomenological and does...... not in itself provide any information on why the friction coefficient is different for different material combinations. In this study, friction forces between a colloidal probe and nanostructured particle coated surfaces in an aqueous environment exhibiting different roughness length scales were measured...... by utilizing the atomic force microscope (AFM). The chemistry of the surfaces and the probe was varied between hydrophilic silica and hydrophobized silica. For hydrophilic silica surfaces, the friction coefficient was significantly higher for the particle coated surfaces than on the flat reference surface. All...

  2. Recent advances in the surface forces apparatus (SFA) technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israelachvili, J.; Min, Y.; Akbulut, M.; Alig, A.; Carver, G.; Greene, W.; Kristiansen, K.; Meyer, E.; Pesika, N.; Rosenberg, K.; Zeng, H.

    2010-03-01

    The surface forces apparatus (SFA) has been used for many years to measure the physical forces between surfaces, such as van der Waals (including Casimir) and electrostatic forces in vapors and liquids, adhesion and capillary forces, forces due to surface and liquid structure (e.g. solvation and hydration forces), polymer, steric and hydrophobic interactions, bio-specific interactions as well as friction and lubrication forces. Here we describe recent developments in the SFA technique, specifically the SFA 2000, its simplicity of operation and its extension into new areas of measurement of both static and dynamic forces as well as both normal and lateral (shear and friction) forces. The main reason for the greater simplicity of the SFA 2000 is that it operates on one central simple-cantilever spring to generate both coarse and fine motions over a total range of seven orders of magnitude (from millimeters to ångstroms). In addition, the SFA 2000 is more spacious and modulated so that new attachments and extra parts can easily be fitted for performing more extended types of experiments (e.g. extended strain friction experiments and higher rate dynamic experiments) as well as traditionally non-SFA type experiments (e.g. scanning probe microscopy and atomic force microscopy) and for studying different types of systems.

  3. Adhesion force of staphylococcus aureus on various biomaterial surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Fahad; Balani, Kantesh

    2017-01-01

    Staphylococcus comprises of more than half of all pathogens in orthopedic implant infections and they can cause major bone infection which can result in destruction of joint and bone. In the current study, adhesion force of bacteria on the surface of various biomaterial surfaces is measured using atomic force microscope (AFM). Staphylococcus aureus was immobilized on an AFM tipless cantilever as a force probe to measure the adhesion force between bacteria and biomaterials (viz. ultra-high molecular weight poly ethylene (UHMWPE), stainless steel (SS), Ti-6Al-4V alloy, hydroxyapatite (HA)). At the contact time of 10s, UHMWPE shows weak adhesion force (~4nN) whereas SS showed strong adhesion force (~15nN) due to their surface energy and surface roughness. Bacterial retention and viability experiment (3M™ petrifilm test, agar plate) dictates that hydroxyapatite shows the lowest vaibility of bacteria, whereas lowest bacterial retention is observed on UHMWPE surface. Similar results were obtained from live/dead staining test, where HA shows 65% viability, whereas on UHMWPE, SS and Ti-6Al-4V, the bacterial viability is 78%, 94% and 97%, respectively. Lower adhesion forces, constrained pull-off distance (of bacterial) and high antibacterial resistance of bioactive-HA makes it a potential biomaterial for bone-replacement arthroplasty. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Construction of force-free fields which have toroidal surfaces about a given surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouligand, G.

    1983-05-01

    A study of two-fields (B vector, rotB vector) of conservative flux which admits a family of toroidal surfaces of parameter phi on a domain limited by a given surface S, suggests their construction by a Cauchy-Arzela method of step by step. Taking into account the Newcomb condition this method is consistent with force-free magnetic fields and with helical equilibria with scalar pressure. The method supposes that B vector is of class C 1 . This construction makes use of the remarkable property of the field B vector to be the surface gradient of a generating multivalued function Q on a closed surface. Consequently, the initial surface will be given with its normal metric coefficient K; that is to say, B vector admits a family F of homotopic surfaces on a infinitesimal domain about S, an element of F. From this, the periodic part of Q is a solution of a Beltrami equation for the flux conservation of which numerical resolution is envisaged. The study of these fields is made in a biorthogonal system of coordinates. The coeffficients of the two fundamental metric forms of magnetic surfaces vary with phi and are interrelated by a sixth order differential system of equations which gives their variation [fr

  5. Surface forces between hydrophilic silica surfaces in a moisture-sensitive oleophilic diacrylate monomer liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Shunya; Kasuya, Motohiro; Kurihara, Kazue; Nakagawa, Masaru

    2018-02-01

    We measured the surface forces generated between fused silica surfaces in a low-viscosity oleophilic diacrylate monomer for reliably repeated ultraviolet (UV) nanoimprinting, and studied the influence of water in monomer liquids on the forces. Fused silica surfaces, with a static contact angle of 52.6 ± 1.7° for water, owing to the low degree of hydroxylation, hardly showed reproducible surface forces with repeated scan cycles, comprising approach and separation, even in an identical liquid monomer medium with both of low and high water content. The monomer liquid with a high water content of approximately 420 ppm showed a greater tendency to increase the surface forces at longer surface-surface distances compared with the monomer liquid with a low water content of approximately 60 ppm. On the other hand, silica surfaces with a water contact angle of < 5° after exposure to vacuum UV (VUV) light under a reduced air pressure showed reproducible profiles of surfaces forces using the monomer with a low water concentration of approximately 60 ppm for repeated surface forces scan cycles even in separately prepared silica surfaces, whilst they showed less reproducible profiles in the liquids with high water content of 430 ppm. These results suggested that water possibly adsorbed on the hydrophilic and hydrophobic silica surfaces in the monomer liquid of the high water concentration influenced the repeatability of the surface forces profiles.

  6. Circuit Design of Surface Acoustic Wave Based Micro Force Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pressure sensors are commonly used in industrial production and mechanical system. However, resistance strain, piezoresistive sensor, and ceramic capacitive pressure sensors possess limitations, especially in micro force measurement. A surface acoustic wave (SAW based micro force sensor is designed in this paper, which is based on the theories of wavelet transform, SAW detection, and pierce oscillator circuits. Using lithium niobate as the basal material, a mathematical model is established to analyze the frequency, and a peripheral circuit is designed to measure the micro force. The SAW based micro force sensor is tested to show the reasonable design of detection circuit and the stability of frequency and amplitude.

  7. Force control is related to low-frequency oscillations in force and surface EMG.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwasil Moon

    Full Text Available Force variability during constant force tasks is directly related to oscillations below 0.5 Hz in force. However, it is unknown whether such oscillations exist in muscle activity. The purpose of this paper, therefore, was to determine whether oscillations below 0.5 Hz in force are evident in the activation of muscle. Fourteen young adults (21.07 ± 2.76 years, 7 women performed constant isometric force tasks at 5% and 30% MVC by abducting the left index finger. We recorded the force output from the index finger and surface EMG from the first dorsal interosseous (FDI muscle and quantified the following outcomes: 1 variability of force using the SD of force; 2 power spectrum of force below 2 Hz; 3 EMG bursts; 4 power spectrum of EMG bursts below 2 Hz; and 5 power spectrum of the interference EMG from 10-300 Hz. The SD of force increased significantly from 5 to 30% MVC and this increase was significantly related to the increase in force oscillations below 0.5 Hz (R(2 = 0.82. For both force levels, the power spectrum for force and EMG burst was similar and contained most of the power from 0-0.5 Hz. Force and EMG burst oscillations below 0.5 Hz were highly coherent (coherence = 0.68. The increase in force oscillations below 0.5 Hz from 5 to 30% MVC was related to an increase in EMG burst oscillations below 0.5 Hz (R(2 = 0.51. Finally, there was a strong association between the increase in EMG burst oscillations below 0.5 Hz and the interference EMG from 35-60 Hz (R(2 = 0.95. In conclusion, this finding demonstrates that bursting of the EMG signal contains low-frequency oscillations below 0.5 Hz, which are associated with oscillations in force below 0.5 Hz.

  8. Modeling noncontact atomic force microscopy resolution on corrugated surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen M. Burson

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Key developments in NC-AFM have generally involved atomically flat crystalline surfaces. However, many surfaces of technological interest are not atomically flat. We discuss the experimental difficulties in obtaining high-resolution images of rough surfaces, with amorphous SiO2 as a specific case. We develop a quasi-1-D minimal model for noncontact atomic force microscopy, based on van der Waals interactions between a spherical tip and the surface, explicitly accounting for the corrugated substrate (modeled as a sinusoid. The model results show an attenuation of the topographic contours by ~30% for tip distances within 5 Å of the surface. Results also indicate a deviation from the Hamaker force law for a sphere interacting with a flat surface.

  9. Atomic force microscopy characterization of the surface wettability of natural fibres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietak, Alexis; Korte, Sandra; Tan, Emelyn; Downard, Alison; Staiger, Mark P.

    2007-01-01

    Natural fibres represent a readily available source of ecologically friendly and inexpensive reinforcement in composites with degradable thermoplastics, however chemical treatments of fibres are required to prepare feasible composites. It is desirable to characterize the surface wettability of fibres after chemical treatment as the polarity of cellulose-based fibres influences compatibility with a polymer matrix. Assessment of the surface wettability of natural fibres using conventional methods presents a challenge as the surfaces are morphologically and chemically heterogeneous, rough, and can be strongly wicking. In this work it is shown that under atmospheric conditions the adhesion force between an atomic force microscopy (AFM) tip and the fibre surface can estimate the water contact angle and surface wettability of the fibre. AFM adhesion force measurements are suitable for the more difficult surfaces of natural fibres and in addition allow for correlations between microstructural features and surface wettability characteristics

  10. Circuit Design of Surface Acoustic Wave Based Micro Force Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Yuanyuan Li; Wenke Lu; Changchun Zhu; Qinghong Liu; Haoxin Zhang; Chenchao Tang

    2014-01-01

    Pressure sensors are commonly used in industrial production and mechanical system. However, resistance strain, piezoresistive sensor, and ceramic capacitive pressure sensors possess limitations, especially in micro force measurement. A surface acoustic wave (SAW) based micro force sensor is designed in this paper, which is based on the theories of wavelet transform, SAW detection, and pierce oscillator circuits. Using lithium niobate as the basal material, a mathematical model is established ...

  11. Surface potential modeling and reconstruction in Kelvin probe force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jie; Wu, Yangqing; Li, Wei; Xu, Jun

    2017-09-08

    Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) measurement has been extensively applied in metallic, semiconductor and organic electronic or photovoltaic devices, to characterize the local contact potential difference or surface potential of the samples at the nanoscale. Here, a comprehensive modeling of surface potential in KPFM is established, from the well-known single capacitance model to a precise electrodynamic model, considering the long range property of the electrostatic force in KPFM. The limitations and relations of different models are also discussed. Besides, the feedback condition of the KPFM system is reconsidered and modified, showing that the influence of the cantilever has been overestimated by about 20% in previous reports. Afterwards, the surface potential of charged Si-nanocrystals is reconstructed based on the electrodynamic model, and the calculated surface charge density is very consistent with the macroscopic capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurement. A deep understanding and correct reconstruction of surface potential is crucial to the quantitative analysis of KPFM results.

  12. Forces on nuclei moving on autoionizing molecular potential energy surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moiseyev, Nimrod

    2017-01-14

    Autoionization of molecular systems occurs in diatomic molecules and in small biochemical systems. Quantum chemistry packages enable calculation of complex potential energy surfaces (CPESs). The imaginary part of the CPES is associated with the autoionization decay rate, which is a function of the molecular structure. Molecular dynamics simulations, within the framework of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation, require the definition of a force field. The ability to calculate the forces on the nuclei in bio-systems when autoionization takes place seems to rely on an understanding of radiative damages in RNA and DNA arising from the release of slow moving electrons which have long de Broglie wavelengths. This work addresses calculation of the real forces on the nuclei moving on the CPES. By using the transformation of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation, previously used by Madelung, we proved that the classical forces on nuclei moving on the CPES correlated with the gradient of the real part of the CPES. It was proved that the force on the nuclei of the metastable molecules is time independent although the probability to detect metastable molecules exponentially decays. The classical force is obtained from the transformed Schrödinger equation when ℏ=0 and the Schrödinger equation is reduced to the classical (Newtonian) equations of motion. The forces on the nuclei regardless on what potential energy surface they move (parent CPES or product real PESs) vary in time due to the autoionization process.

  13. Influence of surface roughness on streptococcal adhesion forces to composite resins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mei, Li; Busscher, Henk J; van der Mei, Henny C; Ren, Yijin

    OBJECTIVE: To determine streptococcal adhesion forces with composite resins with different surface roughness. METHODS: Polishing and grinding were applied to obtain smooth (roughness 20 nm), moderately rough (150 nm) and rough (350 nm) surfaces of two orthodontic, light-cured composites. Adhesion

  14. Surface roughness and cutting force estimation in the CNC turning using artificial neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ramezani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Surface roughness and cutting forces are considered as important factors to determine machinability rate and the quality of product. A number of factors like cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cutting and tool noise radius influence the surface roughness and cutting forces in turning process. In this paper, an Artificial Neural Network (ANN model was used to forecast surface roughness and cutting forces with related inputs, including cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cut and tool noise radius. The machined surface roughness and cutting force parameters related to input parameters are the outputs of the ANN model. In this work, 24 samples of experimental data were used to train the network. Moreover, eight other experimental tests were implemented to test the network. The study concludes that ANN was a reliable and accurate method for predicting machining parameters in CNC turning operation.

  15. Surface forces between rough and topographically structured interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thormann, Esben

    2017-01-01

    and manufactured materials, which possess topographical variations. Further, with technological advances in nanotechnology, fabrication of nano- or micro-structured surfaces has become increasingly important for many applications, which calls for a better understanding of the effect of surface topography...... on the interaction between interfaces. This paper presents a review of the current state of understanding of the effect of surface roughness on DLVO forces, as well as on the interactions between topographically structured hydrophobic surfaces in water. While the first case is a natural choice because it represents...

  16. Surface polarity of beta-HMX crystal and the related adhesive forces with Estane binder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lu

    2008-12-02

    Here I present the results on the study of surface properties of beta-HMX crystal utilizing molecular dynamics simulations. The surface polarity of three principal crystal surfaces, (011), (010), and (110), is investigated by measuring the water contact angles. The calculated contact angles are in excellent agreement with the values measured by experiment and show that the surface polarity of three crystal surfaces are different. The free energies and forces of detaching an Estane chain (with and without surrounding nitroplasticizer molecules) from the three principal crystal surfaces are also calculated using the umbrella sampling method. I find that the force for Estane detachment increases with the increasing HMX surface polarity. In addition, my results show that the nitroplasticizer also plays an important role in the adhesion between Estane and HMX surfaces.

  17. Surface microstructure of bitumen characterized by atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaokong; Burnham, Nancy A; Tao, Mingjiang

    2015-04-01

    Bitumen, also called asphalt binder, plays important roles in many industrial applications. It is used as the primary binding agent in asphalt concrete, as a key component in damping systems such as rubber, and as an indispensable additive in paint and ink. Consisting of a large number of hydrocarbons of different sizes and polarities, together with heteroatoms and traces of metals, bitumen displays rich surface microstructures that affect its rheological properties. This paper reviews the current understanding of bitumen's surface microstructures characterized by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Microstructures of bitumen develop to different forms depending on crude oil source, thermal history, and sample preparation method. While some bitumens display surface microstructures with fine domains, flake-like domains, and dendrite structuring, 'bee-structures' with wavy patterns several micrometers in diameter and tens of nanometers in height are commonly seen in other binders. Controversy exists regarding the chemical origin of the 'bee-structures', which has been related to the asphaltene fraction, the metal content, or the crystallizing waxes in bitumen. The rich chemistry of bitumen can result in complicated intermolecular associations such as coprecipitation of wax and metalloporphyrins in asphaltenes. Therefore, it is the molecular interactions among the different chemical components in bitumen, rather than a single chemical fraction, that are responsible for the evolution of bitumen's diverse microstructures, including the 'bee-structures'. Mechanisms such as curvature elasticity and surface wrinkling that explain the rippled structures observed in polymer crystals might be responsible for the formation of 'bee-structures' in bitumen. Despite the progress made on morphological characterization of bitumen using AFM, the fundamental question whether the microstructures observed on bitumen surfaces represent its bulk structure remains to be addressed. In addition

  18. Probing surfaces with single-polymer atomic force microscope experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedsam, C; Gaub, H E; Netz, R R

    2006-03-01

    In the past 15 years atomic force microscope (AFM) based force spectroscopy has become a versatile tool to study inter- and intramolecular interactions of single polymer molecules. Irreversible coupling of polymer molecules between the tip of an AFM cantilever and the substrate allows one to study the stretching response up to the high force regime of several nN. For polymers that glide or slip laterally over the surface with negligible friction, on the other hand, the measured force profiles exhibit plateaus which allow one to extract the polymer adsorption energies. Long-term stable polymer coatings of the AFM tips allow for the possibility of repeating desorption experiments from solid supports with individual molecules many times, yielding good sampling statistics and thus reliable estimates for adsorption energies. In combination with recent advances in theoretical modeling, a detailed picture of the conformational statistics, backbone elasticity, and the adsorption characteristics of single polymer molecules is obtained.

  19. Accurate fluid force measurement based on control surface integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentink, David

    2018-01-01

    Nonintrusive 3D fluid force measurements are still challenging to conduct accurately for freely moving animals, vehicles, and deforming objects. Two techniques, 3D particle image velocimetry (PIV) and a new technique, the aerodynamic force platform (AFP), address this. Both rely on the control volume integral for momentum; whereas PIV requires numerical integration of flow fields, the AFP performs the integration mechanically based on rigid walls that form the control surface. The accuracy of both PIV and AFP measurements based on the control surface integration is thought to hinge on determining the unsteady body force associated with the acceleration of the volume of displaced fluid. Here, I introduce a set of non-dimensional error ratios to show which fluid and body parameters make the error negligible. The unsteady body force is insignificant in all conditions where the average density of the body is much greater than the density of the fluid, e.g., in gas. Whenever a strongly deforming body experiences significant buoyancy and acceleration, the error is significant. Remarkably, this error can be entirely corrected for with an exact factor provided that the body has a sufficiently homogenous density or acceleration distribution, which is common in liquids. The correction factor for omitting the unsteady body force, {{{ {ρ f}} {1 - {ρ f} ( {{ρ b}+{ρ f}} )}.{( {{{{ρ }}b}+{ρ f}} )}}} , depends only on the fluid, {ρ f}, and body, {{ρ }}b, density. Whereas these straightforward solutions work even at the liquid-gas interface in a significant number of cases, they do not work for generalized bodies undergoing buoyancy in combination with appreciable body density inhomogeneity, volume change (PIV), or volume rate-of-change (PIV and AFP). In these less common cases, the 3D body shape needs to be measured and resolved in time and space to estimate the unsteady body force. The analysis shows that accounting for the unsteady body force is straightforward to non

  20. An investigation of force, surface roughness and chip in surface grinding of SKD 11 tool steel using minimum quantity lubrication-MQL technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soepangkat, Bobby O. P.; Agustin, H. C. Kis; Subiyanto, H.

    2017-06-01

    This research aimed to analyze the viability of the minimum quantity of lubricant (MQL) technique towards normal force, tangential force, surface roughness and chip formation in surface grinding of SKD 11 tool steel. The three surface grinding parameters were varied including the type of cooling method (MQL and dry), table speed, and depth of cut. Based on statistical analysis, depth of cut is the most influential factor which affects the four responses in both dry and MQL grinding. MQL could reduce normal force and tangential force considerably, but produce higher surface roughness. In MQL grinding, the chips removal took place mostly by shearing and fracturing.

  1. Aerosol Direct Radiative Forcing and Forcing Efficiencies at Surface from the shortwave Irradiance Measurements in Abu Dhabi, UAE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beegum S, N.; Ben Romdhane, H.; Ghedira, H.

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosols are known to affect the radiation balance of the Earth-Atmospheric system directly by scattering and absorbing the solar and terrestrial radiation, and indirectly by affecting the lifetime and albedo of the clouds. Continuous and simultaneous measurements of short wave global irradiance in combination with synchronous spectral aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements (from 340 nm to 1640 nm in 8 channels), for a period of 1 year from June 2012 to May 2013, were used for the determination of the surface direct aerosol radiative forcing and forcing efficiencies under cloud free conditions in Abu Dhabi (24.42°N, 54.61o E, 7m MSL), a coastal location in United Arab Emirates (UAE) in the Arabian Peninsula. The Rotating Shadow band Pyranometer (RSP, LI-COR) was used for the irradiance measurements (in the spectral region 400-1100 nm), whereas the AOD measurements were carried out using CIMEL Sunphotometer (CE 318-2, under AERONET program). The differential method, which is neither sensitive to calibration uncertainties nor model assumptions, has been employed for estimating forcing efficiencies from the changes in the measured fluxes. The forcing efficiency, which quantifies the net change in irradiance per unit change in AOD, is an appropriate parameter for the characterization of the aerosol radiative effects even if the microphysical and optical properties of the aerosols are not completely understood. The corresponding forcing values were estimated from the forcing efficiencies. The estimated radiative forcing and forcing efficiencies exhibited strong monthly variations. The forcing efficiencies (absolute magnitudes) were highest during March, and showed continuous decrease thereafter to reach the lowest value during September. In contrast, the forcing followed a slightly different pattern of variability, with the highest solar dimming during April ( -60 W m-2) and the minimum during February ( -20 W m-2). The results indicate that the aerosol

  2. Superhydrophobic Zr-based metallic glass surface with high adhesive force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Xia, Ting; Heng, Liping; Liu, Lin

    2013-06-01

    Micro/nano hierarchical structures were constructed on Zr35Ti30Be26.75Cu8.25 metallic glass surface by silicon moulding and subsequently chemical etching. The as-formed surface exhibited both superhydrophobicity and high adhesive force towards water. The superhydrophobicity is rationalized based on the modified Cassie-Baxter model [A. B. D. Cassie and S. Baxter, Trans. Faraday Soc. 40, 546 (1944)]. The origin of the robust adhesion is described in terms of intermolecular capillary forces. The present results not only provide a method to fabricate superhydrophobic metallic glasses surface but also explore an important industrial application as dry adhesives and transport of liquid microdroplets.

  3. Force Management Methods. Task 1 Report. Current Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-12-01

    OF-THE-ART REVIEW FORCE MANAGEMENT METHODS A/C TYPE: F-ill A/E/D/F FLEET INFORMATION NO. OF AIRCRAFT: 455 : YEAR SERVICE BEGAN: 1970 Warren Toone...DETECT CHANGE IN USAGE? Usage/NZC/loads/damage all used REMARKS: A/24U-6 has some evidence of record dropout during high-g buffett as found during...restricted. 391 Page 4 of 5 A/C TYPE: F-Ill A/E/D/F (Continued) FSM PLAN MAINTENANCE REQUIREMENTS BASE: Bill Sutherland & Warren Toone MSG- 2 Analysis

  4. Discrete Lattice effect of various forcing methods of body force on immersed Boundary-Lattice Boltzmann method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Sung Wan; Ha, Man Yeong; Yoon, Hyun Sik; Jeong, Hae Kwon; Balachandar, S.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the discrete lattice effect of various forcing methods in the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) to include the body force obtained from the immersed boundary method (IBM). In the immersed boundary lattice Boltzmann method (IB-LBM), the LBM needs a forcing method to involve the body force on a forcing point near the immersed boundary that is calculated by IBM. The proper forcing method in LBM is derived to include the body force, which appears to resolve problems such as multiphase flow, non-ideal gas behavior, etc. Many researchers have adopted different forcing methods in LBM to involve the body force from IBM, even when they solved similar problems. However, it is necessary to evaluate the discrete lattice effect, which originates from different forcing methods in LBM, to include the effect of the body force from IBM on the results. Consequently, in this study, a rigorous analysis of the discrete lattice effect for different forcing methods in IB-LBM is performed by solving various problems.

  5. Investigation of magnetorheological elastomer surface properties by atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iacobescu, G.E.; Balasoiu, M.; Bica, I.

    2012-01-01

    Magnetorheological elastomers consist of a natural or synthetic rubber matrix interspersed with micron-sized ferromagnetic particles. The magnetoelastic properties of such a composite are not merely a sum of elasticity of the polymer and stiffness and magnetic properties of the filler, but also the result of a complex synergy of several effects, relevant at different length scales and detectable by different techniques. In the present work we investigate the microstructures, the surface magnetic properties and the elastic properties of new isotropic and anisotropic magnetorheological elastomer prepared using silicone rubber and soft magnetic carbonyl iron microspheres. The measurements were performed by atomic force microscopy in the following modes: standard imaging-non-contact atomic force microscopy, magnetic force microscopy and nanoindentation. A comparative study for the samples with different particle concentrations and strength of magnetic field applied during the polymerization process is developed

  6. Novel applications of the temporal kernel method: Historical and future radiative forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portmann, R. W.; Larson, E.; Solomon, S.; Murphy, D. M.

    2017-12-01

    We present a new estimate of the historical radiative forcing derived from the observed global mean surface temperature and a model derived kernel function. Current estimates of historical radiative forcing are usually derived from climate models. Despite large variability in these models, the multi-model mean tends to do a reasonable job of representing the Earth system and climate. One method of diagnosing the transient radiative forcing in these models requires model output of top of the atmosphere radiative imbalance and global mean temperature anomaly. It is difficult to apply this method to historical observations due to the lack of TOA radiative measurements before CERES. We apply the temporal kernel method (TKM) of calculating radiative forcing to the historical global mean temperature anomaly. This novel approach is compared against the current regression based methods using model outputs and shown to produce consistent forcing estimates giving confidence in the forcing derived from the historical temperature record. The derived TKM radiative forcing provides an estimate of the forcing time series that the average climate model needs to produce the observed temperature record. This forcing time series is found to be in good overall agreement with previous estimates but includes significant differences that will be discussed. The historical anthropogenic aerosol forcing is estimated as a residual from the TKM and found to be consistent with earlier moderate forcing estimates. In addition, this method is applied to future temperature projections to estimate the radiative forcing required to achieve those temperature goals, such as those set in the Paris agreement.

  7. The extended surface forces apparatus. IV. Precision static pressure control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurtenberger, E; Heuberger, M

    2011-10-01

    We report on design and performance of an extended surface forces apparatus (eSFA) built into a pressurized system. The aim of this instrument is to provide control over static pressure and temperature to facilitate direct surface force experiments in equilibrium with fluids at different loci of their phase diagram. We built an autoclave that can bear a miniature eSFA. To avoid mechanical or electrical feedtroughs the miniature apparatus uses an external surface coarse approach stage under ambient conditions. The surface separation is thus pre-adjusted to approximately ~3 μm before sliding the apparatus into the autoclave. Inside the autoclave, the surface separation can be further controlled with a magnetic drive at sub-Ångstrom precision over a 14 μm range. The autoclave pressure can then be set and maintained between 20 mbar and 170 bars with few mbar precision. The autoclave is connected to a specially designed pressurization system to precondition the fluids. The temperature can be controlled between -20 and 60 °C with few mK precision. We demonstrate the operation of the instrument in the case of gaseous or liquid carbon dioxide. Thanks to a consequent decoupling of the eSFA mechanical loop from the autoclave structure, the obtained measurement stability and reproducibility, at elevated pressures, is comparable to the one established for the conventional eSFA, operated under ambient conditions.

  8. The extended surface forces apparatus. IV. Precision static pressure control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurtenberger, E.; Heuberger, M.

    2011-10-01

    We report on design and performance of an extended surface forces apparatus (eSFA) built into a pressurized system. The aim of this instrument is to provide control over static pressure and temperature to facilitate direct surface force experiments in equilibrium with fluids at different loci of their phase diagram. We built an autoclave that can bear a miniature eSFA. To avoid mechanical or electrical feedtroughs the miniature apparatus uses an external surface coarse approach stage under ambient conditions. The surface separation is thus pre-adjusted to approximately ˜3 μm before sliding the apparatus into the autoclave. Inside the autoclave, the surface separation can be further controlled with a magnetic drive at sub-Ångstrom precision over a 14 μm range. The autoclave pressure can then be set and maintained between 20 mbar and 170 bars with few mbar precision. The autoclave is connected to a specially designed pressurization system to precondition the fluids. The temperature can be controlled between -20 and 60 °C with few mK precision. We demonstrate the operation of the instrument in the case of gaseous or liquid carbon dioxide. Thanks to a consequent decoupling of the eSFA mechanical loop from the autoclave structure, the obtained measurement stability and reproducibility, at elevated pressures, is comparable to the one established for the conventional eSFA, operated under ambient conditions.

  9. Atomic force microscopy analysis of different surface treatments of Ti dental implant surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bathomarco, R.V.; Solorzano, G.; Elias, C.N.; Prioli, R.

    2004-01-01

    The surface of commercial unalloyed titanium, used in dental implants, was analyzed by atomic force microscopy. The morphology, roughness, and surface area of the samples, submitted to mechanically-induced erosion, chemical etching and a combination of both, were compared. The results show that surface treatments strongly influence the dental implant physical and chemical properties. An analysis of the length dependence of the implant surface roughness shows that, for scan sizes larger than 50 μm, the average surface roughness is independent of the scanning length and that the surface treatments lead to average surface roughness in the range of 0.37 up to 0.48 μm. It is shown that the implant surface energy is sensitive to the titanium surface area. As the area increases there is a decrease in the surface contact angle

  10. Atomic force microscopy analysis of different surface treatments of Ti dental implant surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bathomarco, R.V.; Solorzano, G.; Elias, C.N.; Prioli, R

    2004-06-30

    The surface of commercial unalloyed titanium, used in dental implants, was analyzed by atomic force microscopy. The morphology, roughness, and surface area of the samples, submitted to mechanically-induced erosion, chemical etching and a combination of both, were compared. The results show that surface treatments strongly influence the dental implant physical and chemical properties. An analysis of the length dependence of the implant surface roughness shows that, for scan sizes larger than 50 {mu}m, the average surface roughness is independent of the scanning length and that the surface treatments lead to average surface roughness in the range of 0.37 up to 0.48 {mu}m. It is shown that the implant surface energy is sensitive to the titanium surface area. As the area increases there is a decrease in the surface contact angle.

  11. Methods of Force Identification for Earth Penetrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    convenient to introduce two coordinate systems: i. a moving coordinate system (x,y,z) embedded in the projectile such that x always lies along the...Laboratory Fld Off for Wpns EffectivenessATTN, Code 2627 Department of the Air Force Naval Sea Systems Comand ATTN: E. Jackett ATTN:, SEA-9931G Rome Air

  12. Naval Reserve Force: Cost and Benefit Analysis of Reducing the Number of Naval Surface Reserve Force Operating Budget Holders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Young, Eric

    1997-01-01

    .... This thesis examines one of Commander Naval Surface Reserve Force's initiatives for reducing the current number of Operating Budget holder's Comptroller Departments without sacrificing efficiency...

  13. Forces that Drive Nanoscale Self-assembly on Solid Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suo, Z.; Lu, W.

    2000-01-01

    Experimental evidence has accumulated in the recent decade that nanoscale patterns can self-assemble on solid surfaces. A two-component monolayer grown on a solid surface may separate into distinct phases. Sometimes the phases select sizes about 10 nm, and order into an array of stripes or disks. This paper reviews a model that accounts for these behaviors. Attention is focused on thermodynamic forces that drive the self-assembly. A double-welled, composition-dependent free energy drives phase separation. The phase boundary energy drives phase coarsening. The concentration-dependent surface stress drives phase refining. It is the competition between the coarsening and the refining that leads to size selection and spatial ordering. These thermodynamic forces are embodied in a nonlinear diffusion equation. Numerical simulations reveal rich dynamics of the pattern formation process. It is relatively fast for the phases to separate and select a uniform size, but exceedingly slow to order over a long distance, unless the symmetry is suitably broken

  14. Surface decontamination compositions and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright,; Karen, E [Idaho Falls, ID; Cooper, David C [Idaho Falls, ID; Peterman, Dean R [Idaho Falls, ID; Demmer, Ricky L [Idaho Falls, ID; Tripp, Julia L [Pocatello, ID; Hull, Laurence C [Idaho Falls, ID

    2011-03-29

    Clay-based compositions capable of absorbing contaminants from surfaces or objects having surface faces may be applied to a surface and later removed, the removed clay-based compositions absorbing at least a portion of the contaminant from the surface or object to which it was applied.

  15. Probing anisotropic surface properties and interaction forces of chrysotile rods by atomic force microscopy and rheology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dingzheng; Xie, Lei; Bobicki, Erin; Xu, Zhenghe; Liu, Qingxia; Zeng, Hongbo

    2014-09-16

    Understanding the surface properties and interactions of nonspherical particles is of both fundamental and practical importance in the rheology of complex fluids in various engineering applications. In this work, natural chrysotile, a phyllosilicate composed of 1:1 stacked silica and brucite layers which coil into cylindrical structure, was chosen as a model rod-shaped particle. The interactions of chrysotile brucite-like basal or bilayered edge planes and a silicon nitride tip were measured using an atomic force microscope (AFM). The force-distance profiles were fitted using the classical Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory, which demonstrates anisotropic and pH-dependent surface charge properties of brucite-like basal plane and bilayered edge surface. The points of zero charge (PZC) of the basal and edge planes were estimated to be around pH 10-11 and 6-7, respectively. Rheology measurements of 7 vol % chrysotile (with an aspect ratio of 14.5) in 10 mM NaCl solution showed pH-dependent yield stress with a local maximum around pH 7-9, which falls between the two PZC values of the edge and basal planes of the rod particles. On the basis of the surface potentials of the edge and basal planes obtained from AFM measurements, theoretical analysis of the surface interactions of edge-edge, basal-edge, and basal-basal planes of the chrysotile rods suggests the yield stress maximum observed could be mainly attributed to the basal-edge attractions. Our results indicate that the anisotropic surface properties (e.g., charges) of chrysotile rods play an important role in the particle-particle interaction and rheological behavior, which also provides insight into the basic understanding of the colloidal interactions and rheology of nonspherical particles.

  16. Force prediction in cold rolling mills by polynomial methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicu ROMAN

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A method for steel and aluminium strip thickness control is provided including a new technique for predictive rolling force estimation method by statistic model based on polynomial techniques.

  17. Thermal desorption study of physical forces at the PTFE surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, D. R.; Pepper, S. V.

    1987-01-01

    Thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) of the polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) surface was successfully employed to study the possible role of physical forces in the enhancement of metal-PTFE adhesion by radiation. The thermal desorption spectra were analyzed without assumptions to yield the activation energy for desorption over a range of xenon coverage from less than 0.1 monolayer to more than 100 monolayers. For multilayer coverage, the desorption is zero-order with an activation energy equal to the sublimation energy of xenon. For submonolayer coverages, the order for desorption from the unirradiated PTFE surface is 0.73 and the activation energy for desorption is between 3.32 and 3.36 kcal/mol; less than the xenon sublimation energy. The effect of irradiation is to increase the activation energy for desorption to as high as 4 kcal/mol at low coverage.

  18. Why must a solar forcing be larger than a CO2 forcing to cause the same global mean surface temperature change?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modak, Angshuman; Bala, Govindasamy; Cao, Long; Caldeira, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Many previous studies have shown that a solar forcing must be greater than a CO 2 forcing to cause the same global mean surface temperature change but a process-based mechanistic explanation is lacking in the literature. In this study, we investigate the physical mechanisms responsible for the lower efficacy of solar forcing compared to an equivalent CO 2 forcing. Radiative forcing is estimated using the Gregory method that regresses top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiative flux against the change in global mean surface temperature. For a 2.25% increase in solar irradiance that produces the same long term global mean warming as a doubling of CO 2 concentration, we estimate that the efficacy of solar forcing is ∼80% relative to CO 2 forcing in the NCAR CAM5 climate model. We find that the fast tropospheric cloud adjustments especially over land and stratospheric warming in the first four months cause the slope of the regression between the TOA net radiative fluxes and surface temperature to be steeper in the solar forcing case. This steeper slope indicates a stronger net negative feedback and hence correspondingly a larger solar forcing than CO 2 forcing for the same equilibrium surface warming. Evidence is provided that rapid land surface warming in the first four months sets up a land-sea contrast that markedly affects radiative forcing and the climate feedback parameter over this period. We also confirm the robustness of our results using simulations from the Hadley Centre climate model. Our study has important implications for estimating the magnitude of climate change caused by volcanic eruptions, solar geoengineering and past climate changes caused by change in solar irradiance such as Maunder minimum. (letter)

  19. Comparison of Force Reconstruction Methods for a Lumped Mass Beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesta I. Bateman

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Two extensions of the force reconstruction method, the sum of weighted accelerations technique (SWAT, are presented in this article. SWAT requires the use of the structure’s elastic mode shapes for reconstruction of the applied force. Although based on the same theory, the two new techniques do not rely on mode shapes to reconstruct the applied force and may be applied to structures whose mode shapes are not available. One technique uses the measured force and acceleration responses with the rigid body mode shapes to calculate the scalar weighting vector, so the technique is called SWAT-CAL (SWAT using a calibrated force input. The second technique uses the free-decay time response of the structure with the rigid body mode shapes to calculate the scalar weighting vector and is called SWAT-TEEM (SWAT using time eliminated elastic modes. All three methods are used to reconstruct forces for a simple structure.

  20. Experimental Research and Mathematical Modeling of Parameters Effecting on Cutting Force and SurfaceRoughness in CNC Turning Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeqiri, F.; Alkan, M.; Kaya, B.; Toros, S.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, the effects of cutting parameters on cutting forces and surface roughness based on Taguchi experimental design method are determined. Taguchi L9 orthogonal array is used to investigate the effects of machining parameters. Optimal cutting conditions are determined using the signal/noise (S/N) ratio which is calculated by average surface roughness and cutting force. Using results of analysis, effects of parameters on both average surface roughness and cutting forces are calculated on Minitab 17 using ANOVA method. The material that was investigated is Inconel 625 steel for two cases with heat treatment and without heat treatment. The predicted and calculated values with measurement are very close to each other. Confirmation test of results showed that the Taguchi method was very successful in the optimization of machining parameters for maximum surface roughness and cutting forces in the CNC turning process.

  1. Alternative methods to model frictional contact surfaces using NASTRAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Joseph

    1992-01-01

    Elongated (slotted) holes have been used extensively for the integration of equipment into Spacelab racks. In the past, this type of interface has been modeled assuming that there is not slippage between contact surfaces, or that there is no load transfer in the direction of the slot. Since the contact surfaces are bolted together, the contact friction provides a load path determined by the normal applied force (bolt preload) and the coefficient of friction. Three alternate methods that utilize spring elements, externally applied couples, and stress dependent elements are examined to model the contacted surfaces. Results of these methods are compared with results obtained from methods that use GAP elements and rigid elements.

  2. Integrated Force Method Solution to Indeterminate Structural Mechanics Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patnaik, Surya N.; Hopkins, Dale A.; Halford, Gary R.

    2004-01-01

    Strength of materials problems have been classified into determinate and indeterminate problems. Determinate analysis primarily based on the equilibrium concept is well understood. Solutions of indeterminate problems required additional compatibility conditions, and its comprehension was not exclusive. A solution to indeterminate problem is generated by manipulating the equilibrium concept, either by rewriting in the displacement variables or through the cutting and closing gap technique of the redundant force method. Compatibility improvisation has made analysis cumbersome. The authors have researched and understood the compatibility theory. Solutions can be generated with equal emphasis on the equilibrium and compatibility concepts. This technique is called the Integrated Force Method (IFM). Forces are the primary unknowns of IFM. Displacements are back-calculated from forces. IFM equations are manipulated to obtain the Dual Integrated Force Method (IFMD). Displacement is the primary variable of IFMD and force is back-calculated. The subject is introduced through response variables: force, deformation, displacement; and underlying concepts: equilibrium equation, force deformation relation, deformation displacement relation, and compatibility condition. Mechanical load, temperature variation, and support settling are equally emphasized. The basic theory is discussed. A set of examples illustrate the new concepts. IFM and IFMD based finite element methods are introduced for simple problems.

  3. Analysis of cutting force signals by wavelet packet transform for surface roughness monitoring in CNC turning

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Plaza, E.; Núñez López, P. J.

    2018-01-01

    On-line monitoring of surface finish in machining processes has proven to be a substantial advancement over traditional post-process quality control techniques by reducing inspection times and costs and by avoiding the manufacture of defective products. This study applied techniques for processing cutting force signals based on the wavelet packet transform (WPT) method for the monitoring of surface finish in computer numerical control (CNC) turning operations. The behaviour of 40 mother wavelets was analysed using three techniques: global packet analysis (G-WPT), and the application of two packet reduction criteria: maximum energy (E-WPT) and maximum entropy (SE-WPT). The optimum signal decomposition level (Lj) was determined to eliminate noise and to obtain information correlated to surface finish. The results obtained with the G-WPT method provided an in-depth analysis of cutting force signals, and frequency ranges and signal characteristics were correlated to surface finish with excellent results in the accuracy and reliability of the predictive models. The radial and tangential cutting force components at low frequency provided most of the information for the monitoring of surface finish. The E-WPT and SE-WPT packet reduction criteria substantially reduced signal processing time, but at the expense of discarding packets with relevant information, which impoverished the results. The G-WPT method was observed to be an ideal procedure for processing cutting force signals applied to the real-time monitoring of surface finish, and was estimated to be highly accurate and reliable at a low analytical-computational cost.

  4. Lateral force calibration in atomic force microscopy: A new lateral force calibration method and general guidelines for optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannara, Rachel J.; Eglin, Michael; Carpick, Robert W.

    2006-01-01

    Proper force calibration is a critical step in atomic and lateral force microscopies (AFM/LFM). The recently published torsional Sader method [C. P. Green et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 1988 (2004)] facilitates the calculation of torsional spring constants of rectangular AFM cantilevers by eliminating the need to obtain information or make assumptions regarding the cantilever's material properties and thickness, both of which are difficult to measure. Complete force calibration of the lateral signal in LFM requires measurement of the lateral signal deflection sensitivity as well. In this article, we introduce a complete lateral force calibration procedure that employs the torsional Sader method and does not require making contact between the tip and any sample. In this method, a colloidal sphere is attached to a 'test' cantilever of the same width, but different length and material as the 'target' cantilever of interest. The lateral signal sensitivity is calibrated by loading the colloidal sphere laterally against a vertical sidewall. The signal sensitivity for the target cantilever is then corrected for the tip length, total signal strength, and in-plane bending of the cantilevers. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this approach in comparison with the other established lateral force calibration techniques, and make a direct comparison with the 'wedge' calibration method. The methods agree to within 5%. The propagation of errors is explicitly considered for both methods and the sources of disagreement discussed. Finally, we show that the lateral signal sensitivity is substantially reduced when the laser spot is not centered on the detector

  5. Bubble size in surface boiling with forced convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avdeev, A.A.

    1985-01-01

    Mechanisms of heat supply and removal were analyzed to obtain formula for calculating maximal bubble diameter for ''growth-condensation'' cycle in surface boiling with forced convection. Effect of some conditional parameters on the maximal bubble diameter was analyzed. Pressure (0.147-17.7 MPa), rate (0.2-9.15 m/s), subcooling (3-62 K), heat flux density (0.38-8.53 MW/m 2 ) configuration and geometrical sizes of the channel were considered. It was shown that change of heat flux density on channel wall affects slightly the diameter. Bubble size reduces at 0.1-2 MPa especially with pressure increase correlation of calculation results with experimental data shows a good agreement

  6. Assessment methods of injection moulded nano-patterned surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menotti, S.; Bisacco, G.; Hansen, H. N.

    2014-01-01

    algorithm for feature recognition. To compare the methods, the mould insert and a number of replicated nano-patterned surfaces, injection moulded with an induction heating aid, were measured on nominally identical locations by means of an atomic force microscope mounted on a manual CMM....

  7. A novel adaptive force control method for IPMC manipulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Lina; Sun, Zhiyong; Su, Yunquan; Gao, Jianchao; Li, Zhi

    2012-01-01

    IPMC is a type of electro-active polymer material, also called artificial muscle, which can generate a relatively large deformation under a relatively low input voltage (generally speaking, less than 5 V), and can be implemented in a water environment. Due to these advantages, IPMC can be used in many fields such as biomimetics, service robots, bio-manipulation, etc. Until now, most existing methods for IPMC manipulation are displacement control not directly force control, however, under most conditions, the success rate of manipulations for tiny fragile objects is limited by the contact force, such as using an IPMC gripper to fix cells. Like most EAPs, a creep phenomenon exists in IPMC, of which the generated force will change with time and the creep model will be influenced by the change of the water content or other environmental factors, so a proper force control method is urgently needed. This paper presents a novel adaptive force control method (AIPOF control—adaptive integral periodic output feedback control), based on employing a creep model of which parameters are obtained by using the FRLS on-line identification method. The AIPOF control method can achieve an arbitrary pole configuration as long as the plant is controllable and observable. This paper also designs the POF and IPOF controller to compare their test results. Simulation and experiments of micro-force-tracking tests are carried out, with results confirming that the proposed control method is viable. (paper)

  8. Optimized Model Surfaces for Advanced Atomic Force Microscopy Studies of Surface Nanobubbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Bo; Zhou, Yi; Schönherr, Holger

    2016-11-01

    The formation of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of binary mixtures of 16-mercaptohexadecanoic acid (MHDA) and 1-octadecanethiol (ODT) on ultraflat template-stripped gold (TSG) surfaces was systematically investigated to clarify the assembly behavior, composition, and degree of possible phase segregation in light of atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies of surface nanobubbles on these substrates. The data for SAMs on TSG were compared to those obtained by adsorption on rough evaporated gold, as reported in a previous study. Quartz crystal microbalance and surface plasmon resonance data acquired in situ on TSG indicate that similar to SAM formation on conventional evaporated gold substrates ODT and MHDA form monolayers and bilayers, respectively. The second layer on MHDA, whose formation is attributed to hydrogen bonding, can be easily removed by adequate rinsing with water. The favorable agreement of the grazing incidence reflection Fourier transform infrared (GIR FTIR) spectroscopy and contact angle data analyzed with the Israelachvili-Gee model suggests that the binary SAMs do not segregate laterally. This conclusion is fully validated by high-resolution friction force AFM observations down to a length scale of 8-10 nm, which is much smaller than the typical observed surface nanobubble radii. Finally, correspondingly functionalized TSG substrates are shown to be valuable supports for studying surface nanobubbles by AFM in water and for addressing the relation between surface functionality and nanobubble formation and properties.

  9. Atomic force microscopy of surface topography of nitrogen plasma treated steel

    CERN Document Server

    Mahboubi, F

    2002-01-01

    Nitriding of steels, using plasma environments has been practiced for many years. A lot of efforts have been put on developing new methods, such as plasma immersion ion implantation (Pl sup 3) and radio frequency (RF) plasma nitriding, for mass transfer of nitrogen into the surface of the work piece. This article presents the results obtained from an in depth investigation of the surface morphology of the treated samples, carried out using an atomic force microscope. Samples from a microalloyed steel, were treated by both methods for 5 hours at different temperatures ranging from 350 to 550 sup d eg sup C in 75% N sub 2 -25% H sub 2 atmosphere. It has been found that the surface of the samples treated by PI sup 3 technique, although having more favorable properties, were rougher than the surfaces treated by RF plasma nitriding.

  10. METHODS TO DEVELOP A TOROIDAL SURFACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANAILA Ligia

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper work presents two practical methods to draw the development of a surface unable to be developed applying classical methods of Descriptive Geometry, the toroidal surface, frequently met in technical practice. The described methods are approximate ones; the development is obtained with the help of points. The accuracy of the methods is given by the number of points used when drawing. As for any other approximate method, when practically manufactured the development may need to be adjusted on site.

  11. Contact-free calibration of an asymmetric multi-layer interferometer for the surface force balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balabajew, Marco; van Engers, Christian D.; Perkin, Susan

    2017-12-01

    The Surface Force Balance (SFB, also known as Surface Force Apparatus, SFA) has provided important insights into many phenomena within the field of colloid and interface science. The technique relies on using white light interferometry to measure the distance between surfaces with sub-nanometer resolution. Up until now, the determination of the distance between the surfaces required a so-called "contact calibration," an invasive procedure during which the surfaces are brought into mechanical contact. This requirement for a contact calibration limits the range of experimental systems that can be investigated with SFB, for example, it precludes experiments with substrates that would be irreversibly modified or damaged by mechanical contact. Here we present a non-invasive method to measure absolute distances without performing a contact calibration. The method can be used for both "symmetric" and "asymmetric" systems. We foresee many applications for this general approach including, most immediately, experiments using single layer graphene electrodes in the SFB which may be damaged when brought into mechanical contact.

  12. Perspective: Ab initio force field methods derived from quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peng; Guidez, Emilie B.; Bertoni, Colleen; Gordon, Mark S.

    2018-03-01

    It is often desirable to accurately and efficiently model the behavior of large molecular systems in the condensed phase (thousands to tens of thousands of atoms) over long time scales (from nanoseconds to milliseconds). In these cases, ab initio methods are difficult due to the increasing computational cost with the number of electrons. A more computationally attractive alternative is to perform the simulations at the atomic level using a parameterized function to model the electronic energy. Many empirical force fields have been developed for this purpose. However, the functions that are used to model interatomic and intermolecular interactions contain many fitted parameters obtained from selected model systems, and such classical force fields cannot properly simulate important electronic effects. Furthermore, while such force fields are computationally affordable, they are not reliable when applied to systems that differ significantly from those used in their parameterization. They also cannot provide the information necessary to analyze the interactions that occur in the system, making the systematic improvement of the functional forms that are used difficult. Ab initio force field methods aim to combine the merits of both types of methods. The ideal ab initio force fields are built on first principles and require no fitted parameters. Ab initio force field methods surveyed in this perspective are based on fragmentation approaches and intermolecular perturbation theory. This perspective summarizes their theoretical foundation, key components in their formulation, and discusses key aspects of these methods such as accuracy and formal computational cost. The ab initio force fields considered here were developed for different targets, and this perspective also aims to provide a balanced presentation of their strengths and shortcomings. Finally, this perspective suggests some future directions for this actively developing area.

  13. Air–water interface of submerged superhydrophobic surfaces imaged by atomic force microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Moosmann

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Underwater air retention of superhydrophobic hierarchically structured surfaces is of increasing interest for technical applications. Persistent air layers (the Salvinia effect are known from biological species, for example, the floating fern Salvinia or the backswimmer Notonecta. The use of this concept opens up new possibilities for biomimetic technical applications in the fields of drag reduction, antifouling, anticorrosion and under water sensing. Current knowledge regarding the shape of the air–water interface is insufficient, although it plays a crucial role with regards to stability in terms of diffusion and dynamic conditions. Optical methods for imaging the interface have been limited to the micrometer regime. In this work, we utilized a nondynamic and nondestructive atomic force microscopy (AFM method to image the interface of submerged superhydrophobic structures with nanometer resolution. Up to now, only the interfaces of nanobubbles (acting almost like solids have been characterized by AFM at these dimensions. In this study, we show for the first time that it is possible to image the air–water interface of submerged hierarchically structured (micro-pillars surfaces by AFM in contact mode. By scanning with zero resulting force applied, we were able to determine the shape of the interface and thereby the depth of the water penetrating into the underlying structures. This approach is complemented by a second method: the interface was scanned with different applied force loads and the height for zero force was determined by linear regression. These methods open new possibilities for the investigation of air-retaining surfaces, specifically in terms of measuring contact area and in comparing different coatings, and thus will lead to the development of new applications.

  14. ForceFit: a code to fit classical force fields to ab-initio potential energy surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henson, Neil Jon [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Waldher, Benjamin [WSU; Kuta, Jadwiga [WSU; Clark, Aurora [WSU; Clark, Aurora E [NON LANL

    2009-01-01

    The ForceFit program package has been developed for fitting classical force field parameters based upon a force matching algorithm to quantum mechanical gradients of configurations that span the potential energy surface of the system. The program, which runs under Unix and is written in C++, is an easy to use, nonproprietary platform that enables gradient fitting of a wide variety of functional force field forms to quantum mechanical information obtained from an array of common electronic structure codes. All aspects of the fitting process are run from a graphical user interface, from the parsing of quantum mechanical data, assembling of a potential energy surface database, setting the force field and variables to be optimized, choosing a molecular mechanics code for comparison to the reference data, and finally, the initiation of a least squares minimization algorithm. Furthermore, the code is based on a modular templated code design that enables the facile addition of new functionality to the program.

  15. Method to Increase the Coupling Force in a Construction Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsipurskij Il’ja

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a possible method to increase the coupling tractive force track-wheel locomotion of construction machines. Sufficient tractive coupling force allows organizing translational displacement of the machine under above-medium load modes during operation of overburden chain excavators, tower cranes and gantry cranes in outdoors environments. A mechanism is examined to convert rotary motion into rectilinear motion using the example of a gear and rail, with kinematic calculations quoted. Analysis of the “force couple” system is proposed to identify free traction forces. Factors are established that influence the machine’s working movements. Equations to calculate tractive forces in track-wheel locomotion are described. A laboratory complex is presented where students of mechanical engineering gain practical skills in mastering the production process of soil excavation and the influence of the coupling tractive force during the machine’s operation. As practical recommendation, the paper describes a device made of a balancing lever, drive cogwheel and tractive chain to implement the required tractive force of the trolley in coupling; this solution’s efficiency is demonstrated for experimental works on hard soils with high coefficient of difficulty.

  16. A comparative analysis of strategic approaches for Information Technology (IT) for Commander Naval Surface Forces

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Devine R.

    2010-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited As the lead organization for all United States Naval Surface Forces, Commander Naval Surface Forces (CNSF) is committed to providing operational commanders with well-trained, highly effective, and technologically relevant surface forces. Aligning itself with the Department of the Navy's Information Management (IM) and Information Technology (IT) strategic mission objectives, CNSF is dedicated to delivering secure, interoperable, and in...

  17. A general method for computing the total solar radiation force on complex spacecraft structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, F. K.

    1981-01-01

    The method circumvents many of the existing difficulties in computational logic presently encountered in the direct analytical or numerical evaluation of the appropriate surface integral. It may be applied to complex spacecraft structures for computing the total force arising from either specular or diffuse reflection or even from non-Lambertian reflection and re-radiation.

  18. Multiparametric Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy for the Simultaneous Mapping of Surface Potential and Nanomechanical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hui; Zhang, Hao; Hussain, Danish; Meng, Xianghe; Song, Jianmin; Sun, Lining

    2017-03-21

    We report high-resolution multiparametric kelvin probe force microscopy (MP-KPFM) measurements for the simultaneous quantitative mapping of the contact potential difference (CPD) and nanomechanical properties of the sample in single-pass mode. This method combines functionalities of the force-distance-based atomic force microscopy and amplitude-modulation (AM) KPFM to perform measurements in single-pass mode. During the tip-sample approach-and-retract cycle, nanomechanical measurements are performed for the retract part of nanoindentation, and the CPD is measured by the lifted probe with a constant tip-sample distance. We compare the performance of the proposed method with the conventional KPFMs by mapping the CPD of multilayer graphene deposited on n-doped silicon, and the results demonstrate that MP-KPFM has comparable performance to AM-KPFM. In addition, the experimental results of a custom-fabricated polymer grating with heterogeneous surfaces validate the multiparametric imaging capability of the MP-KPFM. This method can have potential applications in finding the inherent link between nanomechanical properties and the surface potential of the materials, such as the quantification of the electromechanical response of the deformed piezoelectric materials.

  19. Modeling and experiments of the adhesion force distribution between particles and a surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Siming; Wan, Man Pun

    2014-06-17

    Due to the existence of surface roughness in real surfaces, the adhesion force between particles and the surface where the particles are deposited exhibits certain statistical distributions. Despite the importance of adhesion force distribution in a variety of applications, the current understanding of modeling adhesion force distribution is still limited. In this work, an adhesion force distribution model based on integrating the root-mean-square (RMS) roughness distribution (i.e., the variation of RMS roughness on the surface in terms of location) into recently proposed mean adhesion force models was proposed. The integration was accomplished by statistical analysis and Monte Carlo simulation. A series of centrifuge experiments were conducted to measure the adhesion force distributions between polystyrene particles (146.1 ± 1.99 μm) and various substrates (stainless steel, aluminum and plastic, respectively). The proposed model was validated against the measured adhesion force distributions from this work and another previous study. Based on the proposed model, the effect of RMS roughness distribution on the adhesion force distribution of particles on a rough surface was explored, showing that both the median and standard deviation of adhesion force distribution could be affected by the RMS roughness distribution. The proposed model could predict both van der Waals force and capillary force distributions and consider the multiscale roughness feature, greatly extending the current capability of adhesion force distribution prediction.

  20. Detection of forced oscillations in power systems with multichannel methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Follum, James D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-30

    The increasing availability of high fidelity, geographically dispersed measurements in power systems improves the ability of researchers and engineers to study dynamic behaviors in the grid. One such behavior that is garnering increased attention is the presence of forced oscillations. Power system engineers are interested in forced oscillations because they are often symptomatic of the malfunction or misoperation of equipment. Though the resulting oscillation is not always large in amplitude, the root cause may be serious. In this report, multi-channel forced oscillation detection methods are developed. These methods leverage previously developed detection approaches based on the periodogram and spectral-coherence. Making use of geographically distributed channels of data is shown to improved detection performance and shorten the delay before an oscillation can be detected in the online environment. Results from simulated and measured power system data are presented.

  1. Simulating condensation on microstructured surfaces using Lattice Boltzmann Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexeev, Alexander; Vasyliv, Yaroslav

    2017-11-01

    We simulate a single component fluid condensing on 2D structured surfaces with different wettability. To simulate the two phase fluid, we use the athermal Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) driven by a pseudopotential force. The pseudopotential force results in a non-ideal equation of state (EOS) which permits liquid-vapor phase change. To account for thermal effects, the athermal LBM is coupled to a finite volume discretization of the temperature evolution equation obtained using a thermal energy rate balance for the specific internal energy. We use the developed model to probe the effect of surface structure and surface wettability on the condensation rate in order to identify microstructure topographies promoting condensation. Financial support is acknowledged from Kimberly-Clark.

  2. Roll Damping Derivatives from Generalized Lifting-Surface Theory and Wind Tunnel Forced-Oscillation Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pototzky, Anthony S; Murphy, Patrick C.

    2014-01-01

    Improving aerodynamic models for adverse loss-of-control conditions in flight is an area being researched under the NASA Aviation Safety Program. Aerodynamic models appropriate for loss of control conditions require a more general mathematical representation to predict nonlinear unsteady behaviors. As more general aerodynamic models are studied that include nonlinear higher order effects, the possibility of measurements that confound aerodynamic and structural responses are probable. In this study an initial step is taken to look at including structural flexibility in analysis of rigid-body forced-oscillation testing that accounts for dynamic rig, sting and balance flexibility. Because of the significant testing required and associated costs in a general study, it makes sense to capitalize on low cost analytical methods where possible, especially where structural flexibility can be accounted for by a low cost method. This paper provides an initial look at using linear lifting surface theory applied to rigid-body aircraft roll forced-oscillation tests.

  3. Generating Converged Accurate Free Energy Surfaces for Chemical Reactions with a Force-Matched Semiempirical Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroonblawd, Matthew P; Pietrucci, Fabio; Saitta, Antonino Marco; Goldman, Nir

    2018-03-22

    We demonstrate the capability of creating robust density functional tight binding (DFTB) models for chemical reactivity in prebiotic mixtures through force matching to short time scale quantum free energy estimates. Molecular dynamics using density functional theory (DFT) is a highly accurate approach to generate free energy surfaces for chemical reactions, but the extreme computational cost often limits the time scales and range of thermodynamic states that can feasibly be studied. In contrast, DFTB is a semiempirical quantum method that affords up to a thousandfold reduction in cost and can recover DFT-level accuracy. Here, we show that a force-matched DFTB model for aqueous glycine condensation reactions yields free energy surfaces that are consistent with experimental observations of reaction energetics. Convergence analysis reveals that multiple nanoseconds of combined trajectory are needed to reach a steady-fluctuating free energy estimate for glycine condensation. Predictive accuracy of force-matched DFTB is demonstrated by direct comparison to DFT, with the two approaches yielding surfaces with large regions that differ by only a few kcal mol -1 .

  4. Role of different Skyrme forces and surface corrections in exotic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Skyrme forces. Our study reveals that different Skyrme forces do not alter the transfer structure of fractional yields significantly. The cluster decay half-lives of different clusters lie within ±10% for preformed cluster models (PCM) and ±15% for unified fission models (UFM). Keywords. Heavy-ion reactions; cluster decay.

  5. Characterization of the Surface Morphology of Bacillus Spores by Atomic Force Microscopy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zolock, Ruth

    2002-01-01

    The surface morphology of Bacillus spores was resolved by atomic force microscopy in order to determine if characteristic surface features could be used to distinguish between closely related species...

  6. Dependence of capillary forces on relative humidity and the surface properties of femtosecond laser micromachined titanium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehr, Jorge; Kietzig, Anne-Marie

    2015-06-15

    Capillary forces were measured with colloidal atomic force microscopy at different levels of relative humidity on femtosecond laser micromachined titanium surfaces. After laser machining at different intensity levels, the titanium surfaces show a nanoscale ripple topology or microscopic bumpy structures. Different machining environments were chosen to influence the surface chemistry in addition to topology: while machining in pure oxygen and water resulted in surfaces consisting of TiO2, a composite surface of TiO2 and TiN was obtained after machining in pure nitrogen. All samples were subsequently exposed to pure oxygen, carbon dioxide or water, and showed different levels of wettability and capillary force. We have introduced the concept of humidity sensitivity as the relative increase of the capillary force with respect to the measured force at 0% humidity. We report that samples with a nanoscale ripple topology machined in pure oxygen exhibit the lowest level of capillary force and the lowest sensitivity towards humidity in the environment. Surfaces with low sensitivity towards changes of the relative humidity are good candidates for technical applications, where capillary forces have to be controlled. This study contributes to the development of such surfaces, to a better understanding of how capillary bridges are formed on rough surfaces and ultimately to the exploration of the relationship between surface wettability and capillary forces. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Multi-dimensional modelling of electrostatic force distance curve over dielectric surface: Influence of tip geometry and correlation with experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boularas, A., E-mail: boularas@laplace.univ-tlse.fr; Baudoin, F.; Villeneuve-Faure, C. [LAPLACE (Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d' Energie), Université de Toulouse, UPS, INPT, 118 route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse cedex 9 (France); Clain, S. [Universidade do Minho, Centro de Matemática, Campus de Gualtar, 4710 - 057 Braga (Portugal); Université Paul Sabatier, Institut de Mathématiques de Toulouse, 31062 Toulouse (France); Teyssedre, G. [LAPLACE (Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d' Energie), Université de Toulouse, UPS, INPT, 118 route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse cedex 9 (France); CNRS, LAPLACE, F-31071 Toulouse (France)

    2014-08-28

    Electric Force-Distance Curves (EFDC) is one of the ways whereby electrical charges trapped at the surface of dielectric materials can be probed. To reach a quantitative analysis of stored charge quantities, measurements using an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) must go with an appropriate simulation of electrostatic forces at play in the method. This is the objective of this work, where simulation results for the electrostatic force between an AFM sensor and the dielectric surface are presented for different bias voltages on the tip. The aim is to analyse force-distance curves modification induced by electrostatic charges. The sensor is composed by a cantilever supporting a pyramidal tip terminated by a spherical apex. The contribution to force from cantilever is neglected here. A model of force curve has been developed using the Finite Volume Method. The scheme is based on the Polynomial Reconstruction Operator—PRO-scheme. First results of the computation of electrostatic force for different tip–sample distances (from 0 to 600 nm) and for different DC voltages applied to the tip (6 to 20 V) are shown and compared with experimental data in order to validate our approach.

  8. Methods of decontaminating surfaces and related compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demmer, Ricky L.; Crosby, Daniel; Norton, Christopher J.

    2016-11-22

    A composition of matter includes water, at least one acid, at least one surfactant, at least one fluoride salt, and ammonium nitrate. A method of decontaminating a surface includes exposing a surface to such a composition and removing the composition from the surface. Other compositions of matter include water, a fatty alcohol ether sulfate, nitrilotriacetic acid, at least one of hydrochloric acid and nitric acid, sodium fluoride, potassium fluoride, ammonium nitrate, and gelatin.

  9. Friction and Adhesion Forces of Bacillus thuringiensis Spores on Planar Surfaces in Atmospheric Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kweon, Hyojin [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Yiacoumi, Sotira [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Tsouris, Costas [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2011-11-07

    The kinetic friction force and the adhesion force of Bacillus thuringiensis spores on planar surfaces in atmospheric systems were studied using atomic force microscopy. The influence of relative humidity (RH) on these forces varied for different surface properties including hydrophobicity, roughness, and surface charge. The friction force of the spore was greater on a rougher surface than on mica, which is atomically flat. As RH increases, the friction force of the spores decreases on mica whereas it increases on rough surfaces. The influence of RH on the interaction forces between hydrophobic surfaces is not as strong as for hydrophilic surfaces. The friction force of the spore is linear to the sum of the adhesion force and normal load on the hydrophobic surface. In conclusion, the poorly defined surface structure of the spore and the adsorption of contaminants from the surrounding atmosphere are believed to cause a discrepancy between the calculated and measured adhesion forces.

  10. Monte Carlo method for random surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, B.

    1985-01-01

    Previously two of the authors proposed a Monte Carlo method for sampling statistical ensembles of random walks and surfaces with a Boltzmann probabilistic weight. In the present paper we work out the details for several models of random surfaces, defined on d-dimensional hypercubic lattices. (orig.)

  11. Surface radiation budget and cloud radiative forcing from pan-Arctic Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, C. J.; Long, C. N.; Crepinsek, S.; Maturilli, M.; McComiskey, A. C.; Miller, N.; Konopleva-Akish, E.; Kustov, V. Y.; Shupe, M.; Steffen, K.; Stanitski, D.; Starkweather, S.; Stone, R. S.; Uttal, T.; Walden, V. P.

    2015-12-01

    Monitoring and forecasting of the seasonal melt of snow and ice in the Arctic is a priority need as Arctic climate changes and the number of stakeholders increases. Seasonal snow and ice melt represent the largest annual perturbation to the surface net radiation budget. Radiative interactions between clouds, the surface and the atmosphere play an important role on scales of minutes to decades, but models insufficiently represent cloud properties. Furthermore, the surface radiation budget is not directly observed from satellite platforms. Direct observations from the surface must therefore be used to document the physical and correlative relationships between variables, and to provide a baseline target for data sets with more comprehensive spatial representation. High-quality, continuous, long-term observations of radiative fluxes are collected from land stations surrounding the Arctic Basin as part of the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN). The International Arctic Systems for Observing the Atmosphere (IASOA) facilitates international collaboration amongst station scientists and other topic experts for the purposes of streamlining pan-Arctic synthesis studies. The IASOA Radiation Working Group is currently analyzing the data acquired from Barrow, Alaska (1993-2015), Alert, Canada (2004-2014), Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard (1993-2015), Eureka, Canada (2007-2015), and Tiksi, Russia (2011-2015). The measurements include upwelling and downwelling longwave and shortwave fluxes, as well as direct and diffuse shortwave flux components, and surface meteorology. The observations are post-processed using the Radiative Flux Analysis (RFA) method, which, in addition to basic quality control, provides value-added metrics such as cloud radiative forcing (CRF), optical depth, and fractional sky cover. Here, we present a spatial and temporal analysis of the surface radiation budget and calculated variables from the pan-Arctic BSRN stations. Particular attention is given to inter

  12. The impact of the competitive adsorption of ions at surface sites on surface free energies and surface forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Drew F.; Salis, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    The relationship between surface charge and surface potential at the solid-liquid interface is often determined by a charge regulation process, the chemisorption of a potential determining ion such as H+. A subtle ion-specific effect can be observed when other ions compete with the primary potential determining ion to bind to a surface site. Site competition may involve alternative ions competing for a first binding site, e.g., metals ions competing with H+ to bind to a negatively charged oxide or carboxyl site. Second-binding sites with site competition may also be found, including amphoteric OH2+ sites, or anion binding to amine groups. In this work, a general theoretical model is developed to describe the competitive adsorption of ions at surface sites. Applied to the calculation of forces, the theory predicts a 20% increase in repulsion between titania surfaces in 1 mM NaCl, and a 25% reduction in repulsion between silica surfaces in 0.1M NaCl compared to calculations neglecting ion site competition.

  13. Physical and chemical characterization methods of surfaces and interfaces; Methodes de caracterisation physico-chimique des surfaces et des interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barthes-Labrousse, M.G. [Centre d`Etudes de Chimie Metallurgique, 94 - Vitry-sur-Seine (France)

    1997-12-31

    The main physical and chemical characterization techniques of surfaces and interfaces are presented. There are: Auger electron spectroscopy, photoelectron spectroscopies (XPS and UPS), secondary ions mass spectroscopy (SIMS), infrared and Raman spectroscopies, electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS and HREELS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). For each method is given the theoretical principle, the apparatus and the main uses of the techniques. (O.M.) 27 refs.

  14. Scalable force directed graph layout algorithms using fast multipole methods

    KAUST Repository

    Yunis, Enas Abdulrahman

    2012-06-01

    We present an extension to ExaFMM, a Fast Multipole Method library, as a generalized approach for fast and scalable execution of the Force-Directed Graph Layout algorithm. The Force-Directed Graph Layout algorithm is a physics-based approach to graph layout that treats the vertices V as repelling charged particles with the edges E connecting them acting as springs. Traditionally, the amount of work required in applying the Force-Directed Graph Layout algorithm is O(|V|2 + |E|) using direct calculations and O(|V| log |V| + |E|) using truncation, filtering, and/or multi-level techniques. Correct application of the Fast Multipole Method allows us to maintain a lower complexity of O(|V| + |E|) while regaining most of the precision lost in other techniques. Solving layout problems for truly large graphs with millions of vertices still requires a scalable algorithm and implementation. We have been able to leverage the scalability and architectural adaptability of the ExaFMM library to create a Force-Directed Graph Layout implementation that runs efficiently on distributed multicore and multi-GPU architectures. © 2012 IEEE.

  15. A novel AFM based method for force measurements between individual hair strands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Max, Eva; Haefner, Wolfgang; Wilco Bartels, Frank; Sugiharto, Albert; Wood, Claudia; Fery, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Interactions between hairs and other natural fibers are of broad interest for both applications and fundamental understanding of biological interfaces. We present a novel method, that allows force measurements between individual hair strands. Hair fragments can be laser-cut without altering their surface chemistry. Subsequently, they are glued onto Atomic force microscopy (AFM) cantilevers. This allows carrying out measurements between the hair fragment and surface immobilized hair in a well-defined crossed-cylinder geometry. Both force-distance and friction measurements are feasible. Measurements in air with controlled humidity and in aqueous environment show clear differences which can be explained by the dominating role of capillary interactions in air. Friction is found to be anisotropic, reflecting the fine structure of hair cuticula. While the investigations are focused on the particular example of human hair, we expect that the approach can be extended to other animal/plant fibers and thus offers perspectives for broad spectrum systems.

  16. A novel AFM based method for force measurements between individual hair strands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Max, Eva; Haefner, Wolfgang [Physical Chemistry II, University of Bayreuth, Universitaetsstrasse 30, 95440 Bayreuth (Germany); Wilco Bartels, Frank [Polymer Physics, Global PU Specialties Research, BASF Polyurethanes GmbH, Elastogranstrasse 60, 49448 Lemfoerde (Germany); Sugiharto, Albert [Polymer Physics and Analytics, G201, 67056 Ludwigshafen (Germany); Wood, Claudia [Care Chemicals and Formulators, Personal Care Ingredients, New Business and Application Development, BASF SE, E-EMV/GP - H201, 67056 Ludwigshafen (Germany); Fery, Andreas, E-mail: andreas.fery@uni-bayreuth.de [Physical Chemistry II, University of Bayreuth, Universitaetsstrasse 30, 95440 Bayreuth (Germany)

    2010-03-15

    Interactions between hairs and other natural fibers are of broad interest for both applications and fundamental understanding of biological interfaces. We present a novel method, that allows force measurements between individual hair strands. Hair fragments can be laser-cut without altering their surface chemistry. Subsequently, they are glued onto Atomic force microscopy (AFM) cantilevers. This allows carrying out measurements between the hair fragment and surface immobilized hair in a well-defined crossed-cylinder geometry. Both force-distance and friction measurements are feasible. Measurements in air with controlled humidity and in aqueous environment show clear differences which can be explained by the dominating role of capillary interactions in air. Friction is found to be anisotropic, reflecting the fine structure of hair cuticula. While the investigations are focused on the particular example of human hair, we expect that the approach can be extended to other animal/plant fibers and thus offers perspectives for broad spectrum systems.

  17. Surface physics theoretical models and experimental methods

    CERN Document Server

    Mamonova, Marina V; Prudnikova, I A

    2016-01-01

    The demands of production, such as thin films in microelectronics, rely on consideration of factors influencing the interaction of dissimilar materials that make contact with their surfaces. Bond formation between surface layers of dissimilar condensed solids-termed adhesion-depends on the nature of the contacting bodies. Thus, it is necessary to determine the characteristics of adhesion interaction of different materials from both applied and fundamental perspectives of surface phenomena. Given the difficulty in obtaining reliable experimental values of the adhesion strength of coatings, the theoretical approach to determining adhesion characteristics becomes more important. Surface Physics: Theoretical Models and Experimental Methods presents straightforward and efficient approaches and methods developed by the authors that enable the calculation of surface and adhesion characteristics for a wide range of materials: metals, alloys, semiconductors, and complex compounds. The authors compare results from the ...

  18. Incorporating contact angles in the surface tension force with the ACES interface curvature scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owkes, Mark

    2017-11-01

    In simulations of gas-liquid flows interacting with solid boundaries, the contact line dynamics effect the interface motion and flow field through the surface tension force. The surface tension force is directly proportional to the interface curvature and the problem of accurately imposing a contact angle must be incorporated into the interface curvature calculation. Many commonly used algorithms to compute interface curvatures (e.g., height function method) require extrapolating the interface, with defined contact angle, into the solid to allow for the calculation of a curvature near a wall. Extrapolating can be an ill-posed problem, especially in three-dimensions or when multiple contact lines are near each other. We have developed an accurate methodology to compute interface curvatures that allows for contact angles to be easily incorporated while avoiding extrapolation and the associated challenges. The method, known as Adjustable Curvature Evaluation Scale (ACES), leverages a least squares fit of a polynomial to points computed on the volume-of-fluid (VOF) representation of the gas-liquid interface. The method is tested by simulating canonical test cases and then applied to simulate the injection and motion of water droplets in a channel (relevant to PEM fuel cells).

  19. Forced heat loss from body surface reduces heat flow to body surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, A

    2010-01-01

    Heat stress is commonly relieved by forced evaporation from body surfaces. The mode of heat stress relief by heat extraction from the periphery is not clear, although it reduces rectal temperature. Radiant surface temperature (Ts) of the right half of the body surface was examined by thermovision in 4 lactating Holstein cows (30 kg of milk/d) during 7 repeated cycles of forced evaporation created by 30s of wetting followed by 4.5 min of forced airflow. Wetting was performed by an array of sprinklers (0.76 m(3)/h), and forced airflow (>3m/s velocity) over the right side of the body surface was produced by fans mounted at a height of 3m above the ground. Sprinkling wetted the hind legs, rump, and chest, but not the lower abdomen side, front legs, or neck. The animals were maintained in shade at an air temperature of 28 degrees C and relative humidity of 47%. Coat thickness was 1 to 2mm, so Ts closely represented skin temperature. Mean Ts of 5 x 20cm areas on the upper and lower hind and front legs, rump, chest, abdomen side, and neck were obtained by converting to temperature their respective gray intensity in single frames obtained at 10-s intervals. Little change occurred in Ts during the first wetting (0.1+/-0.6 degrees C), but it decreased rapidly thereafter (1.6+/-0.6 degrees C in the fifth wetting). The Ts also decreased, to a smaller extent, in areas that remained dry (0.7+/-1.0 degrees C). In all body sites, a plateau in Ts was reached by 2 min after wetting. The difference between dry and wet areas in the first cooling cycle was approximately 1.2 degrees C. The Ts of different body areas decreased during consecutive cooling cycles and reached a plateau by 3 cooling cycles in dry sites (front leg, neck, abdomen side), by 5 cooling cycles in the hind leg, and 7 cooling cycles in the rump and chest. The reduction in mean Ts produced by 7 cycles was 4.0 to 6.0 degrees C in wetted areas and 1.6 to 3.7 degrees C in sites that were not wetted. Initial rectal

  20. Radiative forcing by changes in surface albedo caused by changes in vegetation

    OpenAIRE

    Kvalevåg, Maria Malene

    2005-01-01

    The human influence on vegetation causes changes in the surface reflective properties. By using MODIS land cover and MODIS surface albedo products, an estimation of radiative forcing due to surface albedo changes caused by vegetation changes is performed. A potential natural vegetation data set is used to compute radiative forcing estimates from pre agricultural times to present. A combination between MODIS blacksky and whitesky albedo and diffuse and direct radiation at gr...

  1. Forces involved in bacterial adhesion to hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boks, N.P.; Norde, W.; Meil, H.C.; Busscher, H.J.

    2008-01-01

    Using a parallel-plate flow chamber, the hydrodynamic shear forces to prevent bacterial adhesion (F-prev) and to detach adhering bacteria (F-det) were evaluated for hydrophilic glass, hydrophobic, dimethyldichlorosilane (DDS)-coated glass and six different bacterial strains, in order to test the

  2. Forces involved in bacterial adhesion to hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boks, Niels P.; Norde, Willem; van der Mei, Henny C.; Busscher, Henk J.

    2008-01-01

    Using a parallel-plate flow chamber, the hydrodynamic shear forces to prevent bacterial adhesion (F(prev)) and to detach adhering bacteria (F(det)) were evaluated for hydrophilic glass, hydrophobic, dimethyldichlorosilane (DDS)-coated glass and six different bacterial strains, in order to test the

  3. Generalised empirical method for predicting surface subsidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, M.; Bhattacharyya, A.K.

    1994-01-01

    Based on a simplified strata parameter, i.e. the ratio of total thickness of the strong rock beds in an overburden to the overall thickness of the overburden, a Generalised Empirical Method (GEM) is described for predicting the maximum subsidence and the shape of a complete transverse subsidence profile due to a single completely extracted longwall panel. In the method, a nomogram for predicting the maximum surface subsidence is first developed from the data collected from subsidence measurements worldwide. Then, a method is developed for predicting the shapes of complete transfer subsidence profiles for a horizontal seam and ground surface and is verified by case studies. 13 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Forces and friction between hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces: influence of oleate species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theander, Katarina; Pugh, Robert J; Rutland, Mark W

    2007-09-15

    The atomic force microscope has been used to investigate normal surface forces and lateral friction forces at different concentrations of sodium oleate, a frequently used fatty acid in the deinking process. The measurements have been performed using the colloidal probe technique with bead materials consisting of cellulose and silica. Cellulose was used together with a printing ink alkyd resin and mica, whereas silica was used with a hydrophobized silica wafer. The cellulose-alkyd resin system showed stronger double layer repulsion and the friction was reduced with increasing surfactant concentration. The adhesive interaction disappeared immediately on addition of sodium oleate. The normal surface forces for cellulose-mica indicated no apparent adsorption of the sodium oleate however, the friction coefficient increased on addition of sodium oleate, which we ascribe to some limited adsorption increasing the effective surface roughness. The silica-hydrophobic silica system showed a completely different surface force behavior at the different concentrations. An attractive hydrophobic interaction was evident since the surfaces jumped into adhesive contact at a longer distance than the van der Waals forces would predict. The strong adhesion was reflected in the friction forces as a nonlinear relationship between load and friction and a large friction response at zero applied load. Indirect evidence of adsorption to the hydrophilic silica surface was also observed in this case, and QCM studies were performed to confirm the adsorption of material to both surfaces.

  5. Investigation of graphite composite anodes surfaces by atomic force microscopy and related techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirasawa, Karen Akemi; Nishioka, Keiko; Sato, Tomohiro; Yamaguchi, Shoji; Mori, Shoichiro [Mitsubishi Chemical Corp., Tsukuba Research Center, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1997-11-01

    The surface of a synthetic graphite (KS-44) and polyvinylidene difluoride binder (PVDF) anode for lithium-ion secondary batteries is imaged using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and several related scanning probe microscope (SPM) instruments including: dynamic force microscopy (DFM), friction force microscopy (FFM), laterally-modulated friction force microscopy (LM-FFM), visco-elasticity atomic force microscopy (VE-AFM), and AFM/simultaneous current measurement mode (SCM). DFM is found to be an exceptional mode for topographic imaging while FFM results in the clearest contrast distinction between PVDF binder and KS-44 graphite regions. (orig.)

  6. Atomic force microscopy imaging and single molecule recognition force spectroscopy of coat proteins on the surface of Bacillus subtilis spore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jilin; Krajcikova, Daniela; Zhu, Rong; Ebner, Andreas; Cutting, Simon; Gruber, Hermann J; Barak, Imrich; Hinterdorfer, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Coat assembly in Bacillus subtilis serves as a tractable model for the study of the self-assembly process of biological structures and has a significant potential for use in nano-biotechnological applications. In the present study, the morphology of B. subtilis spores was investigated by magnetically driven dynamic force microscopy (MAC mode atomic force microscopy) under physiological conditions. B. subtilis spores appeared as prolate structures, with a length of 0.6-3 microm and a width of about 0.5-2 microm. The spore surface was mainly covered with bump-like structures with diameters ranging from 8 to 70 nm. Besides topographical explorations, single molecule recognition force spectroscopy (SMRFS) was used to characterize the spore coat protein CotA. This protein was specifically recognized by a polyclonal antibody directed against CotA (anti-CotA), the antibody being covalently tethered to the AFM tip via a polyethylene glycol linker. The unbinding force between CotA and anti-CotA was determined as 55 +/- 2 pN. From the high-binding probability of more than 20% in force-distance cycles it is concluded that CotA locates in the outer surface of B. subtilis spores. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Atomic force microscopy in biomedical research - Methods and protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CarloAlberto Redi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Pier Carlo Braga and Davide Ricci are old friends not only for those researchers familiar with Atomic force microscopy (AFM but also for those beginners (like the undersigned that already enthusiastically welcomed their 2004 edition (for the same Humana press printing types of Atomic force microscopy: Biomedical methods and applications, eventhough I never had used the AFM. That book was much intended to overview the possible AFM applications for a wide range of readers so that they can be in some way stimulated toward the AFM use. In fact, the great majority of scientists is afraid both of the technology behind AFM (that is naturally thought highly demanding in term of concepts not so familiar to biologists and physicians and of the financial costs: both these two factors are conceived unapproachable by the medium range granted scientist usually not educated in terms of biophysics and electronic background....

  8. Constraining Aerosol Forcing from the Land Surface Temperature Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Z.; Ming, Y.; Held, I.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the anthropogenic influence on regional climate change is important for policy making and adaption planning. Atmosphere/land global climate models (AGCMs) with prescribed oceanic boundary conditions allow a decomposition of historical climate change into a fast component that occurs on an atmospheric adjustment time scale of a month or less, and a slow component due to the changing ocean and sea ice. These two components are simultaneously present in comprehensive coupled climate models. The slow component contains much of the uncertainty in climate sensitivity and is where the forced signals are mixed most strongly with natural variability. Here we use AGCMs to investigate the fast component of the anthropogenic influence on regional temperature change. Although this fast component of the anthropogenic warming is often thought of as small, we find that it is detectable in the observed warming of Northern Hemisphere land during the warm season in recent decades. We suggest that the fast response to aerosol forcing in isolation can be detected on subcontinental scales, and that AGCM simulations of the fast response are useful for empirically constraining aerosol forcing.

  9. Digital phase-shifting atomic force microscope Moire method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chiaming; Chen Lienwen

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the digital atomic force microscope (AFM) Moire method with phase-shifting technology is established to measure the in-plane displacement and strain fields. The Moire pattern is generated by the interference between the specimen grating and the virtual reference grating formed by digital image processes. The overlapped image is filtered by two-dimensional wavelet transformation to obtain the clear interference Moire patterns. The four-step phase-shifting method is realized by translating the phase of the virtual reference grating from 0 to 2π. The principle of the digital AFM Moire method and the phase-shifting technology are described in detail. Experimental results show that this method is convenient to use and efficient in realizing the microscale measurement

  10. Covalent and density-controlled surface immobilization of E-cadherin for adhesion force spectroscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Fichtner

    Full Text Available E-cadherin is a key cell-cell adhesion molecule but the impact of receptor density and the precise contribution of individual cadherin ectodomains in promoting cell adhesion are only incompletely understood. Investigating these mechanisms would benefit from artificial adhesion substrates carrying different cadherin ectodomains at defined surface density. We therefore developed a quantitative E-cadherin surface immobilization protocol based on the SNAP-tag technique. Extracellular (EC fragments of E-cadherin fused to the SNAP-tag were covalently bound to self-assembled monolayers (SAM of thiols carrying benzylguanine (BG head groups. The adhesive functionality of the different E-cadherin surfaces was then assessed using cell spreading assays and single-cell (SCSF and single-molecule (SMSF force spectroscopy. We demonstrate that an E-cadherin construct containing only the first and second outmost EC domain (E1-2 is not sufficient for mediating cell adhesion and yields only low single cadherin-cadherin adhesion forces. In contrast, a construct containing all five EC domains (E1-5 efficiently promotes cell spreading and generates strong single cadherin and cell adhesion forces. By varying the concentration of BG head groups within the SAM we determined a lateral distance of 5-11 nm for optimal E-cadherin functionality. Integrating the results from SCMS and SMSF experiments furthermore demonstrated that the dissolution of E-cadherin adhesion contacts involves a sequential unbinding of individual cadherin receptors rather than the sudden rupture of larger cadherin receptor clusters. Our method of covalent, oriented and density-controlled E-cadherin immobilization thus provides a novel and versatile platform to study molecular mechanisms underlying cadherin-mediated cell adhesion under defined experimental conditions.

  11. Choosing the forcing terms in an inexact Newton method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenstat, S.C. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Walker, H.F. [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States)

    1994-12-31

    An inexact Newton method is a generalization of Newton`s method for solving F(x) = 0, F: {Re}{sup n} {r_arrow} {Re}{sup n}, in which each step reduces the norm of the local linear model of F. At the kth iteration, the norm reduction is usefully expressed by the inexact Newton condition where x{sub k} is the current approximate solution and s{sub k} is the step. In many applications, an {eta}{sub k} is first specified, and then an S{sub k} is found for which the inexact Newton condition holds. Thus {eta}{sub k} is often called a {open_quotes}forcing term{close_quotes}. In practice, the choice of the forcing terms is usually critical to the efficiency of the method and can affect robustness as well. Here, the authors outline several promising choices, discuss theoretical support for them, and compare their performance in a Newton iterative (truncated Newton) method applied to several large-scale problems.

  12. Exploration on Kerf-angle and Surface Roughness in Abrasive Waterjet Machining using Response Surface Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Munuswamy Naresh; Muthukrishnan, Nambi

    2017-05-01

    Abrasive waterjet machining is a mechanical based unconventional cutting process which uses a mixture of abrasives and pressurized water as an intermediate to cut the material. The present paper focuses in analyzing the effect process parameters like feed rate, water pressure, standoff distance and abrasive flow rate on the surface roughness and kerf-angle of AISI 1018 mild steel experimentally. The experiments were performed under Taguchi's L27 orthogonal array. Moreover, the optimal parameter that significantly reduces the surface roughness and kerf-angle were calculated through response surface method. The most dominating process parameter that affects the responses was calculated by the Analysis of variance. In addition, machined surfaces are further subjected to scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) for detailed study on the texture developed.

  13. Computational optical palpation: micro-scale force mapping using finite-element methods (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijesinghe, Philip; Sampson, David D.; Kennedy, Brendan F.

    2016-03-01

    Accurate quantification of forces, applied to, or generated by, tissue, is key to understanding many biomechanical processes, fabricating engineered tissues, and diagnosing diseases. Many techniques have been employed to measure forces; in particular, tactile imaging - developed to spatially map palpation-mimicking forces - has shown potential in improving the diagnosis of cancer on the macro-scale. However, tactile imaging often involves the use of discrete force sensors, such as capacitive or piezoelectric sensors, whose spatial resolution is often limited to 1-2 mm. Our group has previously presented a type of tactile imaging, termed optical palpation, in which the change in thickness of a compliant layer in contact with tissue is measured using optical coherence tomography, and surface forces are extracted, with a micro-scale spatial resolution, using a one-dimensional spring model. We have also recently combined optical palpation with compression optical coherence elastography (OCE) to quantify stiffness. A main limitation of this work, however, is that a one-dimensional spring model is insufficient in describing the deformation of mechanically heterogeneous tissue with uneven boundaries, generating significant inaccuracies in measured forces. Here, we present a computational, finite-element method, which we term computational optical palpation. In this technique, by knowing the non-linear mechanical properties of the layer, and from only the axial component of displacement measured by phase-sensitive OCE, we can estimate, not only the axial forces, but the three-dimensional traction forces at the layer-tissue interface. We use a non-linear, three-dimensional model of deformation, which greatly increases the ability to accurately measure force and stiffness in complex tissues.

  14. The capillary adhesion technique: a versatile method for determining the liquid adhesion force and sample stiffness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Gandyra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a novel, practical technique for the concerted, simultaneous determination of both the adhesion force of a small structure or structural unit (e.g., an individual filament, hair, micromechanical component or microsensor to a liquid and its elastic properties. The method involves the creation and development of a liquid meniscus upon touching a liquid surface with the structure, and the subsequent disruption of this liquid meniscus upon removal. The evaluation of the meniscus shape immediately before snap-off of the meniscus allows the quantitative determination of the liquid adhesion force. Concurrently, by measuring and evaluating the deformation of the structure under investigation, its elastic properties can be determined. The sensitivity of the method is remarkably high, practically limited by the resolution of the camera capturing the process. Adhesion forces down to 10 µN and spring constants up to 2 N/m were measured. Three exemplary applications of this method are demonstrated: (1 determination of the water adhesion force and the elasticity of individual hairs (trichomes of the floating fern Salvinia molesta. (2 The investigation of human head hairs both with and without functional surface coatings (a topic of high relevance in the field of hair cosmetics was performed. The method also resulted in the measurement of an elastic modulus (Young’s modulus for individual hairs of 3.0 × 105 N/cm2, which is within the typical range known for human hair. (3 Finally, the accuracy and validity of the capillary adhesion technique was proven by examining calibrated atomic force microscopy cantilevers, reproducing the spring constants calibrated using other methods.

  15. Characterization of single-crystal sapphire substrates by X-ray methods and atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokhorov, I. A.; Zakharov, B. G.; Asadchikov, V. E.; Butashin, A. V.; Roshchin, B. S.; Tolstikhina, A. L.; Zanaveskin, M. L.; Grishchenko, Yu. V.; Muslimov, A. E.; Yakimchuk, I. V.; Volkov, Yu. O.; Kanevskii, V. M.; Tikhonov, E. O.

    2011-01-01

    The possibility of characterizing a number of practically important parameters of sapphire substrates by X-ray methods is substantiated. These parameters include wafer bending, traces of an incompletely removed damaged layer that formed as a result of mechanical treatment (scratches and marks), surface roughness, damaged layer thickness, and the specific features of the substrate real structure. The features of the real structure of single-crystal sapphire substrates were investigated by nondestructive methods of double-crystal X-ray diffraction and plane-wave X-ray topography. The surface relief of the substrates was investigated by atomic force microscopy and X-ray scattering. The use of supplementing analytical methods yields the most complete information about the structural inhomogeneities and state of crystal surface, which is extremely important for optimizing the technology of substrate preparation for epitaxy.

  16. Numerical method for wave forces acting on partially perforated caisson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Feng; Tang, Xiao-cheng; Jin, Zhao; Zhang, Li; Chen, Hong-zhou

    2015-04-01

    The perforated caisson is widely applied to practical engineering because of its great advantages in effectively wave energy consumption and cost reduction. The attentions of many scientists were paid to the fluid-structure interaction between wave and perforated caisson studies, but until now, most concerns have been put on theoretical analysis and experimental model set up. In this paper, interaction between the wave and the partial perforated caisson in a 2D numerical wave flume is investigated by means of the renewed SPH algorithm, and the mathematical equations are in the form of SPH numerical approximation based on Navier-Stokes equations. The validity of the SPH mathematical method is examined and the simulated results are compared with the results of theoretical models, meanwhile the complex hydrodynamic characteristics when the water particles flow in or out of a wave absorbing chamber are analyzed and the wave pressure distribution of the perforated caisson is also addressed here. The relationship between the ratio of total horizontal force acting on caisson under regular waves and its influence factors is examined. The data show that the numerical calculation of the ratio of total horizontal force meets the empirical regression equation very well. The simulations of SPH about the wave nonlinearity and breaking are briefly depicted in the paper, suggesting that the advantages and great potentiality of the SPH method is significant compared with traditional methods.

  17. Experimental Method for Determining Forces at Bending of Perforated Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascu, Adrian; Oleksik, Mihaela; Avrigean, Eugen

    2017-12-01

    This paper describes the method of calculating the forces which appear at the bending of perforated plates with holes of different shapes and placed in different patterns, by means of a dynamometric table which uses resistive tensometric transducers (strain gauges). It also describes an instrument for the recording of data from the dynamometric table, a tool created with the aid of the "TestPoint" software which, beneath the data recording, ensures the filtering and statistic processing of data. The obtained results are displayed in comparative graphs for six types of perforated plates, as well as for an unperforated plate.

  18. Validation of engineering methods for predicting hypersonic vehicle controls forces and moments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughmer, M.; Straussfogel, D.; Long, L.; Ozoroski, L.

    1991-01-01

    This work examines the ability of the aerodynamic analysis methods contained in an industry standard conceptual design code, the Aerodynamic Preliminary Analysis System (APAS II), to estimate the forces and moments generated through control surface deflections from low subsonic to high hypersonic speeds. Predicted control forces and moments generated by various control effectors are compared with previously published wind-tunnel and flight-test data for three vehicles: the North American X-15, a hypersonic research airplane concept, and the Space Shuttle Orbiter. Qualitative summaries of the results are given for each force and moment coefficient and each control derivative in the various speed ranges. Results show that all predictions of longitudinal stability and control derivatives are acceptable for use at the conceptual design stage.

  19. Force

    CERN Document Server

    Graybill, George

    2007-01-01

    Forces are at work all around us. Discover what a force is, and different kinds of forces that work on contact and at a distance. We use simple language and vocabulary to make this invisible world easy for students to ""see"" and understand. Examine how forces ""add up"" to create the total force on an object, and reinforce concepts and extend learning with sample problems.

  20. Adhesive Force of a Spider Mite, Tetranychus urticae, to a Flat Smooth Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, Katsumi; Egashira, Kai; Toukai, Tadashi; Ogushi, Jun

    The adhesion of a spider mite to a surface of a flat smooth plate is investigated as a model for micromachine parts to adhere to and move on such surfaces. The measurement of adhesive force is carried out under various conditions in which plate material, surface roughness of a plate and environmental humidity are differed. The adhesion mechanism is also discussed. Of the forces acting between a spider mite and a surface, one from dispersion interaction is the most dominant because (1) there is a high correlation between the adhesive force and the dispersion force component of surface energy with adhesive forces of 8.2µN for glass, 9.7µN for mica, 9.9µN for silicon and 12.1µN for gold, and because (2) high humidity and high surface roughness reduce the adhesive force. For strong adhesion based on work of adhesion, spider mites have tenent hairs with a bell-shaped end.

  1. Force control compensation method with variable load stiffness and damping of the hydraulic drive unit force control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiangdong; Ba, Kaixian; Yu, Bin; Cao, Yuan; Zhu, Qixin; Zhao, Hualong

    2016-05-01

    Each joint of hydraulic drive quadruped robot is driven by the hydraulic drive unit (HDU), and the contacting between the robot foot end and the ground is complex and variable, which increases the difficulty of force control inevitably. In the recent years, although many scholars researched some control methods such as disturbance rejection control, parameter self-adaptive control, impedance control and so on, to improve the force control performance of HDU, the robustness of the force control still needs improving. Therefore, how to simulate the complex and variable load characteristics of the environment structure and how to ensure HDU having excellent force control performance with the complex and variable load characteristics are key issues to be solved in this paper. The force control system mathematic model of HDU is established by the mechanism modeling method, and the theoretical models of a novel force control compensation method and a load characteristics simulation method under different environment structures are derived, considering the dynamic characteristics of the load stiffness and the load damping under different environment structures. Then, simulation effects of the variable load stiffness and load damping under the step and sinusoidal load force are analyzed experimentally on the HDU force control performance test platform, which provides the foundation for the force control compensation experiment research. In addition, the optimized PID control parameters are designed to make the HDU have better force control performance with suitable load stiffness and load damping, under which the force control compensation method is introduced, and the robustness of the force control system with several constant load characteristics and the variable load characteristics respectively are comparatively analyzed by experiment. The research results indicate that if the load characteristics are known, the force control compensation method presented in this

  2. A moving control volume method for smooth computation of hydrodynamic forces and torques on immersed bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nangia, Nishant; Patankar, Neelesh A.; Bhalla, Amneet P. S.

    2017-11-01

    Fictitious domain methods for simulating fluid-structure interaction (FSI) have been gaining popularity in the past few decades because of their robustness in handling arbitrarily moving bodies. Often the transient net hydrodynamic forces and torques on the body are desired quantities for these types of simulations. In past studies using immersed boundary (IB) methods, force measurements are contaminated with spurious oscillations due to evaluation of possibly discontinuous spatial velocity of pressure gradients within or on the surface of the body. Based on an application of the Reynolds transport theorem, we present a moving control volume (CV) approach to computing the net forces and torques on a moving body immersed in a fluid. The approach is shown to be accurate for a wide array of FSI problems, including flow past stationary and moving objects, Stokes flow, and high Reynolds number free-swimming. The approach only requires far-field (smooth) velocity and pressure information, thereby suppressing spurious force oscillations and eliminating the need for any filtering. The proposed moving CV method is not limited to a specific IB method and is straightforward to implement within an existing parallel FSI simulation software. This work is supported by NSF (Award Numbers SI2-SSI-1450374, SI2-SSI-1450327, and DGE-1324585), the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, ASCR (Award Number DE-AC02-05CH11231), and NIH (Award Number HL117163).

  3. Electronegativity determination of individual surface atoms by atomic force microscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Onoda, J.; Ondráček, Martin; Jelínek, Pavel; Sugimoto, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 8, Apr (2017), 1-6, č. článku 15155. ISSN 2041-1723 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GC14-16963J Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : AFM * DFT * electronegativity * surface science Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 12.124, year: 2016

  4. ENSO surface longwave radiation forcing over the tropical Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. G. Pavlakis

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the spatial and temporal variation of the surface longwave radiation (downwelling and net over a 21-year period in the tropical and subtropical Pacific Ocean (40 S–40 N, 90 E–75 W. The fluxes were computed using a deterministic model for atmospheric radiation transfer, along with satellite data from the ISCCP-D2 database and reanalysis data from NCEP/NCAR (acronyms explained in main text, for the key atmospheric and surface input parameters. An excellent correlation was found between the downwelling longwave radiation (DLR anomaly and the Niño-3.4 index time-series, over the Niño-3.4 region located in the central Pacific. A high anti-correlation was also found over the western Pacific (15–0 S, 105–130 E. There is convincing evidence that the time series of the mean downwelling longwave radiation anomaly in the western Pacific precedes that in the Niño-3.4 region by 3–4 months. Thus, the downwelling longwave radiation anomaly is a complementary index to the SST anomaly for the study of ENSO events and can be used to asses whether or not El Niño or La Niña conditions prevail. Over the Niño-3.4 region, the mean DLR anomaly values range from +20 Wm−2 during El Niño episodes to −20 Wm−2 during La Niña events, while over the western Pacific (15–0 S, 105–130 E these values range from −15 Wm−2 to +10 Wm−2, respectively. The long- term average (1984–2004 distribution of the net downwelling longwave radiation at the surface over the tropical and subtropical Pacific for the three month period November-December-January shows a net thermal cooling of the ocean surface. When El Niño conditions prevail, the thermal radiative cooling in the central and south-eastern tropical Pacific becomes weaker by 10 Wm−2 south of the equator in the central Pacific (7–0 S, 160–120 W for the three-month period of NDJ, because the DLR increase is larger than the increase in surface thermal emission. In contrast, the

  5. Tip-force induced surface deformation in the layered commensurate tellurides NbA xTe 2 (A = Si, Ge) during atomic force microscopy measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengel, H.; Cantow, H.-J.; Magonov, S. N.; Monconduit, L.; Evain, M.; Whangbo, M.-H.

    1994-12-01

    The Te-atom surfaces of commensurate layered tellurides NbA xTe 2 ( A = Si, x = {1}/{2}; A = Ge, x = {1}/{3}, {2}/{5}, {3}/{7}) were examined by atomic force microscopy (AFM) at different applied forces. Although the bulk crystal structures show a negligible height corrugation in the surface Te-atom sheets, the AFM images exhibit dark linear patterns that become strongly pronounced at high applied forces (several hundreds nN). This feature comes about because the tip-sample force interactions induce a surface corrugation according to the local hardness variation of the surface.

  6. Local triboelectrification of an n-GaAs surface using the tip of an atomic-force microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunkov, P. N., E-mail: brunkov@mail.ioffe.ru; Goncharov, V. V.; Rudinsky, M. E.; Gutkin, A. A.; Gordeev, N. Yu.; Lantratov, V. M.; Kalyuzhnyy, N. A.; Mintairov, S. A.; Sokolov, R. V.; Konnikov, S. G. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2013-09-15

    The method of scanning Kelvin-probe microscopy is used to show that the effect of triboelectrification is observed when the tip of an atomic-force microscope interacts with the surface of n-GaAs epitaxial layers. The sign of the change in the potential indicates that the sample surface after triboelectrification becomes more negative. The observed specific features of the phenomena can be attributed to the thermally activated generation of point defects in the vicinity of the sample surface due to deformation caused by the tip.

  7. Tracking Traction Force Changes of Single Cells on the Liquid Crystal Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin Fhong Soon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell migration is a key contributor to wound repair. This study presents findings indicating that the liquid crystal based cell traction force transducer (LCTFT system can be used in conjunction with a bespoke cell traction force mapping (CTFM software to monitor cell/surface traction forces from quiescent state in real time. In this study, time-lapse photo microscopy allowed cell induced deformations in liquid crystal coated substrates to be monitored and analyzed. The results indicated that the system could be used to monitor the generation of cell/surface forces in an initially quiescent cell, as it migrated over the culture substrate, via multiple points of contact between the cell and the surface. Future application of this system is the real-time assaying of the pharmacological effects of cytokines on the mechanics of cell migration.

  8. Resolution Enhancement Method Used for Force Sensing Resistor Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Flores De Jesus

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tactile sensors are one of the major devices that enable robotic systems to interact with the surrounding environment. This research aims to propose a mathematical model to describe the behavior of a tactile sensor based on experimental and statistical analyses and moreover to develop a versatile algorithm that can be applied to different tactile sensor arrays to enhance the limited resolution. With the proposed algorithm, the resolution can be increased up to twenty times if multiple measurements are available. To verify if the proposed algorithm can be used for tactile sensor arrays that are used in robotic system, a 16×10 force sensing array (FSR is adopted. The acquired two-dimensional measurements were processed by a resolution enhancement method (REM to enhance the resolution, which can be used to improve the resolution for single image or multiple measurements. As a result, the resolution of the sensor is increased and it can be used as synthetic skin to identify accurate shapes of objects and applied forces.

  9. In vitro frictional forces generated by three different ligation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandini, Paola; Orsi, Linda; Bertoncini, Chiara; Massironi, Sarah; Franchi, Lorenzo

    2008-09-01

    To test the hypothesis that there is no difference between the frictional forces produced by a passive self-ligating bracket (SLB) in vitro and a conventional bracket (CB) used with two types of elastomeric ligatures. The brackets, wires and ligation methods used in vitro were a passive SLB and a CB used with two types of elastomeric ligatures (conventional elastomeric ligature [CEL] and unconventional elastomeric ligatures [UEL]). The bracket ligation systems were tested with two types of wires (0.014'' super elastic nickel titanium wire and 0.019'' x 0.025'' stainless steel wire). Resistance to sliding of the bracket/wire/ligature systems was measured with an experimental model mounted on the crosshead of an Instron testing machine with a 10 N load cell. Each sample was tested 10 consecutive times under a dry state. Frictional forces close to 0 g were recorded in all tests with SLB and in all tests with UEL on CB with both wire types. Resistance to sliding increased significantly (87-177 g) (P UELs may represent a valid alternative to passive SLBs for low-friction biomechanics.

  10. Surface thermodynamics and adhesion forces governing bacterial transmission in contact lens related microbial keratitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qu, Wenwen; Busscher, Henk J.; Hooymans, Johanna M. M.; van der Mei, Henny C.

    2011-01-01

    Contact lens induced microbial keratitis results from bacterial transmission from one surface to another. We investigated the adhesion forces of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococci and Serratia to different contact lenses, lens cases and corneal surfaces using AFM, and applied a Weibull analysis

  11. Resistive-force theory for mesh-like superhydrophobic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzer, Ory; Yariv, Ehud

    2018-03-01

    A common realization of superhydrophobic surfaces makes use of a mesh-like geometry, where pockets of air are trapped in a periodic array of holes in a no-slip solid substrate. We consider the small-solid-fraction limit where the ribs of the mesh are narrow. In this limit, we obtain a simple leading-order approximation for the slip-length tensor of an arbitrary mesh geometry. This approximation scales as the solid-fraction logarithm, as anticipated by Ybert et al. [Phys. Fluids 19, 123601 (2007), 10.1063/1.2815730]; in the special case of a square mesh it agrees with the analytical results obtained by Davis and Lauga [Phys. Fluids 21, 113101 (2009), 10.1063/1.3250947].

  12. Direct Measurements of Surface Energy, Elastic Modulus and Interparticle Forces of Titan Aerosol Analog (`Tholin') Using Atomic Force Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, X.; Horst, S. M.; He, C.; McGuiggan, P.; Bridges, N. T.

    2017-12-01

    To understand the origin of the dunes on Titan, it is important to investigate the material properties of the sand particles on Titan, which are mainly made of organics deposited from the atmosphere [1]. The organic sand may behave differently compared to the quartz/basaltic sand on terrestrial planets (Earth, Venus, Mars) in terms of interparticle forces. We measured the surface energy (through contact angle measurements) and elastic modulus (through Atomic Force Microscopy, AFM) of Titan aerosol analog (tholins) produced in our lab. Tholins may be compositionally similar to sand on Titan. We directly measured the interparticle forces between a tholin particle adhered to an AFM cantilver and tholin particles on a substrate. We also measured the properties of walnut shells, a typical material used in the Titan Wind Tunnel (TWT, [2, 3]). We find the surface energy of a tholin thin film is about 70.9 mN/m and its elastic modulus is about 3.5 GPa (similar to hard polymers like PMMA and polystyrene). We used the two measured material properties of tholin to calculate its interparticle cohesion assuming simple sphere-sphere geometry [4]. For two 20 µm particles, the theoretical cohesion force is about 6682 nN. Under dry nitrogen (RHmeasured interparticle forces using AFM was approximately 4000 nN, which is smaller than theoretical predictions but still relatively strong under dry conditions. The interparticle cohesion between walnut shell particles is only 200 nN, which is much lower than between tholin particles. The key finding of this study is that the interparticle cohesion forces are much larger for tholins and presumably Titan sand particles than for terrestrial sand and materials used in the wind tunnel. This suggests we should increase the interparticle force in both analog experiments (TWT) and threshold models (e.g. [5]) to correctly translate the results to real Titan conditions. The strong cohesion of tholins may also inform us how the small aerosol

  13. Continuous versus Arrested Spreading of Biofilms at Solid-Gas Interfaces: The Role of Surface Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinschek, Sarah; John, Karin; Lecuyer, Sigolène; Thiele, Uwe

    2017-08-01

    We introduce and analyze a model for osmotically spreading bacterial colonies at solid-air interfaces that includes wetting phenomena, i.e., surface forces. The model is based on a hydrodynamic description for liquid suspensions which is supplemented by bioactive processes. We show that surface forces determine whether a biofilm can expand laterally over a substrate and provide experimental evidence for the existence of a transition between continuous and arrested spreading for Bacillus subtilis biofilms. In the case of arrested spreading, the lateral expansion of the biofilm is confined, albeit the colony is biologically active. However, a small reduction in the surface tension of the biofilm is sufficient to induce spreading. The incorporation of surface forces into our hydrodynamic model allows us to capture this transition in biofilm spreading behavior.

  14. Dynamic analysis of a hollow cylinder subject to a dual traveling force imposed on its inner surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sooyoung; Seok, Jongwon

    2015-03-01

    The dynamic behavior of a hollow cylinder under a dual traveling force applied to the inner surface is investigated in this study. The cylinder is constrained at both the top and bottom surfaces not to move in the length direction but free in other directions. And a dual force travels at a constant velocity along the length direction on the inner surface of the hollow cylinder. The resulting governing field equations and the associated boundary conditions are ruled by the general Hooke's law. Due to the nature of the field equations, proper adjoint system of equations and biorthogonality conditions were derived in a precise and detailed manner. To solve these field equations in this study, the method of separation of variable is used and the method of Fro¨benius is employed for the differential equations in the radial direction. Using the field equations, the eigenanalyses on both the original and its adjoint system were performed with great care, which results in the eigenfunction sets of both systems. The biorthogonality conditions were applied to the field equations to obtain the discretized equation for each mode. Using the solutions of the discretized equations that account for the boundary forcing terms, the critical speed for a dual traveling force for each mode could be computed.

  15. Using optical tweezers for measuring the interaction forces between human bone cells and implant surfaces: System design and force calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Martin; Madgavkar, Ashwin; Stjerndahl, Maria; Wu, Yanrong; Tan, Weihong; Duran, Randy; Niehren, Stefan; Mustafa, Kamal; Arvidson, Kristina; Wennerberg, Ann

    2007-01-01

    Optical tweezers were used to study the interaction and attachment of human bone cells to various types of medical implant materials. Ideally, the implant should facilitate cell attachment and promote migration of the progenitor cells in order to decrease the healing time. It is therefore of interest, in a controlled manner, to be able to monitor the cell adhesion process. Results from such studies would help foresee the clinical outcome of integrating medical implants. The interactions between two primary cell culture models, human gingival fibroblasts and bone forming human osteoblast cells, and three different implant materials, glass, titanium, and hydroxyapatite, were studied. A novel type of optical tweezers, which has a newly designed quadrant detector and a powerful 3 W laser was constructed and force calibrated using two different methods: one method in which the stiffness of the optical trap was obtained by monitoring the phase lag between the trap and the moved object when imposing a forced oscillation on the trapped object and another method in which the maximum trapping force was derived from the critical velocity at which the object escapes the trap. Polystyrene beads as well as cells were utilized for the calibrations. This is the first time that cells have been used directly for these types of force calibrations and, hence, direct measurements of forces exerted on cells can be performed, thus avoiding the difficulties often encountered when translating the results obtained from cell measurements to the calibrations obtained with reference materials. This more straightforward approach represents an advantage in comparison to established methods

  16. Mapping of Proteomic Composition on the Surfaces of Bacillus spores by Atomic Force Microscopy-based Immunolabeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plomp, M; Malkin, A J

    2008-06-02

    Atomic force microscopy provides a unique capability to image high-resolution architecture and structural dynamics of pathogens (e.g. viruses, bacteria and bacterial spores) at near molecular resolution in native conditions. Further development of atomic force microscopy in order to enable the correlation of pathogen protein surface structures with specific gene products is essential to understand the mechanisms of the pathogen life cycle. We have applied an AFM-based immunolabeling technique for the proteomic mapping of macromolecular structures through the visualization of the binding of antibodies, conjugated with nanogold particles, to specific epitopes on Bacillus spore surfaces. This information is generated while simultaneously acquiring the surface morphology of the pathogen. The immunospecificity of this labeling method was established through the utilization of specific polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies that target spore coat and exosporium epitopes of Bacillus atrophaeus and Bacillus anthracis spores.

  17. Electrostatic force microscopy as a broadly applicable method for characterizing pyroelectric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Olmos, Cristina; Stieg, Adam Z.; Gimzewski, James K.

    2012-06-01

    A general method based on the combination of electrostatic force microscopy with thermal cycling of the substrate holder is presented for direct, nanoscale characterization of the pyroelectric effect in a range of materials and sample configurations using commercial atomic force microscope systems. To provide an example of its broad applicability, the technique was applied to the examination of natural tourmaline gemstones. The method was validated using thermal cycles similar to those experienced in ambient conditions, where the induced pyroelectric response produced localized electrostatic surface charges whose magnitude demonstrated a correlation with the iron content and heat dissipation of each gemstone variety. In addition, the surface charge was shown to persist even at thermal equilibrium. This behavior is attributed to constant, stochastic cooling of the gemstone surface through turbulent contact with the surrounding air and indicates a potential utility for energy harvesting in applications including environmental sensors and personal electronics. In contrast to previously reported methods, ours has a capacity to carry out such precise nanoscale measurements with little or no restriction on the sample of interest, and represents a powerful new tool for the characterization of pyroelectric materials and devices.

  18. Electrostatic force microscopy as a broadly applicable method for characterizing pyroelectric materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin-Olmos, Cristina; Gimzewski, James K; Stieg, Adam Z

    2012-01-01

    A general method based on the combination of electrostatic force microscopy with thermal cycling of the substrate holder is presented for direct, nanoscale characterization of the pyroelectric effect in a range of materials and sample configurations using commercial atomic force microscope systems. To provide an example of its broad applicability, the technique was applied to the examination of natural tourmaline gemstones. The method was validated using thermal cycles similar to those experienced in ambient conditions, where the induced pyroelectric response produced localized electrostatic surface charges whose magnitude demonstrated a correlation with the iron content and heat dissipation of each gemstone variety. In addition, the surface charge was shown to persist even at thermal equilibrium. This behavior is attributed to constant, stochastic cooling of the gemstone surface through turbulent contact with the surrounding air and indicates a potential utility for energy harvesting in applications including environmental sensors and personal electronics. In contrast to previously reported methods, ours has a capacity to carry out such precise nanoscale measurements with little or no restriction on the sample of interest, and represents a powerful new tool for the characterization of pyroelectric materials and devices. (paper)

  19. Investigating the adsorption of the gemini surfactant "12-2-12" onto mica using atomic force microscopy and surface force apparatus measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fielden, ML; Claesson, PM; Verrall, RE

    1999-01-01

    The adsorption of the cationic gemini surfactant 1,2-bis(n-dodecyldimethylammonium)ethane dibromide on mica was followed by measuring forces between mica surfaces and by atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging. The surface charge was found to be neutralized at total surfactant concentrations between 8

  20. An analytical model for force prediction in ball nose micro milling of inclined surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bissacco, Giuliano; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2010-01-01

    Ball nose micro milling is a key process for the generation of free form surfaces and inclined surfaces often present in mould inserts for micro replication. This paper presents a new cutting force model for ball nose micro milling that is capable of taking into account the effect of the edge rad...... radius and the effect of the surface topography due to the previous milling passes. The model is completely analytical can be applied to ball end micro milling of slanted surfaces for any value of the surface inclination angle relative to the tool axis....

  1. Atomic forces between noble gas atoms, alkali ions, and halogen ions for surface interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J. W.; Outlaw, R. A.; Heinbockel, J. H.

    1988-01-01

    The components of the physical forces between noble gas atoms, alkali ions, and halogen ions are analyzed and a data base developed from analysis of the two-body potential data, the alkali-halide molecular data, and the noble gas crystal and salt crystal data. A satisfactory global fit to this molecular and crystal data is then reproduced by the model to within several percent. Surface potentials are evaluated for noble gas atoms on noble gas surfaces and salt crystal surfaces with surface tension neglected. Within this context, the noble gas surface potentials on noble gas and salt crystals are considered to be accurate to within several percent.

  2. Wettability of natural root mucilage studied by atomic force microscopy and contact angle: Links between nanoscale and macroscale surface properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltenbach, Robin; Diehl, Dörte; Schaumann, Gabriele E.

    2017-04-01

    Organic coatings are considered as main cause of soil water repellency (SWR). This phenomenon plays a crucial role in the rhizosphere, at the interface of plant water uptake and soil hydraulics. Still, there is little knowledge about the nanoscale properties of natural soil compounds such as root-mucilage and its mechanistic effect on wettability. In this study, dried films of natural root-mucilage from Sorghum (Sorghum sp., MOENCH) on glass substrates were studied in order to explore experimental and evaluation methods that allow to link between macroscopic wettability and nano-/microscopic surface properties in this model soil system. SWR was assessed by optical contact angle (CA) measurements. The nanostructure of topography and adhesion forces of the mucilage surfaces was revealed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements in ambient air, using PeakForce Quantitative Nanomechanical Mapping (PFQNM). Undiluted mucilage formed hydrophobic films on the substrate with CA > 90° and rather homogeneous nanostructure. Contact angles showed reduced water repellency of surfaces, when concentration of mucilage was decreased by dilution. AFM height and adhesion images displayed incomplete mucilage surface coverage for diluted samples. Hole-like structures in the film frequently exhibited increased adhesion forces. Spatial analysis of the AFM data via variograms enabled a numerical description of such 'adhesion holes'. The use of geostatistical approaches in AFM studies of the complex surface structure of soil compounds was considered meaningful in view of the need of comprehensive analysis of large AFM image data sets that exceed the capability of comparative visual inspection. Furthermore, force curves measured with the AFM showed increased break-free distances and pull-off forces inside the observed 'adhesion holes', indicating enhanced capillary forces due to adsorbed water films at hydrophilic domains for ambient RH (40 ± 2 %). This offers the possibility of

  3. Force field and a surface model database for silica to simulate interfacial properties in atomic resolution

    OpenAIRE

    Emami, FS; Puddu, V; Berry, RJ; Varshney, V; Patwardhan, SV; Perry, CC; Heinz, H

    2014-01-01

    Silica nanostructures find applications in drug delivery, catalysis, and composites, however, understanding of the surface chemistry, aqueous interfaces, and biomolecule recognition remain difficult using current imaging techniques and spectroscopy. A silica force field is introduced that resolves numerous shortcomings of prior silica force fields over the last thirty years and reduces uncertainties in computed interfacial properties relative to experiment from several 100% to less than 5%. I...

  4. Effects of surface design on aerodynamic forces of iced bridge cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koss, Holger

    2014-01-01

    . The determination of these force coefficients require a proper simulation of the ice layer occurring under the specific climatic conditions, favouring real ice accretion over simplified artificial reproduction. The work presented in this paper was performed to study whether the design of bridge cable surface...... influences the accretion of ice to an extent that the aerodynamic forces differ significantly amongst the designs. The experiments were conducted in a wind tunnel facility capable amongst others to simulate in-cloud icing conditions....

  5. Influence of Surface Properties on Adhesion Forces and Attachment of Streptococcus mutans to Zirconia In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Pei; Wang, Chuanyong; Zhou, Jinglin; Jiang, Li

    2016-01-01

    Zirconia is becoming a prevalent material in dentistry. However, any foreign bodies inserted may provide new niches for the bacteria in oral cavity. The object of this study was to explore the effect of surface properties including surface roughness and hydrophobicity on the adhesion and biofilm formation of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) to zirconia. Atomic force microscopy was employed to determine the zirconia surface morphology and the adhesion forces between the S. mutans and zirconia. The results showed that the surface roughness was nanoscale and significantly different among tested groups (P Medium (17.00 ± 3.81 nm) > Fine (11.89 ± 1.68 nm). The contact angles of the Coarse group were the highest, followed by the Medium and the Fine groups. Increasing the surface roughness and hydrophobicity resulted in an increase of adhesion forces and early attachment (2 h and 4 h) of S. mutans on the zirconia but no influence on the further development of biofilm (6 h~24 h). Our findings suggest that the surface roughness in nanoscale and hydrophobicity of zirconia had influence on the S. mutans initial adhesion force and early attachment instead of whole stages of biofilm formation. PMID:27975061

  6. Density-functional calculation of van der Waals forces for free-electron-like surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hult, E.; Hyldgaard, P.; Rossmeisl, Jan

    2001-01-01

    A recently proposed general density functional for asymptotic van der Waals forces is used to calculate van der Waals coefficients and reference-plane positions for realistic low-indexed Al surfaces. Results are given for a number of atoms and molecules outside the surfaces, as well as for the in......A recently proposed general density functional for asymptotic van der Waals forces is used to calculate van der Waals coefficients and reference-plane positions for realistic low-indexed Al surfaces. Results are given for a number of atoms and molecules outside the surfaces, as well...... as for the interaction between the surfaces themselves. The densities and static image-plane positions that are needed as input in the van der Waals functional are calculated self-consistently within density-functional theory using the generalized-gradient approximation, pseudopotentials, and plane waves. This study...

  7. A New Method of Force Control for Unknown Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishnu Mallapragada

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Current robotic systems are expected to interact with unknown environment where controlling the interaction forces becomes an important issue. We propose a new control technique for force control on unknown environments that tunes the force controller based on online estimation of the environment parameters. However, the proposed approach overcomes the need for precise estimation of environment parameters, which are needed in many system identification-based force control approaches. This framework uses an artificial neural network (ANN-based proportional-integral (PI-gain scheduling force controller to track the desired force by adjusting control gains such that error in parameter estimation can be accommodated. Experimental results are presented to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed control framework. Finally, the advantages and limitations of the proposed controller are discussed.

  8. Investigation on the Effect of a Pre-Center Drill Hole and Tool Material on Thrust Force, Surface Roughness, and Cylindricity in the Drilling of Al7075

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Ghasemi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Drilling is one of the most useful metal cutting processes and is used in various applications, such as aerospace, electronics, and automotive. In traditional drilling methods, the thrust force, torque, tolerance, and tribology (surface roughness are related to the cutting condition and tool geometry. In this paper, the effects of a pre-center drill hole, tool material, and drilling strategy (including continuous and non-continuous feed on thrust force, surface roughness, and dimensional accuracy (cylindricity have been investigated. The results show that using pre-center drill holes leads to a reduction of the engagement force and an improvement in the surface quality and cylindricity. Non-continuous drilling reduces the average thrust force and cylindricity value, and High Speed Steels HSS-Mo (high steel speed + 5–8% Mo reduces the maximum quantity of cutting forces. Moreover, cylindricity is directly related to cutting temperature and is improved by using a non-continuous drilling strategy.

  9. Enhancement of vortex induced forces and motion through surface roughness control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernitsas, Michael M [Saline, MI; Raghavan, Kamaldev [Houston, TX

    2011-11-01

    Roughness is added to the surface of a bluff body in a relative motion with respect to a fluid. The amount, size, and distribution of roughness on the body surface is controlled passively or actively to modify the flow around the body and subsequently the Vortex Induced Forces and Motion (VIFM). The added roughness, when designed and implemented appropriately, affects in a predetermined way the boundary layer, the separation of the boundary layer, the level of turbulence, the wake, the drag and lift forces, and consequently the Vortex Induced Motion (VIM), and the fluid-structure interaction. The goal of surface roughness control is to increase Vortex Induced Forces and Motion. Enhancement is needed in such applications as harnessing of clean and renewable energy from ocean/river currents using the ocean energy converter VIVACE (Vortex Induced Vibration for Aquatic Clean Energy).

  10. Reduction of vortex induced forces and motion through surface roughness control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernitsas, Michael M; Raghavan, Kamaldev

    2014-04-01

    Roughness is added to the surface of a bluff body in a relative motion with respect to a fluid. The amount, size, and distribution of roughness on the body surface is controlled passively or actively to modify the flow around the body and subsequently the Vortex Induced Forces and Motion (VIFM). The added roughness, when designed and implemented appropriately, affects in a predetermined way the boundary layer, the separation of the boundary layer, the level of turbulence, the wake, the drag and lift forces, and consequently the Vortex Induced Motion (VIM), and the fluid-structure interaction. The goal of surface roughness control is to decrease/suppress Vortex Induced Forces and Motion. Suppression is required when fluid-structure interaction becomes destructive as in VIM of flexible cylinders or rigid cylinders on elastic support, such as underwater pipelines, marine risers, tubes in heat exchangers, nuclear fuel rods, cooling towers, SPAR offshore platforms.

  11. Revisiting the physical processes of vapodeposited thin gold films on chemically modified glass by atomic force and surface plasmon microscopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland, Thibault; Khalil, André; Tanenbaum, Aaron; Berguiga, Lotfi; Delichère, Pierre; Bonneviot, Laurent; Elezgaray, Juan; Arneodo, Alain; Argoul, Françoise

    2009-11-01

    The preparation of very thin (at the scale of a few tens of nanometers) gold films by thermal evaporation and deposition on a solid substrate (glass) remains a key step for the elaboration of transparent and sensitive optical biosensors. We study the influence of the glass surface treatment and its thermal conductivity on the structure and composition of evaporated gold films. Using a combination of atomic force microscopy (AFM), high resolution surface plasmon resonance (SPR) imaging, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), we demonstrate that the grafting of a layer of long chain mercaptant, using 11-mercaptoundecyltrimethoxysilane (SξSi), prior to gold deposition produces a drastic modification of gold inner and surface textures. A thorough investigation of AFM image topography by 2D wavelet-based segmentation method reveals the flat conical shape of the gold surface grains and their shape invariance with the glass surface chemical treatment. However, this treatment leads to a drastic decrease of the mean size and polydispersity of these grains by a factor of 2, thereby lowering the gold surface roughness. The rationale is that the combination of surface forces and thermal transfer drives the formation of homogeneous and flatter gold films.

  12. Adhesion forces in liquid media: effect of surface topography and wettability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serro, A P; Colaço, R; Saramago, B

    2008-09-15

    This work was motivated by the unexpected values of adhesion forces measured between an atomic force microscopy tip and the hydrophobic surface of ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene. Two types of samples with different roughness but similar wettability were tested. Adhesion forces of similar magnitude were obtained in air and in polar liquids (water and Hank's Balanced Salt Solution, a saline solution) with the rougher sample. In contrast, the adhesion forces measured on the smoother sample in air were much higher than those measured in water or in the aqueous solution. Those experimental results suggested the presence of nanobubbles at the interface between the rough sample and the polar liquids. The existence of the nanobubbles was further confirmed by the images of the interface obtained in noncontact tapping mode. The adhesion forces measured in a nonpolar liquid (hexadecane) were small and of the same order of magnitude for both samples and their values were in good agreement with the predictions of the London-Hamaker approach for the van der Waals interactions. Finally, we correlate the appearance of nanobubbles with surface topography. The conclusion of this work is that adhesion forces measured in aqueous media may be strongly affected by the presence of nanobubbles if the surface presents topographical accidents.

  13. Modulation of the Casimir force by laser pulses: Influence of oxide films on the silicon surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimchitskaya, G. L.; Bukina, M. N.; Churkin, Yu. V.; Yurova, V. A.

    2010-10-01

    The possibility of modulating the Casimir force that acts in an air medium between a gold sphere and a silicon plate irradiated by laser pulses has been studied. It has been demonstrated that the oxide film that is formed on the silicon surface in air hardly affects the possibility of modulating the Casimir force when the distances between interacting bodies are of the order of 100 nm. With an increase in the distance, the modulation depth decreases; however, this region is of less practical interest, because the Casimir forces become too weak.

  14. Spatial spectrograms of vibrating atomic force microscopy cantilevers coupled to sample surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, Ryan; Raman, Arvind; Proksch, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Many advanced dynamic Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) techniques such as contact resonance, force modulation, piezoresponse force microscopy, electrochemical strain microscopy, and AFM infrared spectroscopy exploit the dynamic response of a cantilever in contact with a sample to extract local material properties. Achieving quantitative results in these techniques usually requires the assumption of a certain shape of cantilever vibration. We present a technique that allows in-situ measurements of the vibrational shape of AFM cantilevers coupled to surfaces. This technique opens up unique approaches to nanoscale material property mapping, which are not possible with single point measurements alone

  15. Surface EMG and intra-socket force measurement to control a prosthetic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Joe; Patterson, Rita; Popa, Dan

    2015-06-01

    Surface electromyography (SEMG) has been shown to be a robust and reliable interaction method allowing for basic control of powered prosthetic devices. Research has shown a marked decrease in EMG-classification efficiency throughout activities of daily life due to socket shift and movement and fatigue as well as changes in degree of fit of the socket throughout the subject's lifetime. Users with the most severe levels of amputation require the most complex devices with the greatest number of degrees of freedom. Controlling complex dexterous devices with limited available inputs requires the addition of sensing and interaction modalities. However, the larger the amputation severity, the fewer viable SEMG sites are available as control inputs. Previous work reported the use of intra-socket pressure, as measured during wrist flexion and extension, and has shown that it is possible to control a powered prosthetic device with pressure sensors. In this paper, we present data correlations of SEMG data with intra-socket pressure data. Surface EMG sensors and force sensors were housed within a simulated prosthetic cuff fit to a healthy-limbed subject. EMG and intra-socket force data was collected from inside the cuff as a subject performed pre-defined grip motions with their dominant hand. Data fusion algorithms were explored and allowed a subject to use both intra-socket pressure and SEMG data as control inputs for a powered prosthetic device. This additional input modality allows for an improvement in input classification as well as information regarding socket fit through out activities of daily life.

  16. Plasmonic nanostructures for surface enhanced spectroscopic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, Martin; Patze, Sophie; Hidi, Izabella J; Knipper, Richard; Radu, Andreea I; Mühlig, Anna; Yüksel, Sezin; Peksa, Vlastimil; Weber, Karina; Mayerhöfer, Thomas; Cialla-May, Dana; Popp, Jürgen

    2016-02-07

    A comprehensive review of theoretical approaches to simulate plasmonic-active metallic nano-arrangements is given. Further, various fabrication methods based on bottom-up, self-organization and top-down techniques are introduced. Here, analytical approaches are discussed to investigate the optical properties of isotropic and non-magnetic spherical or spheroidal particles. Furthermore, numerical methods are introduced to research complex shaped structures. A huge variety of fabrication methods are reviewed, e.g. bottom-up preparation strategies for plasmonic nanostructures to generate metal colloids and core-shell particles as well as complex-shaped structures, self-organization as well as template-based methods and finally, top-down processes, e.g. electron beam lithography and its variants as well as nanoimprinting. The review article is aimed at beginners in the field of surface enhanced spectroscopy (SES) techniques and readers who have a general interest in theoretical modelling of plasmonic substrates for SES applications as well as in the fabrication of the desired structures based on methods of the current state of the art.

  17. Reliable and Accurate Release of Micro-Sized Objects with a Gripper that Uses the Capillary-Force Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Uran

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available There have been recent developments in grippers that are based on capillary force and condensed water droplets. These are used for manipulating micro-sized objects. Recently, one-finger grippers have been produced that are able to reliably grip using the capillary force. To release objects, either the van der Waals, gravitational or inertial-forces method is used. This article presents methods for reliably gripping and releasing micro-objects using the capillary force. The moisture from the surrounding air is condensed into a thin layer of water on the contact surfaces of the objects. From the thin layer of water, a water meniscus between the micro-sized object, the gripper and the releasing surface is created. Consequently, the water meniscus between the object and the releasing surface produces a high enough capillary force to release the micro-sized object from the tip of the one-finger gripper. In this case, either polystyrene, glass beads with diameters between 5–60 µm, or irregularly shaped dust particles of similar sizes were used. 3D structures made up of micro-sized objects could be constructed using this method. This method is reliable for releasing during assembly and also for gripping, when the objects are removed from the top of the 3D structure—the so-called “disassembling gripping” process. The accuracy of the release was lower than 0.5 µm.

  18. Efficient evaluation of Casimir force in arbitrary three-dimensional geometries by integral equation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, Jie L.; Tong, M.S.; Atkins, Phillip; Chew, W.C.

    2010-01-01

    In this Letter, we generalized the surface integral equation method for the evaluation of Casimir force in arbitrary three-dimensional geometries. Similar to the two-dimensional case, the evaluation of the mean Maxwell stress tensor is cast into solving a series of three-dimensional scattering problems. The formulation and solution of the three-dimensional scattering problems are well-studied in classical computational electromagnetics. This Letter demonstrates that this quantum electrodynamic phenomenon can be studied using the knowledge and techniques of classical electrodynamics.

  19. Interaction force measurement between E. coli cells and nanoparticles immobilized surfaces by using AFM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen; Stack, Andrew G; Chen, Yongsheng

    2011-02-01

    To better understand environmental behaviors of nanoparticles (NPs), we used the atomic force microscopy (AFM) to measure interaction forces between E. coli cells and NPs immobilized on surfaces in an aqueous environment. The results showed that adhesion force strength was significantly influenced by particle size for both hematite (α-Fe(2)O(3)) and corundum (α-Al(2)O(3)) NPs whereas the effect on the repulsive force was not observed. The adhesion force decreased from 6.3±0.7nN to 0.8±0.4nN as hematite NPs increased from 26nm to 98nm in diameter. Corundum NPs exhibited a similar dependence of adhesion force on particle size. The Johnson-Kendall-Roberts (JKR) model was employed to estimate the contact area between E. coli cells and NPs, and based on the JKR model a new model that considers local effective contact area was developed. The prediction of the new model matched the size dependence of adhesion force in experimental results. Size effects on adhesion forces may originate from the difference in local effective contact areas as supported by our model. These findings provide fundamental information for interpreting the environmental behaviors and biological interactions of NPs, which barely have been addressed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Sensitivity of surface temperature to radiative forcing by contrail cirrus in a radiative-mixing model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Ulrich; Mayer, Bernhard

    2017-11-01

    Earth's surface temperature sensitivity to radiative forcing (RF) by contrail cirrus and the related RF efficacy relative to CO2 are investigated in a one-dimensional idealized model of the atmosphere. The model includes energy transport by shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) radiation and by mixing in an otherwise fixed reference atmosphere (no other feedbacks). Mixing includes convective adjustment and turbulent diffusion, where the latter is related to the vertical component of mixing by large-scale eddies. The conceptual study shows that the surface temperature sensitivity to given contrail RF depends strongly on the timescales of energy transport by mixing and radiation. The timescales are derived for steady layered heating (ghost forcing) and for a transient contrail cirrus case. The radiative timescales are shortest at the surface and shorter in the troposphere than in the mid-stratosphere. Without mixing, a large part of the energy induced into the upper troposphere by radiation due to contrails or similar disturbances gets lost to space before it can contribute to surface warming. Because of the different radiative forcing at the surface and at top of atmosphere (TOA) and different radiative heating rate profiles in the troposphere, the local surface temperature sensitivity to stratosphere-adjusted RF is larger for SW than for LW contrail forcing. Without mixing, the surface energy budget is more important for surface warming than the TOA budget. Hence, surface warming by contrails is smaller than suggested by the net RF at TOA. For zero mixing, cooling by contrails cannot be excluded. This may in part explain low efficacy values for contrails found in previous global circulation model studies. Possible implications of this study are discussed. Since the results of this study are model dependent, they should be tested with a comprehensive climate model in the future.

  1. Sensitivity of surface temperature to radiative forcing by contrail cirrus in a radiative-mixing model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Schumann

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Earth's surface temperature sensitivity to radiative forcing (RF by contrail cirrus and the related RF efficacy relative to CO2 are investigated in a one-dimensional idealized model of the atmosphere. The model includes energy transport by shortwave (SW and longwave (LW radiation and by mixing in an otherwise fixed reference atmosphere (no other feedbacks. Mixing includes convective adjustment and turbulent diffusion, where the latter is related to the vertical component of mixing by large-scale eddies. The conceptual study shows that the surface temperature sensitivity to given contrail RF depends strongly on the timescales of energy transport by mixing and radiation. The timescales are derived for steady layered heating (ghost forcing and for a transient contrail cirrus case. The radiative timescales are shortest at the surface and shorter in the troposphere than in the mid-stratosphere. Without mixing, a large part of the energy induced into the upper troposphere by radiation due to contrails or similar disturbances gets lost to space before it can contribute to surface warming. Because of the different radiative forcing at the surface and at top of atmosphere (TOA and different radiative heating rate profiles in the troposphere, the local surface temperature sensitivity to stratosphere-adjusted RF is larger for SW than for LW contrail forcing. Without mixing, the surface energy budget is more important for surface warming than the TOA budget. Hence, surface warming by contrails is smaller than suggested by the net RF at TOA. For zero mixing, cooling by contrails cannot be excluded. This may in part explain low efficacy values for contrails found in previous global circulation model studies. Possible implications of this study are discussed. Since the results of this study are model dependent, they should be tested with a comprehensive climate model in the future.

  2. Track sensitivity and the surface roughness measurements of CR-39 with atomic force microscope

    CERN Document Server

    Yasuda, N; Amemiya, K; Takahashi, H; Kyan, A; Ogura, K

    1999-01-01

    Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) has been applied to evaluate the surface roughness and the track sensitivity of CR-39 track detector. We experimentally confirmed the inverse correlation between the track sensitivity and the roughness of the detector surface after etching. The surface of CR-39 (CR-39 doped with antioxidant (HARZLAS (TD-1)) and copolymer of CR-39/NIPAAm (TNF-1)) with high sensitivity becomes rough by the etching, while the pure CR-39 (BARYOTRAK) with low sensitivity keeps its original surface clarity even for the long etching.

  3. Evaluation of the roughness of the surface of porcelain systems with the atomic force microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavarria Rodriguez, Bernal

    2013-01-01

    The surface of a dental ceramic was evaluated and compared with an atomic force microscope after being treated with different systems of polishing. 14 identical ceramic Lava® Zirconia discs were used to test the different polishing systems. 3 polishing systems from different matrix houses were used to polish dental porcelain. The samples were evaluated quantitatively with an atomic force microscope in order to study the real effectiveness of each system, on the roughness average (Ra) and the maximum peak to valley roughness (Ry) of the ceramic surfaces. A considerable reduction of the surface roughness was obtained by applying different polishing systems on the surface of dental ceramics. Very reliable values of Ra and Ry were obtained by making measurements on the structure reproduced by the atomic force microscope. The advanced ceramics of zirconium oxide presented the best physical characteristics and low levels of surface roughness. A smoother surface was achieved with the application of polishing systems, thus demonstrating the reduction of the surface roughness of a dental ceramic [es

  4. Optical forces, torques, and force densities calculated at a microscopic level using a self-consistent hydrodynamics method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Kun; Chan, C. T.

    2018-04-01

    The calculation of optical force density distribution inside a material is challenging at the nanoscale, where quantum and nonlocal effects emerge and macroscopic parameters such as permittivity become ill-defined. We demonstrate that the microscopic optical force density of nanoplasmonic systems can be defined and calculated using the microscopic fields generated using a self-consistent hydrodynamics model that includes quantum, nonlocal, and retardation effects. We demonstrate this technique by calculating the microscopic optical force density distributions and the optical binding force induced by external light on nanoplasmonic dimers. This approach works even in the limit when the nanoparticles are close enough to each other so that electron tunneling occurs, a regime in which classical electromagnetic approach fails completely. We discover that an uneven distribution of optical force density can lead to a light-induced spinning torque acting on individual particles. The hydrodynamics method offers us an accurate and efficient approach to study optomechanical behavior for plasmonic systems at the nanoscale.

  5. Numerical analysis of the immersed boundary method applied to the flow around a forced oscillating cylinder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, L C; Silvestrini, J H; Schettini, E B C

    2011-01-01

    In present paper, Navier-Stokes and Continuity equations for incompressible flow around an oscillating cylinder were numerically solved. Sixth order compact difference schemes were used to solve the spatial derivatives, while the time advance was carried out through second order Adams Bashforth accurate scheme. In order to represent the obstacle in the flow, the Immersed Boundary Method was adopted. In this method a force term is added to the Navier-Stokes equations representing the body. The simulations present results regarding the hydrodynamic coefficients and vortex wakes in agreement to experimental and numerical previous works and the physical lock-in phenomenon was identified. Comparing different methods to impose the IBM, it can be concluded that no alterations regarding the vortex shedding mode were observed. The Immersed Boundary Method techniques used here can represent the surface of an oscillating cylinder in the flow.

  6. Effects of Polishing Bur Application Force and Reuse on Sintered Zirconia Surface Topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, N G; Tsujimoto, A; Baruth, A G

    2018-03-16

    Limited information is available on how to polish and finish zirconia surfaces following computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM), specifically, how differing application forces and reuse of zirconia polishing systems affect zirconia topography. To determine the effect of differing, clinically relevant, polishing application forces and multiple usages of polishing burs on the surface topography of CAD/CAM zirconia. One hundred twenty 220-grit carbide finished zirconia disks were sintered according to manufacturer's directions and divided into two groups for the study of two coarse polishing bur types. Each group was divided into subgroups for polishing (15,000 rpm) at 15 seconds for 1.0 N, 4.5 N, or 11 N of force using a purpose-built fixture. Subgroups were further divided to study the effects of polishing for the first, fifth, 15th, and 30th bur use, simulating clinical procedures. Unpolished surfaces served as a control group. Surfaces were imaged with noncontact optical profilometry (OP) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) to measure average roughness values (Ra). Polishing burs were optically examined for wear. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed on burs and zirconia surfaces. One-way ANOVA with post hoc Tukey HSD (honest significant difference) tests (α=0.05) were used for statistical analyses. AFM and OP Ra values of all polished surfaces were significantly lower than those of the unpolished control. Different polishing forces and bur reuse showed no significant differences in AFM Ra. However, significant differences in OP Ra were found due to differing application forces and bur reuse between the first and subsequent uses. SEM and optical micrographs revealed notable bur wear, increasing with increasing reuse. SEM and AFM micrographs clearly showed polished, periodic zirconia surfaces. Nanoscale topography, as analyzed with kurtosis and average groove depth, was found dependent on the specific polishing bur type. These in

  7. Viscoelastic crack propagation and closing with Lennard-Jones surface forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwood, J A

    2007-01-01

    An analysis of the opening and closing of a crack in a viscoelastic solid has been made assuming a Lennard-Jones law of force acting between the crack faces. The results are compared with those of an earlier analysis in which a simple Dugdale model of the surface forces was assumed. The approximate 'reciprocal rule' between the apparent surface energies for opening and closing cracks is confirmed. At low speeds a linear relation between the apparent surface energy and the crack speed is found. The lengths of the process zone for opening and closing cracks are found to be very similar and so presumably are not responsible for the very different values of the apparent surface energy

  8. Viscoelastic crack propagation and closing with Lennard-Jones surface forces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwood, J A [Department of Engineering, Trumpington Street, Cambridge, CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)

    2007-03-21

    An analysis of the opening and closing of a crack in a viscoelastic solid has been made assuming a Lennard-Jones law of force acting between the crack faces. The results are compared with those of an earlier analysis in which a simple Dugdale model of the surface forces was assumed. The approximate 'reciprocal rule' between the apparent surface energies for opening and closing cracks is confirmed. At low speeds a linear relation between the apparent surface energy and the crack speed is found. The lengths of the process zone for opening and closing cracks are found to be very similar and so presumably are not responsible for the very different values of the apparent surface energy.

  9. Surface Tension of Organic Liquids Using the OPLS/AA Force Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubillaga, Rafael A; Labastida, Ariana; Cruz, Bibiana; Martínez, Juan Carlos; Sánchez, Enrique; Alejandre, José

    2013-03-12

    Molecular dynamics simulations are performed to obtain the surface tension of 61 organic liquids using the OPLS/AA (all-atom optimized potential for liquid simulations). The force field parameters are the same as those recently used (Caleman et al. J. Chem. Theory Comput.2012, 8, 61) to determine several thermodynamic properties of 146 organic liquids. The correct evaluation of surface tension using slab simulations of liquids requires one to properly take into account the long-range interactions (Trukhymchuk and Alejandre J. Chem. Phys.1999, 111, 8510). In addition, the liquid density from slab simulations has to be the same as that obtained in liquid simulations at constant temperature and pressure. The new results of surface tensions from this work improve those reported by Caleman et al. The OPLS/AA force field gives good surface tensions compared with experimental data for most of the systems studied in this work, although it was developed to simulate liquids.

  10. Cutting force analysis as a tool for evaluating the surface quality of machined parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Carrilero, M.; Marcos, M.; Alvarez-Alcon, M.; Sanchez-Corbacho, V.M.

    1998-01-01

    Surface quality is one of the most important criteria for establishing the optimum cutting parameters needed to perform a machining process. Usually, the evaluation of the degree of the surface finishing requires to apply metrological techniques which involve times out in the production. As a consequence of this, a loss in both the economy of the process and the fiability of the tests reproducibility can be produced. In this work a relation between cutting force and surface roughness has been studied for the turning process of an Al-Cu alloy. From this relation, the surface quality of the machined samples can be evaluated by using the cutting forces values acquired during the cutting process. (Author) 8 refs

  11. Three methods of calculating force-time variables in the rebound jump squat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Keir T; Cronin, John B; Newton, Michael J

    2011-03-01

    The force-time qualities of the lower limb of athletes have been assessed using a variety of exercises and methodologies. The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences among 3 methods previously used to calculate various force-time measures during a rebound jump squat. Twenty-five professional rugby players performed 3 jump squats, each of which was analyzed using 3 different methods of calculation for a number of force-time variables. Method 1 analyzed the force-time curve from minimum force to maximum force; method 2 analyzed the concentric portion of the force-time curve only; and method 3 analyzed both the eccentric and concentric components of the force-time curve. Significant differences were found (p force-time variables calculated. A number of variables had very high (r = 0.76-0.86) or practically perfect (r = 0.93-1.00) correlation coefficients among analysis methods, however, showing similar rank order of the population regardless of the analysis methods used. The results suggested that force-time variables that assess rate of force development relative to peak force produce significantly different values, but these values are highly correlated whether the concentric phase is included in the analysis or the eccentric and concentric phases are included in the analysis. When time-dependent variables are investigated, however, the starting point of calculation results in the measurement of functionally independent physical qualities.

  12. Characterizing the surface charge of clay minerals with Atomic Force Microscope (AFM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Guo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The engineering properties of clayey soils, including fluid permeability, erosion resistance and cohesive strength, are quite different from those of non-cohesive soils. This is mainly due to their small platy particle shape and the surrounding diffuse double layer structure. By using the Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM, the surface topography and the interaction force between the silicon dioxide tip and the kaolinite/montmorillonite clay minerals have been measured in the 1.0 mM NaCl solution at neutral pH. From this, the surface potential of the clay minerals is determined by mathematical regression analyses using the DLVO model. The length/thickness ratio of kaolinite and montmorillonite particles measured ranges from 8.0 to 15.0. The surface potential and surface charge density vary with particles. The average surface potential of montmorillonite is −62.8 ± 10.6 mV, and the average surface potential of kaolinite is −40.9 ± 15.5 mV. The measured results help to understand the clay sediment interaction, and will be used to develop interparticle force model to simulate sediment transport during erosion process.

  13. Reductions in soil surface albedo as a function of biochar application rate: implications for global radiative forcing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verheijen, Frank G A; Bastos, Ana Catarina; Keizer, Jan Jacob; Jeffery, Simon; Van der Velde, Marijn; Penížek, Vít; Beland, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Biochar can be defined as pyrolysed (charred) biomass produced for application to soils with the aim of mitigating global climate change while improving soil functions. Sustainable biochar application to soils has been estimated to reduce global greenhouse gas emissions by 71–130 Pg CO 2 -C e over 100 years, indicating an important potential to mitigate climate change. However, these estimates ignored changes in soil surface reflection by the application of dark-coloured biochar. Through a laboratory experiment we show a strong tendency for soil surface albedo to decrease as a power decay function with increasing biochar application rate, depending on soil moisture content, biochar application method and land use. Surface application of biochar resulted in strong reductions in soil surface albedo even at relatively low application rates. As a first assessment of the implications for climate change mitigation of these biochar–albedo relationships, we applied a first order global energy balance model to compare negative radiative forcings (from avoided CO 2 emissions) with positive radiative forcings (from reduced soil surface albedos). For a global-scale biochar application equivalent to 120 t ha −1 , we obtained reductions in negative radiative forcings of 5 and 11% for croplands and 11 and 23% for grasslands, when incorporating biochar into the topsoil or applying it to the soil surface, respectively. For a lower global biochar application rate (equivalent to 10 t ha −1 ), these reductions amounted to 13 and 44% for croplands and 28 and 94% for grasslands. Thus, our findings revealed the importance of including changes in soil surface albedo in studies assessing the net climate change mitigation potential of biochar, and we discuss the urgent need for field studies and more detailed spatiotemporal modelling. (letter)

  14. Engineering optical gradient force from coupled surface plasmon polariton modes in nanoscale plasmonic waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jiahui; Wang, Guanghui

    2016-11-01

    We explore the dispersion properties and optical gradient forces from mutual coupling of surface plasmon polariton (SPP) modes at two interfaces of nanoscale plasmonic waveguides with hyperbolic metamaterial cladding. With Maxwell’s equations and Maxwell stress tensor, we calculate and compare the dispersion relation and optical gradient force for symmetric and antisymmetric SPP modes in two kinds of nanoscale plasmonic waveguides. The numerical results show that the optical gradient force between two coupled hyperbolic metamaterial waveguides can be engineered flexibly by adjusting the waveguide structure parameters. Importantly, an alternative way to boost the optical gradient force is provided through engineering the hyperbolic metamaterial cladding of suitable orientation. These special optical properties will open the door for potential optomechanical applications, such as optical tweezers and actuators. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11474106) and the Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province, China (Grant No. 2016A030313439).

  15. Surface structure of polymers and their model compounds observed by atomic force microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stocker, W.; Bickmann, B.; Magonov, S.N.; Cantow, H.J.; Lotz, B.; Wittmann, J.C.; Moller, M.; Möller, M.

    1992-01-01

    Results of atomic force microscopy (AFM) of normal alkanes, polyethylene, isotactic polypropylene and of a diblock copolymer are presented. Various types of surfaces - naturally and epitaxially grown on different substrates - have been examined from hundreds of nanometers down to the atomic scale.

  16. Theoretical investigation of van der Waals forces between solid surfaces at nanoscales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kudryavtsev, Y.V.; Gelinck, E.R.M.; Fischer, H.R.

    2009-01-01

    A theoretical investigation of van der Waals forces acting between two solid silicon surfaces at separations from zero to approximately 20 nm is presented. We focused our efforts on the analysis of different factors that can cause deviations from the classical pressure-distance dependence p ∼ 1/D3.

  17. Osteopontin adsorption to Gram-positive cells reduces adhesion forces and attachment to surfaces under flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, M F; Zeng, G; Neu, T R

    2017-01-01

    The bovine milk protein osteopontin (OPN) may be an efficient means to prevent bacterial adhesion to dental tissues and control biofilm formation. This study sought to determine to what extent OPN impacts adhesion forces and surface attachment of different bacterial strains involved in dental...

  18. Relationship between cloud radiative forcing, cloud fraction and cloud albedo, and new surface-based approach for determining cloud albedo

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Liu; W. Wu; M. P. Jensen; T. Toto

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on three interconnected topics: (1) quantitative relationship between surface shortwave cloud radiative forcing, cloud fraction, and cloud albedo; (2) surfaced-based approach for measuring cloud albedo; (3) multiscale (diurnal, annual and inter-annual) variations and covariations of surface shortwave cloud radiative forcing, cloud fraction, and cloud albedo. An analytical expression is first derived to quantify the relationship between cloud radiative forcing, cloud fractio...

  19. Relationship between cloud radiative forcing, cloud fraction and cloud albedo, and new surface-based approach for determining cloud albedo

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Liu; W. Wu; M. P. Jensen; T. Toto

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on three interconnected topics: (1) quantitative relationship between surface shortwave cloud radiative forcing, cloud fraction, and cloud albedo; (2) surface-based approach for measuring cloud albedo; (3) multiscale (diurnal, annual and inter-annual) variations and covariations of surface shortwave cloud radiative forcing, cloud fraction, and cloud albedo. An analytical expression is first derived to quantify the relationship between cloud radiative forcing, cloud fraction...

  20. Roman sophisticated surface modification methods to manufacture silver counterfeited coins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingo, G. M.; Riccucci, C.; Faraldi, F.; Pascucci, M.; Messina, E.; Fierro, G.; Di Carlo, G.

    2017-11-01

    By means of the combined use of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) the surface and subsurface chemical and metallurgical features of silver counterfeited Roman Republican coins are investigated to decipher some aspects of the manufacturing methods and to evaluate the technological ability of the Roman metallurgists to produce thin silver coatings. The results demonstrate that over 2000 ago important advances in the technology of thin layer deposition on metal substrates were attained by Romans. The ancient metallurgists produced counterfeited coins by combining sophisticated micro-plating methods and tailored surface chemical modification based on the mercury-silvering process. The results reveal that Romans were able systematically to chemically and metallurgically manipulate alloys at a micro scale to produce adherent precious metal layers with a uniform thickness up to few micrometers. The results converge to reveal that the production of forgeries was aimed firstly to save expensive metals as much as possible allowing profitable large-scale production at a lower cost. The driving forces could have been a lack of precious metals, an unexpected need to circulate coins for trade and/or a combinations of social, political and economic factors that requested a change in money supply. Finally, some information on corrosion products have been achieved useful to select materials and methods for the conservation of these important witnesses of technology and economy.

  1. Heat transfer tests under forced convection conditions with high wettable heater surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitsutake, Toru; Morooka, Shin-ichi; Miura, Shigeru; Akiba, Miyuki; Sato, Hisaki; Shirakawa, Ken-etsu; Oosato, Tetsuo; Yamamoto, Seiji [Toshiba Co., Kanagawa (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    Under forced convection and atmospheric pressure conditions, heat transfer tests were performed using the annulus channel of a heater rod with highly wettable surface. Improvement of boiling heat transfer requires that the cooling liquid can contact the heating surface, or a high-wettability heating surface, even if a vapor bubble layer is generated on the surface. >From this point of view, high-wettable heating surface was studied. As oxide semiconductor-coated materials are highly-wettable, we made a TiO{sub 2} coated heater rod. TiO{sub 2} coated surface has a high-wettability, in terms of contact angle and Leidenfrost temperature. The boiling curve was measured with and without TiO coated surface. The results showed difference between with and without TiO{sub 2} coating. TiO{sub 2} coating rod showed lower boiling onset heat flux, wider nucleate boiling region and higher critical heat flux than without coating. In summary, high wettablity heater surface produced higher boiling heat transfer characteristics under forced convection conditions. (author)

  2. Onset of nuclear boiling in forced convection (Method of detection)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rachedi, M.

    1986-01-01

    Local onset of boiling in any pressure water cooling systems, as a PWR for instance, can mean a possible dangerous mismatch between the produced heat and the cooling capabilities. Its consequences can lead to serious accidental conditions and a reliable technique to detect such a phenomenon is therefore of particular need. Most techniques used up to now rely basically on local measurements and assume therefore usually the previous knowledge of the actual hot or boiling spot. The method proposed here based on externally located accelerometers appears to be sensitive to the global behaviour of the mechanical structure and is therefore not particularly bound to any exact localization of the sensors. The vibrations produced in the mechanical structure of the heated assembly are measured by accelerometers placed on the external surfaces that are easily accessible. The onset of the boiling, the growth and condensation of the bubbles on the heated wall, induces a resonance in the structure and an excitation at its particular eigen frequencies. Distinctive peaks are clearly observed in the spectral density function calculated from the accelerometer signal as soon as bubbles are produced. The technique is shown to be very sensitive even at the earliest phase of boiling and quite independent on sensor position. A complete hydrodynamic analysis of the experimental channels have been performed in order to assess the validity of the method both in steady conditions and during rapid power transients

  3. Simultaneous fitting of a potential-energy surface and its corresponding force fields using feedforward neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pukrittayakamee, A.; Malshe, M.; Hagan, M.; Raff, L. M.; Narulkar, R.; Bukkapatnum, S.; Komanduri, R.

    2009-04-01

    An improved neural network (NN) approach is presented for the simultaneous development of accurate potential-energy hypersurfaces and corresponding force fields that can be utilized to conduct ab initio molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo studies on gas-phase chemical reactions. The method is termed as combined function derivative approximation (CFDA). The novelty of the CFDA method lies in the fact that although the NN has only a single output neuron that represents potential energy, the network is trained in such a way that the derivatives of the NN output match the gradient of the potential-energy hypersurface. Accurate force fields can therefore be computed simply by differentiating the network. Both the computed energies and the gradients are then accurately interpolated using the NN. This approach is superior to having the gradients appear in the output layer of the NN because it greatly simplifies the required architecture of the network. The CFDA permits weighting of function fitting relative to gradient fitting. In every test that we have run on six different systems, CFDA training (without a validation set) has produced smaller out-of-sample testing error than early stopping (with a validation set) or Bayesian regularization (without a validation set). This indicates that CFDA training does a better job of preventing overfitting than the standard methods currently in use. The training data can be obtained using an empirical potential surface or any ab initio method. The accuracy and interpolation power of the method have been tested for the reaction dynamics of H+HBr using an analytical potential. The results show that the present NN training technique produces more accurate fits to both the potential-energy surface as well as the corresponding force fields than the previous methods. The fitting and interpolation accuracy is so high (rms error=1.2 cm-1) that trajectories computed on the NN potential exhibit point-by-point agreement with corresponding

  4. Method for surface treatment by electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panzer, S.; Doehler, H.; Bartel, R.; Ardenne, T. von.

    1985-01-01

    The invention has been aimed at simplifying the technology and saving energy in modifying surfaces with the aid of electron beams. The described beam-object geometry allows to abandon additional heat treatments. It can be used for surface hardening

  5. Irrigation Induced Surface Cooling in the Context of Modern and Increased Greenhouse Gas Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Puma, Michael J.; Krakauer, Nir Y.

    2010-01-01

    There is evidence that expected warming trends from increased greenhouse gas (GHG) forcing have been locally masked by irrigation induced cooling, and it is uncertain how the magnitude of this irrigation masking effect will change in the future. Using an irrigation dataset integrated into a global general circulation model, we investigate the equilibrium magnitude of irrigation induced cooling under modern (Year 2000) and increased (A1B Scenario, Year 2050) GHG forcing, using modern irrigation rates in both scenarios. For the modern scenario, the cooling is largest over North America, India, the Middle East, and East Asia. Under increased GHG forcing, this cooling effect largely disappears over North America, remains relatively unchanged over India, and intensifies over parts of China and the Middle East. For North America, irrigation significantly increases precipitation under modern GHG forcing; this precipitation enhancement largely disappears under A1B forcing, reducing total latent heat fluxes and the overall irrigation cooling effect. Over India, irrigation rates are high enough to keep pace with increased evaporative demand from the increased GHG forcing and the magnitude of the cooling is maintained. Over China, GHG forcing reduces precipitation and shifts the region to a drier evaporative regime, leading to a relatively increased impact of additional water from irrigation on the surface energy balance. Irrigation enhances precipitation in the Middle East under increased GHG forcing, increasing total latent heat fluxes and enhancing the irrigation cooling effect. Ultimately, the extent to which irrigation will continue to compensate for the warming from increased GHG forcing will primarily depend on changes in the background evaporative regime, secondary irrigation effects (e.g. clouds, precipitation), and the ability of societies to maintain (or increase) current irrigation rates.

  6. DNA adsorption and desorption on mica surface studied by atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Lanlan; Zhao Dongxu; Zhang Yue; Xu Fugang; Li Zhuang

    2011-01-01

    The adsorption of DNA molecules on mica surface and the following desorption of DNA molecules at ethanol-mica interface were studied using atomic force microscopy. By changing DNA concentration, different morphologies on mica surface have been observed. A very uniform and orderly monolayer of DNA molecules was constructed on the mica surface with a DNA concentration of 30 ng/μL. When the samples were immersed into ethanol for about 15 min, various desorption degree of DNA from mica (0-99%) was achieved. It was found that with the increase of DNA concentration, the desorption degree of DNA from the mica at ethanol-mica interface decreased. And when the uniform and orderly DNA monolayers were formed on the mica surface, almost no DNA molecule desorbed from the mica surface in this process. The results indicated that the uniform and orderly DNA monolayer is one of the most stable DNA structures formed on the mica surface. In addition, we have studied the structure change of DNA molecules after desorbed from the mica surface with atomic force microscopy, and found that the desorption might be ascribed to the ethanol-induced DNA condensation.

  7. Surface force measurements at the basal planes of ordered kaolinite particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vishal; Miller, Jan D

    2010-04-15

    An experimental procedure is presented to order kaolinite particles on substrates for interrogation of the two basal plane surfaces by atomic force microscopy. Surface force measurements were performed between a silicon nitride tip and each of the two faces (silica tetrahedral face and alumina octahedral face) of kaolinite in 1 mM KCl solution at pH 4, 5, 6, 8 and 10, using atomic force microscopy. The colloidal force measurements reveal that the silica tetrahedral face of kaolinite is negatively charged at pH>4, whereas the alumina octahedral face of kaolinite is positively charged at pH8. Such measurements have not been reported previously and the results suggest that the iso-electric point of the silica tetrahedral face is at pHkaolinite carry a permanent negative charge due to minor substitution of Al(3+) for Si(4+) in the silica tetrahedral layer, and suggest some surface charge dependency of the two faces with respect to solution pH. With this new information it may be possible to further explain the electrokinetic behavior of kaolinite particles, and their interactions in aqueous suspensions. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Measuring the force of single protein molecule detachment from surfaces with AFM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsapikouni, Theodora S; Missirlis, Yannis F

    2010-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to measure the non-specific detachment force of single fibrinogen molecules from glass surfaces. The identification of single unbinding events was based on the characteristics of the parabolic curves, recorded during the stretching of protein molecules. Fibrinogen molecules were covalently bound to Si(3)N(4) AFM tips, previously modified with 3-aminopropyl-dimethyl-ethoxysilane, through a homobifunctional poly(ethylene glycol) linker bearing two hydroxysulfosuccinimide esters. The most probable detachment force was found to be 210 pN, when the tip was retracting with a velocity of 1400 nm/s, while the distribution of the detachment distances indicated that the fibrinogen chain can be elongated beyond the length of the physical conformation before detachment. The dependence of the most probable detachment force on the loading rate was examined and the dynamics of fibrinogen binding to the surface were found amenable to the simple expression of the Bell-Evans theory. The theory's expansion, however, by incorporating the concept of the rupture of parallel residue-surface bonds could only describe the detachment of fibrinogen for a small number of such bonds. Finally, the mathematical expression of the Worm-Like Chain model was used to fit the stretching curves before rupture and two interpretations are suggested for the description of the AFM curves with multiple detachment events.

  9. Nanophotonic force microscopy: characterizing particle-surface interactions using near-field photonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schein, Perry; Kang, Pilgyu; O'Dell, Dakota; Erickson, David

    2015-02-11

    Direct measurements of particle-surface interactions are important for characterizing the stability and behavior of colloidal and nanoparticle suspensions. Current techniques are limited in their ability to measure pico-Newton scale interaction forces on submicrometer particles due to signal detection limits and thermal noise. Here we present a new technique for making measurements in this regime, which we refer to as nanophotonic force microscopy. Using a photonic crystal resonator, we generate a strongly localized region of exponentially decaying, near-field light that allows us to confine small particles close to a surface. From the statistical distribution of the light intensity scattered by the particle we are able to map out the potential well of the trap and directly quantify the repulsive force between the nanoparticle and the surface. As shown in this Letter, our technique is not limited by thermal noise, and therefore, we are able to resolve interaction forces smaller than 1 pN on dielectric particles as small as 100 nm in diameter.

  10. Evaluation of methods to assess push/pull forces in a construction task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoozemans, M J; Van Der Beek, Allard J.; Frings-Dresena, M H; Van der Molen, Henk F.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the validity of methods to assess push/pull forces exerted in a construction task. Forces assessed using a hand-held digital force gauge were compared to those obtained using a highly accurate measuring frame. No significant differences were found

  11. Gold-decorated highly ordered self-organized grating-like nanostructures on Ge surface: Kelvin probe force microscopy and conductive atomic force microscopy studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollick, Safiul Alam; Kumar, Mohit; Singh, Ranveer; Satpati, Biswarup; Ghose, Debabrata; Som, Tapobrata

    2016-10-28

    Nanoarchitecture by atomic manipulation is considered to be one of the emerging trends in advanced functional materials. It has a gamut of applications to offer in nanoelectronics, chemical sensing, and nanobiological science. In particular, highly ordered one-dimensional semiconductor nanostructures fabricated by self-organization methods are in high demand for their high aspect ratios and large number of applications. An efficient way of fabricating semiconductor nanostructures is by molecular beam epitaxy, where atoms are added to a crystalline surface at an elevated temperature during growth, yielding the desired structures in a self-assembled manner. In this article, we offer a room temperature process, in which atoms are sputtered away by ion impacts. Using gold ion implantation, the present study reports on the formation of highly ordered self-organized long grating-like nanostructures, with grooves between them, on a germanium surface. The ridges of the patterns are shown to have flower-like protruding nanostructures, which are mostly decorated by gold atoms. By employing local probe microscopic techniques like Kelvin probe force microscopy and conductive atomic force microscopy, we observe a spatial variation in the work function and different nanoscale electrical conductivity on the ridges of the patterns and the grooves between them, which can be attributed to gold atom decorated ridges. Thus, the architecture  presented offers the advantage of using the patterned germanium substrates as periodic arrays of conducting ridges and poorly conducting grooves between them.

  12. Enhanced solar evaporation of water from porous media, through capillary mediated forces and surface treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canbazoglu, F. M.; Fan, B.; Kargar, A.; Vemuri, K.; Bandaru, P. R., E-mail: pbandaru@ucsd.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    2016-08-15

    The relative influence of the capillary, Marangoni, and hydrophobic forces in mediating the evaporation of water from carbon foam based porous media, in response to incident solar radiation, are investigated. It is indicated that inducing hydrophilic interactions on the surface, through nitric acid treatment of the foams, has a similar effect to reduced pore diameter and the ensuing capillary forces. The efficiency of water evaporation may be parameterized through the Capillary number (Ca), with a lower Ca being preferred. The proposed study is of much relevance to efficient solar energy utilization.

  13. Relation between attractive force and keeper surface characteristics of iron-neodymium-boron magnetic attachment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Norihisa; Koizumi, Hiroyasu; Ishikawa, Yumi; Furuchi, Mika; Matsumura, Hideo; Tanoue, Naomi

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of heating, cast bonding, and subsequent polishing procedures on attractive force of magnetic attachments. Two magnetic attachment systems with keepers of different chemical compositions (Hicorexslim 3013, 447J1; Magfit EX400, AUM20) were employed. Keepers examined were: (1) untreated; (2) heated; (3) cast-bonded with Ag-Pd alloy; (4) cast-bonded with Ag-Pd alloy and polished; (5) cast-bonded with gold alloy; and (6) cast-bonded with gold alloy and polished. Attractive force was determined with a force gauge, and surface structure was evaluated with scanning laser and electron microscopes. Attractive force of the Hicorex system was reduced by cast bonding, whereas that of the Magfit system was reduced by both heating and cast bonding. However, attractive force of both systems was somewhat recovered through the polishing process. Based on the findings of this study, it was suggested that careful polishing after cast bonding was indispensable to the recovery of attractive force for both attachment systems.

  14. Microscopic calculation of the sticking force for nanodrops on an inclined surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berim, Gersh O.; Ruckenstein, Eli

    2008-09-01

    A two-dimensional nanodrop on a vertical rough solid surface is examined using a nonlocal density functional theory in the presence of gravity. The roughness is modeled either as a chemical inhomogeneity of the solid or as a result of the decoration with pillars of a smooth homogeneous surface. From the obtained fluid density distribution, the sticking force, which opposes the drop motion along an inclined surface, and the contact angles on the lower and upper leading edges of the drop are calculated. On the basis of these results, it is shown that the macroscopically derived equation for a drop in equilibrium on an inclined surface is also applicable to nanodrops. The liquid-vapor surface tension involved in this equation was calculated for various specific cases, and the values obtained are of the same order of magnitude as those obtained in macroscopic experiments.

  15. Influence of the Molecular Adhesion Force on the Indentation Depth of a Particle into the Wafer Surface in the CMP Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Jianhua

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available By theoretical calculation, the external force on the particle conveyed by pad asperities and the molecular adhesion force between particle and wafer are compared and analyzed quantitatively. It is confirmed that the molecular adhesion force between particle and wafer has a great influence on the chemical mechanical polishing (CMP material removal process. Considering the molecular adhesion force between particle and wafer, a more precise model for the indentation of a particle into the wafer surface is developed in this paper, and the new model is compared with the former model which neglected the molecular adhesion force. Through theoretical analyses, an approach and corresponding critical values are applied to estimate whether the molecular adhesion force in CMP can be neglected. These methods can improve the precision of the material removal model of CMP.

  16. Application of Taguchi method for cutting force optimization in rock

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, an optimization study was carried out for the cutting force (Fc) acting on circular diamond sawblades in rock sawing. The peripheral speed, traverse speed, cut depth and flow rate of cooling fluid were considered as operating variables and optimized by using Taguchi approach for the Fc. L16(44) orthogonal ...

  17. Application of Taguchi method for cutting force optimization in rock ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, an optimization study was carried out for the cutting force (Fc) acting on circular diamond sawblades in rock sawing. The peripheral speed, traverse speed, cut depth and flow rate of cooling fluid were considered as operating variables and optimized by using Taguchi approach for the Fc. L16(44) orthogonal ...

  18. Measurements on hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces using a porous gamma alumina nanoparticle aggregate mounted on Atomic Force Microscopy cantilevers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, Theerthankar; Becker, Thomas; Nair, Balagopal N.

    2010-01-01

    Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) measurements are extensively used for a detailed understanding of molecular and surface forces. In this study, we present a technique for measuring such forces, using an AFM cantilever attached with a porous gamma alumina nanoparticle aggregate. The modified cantilever

  19. Waste-to-Energy Decision Support Method for Forward Deployed Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    17 Pyrolysis ........................................................................................................................18 Anaerobic......SUPPORT METHOD FOR FORWARD DEPLOYED FORCES I. Introduction Background There are currently 150 Waste to Energy (WTE) plants in the United States that

  20. Machining of bone: Analysis of cutting force and surface roughness by turning process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noordin, M Y; Jiawkok, N; Ndaruhadi, P Y M W; Kurniawan, D

    2015-11-01

    There are millions of orthopedic surgeries and dental implantation procedures performed every year globally. Most of them involve machining of bones and cartilage. However, theoretical and analytical study on bone machining is lagging behind its practice and implementation. This study views bone machining as a machining process with bovine bone as the workpiece material. Turning process which makes the basis of the actually used drilling process was experimented. The focus is on evaluating the effects of three machining parameters, that is, cutting speed, feed, and depth of cut, to machining responses, that is, cutting forces and surface roughness resulted by the turning process. Response surface methodology was used to quantify the relation between the machining parameters and the machining responses. The turning process was done at various cutting speeds (29-156 m/min), depths of cut (0.03 -0.37 mm), and feeds (0.023-0.11 mm/rev). Empirical models of the resulted cutting force and surface roughness as the functions of cutting speed, depth of cut, and feed were developed. Observation using the developed empirical models found that within the range of machining parameters evaluated, the most influential machining parameter to the cutting force is depth of cut, followed by feed and cutting speed. The lowest cutting force was obtained at the lowest cutting speed, lowest depth of cut, and highest feed setting. For surface roughness, feed is the most significant machining condition, followed by cutting speed, and with depth of cut showed no effect. The finest surface finish was obtained at the lowest cutting speed and feed setting. © IMechE 2015.

  1. Critical-Dimension Measurement using Multi-Angle-Scanning Method in Atomic Force Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Ken; Gonda, Satoshi; Koyanagi, Hajime; Terasawa, Tsuneo; Hosaka, Sumio

    2006-07-01

    We have developed a new critical dimension (CD) measurement technique using atomic force microscope (AFM) which can measure width-dimensions and examine sidewall-shapes of fine patterns on a wafer. The technique employs a flared-type tip in combination with digital probing and multi-angle scanning mechanism that allows the tip to trace the sidewalls on both sides of a feature (or trench) by making physical contacts with the sidewall surface. First, by using finite element method (FEM) we analyzed deformation of the tip and cantilever to compensate errors caused by the deformation. To verify our compensation method we measured quartz reference patterns either with perpendicular sidewalls or undercuts. In this paper we will describe the applications and usefulness of this multi-angle operation and show some measurement results of ArF resist patterns with 200 nm width and 400 nm depth that were obtained with a flared tip of 120 nm diameter.

  2. Improved method for Mica functionalization used in single molecule imaging of DNA with atomic force microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Zapletalová

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The modified procedure of 1-(3-aminopropylsilatrane (APS compound synthesis based on a new derivative (3‑aminopropyltrimethoxysilane for the purpose of DNA immobilization for AFM single imaging is described. New reaction pathway based on kinetically driven reaction approach is described. Necessity of two‑step purification process is proved; ability of purified APS to provide four times smoother surfaces in comparison with a crude product is demonstrated. Various analytical methods such mass spectroscopy and 1H NMR were used to show structure and enhanced purity of the APS product. APS mediates fixation of DNA molecules to mica substrates to be used for DNA imaging under Atomic Force Microscope. The use of an APS compound for simple and rapid silanization of mica surface is demonstrated. The advantages of APS‑based method are based mainly on low roughness of modified mica and homogeneous surface coverage by short sequence dsDNA (246 bp. The product obtained by the condensation reaction was purified in a two step process whose effectiveness was demonstrated not only by reduction of the silanized surface roughness, but also by mass spectroscopy (MS‑ESi, MALDI‑TOF method and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Experiments demonstrate that 1‑(3‑aminopropylsilatrane can be used to fix dsDNA molecules to a mica surface to be visualized by either the tapping mode or the force‑volume mode of AFM microscopy, as demonstrated by experiments. Moreover, necessity of advanced purification protocol is demonstrated by AFM based roughness measurements – pure vs crude APS product. The kinetics of APS‑layer aging, caused by silicon oxide growth on silanized layers, was studied by water contact angle measurements and is discussed.

  3. Surface Imaging Skin Friction Instrument and Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James L. (Inventor); Naughton, Jonathan W. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A surface imaging skin friction instrument allowing 2D resolution of spatial image by a 2D Hilbert transform and 2D inverse thin-oil film solver, providing an innovation over prior art single point approaches. Incoherent, monochromatic light source can be used. The invention provides accurate, easy to use, economical measurement of larger regions of surface shear stress in a single test.

  4. A method of determining surface runoff by

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald E. Whelan; Lemuel E. Miller; John B. Cavallero

    1952-01-01

    To determine the effects of watershed management on flood runoff, one must make a reliable estimate of how much the surface runoff can be reduced by a land-use program. Since surface runoff is the difference between precipitation and the amount of water that soaks into the soil, such an estimate must be based on the infiltration capacity of the soil.

  5. INVESTIGATION OF POLYMER SURFACES USING SCANNING FORCE MICROSCOPY (SFM) - A NEW DIRECT LOOK ON OLD POLYMER PROBLEMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GRIM, PCM; BROUWER, HJ; SEYGER, RM; OOSTERGETEL, GT; BERGSMASCHUTTER, WG; ARNBERG, AC; GUTHNER, P; DRANSFELD, K; HADZIIOANNOU, G

    In this contribution, the general concepts of force microscopy will be presented together with its application to polymer surfaces (Ref.1). Several examples will be presented to illustrate that force microscopy is a powerful and promising tool for investigation of (polymer) surfaces, such as the

  6. Single molecule force spectroscopy: methods and applications in biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Yi; Hu Jun

    2012-01-01

    Single molecule measurements have transformed our view of biomolecules. Owing to the ability of monitoring the activity of individual molecules, we now see them as uniquely structured, fluctuating molecules that stochastically transition between frequently many substrates, as two molecules do not follow precisely the same trajectory. Indeed, it is this discovery of critical yet short-lived substrates that were often missed in ensemble measurements that has perhaps contributed most to the better understanding of biomolecular functioning resulting from single molecule experiments. In this paper, we give a review on the three major techniques of single molecule force spectroscopy, and their applications especially in biology. The single molecular study of biotin-streptavidin interactions is introduced as a successful example. The problems and prospects of the single molecule force spectroscopy are discussed, too. (authors)

  7. Investigation of integrin expression on the surface of osteoblast-like cells by atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caneva Soumetz, Federico [Department of Communication, Computer and System Sciences, University of Genova, Via Opera Pia, 13-16145 Genova (Italy); Saenz, Jose F. [Biophysical and Electronic Engineering Department, University of Genova, Via All' Opera Pia 11a, 16145 Genova (Italy); Pastorino, Laura; Ruggiero, Carmelina [Department of Communication, Computer and System Sciences, University of Genova, Via Opera Pia, 13-16145 Genova (Italy); Nosi, Daniele [Department of Anatomy, Histology and Forensic Medicine, Bio-photonic Laboratory, University of Florence, viale Morgagni, 85 Firenze, CAP 50134 Florence (Italy); Raiteri, Roberto, E-mail: rr@unige.it [Biophysical and Electronic Engineering Department, University of Genova, Via All' Opera Pia 11a, 16145 Genova (Italy)

    2010-03-15

    The transforming growth factor {beta}1 (TGF-{beta}1) is a human cytokine which has been demonstrated to modulate cell surface integrin repertoire. In this work integrin expression in response to TGF-{beta}1 stimulation has been investigated on the surface of human osteoblast-like cells. We used atomic force microscopy (AFM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy to assess integrin expression and to evaluate their distribution over the dorsal side of the plasma membrane. AFM probes have been covalently functionalised with monoclonal antibodies specific to the {beta}1 integrin subunit. Force curves have been collected in order to obtain maps of the interaction between the immobilized antibody and the respective cell membrane receptors. Adhesion peaks have been automatically detected by means of an ad hoc developed data analysis software. The specificity of the detected interactions has been assessed by adding free antibody in the solution and monitoring the dramatic decrease in the recorded interactions. In addition, the effect of TGF-{beta}1 treatment on both the fluorescence signal and the adhesion events has been tested. The level of expression of the {beta}1 integrin subunit was enhanced by TGF-{beta}1. As a further analysis, the adhesion force of the single living cells to the substrate was measured by laterally pushing the cell with the AFM tip and measuring the force necessary to displace it. The treatment with TGF-{beta}1 resulted in a decrease of the cell/substrate adhesion force. Results obtained by AFM have been validated by confocal laser scanning microscopy thus demonstrating the high potential of the AFM technique for the investigation of cell surface receptors distribution and trafficking at the nanoscale.

  8. Investigation of integrin expression on the surface of osteoblast-like cells by atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caneva Soumetz, Federico; Saenz, Jose F.; Pastorino, Laura; Ruggiero, Carmelina; Nosi, Daniele; Raiteri, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    The transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) is a human cytokine which has been demonstrated to modulate cell surface integrin repertoire. In this work integrin expression in response to TGF-β1 stimulation has been investigated on the surface of human osteoblast-like cells. We used atomic force microscopy (AFM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy to assess integrin expression and to evaluate their distribution over the dorsal side of the plasma membrane. AFM probes have been covalently functionalised with monoclonal antibodies specific to the β1 integrin subunit. Force curves have been collected in order to obtain maps of the interaction between the immobilized antibody and the respective cell membrane receptors. Adhesion peaks have been automatically detected by means of an ad hoc developed data analysis software. The specificity of the detected interactions has been assessed by adding free antibody in the solution and monitoring the dramatic decrease in the recorded interactions. In addition, the effect of TGF-β1 treatment on both the fluorescence signal and the adhesion events has been tested. The level of expression of the β1 integrin subunit was enhanced by TGF-β1. As a further analysis, the adhesion force of the single living cells to the substrate was measured by laterally pushing the cell with the AFM tip and measuring the force necessary to displace it. The treatment with TGF-β1 resulted in a decrease of the cell/substrate adhesion force. Results obtained by AFM have been validated by confocal laser scanning microscopy thus demonstrating the high potential of the AFM technique for the investigation of cell surface receptors distribution and trafficking at the nanoscale.

  9. AN INTELLIGENT NEURO-FUZZY TERMINAL SLIDING MODE CONTROL METHOD WITH APPLICATION TO ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seied Yasser Nikoo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a neuro-fuzzy fast terminal sliding mode control method is proposed for controlling a class of nonlinear systems with bounded uncertainties and disturbances. In this method, a nonlinear terminal sliding surface is firstly designed. Then, this sliding surface is considered as input for an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system which is the main controller. A proportinal-integral-derivative controller is also used to asist the neuro-fuzzy controller in order to improve the performance of the system at the begining stage of control operation. In addition, bee algorithm is used in this paper to update the weights of neuro-fuzzy system as well as the parameters of the proportinal-integral-derivative controller. The proposed control scheme is simulated for vibration control in a model of atomic force microscope system and the results are compared with conventional sliding mode controllers. The simulation results show that the chattering effect in the proposed controller is decreased in comparison with the sliding mode and the terminal sliding mode controllers. Also, the method provides the advantages of fast convergence and low model dependency compared to the conventional methods.

  10. System and method for free-boundary surface extraction

    KAUST Repository

    Algarni, Marei

    2017-10-26

    A method of extracting surfaces in three-dimensional data includes receiving as inputs three-dimensional data and a seed point p located on a surface to be extracted. The method further includes propagating a front outwardly from the seed point p and extracting a plurality of ridge curves based on the propagated front. A surface boundary is detected based on a comparison of distances between adjacent ridge curves and the desired surface is extracted based on the detected surface boundary.

  11. Topography and Mechanical Property Mapping of International Simple Glass Surfaces with Atomic Force Microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, Eric M [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative Nanomechanical Peak Force (PF-QNM) TappingModeTM atomic force microscopy measurements are presented for the first time on polished glass surfaces. The PF-QNM technique allows for topography and mechanical property information to be measured simultaneously at each pixel. Results for the international simple glass which represents a simplified version of SON68 glass suggests an average Young s modulus of 78.8 15.1 GPa is within the experimental error of the modulus measured for SON68 glass (83.6 2 GPa) with conventional approaches. Application of the PF-QNM technique will be extended to in situ glass corrosion experiments with the goal of gaining atomic-scale insights into altered layer development by exploiting the mechanical property differences that exist between silica gel (e.g., altered layer) and pristine glass surface.

  12. Potential dependent adhesion forces on bare and underpotential deposition modified electrode surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serafin, J.M.; Hsieh, S.J.; Monahan, J.; Gewirth, A.A. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

    1998-12-03

    Adhesion force measurements are used to determine the potential dependence of the force of adhesion between a Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} cantilever and a Au(111) surface modified by the underpotential deposition (upd) of Bi or Cu in acid solution or by oxide formation. The measured work of adhesion is near zero for most of the potential region examined in Bi upd but rises after the formation of a full Bi monolayer. The work of adhesion is high at positive potentials for Cu upd but then decreases as the Cu partial and full monolayers are formed. The work of adhesion is low in the oxide region on Au(111) but rises following the sulfate disordering transition at 1.1 V vs NHE. These results are interpreted in terms of the degree of solvent order on the electrode surface.

  13. Dynamical image potential and induced forces for charged particles moving parallel to a solid surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arista, N.R.

    1994-01-01

    The dynamical image potential and ensuing forces induced by a charged particle moving parallel to a solid surface are investigated by using a dielectric formulation for semi-infinite dispersive media. The adiabatic behavior of the field in the asymptotic range is discussed in a general way using a multipole expansion. Several calculations illustrate the behavior of the field using both a simple model, where the surface response is approximated by a single plasma resonance, and a more realistic representation of the medium based upon the empirical information on the optical constants for various solids (Al, Cu, Ag, and Au). The model parameters may be adjusted to provide very good agreement with the optical-data integrations of the stopping and lateral forces on the moving charge. On the other hand, important differences in the description of the wake potential using either the simple plasma resonance model, or the optical-data representation, are obtained for Cu, Ag, and Au

  14. Non-additivity of molecule-surface van der Waals potentials from force measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Christian; Fournier, Norman; Ruiz, Victor G.; Li, Chen; Müllen, Klaus; Rohlfing, Michael; Tkatchenko, Alexandre; Temirov, Ruslan; Tautz, F. Stefan

    2014-11-01

    Van der Waals (vdW) forces act ubiquitously in condensed matter. Despite being weak on an atomic level, they substantially influence molecular and biological systems due to their long range and system-size scaling. The difficulty to isolate and measure vdW forces on a single-molecule level causes our present understanding to be strongly theory based. Here we show measurements of the attractive potential between differently sized organic molecules and a metal surface using an atomic force microscope. Our choice of molecules and the large molecule-surface separation cause this attraction to be purely of vdW type. The experiment allows testing the asymptotic vdW force law and its validity range. We find a superlinear growth of the vdW attraction with molecular size, originating from the increased deconfinement of electrons in the molecules. Because such non-additive vdW contributions are not accounted for in most first-principles or empirical calculations, we suggest further development in that direction.

  15. Non-additivity of molecule-surface van der Waals potentials from force measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Christian; Fournier, Norman; Ruiz, Victor G; Li, Chen; Müllen, Klaus; Rohlfing, Michael; Tkatchenko, Alexandre; Temirov, Ruslan; Tautz, F Stefan

    2014-11-26

    Van der Waals (vdW) forces act ubiquitously in condensed matter. Despite being weak on an atomic level, they substantially influence molecular and biological systems due to their long range and system-size scaling. The difficulty to isolate and measure vdW forces on a single-molecule level causes our present understanding to be strongly theory based. Here we show measurements of the attractive potential between differently sized organic molecules and a metal surface using an atomic force microscope. Our choice of molecules and the large molecule-surface separation cause this attraction to be purely of vdW type. The experiment allows testing the asymptotic vdW force law and its validity range. We find a superlinear growth of the vdW attraction with molecular size, originating from the increased deconfinement of electrons in the molecules. Because such non-additive vdW contributions are not accounted for in most first-principles or empirical calculations, we suggest further development in that direction.

  16. On electrostatic and Casimir force measurements between conducting surfaces in a sphere-plane configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, W J; Brown-Hayes, M; Brownell, J H; Dalvit, D A R; Onofrio, R

    2009-01-01

    We report on measurements of forces acting between two conducting surfaces in a spherical-plane configuration in the 35 nm-1 μm separation range. The measurements are obtained by performing electrostatic calibrations followed by a residuals analysis after subtracting the electrostatic-dependent component. We find in all runs optimal fitting of the calibrations for exponents smaller than the one predicted by electrostatics for an ideal sphere-plane geometry. We also find that the external bias potential necessary to minimize the electrostatic contribution depends on the sphere-plane distance. In spite of these anomalies, by implementing a parametrization-dependent subtraction of the electrostatic contribution we have found evidence for short-distance attractive forces of magnitude comparable to the expected Casimir-Lifshitz force. We finally discuss the relevance of our findings in the more general context of Casimir-Lifshitz force measurements, with particular regard to the critical issues of the electrical and geometrical characterization of the involved surfaces.

  17. Surface tension effect on the mechanical properties of nanomaterials measured by atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenot, Stéphane; Frétigny, Christian; Demoustier-Champagne, Sophie; Nysten, Bernard

    2004-04-01

    The effect of reduced size on the elastic properties measured on silver and lead nanowires and on polypyrrole nanotubes with an outer diameter ranging between 30 and 250 nm is presented and discussed. Resonant-contact atomic force microscopy (AFM) is used to measure their apparent elastic modulus. The measured modulus of the nanomaterials with smaller diameters is significantly higher than that of the larger ones. The latter is comparable to the macroscopic modulus of the materials. The increase of the apparent elastic modulus for the smaller diameters is attributed to surface tension effects. The surface tension of the probed material may be experimentally determined from these AFM measurements.

  18. Intercomparison of oceanic and atmospheric forced and coupled mesoscale simulations Part I: Surface fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Josse

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available A mesoscale non-hydrostatic atmospheric model has been coupled with a mesoscale oceanic model. The case study is a four-day simulation of a strong storm event observed during the SEMAPHORE experiment over a 500 × 500 km2 domain. This domain encompasses a thermohaline front associated with the Azores current. In order to analyze the effect of mesoscale coupling, three simulations are compared: the first one with the atmospheric model forced by realistic sea surface temperature analyses; the second one with the ocean model forced by atmospheric fields, derived from weather forecast re-analyses; the third one with the models being coupled. For these three simulations the surface fluxes were computed with the same bulk parametrization. All three simulations succeed well in representing the main oceanic or atmospheric features observed during the storm. Comparison of surface fields with in situ observations reveals that the winds of the fine mesh atmospheric model are more realistic than those of the weather forecast re-analyses. The low-level winds simulated with the atmospheric model in the forced and coupled simulations are appreciably stronger than the re-analyzed winds. They also generate stronger fluxes. The coupled simulation has the strongest surface heat fluxes: the difference in the net heat budget with the oceanic forced simulation reaches on average 50 Wm-2 over the simulation period. Sea surface-temperature cooling is too weak in both simulations, but is improved in the coupled run and matches better the cooling observed with drifters. The spatial distributions of sea surface-temperature cooling and surface fluxes are strongly inhomogeneous over the simulation domain. The amplitude of the flux variation is maximum in the coupled run. Moreover the weak correlation between the cooling and heat flux patterns indicates that the surface fluxes are not responsible for the whole cooling and suggests that the response of the ocean mixed layer

  19. Intercomparison of oceanic and atmospheric forced and coupled mesoscale simulations Part I: Surface fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Giordani

    Full Text Available A mesoscale non-hydrostatic atmospheric model has been coupled with a mesoscale oceanic model. The case study is a four-day simulation of a strong storm event observed during the SEMAPHORE experiment over a 500 × 500 km2 domain. This domain encompasses a thermohaline front associated with the Azores current. In order to analyze the effect of mesoscale coupling, three simulations are compared: the first one with the atmospheric model forced by realistic sea surface temperature analyses; the second one with the ocean model forced by atmospheric fields, derived from weather forecast re-analyses; the third one with the models being coupled. For these three simulations the surface fluxes were computed with the same bulk parametrization. All three simulations succeed well in representing the main oceanic or atmospheric features observed during the storm. Comparison of surface fields with in situ observations reveals that the winds of the fine mesh atmospheric model are more realistic than those of the weather forecast re-analyses. The low-level winds simulated with the atmospheric model in the forced and coupled simulations are appreciably stronger than the re-analyzed winds. They also generate stronger fluxes. The coupled simulation has the strongest surface heat fluxes: the difference in the net heat budget with the oceanic forced simulation reaches on average 50 Wm-2 over the simulation period. Sea surface-temperature cooling is too weak in both simulations, but is improved in the coupled run and matches better the cooling observed with drifters. The spatial distributions of sea surface-temperature cooling and surface fluxes are strongly inhomogeneous over the simulation domain. The amplitude of the flux variation is maximum in the coupled run. Moreover the weak correlation between the cooling and heat flux patterns indicates that the surface fluxes are not responsible for the whole cooling and suggests that the response of the ocean mixed layer

  20. Atomic force microscopy. A new method for atom identification and manipulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Masayuki; Sugimoto, Yoshiaki; Morita, Seizo

    2007-01-01

    Frequency modulation atomic force microscopy (FM-AFM) is a scanning probe technique that detects the interaction forces between the outermost atom of a sharp tip and the atoms at a surface to image the sample surface. It is expected that the FM-AFM can cover the research field which scanning tunneling microscopy does not provide. In this article, we would introduce FM-AFM experiments applied to site-specific force measurements and atom manipulation, including how to solve the problems to achieve precise FM-AFM measurements. (author)

  1. Nonlinear effects of anthropogenic aerosol and urban land surface forcing on spring climate in eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jiechun; Xu, Haiming; Zhang, Leying

    2016-05-01

    Anthropogenic aerosols and urban land cover change induce opposite thermal effects on the atmosphere near surface as well as in the troposphere. One can think of these anthropogenic effects as composed of two parts: the individual effect due to an individual anthropogenic forcing and the nonlinear effects resulting from the coexistence of two forcing factors. In this study, we explored the role of such nonlinear effects in affecting East Asian climate, as well as individual forcing effects, using the Community Atmosphere Model version 5.1 coupled with the Community Land Model version 4. Atmospheric responses were simulated by including anthropogenic aerosol emission only, urban cover only, or the combination of the two, over eastern China. Results showed that nonlinear responses were different from any effects by an individual forcing or the linear combination of individual responses. The nonlinear interaction could generate cold horizontal temperature advection to cool the troposphere, which induced anomalous subsidence along the Yangtze River Valley (YRV). This anomalous vertical motion, together with a weakened low-level southwesterly, favored below-normal (above-normal) rainfall over the YRV (southern China), shifting the spring rain belt southward. The resultant diabatic cooling, in turn, amplified the anomalous descent and further decreased tropospheric temperature over the YRV, forming a positive feedback loop to maintain the nonlinear effects. Consequently, the nonlinear effects acted to reduce the climate anomalies from a simple linear combination of two individual effects and played an important role in regional responses to one anthropogenic forcing when the other is prescribed.

  2. Spot Surface Labeling of Magnetic Microbeads and Application in Biological Force Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Ashley; O'Brien, E. Tim; Hill, David; Superfine, Richard

    2006-11-01

    Biological force measurements on single molecules and macromolecular structures often use microbeads for the application of force. These techniques are often complicated by multiple attachments and nonspecific binding. In one set of experiments, we are applying a magnetic force microscope that allows us to pull on magnetic beads attached to ciliated human bronchial epithelial cells. These experiments provide a means to measure the stall force of cilia and understand how cilia propel fluids. However, because we are using beads with diameters of one and 2.8 microns, and the diameter of human airway cilia is approximately 200 nm, we cannot be assured that the bead is bound to a single cilium. To address this, we have developed a sputter coating technique to block the biotin binding capability of the streptavidin labeled bead over its entire surface except for a small spot. These beads may also have applications in other biological experiments such as DNA force experiments in which binding of a single target to an individual bead is critical.

  3. Application of Neural Networks to Wind tunnel Data Response Surface Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Ching F.; Zhao, J. L.; DeLoach, Richard

    2000-01-01

    The integration of nonlinear neural network methods with conventional linear regression techniques is demonstrated for representative wind tunnel force balance data modeling. This work was motivated by a desire to formulate precision intervals for response surfaces produced by neural networks. Applications are demonstrated for representative wind tunnel data acquired at NASA Langley Research Center and the Arnold Engineering Development Center in Tullahoma, TN.

  4. The study of dynamic force acted on water strider leg departing from water surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peiyuan Sun

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Water-walking insects such as water striders can skate on the water surface easily with the help of the hierarchical structure on legs. Numerous theoretical and experimental studies show that the hierarchical structure would help water strider in quasi-static case such as load-bearing capacity. However, the advantage of the hierarchical structure in the dynamic stage has not been reported yet. In this paper, the function of super hydrophobicity and the hierarchical structure was investigated by measuring the adhesion force of legs departing from the water surface at different lifting speed by a dynamic force sensor. The results show that the adhesion force decreased with the increase of lifting speed from 0.02 m/s to 0.4 m/s, whose mechanic is investigated by Energy analysis. In addition, it can be found that the needle shape setae on water strider leg can help them depart from water surface easily. Thus, it can serve as a starting point to understand how the hierarchical structure on the legs help water-walking insects to jump upward rapidly to avoid preying by other insects.

  5. The study of dynamic force acted on water strider leg departing from water surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peiyuan; Zhao, Meirong; Jiang, Jile; Zheng, Yelong

    2018-01-01

    Water-walking insects such as water striders can skate on the water surface easily with the help of the hierarchical structure on legs. Numerous theoretical and experimental studies show that the hierarchical structure would help water strider in quasi-static case such as load-bearing capacity. However, the advantage of the hierarchical structure in the dynamic stage has not been reported yet. In this paper, the function of super hydrophobicity and the hierarchical structure was investigated by measuring the adhesion force of legs departing from the water surface at different lifting speed by a dynamic force sensor. The results show that the adhesion force decreased with the increase of lifting speed from 0.02 m/s to 0.4 m/s, whose mechanic is investigated by Energy analysis. In addition, it can be found that the needle shape setae on water strider leg can help them depart from water surface easily. Thus, it can serve as a starting point to understand how the hierarchical structure on the legs help water-walking insects to jump upward rapidly to avoid preying by other insects.

  6. Quantification of the lift height for magnetic force microscopy using 3D surface parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nenadovic, M.; Strbac, S.; Rakocevic, Z.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, the quantitative conditions for the lift height for imaging of the magnetic field using magnetic force microscopy (MFM) were optimized. A thin cobalt film deposited on a monocrystalline silicon (1 0 0) substrate with a thickness of 55 nm and a thin nickel film deposited on a glass with a thickness of 600 nm were used as samples. The topography of the surface was acquired by tapping mode atomic force microscopy (AFM), while MFM imaging was performed in the lift mode for various lift heights. It was determined that the sensitivity of the measurements was about 10% higher for images obtained at a scan angle of 90 o compared to a scan angle of 0 deg. Therefore, the three-dimensional surface texture parameters, i.e., average roughness, skewness, kurtosis and the bearing ratio, were determined in dependence on the lift height for a scan angle of 90 deg. The results of the analyses of the surface parameters showed that the influence of the substrate and its texture on the magnetic force image could be neglected for lift heights above 40 nm and that the upper lift height limit is 100 nm. It was determined that the optimal values of the lift heights were in the range from 60 to 80 nm, depending on the nature of the sample and on the type of the tip used.

  7. Method of driving liquid flow at or near the free surface using magnetic microparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snezhko, Oleksiy [Woodridge, IL; Aronson, Igor [Darien, IL; Kwok, Wai-Kwong [Evanston, IL; Belkin, Maxim V [Woodridge, IL

    2011-10-11

    The present invention provides a method of driving liquid flow at or near a free surface using self-assembled structures composed of magnetic particles subjected to an external AC magnetic field. A plurality of magnetic particles are supported at or near a free surface of liquid by surface tension or buoyancy force. An AC magnetic field traverses the free surface and dipole-dipole interaction between particles produces in self-assembled snake structures which oscillate at the frequency of the traverse AC magnetic field. The snake structures independently move across the free surface and may merge with other snake structures or break up and coalesce into additional snake structures experiencing independent movement across the liquid surface. During this process, the snake structures produce asymmetric flow vortices across substantially the entirety of the free surface, effectuating liquid flow across the free surface.

  8. A volume-based method for denoising on curved surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Biddle, Harry

    2013-09-01

    We demonstrate a method for removing noise from images or other data on curved surfaces. Our approach relies on in-surface diffusion: we formulate both the Gaussian diffusion and Perona-Malik edge-preserving diffusion equations in a surface-intrinsic way. Using the Closest Point Method, a recent technique for solving partial differential equations (PDEs) on general surfaces, we obtain a very simple algorithm where we merely alternate a time step of the usual Gaussian diffusion (and similarly Perona-Malik) in a small 3D volume containing the surface with an interpolation step. The method uses a closest point function to represent the underlying surface and can treat very general surfaces. Experimental results include image filtering on smooth surfaces, open surfaces, and general triangulated surfaces. © 2013 IEEE.

  9. Are the force characteristics of synchronous handcycling affected by speed and the method to impose power?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnet, U.; van Drongelen, S.V.; van der Woude, L.H.V.; Veeger, H.E.J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the influence of exercise conditions (speed and method to impose power) on the applied force, force effectiveness and distribution of work during handcycling. Method: Ten able-bodied men performed handcycling on a treadmill. To test the effect of speed, subjects propelled

  10. Are the force characteristics of synchronous handcycling affected by speed and the method to impose power?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnet, Ursina; van Drongelen, Stefan; Veeger, DirkJan H. E. J.; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.

    Objective: To investigate the influence of exercise conditions (speed and method to impose power) on the applied force, force effectiveness and distribution of work during handcycling. Method: Ten able-bodied men performed handcycling on a treadmill. To test the effect of speed, subjects propelled

  11. The 'Arm Force Field' method to predict manual arm strength based on only hand location and force direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Delfa, Nicholas J; Potvin, Jim R

    2017-03-01

    This paper describes the development of a novel method (termed the 'Arm Force Field' or 'AFF') to predict manual arm strength (MAS) for a wide range of body orientations, hand locations and any force direction. This method used an artificial neural network (ANN) to predict the effects of hand location and force direction on MAS, and included a method to estimate the contribution of the arm's weight to the predicted strength. The AFF method predicted the MAS values very well (r 2  = 0.97, RMSD = 5.2 N, n = 456) and maintained good generalizability with external test data (r 2  = 0.842, RMSD = 13.1 N, n = 80). The AFF can be readily integrated within any DHM ergonomics software, and appears to be a more robust, reliable and valid method of estimating the strength capabilities of the arm, when compared to current approaches. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A nanobiosensing method based on force measurement of antibody-antigen interaction for direct detection of enterovirus 71 by the chemically modified atomic force microscopic probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Chung-Hung; Hsieh, Chung-Fan; Tseng, Chi-Shin; Huang, Wei-Chih; Guo, Cheng-Yan; Lin, Shiming; Lee, Si-Chen

    2017-10-01

    Hand, Foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common disease with high infectivity for children, and enterovirus 71 (EV71) is one of the main pathogens to cause the type of illness. Therefore, the aim of this study was to propose a rapid and effective technique for detecting EV71 directly based on the mechanism of biological intermolecular force by using atomic force microscopy (AFM). At first, we coated EV71 particles on the mica surface and made the EV71 antibodies (anti-EV71) fixed on the AFM tip by means of several chemical procedures. Then, AFM chemically modified tip was applied to measure the unbinding forces between EV71 and anti-EV71 by contact mode. Finally, by using AFM imaging calculating software, the EV71 particle size (mean±SD) was 31.36±3.87 nm (n = 200) and this result was concordance with previous literature. Besides, the force (mean±SD) between EV71 antigen and antibody complex was 336.9±64.7 pN. The force (mean±SD) between anti-EV71 and non-specific specimens was 47.1±15.1 pN and was significantly smaller (P measuring the force magnitude and observing the occurrence of EV71/anti-EV71 unbinding events. Therefore, the combination of AFM system and the chemically modified tip has the potential to be a rapid and effective method for detecting EV71 directly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Quantifying surface albedo and other direct biogeophysical climate forcings of forestry activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Ryan M; Zhao, Kaiguang; Jackson, Robert B; Cherubini, Francesco

    2015-09-01

    By altering fluxes of heat, momentum, and moisture exchanges between the land surface and atmosphere, forestry and other land-use activities affect climate. Although long recognized scientifically as being important, these so-called biogeophysical forcings are rarely included in climate policies for forestry and other land management projects due to the many challenges associated with their quantification. Here, we review the scientific literature in the fields of atmospheric science and terrestrial ecology in light of three main objectives: (i) to elucidate the challenges associated with quantifying biogeophysical climate forcings connected to land use and land management, with a focus on the forestry sector; (ii) to identify and describe scientific approaches and/or metrics facilitating the quantification and interpretation of direct biogeophysical climate forcings; and (iii) to identify and recommend research priorities that can help overcome the challenges of their attribution to specific land-use activities, bridging the knowledge gap between the climate modeling, forest ecology, and resource management communities. We find that ignoring surface biogeophysics may mislead climate mitigation policies, yet existing metrics are unlikely to be sufficient. Successful metrics ought to (i) include both radiative and nonradiative climate forcings; (ii) reconcile disparities between biogeophysical and biogeochemical forcings, and (iii) acknowledge trade-offs between global and local climate benefits. We call for more coordinated research among terrestrial ecologists, resource managers, and coupled climate modelers to harmonize datasets, refine analytical techniques, and corroborate and validate metrics that are more amenable to analyses at the scale of an individual site or region. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Surface analysis methods in materials science

    CERN Document Server

    Sexton, Brett; Smart, Roger

    1992-01-01

    The idea for this book stemmed from a remark by Philip Jennings of Murdoch University in a discussion session following a regular meeting of the Australian Surface Science group. He observed that a text on surface analysis and applica­ tions to materials suitable for final year undergraduate and postgraduate science students was not currently available. Furthermore, the members of the Australian Surface Science group had the research experience and range of coverage of sur­ face analytical techniques and applications to provide a text for this purpose. A of techniques and applications to be included was agreed at that meeting. The list intended readership of the book has been broadened since the early discussions, particularly to encompass industrial users, but there has been no significant alter­ ation in content. The editors, in consultation with the contributors, have agreed that the book should be prepared for four major groups of readers: - senior undergraduate students in chemistry, physics, metallur...

  15. Agile Methods in Air Force Sustainment: Status and Outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    methods (i.e., Scrum and Kanban ) 1 Hybrid methods (i.e., Scrum, Kanban -modified Feature Driven Design, Scalable Agile Framework, and DSDM) 1...Hybrid methods (i.e., Scrum, TSP, and PSP) 2 Kanban 2 I do not know 1 I prefer not to answer 0 Table 6: Respondent Characterization of Role on...development methods such as Scrum, Kanban , eXtreme Programming? Characterize Operations and Sustainment Planned Q8 9. Identify the depot level

  16. The influence of Southern Ocean surface buoyancy forcing on glacial-interglacial changes in the global deep ocean stratification

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, S; Eisenman, I; Stewart, AL

    2016-01-01

    ©2016. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved. Previous studies have suggested that the global ocean density stratification below ∼3000 m is approximately set by its direct connection to the Southern Ocean surface density, which in turn is constrained by the atmosphere. Here the role of Southern Ocean surface forcing in glacial-interglacial stratification changes is investigated using a comprehensive climate model and an idealized conceptual model. Southern Ocean surface forcing is f...

  17. Sticking like sticky tape: tree frogs use friction forces to enhance attachment on overhanging surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endlein, Thomas; Ji, Aihong; Samuel, Diana; Yao, Ning; Wang, Zhongyuan; Barnes, W Jon P; Federle, Walter; Kappl, Michael; Dai, Zhendong

    2013-03-06

    To live and clamber about in an arboreal habitat, tree frogs have evolved adhesive pads on their toes. In addition, they often have long and slender legs to facilitate not only long jumps, but also to bridge gaps between leaves when climbing. Both adhesive pads and long limbs are used in conjunction, as we will show in this study. Previous research has shown that tree frogs change from a crouched posture (where the limbs are close to the body) to a sprawled posture with extended limbs when clinging on to steeper inclines such as vertical or overhanging slopes. We investigated this change in posture in White's tree frogs (Litoria caerulea) by challenging the frogs to cling onto a tiltable platform. The platform consisted of an array of 24 three-dimensional force transducers, which allowed us to measure the ground reaction forces of the frogs during a tilt. Starting from a crouched resting position, the normal forces on the forelimbs changed sign and became increasingly negative with increasing slope angle of the platform. At about 106° ± 12°, tilt of the platform the frogs reacted by extending one or two of their limbs outwards. At a steeper angle (131° ± 11°), the frogs spread out all their limbs sideways, with the hindlimbs stretched out to their maximum reach. Although the extension was strongest in the lateral direction, limbs were significantly extended in the fore-aft direction as well. With the extension of the limbs, the lateral forces increased relative to the normal forces. The large contribution of the in-plane forces helped to keep the angle between the force vector and the platform small. The Kendall theory for the peeling of adhesive tape predicts that smaller peel angles lead to higher attachment forces. We compare our data with the predictions of the Kendall model and discuss possible implications of the sliding of the pads on the surface. The forces were indeed much larger for smaller angles and thus can be explained by peeling theory.

  18. Nanoscale Surface Photovoltage Mapping of 2D Materials and Heterostructures by Illuminated Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Shearer, Melinda J.

    2018-02-01

    Nanomaterials are interesting for a variety of applications, such as optoelectronics and photovoltaics. However, they often have spatial heterogeneity, i.e. composition change or physical change in the topography or structure, which can lead to varying properties that would influence their applications. New techniques must be developed to understand and correlate spatial heterogeneity with changes in electronic properties. Here we highlight the technique of surface photovoltage-Kelvin probe force microscopy (SPV-KFM), which is a modified version of non-contact atomic force microscopy capable of imaging not only the topography and surface potential, but also the surface photovoltage on the nanoscale. We demonstrate its utility in probing monolayer WSe2-MoS2 lateral heterostructures, which form an ultrathin p-n junction promising for photovoltaic and optoelectronic applications. We show surface photovoltage maps highlighting the different photoresponse of the two material regions as a result of the effective charge separation across this junction. Additionally, we study the variations between different heterostructure flakes and emphasize the importance of controlling the synthesis and transfer of these materials to obtain consistent properties and measurements.

  19. Silicon force sensor and method of using the same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galambos, Paul C.; Crenshaw, Thomas B.; Nishida, Erik E.; Burnett, Damon J.; Lantz, Jeffrey W.

    2016-10-04

    The various technologies presented herein relate to a sensor for measurement of high forces and/or high load shock rate(s), whereby the sensor utilizes silicon as the sensing element. A plate of Si can have a thinned region formed therein on which can be formed a number of traces operating as a Wheatstone bridge. The brittle Si can be incorporated into a layered structure comprising ductile and/or compliant materials. The sensor can have a washer-like configuration which can be incorporated into a nut and bolt configuration, whereby tightening of the nut and bolt can facilitate application of a compressive preload upon the sensor. Upon application of an impact load on the bolt, the compressive load on the sensor can be reduced (e.g., moves towards zero-load), however the magnitude of the preload can be such that the load on the sensor does not translate to tensile stress being applied to the sensor.

  20. Surface control alloy substrates and methods of manufacture therefor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritzemeier, Leslie G. (Mendon, MA); Li, Qi (Marlborough, MA); Rupich, Martin W. (Framingham, MA); Thompson, Elliott D. (Coventry, RI); Siegal, Edward J. (Malden, MA); Thieme, Cornelis Leo Hans (Westborough, MA); Annavarapu, Suresh (Brookline, MA); Arendt, Paul N. (Los Alamos, NM); Foltyn, Stephen R. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2004-05-04

    Methods and articles for controlling the surface of an alloy substrate for deposition of an epitaxial layer. The invention includes the use of an intermediate layer to stabilize the substrate surface against oxidation for subsequent deposition of an epitaxial layer.

  1. Comparison of force fields and calculation methods for vibration intervals of isotopic H+3 molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carney, G.D.; Adler-Golden, S.M.; Lesseski, D.C.

    1986-01-01

    This paper reports (a) improved values for low-lying vibration intervals of H + 3 , H 2 D + , D 2 H + , and D + 3 calculated using the variational method and Simons--Parr--Finlan representations of the Carney--Porter and Dykstra--Swope ab initio H + 3 potential energy surfaces, (b) quartic normal coordinate force fields for isotopic H + 3 molecules, (c) comparisons of variational and second-order perturbation theory, and (d) convergence properties of the Lai--Hagstrom internal coordinate vibrational Hamiltonian. Standard deviations between experimental and ab initio fundamental vibration intervals of H + 3 , H 2 D + , D 2 H + , and D + 3 for these potential surfaces are 6.9 (Carney--Porter) and 1.2 cm -1 (Dykstra--Swope). The standard deviations between perturbation theory and exact variational fundamentals are 5 and 10 cm -1 for the respective surfaces. The internal coordinate Hamiltonian is found to be less efficient than the previously employed ''t'' coordinate Hamiltonian for these molecules, except in the case of H 2 D +

  2. Biomimetic superhydrophobic polyolefin surfaces fabricated with a facile scraping, bonding and peeling method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Huanhuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inspired by the superhydrophobicity of juicy peach surface, on which microscale hairs are standing vertically to the surface plane, an extremely simple, inexpensive physical method is developed for fabrication of superhydrophobic polyolefin surfaces over large areas. This method includes three steps: abrasive paper scraping, adhesive tape bonding and 90° peeling. Scraping increases the roughness and enhence water contact angles (CAs on polyolefin surfaces. It increases more when the scraped surface are bonded with adhesive types and then then 90° peeled. The CA variation depends on the types of polyolefin and abrasive paper. Superhydrophobic lowdensity polyethylene (LDPE, high-density polyethylene (HDPE and polypropylene (PP surfaces (CA>150° are obtained and they all exhibit very low adhesive force and high resistance to strong acids and bases.

  3. A new image correction method for live cell atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Y; Sun, J L; Zhang, A; Hu, J; Xu, L X

    2007-01-01

    During live cell imaging via atomic force microscopy (AFM), the interactions between the AFM probe and the membrane yield distorted cell images. In this work, an image correction method was developed based on the force-distance curve and the modified Hertzian model. The normal loading and lateral forces exerted on the cell membrane by the AFM tip were both accounted for during the scanning. Two assumptions were made in modelling based on the experimental measurements: (1) the lateral force on the endothelial cells was linear to the height; (2) the cell membrane Young's modulus could be derived from the displacement measurement of a normal force curve. Results have shown that the model could be used to recover up to 30% of the actual cell height depending on the loading force. The accuracy of the model was also investigated with respect to the loading force and mechanical property of the cell membrane

  4. Atomic force microscopy studies of bioprocess engineering surfaces - imaging, interactions and mechanical properties mediating bacterial adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Sean A; Hilal, Nidal; Wright, Chris J

    2017-07-01

    The detrimental effect of bacterial biofilms on process engineering surfaces is well documented. Thus, interest in the early stages of bacterial biofilm formation; in particular bacterial adhesion and the production of anti-fouling coatings has grown exponentially as a field. During this time, Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has emerged as a critical tool for the evaluation of bacterial adhesion. Due to its versatility AFM offers not only insight into the topographical landscape and mechanical properties of the engineering surfaces, but elucidates, through direct quantification the topographical and biomechnical properties of the foulants The aim of this review is to collate the current research on bacterial adhesion, both theoretical and practical, and outline how AFM as a technique is uniquely equipped to provide further insight into the nanoscale world at the bioprocess engineering surface. Copyright © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. The Influence of Long-Range Surface Forces on the Contact Angle of Nanometric Droplets and Bubbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocco, Antonio; Möhwald, Helmuth

    2015-11-03

    For a droplet or a bubble of dimensions below 100 nm, long-range surface forces such as long-range van der Waals forces can compete with capillarity, which leads to a size dependence of the contact angle. This is discussed in this work, where we also show that the effect cannot simply be described by a normalized line tension. We calculate interfacial profiles for typical values of van der Waals forces and discuss the role of long-range surface forces on the contact angle of nanobubbles and nanodrops.

  6. Sensitivity of Horn of Africa Rainfall to Regional Sea Surface Temperature Forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zewdu T. Segele

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics (ICTP version 4.4 Regional Climate Model (RegCM4 is used to investigate the rainfall response to cooler/warmer sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA forcing in the Indian and Atlantic Oceans. The effect of SSTA forcing in a specific ocean basin is identified by ensemble, averaging 10 individual simulations in which a constant or linearly zonally varying SSTA is prescribed in individual basins while specifying the 1971–2000 monthly varying climatological sea surface temperature (SST across the remaining model domain. The nonlinear rainfall response to SSTA amplitude also is investigated by separately specifying +1K, +2K, and +4K SSTA forcing in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. The simulation results show that warm SSTs over the entire Indian Ocean produce drier conditions across the larger Blue Nile catchment, whereas warming ≥ +2K generates large positive rainfall anomalies exceeding 10 mm·day−1 over drought prone regions of Northeastern Ethiopia. However, the June–September rainy season tends to be wetter (drier when the SST warming (cooling is limited to either the Northern or Southern Indian Ocean. Wet rainy seasons generally are characterized by deepening of the monsoon trough, east of 40°E, intensification of the Mascarene high, strengthening of the Somali low level jet and the tropical easterly jet, enhanced zonal and meridional vertically integrated moisture fluxes, and steeply vertically decreasing moist static energy. The opposite conditions hold for dry monsoon seasons.

  7. Do climate simulations from models forced by averaged sea surface temperatures represent actual dynamics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Roebber

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently atmospheric general circulation models (AGCMs forced by observed sea surface temperatures (SSTs have offered the possibility of studying climate variability over periods ranging from years to decades. Such models represent and alternative to fully coupled asynchronous atmosphere ocean models whose long term integration remains problematic. Here, the degree of the approximation represented by this approach is investigated from a conceptual point of view by comparing the dynamical properties of a low order coupled atmosphere-ocean model to those of the atmospheric component of the same model when forced with monthly values of SST derived from the fully coupled simulation. The low order modelling approach is undertaken with the expectation that it may reveal general principles concerning the dynamical behaviour of the forced versus coupled systems; it is not expected that such an approach will determine the details of these differences, for which higher order modelling studies will be required. We discover that even though attractor (global averages may be similar, local dynamics and the resultant variability and predictability characteristics differ substantially. These results suggest that conclusions concerning regional climatic variability (in time as well as space drawn from forced modelling approaches may be contaminated by an inherently unquantifiable error. It is therefore recommended that this possibility be carefully investigated using state-of-the-art coupled AGCMs.

  8. Revised model for the radiation force exerted by standing surface acoustic waves on a rigid cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shen; Chaohui, Wang

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, a model for the radiation force exerted by standing surface acoustic waves (SSAWs) on a rigid cylinder in inviscid fluids is extended to account for the dependence on the Rayleigh angle. The conventional model for the radiation force used in the SSAW-based applications is developed in plane standing waves, which fails to predict the movement of the cylinder in the SSAW. Our revised model reveals that, in the direction normal to the piezoelectric substrate on which the SSAW is generated, acoustic radiation force can be large enough to drive the cylinder even in the long-wavelength limit. Furthermore, the force in this direction can not only push the cylinder away, but also pull it back toward the substrate. In the direction parallel to the substrate, the equilibrium positions for particles can be actively tuned by changing Rayleigh angle. As an example considered in the paper, with the reduction of Rayleigh angle the equilibrium positions for steel cylinders in water change from pressure nodes to pressure antinodes. The model can thus be used in the design of SSAWs for particle manipulations.

  9. An internal force solving method and its application in teaching of mechanics of materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei-Wei

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents an improved method of positive assumption for internal force solving, and the application process of this improved method is introduced by some examples, matters to be noted in teaching by this improved method are also analyzed. Teaching practice shows that using improved method of positive assumption to solve internal force, can effectively reduce the error rate, improve the students’ ability to analyze the internal force, increase the confidence in mechanics of materials learning, and can produce positive transfer effect for subsequent rated courses learning.

  10. Introduction to Discrete Element Methods: Basics of Contact Force Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luding, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    One challenge of today's research is the realistic simulation of granular materials, like sand or powders, consisting of millions of particles. In this article, the discrete element method (DEM), as based on molecular dynamics methods, is introduced. Contact models are at the physical basis of DEM.

  11. Various methods for extracting forces on a moving plate using Time-Resolved Particle Image Velocimetry (TR-PIV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rival, D.; Schoenweitz, D.; Tropea, C.

    2009-11-01

    It is often very challenging or even impossible to measure the forces directly on swimming or flying animals. For this reason traditional control-volume methods are used to estimate the unsteady forces on the body in question. TR-PIV systems allow for the measurement of the full spatial and temporal velocity field in the control volume as well as along the bounding control surfaces. The corresponding pressure field can be integrated from the complete velocity-field data set. However, the measurement of the velocity field in the proximity of the body’s surface is at times cumbersome due to shadows and reflections. An alternate control-volume formulationfootnotetextJ. Z. Wu, Z.-L. Pan and X.-Y. Lu, ``Unsteady fluid-dynamic force solely in terms of control-surface integral,” Phys. of Fluids 17, 098102 (2005) eliminates the need for velocity measurements in the proximity of the body. This method has been tested and compared to the traditional control-volume technique for a generic pitching and plunging flat plate in a hover chamber. The advantages and disadvantages of these methods are discussed in the context of their measurement accuracy.

  12. Synthesis of ZnS nanoparticles on a solid surface: Atomic force microscopy study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Huizhen; Lian Wenping; Song Yonghai; Chen Shouhui; Chen Lili; Wang Li

    2010-01-01

    In this work, zinc sulfide (ZnS) nanoparticles had been synthesized on DNA network/mica and mica surface, respectively. The synthesis was carried out by first dropping a mixture of zinc acetate and DNA on a mica surface for the formation of the DNA networks or zinc acetate solution on a mica surface, and subsequently transferring the sample into a heated thiourea solution. The Zn 2+ adsorbed on DNA network/mica or mica surface would react with S 2- produced from thiourea and form ZnS nanoparticles on these surfaces. X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to characterize the ZnS nanoparticles in detail. AFM results showed that ZnS nanoparticles distributed uniformly on the mica surface and deposited preferentially on DNA networks. It was also found that the size and density of ZnS nanoparticles could be effectively controlled by adjusting reaction temperature and the concentration of Zn 2+ or DNA. The possible growth mechanisms have been discussed in detail.

  13. Trainable Methods for Surface Natural Language Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Ratnaparkhi, Adwait

    2000-01-01

    We present three systems for surface natural language generation that are trainable from annotated corpora. The first two systems, called NLG1 and NLG2, require a corpus marked only with domain-specific semantic attributes, while the last system, called NLG3, requires a corpus marked with both semantic attributes and syntactic dependency information. All systems attempt to produce a grammatical natural language phrase from a domain-specific semantic representation. NLG1 serves a baseline syst...

  14. The Mechanical of the Small Axisymmetric Oscillations of the Liquid with the Surface Tension Forces in Elastic Tank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Goncharov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate small axisymmetric oscillations of a liquid in an elastic tank. We also take into account the influence of surface tension forces. For this, we turn to the mechanical analogue of the considered mechanical system. To realize the transition to mechanical analogue we use the energy method: postulating the equality of kinetic and potential energy for the investigated mechanical system and the mechanical system analog. Due to this transition we can further investigate the oscillations of a mechanical analogue. As a mechanical analogue, we consider the oscillator in the spring. The mass of the oscillator is calculated as the weight of the fluid to make oscillations. The oscillator spring constant is calculated using the identity of equations, namely, equation of free small oscillations of the oscillator and equation of free small oscillations of the system under investigation: the fluid in the elastic tank. The identity of equations allows us to draw conclusion about the identity of the natural frequencies for the source mechanical system and the system of a mechanical analogue. Next, we take into consideration the action of the surface tension. We record the Laplace condition for excess pressure because of the forces of surface tension. Then we compile the expression for the generalized force, taking into account the phenomenon of the surface tension. Next, we write the equation of oscillations of a mechanical analogue. The surface tension, due to the introduction of the generalized force in the equation for small oscillations of the mechanical analogue will change the natural frequency of the mechanical analogue. The paper presents the appropriate dependencies. The abovementioned allows us to investigate the stability of small motions of fluid in microgravity or low gravity by studying the stability of small motions of mechanical analogue. The latter is especially important due to the design and development of advanced

  15. Carbon nanotube oscillator surface profiling device and method of use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Adrian [Tampa, FL; Woods, Lilia M [Tampa, FL; Bondarev, Igor V [Fuquay Varina, NC

    2011-11-15

    The proposed device is based on a carbon nanotube oscillator consisting of a finite length outer stationary nanotube and a finite length inner oscillating nanotube. Its main function is to measure changes in the characteristics of the motion of the carbon nanotube oscillating near a sample surface, and profile the roughness of this surface. The device operates in a non-contact mode, thus it can be virtually non-wear and non-fatigued system. It is an alternative to the existing atomic force microscope (AFM) tips used to scan surfaces to determine their roughness.

  16. [Modern methods for studying the surface of titanium implants (literature review)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suba, Csongor; Velich, Norbert; Vörös, János; Turi, Csaba; Szabó, György

    2004-02-01

    Studies of the coatings found on the surface of titanium implants employed in oral surgery are indispensable for understanding the interactions between the organism and the implant. This paper surveys the theory and practical applicability of the methods most frequently applied to study the surface structure and composition of the material. Detailed accounts are given of various structure investigation methods: scanning electron microscopy, stereo scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy and interference microscopy; and of various composition investigation methods: secondary ion mass spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy; and also of the corrosion procedures for the study of electrochemical behaviour.

  17. Response of tropical sea surface temperature, precipitation, and tropical cyclone-related variables to changes in global and local forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel, Kerry; Sobel, Adam

    2013-06-01

    A single-column model is used to estimate the equilibrium response of sea surface temperature (SST), precipitation, and several variables related to tropical cyclone (TC) activity to changes in both local and global forcing. Response to local forcing is estimated using the weak temperature gradient (WTG) approximation. The surface temperature is calculated using a thin slab ocean so as to maintain surface energy balance. Forcing is varied by changing the solar constant, atmospheric CO2 concentration, surface wind speed, and the convergence of upper ocean heat flux. These experiments show that precipitation and variables related to TC activity are not unique functions of SST on time scales long enough for surface energy balance to be maintained. Precipitation varies inversely with SST in experiments in which the surface wind speed is varied. At low wind speed, the WTG experiments reveal a regime of high relative SST and low precipitation, which is maintained by increased transmission of longwave radiation from the surface directly to space through a dry troposphere. In general, TC potential intensity and genesis potential vary much more rapidly with SST in response to varying surface wind speed than in response to other forcings. Local changes in TC potential intensity are highly correlated with local changes in SST, showing that relative SST is a good proxy for potential intensity when forcing is strictly local, but it cannot capture potentially important changes in potential intensity that arise from global-scale changes in forcing.

  18. The Impact of Model and Rainfall Forcing Errors on Characterizing Soil Moisture Uncertainty in Land Surface Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggioni, V.; Anagnostou, E. N.; Reichle, R. H.

    2013-01-01

    The contribution of rainfall forcing errors relative to model (structural and parameter) uncertainty in the prediction of soil moisture is investigated by integrating the NASA Catchment Land Surface Model (CLSM), forced with hydro-meteorological data, in the Oklahoma region. Rainfall-forcing uncertainty is introduced using a stochastic error model that generates ensemble rainfall fields from satellite rainfall products. The ensemble satellite rain fields are propagated through CLSM to produce soil moisture ensembles. Errors in CLSM are modeled with two different approaches: either by perturbing model parameters (representing model parameter uncertainty) or by adding randomly generated noise (representing model structure and parameter uncertainty) to the model prognostic variables. Our findings highlight that the method currently used in the NASA GEOS-5 Land Data Assimilation System to perturb CLSM variables poorly describes the uncertainty in the predicted soil moisture, even when combined with rainfall model perturbations. On the other hand, by adding model parameter perturbations to rainfall forcing perturbations, a better characterization of uncertainty in soil moisture simulations is observed. Specifically, an analysis of the rank histograms shows that the most consistent ensemble of soil moisture is obtained by combining rainfall and model parameter perturbations. When rainfall forcing and model prognostic perturbations are added, the rank histogram shows a U-shape at the domain average scale, which corresponds to a lack of variability in the forecast ensemble. The more accurate estimation of the soil moisture prediction uncertainty obtained by combining rainfall and parameter perturbations is encouraging for the application of this approach in ensemble data assimilation systems.

  19. Effect of airway surface liquid on the forces on the pharyngeal wall: Experimental fluid-structure interaction study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirnar, Jernej; Širok, Brane; Bombač, Andrej

    2017-10-03

    Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) is a breathing disorder with a multifactorial etiology. The respiratory epithelium is lined with a thin layer of airway surface liquid preventing interactions between the airflow and epithelium. The effect of the liquid lining in OSAS pathogenesis remains poorly understood despite clinical research. Previous studies have shown that the physical properties of the airway surface liquid or altered stimulation of the airway mechanoreceptors could alleviate or intensify OSAS; however, these studies do not provide a clear physical interpretation. To study the forces transmitted from the airflow to the liquid-lined compliant wall and to discuss the effects of the airway surface liquid properties on the stimulation of the mechanoreceptors, a novel and simplified experimental system mimicking the upper airway fundamental characteristics (i.e., liquid-lined compliant wall and complex unsteady airflow features) was constructed. The fluctuating force on the compliant wall was reduced through a damping mechanism when the liquid film thickness and/or the viscosity were increased. Conversely, the liquid film damping was reduced when the surface tension decreased. Based on the experimental data, empirical correlations were developed to predict the damping potential of the liquid film. In the future, this will enable us to extend the existing computational fluid-structure interaction simulations of airflow in the human upper airway by incorporating the airway surface liquid effect without adopting two-phase flow interface tracking methods. Furthermore, the experimental system developed in this study could be used to investigate the fundamental principles of the complex once/twice-coupled physical phenomena. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A force field for tricalcium aluminate to characterize surface properties, initial hydration, and organically modified interfaces in atomic resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ratan K; Fernández-Carrasco, Lucia; Flatt, Robert J; Heinz, Hendrik

    2014-07-21

    Tricalcium aluminate (C3A) is a major phase of Portland cement clinker and some dental root filling cements. An accurate all-atom force field is introduced to examine structural, surface, and hydration properties as well as organic interfaces to overcome challenges using current laboratory instrumentation. Molecular dynamics simulation demonstrates excellent agreement of computed structural, thermal, mechanical, and surface properties with available experimental data. The parameters are integrated into multiple potential energy expressions, including the PCFF, CVFF, CHARMM, AMBER, OPLS, and INTERFACE force fields. This choice enables the simulation of a wide range of inorganic-organic interfaces at the 1 to 100 nm scale at a million times lower computational cost than DFT methods. Molecular models of dry and partially hydrated surfaces are introduced to examine cleavage, agglomeration, and the role of adsorbed organic molecules. Cleavage of crystalline tricalcium aluminate requires approximately 1300 mJ m(-2) and superficial hydration introduces an amorphous calcium hydroxide surface layer that reduces the agglomeration energy from approximately 850 mJ m(-2) to 500 mJ m(-2), as well as to lower values upon surface displacement. The adsorption of several alcohols and amines was examined to understand their role as grinding aids and as hydration modifiers in cement. The molecules mitigate local electric fields through complexation of calcium ions, hydrogen bonds, and introduction of hydrophobicity upon binding. Molecularly thin layers of about 0.5 nm thickness reduce agglomeration energies to between 100 and 30 mJ m(-2). Molecule-specific trends were found to be similar for tricalcium aluminate and tricalcium silicate. The models allow quantitative predictions and are a starting point to provide fundamental understanding of the role of C3A and organic additives in cement. Extensions to impure phases and advanced hydration stages are feasible.

  1. Analyze the Air Force Methods for Facility Sustainment and Restoration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cole, Ronald

    2003-01-01

    ...) and try to capitalize on industry standard practices to improve the AF methods. Industry has conducted extensive research devoted to the development of predictive models to estimate facility maintenance or sustainment requirements...

  2. Epitaxial growth of pentacene on alkali halide surfaces studied by Kelvin probe force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Julia L; Milde, Peter; León, Carmen Pérez; Kundrat, Matthew D; Eng, Lukas M; Jacob, Christoph R; Hoffmann-Vogel, Regina

    2014-04-22

    In the field of molecular electronics, thin films of molecules adsorbed on insulating surfaces are used as the functional building blocks of electronic devices. Control of the structural and electronic properties of the thin films is required for reliably operating devices. Here, noncontact atomic force and Kelvin probe force microscopies have been used to investigate the growth and electrostatic landscape of pentacene on KBr(001) and KCl(001) surfaces. We have found that, together with molecular islands of upright standing pentacene, a new phase of tilted molecules appears near step edges on KBr. Local contact potential differences (LCPD) have been studied with both Kelvin experiments and density functional theory calculations. Our images reveal that differently oriented molecules display different LCPD and that their value is independent of the number of molecular layers. These results point to the formation of an interface dipole, which may be explained by a partial charge transfer from the pentacene to the surface. Moreover, the monitoring of the evolution of the pentacene islands shows that they are strongly affected by dewetting: Multilayers build up at the expense of monolayers, and in the Kelvin images, previously unknown line defects appear, which reveal the epitaxial growth of pentacene crystals.

  3. The influence of tool path strategies on cutting force and surface texture during ball end milling of low curvature convex surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shajari, Shaghayegh; Sadeghi, Mohammad Hossein; Hassanpour, Hamed

    2014-01-01

    Advancement in machining technology of curved surfaces for various engineering applications is increasing. Various methodologies and computer tools have been developed by the manufacturers to improve efficiency of freeform surface machining. Selection of the right sets of cutter path strategies and appropriate cutting conditions is extremely important in ensuring high productivity rate, meeting the better quality level, and lower cutting forces. In this paper, cutting force as a new decision criterion for the best selection of tool paths on convex surfaces is presented. Therefore, this work aims at studying and analyzing different finishing strategies to assess their influence on surface texture, cutting forces, and machining time. Design and analysis of experiments are performed by means of Taguchi technique and analysis of variance. In addition, the significant parameters affecting the cutting force in each strategy are introduced. Machining strategies employed include raster, 3D-offset, radial, and spiral. The cutting parameters were feed rate, cutting speed, and step over. The experiments were carried out on low curvature convex surfaces of stainless steel 1.4903. The conclusion is that radial strategy provokes the best surface texture and the lowest cutting forces and spiral strategy signifies the worst surface texture and the highest cutting forces.

  4. Nanoscale fabrication and characterization of chemically modified silicon surfaces using conductive atomic force microscopy in liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinser, Christopher Reagan

    This dissertation examines the modification and characterization of hydrogen-terminated silicon surfaces in organic liquids. Conductive atomic force microscope (cAFM) lithography is used to fabricate structures with sub-100 nm line width on H:Si(111) in n-alkanes, 1-alkenes, and 1-alkanes. Nanopatterning is accomplished by applying a positive (n-alkanes and 1-alkenes) or a negative (1-alkanes) voltage pulse to the silicon substrate with the cAFM tip connected to ground. The chemical and kinetic behavior of the patterned features is characterized using AFM, lateral force microscopy, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (TOF SIMS), and chemical etching. Features patterned in hexadecane, 1-octadecene, and undecylenic acid methyl ester exhibited chemical and kinetic behavior consistent with AFM field induced oxidation. The oxide features are formed due to capillary condensation of a water meniscus at the AFM tip-sample junction. A space-charge limited growth model is proposed to explain the observed growth kinetics. Surface modifications produced in the presence of neat 1-dodecyne and 1-octadecyne exhibited a reduced lateral force compared to the background H:Si(111) substrate and were resistant to a hydrofluoric acid etch, characteristics which indicate that the patterned features are not due to field induced oxidation and which are consistent with the presence of the methyl-terminated 1-alkyne bound directly to the silicon surface through silicon-carbon bonds. In addition to the cAFM patterned surfaces, full monolayers of undecylenic acid methyl ester (SAM-1) and undec-10-enoic acid 2-bromoethyl ester (SAM-2) were grown on H:Si(111) substrates using ultraviolet light. The structure and chemistry of the monolayers were characterized using AFM, TOF SIMS, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray reflectivity (XRR), X-ray standing waves (XSW), and X-ray fluorescence (XRF). These combined analyses provide evidence that SAM-1 and SAM-2 form dense monolayers

  5. Surface topography characterization using an atomic force microscope mounted on a coordinate measuring machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Hansen, H.N; Kofod, N

    1999-01-01

    The paper describes the construction, testing and use of an integrated system for topographic characterization of fine surfaces on parts having relatively big dimensions. An atomic force microscope (AFM) was mounted on a manual three-coordinate measuring machine (CMM) achieving free positioning...... of the AFM probe in space. This means that the limited measuring range of the AFM (40 mu m x 40 mu m x 2.7 um) can be extended by positioning the AFM probe using the movements of the CMM axes (400 mm x 100 mm x 75 mm). Evaluation of the background noise by determining the Sa value of an optical fiat gave...

  6. Fabrication of oriented crystals as force measurement tips via focused ion beam and microlithography methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Zhigang [School of Science, North University of China, Shanxi 030051 China; Chun, Jaehun [Physical and Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, WA USA; Chatterjee, Sayandev [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, WA USA; Li, Dongsheng [Physical and Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, WA USA

    2017-11-09

    Detailed knowledge of the forces between nanocrystals is very crucial for understanding many generic (e.g., random aggregation/assembly and rheology) and specific (e.g., oriented attachment) phenomena at macroscopic length scales, especially considering the additional complexities involved in nanocrystals such as crystal orientation and corresponding orientation-dependent physicochemical properties. Because there are a limited number of methods to directly measure the forces, little is known about the forces that drive the various emergent phenomena. Here we report on two methods of preparing crystals as force measurement tips used in an atomic force microscope (AFM): the focused ion beam method and microlithography method. The desired crystals are fabricated using these two methods and are fixed to the AFM probe using platinum deposition, ultraviolet epoxy, or resin, which allows for the orientation-dependent force measurements. These two methods can be used to attach virtually any solid particles (from the size of a few hundreds of nanometers to millimeters). We demonstrate the force measurements between aqueous media under different conditions such as pH.

  7. Characterization of local hydrophobicity on sapphire (0001) surfaces in aqueous environment by colloidal probe atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wada, Tomoya; Yamazaki, Kenji; Isono, Toshinari; Ogino, Toshio, E-mail: ogino-toshio-rx@ynu.ac.jp

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • Local hydrophobicity of phase-separated sapphire (0001) surfaces was investigated. • These surfaces are featured by coexistence of hydrophilic and hydrophobic domains. • Each domain was characterized by colloidal probe atomic force microscopy in water. • Both domains can be distinguished by adhesive forces of the probe to the surfaces. • Characterization in aqueous environment is important in bio-applications of sapphire. - Abstract: Sapphire (0001) surfaces exhibit a phase-separation into hydrophobic and hydrophilic domains upon high-temperature annealing, which were previously distinguished by the thickness of adsorbed water layers in air using atomic force microscopy (AFM). To characterize their local surface hydrophobicity in aqueous environment, we used AFM equipped with a colloidal probe and measured the local adhesive force between each sapphire domain and a hydrophilic SiO{sub 2} probe surface, or a hydrophobic polystyrene one. Two data acquisition modes for statistical analyses were used: one is force measurements at different positions of the surface and the other repeated measurement at a fixed position. We found that adhesive force measurements using the polystyrene probe allow us to distinctly separate the hydrophilic and hydrophobic domains. The dispersion in the force measurement data at different positions of the surface is larger than that in the repeated measurements at a fixed position. It indicates that the adhesive force measurement is repeatable although their data dispersion for the measurement positions is relatively large. From these results, we can conclude that the hydrophilic and hydrophobic domains on the sapphire (0001) surfaces are distinguished by a difference in their hydration degrees.

  8. Surface field of forces and protein adsorption behavior of poly(hydroxyethylmethacrylate) films deposited from plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morra, M; Cassinelli, C

    1995-01-01

    Polymeric films were deposited from hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA) plasma on non-woven poly(butyleneterephtalate) (PBT) filter materials. To test the effect of deposition conditions on surface properties, film were deposited using a constant monomer flow rate and a discharge power ranging from 40-100 W. Surface composition and surface energetics were evaluated by Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA) and contact angle measurement, respectively. Albumin (Alb) and fibrinogen (Fg) adsorption from single protein solutions to the plasma-coated filters was measured. Results illustrate the marked effects of the deposition condition on the surface composition, the surface field of forces, and the protein adsorption behavior. The latter is modeled by the application of the Good-van Oss-Chaudhury theory of Lewis acid-base contribution to interfacial energetics. Materials endowed with widely different properties are obtained from the same monomer and different deposition conditions, a result that must be taken into account both in the production step, to assure constant quality, and in the development of specifically tailored materials.

  9. A hybrid static optimisation method to estimate muscle forces during muscle co-activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Jongsang; Hwang, Sungjae; Kim, Youngho

    2012-01-01

    The general static optimisation (GSO) process is one of various muscle force estimation methods due to its low computational requirements. However, it can show biased muscle force estimation under muscle co-contraction. In the present study, we introduced a novel hybrid static optimisation (HSO) method to estimate reasonable muscle forces during muscle co-activation movements using more specific equality constraints, i.e. agonist and antagonist muscle moments predicted from a new correlation coefficient approach. The new method was evaluated for heel-rise movements. We found that the proposed method improved the potential of antagonist muscle force estimation in comparison to the GSO solutions. The proposed HSO method could be applied in biomechanics and rehabilitation, for example.

  10. Application of Taguchi method for cutting force optimization in rock ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    As a result of this increase, there has been recently more attention for sustainability during their productions .... tical measure of performance in Taguchi method was subsequently used to analyse the results. Table 3. .... The performance of circular diamond sawblades was evaluated for Fc with respect to the Eq. (14) and the ...

  11. Surface renewal method for estimating sensible heat flux | Mengistu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For short canopies, latent energy flux may be estimated using a shortened surface energy balance from measurements of sensible and soil heat flux and the net irradiance at the surface. The surface renewal (SR) method for estimating sensible heat, latent energy, and other scalar fluxes has the advantage over other ...

  12. Method for treatment of a surface area of steel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhowmik, S.; Aaldert, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    The invention relates to a method for treatment of a surface area of steel by polishing said surface area and performing a plasma treatment of said surface area wherein the plasma treatment is performed at at least atmospheric conditions and wherein the plasma treatment is carried out at a power of

  13. Force level of small diameter nickel-titanium orthodontic wires ligated with different methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Hitoshi Higa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to compare the deflection force in conventional and thermally activated nickel-titanium (NiTi wires in passive (Damon Q and active (Bioquick self-ligating brackets (SLB and in conventional brackets (CB tied by two different methods: elastomeric ligature (EL and metal ligature (ML. Methods Two wire diameters (0.014 and 0.016 in. and 10 specimens per group were used. The specimens were assembled in a clinical simulation device and tested in an Instron Universal Testing Machine, with a load cell of 10 N. For the testing procedures, the acrylic block representative of the right maxillary central incisor was palatally moved, with readings of the force at 0.5, 1, 2, and 3 mm, at a constant speed of 2 mm/min and temperature of 36.5 °C. Results The conventional NiTi released higher forces than the thermally activated NiTi archwires in large deflections. In general, the SLB showed lower forces, while the ML had higher forces, with both showing a similar force release behavior, constantly decreasing as the deflection decreased. The EL showed an irregular behavior. The active SLB showed smaller forces than passive, in large deflections. Conclusions The SLB and the ML exhibit standard force patterns during unloading, while the elastomeric ligatures exhibit a randomly distributed force release behavior.

  14. Classifying Force Spectroscopy of DNA Pulling Measurements Using Supervised and Unsupervised Machine Learning Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatay, Durmus U; Zhang, Jie; Harrison, Jeffrey S; Ginger, David S

    2016-04-25

    Dynamic force spectroscopy (DFS) measurements on biomolecules typically require classifying thousands of repeated force spectra prior to data analysis. Here, we study classification of atomic force microscope-based DFS measurements using machine-learning algorithms in order to automate selection of successful force curves. Notably, we collect a data set that has a testable positive signal using photoswitch-modified DNA before and after illumination with UV (365 nm) light. We generate a feature set consisting of six properties of force-distance curves to train supervised models and use principal component analysis (PCA) for an unsupervised model. For supervised classification, we train random forest models for binary and multiclass classification of force-distance curves. Random forest models predict successful pulls with an accuracy of 94% and classify them into five classes with an accuracy of 90%. The unsupervised method using Gaussian mixture models (GMM) reaches an accuracy of approximately 80% for binary classification.

  15. Investigation of Tension Forces in A Stay Cable System of A Road Bridge Using Vibration Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawryszków Paweł

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article author presents method of investigation of tension forces in stay cable systems using dynamical methods. Research was carried out during stay cable system installation on WN-24 viaduct near Poznań, that is way it was possible to compare tension forces indicated directly by devices using for tensioning of cable-stayed bridges with results achieved indirectly by means of dynamical methods. Discussion of results was presented. Advantages of dynamical methods and possible fields of application was described. This method, which has been rarely used before, may occur interesting alternative in diagnostics of bridges in comparison to traditional methods.

  16. Acid-base properties and the chemical imaging of surface-bound functional groups studied with scanning force microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vegte, E.W.; Hadziioannou, G

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we present a scanning force microscopy (SFM) study on electrostatic and hydrogen-bonding interactions between chemically modified SFM probes and surface functional groups. pH-dependent adhesion force measurements in aqueous media between various ionizable functional groups showed a

  17. The mass-damped Riemann problem and the aerodynamic surface force calculation for an accelerating body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Zhiqiang; Wilson, D.; Varghese, P.L.

    1997-01-01

    We consider an extension of the ordinary Riemann problem and present an efficient approximate solution that can be used to improve the calculations of aerodynamic forces on an accelerating body. The method is demonstrated with one-dimensional examples where the Euler equations and the body motion are solved in the non-inertial co-ordinate frame fixed to the accelerating body. 8 refs., 6 figs

  18. Micro and nanostructural characterization of surfaces and interfaces of Portland cement mortars using atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreto, M.F.O.; Brandao, P.R.G.

    2014-01-01

    The characterization of Portland cement mortars is very important in the study the interfaces and surfaces that make up the system grout/ceramic block. In this sense, scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive (X-ray) spectrometer are important tools in investigating the morphology and chemical aspects. However, more detailed topographic information can be necessary in the characterization process. In this work, the aim was to characterize topographically surfaces and interfaces of mortars applied onto ceramic blocks. This has been accomplished by using the atomic force microscope (AFM) - MFP-3D-SA Asylum Research. To date, the results obtained from this research show that the characterization of cementitious materials with the help of AFM has an important contribution in the investigation and differentiation of hydrated calcium silicates (CSH), calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2, ettringite and calcium carbonate by providing morphological and micro topographical data, which are extremely important and reliable for the understanding of cementitious materials. (author)

  19. Surface morphology study on CdZnTe crystals by atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azoulay, M.; George, M.A.; Burger, A.; Collins, W.E.; Silberman, E. [Fisk Univ., Nashville, TN (United States)

    1993-03-01

    The study of the crystal surface morphology of CdZnTe is important for the understanding of the fundamentals of crystal growth in order to improve the crystal quality which is essential in applications such as substrates for epitaxy or performance of devices, i.e., room temperature nuclear spectrometers. We present a first atomic force microscopy study on CdZnTe. Cleaved (110) surfaces were imaged in the ambient and an atomic layer step structure was revealed. The effects of thermal annealing on the atomic steps together with Te precipitation along these steps are discussed in terms of deformation due to stress relief and the diffusion of tellurium precipitates. 12 refs., 3 figs.

  20. Fire-induced albedo change and surface radiative forcing in sub-Saharan Africa savanna ecosystems: Implications for the energy balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dintwe, Kebonye; Okin, Gregory S.; Xue, Yongkang

    2017-06-01

    Surface albedo is a critical parameter that controls surface energy balance. In dryland ecosystems, fires play a significant role in decreasing surface albedo, resulting in positive radiative forcing. Here we investigate the long-term effect of fire on surface albedo. We devised a method to calculate short-, medium-, and long-term effect of fire-induced radiative forcing and their relative effects on energy balance. We used Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data in our analysis, covering different vegetation classes in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Our analysis indicated that mean short-term fire-induced albedo change in SSA was -0.022, -0.035, and -0.041 for savannas, shrubland, and grasslands, respectively. At regional scale, mean fire-induced albedo change in savannas was -0.018 and -0.024 for northern sub-Saharan of Africa and the southern hemisphere Africa, respectively. The short-term mean fire-induced radiative forcing in burned areas in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) was 5.41 W m-2, which contributed continental and global radiative forcings of 0.25 and 0.058 W m-2, respectively. The impact of fire in surface albedo has long-lasting effects that varies with vegetation type. The long-term energetic effects of fire-induced albedo change and associated radiative forcing were, on average, more than 19 times greater across SSA than the short-term effects, suggesting that fires exerted far more radiative forcing than previously thought. Taking into account the actual duration of fire's effect on surface albedo, we conclude that the contribution of SSA fires, globally and throughout the year, is 0.12 W m-2. These findings provide crucial information on possible impact of fire on regional climate variability.

  1. Applying isotope methods in flowing surface waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mook, W.G.

    1976-01-01

    The most frequent application of natural or environmental isotopes to investigate surface water is as tracer. Especially the natural variations in the 18 O/ 16 O ratio in rainfall are traced in streams and rivers. The isotopes deuterium, 13 C and 14 C enable refined applications such as the investigation of geochemical processes in waters. 18 O analyses are fairly fast (20 samples per day can be carried out) and require little water (1 to 10 ml). Therefore, the natural variations in the 18 O/ 16 O ratio of water are treated. There is a certain connection between the 18 O/ 16 O and D/H ratios in rainfall waters. 18 O analyses are somewhat easier to perform so that this technique is generally preferred. Additional D analyses are of great use in detecting geochemical processes, e.g. evaporation. Although tritium is still an important agent in hydrological studies, the concentration variations in nature are now lower than for 18 O compared to the usual experimental error. Furthermore, they are not so important geochemically. Accurate tritium measurements require relatively much time (1 or 2 analyses per day), are expensive (50 DM to 150 DM) and require more material (10 to 500 ml water), depending on the desired accuracy. The stable and radioactive carbon isotopes are mainly used in special cases to study certain geochemical processes. (orig./HK) [de

  2. Black carbon aerosols over the Himalayas: direct and surface albedo forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayakumar S. Nair

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Absorbing aerosols such as black carbon (BC or dust over high-altitude Himalayan regions have potential implications on the regional climate and hydrological cycle over South Asia. Making use of extensive measurements of atmospheric BC from several Himalayan stations, an assessment of radiative forcing due to direct and snow-albedo darkening is examined. Generally, BC concentration in the atmosphere peaks during pre-monsoon season over the Himalayas and the climatological mean of atmospheric BC over Hanle (western Himalayas, 4.5 km msl and Nepal Climate Observatory-Pyramid (central Himalayas, 5 km msl are 106±27 ng m−3 and 190±95 ng m−3, respectively. Based on the optical and physical properties of composite aerosols measured at Hanle, clear sky direct radiative forcing (DRF at the top of the atmosphere is estimated as 1.69 W m−2 over snow surface and −1.54 W m−2 over sandy surface during pre-monsoon season. The estimated amount of BC in the snow varied from 117 to 1.7 µg kg−1 for wide range of dry deposition velocities (0.01–0.054 cm s−1 of BC, snow depth (2–10 cm and snow densities (195–512 kg m−3. Using a size-resolved wet scavenging parametrisation, the amount of BC on snow due to wet scavenging is estimated as 29 µg kg−1 for an accumulated snow depth of 27 cm. For the range of 10–200 µg kg−1 of BC in snow, the diurnally averaged forcing due to snow darkening has been found to vary from 0.87 to 10.2 W m−2 for fresh snow and from 2.6 to 28.1 W m−2 for the aged snow, which is significantly higher than the DRF. The direct and surface albedo radiative forcing could lead to significant warming over the Himalayas during pre-monsoon.

  3. An efficient implicit direct forcing immersed boundary method for incompressible flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, S-G; Ouahsine, A; Smaoui, H; Favier, J; Hoarau, Y

    2015-01-01

    A novel efficient implicit direct forcing immersed boundary method for incompressible flows with complex boundaries is presented. In the previous work [1], the calculation is performed on the Cartesian grid regardless of the immersed object, with a fictitious force evaluated on the Lagrangian points to mimic the presence of the physical boundaries. However the explicit direct forcing method [1] fails to accurately impose the non-slip boundary condition on the immersed interface. In the present work, the calculation is based on the implicit treatment of the artificial force while in an effective way of system iteration. The accuracy is also improved by solving the Navier-Stokes equation with the rotational incremental pressure- correction projection method of Guermond and Shen [2]. Numerical simulations performed with the proposed method are in good agreement with those in the literature

  4. Nonsmooth Newton method for Fischer function reformulation of contact force problems for interactive rigid body simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silcowitz, Morten; Niebe, Sarah Maria; Erleben, Kenny

    2009-01-01

    contact response. In this paper, we present a new approach to contact force determination. We reformulate the contact force problem as a nonlinear root search problem, using a Fischer function. We solve this problem using a generalized Newton method. Our new Fischer - Newton method shows improved......n interactive physical simulation, contact forces are applied to prevent rigid bodies from penetrating each other. Accurate contact force determination is a computationally hard problem. Thus, in practice one trades accuracy for performance. The result is visual artifacts such as viscous or damped...... qualities for specific configurations where the most widespread alternative, the Projected Gauss-Seidel method, fails. Experiments show superior convergence properties of the exact Fischer - Newton method....

  5. Superhydrophobic stability of nanotube array surfaces under impact and static forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lin; Shi, Pan; Xue, Jian; Wang, Yuanyi; Chen, Qingmin; Ding, Jianfu; Wang, Qingjun

    2014-06-11

    The surfaces of nanotube arrays were coated with poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) using an imprinting method with an anodized alumina membrane as the template. The prepared nanotube array surfaces then either remained untreated or were coated with NH2(CH2)3Si(OCH3)3(PDNS) or CF3(CF2)7CH2CH2Si(OC2H5)3 (PFO). Thus, nanotube arrays with three different surfaces, PDNS, PMMA (without coating), and PFO, were obtained. All three surfaces (PDNS, PMMA, and PFO) exhibited superhydrophobic properties with contact angles (CA) of 155, 166, and 168°, respectively, and their intrinsic water contact angles were 30, 79, and 118°, respectively. The superhydrophobic stabilities of these three surfaces were examined under dynamic impact and static pressures in terms of the transition from the Cassie-Baxter mode to the Wenzel mode. This transition was determined by the maximum pressure (p(max)), which is dependent on the intrinsic contact angle and the nanotube density of the surface. A p(max) greater than 10 kPa, which is sufficiently large to maintain stable superhydrophobicity under extreme weather conditions, such as in heavy rain, was expected from the PFO surface. Interestingly, the PDNS surface, with an intrinsic CA of only 30°, also displayed superhydrophobicity, with a CA of 155°. This property was partially maintained under the dynamic impact and static pressure tests. However, under an extremely high pressure (0.5 MPa), all three surfaces transitioned from the Cassie-Baxter mode to the Wenzel mode. Furthermore, the lost superhydrophobicity could not be recovered by simply relieving the pressure. This result indicates that the best way to maintain superhydrophobicity is to increase the p(max) of the surface to a value higher than the applied external pressure by using low surface energy materials and having high-density binary nano-/microstructures on the surface.

  6. Analysis of surface roughness and cutting force during turning of Ti6Al4V ELI in dry environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Sargade

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of cutting parameters on the surface roughness and cutting force of titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V ELI when turning using PVD TiAlN coated tool in dry environment. Taguchi L9 orthogonal array design of experiment was used for the turning experiment 2 factors and 3 levels. Turning parameters studied were cutting speed (50, 65, 80 m/min, feed rate (0.08, 0.15, 0.2 mm/rev and depth of cut 0.5 mm constant. Linear and second order model of the surface roughness and cutting force has been developed in terms of cutting speed and feed. The results show that the feed rate was the most impact factor controlling the cutting force and surface roughness produced. MINITAB 17software was used to develop a linear and second order model of surface roughness and cutting force. Optimum condition was at 66.97 m/min of cutting speed, 0.08 mm/rev of feed rate. Surface roughness 0.57μm and cutting force 54.02 N were obtained at the optimum condition. A good agreement between the experimental and predicted surface roughness and cutting force were observed.

  7. Coevolution of bed surface patchiness and channel morphology: 1. Mechanisms of forced patch formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Peter A.; McDonald, Richard R.; Nelson, Jonathan M.; Dietrich, William E.

    2015-01-01

    Riverbeds frequently display a spatial structure where the sediment mixture composing the channel bed has been sorted into discrete patches of similar grain size. Even though patches are a fundamental feature in gravel bed rivers, we have little understanding of how patches form, evolve, and interact. Here we present a two-dimensional morphodynamic model that is used to examine in greater detail the mechanisms responsible for the development of forced bed surface patches and the coevolution of bed morphology and bed surface patchiness. The model computes the depth-averaged channel hydrodynamics, mixed-grain-size sediment transport, and bed evolution by coupling the river morphodynamic model Flow and Sediment Transport with Morphological Evolution of Channels (FaSTMECH) with a transport relation for gravel mixtures and the mixed-grain-size Exner equation using the active layer assumption. To test the model, we use it to simulate a flume experiment in which the bed developed a sequence of alternate bars and temporally and spatially persistent forced patches with a general pattern of coarse bar tops and fine pools. Cross-stream sediment flux causes sediment to be exported off of bars and imported into pools at a rate that balances downstream gradients in the streamwise sediment transport rate, allowing quasi-steady bar-pool topography to persist. The relative importance of lateral gravitational forces on the cross-stream component of sediment transport is a primary control on the amplitude of the bars. Because boundary shear stress declines as flow shoals over the bars, the lateral sediment transport is increasingly size selective and leads to the development of coarse bar tops and fine pools.

  8. Topographical characterization of Ar-bombarded Si(1 1 1) surfaces by atomic force microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Niebieskikwiat, D G; Pregliasco, G R; Gayone, J E; Grizzi, O; Sanchez, E A

    2002-01-01

    We used atomic force microscopy to study the topographical changes induced on Si(1 1 1) surfaces by 10-22 keV Ar sup + bombardment. The irradiation was carried on normal to the surface with doses in the 1-60x10 sup 1 sup 6 ions/cm sup 2 range. We observed a first generation of blisters at a critical dose around 3x10 sup 1 sup 6 ions/cm sup 2 , which flakes off at 19x10 sup 1 sup 6 ions/cm sup 2 , and a second generation of smaller blisters between 35 and 45x10 sup 1 sup 6 ions/cm sup 2. Measurements of the mean surface height show that at low irradiation doses the surface inflates because of voids produced by Ar sup + implantation. For doses greater than 20x10 sup 1 sup 6 Ar sup + /cm sup 2 the height decreases linearly because of sputtering, with a slope corresponding to a sputtering yield of 1.4. Finally, we present electron spectra produced during grazing proton bombardment of samples whose topography has been modified by Ar irradiation.

  9. Rubber friction and force transmission during the shearing process of actively-driven vacuum grippers on rough surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kern, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    presented and modeled at length in this work. In addition, the positive locking, which is not considered in rubber friction theories but allows an increase of the transferable shear forces and thus further contributes to the overall friction coefficient, is also examined here. With the help of a test program, all factors relevant to the shearing process of a vacuum gripper on a given surface and their effect on the tribological system will be analyzed in detail. These include essential influencing factors, i.e. operating temperature, shear speed, mixture composition of the elastomer, and the surface roughness. Moreover, the important factor of the structure of the rubber friction pads must also be considered. In this work, the overall friction coefficient model is based on existing rubber friction theories which describe the contributions of hysteresis and adhesive friction, and on a new approach of how positive locking also contributes to the result. Since the model of the overall friction coefficient is a theoretic one and not all required parameters can directly be measured, the friction model is related to the experimental results. Thus, the missing model parameters can be derived. As a result, it is possible to calculate the expected friction coefficient μ for any structure of rubber friction pads in compliance with the method presented in this work. Unlike the generalized friction coefficient μ data provided by the manufacturers, this friction model allows to realistically calculate friction coefficients and therefore to optimize the design of restraint systems for vacuum grippers.

  10. A simple nodal force distribution method in refined finite element meshes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jai Hak; Shin, Kyu In; Lee, Dong Won; Cho, Seungyon

    2017-01-01

    In finite element analyses, mesh refinement is frequently performed to obtain accurate stress or strain values or to accurately define the geometry. After mesh refinement, equivalent nodal forces should be calculated at the nodes in the refined mesh. If field variables and material properties are available at the integration points in each element, then the accurate equivalent nodal forces can be calculated using an adequate numerical integration. However, in certain circumstances, equivalent nodal forces cannot be calculated because field variable data are not available. In this study, a very simple nodal force distribution method was proposed. Nodal forces of the original finite element mesh are distributed to the nodes of refined meshes to satisfy the equilibrium conditions. The effect of element size should also be considered in determining the magnitude of the distributing nodal forces. A program was developed based on the proposed method, and several example problems were solved to verify the accuracy and effectiveness of the proposed method. From the results, accurate stress field can be recognized to be obtained from refined meshes using the proposed nodal force distribution method. In example problems, the difference between the obtained maximum stress and target stress value was less than 6 % in models with 8-node hexahedral elements and less than 1 % in models with 20-node hexahedral elements or 10-node tetrahedral elements.

  11. Effect of energy source, salt concentration and loading force on colloidal interactions between Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans cells and mineral surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Mengxue; Nguyen, Tuan A H; Taran, Elena; Mahler, Stephen M; Nguyen, Anh V

    2015-08-01

    The surface appendages and extracellular polymeric substances of cells play an important role in the bacterial adhesion process. In this work, colloidal forces and nanomechanical properties of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans (A. f) interacted with silicon wafer and pyrite (FeS2) surfaces in solutions of varying salt concentrations were quantitatively examined using the bacterial probe technique with atomic force microscopy. A. f cells were cultured with either ferrous sulfate or elemental sulfur as key energy sources. Our results show that A. f cells grown with ferrous ion and elemental sulfur exhibit distinctive retraction force vs separation distance curves with stair-step and saw tooth shapes, respectively. During the approach of bacterial probes to the substrate surfaces, surface appendages and biopolymers of cells are sequentially compressed. The conformations of surface appendages and biopolymers are significantly influenced by the salt concentrations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Development and validation of a method to directly measure the cable force during the hammer throw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brice, Sara M; Ness, Kevin F; Rosemond, Doug; Lyons, Keith; Davis, Mark

    2008-05-01

    The development of cable force during hammer-throw turns is crucial to the throw distance. In this paper, we present a method that is capable of measuring cable force in real time and, as it does not interfere with technique, it is capable of providing immediate feedback to coaches and athletes during training. A strain gauge was mounted on the wires of three hammers to measure the tension in the wire and an elite male hammer thrower executed three throws with each hammer. The output from the gauges was recorded by a data logger positioned on the lower back of the thrower. The throws were captured by three high-speed video cameras and the three-dimensional position of the hammer's head was determined by digitizing the images manually. The five best throws were analysed. The force acting on the hammer's head was calculated from Newton's second law of motion and this was compared with the force measured via the strain gauge. Qualitatively the time dependence of the two forces was essentially the same, although the measured force showed more detail in the troughs of the force-time curves. Quantitatively the average difference between the measured and calculated forces over the five throws was 76 N, which corresponds to a difference of 3.8% for a cable force of 2000 N.

  13. A Force Sensorless Method for CFRP/Ti Stack Interface Detection during Robotic Orbital Drilling Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Fang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Drilling carbon fiber reinforced plastics and titanium (CFRP/Ti stacks is one of the most important activities in aircraft assembly. It is favorable to use different drilling parameters for each layer due to their dissimilar machining properties. However, large aircraft parts with changing profiles lead to variation of thickness along the profiles, which makes it challenging to adapt the cutting parameters for different materials being drilled. This paper proposes a force sensorless method based on cutting force observer for monitoring the thrust force and identifying the drilling material during the drilling process. The cutting force observer, which is the combination of an adaptive disturbance observer and friction force model, is used to estimate the thrust force. An in-process algorithm is developed to monitor the variation of the thrust force for detecting the stack interface between the CFRP and titanium materials. Robotic orbital drilling experiments have been conducted on CFRP/Ti stacks. The estimate error of the cutting force observer was less than 13%, and the stack interface was detected in 0.25 s (or 0.05 mm before or after the tool transited it. The results show that the proposed method can successfully detect the CFRP/Ti stack interface for the cutting parameters adaptation.

  14. Chemical method for producing smooth surfaces on silicon wafers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Conrad

    2003-01-01

    An improved method for producing optically smooth surfaces in silicon wafers during wet chemical etching involves a pre-treatment rinse of the wafers before etching and a post-etching rinse. The pre-treatment with an organic solvent provides a well-wetted surface that ensures uniform mass transfer during etching, which results in optically smooth surfaces. The post-etching treatment with an acetic acid solution stops the etching instantly, preventing any uneven etching that leads to surface roughness. This method can be used to etch silicon surfaces to a depth of 200 .mu.m or more, while the finished surfaces have a surface roughness of only 15-50 .ANG. (RMS).

  15. Analytical Model of the Nonlinear Dynamics of Cantilever Tip-Sample Surface Interactions for Various Acoustic-Atomic Force Microscopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, John H., Jr.; Cantrell, Sean A.

    2008-01-01

    A comprehensive analytical model of the interaction of the cantilever tip of the atomic force microscope (AFM) with the sample surface is developed that accounts for the nonlinearity of the tip-surface interaction force. The interaction is modeled as a nonlinear spring coupled at opposite ends to linear springs representing cantilever and sample surface oscillators. The model leads to a pair of coupled nonlinear differential equations that are solved analytically using a standard iteration procedure. Solutions are obtained for the phase and amplitude signals generated by various acoustic-atomic force microscope (A-AFM) techniques including force modulation microscopy, atomic force acoustic microscopy, ultrasonic force microscopy, heterodyne force microscopy, resonant difference-frequency atomic force ultrasonic microscopy (RDF-AFUM), and the commonly used intermittent contact mode (TappingMode) generally available on AFMs. The solutions are used to obtain a quantitative measure of image contrast resulting from variations in the Young modulus of the sample for the amplitude and phase images generated by the A-AFM techniques. Application of the model to RDF-AFUM and intermittent soft contact phase images of LaRC-cp2 polyimide polymer is discussed. The model predicts variations in the Young modulus of the material of 24 percent from the RDF-AFUM image and 18 percent from the intermittent soft contact image. Both predictions are in good agreement with the literature value of 21 percent obtained from independent, macroscopic measurements of sheet polymer material.

  16. Universal phase and force diagrams for a microbubble or pendant drop in static fluid on a surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, P. S.; Hsiao, C. C.; Chen, K. Y.

    2008-01-01

    Dimensionless three-dimensional universal phase and lift force diagrams of a microbubble (or pendant drop) in static liquid on a solid surface (or orifice) are presented in this work. Microbubble dynamics has been found to play a vital role in mass, momentum, energy, and concentration transfer rates in contemporary micro- and nanosciences and technologies. In this study, dimensionless phase and force diagrams are introduced by utilizing the analytical solutions of the microbubble shape reported in the literature. It shows that phase and force diagrams can be universally specified by two dimensionless independent parameters, Bond number, and contact angle (or base radius). Based on the presence of an inflection point or neck on the microbubble surface, each diagram exhibits three regions. Growth, detachment, and entrapment of a microbubble can be described by path lines in three regions. The corresponding universal total lift forces include hydrostatic buoyancy, difference in gas, and hydrostatic pressures at the base, capillary pressure, as well as surface tension induced by the variation of circumference, which has not been treated in the literature so far. In the absence of viscous stress and Marangoni force, the total lift force equals surface tension induced by the variation of circumference. The latter can be an attaching or lifting force, depending on whether the state in the distinct regions and contact angle is less than or greater than a critical angle. The critical angle, which is slightly less than the inclination angle at the inflection point, is decreased with increasing Bond number.

  17. Topology design of rigid string mechanism using constraint force design method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heo, Jae Chung; Yoon, Gil Ho

    2012-01-01

    This study extends the constraint force design method allowing topology optimization for planar rigid link and string mechanisms. To our best knowledge, by applying conventional machine and mechanism design theories, it is likely that it is possible to find out optimal locations of joints and lengths of rigid links but somewhat difficult to find out optimal topology of rigid links. To achieve optimal topology of rigid links, there is our previous contribution so called the new constraint force design method with the binary design variables determining the existence of the auxiliary forces imposing apparent lengths among unit masses. By adding new binary design variables, this research extends the constraint force design method to find out optimal mechanism consisting of stringy links as well as rigid links that seems impossible in the conventional machine and mechanism design theories

  18. An Energy Conservative Ray-Tracing Method With a Time Interpolation of the Force Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Jin [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-02-10

    A new algorithm that constructs a continuous force field interpolated in time is proposed for resolving existing difficulties in numerical methods for ray-tracing. This new method has improved accuracy, but with the same degree of algebraic complexity compared to Kaisers method.

  19. ROUGHNESS ON WOOD SURFACES AND ROUGHNESS MEASUREMENT METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Aydın

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Some visual characteristics of wood such as color, pattern and texture determine the quality of manufactured products. Surface properties of wood material are important both in production and marketing after production. Initial studies related to the roughness of wood surface were begun in early 1950’s. However, no general agreed standardization can not have been developed for wood surfaces. Surface roughness of wood is function of the production process, product type and the natural anatomical properties of wood. Contact and non-contact tracing methods are used to measure of wood surface roughness. Surface roughness also affects the gluability and wettability of wood surfaces. The success in finishing also depends on the surface roughness of wood.

  20. Formation of Reflecting Surfaces Based on Spline Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamyatin, A. V.; Zamyatina, E. A.

    2017-11-01

    The article deals with problem of reflecting barriers surfaces generation by spline methods. The cases of reflection when a geometric model is applied are considered. The surfaces of reflecting barriers are formed in such a way that they contain given points and the rays reflected at these points and hit at the defined points of specified surface. The reflecting barrier surface is formed by cubic splines. It enables a comparatively simple implementation of proposed algorithms in the form of software applications. The algorithms developed in the article can be applied in architecture and construction design for reflecting surface generation in optics and acoustics providing the geometrical model of reflex processes is used correctly.

  1. System and method for extracting a sample from a surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Berkel, Gary; Covey, Thomas

    2015-06-23

    A system and method is disclosed for extracting a sample from a sample surface. A sample is provided and a sample surface receives the sample which is deposited on the sample surface. A hydrophobic material is applied to the sample surface, and one or more devices are configured to dispense a liquid on the sample, the liquid dissolving the sample to form a dissolved sample material, and the one or more devices are configured to extract the dissolved sample material from the sample surface.

  2. Control of fingertip forces in young and older adults pressing against fixed low- and high-friction surfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin G Keenan

    Full Text Available Mobile computing devices (e.g., smartphones and tablets that have low-friction surfaces require well-directed fingertip forces of sufficient and precise magnitudes for proper use. Although general impairments in manual dexterity are well-documented in older adults, it is unclear how these sensorimotor impairments influence the ability of older adults to dexterously manipulate fixed, low-friction surfaces in particular. 21 young and 18 older (65+ yrs adults produced maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs and steady submaximal forces (2.5 and 10% MVC with the fingertip of the index finger. A Teflon covered custom-molded splint was placed on the fingertip. A three-axis force sensor was covered with either Teflon or sandpaper to create low- and high-friction surfaces, respectively. Maximal downward forces (F(z were similar (p = .135 for young and older adults, and decreased by 15% (p<.001 while pressing on Teflon compared to sandpaper. Fluctuations in F(z during the submaximal force-matching tasks were 2.45× greater (p<.001 for older adults than in young adults, and reached a maximum when older adults pressed against the Teflon surface while receiving visual feedback. These age-associated changes in motor performance are explained, in part, by altered muscle activity from three hand muscles and out-of-plane forces. Quantifying the ability to produce steady fingertip forces against low-friction surfaces may be a better indicator of impairment and disability than the current practice of evaluating maximal forces with pinch meters. These age-associated impairments in dexterity while interacting with low-friction surfaces may limit the use of the current generation of computing interfaces by older adults.

  3. The Distributed Diagonal Force Decomposition Method for Parallelizing Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boršnik, Urban; Miller, Benjamin T.; Brooks, Bernard R.; Janežič, Dušanka

    2011-01-01

    Parallelization is an effective way to reduce the computational time needed for molecular dynamics simulations. We describe a new parallelization method, the distributed-diagonal force decomposition method, with which we extend and improve the existing force decomposition methods. Our new method requires less data communication during molecular dynamics simulations than replicated data and current force decomposition methods, increasing the parallel efficiency. It also dynamically load-balances the processors' computational load throughout the simulation. The method is readily implemented in existing molecular dynamics codes and it has been incorporated into the CHARMM program, allowing its immediate use in conjunction with the many molecular dynamics simulation techniques that are already present in the program. We also present the design of the Force Decomposition Machine, a cluster of personal computers and networks that is tailored to running molecular dynamics simulations using the distributed diagonal force decomposition method. The design is expandable and provides various degrees of fault resilience. This approach is easily adaptable to computers with Graphics Processing Units because it is independent of the processor type being used. PMID:21793007

  4. Defects in oxide surfaces studied by atomic force and scanning tunneling microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas König

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Surfaces of thin oxide films were investigated by means of a dual mode NC-AFM/STM. Apart from imaging the surface termination by NC-AFM with atomic resolution, point defects in magnesium oxide on Ag(001 and line defects in aluminum oxide on NiAl(110, respectively, were thoroughly studied. The contact potential was determined by Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM and the electronic structure by scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS. On magnesium oxide, different color centers, i.e., F0, F+, F2+ and divacancies, have different effects on the contact potential. These differences enabled classification and unambiguous differentiation by KPFM. True atomic resolution shows the topography at line defects in aluminum oxide. At these domain boundaries, STS and KPFM verify F2+-like centers, which have been predicted by density functional theory calculations. Thus, by determining the contact potential and the electronic structure with a spatial resolution in the nanometer range, NC-AFM and STM can be successfully applied on thin oxide films beyond imaging the topography of the surface atoms.

  5. Surface mediated cooperative interactions of drugs enhance mechanical forces for antibiotic action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndieyira, Joseph W.; Bailey, Joe; Patil, Samadhan B.; Vögtli, Manuel; Cooper, Matthew A.; Abell, Chris; McKendry, Rachel A.; Aeppli, Gabriel

    2017-02-01

    The alarming increase of pathogenic bacteria that are resistant to multiple antibiotics is now recognized as a major health issue fuelling demand for new drugs. Bacterial resistance is often caused by molecular changes at the bacterial surface, which alter the nature of specific drug-target interactions. Here, we identify a novel mechanism by which drug-target interactions in resistant bacteria can be enhanced. We examined the surface forces generated by four antibiotics; vancomycin, ristomycin, chloroeremomycin and oritavancin against drug-susceptible and drug-resistant targets on a cantilever and demonstrated significant differences in mechanical response when drug-resistant targets are challenged with different antibiotics although no significant differences were observed when using susceptible targets. Remarkably, the binding affinity for oritavancin against drug-resistant targets (70 nM) was found to be 11,000 times stronger than for vancomycin (800 μM), a powerful antibiotic used as the last resort treatment for streptococcal and staphylococcal bacteria including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Using an exactly solvable model, which takes into account the solvent and membrane effects, we demonstrate that drug-target interactions are strengthened by pronounced polyvalent interactions catalyzed by the surface itself. These findings further enhance our understanding of antibiotic mode of action and will enable development of more effective therapies.

  6. Compliment Graphene Oxide Coating on Silk Fiber Surface via Electrostatic Force for Capacitive Humidity Sensor Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kook In; Kim, Seungdu; Lee, In Gyu; Kim, Jong Pil; Kim, Jung-Ha; Hong, Suck Won; Cho, Byung Jin; Hwang, Wan Sik

    2017-02-19

    Cylindrical silk fiber (SF) was coated with Graphene oxide (GO) for capacitive humidity sensor applications. Negatively charged GO in the solution was attracted to the positively charged SF surface via electrostatic force without any help from adhesive intermediates. The magnitude of the positively charged SF surface was controlled through the static electricity charges created on the SF surface. The GO coating ability on the SF improved as the SF's positive charge increased. The GO-coated SFs at various conditions were characterized using an optical microscope, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), Raman spectroscopy, and LCR meter. Unlike the intact SF, the GO-coated SF showed clear response-recovery behavior and well-behaved repeatability when it was exposed to 20% relative humidity (RH) and 90% RH alternatively in a capacitive mode. This approach allows humidity sensors to take advantage of GO's excellent sensing properties and SF's flexibility, expediting the production of flexible, low power consumption devices at relatively low costs.

  7. Compliment Graphene Oxide Coating on Silk Fiber Surface via Electrostatic Force for Capacitive Humidity Sensor Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kook In Han

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Cylindrical silk fiber (SF was coated with Graphene oxide (GO for capacitive humidity sensor applications. Negatively charged GO in the solution was attracted to the positively charged SF surface via electrostatic force without any help from adhesive intermediates. The magnitude of the positively charged SF surface was controlled through the static electricity charges created on the SF surface. The GO coating ability on the SF improved as the SF’s positive charge increased. The GO-coated SFs at various conditions were characterized using an optical microscope, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, Raman spectroscopy, and LCR meter. Unlike the intact SF, the GO-coated SF showed clear response-recovery behavior and well-behaved repeatability when it was exposed to 20% relative humidity (RH and 90% RH alternatively in a capacitive mode. This approach allows humidity sensors to take advantage of GO’s excellent sensing properties and SF’s flexibility, expediting the production of flexible, low power consumption devices at relatively low costs.

  8. Probing the surface charge on the basal planes of Kaolinite particles with high resolution Atomic Force Microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, Naveen; Andersson, M.P.; van den Ende, Henricus T.M.; Mugele, Friedrich Gunther; Sîretanu, Igor

    2017-01-01

    High-resolution atomic force microscopy is used to map the surface charge on the basal planes of kaolinite nanoparticles in an ambient solution of variable pH and NaCl or CaCl2 concentration. Using DLVO theory with charge regulation, we determine from the measured force–distance curves the surface

  9. Determination of electrostatic potential distribution by atomic force microscopy (AFM) on model silica and alumina surfaces in aqueous electrolyte solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yelken, Gulnihal Ozek; Polat, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Atomic force microscopy was employed to quantitatively determine the surface potential on silica and alumina surfaces immersed in aqueous electrolyte solutions at various pH values using the DLVO theory. • Potential distributions could be presented in the form of a potential map by repeating the procedure on multiple locations on these surfaces. • The average potential of the distributions agreed very well with the surface potentials measured by electrophoretic techniques. • Several experimental procedures required to achieve the very sensitive force measurements were outlined and demonstrated. - Abstract: AFM was employed as a physicochemical probe to determine the electrostatic potential distribution quantitatively on selected ideal oxide surfaces (quartz 0 0 0 1 and sapphire 0 0 0 1) in aqueous media. The force of interaction between a silicon nitride tip and the oxide surface was measured at a given point under well-defined solution conditions. Relevant theories were used to isolate the electrostatic component from the total force of interaction which was then employed to estimate the surface potential at that point. Repeating the procedure on selected locations generated a potential map of the surface. Comparison of these potentials with those obtained from independent electrokinetic measurements confirmed the validity of the approach

  10. Analysis of Tensegrity Structures with Redundancies, by Implementing a Comprehensive Equilibrium Equations Method with Force Densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miltiades Elliotis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A general approach is presented to analyze tensegrity structures by examining their equilibrium. It belongs to the class of equilibrium equations methods with force densities. The redundancies are treated by employing Castigliano’s second theorem, which gives the additional required equations. The partial derivatives, which appear in the additional equations, are numerically replaced by statically acceptable internal forces which are applied on the structure. For both statically determinate and indeterminate tensegrity structures, the properties of the resulting linear system of equations give an indication about structural stability. This method requires a relatively small number of computations, it is direct (there is no iteration procedure and calculation of auxiliary parameters and is characterized by its simplicity. It is tested on both 2D and 3D tensegrity structures. Results obtained with the method compare favorably with those obtained by the Dynamic Relaxation Method or the Adaptive Force Density Method.

  11. Evaluation of surface sampling method performance for Bacillus Spores on clean and dirty outdoor surfaces.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Mollye C.; Einfeld, Wayne; Boucher, Raymond M.; Brown, Gary Stephen; Tezak, Matthew Stephen

    2011-06-01

    Recovery of Bacillus atrophaeous spores from grime-treated and clean surfaces was measured in a controlled chamber study to assess sampling method performance. Outdoor surfaces investigated by wipe and vacuum sampling methods included stainless steel, glass, marble and concrete. Bacillus atrophaeous spores were used as a surrogate for Bacillus anthracis spores in this study designed to assess whether grime-coated surfaces significantly affected surface sampling method performance when compared to clean surfaces. A series of chamber tests were carried out in which known amounts of spores were allowed to gravitationally settle onto both clean and dirty surfaces. Reference coupons were co-located with test coupons in all chamber experiments to provide a quantitative measure of initial surface concentrations of spores on all surfaces, thereby allowing sampling recovery calculations. Results from these tests, carried out under both low and high humidity conditions, show that spore recovery from grime-coated surfaces is the same as or better than spore recovery from clean surfaces. Statistically significant differences between method performance for grime-coated and clean surfaces were observed in only about half of the chamber tests conducted.

  12. Tribological properties investigation of the thermoplastic elastomers surface with the AFM lateral forces mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, T. A.; Zubar, T. I.; Lapitskaya, V. A.; Sudzilouskaya, K. A.; Chizhik, S. A.; Didenko, A. L.; Svetlichnyi, V. M.; Vylegzhanina, M. E.; Kudryavtsev, V. V.; Sukhanova, T. E.

    2017-10-01

    The series of new thermoplastic elastomer films based on copoly(urethane-imide)s (coPUI)s and nanocomposites containing from 1 to 10 wt. % carbon nanofillers of different morphology (single-walled carbon nanotubes, carbon nanofibers, and graphene) as well as WS2 and WSe2 nanoparticles, were prepared and investigated by atomic force microscopy in contact mode. The friction coefficient (Cfr) on the films surfaces under conditions of true slip was determined both in one scan field and with multiple scans (200-400) in one place. The measurements were carried out at room temperature and at a heating up to 120°C. It is shown that at heating up to 75-85°C, the friction coefficient of some coPUI decreases significantly. The same effect can be achieved also after 100 scans during multi-scan testing at 20°C.

  13. A computed torque method based attitude control with optimal force distribution for articulated body mobile robots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, Edwardo F.; Hirose, Shigeo

    2000-01-01

    This paper introduces an attitude control scheme based in optimal force distribution using quadratic programming which minimizes joint energy consumption. This method shares similarities with force distribution for multifingered hands, multiple coordinated manipulators and legged walking robots. In particular, an attitude control scheme was introduced inside the force distribution problem, and successfully implemented for control of the articulated body mobile robot KR-II. This is an actual mobile robot composed of cylindrical segments linked in series by prismatic joints and has a long snake-like appearance. These prismatic joints are force controlled so that each segment's vertical motion can automatically follow the terrain irregularities. An attitude control is necessary because this system acts like a system of wheeled inverted pendulum carts connected in series, being unstable by nature. The validity and effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by computer simulation and experiments with the robot KR-II. (author)

  14. Static and kinetic friction force and surface roughness of different archwire-bracket sliding contacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrion-Vilches, Francisco J; Bermudez, María-Dolores; Fructuoso, Paula

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the static and kinetic friction forces of the contact bracket-archwire with different dental material compositions in order to select those materials with lower resistance to sliding. We carried out sliding friction tests by means of a universal testing machine following an experimental procedure as described in ASTM D1894 standard. We determined the static and kinetic friction forces under dry and lubricating conditions using an artificial saliva solution at 36.5ºC. The bracket-archwire pairs studied were: stainless steel-stainless steel; stainless steel-glass fiber composite; stainless steel-Nitinol 60; sapphire-stainless steel; sapphire-glass fiber composite; and sapphire-Nitinol 60. The best performance is obtained for Nitinol 60 archwire sliding against a stainless steel bracket, both under dry and lubricated conditions. These results are in agreement with the low surface roughness of Nitinol 60 with respect to the glass fiber composite archwire. The results described here contribute to establishing selection criteria for materials for dental archwire-brackets.

  15. Increased Surface Roughness in Polydimethylsiloxane Films by Physical and Chemical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Nicolás Cabrera

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Two methods, the first physical and the other chemical, were investigated to modify the surface roughness of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS films. The physical method consisted of dispersing multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs and magnetic cobalt ferrites (CoFe2O4 prior to thermal cross-linking, and curing the composite system in the presence of a uniform magnetic field H. The chemical method was based on exposing the films to bromine vapours and then UV-irradiating. The characterizing techniques included scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM and magnetic force microscopy (MFM. The surface roughness was quantitatively analyzed by AFM. In the physical method, the random dispersion of MWCNTs (1% w/w and magnetic nanoparticles (2% w/w generated a roughness increase of about 200% (with respect to PDMS films without any treatment, but that change was 400% for films cured in the presence of H perpendicular to the surface. SEM, AFM and MFM showed that the magnetic particles always remained attached to the carbon nanotubes, and the effect on the roughness was interpreted as being due to a rupture of dispersion randomness and a possible induction of structuring in the direction of H. In the chemical method, the increase in roughness was even greater (1000%. Wells were generated with surface areas that were close to 100 μm2 and depths of up to 500 nm. The observations of AFM images and FTIR spectra were in agreement with the hypothesis of etching by Br radicals generated by UV on the polymer chains. Both methods induced important changes in the surface roughness (the chemical method generated the greatest changes due to the formation of surface wells, which are of great importance in superficial technological processes.

  16. A study of structure and properties of molecularly thin methanol film using the modified surface forces apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Gutian; Cai, Di; Wu, Gensheng; Tan, Qiyan; Xiang, Li; Zhang, Yin; Xiang, Nan

    2014-11-01

    A novel approach for studying the adsorption and evaporation processes of molecularly thin methanol film by the modified surface forces apparatus (M-SFA) is reported. This method can be used precisely to measure the thickness, morphology, and mechanical properties of the film confined between two mica surfaces in a real-time manner at gas atmosphere. By observing the adsorption and evaporation processes of the methanol molecule, it is found that the first adsorbed layer of the methanol film on the mica surface behaves as a solid-like structure. The thickness of this layer is measured to be about 3.2 Å, approximately equal to the diameter of a methanol molecule. Besides, this first adsorbed layer can carry normalized loads of more than 5.6 atm due to the carrying capacity conserved by the bond of mica-OH. The outer layers of the methanol film are further adsorbed with the increase of the exposure time, which are liquid-like and can be easily eliminated out from the substrate. The present study suggests that the interacting mode between hydroxy and mica is of great potential in material science and biomedical systems. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Effect of SP-C on surface potential distribution in pulmonary surfactant: Atomic force microscopy and Kelvin probe force microscopy study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hane, Francis; Moores, Brad; Amrein, Matthias; Leonenko, Zoya

    2009-01-01

    The air-lung interface is covered by a molecular film of pulmonary surfactant (PS). The major function of the film is to reduce the surface tension of the lung's air-liquid interface, providing stability to the alveolar structure and reducing the work of breathing. Earlier we have shown that function of bovine lipid extract surfactant (BLES) is related to the specific molecular architecture of surfactant films. Defined molecular arrangement of the lipids and proteins of the surfactant film also give rise to a local highly variable electrical surface potential of the interface. In this work we investigated a simple model of artificial lung surfactant consisting of DPPC, eggPG, and surfactant protein C (SP-C). Effects of surface compression and the presence of SP-C on the monolayer structure and surface potential distribution were investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM). We show that topography and locally variable surface potential of DPPC-eggPG lipid mixture are similar to those of pulmonary surfactant BLES in the presence of SP-C and differ in surface potential when SP-C is absent.

  18. Spatiotemporal variation of surface shortwave forcing from fire-induced albedo change in interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shengli; Dahal, Devendra; Liu, Heping; Jin, Suming; Young, Claudia J.; Liu, Shuang; Liu, Shu-Guang

    2015-01-01

    The albedo change caused by both fires and subsequent succession is spatially heterogeneous, leading to the need to assess the spatiotemporal variation of surface shortwave forcing (SSF) as a component to quantify the climate impacts of high-latitude fires. We used an image reconstruction approach to compare postfire albedo with the albedo assuming fires had not occurred. Combining the fire-caused albedo change from the 2001-2010 fires in interior Alaska and the monthly surface incoming solar radiation, we examined the spatiotemporal variation of SSF in the early successional stage of around 10 years. Our results showed that while postfire albedo generally increased in fall, winter, and spring, some burned areas could show an albedo decrease during these seasons. In summer, the albedo increased for several years and then declined again. The spring SSF distribution did not show a latitudinal decrease from south to north as previously reported. The results also indicated that although the SSF is usually largely negative in the early successional years, it may not be significant during the first postfire year. The annual 2005-2010 SSF for the 2004 fire scars was -1.30, -4.40, -3.31, -4.00, -3.42, and -2.47 Wm-2. The integrated annual SSF map showed significant spatial variation with a mean of -3.15 Wm-2 and a standard deviation of 3.26 Wm-2, 16% of burned areas having positive SSF. Our results suggest that boreal deciduous fires would be less positive for climate change than boreal evergreen fires. Future research is needed to comprehensively investigate the spatiotemporal radiative and non-radiative forcings to determine the effect of boreal fires on climate.

  19. Combining confocal and atomic force microscopy to quantify single-virus binding to mammalian cell surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Richard; Delguste, Martin; Koehler, Melanie; Dumitru, Andra C; Laskowski, Pawel R; Müller, Daniel J; Alsteens, David

    2017-11-01

    Over the past five years, atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based approaches have evolved into a powerful multiparametric tool set capable of imaging the surfaces of biological samples ranging from single receptors to membranes and tissues. One of these approaches, force-distance curve-based AFM (FD-based AFM), uses a probing tip functionalized with a ligand to image living cells at high-resolution and simultaneously localize and characterize specific ligand-receptor binding events. Analyzing data from FD-based AFM experiments using appropriate probabilistic models allows quantification of the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters that describe the free-energy landscape of the ligand-receptor bond. We have recently developed an FD-based AFM approach to quantify the binding events of single enveloped viruses to surface receptors of living animal cells while simultaneously observing them by fluorescence microscopy. This approach has provided insights into the early stages of the interaction between a virus and a cell. Applied to a model virus, we probed the specific interaction with cells expressing viral cognate receptors and measured the affinity of the interaction. Furthermore, we observed that the virus rapidly established specific multivalent interactions and found that each bond formed in sequence strengthened the attachment of the virus to the cell. Here we describe detailed procedures for probing the specific interactions of viruses with living cells; these procedures cover tip preparation, cell sample preparation, step-by-step FD-based AFM imaging and data analysis. Experienced microscopists should be able to master the entire set of protocols in 1 month.

  20. Modeling South America regional smoke plume: aerosol optical depth variability and shortwave surface forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosário, N. E.; Longo, K. M.; Freitas, S. R.; Yamasoe, M. A.; Fonseca, R. M.

    2012-07-01

    Amazon Basin produced a radiative forcing efficiency (RFE) of -158 W m-2/AOD550 nm at noon. This value is in between -154 W m-2/AOD550 nm and -187 W m-2/AOD550 nm, the range obtained when spatial varying optical models were considered. The average 24 h surface forcing over the biomass burning season varied from -55 W m-2 close to smoke sources in the southern part of the Amazon Basin and cerrado to -10 W m-2 in remote regions of the Southeast Brazilian coast.

  1. A comparison of two methods of measuring static coefficient of friction at low normal forces: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Na Jin; Armstrong, Thomas J; Drinkaus, Philip

    2009-01-01

    This study compares two methods for estimating static friction coefficients for skin. In the first method, referred to as the 'tilt method', a hand supporting a flat object is tilted until the object slides. The friction coefficient is estimated as the tangent of the angle of the object at the slip. The second method estimates the friction coefficient as the pull force required to begin moving a flat object over the surface of the hand, divided by object weight. Both methods were used to estimate friction coefficients for 12 subjects and three materials (cardboard, aluminium, rubber) against a flat hand and against fingertips. No differences in static friction coefficients were found between the two methods, except for that of rubber, where friction coefficient was 11% greater for the tilt method. As with previous studies, the friction coefficients varied with contact force and contact area. Static friction coefficient data are needed for analysis and design of objects that are grasped or manipulated with the hand. The tilt method described in this study can easily be used by ergonomic practitioners to estimate static friction coefficients in the field in a timely manner.

  2. An efficient mass-preserving interface-correction level set/ghost fluid method for droplet suspensions under depletion forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Zhouyang; Loiseau, Jean-Christophe; Tammisola, Outi; Brandt, Luca

    2018-01-01

    Aiming for the simulation of colloidal droplets in microfluidic devices, we present here a numerical method for two-fluid systems subject to surface tension and depletion forces among the suspended droplets. The algorithm is based on an efficient solver for the incompressible two-phase Navier-Stokes equations, and uses a mass-conserving level set method to capture the fluid interface. The four novel ingredients proposed here are, firstly, an interface-correction level set (ICLS) method; global mass conservation is achieved by performing an additional advection near the interface, with a correction velocity obtained by locally solving an algebraic equation, which is easy to implement in both 2D and 3D. Secondly, we report a second-order accurate geometric estimation of the curvature at the interface and, thirdly, the combination of the ghost fluid method with the fast pressure-correction approach enabling an accurate and fast computation even for large density contrasts. Finally, we derive a hydrodynamic model for the interaction forces induced by depletion of surfactant micelles and combine it with a multiple level set approach to study short-range interactions among droplets in the presence of attracting forces.

  3. Comparison of Two Methods for the Generation of Spatially Modulated Ultrasound Radiation Force

    OpenAIRE

    Elegbe, Etana C.; Menon, Manoj G.; McAleavey, Stephen A.

    2011-01-01

    Spatially modulated ultrasound radiation force (SMURF) imaging is an elastographic technique that involves generating a radiation force beam with a lateral intensity variation of a defined spatial frequency. This results in a shear wave of known wavelength. By using the displacements induced by the shear wave and standard Doppler or speckle-tracking methods, the shear wave frequency, and thus material shear modulus, is estimated. In addition to generating a pushing beam pattern with a specifi...

  4. Surface-activated joining method for surveillance coupon reconstitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaihara, Shoichiro; Nakamura, Terumi

    1993-01-01

    As nuclear power plants approach the end of their license periods and license renewal is contemplated, there is an increasing need to expand the data base of mechanical properties obtainable from archival surveillance specimens. A new joining method for reconstituting broken Charpy specimens is being developed, the objective being to retain the original properties of the material in the process. The new method is called surface-activated joining (SAJ). It is designed to obtain a good junction without applying extra heating and deformation. In particular, the purpose of SAJ is to minimize the width of the heat-affected zone (HAZ) and to decrease the maximum temperature experienced by the specimen during reconsolidation of the two pieces. Generally, machined metal surfaces are contaminated with films of oxide, adsorbed gas, oil, or other vapors that impede bonding of surfaces during joining. However, if surface contamination is removed and the two surfaces are mated as closely as possible, joining can be achieved at low temperatures and modest stress levels. In order to apply the SAJ method, the following requirements must be met: (1) inert atmosphere to protect the surfaces from atmospheric gases and oxidation; (2) removal of the existing contamination layers to activate the surfaces; and (3) method for bringing the two surfaces into very intimate contact prior to joining

  5. Method for Surface Scanning in Medical Imaging and Related Apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    A method and apparatus for surface scanning in medical imaging is provided. The surface scanning apparatus comprises an image source, a first optical fiber bundle comprising first optical fibers having proximal ends and distal ends, and a first optical coupler for coupling an image from the image...

  6. Prestressing force monitoring method for a box girder through distributed long-gauge FBG sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shi-Zhi; Wu, Gang; Xing, Tuo; Feng, De-Cheng

    2018-01-01

    Monitoring prestressing forces is essential for prestressed concrete box girder bridges. However, the current monitoring methods used for prestressing force were not applicable for a box girder neither because of the sensor’s setup being constrained or shear lag effect not being properly considered. Through combining with the previous analysis model of shear lag effect in the box girder, this paper proposed an indirect monitoring method for on-site determination of prestressing force in a concrete box girder utilizing the distributed long-gauge fiber Bragg grating sensor. The performance of this method was initially verified using numerical simulation for three different distribution forms of prestressing tendons. Then, an experiment involving two concrete box girders was conducted to study the feasibility of this method under different prestressing levels preliminarily. The results of both numerical simulation and lab experiment validated this method’s practicability in a box girder.

  7. A simple method of equine limb force vector analysis and its potential applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Jane Hobbs

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Ground reaction forces (GRF measured during equine gait analysis are typically evaluated by analyzing discrete values obtained from continuous force-time data for the vertical, longitudinal and transverse GRF components. This paper describes a simple, temporo-spatial method of displaying and analyzing sagittal plane GRF vectors. In addition, the application of statistical parametric mapping (SPM is introduced to analyse differences between contra-lateral fore and hindlimb force-time curves throughout the stance phase. The overall aim of the study was to demonstrate alternative methods of evaluating functional (asymmetry within horses. Methods GRF and kinematic data were collected from 10 horses trotting over a series of four force plates (120 Hz. The kinematic data were used to determine clean hoof contacts. The stance phase of each hoof was determined using a 50 N threshold. Vertical and longitudinal GRF for each stance phase were plotted both as force-time curves and as force vector diagrams in which vectors originating at the centre of pressure on the force plate were drawn at intervals of 8.3 ms for the duration of stance. Visual evaluation was facilitated by overlay of the vector diagrams for different limbs. Summary vectors representing the magnitude (VecMag and direction (VecAng of the mean force over the entire stance phase were superimposed on the force vector diagram. Typical measurements extracted from the force-time curves (peak forces, impulses were compared with VecMag and VecAng using partial correlation (controlling for speed. Paired samples t-tests (left v. right diagonal pair comparison and high v. low vertical force diagonal pair comparison were performed on discrete and vector variables using traditional methods and Hotelling’s T2 tests on normalized stance phase data using SPM. Results Evidence from traditional statistical tests suggested that VecMag is more influenced by the vertical force and impulse, whereas

  8. A continuous surface reconstruction method on point cloud captured from a 3D surface photogrammetry system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wenyang [Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Cheung, Yam; Sabouri, Pouya; Arai, Tatsuya J.; Sawant, Amit [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern, Dallas, Texas 75390 (United States); Ruan, Dan, E-mail: druan@mednet.ucla.edu [Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: To accurately and efficiently reconstruct a continuous surface from noisy point clouds captured by a surface photogrammetry system (VisionRT). Methods: The authors have developed a level-set based surface reconstruction method on point clouds captured by a surface photogrammetry system (VisionRT). The proposed method reconstructs an implicit and continuous representation of the underlying patient surface by optimizing a regularized fitting energy, offering extra robustness to noise and missing measurements. By contrast to explicit/discrete meshing-type schemes, their continuous representation is particularly advantageous for subsequent surface registration and motion tracking by eliminating the need for maintaining explicit point correspondences as in discrete models. The authors solve the proposed method with an efficient narrowband evolving scheme. The authors evaluated the proposed method on both phantom and human subject data with two sets of complementary experiments. In the first set of experiment, the authors generated a series of surfaces each with different black patches placed on one chest phantom. The resulting VisionRT measurements from the patched area had different degree of noise and missing levels, since VisionRT has difficulties in detecting dark surfaces. The authors applied the proposed method to point clouds acquired under these different configurations, and quantitatively evaluated reconstructed surfaces by comparing against a high-quality reference surface with respect to root mean squared error (RMSE). In the second set of experiment, the authors applied their method to 100 clinical point clouds acquired from one human subject. In the absence of ground-truth, the authors qualitatively validated reconstructed surfaces by comparing the local geometry, specifically mean curvature distributions, against that of the surface extracted from a high-quality CT obtained from the same patient. Results: On phantom point clouds, their method

  9. A novel technique for including surface tension in PLIC-VOF methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, M.; Yadigaroglu, G. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Nuclear Engineering Lab. ETH-Zentrum, CLT, Zurich (Switzerland); Smith, B. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland). Lab. for Thermal-Hydraulics

    2002-02-01

    Various versions of Volume-of-Fluid (VOF) methods have been used successfully for the numerical simulation of gas-liquid flows with an explicit tracking of the phase interface. Of these, Piecewise-Linear Interface Construction (PLIC-VOF) appears as a fairly accurate, although somewhat more involved variant. Including effects due to surface tension remains a problem, however. The most prominent methods, Continuum Surface Force (CSF) of Brackbill et al. and the method of Zaleski and co-workers (both referenced later), both induce spurious or 'parasitic' currents, and only moderate accuracy in regards to determining the curvature. We present here a new method to determine curvature accurately using an estimator function, which is tuned with a least-squares-fit against reference data. Furthermore, we show how spurious currents may be drastically reduced using the reconstructed interfaces from the PLIC-VOF method. (authors)

  10. Interferometric method for measuring high velocities of diffuse surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maron, Y.

    1978-01-01

    An interferometric method for measuring the displacement of diffuse surfaces moving with velocities of a few microsecond is presented. The method utilizes the interference between two light beams reflected from a constant area of the moving surface at two different angles. It enables the detection of high rate velocity variations. Light source of a fairly low temporal coherence and power around 100mW is needed. (author)

  11. Investigation of Unbalanced Magnetic Force in Magnetic Geared Machine Using Analytical Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiaoxu; Liu, Xiao; Chen, Zhe

    2016-01-01

    The electromagnetic structure of the magnetic geared machine (MGM) may induce a significant unbalanced magnetic force (UMF). However, few methods have been developed to theoretically reveal the essential reasons for this issue in the MGM. In this paper, an analytical method based on an air...

  12. Methodes de calcul des forces aerodynamiques pour les etudes des interactions aeroservoelastiques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biskri, Djallel Eddine

    L'aeroservoelasticite est un domaine ou interagissent la structure flexible d'un avion, l'aerodynamique et la commande de vol. De son cote, la commande du vol considere l'avion comme une structure rigide et etudie l'influence du systeme de commande sur la dynamique de vol. Dans cette these, nous avons code trois nouvelles methodes d'approximation de forces aerodynamiques: Moindres carres corriges, Etat minimal corrige et Etats combines. Dans les deux premieres methodes, les erreurs d'approximation entre les forces aerodynamiques approximees par les methodes classiques et celles obtenues par les nouvelles methodes ont les memes formes analytiques que celles des forces aerodynamiques calculees par LS ou MS. Quant a la troisieme methode, celle-ci combine les formulations des forces approximees avec les methodes standards LS et MS. Les vitesses et frequences de battement et les temps d'executions calcules par les nouvelles methodes versus ceux calcules par les methodes classiques ont ete analyses.

  13. Novel Door-opening Method for Six-legged Robots Based on Only Force Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi-Jun; Gao, Feng; Pan, Yang

    2017-09-01

    Current door-opening methods are mainly developed on tracked, wheeled and biped robots by applying multi-DOF manipulators and vision systems. However, door-opening methods for six-legged robots are seldom studied, especially using 0-DOF tools to operate and only force sensing to detect. A novel door-opening method for six-legged robots is developed and implemented to the six-parallel-legged robot. The kinematic model of the six-parallel-legged robot is established and the model of measuring the positional relationship between the robot and the door is proposed. The measurement model is completely based on only force sensing. The real-time trajectory planning method and the control strategy are designed. The trajectory planning method allows the maximum angle between the sagittal axis of the robot body and the normal line of the door plane to be 45º. A 0-DOF tool mounted to the robot body is applied to operate. By integrating with the body, the tool has 6 DOFs and enough workspace to operate. The loose grasp achieved by the tool helps release the inner force in the tool. Experiments are carried out to validate the method. The results show that the method is effective and robust in opening doors wider than 1 m. This paper proposes a novel door-opening method for six-legged robots, which notably uses a 0-DOF tool and only force sensing to detect and open the door.

  14. A continuous surface reconstruction method on point cloud captured from a 3D surface photogrammetry system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenyang; Cheung, Yam; Sabouri, Pouya; Arai, Tatsuya J; Sawant, Amit; Ruan, Dan

    2015-11-01

    To accurately and efficiently reconstruct a continuous surface from noisy point clouds captured by a surface photogrammetry system (VisionRT). The authors have developed a level-set based surface reconstruction method on point clouds captured by a surface photogrammetry system (VisionRT). The proposed method reconstructs an implicit and continuous representation of the underlying patient surface by optimizing a regularized fitting energy, offering extra robustness to noise and missing measurements. By contrast to explicit/discrete meshing-type schemes, their continuous representation is particularly advantageous for subsequent surface registration and motion tracking by eliminating the need for maintaining explicit point correspondences as in discrete models. The authors solve the proposed method with an efficient narrowband evolving scheme. The authors evaluated the proposed method on both phantom and human subject data with two sets of complementary experiments. In the first set of experiment, the authors generated a series of surfaces each with different black patches placed on one chest phantom. The resulting VisionRT measurements from the patched area had different degree of noise and missing levels, since VisionRT has difficulties in detecting dark surfaces. The authors applied the proposed method to point clouds acquired under these different configurations, and quantitatively evaluated reconstructed surfaces by comparing against a high-quality reference surface with respect to root mean squared error (RMSE). In the second set of experiment, the authors applied their method to 100 clinical point clouds acquired from one human subject. In the absence of ground-truth, the authors qualitatively validated reconstructed surfaces by comparing the local geometry, specifically mean curvature distributions, against that of the surface extracted from a high-quality CT obtained from the same patient. On phantom point clouds, their method achieved submillimeter

  15. OPTIMASI TEKNIK PEMBUATAN TABLET EFFERVESCENT SARI BUAH DENGAN RESPONSE SURFACE METHOD [Optimization of Processing Technique of the Fruit Juice Effervescent Tablet with Response Surface Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansar1

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to study optimization of processing technique of fruit juice effervescent tablet with Response Surface Method (RSM. The research design used was central composite designs with three dependent variables including X1 (compression force, X2 (the citric acid concentration, and X3 (the sodium bicarbonate concentration, where independent variables was hardness and solubility of the tablet. The results of the research showed that the optimum tablets hardness was 40.53 N that reached at treatment compression force of 2339.8 N; the citric acid concentration of 352.82 mg/gr; and the sodium bicarbonate concentration of 561.62 mg/gr. Whereas the solubilitation of 41.99 second was resulted at treatment compression force of 1417.6 N; 334.24 mg/unit weight citric acid; and 593.90 mg/gr sodium bicarbonate. To get tablet characteristic with high hardness but solubilize quickly, was made at 1500 N compression force; the citric acid concentration 350 mg/gr; and the sodium bicarbonate concentration 500 mg/gr.

  16. Surface treatment and protection method for cadmium zinc telluride crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Gomez W.; James, Ralph B.; Burger, Arnold; Chinn, Douglas A.

    2003-01-01

    A method for treatment of the surface of a CdZnTe (CZT) crystal that provides a native dielectric coating to reduce surface leakage currents and thereby, improve the resolution of instruments incorporating detectors using CZT crystals. A two step process is disclosed, etching the surface of a CZT crystal with a solution of the conventional bromine/methanol etch treatment, and after attachment of electrical contacts, passivating the CZT crystal surface with a solution of 10 w/o NH.sub.4 F and 10 w/o H.sub.2 O.sub.2 in water.

  17. Surface Treatment And Protection Method For Cadium Zinc Telluride Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Gomez W.; James, Ralph B.; Burger, Arnold; Chinn, Douglas A.

    2006-02-21

    A method for treatment of the surface of a CdZnTe (CZT) crystal that provides a native dielectric coating to reduce surface leakage currents and thereby, improve the resolution of instruments incorporating detectors using CZT crystals. A two step process is disclosed, etching the surface of a CZT crystal with a solution of the conventional bromine/methanol etch treatment, and after attachment of electrical contacts, passivating the CZT crystal surface with a solution of 10 w/o NH4F and 10 w/o H2O2 in water.

  18. Selective Linear-Regression Model for hand posture discrimination and grip force estimation using surface electromyogram signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanoi, Yusuke; Morishita, Soichiro; Kato, Ryu; Yokoi, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes the method of hand posture discrimination and grip force estimation by means of Selective Linear-Regression Model. Generally, myoelectric hands which discriminate hand posture and estimate grip force at the same time result in unsatisfying results because of complication of EMG signals. Therefore, most of myoelectric hands can control either the force or the posture. However, the proposed method is able to discriminate hand posture and to estimate grip force simultaneously while the accuracy results are achieved. In experiments, EMG signals were measured while hand posture and grip force were changing. As a result, it appears that EMG features increase monotonically with grip force. In addition, increasing forms of EMG features are different on each posture. Based on these experimental results, the authors propose the method for both discriminating hand posture and estimating grip force by means of several linear-regression models which utilize the relationship between the grip force and EMG features on each posture. To evaluate the effectiveness of this method, the failure rates of discrimination and the estimation errors of the proposed method were employed. The results indicate that failure rates and estimation errors are improved significantly.

  19. Evaluation of cutting force and surface roughness in high-speed milling of compacted graphite iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azlan Suhaimi Mohd

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Compacted Graphite Iron, (CGI is known to have outstanding mechanical strength and weight-to-strength ratio as compared to conventional grey cast iron, (CI. The outstanding characteristics of CGI is due to its graphite particle shape, which is presented as compacted vermicular particle. The graphite is interconnected with random orientation and round edges, which results in higher mechanical strength. Whereas, graphite in the CI consists of a smooth-surfaced flakes that easily propagates cracks which results in weaker and brittle properties as compared to CGI. Owing to its improved properties, CGI is considered as the best candidate material in substituting grey cast iron that has been used in engine block applications for years. However, the smooth implementation of replacing CI with CGI has been hindered due to the poor machinability of CGI especially at high cutting speed. The tool life is decreased by 20 times when comparing CGI with CI under the same cutting condition. This study investigates the effect of using cryogenic cooling and minimum quantity lubrication (MQL during high-speed milling of CGI (grade 450. Results showed that, the combination of internal cryogenic cooling and enhanced MQL improved the tool life, cutting force and surface quality as compared to the conventional flood coolant strategy during high-speed milling of CGI.

  20. Comparison study of intraoperative surface acquisition methods for surgical navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Amber L; Burgner, Jessica; Glisson, Courtenay L; Herrell, S Duke; Ma, Burton; Pheiffer, Thomas S; Webster, Robert J; Miga, Michael I

    2013-04-01

    Soft-tissue image-guided interventions often require the digitization of organ surfaces for providing correspondence from medical images to the physical patient in the operating room. In this paper, the effect of several inexpensive surface acquisition techniques on target registration error and surface registration error (SRE) for soft tissue is investigated. A systematic approach is provided to compare image-to-physical registrations using three different methods of organ spatial digitization: 1) a tracked laser-range scanner (LRS), 2) a tracked pointer, and 3) a tracked conoscopic holography sensor (called a conoprobe). For each digitization method, surfaces of phantoms and biological tissues were acquired and registered to CT image volume counterparts. A comparison among these alignments demonstrated that registration errors were statistically smaller with the conoprobe than the tracked pointer and LRS (pconoscopic holography) of digitizing surfaces for clinical usage. The tracked conoscopic holography device outperforms LRS acquisitions with respect to registration accuracy.

  1. Laser method of acoustical emission control from vibrating surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motyka, Zbigniew

    2013-01-01

    For limitation of the noise in environment, the necessity occurs of determining and location of sources of sounds emitted from surfaces of many machines and devices, assuring in effect the possibility of suitable constructional changes implementation, targeted at decreasing of their nuisance. In the paper, the results of tests and calculations are presented for plane surface sources emitting acoustic waves. The tests were realized with the use of scanning laser vibrometer which enabled remote registration and the spectral analysis of the surfaces vibrations. The known hybrid digital method developed for determination of sound wave emission from such surfaces divided into small finite elements was slightly modified by distinguishing the phase correlations between such vibrating elements. The final method being developed may find use in wide range of applications for different forms of vibrations of plane surfaces.

  2. A GPU-based mipmapping method for water surface visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hua; Quan, Wei; Xu, Chao; Wu, Yan

    2018-03-01

    Visualization of water surface is a hot topic in computer graphics. In this paper, we presented a fast method to generate wide range of water surface with good image quality both near and far from the viewpoint. This method utilized uniform mesh and Fractal Perlin noise to model water surface. Mipmapping technology was enforced to the surface textures, which adjust the resolution with respect to the distance from the viewpoint and reduce the computing cost. Lighting effect was computed based on shadow mapping technology, Snell's law and Fresnel term. The render pipeline utilizes a CPU-GPU shared memory structure, which improves the rendering efficiency. Experiment results show that our approach visualizes water surface with good image quality at real-time frame rates performance.

  3. Modification of a force plate system for equine gait analysis on hard road surfaces: a technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, A M; Pardoe, C H

    2001-04-01

    Studies on horseshoe materials have been limited to the analysis of kinematic data to determine slip times and distances, since equine force plate analysis is traditionally undertaken on a rubber-surfaced force plate. The purpose of this study was to modify a force plate for measuring ground reaction forces on a road surface and report preliminary data from the system. A steel-reinforced concrete top plate of 18 mm thickness and mass 23 kg, and a 12 mm thick top plate of 6 mm bituminous macadam wear coat (road surface) contained in a tray constructed of 2 mm thick steel, mass 21 kg, were constructed. The top plates were bolted to a forceplate and resonance frequency of the force plate top plate combinations were 278 Hz (concrete) and 218 Hz (roadway), respectively. Simultaneous kinetic and kinematic data were collected while a horse, shod in steel horseshoes, was trotted over the concrete-topped force plate until 8 foot placements were recorded. The foot slipped for mean +/- s.d. 35 +/- 7 mm in 29 +/- 8 ms after impact and both Fy and Fz increased during foot slip. The ratio of Fy/Fz during slip was relatively constant at 0.56 +/- 0.05. The top plates have proved resilient in use and have withstood a variety of horseshoe designs and tungsten-capped stud nails with minimal damage. They enable measurement of ground reaction forces on hard surfaces and the calculation of the energy dissipated via foot slippage by integration of the craniocaudal force-foot position data after impact.

  4. Numerical study of the wave-induced slamming force on the elastic plate based on MPS-FEM coupled method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Cheng-ping; Wan, De-cheng

    2018-02-01

    Slamming is the phenomenon of structure impacting the water surface. It always results in the extremely high load on the structure. This paper is mainly concerned with the slamming force caused by the wave-plate interaction. In this paper, the process of solitary wave impacting onto the horizontal plate is simulated with the help of the moving particle semi-implicit and finite element coupled method (MPS-FEM). The MPS method is adopted to calculate the fluid domain while the structural domain is solved by FEM method. In the first series of simulations, the profiles of the solitary waves with various amplitudes, which are generated in the numerical wave tank, are compared with the theoretical results. Thereafter the interaction between the solitary waves and a rigid plate is simulated. The effects of wave amplitude, as well as the elevation of the plate above the initial water level, on the slamming force are numerically investigated. The calculated results are compared with the available experimental data. Finally, the interactions between the solitary waves and the elastic plate are also simulated. The effects of the structural flexibility on the wave-induced force are analyzed by the comparison between the cases with elastic and the rigid plate.

  5. Induced Voltage Linear Extraction Method Using an Active Kelvin Bridge for Disturbing Force Self-Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Lei; Tan, Jiubin; Zhao, Bo

    2016-05-20

    This paper presents an induced voltage linear extraction method for disturbing force self-sensing in the application of giant magnetostrictive actuators (GMAs). In this method, a Kelvin bridge combined with an active device is constructed instead of a conventional Wheatstone bridge for extraction of the induced voltage, and an additional GMA is adopted as a reference actuator in the self-sensing circuit in order to balance the circuit bridge. The linear fitting of the measurement data is done according to the linear relationship between the disturbing forces and the integral of the induced voltage. The experimental results confirm the good performance of the proposed method, and the self-sensitivity of the disturbing forces is better than 2.0 (mV·s)/N.

  6. Induced Voltage Linear Extraction Method Using an Active Kelvin Bridge for Disturbing Force Self-Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Yang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an induced voltage linear extraction method for disturbing force self-sensing in the application of giant magnetostrictive actuators (GMAs. In this method, a Kelvin bridge combined with an active device is constructed instead of a conventional Wheatstone bridge for extraction of the induced voltage, and an additional GMA is adopted as a reference actuator in the self-sensing circuit in order to balance the circuit bridge. The linear fitting of the measurement data is done according to the linear relationship between the disturbing forces and the integral of the induced voltage. The experimental results confirm the good performance of the proposed method, and the self-sensitivity of the disturbing forces is better than 2.0 (mV·s/N.

  7. Methods and Research for Multi-Component Cutting Force Sensing Devices and Approaches in Machining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Qiaokang; Zhang, Dan; Wu, Wanneng; Zou, Kunlin

    2016-11-16

    Multi-component cutting force sensing systems in manufacturing processes applied to cutting tools are gradually becoming the most significant monitoring indicator. Their signals have been extensively applied to evaluate the machinability of workpiece materials, predict cutter breakage, estimate cutting tool wear, control machine tool chatter, determine stable machining parameters, and improve surface finish. Robust and effective sensing systems with capability of monitoring the cutting force in machine operations in real time are crucial for realizing the full potential of cutting capabilities of computer numerically controlled (CNC) tools. The main objective of this paper is to present a brief review of the existing achievements in the field of multi-component cutting force sensing systems in modern manufacturing.

  8. Methods and Research for Multi-Component Cutting Force Sensing Devices and Approaches in Machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaokang Liang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Multi-component cutting force sensing systems in manufacturing processes applied to cutting tools are gradually becoming the most significant monitoring indicator. Their signals have been extensively applied to evaluate the machinability of workpiece materials, predict cutter breakage, estimate cutting tool wear, control machine tool chatter, determine stable machining parameters, and improve surface finish. Robust and effective sensing systems with capability of monitoring the cutting force in machine operations in real time are crucial for realizing the full potential of cutting capabilities of computer numerically controlled (CNC tools. The main objective of this paper is to present a brief review of the existing achievements in the field of multi-component cutting force sensing systems in modern manufacturing.

  9. Film Thickness Formation in Nanoscale due to Effects of Elastohydrodynamic, Electrostatic and Surface force of Solvation and Van der Waals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Abd Al-Samieh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of oil film with a thickness in the nanoscale is discussed in this paper. A polar lubricant of propylene carbonate is used as the intervening liquid between contiguous bodies in concentrated contacts. A pressure caused by the hydrodynamic viscous action in addition to double layer electrostatic force, Van der Waals inter-molecular forces, and solvation pressure due to inter-surface forces is considered in calculating the ultrathin lubricating films. The numerical solution has been carried out, using the Newton-Raphson iteration technique, applied for the convergence of the hydrodynamic pressure. The results show that, at separations beyond about five molecular diameters of the intervening liquid, the formation of a lubricant film thickness is governed by combined effects of viscous action and surface force of an attractive Van der Waals force and a repulsive double layer force. At smaller separations below about five molecular diameters of the intervening liquid, the effect of solvation force is dominant in determining the oil film thickness

  10. Study on Effect of Ultrasonic Vibration on Grinding Force and Surface Quality in Ultrasonic Assisted Micro End Grinding of Silica Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jianhua

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic vibration assisted micro end grinding (UAMEG is a promising processing method for micro parts made of hard and brittle materials. First, the influence of ultrasonic assistance on the mechanism of this processing technology is theoretically analyzed. Then, in order to reveal the effects of ultrasonic vibration and grinding parameters on grinding forces and surface quality, contrast grinding tests of silica glass with and without ultrasonic assistance using micro radial electroplated diamond wheel are conducted. The grinding forces are measured using a three-component dynamometer. The surface characteristics are detected using the scanning electron microscope. The experiment results demonstrate that grinding forces are significantly reduced by introducing ultrasonic vibration into conventional micro end grinding (CMEG of silica glass; ultrasonic assistance causes inhibiting effect on variation percentages of tangential grinding force with grinding parameters; ductile machining is easier to be achieved and surface quality is obviously improved due to ultrasonic assistance in UAMEG. Therefore, larger grinding depth and feed rate adopted in UAMEG can lead to the improvement of removal rate and machining efficiency compared with CMEG.

  11. Modeling Potential Energy Surfaces: From First-Principle Approaches to Empirical Force Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Ballone

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Explicit or implicit expressions of potential energy surfaces (PES represent the basis of our ability to simulate condensed matter systems, possibly understanding and sometimes predicting their properties by purely computational methods. The paper provides an outline of the major approaches currently used to approximate and represent PESs and contains a brief discussion of what still needs to be achieved. The paper also analyses the relative role of empirical and ab initio methods, which represents a crucial issue affecting the future of modeling in chemical physics and materials science.

  12. Application of Ultrasonic Sensors in Road Surface Condition Distinction Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shota Nakashima

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The number of accidents involving elderly individuals has been increasing with the increase of the aging population, posing increasingly serious challenges. Most accidents are caused by reduced judgment and physical abilities, which lead to severe consequences. Therefore, studies on support systems for elderly and visually impaired people to improve the safety and quality of daily life are attracting considerable attention. In this study, a road surface condition distinction method using reflection intensities obtained by an ultrasonic sensor was proposed. The proposed method was applied to movement support systems for elderly and visually impaired individuals to detect dangerous road surfaces and give an alarm. The method did not perform well in previous studies of puddle detection, because the alert provided by the method did not enable users to avoid puddles. This study extended the method proposed by previous studies with respect to puddle detection ability. The findings indicate the effectiveness of the proposed method by considering four road surface conditions. The proposed method could detect puddle conditions. The effectiveness of the proposed method was verified in all four conditions, since users could differentiate between road surface conditions and classify the conditions as either safe or dangerous.

  13. METHOD FOR FABRICATING NANOSCALE PATTERNS ON A SURFACE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    A novel method to fabricate nanoscale pits on Au(111) surfaces in contact with aqueous solution is claimed. The method uses in situ electrochemical scanning tunnelling microscopy with independent electrochemical substrate and tip potential control and very small bias voltages. This is significantly...

  14. Electrostatic and capillary force directed tunable 3D binary micro- and nanoparticle assemblies on surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, G; Pillai, S; Arpanaei, A; Kingshott, P

    2011-01-01

    We report a simple, rapid and cost-effective method based on evaporation induced assembly to grow 3D binary colloidal assemblies on a hydrophobic/hydrophilic substrate by simple drop casting. The evaporation of a mixed colloidal drop results in ring-like or uniform area deposition depending on the concentration of particles, and thus assembly occurs at the periphery of a ring or uniformly all over the drop area. Binary colloidal assemblies of different crystal structure are successfully prepared over a wide range of size ratios (γ = small/large) from 0.06 to 0.30 by tuning the γ of the micro- and nanoparticles used during assembly. The growth mechanism of 3D binary colloidal assemblies is investigated and it is found that electrostatic forces facilitate assembly formation until the end of the evaporation process, with capillary forces also playing a role. In addition, the effects of solvent type, humidity, and salt concentration on crystal formation and ordering behaviour are also examined. Furthermore, long range, highly ordered binary colloidal assemblies can be fabricated by the choice of a low conducting solvent combined with evaporation induced assembly.

  15. The Ingenious Mr Hughes: Combining Forced, Fat, and Reverse Perspective All in One Art Piece to Pit Objects against Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas V Papathomas

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The artist Patrick Hughes has ingeniously painted rows of stacked Brillo boxes in Forced into Reverse Perspective. The geometry is in reverse perspective, predicting only one type of illusory motion for each planar surface for moving viewers. He “broke” these surfaces into objects by painting the boxes in three types of perspective (planar, forced, and reverse. Our experiments confirmed that he succeeded in eliciting different types of illusory motion, including “differential motion” between boxes for most viewers. In some sense, this illustrates the superiority of secondary (painted over primary (physical cues.

  16. Modelling and experimental verification of tip-induced polarization in Kelvin probe force microscopy measurements on dielectric surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dennis Achton; Popok, Vladimir; Pedersen, Kjeld

    2015-01-01

    Kelvin probe force microscopy is a widely used technique for measuring surface potential distributions on the micro- and nanometer scale. The data are, however, often analyzed qualitatively, especially for dielectrics. In many cases, the phenomenon of polarization and its influence on the measured...... signals is disregarded leading to misinterpretation of the results. In this work, we present a model that allows prediction of the surface potential on a metal/polymer heterostructure as measured by Kelvin probe force microscopy by including the tip-induced polarization of the dielectric that arises...

  17. Evaluation of the Cutting Force Components and the Surface Roughness in the Milling Process of Micro- and Nanocrystalline Titanium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habrat W.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nanocristalline pure titanium in comparison to microcrystalline titanium is characterized by better mechanical properties which influence its wider usability. The aim of the research was to evaluate whether the grain size of pure titanium (micro- and nanocrystalline has influence on the cutting force components and the surface roughness in the milling process. Models of cutting force components for both materials were prepared and differences between the results were examined. The feed rate effect on selected parameters of surface roughness after milling of micro- and nanocrystalline pure titanium was determined.

  18. Variance of a potential of mean force obtained using the weighted histogram analysis method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukier, Robert I

    2013-11-27

    A potential of mean force (PMF) that provides the free energy of a thermally driven system along some chosen reaction coordinate (RC) is a useful descriptor of systems characterized by complex, high dimensional potential energy surfaces. Umbrella sampling window simulations use potential energy restraints to provide more uniform sampling along a RC so that potential energy barriers that would otherwise make equilibrium sampling computationally difficult can be overcome. Combining the results from the different biased window trajectories can be accomplished using the Weighted Histogram Analysis Method (WHAM). Here, we provide an analysis of the variance of a PMF along the reaction coordinate. We assume that the potential restraints used for each window lead to Gaussian distributions for the window reaction coordinate densities and that the data sampling in each window is from an equilibrium ensemble sampled so that successive points are statistically independent. Also, we assume that neighbor window densities overlap, as required in WHAM, and that further-than-neighbor window density overlap is negligible. Then, an analytic expression for the variance of the PMF along the reaction coordinate at a desired level of spatial resolution can be generated. The variance separates into a sum over all windows with two kinds of contributions: One from the variance of the biased window density normalized by the total biased window density and the other from the variance of the local (for each window's coordinate range) PMF. Based on the desired spatial resolution of the PMF, the former variance can be minimized relative to that from the latter. The method is applied to a model system that has features of a complex energy landscape evocative of a protein with two conformational states separated by a free energy barrier along a collective reaction coordinate. The variance can be constructed from data that is already available from the WHAM PMF construction.

  19. Synoptic and mesoscale climate forcing on Antarctic ice shelf surface melt dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmosky, Christopher

    Given that the polar regions, especially the Antarctic Peninsula, have experienced one of the largest temperature increases on Earth over the last few decades, an understanding of Antarctic climate has become more urgent. Ice shelves themselves are located at the intersection of the atmosphere, hydrosphere and the cryosphere---the air-ice-ocean boundary, and are sensitive to changes in any of these media. In addition to being particularly sensitive to changes in climate, ice shelves play an important role in controlling the flow of glaciers into the ocean, which has important implications for sea level changes. In a warming world, an increased understanding of how climate change is affecting Antarctic ice shelves is valuable for assessing vulnerable regions of the Antarctic that may be prone to further instability. This work focuses on determining the underlying climatic processes controlling energy and mass balance responsible for driving melting over ice shelves. A novel melt-magnitude retrieval method is presented that uses Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-derived near-IR reflectance coupled with ice surface temperature as a proxy for surface melt magnitude. This method has a higher spatial resolution than passive microwave melt detection, has the added benefit of retrieving melt magnitude rather than a binary melt occurrence or non-occurrence, but has a lower temporal resolution than either passive-microwave or microwave-scatterometry melt detection. This limitation is a result of the opacity of cloud cover to both visible and IR radiation, requiring more satellite overpasses to obtain spatially contiguous imagery. This work also examines several weather variables associated with a large-extent, long-duration surface melt event on the Ross Ice Shelf. It is shown that cloudy conditions coupled with increased sensible and latent heat flux to the surface were present during the event, and these conditions are consistent with those that induce

  20. Quantifying Uncertainty in Near Surface Electromagnetic Imaging Using Bayesian Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatter, D. B.; Ray, A.; Key, K.

    2017-12-01

    Geoscientists commonly use electromagnetic methods to image the Earth's near surface. Field measurements of EM fields are made (often with the aid an artificial EM source) and then used to infer near surface electrical conductivity via a process known as inversion. In geophysics, the standard inversion tool kit is robust and can provide an estimate of the Earth's near surface conductivity that is both geologically reasonable and compatible with the measured field data. However, standard inverse methods struggle to provide a sense of the uncertainty in the estimate they provide. This is because the task of finding an Earth model that explains the data to within measurement error is non-unique - that is, there are many, many such models; but the standard methods provide only one "answer." An alternative method, known as Bayesian inversion, seeks to explore the full range of Earth model parameters that can adequately explain the measured data, rather than attempting to find a single, "ideal" model. Bayesian inverse methods can therefore provide a quantitative assessment of the uncertainty inherent in trying to infer near surface conductivity from noisy, measured field data. This study applies a Bayesian inverse method (called trans-dimensional Markov chain Monte Carlo) to transient airborne EM data previously collected over Taylor Valley - one of the McMurdo Dry Valleys in Antarctica. Our results confirm the reasonableness of previous estimates (made using standard methods) of near surface conductivity beneath Taylor Valley. In addition, we demonstrate quantitatively the uncertainty associated with those estimates. We demonstrate that Bayesian inverse methods can provide quantitative uncertainty to estimates of near surface conductivity.

  1. Sensitivity of Surface Temperature to Oceanic Forcing via q-Flux Green’s Function Experiments. Part I: Linear Response Function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Fukai; Lu, Jian; Garuba, Oluwayemi A.; Leung, Lai-Yung; Luo, Yiyong; Wan, Xiuquan

    2018-05-01

    This paper explores the use of linear response function (LRF) to relate the mean sea surface temperature (SST) response to prescribed ocean heat convergence (q-flux) forcings. Two methods for constructing the LRF based on the fluctuation-dissipation theorem (FDT) and Green’s function (GRF) are examined. A 900-year preindustrial simulation from the Community Earth System Model with a slab ocean (CESM-SOM) is used to estimate the LRF using FDT. For GRF, 106 pairs of CESM-SOM simulations with warm and cold q-flux patches are performed. FDT is found to have skill in estimating the SST response to a q-flux forcing when the local SST response is strong, but it fails in inverse estimation of the q-flux forcing for a given SST pattern. In contrast, GRF is shown to be reasonably accurate in estimating both SST response and q-flux forcing. Possible degradation in FDT may be attributed to insufficient data sampling, significant departures of the SST data from Gaussian, and the non-normality of the constructed operator. The accurately estimated GRF-based LRF is used to (i) generate a global surface temperature sensitivity map that shows the q-flux forcing in higher latitudes to be three to four times more effective than in low latitudes in producing global surface warming; (ii) identify the most excitable SST mode (neutral vector) resembling Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation; and (iii) estimate a time-invariant q-flux forcing needed for maintaining the GHG-induced SST warming pattern. The GRF experiments will be used to construct LRF for other variables to further explore climate sensitivities and feedbacks.

  2. Interannual Variation of Surface Circulation in the Japan/East Sea due to External Forcings and Intrinsic Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Byoung-Ju; Cho, Seong Hun; Jung, Hee Seok; Lee, Sang-Ho; Byun, Do-Seong; Kwon, Kyungman

    2018-03-01

    The interannual variation of surface ocean currents can be as large as seasonal variation in the Japan/East Sea (JES). To identify the major factors that cause such interannual variability of surface ocean circulation in the JES, surface circulation was simulated from 1998 to 2009 using a three-dimensional model. Contributions of atmospheric forcing (ATM), open boundary data (OBC), and intrinsic variability (ITV) of the surface flow in the JES on the interannual variability of surface ocean circulation were separately examined using numerical simulations. Variability in surface circulation was quantified in terms of variance in sea surface height, 100-m depth water temperature, and surface currents. ITV was found to be the dominant factor that induced interannual variabilities of surface circulation, the main path of the East Korea Warm Current (EKWC), and surface kinetic energy on a time scale of 2-4 years. OBC and ATM were secondary factors contributing to the interannual variation of surface circulation. Interannual variation of ATM changed the separation latitude of EKWC and increased the variability of surface circulation in the Ulleung Basin. Interannual variation of OBC enhanced low-frequency changes in surface circulation and eddies in the Yamato Basin. It also modulated basin-wide uniform oscillations of sea level. This study suggests that precise estimation of initial conditions using data assimilation is essential for long-term prediction of surface circulation in the JES.

  3. A combination method of the theory and experiment in determination of cutting force coefficients in ball-end mill processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Chou Kao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the cutting force calculation of ball-end mill processing was modeled mathematically. All derivations of cutting forces were directly based on the tangential, radial, and axial cutting force components. In the developed mathematical model of cutting forces, the relationship of average cutting force and the feed per flute was characterized as a linear function. The cutting force coefficient model was formulated by a function of average cutting force and other parameters such as cutter geometry, cutting conditions, and so on. An experimental method was proposed based on the stable milling condition to estimate the cutting force coefficients for ball-end mill. This method could be applied for each pair of tool and workpiece. The developed cutting force model has been successfully verified experimentally with very promising results.

  4. Optical description and design method with annularly stitched aspheric surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, De-Wen; Chen, Xue-Jiao; Xu, Chen; Hu, Yuan; Wang, Yong-Tian

    2015-12-01

    The relentless pressure for designs with new optical functions, small volume, and light weight has greatly increased the importance of aspheric surfaces. In this paper, we propose an annularly stitched aspheric surface (ASAS) description method to increase the freedom and flexibility of imaging system design. The rotationally symmetric ASAS consists of a circular central zone and one or more annular zones. Two neighboring zones are constrained to have the same derivatives on their joint curve, and this means the ASAS is C1 continuous. This finding is proved and verified by the mathematical deduction of the surface formulas. Two optimization strategies and two design methods with the C1 continuous constraints are also discussed. This surface can greatly facilitate the design and even achieve some previously impossible designs without increasing the fabrication difficulty. Two different systems with the proposed ASAS are optimized and the results are presented. The design results verified the practicability of the ASAS.

  5. A Method for a Multi-Platform Approach to Generate Gridded Surface Evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badger, A.; Livneh, B.; Small, E. E.; Abolafia-Rosenzweig, R.

    2017-12-01

    Evapotranspiration is an integral component of the surface water balance. While there are many estimates of evapotranspiration, there are fewer estimates that partition evapotranspiration into evaporation and transpiration components. This study aims to generate a CONUS-scale, observationally-based soil evaporation dataset by using the time difference of surface soil moisture by Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite with adjustments for transpiration and a bottom flux out of the surface layer. In concert with SMAP, the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite, North American Land Data Assimilation Systems (NLDAS) and the Hydrus-1D model are used to fully analyze the surface water balance. A biome specific estimate of the total terrestrial ET is calculated through a variation of the Penman-Monteith equation with NLDAS forcing and NLDAS Noah Model output for meteorological variables. A root density restriction and SMAP-based soil moisture restriction are applied to obtain terrestrial transpiration estimates. By forcing Hydrus-1D with NLDAS meteorology and our terrestrial transpiration estimates, an estimate of the flux between the soil surface and root zone layers (qbot) will dictate the proportion of water that is available for soil evaporation. After constraining transpiration and the bottom flux from the surface layer, we estimate soil evaporation as the residual of the surface water balance. Application of this method at Fluxnet sites shows soil evaporation estimates of approximately 0­3 mm/day and less than ET estimates. Expanding this methodology to produce a gridded product for CONUS, and eventually a global-scale product, will enable a better understanding of water balance processes and contribute a dataset to validate land-surface model's surface flux processes.

  6. Multiscale Finite Element Methods for Flows on Rough Surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Efendiev, Yalchin

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present the Multiscale Finite Element Method (MsFEM) for problems on rough heterogeneous surfaces. We consider the diffusion equation on oscillatory surfaces. Our objective is to represent small-scale features of the solution via multiscale basis functions described on a coarse grid. This problem arises in many applications where processes occur on surfaces or thin layers. We present a unified multiscale finite element framework that entails the use of transformations that map the reference surface to the deformed surface. The main ingredients of MsFEM are (1) the construction of multiscale basis functions and (2) a global coupling of these basis functions. For the construction of multiscale basis functions, our approach uses the transformation of the reference surface to a deformed surface. On the deformed surface, multiscale basis functions are defined where reduced (1D) problems are solved along the edges of coarse-grid blocks to calculate nodalmultiscale basis functions. Furthermore, these basis functions are transformed back to the reference configuration. We discuss the use of appropriate transformation operators that improve the accuracy of the method. The method has an optimal convergence if the transformed surface is smooth and the image of the coarse partition in the reference configuration forms a quasiuniform partition. In this paper, we consider such transformations based on harmonic coordinates (following H. Owhadi and L. Zhang [Comm. Pure and Applied Math., LX(2007), pp. 675-723]) and discuss gridding issues in the reference configuration. Numerical results are presented where we compare the MsFEM when two types of deformations are used formultiscale basis construction. The first deformation employs local information and the second deformation employs a global information. Our numerical results showthat one can improve the accuracy of the simulations when a global information is used. © 2013 Global-Science Press.

  7. A facile and cost-effective approach to engineer surface roughness for preparation of large-scale superhydrophobic substrate with high adhesive force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bingpu; Tian, Jingxuan; Wang, Cong; Gao, Yibo; Wen, Weijia

    2016-12-01

    This study presents a convenient avenue to fabricate polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) with controllable surface morphologies and wetting characteristics via standard molding technique. The templates with engineered surface roughness were simply prepared by combinations of microfluidics and photo-polymerization of N-Isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM). The surface morphology of mold could be adjusted via ultraviolet-curing duration or the grafting density, which means that the surface of PDMS sample replicated from the mold could also be easily controlled based on the proposed method. Furthermore, via multiple grafting and replication processes, we have successfully demonstrated that hydrophobicity properties of prepared PDMS samples could be swiftly enhanced to ∼154° with highly adhesive force with resident water droplets. The obtained PDMS samples exhibited well resistance to external mechanical deformation even up to 100 cycles. The proposed scheme is timesaving, cost-effective and suitable for large-scale production of superhydrophobic PDMS substrates. We believe that the presented approach can provide a promising method for preparing superhydrophobic surface with highly adhesive force for on-chip liquid transport, localized reaction, etc.

  8. Electrostatic potential of mean force between two curved surfaces in the presence of counterion connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shiqi

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we investigate effects of counterion connectivity (i.e., association of the counterions into a chain molecule) on the electrostatic potential of mean force (EPMF) between two similarly charged cylinder rods in a primitive model electrolyte solution by solving a classical density functional theory. The main findings include the following: (i) The counterion connectivity helps in inducing a like-charge-attractionlike (LCA-like) phenomenology even in a monovalent counterion solution wherein the LCA-like observation generally does not occur without the counterion connectivity. (ii) For divalent counterion solutions, the counterion connectivity can reinforce or weaken the LCA-like observation depending on the chain length N , and simply increases the equilibrium nearest surface separation of the rods corresponding to the minimum EPMF to nearly three times the counterion site diameter, whether N is large or small. (iii) If N is large enough, the LCA-like strength tends to be negatively correlated with the electrolyte concentration c over the entire range of the rod surface charge magnitude | σ*| considered; whereas if N drops, the correlation tends to become positive with decrease of the | σ*| value, and particularly for modest | σ*| values, the correlation relationship exhibits an extreme value phenomenon. (iv) In the case of a 1:1 electrolyte, the EPMF effects of the diameters of counterion and coion sites are similar in both situations with and without the counterion connectivity. All of these findings can be explained self-consistently by a recently proposed hydrogen-bonding style mechanism reinforced by one additional concept: flexibility of the counterion chain and the factors affecting it, like N and counterion site valence.

  9. Generation of synthetic surface electromyography signals under fatigue conditions for varying force inputs using feedback control algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopal, G; Deepak, P; Ghosh, Diptasree M; Ramakrishnan, S

    2017-11-01

    Surface electromyography is a non-invasive technique used for recording the electrical activity of neuromuscular systems. These signals are random, complex and multi-component. There are several techniques to extract information about the force exerted by muscles during any activity. This work attempts to generate surface electromyography signals for various magnitudes of force under isometric non-fatigue and fatigue conditions using a feedback model. The model is based on existing current distribution, volume conductor relations, the feedback control algorithm for rate coding and generation of firing pattern. The result shows that synthetic surface electromyography signals are highly complex in both non-fatigue and fatigue conditions. Furthermore, surface electromyography signals have higher amplitude and lower frequency under fatigue condition. This model can be used to study the influence of various signal parameters under fatigue and non-fatigue conditions.

  10. Experimental Method for Measuring Dust Load on Surfaces in Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lengweiler, Philip; Nielsen, Peter V.; Moser, Alfred

    , there is a need for better understanding of the mechanism of dust deposition and resuspension. With the presented experimental setup, the dust load on surfaces in a channel can be measured as a function of the environmental and surface conditions and the type of particles under controlled laboratory conditions.......A new experimental setup to investigate the physical process of dust deposition and resuspension on and from surfaces is introduced. Dust deposition can reduce the airborne dust concentration considerably. As a basis for developing methods to eliminate dust-related problems in rooms...

  11. Detachment of polystyrene particles from collector surfaces by surface tension forces induced by air-bubble passage through a parallel plate flow chamber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, PJ; vanderMei, HC; Busscher, HJ

    1997-01-01

    By allowing an air-bubble to pass through a parallel plate flow chamber with negatively charged, colloidal polystyrene particles adhering to the bottom collector plate of the chamber, the detachment of adhering particles stimulated by surface tension forces induced by the passage of a liquid-air

  12. Noise robustness of interferometric surface topography evaluation methods. Correlogram correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiselev, Ilia; Kiselev, Egor I.; Drexel, Michael; Hauptmannl, Michael

    2017-12-01

    Different surface height estimation methods are differently affected by interferometric noise. From a theoretical analysis we obtain height variance estimators for the methods. The estimations allow us to rigorously compare the noise robustness of popular evaluation algorithms. The envelope methods have the highest variances and hence the lowest noise resistances. The noise robustness improves from the envelope to the phase methods, but a technique involving the correlation of correlograms is superior even to the latter. We dwell on some details of this correlogram correlation method and the range of its application.

  13. Cogging force rejection method of linear motor based on internal model principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Chen, Zhenyu; Yang, Tianbo

    2015-02-01

    The cogging force disturbance of linear motor is one of the main factors affecting the positioning accuracy of ultraprecision moving platform. And this drawback could not be completely overcome by improving the design of motor body, such as location modification of permanent magnet array, or optimization design of the shape of teeth-slot. So the active compensation algorithms become prevalent in cogging force rejection area. This paper proposed a control structure based on internal mode principle to attenuate the cogging force of linear motor which deteriorated the accuracy of position, and this structure could make tracking and anti-disturbing performance of close-loop designed respectively. In the first place, the cogging force was seen as the intrinsic property of linear motor and its model constituting controlled object with motor ontology model was obtained by data driven recursive identification method. Then, a control structure was designed to accommodate tracking and anti-interference ability separately by using internal model principle. Finally, the proposed method was verified in a long stroke moving platform driven by linear motor. The experiment results show that, by employing this control strategy, the positioning error caused by cogging force was decreased by 70%.

  14. A Training Method to Improve Police Use of Force Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith P. Andersen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Police safety and use of force decisions during critical incidents are an ongoing source of concern for both police practitioners and the public. Prior research in the area of police performance reveals that psychological and physiological stress responses during critical incidents can shape the outcome of the incident, either positively or negatively. The goal of this study was to test a training method to improve use of force decision making among police. This randomized controlled pilot study consisted of training officers to apply techniques to enhance psychological and physiological control during stressful critical incidents. Of a pool of 80 police officers, potential participants were invited based on equivalent age, years of experience, physiological characteristics (i.e., body mass index [BMI] and cardiovascular reactivity, and expertise. Results revealed that the intervention group displayed significantly better physiological control, situational awareness, and overall performance, and made a greater number of correct use of force decisions than officers in the control group (all ps < .01. The relevant improvements in use of force decision-making found in this pilot study indicate that this training method warrants further investigation. Improved use of force decision making directly translates into potential lifesaving decisions for police and the civilians they are working with.

  15. A 4-Mid-Node Plane Model of Base Force Element Method on Complementary Energy Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinghua Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the base forces as fundamental variables to describe the stress state and the displacement gradients that are the conjugate variables of the base forces to describe the deformation state for the two-dimensional elasticity problems, a 4-mid-node plane model of base force element method (BFEM based on complementary energy principle is proposed. In this paper, the complementary energy of an element of the BFEM is constructed by using the base forces. The equilibrium conditions are released by the Lagrange multiplier method, and a modified complementary energy principle described by the base forces is obtained. The formulation of the 4-mid-node plane element of the BFEM is derived by assuming that the stress is uniformly distributed on each edge of the plane elements. A procedure of the BFEM on complementary energy principle is developed using MATLAB language. The numerical results of examples show that this model of the BFEM has high precision and is free from mesh sensitivity. This model shows good performances.

  16. Separation and concentration of natural products by fast forced adsorption using well-dispersed velvet-like graphitic carbon nitride with response surface methodology optimisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xinru; Zhu, Jun; Zhang, Yue; Xia, Qian; Bi, Wentao; Yang, Xiaodi; Yang, Jinfei

    2016-07-01

    Well-dispersed velvet-like graphitic carbon nitride nanoparticles with a large surface area were prepared and utilized for separation and concentration of bioactive compounds from fruit extracts by fast (20s) forced adsorption. The large surface area, enhanced non-covalent interactions of this nanoparticle with bioactive compounds and good dispersity in different solvents benefited its application as a good sorbent. To evaluate their adsorption capabilities, these carbon nitride nanoparticles were used for separation and concentration of flavonoids from fruit extracts by a forced-adsorption dispersive solid phase extraction method. The combined use of this nanoparticle and our experimental conditions showed excellent precision (3.6-4.7%) and sensitivity (limits of detection (S/N=3): 0.6-3.75ng/mL). This research provides an alternative strategy to prepare suitable sorbents for adsorption, separation and concentration of various compounds from different extracts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A Force Method Model for Dynamic Analysis of Flat-Sag Cable Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Ma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A new force method is proposed for analysing the dynamic behaviour of oscillating cables with small sags. The accepted dynamic model of such cables reduces to a partial differential equation (the equation of motion and an integral equation (the compatibility equation. In the paper, D’Alembert’s travelling wave solution is applied to the partial differential equation (PDE. Substituting the solution into the compatibility and boundary conditions, the governing equation is obtained in terms of the dynamic tension increment. This equation has been named the force method dynamic equation (FMDE. In this way the infinite-degree-of-freedom dynamic system is effectively simplified to a system with only one unknown. Explicit solutions for both single-span and multi-span cable systems are derived. The natural frequencies obtained from the FMDE are shown to be identical to those deduced using the conventional displacement method (DM. Nonlinear governing equations are developed by considering the effect of quadratic and cubic displacement terms. Finally, two examples are presented to illustrate the accuracy of the proposed force method for single and multi-span cable systems subjected to harmonic forces.

  18. Ab initio nonequilibrium quantum transport and forces with the real-space projector augmented wave method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Jingzhe; Thygesen, Kristian S.; Jacobsen, Karsten W.

    2012-01-01

    over k points and real space makes the code highly efficient and applicable to systems containing several hundreds of atoms. The method is applied to a number of different systems, demonstrating the effects of bias and gate voltages, multiterminal setups, nonequilibrium forces, and spin transport....

  19. Validation of a method to predict hammer speed from cable force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara M. Brice

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: This study successfully derived and validated a method that allows prediction of linear hammer speed from directly measured cable force data. Two linear regression models were developed and it was found that either model would be capable of predicting accurate speeds. However, data predicted using the shifted regression model were more accurate.

  20. Improved method for the cutting coefficients calculation in micromilling force modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, P.; Oosterling, J.A.J.; Hoogstrate, A.M.; Langen, H.H.

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the influence of runout on the calculation of the coefficients of mechanistic force models in micromilling. A runout mode is used to study the change of chip thickness, tool angles, and immersion period of two cutting edges of micro endmills due to runout. A new method to find

  1. MDM2-MDM4 molecular interaction investigated by atomic force spectroscopy and surface plasmon resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscetti, Ilaria; Teveroni, Emanuela; Moretti, Fabiola; Bizzarri, Anna Rita; Cannistraro, Salvatore

    Murine double minute 2 (MDM2) and 4 (MDM4) are known as the main negative regulators of p53, a tumor suppressor. They are able to form heterodimers that are much more effective in the downregulation of p53. Therefore, the MDM2-MDM4 complex could be a target for promising therapeutic restoration of p53 function. To this aim, a deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlining the heterodimerization is needed. The kinetic and thermodynamic characterization of the MDM2-MDM4 complex was performed with two complementary approaches: atomic force spectroscopy and surface plasmon resonance. Both techniques revealed an equilibrium dissociation constant (KD ) in the micromolar range for the MDM2-MDM4 heterodimer, similar to related complexes involved in the p53 network. Furthermore, the MDM2-MDM4 complex is characterized by a relatively high free energy, through a single energy barrier, and by a lifetime in the order of tens of seconds. New insights into the MDM2-MDM4 interaction could be highly important for developing innovative anticancer drugs focused on p53 reactivation.

  2. A Force field for tricalcium aluminate to characterize surface properties, initial hydration, and organically modified interfaces in atomic resolution

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, Ratan K.; Fernández Carrasco, Lucía; Flatt, Robert J.; Heinz, Hendrik

    2014-01-01

    Tricalcium aluminate (C3A) is a major phase of Portland cement clinker and some dental root filling cements. An accurate all-atom force field is introduced to examine structural, surface, and hydration properties as well as organic interfaces to overcome challenges using current laboratory instrumentation. Molecular dynamics simulation demonstrates excellent agreement of computed structural, thermal, mechanical, and surface properties with available experimental data. The parameters are integ...

  3. Retention Forces between Titanium and Zirconia Components of Two-Part Implant Abutments with Different Techniques of Surface Modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Maltzahn, Nadine Freifrau; Holstermann, Jan; Kohorst, Philipp

    2016-08-01

    The adhesive connection between titanium base and zirconia coping of two-part abutments may be responsible for the failure rate. A high mechanical stability between both components is essential for the long-term success. The aim of the present in-vitro study was to evaluate the influence of different surface modification techniques and resin-based luting agents on the retention forces between titanium and zirconia components in two-part implant abutments. A total of 120 abutments with a titanium base bonded to a zirconia coping were investigated. Two different resin-based luting agents (Panavia F 2.0 and RelyX Unicem) and six different surface modifications were used to fix these components, resulting in 12 test groups (n = 10). The surface of the test specimens was mechanically pretreated with aluminium oxide blasting in combination with application of two surface activating primers (Alloy Primer, Clearfil Ceramic Primer) or a tribological conditioning (Rocatec), respectively. All specimens underwent 10,000 thermal cycles between 5°C and 55°C in a moist environment. A pull-off test was then conducted to determine retention forces between the titanium and zirconia components, and statistical analysis was performed (two-way anova). Finally, fracture surfaces were analyzed by light and scanning electron microscopy. No significant differences were found between Panavia F 2.0 and RelyX Unicem. However, the retention forces were significantly influenced by the surface modification technique used (p zirconia copings were pretreated with aluminium oxide blasting, and with the application of Clearfil Ceramic Primer. Surface modification techniques crucially influence the retention forces between titanium and zirconia components in two-part implant abutments. All adhesion surfaces should be pretreated by sandblasting. Moreover, a phosphate-based primer serves to enhance long-term retention of the components. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Multi-objective optimization of surface roughness, cutting forces, productivity and Power consumption when turning of Inconel 718

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Tebassi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nickel based super alloys are excellent for several applications and mainly in structural components submitted to high temperatures owing to their high strength to weight ratio, good corrosion resistance and metallurgical stability such as in cases of jet engine and gas turbine components. The current work presents the experimental investigations of the cutting parameters effects (cutting speed, depth of cut and feed rate on the surface roughness, cutting force components, productivity and power consumption during dry conditions in straight turning using coated carbide tool. The mathematical models for output parameters have been developed using Box-Behnken design with 15 runs and Box-Cox transformation was used for improving normality. The results of the analysis have shown that the surface finish was statistically sensitive to the feed rate and cutting speed with the contribution of 43.58% and 23.85% respectively, while depth of cut had the greatest effect on the evolution of cutting force components with the contribution of 79.87% for feed force, 66.92% for radial force and 66.26% for tangential force. Multi-objective optimization procedure allowed minimizing roughness Ra, cutting forces and power consumption and maximizing material removal rate using desirability approach.

  5. A variable pressure method for characterizing nanoparticle surface charge using pore sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Robert; Anderson, Will; Eldridge, James; Glossop, Ben; Willmott, Geoff

    2012-04-03

    A novel method using resistive pulse sensors for electrokinetic surface charge measurements of nanoparticles is presented. This method involves recording the particle blockade rate while the pressure applied across a pore sensor is varied. This applied pressure acts in a direction which opposes transport due to the combination of electro-osmosis, electrophoresis, and inherent pressure. The blockade rate reaches a minimum when the velocity of nanoparticles in the vicinity of the pore approaches zero, and the forces on typical nanoparticles are in equilibrium. The pressure applied at this minimum rate can be used to calculate the zeta potential of the nanoparticles. The efficacy of this variable pressure method was demonstrated for a range of carboxylated 200 nm polystyrene nanoparticles with different surface charge densities. Results were of the same order as phase analysis light scattering (PALS) measurements. Unlike PALS results, the sequence of increasing zeta potential for different particle types agreed with conductometric titration.

  6. Performance of layers submitted to different forced-molting methods and different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sgavioli

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the performance and egg quality of laying hens, in their second laying cycle submitted to different forced-molting methods and three environmental temperatures. Six hundred layers were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with 15 treatments with five replicates of eight birds each, according to 5x3 factorial arrangement (molting methods vs. temperatures. The following forced-molting methods were applied: 90%, 70%, 50% dietary alfalfa inclusion, addition of 2,800 ppm zinc, and feed fasting. Temperatures were: 20 ºC, 27 ºC and 35 ºC. At the end of each period of the second laying cycle, bird performance and egg quality were evaluated. Data were submitted to analysis of variance and means were compared by orthogonal and polynomial contrasts. The highest alfalfa inclusion level (90% alfalfa and 10% basal diet proved to be efficient as compared to the other methods, independently of temperature.

  7. The influence of local volume forces on surface relaxation of pure metals and alloys: Applications to Ni, Al, Ni3Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savino, E.J.; Farkas, D.

    1987-11-01

    We present an analysis of the relative influence of the interatomic potential, lattice structure and defect symmetry on the calculated and measured distortion for the free surfaces of alloys and pure metals. In particular, the effect of using local ''volume'' dependent interactions is studied, as opposed to simple pair interatomic forces. The dependence of the relaxation on the lattice structure is examined by comparing pure metals with ordered alloys. A Green function method for surface relaxation is presented and used for the above analysis as well as for studying the influence of different surface symmetries. Examples based on computer simulation of Ni, Al and Ni 3 Al for some surface orientations are presented. (author). 33 refs, 4 figs

  8. 3D electric field calculation with surface charge method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes an outline and some examples of three dimensional electric field calculations with a computer code developed at NIRS. In the code, a surface charge method is adopted because of it's simplicity in the mesh establishing procedure. The charge density in a triangular mesh is assumed to distribute with a linear function of the position. The electric field distribution is calculated for a pair of drift tubes with the focusing fingers on the opposing surfaces. The field distribution in an acceleration gap is analyzed with a Fourier-Bessel series expansion method. The calculated results excellently reproduces the measured data with a magnetic model. (author)

  9. Nanopatterning on silicon surface using atomic force microscopy with diamond-like carbon (DLC-coated Si probe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Jingfang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Atomic force microscope (AFM equipped with diamond-like carbon (DLC-coated Si probe has been used for scratch nanolithography on Si surfaces. The effect of scratch direction, applied tip force, scratch speed, and number of scratches on the size of the scratched geometry has been investigated. The size of the groove differs with scratch direction, which increases with the applied tip force and number of scratches but decreases slightly with scratch speed. Complex nanostructures of arrays of parallel lines and square arrays are further fabricated uniformly and precisely on Si substrates at relatively high scratch speed. DLC-coated Si probe has the potential to be an alternative in AFM-based scratch nanofabrication on hard surfaces.

  10. An atomic force microscopy study on the transition from mushrooms to octopus surface ''micelles'' by changing the solvent quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stamouli, A.; Pelletier, E.; Koutsos, V; van der Vegte, E.W.; Hadziioannou, G

    1996-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is used to study the behavior of a diblock copolymer onto a solid surface while the solvent quality is changed. In a first step, the copolymer poly(2-vinylpyridine)/polystyrene (P2VP/PS) is adsorbed onto mica from a selective solvent (the PS block is well solvated and

  11. MM99.50 - Surface Topography Characterization Using an Atomic Force Microscope Mounted on a Coordinate Measuring Machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiffre, Leonardo De; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Kofod, Niels

    1999-01-01

    The paper describes the construction, testing and use of an integrated system for topographic characterization of fine surfaces on parts having relatively big dimensions. An atomic force microscope (AFM) was mounted on a manual three-coordinate measuring machine (CMM) achieving free positioning...

  12. Effect of Spectrally Varying Albedo of Vegetation Surfaces on Shortwave Radiation Fluxes and Aerosol Direct Radiative Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, L.; Martins, J. V.; Yu, H.

    2012-01-01

    This study develops an algorithm for representing detailed spectral features of vegetation albedo based on Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) observations at 7 discrete channels, referred to as the MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Albedo (MEVA) algorithm. The MEVA algorithm empirically fills spectral gaps around the vegetation red edge near 0.7 micrometers and vegetation water absorption features at 1.48 and 1.92 micrometers which cannot be adequately captured by the MODIS 7 channels. We then assess the effects of applying MEVA in comparison to four other traditional approaches to calculate solar fluxes and aerosol direct radiative forcing (DRF) at the top of atmosphere (TOA) based on the MODIS discrete reflectance bands. By comparing the DRF results obtained through the MEVA method with the results obtained through the other four traditional approaches, we show that filling the spectral gap of the MODIS measurements around 0.7 micrometers based on the general spectral behavior of healthy green vegetation leads to significant improvement in the instantaneous aerosol DRF at TOA (up to 3.02Wm(exp -2) difference or 48% fraction of the aerosol DRF, .6.28Wm(exp -2), calculated for high spectral resolution surface reflectance from 0.3 to 2.5 micrometers for deciduous vegetation surface). The corrections of the spectral gaps in the vegetation spectrum in the near infrared, again missed by the MODIS reflectances, also contributes to improving TOA DRF calculations but to a much lower extent (less than 0.27Wm(exp -2), or about 4% of the instantaneous DRF). Compared to traditional approaches, MEVA also improves the accuracy of the outgoing solar flux between 0.3 to 2.5 micrometers at TOA by over 60Wm(exp -2) (for aspen 3 surface) and aerosol DRF by over 10Wm(exp -2) (for dry grass). Specifically, for Amazon vegetation types, MEVA can improve the accuracy of daily averaged aerosol radiative forcing in the spectral range of 0.3 to 2.5 micrometers at equator at the

  13. Force Field Benchmark of Organic Liquids: Density, Enthalpy of Vaporization, Heat Capacities, Surface Tension, Isothermal Compressibility, Volumetric Expansion Coefficient, and Dielectric Constant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caleman, Carl; van Maaren, Paul J; Hong, Minyan; Hub, Jochen S; Costa, Luciano T; van der Spoel, David

    2012-01-10

    The chemical composition of small organic molecules is often very similar to amino acid side chains or the bases in nucleic acids, and hence there is no a priori reason why a molecular mechanics force field could not describe both organic liquids and biomolecules with a single parameter set. Here, we devise a benchmark for force fields in order to test the ability of existing force fields to reproduce some key properties of organic liquids, namely, the density, enthalpy of vaporization, the surface tension, the heat capacity at constant volume and pressure, the isothermal compressibility, the volumetric expansion coefficient, and the static dielectric constant. Well over 1200 experimental measurements were used for comparison to the simulations of 146 organic liquids. Novel polynomial interpolations of the dielectric constant (32 molecules), heat capacity at constant pressure (three molecules), and the isothermal compressibility (53 molecules) as a function of the temperature have been made, based on experimental data, in order to be able to compare simulation results to them. To compute the heat capacities, we applied the two phase thermodynamics method (Lin et al. J. Chem. Phys.2003, 119, 11792), which allows one to compute thermodynamic properties on the basis of the density of states as derived from the velocity autocorrelation function. The method is implemented in a new utility within the GROMACS molecular simulation package, named g_dos, and a detailed exposé of the underlying equations is presented. The purpose of this work is to establish the state of the art of two popular force fields, OPLS/AA (all-atom optimized potential for liquid simulation) and GAFF (generalized Amber force field), to find common bottlenecks, i.e., particularly difficult molecules, and to serve as a reference point for future force field development. To make for a fair playing field, all molecules were evaluated with the same parameter settings, such as thermostats and barostats

  14. Modified multiple time scale method for solving strongly nonlinear damped forced vibration systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzak, M. A.; Alam, M. Z.; Sharif, M. N.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, modified multiple time scale (MTS) method is employed to solve strongly nonlinear forced vibration systems. The first-order approximation is only considered in order to avoid complexicity. The formulations and the determination of the solution procedure are very easy and straightforward. The classical multiple time scale (MS) and multiple scales Lindstedt-Poincare method (MSLP) do not give desire result for the strongly damped forced vibration systems with strong damping effects. The main aim of this paper is to remove these limitations. Two examples are considered to illustrate the effectiveness and convenience of the present procedure. The approximate external frequencies and the corresponding approximate solutions are determined by the present method. The results give good coincidence with corresponding numerical solution (considered to be exact) and also provide better result than other existing results. For weak nonlinearities with weak damping effect, the absolute relative error measures (first-order approximate external frequency) in this paper is only 0.07% when amplitude A = 1.5 , while the relative error gives MSLP method is surprisingly 28.81%. Furthermore, for strong nonlinearities with strong damping effect, the absolute relative error found in this article is only 0.02%, whereas the relative error obtained by MSLP method is 24.18%. Therefore, the present method is not only valid for weakly nonlinear damped forced systems, but also gives better result for strongly nonlinear systems with both small and strong damping effect.

  15. Simple method for coating Si (1 0 0) surfaces with ferritin monolayers-Iron oxide quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papadopoulos, Georgios; Anetakis, Constantine; Gravalidis, Christoforos; Kassavetis, Spiros; Vouroutzis, Nikolaos; Frangis, Nikolaos; Logothetidis, Stergios

    2011-01-01

    With the goal to develop iron oxide quantum dots we developed a simple method to spread horse spleen ferritin monolayers on a Si (1 0 0) surface. Application of atomic force microscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry showed the existence of regions with dense ferritin monolayers. Application of transmission electron microscopy identified the core of the spread ferritin as FeO nanocrystals.

  16. Acquisition and deconvolution of seismic signals by different methods to perform direct ground-force measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletto, Flavio; Schleifer, Andrea; Zgauc, Franco; Meneghini, Fabio; Petronio, Lorenzo

    2016-12-01

    We present the results of a novel borehole-seismic experiment in which we used different types of onshore-transient-impulsive and non-impulsive-surface sources together with direct ground-force recordings. The ground-force signals were obtained by baseplate load cells located beneath the sources, and by buried soil-stress sensors installed in the very shallow-subsurface together with accelerometers. The aim was to characterize the source's emission by its complex impedance, function of the near-field vibrations and soil stress components, and above all to obtain appropriate deconvolution operators to remove the signature of the sources in the far-field seismic signals. The data analysis shows the differences in the reference measurements utilized to deconvolve the source signature. As downgoing waves, we process the signals of vertical seismic profiles (VSP) recorded in the far-field approximation by an array of permanent geophones cemented at shallow-medium depth outside the casing of an instrumented well. We obtain a significant improvement in the waveform of the radiated seismic-vibrator signals deconvolved by ground force, similar to that of the seismograms generated by the impulsive sources, and demonstrates that the results obtained by different sources present low values in their repeatability norm. The comparison evidences the potentiality of the direct ground-force measurement approach to effectively remove the far-field source signature in VSP onshore data, and to increase the performance of permanent acquisition installations for time-lapse application purposes.

  17. Mathematical Modelling and Optimization of Cutting Force, Tool Wear and Surface Roughness by Using Artificial Neural Network and Response Surface Methodology in Milling of Ti-6242S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erol Kilickap

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an experimental study was conducted to determine the effect of different cutting parameters such as cutting speed, feed rate, and depth of cut on cutting force, surface roughness, and tool wear in the milling of Ti-6242S alloy using the cemented carbide (WC end mills with a 10 mm diameter. Data obtained from experiments were defined both Artificial Neural Network (ANN and Response Surface Methodology (RSM. ANN trained network using Levenberg-Marquardt (LM and weights were trained. On the other hand, the mathematical models in RSM were created applying Box Behnken design. Values obtained from the ANN and the RSM was found to be very close to the data obtained from experimental studies. The lowest cutting force and surface roughness were obtained at high cutting speeds and low feed rate and depth of cut. The minimum tool wear was obtained at low cutting speed, feed rate, and depth of cut.

  18. Incorporating forcing terms in cascaded lattice Boltzmann approach by method of central moments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premnath, Kannan N; Banerjee, Sanjoy

    2009-09-01

    Cascaded lattice Boltzmann method (cascaded-LBM) employs a class of collision operators aiming to stabilize computations and remove certain modeling artifacts for simulation of fluid flow on lattice grids with sizes arbitrarily larger than the smallest physical dissipation length scale [Geier, Phys. Rev. E 63, 066705 (2006)]. It achieves this and distinguishes from other collision operators, such as in the standard single or multiple relaxation-time approaches, by performing relaxation process due to collisions in terms of moments shifted by the local hydrodynamic fluid velocity, i.e., central moments, in an ascending order by order at different relaxation rates. In this paper, we propose and derive source terms in the cascaded-LBM to represent the effect of external or internal forces on the dynamics of fluid motion. This is essentially achieved by matching the continuous form of the central moments of the source or forcing terms with its discrete version. Different forms of continuous central moments of sources, including one that is obtained from a local Maxwellian, are considered in this regard. As a result, the forcing terms obtained in this formulation are Galilean invariant by construction. To alleviate lattice artifacts due to forcing terms in the emergent macroscopic fluid equations, they are proposed as temporally semi-implicit and second order, and the implicitness is subsequently effectively removed by means of a transformation to facilitate computation. It is shown that the impressed force field influences the cascaded collision process in the evolution of the transformed distribution function. The method of central moments along with the associated orthogonal properties of the moment basis completely determines the analytical expressions for the source terms as a function of the force and macroscopic velocity fields. In contrast to the existing forcing schemes, it is found that they involve higher-order terms in velocity space. It is shown that the

  19. Langevin Dynamics with Variable Coefficients and Nonconservative Forces: From Stationary States to Numerical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Sachs

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Langevin dynamics is a versatile stochastic model used in biology, chemistry, engineering, physics and computer science. Traditionally, in thermal equilibrium, one assumes (i the forces are given as the gradient of a potential and (ii a fluctuation-dissipation relation holds between stochastic and dissipative forces; these assumptions ensure that the system samples a prescribed invariant Gibbs-Boltzmann distribution for a specified target temperature. In this article, we relax these assumptions, incorporating variable friction and temperature parameters and allowing nonconservative force fields, for which the form of the stationary state is typically not known a priori. We examine theoretical issues such as stability of the steady state and ergodic properties, as well as practical aspects such as the design of numerical methods for stochastic particle models. Applications to nonequilibrium systems with thermal gradients and active particles are discussed.

  20. Correction of surface aberration in strain scanning method with analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shobu, Takahisa; Mizuki, Junichiro; Suzuki, Kenji; Akiniwa, Yoshiaki; Tanaka, Keisuke

    2006-01-01

    When a gauge volume sank below a specimen surface, the diffraction angle shifts. Thus, it is required to correct the surface aberration. For the annealed specimen of S45C, the shift in the diffraction angle was investigated using a strain scanning method with Ge (111) analyzer. This phenomenon was caused by the difference in the centroid between the geometric and the instrumental gauge volumes. This difference is explained by the following factors; 1) the change in the gauge volume by the divergence of the analyzer, 2) the X-ray penetration depth, 3) the gap of the centre line between the double receiving slits due to mis-setting the analyzer. As a result, the correcting method considered into these factors was proposed. For the shot-peened specimens of S45C, the diffraction angles were measured and corrected by our method. The distribution of the residual stress agreed with that obtained by the removal method. (author)

  1. Structural health monitoring methods for the evaluation of prestressing forces and pre-release cracks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiba Abdel-Jaber

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Prestressed concrete bridges currently account for 45% of bridges built in the last five years in the United States. This has resulted in an increase in the number of deficient bridges composed of prestressed concrete, which requires a better understanding of the on-site performance of this building material. The use of new materials, such as high performance concrete, in conjunction with prestressing provides additional motivation for the creation of structural health monitoring (SHM methods for prestressed concrete. This paper identifies two parameters relevant to prestressed concrete, along with methods for their evaluation. The parameters evaluated are the prestressing force value at transfer and the width of pre-release cracks, both of which are indicators of structural performance. Improper transfer of the prestressing force can result in tensile stresses in the concrete that exceed capacity and result in cracks and/or excessive deflections. Pre-release cracks occur in the concrete prior to transfer of the prestressing force and are mainly caused by autogenous shrinkage and thermal gradients. Closure of the cracks is expected by virtue of prestressing force transfer. However, the extent of crack closure is important in order to guarantee durability and structural integrity. This paper presents an integral overview of two novel methods for the statistical evaluation of the two monitored parameters: prestressing forces and the width of pre-release cracks. Validation of the methods is performed through application to two structures, both of which are components of Streicker Bridge on the Princeton University campus. Uncertainties are evaluated and thresholds for unusual behavior are set through the application.

  2. Cavity method for force transmission in jammed disordered packings of hard particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Lin; Mari, Romain; Song, Chaoming; Makse, Hernán A

    2014-10-07

    The force distribution of jammed disordered packings has always been considered a central object in the physics of granular materials. However, many of its features are poorly understood. In particular, analytic relations to other key macroscopic properties of jammed matter, such as the contact network and its coordination number, are still lacking. Here we develop a mean-field theory for this problem, based on the consideration of the contact network as a random graph where the force transmission becomes a constraint satisfaction problem. We can thus use the cavity method developed in the past few decades within the statistical physics of spin glasses and hard computer science problems. This method allows us to compute the force distribution P(f) for random packings of hard particles of any shape, with or without friction. We find a new signature of jamming in the small force behavior P(f) ∼ f(θ), whose exponent has attracted recent active interest: we find a finite value for P(f = 0), along with θ = 0. Furthermore, we relate the force distribution to a lower bound of the average coordination number z[combining macron](μ) of jammed packings of frictional spheres with coefficient μ. This bridges the gap between the two known isostatic limits z[combining macron]c (μ = 0) = 2D (in dimension D) and z[combining macron]c(μ → ∞) = D + 1 by extending the naive Maxwell's counting argument to frictional spheres. The theoretical framework describes different types of systems, such as non-spherical objects in arbitrary dimensions, providing a common mean-field scenario to investigate force transmission, contact networks and coordination numbers of jammed disordered packings.

  3. Method and Apparatus for Creating a Topography at a Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, David P.; Sinclair, Michael B.; Mayer, Thomas M.; Vasile, Michael J.; Sweatt, William C.

    2008-11-11

    Methods and apparatus whereby an optical interferometer is utilized to monitor and provide feedback control to an integrated energetic particle column, to create desired topographies, including the depth, shape and/or roughness of features, at a surface of a specimen. Energetic particle columns can direct energetic species including, ions, photons and/or neutral particles to a surface to create features having in-plane dimensions on the order of 1 micron, and a height or depth on the order of 1 nanometer. Energetic processes can include subtractive processes such as sputtering, ablation, focused ion beam milling and, additive processes, such as energetic beam induced chemical vapor deposition. The integration of interferometric methods with processing by energetic species offers the ability to create desired topographies at surfaces, including planar and curved shapes.

  4. Multi-phase-field method for surface tension induced elasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiedung, Raphael; Steinbach, Ingo; Varnik, Fathollah

    2018-01-01

    A method, based on the multi-phase-field framework, is proposed that adequately accounts for the effects of a coupling between surface free energy and elastic deformation in solids. The method is validated via a number of analytically solvable problems. In addition to stress states at mechanical equilibrium in complex geometries, the underlying multi-phase-field framework naturally allows us to account for the influence of surface energy induced stresses on phase transformation kinetics. This issue, which is of fundamental importance on the nanoscale, is demonstrated in the limit of fast diffusion for a solid sphere, which melts due to the well-known Gibbs-Thompson effect. This melting process is slowed down when coupled to surface energy induced elastic deformation.

  5. Temperature sensitive surfaces and methods of making same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Liang [Richland, WA; Rieke, Peter C [Pasco, WA; Alford, Kentin L [Pasco, WA

    2002-09-10

    Poly-n-isopropylacrylamide surface coatings demonstrate the useful property of being able to switch charateristics depending upon temperature. More specifically, these coatings switch from being hydrophilic at low temperature to hydrophobic at high temperature. Research has been conducted for many years to better characterize and control the properties of temperature sensitive coatings. The present invention provides novel temperature sensitive coatings on articles and novel methods of making temperature sensitive coatings that are disposed on the surfaces of various articles. These novel coatings contain the reaction products of n-isopropylacrylamide and are characterized by their properties such as advancing contact angles. Numerous other characteristics such as coating thickness, surface roughness, and hydrophilic-to-hydrophobic transition temperatures are also described. The present invention includes articles having temperature-sensitve coatings with improved properties as well as improved methods for forming temperature sensitive coatings.

  6. Localized surface plasmon resonance mercury detection system and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Jay; Lucas, Donald; Crosby, Jeffrey Scott; Koshland, Catherine P.

    2016-03-22

    A mercury detection system that includes a flow cell having a mercury sensor, a light source and a light detector is provided. The mercury sensor includes a transparent substrate and a submonolayer of mercury absorbing nanoparticles, e.g., gold nanoparticles, on a surface of the substrate. Methods of determining whether mercury is present in a sample using the mercury sensors are also provided. The subject mercury detection systems and methods find use in a variety of different applications, including mercury detecting applications.

  7. Hydrological assessment of atmospheric forcing uncertainty in the Euro-Mediterranean area using a land surface model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelati, Emiliano; Decharme, Bertrand; Calvet, Jean-Christophe; Minvielle, Marie; Polcher, Jan; Fairbairn, David; Weedon, Graham P.

    2018-04-01

    Physically consistent descriptions of land surface hydrology are crucial for planning human activities that involve freshwater resources, especially in light of the expected climate change scenarios. We assess how atmospheric forcing data uncertainties affect land surface model (LSM) simulations by means of an extensive evaluation exercise using a number of state-of-the-art remote sensing and station-based datasets. For this purpose, we use the CO2-responsive ISBA-A-gs LSM coupled with the CNRM version of the Total Runoff Integrated Pathways (CTRIP) river routing model. We perform multi-forcing simulations over the Euro-Mediterranean area (25-75.5° N, 11.5° W-62.5° E, at 0.5° resolution) from 1979 to 2012. The model is forced using four atmospheric datasets. Three of them are based on the ERA-Interim reanalysis (ERA-I). The fourth dataset is independent from ERA-Interim: PGF, developed at Princeton University. The hydrological impacts of atmospheric forcing uncertainties are assessed by comparing simulated surface soil moisture (SSM), leaf area index (LAI) and river discharge against observation-based datasets: SSM from the European Space Agency's Water Cycle Multi-mission Observation Strategy and Climate Change Initiative projects (ESA-CCI), LAI of the Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS), and Global Runoff Data Centre (GRDC) river discharge. The atmospheric forcing data are also compared to reference datasets. Precipitation is the most uncertain forcing variable across datasets, while the most consistent are air temperature and SW and LW radiation. At the monthly timescale, SSM and LAI simulations are relatively insensitive to forcing uncertainties. Some discrepancies with ESA-CCI appear to be forcing-independent and may be due to different assumptions underlying the LSM and the remote sensing retrieval algorithm. All simulations overestimate average summer and early-autumn LAI. Forcing uncertainty impacts on simulated river discharge are

  8. Calibration of atomic force microscope cantilevers using standard and inverted static methods assisted by FIB-milled spatial markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, Ashley D; Blanch, Adam J; Quinton, Jamie S; Gibson, Christopher T

    2013-01-11

    Static methods to determine the spring constant of AFM cantilevers have been widely used in the scientific community since the importance of such calibration techniques was established nearly 20 years ago. The most commonly used static techniques involve loading a trial cantilever with a known force by pressing it against a pre-calibrated standard or reference cantilever. These reference cantilever methods have a number of sources of uncertainty, which include the uncertainty in the measured spring constant of the standard cantilever, the exact position of the loading point on the reference cantilever and how closely the spring constant of the trial and reference cantilever match. We present a technique that enables users to minimize these uncertainties by creating spatial markers on reference cantilevers using a focused ion beam (FIB). We demonstrate that by combining FIB spatial markers with an inverted reference cantilever method, AFM cantilevers can be accurately calibrated without the tip of the test cantilever contacting a surface. This work also demonstrates that for V-shaped cantilevers it is possible to determine the precise loading position by AFM imaging the section of the cantilever where the two arms join. Removing tip-to-surface contact in both the reference cantilever method and sensitivity calibration is a significant improvement, since this is an important consideration for AFM users that require the imaging tip to remain in pristine condition before commencing measurements. Uncertainties of between 5 and 10% are routinely achievable with these methods.

  9. A simple method for fabrication of filler-free stretchable polydimethylsiloxane surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacharouche, Jalal; Kunemann, Philippe; Fioux, Philippe; Vallat, Marie-France; Lalevée, Jacques [Institut de Sciences des Materiaux de Mulhouse, IS2M – C.N.R.S., LRC 7228 – UHA, 15, Rue Jean Starcky, 68057 Mulhouse Cedex (France); Hemmerlé, Joseph [Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, I.N.S.E.R.M. – Unite 595, 11, Rue Humann, 67085 Strasbourg Cedex (France); Roucoules, Vincent, E-mail: Vincent.Roucoules@uha.fr [Institut de Sciences des Materiaux de Mulhouse, IS2M – C.N.R.S., LRC 7228 – UHA, 15, Rue Jean Starcky, 68057 Mulhouse Cedex (France)

    2013-04-01

    We propose a simple method to elaborate a filler-free stretchable PDMS surface strong enough to resist to successive elongation/retraction cycles even at high degree of stretching. It consists in creating free radicals on a filler-containing PDMS surface by argon plasma exposure and reacting them with a filler-free PDMS resin during the crosslinking step. Changes of physical and chemical properties upon plasma modification are monitored by FTIR and XPS spectroscopies, contact angle measurements and atomic force microscopy. Electron spin resonance (ESR) is used to identify the nature of radicals involved in interfacial bonding. Although a brittle silica-like layer is created on the filler-containing PDMS surface after plasma treatment, an increase in the PDMS/PDMS interfacial strength is observed and a high interfacial resistance has been found under elongation/retraction (stretching/relaxation) cycles.

  10. Knowledge-Based Trajectory Error Pattern Method Applied to an Active Force Control Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endra Pitowarno, Musa Mailah, Hishamuddin Jamaluddin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The active force control (AFC method is known as a robust control scheme that dramatically enhances the performance of a robot arm particularly in compensating the disturbance effects. The main task of the AFC method is to estimate the inertia matrix in the feedback loop to provide the correct (motor torque required to cancel out these disturbances. Several intelligent control schemes have already been introduced to enhance the estimation methods of acquiring the inertia matrix such as those using neural network, iterative learning and fuzzy logic. In this paper, we propose an alternative scheme called Knowledge-Based Trajectory Error Pattern Method (KBTEPM to suppress the trajectory track error of the AFC scheme. The knowledge is developed from the trajectory track error characteristic based on the previous experimental results of the crude approximation method. It produces a unique, new and desirable error pattern when a trajectory command is forced. An experimental study was performed using simulation work on the AFC scheme with KBTEPM applied to a two-planar manipulator in which a set of rule-based algorithm is derived. A number of previous AFC schemes are also reviewed as benchmark. The simulation results show that the AFC-KBTEPM scheme successfully reduces the trajectory track error significantly even in the presence of the introduced disturbances.Key Words:  Active force control, estimated inertia matrix, robot arm, trajectory error pattern, knowledge-based.

  11. Method and apparatus for aligning laser reflective surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caruolo, A.B.; Davis, J.W.; Walch, A.P.

    1975-01-01

    Methods and apparatus used in the alignment of high power laser systems to obtain optimum performance are disclosed. An external source of visible radiation provides an alignment beam which is reflected along the axis of a resonator. Reflecting surfaces of the resonator are aligned with respect to the axis located by the visible beam

  12. An alternative safer and cost effective surface sterilization method for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Regardless of its serious health effect, mercury chloride is frequently utilized for surface sterilization to mitigate microbial contamination in sugarcane tissue culture. The current study aimed at finding an alternative safer and cost effective sterilization method to substitute mercury chloride. In the study, sugarcane shoot tip ...

  13. Response surface method to optimize the low cost medium for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A protease producing Bacillus sp. GA CAS10 was isolated from ascidian Phallusia arabica, Tuticorin, Southeast coast of India. Response surface methodology was employed for the optimization of different nutritional and physical factors for the production of protease. Plackett-Burman method was applied to identify ...

  14. Surface sterilization method for reducing microbial contamination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An effective disinfection method for strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) cv. Senga Sengana micropropagation using runner tips and nodal segments as explants was developed. The explants were surface sterilized with different sterilants for different durations. The present studies on the effect of different regimes of ...

  15. An alternative safer and cost effective surface sterilization method for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2013-10-30

    Oct 30, 2013 ... Regardless of its serious health effect, mercury chloride is frequently utilized for surface sterilization to mitigate microbial contamination in sugarcane tissue culture. The current study aimed at finding an alternative safer and cost effective sterilization method to substitute mercury chloride. In the study,.

  16. Comparison of surface sampling methods for virus recovery from fomites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julian, Timothy R; Tamayo, Francisco J; Leckie, James O; Boehm, Alexandria B

    2011-10-01

    The role of fomites in infectious disease transmission relative to other exposure routes is difficult to discern due, in part, to the lack of information on the level and distribution of virus contamination on surfaces. Comparisons of studies intending to fill this gap are difficult because multiple different sampling methods are employed and authors rarely report their method's lower limit of detection. In the present study, we compare a subset of sampling methods identified from a literature review to demonstrate that sampling method significantly influences study outcomes. We then compare a subset of methods identified from the review to determine the most efficient methods for recovering virus from surfaces in a laboratory trial using MS2 bacteriophage as a model virus. Recoveries of infective MS2 and MS2 RNA are determined using both a plaque assay and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR, respectively. We conclude that the method that most effectively recovers virus from nonporous fomites uses polyester-tipped swabs prewetted in either one-quarter-strength Ringer's solution or saline solution. This method recovers a median fraction for infective MS2 of 0.40 and for MS2 RNA of 0.07. Use of the proposed method for virus recovery in future fomite sampling studies would provide opportunities to compare findings across multiple studies.

  17. Double forced sling by combining in situ vaginal wall and Infast pubic bone suburethral stabilization techniques: a new method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayigil, Onder; Biri, Aydan

    2002-06-01

    We evaluated the results and effectiveness of the double forced sling by combining in situ vaginal wall and Infast (Influence, Inc., San Francisco, California) pubic bone suburethral stabilization techniques as a new method. The new technique was used in 40 patients, of whom 32 completed 2 years of followup. Previous surgery included hysterectomy in 8 cases, anterior and posterior vaginal wall repair in 6, and 1 or 2 incontinence procedures in 24. Types 2, 3 and mixed incontinence were diagnosed in 12, 12 and 8 patients, respectively. With this technique a gelatin coated synthetic sling was fixed to the previously prepared vaginal sling surface with watertight stitches to create a doubled forced sling, which was fixed to the pubic bone with 2 screws using an Infast inserter. Patient outcomes were evaluated by questionnaire analysis and the pad test. The cure, improvement and failure rates were 81.25%, 6.25% and 12.5% in the 32 patients who completed 2 years of followup. Surprisingly successful results were achieved in all 24 secondary cases. Moderate cystocele in 4 patients and rectocele in 8 were corrected simultaneously. Temporary urinary retention in 4 patients resolved in 2 weeks. Of the 32 patients 28 reported that they would repeat the procedure and recommend it to others. The double forced sling has 2 advantages that make it superior to other techniques, namely a minimal complication rate and enhanced support accomplished by an easy and noninvasive technique.

  18. An Experimental Study On Drill Vibration Thrust Force And Surface Roughness In Drilling Of SCFCarbon Fibre Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Amar Babu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present work SCFcarbon composite was prepared with a commercially available vinylester methyl ethyl ketone peroxide catalyst and cobalt napthenate accelerator. The prepared composite is aimed to use in aircraft application. The composite is treated to improve the characteristics of SCFCarbon. Drilling characteristics were studied for both treated and untreated composites. As per Taguchi orthogonal array of L8 eight experiments were conducted on the composites and machining characteristics like thrust force surface roughness and amplitude of drill vibration were measured. Interaction effect of parameter on the machine characteristics was studied using response surface methodology. Analysis of variance was also used to identify significant parameters for the three machining characteristics. A multi response optimization technique was used to optimise parameters for minimization of thrust force surface roughness and amplitude of drill vibration.

  19. Surface zwitterionization: Effective method for preventing oral bacterial biofilm formation on hydroxyapatite surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myoungjin; Kim, Heejin; Seo, Jiae; Kang, Minji; Kang, Sunah; Jang, Joomyung; Lee, Yan; Seo, Ji-Hun

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we conducted surface zwitterionization of hydroxyapatite (HA) surfaces by immersing them in the zwitterionic polymer solutions to provide anti-bacterial properties to the HA surface. Three different monomers containing various zwitterionic groups, i.e., phosphorylcholine (PC), sulfobetaine (SB), and carboxybetaine (CB), were copolymerized with the methacrylic monomer containing a Ca2+-binding moiety, using the free radical polymerization method. As a control, functionalization of the copolymer containing the Ca2+-binding moiety was synthesized using a hydroxy group. The stable immobilization of the zwitterionic functional groups was confirmed by water contact angle analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurement conducted after the sonication process. The zwitterionized HA surface showed significantly decreased protein adsorption, whereas the hydroxyl group-coated HA surface showed limited efficacy. The anti-bacterial adhesion property was confirmed by conducting Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) adhesion tests for 6 h and 24 h. When furanone C-30, a representative anti-quorum sensing molecule for S. mutans, was used, only a small amount of bacteria adhered after 6 h and the population did not increase after 24 h. In contrast, zwitterionized HA surfaces showed almost no bacterial adhesion after 6 h and the effect was retained for 24 h, resulting in the lowest level of oral bacterial adhesion. These results confirm that surface zwitterionization is a promising method to effectively prevent oral bacterial adhesion on HA-based materials.

  20. Comparative Analysis of 3D Bladder Tumor Spheroids Obtained by Forced Floating and Hanging Drop Methods for Drug Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson L. F. Amaral

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cell-based assays using three-dimensional (3D cell cultures may reflect the antitumor activity of compounds more accurately, since these models reproduce the tumor microenvironment better.Methods: Here, we report a comparative analysis of cell behavior in the two most widely employed methods for 3D spheroid culture, forced floating (Ultra-low Attachment, ULA, plates, and hanging drop (HD methods, using the RT4 human bladder cancer cell line as a model. The morphology parameters and growth/metabolism of the spheroids generated were first characterized, using four different cell-seeding concentrations (0.5, 1.25, 2.5, and 3.75 × 104 cells/mL, and then, subjected to drug resistance evaluation.Results: Both methods generated spheroids with a smooth surface and round shape in a spheroidization time of about 48 h, regardless of the cell-seeding concentration used. Reduced cell growth and metabolism was observed in 3D cultures compared to two-dimensional (2D cultures. The optimal range of spheroid diameter (300–500 μm was obtained using cultures initiated with 0.5 and 1.25 × 104 cells/mL for the ULA method and 2.5 and 3.75 × 104 cells/mL for the HD method. RT4 cells cultured under 3D conditions also exhibited a higher resistance to doxorubicin (IC50 of 1.00 and 0.83 μg/mL for the ULA and HD methods, respectively compared to 2D cultures (IC50 ranging from 0.39 to 0.43.Conclusions: Comparing the results, we concluded that the forced floating method using ULA plates was considered more suitable and straightforward to generate RT4 spheroids for drug screening/cytotoxicity assays. The results presented here also contribute to the improvement in the standardization of the 3D cultures required for widespread application.

  1. A novel test method for quantifying surface tack of polypropylene compound surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available While adhesiveness is required for polymer surfaces in special applications, tacky surfaces are generally undesirable in many applications like automotive interior parts. The tackiness of polymer surface results from a combination of composition and additivation, and it can change significantly in natural or accelerated ageing. Since there is no established, uniform method to characterize surface tack, the major focus of the present work was on the development of an objective quantification method. A setup having a soft die tip attached to a standard tensile tester was developed aiming for correlation to the human sense of touch. Three different model thermoplastic polyolefin (TPO compound formulations based on a high-impact isotactic polypropylene (iPP composition with varying amounts and types of anti-scratch additives were used for these investigations. As the surface tack phenomenon is related to ageing and weathering, the material’s examination was also performed after various intervals of weathering. The developed method allows a fast assessment of the effect of polymer composition variations and different additive formulations on surface tack and gives identical rankings as the standardized haptic panel.

  2. Impacts of urban land-surface forcing on ozone air quality in the Seoul metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.-H. Ryu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Modified local meteorology owing to heterogeneities in the urban–rural surface can affect urban air quality. In this study, the impacts of urban land-surface forcing on ozone air quality during a high ozone (O3 episode in the Seoul metropolitan area, South Korea, are investigated using a high-resolution chemical transport model (CMAQ. Under fair weather conditions, the temperature excess (urban heat island significantly modifies boundary layer characteristics/structures and local circulations. The modified boundary layer and local circulations result in an increase in O3 levels in the urban area of 16 ppb in the nighttime and 13 ppb in the daytime. Enhanced turbulence in the deep urban boundary layer dilutes pollutants such as NOx, and this contributes to the elevated O3 levels through the reduced O3 destruction by NO in the NOx-rich environment. The advection of O3 precursors over the mountains near Seoul by the prevailing valley-breeze circulation in the mid- to late morning results in the build-up of O3 over the mountains in conjunction with biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC emissions there. As the prevailing local circulation in the afternoon changes to urban-breeze circulation, the O3-rich air masses over the mountains are advected over the urban area. The urban-breeze circulation exerts significant influences on not only the advection of O3 but also the chemical production of O3 under the circumstances in which both anthropogenic and biogenic (natural emissions play important roles in O3 formation. As the air masses that are characterized by low NOx and high BVOC levels and long OH chain length are advected over the urban area from the surroundings, the ozone production efficiency increases in the urban area. The relatively strong vertical mixing in the urban boundary layer embedded in the

  3. Experimental and numerical modelling of surface water-groundwater flow and pollution interactions under tidal forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanoudaki, Katerina; Bockelmann-Evans, Bettina; Schaefer, Florian; Kampanis, Nikolaos; Nanou-Giannarou, Aikaterini; Stamou, Anastasios; Falconer, Roger

    2015-04-01

    Surface water and groundwater are integral components of the hydrologic continuum and the interaction between them affects both their quantity and quality. However, surface water and groundwater are often considered as two separate systems and are analysed independently. This separation is partly due to the different time scales, which apply in surface water and groundwater flows and partly due to the difficulties in measuring and modelling their interactions (Winter et al., 1998). Coastal areas in particular are a difficult hydrologic environment to represent with a mathematical model due to the large number of contributing hydrologic processes. Accurate prediction of interactions between coastal waters, groundwater and neighbouring wetlands, for example, requires the use of integrated surface water-groundwater models. In the past few decades a large number of mathematical models and field methods have been developed in order to quantify the interaction between groundwater and hydraulically connected surface water bodies. Field studies may provide the best data (Hughes, 1995) but are usually expensive and involve too many parameters. In addition, the interpretation of field measurements and linking with modelling tools often proves to be difficult. In contrast, experimental studies are less expensive and provide controlled data. However, experimental studies of surface water-groundwater interaction are less frequently encountered in the literature than filed studies (e.g. Ebrahimi et al., 2007; Kuan et al., 2012; Sparks et al., 2013). To this end, an experimental model has been constructed at the Hyder Hydraulics Laboratory at Cardiff University to enable measurements to be made of groundwater transport through a sand embankment between a tidal water body such as an estuary and a non-tidal water body such as a wetland. The transport behaviour of a conservative tracer was studied for a constant water level on the wetland side of the embankment, while running a

  4. Influence of 21st century atmospheric and sea surface temperature forcing on West African climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skinner, Chris B [Stanford University; Ashfaq, Moetasim [ORNL; Diffenbaugh, Noah [Stanford University

    2011-01-01

    he persistence of extended drought events throughout West Africa during the 20th century has motivated a substantial effort to understand the mechanisms driving African climate variability, as well as the possible response to elevated greenhouse gas (GHG) forcing. We use an ensemble of global climate model experiments to examine the relative roles of future direct atmospheric radiative forcing and SST forcing in shaping potential future changes in boreal summer precipitation over West Africa. We find that projected increases in precipitation throughout the Western Sahel result primarily from direct atmospheric radiative forcing. The changes in atmospheric forcing generate a slight northward displacement and weakening of the African easterly jet (AEJ), a strengthening of westward monsoon flow onto West Africa and an intensification of the tropical easterly jet (TEJ). Alternatively, we find that the projected decreases in precipitation over much of the Guinea Coast region are caused by SST changes that are induced by the atmospheric radiative forcing. The changes in SSTs generate a weakening of the monsoon westerlies and the TEJ, as well as a decrease in low-level convergence and resultant rising air throughout the mid levels of the troposphere. Our experiments suggest a potential shift in the regional moisture balance of West Africa should global radiative forcing continue to increase, highlighting the importance of climate system feedbacks in shaping the response of regional-scale climate to global-scale changes in radiative forcing.

  5. Imaging three-dimensional surface objects with submolecular resolution by atomic force microscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moreno, C.; Stetsovych, Oleksandr; Shimizu, T.K.; Custance, O.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 4 (2015), s. 2257-2262 ISSN 1530-6984 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : noncontact atomic force microscopy (NC- AFM ) * submolecular resolution * three-dimensional dynamic force spectroscopy * high-resolution imaging Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 13.779, year: 2015

  6. Two Surface-Tension Formulations For The Level Set Interface-Tracking Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepel, S.V.; Smith, B.L.

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes a comparative study of two surface-tension models for the Level Set interface tracking method. In both models, the surface tension is represented as a body force, concentrated near the interface, but the technical implementation of the two options is different. The first is based on a traditional Level Set approach, in which the surface tension is distributed over a narrow band around the interface using a smoothed Delta function. In the second model, which is based on the integral form of the fluid-flow equations, the force is imposed only in those computational cells through which the interface passes. Both models have been incorporated into the Finite-Element/Finite-Volume Level Set method, previously implemented into the commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code CFX-4. A critical evaluation of the two models, undertaken in the context of four standard Level Set benchmark problems, shows that the first model, based on the smoothed Delta function approach, is the more general, and more robust, of the two. (author)

  7. A review on data and predictions of water dielectric spectra for calculations of van der Waals surface forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianlong; Nguyen, Anh V

    2017-12-01

    Van der Waals forces are one of the important components of intermolecular, colloidal and surface forces governing many phenomena and processes. The latest examples include the colloidal interactions between hydrophobic colloids and interfaces in ambient (non-degassed) water in which dissolved gases and nanobubbles are shown to affect the van der Waals attractions significantly. The advanced computation of van der Waals forces in aqueous systems by the Lifshitz theory requires reliable data for water dielectric spectra. In this paper we review the available predictions of water dielectric spectra for calculating colloidal and surface van der Waals forces. Specifically, the available experimental data for the real and imaginary parts of the complex dielectric function of liquid water in the microwave, IR and UV regions and various corresponding predictions of the water spectra are critically reviewed. The data in the UV region are critical, but the available predictions are still based on the outdated data obtained in 1974 (for frequency only up to 25.5eV). We also reviewed and analysed the experimental data obtained for the UV region in 2000 (for frequency up to 50eV) and 2015 (for frequency up to 100eV). The 1974 and 2000 data require extrapolations to higher frequencies needed for calculating the van der Waals forces but remain inaccurate. Our analysis shows that the latest data of 2015 do not require the extrapolation and can be used to reliably calculate van der Waals forces. The most recent water dielectric spectra gives the (non-retarded) Hamaker constant, A=5.20×10 -20 J, for foam films of liquid water. This review provides the most updated and reliable water dielectric spectra to compute van der Waals forces in aqueous systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Advances in calibration methods for micro- and nanoscale surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, R. K.; Giusca, C. L.; Coupland, J. M.

    2012-04-01

    Optical surface topography measuring instrument manufacturers often quote accuracies of the order of nanometres and claim that the instruments can reliably measure a range of surfaces with structures on the micro- to nanoscale. However, for many years there has been debate about the interpretation of the data from optical surface topography measuring instruments. Optical artefacts in the output data and a lack of a calibration infrastructure mean that it can be difficult to get optical instruments to agree with contact stylus instruments. In this paper, the current situation with areal surface topography measurements is discussed along with the ISO specification standards that are in draft form. An infrastructure is discussed whereby the ISO-defined metrological characteristics of optical instruments can be determined, but these characteristics do not allow the instrument to measure complex surfaces. Current research into methods for determining the transfer function of optical instruments is reviewed, which will allow the calibration of optical instruments to measure complex surfaces, at least in the case of weak scattering. The ability of some optical instruments to measure outside the spatial bandwidth limitation of the numerical aperture is presented and some general outlook for future work given.

  9. Optical triangulation method for height measurements on water surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Hans-Gerd; Hentschel, Bernd; Schreiber, Frank

    2003-01-01

    Optical triangulation methods based on a laser light sheet and a camera are frequently used as a surface measurement technique in a wide range of applications. They allow for the fast accurate determination of height profiles, based on relatively simple hardware and software configurations. Moreover, they can be implemented very efficiently and are especially suited for measurements on moving objects such as products on an assembly line. The study presented in the paper describes the adaptation of laser light sheet optical triangulation techniques to the task of water level profile measurements in hydromechanics experimental facilities. The properties of water surfaces necessitate several modifications of optical triangulation techniques to make them applicable: The mirror-like reflection properties of water surfaces form a contradiction to the assumption of diffuse reflection, on which standard light sheet triangulation techniques are based; this problem can be circumvented by using a diffuse reflecting projection plane to capture the mirror-like reflection of the laser line from the water surface. Due to the angle of incidence law, however, water surface tilts caused by waves will usually cause a strong degradation of the quality of the results when using reflected light; this effect can largely be compensated by processing max-store images derived from short image sequences rather than single images. These extensions of optical triangulation turned out to be crucial for the applicability of the method on water surfaces. Besides the theoretical concept and a sensitivity analysis of the method, a system configuration is outlined, and the results of a number of practical experiments are shown and discussed.

  10. Experimental investigation and modelling of surface roughness and resultant cutting force in hard turning of AISI H13 Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boy, M.; Yaşar, N.; Çiftçi, İ.

    2016-11-01

    In recent years, turning of hardened steels has replaced grinding for finishing operations. This process is compared to grinding operations; hard turning has higher material removal rates, the possibility of greater process flexibility, lower equipment costs, and shorter setup time. CBN or ceramic cutting tools are widely used hard part machining. For successful application of hard turning, selection of suitable cutting parameters for a given cutting tool is an important step. For this purpose, an experimental investigation was conducted to determine the effects of cutting tool edge geometry, feed rate and cutting speed on surface roughness and resultant cutting force in hard turning of AISI H13 steel with ceramic cutting tools. Machining experiments were conducted in a CNC lathe based on Taguchi experimental design (L16) in different levels of cutting parameters. In the experiments, a Kistler 9257 B, three cutting force components (Fc, Ff and Fr) piezoelectric dynamometer was used to measure cutting forces. Surface roughness measurements were performed by using a Mahrsurf PS1 device. For statistical analysis, analysis of variance has been performed and mathematical model have been developed for surface roughness and resultant cutting forces. The analysis of variance results showed that the cutting edge geometry, cutting speed and feed rate were the most significant factors on resultant cutting force while the cutting edge geometry and feed rate were the most significant factor for the surface roughness. The regression analysis was applied to predict the outcomes of the experiment. The predicted values and measured values were very close to each other. Afterwards a confirmation tests were performed to make a comparison between the predicted results and the measured results. According to the confirmation test results, measured values are within the 95% confidence interval.

  11. Evidence for solar forcing of sea-surface temperature on the North Icelandic shelf during the late Holocene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Hui; Eiríksson, Jón; Schultz, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Diatom proxies from the modern position of the oceanographic Polar Front north of Iceland record variability in sea-surface temperatures during the past two millennia. The sedimentary record is dated with tephrochronology, alleviating marine 14C reservoir age uncertainties. Comparison of changes...... would seem to imply a common forcing factor. A positive and significant correlation between our SST record from the North Icelandic Shelf and reconstructed solar irradiance, together with modeling results, supports the hypothesis that solar forcing is an important constituent of natural climate...... variability in the northern North Atlantic region....

  12. Effects of hip implant modular neck material and assembly method on fatigue life and distraction force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljenaei, Fahad; Catelas, Isabelle; Louati, Hakim; Beaulé, Paul E; Nganbe, Michel

    2017-09-01

    Hip implant neck fractures and adverse tissue reactions associated with fretting-corrosion damage at modular interfaces are a major source of concern. Therefore, there is an urgent clinical need to develop accurate in vitro test procedures to better understand, predict and prevent in vivo implant failures. This study aimed to simulate in vivo fatigue fracture and distraction of modular necks in an in vitro setting, and to assess the effects of neck material (Ti6Al4V vs. CoCrMo) and assembly method (hand vs. impact) on the fatigue life and distraction of the necks. Fatigue tests were performed on the cementless PROFEMUR® Total Hip Modular Neck System under two different loads and number of cycles: 2.3 kN for 5 million cycles, and 7.0 kN for 1.3 million cycles. The developed in vitro simulation setup successfully reproduced in vivo modular neck fracture mode and location. Neck failure occurred at the neck-stem taper and the fracture ran from the distal lateral neck surface to the proximal medial entry point of the neck into the stem. None of the necks failed under the 2.3 kN load. However, all hand-assembled Ti6Al4V necks failed under the 7.0 kN load. In contrast, none of the hand-assembled CoCrMo necks and impact-assembled necks (Ti6Al4V or CoCrMo) failed under this higher load. In conclusion, Ti6Al4V necks were more susceptible to fatigue failure than CoCrMo necks. In addition, impact assembly substantially improved the fatigue life of Ti6Al4V necks and also led to overall higher distraction forces for both neck materials. Overall, this study shows that the material and assembly method can affect the fatigue strength of modular necks. Finally, improper implant assembly during surgery may result in diminished modular neck survivability and increased failure rates. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:2023-2030, 2017. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Combined use of atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and secondary ion mass spectrometry for cell surface analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dague, Etienne; Delcorte, Arnaud; Latgé, Jean-Paul; Dufrêne, Yves F

    2008-04-01

    Understanding the surface properties of microbial cells is a major challenge of current microbiological research and a key to efficiently exploit them in biotechnology. Here, we used three advanced surface analysis techniques with different sensitivity, probing depth, and lateral resolution, that is, in situ atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and secondary ion mass spectrometry, to gain insight into the surface properties of the conidia of the human fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. We show that the native ultrastructure, surface protein and polysaccharide concentrations, and amino acid composition of three mutants affected in hydrophobin production are markedly different from those of the wild-type, thereby providing novel insight into the cell wall architecture of A. fumigatus. The results demonstrate the power of using multiple complementary techniques for probing microbial cell surfaces.

  14. Statistical analysis of global surface air temperature and sea level using cointegration methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmith, Torben; Johansen, Søren; Thejll, Peter

    Global sea levels are rising which is widely understood as a consequence of thermal expansion and melting of glaciers and land-based ice caps. Due to physically-based models being unable to simulate observed sea level trends, semi-empirical models have been applied as an alternative for projecting...... radiative forcing as an explanatory variable, but unexpectedly find that the sea level does not depend on the forcing. We hypothesize that this is due to a long adjustment time scale of the ocean and show that the number of years of data needed to build statistical models that have the relationship expected...... of future sea levels. There is in this, however, potential pitfalls due to the trending nature of the time series. We apply a statistical method called cointegration analysis to observed global sea level and surface air temperature, capable of handling such peculiarities. We find a relationship between sea...

  15. Dynamic Force Identification for Beamlike Structures Using an Improved Dynamic Stiffness Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.L. Chen

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study a procedure of dynamic force identification for beamlike structures is developed based on an improved dynamic stiffness method. In this procedure, the entire structure is first divided into substructures according to the excitation locations and the measured response sites. Each substructure is then represented by an equivalent element. The resulting model only retains the degree of freedom (DOF associated with the excitations and the measured responses and the DOF corresponding to the boundaries of the structures. Because the technique partly bypasses the processes of modal parameter extraction, global matrix inversion, and model reduction, it can eliminate many of the approximations and errors that may be introduced during these processes. The principle of the method is described in detail and its efficiency is demonstrated via numerical simulations of three different structures. The sensitivity of the estimated force to random noise is discussed and the limitation of the technique is pointed out.

  16. The Use of Rapid Review Methods for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patnode, Carrie D; Eder, Michelle L; Walsh, Emily S; Viswanathan, Meera; Lin, Jennifer S

    2018-01-01

    Rapid review products are intended to synthesize available evidence in a timely fashion while still meeting the needs of healthcare decision makers. Various methods and products have been applied for rapid evidence syntheses, but no single approach has been uniformly adopted. Methods to gain efficiency and compress the review time period include focusing on a narrow clinical topic and key questions; limiting the literature search; performing single (versus dual) screening of abstracts and full-text articles for relevance; and limiting the analysis and synthesis. In order to maintain the scientific integrity, including transparency, of rapid evidence syntheses, it is imperative that procedures used to streamline standard systematic review methods are prespecified, based on sound review principles and empiric evidence when possible, and provide the end user with an accurate and comprehensive synthesis. The collection of clinical preventive service recommendations maintained by the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force, along with its commitment to rigorous methods development, provide a unique opportunity to refine, implement, and evaluate rapid evidence synthesis methods and add to an emerging evidence base on rapid review methods. This paper summarizes the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force's use of rapid review methodology, its criteria for selecting topics for rapid evidence syntheses, and proposed methods to streamline the review process. Copyright © 2018 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  17. Method for Reduction of Silver Biocide Plating on Metal Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, John; Nalette, Timothy; Beringer, Durwood

    2013-01-01

    Silver ions in aqueous solutions (0.05 to 1 ppm) are used for microbial control in water systems. The silver ions remain in solution when stored in plastic containers, but the concentration rapidly decreases to non-biocidal levels when stored in metal containers. The silver deposits onto the surface and is reduced to non-biocidal silver metal when it contacts less noble metal surfaces, including stainless steel, titanium, and nickel-based alloys. Five methods of treatment of contact metal surfaces to deter silver deposition and reduction are proposed: (1) High-temperature oxidation of the metal surface; (2) High-concentration silver solution pre-treatment; (3) Silver plating; (4) Teflon coat by vapor deposition (titanium only); and (5) A combination of methods (1) and (2), which proved to be the best method for the nickel-based alloy application. The mechanism associated with surface treatments (1), (2), and (5) is thought to be the development of a less active oxide layer that deters ionic silver deposition. Mechanism (3) is an attempt to develop an equilibrium ionic silver concentration via dissolution of metallic silver. Mechanism (4) provides a non-reactive barrier to deter ionic silver plating. Development testing has shown that ionic silver in aqueous solution was maintained at essentially the same level of addition (0.4 ppm) for up to 15 months with method (5) (a combination of methods (1) and (2)), before the test was discontinued for nickel-based alloys. Method (1) resulted in the maintenance of a biocidal level (approximately 0.05 ppm) for up to 10 months before that test was discontinued for nickel-based alloys. Methods (1) and (2) used separately were able to maintain ionic silver in aqueous solution at essentially the same level of addition (0.4 ppm) for up to 10 months before the test was discontinued for stainless steel alloys. Method (3) was only utilized for titanium alloys, and was successful at maintaining ionic silver in aqueous solution at

  18. Methods to study microbial adhesion on abiotic surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Meireles

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Microbial biofilms are a matrix of cells and exopolymeric substances attached to a wet and solid surface and are commonly associated to several problems, such as biofouling and corrosion in industries and infectious diseases in urinary catheters and prosthesis. However, these cells may have several benefits in distinct applications, such as wastewater treatment processes, microbial fuel cells for energy production and biosensors. As microbial adhesion is a key step on biofilm formation, it is very important to understand and characterize microbial adhesion to a surface. This study presents an overview of predictive and experimental methods used for the study of bacterial adhesion. Evaluation of surface physicochemical properties have a limited capacity in describing the complex adhesion process. Regarding the experimental methods, there is no standard method or platform available for the study of microbial adhesion and a wide variety of methods, such as colony forming units counting and microscopy techniques, can be applied for quantification and characterization of the adhesion process.

  19. Facile stamp patterning method for superhydrophilic/superhydrophobic surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyu, Sungnam, E-mail: blueden@postech.ac.kr; Hwang, Woonbong, E-mail: whwang@postech.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Engineering, POSTECH, Pohang 680-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-16

    Patterning techniques are essential to many research fields such as chemistry, biology, medicine, and micro-electromechanical systems. In this letter, we report a simple, fast, and low-cost superhydrophobic patterning method using a superhydrophilic template. The technique is based on the contact stamping of the surface during hydrophobic dip coating. Surface characteristics were measured using scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopic analysis. The results showed that the hydrophilic template, which was contacted with the stamp, was not affected by the hydrophobic solution. The resolution study was conducted using a stripe shaped stamp. The patterned line was linearly proportional to the width of the stamp line with a constant narrowing effect. A surface with regions of four different types of wetting was fabricated to demonstrate the patterning performance.

  20. Scattering of surface waves modelled by the integral equation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Laiyu; Maupin, Valerie; Zeng, Rongsheng; Ding, Zhifeng

    2008-09-01

    The integral equation method is used to model the propagation of surface waves in 3-D structures. The wavefield is represented by the Fredholm integral equation, and the scattered surface waves are calculated by solving the integral equation numerically. The integration of the Green's function elements is given analytically by treating the singularity of the Hankel function at R = 0, based on the proper expression of the Green's function and the addition theorem of the Hankel function. No far-field and Born approximation is made. We investigate the scattering of surface waves propagating in layered reference models imbedding a heterogeneity with different density, as well as Lamé constant contrasts, both in frequency and time domains, for incident plane waves and point sources.

  1. Response-Surface Methods in R, Using rsm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell V. Lenth

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the recent package rsm, which was designed to provide R support for standard response-surface methods. Functions are provided to generate central-composite and Box-Behnken designs. For analysis of the resulting data, the package provides for estimating the response surface, testing its lack of fit, displaying an ensemble of contour plots of the fitted surface, and doing follow-up analyses such as steepest ascent, canonical analysis, and ridge analysis. It also implements a coded-data structure to aid in this essential aspect of the methodology. The functions are designed in hopes of providing an intuitive and effective user interface. Potential exists for expanding the package in a variety of ways.

  2. Comparison of two methods for the generation of spatially modulated ultrasound radiation force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elegbe, Etana C; Menon, Manoj G; McAleavey, Stephen A

    2011-07-01

    Spatially modulated ultrasound radiation force (SMURF) imaging is an elastographic technique that involves generating a radiation force beam with a lateral intensity variation of a defined spatial frequency. This results in a shear wave of known wavelength. By using the displacements induced by the shear wave and standard Doppler or speckle-tracking methods, the shear wave frequency, and thus material shear modulus, is estimated. In addition to generating a pushing beam pattern with a specified lateral intensity variation, it is generally desirable to induce larger displacements so that the displacement data signal-to-noise ratio is higher. We provide an analysis of two beam forming methods for generating SMURF in an elastic material: the focal Fraunhofer and intersecting plane wave methods. Both techniques generate beams with a defined spatial frequency. However, as a result of the trade-offs associated with each technique, the peak acoustic intensity outputs in the region of interest differs for the same combinations of parameters (e.g., the focal depth, the width of the area of interest, and ultrasonic attenuation coefficient). Assuming limited transducer drive voltage, we provide a decision plot to determine which of the two techniques yields the greater pushing force for a specific configuration.

  3. A method to study precision grip control in viscoelastic force fields using a robotic gripper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambercy, Olivier; Metzger, Jean-Claude; Santello, Marco; Gassert, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Instrumented objects and multipurpose haptic displays have commonly been used to investigate sensorimotor control of grasping and manipulation. A major limitation of these devices, however, is the extent to which the experimenter can vary the interaction dynamics to fully probe sensorimotor control mechanisms. We propose a novel method to study precision grip control using a grounded robotic gripper with two moving, mechanically coupled finger pads instrumented with force sensors. The device is capable of stably rendering virtual mechanical properties with a wide dynamic range of achievable impedances. Eight viscoelastic force fields with different combinations of stiffness and damping parameters were implemented, and tested on eight healthy subjects performing 30 consecutive repetitions of a grasp, hold, and release task with time and position constraints. Rates of thumb and finger force were found to be highly correlated (r>0.9) during grasping, revealing that, despite the mechanical coupling of the two finger pads, subjects performed grasping movements in a physiological fashion. Subjects quickly adapted to the virtual dynamics (within seven trials), but, depending on the presented force field condition, used different control strategies to correctly perform the task. The proof of principle presented in this paper underscores the potential of such a one-degree-of-freedom robotic gripper to study neural control of grasping, and to provide novel insights on sensorimotor control mechanisms.

  4. Modelling of deformation process for the layer of elastoviscoplastic media under surface action of periodic force of arbitrary type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikheyev, V. V.; Saveliev, S. V.

    2018-01-01

    Description of deflected mode for different types of materials under action of external force plays special role for wide variety of applications - from construction mechanics to circuits engineering. This article con-siders the problem of plastic deformation of the layer of elastoviscolastic soil under surface periodic force. The problem was solved with use of the modified lumped parameters approach which takes into account close to real distribution of normal stress in the depth of the layer along with changes in local mechanical properties of the material taking place during plastic deformation. Special numeric algorithm was worked out for computer modeling of the process. As an example of application suggested algorithm was realized for the deformation of the layer of elasoviscoplastic material by the source of external lateral force with the parameters of real technological process of soil compaction.

  5. In processing of a spheroidized medium carbon steel, modelling with regression analysis of cutting forces and surface roughness affected by cutting parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüdayim Başak

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, different spheronization heat treatment applied on a mild carbon steel during the machining was created main cutting forces and surface roughness value, were modeled by using multiple linear regression analysis. Main cutting force and surface roughness value which are dependent variable are described respectively rate of 94.6% and 94.2% by independent variables. The ANOVA significance test were used to determine dependent and independent variables correlations. Also, processing parameters variations such as effects on the feed rate, depth of cut and cutting force changes effect on surface roughness and main cutting force general effects were plotted to discuss.

  6. Force mapping on a partially H-covered Si(111)-(7x7) surface: Influence of tip and surface reactivity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yurtsever, A.; Sugimoto, Y.; Tanaka, H.; Abe, M.; Morita, S.; Ondráček, Martin; Pou, P.; Pérez, R.; Jelínek, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 15 (2013), "155403-1"-"155403-10" ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GPP204/11/P578; GA ČR GAP204/10/0952; GA AV ČR IAA100100905 Grant - others:GA AV ČR(CZ) M100101207 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : atomic force microscopy * DFT simulations * silicon surface * surface passivation * electrostatic interaction Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.664, year: 2013 http://link. aps .org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevB.87.155403

  7. Investigation of the surface potential of TiO2 (110) by frequency-modulation Kelvin probe force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Lili; Li, Yan Jun; Kamijyo, Takeshi; Naitoh, Yoshitaka; Sugawara, Yasuhiro

    2016-12-16

    We investigate the surface potential distribution on a TiO 2 (110)-1 × 1 surface by Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) and atom-dependent bias-distance spectroscopic mapping. The experimental results demonstrate that the local contact potential difference increases on twofold-coordinated oxygen sites, and decreases on OH defects and fivefold-coordinated Ti sites. We propose a qualitative model to explain the origin of the surface potential of TiO 2 (110). We qualitatively calculate the surface potential induced by chemical potential and permanent surface dipole. The calculated results agree with our experimental ones. Therefore, we suggest that the surface potential of TiO 2 (110) is dominated not only by the permanent surface dipole between the tip apex atom and surface, but also by the dipoles induced by the chemical interaction between the tip and sample. The KPFM technique demonstrate the possibility of investigation of the charge transfer phenomenon on TiO 2 surface under gas conditions. It is useful for the elucidation of the mechanism of the catalytic reactions.

  8. Entropic solvation force between surfaces modified by grafted chains: a density functional approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Pizio

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of a hard sphere fluid in slit-like pores with walls modified by grafted chain molecules composed of hard sphere segments is studied using density functional theory. The chains are grafted to opposite walls via terminating segments forming pillars. The effects of confinement and of "chemical" modification of pore walls on the entropic solvation force are investigated in detail. We observe that in the absence of adsorbed fluid the solvation force is strongly repulsive for narrow pores and attractive for wide pores. In the presence of adsorbed fluid both parts of the curve of the solvation force may develop oscillatory behavior dependent on the density of pillars, the number of segments and adsorption conditions. Also, the size ratio between adsorbed fluid species and chain segments is of importance for the development of oscillations. The choice of these parameters is crucial for efficient manipulation of the solvation force as desired for pores of different width.

  9. Model of a realistic InP surface quantum dot extrapolated from atomic force microscopy results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barettin, Daniele; De Angelis, Roberta; Prosposito, Paolo; Auf der Maur, Matthias; Casalboni, Mauro; Pecchia, Alessandro

    2014-05-01

    We report on numerical simulations of a zincblende InP surface quantum dot (QD) on \\text{I}{{\\text{n}}_{0.48}}\\text{G}{{\\text{a}}_{0.52}}\\text{P} buffer. Our model is strictly based on experimental structures, since we extrapolated a three-dimensional dot directly by atomic force microscopy results. Continuum electromechanical, \\vec{k}\\;\\cdot \\;\\vec{p} bandstructure and optical calculations are presented for this realistic structure, together with benchmark calculations for a lens-shape QD with the same radius and height of the extrapolated dot. Interesting similarities and differences are shown by comparing the results obtained with the two different structures, leading to the conclusion that the use of a more realistic structure can provide significant improvements in the modeling of QDs fact, the remarkable splitting for the electron p-like levels of the extrapolated dot seems to prove that a realistic experimental structure can reproduce the right symmetry and a correct splitting usually given by atomistic calculations even within the multiband \\vec{k}\\;\\cdot \\;\\vec{p} approach. Moreover, the energy levels and the symmetry of the holes are strongly dependent on the shape of the dot. In particular, as far as we know, their wave function symmetries do not seem to resemble to any results previously obtained with simulations of zincblende ideal structures, such as lenses or truncated pyramids. The magnitude of the oscillator strengths is also strongly dependent on the shape of the dot, showing a lower intensity for the extrapolated dot, especially for the transition between the electrons and holes ground state, as a result of a relevant reduction of the wave functions overlap. We also compare an experimental photoluminescence spectrum measured on an homogeneous sample containing about 60 dots with a numerical ensemble average derived from single dot calculations. The broader energy range of the numerical spectrum motivated us to perform further

  10. Model of a realistic InP surface quantum dot extrapolated from atomic force microscopy results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barettin, Daniele; De Angelis, Roberta; Prosposito, Paolo; Auf der Maur, Matthias; Casalboni, Mauro; Pecchia, Alessandro

    2014-05-16

    We report on numerical simulations of a zincblende InP surface quantum dot (QD) on In₀.₄₈Ga₀.₅₂ buffer. Our model is strictly based on experimental structures, since we extrapolated a three-dimensional dot directly by atomic force microscopy results. Continuum electromechanical, [Formula: see text] bandstructure and optical calculations are presented for this realistic structure, together with benchmark calculations for a lens-shape QD with the same radius and height of the extrapolated dot. Interesting similarities and differences are shown by comparing the results obtained with the two different structures, leading to the conclusion that the use of a more realistic structure can provide significant improvements in the modeling of QDs fact, the remarkable splitting for the electron p-like levels of the extrapolated dot seems to prove that a realistic experimental structure can reproduce the right symmetry and a correct splitting usually given by atomistic calculations even within the multiband [Formula: see text] approach. Moreover, the energy levels and the symmetry of the holes are strongly dependent on the shape of the dot. In particular, as far as we know, their wave function symmetries do not seem to resemble to any results previously obtained with simulations of zincblende ideal structures, such as lenses or truncated pyramids. The magnitude of the oscillator strengths is also strongly dependent on the shape of the dot, showing a lower intensity for the extrapolated dot, especially for the transition between the electrons and holes ground state, as a result of a relevant reduction of the wave functions overlap. We also compare an experimental photoluminescence spectrum measured on an homogeneous sample containing about 60 dots with a numerical ensemble average derived from single dot calculations. The broader energy range of the numerical spectrum motivated us to perform further verifications, which have clarified some aspects of the experimental

  11. On-the-fly Numerical Surface Integration for Finite-Difference Poisson-Boltzmann Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qin; Ye, Xiang; Wang, Jun; Luo, Ray

    2011-11-01

    Most implicit solvation models require the definition of a molecular surface as the interface that separates the solute in atomic detail from the solvent approximated as a continuous medium. Commonly used surface definitions include the solvent accessible surface (SAS), the solvent excluded surface (SES), and the van der Waals surface. In this study, we present an efficient numerical algorithm to compute the SES and SAS areas to facilitate the applications of finite-difference Poisson-Boltzmann methods in biomolecular simulations. Different from previous numerical approaches, our algorithm is physics-inspired and intimately coupled to the finite-difference Poisson-Boltzmann methods to fully take advantage of its existing data structures. Our analysis shows that the algorithm can achieve very good agreement with the analytical method in the calculation of the SES and SAS areas. Specifically, in our comprehensive test of 1,555 molecules, the average unsigned relative error is 0.27% in the SES area calculations and 1.05% in the SAS area calculations at the grid spacing of 1/2Å. In addition, a systematic correction analysis can be used to improve the accuracy for the coarse-grid SES area calculations, with the average unsigned relative error in the SES areas reduced to 0.13%. These validation studies indicate that the proposed algorithm can be applied to biomolecules over a broad range of sizes and structures. Finally, the numerical algorithm can also be adapted to evaluate the surface integral of either a vector field or a scalar field defined on the molecular surface for additional solvation energetics and force calculations.

  12. The forcing of southwestern Asia teleconnections by low-frequency sea surface temperature variability during boreal winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoell, Andrew; Funk, Christopher C.; Mathew Barlow,

    2015-01-01

    Southwestern Asia, defined here as the domain bounded by 20°–40°N and 40°–70°E, which includes the nations of Iraq, Iran, Afghanistan, and Pakistan, is a water-stressed and semiarid region that receives roughly 75% of its annual rainfall during November–April. The November–April climate of southwestern Asia is strongly influenced by tropical Indo-Pacific variability on intraseasonal and interannual time scales, much of which can be attributed to sea surface temperature (SST) variations. The influences of lower-frequency SST variability on southwestern Asia climate during November–April Pacific decadal SST (PDSST) variability and the long-term trend in SST (LTSST) is examined. The U.S. Climate Variability and Predictability Program (CLIVAR) Drought Working Group forced global atmospheric climate models with PDSST and LTSST patterns, identified using empirical orthogonal functions, to show the steady atmospheric response to these modes of decadal to multidecadal SST variability. During November–April, LTSST forces an anticyclone over southwestern Asia, which results in reduced precipitation and increases in surface temperature. The precipitation and tropospheric circulation influences of LTSST are corroborated by independent observed precipitation and circulation datasets during 1901–2004. The decadal variations of southwestern Asia precipitation may be forced by PDSST variability, with two of the three models indicating that the cold phase of PDSST forces an anticyclone and precipitation reductions. However, there are intermodel circulation variations to PDSST that influence subregional precipitation patterns over the Middle East, southwestern Asia, and subtropical Asia. Changes in wintertime temperature and precipitation over southwestern Asia forced by LTSST and PDSST imply important changes to the land surface hydrology during the spring and summer.

  13. Radiative forcing from aircraft emissions of NOx: model calculations with CH4 surface flux boundary condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Pitari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Two independent chemistry-transport models with troposphere-stratosphere coupling are used to quantify the different components of the radiative forcing (RF from aircraft emissions of NOx, i.e., the University of L'Aquila climate-chemistry model (ULAQ-CCM and the University of Oslo chemistry-transport model (Oslo-CTM3. The tropospheric NOx enhancement due to aircraft emissions produces a short-term O3 increase with a positive RF (+17.3 mW/m2 (as an average value of the two models. This is partly compensated by the CH4 decrease due to the OH enhancement (−9.4 mW/m2. The latter is a long-term response calculated using a surface CH4 flux boundary condition (FBC, with at least 50 years needed for the atmospheric CH4 to reach steady state. The radiative balance is also affected by the decreasing amount of CO2 produced at the end of the CH4 oxidation chain: an average CO2 accumulation change of −2.2 ppbv/yr is calculated on a 50 year time horizon (−1.6 mW/m2. The aviation perturbed amount of CH4 induces a long-term response of tropospheric O3 mostly due to less HO2 and CH3O2 being available for O3 production, compared with the reference case where a constant CH4 surface mixing ratio boundary condition is used (MBC (−3.9 mW/m2. The CH4 decrease induces a long-term response of stratospheric H2O (−1.4 mW/m2. The latter finally perturbs HOx and NOx in the stratosphere, with a more efficient NOx cycle for mid-stratospheric O3 depletion and a decreased O3 production from HO2+NO in the lower stratosphere. This produces a long-term stratospheric O3 loss, with a negative RF (−1.2 mW/m2, compared with the CH4 MBC case. Other contributions to the net NOx RF are those due to NO2 absorption of UV-A and aerosol perturbations (the latter calculated only in the ULAQ-CCM. These comprise: increasing sulfate due to more efficient oxidation of SO2, increasing inorganic and organic nitrates and the net aerosols indirect effect on warm clouds

  14. Calibration of measurement sensitivities of multiple micro-cantilever dynamic modes in atomic force microscopy using a contact detection method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhen; Jeong, Younkoo; Menq, Chia-Hsiang

    2013-01-01

    An accurate experimental method is proposed for on-spot calibration of the measurement sensitivities of multiple micro-cantilever dynamic modes in atomic force microscopy. One of the key techniques devised for this method is a reliable contact detection mechanism that detects the tip-surface contact instantly. At the contact instant, the oscillation amplitude of the tip deflection, converted to that of the deflection signal in laser reading through the measurement sensitivity, exactly equals to the distance between the sample surface and the cantilever base position. Therefore, the proposed method utilizes the recorded oscillation amplitude of the deflection signal and the base position of the cantilever at the contact instant for the measurement sensitivity calibration. Experimental apparatus along with various signal processing and control modules was realized to enable automatic and rapid acquisition of multiple sets of data, with which the calibration of a single dynamic mode could be completed in less than 1 s to suppress the effect of thermal drift and measurement noise. Calibration of the measurement sensitivities of the first and second dynamic modes of three micro-cantilevers having distinct geometries was successfully demonstrated. The dependence of the measurement sensitivity on laser spot location was also experimentally investigated. Finally, an experiment was performed to validate the calibrated measurement sensitivity of the second dynamic mode of a micro-cantilever.

  15. The influence of cooling techniques on cutting forces and surface roughness during cryogenic machining of titanium alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wstawska Iwona

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Titanium alloys are one of the materials extensively used in the aerospace industry due to its excellent properties of high specific strength and corrosion resistance. On the other hand, they also present problems wherein titanium alloys are extremely difficult materials to machine. In addition, the cost associated with titanium machining is also high due to lower cutting velocities and shorter tool life. The main objective of this work is a comparison of different cooling techniques during cryogenic machining of titanium alloys. The analysis revealed that applied cooling technique has a significant influence on cutting force and surface roughness (Ra parameter values. Furthermore, in all cases observed a positive influence of cryogenic machining on selected aspects after turning and milling of titanium alloys. This work can be also the starting point to the further research, related to the analysis of cutting forces and surface roughness during cryogenic machining of titanium alloys.

  16. Theoretical studies of potential energy surfaces and computational methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, R. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This project involves the development, implementation, and application of theoretical methods for the calculation and characterization of potential energy surfaces involving molecular species that occur in hydrocarbon combustion. These potential energy surfaces require an accurate and balanced treatment of reactants, intermediates, and products. This difficult challenge is met with general multiconfiguration self-consistent-field (MCSCF) and multireference single- and double-excitation configuration interaction (MRSDCI) methods. In contrast to the more common single-reference electronic structure methods, this approach is capable of describing accurately molecular systems that are highly distorted away from their equilibrium geometries, including reactant, fragment, and transition-state geometries, and of describing regions of the potential surface that are associated with electronic wave functions of widely varying nature. The MCSCF reference wave functions are designed to be sufficiently flexible to describe qualitatively the changes in the electronic structure over the broad range of geometries of interest. The necessary mixing of ionic, covalent, and Rydberg contributions, along with the appropriate treatment of the different electron-spin components (e.g. closed shell, high-spin open-shell, low-spin open shell, radical, diradical, etc.) of the wave functions, are treated correctly at this level. Further treatment of electron correlation effects is included using large scale multireference CI wave functions, particularly including the single and double excitations relative to the MCSCF reference space. This leads to the most flexible and accurate large-scale MRSDCI wave functions that have been used to date in global PES studies.

  17. Comparison of optical methods for surface roughness characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feidenhans'l, Nikolaj Agentoft; Hansen, Poul Erik; Pilny, Lukas

    2015-01-01

    We report a study of the correlation between three optical methods for characterizing surface roughness: a laboratory scatterometer measuring the bi-directional reflection distribution function (BRDF instrument), a simple commercial scatterometer (rBRDF instrument), and a confocal optical profiler...... of the scattering angle distribution (Aq). The twenty-two investigated samples were manufactured with several methods in order to obtain a suitable diversity of roughness patterns.Our study shows a one-to-one correlation of both the Rq and the Rdq roughness values when obtained with the BRDF and the confocal...

  18. Measuring system and method of determining the Adaptive Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Schaefer

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The term Adaptive Force (AF describes the capability of adaptation of the nerve-muscle-system to externally applied forces during isometric and eccentric muscle action. This ability plays an important role in real life motions as well as in sports. The focus of this paper is on the specific measurement method of this neuromuscular action, which can be seen as innovative. A measuring system based on the use of compressed air was constructed and evaluated for this neuromuscular function. It depends on the physical conditions of the subject, at which force level it deviates from the quasi isometric position and merges into eccentric muscle action. The device enables – in contrast to the isokinetic systems – a measure of strength without forced motion. Evaluation of the scientific quality criteria of the devices was done by measurements regarding the intra- and interrater-, the test-retest-reliability and fatiguing measurements. Comparisons of the pneumatic device with a dynamometer were also done. Looking at the mechanical evaluation, the results show a high level of consistency (r²=0.94 to 0.96. The parallel test reliability delivers a very high and significant correlation (ρ=0.976; p=0.000. Including the biological system, the concordance of three different raters is very high (p=0.001, Cronbachs alpha α=0.987. The test retest with 4 subjects over five weeks speaks for the reliability of the device in showing no statistically significant differences. These evaluations indicate that the scientific evaluation criteria are fulfilled. The specific feature of this system is that an isometric position can be maintained while the externally impacting force rises. Moreover, the device can capture concentric, static and eccentric strength values. Fields of application are performance diagnostics in sports and medicine.

  19. Systematic study of the dolomite (104) surface by bimodal dynamic force microscopy in ultra-high vacuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Shigeki; Pina, Carlos M; Bubendorf, Alexander; Fessler, Gregor; Glatzel, Thilo; Gnecco, Enrico; Meyer, Ernst

    2013-02-08

    We have investigated the morphology and structure of dolomite MgCa(CO(3))(2)(104) surfaces by bimodal dynamic force microscopy with flexural and torsional resonance modes in ultra-high vacuum at room temperature. We found that the surface slowly decomposes by degassing CO(2) in a vacuum and becomes covered by amorphous clusters, presumably MgO and CaO. By choosing an optimal sample preparation procedure (i.e. cleaving in a vacuum and mild annealing for stabilizing clusters for a short time), atomically clean surfaces were obtained. The complex tip-sample interaction, arising from carbonate groups and Mg and Ca atoms of the surface, induces a large variety of atomic-scale imaging features.

  20. Vibrational Analysis of Brucite Surfaces and the Development of an Improved Force Field for Molecular Simulation of Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitler, Todd R; Greathouse, Jeffery A; Gale, Julian D; Cygan, Randall T

    2014-04-17

    We introduce a nonbonded three-body harmonic potential energy term for Mg-O-H interactions for improved edge surface stability in molecular simulations. The new potential term is compatible with the Clayff force field and is applied here to brucite, a layered magnesium hydroxide mineral. Comparisons of normal mode frequencies from classical and density functional theory calculations are used to verify a suitable spring constant ( k parameter) for the Mg-O-H bending motion. Vibrational analysis of hydroxyl librations at two brucite surfaces indicates that surface Mg-O-H modes are shifted to frequencies lower than the corresponding bulk modes. A comparison of DFT and classical normal modes validates this new potential term. The methodology for parameter development can be applied to other clay mineral components (e.g., Al, Si) to improve the modeling of edge surface stability, resulting in expanded applicability to clay mineral applications.

  1. Temporal and Spatial Variabilities of Japan Sea Surface Temperature and Atmospheric Forcings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chu, Peter C; Chen, Yuchun; Lu, Shihua

    1998-01-01

    ...) and surface air temperature (SAT) data during 1982-1994 and the National Center for Atmospheric Research surface wind stress curl data during 1982-1989 to investigate the Japan Sea SST temporal and spatial variabilities...

  2. The role of external forcing and internal variability in regulating global mean surface temperatures on decadal timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Lu; McPhaden, Michael J.

    2017-03-01

    Global mean surface temperature (GMST) shows considerable decadal variations superimposed on a pronounced warming trend, with rapid warming during 1920-1945 and 1977-2000 and warming hiatuses during 1946-1976 and 2001-2013. The prevailing view is that internally generated variations associated with the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO) dominate decadal variations in GMST, while external forcing from greenhouse gases and anthropogenic aerosols dominate the long-term trend in GMST over the last hundred years. Here we show evidence from observations and climate models that external forcing largely governs decadal GMST variations in the historical record with internally generated variations playing a secondary role, except during those periods of IPO extremes. In particular, the warming hiatus during 1946-1976 started from a negative IPO but was later dominated by the eruption of Mount Agung in 1963, while the subsequent accelerated warming during 1977-2000 was due primarily to increased greenhouse gas forcing. The most recent warming hiatus apparent in observations occurred largely through cooling from a negative IPO extreme that overwhelmed the warming from external forcing. An important implication of this work is that when the phase of the IPO turns positive, as it did in 2014, the combination of external forcing and internal variability should lead to accelerated global warming. This accelerated warming appears to be underway, with record high GMST in 2014, 2015, and 2016.

  3. Influence of ion pairing in ionic liquids on electrical double layer structures and surface force using classical density functional approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ke; Forsman, Jan; Woodward, Clifford E

    2015-05-07

    We explore the influence of ion pairing in room temperature ionic liquids confined by planar electrode surfaces. Using a coarse-grained model for the aromatic ionic liquid [C4MIM(+)][BF4 (-)], we account for an ion pairing component as an equilibrium associating species within a classical density functional theory. We investigated the resulting structure of the electrical double layer as well as the ensuing surface forces and differential capacitance, as a function of the degree of ion association. We found that the short-range structure adjacent to surfaces was remarkably unaffected by the degree of ion pairing, up to several molecular diameters. This was even the case for 100% of ions being paired. The physical implications of ion pairing only become apparent in equilibrium properties that depend upon the long-range screening of charges, such as the asymptotic behaviour of surface forces and the differential capacitance, especially at low surface potential. The effect of ion pairing on capacitance is consistent with their invocation as a source of the anomalous temperature dependence of the latter. This work shows that ion pairing effects on equilibrium properties are subtle and may be difficult to extract directly from simulations.

  4. The extended wedge method: atomic force microscope friction calibration for improved tolerance to instrument misalignments, tip offset, and blunt probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, H S; Burris, D L

    2013-05-01

    One of the major challenges in understanding and controlling friction is the difficulty in bridging the length and time scales of macroscale contacts and those of the single asperity interactions they comprise. While the atomic force microscope (AFM) offers a unique ability to probe tribological surfaces in a wear-free single-asperity contact, instrument calibration challenges have limited the usefulness of this technique for quantitative nanotribological studies. A number of lateral force calibration techniques have been proposed and used, but none has gained universal acceptance due to practical considerations, configuration limitations, or sensitivities to unknowable error sources. This paper describes a simple extension of the classic wedge method of AFM lateral force calibration which: (1) allows simultaneous calibration and measurement on any substrate, thus eliminating prior tip damage and confounding effects of instrument setup adjustments; (2) is insensitive to adhesion, PSD cross-talk, transducer/piezo-tube axis misalignment, and shear-center offset; (3) is applicable to integrated tips and colloidal probes; and (4) is generally applicable to any reciprocating friction coefficient measurement. The method was applied to AFM measurements of polished carbon (99.999% graphite) and single crystal MoS2 to demonstrate the technique. Carbon and single crystal MoS2 had friction coefficients of μ = 0.20 ± 0.04 and μ = 0.006 ± 0.001, respectively, against an integrated Si probe. Against a glass colloidal sphere, MoS2 had a friction coefficient of μ = 0.005 ± 0.001. Generally, the measurement uncertainties ranged from 10%-20% and were driven by the effect of actual frictional variation on the calibration rather than calibration error itself (i.e., due to misalignment, tip-offset, or probe radius).

  5. Delta self-consistent field method to obtain potential energy surfaces of excited molecules on surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavnholt, Jeppe; Olsen, Thomas; Engelund, Mads

    2008-01-01

    is a density-functional method closely resembling standard density-functional theory (DFT), the only difference being that in Delta SCF one or more electrons are placed in higher lying Kohn-Sham orbitals instead of placing all electrons in the lowest possible orbitals as one does when calculating the ground......-photoemission spectroscopy measurements. This comparison shows that the modified Delta SCF method gives results in close agreement with experiment, significantly closer than the comparable methods. For N2 adsorbed on ruthenium (0001) we map out a two-dimensional part of the potential energy surfaces in the ground state...

  6. Measurement correction method for force sensor used in dynamic pressure calibration based on artificial neural network optimized by genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Tingwei; Kong, Deren; Shang, Fei; Chen, Jing

    2017-12-01

    We present an optimization algorithm to obtain low-uncertainty dynamic pressure measurements from a force-transducer-based device. In this paper, the advantages and disadvantages of the methods that are commonly used to measure the propellant powder gas pressure, the applicable scope of dynamic pressure calibration devices, and the shortcomings of the traditional comparison calibration method based on the drop-weight device are firstly analysed in detail. Then, a dynamic calibration method for measuring pressure using a force sensor based on a drop-weight device is introduced. This method can effectively save time when many pressure sensors are calibrated simultaneously and extend the life of expensive reference sensors. However, the force sensor is installed between the drop-weight and the hammerhead by transition pieces through the connection mode of bolt fastening, which causes adverse effects such as additional pretightening and inertia forces. To solve these effects, the influence mechanisms of the pretightening force, the inertia force and other influence factors on the force measurement are theoretically analysed. Then a measurement correction method for the force measurement is proposed based on an artificial neural network optimized by a genetic algorithm. The training and testing data sets are obtained from calibration tests, and the selection criteria for the key parameters of the correction model is discussed. The evaluation results for the test data show that the correction model can effectively improve the force measurement accuracy of the force sensor. Compared with the traditional high-accuracy comparison calibration method, the percentage difference of the impact-force-based measurement is less than 0.6% and the relative uncertainty of the corrected force value is 1.95%, which can meet the requirements of engineering applications.

  7. TWO METHODS FOR REMOTE ESTIMATION OF COMPLETE URBAN SURFACE TEMPERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Jiang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Complete urban surface temperature (TC is a key parameter for evaluating the energy exchange between the urban surface and atmosphere. At the present stage, the estimation of TC still needs detailed 3D structure information of the urban surface, however, it is often difficult to obtain the geometric structure and composition of the corresponding temperature of urban surface, so that there is still lack of concise and efficient method for estimating the TC by remote sensing. Based on the four typical urban surface scale models, combined with the Envi-met model, thermal radiant directionality forward modeling and kernel model, we analyzed a complete day and night cycle hourly component temperature and radiation temperature in each direction of two seasons of summer and winter, and calculated hemispherical integral temperature and TC. The conclusion is obtained by examining the relationship of directional radiation temperature, hemispherical integral temperature and TC: (1 There is an optimal angle of radiation temperature approaching the TC in a single observation direction when viewing zenith angle is 45–60°, the viewing azimuth near the vertical surface of the sun main plane, the average absolute difference is about 1.1 K in the daytime. (2 There are several (3–5 times directional temperatures of different view angle, under the situation of using the thermal radiation directionality kernel model can more accurately calculate the hemispherical integral temperature close to TC, the mean absolute error is about 1.0 K in the daytime. This study proposed simple and effective strategies for estimating TC by remote sensing, which are expected to improve the quantitative level of remote sensing of urban thermal environment.

  8. Two Methods for Remote Estimation of Complete Urban Surface Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, L.; Zhan, W.; Zou, Z.

    2017-09-01

    Complete urban surface temperature (TC) is a key parameter for evaluating the energy exchange between the urban surface and atmosphere. At the present stage, the estimation of TC still needs detailed 3D structure information of the urban surface, however, it is often difficult to obtain the geometric structure and composition of the corresponding temperature of urban surface, so that there is still lack of concise and efficient method for estimating the TC by remote sensing. Based on the four typical urban surface scale models, combined with the Envi-met model, thermal radiant directionality forward modeling and kernel model, we analyzed a complete day and night cycle hourly component temperature and radiation temperature in each direction of two seasons of summer and winter, and calculated hemispherical integral temperature and TC. The conclusion is obtained by examining the relationship of directional radiation temperature, hemispherical integral temperature and TC: (1) There is an optimal angle of radiation temperature approaching the TC in a single observation direction when viewing zenith angle is 45-60°, the viewing azimuth near the vertical surface of the sun main plane, the average absolute difference is about 1.1 K in the daytime. (2) There are several (3-5 times) directional temperatures of different view angle, under the situation of using the thermal radiation directionality kernel model can more accurately calculate the hemispherical integral temperature close to TC, the mean absolute error is about 1.0 K in the daytime. This study proposed simple and effective strategies for estimating TC by remote sensing, which are expected to improve the quantitative level of remote sensing of urban thermal environment.

  9. Characterization of the surface charge distribution on kaolinite particles using high resolution atomic force microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, Naveen; Zhao, Cunlu; Klaassen, Aram Harold; van den Ende, Henricus T.M.; Mugele, Friedrich Gunther; Sîretanu, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Most solid surfaces, in particular clay minerals and rock surfaces, acquire a surface charge upon exposure to an aqueous environment due to adsorption and/or desorption of ionic species. Macroscopic techniques such as titration and electrokinetic measurements are commonly used to determine the

  10. A Novel Fabrication Method for Functionally Graded Materials under Centrifugal Force: The Centrifugal Mixed-Powder Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eri Miura-Fujiwara

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the fabrication methods for functionally graded materials (FGMs is a centrifugal solid-particle method, which is an application of the centrifugal casting technique. However, it is the difficult to fabricate FGMs containing nano-particles by the centrifugal solid-particle method. Recently, we proposed a novel fabrication method, which we have named the centrifugal mixed-powder method, by which we can obtain FGMs containing nano-particles. Using this processing method, Cu-based FGMs containing SiC particles and Al-based FGMs containing TiO2 nano-particles on their surfaces have been fabricated. In this article, the microstructure and mechanical property of Cu/SiC and Al/TiO2 FGMs, fabricated by the centrifugal mixed-powder method are reviewed.

  11. An Initial Value Calibration Method for the Wheel Force Transducer Based on Memetic Optimization Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoyu Lin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Some initial values of the wheel force transducer (WFT change after being mounted in the vehicle. The traditional static calibration is inadequate to fully obtain these initial values. Aiming to this problem, an online initial value calibration method is proposed. The method does not require any additional calibration equipment or manual operation and just requires the vehicle mounted with the WFT to be driven on a flat road with constant speed. In this way, an initial value mode is constructed and then converted to an optimization problem. To solve this problem and acquire the right initial value, an improved Memetic framework based on particle swarm optimization (PSO and Levenberg-Marquardt (LM is adopted. To verify the effect of the proposed method, the real WFT data is used and the comparative test is carried out. The experiment result shows that the proposed method is superior to the traditional one and can improve the measurement accuracy effectively.

  12. Three-body forces for electrons by the S-matrix method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margaritelli, R.

    1989-01-01

    A electromagnetic three-body potential between eletrons is derived by the S-matrix method. This potential can be compared up to a certain point with other electromagnetic potentials (obtained by other methods) encountered in the literature. However, since the potential derived here is far more complete than others, this turns direct comparison with the potentials found in the literature somewhat difficult. These calculations allow a better understanding of the S-matrix method as applied to problems which involve the calculations of three-body nuclear forces (these calculations are performed in order to understand the 3 He form factor). Furthermore, these results enable us to decide between two discrepant works which derive the two-pion exchange three-body potential, both by the S-matrix method. (author) [pt

  13. Non thermal plasma surface cleaner and method of use

    KAUST Repository

    Neophytou, Marios

    2017-09-14

    Described herein are plasma generation devices and methods of use of the devices. The devices can be used for the cleaning of various surfaces and/or for inhibiting or preventing the accumulation of particulates, such as dust, or moisture on various surfaces. The devices can be used to remove dust and other particulate contaminants from solar panels and windows, or to avoid or minimize condensation on various surfaces. In an embodiment a plasma generation device is provided. The plasma generation device can comprise: a pair of electrodes (1,2) positioned in association with a surface of a dielectric substrate (3). The pair of electrodes (1,2) can comprise a first electrode (1) and a second electrode (2). The first electrode and second electrode can be of different sizes, one of the electrodes being smaller than the other of the electrodes. The first electrode and second electrode can be separated by a distance and electrically connected to a voltage source (4,5).

  14. Surface charge method for molecular surfaces with curved areal elements I. Spherical triangles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yi-Kuo

    2018-03-01

    Parametrizing a curved surface with flat triangles in electrostatics problems creates a diverging electric field. One way to avoid this is to have curved areal elements. However, charge density integration over curved patches appears difficult. This paper, dealing with spherical triangles, is the first in a series aiming to solve this problem. Here, we lay the ground work for employing curved patches for applying the surface charge method to electrostatics. We show analytically how one may control the accuracy by expanding in powers of the the arc length (multiplied by the curvature). To accommodate not extremely small curved areal elements, we have provided enough details to include higher order corrections that are needed for better accuracy when slightly larger surface elements are used.

  15. Dynamic modeling method of the bolted joint with uneven distribution of joint surface pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shichao; Gao, Hongli; Liu, Qi; Liu, Bokai

    2018-03-01

    The dynamic characteristics of the bolted joints have a significant influence on the dynamic characteristics of the machine tool. Therefore, establishing a reasonable bolted joint dynamics model is helpful to improve the accuracy of machine tool dynamics model. Because the pressure distribution on the joint surface is uneven under the concentrated force of bolts, a dynamic modeling method based on the uneven pressure distribution of the joint surface is presented in this paper to improve the dynamic modeling accuracy of the machine tool. The analytic formulas between the normal, tangential stiffness per unit area and the surface pressure on the joint surface can be deduced based on the Hertz contact theory, and the pressure distribution on the joint surface can be obtained by the finite element software. Futhermore, the normal and tangential stiffness distribution on the joint surface can be obtained by the analytic formula and the pressure distribution on the joint surface, and assigning it into the finite element model of the joint. Qualitatively compared the theoretical mode shapes and the experimental mode shapes, as well as quantitatively compared the theoretical modal frequencies and the experimental modal frequencies. The comparison results show that the relative error between the first four-order theoretical modal frequencies and the first four-order experimental modal frequencies is 0.2% to 4.2%. Besides, the first four-order theoretical mode shapes and the first four-order experimental mode shapes are similar and one-to-one correspondence. Therefore, the validity of the theoretical model is verified. The dynamic modeling method proposed in this paper can provide a theoretical basis for the accurate dynamic modeling of the bolted joint in machine tools.

  16. Bottom boundary layer forced by finite amplitude long and short surface waves motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsafty, H.; Lynett, P.

    2018-04-01

    A multiple-scale perturbation approach is implemented to solve the Navier-Stokes equations while including bottom boundary layer effects under a single wave and under two interacting waves. In this approach, fluid velocities and the pressure field are decomposed into two components: a potential component and a rotational component. In this study, the two components are exist throughout the entire water column and each is scaled with appropriate length and time scales. A one-way coupling between the two components is implemented. The potential component is assumed to be known analytically or numerically a prior, and the rotational component is forced by the potential component. Through order of magnitude analysis, it is found that the leading-order coupling between the two components occurs through the vertical convective acceleration. It is shown that this coupling plays an important role in the bottom boundary layer behavior. Its effect on the results is discussed for different wave-forcing conditions: purely harmonic forcing and impurely harmonic forcing. The approach is then applied to derive the governing equations for the bottom boundary layer developed under two interacting wave motions. Both motions-the shorter and the longer wave-are decomposed into two components, potential and rotational, as it is done in the single wave. Test cases are presented wherein two different wave forcings are simulated: (1) two periodic oscillatory motions and (2) short waves interacting with a solitary wave. The analysis of the two periodic motions indicates that nonlinear effects in the rotational solution may be significant even though nonlinear effects are negligible in the potential forcing. The local differences in the rotational velocity due to the nonlinear vertical convection coupling term are found to be on the order of 30% of the maximum boundary layer velocity for the cases simulated in this paper. This difference is expected to increase with the increase in wave

  17. Measurement of friction force between two mica surfaces with multiple beam interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung J.C.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Friction forces play a crucial role in the tribological behaviour of microcomponents and the application of MEMS products. It is necessary to develop a measurement system to understand and control the material characteristics. In this study, a microscopic measurement system based on multiple beam interferometry is developed to measure the friction force between two mica thin films. Some frictional behaviour between the two mica sheets in contact are reported. The evaluated shear strength of mica agrees well to the existing data. It is possible to use the developed system for micro-tribology study.

  18. On deriving the Maxwell stress tensor method for calculating the optical force and torque on an object in harmonic electromagnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Qian; Lin, Haoze

    2017-07-01

    Though extensively used in calculating optical force and torque acting on a material object illuminated by laser, the Maxwell stress tensor (MST) method follows the electromagnetic linear and angular momentum balance that is usually derived in most textbooks for a continuous volume charge distribution in free space, if not resorting to the application of Noether’s theorem in electrodynamics. To cast the conservation laws into a physically appealing form involving the current densities of linear and angular momentum, on which the MST method is based, the divergence theorem is employed to transform a volume integral into a surface integral. When a material object of finite volume is put into the field, it brings about a discontinuity of field across its surface, due to the presence of induced surface charge and surface current. Ambiguity arises among students in whether the divergence theorem can still be directly used without any justification. By taking into account the effect of the induced surface charge and current, we present a simple pedagogical derivation for the MST method for calculating the optical force and torque on an object immersed in monochromatic optical field, without resorting to Noether’s theorem. Although the results turn out to be identical to those given in the standard textbooks, our derivation avoids the direct use of the divergence theorem on a discontinuous function.

  19. Effects of Wearing Different Personal Equipment on Force Distribution at the Plantar Surface of the Foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Schulze

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The wearing of personal equipment can cause specific changes in muscle activity and posture. In the present study, we investigated the influence of differences in equipment related weight loading and load distribution on plantar pressure. In addition, we studied functional effects of wearing different equipment with a particular focus on relevant changes in foot shape. Methods. Static and dynamic pedobarography were performed on 31 male soldiers carrying increasing weights consisting of different items of equipment. Results. The pressure acting on the plantar surface of the foot increased with higher loading, both under static and dynamic conditions (p < 0.05. We observed an increase in the contact area (p < 0.05 and an influence of load distribution through different ways to carry the rifle. Conclusions. The wearing of heavier weights leads to an increase in plantar pressure and contact area. This may be caused by flattening of the transverse and longitudinal arches. The effects are more evident in subjects with flat feet deformities which seem to flatten at an earlier load condition with a greater amount compared to subjects with normal arches. Improving load distribution should be a main goal in the development of military equipment in order to prevent injuries or functional disorders of the lower extremity.

  20. New method to design stellarator coils without the winding surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Caoxiang; Hudson, Stuart R.; Song, Yuntao; Wan, Yuanxi

    2018-01-01

    Finding an easy-to-build coils set has been a critical issue for stellarator design for decades. Conventional approaches assume a toroidal ‘winding’ surface, but a poorly chosen winding surface can unnecessarily constrain the coil optimization algorithm, This article presents a new method to design coils for stellarators. Each discrete coil is represented as an arbitrary, closed, one-dimensional curve embedded in three-dimensional space. A target function to be minimized that includes both physical requirements and engineering constraints is constructed. The derivatives of the target function with respect to the parameters describing the coil geometries and currents are calculated analytically. A numerical code, named flexible optimized coils using space curves (FOCUS), has been developed. Applications to a simple stellarator configuration, W7-X and LHD vacuum fields are presented.