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Sample records for surface experiencing caries

  1. Validity of Digital Imaging of Fiber-Optic Transillumination in Caries Detection on Proximal Tooth Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laitala, Marja-Liisa; Piipari, Liina; Sämpi, Noora; Korhonen, Maria; Pesonen, Paula; Joensuu, Tiina; Anttonen, Vuokko

    2017-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the validity of the digital imaging fiber-optic transillumination (DIFOTI) method in comparison with clinical visual examination (CV) and bitewing (BW) radiography on detecting caries lesions on proximal surfaces of teeth. Proximal tooth surfaces of premolars and molars ( n = 2,103) of 91 voluntary university students aged from 18 to 30 years were examined with CV, BW radiography, and the DIFOTI method. DIFOTI detected more initial and manifested caries lesions compared with CV and BW. Of the analyzed tooth surfaces, 69.8% were classified as sound by DIFOTI, 80.3% by BW, and 91.6% by CV. Initial caries lesions were found in 21.2% of the surfaces by DIFOTI, in 14.1% by BW, and in 6.2% by CV, whereas the proportions for manifested dental caries lesions were 9.0%, 5.6%, and 2.2%, respectively. The interexaminer agreement regarding the DIFOTI findings between an experienced clinician and a fifth-year dental student was high: κ = 0.67 for initial and κ = 0.91 for manifested caries lesions. The noninvasive DIFOTI method seems to offer a potential tool for everyday clinical practice. In clinical use, DIFOTI finds well even initial caries lesions on proximal surfaces, thus providing an instrument for detecting lesions potential for arresting as well as for monitoring the outcome after preventive measures.

  2. Validity of Digital Imaging of Fiber-Optic Transillumination in Caries Detection on Proximal Tooth Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marja-Liisa Laitala

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of our study was to evaluate the validity of the digital imaging fiber-optic transillumination (DIFOTI method in comparison with clinical visual examination (CV and bitewing (BW radiography on detecting caries lesions on proximal surfaces of teeth. Materials and Methods. Proximal tooth surfaces of premolars and molars (n=2,103 of 91 voluntary university students aged from 18 to 30 years were examined with CV, BW radiography, and the DIFOTI method. Results. DIFOTI detected more initial and manifested caries lesions compared with CV and BW. Of the analyzed tooth surfaces, 69.8% were classified as sound by DIFOTI, 80.3% by BW, and 91.6% by CV. Initial caries lesions were found in 21.2% of the surfaces by DIFOTI, in 14.1% by BW, and in 6.2% by CV, whereas the proportions for manifested dental caries lesions were 9.0%, 5.6%, and 2.2%, respectively. The interexaminer agreement regarding the DIFOTI findings between an experienced clinician and a fifth-year dental student was high: κ=0.67 for initial and κ=0.91 for manifested caries lesions. Conclusions. The noninvasive DIFOTI method seems to offer a potential tool for everyday clinical practice. In clinical use, DIFOTI finds well even initial caries lesions on proximal surfaces, thus providing an instrument for detecting lesions potential for arresting as well as for monitoring the outcome after preventive measures.

  3. Validation of swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) for the diagnosis of smooth surface caries in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Hisaichi; Sadr, Alireza; Shimada, Yasushi; Tagami, Junji; Sumi, Yasunori

    2013-01-01

    An accurate evaluation of the extent of dental caries and possible progress of the lesion from enamel into dentin is very important in clinical dentistry. Dentists need an imaging technology that can noninvasively and reliably quantify the extent of caries. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of non-polarized swept source optical coherence tomography (OCT) in evaluating the extent of caries on smooth enamel surfaces. One-hundred and twenty-seven investigation sites on the enamel surfaces of 93 extracted teeth were selected randomly and examined visually. The presence and extent of caries were scored by experienced and inexperienced dentists using each observation method (0: no caries; 1: enamel demineralization without surface breakdown; 2: enamel breakdown due to caries; 3: deep caries involving the dentin). The same locations were then examined using OCT, following which the teeth were sectioned using a diamond saw and viewed directly under a confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM). Sensitivity and specificity indices for OCT and VI were calculated and compared. The results were analysed statistically using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Enamel and dentin caries were outlined by a visible boundary on the cross-sectional OCT images. The modality showed superior results for the detection of dentinal caries; higher sensitivity and Az values could be obtained in the ROC curves, especially by experienced dentists. Cross-sectional imaging of the natural caries lesions on smooth enamel surface by OCT enables efficient diagnosis of the lesion type, extent and dentin involvement. SS-OCT can demonstrate the cross-sectional image of smooth surface enamel caries as highlighted zone in tomogram. It is crucial to determine the extent of the lesion, whether it reaches beyond DEJ or not by a non-invasive and safe technique. OCT can give clinicians information about internal tooth structure and will help clinical decision making on surgical

  4. Macroscopic and radiographic examination of proximal root surface caries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordenram, G.; Bergvist, A.; Johnson, G.; Henriksen, C.O.; Anneroth, G.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare macroscopic and radiographic examination of proximal root surface caries of extracted teeth from patients aged 65-95 years. Although the study conditions for macroscopic and radiographic diagnosis favored more sensitive evaluations than routine clinical conditions, there was a 24% disagreement in diagnosis. This finding indicates that under routine clinical conditions it is difficult to register with certainty all superficial root carious lesions. Even in the absence of clinically detectable root surface caries, preventive measures should be considered for elderly people with exposed root surfaces.

  5. Macroscopic and radiographic examination of proximal root surface caries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordenram, G.; Bergvist, A.; Johnson, G.; Henriksen, C.O.; Anneroth, G.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare macroscopic and radiographic examination of proximal root surface caries of extracted teeth from patients aged 65-95 years. Although the study conditions for macroscopic and radiographic diagnosis favored more sensitive evaluations than routine clinical conditions, there was a 24% disagreement in diagnosis. This finding indicates that under routine clinical conditions it is difficult to register with certainty all superficial root carious lesions. Even in the absence of clinically detectable root surface caries, preventive measures should be considered for elderly people with exposed root surfaces

  6. Studies of dental root surface caries. 2: The role of cementum in root surface caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, J M; Featherstone, J D; Fu, J

    2000-06-01

    Artificial caries lesions were produced in roots of teeth using an acetate buffer system, when the layer of cementum was either normal in thickness, excessively thickened by hypercementosis, or had been removed completely. The rates of lesion progression were measured in each case using polarized light microscopy to measure lesion depth. Analysis of calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) loss during the demineralizing process was carried out. The removal of cementum was found to significantly increase the initial rate of penetration of the lesion into the root, although this rate progressively reduced to a level consistent with that found in normal roots after seven days of demineralization. The overall depth remained consistently greater than that observed in normal roots, or when lesions were produced entirely within hyperplastic cementum. Chemical analysis also showed removal of cementum resulted in an initial doubling of the Ca and P lost from the root surface. Prior direct exposure of segments of normal roots to the oral environment was found not to significantly alter the rate of artificial lesion progression, in comparison with that in the originally protected segment of the root surface. It was concluded that an intact cementum layer has the intrinsic ability to protect the underlying dentine of exposed tooth roots against acidic demineralization and that prior exposure to the oral environment does not significantly alter this ability.

  7. Tooth Surface Level Caries Progression in the Primary Dentition among Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Amid I; Lim, Sungwoo; Tellez, Marisol

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe primary tooth surface level caries progression, over 2 years, based on the severity of the caries lesions. Data were collected from 790 low-income African-American preschool children in Detroit, Mich., USA. The caregivers of the children (aged 0-5 years) completed interviews and the dyad of child-caregiver completed dental examinations in 2002-2004 (baseline) and in 2004-2005 (follow-up). Caries were measured using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS). The caries status of tooth surfaces was classified into initial (ICDAS 1-2), moderate (ICDAS 3-4) and extensive (ICDAS 5-6) stages. Counts of tooth surfaces with progression, by baseline caries severity level, were used to compute rate ratios (RRs) relative to sound stages. RRs were also computed for type of tooth surfaces and frequency of intake of soda consumption at baseline. After adjusting for confounders, caries progression was more likely to occur in tooth surfaces with any baseline caries relative to sound surfaces. For surfaces with initial caries, the rate of progression to moderate caries was 9.6 times higher than that of sound surfaces. Surfaces with initial and moderate caries progressed to extensive caries 6.1 and 20.6 times, respectively, relative to sound surfaces. Baseline soda consumption was not associated with the RR of caries progression. In conclusion, the staging of caries identifies different progression risks and significant emphasis should be placed on secondary prevention of initial lesions as well as on primary prevention. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Genetic Susceptibility to Dental Caries on Pit and Fissure and Smooth Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, J.R.; Wang, X.; DeSensi, R.S.; Wendell, S.; Weyant, R.J.; Cuenco, K.T.; Crout, R.; McNeil, D.W.; Marazita, M.L.

    2012-01-01

    Carious lesions are distributed nonuniformly across tooth surfaces of the complete dentition, suggesting that the effects of risk factors may be surface-specific. Whether genes differentially affect caries risk across tooth surfaces is unknown. We investigated the role of genetics on two classes of tooth surfaces, pit and fissure surfaces (PFS) and smooth surfaces (SMS), in more than 2,600 subjects from 740 families. Participants were examined for surface-level evidence of dental caries, and caries scores for permanent and/or primary teeth were generated separately for PFS and SMS. Heritability estimates (h2, i.e. the proportion of trait variation due to genes) of PFS and SMS caries scores were obtained using likelihood methods. The genetic correlations between PFS and SMS caries scores were calculated to assess the degree to which traits covary due to common genetic effects. Overall, the heritability of caries scores was similar for PFS (h2 = 19–53%; p caries scores for both PFS and SMS in the primary dentition was greater than in the permanent dentition and total dentition. With one exception, the genetic correlation between PFS and SMS caries scores was not significantly different from 100%, indicating that (mostly) common genes are involved in the risk of caries for both surface types. Genetic correlation for the primary dentition dfs (decay + filled surfaces) was significantly less than 100% (p caries risk in PFS versus SMS in the primary dentition. PMID:22286298

  9. SEM Analysis of Residual Dentin Surface in Primary Teeth Using Different Chemomechanical Caries Removal Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Rachna; Patil, Sandya Devi S; Kush, Anil; Madhu, K

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to analyze the residual dentinal surfaces following caries removal using two chemomechanical methods (Papacarie Duo and Carie Care), by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Twenty extracted primary molars with active occlusal carious lesions were randomly assigned two groups depending on the CMCR agent used for the caries excavation - Group 1 - with Papacarie Duo and Group - 2 with Carie Care. After the caries excavation, the specimens were subjected to SEM analysis. Though both the agents showed the minimal smear layer with the patent dentinal tubules, Carie care showed patent dentinal tubules with a clearly exposed peritubular and intertubular collagen network. Carie Care treated surface exhibited better surface morphology of residual dentin.

  10. Brief communication: a pilot study: smooth surface early caries (caries incipiens) detection with KaVo DIAGNODent in historical material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczyk, Jacek; Komarnitki, Iulian; Olczak-Kowalczyk, Dorota

    2013-03-01

    In many odontological studies concerning archeological material, there is no analysis of early caries lesions (caries incipiens) that manifest as a carious spot. At this stage of caries, the enamel is still hard, and thus, it is impossible to diagnose caries by visual methods. We assessed the usefulness of the DIAGNODent pen (DD laser) in analyzing noncavity lesions on the smooth surface sites of crowns from historical populations. Twenty-seven individuals were examined: 18 from Radom (Poland), and nine from Tell Masaikh and Terqa (Syria). A total of 562 teeth were characterized. The series represented different climatic zones, but were dated from the similar period, 18th to 19th century AD. We used four diagnostic techniques: visual, DD laser, radiographic, and histological as the gold standard. DD laser showed that the mean values of healthy enamel in both series did not exceed 15 units. The mean values of smooth and rough spots in the Syrian population were significantly higher than those from Poland. This study showed that all the noncarious spots from the Radom series did not exceed 30 units. In the Syrian samples, this limit was higher at 44 units. These results were confirmed by histology and radiography. The DD laser provided good results in detecting dentine carious lesions in historical material, but its efficiency in diagnosing early caries (caries incipiens) remains uncertain based on the presented series. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Comparison of direct digital and conventional radiography for the detection of proximal surface caries in the mixed dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uprichard, K K; Potter, B J; Russell, C M; Schafer, T E; Adair, S; Weller, R N

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the performance of direct digital radiography and traditional dental radiography for the detection of proximal surface dental caries in the mixed dentition. 15 quadrants of extracted teeth, arranged from the primary canine to permanent first molar, were imaged using direct digital (Schick Technologies, Long Island City, NY, USA) and conventional films (D-speed and E-speed Plus; Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, NY, USA). Five pediatric dentists viewed the images and scored the 270 proximal surfaces for presence of caries on a 5 point scale and extent of caries on a 4 point scale. The teeth were sectioned and viewed microscopically to determine the gold standard. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to evaluate the viewer's performance for detecting proximal caries using the 3 different image receptor types. Experienced examiners were significantly more accurate in diagnosis of proximal surface caries using either D-speed or E-speed Plus films than they were using the direct digital receptor. The mean areas under the ROC curve (Az) for the viewers were 0.7595 for D-speed film, 0.7557 for E-speed Plus film, and 0.5928 for the direct digital receptor. The results also indicated that selected viewers' accuracy increased when viewing the direct digital images a second time. CCD based direct digital radiography was not as accurate as conventional film images for the purpose of diagnosing proximal surface caries in the mixed dentition. However, the results imply that with increased experience, direct digital images may be as accurate as conventional film based images for diagnosis.

  12. Root caries, root surface restorations and lifestyle factors in adult Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lisa Bøge; Jensen, Allan Bardow; Ekstrand, Kim

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate selected lifestyle factors in relation to active caries and restored root surface lesions in adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Based on clinical examinations and questionnaires, data on root caries, socioeconomic status, body mass index, dietary habits, alcohol consumption, tobacco...... use and oral hygiene routines were collected from 4369 adults aged 21-89 who took part in a survey covering 13 municipalities across Denmark. Uni- and multivariate logistic regression analyses were applied to analyse the relationship between the independent lifestyle variables and active caries...... and restored root surface lesions, respectively. RESULTS: The prevalence of active root caries was 4%, while 26% displayed restored root surfaces. The sugar intake was not related to root caries. A multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that, in subjects aged 45 or over, smoking and wearing...

  13. Pattern and surface prevalence of dental caries on posterior teeth of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pattern and surface prevalence of dental caries on posterior teeth of children in a Nigerian teaching hospital. ... high occurrence of occlusal caries in permanent dentition showed the need to design preventive clinical procedures such as the placement of fissure sealants on first molars so as to prevent occurrence of occlusal ...

  14. Root Surface Caries Occurence in Relation to Social and Dental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To investigate the association between root caries and social and dental behaviour amongst adults in a selected suburband adult population. Methods: The setting, study design and root caries diagnosis were as described in the first part of this three part series. Subjects\\' social and dental health behaviour were ...

  15. Root surface caries occurrence, oral hygiene status and habits in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The study evaluated root surface caries (RS C) occurrence in relation to oral hygiene status and habits in a suburban Nigerian Population. Methods: Seven hundred and twenty consecutive subjects, aged 20 years and above of both genders, attending the General Outpatient Department (GOPD) of Obafemi ...

  16. Caries Experience and Distribution by Tooth Surfaces in Primary Molars in the Pre-school Child Population of Lodz, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruzda-Zwiech, Agnieszka; Filipińska, Renata; Borowska-Strugińska, Beata; Żądzińska, Elżbieta; Wochna-Sobańska, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate caries experience in primary molars as well as the differences in caries prevalence and caries lesion location on individual tooth surfaces between first and second primary molars in pre-school children. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 307 children, aged 3 to 5 years, from randomly chosen kindergartens in Lodz, Poland. Caries experience was scored according to WHO recommendations. The caries intensity (dmft, dmfts) for first and second primary molars was calculated. In addition, the percentage of particular surfaces with caries was counted for each molar separately. The mean dmft for primary molars was 1.84 (dmfts=2.47) and dmft>0 was seen in 53.09% of the study subjects. While in the entire examined population dmft and dmfts for first and second molars did not differ significantly, in 5-year-old children, the left mandibular first molar was associated with a higher caries intensity than the left mandibular second molar (dmfts=0.465 vs 0.344, Z=-1.98, p=0.04). However, in 5-year-olds, higher caries occurrence was seen for occlusal surfaces of the tooth 85 than 84 (33.62% vs 20.68%, χ2=4.09, p=0.03). The distal surface was more frequently affected in first molars than in second molars in children aged 4 (85 vs 84, χ2=17.1, pprimary second molars. However, distal surfaces were affected more in first than second molars.

  17. In vitro detection of secondary caries associated with composite restorations on approximal surfaces using laser fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Jonas A; Neuhaus, Klaus W; Hug, Isabel; Stich, Herman; Seemann, Rainer; Lussi, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the performance of the DIAGNOdent pen laser fluorescence device (LFpen) in comparison with visual examination (VE), bitewing radiographs (BW) and visual examination combined with bitewing radiographs (VEBW) in detecting secondary approximal caries associated with composite restorations. In total, 60 approximal surfaces from 43 permanent molars with composite restorations were assessed twice by two examiners using the LFpen, VE, BW and VEBW. After histological preparation and hardness measurements, the sample was assigned to either a crown or root caries group, depending on the location of the lesions as the gold standard. For crown caries at D1, the highest values of specificity and sensitivity were observed for the LFpen at a cutoff value of 18 (1.00) and for the VEBW (0.89). At D3 (cutoff of 30), the LFpen showed the highest values of sensitivity and specificity. For root caries, the LFpen and VEBW showed the highest values of specificity (0.54), sensitivity (0.81) and accuracy (0.69). The Spearman rank correlation coefficients for crown/root caries with histology were 0.54/0.37 (LFpen), 0.29/0.10 (BW), 0.29/0.18 (VE) and 0.23/0.37 (VEBW). For the LFpen, the ICC varied from 0.80 (interexaminer) to 0.97 (intraexaminer B); the kappa value was 0.19 for BW and 0.35 for VE (interexaminer). Intraexaminer kappa values for BW were 0.25 (A) and 0.29 (B), and those for VE were 0.31 (A) and 0.32 (B). The LFpen device exhibited a performance comparable to that of conventional methods but with higher interexaminer reproducibility. Therefore, the LFpen should be considered an auxiliary method for the detection of secondary approximal caries associated with composite restorations.

  18. Validity of digital imaging of fiber-optic transillumination in caries detection on proximal tooth surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Laitala, M.-L. (Marja-Liisa); Piipari, L. (Liina); Sämpi, N. (Noora); Korhonen, M. (Maria); Pesonen, P. (Paula); Joensuu, T. (Tiina); Anttonen, V. (Vuokko)

    2017-01-01

    Objective The aim of our study was to evaluate the validity of the digital imaging fiber-optic transillumination (DIFOTI) method in comparison with clinical visual examination (CV) and bitewing (BW) radiography on detecting caries lesions on proximal surfaces of teeth. Materials and Methods Proximal tooth surfaces of premolars and molars (n = 2,103) of 91 voluntary university students aged from 18 to 30 years were examined with CV, BW radiography, and the DIFOTI method. Results DIFOTI detecte...

  19. Pen-type laser fluorescence device versus bitewing radiographs for caries detection on approximal surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizhang, M; Wollenweber, N; Singh-Hüsgen, P; Danesh, G; Zimmer, S

    2016-11-04

    The accurate detection of approximal caries is generally difficult. The aim of this study was to assess the ability of the pen-type laser fluorescence device (LF pen) to detect approximal carious lesions in comparison to bitewing radiographs (BW). Three hundred forty-one tooth surfaces were diagnosed in 20 patients with an average age of 26.70 (±2.82) years. Each test tooth was sequentially assessed by a single calibrated examiner using visual inspection, BW, and the LF pen. Radiographs were used as the gold standard to calculate an appropriate cut-off. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy values for cut-off limits of 15, measured by the LF pen were compared using the chi 2 test (McNemar test). For approximal caries at D3 level, the highest values of specificity and sensitivity were observed for the LF pen at a cut-off value of 15 (96.8 and 83.0 %) and for visual inspection (99.3 and 4.3 %). Within the limitations of this study, dentin caries on approximal surfaces could be detected equally well by the LF pen as by the bitewing radiographs. Therefore, the LF pen can be recommended as an alternative to radiographs for the detection of approximal caries in a regular dental practice setting. DRKS00004817 on DRKS on 12 th March 2013.

  20. Rehardening of caries-like lesions in root surfaces by saliva substitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turssi, Cecilia P; Lima, Renata Q V; Faraoni-Romano, Juliana J; Serra, Mônica C

    2006-12-01

    This study sought to evaluate whether root dentine caries-like lesions could be remineralised by saliva substitutes. Root dentine slabs (3 x 3 x 2 mm) were cut from bovine incisors, ground flat, polished and pre-tested for Knoop microhardness (KHN) at five locations spaced 500 microm apart and 500 microm from the left edge of each sectioned piece. After 60 out of the 100 slabs had been selected based upon their KHN values, specimens were coated with wax except for their outer surface. Specimens were then cycled through a highly cariogenic challenge model to induce caries-like lesions, whose formation was confirmed by KHN measurements located 500 microm from the right edge of the specimen. According to a randomised complete block design, the experimental units (n = 15) were exposed to 1.5 ml of saliva substitutes, based on either mucin (MC) or carboxymethylcellulose (CM), to natural human saliva (HS) or to 100% relative humidity (RH) over 20 days. Remineralisation was verified by KHN measurements located 1000 microm apart from the right edge of the specimen. Analysis of variance indicated a significant (p < 0.0001) difference among the KHN values attained by the carious root dentine after exposure to the remineralising agents. Tukey's test ascertained that remineralisation was greatest with MC, intermediate with CM and least with HS, but rehardening did not reach the pre-caries lesion formation values. Saliva substitutes may provide partial remineralisation to preformed caries-like lesions in root dentine.

  1. Prevalence, risk surfaces and inter-municipality variations in caries experience in Danish children and adolescents in 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørrisgaard, Pia Elisabeth; Qvist, Vibeke; Ekstrand, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to describe the caries experience, prevalence and distribution related to tooth type and surfaces in the primary and permanent dentition in children and adolescents in Denmark in 2012. In addition, to examine if explanatory factors influence the inter-municipal......-s/DMF. Conclusions The caries distribution within the primary and permanent dentition among 3-, 9-, 15- and 18-year-olds followed definite patterns concerning location on teeth and surfaces. Background factors only explained a minor part of the variation.......Objective The aim of this study was to describe the caries experience, prevalence and distribution related to tooth type and surfaces in the primary and permanent dentition in children and adolescents in Denmark in 2012. In addition, to examine if explanatory factors influence the inter......-municipality variation in caries experience. Materials and methods Data was collected in the public Child Dental Health Service. In total, 5636 caries registrations on 3-, 9-, 15- and 18-year-olds were collected in 35 of the 98 Danish municipalities. Caries experience was expressed by mean def-s/DMF-S and caries...

  2. Proximal surface caries detection with direct-exposure and rare earth screen/film imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundeen, R.C.; McDavid, W.D.; Barnwell, G.M.

    1988-01-01

    This laboratory study compared five imaging systems for their diagnostic accuracy in detection of proximal surface dental caries. Ten viewers provided data on radiographic detectability of carious lesions. The diagnostic accuracy of each system was determined with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves by comparing viewer data with the true state of the teeth as determined microscopically. D-speed film marginally outperformed the other four systems, but the three screen/film systems matched the diagnostic accuracy of E-speed film. Radiation reductions between 62% and 92% were achieved with the screen/film systems when compared to the two conventional dental films. The feasibility of designing a screen/film bite-wing cassette was shown, but the poor diagnostic accuracy of the present bite-wing system indicated a need for a new technology in caries detection

  3. Proximal surface caries detection with direct-exposure and rare earth screen/film imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundeen, R.C.; McDavid, W.D.; Barnwell, G.M.

    1988-12-01

    This laboratory study compared five imaging systems for their diagnostic accuracy in detection of proximal surface dental caries. Ten viewers provided data on radiographic detectability of carious lesions. The diagnostic accuracy of each system was determined with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves by comparing viewer data with the true state of the teeth as determined microscopically. D-speed film marginally outperformed the other four systems, but the three screen/film systems matched the diagnostic accuracy of E-speed film. Radiation reductions between 62% and 92% were achieved with the screen/film systems when compared to the two conventional dental films. The feasibility of designing a screen/film bite-wing cassette was shown, but the poor diagnostic accuracy of the present bite-wing system indicated a need for a new technology in caries detection.

  4. Dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, Nigel B; Zero, Domenick T; Marsh, Phil D; Ekstrand, Kim; Weintraub, Jane A; Ramos-Gomez, Francisco; Tagami, Junji; Twetman, Svante; Tsakos, Georgios; Ismail, Amid

    2017-05-25

    Dental caries is a biofilm-mediated, sugar-driven, multifactorial, dynamic disease that results in the phasic demineralization and remineralization of dental hard tissues. Caries can occur throughout life, both in primary and permanent dentitions, and can damage the tooth crown and, in later life, exposed root surfaces. The balance between pathological and protective factors influences the initiation and progression of caries. This interplay between factors underpins the classification of individuals and groups into caries risk categories, allowing an increasingly tailored approach to care. Dental caries is an unevenly distributed, preventable disease with considerable economic and quality-of-life burdens. The daily use of fluoride toothpaste is seen as the main reason for the overall decline of caries worldwide over recent decades. This Primer aims to provide a global overview of caries, acknowledging the historical era dominated by restoration of tooth decay by surgical means, but focuses on current, progressive and more holistic long-term, patient-centred, tooth-preserving preventive care.

  5. Influence of the condition of the adjacent tooth surface on fluorescence measurements for the detection of approximal caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lussi, A; Zimmerli, B; Hellwig, E; Jaeggi, T

    2006-12-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether the status of the adjacent tooth surface has an influence on the signal of a new laser fluorescence (LF) device for the detection of approximal caries. Seventy-eight teeth were selected from a pool of extracted permanent human molars, frozen at -20 degrees C until use. Before being measured the teeth were defrosted, cleaned, and any calculus removed. As a control, a defined approximal surface of each tooth was measured with the LF device holding the tip with the detecting- and the reverse-side on it, but without a neighboring tooth contacting the surface. The proximal site under examination was then placed adjacent to a tooth, which had deep dentinal caries, a composite restoration, a provisional ZnO-Eugenol restoration, or a ceramic restoration. The adjacent tooth with the ZnO-Eugenol restoration, the composite restoration, and the dentinal caries all demonstrated a statistically significant increase of LF readings on sound tooth surfaces. Teeth with enamel or dentinal caries were only slightly (and not statistically significantly) influenced by the different types of neighboring surfaces compared with the control LF readings. It can be concluded that caries detection of approximal tooth surfaces with the new LF system might be influenced by the condition of the adjacent tooth surface.

  6. Dental caries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pitts, Nigel B; Zero, Domenick T; Marsh, Phil D

    2017-01-01

    Dental caries is a biofilm-mediated, sugar-driven, multifactorial, dynamic disease that results in the phasic demineralization and remineralization of dental hard tissues. Caries can occur throughout life, both in primary and permanent dentitions, and can damage the tooth crown and, in later life......, acknowledging the historical era dominated by restoration of tooth decay by surgical means, but focuses on current, progressive and more holistic long-term, patient-centred, tooth-preserving preventive care.......Dental caries is a biofilm-mediated, sugar-driven, multifactorial, dynamic disease that results in the phasic demineralization and remineralization of dental hard tissues. Caries can occur throughout life, both in primary and permanent dentitions, and can damage the tooth crown and, in later life......, exposed root surfaces. The balance between pathological and protective factors influences the initiation and progression of caries. This interplay between factors underpins the classification of individuals and groups into caries risk categories, allowing an increasingly tailored approach to care. Dental...

  7. Dental Calculus Arrest of Dental Caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Paul H; Rams, Thomas E

    An inverse relationship between dental calculus mineralization and dental caries demineralization on teeth has been noted in some studies. Dental calculus may even form superficial layers over existing dental caries and arrest their progression, but this phenomenon has been only rarely documented and infrequently considered in the field of Cariology. To further assess the occurrence of dental calculus arrest of dental caries, this study evaluated a large number of extracted human teeth for the presence and location of dental caries, dental calculus, and dental plaque biofilms. A total of 1,200 teeth were preserved in 10% buffered formal saline, and viewed while moist by a single experienced examiner using a research stereomicroscope at 15-25× magnification. Representative teeth were sectioned and photographed, and their dental plaque biofilms subjected to gram-stain examination with light microscopy at 100× magnification. Dental calculus was observed on 1,140 (95%) of the extracted human teeth, and no dental carious lesions were found underlying dental calculus-covered surfaces on 1,139 of these teeth. However, dental calculus arrest of dental caries was found on one (0.54%) of 187 evaluated teeth that presented with unrestored proximal enamel caries. On the distal surface of a maxillary premolar tooth, dental calculus mineralization filled the outer surface cavitation of an incipient dental caries lesion. The dental calculus-covered carious lesion extended only slightly into enamel, and exhibited a brown pigmentation characteristic of inactive or arrested dental caries. In contrast, the tooth's mesial surface, without a superficial layer of dental calculus, had a large carious lesion going through enamel and deep into dentin. These observations further document the potential protective effects of dental calculus mineralization against dental caries.

  8. Dental Calculus Arrest of Dental Caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Paul H.; Rams, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    Background An inverse relationship between dental calculus mineralization and dental caries demineralization on teeth has been noted in some studies. Dental calculus may even form superficial layers over existing dental caries and arrest their progression, but this phenomenon has been only rarely documented and infrequently considered in the field of Cariology. To further assess the occurrence of dental calculus arrest of dental caries, this study evaluated a large number of extracted human teeth for the presence and location of dental caries, dental calculus, and dental plaque biofilms. Materials and methods A total of 1,200 teeth were preserved in 10% buffered formal saline, and viewed while moist by a single experienced examiner using a research stereomicroscope at 15-25× magnification. Representative teeth were sectioned and photographed, and their dental plaque biofilms subjected to gram-stain examination with light microscopy at 100× magnification. Results Dental calculus was observed on 1,140 (95%) of the extracted human teeth, and no dental carious lesions were found underlying dental calculus-covered surfaces on 1,139 of these teeth. However, dental calculus arrest of dental caries was found on one (0.54%) of 187 evaluated teeth that presented with unrestored proximal enamel caries. On the distal surface of a maxillary premolar tooth, dental calculus mineralization filled the outer surface cavitation of an incipient dental caries lesion. The dental calculus-covered carious lesion extended only slightly into enamel, and exhibited a brown pigmentation characteristic of inactive or arrested dental caries. In contrast, the tooth's mesial surface, without a superficial layer of dental calculus, had a large carious lesion going through enamel and deep into dentin. Conclusions These observations further document the potential protective effects of dental calculus mineralization against dental caries. PMID:27446993

  9. The oral bacterial microbiome of occlusal surfaces in children and its association with diet and caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azcarate-Peril, Maria Andrea; Cadenas, Maria Belen; Butz, Natasha; Paster, Bruce J.; Chen, Tsute; Bair, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Dental caries is the most prevalent disease in humans globally. Efforts to control it have been invigorated by an increasing knowledge of the oral microbiome composition. This study aimed to evaluate the bacterial diversity in occlusal biofilms and its relationship with clinical surface diagnosis and dietary habits. Anamneses were recorded from thirteen 12-year-old children. Biofilm samples collected from occlusal surfaces of 46 permanent second molars were analyzed by 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing combined with the BLASTN-based search algorithm for species identification. The overall mean decayed, missing and filled surfaces modified index [DMFSm Index, including active white spot lesions (AWSL)] value was 8.77±7.47. Biofilm communities were highly polymicrobial collectively, representing 10 bacterial phyla, 25 classes, 29 orders, 58 families, 107 genera, 723 species. Streptococcus sp_Oral_Taxon_065, Corynebacterium matruchotii, Actinomyces viscosus, Actinomyces sp_Oral_Taxon_175, Actinomyces sp_Oral_Taxon_178, Actinomyces sp_Oral_Taxon_877, Prevotella nigrescens, Dialister micraerophilus, Eubacterium_XI G 1 infirmum were more abundant among surfaces with AWSL, and Streptococcus gordonii, Streptococcus sp._Oral_Taxon_058, Enterobacter sp._str._638 Streptococcus australis, Yersinia mollaretii, Enterobacter cloacae, Streptococcus sp._Oral_Taxon_71, Streptococcus sp._Oral_Taxon_F11, Centipeda sp._Oral_Taxon_D18 were more abundant among sound surfaces. Streptococcus mutans was detected on all surfaces in all patients, while Streptococcus sobrinus was detected only in three patients (mean relative abundances 7.1% and 0.6%, respectively). Neither species differentiated healthy from diseased sites. Diets of nine of the subjects were scored as high in fermentable carbohydrates (≧2X/day between meals). A direct association between relative abundances of bacteria and carbohydrate consumption was observed among 18 species. High consumption of fermentable carbohydrates and

  10. Efficacy of sealing the mesial surfaces of first permanent molars with respect to the status of the distal surfaces of the second primary molars in children at high caries-risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, S S; Emilson, C-G; Corvalan, G C; Quiroz, M D; Moran, M P H

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the efficacy of sealants at preventing caries development or arresting the progression of non-cavitated mesial carious lesions in first permanent molars (6m) with respect to the status of the distal surfaces of the second primary molars (05d). The study population comprised 121, 8- to 10-year-old schoolchildren in a high-caries community in Valparaiso, Chile. They were examined clinically and radiographically and screened for caries-related risk factors using the risk-assessment software program Cariogram. The children were divided into three groups: Group A, with no caries lesions on adjacent surfaces of 05d-6m, served as a control group. Group B, with caries on 05d, received a preventive sealant on the caries-free 6m after temporary separation, and Group C, with carious 05d, received a therapeutic sealant on a 6m with initial lesions. Standardised follow-up radiographs were taken in 110 children after 12-14 months. In group A, with no treatment, the mean percentage of sound surfaces that developed caries lesions was 3.8%. In group B, the mean percentage of sound 6m surfaces that developed caries lesions was 4.9% for sealed and 22.0% for unsealed surfaces (p caries in the proximal mesial surfaces of permanent molar teeth effectively prevents or reduces the progression of caries adjacent to lesions on the distal surfaces of the second primary molars.

  11. PRIMARY CARIES: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Solanki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary caries is an initial lesions produced by direct extension from an external surface. Dental caries is called as tooth decay or a cavity is a disease in which bacterial processes changes carbohydrate to acid which than dematerializes the hard tooth structure like enamel, dentin and cementum. Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus are the bacteria responsible for the dental caries by acid production. This article throws light on the dental caries disease, its sign and symptoms, treatment and prevention of it. A review of some patents on dental caries is also provided that summarizes the recent technical advancements taken place in this area.

  12. The Problem of Occlusal Surface Pit and Fissure Dental Caries in Naval Recruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    in ground sections to reveal dental caries in the fissures (11,12). The first and second molars have been shown to be more susceptible than premolars ... premolars ? Preliminary results from our laboratory suggest that the molars, especially the second molars, of naval recruits are more caries prone

  13. How different do visuo-tactile criteria assess caries lesions activity status on occlusal surfaces?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Floriano, I; Bonini, G C; Matos, R

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We tested the association between active caries lesions assessed by two different criteria and clinical features of these caries lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three examiners examined forty-nine 3- to 12-year-old children: one examiner used the Nyvad criteria, another examiner used ...

  14. Serial removal of caries lesions from tooth occlusal surfaces using near-IR image-guided IR laser ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kenneth H.; Tom, Henry; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies have established that caries lesions can be imaged with high contrast without the interference of stains at near-IR wavelengths greater than 1300-nm. It has been demonstrated that computer controlled laser scanning systems utilizing IR lasers operating at high pulse repetition rates can be used for serial imaging and selective removal of caries lesions. In this study, we report our progress towards the development of algorithms for generating rasterized ablation maps from near-IR reflectance images for the removal of natural lesions from tooth occlusal surfaces. An InGaAs camera and a filtered tungsten-halogen lamp producing near-IR light in the range of 1500-1700-nm were used to collect crosspolarization reflectance images of tooth occlusal surfaces. A CO2 laser operating at a wavelength of 9.3- μm with a pulse duration of 10-15-μs was used for image-guided ablation.

  15. Association of environmental cadmium exposure with pediatric dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Manish; Weuve, Jennifer; Schwartz, Joel; Wright, Robert O

    2008-06-01

    Although animal experiments have shown that cadmium exposure results in severe dental caries, limited epidemiologic data are available on this issue. We aimed to examine the relationship between environmental cadmium exposure and dental caries in children 6-12 years of age. We analyzed cross-sectional data, including urine cadmium concentrations and counts of decayed or filled tooth surfaces, from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We used logistic and zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) regression to estimate the association between urine cadmium concentrations and caries experience, adjusting these analyses for potential confounders including environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Urine cadmium concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 3.38 ng/mL. Approximately 56% of children had experienced caries in their deciduous teeth, and almost 30% had been affected by caries in their permanent dentition. An interquartile range (IQR) increase in creatinine-corrected cadmium concentrations (0.21 microg/g creatinine) corresponded to a 16% increase in the odds of having experienced caries in deciduous teeth [prevalence odds ratio (OR)=1.16; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.96-1.40]. This association was statistically significant in children with low ETS exposure (prevalence OR=1.30; 95% CI, 1.01-1.67). The results from the ZINB regression indicated that, among children with any caries history in their deciduous teeth, an IQR increase in cadmium was associated with 17% increase in the number of decayed or filled surfaces. We observed no association between cadmium and caries experience in permanent teeth. Environmental cadmium exposure may be associated with increased risk of dental caries in deciduous teeth of children.

  16. Association of Environmental Cadmium Exposure with Pediatric Dental Caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Manish; Weuve, Jennifer; Schwartz, Joel; Wright, Robert O.

    2008-01-01

    Background Although animal experiments have shown that cadmium exposure results in severe dental caries, limited epidemiologic data are available on this issue. Objectives We aimed to examine the relationship between environmental cadmium exposure and dental caries in children 6–12 years of age. Methods We analyzed cross-sectional data, including urine cadmium concentrations and counts of decayed or filled tooth surfaces, from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We used logistic and zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) regression to estimate the association between urine cadmium concentrations and caries experience, adjusting these analyses for potential confounders including environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Results Urine cadmium concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 3.38 ng/mL. Approximately 56% of children had experienced caries in their deciduous teeth, and almost 30% had been affected by caries in their permanent dentition. An interquartile range (IQR) increase in creatinine-corrected cadmium concentrations (0.21 μg/g creatinine) corresponded to a 16% increase in the odds of having experienced caries in deciduous teeth [prevalence odds ratio (OR) = 1.16; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.96–1.40]. This association was statistically significant in children with low ETS exposure (prevalence OR = 1.30; 95% CI, 1.01–1.67). The results from the ZINB regression indicated that, among children with any caries history in their deciduous teeth, an IQR increase in cadmium was associated with 17% increase in the number of decayed or filled surfaces. We observed no association between cadmium and caries experience in permanent teeth. Conclusions Environmental cadmium exposure may be associated with increased risk of dental caries in deciduous teeth of children. PMID:18560540

  17. Immunization against dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Toshihiko; Oho, Takahiko; Shimazaki, Yoshihiro; Nakano, Yoshio

    2002-05-15

    Dental caries is one of the most common infectious diseases. Of the oral bacteria, mutans streptococci, such as Streptococcus mutans and S. sobrinus, are considered to be causative agents of dental caries in humans. There have been numerous studies of the immunology of mutans streptococci. To control dental caries, dental caries vaccines have been produced using various cell-surface antigens of these organisms. Progress in recombinant DNA technology and peptide synthesis has been applied to the development of recombinant and synthetic peptide vaccines to control dental caries. Significant protective effects against dental caries have been shown in experimental animals, such as mice, rats and monkeys, which have been subcutaneously, orally, or intranasally immunized with these antigens. Only a few studies, however, have examined the efficacy of dental caries vaccines in humans. Recently, local passive immunization using murine monoclonal antibodies, transgenic plant antibodies, egg-yolk antibodies, and bovine milk antibodies to antigens of mutans streptococci have been used to control the colonization of the organisms and the induction of dental caries in human. Such immunization procedures may be a safer approach for controlling human dental caries than active immunization.

  18. Results after two years of non-operative treatment of occlusal surface in children with high caries prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maltz Marisa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the 2-year results of an individualized treatment program designed to control occlusal caries in erupting first permanent molars. The sample consisted of 145 five-to-six-year-old students divided into a control group (n=71 and a test group (n=74. All test children received a biannual basic preventive program and a recall system according to individual disease activity. The basic program consisted of 3 (March and 2 (August sessions of oral hygiene orientation and toothbrushing with fluoride gel. The analysis of the baseline and 1-2-year data showed a significant reduction in the number of active lesions in the test group. In the control group, there were initially 70 active lesions and after two years 68 surfaces remained with disease and 24 surfaces had been filled. The children in the test group had 80 surfaces with active lesions initially and after two years only 3 surfaces with disease remained. From the 15 cavitated lesions, only 5 surfaces needed to be filled. This program showed that care of erupting teeth on an individualized basis can control occlusal caries.

  19. Dilemma of managing multi-surface dental caries in the primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: A lot of research work has been carried out to determine the effectiveness of using atraumatic restorative treatment (ART ) in the management of dental caries, but there are still unresolved issues surrounding the use of the technique particularly in very large carious lesions. Objective: To determine the current ...

  20. Performance of laser fluorescence for the detection of enamel caries in non-cavitated occlusal surfaces: clinical study with total validation of the sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abalos, Camilo; Mendoza, Asunción; Jimenez-Planas, Amparo; Guerrero, Elena; Chaparro, Antonio; Garcia-Godoy, Franklin

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate the clinical performance of a laser fluorescence device in detecting enamel caries in non-cavitated occlusal surfaces. The sample included 96 first and second permanent molars, selected according to the criteria of Ekstrand: 44 not suspected of having dentin caries (score: 0-2) and 52 under suspicion (score: 3-4). Once measured by laser fluorescence, all teeth were validated by fissurotomy (gold standard). To avoid ethical questions, the 44 teeth (score: 0-2) used were to serve as abutments for a fixed dental prostheses. Following fissurotomy, the 52 teeth with suspected caries were treated with resin composite restorations. Kruskall-Wallis statistical analysis (PLaser fluorescence showed an area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve of Az = 0.803 for enamel caries. The cut-off point with the highest sensitivity and specificity was 15, with a sensitivity and specificity of 0.97 and 0.63, respectively. Values under 10 indicated healthy teeth.

  1. Comparative evaluation of microshear bond strength of the caries-affected dentinal surface treated with conventional method and chemomechanical method (papain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittem, Jyothi; Sajjan, Girija S; Varma, Kanumuri Madhu

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing interest in chemomechanical excavation (papain) in permanent molar teeth. There are several studies dealing with primary molar teeth. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of conventional method and Carie-care (chemomechanical method) on the microshear bond strength (μSBS) and the type of failure of an adhesive system to caries-affected dentin of permanent molar teeth. Twenty permanent molar teeth with carious lesions extending into the dentin were selected. Through the center of the carious lesion, teeth were sectioned mesiodistally and divided into two groups based on the method of caries excavation (conventional and chemomechanical method). The time required for the completion of excavation procedure was noted. Samples were again divided into two subgroups in each according to the method of restoration (Ketac N100 and Filtek Z350 composite). The bonded interface was subjected to μSBS testing in a universal testing machine. Fractured surfaces were examined under a stereomicroscope, and representative specimens were examined under scanning electron microscope for the type of failure. It was achieved with unpaired t-test and Kruskal-Wallis H-test at 5% level of significance. The μSBS values of Carie-care groups were similar to that of the conventional method. The μSBSs of resin composite were significantly (P caries excavation. A papain-based chemomechanical agent can be used safely as a method for caries removal when employing conventional adhesive systems.

  2. Evaluation of laser fluorescence in monitoring non-cavitated caries lesion progression on smooth surfaces in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, J A; Sarti, C S; Assunção, C M; Arthur, R A; Lussi, A; Diniz, M B

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of a pen-type laser fluorescence (LF) device (LFpen: DIAGNOdent pen) to detect and monitor the progression of caries-like lesions on smooth surfaces. Fifty-two bovine enamel blocks were submitted to three different demineralisation cycles for caries-like lesion induction using Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus casei and Actinomyces naeslundii. At baseline and after each cycle, the enamel blocks were analysed under Knoop surface micro-hardness (SMH) and an LFpen. One enamel block after each cycle was randomly chosen for Raman spectroscopy analysis. Cross-sectional micro-hardness (CSMH) was performed at different depths (20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 μm) in 26 enamel blocks after the second cycle and 26 enamel blocks after the third cycle. Average values of SMH (± standard deviation (SD)) were 319.3 (± 21.5), 80.5 (± 31.9), 39.8 (± 12.7), and 29.77 (± 10.34) at baseline and after the first, second and third cycles, respectively. Statistical significant difference was found among all periods (p  0.05). One sample of each cycle was characterised through Raman spectroscopy analysis. It can be concluded that LF was effective in detecting the first demineralisation on enamel; however, the method did not show any effect in monitoring lesion progression after three cycles of in vitro demineralisation.

  3. Caries risk assessment models in caries prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amila Zukanović

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this research was to assess the efficiency of different multifactor models in caries prediction. Material and methods. Data from the questionnaire and objective examination of 109 examinees was entered into the Cariogram, Previser and Caries-Risk Assessment Tool (CAT multifactor risk assessment models. Caries risk was assessed with the help of all three models for each patient, classifying them as low, medium or high-risk patients. The development of new caries lesions over a period of three years [Decay Missing Filled Tooth (DMFT increment = difference between Decay Missing Filled Tooth Surface (DMFTS index at baseline and follow up], provided for examination of the predictive capacity concerning different multifactor models. Results. The data gathered showed that different multifactor risk assessment models give significantly different results (Friedman test: Chi square = 100.073, p=0.000. Cariogram is the model which identified the majority of examinees as medium risk patients (70%. The other two models were more radical in risk assessment, giving more unfavorable risk –profiles for patients. In only 12% of the patients did the three multifactor models assess the risk in the same way. Previser and CAT gave the same results in 63% of cases – the Wilcoxon test showed that there is no statistically significant difference in caries risk assessment between these two models (Z = -1.805, p=0.071. Conclusions. Evaluation of three different multifactor caries risk assessment models (Cariogram, PreViser and CAT showed that only the Cariogram can successfully predict new caries development in 12-year-old Bosnian children.

  4. Comparison of different caries detectors for approximal caries detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esin Bozdemir

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: The ability of bitewing radiography to identify sound surfaces was better than that of the other methods. The LF device was the most sensitive tool for detecting approximal surfaces with caries, followed by the LED device.

  5. Rampant Caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman-Armstrong, Sandra

    2005-01-01

    Although dental caries in the pediatric and adolescent population has consistently declined in the United States, it is still the most common childhood disease. Dental problems are the number one reason for missing school next to the common cold. Dental caries are an infectious, communicable disease resulting in destruction of tooth structure by…

  6. Dental caries in relation to socio-behavioral factors of 6-year-old school children of Udaipur district, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santhosh Kumar Tadakamadla

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: Rural children and boys experienced greater caries than their urban and girl counterparts. Caries experience was related to the parent′s occupation and education. Moreover, caries occurrence was influenced by brushing frequency and dental visiting habits.

  7. Prospective study of 5-year caries increment among children receiving comprehensive dental care in the New England children's amalgam trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maserejian, Nancy Nairi; Tavares, Mary A; Hayes, Catherine; Soncini, Jennifer A; Trachtenberg, Felicia L

    2009-02-01

    To measure the 5-year caries increment among high-risk children during their participation in the New England Children's Amalgam Trial (NECAT), and to evaluate sociodemographic factors that may account for any observed disparities. NECAT recruited 534 children aged 6-10 with at least two decayed posterior occlusal surfaces from urban Boston and rural Maine. After restoration of baseline caries and application of sealants to sound surfaces, NECAT continued to provide free comprehensive semiannual dental care to participants. The net caries increment of children who completed the 5-year follow-up (n = 429) was calculated and predictors of caries increment were investigated using multivariate negative binomial models. The majority of children (89%) experienced new caries by the end of the 5-year follow-up. Almost half (45%) had at least one newly decayed surface by the first annual visit. At year 5, the mean number of new decayed teeth was 4.5 +/- 3.6 (range 0-25) and surfaces was 6.9 +/- 6.5 (range 0-48). Time trends showed a noticeably higher increment rate among older children and young teenagers. Multivariate models showed that age (P P or=2/day, P = 0.04) were associated with caries increment. Only 48 children (11%) did not develop new caries. Despite the receipt of comprehensive semiannual dental care, the vast majority of these high-risk children continued to develop new caries within 5 years. While disparities were observed by age, extent of prior decay, and toothbrushing frequency, no other sociodemographic factors were associated with caries increment, suggesting that the dental care provided during the trial reduced sociodemographic disparities in prior caries experience that were observed at baseline.

  8. Method for the prioritization of areas experiencing microbial pollution of surface water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Venter, SN

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased threat of faecal pollution in recent years and the high priority of protecting human health by the government led to the initiation of a national microbial monitoring programme for surface water in South Africa. According to the design...

  9. Visual scoring of non-cavitated caries lesions and clinical trial efficiency, testing xylitol in caries active adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, JP; Amaechi, BT; Bader, JD; Gilbert, GH; Makhija, SK; Lozano-Pineda, J; Leo, MC; Chuhe, C; Vollmer, WM

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To better understand the effectiveness of xylitol in caries prevention in adults, and to attempt improved clinical trial efficiency. Methods As part of the Xylitol for Adult Caries Trial (X-ACT), non-cavitated and cavitated caries lesions were assessed in subjects who were experiencing the disease. The trial was a test of the effectiveness of 5 grams/day of xylitol, consumed by dissolving in the mouth five 1 gram lozenges spaced across each day, compared with a sucralose placebo. For this analysis, seeking trial efficiency, 538 subjects aged 21–80, with complete data for four dental examinations were selected from the 691 randomized into the three year trial, conducted at three sites. Acceptable inter and intra examiner reliability before and during the trial was quantified using the kappa statistic. Results The mean annualized non-cavitated plus cavitated lesion transition scores in coronal and root surfaces, from sound to carious favoured xylitol over placebo, during the three cumulative periods of 12, 24, and 33 months, but these clinically and statistically non-significant differences declined in magnitude over time. Restricting the present assessment to those subjects with a higher baseline lifetime caries experience showed possible but inconsistent benefit. Conclusions There was no clear and clinically relevant preventive effect of xylitol on caries in adults with adequate fluoride exposure when non-cavitated plus cavitated lesions were assessed. This conformed to the X-ACT trial result assessing cavitated lesions. Including non-cavitated lesion assessment in this full scale, placebo controlled, multi site, randomized, double blinded clinical trial in adults experiencing dental caries, did not achieve added trial efficiency or demonstrate practical benefit of xylitol. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.Gov NCT00393055 PMID:24205951

  10. Visual scoring of non cavitated caries lesions and clinical trial efficiency, testing xylitol in caries-active adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, John P; Amaechi, Bennett T; Bader, James D; Gilbert, Gregg H; Makhija, Sonia K; Lozano-Pineda, Juanita; Leo, Michael C; Chen, Chuhe; Vollmer, William M

    2014-06-01

    To better understand the effectiveness of xylitol in caries prevention in adults and to attempt improved clinical trial efficiency. As part of the Xylitol for Adult Caries Trial (X-ACT), non cavitated and cavitated caries lesions were assessed in subjects who were experiencing the disease. The trial was a test of the effectiveness of 5 g/day of xylitol, consumed by dissolving in the mouth five 1 g lozenges spaced across each day, compared with a sucralose placebo. For this analysis, seeking trial efficiency, 538 subjects aged 21-80, with complete data for four dental examinations, were selected from the 691 randomized into the 3-year trial, conducted at three sites. Acceptable inter- and intra-examiner reliability before and during the trial was quantified using the kappa statistic. The mean annualized noncavitated plus cavitated lesion transition scores in coronal and root surfaces, from sound to carious favoured xylitol over placebo, during the three cumulative periods of 12, 24, and 33 months, but these clinically and statistically nonsignificant differences declined in magnitude over time. Restricting the present assessment to those subjects with a higher baseline lifetime caries experience showed possible but inconsistent benefit. There was no clear and clinically relevant preventive effect of xylitol on caries in adults with adequate fluoride exposure when non cavitated plus cavitated lesions were assessed. This conformed to the X-ACT trial result assessing cavitated lesions. Including non cavitated lesion assessment in this full-scale, placebo-controlled, multisite, randomized, double-blinded clinical trial in adults experiencing dental caries did not achieve added trial efficiency or demonstrate practical benefit of xylitol. ClinicalTrials.Gov NCT00393055. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Diagnosis of Proximal Caries in Primary Molars with DIAGNOdent pen

    OpenAIRE

    Ermler, Romy

    2010-01-01

    Proximal surfaces, together with fissures, are the areas where most primary caries occur. Due to the anatomy of the deciduous molars, proximal caries cannot be detected at an early stage in crowded teeth by simply using a mirror and probe. Therefore, additional methods to find early proximal caries have to be used. KaVo uses laser fluorescence to detect caries. Originally, the DIAGNOdent devices were able to detect only occlusal caries (56, 61, 62, 65, 66). New results are now also available ...

  12. The effect of surface defects in early caries assessment using quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF) and micro-digital-photography (MDP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meharry, M R; Dawson, D; Wefel, J S; Harless, J D; Kummet, C M; Xiao, X

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to consider the impact of surface defects on quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF) and micro-digital-photography (MDP) measures, in relationship to lesion depth. Simulated enamel carious lesions were developed on 45 extracted human teeth. Images of each tooth were captured with both QLF and MDP. The teeth were sectioned and lesion depth was measured with polarized light microscopy (PLM). Pearson correlations were computed using data from the 27 lesions which did not have surface loss, and then separately based upon the 18 lesions which did display surface loss. MDP variables ΔR and ΔX measure reflected light, whereas QLF variables ΔF and ΔQ measure fluorescence. A strong correlation was identified between lesion depth and ΔF (r=-0.765, pMDP measures. QLF measures ΔF and ΔQ were strongly correlated with lesion depth in lab-simulated lesions with no surface loss, but not among lesions with surface defects. The two MDP-associated measures, ΔR and ΔX, could not be said to differ significantly when lesions with and without surface defects were compared with lesion depth. Because intact lesions can be remineralized, accurate assessment of their status is imperative for caries treatment. Dental caries is still widely prevalent today. We now know that with early stage detection, remineralization can be accomplished. Being able to identify dental caries in its reversible stage (before physical surface loss) is paramount for the clinician to be able to treat the disease non-invasively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The effect of CO2 laser irradiation plus fluoride dentifrice on the inhibition of secondary caries on root surfaces adjacent to glass ionomer cement or composite resin restorations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, S. R.; Moraes, M.; Hanashiro, F. S.; Youssef, M. N.; Brugnera Junior, A.; Nobre-dos-Santos, M.; de Souza-Zaroni, W. C.

    2016-02-01

    Although the cariostatic effects of CO2 laser on the root surface have been shown, there is scarce information regarding its effects on root secondary caries. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of the association of CO2 laser and a fluoride dentifrice on the inhibition of secondary caries on root surfaces adjacent to composite-resin or glass-ionomer-cement restorations. Dental blocks of human roots were divided into two groups: composite resin (CR) or glass ionomer cement (GIC). Subsequently, the blocks were divided into four subgroups (n  =  10): C, non-fluoride dentifrice; FD, fluoride dentifrice; L, CO2 laser with an energy density of 6.0 J cm-2  +  non-fluoride dentifrice; and L  +  FD, CO2 laser  +  fluoride dentifrice. The blocks were subjected to pH cycling to simulate a high cariogenic challenge. Dental demineralization around the restorations was quantified by microhardness analysis. The results were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Tukey-Kramer test (p  ⩽  0.05). As for mineral loss, it can be observed that all the groups that were treated with a fluoride dentifrice and laser, used alone or not, were statistically similar and superior to the RC-C group. It was concluded that CO2 laser irradiation and a fluoride dentifrice used alone or combined with each other are efficient surface treatments for preventing secondary root caries, regardless of the restorative material used.

  14. The effect of CO2 laser irradiation plus fluoride dentifrice on the inhibition of secondary caries on root surfaces adjacent to glass ionomer cement or composite resin restorations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, S R; Moraes, M; Youssef, M N; De Souza-Zaroni, W C; Hanashiro, F S; Brugnera Junior, A; Nobre-dos-Santos, M

    2016-01-01

    Although the cariostatic effects of CO 2 laser on the root surface have been shown, there is scarce information regarding its effects on root secondary caries. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of the association of CO 2 laser and a fluoride dentifrice on the inhibition of secondary caries on root surfaces adjacent to composite-resin or glass-ionomer-cement restorations. Dental blocks of human roots were divided into two groups: composite resin (CR) or glass ionomer cement (GIC). Subsequently, the blocks were divided into four subgroups (n  =  10): C, non-fluoride dentifrice; FD, fluoride dentifrice; L, CO 2 laser with an energy density of 6.0 J cm −2   +  non-fluoride dentifrice; and L  +  FD, CO 2 laser  +  fluoride dentifrice. The blocks were subjected to pH cycling to simulate a high cariogenic challenge. Dental demineralization around the restorations was quantified by microhardness analysis. The results were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Tukey–Kramer test (p  ⩽  0.05). As for mineral loss, it can be observed that all the groups that were treated with a fluoride dentifrice and laser, used alone or not, were statistically similar and superior to the RC–C group. It was concluded that CO 2 laser irradiation and a fluoride dentifrice used alone or combined with each other are efficient surface treatments for preventing secondary root caries, regardless of the restorative material used. (paper)

  15. Current possibilities in occlusal caries management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrvoje Jurić

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is a multifactorial disease that affects most populations throughout the world and it is still the primary cause of oral pain and tooth loss. The occlusal surfaces of posterior teeth are the most vulnerable sites for dental caries due to their anatomy. Therefore, the aim of the following article is to summarize current knowledge on occlusal caries development and the possibilities of its prevention. Although the overall caries rate today has fallen for populations in industrialized countries, the rate of occlusal surface caries has not decreased. This may be explained with fact that topically applied fluorides and their mode of action prevent caries better on smooth than on occlusal surfaces. As we know, tooth decay of first permanent molars causes a great deal of different short and long term difficulties for patients. Therefore, there is a continuous need for implementation of programs for caries prevention in permanent teeth. Nowadays, we like to treat our patients by minimally invasive methods. A very important step in our effective preventive treatment is sealing pits and fissures as a cornerstone of occlusal caries management. Reliable assessment of caries activity is also very important for defining treatment needs and plans. A very important decision, which should be made during occlusal caries management, is the selection of restorative material according to the treatment plan. Conclusion. Current possibilities in occlusal caries prevention and management are very effective. Therefore, dentists today do not have any excuse for avoiding the philosophy of Minimally Invasive Dentistry, especially when we talk about caries management of occlusal surfaces in permanent molars.

  16. Dental caries prevalence and treatment need in Chiriqui Province, Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astroth, J; Berg, R; Berkey, D; McDowell, J; Hamman, R; Mann, J

    1998-06-01

    A pathfinder pilot survey was conducted in rural Chiriqui Province, Panama, using standard WHO methodology, in order to estimate dental caries prevalence and treatment need. Examinations for caries and treatment need were performed by six trained, experienced examiners. From a convenience sample of 2,597 subjects, a stratified cluster sample was constructed using index ages 12 and 15 years and age groups 35-44 and 65-74 years. The results showed a mean Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth index (DMFT) of 4.08 for 12 year olds, 6.40 for 15 year olds, 13.20 for the 35-44 age group, and 18.88 for the 65-74 age group (P Mexico and Haiti when compared to the results of other Central American community studies. The percentage of caries free 12 year olds was 6.8 per cent. Of the total sample, 74.7 per cent of individuals would require one or multiple surface restorations and 47.9 per cent would require at least one extraction. Restorative need was greatest in the 15 year olds. The severity of dental caries in this sample was moderately severe and the treatment need extraordinarily high.

  17. Caries-preventive Effect of Supervised Toothbrushing and Sealants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilgert, L.A.; Leal, S.C.; Mulder, J.; Creugers, N.H.J.; Frencken, J.E.F.M.

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of 3 caries-preventive measures on high- and low-caries risk occlusal surfaces of first permanent molars over 3 y. This cluster-randomized controlled clinical trial covered 242 schoolchildren, 6 to 7 y old, from low socioeconomic areas. At baseline, caries risk was

  18. On modeling and nanoanalysis of caries-affected dentin surfaces restored with Zn-containing amalgam and in vitro oral function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledano, Manuel; Aguilera, Fátima S; Osorio, Estrella; López-López, Modesto T; Cabello, Inmaculada; Toledano-Osorio, Manuel; Osorio, Raquel

    2015-12-19

    The aim of this research was to assess the influence of mechanical loading on the ability of Zn-free versus Zn-containing amalgams to promote remineralization at the dentin interface. Sound and caries-affected dentin surfaces (CAD) were restored using Zn-free or Zn-containing dental amalgams. Midcoronal dentin surfaces were studied by (1) atomic force microscopy analysis (including plot and phase imaging, nanoindentation test [modulus of Young (Ei), nanoroughness measurements, and fibril diameter assessment], (2) Raman spectroscopy/cluster analysis, (3) x-ray diffraction, (4) field emission electron microscope and energy-dispersive analysis, for morphological, mechanical, and physicochemical characterization. Analyses were performed before amalgam placement and after amalgam removal, at 24 h and 3 weeks of load cycling. Zn-free and Zn-containing amalgams restorations promoted an increase in the modulus of Young of CAD surfaces, after 3 weeks of load cycling; at this time, Zn-containing amalgams attained higher Ei than Zn-free restorations. Zn-containing amalgams induced tubular occlusion after load cycling, in both sound and CAD. Zn free-amalgams promoted remineralization of both intertubular and peritubular dentin in CAD substrata. These minerals were identified as calcium-phosphate deposits and crystals as hydroxyl-apatite with augmented crystallographic maturity but with some components of lattice distortion. Crosslinking of collagen diminished and secondary structure of collagen increased in CAD substrate restored with Zn-containing amalgam after 3 weeks of load cycling, indicating an advanced preservation, molecular organization, and orientation of collagen fibrils after load cycling. Plot and phase images permitted to observe the topographical changes which were promoted by the mineral deposits; in general, the indexes related to higher remineralization gave rise to a decrease of nanoroughness and an augmentation of the bandwidth of the collagen fibrils. Zn

  19. Proximal caries detection using digital subtraction radiography in the artificial caries activity model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jong Hoon; Lee, Gi Ja; Choi, Sam Jin; Park, Young Ho; Kim, Kyung Soo; Jin, Hyun Seok; Hong, Kyung Won; Oh, Berm Seok; Park, Hun Kuk; Choi, Yong Suk; Hwang, Eui Hwan

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the experiment was to evaluating the diagnostic ability of dental caries detection using digital subtraction in the artificial caries activity model. Digital radiographs of five teeth with 8 proximal surfaces were obtained by CCD sensor (Kodak RVG 6100 using a size no.2). The digital radiographic images and subtraction images from artificial proximal caries were examined and interpreted. In this study, we proposed novel caries detection method which could diagnose the dental proximal caries from single digital radiographic image. In artificial caries activity model, the range of lesional depth was 572-1,374 μm and the range of lesional area was 36.95-138.52 mm 2 . The lesional depth and the area were significantly increased with demineralization time (p<0.001). Furthermore, the proximal caries detection using digital subtraction radiography showed high detection rate compared to the proximal caries examination using simple digital radiograph. The results demonstrated that the digital subtraction radiography from single radiographic image of artificial caries was highly efficient in the detection of dental caries compared to the data from simple digital radiograph.

  20. Proximal caries detection using digital subtraction radiography in the artificial caries activity model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Hoon; Lee, Gi Ja; Choi, Sam Jin; Park, Young Ho; Kim, Kyung Soo; Jin, Hyun Seok; Hong, Kyung Won; Oh, Berm Seok; Park, Hun Kuk [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yong Suk; Hwang, Eui Hwan [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Institute of Oral Biology, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-03-15

    The purpose of the experiment was to evaluating the diagnostic ability of dental caries detection using digital subtraction in the artificial caries activity model. Digital radiographs of five teeth with 8 proximal surfaces were obtained by CCD sensor (Kodak RVG 6100 using a size no.2). The digital radiographic images and subtraction images from artificial proximal caries were examined and interpreted. In this study, we proposed novel caries detection method which could diagnose the dental proximal caries from single digital radiographic image. In artificial caries activity model, the range of lesional depth was 572-1,374 {mu}m and the range of lesional area was 36.95-138.52 mm{sup 2}. The lesional depth and the area were significantly increased with demineralization time (p<0.001). Furthermore, the proximal caries detection using digital subtraction radiography showed high detection rate compared to the proximal caries examination using simple digital radiograph. The results demonstrated that the digital subtraction radiography from single radiographic image of artificial caries was highly efficient in the detection of dental caries compared to the data from simple digital radiograph.

  1. Illness perceptions amongst individuals with dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafla, A C; Villalobos-Galvis, F H; Heft, M W

    2018-03-01

    To assess individuals' perception of dental caries, in order to explain how illness representations might influence their coping with the disease. Cross-sectional questionnaire study. 520 consecutive patients (aged ≥18 years) of the General Dentistry Clinic at Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Pasto, Colombia who had experienced dental caries. Illness perception of dental caries was assessed using the Illness Perception Questionnaire Revised (IPQ-R). The most frequent self-reported symptoms associated with dental caries were "toothache" (56.2%), "tooth sensitivity" (53.8%) and "mild to sharp pain when eating or drinking" (51.2%). The dimensions of illness perception were related to socio-economic status (SES). Symptoms of "loose or separating teeth" and "pus in your tooth" were associated with dental caries by low SES participants, while "bleeding while brushing, flossing or eating hard food" and "mild to sharp pain when eating or drinking something sweet, hot or cold" were related more to higher SES. Perceptions of caries were related to socioeconomic status. Interventions to promote health literacy in order to improve the capacity to obtain, process and understand basic oral health information could increase an early detection of caries. Copyright© 2018 Dennis Barber Ltd.

  2. Early Childhood Caries and Caries Experience in Permanent Dentition: A 15-year Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, A Rainer; Becker, Natascha; Jöhren, Hans-Peter; Zimmer, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    In Germany, caries of young people has been declining since the late 1980s, while the prevalence of early childhood caries has remained steady. Data from a number of regional studies suggest a current prevalence between 10% and 15%. However, there is a dearth of longitudinal observational study data on the risk of caries in the permanent teeth of persons who as children had to undergo comprehensive treatment for caries under intubation general anesthesia. The aim of this study was to compare caries experience in the permanent teeth of patients who had to undergo surgical treatment under general anesthesia as a result of non-compliance with caries treatment in early childhood with the experience of patients who did not develop caries at a young age. Analysis of the data revealed that severe caries experience during early childhood resulted in a more severe caries experience during adulthood (difference: 14.8 DMFS; p = 0.001). This increase in caries experience applied to both untreated and treated carious surfaces, and was also apparent in relation to tooth extractions. When compared with persons whose first teeth had been caries-free, patients with severe childhood caries experience tended to show poorer dental hygiene in relation to smooth (p < 0.06) and interproximal (p < 0.04) surfaces. Patients who had been non-compliant as young children were not found to suffer from dental anxiety as young adults. Patients in the treatment and control groups differed with regard to dental health. Aside from being statistically relevant, these differences also have implications for clinical dental practice.

  3. Caries status in young Colombian children expressed by the ICCMS™ visual/radiographic combined caries staging system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, Andrea; Ekstrand, Kim Rud; Gamboa, Luis Fernando

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To report (1) the caries experience prevalence and mean, and the caries severity and distribution patterns, expressed clinically and combined with radiographs with the conventional and ICCMS™ systems in young children from Bogotá, Colombia; (2) the contribution of including radiographs...... to the clinical caries scoring and (3) in which surfaces the radiograph adds to the clinical caries registration. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Six hundred children from kindergartens/schools were enrolled: Cohort A: 2-year (n = 200), Cohort B: 4-year (n = 200) and Cohort C: 6-year (n = 200) olds. Radiographs were taken...... of the 4- and 6- year olds. Children were examined clinically using the Clinical (C) and Radiographic (R) ICCMS™-epi Caries Scoring Systems, staging caries lesions (d) as: Initial (Cepi/RA), Moderate (CM/RB) or Extensive (CE/RC). Caries experience including missing (m) and filled (f) surfaces was expressed...

  4. Polyethylene Fiber Use As a Rehabilitation on Aesthetic Early Childhood Caries

    OpenAIRE

    Fajriani, Dr.drg.M.Si

    2012-01-01

    Early Childhood caries (ECC) is a disease most Rampan teeth in children. American Dental Association (ADA) defines ECC as the presence of one or more tooth decay, tooth loss due to caries or fillings on primary teeth surfaces preschoolers between the ages of birh to 71 monthhs. Caries in children is a common health problem, both in developing countries or in industrialized countries. Treatment for caries children or people with childhood caries, especially in anterior teeth, in addition to...

  5. Caries management by risk assessment: A review on current strategies for caries prevention and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheswari, S. Uma; Raja, Jacob; Kumar, Arvind; Seelan, R. Gnana

    2015-01-01

    The current trend in treating dental caries is using nondestructive risk-based caries management strategies rather than focusing on the restorative treatment alone. Currently, there have been many changes in understanding of the multifaceted nature of caries process and its management. Caries Management by Risk Assessment (CAMBRA) which is an evidence-based approach focuses on determining many factors causing the expression of disease and take corrective action. The clinicians can ascertain what behaviors are increasing a patient's risk for disease and disease progression by evaluating the current caries risk of a patient. With this modern CAMBRA protocol, a novel treatment plan can be designed to arrest dental caries thereby decreasing the chance of cavitation. After the recognition of the multi factorial nature of caries involving the biofilm, the contemporary approaches focused mainly on the various options to cope with the locally out-of-balance oral biofilm and stop the progression of the disease. The initial caries lesions can be diagnosed with modern diagnostic aids and with the help of CAMBRA, reestablishment of the integrity of the tooth surface early on in the caries process will bring great rewards for patients. This review focuses on the repair of hard tooth tissues using noninvasive strategies. PMID:26538870

  6. Caries management by risk assessment: A review on current strategies for caries prevention and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheswari, S Uma; Raja, Jacob; Kumar, Arvind; Seelan, R Gnana

    2015-08-01

    The current trend in treating dental caries is using nondestructive risk-based caries management strategies rather than focusing on the restorative treatment alone. Currently, there have been many changes in understanding of the multifaceted nature of caries process and its management. Caries Management by Risk Assessment (CAMBRA) which is an evidence-based approach focuses on determining many factors causing the expression of disease and take corrective action. The clinicians can ascertain what behaviors are increasing a patient's risk for disease and disease progression by evaluating the current caries risk of a patient. With this modern CAMBRA protocol, a novel treatment plan can be designed to arrest dental caries thereby decreasing the chance of cavitation. After the recognition of the multi factorial nature of caries involving the biofilm, the contemporary approaches focused mainly on the various options to cope with the locally out-of-balance oral biofilm and stop the progression of the disease. The initial caries lesions can be diagnosed with modern diagnostic aids and with the help of CAMBRA, reestablishment of the integrity of the tooth surface early on in the caries process will bring great rewards for patients. This review focuses on the repair of hard tooth tissues using noninvasive strategies.

  7. Dental caries vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivakumar K

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is one of the most common diseases in humans. In modern times, it has reached epidemic proportions. Dental caries is an infectious microbiologic disease of the teeth that results in localized dissolution and destruction of the calcified tissue. Dental caries is a mulitifactorial disease, which is caused by host, agent, and environmental factors. The time factor is important for the development and progression of dental caries. A wide group of microorganisms are identified from carious lesions of which S. mutans , Lactobacillus acidophilus , and Actinomyces viscosus are the main pathogenic species involved in the initiation and development of dental caries. In India, surveys done on school children showed caries prevalence of approximately 58%. Surveys among the U.S. population showed an incidence of 45.3% in children and 93.8% in adults with either past or present coronal caries. Huge amounts of money and time are spent in treating dental caries. Hence, the prevention and control of dental caries is the main aim of public health, eventually the ultimate objective of public health is the elimination of the disease itself. Recently, dental caries vaccines have been developed for the prevention of dental caries. These dental caries vaccines are still in the early stages.

  8. Visual-tactile versus radiographic caries detection agreement in caries-active adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, André V; Ramos, Mario D; Astorga, Fernando; Shugars, Daniel A; Bader, James D

    2013-01-01

    The study aims to determine a) the extent of agreement between visual-tactile caries examination (VTE) and radiographic examination (RE) in detecting presumptive caries lesions on occlusal and proximal surfaces of posterior teeth of UNC Xylitol for Adult Caries Trial participants; and b) the additional caries diagnostic yield obtained by adding RE to VTE. Data consisted of surface-level visual-tactile and radiographic classification of disease (cavitated and noncavitated caries lesions) or nondisease (sound surfaces). Participants (n = 114, adults with ≥12 erupted teeth and 1-10 caries lesions) received baseline VTE by a trained and calibrated examiner, and had interproximal radiographs obtained within 7 months before or after the VTE. Radiographs were assessed independently by two trained and calibrated examiners masked with respect to VTE results. The diagnostic threshold was surface-level disease/nondisease status. Kappa statistics provided an estimate of VTE-RE agreement on diseased surfaces. The additional diagnostic yield of the RE over VTE was calculated as the additional lesions detected radiographically as a percentage of the total number of lesions detected by VTE. Four-hundred ninety-four (51 occlusal, 433 proximal) lesions were detected; of these, 81 (2 occlusal, 79 proximal) lesions were detected by both VTE and RE. Kappa statistics were 0.18 (all surfaces), 0.04 (occlusal), and 0.18 (proximal). The additional diagnostic yield was 69 percent (all surfaces), 55 percent (occlusal), and 71 percent (proximal). There is poor agreement between VTE and RE to detect caries in posterior teeth of caries-active adults. However, an RE performed within 7 months of a VTE adds caries diagnostic yield in a clinical trial, especially on proximal surfaces. © 2013 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  9. Dental caries prevalence of medieval Korean people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sun Sook; Baek, Kyung-won; Shin, Myung Ho; Kim, Jaehyup; Oh, Chang Seok; Lee, Sang Jun; Shin, Dong Hoon

    2010-07-01

    Prevalence and distribution of dental caries in medieval Korean society were evaluated. Two thousand and nine hundred teeth samples of 126 individuals collected from 16th to 18th century Korean tombs. Preservation status of sample was good. The prevalence of ante- and postmortem tooth loss was 4.4% and 14.2%, respectively. The total caries prevalence was 3.9%. The tooth surface most frequently affected by dental caries was occlusal (4.5%), followed by approximal (2.1%), buccal (1.5%), and lingual (1.1%) surfaces. The prevalence of dental caries in Joseon Dynasty skeleton collection was lower than have been found in other collections of similar chronology. The low consumption of refined sugar in medieval Korean society might be a possible explanation, though the technical limitations inherent in such comparison studies preclude definitive conclusions. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Experiencing time

    CERN Document Server

    Prosser, Simon

    2018-01-01

    Our engagement with time is a ubiquitous feature of our lives. We are aware of time on many scales, from the briefest flicker of change to the way our lives unfold over many years. But to what extent does this encounter reveal the true nature of temporal reality? To the extent that temporal reality is as it seems, how do we come to be aware of it? And to the extent that temporal reality is not as it seems, why does it seem that way? These are the central questions addressed by Simon Prosser in Experiencing Time. These questions take on a particular importance in philosophy for two reasons. Firstly, there is a view concerning the metaphysics of time, known as the B-theory of time, according to which the apparently dynamic quality of change, the special status of the present, and even the passage of time are all illusions. Instead, the world is a four-dimensional space-time block, lacking any of the apparent dynamic features of time. If the B-theory is correct, as the book argues, then it must be explained why ...

  11. Pattern of dental caries in Mulago Dental School clinic, Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The results showed a high occurrence of occlusal surface caries in molars especially the second molars in the 20-29 age group in the patients attending the Public Health Dental Officers School Clinic, Mulago Hospital. Key words: caries experience, tooth surfaces, occlusal. African Journal of Health Sciences ...

  12. Occlusal Caries: Biological Approach for Its Diagnosis and Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christina Carvalho, Joana; Dige, Irene; Machiulskiene, Vita

    2016-01-01

    The management of occlusal caries still remains a major challenge for researchers as well as for general practitioners. The present paper reviews and discusses the most up-to-date knowledge and evidence of the biological principles guiding diagnosis, risk assessment, and management of the caries...... process on occlusal surfaces. In addition, it considers the whole spectrum of the caries process on occlusal surfaces, ranging from the molecular ecology of occlusal biofilms to the management of deep occlusal caries lesions. Studies using molecular methods with focus on biofilms in relation to occlusal...

  13. Superior local food potential: synbiotic soy milk as innovation to reduce caries risk in pregnant mother

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Rustam

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In 2013 data survey of Indonesian Ministry of Health showed more than 72% of indonesian experienced caries and dominated mostly by pregnant mothers. The high incidence of caries will affect quality of mother’s life and interfere fetal development. Controlling Streptococcus mutans may reduce caries risk in pregnant mothers. Recently, probiotics have been developed to inhibit the growth of cariogenic bacteria. However decreased oral pH drastically will increase cariogenic bacteria accumulation therefore probiotics need to be modified. Synbiotic product by combining probiotic and soy milk is a novel concept that can suppress the invasion of cariogenic bacteria, enhance the host immune response and prolong the  survival of probiotic bacteria to function more optimally. This review aimed  to know the potential of soy milk synbiotic as innovations to reduce caries risk in pregnant mothers. The high risk of caries in pregnant mothers is caused by increased consumption of high-carbohydrate foods, lack of maintenance of oral hygiene, prolonged vomiting, and decreased immunocompetence host. These conditions increase the activity of cariogenic bacteria however this activity can be suppressed by using one of the probiotic bacteria, Lactobacillus rhamnosus. Locally, this bacteria compete with cariogenic bacteria to attach on enamel surface. Systemically, it modulates the specific and non-specific immune response thus increasesthe phagocytosis ability. Probiotics secretion including hydrogen peroxide and bacteriocins also act as antimicrobial agents. The survival of probiotic bacteria can be maintained with galacto oligosaccharides as nutrients source contained in soy milk.In conclusion, soy milk synbiotic potentially reduce caries risk in pregnant mother by suppressing the growth of cariogenic bacteria.

  14. Measuring Dental Caries in the Mixed Dentition by ICDAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eino Honkala

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Caries has traditionally been assessed with WHO criteria including only obvious caries lesions. ICDAS has been developed to detect also the enamel caries lesions. This study aims to study caries and the associations of the number of caries lesions between the permanent and primary molars with ICDAS in the mixed dentition of the first and second grade primary school children. The clinical examinations of 485 children were conducted by four examiners with high reproducibility (inter- and intraexaminer kappas >0.9. The mean number of caries lesions—especially dentine caries—seemed to be higher in the second primary molars than in the first permanent molars. There were significant correlations between the number of lesions on occlusal and lingual surfaces between the primary and permanent molars. Enamel caries lesions, restorations, and caries experience did not increase according to age. Therefore, caries might be increasing in this population. As a conclusion, ICDAS recording seems to give appropriate information from the occurrence of caries lesions and its correlations between the primary and permanent teeth and surfaces.

  15. [Clinical analysis of caries status of the mandibular second molar].

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Chun-an; Zheng, Ping; Hu, Ning; Su, Qin

    2014-04-01

    To collect the cases which have caries on the mandibular second molar and analyze the caries status and correlative factors. Patients treated in the Department of Endodontics in West China Hospital of Stomatology were randomly collected. The baseline information, primary sites and severity of dental caries on the mandibular second molar, and eruption pattern of the mandibular third molar were recorded. The data was analyzed with SPSS13.0 software package. Four hundred eighty-one patients including 227 males and 254 females were collected. Caries on the mandibular second molar starting from the occlusal, distal proximal and buccal surfaces accounted for 33.8%, 33.2% and 24.4%, respectively. Caries involving dental pulp (49.7%) were significantly more than deep and shallow to moderate caries (31.7% and 18.6%). Gender was not correlated with the site and severity of caries. However, impacted mandibular third molars and age were significantly related to both caries site and severity. Occlusal and distal proximal surfaces are the most predisposed sites to have caries on mandibular second molar. Impacted mandibular third molar and age are significantly related to caries of mandibular second molar.

  16. Effect of a CO2 Laser on the Inhibition of Root Surface Caries Adjacent to Restorations of Glass Ionomer Cement or Composite Resin: An In Vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, L C; Araújo, F C; Zancopé, B R; Hanashiro, F S; Nobre-dos-Santos, M; Youssef, M N; Souza-Zaroni, W C

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of CO2 laser irradiation on the inhibition of secondary caries on root surfaces adjacent to glass ionomer cement (GIC) or composite resin (CR) restorations. 40 dental blocks were divided into 4 groups: G1 (negative control): cavity preparation + adhesive restoration with CR; G2: (positive control) cavity preparation + GIC restoration; G3: equal to group 1 + CO2 laser with 6 J/cm(2); G4: equal to group 2 + CO2 laser. The blocks were submitted to thermal and pH cycling. Dental demineralization around restorations was quantified using microhardness analyses and Light-Induced Fluorescence (QLF). The groups showed no significant differences in mineral loss at depths between 20 μm and 40 μm. At 60 μm, G2 and G3 ≠ G1, but G4 = G1, G2 and G3. At 80 μm, G4 ≠ G1, and at 100 μm, G4 = G2 = G1. At 140 and 220 μm, G2, G3, and G4 = G1. The averages obtained using QFL in groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 were 0.637, 0.162, 0.095, and 0.048, respectively. QLF and microhardness analyses showed that CO2 laser irradiation reduced mineral loss around the CR restorations but that it did not increase the anticariogenic effect of GIC restorations.

  17. Effect of a CO2 Laser on the Inhibition of Root Surface Caries Adjacent to Restorations of Glass Ionomer Cement or Composite Resin: An In Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of CO2 laser irradiation on the inhibition of secondary caries on root surfaces adjacent to glass ionomer cement (GIC or composite resin (CR restorations. 40 dental blocks were divided into 4 groups: G1 (negative control: cavity preparation + adhesive restoration with CR; G2: (positive control cavity preparation + GIC restoration; G3: equal to group 1 + CO2 laser with 6 J/cm2; G4: equal to group 2 + CO2 laser. The blocks were submitted to thermal and pH cycling. Dental demineralization around restorations was quantified using microhardness analyses and Light-Induced Fluorescence (QLF. The groups showed no significant differences in mineral loss at depths between 20 μm and 40 μm. At 60 μm, G2 and G3 ≠ G1, but G4 = G1, G2 and G3. At 80 μm, G4 ≠ G1, and at 100 μm, G4 = G2 = G1. At 140 and 220 μm, G2, G3, and G4 = G1. The averages obtained using QFL in groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 were 0.637, 0.162, 0.095, and 0.048, respectively. QLF and microhardness analyses showed that CO2 laser irradiation reduced mineral loss around the CR restorations but that it did not increase the anticariogenic effect of GIC restorations.

  18. Early detection of dental caries using photoacoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K.; Witte, R.; Koh, I.; Ashkenazi, S.; O'Donnell, M.

    2006-02-01

    For decades, visual, tactile and radiographic examinations have been the standard for diagnosing caries. Nonetheless, the extent of variation in the diagnosis of dental caries is substantial among dental practitioners using these traditional techniques. Therefore, a more reliable standard for detecting incipient caries would be desirable. Using photoacoustics, near-infrared (NIR) optical contrast between sound and carious dental tissues can be relatively easily and accurately detected at ultrasound resolution. In this paper, a pulsed laser (Nd:YAG, Quanta-Ray) was used to probe extracted human molars at different disease stages determined from periapical radiographs. Both fundamental (1064nm) and first harmonic (532nm) pulses (15ns pulse length, 100mJ at fundamental and 9mJ at first harmonic , 10Hz pulse repetition rate) were used to illuminate the occlusal surface of tooth samples placed in a water tank. The photoacoustic signal was recorded with an unfocused wideband single-element piezoelectric transducer (centered at 12 MHz, bandwidth 15 MHz) positioned at small angle (less than 30 degrees) to the laser beam close to the occlusal surface. At the fundamental wavelength, total photoacoustic energy increases from normal to incipient stage disease by as much as a factor of 10. Differences between photoacoustic energy at the fundamental and first harmonic wavelength further indicate spectral absorption changes of the underlying structure with disease progression. Using a focused laser beam, an extracted molar with suspected incipient caries was scanned along the occulusal surface to help localize the caries inside enamel and dentin. The significantly increasing photoacoustic signal at a specific scan line both at fundamental and first harmonic indicates the local development of the incipient caries. The photoacoustic results compare well with visual inspection after layer by layer dissection. Preliminary results demonstrate the feasibility of detecting incipient

  19. Caries management by risk assessment (CAMBRA) and its effect on the surface roughness of various restorative materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolding, Lauren M; Masri, Radi; Arola, Dwayne; Driscoll, Carl F; Romberg, Elaine

    2015-10-01

    Whether topical anticaries medicaments used in the oral environment will affect the surface integrity of restorative materials is uncertain. The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the effect of various anticaries agents on the surface roughness of 3 different restorative materials. Sixty-four specimens of each restorative material (feldspathic porcelain, Ni-Cr metal ceramic alloy, and Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy) were prepared and separated into 4 equal groups for soaking in anticaries agents (Prevident Dental Rinse, ACT mouth wash, chlorhexidine gluconate, and water). A profilometer was used to measure surface roughness before and after soaking the materials for 2 years of simulated usage. The mean change in surface roughness for each specimen was calculated. Statistical analysis was performed with a 2-way ANOVA, followed by the Tukey HSD test (α=.05). A significant interaction was found between the materials and anticaries agents (F=2.64, P=.02). The significant interaction was between Prevident and chlorhexidine gluconate. Porcelain specimens soaked in Prevident produced a negative change (-0.072 ±0.35 μm) in surface roughness (smoother surface), while chlorhexidine gluconate produced a positive change (0.094 ±0.42 μm) in surface roughness (rougher surface). Within the limitations of this in vitro study, it can be concluded that Prevident Dental Rinse and chlorhexidine gluconate may cause a change in the surface roughness of feldspathic porcelain. Copyright © 2015 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Caries, views and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratthall, D

    1992-02-01

    This paper describes some advances in caries research in the last century. A tremendous body of knowledge about the disease as well as several possibilities for caries prevention and treatment have been obtained. This knowledge is not used by people in developing countries and certain obstacles for implementation of the procedures under such conditions are identified. Research aimed at finding practical means and methods that can help prevent caries and other oral diseases for the majority of the world's population must be intensified.

  1. Caries-preventive Effect of Supervised Toothbrushing and Sealants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgert, L A; Leal, S C; Mulder, J; Creugers, N H J; Frencken, J E

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of 3 caries-preventive measures on high- and low-caries risk occlusal surfaces of first permanent molars over 3 y. This cluster-randomized controlled clinical trial covered 242 schoolchildren, 6 to 7 y old, from low socioeconomic areas. At baseline, caries risk was assessed at the tooth surface level, through a combination of ICDAS II (International Caries Detection and Assessment System) and fissure depth codes. High-caries risk occlusal surfaces were treated according to daily supervised toothbrushing (STB) at school and 2 sealants: composite resin (CR) and atraumatic restorative treatment-high-viscosity glass-ionomer cement (ART-GIC). Low-caries risk occlusal surfaces received STB or no intervention. Evaluations were performed after 0.5, 1, 2, and 3 y. A cavitated dentine carious lesion was considered a failure. Data were analyzed according to the proportional hazard rate regression model with frailty correction, Wald test, analysis of variance, and t test, according to the jackknife procedure for calculating standard errors. The cumulative survival rates of cavitated dentine carious lesion-free, high-caries risk occlusal surfaces were 95.6%, 91.4%, and 90.2% for STB, CR, and ART-GIC, respectively, over 3 y, which were not statistically significantly different. For low-caries risk occlusal surfaces, no statistically significant difference was observed between the cumulative survival rate of the STB group (94.8%) and the no-intervention group (92.1%) over 3 y. There was neither a difference among STB, CR, and ART-GIC on school premises in preventing cavitated dentine carious lesions in high-caries risk occlusal surfaces of first permanent molars nor a difference between STB and no intervention for low-caries risk occlusal surfaces of first permanent molars over 3 y. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2015.

  2. Caries og drikkevandets kvalitet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvin, Erik; Bardow, Allan; Bruvo, Maja

    2011-01-01

    Drikkevandskvaliteten har stor betydning for forekomsten af caries blandt 15 årige skolebørn, også selv om de bruger fluoridholdigt tandpasta. Ud over den kendte effekt af fluorid har vi vist, at calcium også har en væsentlig betydning. Begge ioner forebygger caries. Denne viden har væsentlig...

  3. Dental caries in Victorian nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M; Hopcraft, M; Morgan, M

    2014-09-01

    The poor oral health of nursing home residents is the cause of substantial morbidity and has major implications relating to health care policy. The aim of this study was to measure dental caries experience in Australians living in nursing homes, and investigate associations with resident characteristics. Clinical dental examinations were conducted on 243 residents from 19 nursing homes in Melbourne. Resident characteristics were obtained from nursing home records and interviews with residents, family and nursing home staff. Two dental examiners assessed coronal and root dental caries using standard ICDAS-II criteria. Residents were elderly, medically compromised and functionally impaired. Most required assistance with oral hygiene and professional dental care was rarely utilized. Residents had high rates of coronal and root caries, with a mean 2.8 teeth with untreated coronal caries and 5.0 root surfaces with untreated root caries. Functional impairment and irregular professional dental care were associated with higher rates of untreated tooth decay. There were no significant associations with medical conditions or the number of medications taken. Nursing home residents have high levels of untreated coronal and root caries, particularly those with high needs due to functional impairment but poor access to professional services. © 2014 Australian Dental Association.

  4. Dental caries pattern of first and second permanent molars and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Only 421(2.5%) teeth were carious in 143(23.8%) subjects. First permanent molars had the highest caries prevalence rate (9.3%), followed by second permanent molars (7.8%), while premolars (0.13%), incisors (0.08%) and canines (0%) had the lowest rates. Pit and fissure caries on occlusal surfaces was the most ...

  5. The effect of propolis fluoride on caries dentine activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwita, Risqa Rina; Soekanto, Sri Angky; Finisha, Andanali Rhukul; Wahyuni, Hardiati Nur; Andiani, Salsabila Ghina

    2018-02-01

    This research was conducted to analyze the effect of propolis fluoride on the occurrence of arrested caries dentine surface. The design of the study was a clinical trial experimental. The respondent were primary school students aged 6-8 years, from primary school in Kukusan, Depok, West Java, Indonesia. They were screened of dental examination and the total number of 296 children with an age range of 6-8 year old were included in the study. All students who had dentin caries were get dental treatment with propolis fluoride topical application in dentin caries surface. After one month, two months and four months all students who were got propolis fluoride topical application in dentin caries surface were controlled. All data were analyzed by Wilcoxon test. The total number of dentinal decay of 296 student was 1740 surfaces indicated to Flolis topical application. After one, two and three months of Flolis application, all arrested of dentinal decay was evaluated, the result of evaluation from the second month to the third month evaluation was found that the arrested dentinal caries surfaces were decreased significantly at 29.36% (pcaries surface from the first month to the third month was decreased significantly at 38.62% (pcaries, and their ability to arrest dental caries was significantly different. Flolis was found to be effective in arresting dentinal caries surface until three months application, and should be repeated after 3 months of Flolis application.

  6. [Preventive dentistry 5. Secondary caries].

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollanders, A.C.C.; Kuper, N.K.; Opdam, N.J.M.; Huysmans, M.C.D.N.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Secondary caries is reported as one of the most important reasons for replacing restorations. The patient's general caries risk plays an important role in the development of secondary caries. The connection, at the patient level, between various factors, the risk of caries and restoration factors,

  7. Caries experience in schoolchildren in Bucharest, Romania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funieru, Cristian; Twetman, Svante; Funieru, Elena

    2014-01-01

    to school-based dental care had significantly better dental health (P socioeconomic gradient......OBJECTIVE: This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the prevalence and experience of dental caries among children from public middle schools in Bucharest in relation to socioeconomic status and access to school-based dental care. METHODS: Clinical data were collected from 1......,595 schoolchildren aged 10-17 years, randomly allocated by clusters into a stratified sample population. The dental caries were scored according to the World Health Organization (WHO) clinical criteria and expressed based on tooth and surface levels [Decayed-Missing-Filled Teeth/Surfaces indices (DMFT...

  8. Evaluation of three different caries removal techniques in children: a comparative clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajakumar, S; Mungara, Jayanthi; Joseph, Elizabeth; Philip, John; Shilpa Priya, Mangalan Pally

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate and compare the efficacy of chemo mechanical (carie care) caries removal method with rotary and hand excavation by assessing the amount of time taken, the pain response experienced by the children and the amount of residual caries left out. Twenty patients between the age groups of 5-7 years were selected and caries removal was done by airotor hand instruments and cariecare gel. The efficacy, time taken and pain threshold was evaluated during caries removal. significant results were obtained when inter group comparison were made. it was concluded that cariecare was efficient in caries removal and can be used as an alternative for the airotor in management of dental caries especially in children.

  9. Response to Seow: biological mechanisms of early childhood caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, W H

    1998-01-01

    For more than three decades, it has been recognized that dental caries is an infectious and transmissible disease in which diet plays a key role. Nevertheless, in treating patients with early childhood caries, scant attention is placed on exploring the source of infection and the prevalence of caries in other family members. Results from studies conducted in animals clearly show that the virulence of mutans streptococci can be enhanced by a highly cariogenic environment. For example, offspring from a highly caries-active dam develop significantly more caries than pups from a low caries-active dam. Considerable attention has been placed on the role of the nursing bottle in early childhood caries. Milk and some infant formulas do not promote caries and the role of the remainder of the diet has been largely ignored. The nursing bottle can effectively block salivary access to tooth surfaces, thereby increasing the cariogenicity of any food remaining in the mouth. Recent evidence shows that salivary gland function is impaired by iron deficiency and by prenatal exposure to lead. Clearly, early childhood caries is a complex disease that requires careful and extensive investigation.

  10. Reliability of Logicon caries detector in the detection and depth assessment of dental caries: an in-vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behere, Rohit R; Lele, Shailesh M

    2011-01-01

    Digital radiography has so far not resulted in improved rates of proximal caries detection. Historically, automated caries detection tools have been largely academic. Opinions regarding the performance of the only such commercially available tool, viz., Logicon caries Detector (LCD) have been equivocal. This study was conducted to evaluate the reliability of LCD in the detection and depth assessment of proximal caries. Digital images were obtained of 100 proximal tooth surfaces using the Kodak RVG 5000 sensor and analyzed by three observers. The images were then analyzed by the principal investigator using the LCD software. The teeth were then sectioned and magnified photographic images were obtained which were taken as the gold standard. All the grades were entered in proformas and the data were statistically analyzed using the chi-square test. Five parameters of reliability were calculated. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and overall accuracy of LCD for the grade No caries were 33, 96, 73, 82, and 81%, respectively; for the grade Enamel caries were 5, 97, 33, 80, and 79%, respectively; and for the grade Dentin caries were 100, 96, 50, 100, and 96%, respectively. In conclusion, LCD appears to be more reliable in ruling out (both enamel and dentin) caries than in detecting caries.

  11. Association of dental caries and salivary sIgA with tobacco smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golpasand Hagh, L; Zakavi, F; Ansarifar, S; Ghasemzadeh, O; Solgi, G

    2013-06-01

    Salivary secretory IgA (sIgA) is said to play an important role in the immune response against dental caries. This study aimed to determine the salivary sIgA levels in healthy smokers and non-smokers, and its correlation with dental caries. A total of 70 healthy subjects were selected and classified into four groups according to dental caries and tobacco smoking habits: smoking with caries (Group 1, n = 15); smoking without caries (Group 2, n = 15); non-smoking with caries (Group 3, n = 15); and non-smoking without caries (Group 4, n = 25). Salivary sIgA was measured using ELISA. The fissure and proximal caries were examined clinically and radiographically. Caries status was determined according to the decay surface index. Smokers showed a higher number of caries and the lowest concentration of sIgA. The highest levels of sIgA were observed in non-smoking and caries-free subjects compared to caries-active smokers (123.2 ± 19.9 vs. 13.3 ± 4.1 μg/ml respectively, p caries in smokers. © 2013 Australian Dental Association.

  12. [Establishment and evaluation of a computer-based software system for detection of initial approximal caries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun; Ye, Wei-ping; Li, Yu-jing; Yu, Yang

    2006-03-01

    To establish and evaluate a computer-based software system (caries diagnosing system, CDS): CDS for better detection of initial approximal caries based on the performance of radiography. A total of 190 approximal surfaces from 95 extracted posterior teeth were examined by bite-wing radiography. After analysing and extracting the approximal lesion's characteristics of X-ray performance, using Matlab and VC language, the CDS was established. Then the proximal surfaces of these teeth were detected automatically by CDS, and scored by naked eyes of 8 experienced dentists for the extent of lesions. The histological appearance of sectioned teeth was used as the gold standard to assess sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and reproducibility. The sensitivity of CDS was 0.728, Pearson's correlation was 0.722, better than that of optic estimation. The reproducibility of CDS was good too. The CDS can report the lesion site and extension, its diagnostic level is better than that of optic estimation, it is an reasonably sensitive and accurate method for the detection of initial approximal caries in present clinic practice, and a tool of providing objective data.

  13. Xilitol and dental caries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, Marten Titus

    1987-01-01

    Dental caries is a widespread multifactoral disease. The main sympthons are minaral loss from tooth enemal and dentine, eventually leading to total destruction of the teeth, pain, impairment of mastication and problems with facial esthetics. ... Zie: Summary

  14. Patient caries risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante; Fontana, Margherita

    2009-01-01

    Risk assessment is an essential component in the decision-making process for the correct prevention and management of dental caries. Multiple risk factors and indicators have been proposed as targets in the assessment of risk of future disease, varying sometimes based on the age group at which...... they are targeted. Multiple reviews and systematic reviews are available in the literature on this topic. This chapter focusses primarily on results of reviews based on longitudinal studies required to establish the accuracy of caries risk assessment. These findings demonstrate that there is a strong body...... of evidence to support that caries experience is still, unfortunately, the single best predictor for future caries development. In young children, prediction models which include a variety of risk factors seem to increase the accuracy of the prediction, while the usefulness of additional risk factors...

  15. Adolescent rampant caries

    OpenAIRE

    Namita,; Rai, Rita

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent rampant caries is a new and growing challenge in Conservative Dentistry. It has the same etiology and pattern as that of nursing bottle syndrome. Herein, a case is presented in which the main cause of rampant caries is the patient′s habit of keeping cariogenic food in her mouth and going to sleep. Educating this etiology and introduction of preventive strategies not only assists in meeting the special oral needs of the adolescent population, but also helps to establish lifelong hea...

  16. Ecological Hypothesis of Dentin and Root Caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Nobuhiro; Nyvad, Bente

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances regarding the caries process indicate that ecological phenomena induced by bacterial acid production tilt the de- and remineralization balance of the dental hard tissues towards demineralization through bacterial acid-induced adaptation and selection within the microbiota - from the dynamic stability stage to the aciduric stage via the acidogenic stage [Takahashi and Nyvad, 2008]. Dentin and root caries can also be partly explained by this hypothesis; however, the fact that these tissues contain a considerable amount of organic material suggests that protein degradation is involved in caries formation. In this review, we compiled relevant histological, biochemical, and microbiological information about dentin/root caries and refined the hypothesis by adding degradation of the organic matrix (the proteolytic stage) to the abovementioned stages. Bacterial acidification not only induces demineralization and exposure of the organic matrix in dentin/root surfaces but also activation of dentin-embedded and salivary matrix metalloproteinases and cathepsins. These phenomena initiate degradation of the demineralized organic matrix in dentin/root surfaces. While a bacterial involvement has never been confirmed in the initial degradation of organic material, the detection of proteolytic/amino acid-degrading bacteria and bacterial metabolites in dentin and root caries suggests a bacterial digestion and metabolism of partly degraded matrix. Moreover, bacterial metabolites might induce pulpitis as an inflammatory/immunomodulatory factor. Root and dentin surfaces are always at risk of becoming demineralized in the oral cavity, and exposed organic materials can be degraded by host-derived proteases contained in saliva and dentin itself. New approaches to the prevention and treatment of root/dentin caries are required. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Dental caries: Therapeutic possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perić Tamara

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary tendencies in dentistry are based on the concept of maximal protection of healthy tooth tissues. Caries removal has been done traditionally with mechanical rotary instruments that are fast and precise. However, conventional cavity preparation has potential adverse effects to the pulp due to heat, pressure and vibrations. Moreover, drilling often causes pain and requires local anaesthesia, and these procedures are frequently perceived as unpleasant. Etiology, development and prevention of dental caries are better understood today and new restorative materials that bond micromechanically and/or chemically to dental tissues have been introduced. Thus, development of a new, less destructive caries removal technique is allowed. In the last decades, many alternative methods have been introduced in an attempt to replace rotary instruments. These are claimed to be efficient and selective for diseased tissues and to offer comfortable treatment to the patients. New methods include air abrasion, air polishing, ultrasonic, polymer burs, enzymes, systems for chemo-mechanical caries removal, and lasers. The aim of this paper was to discuss various caries removal techniques and possibilities of their use in clinical practice. Based on the literature review it can be concluded that none of the new caries removal methods can completely replace conventional rotary instruments.

  18. Selective removal of natural caries lesions from dentin and tooth occlusal surfaces using a diode-pumped Er:YAG laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jew, Jamison; Chan, Kenneth H.; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2017-02-01

    Selective removal of caries lesions with high precision is best accomplished using lasers operating at high pulse repetition rates utilizing small spot sizes. Conventional flash-lamp pumped Er:YAG lasers are poorly suited for this purpose, but new diode-pumped solid-state (DPSS) Er:YAG lasers have become available operating at high pulse repetition rates. Microradiography was used to determine the mineral content of the demineralized dentin of 200-μm thick sections with natural caries lesions prior to laser ablation. The purpose of this study was to explore the use of a DPSS Er:YAG laser for the selective removal of demineralized dentin and natural occlusal lesions on extracted teeth.

  19. Infiltrating/sealing proximal caries lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martignon, S; Ekstrand, K R; Gomez, J

    2012-01-01

    This randomized split-mouth controlled clinical trial aimed at assessing the therapeutic effects of infiltration vs. sealing for controlling caries progression on proximal surfaces. Out of 90 adult students/patients assessed at university clinics and agreeing to participate, 39, each with 3...... differences in lesion progression between infiltration and placebo (P = 0.0012) and between sealing and placebo (P = 0.0269). The study showed that infiltration and sealing are significantly better than placebo treatment for controlling caries progression on proximal lesions. No significant difference...

  20. Family Matters. The role of parental and family-related psychosocial factors in childhood dental caries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijster, D.

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is common childhood disease with children from lower socioeconomic status experiencing disproportionately higher levels of the disease. Parents and the broader family environment may play an important role in the development of childhood dental caries as mediators / moderators of risk.

  1. Antibody response to actinomyces antigen and dental caries experience: implications for caries susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Martin; Owen, Willis L; Avery, Kevin T

    2005-06-01

    Fluoridated dentifrices reduce dental caries in subjects who perform effective oral hygiene. Actinomyces naeslundii increases in teeth-adherent microbial biofilms (plaques) in these subjects, and a well-characterized serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody response (Actinomyces antibody [A-Ab]) is also increased. Other studies suggest that a serum IgG antibody response to streptococcal d-alanyl poly(glycerophosphate) (S-Ab) may indicate caries experience associated strongly with gingival health and exposure to fluoridated water. The aim of this study was to investigate relationships between A-Ab response, oral hygiene, S-Ab response, and caries experience. Measurements were made of A-Ab and S-Ab concentrations, caries experience (number of decayed, missing, and filled teeth [DMFT], number of teeth surfaces [DMFS], and number of decayed teeth needing treated [DT]), exposure to fluoridated water (Flu), mean clinical pocket depth (PD; in millimeters), and extent of plaque (PL) and gingival bleeding on probing (BOP). A-Ab concentration, the dependent variable in a multiple regression analysis, increased with S-Ab concentration and decreased with PL and DMFT adjusted for Flu (R(2) = 0.51, P caries in subjects performing effective oral hygiene using fluoridated dentifrices. Conversely, a low A-Ab response is suggestive of decreased A. naeslundii binding to saliva-coated apatite and greater caries experience, as reported by others.

  2. Proximal caries detection: Sirona Sidexis versus Kodak Ektaspeed Plus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Emad A; Tyndall, Donald A; Ludlow, John B; Caplan, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    This study compared the accuracy of intraoral film and a charge-coupled device (CCD) receptor for proximal caries detection. Four observers evaluated images of the proximal surfaces of 40 extracted posterior teeth. The presence or absence of caries was scored using a five-point confidence scale. The actual status of each surface was determined from ground section histology. Responses were evaluated by means of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Areas under ROC curves (Az) were assessed through a paired t-test. The performance of the CCD-based intraoral sensor was not different statistically from Ektaspeed Plus film in detecting proximal caries.

  3. Radiation caries - an evil eye of radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakshman, Anusha Rangare

    2013-01-01

    Although radiotherapy plays an important role in the management of patients with head and neck cancer, it is also associated with several undesired side effects such as radiation caries which is a common, yet serious, complication. The radiotherapy field of exposure frequently includes the salivary glands, oral mucosa, and jaws, thus, leading to various side effects including hyposalivation, mucositis, and taste loss. Irradiated patients are also at increased risk for the development of a rapid, rampant carious process known as radiation caries. Lesions tend to develop four weeks after completion of radiotherapy and affect atypical areas of teeth, such as the lingual surface, incisal edges, and cusp tips. The aim of this paper is to review the clinical features, prevention and management of radiation caries. (author)

  4. Effect of caries preventive measures directed to expectant mothers on caries experience in their children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanata Régia Luzia

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this prospective study was to determine the effectiveness of caries preventive measures started during pregnancy on the caries experience of first-time mothers and their infants. Eighty-one pregnant women with low social background were selected on the basis of the presence of active carious lesions and were randomly divided into control (38 and experimental (43 groups. The initial dental status (DMFS and white spot lesions was established through clinical examination. The prophylactic measures were repeated during pregnancy and 6 and 12 months after delivery. Both groups received primary care intervention. They were instructed in relation to the etiologic factors of dental caries and received oral hygiene kits. Oral hygiene instructions were reinforced through interactive brushing. The experimental group also received antimicrobial treatment (topical application of NaF and iodine solution immediately after prophylaxis and 3 and 5 days later and restorative care using glass ionomer cement. By the time the children were 2 years of age, 33.3% of the infants in the control group and 14.7% in the experimental group had caries activity. A significant difference in caries prevalence was observed between children with and without visible dental plaque. The mean number of tooth surfaces with carious lesions (including areas of demineralization was higher among the children in the control group compared to the experimental group (6.3 x 3.2, however, with no statistical significance. Maternal caries increase was a significant factor influencing the caries experience of the children. These data support the evidence of an association between caries prevalence in young children and clinical (dental plaque and maternal factors.

  5. A novel LED-based device for occlusal caries detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktan, Ali Murat; Cebe, Mehmet Ata; Ciftçi, Mehmet Ertuğrul; Sirin Karaarslan, Emine

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this in-vitro study was to compare the performance of laser-based (DIAGNOdent, KaVo, Biberach, Germany) and LED-based (Midwest Caries I.D., DENTSPLY Professional, New York, USA) caries detectors in the detection of occlusal caries in permanent molars. The study consisted of 129 visually sound or non-cavitated pits or fissures in 82 extracted permanent human molar teeth. Two trained examiners used the laser-based and LED-based caries detectors to examine the fissures for caries. The teeth were then sectioned at the surfaces suspected of containing occlusal caries and histologically evaluated using stereomicroscopy as a gold standard. Inter-examiner reliability of the caries detector examination was assessed using Cohen's Kappa statistics. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy in diagnosing occlusal caries using the two devices were calculated according to appropriate cut-off scores. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were also determined to compare the diagnostic performance of the devices in occlusal caries diagnosis. The cut-off level of significance was taken as p = 0.005. Cohen's Kappa showed substantial agreement for the laser-based caries detector (0.74), and almost perfect agreement for the LED-based (0.89) caries detector. The specificity of the laser-based device varied from 0.49 to 0.97 at T1 and T2. Its sensitivity varied from 0.33 to 0.65 at T1 and T2. The specificity of the LED-based device varied from 0.48 to 0.56 at T1 and T2. Its sensitivity varied from 0.65 to 0.84 at T1 and from 0.80 to 0.84 at T2. Taking the limitations of the current study into consideration, the DIAGNOdent laser pen was more accurate in determining when teeth were free of occlusal caries than was the Midwest Caries I.D. LED-based device, although the Midwest Caries I.D. device more often revealed the presence of occlusal caries than did the DIAGNOdent pen.

  6. Secondary caries and microleakage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokstad, Asbjørn

    2016-01-01

    To critically appraise experimental ex vivo research that has focused on secondary caries, and to offer possible explanations for the seemingly poor correlation to clinical observations. The literature relating to the etiopathogenesis or prevention of secondary caries gained from experimental ex vivo research was reviewed, with particular emphasis on microleakage and artificial caries-like lesions. It is doubtful whether a caries wall lesion can exist independently of an outer enamel caries lesion. Microleakage experiments apparently continue to emerge regardless of multiple reviews questioning the reliability and validity of the method. Several of the approaches used to generate artificial caries-like lesions are very aggressive. Remarkably little discussion has evolved about how these aggressive approaches create microenvironments that do not occur in reality. Corrosion- and biodegradation products may influence the biofilm qualitatively and quantitatively and it is difficult to replicate these variables in any ex vivo environment. Clinical data sampling method, patient demography as well as study methodology influences the incidence and prevalence estimates of secondary caries. Clinical results based on clinical work in settings where cost per unit time is of nominal concern do not provide any indications on how the restorative material will perform when placed by the average dentists in the mouths of their spectrum of patients during a busy workday. The term "wall lesion" including its variants is ill defined, has been, and is still being used indiscriminately. Stakeholders should avoid using this ambiguous label due to its connotation to an entity that does not exist per se. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Patient caries risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante; Fontana, Margherita

    2009-01-01

    for prediction purposes, as measured until now in the literature, is at best questionable in schoolchildren, adolescents and adults. That is not to say these additional factors should not be assessed to help understand the strength of their associations with the disease experience in a particular patient...... they are targeted. Multiple reviews and systematic reviews are available in the literature on this topic. This chapter focusses primarily on results of reviews based on longitudinal studies required to establish the accuracy of caries risk assessment. These findings demonstrate that there is a strong body...... of evidence to support that caries experience is still, unfortunately, the single best predictor for future caries development. In young children, prediction models which include a variety of risk factors seem to increase the accuracy of the prediction, while the usefulness of additional risk factors...

  8. Longitudinal associations between children’s dental caries and risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chankanka, Oitip; Cavanaugh, Joseph E.; Levy, Steven M.; Marshall, Teresa A.; Warren, John J; Broffitt, Barbara; Kolker, Justine L.

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is a common disease in children of all ages. It is desirable to know whether children with primary, mixed and permanent dentitions share risk factors for cavitated and non-cavitated caries. Objective To assess the longitudinal associations between caries outcomes and modifiable risk factors. Methods One hundred and fifty-six children in the Iowa Fluoride Study met inclusion criteria of three dental examinations and caries-related risk factor assessments preceding each examination. Surface-specific counts of new non-cavitated caries and cavitated caries at the primary (Exam 1: age 5), mixed (Exam 2: age 9) and permanent (Exam 3: age 13) dentition examinations were outcome variables. Explanatory variables were caries-related factors, including averaged beverage exposure frequencies, toothbrushing frequencies, and composite water fluoride levels collected from 3–5, 6–8, and 11–13 years, dentition category, socioeconomic status and gender. Generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs) were used to explore the relationships between new non-cavitated or cavitated caries and caries-related variables. Results Greater frequency of 100% juice exposure was significantly associated with fewer non-cavitated and cavitated caries surfaces. Greater toothbrushing frequency and high SES were significantly associated with fewer new non-cavitated caries. Children had significantly more new cavitated caries surfaces at the mixed dentition examination than at the primary and permanent dentition examinations. Conclusions There were common caries-related factors for more new non-cavitated caries across the three exams, including less frequent 100% juice exposure, lower toothbrushing frequency and lower socioeconomic status. Less frequent 100% juice exposures might be associated with higher exposures to several other cariogenic beverages. PMID:22320287

  9. A comparison of periapical radiographs and their digital images for the detection of dental caries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Byung Cheol [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Chonnam National University, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-02-15

    In summary, it has been demonstrated by this study that the detection rate of definite large proximal surface caries (C2) on the digital images was good and the detection rate of the first stage caries (C1) was somewhat inferior to film based images. It has been demonstrated by this study and others that the detection of proximal surface caries by present clinical methodologies is still poor. Every effort should be made to develop new means to improve digitizing process.

  10. A comparison of periapical radiographs and their digital images for the detection of dental caries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Byung Cheol

    1994-01-01

    In summary, it has been demonstrated by this study that the detection rate of definite large proximal surface caries (C2) on the digital images was good and the detection rate of the first stage caries (C1) was somewhat inferior to film based images. It has been demonstrated by this study and others that the detection of proximal surface caries by present clinical methodologies is still poor. Every effort should be made to develop new means to improve digitizing process.

  11. Genetics and caries: prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Rezende Vieira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Caries remains the most prevalent non-contagious infectious disease in humans. It is clear that the current approaches to decrease the prevalence of caries in human populations, including water fluoridation and school-based programs, are not enough to protect everyone. The scientific community has suggested the need for innovative work in a number of areas in cariology, encompassing disease etiology, epidemiology, definition, prevention, and treatment. We have pioneered the work on genetic studies to identify genes and genetic markers of diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic value. This paper summarizes a presentation that elaborated on these initial findings.

  12. Adolescent rampant caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namita

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent rampant caries is a new and growing challenge in Conservative Dentistry. It has the same etiology and pattern as that of nursing bottle syndrome. Herein, a case is presented in which the main cause of rampant caries is the patient′s habit of keeping cariogenic food in her mouth and going to sleep. Educating this etiology and introduction of preventive strategies not only assists in meeting the special oral needs of the adolescent population, but also helps to establish lifelong healthful habits.

  13. An artifical neural network for detection of simulated dental caries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kositbowornchai, S. [Khon Kaen Univ. (Thailand). Dept. of Oral Diagnosis; Siriteptawee, S.; Plermkamon, S.; Bureerat, S. [Khon Kaen Univ. (Thailand). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Chetchotsak, D. [Khon Kaen Univ. (Thailand). Dept. of Industrial Engineering

    2006-08-15

    Objects: A neural network was developed to diagnose artificial dental caries using images from a charged-coupled device (CCD)camera and intra-oral digital radiography. The diagnostic performance of this neural network was evaluated against a gold standard. Materials and methods: The neural network design was the Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ) used to classify a tooth surface as sound or as having dental caries. The depth of the dental caries was indicated on a graphic user interface (GUI) screen developed by Matlab programming. Forty-nine images of both sound and simulated dental caries, derived from a CCD camera and by digital radiography, were used to 'train' an artificial neural network. After the 'training' process, a separate test-set comprising 322 unseen images was evaluated. Tooth sections and microscopic examinations were used to confirm the actual dental caries status.The performance of neural network was evaluated using diagnostic test. Results: The sensitivity (95%CI)/specificity (95%CI) of dental caries detection by the CCD camera and digital radiography were 0.77(0.68-0.85)/0.85(0.75-0.92) and 0.81(0.72-0.88)/0.93(0.84-0.97), respectively. The accuracy of caries depth-detection by the CCD camera and digital radiography was 58 and 40%, respectively. Conclusions: The model neural network used in this study could be a prototype for caries detection but should be improved for classifying caries depth. Our study suggests an artificial neural network can be trained to make the correct interpretations of dental caries. (orig.)

  14. An artifical neural network for detection of simulated dental caries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kositbowornchai, S.; Siriteptawee, S.; Plermkamon, S.; Bureerat, S.; Chetchotsak, D.

    2006-01-01

    Objects: A neural network was developed to diagnose artificial dental caries using images from a charged-coupled device (CCD)camera and intra-oral digital radiography. The diagnostic performance of this neural network was evaluated against a gold standard. Materials and methods: The neural network design was the Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ) used to classify a tooth surface as sound or as having dental caries. The depth of the dental caries was indicated on a graphic user interface (GUI) screen developed by Matlab programming. Forty-nine images of both sound and simulated dental caries, derived from a CCD camera and by digital radiography, were used to 'train' an artificial neural network. After the 'training' process, a separate test-set comprising 322 unseen images was evaluated. Tooth sections and microscopic examinations were used to confirm the actual dental caries status.The performance of neural network was evaluated using diagnostic test. Results: The sensitivity (95%CI)/specificity (95%CI) of dental caries detection by the CCD camera and digital radiography were 0.77(0.68-0.85)/0.85(0.75-0.92) and 0.81(0.72-0.88)/0.93(0.84-0.97), respectively. The accuracy of caries depth-detection by the CCD camera and digital radiography was 58 and 40%, respectively. Conclusions: The model neural network used in this study could be a prototype for caries detection but should be improved for classifying caries depth. Our study suggests an artificial neural network can be trained to make the correct interpretations of dental caries. (orig.)

  15. Association of Environmental Cadmium Exposure with Pediatric Dental Caries

    OpenAIRE

    Arora, Manish; Weuve, Jennifer; Schwartz, Joel; Wright, Robert O.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Although animal experiments have shown that cadmium exposure results in severe dental caries, limited epidemiologic data are available on this issue. Objectives: We aimed to examine the relationship between environmental cadmium exposure and dental caries in children 6–12 years of age. Methods: We analyzed cross-sectional data, including urine cadmium concentrations and counts of decayed or filled tooth surfaces, from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We ...

  16. Some special features of the caries preventive effect of water-fluoridation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Backer Dirks, O.; Houwink, B.; Kwant, G.W.

    In March 1953 water-fluoridation was started in Tiel, the Netherlands. From the caries numbers of three age classes the differences in caries inhibition for the various teeth and for the various tooth surfaces are shown after 5 1/2 of fluoridation. The free smooth surfaces (buccal and labial)

  17. Approximal caries and sugar consumption in Icelandic teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnadóttir, I B; Rozier, R G; Saemundsson, S R; Sigurjóns, H; Holbrook, W P

    1998-04-01

    The aim of this study, conducted in 1994, was to examine the association between approximal caries and sugar consumption in teenagers residing in three fluoride-deficient areas in Iceland while controlling for a number of behavioral, residential and microbiological factors. One hundred and fifty subjects (mean age 14 years) selected from the Icelandic Nutritional Survey (INS) were examined radiographically and they completed questionnaires about sugar consumption frequency. Total grams of sugar intake were obtained from the INS for each subject. Caries experience on approximal surfaces, diagnosed from radiographs, was used as the dependent variable in the analyses. Altogether 45.2% of subjects were caries free on approximal surfaces. The overall sample was found to have a mean DFS on approximal surfaces of 2.73 (s=4.36) per subject. Average daily total sugar intake was 170 g per subject and the mean number of sugar-eating occasions between meals was 5.32 (s=6.29) per subject. The regression model indicated that the frequency of between-meal sugar consumption was associated with approximal caries, with frequency of candy consumption being the most important of the sugar variables. In multivariate analysis, no relationship was found between dental caries and total daily intake of sugar, although a significant relationship between total sugar consumption and presence of caries was seen in bivariate analysis. Between-meal consumption of sugar remains a risk factor for the occurrence of dental caries, especially in populations with moderate-to-high levels of dental caries experience.

  18. Photoacoustic imaging of hidden dental caries by using a fiber-based probing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Takuya; Kakino, Satoko; Matsuura, Yuji

    2017-04-01

    Photoacoustic method to detect hidden dental caries is proposed. It was found that high frequency ultrasonic waves are generated from hidden carious part when radiating laser light to occlusal surface of model tooth. By making a map of intensity of these high frequency components, photoacoustic images of hidden caries were successfully obtained. A photoacoustic imaging system using a bundle of hollow optical fiber was fabricated for using clinical application, and clear photoacoustic image of hidden caries was also obtained by this system.

  19. Caries Risk Assessment and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pourhashemi SJ

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Over 20 years, several analytical approaches have been designed to predict caries in children."nCaries Risk Assessment is a recently developed technique concern to caries prediction."nThis procedure involves three stages as follows:"n1- Determination and assessment of the dental caries risk factors."n2- Examination and evaluation of each individual child to be specifically diagnosed the level of 3- caries risk e.g. high, moderate and low risk."n3- Recommendation of preventive programs according to risk assessment."nBecause children vary widely in their ability to develop cavities, a well-organized program holds great promise for promoting dental heath for pre-school children of varying caries risk. This article considered a series of principals that dentist can use in case planning, management and prevention programs according to risk assessment.

  20. Caries detection in dental radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    Caries, or the decay of teeth are difficult to automatically detect in dental radiographs because of the small area of the image that is occupied by the decay. Images of dental radiographs has distinct regions of homogeneous gray levels, and therefore naturally lead to a segmentation based automatic caries detection algorithm. This paper describes a method for caries detection based on a multiclass, area independent thresholding and segmenting scheme. This multiclass thresholding algorithm is an extension of the uniform error threshold, an area independent, distribution free thresholding method used for images of only two classes of objects. The authors first consider the problem of caries detection and the image features that characterize the presence of caries. Next, the uniform error threshold is reviewed, and the general multiclass uniform error threshold algorithm is presented. This algorithm is used to automatically detect caries in dental radiographs

  1. Home visits for dietary advice reduce caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Jeyanthi

    2008-01-01

    This was a randomised field trial using block randomisation. A control group received routine assistance from their paediatricians in the health service, with research assessment usually within 1 month of the child's 6- and 12-month anniversary, then dietary advice by a fieldworker after the 12-month research assessment. The intervention group received home visits to advise the mother about healthy breastfeeding and weaning within 10 days of the child's birth, then monthly up to 6 months, then at 8, 10 and 12 months. This group also received the 6-month and 12-month research assessment and routine assistance from their paediatricians. Outcome measures were early childhood caries (ECC), defined as one or more caries surface of a tooth, duration of breastfeeding and dietary behaviours. Of the intervention group, 10.2% (16 out of 157) babies had caries compared with 18.3% (40 out of 219) babies in the control group. The odds of dental caries was 48% lower for the intervention group than for the controls (odds ratio, 0.52; 95% confidence interval, 0.27-0.97), after adjustment for the confounding effect of number of teeth. The intervention group had a longer mean duration of exclusive breastfeeding (X(2) P 0.000), later introduction of sugar (X(2) P 0.005) and a lower probability of their baby ever having eaten honey (X(2) P 0.003), chocolate or sweets (X(2) P 0.001), soft drinks (X(2) P 0.020), biscuits (X(2) P 0.000) and fromage frais cheese (X(2) P 0.001). Home visits for dietary advice appear to help reduce dental caries in infants. Greater efforts are needed to tackle cariogenic dietary behaviours, however, and further studies are required to examine any longer-term effect.

  2. ROC analysis of acid demineralized artificial caries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Byung Cheol [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Chonnam National University, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-08-15

    This study is designed to determine the artificial incipient proximal caries lesion detectability by dentists on Ektaspeed Plus film using ROC analysis. Sixteen premolars and 30 molars, which have 52 proximal caries-like demineralized lesions using acid-gel technique were added to 20 sound premolars and 30 sound molars to make 24 plaster blocks. Each block with 4 teeth and 6 contacting proximal surfaces was placed in an optical bench to take 12 bitewing radiographs with Ektaspeed Plus film. Thirty-six dentists acted as observers to evaluated the proximal lesions using five rating scales for ROC analysis. They were also asked to determine the presence or absence of the proximal caries. The true status of the proximal caries was established by the consensus of three oral and maxillofacila radiologists. For evaluation of intra-observer agreement, 9 dentist reread the radiographs at an interval of 1 month. The Pearson correlation coefficient for the intra-observer agreement was 0.746 (good agreement). Ten observer's data set were degenerated. The mean area under ROC curve from 26 observers was 0.806 and standard deviation was 0.061. The sensitivity and the specificity of the binary response were 0.17 (SD=0.11) and 0.78 (SD=0.17) respectively. The binary response only reveal a single values of sensitivity and the specificity. The ROC analysis to assess the diagnostic accuracy in caries detection, which producing estimates of sensitivities for all specifities, yield more comprehensive measures of diagnostic performance than single values for sensitivity and specificity.

  3. Nature vs. nurture in dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, I D

    1994-10-01

    Why are some people more resistant to dental caries than others? Certainly diet plays a part, but are there hereditary factors that affect caries development? This report explores genetic components that appear related to caries resistance and susceptibility.

  4. Artificial caries formation around fluoride-releasing restorations in roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionysopoulos, P; Kotsanos, N; Papadogiannis, Y; Konstantinidis, A

    1998-11-01

    Secondary caries is one of the most important factors leading to replacement of dental restorations. This investigation assessed the capacity of fluoride-releasing restorative materials to resist caries in vitro when used in roots. Class 5 cavities were prepared in the buccal and lingual surfaces of 30 extracted premolars. The six materials used were: glass-ionomer cement (Fuji), glass-ionomer cement with silver particles added (Ketac-silver), fluoride-containing composite resin (Tetric), composite resin (Silux plus), fluoride-containing amalgam (Fluor-Alloy) and high-copper amalgam (Dispersalloy). After 5 weeks in an acid gel for caries-like lesion formation, the teeth were sectioned longitudinally and examined with polarized light. The results showed that repair with glass-ionomer materials of a carious lesion may be of great importance in the prevention of secondary caries around the restorations in roots.

  5. Optimal drinking water composition for caries control in populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruvo, M.; Ekstrand, K.; Arvin, Erik

    2008-01-01

    Apart from the well-documented effect of fluoride in drinking water on dental caries, little is known about other chemical effects. Since other ions in drinking water may also theoretically influence caries, as well as binding of fluoride in the oral environment, we hypothesized that the effect...... of drinking water on caries may not be limited to fluoride only. Among 22 standard chemical variables, including 15 ions and trace elements as well as gases, organic compounds, and physical measures, iterative search and testing identified that calcium and fluoride together explained 45% of the variations...... in the numbers of decayed, filled, and missing tooth surfaces (DMF-S) among 52,057 15-year-old schoolchildren in 249 Danish municipalities. Both ions had reducing effects on DMF-S independently of each other, and could be used in combination for the design of optimal drinking water for caries control...

  6. [Immunology of dental caries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Andreia G; Neves, Ana M; Trindade, António C

    2010-01-01

    Dental carie is the most common infectious disease in humans. In the past decades, it has been described as a multifactorial condition, where diet and the immune response are main factors for the establishment of the disease. The authors approach the formation of the bacterian biofilm, the host's immune response, according to its maturation and deficiencies, and the current research to find a preventive intervention for this disease.

  7. The validity of proximal caries detection using magnifying visual aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haak, Rainer; Wicht, Michael J; Hellmich, Martin; Gossmann, Andrea; Noack, Michael J

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the validity of proximal caries detection supported by a prism loupe and a surgical microscope used by examiners having different professional experience. One hundred and sixty extracted premolars and molars with varying degrees of proximal caries or sound surfaces were embedded in 10 pairs of models with proximal tooth contacts and a simulated gingiva mask. The proximal surfaces were visually evaluated by 14 observers (7 students, 7 dentists) according to a 5-point caries rating scale using a head-worn prism loupe (x4.5), a surgical microscope (x 14) and without any magnifying device (control). The validity of observations was expressed as ROC curves calculated for two gold standard thresholds: (a) the presence of caries and (b) macroscopic cavitation. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to determine the effects of 'observer group' and 'diagnostic modality'. An influence of the observer group could not be demonstrated (p > 0.72), whereas significant differences were revealed between the diagnostic modalities (p caries detection with magnifying aids were smaller compared to the control group. It was concluded that the use of a prism loupe or a surgical microscope does not improve the validity of proximal caries detection if the operators, irrespective of being dental students or clinical instructors, are inexperienced in its utilisation. In general only moderate validity was achieved with visual inspection of proximal sites. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  8. Caries management by risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Douglas A; Featherstone, John D B

    2013-02-01

    Caries disease is multifactorial. Whether caries disease will be expressed and damage dental hard tissue is dependent on the patient's own unique make-up of pathogenic risk factors and protective factors. Objectives This manuscript will review the science of managing caries disease based on assessing caries risk. Methods The caries balance/imbalance model and a practical caries risk assessment procedure for patients aged 6 years through adult will illustrate how treatment options can be based on caries risk. Results Neither the forms nor the clinical protocols are meant to imply there is currently only one correct way this can be achieved, rather are used in this manuscript as examples only. Conclusions It is important to have the forms and protocols simple and easy to understand when implementing caries management by risk assessment into clinical practice. The science of CAMBRA based on the caries balance/imbalance model was reviewed and an example protocol was presented. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Clinical detection of caries in the primary dentition with and without bitewing radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, B; Seow, W K; Kazoullis, S; Ford, D; Holcombe, T

    2009-03-01

    Inadequate detection of caries in the primary dentition due to non-use of bitewing radiography is commonly encountered in paediatric practice. The present study investigated the increased benefits of using bitewing radiography in addition to the visual-tactile examination technique for detection of primary dentition caries in a non-fluoridated community, and determined the prevalence of "hidden" occlusal caries in the primary dentition. Primary teeth were scored for caries at the restorative threshold using a visual-tactile technique followed by bitewing radiographic examination in a sample of 611 schoolchildren aged 6.4 +/- 0.5 yrs to 12.1 +/- 0.8 yrs residing in a non-fluoridated city. Overall, at the restorative threshold, the visual-tactile technique could detect 62 per cent of occlusal caries compared to 74 per cent for bitewing radiography (p caries was 12 per cent. In contrast, for primary molar proximal surface caries, the visual-tactile technique could detect only 43 per cent of caries compared with 91 per cent for bitewing radiography (p detection rate of proximal surface caries substantially. It is recommended that bitewing radiography be included as part of the routine examination of children with proximal surfaces that cannot be visualized.

  10. Xylitol and caries prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duane, Brett

    2015-06-01

    Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Web of Science Conference Proceedings, Proquest Dissertations and Theses, US National Institutes of Health Trials Register (http://clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO Clinical Trials Registry Platform for ongoing trials. No language or year restrictions were used. Randomised controlled trials assessing the effects of xylitol products on dental caries in children and adults. Two review authors independently screened the results of the electronic searches, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of the included studies. Authors were contacted where possible for missing data or clarification where feasible. For continuous outcomes, means and standard deviations were used to obtain the mean difference and 95% confidence interval (CI). Continuous data was used to calculate prevented fractions (PF) and 95% CIs to summarise the percentage reduction in caries. For dichotomous outcomes, reported risk ratios (RR) and 95% CIs were used. As there were fewer than four studies included in the meta-analysis, a fixed effect model was used. Ten studies were included with a total of 5903 participants. One study was assessed as being at low risk of bias, two were assessed as unclear risk of bias with seven at high risk of bias. Over 2.5–3 years, low quality evidence demonstrated that with 4216 children analysed, a fluoride toothpaste with 10% xylitol (exact dosage unsure) reduced caries by 13% when compared to a fluoride only toothpaste. (PF −0.13, 95% CI −0.18 to −0.08. Remaining evidence of the use of xylitol in children has risk of bias and uncertainty of effect and was therefore insufficient to determine a benefit from xylitol. Four studies reported that there were no adverse effects from any of the interventions. Two studies reported similar rates of adverse effects between study arms. The remaining studies either mentioned adverse effects

  11. Association of dental caries and blood lead levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, M E; Lanphear, B P; Auinger, P

    Experiments show that dental caries rates are higher among lead-exposed animals, but this association has not been established in humans. To examine the relationship between blood lead levels and dental caries. Cross-sectional survey conducted from 1988 to 1994 that included a dental examination and venipuncture blood lead assay. A total of 24901 persons aged 2 years and older who participated in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, which assessed the health and nutritional status of children and adults in the United States. For children aged 2 to 11 years, the sum of decayed and filled deciduous or primary surfaces; for persons aged 6 years and older, the sum of decayed and filled permanent surfaces; for those 12 years and older, the sum of decayed, missing, and filled surfaces. The log of blood lead level was significantly associated with the number of affected surfaces for both deciduous and permanent teeth in all age groups, even after adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, diet, and dental care. Among children aged 5 to 17 years, a 0.24-micromol/L (5-microg/dL) change in blood lead level was associated with an elevated risk of dental caries (odds ratio, 1.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-2.5). Differences in blood lead level explained some of the differences in caries prevalence in different income levels and regions of the United States. We estimated the population attributable risk of lead exposure to be 13.5% and 9.6% of dental caries occurring in 5- to 17-year-olds exposed to the high and moderate levels, respectively. Environmental lead exposure is associated with an increased prevalence of dental caries in the US population. Findings may help explain the distribution of caries by income and region of the United States.

  12. Remineralization of initial enamel caries in vitro using a novel peptide based on amelogenin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Danxue; Lv, Xueping; Tu, Huanxin; Zhou, Xuedong; Yu, Haiyang; Zhang, Linglin

    2015-09-01

    Dental caries is the most common oral disease with high incidence, widely spread and can seriously affect the health of oral cavity and the whole body. Current caries prevention measures such as fluoride treatment, antimicrobial agents, and traditional Chinese herbal, have limitations to some extent. Here we design and synthesize a novel peptide based on the amelogenin, and assess its ability to promote the remineralization of initial enamel caries lesions. We used enamel blocks to form initial lesions, and then subjected to 12-day pH cycling in the presence of peptide, NaF and HEPES buffer. Enamel treated with peptide or NaF had shallower, narrower lesions, thicker remineralized surfaces and less mineral loss than enamel treated with HEPES. This peptide can promote the remineralization of initial enamel caries and inhibit the progress of caries. It is a promising anti-caries agent with various research prospects and practical application value.

  13. Measuring quality of dental care: Caries prevention services for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herndon, Jill Boylston; Tomar, Scott L; Catalanotto, Frank A; Rudner, Nancy; Huang, I-Chan; Aravamudhan, Krishna; Shenkman, Elizabeth A; Crall, James J

    2015-08-01

    The authors conducted a study to validate the following 3 evidence-based, process-of-care quality measures focused on dental caries prevention for children with an elevated risk of experiencing caries: sealants for 6- to 9-year-olds, sealants for 10- to 14-year-olds, and topical fluoride. Using evidence-based guidelines, the Dental Quality Alliance developed measures for implementation with administrative data at the plan and program levels. To validate the measures, the authors used data from the Florida and Texas Medicaid programs and Children's Health Insurance Programs and from national commercial dental benefit plans. Data were extracted from 414 randomly selected dental office records to validate the use of administrative data to accurately calculate the measures. The authors also assessed statistically significant variations in overall measure performance. Agreement between administrative data and dental records was 95% for sealants (κ = 0.82) and 90% for topical fluoride (κ = 0.78). Sensitivity and specificity were 90.7% and 88.5% for topical fluoride and 77.8% and 98.8% for sealants, respectively. Variation in overall measure performance was greatest for topical fluoride (χ(2) = 5,887.1; P caries received at least 2 topical fluoride applications during the reporting year. Although there was greater variation in performance for sealants for 6- to 9-year-olds (range, 21.0-31.3%; χ(2) = 548.6; P caries prevention process-of-care quality measures can be implemented feasibly and validly using administrative claims data. The measures can be used to assess, monitor, and improve the proportion of children with an elevated risk of experiencing dental caries who receive evidence-based caries prevention services. Copyright © 2015 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of Interproximal Caries with Using of Bitewing Radiography in Dental Student of Islamic Azad University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sahba

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Dental caries is one of the common diseases in the world. It is an infective disease which is caused by loss of minerals and destruction of dental tissues. One of the most effective ways to diagnose the interproximal caries is radiography. Bitewing radiography is the best way for caries diagnosis.Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of the interproximal caries in dental students of Islamic Azad University.Materials and Methods: This research was a cross sectional study that was conducted on 89 students of the Azad University consisting of 48 females and 41 males who were selected by random sampling. For each individual student left and right posterior bitewing radiographs were taken with a standard method (the interproximal spaces were between 6-7,5,6 and 4,5. Thus 12 interproximal spaces were examined in each individual. The most proximal cavitation surfaces were detected in the upper Jaw.Results: Results revealed that 6 individuals (6.7% were totally caries free and 83 individuals (93.3% showed interproxmal caries. Out of 1068 proximal spaces which had been studied 794 Spaces (73.4% were caries free and 274 surfaces (25.7% had caries.Conclusion: The high incidence of proximal caries and the possibility of missing them in the routine examinations make the bitewing radiographs an effective procedure for diagnosis.

  15. Differences between reported and actual restored caries lesion depths: results from The Dental PBRN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindal, D B; Gordan, V V; Fellows, J L; Spurlock, N L; Bauer, M R; Litaker, M S; Gilbert, G H

    2014-07-01

    The objectives of this research were to: (1) quantify the discordance between the caries lesion depth at which dentists restored initial lesions during a clinical study ("actual depth") and the lesion depth that they reported during a hypothetical clinical scenario ("reported depth"); (2) test the hypothesis that certain practitioner, practice, patient, and caries lesion characteristics are significantly associated with this discordance. Practitioner-investigators who perform restorative dentistry in their practices completed an enrollment questionnaire and participated in 2 consecutive studies on caries diagnosis and treatment. The first study was a survey asking about caries treatment. The second study collected data on restorations placed in routine clinical practice due to caries in patients over 19 years of age on occlusal surfaces only or proximal surfaces only. We report results on 2,691 restorations placed by 205 dentists in 1,930 patients with complete data. Discordance between actual depth and reported depth occurred in only about 2% of the restorations done due to proximal caries, but about 49% of the restorations done due to occlusal caries. Practice type, restorative material used and the diagnostic methods used were significantly associated with discordance. Dentists frequently restored occlusal caries at a shallower depth as compared to their reported depth, but the discordance was very small for proximal lesions. Discordance for occlusal caries was more common when radiographs were not taken or if a resin restoration was placed.

  16. Interdental Spacing and Dental Caries in the Primary Dentition of 4-6 Year Old Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Babu Kl

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: There are various risk factors which play an essential role in the multifactorial disease “dental caries.” Although absence of interdental spaces in the primary dentition may increase the risk of dental caries, not many studies have been carried out to assess this correlation. This study was performed to assess the relationship between interdental spacing and dental caries in primary dentition.Materials and Methods: Five hundred 4-6 year-old children were enrolled into this study. Dental caries was recorded using the criteria given by Warren et al. Following this, impressions were made for the upper and lower arches and dental casts were poured. Interdental spaces were measured on the dental casts using a digital verniercaliper. The data obtained were subjected to statistical analysis.Results: The number of sites with interdental spaces was higher in the maxillary arch in comparison to the mandibular arch. The highest number of interdental spaces was observed between the maxillary anteriors. The number of demineralized, but non-cavitated tooth surfaces (d1were higher than the number of cavitated tooth surfaces. This difference was significant in the mandibular anterior segment. Dental caries showed a negative correlation with interdental spacing. A significant correlation was found between dental caries and interdental spacing in the posterior segment of the mandibular arch.Conclusion: This study showed that children with no interdental spacing in the primary dentition are at higher risk for dental caries.Key Words: Dental Caries; Interdental Spaces; Interproximal Caries

  17. Dental reductions and dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D L; Popovich, F

    1977-11-01

    Although first permanent molar hypoconulid absence, third molar agenesis, and small tooth size are all part of evolutionary trend of dental retardation, each bears a different relationship to dental caries. Caries prevalence in the maxillary and mandibular permanent first molars of the Burlington Research Centre serial experimental group at age 16 years was less in the children whose first molars were missing the hypoconulid. Conversely, caries prevalence in mandibular first molars was greater in the children who had agenesis of third molars. The extraction of first molars due to caries was more frequent in children with agenesis of third molars, less frequent in those with absence of hypoconulids of the first molars and unrelated to tooth size. Caries prevalence was less in small teeth, and occurred least in the small mandibular first molars with four cusps. Whereas this is in harmony with the hypothesis that evolutionary dental reductions resulted from the pressure of caries, the increased prevalence of caries and extractions coinciding with third molar agenesis does not support this view. In addition, agenesis of hypoconulids and agenesis of third molars were related to changes in structures unrelated to caries.

  18. Early Childhood Caries with the Perspective of Pediatrician

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Bucak

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Early childhood caries are characterized by the presence of at least one or more decayed, missing or filled teeth surfaces in any primary tooth of a child 24-72 months of age. The prevalance of early childhood caries is variable among the world because of wide range of contributing aetiological factors. Aim of this study to determine the prevalance and aetiologic factors of early childhood caries, in South East Anatolia Region of Turkey and evaluated as a pediatrician view. Material and Method: Patients admitted to pediatric polyclinics for any reason, aging between 24 to 72 months, were enrolled in this study. The children who had dental caries and who had not were examined by a dentist. Families were requested to voluntarily answer questions asked by our staff who follow a questionnaire. This questionnaire contains breastfeeding, usage of vitamin D, multivitamin formulations, iron supplements, baby bottle and pacifier, as well as consumpion of yogurt, acidic drinks, in addition to health habits of brushing teeth, check up by the dentist, cigarette usage of parents (mother, father or both. Results: 553 patients were included the study. Early childhood caries was determined to be 33,1 %. As a result of this study, we found that pacifier usage, multiviamin supplements and acidic drinks were significantly contributing to early childhood caries. Discussion: We advise refrainment from pacifier usage and unnecesary consumption of multivitamin supplemantation, acidic drinks or at least brushing of teeth rightafter consumption of these foods in childhood.

  19. Specifics of proximal caries and their diagnostics in posterior teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojcik-Checinska Ilona

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Proximal surfaces are the second in turn after the occlusal surfaces, as being the most exposed places to the carious process. The specificity of changes and location makes the diagnostic of approximal cavities difficult. The aim of the study was to collect information on possibilities of detection, monitoring and assessment of carious lesions located on proximal surfaces, starting from the early stage. On the base of current literature, chosen methods of diagnosis, from conventional, to advanced technologies were presented. Current literature also suggests that none of the diagnostic methods exclude the possibility of misdiagnosis of proximal caries. Therefore, during the diagnosing of doubtful cases, it is advisable to employ several methods of assessment, with simultaneous individual appraisal of caries risk factors, such as oral hygiene, frequency of eating sweets or the number of active caries foci.

  20. In vivo performance of two devices for occlusal caries detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozdemir, Esin; Karaarslan, Emine Sirin; Ozsevik, A Semih; Ata Cebe, M; Aktan, Ali Murat

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this in vivo study was to compare the performance of light-emitting diode (LED)- and laser fluorescence (LF)-based devices with that of visual inspection (VI) in the diagnosis of occlusal caries. A total of 156 occlusal surfaces were investigated. Each occlusal surface was assessed with LED- and LF-based devices after a VI was performed. Pit and fissure opening was applied to the occlusal surfaces in which opacity or discoloration was distinctly visible after airdrying. The inter-examiner reliability of caries examination was assessed using the weighted κ statistics. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of occlusal caries diagnosis using these methods were calculated according to the appropriate thresholds. Acceptable inter-examiner agreement was found for the LED- and LF-based devices and VI (κ=0.61, κ=0.76, and κ=0.87, respectively). Higher specificity values were achieved at a T2 threshold for the LF-based device (0.76 and 0.80) and at a T1 threshold for the LED-based readings (0.60 and 0.62) and VI (0.90 and 0.93) for both observers. With regard to VI, higher sensitivity values were found at both thresholds for the two observers in comparing the three caries detection methods (0.98 at T1 and 0.96 at T2). The accuracy values for T1 were higher than those for the T2 values, for all three caries detection methods. Caries lesions may be detected more accurately than clinically sound areas by both caries detection devices.

  1. Are fluoride releasing dental materials clinically effective on caries control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cury, Jaime Aparecido; de Oliveira, Branca Heloisa; dos Santos, Ana Paula Pires; Tenuta, Livia Maria Andaló

    2016-03-01

    (1) To describe caries lesions development and the role of fluoride in controlling disease progression; (2) to evaluate whether the use of fluoride-releasing pit and fissure sealants, bonding orthodontic agents and restorative materials, in comparison to a non-fluoride releasing material, reduces caries incidence in children or adults, and (3) to discuss how the anti-caries properties of these materials have been evaluated in vitro and in situ. The search was performed on the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and on Medline via Pubmed. Caries is a biofilm-sugar dependent disease and as such it provokes progressive destruction of mineral structure of any dental surface - intact, sealed or restored - where biofilm remains accumulated and is regularly exposed to sugar. The mechanism of action of fluoride released from dental materials on caries is similar to that of fluoride found in dentifrices or other vehicles of fluoride delivery. Fluoride-releasing materials are unable to interfere with the formation of biofilm on dental surfaces adjacent to them or to inhibit acid production by dental biofilms. However, the fluoride released slows down the progression of caries lesions in tooth surfaces adjacent to dental materials. This effect has been clearly shown by in vitro and in situ studies but not in randomized clinical trials. The anti-caries effect of fluoride releasing materials is still not based on clinical evidence, and, in addition, it can be overwhelmed by fluoride delivered from dentifrices. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Nutrition and dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobley, Connie C

    2003-04-01

    Promotion of sound dietary practices is an essential component of caries management, along with fluoride exposure and oral hygiene practices. Scientific discoveries have lead to better understanding of the caries process, the ever-expanding food supply, and the interaction between the two. Fermentable carbohydrates interact dynamically with oral bacteria and saliva, and these foods will continue to be a major part of a healthful diet. Dental health professionals can serve their patients and the public by providing comprehensive oral health care and by promoting lifestyle behaviors to improve oral and general health within the time constraints of their practice. Dietary advice given should not contradict general health principles when providing practical guidance to reduce caries risk. The following principles should guide messages: * Encourage balanced diets based on moderation and variety as depicted by the Food Guide Pyramid and the Dietary Guidelines for Americans to provide a sound approach. Avoid references to "bad" foods and focus on "good" diets that include a variety of foods. * Give examples of how combining and sequencing foods can enhance mastication, saliva production, and oral clearance at each eating occasion. Combining dairy foods with sugary foods, raw foods with cooked, and protein-rich foods with acidogenic foods are all good examples. Suggest that eating and drinking be followed by cariostatic foods such as xylitol chewing gum. * Drink water to satisfy thirst and hydration needs as often as possible. Restrict consumption of sweetened beverages to meal and snack times when they can be combined with other cariostatic foods. * When a patient reports excessive dietary intake of a fermentable carbohydrate to the point of displacing other important foods in the diet, identify alternatives that will help the patient maintain or achieve a healthy body weight, oral health status, and a nutrient-dense intake.

  3. Development of a multifunctional adhesive system for prevention of root caries and secondary caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; Melo, Mary A. S.; Chen, Chen; Liu, Jason; Weir, Michael D.; Bai, Yuxing; Xu, Hockin H. K.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The objectives of this study were to: (1) develop a novel adhesive for prevention of tooth root caries and secondary caries by possessing a combination of protein-repellent, antibacterial, and remineralization capabilities for the first time; and (2) investigate the effects of 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC), dimethylaminohexadecyl methacrylate (DMAHDM), and nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP) on dentine bond strength, protein-repellent properties, and dental plaque microcosm biofilm response. Methods MPC, DMAHDM and NACP were added into Scotchbond Multi-Purpose primer and adhesive. Dentine shear bond strengths were measured. Adhesive coating thickness, surface texture and dentine-adhesive interfacial structure were examined. Protein adsorption onto adhesive resin surface was determined by the micro bicinchoninic acid method. A human saliva microcosm biofilm model was used to investigate biofilm metabolic activity, colony-forming unit (CFU) counts, and lactic acid production. Results The resin with 7.5% MPC + 5% DMAHDM + 30% NACP did not adversely affect dentine shear bond strength (p > 0.1). The resin with 7.5% MPC + 5% DMAHDM + 30% NACP produced a coating on root dentine with a thickness of approximately 70 μm and completely sealed all the dentinal tubules. The resin with 7.5% MPC + 5% DMAHDM + 30% NACP had 95% reduction in protein adsorption, compared to SBMP control (p control. Significance The novel multifunctional adhesive with strong protein-repellent, antibacterial and remineralization properties is promising to coat tooth roots to prevent root caries and secondary caries. The combined use of MPC, DMAHDM and NACP may have wide applicability to bonding agents, cements, sealants and composites to inhibit caries. PMID:26187532

  4. Detection of in vitro proximal caries in storage phosphor plate radiographs scanned with different resolutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, G.; Berkhout, W.E.R.; Sanderink, G.C.H.; Martins, M.; van der Stelt, P.F.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the effect of the scanning resolution of storage phosphor plate (SPP) radiographs on the detection of proximal caries lesions. Methods: 10 dentists evaluated 72 proximal surfaces of premolars with respect to caries from SPP radiographs scanned with theoretical spatial

  5. Shifts in the Microbial Population in Relation to in situ Caries Progression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, R. Z.; Zijnge, V.; Cicek, A.; de Soet, J. J.; Harmsen, H. J. M.; Huysmans, M. C. D. N. J. M.

    2012-01-01

    The shift in microbial diversity from young to mature plaque, related to caries activity on sound and restored surfaces, was studied using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. During a 20-week in situ study on caries progression 8 subjects wearing restored and unrestored dentin and enamel

  6. Shifts in the microbial population in relation to in situ caries progression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, R.Z.; Zijnge, V.; Ciçek, A.; de Soet, J.J.; Harmsen, H.J.M.; Huysmans, M.C.D.N.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    The shift in microbial diversity from young to mature plaque, related to caries activity on sound and restored surfaces, was studied using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. During a 20-week in situ study on caries progression 8 subjects wearing restored and unrestored dentin and enamel

  7. Evaluation of initial caries score and caries incidence in a public health sealant program: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhija, Sonia K; Childers, Noel K; Lauten, Johnson; Dorantes, Carlos E; Chafin, Teri; Dasanayake, Ananda P

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between: (1) children's caries score (dmft, DMFT) at the time of sealant placement; and (2) "success" (measured as being caries-free) of that tooth at follow-up visits. An existing database of over 38,000 sealants (10,038 children) placed between 1997 and 2002 by the Jefferson County Health Department's Community Based Sealant Program, Birmingham, Ala, was used in the analysis. Only children returning for followup visits after the initial placement of the sealants were included in this study, resulting in 6,452 sealants (2,097 children). Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the differences in sealant success between children with a dmft score of 0 vs a dmft score of >0 at baseline, and a DMFT score of 0 vs a DMFT score of >0 at baseline. In the permanent and primary dentitions, those who had no caries at the time of sealant placement (dmft/DMFT=0) had a significantly higher success of sealants during years 1 to 5 compared to those with a caries score of greater than 0 (dmft/DMFT>0; P<.023, P<.002, respectively). Children with previous caries experience may be at a higher risk for sealant "failure" (measured as caries on a tooth surface previously sealed) after 1 year and, therefore, may require more diligent sealant maintenance.

  8. Beyond Streptococcus mutans: dental caries onset linked to multiple species by 16S rRNA community analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin L Gross

    Full Text Available Dental caries in very young children may be severe, result in serious infection, and require general anesthesia for treatment. Dental caries results from a shift within the biofilm community specific to the tooth surface, and acidogenic species are responsible for caries. Streptococcus mutans, the most common acid producer in caries, is not always present and occurs as part of a complex microbial community. Understanding the degree to which multiple acidogenic species provide functional redundancy and resilience to caries-associated communities will be important for developing biologic interventions. In addition, microbial community interactions in health and caries pathogenesis are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate bacterial community profiles associated with the onset of caries in the primary dentition. In a combination cross-sectional and longitudinal design, bacterial community profiles at progressive stages of caries and over time were examined and compared to those of health. 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used for bacterial community analysis. Streptococcus mutans was the dominant species in many, but not all, subjects with caries. Elevated levels of S. salivarius, S. sobrinus, and S. parasanguinis were also associated with caries, especially in subjects with no or low levels of S. mutans, suggesting these species are alternative pathogens, and that multiple species may need to be targeted for interventions. Veillonella, which metabolizes lactate, was associated with caries and was highly correlated with total acid producing species. Among children without previous history of caries, Veillonella, but not S. mutans or other acid-producing species, predicted future caries. Bacterial community diversity was reduced in caries as compared to health, as many species appeared to occur at lower levels or be lost as caries advanced, including the Streptococcus mitis group, Neisseria, and Streptococcus sanguinis. This

  9. Beyond Streptococcus mutans: Dental Caries Onset Linked to Multiple Species by 16S rRNA Community Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Erin L.; Beall, Clifford J.; Kutsch, Stacey R.; Firestone, Noah D.; Leys, Eugene J.; Griffen, Ann L.

    2012-01-01

    Dental caries in very young children may be severe, result in serious infection, and require general anesthesia for treatment. Dental caries results from a shift within the biofilm community specific to the tooth surface, and acidogenic species are responsible for caries. Streptococcus mutans, the most common acid producer in caries, is not always present and occurs as part of a complex microbial community. Understanding the degree to which multiple acidogenic species provide functional redundancy and resilience to caries-associated communities will be important for developing biologic interventions. In addition, microbial community interactions in health and caries pathogenesis are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate bacterial community profiles associated with the onset of caries in the primary dentition. In a combination cross-sectional and longitudinal design, bacterial community profiles at progressive stages of caries and over time were examined and compared to those of health. 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used for bacterial community analysis. Streptococcus mutans was the dominant species in many, but not all, subjects with caries. Elevated levels of S. salivarius, S. sobrinus, and S. parasanguinis were also associated with caries, especially in subjects with no or low levels of S. mutans, suggesting these species are alternative pathogens, and that multiple species may need to be targeted for interventions. Veillonella, which metabolizes lactate, was associated with caries and was highly correlated with total acid producing species. Among children without previous history of caries, Veillonella, but not S. mutans or other acid-producing species, predicted future caries. Bacterial community diversity was reduced in caries as compared to health, as many species appeared to occur at lower levels or be lost as caries advanced, including the Streptococcus mitis group, Neisseria, and Streptococcus sanguinis. This may have

  10. Evaluation of micro-tensile bond strength of caries-affected human dentine after three different caries removal techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirin Karaarslan, E; Yildiz, E; Cebe, M A; Yegin, Z; Ozturk, B

    2012-10-01

    This study evaluated the effect that different techniques for removing dental caries had on the strength of the microtensile bond to caries-affected human dentine created by three bonding agents. Forty-five human molar teeth containing carious lesions were randomly divided into three groups according to the technique that would be used to remove the caries: a conventional bur, an Er:YAG laser or a chemo-mechanical Carisolv(®) gel (n=15). Next, each of the three removal-technique groups was divided into three subgroups according to the bonding agents that would be used: Clearfil(®) SE Bond, G-Bond(®), or Adper(®) Single Bond 2 (n=5). Three 1mm(2) stick-shaped microtensile specimens from each tooth were prepared with a slow-speed diamond saw sectioning machine fitted with a diamond-rim blade (n=15 specimens). For each removal technique one dentine sample was analysed using scanning electron microscopy. There were statistically significant differences in the resulting tensile strength of the bond among the techniques used to remove the caries and there were also statistically significant differences in the strength of the bond among the adhesive systems used. The etch-and-rinse adhesive system was the most affected by the technique used to remove the caries; of the three techniques tested, the chemo-mechanical removal technique worked best with the two-step self etch adhesive system. The bond strength values of the etch-and-rinse adhesive system were affected by the caries removal techniques used in the present study. However, in the one- and two-step self etch adhesive systems, bond strength values were not affected by the caries removal techniques applied. While a chemo-mechanical caries removal technique, similar to Carisolv(®), may be suggested with self etch adhesive systems, in caries removal techniques with laser, etch-and-rinse systems might be preferred. Caries removal methods may lead to differences in the characteristics of dentine surface. Dentine

  11. Detection of early dental caries with short pulse laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okubo, Nahoko; Goto, Shigeru [Osada Research Inst., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Tanaka, Hiroshi; Ohzu, Akira; Arisawa, Takashi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Kansai Research Establishment, Advanced Photon Research Center, Kyoto (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    Differences in the optical properties of polarization and photoluminescence between caries lesion and noncaries (sound) enamel have been investigated by focusing a pulsed Nd:YAG laser of 532 nm on the surface of teeth. Significant difference in the polarization property of the scattered light from the surface can be observed with some carious samples. For photoluminescence spectral lines which appear at around 650 nm, the intensity of caries lesion has been approximately two times higher than that of sound one. A discussion is presented in which early are potentially detectable by the pulsed laser. (author)

  12. Oral Lactobacilli and Dental Caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caufield, P.W.; Schön, C.N.; Saraithong, P.; Li, Y.; Argimón, S.

    2015-01-01

    Lactobacilli have been associated with dental caries for over a century. Here, we review the pertinent literature along with findings from our own study to formulate a working hypothesis about the natural history and role of lactobacilli. Unlike most indigenous microbes that stably colonize a host, lactobacilli appear to be planktonic, opportunistic settlers that can gather and multiply only in certain restrictive niches of the host, at least within the oral cavity. We postulate that the following essential requirements are necessary for sustained colonization of lactobacilli in humans: 1) a stagnant, retentive niche that is mostly anaerobic; 2) a low pH milieu; and 3) ready access to carbohydrates. Three sites on the human body meet these specifications: caries lesions, the stomach, and the vagina. Only a handful of Lactobacillus species is found in caries lesions, but they are largely absent in caries-free children. Lactobacilli present in caries lesions represent both a major contributor to caries progression and a major reservoir to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. We extend the assertion from other investigators that lactobacilli found in the GI tract originate in the oral cavity by proposing that lactobacilli in the oral cavity arise from caries lesions. This, in turn, leads us to reflect on the health implications of the lactobacilli in the mouth and downstream GI and to ponder whether these or any of the Lactobacillus species are truly indigenous to the human GI tract or the oral cavity. PMID:25758458

  13. Caries Progression Rate in Primary Teeth: A Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tickotsky, Nili; Petel, Roy; Araki, Rabi; Moskovitz, Moti

    The rate of caries progression in primary teeth has rarely been studied, with most studies on early childhood caries reporting the percentage of lesions that remain at a certain stage of disease over a period of time. The aim of the present study was to examine the prevalence and behavior of proximal and occlusal carious lesions in primary teeth among children from low socio-economic status. This retrospective study was based on bite-wing radiographs of 95 children aged 5-12 taken at 6-12 months intervals, with a follow-up period of at least three years. One hundred thirty-five teeth and 141 tooth surfaces were examined. The degree of proximal surfaces and occlusal caries advancement was scored and statistical analyses (Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis and Kaplan-Meier analysis) were performed to evaluate caries progression rate. The results revealed that approximately 0.8 years were required for a carious lesion to progress from the outer enamel to the dentino-enamel junction, and an additional 1.4 years for it to reach the inner part of the dentin. The caries progression rate found in the present study is more rapid than previously found and affects more the lower socio economic population.

  14. Correlation of dental caries and dermatoglyphics in pediatric cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakruti H Sanghani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental caries is a multifactorial disease, and its etiology has been advocated to various environmental and genetic factors. Dermatoglyphics is the study of dermal ridges on the palmar and plantar surfaces of hands and feet. It is genetic in nature and is unique to each individual. Enamel as well as finger buds are ectodermal in origin and develop during the same time of intrauterine life; therefore, factors affecting dental caries may cause peculiarities in dermal ridge patterns. Aim: To find a correlation between dermatoglyphic pattern and dental caries in pediatric cases. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed on 200 children (100 caries-active and 100 caries-free between the age range of 6–13 years. The decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT score was recorded for caries-active children having a score range of 3–6 and under each score there were 25 cases. Midlo and Cummins method (1943 of recording palm prints was used using Indiana Ink (stamp pad, roller and printing papers. The prints were inspected with the help of magnifying lens and whorls and loops in each hand were recorded. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software 14.00, and Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis of collected data. Results: The number of whorls was found to be more in caries-active children with increased number of whorls in children with a higher DMFT whereas the number of loops was more in caries-free children. There was a statistically significant difference between the groups (P < 0.05. The number of whorls and loops was found to be more on the right hand as compared to the left hand. Conclusion: The results of the study indicate that there is a definite correlation between the number of whorls and loops and the presence of dental caries in children. Hence, dermatoglyphics can be used as a screening method to provide adequate preventive treatment to children showing a higher

  15. Clinical outcome of root caries restorations using ART and rotary techniques in institutionalized elders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Carlos CRUZ GONZALEZ

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to compare the clinical performance of root caries restorations after a six-month period using two methods, a conventional technique with rotary instruments and an atraumatic restorative technique (ART, in an institutionalized elderly population in the city of Bogotá, Colombia. Root caries represents a multifactorial, progressive, chronic lesion with softened, irregular and darkened tissue involving the radicular surface; it is highly prevalent in the elderly, especially in those who are physically or cognitively impaired. A quasi-experimental, double-blind, longitudinal study was carried out after cluster randomization of the sample. Two different experienced dentists, previously trained, performed the restorations using each technique. After six months, two new investigators performed a blind evaluation of the condition of the restorations. The results showed a significantly higher rate of success (92.9% using the conventional technique (p < 0.03. However, we concluded that ART may have been the preferred technique in the study population because 81% of those restorations survived or were successful during the observation period.

  16. Characterization of enamel caries lesions in rat molars using synchrotron X-ray microtomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Free, R.D.; DeRocher, K.; Stock, S.R.; Keane, D.; Scott-Anne, K.; Bowen, W.H.; Joester, D. (Rochester); (NWU)

    2017-08-18

    Dental caries is a ubiquitous infectious disease with a nearly 100% lifetime prevalence. Rodent caries models are widely used to investigate the etiology, progression and potential prevention or treatment of the disease. To explore the suitability of these models for deeper investigations of intact surface zones during enamel caries, the structures of early-stage carious lesions in rats were characterized and compared with previous reports on white spot enamel lesions in humans. Synchrotron X-ray microcomputed tomography non-destructively mapped demineralization in carious rat molar specimens across a range of caries severity, identifying 52 lesions across the 30 teeth imaged. Of these lesions, 13 were shown to have intact surface zones. Depth profiles of fractional mineral density were qualitatively similar to lesions in human teeth. However, the thickness of the surface zone in the rat model ranges from 10 to 58 µm, and is therefore significantly thinner than in human enamel. These results indicate that a fraction of lesions in rat caries possess an intact surface zone and are qualitatively similar to human lesions at the micrometer scale. This suggests that rat caries models may be a suitable analog through which to investigate the structure of surface zone enamel and its role during dental caries.

  17. Caries risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejàre, I; Axelsson, S; Dahlén, G

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the ability of multivariate models and single factors to correctly identify future caries development in pre-school children and schoolchildren/adolescents. STUDY DESIGN: A systematic literature search for relevant papers was conducted with pre-determined inclusion criteria....... Abstracts and full-text articles were assessed independently by two reviewers. The quality of studies was graded according to the QUADAS tool. The quality of evidence of models and single predictors was assessed using the GRADE approach. RESULTS: Ninety original articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria....... Seven studies had high quality, 35 moderate and the rest poor quality. The accuracy of multivariate models was higher for pre-school children than for schoolchildren/adolescents. However, the models had seldom been validated in independent populations, making their accuracy uncertain. Of the single...

  18. Caries resistance of lased human root surface with 10.6 μm CO2 laser-thermal, morphological, and microhardness analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza-Zaroni, W. C.; Freitas, A. C. P.; Hanashiro, F. S.; Steiner-Oliveira, C.; Nobre-Dos-Santos, M.; Youssef, M. N.

    2010-02-01

    Although the cariostatic effects of CO2 laser on enamel have been shown, its effects on root surface demineralization remains uncertain. The objectives of this in vitro research was to establish safe parameters for a pulsed 10.6 μm CO2 laser and to evaluate its effect on morphological features of the root surface, as well as on the reduction of root demineralization. Ninety-five human root surfaces were randomly divided into five groups: G1-No treatment (control); G2—2.5 J/cm2; G3—4.0 J/cm2; G4—5.0 J/cm2; and G5—6.0 J/cm2. Intrapulpal temperature was evaluated during root surface irradiation by a thermocouple and morphological changes were evaluated by SEM. After the surface treatment, the specimens were submitted to a 7-day pH-cycling model. Subsequently, the cross-sectional Knoop microhardness values were measured. For all irradiated groups, intrapulpal temperature changes were less than 1.5°C. Scanning electron microscopy images indicated that fluences as low as 4.0 J/cm2 were sufficient to induce morphological changes in the root surface. Additionally, for fluences reaching or exceeding 4.0 J/cm2, laser-induced inhibitory effects on root surface demineralization were observed. It was concluded that laser energy density in the range of 4.0 to 6.0 J/cm2 could be applied to a dental root to reduce demineralization of this surface without compromising pulp vitality.

  19. Nyvad Criteria for Caries Lesion Activity and Severity Assessment: A Validated Approach for Clinical Management and Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyvad, Bente; Baelum, Vibeke

    2018-03-05

    The Nyvad classification is a visual-tactile caries classification system devised to enable the detection of the activity and severity of caries lesions with special focus on low-caries populations. The criteria behind the classification reflect the entire continuum of caries, ranging from clinically sound surfaces through noncavitated and microcavitated caries lesions in enamel, to frank cavitation into the dentin. Lesion activity at each severity stage is discriminated by differences in surface topography and lesion texture. The reliability of the Nyvad criteria is high to excellent when used by trained examiners in the primary and permanent dentitions. The Nyvad criteria have construct validity for lesion activity assessments because of their ability to reflect the well-known caries-controlling effect of fluoride. Predictive validity was demonstrated by showing that active noncavitated lesions are at higher risk of progressing to a cavity or filled state than do inactive noncavitated lesions. Lesion activity assessment performed successfully as a screening tool to identify individuals with a poor caries prognosis. Because of their predictive validity, the Nyvad criteria are superior to other current caries lesion descriptors for the detection of changes in the lesion activity status over time. The Nyvad criteria fulfill all the formal requirements for a robust caries lesion classification and are recommended for evidence-based caries management in clinical practice and in research. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Radiation caries: a therapeutical option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biazolla, E.R.; Miziara, T.C.

    1988-01-01

    It is showed a clinical report about radiation caries. As the tooth destruction was, mainly, of the majority of the teeth, was made a therapy where, besides avoiding the osteoradiomielite, also is possible to reability the patient. (author)

  1. Dental caries experience and association to risk indicators of remote rural populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Sean L; Martinez-Mier, E Angeles; Dean, Jeffrey A; Weddell, James A; Sanders, Brian J; Eggertsson, Hafsteinn; Ofner, Susan; Yoder, Karen

    2008-07-01

    Dental caries continues to be the most common infectious disease of childhood; however, it is no longer pandemic, but endemic in specific sectors of populations. Therefore, it is important to identify and target patients at risk of developing caries in order to develop specific preventive measures. This study aims to test dental caries risk indicators for significant associations with caries severity. Five separate, small, isolated rural villages in Mexico with varying degrees of caries prevalence were selected for this observational study. A total of 248 children were examined. Risk indicators were assessed via questionnaire and water and salt fluoride analysis. Caries severity was measured by the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS-I). Prevalence of caries ranged from 95% to 100% for the five villages. Mean total DMFS (decayed, missing, or filled surfaces-permanent teeth) and dmfs (decayed, missing, or filled surfaces-primary teeth) scores ranged from 2.5 to 5.0 and from 11.3 to 16.9, respectively. Multivariable models showed age and drinking soda between meals to be significantly associated with DMFS, and drinking juice and being female were significantly associated with dmfs. DMFS and dmfs were high in each village, significantly different between villages, and associated with specific risk indicators.

  2. A comparative evaluation of DIAGNOdent with visual and radiography for detection of occlusal caries: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sridhar N

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The diagnosis of dental caries is fundamental to the practice of dentistry. Despite the fact that dental caries has declined considerably, it is still a problem of great importance. The reduction in caries prevalence has not occurred uniformly for all the surfaces. The greatest reduction was observed at lesions located on smooth surfaces, so that occlusal caries are most common in children. Aim: The purpose of this study is to determine the clinical efficacy of DIAGNOdent in detecting occlusal caries. Materials and Methods: A total number of 50 teeth were subjected for visual, radiographic, and DIAGNOdent examinations. All the three methods were compared to histology which is a gold standard. Results: The result obtained showed that DIAGNOdent is superior to visual and radiographic methods in diagnosing occlusal caries.

  3. Dental caries: strategies to control this preventable disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugg-Gunn, Andrew

    2013-11-01

    To provide a brief commentary review of strategies to control dental caries. Dental decay is one of man's most prevalent diseases. In many counties, severity increased in parallel with importation of sugar, reaching its zenith about 1950s and 1960s. Since then, severity has declined in many countries, due to the wide use of fluoride especially in toothpaste, but dental caries remains a disease of medical, social and economic importance. Within the EU in 2011, the cost of dental treatment was estimated to be €79 billion. The pathogenesis is well understood: bacteria in dental plaque (biofilm) metabolise dietary sugars to acids which then dissolve dental enamel and dentine. Possible approaches to control caries development, therefore, involve: removal of plaque, reducing the acidogenic potential of plaque, reduction in sugar consumption, increasing the tooth's resistance to acid attack, and coating the tooth surface to form a barrier between plaque and enamel. At the present time, only three approaches are of practical importance: sugar control, fluoride, and fissure sealing. The evidence that dietary sugars are the main cause of dental caries is extensive, and comes from six types of study. Without sugar, caries would be negligible. Fluoride acts in several ways to aid caries prevention. Ways of delivering fluoride can be classed as: 'automatic', 'home care' and 'professional care': the most important of these are discussed in detail in four articles in this issue of the Acta Medica Academica. Dental caries is preventable - individuals, communities and countries need strategies to achieve this. Copyright © 2013 by Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  4. Dental caries: Strategies to control this preventable disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Rugg-Gunn

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To provide a brief commentary review of strategies to control dental caries. Dental decay is one of man’s most prevalent diseases. In many counties, severity increased in parallel with importation of sugar, reaching its zenith about 1950s and 1960s. Since then, severity has declined in many countries, due to the wide use of fluoride especially in toothpaste, but dental caries remains a disease of medical, social and economic importance. Within the EU in 2011, the cost of dental treatment was estimated to be €79 billion. The pathogenesis is well understood: bacteria in dental plaque (biofilm metabolise dietary sugars to acids which then dissolve dental enamel and dentine. Possible approaches to control caries development, therefore, involve: removal of plaque, reducing the acidogenic potential of plaque, reduction in sugar consumption, increasing the tooth’s resistance to acid attack, and coating the tooth surface to form a barrier between plaque and enamel. At the present time, only three approaches are of practical importance: sugar control, fluoride, and fissure sealing. The evidence that dietary sugars are the main cause of dental caries is extensive, and comes from six types of study. Without sugar, caries would be negligible. Fluoride acts in several ways to aid caries prevention. Ways of delivering fluoride can be classed as: ‘automatic’, ‘home care’ and ‘professional care’: the most important of these are discussed in detail in four articles in this issue of the Acta Medica Academica. Conclusion. Dental caries is preventable – individuals, communities and countries need strategies to achieve this.

  5. Task-specific enhancement filters in storage phosphor images from the Vistascan system for detection of proximal caries lesions of known size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiter-Neto, Francisco; Casanova, Marcia Spinelli; Frydenberg, Morten; Wenzel, Ann

    2009-01-01

    The aim was to compare original 8-bit images from the Vistascan storage phosphor plate system with images enhanced with specific filters for detection of proximal caries lesions and, further, to analyze the mutual sensitivity of the filtered images for different lesion sizes. One hundred sixty approximal noncavitated surfaces were radiographed using the Vistascan storage phosphor plate system. Original and enhanced (Fine, Caries1, and Caries2 filters) images were assessed by 6 observers who recorded the presence/absence of proximal carious lesions. Microscopy served to detect and measure true lesion size. One hundred one surfaces were sound, and 59 had lesions. The sensitivity of the Fine filter images was significantly higher than the Caries1 and Caries2 filter modalities (P Caries1 and Caries2 modalities. Both the Fine filter and the original images had a significantly higher specificity than the Caries2 modality (P Caries2 modality (P Caries1 modality (P detection of shallow carious lesion, because it showed less observer variability. The task-specific enhancement filters, Caries1 and Caries2, were less accurate than the original and Fine filter images and cannot be recommended for detection of the lesion sizes included in this study.

  6. The accuracy of caries risk assessment in children attending South Australian School Dental Service: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Diep H; Spencer, A John; Slade, Gary D; Chartier, Andrew D

    2014-01-29

    To determine the accuracy of the caries risk assessment system and performance of clinicians in their attempts to predict caries for children during routine practice. Longitudinal study. Data on caries risk assessment conducted by clinicians during routine practice while providing care for children in the South Australian School Dental Service (SA SDS) were collected from electronic patient records. Baseline data on caries experience, clinicians' ratings of caries risk status and child demographics were obtained for all SA SDS patients aged 5-15 years examined during 2002-2005. Children's caries incidence rate, calculated using examination data after a follow-up period of 6-48 months from baseline, was used as the gold standard to compute the sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of clinicians' baseline ratings of caries risk. Multivariate binomial regression models were used to evaluate effects of children's baseline characteristics on Se and Sp. A total of 133 clinicians rated caries risk status of 71 430 children during 2002-2005. The observed Se and Sp were 0.48 and 0.86, respectively (Se+Sp=1.34). Caries experience at baseline was the strongest factor influencing accuracy in multivariable regression model. Among children with no caries experience at baseline, overall accuracy (Se+Sp) was only 1.05, whereas it was 1.28 among children with at least one tooth surfaces with caries experience at baseline. Clinicians' accuracy in predicting caries risk during routine practice was similar to levels reported in research settings that simulated patient care. Accuracy was acceptable in children who had prior caries experience at the baseline examination, while it was poor among children with no caries experience.

  7. Development and control of caries lesions on the occlusal surface using a new in vivo caries model Desenvolvimento e controle de lesões de cárie sobre a superfície oclusal usando um novo modelo de cárie in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Paim

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop a new in vivo caries model for the occlusal surface and to describe the enamel features observed before and after dental plaque control (DPC. Four volunteers (12-15 years old participated in the experiment, each of which was due to have 2 homologous first premolars extracted for orthodontic reasons. Test surfaces did not present visible signs of demineralization, opacities or fillings. A wire mesh was used to promote dental plaque accumulation on the occlusal surface. After 4 weeks, the wire mesh was removed and DPC was performed. In Groups 1 and 2, DPC was performed by the subjects daily and, in Groups 3 and 4, DPC was performed by the subjects daily and by the professional weekly. One tooth/pair of Groups 1 and 3 was extracted after 2 weeks. One tooth/pair of Groups 2 and 4 was extracted after 4 weeks. All test surfaces showed demineralization after the wire mesh was removed. The observed re-establishment of the enamel brightness was directly related to the increase of the DPC duration. In polarized light microscopy, interindividual differences varying from pseudoisotropic areas to enamel lesions were noted in specimens submitted to 2 weeks of DPC. Specimens submitted to 4 weeks of DPC showed less tissue porosity. It was concluded that the new in vivo caries model was effective since all occlusal surfaces presented clinical and microscopic signs of mineral loss in different stages after 4 weeks of cariogenic challenge. After DPC on the test surfaces, there was a reduction of mineral loss suggesting control of demineralization on these surfaces.O objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver um modelo de cárie in vivo para superfície oclusal e descrever as características do esmalte observadas antes e após o controle mecânico de placa dental (CMPD. Quatro voluntários (12-15 anos participaram do experimento, contribuindo com um par de pré-molares homólogos, com indicação de extração por motivos ortod

  8. The reliability and accuracy of two methods for proximal caries detection and depth on directly visible proximal surfaces: an in vitro study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrand, K R; Alloza, Alvaro Luna; Promisiero, L

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the reliability and accuracy of the ICDAS and radiographs in detecting and estimating the depth of proximal lesions on extracted teeth. The lesions were visible to the naked eye. Three trained examiners scored a total of 132 sound/carious proximal surfaces from 106...... primary teeth and 160 sound/carious proximal surfaces from 140 permanent teeth. The selected surfaces were first scored visually, using the 7 classes in the ICDAS. They were then assessed on radiographs using a 5-point classification system. Reexaminations were conducted with both scoring systems. Teeth...... and the radiographs. The associations between the 2 detection methods were measured to be moderate. In particular, the ICDAS was accurate in predicting lesion depth (histologically) confined to the enamel/outer third of the dentine versus deeper lesions. This study shows that when proximal lesions are open...

  9. Diagnostic performance of the visual caries classification system ICDAS II versus radiography and micro-computed tomography for proximal caries detection: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitropoulos, P; Rahiotis, C; Stamatakis, H; Kakaboura, A

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this study was: (a) to compare the visual caries classification system ICDAS II with conventional (CR) and digital radiography (DR) for diagnosis of non-cavitated caries on free proximal surfaces, (b) to examine the potential of micro-computed tomography (MCT) to substitute histological examination for the in vitro caries assessment. Both proximal surfaces of 20 teeth received classification separately by two examiners by means of the diagnostic modalities examined. The teeth were sectioned and assessed for depth of the lesion. The modalities were compared in terms of degree of inter-examiner agreement, sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive and negative predictive value and validity. Two diagnostic thresholds were applied: no caries versus all caries scores (D1), and no dentin caries versus dentin caries (D3). The weighted kappa values for inter-examiner reproducibility for all diagnostic modalities were 0.51-0.81. Visual examination (ICDAS II) reached significant higher sensitivity (0.92-0.96) and negative predictive value (0.9-1) than radiography. Likewise, the radiographic modalities presented significantly higher specificity (0.93-1) and positive predictive values (0.92-1) than the ICDAS II criteria. The overall accuracy performance of radiographic modalities was related to the diagnostic threshold. MCT did not agree with histological validation at each disease severity scale. The ICDAS II criteria are a promising tool for caries diagnosis on free proximal surfaces. DR and CR radiography present comparable performance. Furthermore, MCT is not capable of constituting a reliable alternative to histological examination for caries research. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Dental caries--therapeutic possibilities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perić, Tamara; Marković, Dejan; Zivković, Slavoljub

    2008-01-01

    Contemporary tendencies in dentistry are based on the concept of maximal protection of healthy tooth tissues. Caries removal has been done traditionally with mechanical rotary instruments that are fast and precise. However, conventional cavity preparation has potential adverse effects to the pulp due to heat, pressure and vibrations. Moreover, drilling often causes pain and requires local anaesthesia, and these procedures are frequently perceived as unpleasant. Etiology, development and prevention of dental caries are better understood today and new restorative materials that bond micromechanically and/or chemically to dental tissues have been introduced. Thus, development of a new, less destructive caries removal technique is allowed. In the last decades, many alternative methods have been introduced in an attempt to replace rotary instruments. These are claimed to be efficient and selective for diseased tissues and to offer comfortable treatment to the patients. New methods include air abrasion, air polishing, ultrasonic, polymer burs, enzymes, systems for chemo-mechanical caries removal, and lasers. The aim of this paper was to discuss various caries removal techniques and possibilities of their use in clinical practice. Based on the literature review it can be concluded that none of the new caries removal methods can completely replace conventional rotary instruments.

  11. CARIES PREVALENCE AMONG 5-7 - YEAR-OLD CHILDREN IN NORTHEAST BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeni Dimitrov

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current epidemiological research is to present the caries prevalence in children and on tooth surfaces in 5-7 – year-olds from Varna. The object of the current epidemiological research is a representative part of 100 5-7 – year-old children, randomly chosen. The unit of observation is temporary and early mixed dentition, primary molars and their occlusal and approximal surfaces. The survey was carried out acc ording to WHO’s criteria. For caries risk assessment it is used the ICDAS system, where for a diagnostic limit was chosen d3mft. As a result from the conducted epidemiological research it is concluded that in this age group 93% of the children have experience with caries and barely 7% are caries free (dmft/ DMF(T+t=0. The intensity d1-3mft and D1-3MF(T+t of the caries have an average value of 5,76 ± 2,9. The relative share of the approximal caries of the primary molars on maxilla and mandible is 81,5% for both. The relative share of the occlusal caries is 19,6%. In the current research, it is not established statistically significant difference (P>0,05 concerning approximal lesions on first and second primary molar. There is the statistically significant difference (P<0,05 in the relative share of occlusal caries, which mainly affects the occlusal surface on the second primary molar. The relative share of the children without occlusal caries on primary molar is 60%, while those without approximal caries is barely 18%.

  12. Quantitative evaluation of the enamel caries which were treated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The aim of this in vivo study was to quantitatively evaluate the remineralization of the enamel caries on smooth and occlusal surfaces using DIAGNOdent, after daily application of casein phosphopeptide‑amorphous calcium fluoride phosphate (CPP‑ACFP). Materials and Methods: Thirty volunteers, aged 18–30 ...

  13. Optimal drinking water composition for caries control in populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruvo, M.; Ekstrand, K.; Arvin, Erik

    2008-01-01

    in the numbers of decayed, filled, and missing tooth surfaces (DMF-S) among 52,057 15-year-old schoolchildren in 249 Danish municipalities. Both ions had reducing effects on DMF-S independently of each other, and could be used in combination for the design of optimal drinking water for caries control...

  14. Calcium-phosphate-osteopontin particles for caries control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlafer, Sebastian

    Oftentimes caries lesions develop in protected sites that are difficult to access by self-performed mechanical tooth cleaning. At present, there is a growing interest in chemical adjuncts to mechanical procedures of oral hygiene that aim at biofilm control rather than biofilm eradication. Calcium......-phosphate-osteopontin particles are a new promising therapeutic approach to caries control. They are designed to bind to dental biofilms and interfere with biofilm build-up, lowering the bacterial burden on the tooth surface without affecting bacterial viability in the oral cavity. Moreover, they dissolve when pH in the biofilm...

  15. Optical Assessment of Caries Lesion Structure and Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Robert Chulsung

    New, more sophisticated diagnostic tools are needed for the detection and characterization of caries lesions in the early stages of development. It is not sufficient to simply detect caries lesions, methods are needed to assess the activity of the lesion and determine if chemical or surgical intervention is needed. Previous studies have demonstrated that polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) can be used to nondestructively image the subsurface lesion structure and measure the thickness of the highly mineralized surface zone. Other studies have demonstrated that the rate of dehydration can be correlated with the lesion activity and that the rate can be measured using optical methods. The main objective of this work was to test the hypothesis that optical methods can be used to assess lesion activity on tooth coronal and root surfaces. Simulated caries models were used to develop and validate an algorithm for detecting and measuring the highly mineralized surface layer using PS-OCT. This work confirmed that the algorithm was capable of estimating the thickness of the highly mineralized surface layer with high accuracy. Near-infrared (NIR) reflectance and thermal imaging methods were used to assess activity of caries lesions by measuring the state of lesion hydration. NIR reflectance imaging performed the best for artificial enamel and natural coronal caries lesion samples, particularly at wavelengths coincident with the water absorption band at 1460-nm. However, thermal imaging performed the best for artificial dentin and natural root caries lesion samples. These novel optical methods outperformed the conventional methods (ICDAS II) in accurately assessing lesion activity of natural coronal and root caries lesions. Infrared-based imaging methods have shown potential for in-vivo applications to objectively assess caries lesion activity in a single examination. It is likely that if future clinical trials are a success, this novel imaging

  16. Bluetooth technology for prevention of dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolahi, Jafar; Fazilati, Mohamad

    2009-12-01

    Caries is caused when the pH at the tooth surface drops below 5.5. A miniaturized and autonomous pH monitoring nodes can be attached to the tooth surface, like a tooth jewel. This intelligent sensor includes three components: (a) digital micro pH meter, (b) power supply, (c) wireless communicating device. The micro pH meter facilitates long term tooth surface pH monitoring and providing real time feedback to the patients and dental experts. Power supply of this system will be microfabricated biocatalytic fuel cell (enzymatic micro-battery) using organic compounds (e.g. formate or glucose) as the fuel to generate electricity. When micro pH meter detects the pH lower than 5.5, wireless Bluetooth device sends a caution (e.g. "you are at risk of dental caries") to external monitoring equipment such as mobile phone or a hands-free heads. After reception of the caution, subjects should use routine brushing and flossing procedure or use a medicated chewing gum (e.g. chlorhexidine containing chewing gum) or rinse with a mouthwash.

  17. Caries Risk Profiles amongst Preschool Aged Children Living in the Sleman District of Yogyakarta, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elastria Widita

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the caries risk factors of preschool aged children. Methods: Data was collected from a sample of 85 preschool children and their mothers. An interview, and a clinical and microbiology assessment was included in this study. Clinical examinations were performed to measure the dental caries experience and plaque visibility of the children and mothers. The presence and levels of Mutans Streptococci (MS in the saliva was measured using a commercial kit by Dentocult SM and evaluated using the manufacturer’s chart. Results: Sixty-five children had a high risk of caries (76.5%, 12.9% had a low risk, and 10.6% had a moderate risk of caries. Active cavities were found in more than half of the mothers and children. The majority of the child subjects had a snacking habit between meals (85.9%. High risk scores of 2 and 3, indicating salivary levels of MS, was found in 41.1% of children. Fluoride exposure experienced by the study population was very limited. Conclusion: Results suggest that the majority of the population had a high caries risk. There was a high occurrence of teeth with cavities in children and active carious lesions in the mothers. There was a high frequency in snacking habits, the presence of plaque and bleeding gums, high levels of salivary MS, and low protective factors for the children. Results suggest that management of caries related factors are needed in order to prevent caries in the future. 

  18. Risk of initial and moderate caries lesions in primary teeth to progress to dentine cavitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guedes, Renata S; Piovesan, Chaiana; Floriano, Isabela

    2016-01-01

    calculated using multilevel Poisson regression analysis. Association with explanatory variables, including caries experience of the children, was also investigated. RESULTS: The higher the initial score attributed to the dental surface, the more likely was the progression. Moreover, children with severe...

  19. Risk indicators for dental caries using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Amid I; Sohn, Woosung; Tellez, Marisol; Willem, Jenefer M; Betz, James; Lepkowski, James

    2008-02-01

    While national surveys have found that African-Americans have a higher prevalence and severity of dental caries than white-Americans, there are only a few descriptive studies of the prevalence and severity of dental caries in low-income urban African-Americans. This study assessed the prevalence, severity and determinants of dental caries, using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS). A representative sample of low-income families (a caregiver and a child aged 0-5 years) was selected from low-income census tracts in the city of Detroit, Michigan. Of the 12,655 randomly selected housing units, 10,695 were occupied and 9781 were successfully contacted (91.5%). There were 1386 families with eligible children in the contacted households; and of those, 1021 were interviewed and examined at a permanent examination center organized for this study. This represents an overall response rate of 73.7%. At the center, trained staff interviewed the main caregivers of the selected children, and trained and calibrated dentists examined the caregiver and her/his child. Data used in this study included information gathered from the social, behavioral and parenting questionnaires, the Block Food Frequency Questionnaire (total sugar intake), and data collected from community and census databases. Over 90% of the adults (ages 14-70 years, average 29.3) had at least one noncavitated carious lesion and 82.2% had at least one primary cavitated lesion. Negative binomial regression models found that the age of caregivers and the number of churches in neighborhoods were negatively associated with the number of noncavitated tooth surfaces. Cavitated tooth surfaces were positively associated with age, oral hygiene status, being worried about teeth, a recent visit to a dentist, and the number of grocery stores in the neighborhoods. However, the number of cavitated tooth surfaces was negatively associated with preventive dental visits, positive rating of oral health

  20. The reliability and accuracy of two methods for proximal caries detection and depth on directly visible proximal surfaces: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekstrand, K R; Luna, L E; Promisiero, L; Cortes, A; Cuevas, S; Reyes, J F; Torres, C E; Martignon, S

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the reliability and accuracy of the ICDAS and radiographs in detecting and estimating the depth of proximal lesions on extracted teeth. The lesions were visible to the naked eye. Three trained examiners scored a total of 132 sound/carious proximal surfaces from 106 primary teeth and 160 sound/carious proximal surfaces from 140 permanent teeth. The selected surfaces were first scored visually, using the 7 classes in the ICDAS. They were then assessed on radiographs using a 5-point classification system. Reexaminations were conducted with both scoring systems. Teeth were then sectioned and the selected surfaces histologically classified using a stereomicroscope (×5). Intrareproducibility values (weighted kappa statistics) for the ICDAS for both primary and permanent teeth were >0.9, and for the radiographs between 0.6 and 0.8. Interreproducibility values for the ICDAS were >0.85, for the radiographs >0.6. For both primary and permanent teeth, the accuracy of each examiner (Spearman's correlation coefficient) for the ICDAS was ≥0.85, and for the radiographs ≥0.45. Corresponding data were achieved when using pooled data from the 3 examiners for both the ICDAS and the radiographs. The associations between the 2 detection methods were measured to be moderate. In particular, the ICDAS was accurate in predicting lesion depth (histologically) confined to the enamel/outer third of the dentine versus deeper lesions. This study shows that when proximal lesions are open for inspection, the ICDAS is a more reliable and accurate method than the radiograph for detecting and estimating the depth of the lesion in both primary and permanent teeth. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Caries-related factors and bacterial composition of supragingival plaques in caries free and caries active Algerian adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina Hoceini

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: This study confirms the association of some aciduric bacteria with caries formation, and a direct association of sugar intake and cultural level with dental caries. Furthermore, oral hygiene practices minimize the prevalence of tooth decay.

  2. Shear bond strength of a self-etch adhesive to caries-affected dentin after caries removal by Er:YAG laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Zhenlin; Wu, Weiliang; Zhao, Haibin; Zhang, Xianzeng; Lin, Shi; Xie, Shusen

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of a self-etch adhesive to caries-affected dentin after caries removal by erbium: yttrium, aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) laser and analyze the resin-dentin interface. The caries-infected dentin of human molars were removed by Er:YAG laser with energy density of 20 J/cm2 and pulse repetition rate of 20 Hz. The conventional bur was used as control group. After bonding procedures, specimens were subjected to shear bond strength test and the adhesive interface was examined by laser confocal scanning microscope (LCSM). The result showed that Er:YAG laser could effectively remove dentin caries. There was no statistical difference in shear bond strength between two groups and the adhesive interface created on laser-irradiated dentin surface presented similar feature to that on bur-ground surface.

  3. Health promotion and dental caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Maltz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The central idea of the Brazilian health system is to prevent the establishment of disease or detect it as early as possible. Prevention and treatment of dental caries are related to behavioral factors, including dietary and oral hygiene habits, which are related to many chronic diseases. Dental health promotion therefore should be fully integrated into broadly based health-promoting strategies and actions such as food and health policies, and general hygiene (including oral hygiene, among others. For decades, a linear relationship between sugar consumption and caries has been observed. Recent data has indicated that this relationship is not as strong as it used to be before the widespread use of fluoride. However, diet is still a key factor acting in the carious process. Oral hygiene is a major aspect when it comes to caries, since dental biofilm is its etiological factor. Oral hygiene procedures are effective in controlling dental caries, especially if plaque removal is performed adequately and associated with fluoride. An alternative to a more efficient biofilm control in occlusal areas is the use of dental sealants, which are only indicated for caries-active individuals. If a cavity is formed as a consequence of the metabolic activity of the biofilm, a restorative material or a sealant can be placed to block access of the biofilm to the oral environment in order to prevent caries progress. The prevention of dental caries based on common risk-factor strategies (diet and hygiene should be supplemented by more disease-specific policies such as rational use of fluoride, and evidence-based dental health care.

  4. Methods used by Dental Practice-based Research Network (DPBRN) dentists to diagnose dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordan, V V; Riley, J L; Carvalho, R M; Snyder, J; Sanderson, J L; Anderson, M; Gilbert, G H

    2011-01-01

    To (1) identify the methods that dentists in The Dental Practice-Based Research Network (DPBRN) use to diagnose dental caries; (2) quantify their frequency of use and (3) test the hypothesis that certain dentist and dental practice characteristics are significantly associated with their use. A questionnaire about methods used for caries diagnosis was sent to DPBRN dentists who reported doing some restorative dentistry; 522 dentists participated. Questions included the use of dental radiographs, the dental explorer, laser fluorescence, air-drying and fiber-optic devices and magnification as used when diagnosing primary, secondary/recurrent or non-specific caries lesions. Variations on the frequency of their use were tested using multivariate analysis and Bonferroni tests. Overall, the dental explorer was the instrument most commonly used to detect primary occlusal caries and caries at the margins of existing restorations. In contrast, laser fluorescence was rarely used to help diagnose occlusal primary caries. For proximal caries, radiographs were used to help diagnose 75%–100% of lesions by 96% of the DPBRN dentists. Dentists who use radiographs most often to assess proximal surfaces of posterior teeth were significantly more likely to also report providing a higher percentage of patients with individualized caries prevention (p=.040) and seeing a higher percentage of pediatric patients (p=.001). The use of specific diagnostic methods varied substantially. The dental explorer and radiographs are still the most commonly used diagnostic methods..

  5. Methods used by dental practice-based research network dentists to diagnose dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordan, Valerie V; Riley, Joseph L; De Carvalho, Ricardo Marins; Snyder, John; Sanderson, James L; Anderson, Mary; Gilbert, Gregg H

    2013-04-01

    To (1) identify the methods that dentists in The Dental Practice-based Research Network (DPBRN) use to diagnose dental caries; (2) quantify their frequency of use, and (3) test the hypothesis that certain dentist and dental practice characteristics are significantly associated with their use. A questionnaire about methods used for caries diagnosis was sent to DPBRN dentists who reported doing some restorative dentistry; 522 dentists participated. Questions included the use of dental radiographs, the dental explorer, laser fluorescence, air-drying and fiber-optic devices and magnification as used when diagnosing primary, secondary/recurrent or non-specific caries lesions. Variations on the frequency of their use were tested using multivariate analysis and Bonferroni tests. Overall, the dental explorer was the instrument most commonly used to detect primary occlusal caries and caries at the margins of existing restorations. In contrast, laser fluorescence was rarely used to help diagnose occlusal primary caries. For proximal caries, radiographs were used to help diagnose 75%-100% of lesions by 96% of the DPBRN dentists. Dentists who use radiographs most often to assess proximal surfaces of posterior teeth were significantly more likely to also report providing a higher percentage of patients with individualized caries prevention (p = .040) and seeing a higher percentage of pediatric patients (p = .001). The use of specific diagnostic methods varied substantially. The dental explorer and radiographs are still the most commonly used diagnostic methods.

  6. Occlusal dental caries incidence and implications for sealant programs in a US college student population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, J W; Katz, R V

    1993-01-01

    Given the decline in dental caries incidence in preteens and young teenagers in the United States, a study of the incidence of dental caries in young adults (17-23 years) was conducted to provide a descriptive epidemiologic picture of this "new" natural history of dental caries in the late and post-teenage years. A retrospective study was performed analyzing the detailed dental records of the four-year college experience in the class of 1989, US Coast Guard Academy. Occlusal caries incidence, in the absence of associated proximal caries, was shown to be moderately common in molars (11.9%) and rare in premolars (0.8%). In contrast to previous studies' findings, demographic indicators, socioeconomic status indicators, and prior caries experience were poor predictors of occlusal caries incidence; targeting a universal sealant policy in this population therefore would be done best by tooth type rather than patient type. A preliminary cost-comparison model, projected over a 40-month period, suggests that the cost of initiating a universal molar sealant policy in this population would be 92 cents per year per student greater than the cost of restoring occlusal caries in the presence of sound proximal surfaces. This cost comparison suggests that it would be advantageous to initiate such a policy.

  7. Methods used by Dental Practice-Based Research Network (DPBRN) dentists to diagnose dental caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordan, Valeria V.; Riley, Joseph L; Carvalho, Ricardo M.; Snyder, John; Sanderson, James L; Anderson, Mary; Gilbert, Gregg H.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To (1) identify the methods that dentists in The Dental Practice-Based Research Network (DPBRN) use to diagnose dental caries; (2) quantify their frequency of use; and (3) test the hypothesis that certain dentist and dental practice characteristics are significantly associated with their use. Methods A questionnaire about methods used for caries diagnosis was sent to DPBRN dentists who reported doing at least some restorative dentistry; 522 dentists participated. Questions included use of dental radiographs, dental explorer, laser fluorescence, air-drying, fiber optic devices, and magnification, as used when diagnosing primary, secondary/recurrent, or non-specific caries lesions. Variations on the frequency of their use were tested using multivariate analysis and Bonferroni tests. Results Overall, the dental explorer was the instrument most commonly used to detect primary occlusal caries as well as to detect caries at the margins of existing restorations. In contrast, laser fluorescence was rarely used to help diagnose occlusal primary caries. For proximal caries, radiographs were used to help diagnose 75-100% of lesions by 96% of the DPBRN dentists. Dentists who use radiographs most often to assess proximal surfaces of posterior teeth, were significantly more likely to also report providing a higher percentage of patients with individualized caries prevention (p = .040) and seeing a higher percentage of pediatric patients (p = .001). Conclusion Use of specific diagnostic methods varied substantially. The dental explorer and radiographs are still the most commonly used diagnostic methods. PMID:21488724

  8. Is medication a risk factor for dental caries among older people?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, W Murray; Spencer, A John; Slade, Gary D; Chalmers, Jane M

    2002-06-01

    This study examined the association between chronic medication exposure and 5-year dental caries increment among older people, using a theoretical model whereby xerogenic medication is thought to lead to increased caries by either (i) chronically lowering salivary flow, thus reducing salivary buffering of plaque acids, or (ii) producing the symptoms of dry mouth, leading to symptomatic relief through the use of cariogenic drinks and foodstuffs. Data were obtained from participants remaining at the 5-year follow-up phase of a cohort study of community-dwelling South Australians aged 60 +. Medication information was available at baseline and at 5 years, enabling only those medications taken on both occasions to be included in the analyses. Dental examinations were conducted at baseline and 5 years, and a reversal-adjusted 5-year caries increment was computed. Multivariate modelling was used to control the effects of potential confounders. Of the original sample, 528 (62.3%) remained after 5 years, with those remaining tending to be younger, healthier and less medicated than those lost to follow-up. Five-year coronal caries incidence was 66.9%. The adjusted coronal caries increment (AdjCI) was higher among males and among those taking a beta-blocker or an antiasthma drug for the previous 5 years. The 5-year incidence of root surface caries was 59.3%. A lower root surface AdjCI was associated with taking daily aspirin. Of the medications shown in earlier analyses to predict dry mouth, only the antiasthma drugs were associated with higher caries experience, and they had predicted more severe xerostomia symptoms. This study offers no strong evidence for a medication-caries relationship, as only one of the observed medication-caries associations was explicable in terms of the theoretical model. However, it should be acknowledged that older people taking antiasthma drugs may be at higher risk of coronal caries, possibly through measures taken for the symptomatic relief of

  9. Degree of severity of molar incisor hypomineralization and its relation to dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negre-Barber, A; Montiel-Company, J M; Catalá-Pizarro, M; Almerich-Silla, J M

    2018-01-19

    Molar incisor hypomineralization is a developmental defect of dental enamel associated with rapid caries progression. In order to discover whether molar incisor hypomineralization predisposes to dental caries, a cross-sectional cohort study was conducted in a sample of 414 children aged between eight and nine years. It was found that 24.2% of the children presented molar incisor hypomineralization. Of these, 72% had a mild form and 28% a severe form. Caries prevalence was greater among the children with severe form (60.7%) than in those with mild form (43.1%) or no molar incisor hypomineralization (45.5%). The caries indices were higher in out molar incisor hypomineralization (1.18) or with mild form (1.08). The tooth-surface caries ratio was significantly higher in surfaces with severe hypomineralization than in those with no hypomineralization or mild hypomineralization. A linear regression model showed that cariogenic food intake and the presence of severe molar incisor hypomineralization were significantly associated with DMFS. Consequently, an association was found to exist between dental caries and the presence of surfaces affected by severe molar incisor hypomineralization, which should be considered a risk factor within the multifactorial etiology of caries.

  10. Detection of oral streptococci in dental biofilm from caries-active and caries-free children

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Andréa Cristina Barbosa; Cruz, Jader dos Santos; Sampaio, Fábio Correia; de Araújo, Demetrius Antônio Machado

    2008-01-01

    This work correlated the presence of oral streptococci in dental biofilm with clinical indexes of caries and oral hygiene in caries-active and caries-free children. S. mutans and/or S. sobrinus in the dental biofilm does not indicate a direct risk for developing dental caries. PMID:24031282

  11. Dental caries - not just holes in teeth! A perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, W H

    2016-06-01

    Cavitation in teeth results from a pathogenic process termed dental caries that has occurred on the tooth surface for weeks or even years. Accumulation of dental plaque (biofilm) on the tooth is usually the first manifestation of the disease. Although acid production is the immediate and proximal cause of dissolution of teeth; it is the milieu within which the acid is formed that should be of primary concern. Focusing on the 'critical pH' has detracted attention from the more biological aspects (biofilm formation) of dental caries. Dental caries is unique; it is a biological process occurring on essentially an inert surface. Investigation of the multitude of interactions occurring in plaque ranging from enamel interfaces to surfaces of bacteria and matrices poses challenges worthy of the best scientific minds. The mouth clearly offers unique opportunities to investigate the multi facets of biofilm formation in vivo, generating data that have relevance way beyond the mouth. Prevention of this ubiquitous disease, dental caries, continues to present serious challenges. The public health benefits of fluoride delivered in its various formats are well recognized. Nevertheless, additional preventive approaches are required. Overcoming the rapid clearance of agents from the mouth is particularly challenging. Building on the polymerizing capacity of glucosyltransferases it may be possible to incorporate a therapeutic agent into the matrix plaque, thereby delivering therapeutic agents precisely to where they are needed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Transillumination and HDR Imaging for Proximal Caries Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederer, A; Kunzelmann, K H; Hickel, R; Litzenburger, F

    2018-02-01

    The purpose was to develop an in vitro model for the validation of near-infrared transillumination (NIRT) for proximal caries detection, to enhance NIRT with high-dynamic-range imaging (HDRI), and to compare both methods, using micro-computed tomography (µCT) as a reference standard. Both proximal surfaces of 53 healthy or decayed permanent human teeth were examined using the Diagnocam (DC) (KaVo) and NIRT with HDRI (NIRT-HDRI). NIRT was combined with HDRI to improve the diagnostic performance by reducing under- and overexposed image areas. For NIRT-HDRI, an exposure series was captured and merged into a single HDR image. A classification was applied according to lesion depth. All surfaces were assessed twice by 2 trained examiners, and additionally with µCT for validation. The Kappa statistic was used to calculate inter-rater reliability and agreement between DC and NIRT-HDRI. Inter-rater reliability (weighted Kappa, wκ) showed very good agreement for the DC (0.90) and NIRT-HDRI (0.96). The overall agreement (wκ) was almost perfect (0.85). In the individual categories (0 to 4), the agreement (simple Kappa) ranged from almost perfect (category 4) to moderate (1 and 2) to substantial (categories 0 and 3). Sensitivity and specificity of sound surfaces, enamel, and dentin caries ranged from 0.57 to 0.99 and were similar for both methods in the different categories. NIRT-HDRI had a higher sensitivity for sound surfaces and enamel caries, as well as a higher specificity for dentin caries. Regarding the obtained images, HDRI allowed for the detection of caries within a greater range of luminance levels, resulting in a more detailed visualization of structures without under- or overexposure. However, HDRI this did not improve the diagnostics significantly. Distinguishing between a processed demineralized enamel and dentin lesions appears to be a problem specific to NIRT and cannot be balanced using HDRI.

  13. Black stain and dental caries in Filipino schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich-Weltzien, Roswitha; Monse, Bella; van Palenstein Helderman, Wim

    2009-04-01

    Black stain is defined as dark pigmented exogenous substance in lines or dots parallel to the gingival margin and firmly adherent to the enamel at the cervical third of the tooth crowns in the primary and permanent dentition. This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of black stain on teeth of Filipino children and to determine a possible association between black stain and caries levels. The study was designed to test the following hypotheses: (i) the prevalence of black stain does not differ between children from schools with oral health intervention programs and those from schools without an intervention program, (ii) the prevalence of black stain does not differ in children attending easily accessible and remote schools, (iii) caries prevalence and caries experience do not differ in children with and without black stain and (iv) the caries distribution at the surface level does not differ in children with and without black stain. In total, 32 elementary schools were included. 19 schools with a comprehensive school-based preventive oral health program, seven schools with a basic preventive program and six control schools. All sixth graders of these schools (n=1748) aged 11.7+/-1.1 years were clinically examined for black stain. DMFT was assessed in 1121 children by seven calibrated dentists using WHO criteria. DMFS was scored in 627 children by two calibrated dentists. Black stain was found in 16% of this population. The prevalence of black stain did not differ significantly between children attending schools with different oral health intervention programs. Thus, hypothesis 1 was accepted. The prevalence of black stain was significantly higher (Pcaries prevalence and caries experience than children without black stain. Thus, hypothesis 3 was rejected. No difference was found in the DMFS pattern of occlusal, smooth and proximal surfaces between children with and without black stain. Thus hypothesis 4 was accepted. The presence of black stain is

  14. Effect of low-level CO2 laser radiation on the inhibition of smooth-surface caries (in-vitro study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boran, Thomas L.; Zakariasen, Kenneth L.

    1990-06-01

    The application of lasers in dentistry is not a new concept. Lasers have been used in various areas of dental research over the last two decades. However, recent technological development and research findings indicate that widespread clinical application of lasers will occur shortly. Many of the early studies discovered that high levels of laser radiation were detrimental to the vitality of the dental pulp. This has led researchers to investigate whether low level laser radiation would have positive effects on the various components of the dental hard tissues. This study examined the anti-carious effect of low level C02 laser radiation on smooth surface enamel. Fifty extracted third molars were selected and covered in acid resistant varnish except for two windows on the buccal surface just above the CEJ. The windows measured 1.5 x 1.5 mm with one window designated as the control and the other experimental. In each experiment the Pfizer Model 10-C laser system was used. The teeth were divided into two groups. In group I, the experimental window was lased with 1.2 watts at 0.1 seconds with a 1.5 mm focal spot. In Group II, the experimental window was lased with 2.4 watts at 0. 1 seconds with a 1.5 mm focal spot. Both groups were exposed for 12 days in a demineralizing solution (2.2 mM Ca, 2.2 mM P0 ,50 mM acetic acid, 5 ppmF-@ constant pH -4.3). The resulting lesions were sectioned to approximately 80 im thickness using a hard tissue microtome. Each section was examined by taking polarized light photomicrographs after imbibition in H20 medium. Results of the study suggested a significant reduction in the lesion size in both experiments, all exposures being within the biological safe zone of temperature elevation to the surrounding vital tissues, e.g. the dental pulp and periodontal tissue. Further research will be required to determine the level of CO2 laser radiation which will provide the maximum anti-carious effect.

  15. Validation of Visual Caries Activity Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guedes, R S; Piovesan, C; Ardenghi, T M

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the predictive and construct validity of a caries activity assessment system associated with the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) in primary teeth. A total of 469 children were reexamined: participants of a caries survey performed 2 yr before (follow-up ra...

  16. The prevalence of questionable occlusal caries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makhija, Sonia K; Gilbert, Gregg H; Funkhouser, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Questionable occlusal caries (QOC) can be defined as clinically suspected caries with no cavitation or radiographic evidence of occlusal caries. To the authors' knowledge, no one has quantified the prevalence of QOC, so this quantification was the authors' objective in conducting this study...

  17. Caries og de nye nationale indkaldeintervaller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrand, Kim; Bruun, Gitte; Bakhshandeh, Azam

    2015-01-01

    obligatorisk at gøre under de nye retningslinjer. Det gennemgås, hvilke behandlinger der er relevante for patienten i forhold til de tre cariesdiagnoser: Caries dentalis progressiva superficialis (CS), Caries dentalis progressiva media (CM) og Caries dentalis progressiva profunda (CP). Diagnoserne angiver...

  18. [Accuracy of computer aided measurement for detecting dental proximal caries lesions in images of cone-beam computed tomography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z L; Li, J P; Li, G; Ma, X C

    2017-02-09

    Objective: To establish and validate a computer program used to aid the detection of dental proximal caries in the images cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. Methods: According to the characteristics of caries lesions in X-ray images, a computer aided detection program for proximal caries was established with Matlab and Visual C++. The whole process for caries lesion detection included image import and preprocessing, measuring average gray value of air area, choosing region of interest and calculating gray value, defining the caries areas. The program was used to examine 90 proximal surfaces from 45 extracted human teeth collected from Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology. The teeth were then scanned with a CBCT scanner (Promax 3D). The proximal surfaces of the teeth were respectively detected by caries detection program and scored by human observer for the extent of lesions with 6-level-scale. With histologic examination serving as the reference standard, the caries detection program and the human observer performances were assessed with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Student t -test was used to analyze the areas under the ROC curves (AUC) for the differences between caries detection program and human observer. Spearman correlation coefficient was used to analyze the detection accuracy of caries depth. Results: For the diagnosis of proximal caries in CBCT images, the AUC values of human observers and caries detection program were 0.632 and 0.703, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference between the AUC values ( P= 0.023). The correlation between program performance and gold standard (correlation coefficient r (s)=0.525) was higher than that of observer performance and gold standard ( r (s)=0.457) and there was a statistically significant difference between the correlation coefficients ( P= 0.000). Conclusions: The program that automatically detects dental proximal caries lesions could improve the

  19. Caries risk assessment in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, S

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To summarise the findings of recent systematic reviews (SR) covering caries risk assessment in children, updated with recent primary studies. METHODS: A search for relevant papers published 2012-2014 was conducted in electronic databases. The systematic reviews were quality assessed...... displayed a high risk of bias. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the present summary of literature, it may be concluded: (1) a caries risk assessment should be carried out at the child's first dental visit and reassessments should be done during childhood (D); (2) multivariate models display a better accuracy than...... the use of single predictors and this is especially true for preschool children (C); (3) there is no clearly superior method to predict future caries and no evidence to support the use of one model, program, or technology before the other (C); and (4) the risk category should be linked to appropriate...

  20. Nd:YAG laser in caries prevention: a clinical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boari, Heloisa Gomes Dimiranda

    2000-01-01

    The caries prevention by using laser irradiation has been investigated during the last 30 years. The Nd: YAG laser associated with acidulated phosphate fluoride has been shown as a very promising technique for enamel caries prevention. The aim of this work was to clinically evaluate the efficiency of Nd: YAG laser associated with acidulated phosphate fluoride in pit and fissure caries prevention of children and adolescents. In this work it was determined the dye that enhance the effect of Nd: YAG laser in enamel. It was selected 242 pre-molar and molar teeth from 33 children and adolescents, aged from 7 to 15 years old. The selected teeth were free from caries or decalcification marks (active white marks) to the clinical and radiographic exams. The teeth were divided into two groups: the first group was laser irradiated and their homologous remained as a control. The right side teeth were dye-assisted Nd:YAG laser irradiated. The dye solution was a moisture of dust coal and equal parts of water and alcohol. The irradiation conditions were 60 mJ/10 Hz, optical fiber in contact mode, with diameter of 300 μm, resulting in an energy density of 84,9 J/cm 2 . The oclusal surface of the teeth was completely irradiated, specially on the slopes and in the deepest part of the pits and fissures. This procedure was repeated three times. In the sequence it was applied the acidulated phosphate fluoride for 4 minutes. On the left side teeth - control group- only acidulated phosphate fluoride was applied for the same time. The final examination considered the presence of caries and active white marks after a period of one year. There were statistical significant differences (p < 0.01) between the lased + fluoride group and the non irradiated group. The present study concluded that the technique used in this work can be an alternative clinical method for caries prevention. (author)

  1. The Marketplace for New Caries Management Products: Dental Caries Detection and Caries Management by Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berg Joel H

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The number of new technologies emerging each year in the realm of dental caries management is growing at an exponential rate. Examining the patent literature, one can see that this growth rate will likely continue, with the outcome that dentistry will see an expanded growth in managing dental caries by risk assessment with medicinal therapeutic interventions. Restorative dentistry solutions, treating the results of dental caries, will continue to grow, while technologies to identify the caries process at its earliest stages will soon invade practices everywhere. The most interesting aspect of these changes will be how industry responds to the inexorable, yet slow change in dental professional demand for these new technologies, while trying to be the "first to market" within the various categories of this business opportunity. This paper will take a close look at how businesses with the core competence to be key players in this emerging growth category will assess the marketplace, and match up their business interests with the changing needs of the dental profession. The paper will also address the strategic planning and business processes that the dental industry will undertake to bring new technologies to market, and how these technologies will be positioned to health care professionals and consumers. The results of the key interactions between industry and the dental profession will determine the extent to which dental caries is managed as a disease, in addition to being managed by surgical restorative interventions.

  2. Salivary biomarkers for dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaoli; Jiang, Shan; Koh, David; Hsu, Chin-Ying Stephen

    2016-02-01

    As a highly prevalent multifactorial disease, dental caries afflicts a large proportion of the world's population. As teeth are constantly bathed in saliva, the constituents and properties of this oral fluid play an essential role in the occurrence and progression of dental caries. Various inorganic (water and electrolytes) and organic (proteins and peptides) components may protect teeth from dental caries. This occurs via several functions, such as clearance of food debris and sugar, aggregation and elimination of microorganisms, buffering actions to neutralize acid, maintaining supersaturation with respect to tooth mineral, participation in formation of the acquired pellicle and antimicrobial defense. Modest evidence is available on the associations between dental caries and several salivary parameters, including flow rate, buffering capacity and abundance of mutans streptococci. Despite some controversial findings, the main body of the literature supports an elevated caries prevalence and/or incidence among people with a pathologically low saliva flow rate, compromised buffering capacity and early colonization or high titer of mutans streptococci in saliva. The evidence remains weak and/or inconsistent on the association between dental caries and other saliva parameters, such as other possible cariogenic species (Lactobacillus spp., Streptococcus sanguis group, Streptococcus salivarius, Actinomyces spp. and Candida albicans), diversity of saliva microbiomes, inorganic and organic constituents (electrolytes, immunoglobulins, other proteins and peptides) and some functional properties (sugar clearance rate, etc.). The complex interactions between salivary components and functions suggest that saliva has to be considered in its entirety to account for its total effects on teeth. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Clinical performance of two visual scoring systems in detecting and assessing activity status of occlusal caries in primary teeth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braga, M M; Ekstrand, K R; Martignon, S

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the clinical performance of two sets of visual scoring criteria for detecting caries severity and assessing caries activity status in occlusal surfaces. Two visual scoring systems--the Nyvad criteria (NY) and the ICDAS-II including an adjunct system for lesion activity...

  4. Association between Dairy Intake and Caries among Children and Adolescents. Results from the Danish EYHS Follow-Up Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lempert, Susanne; Christensen, Lisa Bøge; Froberg, Karsten 

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to investigate associations between the intake of dairy products and the development in caries (DMFS, decayed, missing and filled surfaces) among children/adolescents over a period of 3 and 6 years, and to investigate whether dairy intake protects against caries incidenc...

  5. Prevalence and extent of dental caries, dental fluorosis, and developmental enamel defects in Lithuanian teenage populations with different fluoride exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machiulskiene, Vita; Bælum, Vibeke; Fejerskov, Ole

    2009-01-01

    /teeth of 300 teenagers were examined for dental caries, dental fluorosis, and non-fluoride developmental defects. The caries prevalence of the study population was 100%. The mean number of decayed surfaces (DS) differed only slightly and statistically insignificantly between the '1.1 ppm fluoride' and '0.3 ppm...

  6. Occlusal caries risk assessment using Cariogram analysis in student aged 11-12 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riana Wardani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT   Introduction: Basic Health Research 2013 showed Dental Caries Index in school age student in West Java was lower than the expected target, with occlusal surface as most affected part. The purpose of this study was to determine the risk status of dental caries in school age student by using cariogram analysis. Methods: Observational research. Study was conducted on 30 student aged 11-12 years with caries high risk on occlusal surfaces. Purposive sampling was taken from students of SDN Cikawari and SDN Mekarjaya Bandung Regency with high DMF-S index. Inclusion criteria: male and female, aged 11-12 years, good systemic health, SDN Mekarjaya and SDN Cikawari Bandung Regency students. Exclusion criteria: suffering from systemic disorder, currently in long-term antibiotic therapy, orthodontic appliance usage. Case history, eating habits and intake of fluoride, caries experience, salivary volume and buffering capacity of each sample was examined using cariogram examination method. Results: The cariogram analysis showed 43% chance of caries avoidance. Diet control was 23.3%, includes two factors: sugary foods and eating frequency. Bacteria control was 11.9% by evaluating both bacterial factors (the amount of plaque and the bacteria Streptococcus mutans. Vulnerability control was 14.4%, including caries prevention by the continuation of fluorine program and other conditions control that affect salivary secretions. Conclusion: Based on cariogram analysis found that all samples who had occlusal surfaces caries were at a high risk category, but still having moderate potential of avoiding new caries occurrence by controlling risk factors. Keywords: Cariogram analysis, Occlusal caries, Aged 11-12 years

  7. Prevalence of caries and malocclusion in an indigenous population in Chiapas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aamodt, Kjeld; Reyna-Blanco, Oscar; Sosa, Ricardo; Hsieh, Rebecca; De la Garza Ramos, Myriam; Garcia Martinez, Martha; Orellana, Maria Fernanda

    2015-10-01

    To assess the prevalence of caries and malocclusion in Mayan Mexican adolescents, 14-20 years of age, living in Chiapas, Mexico. This was a cross-sectional, population-based, quantitative, epidemiological study. Sites were chosen to capture subjects representative of the state's Mayan population. A total of 354 subjects were recruited. Caries experience was quantified, via visual inspection, using the Decayed, Missing and Filled Surface (DMFS) index. Malocclusion was quantified using the Index of Complexity, Outcome and Need (ICON). Our data showed that 99% of the population had caries experience, with a median DMFS score of 8. Of the 99% with caries experience, over half had caries affecting more than five tooth surfaces. Thirty-seven per cent of the students had unmet orthodontic treatment need, and 46.46% presented a Class II, and 39.09% a Class III, anterior-posterior relationship. Less than 1% of the population had any exposure to orthodontics, demonstrating the lack of access to care. Likewise, only 1% of the population was found to have no caries experience, exhibiting a large unmet treatment need. The median DMFS score of 8 was also high in comparison with the median DMFS in the USA of 6. Our data suggest a correlation between the lack of access to care and high prevalence of caries and malocclusion in Mexican Mayans who inhabit Chiapas, Mexico. © 2015 FDI World Dental Federation.

  8. Caries prevalence of 5, 12 and 15-year-old Greek children: a national pathfinder survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oulis, C J; Tsinidou, K; Vadiakas, G; Mamai-Homata, E; Polychronopoulou, A; Athanasouli, T

    2012-03-01

    To study the caries prevalence and caries experience of 5, 12 and 15-year-old children in Greece and evaluate how the disease pattern is related to their sociodemographic parameters. A stratified cluster sample of 1209, 1224 and 1257 of five, twelve and fifteen-year-old Greek children were randomly selected according to WHO guidelines for national pathfinder surveys and examined for dental caries, according to the BASCD criteria and standards. d3mft, D3MFT and their components, as well as d3mfs, D3MFS, Care Index (CI) and SiC were recorded and related to the demographic data collected concerning age, gender, counties, urban/rural areas and parents' educational status. Dental caries varied considerably between the different districts, with a mean dmft/DMFT value for each age group being 1.77, 2.05 and 3.19 respectively, while 64%, 37% and 29% of them, were with no obvious dentinal caries. Children living in rural areas demonstrated significantly higher dmft/DMFT values and less dental restorative care (CI), whereas children with fathers of a higher educational level showed significantly lower dmft/DMFT values. The significant caries (SIC) index value for the three age groups was 5.01, 4.83 and 7.07 respectively. Posterior occlusal surfaces of the permanent teeth presented most of the caries in the 12 (68%) and 15-year-old group (78%). Despite the decrease in the prevalence of caries in Greek children disparities remain. Children in rural areas and children with less educated parents had more caries and more untreated caries. All the above call for immediate intervention with comprehensive preventive programs and better geographic targeting of the dental services at a national level including targeted prevention of pit and fissure sealants on posterior permanent molars.

  9. Dental caries development among African American children: results from a 4-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sungwoo; Tellez, Marisol; Ismail, Amid I

    2015-06-01

    To examine dental caries development and caries risk factors among preschool African American children from low-income families in Detroit, Michigan, over a 4-year window. Data came from a representative sample of 1021 children (0-5 years) and their caregivers in Detroit. The baseline participants in 2002-2003 (W1) were re-examined in 2004-2005 (W2) and 2007 (W3). Caries was measured using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System. Bivariate and multivariate analyses for repeated data were conducted to explore associations between caries increment outcomes and demographics, access to dental care, oral health-related behaviours, and social and physical environments. The mean number of new noncavitated caries lesions (NCCL) was 2.8 between W1 and W2 and 2.6 between W2 and W3, while the mean number of new cavitated caries lesions (CCL) was 2.0 and 2.0, respectively, during the same time periods. In younger children (risk of new NCCL was associated with child's soda intake and caregiver's age. For the risk of new CCL, significant risk factors included baseline NCCL, baseline CCL, as well as child's age. Baseline caries and child's soda intake were also associated with the risk of developing new decayed, missing and filled tooth surfaces. Higher number of new NCCL relative to CCL was developed among low-income African American children during early childhood. New caries development was associated with baseline caries and child's soda intake. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Relationship between body mass index and dental caries in children, and the influence of socio-economic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Santhosh; Kroon, Jeroen; Lalloo, Ratilal; Kulkarni, Suhas; Johnson, Newell W

    2017-04-01

    To determine the association of body mass index (BMI) with dental caries in Indian schoolchildren, and to analyse the influence of socio-economic status (SES). The study population consisted of 11- to 14-year-old children from Medak District in Telangana State, India. The Indian Academy of Paediatrics 2015 growth charts were used to categorise children as underweight, overweight, normal or obese, based on their BMI. Data on the SES of the family were collected through questionnaires. Clinical examination for dental caries was performed by a single examiner. A total of 1,092 subjects returned questionnaires and were clinically examined (giving a response rate of 85%). There were no significant differences in caries prevalence and experience across the categories of BMI. However, caries prevalence and experience in overweight children were 24.8% and 0.69 ± 1.51, respectively, while the corresponding values in normal-weight children were 35% and 0.85 ± 1.50, respectively. Among children of high-SES families, overweight children had approximately 71% fewer caries than did those who were normal weight [incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 0.29; 95% CI: 0.11-0.78)]. BMI was not associated with dental caries prevalence and experience in this population. The association of BMI with dental caries varied across SES categories. In the high-SES category, overweight children experienced fewer caries than did normal-weight children. © 2016 FDI World Dental Federation.

  11. The association between caries and childhood lead exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, J R; Moss, M E; Raubertas, R F

    2000-11-01

    Epidemiologic studies suggest an association between lead exposure and caries. Our objective was to establish whether children with a higher lead exposure as toddlers had more caries at school age than children with a lower lead exposure. We used a retrospective cohort design. A sample of children who attended second and fifth grades in the Rochester, New York, public schools during the 1995-1996 and 1996-1997 school years were examined for caries through a dental screening program. For each child we assessed the number of decayed, missing, or filled surfaces on permanent teeth (DMFS), and the number of decayed or filled surfaces on deciduous teeth (dfs); the number of surfaces at risk (SAR) was also recorded. Lead exposure was defined as the mean of all blood lead levels collected between 18 and 37 months of age by fingerstick [provided the blood lead level was [less than/equal to] 10 microg/dL)] or venipuncture. A total of 248 children (197 second graders and 51 fifth graders) were examined for caries and had a record of blood lead levels to define lead exposure. The mean dfs was 3.4 (range 0-29); the mean DMFS was 0.5 (range 0-8). Logistic regression was used to examine the association between the proportion of children with DMFS [Greater/equal to] 1, and the proportion with dfs [Greater/equal to] 1, and lead exposure [lead exposure > 10 microg/dL as a toddler was a strong predictor of caries among school-age children. However, the results should be interpreted cautiously because of limitations in the assessment of lead exposure and limited statistical power.

  12. Are you experienced?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Michael Slavensky; Reichstein, Toke

    This paper investigates the relationship between the level of experience of managers and founders, and the likelihood of survival of their new firms. We take advantage of a comprehensive dataset covering the entire Danish labor market from 1980-2000. This is used to trace the activities of top....... We also find that spin-offs from parent companies that exit are less likely to survive than either spin-offs from surviving parents or other start-ups. These findings support the theoretical arguments that organizational heritage is important for the survival of new organizations. We found no similar...... ranked members of start-ups prior to their founding, and follow the fate of these firms. More specifically, we compare the survival of spin-offs from surviving parents, spin-offs from exiting parents, and other start-ups. Moreover, we investigate whether firms managed and founded by more experienced...

  13. Comparison of the clinical examination with the panoramic radiography in the diagnosis of dental caries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hang Moon

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare clinical examination of of dental caries and secondary caries with panoramic examination, and to examine bone lesions and dental anomaly of unerupted state. In this study, clinical records and panoramic radiographs were available for 89 first grade students in elementary school. Dental caries of occlusal surfaces, proximal surfaces, and buccolingual surfaces were examined. Secondary caries was examined too. In addition, the central lesion and dental anomaly of unerupted state were examined in panoramic radiographs. The obtained results were as followed :1. Carious detectability of clinical examination in occlusal and buccolingual surface was higher than that of panoramic examination, but it is statistically insignificant (p>0.05). In proximal surface, carious detectability of panoramic examination was higher than that of clinical examination, and it is statistically significant (p<0.01). 2. In contrast to clinical examination only, when the two examination methods were combined, there was additional detection of dental caries (26.7% in occlusal surface, 48.2% in proximal surface, 33.3% in buccolingual surface, and 38.3% totally). 3. In detection of secondary caries, panoramic examination had lower ability than clinical examination in all three surfaces, but in case that both methods were combined, totally 36.0% extra carious lesions were detected. 4. In panoramic examination, detectability of secondary caries in upper teeth is lower than lower teeth. 5. In panoramic examination, it was possible to detect the central lesions and dental anomalies of unerupted state which cannot be detected in clinical examination. It is useful to combine the panoramic examination with clinical examination in order to increase carious detectability and to evaluate the central lesions and dental anomalies of unerupted state.

  14. Comparison of the clinical examination with the panoramic radiography in the diagnosis of dental caries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hang Moon [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology and Dental Research Institute, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-02-15

    The objective of this study was to compare clinical examination of of dental caries and secondary caries with panoramic examination, and to examine bone lesions and dental anomaly of unerupted state. In this study, clinical records and panoramic radiographs were available for 89 first grade students in elementary school. Dental caries of occlusal surfaces, proximal surfaces, and buccolingual surfaces were examined. Secondary caries was examined too. In addition, the central lesion and dental anomaly of unerupted state were examined in panoramic radiographs. The obtained results were as followed :1. Carious detectability of clinical examination in occlusal and buccolingual surface was higher than that of panoramic examination, but it is statistically insignificant (p>0.05). In proximal surface, carious detectability of panoramic examination was higher than that of clinical examination, and it is statistically significant (p<0.01). 2. In contrast to clinical examination only, when the two examination methods were combined, there was additional detection of dental caries (26.7% in occlusal surface, 48.2% in proximal surface, 33.3% in buccolingual surface, and 38.3% totally). 3. In detection of secondary caries, panoramic examination had lower ability than clinical examination in all three surfaces, but in case that both methods were combined, totally 36.0% extra carious lesions were detected. 4. In panoramic examination, detectability of secondary caries in upper teeth is lower than lower teeth. 5. In panoramic examination, it was possible to detect the central lesions and dental anomalies of unerupted state which cannot be detected in clinical examination. It is useful to combine the panoramic examination with clinical examination in order to increase carious detectability and to evaluate the central lesions and dental anomalies of unerupted state.

  15. Radiographic caries detection: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwendicke, Falk; Tzschoppe, Markus; Paris, Sebastian

    2015-08-01

    This systematic review aimed at evaluating the accuracy of radiographic caries detection for different lesions at different locations. Studies reporting on the accuracy (sensitivity/specificity) of radiographic detection of natural primary caries lesions under clinical or in vitro conditions were included. Risk of bias was assessed using QUADAS-2. Pooled sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic odds ratios (DORs) were calculated using random-effects meta-analysis. Analyses were performed separately for occlusal and proximal lesions, with further discrimination between any kind of lesions, dentine lesions, and cavitated lesions. Electronic databases (Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central) and grey literature were systematically searched, complemented by cross-referencing from bibliographies. From 947 identified articles, 442 were analyzed full-text. 117 studies (13,375 teeth, 19,108 surfaces) were included, the majority of them reporting on permanent teeth and having high risk of bias. The detection of any kind (i.e. also initial) lesions had low sensitivities (pooled DOR [95% CI]: 0.24 [0.21/0.26] to 0.42 [0.31/0.34]), but moderate to high specificities (0.70 [0.76/0.84] to 0.97 [0.95/0.98]). For dentine lesions, sensitivities were higher (from 0.36 [0.24/0.49] for proximal to 0.56 [0.53/0.59] for occlusal lesions), and specificities ranged between 0.87 [0.85/0.89] and 0.95 [0.94/0.96]. No studies reported on cavitated occlusal lesions, whilst for cavitated proximal lesions, sensitivities increased above 0.60, whilst sensitivities remained high (above 0.90). Radiographic caries detection is highly accurate for cavitated proximal lesions, and seems also suitable to detect dentine caries lesions. For detecting initial lesions, more sensitive methods could be considered in population with high caries risk and prevalence. Radiographic caries detection is especially suitable for detecting more advanced caries lesions, and has limited risks for false positive diagnoses. For

  16. Revitalising Silver Nitrate for Caries Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherry Shiqian Gao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Silver nitrate has been adopted for medical use as a disinfectant for eye disease and burned wounds. In dentistry, it is an active ingredient of Howe’s solution used to prevent and arrest dental caries. While medical use of silver nitrate as a disinfectant became subsidiary with the discovery of antibiotics, its use in caries treatment also diminished with the use of fluoride in caries prevention. Since then, fluoride agents, particularly sodium fluoride, have gained popularity in caries prevention. However, caries is an infection caused by cariogenic bacteria, which demineralise enamel and dentine. Caries can progress and cause pulpal infection, but its progression can be halted through remineralisation. Sodium fluoride promotes remineralisation and silver nitrate has a profound antimicrobial effect. Hence, silver nitrate solution has been reintroduced for use with sodium fluoride varnish to arrest caries as a medical model strategy of caries management. Although the treatment permanently stains caries lesions black, this treatment protocol is simple, painless, non-invasive, and low-cost. It is well accepted by many clinicians and patients and therefore appears to be a promising strategy for caries control, particularly for young children, the elderly, and patients with severe caries risk or special needs.

  17. [Recent findings in the etiopathogenesis of caries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farge, P

    1998-10-01

    Caries have three main interrelated etiological factors: 1) a bacteriological factor represented by cariogen oral bacteria, mainly Streptococcus mutans, which adhere to the dental surface and initiate the decalcification of the enamel by producing an acid environment through carbohydrate degradation; 2) the quality of the oral biofilm which is colonized more or less rapidly by bacteria after brushing, leading to an adhesive and aggressive dental plaque; 3) the quality of enamel which is reinforced by fluor ion, and of saliva. The early superficial phase of carie constitution is reversible through remineralisation from calcium, phosphate and fluor ions present in the oral cavity. In the absence of remineralisation the destructive and infectious process extends to the inner part of the tooth leading, to its progressive destruction. Prevention is based upon the following pathophysiological data, mainly: 1) family education on oral hygiene by regular brushing, and avoidance of foods or fluids containing sugars between meals; 2) fluoride intake starting at birth and being adapted to age, the prescription of fluoride supplementation, taking into account possible other sources of fluor (salt, water).

  18. Caries risk assessment in young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Gunnel Hänsel; Twetman, Svante

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To validate baseline caries risk classifications according to the Cariogram model with the actual caries development over a 3-year period in a group of young adults living in Sweden. METHODS: The study group consisted of 1,295 19-year-old patients that completed a comprehensive clinical...... baseline examination, including radiographs and salivary tests. An individual caries risk profile was computed and the patient was placed in one of five risk categories. After 3 years, 982 patients (75.8%) were re-examined and caries increment for each patient was calculated. The outcome was expressed...... of impaired specificities. No combinations proved clinically useful values according to Yuoden's index. CONCLUSIONS: Within the limitations of the present study, the computer-based Cariogram did not perform better than a caries risk assessment scheme based on past caries experience and caries progression...

  19. Fluoride varnishes and enamel caries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruyn, Hugo de

    1987-01-01

    Topical fluoride applications have the aim of increasing the fluoride uptake in enamel and consequently reducing caries. In the early ‘60s fluoride varnishes were introduced because they had a long contact period with the enamel which resulted in a higher fluoride uptake than from other topical

  20. Adjunct methods for caries detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante; Axelsson, Susanna Bihari; Dahlén, Gunnar

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective. To assess the diagnostic accuracy of adjunct methods used to detect and quantify dental caries. Study design. A systematic literature search for relevant papers was conducted with pre-determined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Abstracts and full text articles were assessed...

  1. [An epidemiological investigation of deciduous dental caries among 5375 preschool children aged between 3 to 6 years in Shenyang City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Rui-bo; Zhang, Xiao-fang; Zhang, Ying; Pan, Lin; Tao, Wei

    2006-12-01

    To investigate the status of dental caries of deciduous teeth among preschool children in Shenyang city. According to the criteria recommended by the World Health Organization and The Second National Oral Health Investigation, the deciduous caries of 5375 preschool children aged from 3 to 6 years were clinically examined. The mean dmft and the prevalence of dental caries for each age group were calculated. The results were analyzed using SPSS11.0 software package for t test (to compare the difference between the two sample groups), one way ANOVA (to compare the differences among three and more sample groups) and chi2 test (to compare the rate of each group). The prevalence of dental caries was 71.29%. The mean dmft score was 3.88. The prevalence of dental caries and mean dmft increased gradually as the children were growing up (P caries of the upper teeth was significantly more common than that of the lower teeth (P caries were minor in degree of severity, and mostly lie in the occlusal and proximal surface. The filling rate was 10.82%.As the age increase, the filling rate increased, too. Deciduous dental caries of preschool children was an important problem in Shenyang city, and the filling rate was very low. Necessary methods for early prevention of dental caries must be taken into consideration. Supported by Scientific Research Fund for College and University from Liaoning Provincial Education Bureau (Grant No. 20201316).

  2. Detection of occlusal caries in primary teeth using swept source optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Yukie; Shimada, Yasushi; Sadr, Alireza; Wada, Ikumi; Miyashin, Michiyo; Takagi, Yuzo; Tagami, Junji; Sumi, Yasunori

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) as a detecting tool for occlusal caries in primary teeth. At the in vitro part of the study, 38 investigation sites of occlusal fissures (noncavitated and cavitated) were selected from 26 extracted primary teeth and inspected visually using conventional dental equipment by six examiners without any magnification. SS-OCT cross-sectional images at 1330-nm center wavelength were acquired on the same locations. The teeth were then sectioned at the investigation site and directly viewed under a confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) by two experienced examiners. The presence and extent of caries were scored in each observation. The results obtained from SS-OCT and conventional visual inspections were compared with those of CLSM. Consequently, SS-OCT could successfully detect both cavitated and noncavitated lesions. The magnitude of sensitivity for SS-OCT was higher than those for visual inspection (sensitivity of visual inspection and SS-OCT, 0.70 versus 0.93 for enamel demineralization, 0.49 versus 0.89 for enamel cavitated caries, and 0.36 versus 0.75 for dentin caries). Additionally, occlusal caries of a few clinical cases were observed using SS-OCT in vivo. The results indicate that SS-OCT has a great detecting potential for occlusal caries in primary teeth.

  3. Holistic care patient with Early Childhood Caries (ECC: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intan Maulani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Early Childhood Caries (ECC is a specific form of severe dental caries that affects infants and young children. ECC progresses rapidly in those who are at high risk, and often goes untreated. Children experiencing caries as infants or toddlers have a much greater probability of subsequent caries in both primary and permanent dentitions. This case showed management holistic care for children with ECC.A five year old boy patient accompanied with her parents were reported to the Pedodontic Clinic Padjadjaran University Dental Hospital with a chief complaint of decayed upper anterior teeth and pain in the molar teeth. Clinical examinations found dental caries almost all teeth in the maxilla and mandible. Based on panoramic radiograph, treatments that can be done are strip crown glass ionomer restorations, pulp treatments, extractions and fixed space maintainer. Patients diagnosed with severe ECC, patient and parents described on this type of caries. During treatment the patient was given oral hygiene instruction and recommend daily use of tooth mouse. After all treatment were completed, fluoride topical, and fissure sealants, recall check up after three months was scheduled. Holistic care needed in handling children with ECC.

  4. Association between caries location and restorative material treatment provided

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubisich, Erinne B.; Hilton, Thomas J.; Ferracane, Jack L.; Pashova, Hristina I.; Burton, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This cross-sectional study by the Northwest PRECEDENT practitioners correlated the location of caries diagnosed in the past 12 months with treatment provided. Methods An oral health survey was conducted on up to 20 patients per practice for 101 practices in the Northwest PRECEDENT network. A total of 1943 eligible patients were randomly assessed for the location of and treatment provided for caries lesions diagnosed within the past 12 months. Regression analysis using Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) was performed to assess association of treatment to tooth location and surface characterization, adjusting for age, practice location (urban/rural), dentist gender, and experience level. The analysis accounts for clustering by practice using robust variance estimates. Results Overall, 55.4% of patients exhibited recent caries and 42.8% received treatment for at least one permanent tooth. 18% of treated teeth were treated with amalgam, and 72% were treated with composite. This percentage varied as a function of tooth surface characteristics, patient characteristics, and dentist characteristics. The results suggest that restoration selection does depend on tooth type and which surfaces are being restored. The odds of a molar receiving an amalgam restoration are 2.44 (95% CI=1.81–3.30) times higher as compared to a bicuspid, adjusting for all other covariates. When the restoration includes the occlusal surface of a tooth the odds are 0.42 (95% CI=0.20–0.89) times as great that amalgam will be placed. When the restoration includes the mesial or distal surface of the tooth the odds for amalgam restoration are 2.49 (95% CI=1.25–4.95) times higher compared to when it does not include these surfaces. Conclusion Restorative material choice varied based on caries location and practitioner gender. PMID:21256915

  5. Optimal power settings of aluminum gallium arsenide lasers in caries inhibition ? An in vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Sonali; Hegde, Mithra N; Sadananda, Vandana; Mathews, Blessen

    2016-01-01

    Context: Incipient carious lesions are characterized by subsurface dissolution due to more fluoride ions in the 50-100 microns of the tooth′s outer surface. Aims: To determine an optimal power setting for 810 nm aluminum gallium arsenide laser for caries inhibition. Materials and Methods: Fifty-four caries-free extracted teeth were sectioned mesiodistally. The samples were divided into 18 groups for each power setting being evaluated. Each group had six samples. The laser used is 810 n...

  6. Clinical diagnosis of fissure caries with conventional and laser-induced fluorescence techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, CH; Lo, ECM; You, DSH

    2010-01-01

    We studied the in vivo validity of dentinal fissure caries diagnosis by visual examination, bitewing radiography, and use of a laser-induced fluorescence device (DIAGNOdent). A total of 144 and second molars with macroscopically intact occlusal surfaces in 41 Chinese young adults were examined visually, by bitewing radiography, and by DIAGNOdent. Visual examination after pit and fissure opening was used as the reference standard. The sensitivity and specificity of detecting caries that had ex...

  7. Dental pain as the predictor for caries experience among school children of Udupi district, south India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sravan Kumar Y

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate child-Dental Pain Questionnaire (Child‐ DPQ as the predictor for caries experience. Methods: We conducted a cross‐sectional survey among 10‐15 year old school children of Udupi district, Karnataka. Prior consent from parents and verbal consent from school children was obtained. Permission to conduct the study was obtained from the school authorities. The study was approved by the ethics committee of Manipal University. All the eligible school children completed self-administered Child-DPQ followed by clinical examination for dental caries as per the WHO guidelines under natural day light within the school premises. Results: A total of 306 children participated in the study, of them 56.5% were ≤ 12 years old, 58.8% were males, 50.7% were in government school and 54.9 % were from urban areas. Around 45.1% of the children were caries experienced and the mean child-DPQ was significantly higher among caries experienced children than caries free children (p=0.017. The Area Under the Curve (AUC was 0.567 (p=0.043 and was above the reference line which was suggestive that the curve predicted individuals with disease (caries experience. The optimal cut-off point was considered as 3 points on child –DPQ score with sensitivity of 41.3% and specificity of 70.2% with a positive likelihood ratio of 1.39. Conclusion: The Child–Dental Pain Questionnaire showed to be an acceptable instrument to predict the caries experience among school children.

  8. Dental pain as the predictor for caries experience among school children of Udupi district, south India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sravan Kumar Y

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate child-Dental Pain Questionnaire (Child - DPQ as the predictor for caries experience. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey among 10-15 year old school children of Udupi district, Karnataka. Prior consent from parents and verbal consent from school children was obtained. Permission to conduct the study was obtained from the school authorities. The study was approved by the ethics committee of Manipal University. All the eligible school children completed self- administered Child-DPQ followed by clinical examination for dental caries as per the WHO guidelines under natural day light within the school premises. Results: A total of 306 children participated in the study, of them 56.5% were ≤ 12 years old, 58.8% were males, 50.7% were in government school and 54.9 % were from urban areas. Around 45.1% of the children were caries experienced and the mean child-DPQ was significantly higher among caries experienced children than caries free children (p=0.017. The Area Under the Curve (AUC was 0.567 (p=0.043 and was above the reference line which was suggestive that the curve predicted individuals with disease (caries experience. The optimal cut-off point was considered as 3 points on child –DPQ score with sensitivity of 41.3% and specificity of 70.2% with a positive likelihood ratio of 1.39. Conclusion: The Child – Dental Pain Questionnaire showed to be an acceptable instrument to predict the caries experience among school children.

  9. Detection of proximal caries using digital radiographic systems with different resolutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikneshan, Sima; Abbas, Fatemeh Mashhadi; Sabbagh, Sedigheh

    2015-01-01

    Dental radiography is an important tool for detection of caries and digital radiography is the latest advancement in this regard. Spatial resolution is a characteristic of digital receptors used for describing the quality of images. This study was aimed to compare the diagnostic accuracy of two digital radiographic systems with three different resolutions for detection of noncavitated proximal caries. Diagnostic accuracy. Seventy premolar teeth were mounted in 14 gypsum blocks. Digora; Optime and RVG Access were used for obtaining digital radiographs. Six observers evaluated the proximal surfaces in radiographs for each resolution in order to determine the depth of caries based on a 4-point scale. The teeth were then histologically sectioned, and the results of histologic analysis were considered as the gold standard. Data were entered using SPSS version 18 software and the Kruskal-Wallis test was used for data analysis. P proximal caries (P > 0.05). RVG access system had the highest specificity (87.7%) and Digora; Optime at high resolution had the lowest specificity (84.2%). Furthermore, Digora; Optime had higher sensitivity for detection of caries exceeding outer half of enamel. Judgment of oral radiologists for detection of the depth of caries had higher reliability than that of restorative dentistry specialists. The three resolutions of Digora; Optime and RVG access had similar accuracy in detection of noncavitated proximal caries.

  10. Clinical evaluation of three caries removal approaches in primary teeth: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phonghanyudh, A; Phantumvanit, P; Songpaisan, Y; Petersen, P E

    2012-06-01

    To evaluate the clinical performance and radiographic outcome of glass ionomer cement (GIC) restoration in primary molars using three caries removal techniques. Randomised clinical controlled trial. Two standard dental clinics in 2 hospitals near Bangkok. A total of 276 children, aged 6-11, having dentinal caries on the occlusal and/or proximal surface extending at least one-third of dentine without signs and/or symptoms of irreversible pulpitis. Children were randomly allocated into 3 study groups with different caries removal techniques: Group 1, partial soft caries removal at enamel-dentine junction (EDJ) by spoon excavation; Group 2, complete soft caries removal by spoon excavation; and Group 3, conventional caries removal by steel burs. All cavity preparations were restored with GIC (Fuji IX, GC Corp., Japan). Clinical and radiographic evaluations were carried out at 6 and 12 months after restoration. After 12 months, 89, 89, and 88 restorations in Groups 1, 2 and 3 were evaluated. The cumulative survival rates of GIC restorations in Groups 1, 2 and 3 were 83%, 83%, and 89% while the cumulative survival rates of pulp were 99%, 100% and 98% respectively. There were no statistically significant differences in the survival of GIC restorations or pulp in the three groups (p > 0.05). The clinical and radiographic evaluations after 12 months indicated that partial soft caries removal at EDJ followed by GIC restoration was comparable to that of ART and conventional approaches.

  11. Effect of changing the kilovoltage peak on radiographic caries assessment in digital and conventional radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayet, Mohamed Khalifa; Helaly, Yara Rabee; Eiid, Salma Belal

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of changing the kilovoltage peak (kVp) on the radiographic assessment of dental caries. Seventy-five extracted posterior teeth with proximal caries or apparently sound proximal surfaces were radiographed with conventional E-speed films and a photostimulable phosphor system using 60 kVp and 70 kVp for the caries assessment. The images were evaluated by three oral radiologists and compared with the results of the stereomicroscope analysis. No statistically significant difference was found between 60 kVp and 70 kVp for the caries detection, determination of caries extension into dentin, and caries severity in either the conventional or the digital images. Good to very good inter-observer and intra-observer agreements were found for both kilovoltage values on the conventional and digital images. Changing the kilovoltage between 60 kVp and 70 kVp had no obvious effect on the detection of proximal caries or determination of its extension or severity.

  12. Grey-scale reversed radiographic display in the detection of approximal caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haak, Rainer; Wicht, Michael J

    2005-01-01

    Purpose of this study was to determine the influence of grey-scale reversal of digital radiographic images on the detection of proximal caries. Five observers assessed digital bitewing radiographs (Sidexis((R)), Sirona) of 320 unrestored surfaces of extracted posterior teeth embedded in 20 models, simulating pairing of maxillary and mandibular arches, using a six-category caries rating scale. Images were displayed in normal [N] and inverse [IN] mode at different image sizes (display ratio: 1:1, 1:2, 1:7) on a cathode-ray tube monitor (Nokia 446 XS) and a TFT display (Panasonic LC 50 S). Validation standard was defined as histological lesion depth. Validity was expressed as areas under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) calculated for two levels of histological caries penetration: presence of caries and presence of a dentine lesion. The factors 'inverse display', 'image size on-screen' 'display type' and 'disease cut-off' were analysed by repeated measures ANOVA. Inverse image display significantly influenced the diagnostic validity (P=0.014), but a reduced accuracy was only seen at the lowest image size (AUC (SE): [N] 0.64 (0.02); [IN] 0.62 (0.02)). At the validation threshold 'dentine caries' approximal caries detection deteriorated when using grey-scale reversal (AUC (SE): [N] 0.71 (0.02); [IN] 0.69 (0.02)). In conclusion, grey-scale reversal of digital radiographs did not optimise approximal caries detection and aggravated the detectability of dentinal lesions.

  13. Low reproducibility between oral radiologists and general dentists with regards to radiographic diagnosis of caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakbaznejad Esmaeili, Elmira; Pakkala, Tuomas; Haukka, Jari; Siukosaari, Päivi

    2018-04-12

    Early clinical and radiological diagnosis of dental caries is one of the fundamental objectives of clinical dentistry because of the high frequency of the disease and severe complications if caries remains untreated, especially among the elderly and patients with immunodeficiency. Dental panoramic tomography (DPT) is a common radiographic method for evaluating dentition when indicated, especially in an adult population. The aim of this study was to assess the reproducibility of diagnosis between specialists in oral radiology and general dentists with regards to caries lesions based on DPTs of adults. One-hundred DPTs taken from adult patients (average age 35) and then analyzed and reported on by 42 general dentists were then analyzed independently by two specialists in oral radiology with respect to caries lesions in the premolar and molar areas using radiographic criteria established for caries diagnosis. The general dentists versus oral radiologists were not calibrated before. Level of agreement between specialists and general dentists was measured using Cohen's kappa. Comparison between observations of general dentists and specialists in oral radiology showed that 61% of the caries lesions on proximal surfaces of premolars and molars observed by specialists went unobserved by general dentists. Cohen's kappa value for specialists was 0.85 (p < .001) and for each specialist and general dentists 0.48 (p < .001) and 0.44 (p < .001). The reproducibility between specialists in oral radiology and general dentists for detecting caries in DPTs was low.

  14. Effect of changing the kilovoltage peak on radiographic caries assessment in digital and conventional radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zayet, Mohamed Khalifa; Helaly, Yara Rabee; Eiid, Salma Belal [Dept. of Oral Radiology, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo (Egypt)

    2014-09-15

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of changing the kilovoltage peak (kVp) on the radiographic assessment of dental caries. Seventy-five extracted posterior teeth with proximal caries or apparently sound proximal surfaces were radiographed with conventional E-speed films and a photostimulable phosphor system using 60 kVp and 70 kVp for the caries assessment. The images were evaluated by three oral radiologists and compared with the results of the stereomicroscope analysis. No statistically significant difference was found between 60 kVp and 70 kVp for the caries detection, determination of caries extension into dentin, and caries severity in either the conventional or the digital images. Good to very good inter-observer and intra-observer agreements were found for both kilovoltage values on the conventional and digital images. Changing the kilovoltage between 60 kVp and 70 kVp had no obvious effect on the detection of proximal caries or determination of its extension or severity.

  15. Effect of changing the kilovoltage peak on radiographic caries assessment in digital and conventional radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayet, Mohamed Khalifa; Helaly, Yara Rabee; Eiid, Salma Belal

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of changing the kilovoltage peak (kVp) on the radiographic assessment of dental caries. Seventy-five extracted posterior teeth with proximal caries or apparently sound proximal surfaces were radiographed with conventional E-speed films and a photostimulable phosphor system using 60 kVp and 70 kVp for the caries assessment. The images were evaluated by three oral radiologists and compared with the results of the stereomicroscope analysis. No statistically significant difference was found between 60 kVp and 70 kVp for the caries detection, determination of caries extension into dentin, and caries severity in either the conventional or the digital images. Good to very good inter-observer and intra-observer agreements were found for both kilovoltage values on the conventional and digital images. Changing the kilovoltage between 60 kVp and 70 kVp had no obvious effect on the detection of proximal caries or determination of its extension or severity.

  16. Results from the Xylitol for Adult Caries Trial (X-ACT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, James D.; Vollmer, William M.; Shugars, Daniel A.; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Amaechi, Bennett T.; Brown, John P.; Laws, Reesa L.; Funkhouser, Kimberly A.; Makhija, Sonia K.; Ritter, André V.; Leo, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Although caries is prevalent in adults, few preventive therapies have been tested in adult populations. This randomized clinical trial evaluated the effectiveness of xylitol lozenges in preventing caries in elevated caries-risk adults. Methods X-ACT was a three-site placebo-controlled randomized trial. Participants (n=691) ages 21–80 consumed five 1.0 g xylitol or placebo lozenges daily for 33 months. Clinical examinations occurred at baseline, 12, 24 and 33 months. Results Xylitol lozenges reduced the caries increment 11%. This reduction, which represented less than one-third of a surface per year, was not statistically significant. There was no indication of a dose-response effect. Conclusions Daily use of xylitol lozenges did not result in a statistically or clinically significant reduction in 33-month caries increment among elevated caries-risk adults. Clinical Implications These results suggest that xylitol used as a supplement in adults does not significantly reduce their caries experience. PMID:23283923

  17. Performance of laser fluorescence devices, visual and radiographic examination for the detection of occlusal caries in primary molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhaus, Klaus W; Rodrigues, Jonas Almeida; Hug, Isabel; Stich, Herman; Lussi, Adrian

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the performance of two laser fluorescence devices (LF, LFpen), conventional visual criteria (VE), ICDAS and radiographic examination on occlusal surfaces of primary teeth. Thirty-seven primary human molars were selected from a pool of extracted teeth, which were stored frozen at -20 °C until use. Teeth were assessed twice by two experienced examiners using laser fluorescence devices (LF and LFpen), conventional visual criteria, ICDAS and bitewing radiographs, with a 2-week interval between measurements. After measurement, the teeth were histologically prepared and assessed for caries extension. The highest sensitivity was observed for ICDAS at D(1) and D(3) thresholds, with no statistically significant difference when compared to the LF devices, except at the D(3) threshold. Bitewing radiographs presented the lowest values of sensitivity. Specificity at D(1) was higher for LFpen (0.90) and for VE at D(3) (0.94). When VE was combined with LFpen the post-test probabilities were the highest (94.0% and 89.2% at D(1) and D(3) thresholds, respectively). High values were observed for the combination of ICDAS and LFpen (92.0% and 80.0%, respectively). LF and LFpen showed the highest values of ICC for interexaminer reproducibility. However, regarding ICDAS, BW and VE, intraexaminer reproducibility was not the same for the two examiners. After primary visual inspection using ICDAS or not, the use of LFpen may aid in the detection of occlusal caries in primary teeth. Bitewing radiographs may be indicated only for approximal caries detection.

  18. A Comparison of Different Methods for Fissure Caries Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peycheva K.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to compare the diagnostic capabilities of three different diagnostic methods: Quantitative Laser Fluorescence (QLF − DIAGNOdent Classic (DD, Light-Induced Fluorescence (LIF − SoproLife daylight and blue fluorescence, and their relevance to ICDAS II system in detection of fissure caries lesions in permanent molars. Permanent molars (n = 45 are divided in two groups: 1 third molars, n = 35; 2 first and second molars, n = 10. They are examined by 2 examiners with and without magnification x5 using ICDAS II, SoproLife “day light” and “blue light” (405nm, LIF, DIAGNOdent Classic − emitting laser light on 655nm, QLF. The results are proven with histological bucco-lingual or mesio-distal sections through the body of the lesion with diamond blade rinsed with water. Photos of all occlusal surfaces of the molars are taken before and after the sections. The lowest overdiagnosis rate is found with SoproLife camera. When visual examination is applied overdiagnoses are fewer than with DD. DD is not capable to differentiate white and brown spots from a caries lesion. Soprolife is not capable to differentiate brown spots from a caries lesion. The most accurate method in this in vitro study for diagnosis of fissure caries is LIF (SoproLife − 75.6% of the teeth are correctly diagnosed, followed by ICDAS (57.8% and QLF (DIAGNOdent (40%.

  19. Bacterial, behavioral and environmental factors associated with early childhood caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Gomez, Francisco J; Weintraub, Jane A; Gansky, Stuart A; Hoover, Charles I; Featherstone, John D B

    2002-01-01

    The goals of this cross-sectional study were to characterize and compare demographic, behavioral, and environmental factors potentially associated with early childhood caries (ECC) and to assess salivary levels of mutans streptococci (MS) and lactobacilli (LB) in underserved, predominantly Hispanic children. One hundred forty-six children aged 3 to 55 months with a range of caries experience were identified and examined. ECC was primarily associated with the presence of MS and lack of access to dental care. Salivary MS levels among young children with ECC were higher than would be expected in a dentally healthy population, but lower than levels reported among older children at high risk for caries. After adjustment for age, children with log10 MS > or = 3.0 or log10 LB > or = 1.5 were about five times as likely (OR=4.9, 95% CI=2.0, 12.0) to have ECC than those with lower bacterial levels. This study demonstrated a significant association between relatively low cariogenic bacterial levels and dental caries in infants and toddlers. Antibiotic use, exposure to lead, and anemia were not significantly associated with the number of decayed and filled surfaces or decayed and filled teeth. ECC correlated significantly with child's age and lack of dental insurance of the children, as well as inversely with both family income and the educational level of the mother of the child.

  20. Digital contrast subtraction radiography for proximal caries diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Byung Cheol; Yoon, Suk Ja [Department of Dental Radiology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-06-15

    To determine whether subtraction images utilizing contrast media can improve the diagnostic performance of proximal caries diagnosis compared to conventional periapical radiographic images. Thirty-six teeth with 57 proximal surfaces were radiographied using a size no.2 RVG-ui sensor (Trophy Radiology, Marne-la-Vallee, France). The teeth immersed in water-soluble contrast media and subtraction images were taken. Each tooth was then sectioned for histologic examination. The digital radiographic images and subtraction images were examined and interpreted by three dentists for proximal caries. The results of the proximal caries diagnosis were then verified with the results of the histologic examination. The proximal caries sensitivity using digital subtraction radiography was significantly higher than simply examining a single digital radiograph. The sensitivity of the proximal dentinal carious lesion when analyzed with the subtraction radiograph and the radiograph together was higher than with the subtraction radiograph or the radiograph alone. The use of subtraction radiography with contrast media may be useful for detecting proximal dentinal carious lesions.

  1. The non-operative resin treatment of proximal caries lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekstrand, Kim; Martignon, Stefania; Bakhshandeh, Azam; Ricketts, David N J

    2012-11-01

    Epidemiological data show that the prevalence of caries on proximal surfaces in need of operative treatment is very high around the world, both in the primary and the permanent dentition. This article presents two new treatment methods: proximal sealing and proximal infiltration. The indications are progressing proximal caries lesions, radiographically with a depth around the enamel-dentine junction. A small number of studies regarding the effect of sealing and infiltration on proximal caries versus the use of fluoride varnish, placebo treatment and flossing instructions have been carried out. About half of the studies disclose a not significant difference between test and control treatment. In the other half, the therapeutic effect is significant and corresponds to about 30% reduction in lesion progression. However, longitudinal studies of longer duration are lacking. Proximal sealing and proximal infiltration may have a place in the treatment of non-cavitated proximal lesions. Proximal caries is a problem in both primary and permanent dentitions. Proximal sealants or lesion infiltration are possible treatments.

  2. Extraoral imaging for proximal caries detection: Bitewings vs scanogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Emad A; Tyndall, Donald A; Caplan, Daniel

    2004-12-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of 3 extraoral imaging modalities with an intraoral bitewing radiograph for proximal caries detection. Three modalities of Cranex TOME scanograms, x-ray film and DenOptix photostimulable phosphor plates with and without digital enhancement, were compared with Insight intraoral radiographs for proximal caries detection. Nine observers evaluated images of the proximal surfaces of 45 extracted posterior teeth. The presence or absence of caries was scored using a 5-point confidence scale. The ground truth was determined from histological sections. Responses were evaluated by repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) for areas under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves (A z ). Repeated measures ANOVA (at alpha = 0.05) demonstrated significant differences among modalities ( P = .041). Paired t tests with Bonferroni correction demonstrated that Insight was superior to only unenhanced digital scanograms ( P = .003). Mean A z scores (+/-SD) were 0.73 (+/-0.08) for Insight, 0.65 (+/-0.06) for screen/film scanogram, 0.64 (+/-0.04) for unenhanced digital scanogram, and 0.66 (+/-0.07) for enhanced digital scanogram. The performances of film-based and enhanced digital scanograms were not statistically different from Insight film for proximal caries detection. Unenhanced digital scanograms exhibited a statistically significant lower diagnostic accuracy than Insight film.

  3. Digital contrast subtraction radiography for proximal caries diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Byung Cheol; Yoon, Suk Ja

    2002-01-01

    To determine whether subtraction images utilizing contrast media can improve the diagnostic performance of proximal caries diagnosis compared to conventional periapical radiographic images. Thirty-six teeth with 57 proximal surfaces were radiographied using a size no.2 RVG-ui sensor (Trophy Radiology, Marne-la-Vallee, France). The teeth immersed in water-soluble contrast media and subtraction images were taken. Each tooth was then sectioned for histologic examination. The digital radiographic images and subtraction images were examined and interpreted by three dentists for proximal caries. The results of the proximal caries diagnosis were then verified with the results of the histologic examination. The proximal caries sensitivity using digital subtraction radiography was significantly higher than simply examining a single digital radiograph. The sensitivity of the proximal dentinal carious lesion when analyzed with the subtraction radiograph and the radiograph together was higher than with the subtraction radiograph or the radiograph alone. The use of subtraction radiography with contrast media may be useful for detecting proximal dentinal carious lesions.

  4. [Dental caries and early childhood development: a pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, F Loreto; Sanz, B Javier; Mejía, L Gloria

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the association between dental caries and early childhood development in 3-year-olds from Talca, Chile. A pilot study with a convenience sample of 3-year-olds from Talca (n = 39) who attend public healthcare centers. Child development was measured by the Psychomotor Development Index (PDI), a screening tool used nationally among pre-school children to assess language development, fine motor skills and coordination areas. Dental caries prevalence was evaluated by decayed, missing, filled teeth (DFMT) and decayed, missing, filled tooth surfaces (DFMS) ceo-d and ceo-s indexes. The children were divided into two groups according to the PDIscore: those with a score of 40 or more were considered developmentally normal (n = 32), and those with a score below 40 were considered as having impaired development (n = 7). The severity of caries (DMFT) was negatively correlated with PDI (r = -0.82), and children with the lowest TEPSI score had the highest DFMT values. The average DMFT in children with normal development was 1.31, and 3.57 for those with impaired development. This pilot study indicates that the severity of dental caries is correlated with early childhood development. Copyright © 2015. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  5. In vitro study of caries detection through sound dentin using a laser fluorescence device, DIAGNOdent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwami, Yukiteru; Shimizu, Ayako; Yamamoto, Hiroko; Hayashi, Mikako; Takeshige, Fumio; Ebisu, Shigeyuki

    2003-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of proximal surface caries detection using a laser fluorescence device, DIAGNOdent, through the sound dentin surrounding the cavity wall after removal of occlusal caries. Extracted sound human molars were ground to prepare horizontal and vertical dentin plates 1.4 mm thick. Extracted carious human molars were reduced in thickness horizontally from the occlusal surfaces until exposure of the dentin caries. The dentin plate was placed on the carious tooth. Before and after gradual thinning of the dentin plate from approximately 1.4 mm to 0.2 mm thick, the dentin caries was measured 10 times through the plate by the laser fluorescence device with a cone-shaped tip or a broad tip. When the dentin plate was reduced to less than 0.3 mm thick (using a combination of a horizontal plate and cone-shaped tip) or 0.2 mm thick (using the other combinations), the values measured with the laser fluorescence device were significantly larger than the values before reducing the thickness of the dentin. Based on these results, the device offers potential use as one of the screening tests for proximal surface caries detection through sound dentin when the sound dentin between tip and caries is thin.

  6. Salivary Microbiome Diversity in Caries-Free and Caries-Affected Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shan; Gao, Xiaoli; Jin, Lijian; Lo, Edward C. M.

    2016-01-01

    Dental caries (tooth decay) is an infectious disease. Its etiology is not fully understood from the microbiological perspective. This study characterizes the diversity of microbial flora in the saliva of children with and without dental caries. Children (3–4 years old) with caries (n = 20) and without caries (n = 20) were recruited. Unstimulated saliva (2 mL) was collected from each child and the total microbial genomic DNA was extracted. DNA amplicons of the V3-V4 hypervariable region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene were generated and subjected to Illumina Miseq sequencing. A total of 17 phyla, 26 classes, 40 orders, 80 families, 151 genera, and 310 bacterial species were represented in the saliva samples. There was no significant difference in the microbiome diversity between caries-affected and caries-free children (p > 0.05). The relative abundance of several species (Rothia dentocariosa, Actinomyces graevenitzii, Veillonella sp. oral taxon 780, Prevotella salivae, and Streptococcus mutans) was higher in the caries-affected group than in the caries-free group (p caries-free children than in caries-affected children (p caries-free and caries-affected children were similar. Salivary counts of certain bacteria such as R. dentocariosa and F. periodonticum may be useful for screening/assessing children’s risk of developing caries. PMID:27898021

  7. Ameloglyphics and predilection of dental caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girish, HC; Murgod, Sanjay; Ravath, CJ Manasa; Hegde, Ramesh B

    2013-01-01

    Background: Dental caries is an infectious disease of microbiologic origin resulting in destruction and loss of tooth structure and is related to every speciality of dentistry. Many studies have been carried out to identify the causative factors, methods of prevention, and treatment of dental caries. Ameloglyphics is the study of enamel rod end patterns. These patterns have been found to be unique to individual teeth of the same individual and also to different individuals. A possible correlation between the type of enamel rod end pattern and the occurrence of dental caries might help in predicting caries susceptibility of an individual and implementation of preventive measures. This is a simple and easy method cutting short elaborate methods currently in use and can be invaluable in caries prevention. Objective: This study is aimed at ascertaining the possibility of a correlation between enamel rod end patterns and occurrence of dental caries, which might help in identifying predisposition to dental caries. Materials and Methods: Thirty carious and 30 noncarious teeth were used to obtain enamel rod end patterns. Occurrence of any particular pattern in either of the study groups, which might affect the predisposition of teeth to dental caries was analyzed. Results: No particular rod end pattern was found in teeth affected by dental caries. Also, no particular pattern was found to be unique to teeth not affected by dental caries. PMID:24250075

  8. Diagnosis of Dentin Caries – Ultraviolet Fluorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzunov Ts.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The technology advance in recent years determines the need of construction of modern appliances for early diagnosis of dental caries, which are categorized by great precision, non-invasiveness, easy usage and wide availability. Such non-invasive and accurate tool for diagnostics of caries is Caries Detector (LED, Bulgarian product by “Optica Laser”. The detector emits a specific wavelength of near ultraviolet light, which causes fluorescence to porphyrins - metabolic products of the life cycle of caries-inducing bacteria. The purpose of the study is piloting a new diagnostic tool for detection and monitoring of caries excavation based on fluorescence - LED UV caries detector of company “Optica laser”. Subjected to examination by caries indicator dye and UV caries detector were sixty permanent teeth with deep dentine caries. Two methods were used to assess the dentin caries - UV fluorescence detector of “Optica Laser” and staining with caries indicator - dye (Sable ™ Seek®. It was found that among all sixty teeth, the fields, closed by margins of carious process overlap. Fifty-four of tested teeth has shown bigger field of images with staining method and six - smaller in comparison to the fluorescent method. Ultraviolet fLuorescence caries detector of “Optica Laser” company is affordable and easy applicable method for controlled excavation of dentine caries. The detector can be used in daily dental practice equally with other methods. The unit has a number of advantages - non-invasiveness, lack of interaction with tooth structures, speed, reliability, efficiency, predictability and repeatability of results.

  9. Effect of erythritol and xylitol on dental caries prevention in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honkala, Sisko; Runnel, Riina; Saag, Mare; Olak, Jana; Nõmmela, Rita; Russak, Silvia; Mäkinen, Pirkko-Liisa; Vahlberg, Tero; Falony, Gwen; Mäkinen, Kauko; Honkala, Eino

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of long-term, daily intake of erythritol and xylitol candy, compared with sorbitol candy, on the development of enamel and dentin caries lesions. The study was a double-blind randomized controlled prospective clinical trial. Altogether 485 primary school children, first- and second-graders at baseline, from southeastern Estonia participated in this 3-year intervention. Each child consumed four erythritol, xylitol or sorbitol (control) candies three times per school day. The daily intake of polyol was about 7.5 g. The International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) was used in the clinical examinations by four calibrated examiners at baseline and at 12, 24 and 36 months. The annual examination analyses and the follow-up analyses confirmed that the number of dentin caries teeth and surfaces at 24 months follow-up and surfaces at 36 months follow-up was significantly lower in the mixed dentition in the erythritol group than in the xylitol or control group. Time of enamel/dentin caries lesions to develop and of dentin caries lesions to progress was significantly longer in the erythritol group compared to the sorbitol and xylitol groups. Also the increase in caries score was lower in the erythritol group than in the other groups. In the follow-up examinations, a lower number of dentin caries teeth and surfaces was found in the erythritol group than in the xylitol or control groups. Time to the development of caries lesions was longest in the erythritol group. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT01062633. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Disease Management of Early Childhood Caries: ECC Collaborative Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Man Wai; Ramos-Gomez, Francisco; Lieberman, Martin; Lee, Jessica Y; Scoville, Richard; Hannon, Cindy; Maramaldi, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Until recently, the standard of care for early childhood caries (ECC) has been primarily surgical and restorative treatment with little emphasis on preventing and managing the disease itself. It is now recognized that surgical treatment alone does not address the underlying etiology of the disease. Despite costly surgeries and reparative treatment, the onset and progression of caries are likely to continue. A successful rebalance of risk and protective factors may prevent, slow down, or even arrest dental caries and its progression. An 18-month risk-based chronic disease management (DM) approach to address ECC in preschool children was implemented as a quality improvement (QI) collaborative by seven teams of oral health care providers across the United States. In the aggregate, fewer DM children experienced new cavitation, pain, and referrals to the operating room (OR) for restorative treatment compared to baseline historical controls. The teams found that QI methods facilitated adoption of the DM approach and resulted in improved care to patients and better outcomes overall. Despite these successes, the wide scale adoption and spread of the DM approach may be limited unless health policy and payment reforms are enacted to compensate providers for implementing DM protocols in their practice.

  11. Disease Management of Early Childhood Caries: ECC Collaborative Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Wai Ng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Until recently, the standard of care for early childhood caries (ECC has been primarily surgical and restorative treatment with little emphasis on preventing and managing the disease itself. It is now recognized that surgical treatment alone does not address the underlying etiology of the disease. Despite costly surgeries and reparative treatment, the onset and progression of caries are likely to continue. A successful rebalance of risk and protective factors may prevent, slow down, or even arrest dental caries and its progression. An 18-month risk-based chronic disease management (DM approach to address ECC in preschool children was implemented as a quality improvement (QI collaborative by seven teams of oral health care providers across the United States. In the aggregate, fewer DM children experienced new cavitation, pain, and referrals to the operating room (OR for restorative treatment compared to baseline historical controls. The teams found that QI methods facilitated adoption of the DM approach and resulted in improved care to patients and better outcomes overall. Despite these successes, the wide scale adoption and spread of the DM approach may be limited unless health policy and payment reforms are enacted to compensate providers for implementing DM protocols in their practice.

  12. Teeth Caries Decay in MR Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanasiewicz, M.M.; Kupka, T.W.; Weglarz, W.P.; Jasinski, A.

    2005-01-01

    X-ray based visualization techniques were for many years the only way to asses structure and state of the human teeth. MRI has been used in the research of the healthy and decayed teeth during last decade. Several papers were presented showing usefulness of spin echo and gradient echo imaging, Single Point Imaging, SPRITE and STRAFI techniques for visualization of the dental surface geometry as well as for distinction between soft tissue (pulp) and mineralized tissue (enamel, dentine and root cement) in the extracted teeth. Recently, MRI was used for estimation of the facial bone structure, in preparation to implantation, localization of the tumor in the facial bone tissue, and in detection of the osteoporosis. The aim of this work was to investigate potential of MRI for detection and estimation of the caries, on the level of laboratory pre-clinical tests. This work was done within the project to develop original, MRI based diagnostic technique for dentistry needs. MRI experiments were performed on the 5 decayed extracted human teeth (impossible conservative therapy), obtained at Dept. of Dental Surgery MUS. After extraction teeth were stored in saline. MRI measurements were done in MR Tomography Lab INP. Prior to the experiment, tooth was degassed to minimize magnetic susceptibility artifacts. A 3D spin echo pulse sequence on the 4.7 T research MRI system, equipped with Maran DRX console, and dedicated home-built probe head, was used to obtain three dimensional (256x128x128) images of the teeth. Corresponding resolution was 60x120x160 mm 3 . High intensity signal from water penetrated into the porous decayed regions of tooth, contrasted with lack of signal from mineralized tooth tissue, allow for visualization of the presence and extent of caries. Among the 5 measured teeth, MRI allows for detection of the caries in two most decayed tooth. High intensity signal from water penetrated into the porous decayed regions of tooth, contrasted with lack of signal from

  13. Caries arrest by topical fluorides in preschool children: 30-month results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duangthip, D; Wong, M C M; Chu, C H; Lo, E C M

    2018-03-01

    To compare the effectiveness of three applications of silver diammine fluoride (SDF) solution at yearly interval and three applications of SDF solution or sodium fluoride (NaF) varnish at weekly interval at baseline in arresting active caries in the primary teeth of preschool children. Children aged 3-4 years (n = 371) who had at least one active caries lesion (ICDAS codes 3-6) in their primary teeth were randomly allocated into three groups: Group 1 - annual application of 30% SDF solution; Group 2 - three applications of 30% SDF at weekly intervals; and Group 3 - three applications of 5% NaF varnish at weekly intervals. Follow-up examinations were performed every 6 mo nths by the same masked examiner. After 30 months, 309 (83%) children with 1877 caries lesions remained in the study. For cavitated lesions (ICDAS code 5 or 6), the caries arrest rate of Group 1 (48%) was significantly higher than those of Group 2 (33%) and Group 3 (34%), (p  0.05). Presence of plaque on caries lesion, tooth type and tooth surface type had an influence on caries arrest. Over a 30-month period, annual applications of SDF solution is more effective than three weekly applications of NaF varnish or SDF solution at baseline in arresting active cavitated dentine caries lesions in primary teeth. As annual application of SDF solution was found to be more effective than 3 weekly applications of NaF varnish or SDF solution at baseline in arresting active cavitated dentine caries lesions, the former application protocol is preferred for young children who are available for regular caries arrest treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Pilot clinical study to assess caries lesion activity using quantitative light-induced fluorescence during dehydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Masatoshi; Ferreira-Zandoná, Andrea G.; Eckert, George J.; Zero, Domenick T.; Stookey, George K.

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the ability of quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF) to assess caries lesion activity using visual examination (VE) as the gold standard. Twenty-four visible white spot lesions on buccal surfaces were examined from 23 children, ages 9 to 14 years. At baseline, the surface was hydrated with water, and thereafter, it was dehydrated with continuous compressed air during image acquisition. QLF images were acquired at 0 (baseline), 5, and 15 s. QLF variables [QLFV: fluorescence loss (ΔF), lesion size (S), ΔQ: ΔF×S] was recorded. Changes-in-QLFV per second (ΔQLFV) were determined: ΔQLFV=(QLFVN-QLF/N), where N indicates dehydration time. One experienced dentist conducted VE independently using a dental unit's light, compressed air, and explorer. QLFV and ΔQLFV of the active group (n=11) were compared with those of the inactive group (n=13) using two-sample t-tests. As the surface was dehydrated, S and ΔQ values of the active group increased, whereas QLFV of the inactive group showed only a small change. ΔQLFV of the active group were larger than those of the inactive group; however, the difference did not reach statistical significance (p>0.11). Within the limitations of this study, QLF data indicated increments for lesions designated as active and minimal change for lesions defined as inactive.

  15. Root caries prevalence in a group of Brazilian adult dental patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watanabe Marlívia G.C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to measure the caries prevalence in the root surface in a group of Brazilian adults. The prevalence and their intraoral distribution of caries lesions of root surface were assessed in dental patients ranging in age from 35 to 44 and from 50 to 59 years of age of both sexes (n=360. A total of 98.9% had root surfaces with gingival recession and 78.1% had at least one root caries lesion. The prevalence of the disease was analyzed using the Root Caries Index (RCI. The average value was greater for women (18.6% than for men (13.4% (p0.01. The maxillary canines and first premolars and the mandibular molars presented the greatest RCI values. The RCI was greater in the proximal surface of the maxilla and buccal surface of the mandible. We conclude that caries of the root surface are present in the Brazilian population and deserve attention concerning their actual role in the epidemiology of principal oral diseases of the adult population.

  16. Adding caries diagnosis to caries risk assessment: the next step in caries management by risk assessment (CAMBRA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Steven

    2009-10-01

    In the quest to conquer dental caries, caries management by risk assessment (CAMBRA) is a significant tool. Using CAMBRA methodology, the clinician identifies the cause of disease by assessing each patient's risk factors. By managing risk factors, the clinician then corrects the problems. Through the use of risk assessment, CAMBRA focuses on predicting likelihood of disease. In addition, the present condition of the patient needs to be addressed. That is to say, a diagnosis is needed. This article suggests that including a diagnosis with risk assessment adds to the understanding and improves management of dental caries. A simplified caries treatment protocol is presented, using these concepts.

  17. Proximal caries lesion detection using the Canary Caries Detection System: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Janja; Wan Bakar, Wan Zaripah; Mathews, Sapna M; Okoye, Linda O; Ehler, Benjamin R; Louden, Christopher; Amaechi, Bennett T

    2016-11-01

    This study investigated the accuracy of the Canary System (CS) to detect proximal caries lesions in vitro, and compared it with conventional methods: International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) II and bitewing radiography (BW). Visible proximal surfaces of extracted human teeth were assessed by ICDAS-II before setting them in five manikin mouth models. Then contacting proximal surfaces in mouth models were assessed by BW and CS. Histological validation with polarized-light microscopy served as a gold standard. Pairwise comparisons were performed on area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity, and specificity of the three methods, and corrected using Bonferroni's method. Sensitivities and specificities were compared using a test of proportions and AUC values were compared using DeLong's method. The CS presented significantly higher sensitivity (0.933) than ICDAS-II (0.733, P = 0.01) and BW (0.267, P proximal lesions than ICDAS-II and BW, although without significantly higher specificity. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  18. Caries management by risk assessment: A review on current strategies for caries prevention and management

    OpenAIRE

    Maheswari, S. Uma; Raja, Jacob; Kumar, Arvind; Seelan, R. Gnana

    2015-01-01

    The current trend in treating dental caries is using nondestructive risk-based caries management strategies rather than focusing on the restorative treatment alone. Currently, there have been many changes in understanding of the multifaceted nature of caries process and its management. Caries Management by Risk Assessment (CAMBRA) which is an evidence-based approach focuses on determining many factors causing the expression of disease and take corrective action. The clinicians can ascertain w...

  19. Predicting Dental Caries Outcomes in Children: A "Risky" Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divaris, K

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, unprecedented gains in the understanding of the biology and mechanisms underlying human health and disease have been made. In the domain of oral health, although much remains to be learned, the complex interactions between different systems in play have begun to unravel: host genome, oral microbiome with its transcriptome, proteome and metabolome, and more distal influences, including relevant behaviors and environmental exposures. A reasonable expectation is that this emerging body of knowledge can help improve the oral health and optimize care for individuals and populations. These goals are articulated by the National Institutes of Health as "precision medicine" and the elimination of health disparities. Key processes in these efforts are the discovery of causal factors or mechanistic pathways and the identification of individuals or population segments that are most likely to develop (any or severe forms of) oral disease. This article critically reviews the fundamental concepts of risk assessment and outcome prediction, as they relate to early childhood caries (ECC)-a common complex disease with significant negative impacts on children, their families, and the health system. The article highlights recent work and advances in methods available to estimate caries risk and derive person-level caries propensities. It further discusses the reasons for their limited utility in predicting individual ECC outcomes and informing clinical decision making. Critical issues identified include the misconception of defining dental caries as a tooth or surface-level condition versus a person-level disease; the fallacy of applying population-level parameters to individuals, termed privatization of risk; and the inadequacy of using frequentist versus Bayesian modeling approaches to derive individual disease propensity estimates. The article concludes with the notion that accurate caries risk assessment at the population level and "precision dentistry" at the

  20. Effectiveness of Xylitol in Reducing Dental Caries in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marghalani, Abdullah A; Guinto, Emilie; Phan, Minhthu; Dhar, Vineet; Tinanoff, Norman

    2017-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of xylitol in reducing dental caries in children compared to no treatment, a placebo, or preventive strategies. MEDLINE via PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) were searched from January 1, 1995 through Sept. 26, 2016 for randomized and controlled trials on children consuming xylitol for at least 12 months. The primary endpoint was caries reduction measured by mean decayed, missing, and filled primary and permanent surfaces/ teeth (dmfs/t, DMFS/T, respectively). The I2 and chi-square test for heterogeneity were used to detect trial heterogeneity. Meta-analyses were performed and quality was evaluated using GRADE profiler software. Analysis of five randomized controlled trials (RCTs) showed that xylitol had a small effect on reducing dental caries (standardized mean difference [SMD] equals -0.24; 95 percent confidence interval [CI] equals -0.48 to 0.01; P = 0.06) with a very low quality of evidence and considerable heterogeneity. Studies with higher xylitol doses (greater than four grams per day) demonstrated a medium caries reduction (SMD equals -0.54; 95 percent CI equals -1.14 to 0.05; P = 0.07), with these studies also having considerable heterogeneity and very low quality of evidence. The present systematic review examining the effectiveness of xylitol on caries incidence in children showed a small effect size in randomized controlled trials and a very low quality of evidence that makes preventive action of xylitol uncertain.

  1. Dental caries and treatment needs of children (6-10 years in rural Udaipur, Rajasthan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhar Vineet

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : This study was done to examine caries prevalence and corresponding treatment needs in school children of rural areas of Udaipur, Rajasthan. Materials and Methods : A total of 750 children of rural areas in the age group of 6-10 years were examined, using WHO index, to record the prevalence of dental caries and treatment needs. The results were subjected to statistical analysis using chi square test. Results : Dental caries was found in 63.20% children, and 85.07% children needed dental treatment. The highest need was of one surface filling (85.73% followed by sealant (51.20%. Conclusion : Dental caries showed to be a significant health issue in the rural population requiring immediate attention.

  2. Risk factors in dental caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Emamie

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available   Since 3 decades ago, dental equipments and technologies as well as materials have been greatly improved and numerous effective treatment modalities have been discovered. As a result, the number of survived teeth have been greatly increased and many studies have been conducted in this regard. Fluride therapy is found as an effective treatment modality and can reduce dental caries up to 60%, due to recent evidences.

  3. Diagnosis of Dentin Caries – Ultraviolet Fluorescence

    OpenAIRE

    Uzunov Ts.; Uzunov T.; Grozdanova R.; Kosturkov D.

    2014-01-01

    The technology advance in recent years determines the need of construction of modern appliances for early diagnosis of dental caries, which are categorized by great precision, non-invasiveness, easy usage and wide availability. Such non-invasive and accurate tool for diagnostics of caries is Caries Detector (LED), Bulgarian product by “Optica Laser”. The detector emits a specific wavelength of near ultraviolet light, which causes fluorescence to porphyrins - metabolic products of the life cyc...

  4. Palmistry: A tool for dental caries prediction!

    OpenAIRE

    Nidhi Madan; Arun Rathnam; Neeti Bajaj

    2011-01-01

    Background: Dermatoglyphics can prove to be an extremely useful tool for preliminary investigations in conditions with a suspected genetic base. Since caries is a multifactorial disease with the influence of genetic pattern, early prediction for high-risk children can help in using effective and efficient caries preventive measures that are a part of the pedodontist arsenal. Aims and Objectives: This study was done to determine the genetic aspect involved in the occurrence of dental carie...

  5. Snacking Habits and Caries in Young Children

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, I.; Lif Holgerson, P.; Kressin, N.R.; Nunn, M.E.; Tanner, A.C.

    2010-01-01

    Dental caries is caused by a combination of infection and diet. This disease, if left untreated, may lead to pain, and impair the quality of life, nutritional status and development of young children. The objective was to investigate the association between snacking and caries in a population at high risk of dental caries. American preschool children (n = 1,206) were recruited in the offices of paediatricians. Data on sociodemographic characteristics, oral hygiene, breast-feeding, use of bott...

  6. Caries risk assessment: why, when and how?

    OpenAIRE

    Antonsen, Grethe Marie; Hunstad, Marie Nøvik

    2011-01-01

    This literature study reviewed papers on caries risk assessment on patients` above 18 years published between 2000 and 2010. In the present study three different methods are discussed: The Cariogram, CAMBRA ( Caries Management By Risk Assessment) and the UIT – method (University of Tromsø). The purpose of caries risk assessments are to find out which risk level the patient has and try to lower the risk. By evaluating the protective and pathologic factors involved in the carious disease the de...

  7. Performance of RVGui sensor and Kodak Ektaspeed Plus film for proximal caries detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, M; Mol, A; Ludlow, J B

    2001-03-01

    A high-resolution charge-coupled device was used to compare the diagnostic performances obtained with Trophy's new RVGui sensor and Kodak Ektaspeed Plus film with respect to caries detection. Three acquisition modes of the Trophy RVGui sensor were compared with Kodak Ektaspeed Plus film. Images of the proximal surfaces of 40 extracted posterior teeth were evaluated by 6 observers. The presence or absence of caries was scored by means of a 5-point confidence scale. The actual caries status of each surface was determined through ground-section histology. Responses were evaluated by means of receiver operating characteristic analysis. Areas under receiver operating characteristic curves (A(Z)) were assessed through analysis of variance. The mean A(Z) scores were 0.85 for film, 0.84 for the high-resolution caries mode, and 0.82 for both the low resolution caries mode and the high-resolution periodontal mode. These differences were not statistically significant (P =.70). The differences among observers also were not statistically significant (P =.23). The performance of the RVGui sensor in high- and low-resolution modes for proximal caries detection is comparable to that of Ektaspeed Plus film.

  8. Restoration outcomes after restoring vital teeth with advanced caries lesions: a practice-based retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwendicke, Falk; Krüger, Hannes; Schlattmann, Peter; Paris, Sebastian

    2016-09-01

    Maintaining pulpal vitality and achieving long-term restoration success are challenging when treating advanced caries lesions. We aimed at assessing success, survival, and influencing factors of treating advanced lesions in general dental practice. Patient record databases from six practices in Germany were assessed. Permanent posterior teeth with lesions radiographically extending into inner dentin with sensible (vital) pulps were retrospectively evaluated. Outcome parameters were success (absence of re-treatment) and survival (absence of extraction). Mean success/survival times were estimated, and effect of treatment modifiers assessed using Lee, Wei, and Amato (LWA) regression. Two hundred thirty-two patients (308 teeth) were assessed. Lesions (93 %) included proximal surfaces. Eight teeth showed preoperative intermitting or provocation pain. Thirty four % of teeth experienced pulpal exposure during excavation. Mean follow-up time was 74 months. Mean success time was 130 months. Teeth (142/308) required re-interventions, mostly due to secondary caries and restorative or endodontic complications. Only 13 teeth required extraction (mean survival time 307 months). Hazard of failure was significantly reduced in younger patients (<40 years) (hazard ratio (HR) [95 % confidence interval (CI)] 0.57 [0.35/0.91]) and teeth without preoperative pain (0.39 [0.17/0.90]). Compared with teeth receiving amalgams, those restored using cements (2.44 [1.05/3.98]) or composites (1.64 [1.15/2.38]) had higher risk of failure. Hazard of extraction was higher in teeth with pulpal exposure (4.90 [1.36/17.7] or cement restorations (23.6 [5.56/100]). Teeth with advanced lesions had high risk of failure, while risk of extraction was low. Teeth treated for advanced lesions required re-treatment frequently but were retained long term. Age, pulpal exposure, and restoration type were associated with risk of failure or extraction.

  9. Palmistry: a tool for dental caries prediction!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Nidhi; Rathnam, Arun; Bajaj, Neeti

    2011-01-01

    Dermatoglyphics can prove to be an extremely useful tool for preliminary investigations in conditions with a suspected genetic base. Since caries is a multifactorial disease with the influence of genetic pattern, early prediction for high-risk children can help in using effective and efficient caries preventive measures that are a part of the pedodontist arsenal. This study was done to determine the genetic aspect involved in the occurrence of dental caries through a cost-effective means, which can be used in field studies. 550 kindergarten school children in the age group 3-6 years were examined during a school examination camp. Of these, only 336 children were included in the study. They were divided into four groups as follows: caries-free males (df score=0), caries-free females, caries males (df score≥10), caries females. The handprints of each child were taken and the frequency of occurrence of type of dermatoglyphic pattern on fingertip of each digit was noted. Separate df scores were recorded. SPSS software and test of proportions were used for the analysis. Handprints of caries-free children, especially females, showed maximum ulnar loops. The caries group showed maximum occurrence of whorls (r=2:1), which were more prevalent in females on the left hand 3rd digit than in males where the whorls were found on the right hand 3 rd digit, and also low total ridge count, especially in males.

  10. The relationship between diet and Dental Caries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duggal, M. S

    1991-01-01

    Dental caries is a disease of multifactorial etiology and results from a complex interaction between both cariogenic and protective influences acting on the teeth. Though diet plays a major role in the causation of dental caries it has been a common mistake to over-simplify the relationship. Dietary manipulation is also extremely difficult to achieve thus limiting its role in the prevention of caries. Accordingly, alternative preventive measures such as the use of fissure sealants and fluoride which enhance the resistance of the host to disease and are of proven efficacy are more likely to be successful in the control and prevention of dental caries. (author)

  11. Dental caries vaccine - a possible option?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kt, Shanmugam; Kmk, Masthan; N, Balachander; Jimson, Sudha; R, Sarangarajan

    2013-06-01

    Dental caries is an irreversible microbial disease of the calcified tissues of the teeth and it has a multifactorial origin. In India, the dental caries prevalence in 35-44 year olds was reported to be 80-95% in a DCI survey. Among the elderly in the 65-74 years age group, the DCI survey reported the caries prevalence to be about 70%, while the present survey reported it to be 51- 95% in various states. Surveys which were done on school children in India showed a carie prevalence of approximately 58%.Among the U.S. population, a survey showed an incidence of 93.8% in adults with either past or present coronal caries and an incidence of 45.3% in children 23. In countries like Brazil and China, it is reaching epidemic proportions. Thus, more effective public-health measures are needed to combat dental caries. Mutans streptococci is one of the main microorganisms which are associated with the aetiology of dental caries. Preclinical studies of immunological interventions have shown that the disease can be interrupted. Clinical trials have indicated that a mucosal immune response to Streptococcus mutans crucial antigens can influence the pathogenesis of dental caries. The dental caries vaccine, when it is used in appropriate individuals at the appropriate time, can reduce the reemergence of the disease.

  12. Dental Caries Vaccine – A Possible Option?

    Science.gov (United States)

    KT, Shanmugam; KMK, Masthan; N, Balachander; Jimson, Sudha; R, Sarangarajan

    2013-01-01

    Dental caries is an irreversible microbial disease of the calcified tissues of the teeth and it has a multifactorial origin. In India, the dental caries prevalence in 35-44 year olds was reported to be 80-95% in a DCI survey. Among the elderly in the 65-74 years age group, the DCI survey reported the caries prevalence to be about 70%, while the present survey reported it to be 51- 95% in various states. Surveys which were done on school children in India showed a carie prevalence of approximately 58%.Among the U.S. population, a survey showed an incidence of 93.8% in adults with either past or present coronal caries and an incidence of 45.3% in children 23. In countries like Brazil and China, it is reaching epidemic proportions. Thus, more effective public-health measures are needed to combat dental caries. Mutans streptococci is one of the main microorganisms which are associated with the aetiology of dental caries. Preclinical studies of immunological interventions have shown that the disease can be interrupted. Clinical trials have indicated that a mucosal immune response to Streptococcus mutans crucial antigens can influence the pathogenesis of dental caries. The dental caries vaccine, when it is used in appropriate individuals at the appropriate time, can reduce the reemergence of the disease. PMID:23905153

  13. The natural history of dental caries lesions: a 4-year observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira Zandoná, A; Santiago, E; Eckert, G J; Katz, B P; Pereira de Oliveira, S; Capin, O R; Mau, M; Zero, D T

    2012-09-01

    Dental caries is a ubiquitous disease affecting all age groups and segments of the population. It is known that not all caries lesions progress to cavitation, but little is known regarding the progression pattern of caries lesions. This study's purpose was to evaluate the natural history of dental caries using a standardized, visually based system, the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS). The study population consisted of 565 consenting children, who were enrolled and examined at baseline and at regular intervals over 48 months with ICDAS and yearly bitewing radiographs. Of these, 338 children completed all examinations. Not all lesions cavitated at the same rate, differing by surface type and baseline ICDAS severity score and activity status. With increasing severity, the percentage of lesions progressing to cavitation increased: 19%, 32%, 68%, and 66% for ICDAS scores 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Lesions on occlusal surfaces were more likely to cavitate, followed by buccal pits, lingual grooves, proximal surfaces, and buccal and lingual surfaces. Cavitation was more likely on molars, followed by pre-molars and anterior teeth. Predictors of cavitation included age, gender, surfaces and tooth types, and ICDAS severity/activity at baseline. In conclusion, characterization of lesion severity with ICDAS can be a strong predictor of lesion progression to cavitation.

  14. Ex vivo imaging of early dental caries within the interproximal space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo-Smith, Lin-P'ing; Hewko, Mark D.; Dufour, Marc L.; Fulton, Crystal; Qiu, Pingli; Gauthier, Bruno; Padioleau, Christian; Bisaillon, Charles-Etienne; Dong, Cecilia; Cleghorn, Blaine M.; Lamouche, Guy; Sowa, Michael G.

    2009-02-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is emerging as a technology that can potentially be used for the detection and monitoring of early dental enamel caries since it can provide high-resolution depth imaging of early lesions. To date, most caries detection optical technologies are well suited for examining caries at facial, lingual, incisal and occlusal surfaces. The approximal surfaces between adjacent teeth are difficult to examine due to lack of visual access and limited space for these new caries detection tools. Using a catheter-style probe developed at the NRC-Industrial Materials Institute, the probe was inserted into the interproximal space to examine the approximal surfaces with OCT imaging at 1310 nm. The probe was rotated continuously and translated axially to generate depth images in a spiral fashion. The probe was used in a mock tooth arch model consisting of extracted human teeth mounted with dental rope wax in their anatomically correct positions. With this ex vivo model, the probe provided images of the approximal surfaces revealing morphological structural details, regions of calculus, and especially regions of early dental caries (white spot lesions). Results were compared with those obtained from OCT imaging of individual samples where the approximal surfaces of extracted teeth are accessible on a lab-bench. Issues regarding access, regions of interest, and factors to be considered in an in vivo setting will be discussed. Future studies are aimed at using the probe in vivo with patient volunteers.

  15. Salivary microbiota in individuals with different levels of caries experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belstrøm, Daniel; Holmstrup, Palle; Fiehn, Nils-Erik

    2017-01-01

    This study compared salivary bacterial profiles in two groups having a 10-fold difference in levels of caries experience, as it was hypothesized that the composition of the salivary microbiota might associate with the levels of caries experience. Bacterial profiles in stimulated saliva samples from...... 85 individuals with low levels of caries experience (healthy group) and 79 individuals with high levels of caries experience (caries group) were analyzed by means of the Human Oral Microbiome Identification Next Generation Sequencing (HOMINGS) technique. Subsequently, saliva samples from caries......-free individuals in the healthy group (n = 57) and the caries group (n = 31) were compared. A significantly higher α-diversity (p caries group...

  16. Quantification and Management of Manifest Occlusal Caries Lesions in Adults: A Methodological and a Clinical Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakhshandeh, Azam

    2010-01-01

    Resin fissure sealants were introduced in child and adolescents dental health care in the late 1960s and early 1970s in Denmark. Since the initial experience was good, sealing of first molars’ occlusal surfaces shortly after tooth eruption was a regular caries preventive treatment in the 1980s....... Today, due to the improved dental health, resin sealants on occlusal surfaces are mainly used based on indication, i.e. surfaces with progressive enamel lesions. Previous studies indicate that progression of the occlusal caries lesion may be arrested with resin sealants provided that the sealant...

  17. Inequality of Experience of Dental Caries between Different Ethnic Groups of Brazilians Aged 15 to 19 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Andreia Maria Araújo; Ferreira, Efigênia Ferreira; Gomes, Viviane Elisangela; Marcenes, Wagner

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess inequality of experience of dental caries, based on race/ethnicity, among Brazilian adolescents aged 15 to 19 years in 2010 and test whether socioeconomic indicators fully explain ethnic differences in dental caries. Data from a National Oral Health Survey conducted in Brazil in 2010 was analysed. Race/ethnicity was self-assigned and modified to White, African descents, East Asian descents, Mixed Race and Indigenous descents. The prevalence of caries experience by race/ethnic group in 2010(n = 5,367) was calculated. Further analysis included conceptual hierarchical modelling and mediation analysis. Caries experience was 76.9% in 15 to 19 year old Brazilians in 2010. While African descents were 32% more likely to have caries experience than Whites, Mixed Race were 69% more likely to have caries experience than Whites. Hierarchical conceptual modelling analysis confirmed the highly significant association between caries and race/ethnicity. Mixed Race and East Asian descents were 1.44 (95% CI 1.24-1.67) and 1.81 (95% CI 1.02-3.20) times more likely to experience caries than Whites after adjusting for age, sex, education and income. The difference in the likelihood of experiencing caries between Whites and African descents was not statistically significant after adjusting for years of education and family income. The results of mediation analysis confirmed that inequality of caries experience between Whites and Mixed Race and East Asian descents was mediated through education and income. The likelihood that Mixed Race and East Asian descents would experience caries compared to Whites was attenuated, by 14.8% and by 9.5% respectively, after adjusting for years of education and income. Data analysis demonstrated that Whites have benefited more from the significant reduction in dental caries experience in 15 to 19 year old Brazilians, as compared to African descents and Mixed Race. Education and income fully explained ethnic

  18. Prevalência de cárie radicular em adultos e idosos na região sudeste do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Dental root surface caries prevalence among adults and senior citizens in southeast São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Berta Rihs

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Observa-se uma ocorrência maior de cárie radicular nas últimas décadas, sendo este tipo de lesão mais comum em adultos e idosos. Em virtude disso, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a prevalência de cáries radiculares em adultos e idosos da região Sudeste do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Exames epidemiológicos foram realizados seguindo recomendações da OMS, sendo examinadas 1.475 pessoas dentadas, dos grupos etários de 35 a 44 e de 65 a 74 anos. A prevalência de cáries radiculares foi de 15,6% e 31,8%, respectivamente, para 35 a 44 e 65 a 74 anos. A média de raízes cariadas e/ou restauradas foi de 0,36 para os adultos, maior entre os homens (p In recent decades there has been an increase in the occurrence of dental root surface caries, especially among adults and senior citizens. This study aimed to identify root surface caries prevalence in adults and seniors from southeast São Paulo State, Brazil. An epidemiological survey was carried out among 1,475 dentate adults, ages 35 to 44 and 65 to 74, respectively, according to WHO criteria. Root surface caries prevalence was 15.6% and 31.8%, for the 35-44 and 65-74-year groups, respectively. The average rate for decayed and/or filled roots was 0.36 for the middle-aged adult group and higher in males (p < 0.01, as compared to 0.82 for seniors, with no difference by gender. The average rate of decayed roots was 0.18 and 0.53 for middle-aged adults and seniors, respectively; in both groups the levels were higher among men (p < 0.01. Further studies on oral health, mainly on root surface conditions, are essential in both middle-aged adults and senior citizens.

  19. Epidemiological investigation of caries prevalence in first grade school children in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weusmann, Jens; Mahmoodi, Benjamin; Azaripour, Adriano; Kordsmeyer, Kristian; Walter, Christian; Willershausen, Brita

    2015-10-02

    The annual examination of first graders' oral health as stipulated by law aimed to reach every child in Rhineland-Palatinate (Germany) in their first year of school. We intended to evaluate the first graders' oral health based on the examination data for 2013/2014. Instructed examiners measured the d3mft(deciduous)/D3MFT(permanent) index according to World Health Organization criteria in 25,020 predominantly 6-7 year-old first-grade school children. Only caries affecting dentin was diagnosed; no radiography or fiber-transillumination was used. Out of the d3mft value, the "Significant Caries Index" (SiC) was calculated. This index identifies the dmft score of the third of the population with the highest caries experience. Descriptive analysis was performed. Out of the the examined children, 60.9% were caries free. Mean d3mft score was 1.28 ± 2.27 while the mean SiC was 3.73 ± 2.51. A distinctly higher d3mft was found in the decidous molars compared to the front teeth. Boys were significantly more caries-experienced than girls (p < 0.001). The results of this study confirm the lasting trend towards decreasing caries prevalence in children starting school found in previous cross-sectional studies. This trend was observed in the high-risk group (obtained by SiC) as well as in the entire study population. Particular attention in caries prophylaxis should be paid to the primary molars.

  20. DESCRIPTION OF DENTAL CARIES AND EFFECTS OF FOODS ON TOOTH DESTRUCTION IN SKULLS OF PAWON MAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalina Ahmad

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The skeleton of Pawon Man’s that lived in Mesolitic era aged 5,660±170 BP - 9,500± 200 BP (Before Present years before Christ (BC has been used for forensic odontology research.  However, there has not been any research on dental caries of Pawon Man. The aim of this research was to describe the dental caries in skulls of Pawon Man. The type of the research was descriptive by using purposive sampling. The samples were from four Pawon Man skulls and their teeth. The research was conducted by using clinical examination. All aspects were recorded, collected and presented in tabular form. The result shows that 12.5% of the samples from 32 teeth of skulls of Pawon Man I, III, IV and V had experienced dental caries. Clinical examination shows presence of dental caries in samples of Pawon Man III of  permanent mandibular third molar tooth of region 4(48 in lingual area and buccal lesion of lower left third molar (38. In Pawon IV, lingual lesion of lower left permanent second molar (37 and in lower left permanent third molar (38. All lesions are only in enamel which is code 1 according to ICDAS code. In conclusion, the dental caries in skulls of Pawon Man was low due to their low sugar diets from fruits and sugar-rich plants (fructose sugars. Consumption of hard foods and evidence of presence of animal teeth and mollusks had contributed to the higher percentage of dental attrition compared to dental caries.   Keywords: dental caries, clinical, pawon man

  1. The overtime effect of social position on dental caries experience in a group of old-aged Danes born in 1914

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krustrup, Ulla; Holm-Pedersen, Poul; Petersen, Poul Erik

    2008-01-01

    comprised a sample of 176 individuals aged 85 years. Data on social position were collected at ages 70, 75, 80, and 85 years by means of structured personal interviews. Clinical oral health examinations were conducted to obtain data on dental caries at age 85. Dental caries was recorded at tooth surface...... for active dental caries (D-S) was 80 percent. Older adults with low education, low occupational status, and poor income tended to have more active dental caries compared to their counterparts. In contrast, individuals with high education (F-S = 35.5) and high occupational status (F-S = 36.0) had...

  2. Remineralization of enamel caries can decrease optical reflectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R S; Fried, D

    2006-09-01

    The remineralization of enamel caries can lead to distinct optical changes within a lesion. We hypothesized that the restoration of mineral volume would result in a measurable decrease in the depth-resolved reflectivity of polarized light from the lesion. To test this hypothesis, we measured optical changes in artificial caries undergoing remineralization as a function of depth, using Polarization-sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography (PS-OCT). Lesions were imaged non-destructively before and after exposure to a remineralization regimen. After imaging, microradiographs of histological thin sections indicated that the significant reflectivity reduction measured by PS-OCT accurately represented the increase in mineral content within a larger repaired surface zone. Mineral volume changes arising from remineralization can be measured on the basis of the optical reflectivity of the lesion.

  3. Minimal intervention dentistry: part 6. Caries inhibition by resin infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasfargues, J J; Bonte, E; Guerrieri, A; Fezzani, L

    2013-01-01

    Resin infiltration has made possible an innovative way of treating initial carious lesions that fits perfectly with the concept of minimal intervention dentistry. Infiltration of carious lesions represents a new approach to the treatment of non-cavitated lesions of proximal and smooth surfaces of deciduous and permanent teeth. The major advantage of this method is that it is a non-invasive treatment, preserving tooth structure and that it can be achieved in a single visit. While this therapy can rightly be categorised as minimum intervention dentistry, clinical experience is limited and further controlled clinical trials are required to assess its long-term results. The inhibition of caries progression by resin infiltration should now be considered an alternative to invasive restorations, but involves early detection of lesions and does not allow for appropriate monitoring of the caries risk.

  4. Prediction of Early Childhood Caries via Spatial-Temporal Variations of Oral Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Fei; Yang, Fang; Huang, Shi; Bo, Cunpei; Xu, Zhenjiang Zech; Amir, Amnon; Knight, Rob; Ling, Junqi; Xu, Jian

    2015-09-09

    Microbiota-based prediction of chronic infections is promising yet not well established. Early childhood caries (ECC) is the most common infection in children. Here we simultaneously tracked microbiota development at plaque and saliva in 50 4-year-old preschoolers for 2 years; children either stayed healthy, transitioned into cariogenesis, or experienced caries exacerbation. Caries onset delayed microbiota development, which is otherwise correlated with aging in healthy children. Both plaque and saliva microbiota are more correlated with changes in ECC severity (dmfs) during onset than progression. By distinguishing between aging- and disease-associated taxa and exploiting the distinct microbiota dynamics between onset and progression, we developed a model, Microbial Indicators of Caries, to diagnose ECC from healthy samples with 70% accuracy and predict, with 81% accuracy, future ECC onsets for samples clinically perceived as healthy. Thus, caries onset in apparently healthy teeth can be predicted using microbiota, when appropriately de-trended for age. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Palmistry: A tool for dental caries prediction!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Madan

    2011-01-01

    Results and Conclusion: Handprints of caries-free children, especially females, showed maximum ulnar loops. The caries group showed maximum occurrence of whorls (r=2:1, which were more prevalent in females on the left hand 3rd digit than in males where the whorls were found on the right hand 3 rd digit, and also low total ridge count, especially in males.

  6. [Caries in children and quality of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palenstein Helderman, W.H. van

    2011-01-01

    Caries is the most prevalent oral disease in children. The majority of caries in toddlers remains untreated, with toothaches as a consequence. Although toothache is an important determinant of the quality of life, prevalence data on toothaches hardly exist. Research results indicate that children's

  7. Genetica en cariës

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Soet, J.J.; Laine, M.L.

    2008-01-01

    Cariës is een multifactoriële ziekte die primair wordt veroorzaakt door zuren. Deze zuren worden geproduceerd door bacteriën die suiker fermenteren. Het ontstaan en het verloop van cariës staan onder invloed van leefstijl- en omgevingsfactoren, maar ook de genetische eigenschappen van de gastheer

  8. Early caries naked-eyed examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakhmutov, D; Gonchukov, S; Voytenok, O; Kharchenko, O; Zubov, B

    2008-01-01

    In view of its potential for dental diagnostics, noninvasive optical methods have been the object of research for the last years. Different techniques (spectroscopy, microscopy, and tomography) are used to discriminate between caries and sound enamel. The main aim of this paper is to determine a simple way to see incipient caries with the naked eye

  9. Radiographic and laser fluorescence methods have no benefits for detecting caries in primary teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, F M; Novaes, T F; Matos, R; Bittar, D G; Piovesan, C; Gimenez, T; Imparato, J C P; Raggio, D P; Braga, M M

    2012-01-01

    Clinical guidelines advise that dentists take radiographs in children to detect caries lesions missed by visual inspection; however, due to the current low caries prevalence in most countries, we hypothesized that the adjunct methods of caries detection would not significantly improve the detection of primary molar lesions in comparison to visual inspection alone. We evaluated the performance of visual inspection, alone or in combination with radiographic and laser fluorescence pen (LFpen) methods, in detecting occlusal and approximal caries lesions in primary molars. Two examiners evaluated children who had sought dental treatment with these diagnostic strategies. The reference standard involved the temporary separation of approximal and operative interventions for occlusal surfaces. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and utility of diagnostic strategies were calculated. Simultaneous combined strategies increased sensitivities but decreased specificities. Furthermore, no differences were observed in accuracy and utility, parameters more influenced by caries prevalence. In conclusion, adjunct radiographic and laser fluorescence methods offer no benefits to the detection of caries in primary teeth in comparison to visual inspection alone; hence, present clinical guidelines should be re-evaluated. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Caries prevalence and its association with brushing habits, water availability, and the intake of sugared beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guido, Joseph A; Martinez Mier, Esperanza A; Soto, Armando; Eggertsson, Hafsteinn; Sanders, Brian J; Jones, James E; Weddell, James A; Villanueva Cruz, Irma; Anton de la Concha, Jose Luis

    2011-11-01

    BACKGROUND. With Dental Caries being the most common disease amongst children in the world today, there is a need to fully understand risk factors that may be related to caries prevalence and how they could be best addressed. AIM. The aim of this study was to evaluate soda, juice, sugared-beverage intake, brushing habits, and community water source availability as they relate to the prevalence of both noncavitated and cavitated caries lesions in small rural villages in Mexico. DESIGN. The International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) was used in children from small, isolated, villages in Mexico. Risk factors were assessed via questionnaires. RESULTS. Caries prevalence in the villages was very high, ranging from 94.7% to 100% of the children studied. The mean number of surfaces with lesions per child (D1MFS + d1mfs) having scores ≥1 (noncavitated and cavitated) ranged from 15.4 ± 11.1 to 26.6 ± 15.2. Many of the children reported drinking beverages containing sugar. CONCLUSIONS. Drinking sugared beverages, poor oral hygiene habits, and lack of access to tap water were identified as risk factor for caries in this sample of residents of rural Mexico. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry © 2011 BSPD, IAPD and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Computer-aided proximal caries diagnosis: correlation with clinical examination and histology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Byung Cheol [Chonnam University, School of Dentistry, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Scheetz, James P.; Aarman, Allan G. [University of Louisville, School of Dentistry, Louisville (United States)

    2002-09-15

    To evaluate the performance of the LOGICON Caries Detector using RVG-4 and RVG-ui sensors, by comparing results of each detector to the results of clinical and histological examinations. Pairs of extracted teeth were radiographed, and a total of 57 proximal surfaces, which included both carious and non-carious situations, were analyzed. The RVG-4 produced 8-bit images, while the RVG-ui unit produced 12-bit images, which were taken in the high sensitivity mode. The images produced by the LOGICON were evaluated by a trained observer using both automated and manual caries detection software modes. Ground sections of the teeth established the actual absence or existence of caries. LOGICON-aided caries detection and depth discrimination of the RVG-4 and RVG-ui sensors were equally inconsistent irrespective of whether the LOGICON software was set to the automated or manual mode. Sensitivity ranged from 50% to 57% for caries penetration of the enamel-dentin junction. Care needs to be taken when using LOGICON in conjunction with RVG images as an adjunct for treatment planning dental caries. Even when applied by a trained observer, substantial discrepancies exist between the results of the LOGICON software-guided evalutation using RVG images and histologic examination.

  12. Frequency of dental caries in active and inactive systemic lupus erythematous patients: salivary and bacterial factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyola Rodriguez, J P; Galvan Torres, L J; Martinez Martinez, R E; Abud Mendoza, C; Medina Solis, C E; Ramos Coronel, S; Garcia Cortes, J O; Domínguez Pérez, R A

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine dental caries frequency and to analyze salivary and bacterial factors associated with active and inactive systemic lupus erythematous (SLE) patients. Also, a proposal to identify dental caries by a surface, teeth, and the patient was developed. A cross-sectional, blinded study that included 60 SLE patients divided into two groups of 30 subjects each, according to the Activity Index for Diagnosis of Systemic Lupus Erythematous (SLEDAI). The decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index and Integrative Dental Caries Index (IDCI) were used for analyzing dental caries. The saliva variables recorded were: flow, pH, and buffer capacity. The DNA copies of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus were estimated by real-time PCR. The caries frequency was 85% for SLE subjects (73.3% for inactive systemic lupus erythematous (ISLE) and 100% for active systemic lupus erythematous (ASLE)); DMFT for the SLE group was 12.6 ± 5.7 and the IDCI was (9.8 ± 5.9). The ASLE group showed a salivary flow of 0.65 compared with 0.97 ml/1 min from the ISLE group; all variables mentioned above showed a statistical difference (p dental caries in epidemiological studies. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Is congenital malformation a risk factor for caries development in Swedish adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julihn, Annika; Jansson, Pelle; Regnstrand, Tobias; Modéer, Thomas

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether various forms of congenital malformations are risk factors for approximal caries development in Swedish adolescents. This longitudinal register-based cohort study included all adolescents (n = 18 142) of 13 years of age who resided in the county of Stockholm, Sweden, in 2000. The cohort was followed until individuals were 19 years of age. Dental caries (decayed, missing and filled teeth/surfaces (DMFT/S)) were collected from the Public Health Care Administration in Stockholm. Data concerning pre- and perinatal factors and parental socio-demographic determinants were collected from Swedish National Registers. In a logistic regression analysis, neither congenital malformation nor any sub-group of congenital malformation registered at birth were significantly associated with an enhanced risk of approximal caries increment in adolescents between 13-19 years of age. The final multivariate logistic regression model, adjusted for possible maternal and family socio-demographic confounders, showed that congenital malformation of the 'circulatory system' was significantly associated with a decreased risk of approximal caries increment, between 13-19 years of age (OR = 0.33; 95% CI = 0.12-0.88). Congenital malformation should not be considered as a risk factor for approximal caries development in Swedish adolescents today. Noticeably, adolescents with congenital heart diseases exhibited less risk of developing approximal caries, which was probably related to prevention programs allocated to these children in Sweden.

  14. The influence of display modalities on proximal caries detection and treatment decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Véra L S A; Gonzaga, Amanda K G; Pontual, Andrea A; Bento, Patrícia M; Ramos-Perez, Flávia M M; Filgueira, Pedro T D; Melo, Daniela P

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of digital radiographic display on caries detection and choice of treatment among undergraduate students. Forty images of extracted human teeth were acquired using a PSP digital system. The proximal surfaces were evaluated for the presence of proximal caries and choice of treatment by 36 undergraduate students, divided into three groups according to the semester they were taking. The images were evaluated in two forms of image display: laptop, and printed on acetate viewed on a lightbox. The accuracy of the different forms of image display on caries detection was evaluated by means of ROC curve analysis and its effect by mixed linear regression. Residue analysis was used to verify the adequacy of the treatment of choice for the chosen diagnosis. There was no significant effect either for the display modalities (p=0.058) or for the different undergraduate student groups (p=0.991). The Az was 0.539 for printed images and 0.516 for laptop. The decisions based on treatment of choice were consistent with the scores achieved for caries detection. Accuracy of caries detection using a laptop was comparable to accuracy using printed images. Treatment decision was not affected by image display modality. The semester of the dentistry course that undergraduate students were taking did not significantly increase the accuracy of their proximal caries detection.

  15. Diagnostic Accuracy of Digitized Conventional Radiographs by Camera and Scanner in Detection of Proximal Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solmaz Valizadeh

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Digital radiographs have some advantages over conventional ones. Application of digital receptors is not routine yet. Therefore, there is a need for digitizing conventional radiographs. The aim of the present study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of digitized conventional radiographs by scanner and camera in detection of proximal caries. Material and methods. Three hundred and sixteen surfaces of 158 extracted posterior teeth were radiographed. The radiographs were digitized using a digital camera and a scanner. Five observers scored the images for the presence and depth of caries. Histopathologic sections were the gold standard. Kappa agreement coefficient was used for statistical analysis. Results. Kappa agreement coefficients between the camera and the scanner and also between each one with the gold standard in detecting the depth of caries were 0.504, 0.557 and 0.454, respectively. In detection of caries, the indexes were 0.571, 0.553 and 0.527, respectively. Conclusion. Diagnostic accuracy of camera images in caries detection was more than that of scanned images, but there was also a moderate consistency between them. The consistency of detecting the presence of caries was more than that of detecting their depths. It seems that both digital cameras and scanners can be used interchangeably.

  16. Histological validation of near-infrared reflectance multispectral imaging technique for caries detection and quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salsone, Silvia; Taylor, Andrew; Gomez, Juliana; Pretty, Iain; Ellwood, Roger; Dickinson, Mark; Lombardo, Giuseppe; Zakian, Christian

    2012-07-01

    Near infrared (NIR) multispectral imaging is a novel noninvasive technique that maps and quantifies dental caries. The technique has the ability to reduce the confounding effect of stain present on teeth. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a quantitative NIR multispectral imaging system for caries detection and assessment against a histological reference standard. The proposed technique is based on spectral imaging at specific wavelengths in the range from 1000 to 1700 nm. A total of 112 extracted teeth (molars and premolars) were used and images of occlusal surfaces at different wavelengths were acquired. Three spectral reflectance images were combined to generate a quantitative lesion map of the tooth. The maximum value of the map at the corresponding histological section was used as the NIR caries score. The NIR caries score significantly correlated with the histological reference standard (Spearman's Coefficient=0.774, p<0.01). Caries detection sensitivities and specificities of 72% and 91% for sound areas, 36% and 79% for lesions on the enamel, and 82% and 69% for lesions in dentin were found. These results suggest that NIR spectral imaging is a novel and promising method for the detection, quantification, and mapping of dental caries.

  17. Computer-aided proximal caries diagnosis: correlation with clinical examination and histology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Byung Cheol; Scheetz, James P.; Aarman, Allan G.

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate the performance of the LOGICON Caries Detector using RVG-4 and RVG-ui sensors, by comparing results of each detector to the results of clinical and histological examinations. Pairs of extracted teeth were radiographed, and a total of 57 proximal surfaces, which included both carious and non-carious situations, were analyzed. The RVG-4 produced 8-bit images, while the RVG-ui unit produced 12-bit images, which were taken in the high sensitivity mode. The images produced by the LOGICON were evaluated by a trained observer using both automated and manual caries detection software modes. Ground sections of the teeth established the actual absence or existence of caries. LOGICON-aided caries detection and depth discrimination of the RVG-4 and RVG-ui sensors were equally inconsistent irrespective of whether the LOGICON software was set to the automated or manual mode. Sensitivity ranged from 50% to 57% for caries penetration of the enamel-dentin junction. Care needs to be taken when using LOGICON in conjunction with RVG images as an adjunct for treatment planning dental caries. Even when applied by a trained observer, substantial discrepancies exist between the results of the LOGICON software-guided evalutation using RVG images and histologic examination.

  18. The Value of Periapical Radiograph in the Diagnosis of Interproximal Caries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KIm, Young Hee; Kang, Byung Chul

    2000-01-01

    To compare the diagnostic performance of clinical and radiologic examination for the interproximal caries on intraoral periapical radiographs and to evaluate the value of periapical radiographs. One hundred seven dental patients were examined clinically, with a mouth mirror and an explorer, by a dentist at the department of oral medicine, and the presence or absence of interproximal caries lesion was recorded. The patients were prescribed one or more dental periapical radiographs. Radiographs were assessed for the presence of interproximal caries by three radiologists independently. Two thousand sixty interproximal surfaces were included in this study. The diagnostic accuracies of clinical and radiologic examinations for interproximal caries were calculated. To assess the degree of agreement between clinical and radiologic examinations, Cohen's coefficient of agreement was computed. The specificity of clinical and radiologic examination was 0.991, 0.997 and the sensitivity was 0.279, 0.985 respectively. The diagnostic accuracy of radiologic examination was statistically significantly higher than that of clinical examination (P<0.05). Cohen's kappa value of clinical and radiologic examination was 0.335, 0.942 respectively. These results suggested that clinical examination show only fair agreement, whereas radiologic examination show perfect agreement. The diagnostic performance of the dental periapical radiographs on interproximal caries were higher than that of clinical examination, thus this study showed the validity of periapical radiographs for detecting interproximal caries lesion without bitewing radiograph.

  19. The Value of Periapical Radiograph in the Diagnosis of Interproximal Caries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KIm, Young Hee; Kang, Byung Chul [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Chonnam National University, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-03-15

    To compare the diagnostic performance of clinical and radiologic examination for the interproximal caries on intraoral periapical radiographs and to evaluate the value of periapical radiographs. One hundred seven dental patients were examined clinically, with a mouth mirror and an explorer, by a dentist at the department of oral medicine, and the presence or absence of interproximal caries lesion was recorded. The patients were prescribed one or more dental periapical radiographs. Radiographs were assessed for the presence of interproximal caries by three radiologists independently. Two thousand sixty interproximal surfaces were included in this study. The diagnostic accuracies of clinical and radiologic examinations for interproximal caries were calculated. To assess the degree of agreement between clinical and radiologic examinations, Cohen's coefficient of agreement was computed. The specificity of clinical and radiologic examination was 0.991, 0.997 and the sensitivity was 0.279, 0.985 respectively. The diagnostic accuracy of radiologic examination was statistically significantly higher than that of clinical examination (P<0.05). Cohen's kappa value of clinical and radiologic examination was 0.335, 0.942 respectively. These results suggested that clinical examination show only fair agreement, whereas radiologic examination show perfect agreement. The diagnostic performance of the dental periapical radiographs on interproximal caries were higher than that of clinical examination, thus this study showed the validity of periapical radiographs for detecting interproximal caries lesion without bitewing radiograph.

  20. A new screening method to detect proximal dental caries using fluorescence imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun-Soo; Lee, Eun-Song; Kang, Si-Mook; Jung, Eun-Ha; de Josselin de Jong, Elbert; Jung, Hoi-In; Kim, Baek-Il

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to assess the screening performance of the quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF) technology to detect proximal caries using both fluorescence loss and red fluorescence in a clinical situation. Moreover, a new simplified QLF score for the proximal caries (QS-Proximal) is proposed and its validity for detecting proximal caries was evaluated as well. This clinical study included 280 proximal surfaces, which were assessed by visual-tactile and radiographic examinations and scored by each scoring system according to lesion severity. The occlusal QLF images were analysed in two different ways: (1) a quantitative analysis producing fluorescence loss (ΔF) and red fluorescence (ΔR) parameters; and (2) a new QLF scoring index. For both quantitative parameters and QS-Proximal, the sensitivity, specificity, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) were calculated as a function of the radiographic scoring index at the enamel and dentine caries levels. Both ΔF and ΔR showed excellent AUROC values at the dentine caries level (ΔF=0.860, ΔR=0.902) whereas a relatively lower value was observed at the enamel caries level (ΔF=0.655, ΔR=0.686). The QS-Proximal also showed excellent AUROC ranged from 0.826 to 0.864 for detecting proximal caries at the dentine level. The QS-Proximal, which represents fluorescence changes, showed excellent performance in detecting proximal caries using the radiographic score as the gold standard. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Caries outcomes after orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances: do lingual brackets make a difference?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, M.H.; Attin, R.; Schwestka-Polly, R.; Wiechmann, D.

    2010-01-01

    Orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances is considered a risk factor for the development of white spot caries lesions (WSL). Traditionally, brackets are bonded to the buccal surfaces. Lingual brackets are developing rapidly and have become more readily available. Buccal surfaces are considered to

  2. Accuracy of dental radiographs for caries detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, James R; Keenan, Analia Veitz

    2016-06-01

    Data sourcesMedline, Embase, Cochrane Central and grey literature, complemented by cross-referencing from bibliographies. Diagnostic reviews were searched using the Medion database.Study selectionStudies reporting on the accuracy (sensitivity/specificity) of radiographic detection of primary carious lesions under clinical (in vivo) or in vitro conditions were included. The outcome of interest was caries detection using radiographs. The study also assessed the effect of the histologic lesion stage and included articles to assess the differences between primary or permanent teeth, if there had been improvements recently due to technical advances or radiographic methods, or if there are variations within studies (between examiners or applied radiographic techniques).Data extraction and synthesisData extraction was done by one reviewer first, using a piloted electronic spreadsheet and repeated independently by a second reviewer. Consensus was achieved by discussion. Data extraction followed guidelines from the Cochrane Collaboration. Risk of bias was assessed using QUADAS-2. Pooled sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic odds ratios (DORs) were calculated using random effects meta-analysis. Analyses were performed separately for occlusal and proximal lesions. Dentine lesions and cavitated lesions were analysed separately.Results947 articles were identified with the searches and 442 were analysed full text. 117 studies (13,375 teeth, 19,108 surfaces) were included. All studies were published in English. 24 studies were in vivo and 93 studies were in vitro. Risk of bias was found to be low in 23 and high in 94 studies. The pooled sensitivity for detecting any kind of occlusal carious lesions was 0.35 (95% CI : 0.31/40) and 0.41 (0.39/0.44) in clinical and in vitro studies respectively while the pooled specificity was 0.78 (0.73/0.83) and 0.70 (0.76/0.84). For the detection of any kind of proximal lesion the sensitivity in the clinical studies was 0.24 (CI 0.21/0/26) and

  3. The role of chlorhexidine in caries prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autio-Gold, Jaana

    2008-01-01

    The use of chlorhexidine for caries prevention has been a controversial topic among dental educators and clinicians. In several reviews, it has been concluded that the most persistent reduction of mutans streptococci have been achieved by chlorhexidine varnishes, followed by gels and, lastly, mouth rinses. Also, the evidence for using different chlorhexidine modes or a combination of chlorhexidine-fluoride therapy for caries prevention has been "suggestive but incomplete". Variable study designs and lack of data in high-risk children and adults support the need to continue conducting randomized, well-controlled clinical trials and to search for a practical, effective mode of antimicrobial treatment that augments the known effect of fluoride treatments. Currently, the only chlorhexidine-containing products marketed in the United States (US) are mouthrinses containing 0.12 percent chlorhexidine. Based on the available reviews, chlorhexidine rinses have not been highly effective in preventing caries, or at least the clinical data are not convincing. Due to the current lack of long-term clinical evidence for caries prevention and reported side effects, chlorhexidine rinses should not be recommended for caries prevention. Due to the inconclusive literature and sparse clinical data on gels and varnishes, their use for caries prevention should also be studied further to develop evidence-based recommendations for their clinical role in caries prevention. Since dental caries is a disease with a multifactoral etiology, it is currently more appropriate to use other established, evidence-based prevention methods, such as fluoride applications, diet modifications and good oral hygiene practices. Recent findings also indicate that the effect of an antimicrobial agent for reducing the levels of mutans streptococci or plaque reduction may not always correlate with eventual caries reduction. The clinically important outcome is proven reductions in caries. Many advances in the

  4. Dental caries in 3-12-year-old Sudanese children with bronchial asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Mohamed Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a lack of consensus regarding the relationship between the risk of dental caries and asthma in the child population. Most studies concluded that asthmatic children are at risk of dental caries from the disease status or its pharmacotherapy. The objectives of this study werer to assess the dental caries status of asthmatic patients in the age group of 3-14 years and to examine the possible association of these conditions to various aspects of bronchial asthma and its management. Materials and Methods: The present study is a hospital-based case-control cross-sectional study. One hundred and five asthmatic patients were studied. The children were examined for their dental caries status, and the scores were compared with age-, gender- and socioeconomic status-matched group of 112 nonasthmatic patients selected randomly from public schools (control group. Caries lesions were assessed using decayed, missing, filled teeth/decayed, missing, and filled surfaces (DMFT/DMFS and dmft/dmfs index according to the WHO criteria (1987. Parents or guardians provided information about oral hygiene and dietary habits by direct interview. Asthma-related data (type and form of medication, severity and duration of asthma were collected from medical records and/or parental interview. Results: The mean age of asthmatics was (7.7 ± 3.5 years and (7.8 ± 3.5 for nonasthmatics. The results showed significantly higher prevalence and severity of dental caries among asthmatic group. As comparing asthmatic children using β2-agonists to those children using β2-agonists and corticosteroids, the results revealed that there were no statistically significant differences in caries index between the two groups. In their primary teeth, children with severe asthma had higher dmft/dmfs than children with moderate and mild asthma unlike in the permanent teeth. Form of medication used - an inhaler or a noninhaler combination (syrup and tablets - had no effect on

  5. Designing of a Computer Software for Detection of Approximal Caries in Posterior Teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valizadeh, Solmaz; Goodini, Mostafa; Ehsani, Sara; Mohseni, Hadis; Azimi, Fateme; Bakhshandeh, Hooman

    2015-01-01

    Background: Radiographs, adjunct to clinical examination are always valuable complementary methods for dental caries detection. Recently, progressing in digital imaging system provides possibility of software designing for automatically dental caries detection. Objectives: The aim of this study was to develop and assess the function of diagnostic computer software designed for evaluation of approximal caries in posterior teeth. This software should be able to indicate the depth and location of caries on digital radiographic images. Materials and Methods: Digital radiographs were obtained of 93 teeth including 183 proximal surfaces. These images were used as a database for designing the software and training the software designer. In the design phase, considering the summed density of pixels in rows and columns of the images, the teeth were separated from each other and the unnecessary regions; for example, the root area in the alveolar bone was eliminated. Therefore, based on summed intensities, each image was segmented such that each segment contained only one tooth. Subsequently, based on the fuzzy logic, a well-known data-clustering algorithm named fuzzy c-means (FCM) was applied to the images to cluster or segment each tooth. This algorithm is referred to as a soft clustering method, which assigns data elements to one or more clusters with a specific membership function. Using the extracted clusters, the tooth border was determined and assessed for cavity. The results of histological analysis were used as the gold standard for comparison with the results obtained from the software. Depth of caries was measured, and finally Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) and Bland-Altman plot were used to show the agreement between the methods. Results: The software diagnosed 60% of enamel caries. The ICC (for detection of enamel caries) between the computer software and histological analysis results was determined as 0.609 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0

  6. Designing of a Computer Software for Detection of Approximal Caries in Posterior Teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valizadeh, Solmaz; Goodini, Mostafa; Ehsani, Sara; Mohseni, Hadis; Azimi, Fateme; Bakhshandeh, Hooman

    2015-10-01

    Radiographs, adjunct to clinical examination are always valuable complementary methods for dental caries detection. Recently, progressing in digital imaging system provides possibility of software designing for automatically dental caries detection. The aim of this study was to develop and assess the function of diagnostic computer software designed for evaluation of approximal caries in posterior teeth. This software should be able to indicate the depth and location of caries on digital radiographic images. Digital radiographs were obtained of 93 teeth including 183 proximal surfaces. These images were used as a database for designing the software and training the software designer. In the design phase, considering the summed density of pixels in rows and columns of the images, the teeth were separated from each other and the unnecessary regions; for example, the root area in the alveolar bone was eliminated. Therefore, based on summed intensities, each image was segmented such that each segment contained only one tooth. Subsequently, based on the fuzzy logic, a well-known data-clustering algorithm named fuzzy c-means (FCM) was applied to the images to cluster or segment each tooth. This algorithm is referred to as a soft clustering method, which assigns data elements to one or more clusters with a specific membership function. Using the extracted clusters, the tooth border was determined and assessed for cavity. The results of histological analysis were used as the gold standard for comparison with the results obtained from the software. Depth of caries was measured, and finally Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) and Bland-Altman plot were used to show the agreement between the methods. The software diagnosed 60% of enamel caries. The ICC (for detection of enamel caries) between the computer software and histological analysis results was determined as 0.609 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.159-0.849) (P = 0.006). Also, the computer program diagnosed 97% of

  7. Designing of a Computer Software for Detection of Approximal Caries in Posterior Teeth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valizadeh, Solmaz; Goodini, Mostafa; Ehsani, Sara; Mohseni, Hadis; Azimi, Fateme; Bakhshandeh, Hooman

    2015-01-01

    Radiographs, adjunct to clinical examination are always valuable complementary methods for dental caries detection. Recently, progressing in digital imaging system provides possibility of software designing for automatically dental caries detection. The aim of this study was to develop and assess the function of diagnostic computer software designed for evaluation of approximal caries in posterior teeth. This software should be able to indicate the depth and location of caries on digital radiographic images. Digital radiographs were obtained of 93 teeth including 183 proximal surfaces. These images were used as a database for designing the software and training the software designer. In the design phase, considering the summed density of pixels in rows and columns of the images, the teeth were separated from each other and the unnecessary regions; for example, the root area in the alveolar bone was eliminated. Therefore, based on summed intensities, each image was segmented such that each segment contained only one tooth. Subsequently, based on the fuzzy logic, a well-known data-clustering algorithm named fuzzy c-means (FCM) was applied to the images to cluster or segment each tooth. This algorithm is referred to as a soft clustering method, which assigns data elements to one or more clusters with a specific membership function. Using the extracted clusters, the tooth border was determined and assessed for cavity. The results of histological analysis were used as the gold standard for comparison with the results obtained from the software. Depth of caries was measured, and finally Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) and Bland-Altman plot were used to show the agreement between the methods. The software diagnosed 60% of enamel caries. The ICC (for detection of enamel caries) between the computer software and histological analysis results was determined as 0.609 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.159-0.849) (P = 0.006). Also, the computer program diagnosed 97% of

  8. Prevalence of Candida albicans and carriage of Candida non-albicans in the saliva of preschool children, according to their caries status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano Moraga, Carla Paola; Rodríguez Martínez, Gonzalo Andrés; Lefimil Puente, Claudia Andrea; Morales Bozo, Irene Cecilia; Urzúa Orellana, Blanca Regina

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to establish associations among the Candida carriage rate, the diversity of Candida species carried and the different caries status of preschool children. Sixty-one children between 2 and 5 years of age were examined by a single expert examiner and were divided into three groups, the caries-free, moderate caries and severe caries groups, according to the criteria of the International Caries Detection and Assessment System II (ICDAS). Saliva samples were obtained from the members of each group and were plated on Sabouraud agar plates to assess the Candida carriage rates. CHROMagar Candida medium was used for the preliminary screening. Biochemical testing or PCR/sequencing was conducted to identify the different Candida species in the samples. The differences observed were considered significant if the p value was Candida carriage rate and the number of species of this fungus carried were higher in the group with the highest level of caries severity (p Candida albicans was the most predominant Candida species in the saliva of all of the children, C. dubliniensis was identified only in the most caries-affected group in addition to other rare species of Candida non-albicans. A high salivary Candida carriage rate and the presence of specific species of this fungus (such as C. albicans and C. dubliniensis) appear to be related to the severity of caries experienced by preschool children.

  9. Evaluation of CO2 laser irradiation effect on enamel microhardness after incipient caries creation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loghman Rezaei-Soufi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The important mission in modern science of caries prevention is identification and providing the necessary actions for caries prevention to patients with an elevated risk of caries. The aim of this study was evaluation of CO2 laser irradiation effect on enamel microhardness after incipient caries creation. Material and methods: In this in vitro-experimental study, for evaluation of enamel microhardness 30 teeth after disinfection process were divided randomly into three groups A, B, C [n=10]: A] Control [normal saline] B] Immersed in cariogenic solution for 1 month C] Immersed in cariogenic solution for 1 month + CO2 laser [10.6µm, 10Hz, 0.5W, 20s, beam diameter 0.2 mm]. Data analyzing was used by 16 SPSS software. Parametric one-way ANOVA and Tukey were used for surface microhardness at 0.05% significance level. Results: According to one-way ANOVA parametric test, there was a significant difference between three groups [p=0.047]. In the following, results of Tukey test showed that there was a significant statistical difference between the microhardness of control and other groups [P=0.038]. On the other hand, there wasn’t statistical difference between A, C and B, C group means [P>0.05]. Conclusion: These study findings showed that CO2 laser irradiation on enamel surface with incipient caries had no significant effect on surface microhardness enhancement.

  10. Evaluation of Diagnodent Accuracy in Detecting Approximal Caries in Primary Molars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Bahrololoomi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Detection of caries lesions on approximal surfaces of posterior teeth is difficult, since wide contact points hamper direct visual inspection. Due to the importance of the early detection of dental caries, the aim of this study is to compare the performance of different methods (visual, bitewing radiography and DIAGNOdent in detecting approximal caries in primary molars. Methods: Thirty six children were selected from patients referred to the pediatric dentistry department of Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran. Two examiners evaluated 229 approximal surfaces of primary molars using: visual inspection, radiography and a pen-type laser fluorescence device (DIAGNOdent for the presence of proximal caries. The surfaces were evaluated by 2 other examiners for the presence of white spots or cavitations. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy (percentage of correct diagnosis were calculated for each method. The area under the receiver-operating characteristics curve (A z was calculated for DIAGNOdent device. The inter-examiner reproducibility was calculated using the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC values for laser Fluorescence and agreement coefficient for visual and radiographic methods.Results: At white-spot threshold, a DIAGNOdent device presented better performance. At cavitation threshold the radiographic method demonstrated higher sensitivity than visual inspection and DIAGNOdent device .In this threshold, all methods presented high specificities Conclusions: A DIAGNOdent device performs better in white spot threshold. However, radiography shows better performance in detecting more advanced approximal caries lesions.

  11. An in vitro comparison of a combined FOTI/Visual examination of occlusal caries with other caries diagnostic methods and the effect of stain on their diagnostic performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrand, K.R.; Côrtes, D.F.; Ellwood, R.P.

    2003-01-01

    Occlusal caries, detection, fibre optic transillumination, visual inspection, DIAGNOdent, laser fluorescence, electrical caries monitor, electrical resistance, stain......Occlusal caries, detection, fibre optic transillumination, visual inspection, DIAGNOdent, laser fluorescence, electrical caries monitor, electrical resistance, stain...

  12. Caries Assessment Spectrum and Treatment (CAST): A Novel Epidemiological Instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leal, S.C.; Ribeiro, A.P.D.; Frencken, J.E.F.M.

    2017-01-01

    Caries detection is fundamental to understanding the oral health status of a population and is the basis for caries diagnosis for individual patients. Although different caries detection/diagnosis criteria are available, none of them include the total spectrum of dental caries (which ranges from a

  13. Caries risk assessment in chilean adolescents and adults and its association with caries experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Andrés Giacaman

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Cariogram is a computer program that uses an algorithm to assess caries risk. Although the use of Cariogram has recently increased, little information is available regarding its effectiveness in adults. This study aimed to determine whether caries risk from Cariogram relates to caries experience in adults. One hundred and eighty Cariogram files were completed from patients aged ten to fifty-six years (mean: 23.28 years. Seven factors from the software were included from patient records to complete the Cariogram: caries experience, diet (content and frequency, stimulated salivary flow, hygiene index, related diseases and fluoride usage. The percentages of "chances of avoiding new lesions" (caries risk were obtained from Cariogram, and the subjects were classified into five risk groups. Results were compared for each variable with ANOVA, and a correlation between caries and Cariogram variables was calculated by Pearson's correlation coefficient. A multivariate regression model was also used. Only three patients were classified as low risk, and none were classified as very low risk. Thus, only the four upper quintiles were considered for the analysis, and the lower quintile was not considered in the study. Neither DMFT nor the number of lesions were significantly different among the Cariogram's risk categories (p > 0.05. Only diet content was significantly correlated with caries experience (p = 0.006. Caries lesions failed to correlate with any Cariogram variable (p > 0.05. Age, not sex or caries risk scores, showed a strong and positive association with DMFT (p < 0.01. Caries risk from Cariogram appears to be unrelated with caries experience or caries lesions in a high-caries adult population.

  14. Association between obesity and dental caries in Chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ligeng; Chang, Rui; Mu, Ying; Deng, Xiuli; Wu, Fei; Zhang, Shasha; Zhou, Dongyan

    2013-01-01

    The study sought to analyze the association between dental caries and obesity in Chinese children, and to investigate the protective and risk factors of dental caries. A total of 280 children aged 7-12 years voluntarily answered the caries examination and questionnaire. Caries was measured using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System. According to the Chinese body mass index, the participants were grouped overweight or normal-weight. The logistic regression model showed no correlation between dental caries and obesity. Drinking yogurt and chewing gum are protective factors, whereas oral breathing and genetic predisposition to caries are risk factors. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Diagnostic accuracy of insight intraoral film on dental caries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Young Nam; Lee, Byung Do [Wonkwang University College of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Rae [Kyunghee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-03-15

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of Kodak Insight film with other intra-oral films in the detection of dental caries. Periapical radiographs of 99 extracted human teeth with sound proximal surfaces and interproximal artificial cavities were made on Kodak Ultra speed, Ektaspeed, Agfa Ektaspeed and Kodak Insight films and automatically processed. Six dentists examined the presence of dental caries using a five-point confidence rating scale and compared the diagnostic accuracy by ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) analysis and ANOVA test. The sensitivity of Kodak Ultra speed, Ektaspeed, Agfa Ektaspeed and Insight film were 0.84, 0.77, 0.75 and 0.79 respectively. The specificity of Kodak Ultra speed, Ektaspeed, Agfa Ektaspeed and Insight film were 0.97, 0.95, 0.96 and 0.94 respectively. The mean ROC areas (Az) of Kodak Ultra speed, Ektaspeed, Agfa Ektaspeed and Insight film were 0.917, 0.910, 0.894, 0.909 respectively. There was no significant differences between Az of Insight film and other films (p = 0.178). Theses results suggested that Kodak Insight film have the comparative diagnostic accuracy of dental caries with Ultraspeed and Ektaspeed films. (77)

  16. Eruption stage of permanent molars and occlusal caries activity/arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, L S; Zenkner, J E A; Wagner, M B; Damé-Teixeira, N; Susin, C; Maltz, M

    2014-07-01

    This study assessed the association between the eruption stage of permanent second molars and occlusal caries activity among 12-year-old schoolchildren from South Brazil. A cross-sectional study was performed in Porto Alegre using a multistage probability sampling strategy to select a representative sample. Clinical examination was conducted to assess the eruption stage of permanent molars, Gingival Bleeding Index, and, after tooth cleaning and drying, caries experience (noncavitated and cavitated lesions, including caries activity assessment). Data were collected on sex, socioeconomic status, mother's education, brushing frequency, and consumption of soft drinks. Generalized estimating equations were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Overall, 983 schoolchildren with 3,071 second molars were available for analysis. Whereas active caries was observed in 6.6% of fully erupted permanent second molars, caries affected 26.2%, 29.6%, and 18.2% of erupting molars classified as stages 1, 2, and 3, respectively: stage 1, partially erupted occlusal surface; stage 2, fully erupted occlusal surface, 1/2 crown exposed. After adjusting for socioeconomic and behavioral variables, partially erupted molars were significantly more likely to present active caries lesions than molars in full occlusion: stage 1, OR = 4.99 (95% CI = 3.38, 7.38); stage 2, OR = 5.18 (95% CI = 3.14, 8.53); stage 3, OR = 3.20 (95% CI = 2.21, 4.64). Similar results were found when clinical variables were included in the adjusted model. In conclusion, most occlusal caries lesions tend to arrest/revert when teeth reach the occlusal plan; however, an important proportion of these lesions remains active and in need of proper management. Children at risk should be targeted with preventive and minimally invasive strategies. © International & American Associations for Dental Research.

  17. Caries detection under composite restorations by laser fluorescence and digital radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kositbowornchai, Suwadee; Sukanya, Chotikpanich; Tidarat, Tangkittikasem; Chanoggarn, Thongsombat

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the potential of DIAGNOdent readings in detecting carious lesions under composite resin restorations in comparison with digital radiography. One hundred extracted third molars were visually selected: 50 with and 50 without carious lesions. Class I occlusal cavities were prepared. In the carious group, caries were left on the floor of cavities before composite resin restoration. The occlusal surface relevant to the caries position in the carious group and a counterfeit point in the non-carious group were marked for DIAGNOdent reading. Teeth were fixed in a plaster box. Digital radiographs were taken and examined by four observers. Definitive diagnosis of caries was based on a histological assessment. Diagnostic accuracy for each method was expressed by the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Differences between the areas under the ROC curves were assessed using the McNemar test. The respective sensitivity (95 % confidence interval (%CI)) and specificity (95 %CI) of DIAGNOdent were 0.74 (0.66-0.83) and 0.84 (0.76-0.92). The respective average diagnostic performance values for digital radiographs assessed by four observers were 0.54 (0.36-0.72) and 0.77 (0.65-0.86). The respective ROC values for DIAGNOdent and digital radiographs based on four observers were 0.79 and 0.65. Cohen's kappa statistic revealed a moderate to substantial agreement among interobserver reliabilities (k = 0.60-0.77). There were no statistically significant differences between DIAGNOdent and digital radiographs for the detection of dental caries under composite restoration (p value > 0.05). DIAGNOdent was developed to detect caries on occlusal surfaces and was tested for caries adjacent to filling materials. This study demonstrated the use of DIAGNOdent in detecting caries under old composite restorations.

  18. Utility and effectiveness of computer-aided diagnosis of dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Kyle D; Dykstra, Bradley A; Gakenheimer, David C; Scheetz, James P; Lacina, Stephani; Scarfe, William C; Farman, Allan G

    2011-01-01

    Digital radiography has created a growing opportunity for computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) tools. The Logicon Caries Detector (LCD), with upgraded CAD software based on user feedback, was re-evaluated for its effectiveness via a retrospective clinical study. Using the upgraded LCD software, 12 dentists (evaluators) blindly assessed 17 radiographs taken by another (attending) dentist, who restored 28 proximal surfaces. The attending dentist confirmed the presence of early dentinal caries, as well as identifying 48 surfaces as caries-free or with enamel caries only subject to noninvasive treatment. The radiographs, imported into the software using a digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) reader, were visually assessed under typical operatory lighting conditions, then with the aid of the software's density analysis tool. The effectiveness of the evaluators was gauged by calculating two measures of performance, sensitivity and specificity, for the detection and classification of dentinal caries. Sensitivity among all evaluator dentists was 30% with the initial image; 34% with the brightness and contrast adjusted image; 39% when the image was sharpened; and 69% when the density analysis tool was utilized. Specificity was found to be 97% with the initial image; 95% with the brightness and contrast adjusted image; 93% with the sharpened image; and 94% when the density analysis tool was used. Compared to the unaided eye, the LCD can significantly improve dentists' ability to detect and classify caries. Dentists may be able to find twice as much early dentinal caries requiring restoration (or at least aggressive noninvasive treatment) than previously, while not unnecessarily restoring additional healthy teeth. The LCD enables dentists to obtain more information from dental digital radiography than is possible with the unaided eye, leading to improved patient care.

  19. Observer differentiation of proximal enamel mechanical defects versus natural proximal dental caries with computed dental radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, B C; Farman, A G; Scarfe, W C; Goldsmith, L J

    1996-10-01

    Various models have been used to study the accuracy of imaging systems for detection of dental caries. This study compares the ability of dentists to detect mechanically created defects versus natural dental caries cavitations on the proximal surfaces of extracted teeth with Computed Dental Radiography (Schick Industries, Long Island City, N.Y.). Detection rates are investigated according to lesion depth to permit comparisons to be made between studies in the literature with other mechanical defects or natural caries models. Discrimination of natural caries versus artificial defects with Computed Dental Radiography is also compared with a previous report that used standard dental film. Fifty-two extracted molar and premolar teeth were mounted into representative sets of maxillary and mandibular posterior arches for bite-wing radiography. There were 16 proximal surfaces with natural caries and 28 proximal surfaces with mechanical defects. An optical bench was used to ensure constant beam geometry. A 1.8 cm acrylic soft tissue equivalent attenuator was placed in front of the receptor. Thirty dentists acted independently as observers to differentiate between sound proximal tooth surfaces, natural dental caries, and mechanical defects. Evaluation of intra- and interobserver variability was made with use of the kappa statistic. The Zelen test of odds ratios was used to test for homogeneity, and the Mantel-Haenszel analysis plus stratified logistic regression were used for inference about the common odds ratio. Significance was set at p detection was 74% for mechanical defects and 67% for natural caries. The odds of detecting a mechanical defect were 1.40 times the odds of finding natural dental caries cavitation of the same depth. Lesion depth did influence the probability of correctly identifying the presence of a lesion; the odds of identifying cavitation increased 1.41 times with every 0.1 mm increase in lesion depth. Correct designation of lesion type was 1.42 times

  20. Biological approach of dental caries management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigalauskienė, Rūta; Slabšinskienė, Eglė; Vasiliauskienė, Ingrida

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is a disease induced by dental plaque, which can be described as a community of microorganisms (biofilm). Because of genetic and environmental factors a number of changes in the oral microbiome takes place; in case of commensalism and mutualism between biofilm microorganisms and the host, homeostasis in oral microbiome is maintained. However, when a risk factor occurs parasitic relationship starts prevailing and activity of the pathogenic cariogenic microorganisms increases leading to a dental caries. According to the newest technologies of molecular microbiology new cariogenic microorganisms species have been determined. Each individual's oral microbiome is as unique as his/her immune system; therefore, commonly taken caries prevention measures cannot be of the same effectiveness for all individuals. Each person has his own caries risk which is determined by the oral microbiome and immune system influenced by the environmental and genetic factors. Early caries diagnostic, risk assessment and individualized caries prevention plan will allow us to control the disease and achieve a desirable effect. For the dentist the most important thing is not to treat the consequences of the disease - cavities - but be aware of the dental caries as a biological phenomenon.

  1. A longitudinal study of occlusal caries in Newark New Jersey school children: relationship between initial dental finding and the development of new lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, Kenneth; Fairlie, Karen; Ferrandiz, Javier; Nasri-Heir, Cibele

    2012-01-01

    Objective Dental caries is a significant public health problem especially amongst children from low-income backgrounds. This longitudinal study examined the development of new occlusal caries in 227 Newark, NJ children ages 10–18. The role of previous caries experience and the presence of occlusal white and dark lesions in predicting the development of new lesions were examined. Design At each visit, the patient’s teeth were given a visual-tactile examination and the subject’s decayed; missing and filled (DMFS) score was determined. Next, molars lacking probeable caries or restorations were examined using transillumination for occlusal white and dark spots. This examination was repeated periodically. A Cox proportional hazard was used to analyze data concerning the development of new occusal caries in molars. Results The longitudinal data indicates that patients who were caries free at visit-1 developed significantly fewer occlusal caries during the longitudinal study. The hazard ratio for subjects who had first-visit caries was 2.27 compared to caries free subjects. Intact molars with occlusal white or dark lesions had caries hazard ratios of 0.78 and 1.49 respectively, compared to molars lacking initial color changes. Conclusion Having a prior caries history places the subject at increased risk of developing future caries. Teeth with dark lesions but not white lesions are at significantly increased risk for developing decay. White lesions may represent remineralizing or slowly progressing lesions. The results of this study can help identify patients and tooth surfaces at risk for future occlusal decay. PMID:22841633

  2. Dental Caries Status, Socio-Economic, Behavioral and Biological Variables among 12-Year-Old Palestinian School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgan-Cohen, H D; Bajali, M; Eskander, L; Steinberg, D; Zini, A

    2015-01-01

    There are currently inadequate data regarding the prevalence of dental caries and its associated variables, among Palestinian children. To determine the current prevalence of dental caries and related variables, among Palestinian children in East Jerusalem. A stratified sample of 286 East Jerusalem Palestinian children was selected, employing randomly chosen sixth grade clusters from three pre-selected socio-economic school groups. Dental caries was recorded according to WHO recommendations. Salivary flow, pH, buffer capacity and microbial parameters, were recorded according to previously employed methodologies. The mean level of caries experience, by DMFT, was 1.98 ± 2.05. This level was higher than those found among Israeli children, but lower than several other Middle Eastern countries. In uni-variate analysis, significant associations were revealed between caries and school categories, which indicated lower, middle and higher socio-economic position(SEP), mothers' employment, home densities, dental visits, tooth brushing, Streptococci mutans (SM), Lactobacilli (LB), and saliva pH. According to a linear logistic regression model, children learning in lower SEP schools, with higher SM levels and more acidic saliva, had a higher chance of experiencing dental caries. These findings should be considered in the planning of services and dental health care programs for Palestinian children.

  3. Remineralizing Efficacy of Fluorohydroxyapatite Gel on Artificial Dentinal Caries Lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianqian Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to evaluate the remineralizing efficacy of fluorohydroxyapatite (FHA gel on artificial dentinal caries lesion in vitro. Artificial carious lesions were made on occlusal cavities of teeth by exposing the dentin surface to a demineralizing solution. Each cavity was capped with a 3 mm thick FHA gel for 4 weeks. After the FHA gel was removed, the surface morphology and structure of the dentin were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR. The dentin mineral density (DMD was measured by micro-computed tomography (Micro-CT. A layer of dense and orderly hexagonal crystal structure, with average diameter of 1 μm and thickness of 4~5 μm, could be observed on dentin surface. These crystals exhibited elemental peaks for calcium, phosphorus, carbon, and oxygen and characteristic peaks of hydroxyapatite (HA and fluorapatite (FA via XRD and FT-IR. The DMD of dentin surface layer significantly increased after it was capped with FHA gel (P<0.05. In the present study, the FHA gel could rapidly construct apatite on the artificial dentin caries surface and significantly increase the mineral density, which suggests that FHA gel might be a proper IPT material with remineralizing function.

  4. Snacking habits and caries in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, I; Holgerson, P Lif; Kressin, N R; Nunn, M E; Tanner, A C

    2010-01-01

    Dental caries is caused by a combination of infection and diet. This disease, if left untreated, may lead to pain, and impair the quality of life, nutritional status and development of young children. The objective was to investigate the association between snacking and caries in a population at high risk of dental caries. American preschool children (n = 1,206) were recruited in the offices of paediatricians. Data on sociodemographic characteristics, oral hygiene, breast-feeding, use of bottle and snacking were collected by questionnaire. Plaque presence, the number of teeth and their caries status (deft) were scored. The children sampled were 61% Black, 27% White and 10% Asian. Of the 1- to 2-, 2- to 3- and 3- to 4-year-old children, 93.8, 82.4 and 77.3% were caries free, and their mean caries scores were 0.16, 0.58 and 0.93, respectively. Multivariate partial least squares (PLS) modelling revealed plaque presence, lowest income, descriptors for tooth exposure time (number of teeth and age) and cariogenic challenge (total intake of sugar-containing snacks and chips/crisps, and chips intake with a sugar-containing drink) to be associated with more caries. These differences were also found in univariate analyses; in addition, children who continued breast-feeding after falling asleep had significantly higher deft values than those who did not. PLS modelling revealed that eating chips clustered with eating many sweet snacks, candies, popcorn and ice cream. We conclude that, in addition to the traditional risk indicators for caries - presence of plaque, sugar intake and socioeconomic status -, consumption of chips was associated with caries in young children. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. [Dental caries in an ecological perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twetman, Svante; Ekstrand, Kim; Qvist, Vibeke

    2010-11-01

    Dental caries affects the majority of the Danish population. Its aetiology is multi-factorial, but a pH-induced change in the homeostasis of the oral biofilm leading to overgrowth of acid-tolerating bacteria is a key event. A non-invasive concept for prevention and management is emerging based on the common risk factor approach. There is strong evidence that tooth brushing twice a day with fluoridated toothpaste is the most cost-effective way to prevent and control caries development. Physicians need to consider that a number of drugs may affect the saliva flow rate, which increases the caries risk.

  6. Effects of iron salts in sucrose on dental caries and plaque in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, J C; Bowen, W H; Pearson, S K

    1997-05-01

    Anaemia caused by iron deficiency and dental caries are still among the most prevalent diseases in some developing countries. Anaemia can be prevented by iron fortification of food. Previous studies demonstrated that iron-sucrose, which has been used for prevention of anaemia, reduces the incidence of caries in rats. The aim of the present study was to compare the influence of ferrous sulphate and ferric glycerophosphate co-crystallized with sucrose on the incidence of dental caries in rats. Forty-eight desalivated rats were caged in a programmed feeder and received their essential nutrition by gavage. The animals were fed 17 meals per day at hourly intervals of 88 parts/10(6) Fe++ or Fe co-crystallized with sucrose. Plain sucrose and calcium glycerophosphate with sucrose were used as control groups. Both ferric- and ferrous-sucrose meals reduced the incidence of smooth-surface and sulcal caries in rats. Stain formation, organic acid production and acidogenic activity of dental plaque in animals receiving iron-sucrose meals were also investigated. Ferric glycerophosphate did not induce extrinsic staining on the tooth surface. The concentration of organic acids did not differ significantly among the groups. The acidogenic activity of plaque in animals receiving either of the iron-sucrose meals tended to be lower than that of the control groups. The possibility that iron-sucrose might reduce the prevalence of two major public health problems, dental caries and anaemia, makes this preventive approach extremely attractive for additional investigation.

  7. Selective Removal of Natural Occlusal Caries by Coupling Near-infrared Imaging with a CO2 Laser

    OpenAIRE

    Tao, You-Chen; Fried, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Laser removal of dental hard tissue can be combined with optical, spectral or acoustic feedback systems to selectively ablate dental caries and restorative materials. Near-infrared (NIR) imaging has considerable potential for the optical discrimination of sound and demineralized tissue. Last year we successfully demonstrated that near-IR images can be used to guide a CO2 laser ablation system for the selective removal of artificial caries lesions on smooth surfaces. The objective of this stud...

  8. Introducing a Dental Caries Marking Software and Evaluate Radiologists’ Disagreement in Caries Detection Using this Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baseri H

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Bitewing radiograph is the main reference for diagnosis of proximal and recurrent caries. There is no software for gathering and analyzing radiologists’ opinion in the field of caries detection on digital bitewing radiograph (DBR. Objectives: The main aim of this study is to introduce the first windows application that could be used for marking caries on DBR. This software is called Dental Caries Marking Software (DCMS. The second aim is to create the first DBR caries dataset to be used for future software development projects in the field of automatic caries detection; also gathering and documenting the disagreements and critiques regarding DCMS. Materials and Methods: DCMS has been designed and implemented by the researchers of this study. This software is divided into two parts. The first part is DCMS writer that is used for gathering the user’s opinion and The second part is DCMS analyzer that is used for reading and analyzing the user’s opinion file. Eight radiologists with different experiences used DCMS for marking dental caries on 200 DBR, 50 of which were repeated twice for assessing the accuracy of each radiologist. Results: A total of 3833 points were marked by 8 users on 150 non repetitive DBR. Only 35 points were marked similarly by 8 users; in other words, 8 users totally agreed with 4% of the caries points. According to 50 repetitive DBR, the maximum accuracy of users was 69% and the minimum was 50%. Conclusions: There is significant debate over the diagnosis of caries on DBR; therefore, for unifying the radiologist’s opinions, the need for intelligent caries detection software is apparent. DCMS is useful software for gathering caries data. Moreover, the use of conventional display monitor has negative impacts on accurate diagnosis of caries on DBR.

  9. Baseline Caries Risk Assessment Using CAMBRA May Predict Caries Only in High and Extreme Caries Risk Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellez, Marisol; Bhoopathi, Vinodh; Lim, Sungwoo

    2015-12-01

    Baseline caries risk assessment as a predictor of caries incidence. Chaffee BW, Cheng J, Featherstone JD.J Dent 2015;43(5):518-24. Marisol Tellez, BDS, MPH, PhD, Vinodh Bhoopathi, BDS, MPH, DScD, Sungwoo Lim, MS, DrPH PURPOSE/QUESTION: To determine, with each increasing category of baseline caries risk as assessed by Caries Management by Risk Assessment (CAMBRA) in a patient, whether a greater or higher number of new decay/restored teeth can be predicted at a subsequent 6-month periodic oral evaluation. National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, National Institutes of Health (KL2TR000143) TYPE OF STUDY/DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study Level 2: Limited-quality, patientoriented evidence Not applicable. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Intercomparison of salivary nitric oxide as a biomarker of dental caries risk between caries-active and caries-free children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, M; Sachdev, V; Chopra, R

    2016-08-01

    To determine the efficacy of salivary nitric oxide as a biomarker for dental caries risk in children and to compare the salivary nitric oxide levels in caries-active and caries-free children. One hundred children aged 6-12 years were selected and were divided into two groups according to DMFT index: as caries-free consisting of 50 individuals (DMFT/dmft = 0) and caries-active group (DMFT/dmft ≥3) consisting of 50 individuals. The saliva collected was estimated for nitric oxide level by Griess reaction method. Paired t test was used to correlate the difference of mean salivary nitric oxide levels between caries-active and caries-free groups. The mean level of nitric oxide in saliva of the control group was 581.3 ± 134.6 μg/mL and that of caries-active group was 335.4 ± 111.1 μg/mL, respectively. The mean salivary level of nitric oxide was higher in the caries-free group as compared with the caries-active group which was statistically significant (p = 0.000). Salivary nitric oxide was higher in the caries-free group as compared to the caries-active group which suggests that increased production of nitric oxide in the oral cavity may contribute to lower caries incidence in children.

  11. First step toward translation of thermophotonic lock-in imaging to dentistry as an early caries detection technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojaghi, Ashkan; Parkhimchyk, Artur; Tabatabaei, Nima

    2016-09-01

    Early detection of the most prevalent oral disease worldwide, i.e., dental caries, still remains as one of the major challenges in dentistry. The current dental standard of care relies on caries detection methods, such as visual inspection and x-ray radiography, which lack the sufficient specificity and sensitivity to detect caries at early stages of formation when they can be healed. We report on the feasibility of early caries detection in a clinically and commercially viable thermophotonic imaging system. The system incorporates intensity-modulated laser light along with a low-cost long-wavelength infrared (LWIR; 8 to 14 μm) camera, providing diagnostic contrast based on the enhanced light absorption of early caries. The LWIR camera is highly suitable for integration into clinical platforms because of its low weight and cost. In addition, through theoretical modeling, we show that LWIR detection enhances the diagnostic contrast due to the minimal LWIR transmittance of enamel and suppression of the masking effect of the direct thermal Planck emission. Diagnostic performance of the system and its detection threshold are experimentally evaluated by monitoring the inception and progression of artificially induced occlusal and smooth surface caries. The results are suggestive of the suitability of the developed LWIR system for detecting early dental caries.

  12. Performance of laser fluorescence devices and visual examination for the detection of occlusal caries in permanent molars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechmann, Peter; Charland, Daniel; Rechmann, Beate M. T.; Featherstone, John D. B.

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic capabilities of a laser fluorescence tool DIAGNOdent (KaVo, Biberach, Germany) and two light-emitting diode fluorescence tools--Spectra Caries Detection Aid (AIR TECHNIQUES, Melville, NY), and SOPROLIFE light-induced fluorescence evaluator in daylight and blue florescence mode (SOPRO, ACTEON Group, La Ciotat, France)--in comparison to the caries detection and assessment system (ICDAS-II) in detection of caries lesions. In 100 subjects (age 23.4+/-10.6 years), 433 posterior permanent unrestored teeth were examined. On the occlusal surfaces, up to 1066 data points for each assessment method were available for statistical evaluation, including 1034 ICDAS scores (intra-examiner kappa=0.884). For the SOPROLIFE tool, a new caries-scoring system was developed. Per assessment tool each average score for one given ICDAS code was significantly different from the one for another ICDAS code. Normalized data linear regression revealed that both SOPROLIFE assessment tools allowed for best caries score discrimination followed by DIAGNOdent and Spectra Caries Detection Aid. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve calculations showed the same grading sequence when cutoff point ICDAS codes 0-1-2 were grouped together. Sensitivity and specificity values at the same cutoff were calculated (DIAGNOdent 87/66, Spectra Caries Detection Aid 93/37, SOPROLIFE 93/63, SOPROLIFE blue fluorescence 95/55.)

  13. In vivo study of approximal caries depth on storage phosphor plate images compared with dental x-ray film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versteeg, K H; Sanderink, G C; Velders, X L; van Ginkel, F C; van der Stelt, P F

    1997-08-01

    The aim of this in vivo study was to compare approximal caries depth on storage phosphor plate images to conventional film. A Soredex Digora imaging plate was placed in a film bite-wing positioner behind a Kodak Ektaspeed Plus film package without lead foil. The effect of scattered radiation on film without lead foil with a storage phosphor plate at the back was studied in a separate in vitro experiment. Compared with film protected by lead foil, the film showed higher density, but comparable contrast. For the in vivo study, clinical bite-wing exposures were made with the setup described above, with exposure settings for Ektaspeed Plus film. A four-point scale was chosen for approximal caries depth: 0 = no caries; 1 = caries in enamel; 2 = caries reaching dentino-enamel junction; 3 = caries into dentin. The bite-wing film images were shown to a panel of four experts. Sixty surfaces were selected for observer performance, based on identical scorings of the experts consensus classification. Next, six dentists evaluated both film and storage phosphor plate images with the same four point scale. Analysis of variance revealed a significant observer and image modality effect without an interaction effect. In conclusion, caries depth on storage phosphor plate images was underestimated compared with film-based images.

  14. Does caries risk assessment predict the incidence of caries for special needs patients requiring general anesthesia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Juhea; Kim, Hae-Young

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to correlate the caries-related variables of special needs patients to the incidence of new caries. Data for socio-demographic information and dental and general health status were obtained from 110 patients treated under general anesthesia because of their insufficient co-operation. The Cariogram program was used for risk assessment and other caries-related variables were also analyzed. Within a defined follow-up period (16.3 ± 9.5 months), 64 patients received dental examinations to assess newly developed caries. At baseline, the mean (SD) values of the DMFT (decayed, missing and filled teeth) and DT (decayed teeth) for the total patients were 9.2 (6.5) and 5.8 (5.3), respectively. During the follow-up period, new caries occurred in 48.4% of the patients and the mean value (SD) of the increased DMFT (iDMFT) was 2.1 (4.2). The patients with a higher increment of caries (iDMFT ≥3) showed significantly different caries risk profiles compared to the other patients (iDMFT dentistry. Past caries experience and inadequate oral hygiene maintenance were largely related to caries development in special needs patients.

  15. Caries-related factors and bacterial composition of supragingival plaques in caries free and caries active Algerian adults

    OpenAIRE

    Amina Hoceini; Nihel Klouche Khelil; Ilhem Ben-Yelles; Amine Mesli; Sara Ziouani; Lotfi Ghellai; Nadia Aissaoui; Fatima Nas; Mounia Arab

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare oral hygiene practices, education and social background, food intake and oral malodor of Algerian adults suffering from dental caries with normal controls, and to determine and compare the bacterial composition of the supragingival plaques from the above-mentioned groups. Methods: Participants completed a questionnaire and were clinically examined for dental caries using decayed, missing and filled teeth index according to the criteria laid down by the World Health Or...

  16. [Dental caries and treatment needs in adolescents from the state of São Paulo, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Maria da Luz Rosário de; Rando-Meirelles, Maria Paula Maciel; Tôrres, Luísa Helena do Nascimento; Frias, Antonio Carlos

    2013-12-01

    To estimate the prevalence of dental caries and treatment needs in 12-year-olds and adolescents. Cross-sectional study based on results from the epidemiological surveys: Oral Health Conditions in the State of Sao Paulo, 2002 and the Brazilian Oral Health Survey (SBBrasil) 2010. Secondary data for 5,782 (2002) and 369 (2010) 12-year-olds and 880 (2002) and 300 (2010) 15- to 19-year-olds were analyzed. Dental caries attack was evaluated using the DMFT (decayed, missing or filled teeth) index and the need for treatment verified using the criteria proposed by the World Health Organization. The Significant Caries Index was used to measure the severity of the decay in the tercile of the group with the highest prevalence of the disease. In order to analyze the results, the Chi-squared and Mann-Whitney tests were used, with a 5% significance. There was a decrease of 39.3 percentage points in the DMFT index for 12-year-olds (p caries respectively. The percentage of restored teeth decreased in both age groups, although the prevalence of dental caries did not change in the group more affected by dental caries. In the group with few dental caries, there was a decrease in the component 'tooth loss' for adolescents and increase in the component 'decayed teeth' for the 12-years-old and the adolescents. There was an increase in the need for dental treatment in the group as a whole and in the group of 12-year-olds more affected by dental caries; and among the adolescents, the need for restoration on two or more surface decreased in the group as a whole and also in the group which suffered least from dental caries. The decreasing need for non-complex treatment in adolescents suggests that promotion and prevention activities are having a positive effect on this group. Moreover, the two epidemiological surveys in the state of Sao Paulo show improvements in oral health conditions in both age groups studied and calls for monitoring aimed also at the group least affected by dental caries.

  17. Rural and urban disparities in caries prevalence in children with unmet dental needs: the New England Children's Amalgam Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maserejian, Nancy Nairi; Tavares, Mary A; Hayes, Catherine; Soncini, Jennifer A; Trachtenberg, Felicia L

    2008-01-01

    To compare the prevalence of caries between rural and urban children with unmet dental health needs who participated in the New England Children's Amalgam Trial. Baseline tooth and surface caries were clinically assessed in children from rural Maine (n = 243) and urban Boston (n = 291), who were aged 6 to 10 years, with two or more posterior carious teeth and no previous amalgam restorations. Statistical analyses used negative binomial models for primary dentition caries and zero-inflated models for permanent dentition caries. Urban children had a higher mean number of carious primary surfaces (8.5 versus 7.4) and teeth (4.5 versus 3.9) than rural children. The difference remained statistically significant after adjusting for sociodemographic factors and toothbrushing frequency. In permanent dentition, urban children were approximately three times as likely to have any carious surfaces or teeth. However, rural/urban dwelling was not statistically significant in the linear analysis of caries prevalence among children with any permanent dentition caries. Covariates that were statistically significant in all models were age and number of teeth. Toothbrushing frequency was also important for permanent teeth. Within this population of New England children with unmet oral health needs, significant differences were apparent between rural and urban children in the extent of untreated dental decay. Results indicate that families who agree to participate in programs offering reduced cost or free dental care may present with varying amounts of dental need based on geographic location.

  18. A comparative evaluation of DIAGNOdent and caries detector dye in detection of residual caries in prepared cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Majid; Ahrari, Farzaneh; Jafari, Marzieh

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the association between DIAGNOdent laser and caries detector dye in detection of the remaining caries in restorative cavities. The sample consisted of 100 cavities prepared in patients referring to the Department of Restorative Dentistry of Mashhad Dental School. After confirming caries absence by tactile examination, the presence of any residual caries was determined by a laser fluorescence (LF) device (DIAGNOdent Pen) and then by caries detector dye. The data were analyzed through McNemar test. When the cut off value was considered as ≥13, both DIAGNOdent Pen and caries detector dye found 54 cavities as without caries and 12 cavities as carious. There were 32 teeth diagnosed as decayed only by the dye and two cases that were diagnosed as having residual caries only by the DIAGNOdent. The McNemar test revealed a significant difference in the diagnosis of residual caries between the two methods (p laser fluorescence and tactile examination in residual caries detection (p > 0.05). Both DIAGNOdent Pen and caries detector dye can be considered as adjuncts for detecting residual caries in prepared cavities. However, the use of laser fluorescence device can provide results that are more consistent with tactile examination, while relying on caries detector dye may result in excessive removal of tooth tissue, and thus increase the risk of pulpal exposure. Incomparision with caries detector dye, Residual caries detection by DIAGNOdent Pen is more consistent with tactile examination.

  19. Factors for determining dental anxiety in preschool children with severe dental caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny ABANTO

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to assess the clinical and socioeconomic indicators associated with dental anxiety in preschool children with severe dental caries. A total of 100 children between 3 and 5 years of age were selected during a dental screening procedure. The selection criteria were having at least one tooth with dental caries and a visible pulpal involvement, ulceration, fistula, and abscess (PUFA index of ≥1 in primary teeth. Before the clinical examination or any treatment procedure was performed, we evaluated the children’s dental anxiety using the Facial Image Scale (FIS. Parents completed a questionnaire on socioeconomic conditions, which included the family structure, number of siblings, parental level of education, and family income. A dentist blinded to FIS and socioeconomic data performed the clinical examination. Poisson regressions associate clinical and socioeconomic conditions with the outcome. Most of the children (53% experienced extensive dental caries (dmf-t ≥ 6, and all children had severe caries lesions, with a PUFA index of ≥1 in 41% and that of ≥2 in 59%. The multivariate adjusted model showed that older children (4–5-year old experienced lower dental anxiety levels compared with younger children (3-year old (RR = 0.35; 95%CI: 0.17–0.72 and RR = 0.18; 95%CI: 0.04–0.76, respectively, and children with three or more siblings were associated with higher levels of dental anxiety (RR = 2.27; 95%CI: 1.06–4.87. Older age is associated with low dental anxiety, and more number of siblings is associated with high dental anxiety in preschool children, whereas the severity or extent of dental caries is not associated with dental anxiety.

  20. Factors for determining dental anxiety in preschool children with severe dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abanto, Jenny; Vidigal, Evelyn Alvarez; Carvalho, Thiago Saads; Sá, Stella Núbia Coelho de; Bönecker, Marcelo

    2017-01-16

    The aim of this study was to assess the clinical and socioeconomic indicators associated with dental anxiety in preschool children with severe dental caries. A total of 100 children between 3 and 5 years of age were selected during a dental screening procedure. The selection criteria were having at least one tooth with dental caries and a visible pulpal involvement, ulceration, fistula, and abscess (PUFA) index of ≥1 in primary teeth. Before the clinical examination or any treatment procedure was performed, we evaluated the children's dental anxiety using the Facial Image Scale (FIS). Parents completed a questionnaire on socioeconomic conditions, which included the family structure, number of siblings, parental level of education, and family income. A dentist blinded to FIS and socioeconomic data performed the clinical examination. Poisson regressions associate clinical and socioeconomic conditions with the outcome. Most of the children (53%) experienced extensive dental caries (dmf-t ≥ 6), and all children had severe caries lesions, with a PUFA index of ≥1 in 41% and that of ≥2 in 59%. The multivariate adjusted model showed that older children (4-5-year old) experienced lower dental anxiety levels compared with younger children (3-year old) (RR = 0.35; 95%CI: 0.17-0.72 and RR = 0.18; 95%CI: 0.04-0.76, respectively), and children with three or more siblings were associated with higher levels of dental anxiety (RR = 2.27; 95%CI: 1.06-4.87). Older age is associated with low dental anxiety, and more number of siblings is associated with high dental anxiety in preschool children, whereas the severity or extent of dental caries is not associated with dental anxiety.

  1. EARLY CHILDHOOD CARIES: CAN YOU PREVENT IT?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. B. Miloserdova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The probability of the caries development largely depends on the oral microflora imbalance. This imbalance can be corrected with probiotics. The article analyzes the results of studies on the use of adapted milk formulas with probiotics to prevent caries in early childhood. It shows that the use of adapted formulas with probiotics is accompanied by a decrease in the frequency of releasing cariogenic streptococci and actinomycetes with a simultaneous increase in the frequency of detecting bacterial antagonists of the cariogenic flora, normalization of sIgA concentration in saliva, and decrease in the severity of the caries process. The survey results will contribute to the development of effective approaches to prevention of dental caries in children.

  2. Nanoindentation hardness of intertubular dentin in sound, demineralized and natural caries-affected dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joves, Gerardo José; Inoue, Go; Sadr, Alireza; Nikaido, Toru; Tagami, Junji

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanical properties of intertubular dentin in sound, natural caries-affected (NCAD) and artificial caries-affected dentin (ACAD) using nanoindentation. Non-caries molars and caries molars with International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS II) score 5 at the occlusal site were used and caries was excavated using a spoon excavator, a round bur at low speed without water and a dye solution as guidance to detect the infected tissue. Specimens with remaining dentin thickness (RDT) >2mm were selected. ACAD teeth were created from sound teeth over 7 days in a demineralizing solution. Specimens were embedded into plastic rings with acrylic resin and then sagittal mesial-distal sectioned from crown to the long axis of the root under cooling water using a low-speed diamond blade. The surface of interest was fine polished sequentially. Hardness measurement was performed within an axial depth of 1000μm with at least of 320 indentations on each sample. Mann-Whitney U Test was used to compare the hardness as the variable among different dentin types (SOUND, NCAD and ACAD) at each dentin depth level. There was no significant difference in nanohardness between NCAD and ACAD up to a depth of 130μm (p>0.05). NCAD consistently showed lower hardness. ACAD showed no significant difference in hardness with SOUND dentin beyond 190μm (phardness; however the long-term effects of caries beneath the lesion extend deeply through intertubular dentin. Sound dentin at deep areas (close to the pulp chamber) is considered to be soft. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Association between obesity and dental caries in a group of preschool children in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Nava, Francisco; Vázquez-Rodríguez, Eliza Mireya; Saldívar-González, Atenógenes Humberto; Lin-Ochoa, Dolores; Martinez-Perales, Gerardo Manuel; Joffre-Velázquez, Víctor Manuel

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the association between obesity and caries by utilizing the data of a cohort of preschool children aged 4-5 years. Data were obtained from a cohort of 1,160 children. Dental caries detection was performed according to the World Health Organization criteria. The caries index was measured as the number of decayed (d), extracted (e), and filled (f) teeth (t) (deft), or surfaces (defs). The body mass index (BMI) in units of kg/m2 was determined, and children were categorized according to age- and gender-specific criteria as normal weight (5th-85th percentile), at-risk overweight (> or = 85th- or = 95th percentile). Odds ratios were determined for at-risk overweight and overweight children using logistic regression. The prevalence of dental caries was 17.9 percent. A slightly higher percentage of dental caries was found in boys (19.6 percent) than in girls (16.4 percent). From the total sample, the mean BMI was 17.10 +/- 3.83. Approximately 53.7 percent of children were classified as normal weight, 14.2 percent as at-risk overweight, and 32.1 percent as overweight. At-risk overweight children were higher among girls (17.1 percent) than among boys (11.3 percent). When adjusted for covariates, the logistic regression model showed that there was a significant association between at-risk overweight children (P caries in the primary dentition. Mean (SD) deft value of the sample was 1.08 (2.34), while the corresponding defs value was 1.43 (3.29). Obesity appears to be associated with dental caries in the primary dentition of preschool Mexican children.

  4. Effectiveness of water fluoridation in the prevention of dental caries across adult age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Loc; Ha, Diep; Peres, Marco A; Skinner, John; Byun, Roy; Spencer, A John

    2017-06-01

    Lifetime access to fluoridated water (FW) is associated with lower caries experience. However, assessing this association in adults is likely affected by age. Cohort stratification and categorization of per cent lifetime access to fluoridated water (% LAFW) within cohorts are current approaches to this assessment. These approaches require an examination of the % LAFW and caries experience variation within and across age groups and their association to inform future analyses. This secondary analysis aimed to examine the age group variation in % LAFW and caries experience; and the association of % LAFW with caries within and across age groups of adults. A secondary analysis was undertaken using the Australian National Survey of Adult Oral Health 2004-2006 data on 4090 persons aged 15-91 years randomly sampled by a stratified, multistage probability method. Study participants underwent an interview, an oral examination by trained and standardized dentists to determine decayed, missing or filled tooth surfaces (DMFS) and a mailed self-complete questionnaire which collected residential history to calculate % LAFW. Variations in % LAFW and DMFS across age groups (15-34; 35-44; 45-54; 55+) were examined. Multivariable regression log-link models were generated for DMFS score within each age group. The age groups varied in values and distribution of % LAFW. Caries experience was strongly associated with age. % LAFW was significantly associated with DMFS score in the two younger age groups, but not in the others. Multivariable regression models showed that the highest % LAFW quartile had significantly lower DMFS count than the lowest quartile in the two younger age groups (mean ratios: 0.67 and 0.78, respectively), controlling for other covariates. Access to FW was associated with caries experience in Australian adults. The magnitude of associations varied between age groups, dependent on the natural history of caries and its measurement by DMFS. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A

  5. Dental caries, gingivitis and the treatment needs among 12-year-olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owino, R O; Masiga, M A; Ng'ang'a, P M; Macigo, F G

    2010-01-01

    One of the World Health Organisation (WHO) global health goals stated that the global average for dental caries should not have been more than 3 DMFT at 12 years of age by the year 2000. However, the prevalence of dental caries, gingivitis and dental treatment needs among 12-year-old children in many regions of the developing world had then hardly been investigated. To determine the prevalence of dental caries and gingivitis and the dental treatment needs among 12-year-old children in Kitale Municipality in North- Western Kenya. Descriptive cross-sectional study. Primary schools in Kitale Municipality. Two hundred and ninety two children aged 12 years were randomly selected from eight schools that were also randomly selected. Data were collected according to the WHO Oral Health Survey Methods. The children were examined for decayed (D), missing due to decay (M) and filled teeth and the caries experience using the DMFT index was computed. Gingivitis and treatment needs were assessed using the CPITN index. The overall prevalence of dental caries was 50.3% while its prevalence when only the permanent teeth were considered was 44.5% with a mean DMFT of 0.92 +/-50 1.36. Girls had a significantly higher caries experience (DMFT) than boys (pgingivitis was 77.7%. Out of these 38.7% of the children required professional dental care entailing scaling and oral prophylaxis. The prevalence of dental caries and gingivitis was high hence there was greater need for one surface restoration and full mouth scaling for these children. School based oral health programme to improve oral hygiene of these children is recommended.

  6. Immunization experiments using the rodent caries model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D J; Taubman, M A

    1976-04-01

    Taken together, the immunization experiments which have been performed in the rat caries model system appear to suggest a correlation between the presence of salivary antibody to S mutans and reductions in caries caused by these bacteria. However, the multifactorial nature of this disease does not permit at present the conclusion that the presence of this antibody is both necessary and sufficient to give rise to the demonstrated effects on pathogenesis. To clarify the role of salivary antibody, several refinements may be required in the current model. Immunization procedures that elicit only a local antibody response would both simplify interpretations of effects and would be more desirable for use as a vaccine. Such procedures might include intraductal installation of antigen in the parotid gland which has been demonstrated to result in this type of response. An additional refinement stems from the knowledge that the kinds of immunization procedures currently used stimulated both cellular immune and soluble antibody systems, potentially giving rise to a rather broad spectrum of immune responses. Therefore, it might be useful to study the effects on S mutans pathogenesis in rats in which certain of these responses have been repressed, for example, by thymectomy, antilymphocyte serum, and so on. Also, each of these approaches would be measurably enhanced by more sensitive techniques to monitor immunological events in the oral cavity. Refinements in the selection and use of relevant antigens of S mutans also are necessary to delineate the in vivo mechanism of immunological interference in the pathogenesis of cariogenic streptococci. Approaches involve the use of purified GTF antigens or cell surface antigens both in the investigation of these mechanisms in in vitro models using antibody specifically directed to these antigens and in rat immunization experiments using immunogenic preparations of these materials. In addition, alterations in the diet and challenge

  7. Diagnosis, Risk Assessment, and Treatment Decisions for Occlusal Caries: A Survey from the Danish Public Dental Health Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Joana Christina; Qvist, Vibeke; Aimée, Nicole R; Mestrinho, Heliana D; Bakhshandeh, Azam

    2018-01-01

    This study validates a case-based survey method and analyzes the extent to which Danish dental professionals apply current concepts and strategies for occlusal caries management in children, adolescents, and young adults. A case-based, precoded questionnaire consisting of 10 clinical cases/patients with 26 teeth/occlusal surfaces was developed. The cases were set up in a PowerPoint presentation and color printed as a booklet illustrating patients with different patterns of caries activity, severity, and risk. A total of 69 dental professionals participated. Content and face validity of the survey method was established using a panel of experts. The panel also assessed the reliability of the method using a test-retest procedure (κ ≥ 0.80) and acting as benchmark. Measurements of agreement between dental professional and benchmark assessments showed substantial agreement for overall caries activity and risk assessment of patients and for clinical and radiographic severity of occlusal lesions (κ = 0.61-0.67). For assessment of caries lesion activity on occlusal surfaces, the agreement was moderate (κ = 0.50). Regarding treatment decisions, dental professionals showed substantial agreement when indicating restorative treatments (κ = 0.68). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed a significant influence of various patient-, lesion-, and participant-related variables in the assessment of caries risk, caries activity and severity, and treatment decision. In conclusion, Danish dental professionals participating in the study apply reasonably well current concepts on overall caries activity and risk assessment, clinical and radiographic severity of occlusal lesions, and, to a certain extent, assessment of caries lesion activity on occlusal surfaces. Nonoperative treatment decisions had a high priority among Danish professionals. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Comparing the performance of storage phosphor plate and Insight film images for the detection of proximal caries depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crombie, K; Parker, M E; Nortje, C J; Sanderink, G C H

    2009-11-01

    To compare proximal caries depth between conventional film images, unenhanced and enhanced storage phosphor plate images. Bitewing radiographs were taken on 100 patients presenting for Conservative and Periodontal treatment. Only one bitewing was taken on a patient either the right or left hand side of the patient A DenOptics storage phosphor plate and size 3 Kodak Insight film were simultaneously placed into a Rinn bitewing holder. The Insight film was placed behind the phosphor plate. Both were simultaneously exposed to radiation. The unenhanced phosphor plate images were copied four times. Contrast and brightness were either increased or decreased on the copied images. A five point scale was chosen for proximal caries depth: 0--sound, 1--caries in enamel, 2--caries reaching dentino-enamel junction, 3--caries into dentine, 4--caries in a restored area. The bitewing images were evaluated by 4 clinicians. Images with technical errors were excluded from the study. Altogether 1848 tooth surfaces were evaluated of which 136 surfaces were excluded due to technical errors. The results show that for the detection of proximal caries there is no significant difference in accuracy between unenhanced storage phosphor plate and Kodak Insight film images (p > 0.001). When decreasing both contrast and brightness there was no significant difference in diagnostic accuracy (p > 0.001) between unenhanced and enhanced storage phosphor plate images. More surfaces were analyzed for caries into the dentine on the enhanced images when both contrast and brightness were increased. Although contrast-enhanced and brightness-enhanced images retween conventional film, unenhanced and enhanced images.

  9. Caries detection using light-based diagnostic tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechmann, Peter; Rechmann, Beate M T; Featherstone, John D B

    2012-09-01

    Modern caries treatment concepts like caries management by risk assessment--CAMBRA--entail diagnosing early caries lesions in a precavitated stage to make it possible to reverse the caries process with remineralization and bacteria reduction efforts. Newer, sensitive caries diagnostic tools can serve not only for early detection but also for monitoring of caries lesions to confirm the success of prevention and remineralization efforts. This article describes light-based caries diagnostic tools, with emphasis on fluorescence-based techniques, and compares the most common available fluorescence-based tools with a standardized visual caries inspection system-the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS II). Fluorescence tools that provide high-resolution fluorescence pictures are likely to provide more reliable scores than fluorescence devices that assess via a single spot. The better visibility of the high-resolution fluorescence imaging could prevent unnecessary operative interventions.

  10. Blood lead level and dental caries in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemmel, Allison; Tavares, Mary; Alperin, Susan; Soncini, Jennifer; Daniel, David; Dunn, Julie; Crawford, Sybil; Braveman, Norman; Clarkson, Thomas W; McKinlay, Sonja; Bellinger, David C

    2002-10-01

    The association between blood lead level and dental caries was evaluated in cross-sectional analyses of baseline data for 543 children 6-10 years old screened for enrollment in the Children's Amalgam Trial, a study designed to assess potential health effects of mercury in silver fillings. Approximately half of the children were recruited from an urban setting (Boston/Cambridge, MA, USA) and approximately half from a rural setting (Farmington, ME, USA). Mean blood lead level was significantly greater among the urban subgroup, as was the mean number of carious tooth surfaces. Blood lead level was positively associated with number of caries among urban children, even with adjustment for demographic and maternal factors and child dental practices. This association was stronger in primary than in permanent dentition and stronger for occlusal, lingual, and buccal tooth surfaces than for mesial or distal surfaces. In general, blood lead was not associated with caries in the rural subgroup. The difference between the strength of the associations in the urban and rural settings might reflect the presence of residual confounding in the former setting, the presence of greater variability in the latter setting in terms of important caries risk factors (e.g., fluoride exposure), or greater exposure misclassification in the rural setting. These findings add to the evidence supporting a weak association between children's lead exposure and caries prevalence. A biologic mechanism for lead cariogenicity has not been identified, however. Our data are also consistent with residual confounding by factors associated with both elevated lead exposure and dental caries.

  11. Effect on Caries of Restricting Sugars Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, P.J.; Kelly, S.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    A systematic review of studies in humans was conducted to update evidence on the association between the amount of sugars intake and dental caries and on the effect of restricting sugars intake to caries to inform the updating of World Health Organization guidelines on sugars consumption. Data sources included MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Database, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang, and South African Department of Health. Eligible studies reported the absolute amount of sugars and dental caries, measured as prevalence, incidence, or severity. The review was conducted and reported in accordance with the PRISMA statement, and the evidence was assessed according to GRADE Working Group guidelines. From 5,990 papers identified, 55 studies were eligible – 3 intervention, 8 cohort, 20 population, and 24 cross-sectional. Data variability limited meta-analysis. Of the studies, 42 out of 50 of those in children and 5 out of 5 in adults reported at least one positive association between sugars and caries. There is evidence of moderate quality showing that caries is lower when free-sugars intake is caries risk throughout the life course. PMID:24323509

  12. A best practices approach to caries management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurlbutt, Michelle; Young, Douglas A

    2014-06-01

    Caries management by risk assessment represents best practices and is an evidence-based model that focuses on treating and preventing disease at the patient level rather than a surgical/restorative approach at the tooth level. Dental caries is a multifactorial, biofilm and pH mediated disease that affects people of all ages and disproportionally affects certain populations at epidemic proportions. Simply restoring cavitated teeth does nothing to resolve the disease. At the heart of the CAMBRA philosophy is identifying the patient's unique risk level for future caries disease. This can be done by completing a caries risk assessment (CRA). Several easy to use CRA questionnaires are available. Once the patient's unique risk level has been determined, preventive and therapeutic interventions, based on the specific risk level, can then be implemented. Landmark publications, original research, and systematic reviews are analyzed and reviewed to form the basis for this shift in patient care related to caries disease. Caries management by risk assessment has emerged as the new paradigm in patient care and represents an evidence-based, best practices approach with the potential for significant advantages over traditional methods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Evidence for dental caries decline among children in an East European country (Hungary)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szöke, J.; Petersen, P.E.

    2000-01-01

    Central and Eastern Europe, dental caries prevalence, need for dental care, long-term trends of caries, schoolchildren......Central and Eastern Europe, dental caries prevalence, need for dental care, long-term trends of caries, schoolchildren...

  14. Evaluation of pH, buffering capacity, viscosity and flow rate levels of saliva in caries-free, minimal caries and nursing caries children: An in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animireddy, Dwitha; Reddy Bekkem, Venkata Thimma; Vallala, Pranitha; Kotha, Sunil Babu; Ankireddy, Swetha; Mohammad, Noorjahan

    2014-07-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the pH, buffering capacity, viscosity and flow rate of saliva in caries free, minimal caries and nursing caries children and to evaluate the relationship of these on the caries activity of children. A total of 75 school children of age group between 4 and 12 years were selected and divided into three equal groups: Group I, Group II and Group III, consisting of 25 subjects each. Group I included caries-free subjects, Group II included subjects with minimal caries and Group III included subjects with nursing caries. Saliva samples were collected from all subjects and were estimated for flow rate, pH, buffering capacity and viscosity. There was a significant decrease in the mean salivary flow rate, salivary ph and salivary buffer capacity and a significant increase in the salivary viscosity among caries-free subjects, subjects with minimal caries and subjects with nursing caries. The physicochemical properties of saliva, such as salivary flow rate, pH, buffering capacity and viscosity, has a relation with caries activity in children and act as markers of caries activity.

  15. Dental caries and treatment needs in street children in Toluca, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-Bulnes, R; Reyes-Silveyra, L J; Fuentes-Alvarez, T; Escamilla-Rodriguez, F; Rodríguez-Vilchis, L E

    2008-06-01

    To assess dental caries (deft and DMFT) and treatment needs, in street children from the city of Toluca in Mexico. After informed consent from their parents, guardian or legal representative, 310 street children, 0 to 17 years of age, from Toluca in the state of Mexico, were evaluated. Caries and treatment needs were recorded according to 1997 WHO criteria. The oral examination was carried out on site in daylight. For the population from which the sample was derived, the caries prevalence was 94.96%, the mean DMFT was 6.0 +/- 4.6 (5.8 decayed), while deft was 3.5 +/- 3.7 (3.4 decayed). Treatment needs in the deciduous dentition revealed that 43.9% of teeth did not require any treatment, 20% needed fissure sealants, 19% required one surface restoration and 13.19% needed restoration in two or more surfaces. In the permanent dentition, the treatment needs were as follows: 51.2% teeth did not need any treatment, 22.9% needed fissure sealants, 18.4% required one surface restoration and 5.3% needed restoration in two or more surfaces. These findings illustrate the high prevalence of caries in street children in the city of Toluca. There is an enormous need for dental treatment; sealant applications were the treatment most in need. The data can serve as a platform to implement preventive and restorative dental health programmes that meet the needs of Mexican street children,

  16. The use of caries detector dye in diagnosis of occlusal carious lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al-Sehaibany, F; White, G; Rainey, J T

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the accuracy of diagnosis of carious lesions in the occlusal pit, fissure, and groove system of lower molars examined by two methods: examination by using caries detector dye. vs. traditional tactile examination using a dental explorer. Thirty human lower permanent molars were examined in this study. The occlusal surface of each tooth was examined by explorer; a linear measurement in millimeters of carious lesions diagnosed in the pit, fissure and groove system was recorded. The same surface was then stained with caries detection dye. Linear measurements in millimeters were then recorded for areas of stain remaining in the pit, fissure, and groove system. The thirty teeth were then sectioned buccal lingually in three sections, exposing 180 saggital histological cross sections for histological examination. Histological cross section confirmed a ratio of 1:1 (100%) accuracy by caries detection dye in diagnosing decay underlying the occlusal surface. Concurrent examination of the same occlusal surfaces by traditional explorer examination was reliable only in a 1:4 ratio (25%). Other findings of significance revealed by histological examination of the cross sections include: a sub-ridge occlusal transverse ridge of enamel; different shape and direction of occlusal grooves compared to traditional teaching; and unpredictable path of caries underlying the occlusal grooves.

  17. Modeling Caries Experience: Advantages of the Use of the Hurdle Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstetter, H.; Dusseldorp, E.; Zeileis, A.; Schuller, A.A.

    2016-01-01

    In dental epidemiology, the decayed (D), missing (M), and filled (F) teeth or surfaces index (DFM index) is a frequently used measure. The DMF index is characterized by a strongly positive skewed distribution with a large stack of zero counts for those individuals without caries experience.

  18. Comparison of diagnostic ability of storage phosphor plate in detecting proximal caries with direct measurement by stereomicroscope: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velayudhannair Vivek

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Radiography plays an important role in detection of interproximal caries. The aim of study is to compare diagnostic ability of photo stimulable phosphor (PSP with direct measurement using stereomicroscope in detecting proximal caries. Hundred proximal surfaces of 50 extracted human posterior teeth were radiographed with dental X-ray unit. The image receptors used was storage phosphor plate Vista scan (size 2, (time of exposure 0.4 s. Radiographs were interpreted and caries lesions were classified on a 4-point scale suggested by Abesi et al. The teeth were sectioned with diamond disc and were examined under a stereomicroscope with 20x magnification. Diagnostic accuracy of digital image is similar to that observed with stereomicroscope. The PSP plate digital X ray system can effectively be employed for detecting proximal caries as compared to direct observation by stereomicroscope. Further study with more number of observer/evaluator and large sample size is recommended.

  19. Comparison of Diagnostic Ability of Storage Phosphor Plate in Detecting Proximal Caries with Direct Measurement by Stereomicroscope: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivek, Velayudhannair; Thomas, Sunila; Nair, Bindu J; Vineet, Alex Daniel; Thomas, Jincy; Ranimol, Prasanna; Vijayan, Aswathy K

    2015-09-28

    Radiography plays an important role in detection of interproximal caries. The aim of study is to compare diagnostic ability of photo stimulable phosphor (PSP) with direct measurement using stereomicroscope in detecting proximal caries. Hundred proximal surfaces of 50 extracted human posterior teeth were radiographed with dental X-ray unit. The image receptors used was storage phosphor plate Vista scan (size 2), (time of exposure 0.4 s). Radiographs were interpreted and caries lesions were classified on a 4-point scale suggested by Abesi et al. The teeth were sectioned with diamond disc and were examined under a stereomicroscope with 20x magnification. Diagnostic accuracy of digital image is similar to that observed with stereomicroscope. The PSP plate digital X ray system can effectively be employed for detecting proximal caries as compared to direct observation by stereomicro-scope. Further study with more number of observer/evaluator and large sample size is recommended.

  20. Detection of proximal caries in vitro using standard and task-specific enhanced images from a storage phosphor plate system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, G; Sanderink, G C H; Berkhout, W E R; Syriopoulos, K; van der Stelt, P F

    2007-01-01

    Eight dentists evaluated 72 proximal surfaces of premolars with respect to all caries lesions and to lesions into dentine in digital images from a storage phosphor plate system. The images were processed in four different ways: (1) the default algorithm of the standard imaging system (DF); (2) an algorithm correcting for attenuation and visual response (AV), and two proprietary caries-specific enhancement algorithms (3) K1, and (4) K2, respectively. The lesions were validated by histological examination. There were no significant differences in the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves between differently processed radiographs for the categories of all caries lesions and caries into dentine. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Assessing caries increments in elderly patients with and without dementia A one-year follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellefsen, B.; Holm-Pedersen, P.; Morse, D.E.

    2009-01-01

    examination included an assessment of dental status and dental caries. The authors used a structured questionnaire to obtain information regarding demographic, social and functional variables. Results. In the baseline study, 106 dentate patients participated. Of these, 77 completed the follow-up study...... for all participants, and the number was highest for the OD group. The one-year adjusted caries and filling increments (ADJCIs) were high for participants with and without dementia but were highest for participants in the AD and OD groups. Baseline risk factors for developing elevated coronal and root...... ADJCIs included having caries, having many teeth and being older than 80 years. onclusions. Elderly people referred to a memory clinic were at an elevated risk of developing high levels of coronal and root-surface caries during the first year after referral, and those with a dementia diagnosis other than...

  2. Assessing caries increments in elderly patients with and without dementia: a one-year follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellefsen, Birita; Holm-Pedersen, Poul; Morse, Douglas E

    2009-01-01

    examination included an assessment of dental status and dental caries. The authors used a structured questionnaire to obtain information regarding demographic, social and functional variables. RESULTS: In the baseline study, 106 dentate patients participated. Of these, 77 completed the follow-up study...... for all participants, and the number was highest for the OD group. The one-year adjusted caries and filling increments (ADJCIs) were high for participants with and without dementia but were highest for participants in the AD and OD groups. Baseline risk factors for developing elevated coronal and root...... ADJCIs included having caries, having many teeth and being older than 80 years. CONCLUSIONS: Elderly people referred to a memory clinic were at an elevated risk of developing high levels of coronal and root-surface caries during the first year after referral, and those with a dementia diagnosis other...

  3. Correlation between laser fluorescence readings and volume of tooth preparation in incipient occlusal caries in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaname, Eduardo S; Ritter, André V; Heymann, Harald O; Vann, William F; Shugars, Daniel A; Bader, James D

    2010-02-01

    This study evaluated the correlation between laser fluorescence readings and the extent of incipient occlusal caries as measured by the volume of tooth preparation in vitro. One hundred and three permanent molars and premolars containing incipient occlusal pit-and-fissure caries and sound occlusal surfaces (1/4 of the sample, control) were selected. DIAGNOdent (KaVo Dental Corporation, Lake Zurich, IL, USA) readings were obtained according to manufacturer instructions. Caries was removed with 1/4 round burs in high speed. The volume of tooth preparation was measured using a surrogate measure based on the amount of composite needed to fill the preparations. Sensitivity and specificity using different cutoff values were calculated for lesions/preparations extending into dentin. The results were analyzed statistically. The Pearson correlation for preparation volume and DIAGNOdent reading measurements was low (r = 0.285). Sensitivity and specificity of DIAGNOdent for detection of dentinal lesions were 0.83 and 0.60, and 0.66 and 0.73 for the cutoff values of 20 and 30, respectively. Within the limitations of this study, laser fluorescence measured with DIAGNOdent does not correlate well with extent of carious tooth structure in incipient occlusal caries. Clinicians should not rely only on DIAGNOdent readings to determine the extension of incipient occlusal caries.

  4. Accuracy of extraoral tuned aperture computed tomography (TACT) for proximal caries detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harase, Yuichi; Araki, Kazuyuki; Okano, Tomohiro

    2006-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare the difference in the accuracy of proximal caries detection by extraoral tuned aperture computed tomography (TACT), intraoral TACT, and film radiographs. Eighty proximal surfaces of 40 extracted human maxillary teeth were used. A digital sensor was the image receptor for TACT. Film radiographs were acquired using Insight film. Nine basis images were acquired to reconstruct TACT slices. Seven observers scored the presence or absence of proximal caries using the 3 imaging modalities. The true presence of caries and its depth were determined using the sectional images obtained by micro CT. Among the image modalities and observers, possible differences in the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve were assessed by analysis of variance (ANOVA). ANOVA indicated no statistically significant differences between observers (P = .845), modalities (P = .657), and observer-modality combinations (P = .593). Within the limited range of this study, extraoral TACT was not statistically different from intraoral TACT or film radiographs for proximal caries detection. This suggests that extraoral TACT may have some clinical utility for caries diagnosis and that further study may be warranted.

  5. Prevalence of dental caries and treatment needs in children in coastal areas of West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Dulal; Misra, Jiban; Mitra, Malay; Bhattacharya, Bhashwar; Bagchi, Anandamoy

    2013-10-01

    This study was carried out to measure the caries prevalence and treatment needs in school children of 6-14 year old residing in coastal areas of West Bengal. A total of 1764 children of 6-14 years age group, studying in different primary and high schools of the coastal areas were examined using World Health Organization criteria (1997) to record the prevalence of dental caries. The treatment needs were also calculated according to that given criteria. The results were subjected to statistical analysis using the Chi-square test and unpaired 't' test. Dental caries were founded low in the studied population. The overall all caries prevalence in the permanent dentition was 28.06%, in boys it was 25.39% and in girls it was 30.86%. Therefore caries prevalence in female was higher and which was statistically highly significant (P < 0.05). The most frequently required treatment was one surface filling followed by other treatments irrespective of sex and age group. The presence of sea foods containing high fluoride and least availability of refined carbohydrate in the diet may be the reason of lower prevalence. child oral health is always a matter of concern for a developing country so further research is required to explore actual causes.

  6. Effect of Biodentine on secondary caries formation: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özgül, Betül Memis; Tirali, R Ebru; Cehreli, S Burcak

    2016-04-01

    To compare the effects of two materials, Biodentine and conventional glass-ionomer cement (CGIC), on secondary caries formation around restorations when used as a dentin replacement material. 30 approximal cavities were prepared on mesial and distal surfaces of 15 caries-free human premolar teeth extracted for orthodontic or periodontal reasons. Cavities were filled with A: Biodentine as a base + Filtek Z250 composite (n = 15) or B: CGIC as a base + Filtek Z250 composite (n = 15). The materials were applied according to the manufacturers' instructions. Teeth were thermocycled, and placed in a demineralizing solution for 5 weeks. Secondary caries formation was assessed using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) II and quantitative computer- aided image measurement of caries depth. The computer-aided measurements showed that the Biodentine group had significantly lower lesion depth measurements than the CGIC group (P = 0.004). However, there was no significant difference among the groups based on the ICDAS II scores (P > 0.05).

  7. Minimal Intervention Dentistry (MID) for managing dental caries – a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frencken, Jo E.; Peters, Mathilde C.; Manton, David J.; Leal, Soraya C.; Gordan, Valeria V.; Eden, Ece

    2012-01-01

    This publication describes the history of Minimal Intervention Dentistry (MID) for managing dental caries and presents evidence for various carious lesion detection devices, for preventive measures, for restorative and non-restorative therapies as well as for repairing rather than replacing defective restorations. It is a follow-up to the FDI World Dental Federation publication on MID, of 2000. The dental profession currently is faced with an enormous task of how to manage the high burden of consequences of the caries process amongst the world population. If it is to manage carious lesion development and its progression, it should move away from the ‘surgical’ care approach and fully embrace the MID approach. The chance for MID to be successful is thought to be increased tremendously if dental caries is not considered an infectious but instead a behavioural disease with a bacterial component. Controlling the two main carious lesion development related behaviours, i.e. intake and frequency of fermentable sugars, to not more than five times daily and removing/disturbing dental plaque from all tooth surfaces using an effective fluoridated toothpaste twice daily, are the ingredients for reducing the burden of dental caries in many communities in the world. FDI’s policy of reducing the need for restorative therapy by placing an even greater emphasis on caries prevention than is currently done, is therefore, worth pursuing. PMID:23106836

  8. Cambra system in patients awaiting hematopoietic progenitor cell transplant and high caries risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Fernández, Ana; Ortiz-Ruiz, Antonio-José; De Arriba-de la Fuente, Felipe; Vicente-García, Vicente; Iniesta-López-Matencio, Pastora; Oñate-Sánchez, Ricardo-Elias

    2017-05-01

    Recent times have witnessed a significant increase in the number of patients affected by problems related to oncological treatment Aims of this study is to evaluate dental affectation among patients awaiting hematopoietic progenitor cell transplant (HPCT), and they showed high caries risk, so it should establish a protocol prior to transplantation. The study included 72 patients due for HPCT. Clinical and radiological explorations were performed and oral photos taken. The amount of caries, missing teeth and fillings were registered for each patient. CAO, DMFS and Restoration Indices were calculated. 83% of patients presented caries. 48 patients (67%) had lost at least one tooth. Only 32 patients (44%) had received some sort of conservative treatment. The average CAO index value obtained was 10.37. The DMFS index showed an average of 27.06 affected surfaces. Of the 72 patients studied, 40 (56%) showed a restoration index value of zero. These patients presented a high number of carious teeth and a low restoration index. The presence of so many possible septic foci in an individual, who will later become susceptible to infection, highlights the importance of preventative treatment and bucco-dental restoration within this patient population. These patients with a high caries risk can be treated with CAMBRA system. Key words: Hematopoietic progenitor cell transplantation, high caries risk, state of oral health, haematological disease, CAMBRA system.

  9. The antimicrobial potential of stevia in an in vitro microbial caries model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishta-; Derani, Maryam; Neiva, Gisele F; Boynton, James R; Kim, Youngjoo E; Fontana, Margherita

    2016-04-01

    To determine the effect of stevia on caries development when incorporated into a cariogenic diet in a controlled microbial caries model. 56 bovine tooth specimens (4 x 4 mm) were divided into four groups, each secured in a caries-forming vessel. All vessels were placed on an electric stirrer inside a 37°C incubator. The specimens were inoculated with Streptococcus mutans, and exposed for 4 days to circulating cycles of tryptic soy broth supplemented with 5% sucrose-TSBS (three x/day), and a mineral wash solution. Between TSBS cycles (three x/day), each group received one of four experimental solutions: phosphate buffer (PBS-negative control), 0.5% stevia solution, 5% stevia solution, or 5% xylitol solution. Development of caries lesions was analyzed using enamel surface hardness. Difference in Vickers Hardness between pre and post-treatment was calculated to determine caries development. Plaque was dislodged from six specimens per group, and the CFU/ml calculated. Data were analyzed using ANOVA at 95% confidence level, and individual group differences calculated using Tukey's test. 5% xylitol resulted in significantly less plaque at the end of the study compared to PBS and 5% stevia, but not significantly different than 0.5% stevia. 5% stevia had significantly softer lesions than the other groups, while there was no significant difference in hardness scores between 5% xylitol, 0.5% stevia and PBS.

  10. Minimal intervention dentistry for managing dental caries - a review: report of a FDI task group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frencken, Jo E; Peters, Mathilde C; Manton, David J; Leal, Soraya C; Gordan, Valeria V; Eden, Ece

    2012-10-01

    This publication describes the history of minimal intervention dentistry (MID) for managing dental caries and presents evidence for various carious lesion detection devices, for preventive measures, for restorative and non-restorative therapies as well as for repairing rather than replacing defective restorations. It is a follow-up to the FDI World Dental Federation publication on MID, of 2000. The dental profession currently is faced with an enormous task of how to manage the high burden of consequences of the caries process amongst the world population. If it is to manage carious lesion development and its progression, it should move away from the 'surgical' care approach and fully embrace the MID approach. The chance for MID to be successful is thought to be increased tremendously if dental caries is not considered an infectious but instead a behavioural disease with a bacterial component. Controlling the two main carious lesion development related behaviours, i.e. intake and frequency of fermentable sugars, to not more than five times daily and removing/disturbing dental plaque from all tooth surfaces using an effective fluoridated toothpaste twice daily, are the ingredients for reducing the burden of dental caries in many communities in the world. FDI's policy of reducing the need for restorative therapy by placing an even greater emphasis on caries prevention than is currently done, is therefore, worth pursuing. © 2012 FDI World Dental Federation.

  11. Contemporary operative caries management: consensus recommendations on minimally invasive caries removal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banerjee, A.; Frencken, J.E.F.M.; Schwendicke, F.; Innes, N.P.

    2017-01-01

    The International Caries Consensus Collaboration (ICCC) presented recommendations on terminology, on carious tissue removal and on managing cavitated carious lesions. It identified 'dental caries' as the name of the disease that dentists should manage, and the importance of controlling the activity

  12. Experiencing the Meaning of Exercise

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    electronic or otherwise) without the express permission of the publishers. Experiencing the Meaning of Exercise by Dr Steven .... In terms of home language, 24 were English, 9 Zulu, 3. Xhosa, 2 Afrikaans, I Hindi, 1 North Sotho, 1. Setswana, 1 Tsonga and 1 Swazi speaking. All participants were involved with social science.

  13. [Dental caries in schoolchildren aged 6-12 years in Navolato, Sinaloa, México: experience, prevalence, severity and treatment needs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos-Rodelo, Juan José; Medina-Solís, Carlo Eduardo; Molina-Frechero, Nelly; Vallejos-Sánchez, Ana Alicia; Pontigo-Loyola, América Patricia; Espinoza-Beltrán, José Luis

    2006-06-01

    Dental caries is the most prevalent disease in children. To determine the caries experience, prevalence, and severity in temporal and permanent dentition, likewise to establish the significant caries index in schoolchildren of Navolato, Sinaloa, Mexico as well as their treatment needs. A cross sectional study in 3048 schoolchildren aged 6 to 12 years. All subjects were clinically examined by three examiners (kappa>0.85), according to World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. Caries detection criteria used were the WHO's criteria and Pitts' lesion d1. The mean age was 8.81 +/- 1.79 years old and 52.2% were girls. In the temporal dentition; the dmft was 4.68 +/- 3.21 and caries prevalence of 90.2% (dmft>3 was 60.8%, and dmft>6 was 27.4%). The overall significant caries index was 10.52 for 6 year olds. The noncavitated lesions (d1) represented 37.1% of the "decay" component. In the permanent dentition; the DMFT was 3.24 +/- 2.72 and caries prevalence was 82.0% (DMFT>3 was 47.8%, and DMFT>6 was 9.0%). The overall significant caries index was 10.87 for 12 year olds. The noncavitated lesions (d1) represented 63.4% of the "decay" component. The majority, 89.6% and 81.1% of children needed at least one restoration of one and two dental surfaces, respectively. Girls were more affected by caries than boys in permanent dentition, but not in temporal dentition. The caries experience increased with age. We observed high indices of caries, and high prevalence, severity and treatment needs. Noncavitated lesions were higher in permanent dentition that in primary dentition.

  14. Contact versus non-contact ablation of the artificial enamel caries by Er:YAG and CTH:YAG laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dostálová, Tat'jana; Jelínková, Helena; Å ulc, Jan; Němec, Michal; Bučková, Michaela; Kašparová, Magdalena; Miyagi, Mitsunobu

    The aim of study is to compare the ablation effect of contact and non-contact interaction of Er:YAG and CTH:YAG laser radiation with artificial enamel caries lesion. The artificial caries was prepared in intact teeth to simulate demineralized surface and the laser radiation was applied. Contact and non-contact ablation was compared. Two laser systems Er:YAG 2.94 μm and CTH:YAG 2.1 μm were used. The enamel artificial caries were gently removed by laser radiation and flow Sonic fill composite resin was inserted. Scanning electron microscope was use to evaluate the enamel surface.

  15. [Fluoridation at Karl Marx Stadt. XIII. Caries reduction and oral rehabilitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Künzel, W

    1976-07-01

    12 years after water fluoridation (1971), the repercussions of the quantitative and qualitative changes in caries prevalence on the paedodontic care were studied on the basis of statistical findings from more than 36 000 subjects aged from 6 to 18 years. It was shown that the result of oral rehabilitation is substantially influenced by the increase in the number of subjects with primarily healthy dentitions and by the reduction in the number of carious teeth. Furthermore, the reduced number of cavities and fillings involving two or more surfaces and the less frequent occurrence of secondary caries have repercussion on the time spent by the paedodontist. Not least the caries reduction also influences the paedodontist/children ratio which has changed from 1:1659 in 1959 to 1:3208 in 1971.

  16. Detection of in vitro proximal caries in storage phosphor plate radiographs scanned with different resolutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, G; Berkhout, W E R; Sanderink, G C H; Martins, M; van der Stelt, P F

    2008-09-01

    To investigate the effect of the scanning resolution of storage phosphor plate (SPP) radiographs on the detection of proximal caries lesions. 10 dentists evaluated 72 proximal surfaces of premolars with respect to caries from SPP radiographs scanned with theoretical spatial resolutions of: (1) the Digora FMX at 7.8 lp mm(-1); (2) the Digora Optime at both 7.8 lp mm(-1) and 12.5 lp mm(-1); and (3) the Dürr VistaScan at 10 lp mm(-1) and 20 lp mm(-1), respectively. The lesions were validated by histological examination. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was employed. The A(z) value for the radiographs scanned with the Dürr VistaScan at 10 lp mm(-1) is significantly lower than those for the other series of radiographs (P = 0.000). For SPP radiographs, an increased theoretical spatial resolution per se is not related to an improved detection of proximal caries.

  17. Twenty-month follow-up of occlusal caries lesions deemed questionable at baseline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makhija, Sonia K; Gilbert, Gregg H; Funkhouser, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A questionable occlusal caries (QOC) lesion can be defined as an occlusal surface with no radiographic evidence of caries, but caries is suspected because of clinical appearance. In this study, the authors report the results of a 20-month follow-up of these lesions. METHODS: Fifty...... (oral hygiene instruction, applying or prescribing fluoride or varnish, or both), and the remaining 308 received a sealant (n = 192) or invasive therapy (n = 116). At the 20-month visit, clinicians continued to monitor 927 (90 percent) of the 1,033 monitored lesions. Clinicians decided to seal 61 (6...... percent) of the 1,033 lesions (mean follow-up, 19 months) and invasively treat 45 (4 percent) of them (mean follow-up, 15 months). Young patient age (

  18. Use of CO2 laser in pit and fissure caries prevention: clinical evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugnera, Aldo, Jr.; Rosso, Naomi; Duarte, Danilo; Guedes Pinto, Antonio C.; Genovese, Walter J.

    1997-05-01

    In this four-year follow up in vivo controlled study, 112 human permanent first molars, from children between the ages of 6 and 11 years old were used to investigate the viability of the CO2 laser in promoting carie-free occlusal surfaces in permanent molars, as an isolated form of treatment or associated with conventional fissure sealants. The findings suggest that occlusal caries prevention only by means of CO2 laser irradiation is not effective; that the utilization of photo-activated sealants, as well as its association with CO2 laser, applied over the occlusal fissures, are effective means of preventing occlusal caries and that the application of CO2 laser over occlusal fissures, prior to the application of a photo-activated fissure sealant, improves the retention of the sealant.

  19. Sugar Alcohols, Caries Incidence, and Remineralization of Caries Lesions: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kauko K. Mäkinen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Remineralization of minor enamel defects is a normal physiological process that is well known to clinicians and researchers in dentistry and oral biology. This process can be facilitated by various dietary and oral hygiene procedures and may also concern dentin caries lesions. Dental caries is reversible if detected and treated sufficiently early. Habitual use of xylitol, a sugar alcohol of the pentitol type, can be associated with significant reduction in caries incidence and with tooth remineralization. Other dietary polyols that can remarkably lower the incidence of caries include erythritol which is a tetritol-type alditol. Based on known molecular parameters of simple dietary alditols, it is conceivable to predict that their efficacy in caries prevention will follow the homologous series, that is, that the number of OH-groups present in the alditol molecule will determine the efficacy as follows: erythritol≥xylitol>sorbitol. The possible difference between erythritol and xylitol must be confirmed in future clinical trials.

  20. An overview of caries risk assessment: Rationale, risk indicators, risk assessment methods, and risk-based caries management protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekta Singh Suneja

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paradigm shift in our understanding of the dynamic, multifactorial nature of dental caries and the resultant change in caries preventive and treatment strategies necessitates that caries risk assessment (CRA should be an integral part of any caries management protocol. This review discusses the rationale for CRA and the role various risk indicators play in the fluctuating demineralization-remineralization cycle of dental caries. It also provides an overview of different CRA methods and a risk-based clinical protocol for dental caries management in infants and children.

  1. Milk Sweetened with Xylitol: A Proof-of-Principle Caries Prevention Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Donald L; Zegarra, Graciela; Vasquez Huerta, Elsa C; Castillo, Jorge L; Milgrom, Peter; Roberts, Marilyn C; Cabrera-Matta, Ailin R; Merino, Ana P

    2016-09-15

    To evaluate the efficacy of xylitol-sweetened milk as a caries-preventive strategy. In this nine-month prospective proof-of-principle trial, Peruvian schoolchildren were randomized to one of five different milk groups: (1) eight g of xylitol per 200 mL milk once per day; (2) four g of xylitol per 100 mL milk twice per day; (3) eight g of sorbitol per 200 mL milk once per day; (4) four g of sorbitol per 100 mL milk twice per day; or (5) eight g of sucrose per 200 mL milk once per day. The primary outcome was plaque mutans streptococci (MS) at nine months. A secondary outcome was caries incidence. We hypothesized that children in the xylitol groups would have a greater MS decline and lower caries incidence. One hundred fifty-three children were randomized in the intent-to-treat analyses. Children receiving xylitol had a greater decline in MS than children receiving sucrose (P=0.02) but were not different from children receiving sorbitol (P=0.07). Dental caries incidence for xylitol once per day or twice per day was 5.3±3.4 and 4.3±4.0 surfaces, respectively, compared to sorbitol once per day, sorbitol twice per day, or sucrose (4.1±2.8, 3.7±4.2, and 3.2±3.4 surfaces, respectively). There were no differences in caries incidence between xylitol and sucrose (rate ratio [RR] = 1.51; 95 percent confidence interval [CI] = 0.88, 2.59; P=0.13) or between xylitol and sorbitol (RR = 1.28; 95 percent CI = 0.90, 1.83; P=0.16). Xylitol-sweetened milk significantly reduced mutans streptococci levels compared to sucrose-sweetened milk, but differences in caries incidence were not detected.

  2. Topical silver diamine fluoride for dental caries arrest in preschool children: A randomized controlled trial and microbiological analysis of caries associated microbes and resistance gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milgrom, Peter; Horst, Jeremy A; Ludwig, Sharity; Rothen, Marilynn; Chaffee, Benjamin W; Lyalina, Svetlana; Pollard, Katherine S; DeRisi, Joseph L; Mancl, Lloyd

    2018-01-01

    The Stopping Cavities Trial investigated effectiveness and safety of 38% silver diamine fluoride in arresting caries lesions. The study was a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled superiority trial with 2 parallel groups. The sites were Oregon preschools. Sixty-six preschool children with ≥1 lesion were enrolled. Silver diamine fluoride (38%) or placebo (blue-tinted water), applied topically to the lesion. The primary endpoint was caries arrest (lesion inactivity, Nyvad criteria) 14-21days post intervention. Dental plaque was collected from all children, and microbial composition was assessed by RNA sequencing from 2 lesions and 1 unaffected surface before treatment and at follow-up for 3 children from each group. Average proportion of arrested caries lesions in the silver diamine fluoride group was higher (0.72; 95% CI; 0.55, 0.84) than in the placebo group (0.05; 95% CI; 0.00, 0.16). Confirmatory analysis using generalized estimating equation log-linear regression, based on the number of arrested lesions and accounting for the number of treated surfaces and length of follow-up, indicates the risk of arrested caries was significantly higher in the treatment group (relative risk, 17.3; 95% CI: 4.3 to 69.4). No harms were observed. RNA sequencing analysis identified no consistent changes in relative abundance of caries-associated microbes, nor emergence of antibiotic or metal resistance gene expression. Topical 38% silver diamine fluoride is effective and safe in arresting cavities in preschool children. The treatment is applicable to primary care practice and may reduce the burden of untreated tooth decay in the population. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessment of early occlusal caries pre- and post-sealant application--an imaging approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzman, Jennifer S; Ballantine, Jami; Fontana, Margherita; Wang, Alex; Calantog, Alden; Benavides, Erika; Gonzalez-Cabezas, Carlos; Chen, Zhongping; Wilder-Smith, Petra

    2014-08-01

    Clinicians have difficulty assessing and monitoring early occlusal caries. Traditional clinical exam and radiographs are unable to detect the subtle alterations in enamel indicative of de- or re-mineralization, particularly under dental sealants. Although clinicians have used laser fluorescence (LF) to address this gap, this modality has demonstrated weak correlation with histology. The International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS-II) has demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity for caries detection, but since it is based on visual assessment, it is of no use in areas beneath the most commonly used dental sealants which are opaque. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an emergent assessment tool which has demonstrated great promise in detecting and quantifying caries, including areas beneath commonly used dental sealants and composites. However, OCT has not yet been widely integrated into clinical dental practice, perhaps because OCT imaging does not provide an easily accessible diagnostic outcome for clinicians. The objective of this ex vivo study was to use OCT-images of sound and carious occlusal surfaces in combination with a simple algorithm to compare the caries detection ability of OCT with tools clinicians may be more familiar with (LF and radiography), and with an established valid and reliable clinical assessment tool (ICDAS-II). One hundred twenty extracted teeth with sound or naturally carious occlusal surfaces were imaged with OCT, LF, radiography, and examined clinically with the ICDAS-II. Teeth were randomized to one of two dental sealants recommended for use with LF. A novel simple algorithm was used to interpret OCT-based images. The accuracy of caries severity assessments of the OCT-based diagnosis, LF, ICDAS-II, and digital radiography were compared to the 4-point histological analysis gold standard. OCT and ICDAS-II caries severity assessments demonstrated high sensitivity (94.0%; 92.3%) and specificity (85.0%; 83.3%), LF

  4. Effectiveness of chemomechanical caries removal agents Papacarie(®) and Carie-Care™ in primary molars: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahana, Suzan; Vasa, Aron Arun Kumar; Geddam, Divya; Reddy, Vamsi Krishna; Nalluri, Sowjanya; Velagapudi, Nagajyothi

    2016-04-01

    The chemomechanical caries removal system is made presently available containing a natural proteolytic enzyme for ease in the excavation of infected dentin. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and efficiency of caries removal using Papacarie(®) and Carie-Care™. A total of 30 extracted deciduous molars with proximal caries were collected, and each tooth was sectioned mesiodistally in the center of the carious lesion so that the two halves (buccal and lingual or palatal) have similar carious lesions, thus 30 teeth yielded 60 specimens. The specimens from each tooth were divided alternatively into two groups for caries excavation either using Papacarie(®) or Carie-Care™ so as to avoid selection bias. Paired t-test was used to compare mean time taken for caries removal and Fischer's exact test was done for comparing bacterial remnants after caries excavation. Mean time taken for caries removal was significantly higher for Carie-Care™ (427.13 s) when compared to Papacarie(®) (385.8 s). Papacarie(®) was found to be significantly more efficient in caries removal with marked reduction in the bacterial remnants following excavation. However, both gels were found to be conservative as dentinal tubule destruction was not evident in either of them. Both Papacarie(®) and Carie-Care™ were found to be conservative in caries removal. Papacarie(®) was more efficient in removing bacteria in lesser time from the infected carious lesion.

  5. The role of family functioning in childhood dental caries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijster, D.; Verrips, G.H.W.; van Loveren, C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study investigated the relationship between family functioning and childhood dental caries. Further objectives were (i) to explore whether oral hygiene behaviours could account for a possible association between family functioning dimensions and childhood dental caries and (ii) to

  6. The role of family functioning in childhood dental caries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijster, D.; Verrips, G.H.W.; Loveren, C. van

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the relationship between family functioning and childhood dental caries. Further objectives were (i) to explore whether oral hygiene behaviours could account for a possible association between family functioning dimensions and childhood dental caries and (ii) to

  7. Time until first dental caries for young children first seen in Federally Qualified Health Centers: a retrospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuthy, RA; Jones, M; Kavand, G; Momany, E; Askelson, N; Chi, D; Wehby, G; Damiano, P

    2014-01-01

    Objective The study assessed the time until first dental caries for young children seen at 5 Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHC) in Iowa and the relationship with the frequency and gaps (in months) of dental episodes, the number of topical fluoride treatments, and the number of dentists caring for the subject. Methods Forty children were randomly selected at each FQHC (n=200). All children were continuously enrolled in the Medicaid program and had their first dental visit prior to age 6. Dental chart findings, claims data for the child and family, and birth certificate information were merged into one dataset. Dental visits were followed for a minimum of 36 months, including dental visits external to the FQHCs. Using time until first caries as the dependent variable, the data were subject to left, interval, and right censoring and were analyzed via Weibull regression. Results Slightly more than half of the 200 children experienced caries. Regression analysis indicated that the hazard rate of first dental caries increased by approximately 2% with each additional month that transpired between preventive recall examinations. In addition, children with older siblings who had a dental visit at the same center during the previous year prior to the subject’s first visit were more likely to have a longer time until first dental caries. Conclusions Timing of dental care episodes was associated with caries experience in young children from low income families. Dental professionals should focus on regularity of dental care in order to prevent or delay caries experience in young children. PMID:24483730

  8. Caries preventive efficacy of silver diammine fluoride (SDF) and ART sealants in a school-based daily fluoride toothbrushing program in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monse, Bella; Heinrich-Weltzien, Roswitha; Mulder, Jan; Holmgren, Christopher; van Palenstein Helderman, Wim H

    2012-11-21

    Occlusal surfaces of erupting and newly erupted permanent molars are particularly susceptible to caries.The objective of the study was to assess and compare the effect of a single application of 38% SDF with ART sealants and no treatment in preventing dentinal (D3) caries lesions on occlusal surfaces of permanent first molars of school children who participated in a daily school-based toothbrushing program with fluoride toothpaste. The prospective community clinical trial in the Philippines was conducted over a period of 18 months and included 704 six- to eight-year-old school children in eight public elementary schools with a daily school-based fluoride toothpaste brushing program. Children were randomly assigned for SDF application or ART sealant treatment. Children from two of the eight schools did not receive SDF or ART sealant treatment and served as controls. SDF or ART sealant treatment was applied on sound occlusal surfaces of permanent first molars. Surfaces that were originally defined as sound at baseline but which changed to dentinal (D3) caries lesions were defined as surfaces with new caries (caries increment). Non-compliance to the daily toothbrushing program in three schools offered the opportunity to analyze the caries preventive effect of SDF and sealants separately in fluoride toothpaste brushing and in non-toothbrushing children. In the brushing group, caries increment in the SDF treatment group was comparable with the non-treatment group but caries increment in the sealant group was lower than in the non-treatment group with a statistically significant lower hazard ratio of 0.12 (0.02-0.61). In the non-brushing group, caries increment in the SDF treatment group and the sealant group was lower than the non-treatment group but the hazard ratio was only statistically significant for the sealant group (HR 0.33; 0.20-0.54). Caries increment was lower in toothbrushing children than in non-toothbrushing children. Hazard ratios reached statistical

  9. Caries preventive efficacy of silver diammine fluoride (SDF and ART sealants in a school-based daily fluoride toothbrushing program in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monse Bella

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Occlusal surfaces of erupting and newly erupted permanent molars are particularly susceptible to caries. The objective of the study was to assess and compare the effect of a single application of 38% SDF with ART sealants and no treatment in preventing dentinal (D3 caries lesions on occlusal surfaces of permanent first molars of school children who participated in a daily school-based toothbrushing program with fluoride toothpaste. Methods The prospective community clinical trial in the Philippines was conducted over a period of 18 months and included 704 six- to eight-year-old school children in eight public elementary schools with a daily school-based fluoride toothpaste brushing program. Children were randomly assigned for SDF application or ART sealant treatment. Children from two of the eight schools did not receive SDF or ART sealant treatment and served as controls. SDF or ART sealant treatment was applied on sound occlusal surfaces of permanent first molars. Surfaces that were originally defined as sound at baseline but which changed to dentinal (D3 caries lesions were defined as surfaces with new caries (caries increment. Non-compliance to the daily toothbrushing program in three schools offered the opportunity to analyze the caries preventive effect of SDF and sealants separately in fluoride toothpaste brushing and in non-toothbrushing children. Results In the brushing group, caries increment in the SDF treatment group was comparable with the non-treatment group but caries increment in the sealant group was lower than in the non-treatment group with a statistically significant lower hazard ratio of 0.12 (0.02-0.61. In the non-brushing group, caries increment in the SDF treatment group and the sealant group was lower than the non-treatment group but the hazard ratio was only statistically significant for the sealant group (HR 0.33; 0.20-0.54. Caries increment was lower in toothbrushing children than in non

  10. Risk factors for caries - control and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melida Hasanagić

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To investigate a prevalence of caries, filled permanentand extracted permanent teeth, as well as caries risk factors inschool children aged 7, 9 and 11.Methods. The survey included 800 children (296 children aged7; 254 children aged 9 and 250 children aged 11 from the MostarMunicipality, 400 of them living in both rural and urban areas.A dental mirror and standard light of dental chair were used forexamination. The DMF index (Dental Caries, Missing Teeth andFilled Teeth was determined, as well as failure in keeping teethhygiene, sugar intake with food, and incidence of oral cavity infection.Results. The dental state of permanent teeth in children aged 7and 9 has shown significant difference between the children fromrural and urban areas (p < 0,001. Out of 2,698 and 2,790 permanentteeth in children aged 11 from rural and urban areas, 1,086(40,25 % and 884 (31.68 % had caries, respectively (p < 0.01.The difference between these groups of children has been foundin relation to the index of oral hygiene too (p < 0.05.Conclusion. An identification of risk groups for getting caries wasvery important and could help health and social structures to maintaintheir programs in order to improve oral health.

  11. PIXE analysis of caries related trace elements in tooth enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annegarn, H.J.; Jodaikin, A.; Cleaton-Jones, P.E.; Sellschop, J.P.F.; Madiba, C.C.P.; Bibby, D.; University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg

    1981-01-01

    PIXE analysis has been applied to a set of twenty human teeth to determine trace element concentration in enamel from areas suceptible to dental caries (mesial and distal contact points) and in areas less susceptible to the disease (buccal surface), with the aim of determining the possible roles of trace elements in the carious process. The samples were caries-free anterior incisors extracted for periodontal reasons from subjects 10-30 years of age. Prior to extraction of the sample teeth, a detailed dental history and examination was carried out in each individual. PIXE analysis, using a 3 MeV proton beam of 1 mm diameter, allowed the determination of Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Sr and Pb above detection limits. As demonstrated in this work, the enhanced sensitivity of PIXE analysis over electron microprobe analysis, and capability of localised surface analysis compared with the pooled samples require for neutron activation analysis, makes it a powerful and useful technique in dental analysis. (orig.)

  12. International comparisons of health inequalities in childhood dental caries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pine, Cynthia M; Adair, Pauline M; Nicoll, Alison D

    2004-01-01

    important predictor of whether children had caries and this factor persisted in children from disadvantaged communities. 90% of children with lactobacillus had caries. CONCLUSIONS: Parental beliefs and attitudes play a key role in moderating oral health related behaviour in young children and in determining...... whether they develop caries. Further research is indicated to determine whether supporting the development of parenting skills would reduce dental caries in children from disadvantaged communities independent of ethnic origin....

  13. New diagnostic technology and hidden pits and fissures caries

    OpenAIRE

    Fabrizio Guerra; Marta Mazur; Francesca Rinaldo; Denise Corridore; Daniele Salvi; Debora Pasqualotto; Gianna Maria Nardi; Livia Ottolenghi

    2015-01-01

    The accuracy in pits and fissures caries detection is of paramount importance in dental caries primary and secondary prevention. A combination of visual examination and probing is currently the mainstay of occlusal caries diagnosis. Unfortunately, these types of inspection alone may leave a certain number of pit and fissure caries undetected. The Vista Cam iX fluorescence camera (Durr Dental, Bietigheim-Bissingen, Germany) is a novel dental diagnostic tool for quantitative assessment of denta...

  14. Sugar alcohols: what is the evidence for caries-preventive and caries-therapeutic effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Loveren, C

    2004-01-01

    The most widely used sugar alcohols are: xylitol, sorbitol, mannitol, maltitol, lactitol and the products Lycasin and Palatinit. It is often claimed that xylitol is superior to the other sugar alcohols for caries control. This paper examines clinical studies on the caries-preventive and therapeutic effects of sugar alcohols with emphasis on sorbitol and xylitol. It is concluded that chewing sugar-free gum 3 or more times daily for prolonged periods of time may reduce caries incidence irrespective of the type of sugar alcohol used. It may be sufficient to do this only on school days. Sucking xylitol-containing candies or tablets may have a similar effect as chewing xylitol chewing gum. Clinical trials suggest greater caries reductions from chewing gums sweetened with xylitol than from gums sweetened with sorbitol. However, the superiority of xylitol was not confirmed in 2 out of 4 clinical trials comparing the caries-preventive effect of xylitol- with sorbitol-sweetened gums. The caries-preventive effects of polyol-containing gums and candies seem to be based on stimulation of the salivary flow, although an antimicrobial effect cannot be excluded. There is no evidence for a caries-therapeutic effect of xylitol. These conclusions are in line with those of recent reviews and with the conclusions of the Scientific Committee on Medicinal Products and Medical Devices of the EU Commission. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  15. [Enamel defects, caries in primary dentition and fluoride sources: relationship with caries in permanent teeth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejos-Sánchez, Ana Alicia; Medina-Solís, Carlo Eduardo; Casanova-Rosado, Juan Fernando; Maupomé, Gerardo; Casanova-Rosado, Alejandro José; Minaya-Sánchez, Mirna

    2007-01-01

    To examine the relationship between the presence of enamel defects, dental caries in primary teeth, and exposure to various fluoride technologies and the presence of dental caries in permanent teeth in children with mixed dentition. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 713 children aged 6-9 years old in 4 elementary schools in Campeche, Mexico through the use of a questionnaire for the mothers and an oral examination in the children. The dependent variable was the prevalence of caries in permanent dentition. The mean number of decay, missing or filling teeth in primary dentition (dmft) and in permanent dentition (DMFT) was 2.48 (2.82) (deft > 0 = 58.9%) and 0.40 (0.98) (DMFT > 0 = 18.2%), respectively. The significant caries index (SiC), which is calculated in deciduous dentition, was 5.85 for 6 year-olds. Multivariate logistic regression adjusted for variables related to fluoride exposure revealed that older age (OR = 2.99), a deft of > 0 (OR = 5.46), and lower maternal educational level (OR = 1.57) were significantly associated with a higher number of dental caries in permanent teeth. An interaction between sex and enamel defects was also found. The number of dental caries in both primary and permanent dentitions was relatively smaller than that found in prior studies performed in Mexican populations. The results confirm that the presence of caries in primary dentition is strongly associated with caries in permanent dentition. No significant relationship was found between fluoride exposure and dental caries in permanent dentition.

  16. Dental caries experience, rather than toothbrushing, influences the incidence of dental caries in young Japanese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonoda, C; Ebisawa, M; Nakashima, H; Sakurai, Y

    2017-06-01

    A dose-response relationship between toothbrushing frequency and the incidence of dental caries has not been confirmed. Furthermore, no longitudinal study about this relationship has considered dental caries experience at baseline, which is an important factor influencing the frequency of future caries. To elucidate the association between the incidence of dental caries and toothbrushing frequency after adjusting for dental caries experience at baseline in a Japanese population. The 92 recruits of the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force in Kure, Japan, in 2011 were followed up for 3 years. They underwent oral examination at the annual checkups and answered questions about toothbrushing frequency. The multiple logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the incidence of dental caries and to identify independent effects of toothbrushing frequency and dental caries experience at baseline. Furthermore, the relative importance of the incidence of dental caries was investigated among other independent variables using the partial adjusted R² score. Logistic regression analysis showed that toothbrushing frequency alone did not influence the increment in decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT). However, DMFT at baseline alone was associated with the increment in DMFT (crude odds ratio, OR, 1.20, 95% confidence interval, CI, 1.08,1.33). In the fully adjusted model, only DMFT at baseline was associated with the increment in DMFT (adjusted OR 1.23, 95%CI 1.09,1.38). After three years, the incidence of dental caries in young adult Japanese males was influenced by DMFT at baseline, rather than toothbrushing frequency. Copyright© 2017 Dennis Barber Ltd.

  17. The caries process and its effect on the pulp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørndal, Lars

    2008-01-01

    The understanding of the caries process and its effect on the pulp is presented in the context that caries does develop in various rates of progression. Early in the caries process, the pulp reflects changes within lesion activity. Thus, the early pulp response is reversible. Later, the rate of c...

  18. Efficacy of silver diamine fluoride for Arresting Caries Treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yee, R.T.F.; Holmgren, C.J.; Mulder, J.; Lama, D.; Walker, D.; Palenstein Helderman, W.H. van

    2009-01-01

    Arresting Caries Treatment (ACT) has been proposed to manage untreated dental caries in children. This prospective randomized clinical trial investigated the caries-arresting effectiveness of a single spot application of: (1) 38% silver diamine fluoride (SDF) with tannic acid as a reducing agent;

  19. influence of parental socioeconomic status on caries prevalence

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    health profession. There is practically no geographic area in the world whose inhabitants do not exhibit some evidence of dental caries. It affects both gender, .... dental caries12,13. Dental caries has been found to be a good proxy to measure socioeconomic development14. In developed countries, higher prevalence of ...

  20. [Epidemiological study and development of dental caries in Madrid students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle Purón, M E; Gil Miguel, A; Lasheras Lozano, M L; Rey Calero, J; Domínguez Rojas, V

    1990-12-01

    It has been done an epidemiologic study about dental caries prevalence in a school population in Madrid. We have studied 3,608 schoolchildren. Total caries prevalence was 53.4%, according other authors. Caries is more frequent between ten years children. We also observed low prevalence in the third year of the study.

  1. Detection activity assessment and diagnosis of dental caries lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braga, Mariana M; Mendes, Fausto M; Ekstrand, Kim R

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the current methods for detection and assessment of caries lesions focusing on applicability for daily clinical practice. The end point is to arrive at a diagnosis for each caries lesion. Visual inspection aided by a ball-ended probe is essential for caries lesions assessment...

  2. Restorative treatment thresholds for proximal caries in dental PBRN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakudate, N; Sumida, F; Matsumoto, Y; Manabe, K; Yokoyama, Y; Gilbert, G H; Gordan, V V

    2012-12-01

    This study was conducted to assess caries treatment thresholds among Japanese dentists and to identify characteristics associated with their decision to intervene surgically in proximal caries lesions within the enamel. Participants (n = 189) were shown radiographic images depicting interproximal caries and asked to indicate the lesion depth at which they would surgically intervene in both high- and low-caries-risk scenarios. Differences in treatment thresholds were then assessed via chi-square tests, and associations between the decision to intervene and dentist, practice, and patient characteristics were analyzed via logistic regression. The proportion of dentists who indicated surgical intervention into enamel was significantly higher in the high-caries-risk scenario (73.8%, N = 138) than in the low-caries-risk scenario (46.5%, N = 87) (p caries-risk scenario, gender of dentist, city population, type of practice, conducting caries-risk assessment, and administering diet counseling were significant factors associated with surgical enamel intervention. However, for a low-caries-risk scenario, city population, type of practice, and use of a dental explorer were the factors significantly associated with surgical enamel intervention. These findings demonstrate that restorative treatment thresholds for interproximal primary caries differ by caries risk. Most participants would restore lesions within the enamel for high-caries-risk individuals.

  3. Dental fluorosis and dental caries prevalence among 12 and 15 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Fluoride is a double edged sword. The assessment of dental caries and fluorosis in endemic fluoride areas will facilitate in assessing the relation between fluoride concentrations in water with dental caries, dental fluorosis simultaneously. Aim: The objective of the following study is to assess the dental caries ...

  4. 21 CFR 872.1740 - Caries detection device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Caries detection device. 872.1740 Section 872.1740...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 872.1740 Caries detection device. (a) Identification. The caries detection device is a device intended to show the existence of decay in a patient's tooth...

  5. Protocol for Northern Ireland Caries Prevention in Practice Trial (NIC-PIP) trial: a randomised controlled trial to measure the effects and costs of a dental caries prevention regime for young children attending primary care dental services

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tickle, Martin

    2011-10-10

    Abstract Background Dental caries is a persistent public health problem with little change in the prevalence in young children over the last 20 years. Once a child contracts the disease it has a significant impact on their quality of life. There is good evidence from Cochrane reviews including trials that fluoride varnish and regular use of fluoride toothpaste can prevent caries. The Northern Ireland Caries Prevention in Practice Trial (NIC-PIP) trial will compare the costs and effects of a caries preventive package (fluoride varnish, toothpaste, toothbrush and standardised dental health education) with dental health education alone in young children. Methods\\/Design A randomised controlled trial on children initially aged 2 and 3 years old who are regular attenders at the primary dental care services in Northern Ireland. Children will be recruited and randomised in dental practices. Children will be randomised to the prevention package of both fluoride varnish (twice per year for three years), fluoride toothpaste (1,450 ppm F) (supplied twice per year), a toothbrush (supplied twice a year) or not; both test and control groups receive standardised dental health education delivered by the dentist twice per year. Randomisation will be conducted by the Belfast Trust Clinical Research Support Centre ([CRSC] a Clinical Trials Unit). 1200 participants will be recruited from approximately 40 dental practices. Children will be examined for caries by independent dental examiners at baseline and will be excluded if they have caries. The independent dental examiners will examine the children again at 3 years blinded to study group. The primary end-point is whether the child develops caries (cavitation into dentine) or not over the three years. One secondary outcome is the number of carious surfaces in the primary dentition in children who experience caries. Other secondary outcomes are episodes of pain, extraction of primary teeth, other adverse events and costs which will

  6. Protocol for Northern Ireland Caries Prevention in Practice Trial (NIC-PIP) trial: a randomised controlled trial to measure the effects and costs of a dental caries prevention regime for young children attending primary care dental services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tickle, Martin; Milsom, Keith M; Donaldson, Michael; Killough, Seamus; O'Neill, Ciaran; Crealey, Grainne; Sutton, Matthew; Noble, Solveig; Greer, Margaret; Worthington, Helen V

    2011-10-10

    Dental caries is a persistent public health problem with little change in the prevalence in young children over the last 20 years. Once a child contracts the disease it has a significant impact on their quality of life. There is good evidence from Cochrane reviews including trials that fluoride varnish and regular use of fluoride toothpaste can prevent caries. The Northern Ireland Caries Prevention in Practice Trial (NIC-PIP) trial will compare the costs and effects of a caries preventive package (fluoride varnish, toothpaste, toothbrush and standardised dental health education) with dental health education alone in young children. A randomised controlled trial on children initially aged 2 and 3 years old who are regular attenders at the primary dental care services in Northern Ireland. Children will be recruited and randomised in dental practices. Children will be randomised to the prevention package of both fluoride varnish (twice per year for three years), fluoride toothpaste (1,450 ppm F) (supplied twice per year), a toothbrush (supplied twice a year) or not; both test and control groups receive standardised dental health education delivered by the dentist twice per year. Randomisation will be conducted by the Belfast Trust Clinical Research Support Centre ([CRSC] a Clinical Trials Unit). 1200 participants will be recruited from approximately 40 dental practices. Children will be examined for caries by independent dental examiners at baseline and will be excluded if they have caries. The independent dental examiners will examine the children again at 3 years blinded to study group.The primary end-point is whether the child develops caries (cavitation into dentine) or not over the three years. One secondary outcome is the number of carious surfaces in the primary dentition in children who experience caries. Other secondary outcomes are episodes of pain, extraction of primary teeth, other adverse events and costs which will be obtained from parental

  7. Protocol for Northern Ireland Caries Prevention in Practice Trial (NIC-PIP trial: a randomised controlled trial to measure the effects and costs of a dental caries prevention regime for young children attending primary care dental services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noble Solveig

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental caries is a persistent public health problem with little change in the prevalence in young children over the last 20 years. Once a child contracts the disease it has a significant impact on their quality of life. There is good evidence from Cochrane reviews including trials that fluoride varnish and regular use of fluoride toothpaste can prevent caries. The Northern Ireland Caries Prevention in Practice Trial (NIC-PIP trial will compare the costs and effects of a caries preventive package (fluoride varnish, toothpaste, toothbrush and standardised dental health education with dental health education alone in young children. Methods/Design A randomised controlled trial on children initially aged 2 and 3 years old who are regular attenders at the primary dental care services in Northern Ireland. Children will be recruited and randomised in dental practices. Children will be randomised to the prevention package of both fluoride varnish (twice per year for three years, fluoride toothpaste (1,450 ppm F (supplied twice per year, a toothbrush (supplied twice a year or not; both test and control groups receive standardised dental health education delivered by the dentist twice per year. Randomisation will be conducted by the Belfast Trust Clinical Research Support Centre ([CRSC] a Clinical Trials Unit. 1200 participants will be recruited from approximately 40 dental practices. Children will be examined for caries by independent dental examiners at baseline and will be excluded if they have caries. The independent dental examiners will examine the children again at 3 years blinded to study group. The primary end-point is whether the child develops caries (cavitation into dentine or not over the three years. One secondary outcome is the number of carious surfaces in the primary dentition in children who experience caries. Other secondary outcomes are episodes of pain, extraction of primary teeth, other adverse events and costs

  8. Laser fluorescence of caries detection in permanent teeth in vitro: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Maria I; Schambeck, Vilson S; Dondossola, Eduardo R; Alexandre, Maria Cm; Tuon, Lisiane; Grande, Antonio J; Hugo, Fernando

    2016-11-01

    The detection of dental caries in the early stages, particularly on the occlusal surfaces, has become a mainstay of contemporary clinical practice. The objective of the study was to verify the accuracy of laser fluorescence for caries detection. A comprehensive search of the MEDLINE (PubMed), EMBase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, IBECS, BIOSIS, Web of Science, SCOPUS, Congress Abstracts, and Grey literature databases was undertaken from 1980 through January 2016. We included cross-sectional studies that evaluated laser fluorescence in caries diagnoses in vitro and compared them with histological analyses. A total of 39 articles were included in the meta-analysis, which included 2082 caries sites. The pooled sensitivity was 0.71 (0.69, 0.73), and the specificity was 0.81 (0.73, 0.82). The diagnostic odds ratio was 14.93 (11.2, 19.9). A summary receiver operating characteristic curve was constructed. The area under the curve was 0.865. This meta-analysis showed that laser fluorescence in vitro had the ability to diagnose occlusal caries lesions in permanent teeth and enamel and dentin caries. © 2016 Chinese Cochrane Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  9. Accuracy of Digital Bitewing Radiography versus Different Views of Digital Panoramic Radiography for Detection of Proximal Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Abdinian

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Dental caries are common and have a high incidence among populations. Radiographs are essential for detecting proximal caries. The best technique should be recognized for accurate detection of caries. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of detection of proximal caries using intra oral bitewing, extra oral bitewing, improved interproximal panoramic, improved orthogonality panoramic and digital con- ventional panoramic radiographs.Materials and Methods: In this descriptive cross sectional study, 100 extracted human teeth with and without proximal caries were used. Intra and extra oral radiographs were taken. Images were evaluated and scored by two observers. Scores were compared with the histological gold standard. The diagnostic accuracy of radiographs was assessed by means of receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis (P<0.05.Results: Microscopic evaluation of proximal surfaces revealed that 54.8% of the sur- faces were sound and 45.2% were carious (with different depths. The differences in the area under the ROC curve (Az value among the five techniques were not statisti- cally significant.Conclusion: Improved interproximal panoramic and extra oral bitewing radiographs were superior to conventional panoramic radiography for detection of proximal caries ex vivo and should be considered for patients with contraindications for intra oral radi- ographs.

  10. A comparison of film and 3 digital imaging systems for natural dental caries detection: CCD, CMOS, PSP and film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Won Jeong [Dankook University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-03-15

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of occlusal and proximal caries detection using CCD, CMOS, PSP and film system. 32 occlusal and 30 proximal tooth surfaces were radiographed under standardized conditions using 3 digital systems; CCD (CDX-2000HQ, Biomedysis Co., Seoul, Korea), CMOS (Schick, Schick Inc., Long Island, USA), PSP (Digora FMX, Orion Co./Soredex, Helsinki, Finland) and 1 film system (Kodak Insight, Eastman Kodak, Rochester, USA). 5 observers examined the radiographs for occlusal and proximal caries using a 5-point confidence scale. The presence of caries was validated histologically and radiographically. Diagnostic accuracy was evaluated using ROC curve areas (AZ). Analysis using ROC curves revealed the area under each curve which indicated a diagnostic accuracy. For occlusal caries, Kodak Insight film had an Az of 0.765, CCD one of 0.730, CMOS one of 0.742 and PSP one of 0.735. For proximal caries, Kodak Insight film had an Az of 0.833, CCD one of 0.832, CMOS one of 0.828 and PSP one of 0.868. No statistically significant difference was noted between any of the imaging modalities. CCD, CMOS, PSP and film performed equally well in the detection of occlusal and proximal dental caries. CCD, CMOS and PSP-based digital images provided a level of diagnostic performance comparable to Kodak Insight film.

  11. Detection accuracy of proximal caries by phosphor plate and cone-beam computerized tomography images scanned with different resolutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jun-Ge; Zhang, Zhi-Ling; Wang, Xiao-Yan; Zhang, Zu-Yan; Ma, Xu-Chen; Li, Gang

    2012-08-01

    This study was carried out to assess whether the spatial resolution has an impact on the detection accuracy of proximal caries in flat panel CBCT (cone beam computerized tomography) images and if the detection accuracy can be improved by flat panel CBCT images scanned with high spatial resolution when compared to digital intraoral images. The CBCT test images of 45 non-restored human permanent teeth were respectively scanned with the ProMax 3D and the DCT Pro scanners at different resolutions. Digital images were obtained with a phosphor plate imaging system Digora Optime. Eight observers evaluated all the test images for carious lesion within the 90 proximal surfaces. With the histological examination serving as the reference standard, observer performances were evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. The areas under the ROC curves were analyzed with two-way analysis of variance. No significant differences were found among the CBCT images and between CBCT and digital images when only proximal enamel caries was detected (p = 0.989). With respect to the detection of proximal dentinal caries, significant difference was found between CBCT and digital images (p proximal caries in flat panel CBCT images. The flat panel CBCT images scanned with high spatial resolution did not improve the detection accuracy of proximal enamel caries compared to digital intraoral images. CBCT images scanned with high spatial resolutions could not be used for proximal caries detection.

  12. Epidemiological assessment of predictors of caries increment in 7-10- year-olds: a 2-year cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariana Bellotto Correa Kassawara

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this 2-year cohort study (2003 to 2005 was to investigate how caries experience, at initial lesions (early or non-cavited lesions and cavited stages, predicts caries increment in permanent teeth in 7-10- year-olds. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The random sample of 765 children attending public schools in the city of Piracicaba, SP, Brazil, was divided into two groups: 423 children aged 7-8 years and 342 children aged 9-10 years. All subjects were examined by a calibrated examiner, using dental mirror and ball-ended probes, after tooth brushing and air-drying in an outdoor setting, based on the World Health Organization criteria. Active caries with intact surfaces were also recorded as initial lesion (IL. Univariate analysis was used for statistical analysis (Odds Ratios and Chi-square. RESULTS: The association between the DMFT (decayed, missing and filled teeth increment and the presence of IL was significant only for 9-10-year-old children. The children with DMFT>0 at baseline were more prone to have DMFT increment, with the highest risk for caries increment occurring in children aged 7-8 years. CONCLUSIONS: The predictors of caries increment were the presence (at baseline of caries experience in permanent teeth for both age groups (7-8; 9-10-year-olds and the presence of the IL (at baseline for 9-10-year-olds.

  13. The use of the X-ray investigation for dental caries diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecetkova, A.; Ondrasovicova, J.

    2008-01-01

    Caries is defect of the hard dental tissue which is cause by cariogenic microorganisms in the oral cavity. New classification of caries is D1, D2, D3 and D4. D1 is caries in the first layer of enamel. D2 is caries in the second layer of enamel till the margin of dentine ( caries superficial ). D3 is caries in the first layer of dentine ( caries media ).D4 is caries on the top of pulp chamber ( caries pulpae proxima ). One of the most frequently used methods of radiography to detect of caries is bitewing ( BTW ) radiography. (authors)

  14. Immunological and protective effects of diepitopic subunit dental caries vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Daniel J; King, William F; Rivero, Joy; Taubman, Martin A

    2005-05-01

    As a prelude to development of broader-spectrum vaccines for dental caries, we explored the immune potential of constructs combining epitopes from mutans streptococcal glucosyltransferases (GTF) and glucan binding protein B (GbpB). Two diepitopic peptide constructs were synthesized in a multiple antigenic peptide (MAP) format. Both constructs contained SYI, a 20-mer GbpB peptide that included a sequence having major histocompatibility complex class II binding characteristics. One diepitopic construct (SYI-CAT) also contained a 22-mer sequence from the catalytic domain of GTF. Another diepitopic construct (SYI-GLU) contained a 22-mer sequence from the glucan binding domain of GTF. To assess the ability of each construct to induce antibody reactive with GbpB and GTF native proteins, rats were injected subcutaneously with SYI-CAT, SYI-GLU, or the constituent monoepitopic constructs. Only the SYI-CAT construct induced significant levels of serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA antibody to both pathogenesis-associated proteins. Also, immunization with SYI-CAT significantly (P dental caries after immunization with SYI-CAT, SYI, or CAT MAP constructs, followed by infection with Streptococcus mutans strain SJr. Dental caries were lower in each peptide-immunized group than in the sham-injected group. The level of protection after SYI-CAT immunization was similar to that after immunization with constituent MAP constructs. In another experiment, rats were infected with Streptococcus sobrinus strain 6715 under an identical protocol. Significant protection was observed on buccal surfaces in both SYI-CAT and CAT construct-immunized, but not in the SYI construct-immunized, groups. Thus, addition of the GbpB-derived SYI peptide to the GTF-derived CAT peptide construct not only enhanced the immunological response to CAT and GTF epitopes, but also extended the protective effect of the construct to include both S. mutans and S. sobrinus.

  15. Radiographic diagnosis of proximal caries-influence of experience and gender of the dental staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geibel, Margrit-Ann; Carstens, S; Braisch, U; Rahman, A; Herz, M; Jablonski-Momeni, A

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the influence of experience and gender on the radiographic detection of proximal caries lesions and on therapeutic decisions. A survey of 220 examiners (students and employees at three universities and dentists in the field) was taken using a standardized written questionnaire concerning radiographic diagnosis and therapy planning. An expert opinion of four dentists was determined as radiographic reference. A mixed effect logistic regression model was used for statistical evaluation and the odds ratio and p values were calculated (α = 0.05). Examiners with experience had an almost four times greater chance of a correct assessment, if proximal caries lesion was present or not, than examiners with low experience (OR 3.7 (95% CI 2.4-5.8)). No gender-specific differences were discovered (OR women vs. men 0.9 (95% CI 0.6-1.4)). There was a relationship between the severity of the burnout effect on the x-ray and false positive caries diagnosis. Overall, 43% of respondents would plan invasive treatment in the enamel on a patient at low risk of caries and 78% on a high-risk patient. The results showed that the more experienced practitioners would be more likely to postpone restorative therapy on proximal caries until the lesion reached a later stage. The results of this study suggest that examiner's experience influences the radiographic diagnosis of proximal lesions. No gender-specific differences could be found. Examiner's professional experience is an important factor when radiography is included for detection and treatment planning of proximal lesions.

  16. Validation of different diagnostic aids in detection of occlusal caries in primary molars: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Shwetha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim and Objective: To estimate the accuracy and assess the sensitivity and specificity of direct visual examination (DVE, computerized radiograph (VISTA SCAN mini, and DIAGNOdent (DD for caries diagnosis in primary molars as compared to histological examination of the teeth. Materials and Methods: An in vitro comparative study was carried out on 40 freshly extracted primary molars with questionable pit and fissures that yielded 89 examination sites. These samples were mounted on plaster and were subjected to examination methods for caries detection on the occlusal surface by two trained and calibrated examiners. The examination methods used in this study were DVE, computerized radiographic (CR examination, laser fluorescence examination using DD followed by histological examination which is a gold standard; later, these samples were examined under microscope for caries extent. The scoring criteria given by Nytun et al. were used in this study for scoring the extent of caries. Results: The sensitivity for caries in enamel were 66.10%, 52.86%, and 54.17% for DVE, CR, and DD, respectively, while the specificity for DVE, CR, and DD were found to be 86.67%, 68.42%, and 76.47%, respectively. For dentinal caries, sensitivity for DVE, CR, and DD were 86.67%, 92.86%, and 81.25%, respectively, while the specificity were 66.10%, 56%, and 54.79%, respectively. The accuracy were 73.03%, 61.80%, and 59.55%, respectively, suggesting that the DVE showed highest sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for enamel caries, whereas for dentinal caries, CR showed highest sensitivity and DVE showed highest specificity and accuracy. Conclusion: The DD exhibited better specificity than sensitivity for enamel lesions and better sensitivity than specificity for lesions into dentin. DD may prove useful as a predictive clinical tool and should only be used in addition to other diagnostic methods such as visual inspection and dental radiographs to avoid false

  17. Restorative treatment thresholds for interproximal primary caries based on radiographic images: findings from the Dental Practice-Based Research Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordan, Valeria V; Garvan, Cynthia W; Heft, Marc W; Fellows, Jeffrey L; Qvist, Vibeke; Rindal, D Brad; Gilbert, Gregg H

    2009-01-01

    This study sought to quantify the depths of proximal caries lesions that lead dentists in regular clinical practice to intervene restoratively, based on hypothetical scenarios that present radiographic images and patient background information, and to identify characteristics associated with restorative intervention in lesions that have penetrated only the enamel surface. This study surveyed dentists from the Dental Practice-Based Research Network (DPBRN) who had reported doing at least some restorative dentistry (n = 901). Dentists were asked to indicate the depth at which they would restore a lesion, based on a series of radiographic images depicting interproximal caries at increasing lesion depths in a mandibular premolar; in addition, the dentists were questioned regarding two caries risk scenarios: one involving a patient with low caries risk and another involving a patient at higher risk. Logistic regression was used to analyze associations between the decision to intervene restoratively and specific dentist, practice, and patient characteristics. Of the 901 DPBRN practitioner-investigators, 500 (56%) completed the survey. For a high caries risk patient, 66% of respondents indicated that they would restore a proximal enamel lesion, while 24% would do so once the lesion had reached into the outer third of the dentin. For a low caries risk patient, 39% of respondents reported that they would restore an enamel lesion, and 54% would do so once the lesion had reached into the outer third of the dentin. In multivariate analyses that accounted for dentist and practice characteristics, dentists in large group practices were less likely to intervene surgically for enamel caries, regardless of patient's caries risk.

  18. Fluoride Importance in Controlling Caries and Fluorosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Solanki

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of fluorides for oral health has always involved a balance between the protective benefit against dental caries and the risk of developing fluorosis. The link between fluoride and dental health was established to determining the causes of dental fluorosis or enamel mottling. Fluorosis in Indian children was highly prevalent in the early 1990s. Policy were introduced to control fluoride exposure and to reduce the prevalence of fluorosis. The study aimed of describing the prevalence, severity and risk factors for fluorosis, and to describe the trend of fluorosis among Indian children. The study also aimed of exploring the effect of the change in fluoride exposure on dental fluorosis and caries. Establishing an appropriate use of fluoride toothpaste could be successful in reducing fluorosis without a significant increase in caries experience.

  19. Detection and monitoring of early caries lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pretty, I A; Ekstrand, K R

    2016-01-01

    to the clinician and the patient for whom it may be a useful educational and motivational tool. CONCLUSIONS: Recommendations are presented that can be adopted and adapted to local circumstances and that are both substantiated by evidence and promote a clear, simple and consistent approach to caries detection...... and co-workers from 2013 and this still represents the current state of the science in relation to caries detection and monitoring. The review described among others, visible detection systems, image-based detection systems and point-measurement approaches. RESULTS: The current evidence base suggests...... that while there are numerous devices or technology-enabled detection systems, the use of a careful, methodical visual inspection of clean, dry teeth, supplemented where indicated by radiographic views, remains the standard of care in caries detection and diagnostics. Further, it is possible by means...

  20. Cavity lining after excavating caries lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwendicke, Falk; Göstemeyer, Gerd; Gluud, Christian

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: After removal of dentin caries lesions, cavity lining has been advocated. Non-clinical data support this approach, but clinical data are sparse and ambiguous. We aimed at evaluating the benefits and harms of cavity lining using meta-analysis and Trial Sequential Analysis. DATA: We...... included randomized clinical trials comparing restorations without versus with cavity lining for treating primary caries lesions. Only trials reporting failure (defined as need to re-retreat) after ≥1 year follow-up were included. Trial selection, data extraction, and risk of bias assessment were conducted....... STUDY SELECTION: From 128 studies, three randomized trials (89/130 patients or teeth), all treating primary teeth, were included. The trials had high risk of bias. All trials compared no lining versus calcium hydroxide lining after selective caries removal followed by adhesive restoration. Follow...

  1. A retrospective analysis of caries treatment and development in relation to assessed caries risk in an adult population in Sweden.

    OpenAIRE

    Söderström, Ulf; Johansson, Ingegerd; Sunnegårdh-Grönberg, Karin

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Public Dental Service of Västerbotten County (Sweden) recommends using population-based prevention strategies combined with an individual strategy for high-risk patients to manage caries. To facilitate this management strategy, all patients are evaluated for their risk of developing caries in the coming year using defined criteria. Using caries risk scoring over a seven-year period, the present study evaluates prophylactic measures, caries development, and non-operative treatm...

  2. Reliability of Logicon caries detector in the detection and depth assessment of dental caries: An in-vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Rohit R Behere; Shailesh M Lele

    2011-01-01

    Background: Digital radiography has so far not resulted in improved rates of proximal caries detection. Historically, automated caries detection tools have been largely academic. Opinions regarding the performance of the only such commercially available tool, viz., Logicon caries Detector (LCD) have been equivocal. This study was conducted to evaluate the reliability of LCD in the detection and depth assessment of proximal caries. Materials and Methods: Digital images were obtained of 100...

  3. The effect of various plaque control measures on gingivitis and caries in schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, P; Lindhe, J; Wäseby, J

    1976-11-01

    The aims of the present study were (1) to analyze the separate effects on plaque, caries, and gingivitis of several measures (oral hygiene instruction, professional tooth cleaning with mechanical instruments, topical application of sodium monofluorophosphate - MFP) which have been incorporated in a prophylactic treatment program, described by AXELSSON & LINDHE1, and (2) to prevent caries and gingivitis by applying the combined treatment but replacing the professional mechanical tooth cleaning with chemical cleaning using a chlorhexidine-containing gel. 164 children, 13-14 years old, divided into four groups, participated in a 2-year trial. All participants were recalled once every 2nd week for preventive treatment provided by dental nurses. During the 1st year Group 3 and 4 received prophylactic treatment identical to that described by AXELSSON & LINDHE1. During the 2nd year the professional tooth cleaning was omitted but oral hygiene instruction was given every 2nd week. During the 1st year Groups 1 and 2 were treated with 0.5% chlorhexidine but during the 2nd year they were subjected to professional tooth cleaning with mechanical instruments. Throughout the trial Groups 1 and 3 rinsed once every 2nd week with a 2% MFP solution. The results showed that by oral hygiene instruction and frequently repeated professional tooth cleanings it was possible to substantially reduce the frequency of gingivitis and prevent caries. When this treatment was used, mouthrinsings with 2% MFP had no additional effect on caries. The substitution of the mechanical cleaning procedure with topical application of a 0.5% chlorhexidine gel failed to (1) remove supragingival plaque accumulations, (2) reduce the frequency of gingivitis, and (3) retard the rate of caries development. The data also revealed that interdental cleaning with mechanical instruments was of decisive importance in the prevention of approximal surface caries.

  4. Association between Body Mass Index and Dental Caries among Anganwadi Children of Belgaum City, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluckal, Eby; Anzil, Ksa; Baby, Mathews; George, Eldhose K; Lakshmanan, Sanju; Chikkanna, Shilpa

    2016-10-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is an index that measures height for weight, which is commonly used to categorize underweight, overweight, and obese individuals. Deviation from normal weight results from an imbalance between caloric consumption and energy expenditure. Childhood obesity and childhood dental caries are coincidental in many populations, probably due to common confounding risk factors, such as intake frequency, cariogenic diet, and poor oral hygiene. So the aim of the present study was to assess the BMI status and to corelate between dental caries and BMI among the Anganwadi children of Belgaum city, Karnataka, India. Four hundred and thirty three children from 20 Anganwadi's belonging to the age group of 2 to 6 years of both sexes were measured for BMI and dental caries status. The caries index was measured as the number of decayed (d) and filled (f) teeth (t) (dft). The BMI in units of kg/m 2 was determined and children were categorized according to age-and gender-specific criteria as underweight (95th percentile). The data were subjected to statistical analysis using Student's t-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and Karl Pearson's correlation coefficient test with the help of Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 18.0. The proportion of subjects in Centre for Disease Control (CDC) weight categories was: 5% underweight, 79% normal, 9% under the risk for overweight, and 6% overweight. A significant association was found between children with normal BMI and those who were underweight, overweight, and under the risk for overweight. Children with overweight/obese or underweight/malnourished children had higher decayed and filled surfaces compared to children with normal weight. Nutritional status has a profound effect on dental caries. Both underweight/malnutrition and overweight/ obesity have significant adverse implications for health. Childhood obesity and childhood dental caries are coincidental in many populations.

  5. Caries prevalence and treatment needs of rural school children in Chidambaram Taluk, Tamil Nadu, South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravanan S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To obtain information on caries prevalence and treatment needs of children aged 5-10 years to plan appropriate dental care services in rural areas. Materials and Methods: Children studying in all the primary schools (six schools in the field practice area of the Rural Health Centre of the Faculty of Medicine, Annamalai University, Chidambaram, were surveyed. Each child was clinically examined in the schools by calibrated examiners. Dental caries was assessed using diagnostic criteria recommended by WHO (1997. The chi-square test and two-way analysis of variance were used for statistical analysis. Results: Five hundred and eight 5-10 year-old school children (247 boys and 261 girls were surveyed. Caries prevalence was 71.7 and 26.5% in primary and permanent dentition, respectively. The mean dmft and decayed missing filled tooth (DMFT scores were 3.00 and 0.42 respectively. The mean dmft decreased with age ( P < 0.01 whereas the mean DMFT increased with age ( P < 0.001. Although the mean dmft scores were not statistically significant different for the two sexes, the mean DMFT score was found to be higher among girls than among boys ( P < 0.02. The entire dmft/DMFT value represented the ′decay′ component only. There was a strong need for single surface restorations (60.6%. In the WHO index age (5-6 years, the caries prevalence was 70.2% (29.8% caries-free with a mean dmft value of 3.54 ± 3.71. Conclusion: Dental caries is a significant public health problem in this population. An extensive system to provide primary oral health care has to be developed in the rural areas of India.

  6. Lactoferrin: A Roadmap to the Borderland between Caries and Periodontal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, D H

    2015-06-01

    Lactoferrin is one of a number of multifunctional proteins that are present in or on all mucosal surfaces throughout the body. Levels of lactoferrin are consistently elevated in inflammatory diseases such as arthritis, inflammatory bowel diseases, corneal disease, and periodontitis. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in lactoferrin have been shown to be present in individuals susceptible to Escherichia coli-induced travelers' diarrhea and in tear fluid derived from virally associated corneal disease. Here, we review data showing a lactoferrin SNP in amino acid position 29 in the antimicrobial region of lactoferrin that acts against caries associated bacteria. This SNP was initially discovered in African American subjects with localized aggressive periodontitis (LAP) who had proximal bone loss but minimal proximal caries. Results were confirmed in a genetic association study of children from Brazil with this same SNP who showed a reduced level of caries. In vitro data indicate that lactoferrin from whole saliva derived from subjects with this SNP, recombinant human lactoferrin containing this SNP, or an 11-mer peptide designed for this SNP kills mutans streptococci associated with caries by >1 log. In contrast, the SNP has minimal effect on Gram-negative species associated with periodontitis. Moreover, periodontally healthy subjects homozygous for this lysine (K) SNP have lactoferrin in their saliva that kills mutans streptococci and have reduced proximal decay. The review summarizes data supporting the ecologic plaque hypothesis and suggests that a genetic variant in lactoferrin with K in position 29 when found in saliva and crevice fluid can influence community biofilm composition. We propose that, for caries, this SNP is ethnicity independent and protective by directly killing caries-provoking bacteria (reducing proximal decay). However, the clinical effect of this SNP in LAP is ethnicity dependent, destructive (increases LAP incidence), and complex with

  7. Infiltration of natural caries lesions with experimental resins differing in penetration coefficients and ethanol addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Lueckel, H; Paris, Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    Resin infiltration of enamel caries lesions requires materials optimized for penetration into the capillary structures of the lesion body. With increasing penetration coefficients (PC) improved penetration and caries-inhibiting properties of low-viscosity resins (infiltrants) could be observed in artificial caries lesions. The aim of the present in vitro study was to compare the penetrativity of experimental resins varying in PC and ethanol addition into natural caries lesions using this technique. Extracted human molars and premolars showing proximal white spot lesions (International Caries Detection and Assessment System: code 2) were etched for 2 min using 15% hydrochloric acid gel. After drying, the lesions were stained with tetramethylrhodamine isothiocyanate and 1 of 4 experimental resins (PC63; PC185; PC204; PC391) was applied for 5 min. The materials consisted of bisphenol-A-glycidyl-methacrylate (B), tri-ethylene-glycol-dimethacrylate (T) and ethanol (E) in ratios (B:T:E) of PC63: 25:75:0; PC185: 20:60:20; PC204: 0:100:0; PC391: 0:80:20. Excess material was removed before light curing. The teeth were sectioned perpendicularly to the lesion surfaces and unbound dye was bleached by immersion in hydrogen peroxide. The remaining lesion pores were stained with fluorescein solution. Lesion and penetration depths were analyzed using confocal microscopy (n = 60). At deep lesion sites the percentage penetration of PC204 was significantly higher compared to PC63 and PC391 (p 0.05). It can be concluded that materials with high PC (infiltrants) are capable of penetrating almost completely into enamel parts of natural caries lesions in vitro. A solvent-free resin mainly consisting of triethylene glycol dimethacrylate seems to be preferable. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Impact of Prolonged Breastfeeding on Dental Caries: A Population-Based Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Karen Glazer; Nascimento, Gustavo G; Peres, Marco Aurelio; Mittinty, Murthy N; Demarco, Flavio Fernando; Santos, Ina Silva; Matijasevich, Alicia; Barros, Aluisio J D

    2017-07-01

    Few studies have assessed the effect of breastfeeding, bottle feeding, and sugar consumption on children's dental caries. We investigated whether the duration of breastfeeding is a risk factor for dental caries in the primary dentition, independently of sugar consumption. An oral health study ( n = 1303) nested in a birth cohort study was carried out in southern Brazil. The average number of decayed, missing, and filled primary tooth surfaces (dmfs) and severe early childhood caries (S-ECC: dmfs ≥6) were investigated at age 5 years. Breastfeeding was the main exposure collected at birth and at 3, 12, and 24 months of age. Data on sugar consumption were collected at 24, 48, and 60 months of age. Marginal structural modeling was used to estimate the controlled direct effect of breastfeeding (0-12, 13-23, and ≥24 months) on dmfs and on S-ECC. The prevalence of S-ECC was 23.9%. The mean number of dmfs was 4.05. Children who were breastfed for ≥24 months had a higher number of dmfs (mean ratio: 1.9; 95% confidence interval: 1.5-2.4) and a 2.4 times higher risk of having S-ECC (risk ratio: 2.4; 95% confidence interval: 1.7-3.3) than those who were breastfed up to 12 months of age. Breastfeeding between 13 and 23 months had no effect on dental caries. Prolonged breastfeeding increases the risk of having dental caries. Preventive interventions for dental caries should be established as early as possible because breastfeeding is beneficial for children's health. Mechanisms underlying this process should be investigated more deeply. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  9. Effect of two different chemomechanical caries removal agents on dentin microhardness: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamoorthi, Surendar; Nivedhitha, Malli Sureshbabu; Vanajassun, P Pranav

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of two different chemomechanical caries removal (CMCR) agents on dentin microhardness. In this study, the crown portion of ten carious-free and ten caries-affected teeth were selected. In carious-free samples, the teeth were decoronated at the level of cemento - enamel junction. Only the crown portion of the teeth was selected. Occlusal one-third of the crowns were cross-sectioned and discarded to expose the dentin, and it was divided into two groups, five teeth in each group. Then, they were further sectioned longitudinally through the centre. In one group, no agent was applied on one half and Carisolv was applied on other half. In another group, no agent was applied on one-half and Carie-Care was applied on the other half for 1 min. In carious samples, the crowns were sectioned through the centre of carious lesion. Carisolv was applied on one-half and Carie-Care was applied on the other half. After using CMCR agents, surface hardness of dentin was examined using Vickers hardness number (VHN). The data were analyzed using t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). There were no significant difference among normal dentin (62.91 ± 2.76), Carisolv-treated normal dentin (61.72 ± 2.89), and Carie-Care-treated normal dentin (61.90 ± 3.19). In carious samples, the results of Carisolv-treated dentin (58.57 ± 2.62) was not statistically significantly different from those of the Carie-Care-treated dentin (56.77 ± 4.41). In conclusion, neither of the CMCR methods caused a significant change in the microhardness of normal dentin and the treated carious dentin.

  10. Disparities in the experience and treatment of dental caries among children aged 9-18 years: the cross-sectional study of Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2012-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Juyeong; Choi, Young; Park, Sohee; Kim, Jeong Lim; Lee, Tae-Hoon; Cho, Kyoung Hee; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2016-06-07

    The aim of this study is to examine the association between parental socioeconomic status (SES) and the experience as well as treatment of dental caries among children aged 9 to 18 years. Data from 1253 children aged 9-18 years from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2012-2013) were analyzed. Parental socioeconomic status was measured using household income level and maternal educational level. The decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index was used to measure experience of dental caries (DMFT ≥ 1). Non-treatment of dental caries was measured according to whether the participants who experienced dental caries used a dental service at a dental clinic to treat caries during the previous year. Logistic regression was used to investigate the association between parental socioeconomic status and the experience of dental caries as well as the association between parental socioeconomic status and the non-treatment of dental caries among children that have experienced caries. A total of 808 subjects (64.5 %) experienced dental caries among 1253 participants, and 582 of these 808 subjects (72.0 %) did not receive treatment among those having experience of dental caries. Parental socioeconomic status was not associated with experience of dental caries. However, those from low- and middle-income households were less likely to receive treatment than those from high-income households (odds ratio [OR] 2.11 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.16-3.86], OR 2.14 [95 % CI 1.27-3.62]). In particular, those from low- and middle-income households who had regular dental checkups were more likely to have untreated caries than those from high-income households (OR 3.58 [95 % CI 1.25-10.24]). This study demonstrates the parental household income-related disparities in children's dental health treatment. Efforts should be made to lower financial barriers to dental health services, particularly among those from low-income households, in order to reduce

  11. Fluoride gels for preventing dental caries in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho, Valeria C C; Worthington, Helen V; Walsh, Tanya; Chong, Lee Yee

    2015-06-15

    children up to 16 years. The frequency of application had to be at least once a year, and study duration at least one year. The main outcome was caries increment measured by the change in decayed, missing and filled tooth surfaces in both permanent and primary teeth (D(M)FS and d(e/m)fs). At least two review authors independently performed study selection, data extraction and 'Risk of bias' assessment. We contacted study authors for additional information where required. The primary measure of effect was the prevented fraction (PF), that is, the difference in mean caries increments between the treatment and control groups expressed as a percentage of the mean increment in the control group. We performed random-effects meta-analyses where we could pool data. We examined potential sources of heterogeneity in random-effects metaregression analyses. We collected adverse effects information from the included trials. We included 28 trials (3 of which are new trials since the original review), involving 9140 children and adolescents. Most of these trials recruited participants from schools. Most of the studies (20) were at high risk of bias, with 8 at unclear risk of bias.Twenty-five trials (8479 participants) contributed data for meta-analysis on permanent tooth surfaces: the D(M)FS pooled prevented fraction (PF) estimate was 28% (95% confidence intervals (CI) 19% to 36%; P effect of fluoride gel varied according to the type of control group used, with D(M)FS PF on average being 17% (95% CI 3% to 31%; P = 0.018) higher in non-placebo-controlled trials (the reduction in caries was 38% (95% CI 24% to 52%; P effects.The d(e/m)fs pooled prevented fraction estimate for the three trials (1254 participants) that contributed data for the meta-analysis on primary teeth surfaces was 20% (95% CI 1% to 38%; P = 0.04; with no heterogeneity (P = 0.54; I(2) = 0%); low quality evidence).There was limited reporting of adverse events. Only two trials reported information on acute toxicity signs

  12. Retention of dental sealants placed on sound teeth and incipient caries lesions as part of a service-learning programme in rural areas in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Rojas, Armando E; Escoffié-Ramírez, Mauricio; Pérez-Ferrera, Gloriana; Guido, Joseph A; Mantilla-Rodriguez, Andres A; Martinez-Mier, Esperanza A

    2012-11-01

    Dental sealants are an effective treatment for the prevention and management of caries. To determine the retention of sealants placed in a rural setting in Mexico as part of an international service-learning (ISL) programme and to determine associations between dental sealant's retention and caries diagnosis at the time of sealant placement. Children aged 6-15 were examined for dental caries, received sealants by dental students as part of an ISL programme, and were re-examined 4, 2, or 1 years after placement to assess sealant survival. Sealants were placed on permanent sound surfaces and enamel caries lesions [International Caries Assessment and Detection System (ICDAS) criteria]. Sealant survival was explored using Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel tests and multivariate prediction models. 219 (46%) of 478 (mean age = 10.53 SD = 5.11) children who had received sealants returned for a recall examination (mean age = 10.89 SD = 3.11). After 1-4 years, 96.4% to 60.6% of the sealants placed on sound teeth had survived, and for sealants placed on surfaces with enamel caries lesions (ICDAS 1-3), 94.2% to 55.6% had survived. Differences were not statistically significant. Sealants had survival rates comparable to those previously reported in the literature. Sealants placed on sound and enamel caries lesions had similar survival rates. © 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry © 2012 BSPD, IAPD and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Real-time porphyrin detection in plaque and caries: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timoshchuk, Mari-Alina I.; Ridge, Jeremy S.; Rugg, Amanda L.; Nelson, Leonard Y.; Kim, Amy S.; Seibel, Eric J.

    2015-02-01

    An ultrathin scanning fiber endoscope, originally developed for cancer diagnosis, was used in a case study to locate plaque and caries. The imaging system incorporated software mitigation of background auto-fluorescence (AF). In conventional fluorescence imaging, varying AF across a tooth surface can mask low-level porphyrin signals. Laser-induced auto-fluorescence signals of dental tissue excited using a 405-nm laser typically produce fluorescence over a wavelength range extending from 440-nm to 750-nm. Anaerobic bacterial metabolism produces various porphyrin species (eg. protoporphyrin IX) that are located in carious enamel, dentin, gingivitis sites, and plaque. In our case study, these porphyrin deposits remained as long as one day after prophylaxis. Imaging the tooth surface using 405-nm excitation and subtracting the natural AF enhances the image contrast of low-level porphyrin deposits, which would otherwise be masked by the high background AF. In a case study, healthy tissues as well as sites of early and advanced caries formations were scanned for visual and quantitative signs of red fluorescence associated with porphyrin species using a background mitigation algorithm. Initial findings show increasing amplitudes of red fluorescence as caries severity increases from early to late stages. Sites of plaque accumulation also displayed red fluorescence similar to that found in carious dental tissue. The use of real-time background mitigation of natural dental AF can enhance the detection of low porphyrin concentrations that are indicators of early stage caries formation.

  14. A histological study of peripheral dental caries of equine cheek teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erridge, Mey E; Cox, Alistair L; Dixon, Padraic M

    2012-01-01

    Peripheral caries of equine cheek teeth is a poorly described disorder and, in particular little is known of its histopathology. Histological examinations of decalcified sections of 21 equine peripheral caries-affected cheek teeth showed two different patterns of cemental lesions; including progressive enlargement of focal, flask-like lesions leading to breakdown of the adjacent cementum, and secondly; a more generalized flaking-off of thin layers of under-run, surface cementum. A thick layer of plaque and food material usually lay on the surface of affected cementum and also within cemental defects. Gram-stained sections showed large numbers of bacteria within the lacunae and canaliculi of affected peripheral cementum and within associated plaque. Pioneer bacteria were also seen within dentinal tubules of adjacent, normal-appearing dentin. Subgingival extension of peripheral caries lesions with localized periodontal destruction was rare. Grading of peripheral caries lesions by gross examination was found to underestimate the severity of the disorder as compared to histological grading.

  15. The effect of atraumatic restorative treatment on adhesive restorations for dental caries in deciduous molars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Batista de Medeiros Serpa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Minimal invasive approaches to managing caries, such as partial caries removal techniques and atraumatic restorative treatment (ART, are showing increasing evidence of improved outcomes over the conventional complete caries removal. Objective: To evaluate clinically and radiographically the effect of ART on restorations using restorative cement and glass ionomer cement (GIC for dental caries in the deciduous molars of children aged between 4 and 8 years. Settings and Design: The study design was a split-mouth, randomized, blind clinical trial. Materials and Methods: Eighty-six patients had 108 restorations placed with GIC (Ketac Molar Easy Mix – 3M ESPE and 108 restorations placed with composite resin (CR (Filtek Z250 – 3M ESPE. The restorations were assessed by means of images obtained with a digital camera and periapical radiographs at baseline and after 12 months of follow-up. Statistical Analysis: The Student's t-test, Pearson Chi-squared test, and Bonferroni paired comparison test were used to evaluate the differences in proportions and correlations between the variables. Results: After 12 months of follow-up, the restorations were considered clinically successful in 89.3% of cases and radiographically successful in 80.5% of cases. There was statistical difference neither between the two restorative materials used nor between the numbers of restored surfaces. Conclusions: GIC and CR can be used successfully for restorations of one or two dental surfaces after ART.

  16. Diagnostic accuracy of different imaging modalities in detection of proximal caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senel, B; Kamburoglu, K; Uçok, O; Yüksel, S P; Ozen, T; Avsever, H

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the in vitro diagnostic ability of visual inspection, film, charge-coupled device (CCD) sensor, photostimulable phosphor (PSP) sensor and cone beam CT in the detection of proximal caries in posterior teeth compared with the histological gold standard. Visual inspection, film, CCD, PSP and cone beam CT images were used to detect proximal caries in the mesial and distal surfaces of 138 teeth (276 surfaces). Visual inspection and evaluation of all intraoral digital and conventional radiographs and cone beam CT images were performed twice by three oral radiologists. Weighted kappa coefficients were calculated to assess intra- and interobserver agreement for each image set, and scores were compared with the histological gold standard using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis to evaluate diagnostic ability. Intraobserver kappa coefficients calculated for each observer for each method of detecting caries ranged from 0.739 to 0.928. Strong interobserver agreement ranging from 0.631 to 0.811 was found for all detection methods. The highest Az values for all three observers were obtained with the cone beam CT images; however, differences between detection methods were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Visual inspection, film, CCD, PSP plates and cone beam CT performed similarly in the detection of proximal caries.

  17. Caries detection and diagnostics with near-infrared light transillumination: clinical experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söchtig, Friederike; Hickel, Reinhard; Kühnisch, Jan

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this paper was to present the function and potential of diagnosing caries lesions using a recently introduced near-infrared (NIR) transillumination technique (DIAGNOcam, KaVo). The study included 130 adolescents and adults with complete permanent dentition (age > 12). All patients underwent visual examination and, if necessary, bitewing radiographs. Proximal and occlusal surfaces, which had not yet been restored, were photographed by a NIR transillumination camera system using light with a wavelength of 780 nm rather than ionizing radiation. Of the study patients, 85 showed 127 proximal dentin caries lesions that were treated operatively. A cross table shows the correlation of radiography and NIR transillumination. Based on our practical clinical experiences to date, a possible classifi cation of diagnosis is introduced. The main result of our study was that NIR light was able to visualize caries lesions on proximal and occlusal surfaces. The study suggests that NIR transillumination is a method that may help to avoid bitewing radiographs for diagnosis of caries in everyday clinical practice.

  18. Detection accuracy of in vitro approximal caries by cone beam computed tomography images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu Xingmin; Li Gang; Zhang Zuyan; Ma Xuchen

    2011-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of approximal carious lesions among five CBCT systems and to assess the effect of detector types employed by different CBCT systems on the accuracy of approximal caries diagnosis. Materials and methods: Thirty-nine extracted non-cavitated human permanent teeth were employed in the study. Seven observers evaluated 78 approximal surfaces of the teeth with respect to caries by the images from the following five CBCT systems: (1) NewTom 9000; (2) Accuitomo 3DX; (3) Kodak 9000 3D; (4) ProMax 3D; and (5) DCT PRO, respectively. The lesions were validated by histological examination. The area under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (A z ) was used to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy. Results: Microscopy of approximal surfaces found 47.4% sound, 39.8% enamel and 12.8% dentin lesions. The differences of A z values among the five CBCT systems were not statistically significant (p = 0.348). No significant difference was found between the two detector types of CBCT systems (p = 0.47). Conclusions: The five CBCT systems employed in the study showed no significant difference in the in vitro approximal caries detection. Neither the detector nor the FOV employed by the CBCT systems has an impact on the detection accuracy of approximal caries.

  19. Detection accuracy of in vitro approximal caries by cone beam computed tomography images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu Xingmin, E-mail: quxingmin@bjmu.edu.cn [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, 22 Zhongguancun Nandajie, Hai Dian District, Beijing 100081 (China); Li Gang, E-mail: kqgang@bjmu.edu.cn [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, 22 Zhongguancun Nandajie, Hai Dian District, Beijing 100081 (China); Zhang Zuyan, E-mail: zhangzy-bj@vip.sina.com [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, 22 Zhongguancun Nandajie, Hai Dian District, Beijing 100081 (China); Ma Xuchen, E-mail: kqxcma@bjmu.edu.cn [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, 22 Zhongguancun Nandajie, Hai Dian District, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2011-08-15

    Aims: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of approximal carious lesions among five CBCT systems and to assess the effect of detector types employed by different CBCT systems on the accuracy of approximal caries diagnosis. Materials and methods: Thirty-nine extracted non-cavitated human permanent teeth were employed in the study. Seven observers evaluated 78 approximal surfaces of the teeth with respect to caries by the images from the following five CBCT systems: (1) NewTom 9000; (2) Accuitomo 3DX; (3) Kodak 9000 3D; (4) ProMax 3D; and (5) DCT PRO, respectively. The lesions were validated by histological examination. The area under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (A{sub z}) was used to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy. Results: Microscopy of approximal surfaces found 47.4% sound, 39.8% enamel and 12.8% dentin lesions. The differences of A{sub z} values among the five CBCT systems were not statistically significant (p = 0.348). No significant difference was found between the two detector types of CBCT systems (p = 0.47). Conclusions: The five CBCT systems employed in the study showed no significant difference in the in vitro approximal caries detection. Neither the detector nor the FOV employed by the CBCT systems has an impact on the detection accuracy of approximal caries.

  20. Caries oclusal incipiente : Un nuevo enfoque

    OpenAIRE

    Machado de Almeida, Cristiane Nishiyama; Geller Palti, Dafna; Francisconi Silveira, Paulo A.

    2014-01-01

    No obstante que el conocimiento sobre el diagnóstico y tratamiento de la caries dental haavanzado, el diagnóstico de las lesiones oclusales todavía constituye un reto para los clínicos ylos epidemiólogos. Los conocimientos sobre la enfermedad, así como los conceptos, formas dediagnóstico y tratamiento de la odontología han evolucionado debido, principalmente, a tresgrandes factores: (1) la visión de la caries dental como una enfermedad y, consecuentemente, laposibilidad de intervenir más temp...

  1. Caries experience variables as indicators in caries risk assessment in 6-7-year-old Chinese children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Q.; Palenstein Helderman, W.H. van

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study is to investigate variables of the past caries experience as indicators of future caries in a Chinese child population. METHODS: Caries was recorded at baseline and 2 years later in 433, 6-7-year-old Chinese children. Correlation coefficients between

  2. Caries prevention by professional fluoride gel application on enamel and dentinal lesions in low-caries children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truin, G.J.; Hof, M.A. van 't

    2005-01-01

    In a double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial, the caries-reducing effect of semi-annually applied fluoride gel in a low-caries child population initially aged 4.5-6.5 years (n = 773) has been investigated. Secondary analyses of the data were performed to study the caries reduction

  3. Presence of plaque, gingivitis and caries in Sudanese children with congenital heart defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Hiba Mohamed; Mustafa, Manal; Hasabalrasol, Siham; Elshazali, Osama Hafiz; Nasir, Elwalid Fadul; Ali, Raouf Wahab; Berggreen, Ellen; Skeie, Marit Slåttelid

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the presence of plaque, gingivitis, and caries in a group of Sudanese children with congenital heart defects CHDs (cases) and compare them to children without CHDs (controls). This analytical cross-sectional study included cases (N = 111, with a mean age of 7.2 ± 3.0 years) and controls (N = 182, with a mean age of 7.2 ± 2.8 years) from Khartoum, Sudan. Examinations were done by two calibrated dentists using plaque index, gingival index, and WHO (World Health Organization) caries diagnostic criteria (dmft/DMFT index: decayed, missing, and filled teeth). Children with CHDs (cases) had statistically significantly higher mean number of sites with plaque and gingivitis than children without CHDs (controls), although almost all children experienced plaque. Cases also experienced significantly higher mean dmft/DMFT than controls (age group 1, 3-7 years: 3.7 vs 2.3 and age group 2, 8-12 years: 1.3 vs 0.6). The Significant Caries Indices in cases (age groups 1 and 2) were also significantly higher than among controls (SiC 8.2 vs 5.9 and 1.8 vs 0.8, respectively). Fillings were totally lacking among cases and scarce among controls. The findings clearly showed that this group of Sudanese children with CHDs was more severely affected with gingivitis and caries than the control group without CHDs. These results are cause for concern in children at risk of developing systemic infections and serious complications related to poor oral health. These findings provide important baseline data for planning appropriate dental preventive strategies for Sudanese children with CHDs.

  4. Epidemiology of dental caries among adults in a rural area in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maru, Ami M; Narendran, Sena

    2012-05-01

    Data on epidemiology of dental caries of adults in rural India appear to be sparse. The purpose of the study was to assess the oral health status and dental treatment needs of a rural Indian population. The study population consisted of 189 volunteer subjects with a mean age of 34.9 ± 14.2 years and 54% males. Decayed, missing due to caries and filled teeth (DMFT) and tooth surfaces (DMFS) assessed the dental caries experience. Structured interviews collected data on perception of health including oral health, oral hygiene practices and snacking habits. While only 38.1% perceived themselves to be in good or very good dental health, nearly 85% felt the same about general health. The most common sugar exposure was sweetened tea; 75% consumed the beverage at least once a day. More than 80% of the subjects had untreated caries with mean DMFT and DMFS scores of 5.1 ± 3.9 and 13.8 ± 17.8, which lacked any gender differences. Dental treatment needs ranged from 16.9% two-surface fillings to 60.8% one-surface fillings; 23.8% crowns or bridges and 37.6% extractions. Those who perceived themselves to be in better oral health had significantly lower DMFT (4.0 ± 3.2 vs 5.9 ± 4.1) and DMFS (8.4 ± 11.7 vs 17.1 ± 20.0) scores (p dental caries as well as dental treatment needs among the study participants.

  5. Fluoride mouthrinses for preventing dental caries in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho, Valeria C C; Chong, Lee Yee; Worthington, Helen V; Walsh, Tanya

    2016-07-29

    indicated, comparing fluoride mouthrinse with placebo or no treatment in children up to 16 years of age. Study duration had to be at least one year. The main outcome was caries increment measured by the change in decayed, missing and filled tooth surfaces in permanent teeth (D(M)FS). At least two review authors independently performed study selection, data extraction and risk of bias assessment. We contacted study authors for additional information when required. The primary measure of effect was the prevented fraction (PF), that is, the difference in mean caries increments between treatment and control groups expressed as a percentage of the mean increment in the control group. We conducted random-effects meta-analyses where data could be pooled. We examined potential sources of heterogeneity in random-effects metaregression analyses. We collected adverse effects information from the included trials. In this review, we included 37 trials involving 15,813 children and adolescents. All trials tested supervised use of fluoride mouthrinse in schools, with two studies also including home use. Almost all children received a fluoride rinse formulated with sodium fluoride (NaF), mostly on either a daily or weekly/fortnightly basis and at two main strengths, 230 or 900 ppm F, respectively. Most studies (28) were at high risk of bias, and nine were at unclear risk of bias.From the 35 trials (15,305 participants) that contributed data on permanent tooth surface for meta-analysis, the D(M)FS pooled PF was 27% (95% confidence interval (CI), 23% to 30%; I(2) = 42%) (moderate quality evidence). We found no significant association between estimates of D(M)FS prevented fractions and baseline caries severity, background exposure to fluorides, rinsing frequency or fluoride concentration in metaregression analyses. A funnel plot of the 35 studies in the D(M)FS PF meta-analysis indicated no relationship between prevented fraction and study precision (no evidence of reporting bias). The pooled

  6. A BAYESIAN HIERARCHICAL SPATIAL MODEL FOR DENTAL CARIES ASSESSMENT USING NON-GAUSSIAN MARKOV RANDOM FIELDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Ick Hoon; Yuan, Ying; Bandyopadhyay, Dipankar

    2016-01-01

    Research in dental caries generates data with two levels of hierarchy: that of a tooth overall and that of the different surfaces of the tooth. The outcomes often exhibit spatial referencing among neighboring teeth and surfaces, i.e., the disease status of a tooth or surface might be influenced by the status of a set of proximal teeth/surfaces. Assessments of dental caries (tooth decay) at the tooth level yield binary outcomes indicating the presence/absence of teeth, and trinary outcomes at the surface level indicating healthy, decayed, or filled surfaces. The presence of these mixed discrete responses complicates the data analysis under a unified framework. To mitigate complications, we develop a Bayesian two-level hierarchical model under suitable (spatial) Markov random field assumptions that accommodates the natural hierarchy within the mixed responses. At the first level, we utilize an autologistic model to accommodate the spatial dependence for the tooth-level binary outcomes. For the second level and conditioned on a tooth being non-missing, we utilize a Potts model to accommodate the spatial referencing for the surface-level trinary outcomes. The regression models at both levels were controlled for plausible covariates (risk factors) of caries, and remain connected through shared parameters. To tackle the computational challenges in our Bayesian estimation scheme caused due to the doubly-intractable normalizing constant, we employ a double Metropolis-Hastings sampler. We compare and contrast our model performances to the standard non-spatial (naive) model using a small simulation study, and illustrate via an application to a clinical dataset on dental caries.

  7. A Comparative Evaluation of Bifidobacteria Levels in Early Childhood Caries and Severe Early Childhood Caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Suraj; Kumar, V Suresh; Krishnan, Ramesh; Rajan, Pooja

    2017-11-01

    Bifidobacteria levels in saliva were found to be significantly correlated in adults with dental caries but less information available in the literature regarding its role in children. The aim is to compare the salivary levels of Bifidobacteria in children who are caries free with that of early childhood caries (ECC) and severe ECC (S-ECC). Saliva was collected using the tongue-loop method from a total of 60 children between the age group of 3-5 years and they were further divided into 3 groups. In addition, the age and gender of the children, sugar amount in diet, sugar frequency in diet, were recorded. Bifidobacteria was isolated from all the three groups, but more were from S-ECC, followed by ECC and very few cases of caries-free children and was found to statistically significant ( P assesment.

  8. Detection and proportion of very early dental caries in independent living older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzman, Jennifer S; Kohanchi, Daniel; Biren-Fetz, John; Fontana, Margherita; Ramchandani, Manisha; Osann, Kathryn; Hallajian, Lucy; Mansour, Stephanie; Nabelsi, Tasneem; Chung, Na Eun; Wilder-Smith, Petra

    2015-11-01

    Dental caries is an important healthcare challenge in adults over 65 years of age. Integration of oral health screening into non-dental primary care practice may improve access to preventive dental care for vulnerable populations such as the elderly. Such integration would require easy, fast, and accurate early caries detection tools. Primary goal of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging for detecting very early caries in the elderly living in community-based settings. The International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) served as gold standard. Secondary goal of this study was to provide baseline prevalence data of very early caries lesions in independent living adults aged 65+ years. Seventy-two subjects were recruited from three sites in Southern California: a retirement community, a senior health fair, and a convalescent hospital. Clinical examination was performed using the ICDAS visual criteria and this was followed by OCT imaging. The two-dimensional OCT images (B-scan) were analyzed with simple software. Locations with a log of back-scattered light intensity (BSLI) below 2.9 were scored as sound, and areas equaling or exceeding 2.9 BSLI were considered carious. Diagnostic performance of OCT imaging was compared with ICDAS score. OCT-based diagnosis demonstrated very good sensitivity (95.1%) and good specificity (85.8%). 54.7% of dentate subjects had at least one tooth with very early coronal caries. Early coronal decay is prevalent in the unrestored pits and fissures of coronal surfaces of teeth in independent living adults aged 65+ years. Though OCT imaging coupled with a simple diagnostic algorithm can accurately detect areas of very early caries in community-based settings, existing devices are expensive and not well-suited for use by non-dental health care providers. Simple, inexpensive, fast, and accurate tools for early caries detection by field health care providers working in

  9. Prevalence of candida albicans in dental plaque and caries lesion of early childhood caries (ECC) according to sampling site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasempour, Maryam; Sefidgar, Seyed Ali Asghar; Eyzadian, Haniyeh; Gharakhani, Samaneh

    2011-01-01

    Candida albicans may have cariogenic potential but its role in caries etiology has not been established. The aim of this study was to determine candida albicans in supragingival dental plaque and infected dentine of cervical and proximal in early childhood caries (ECC). This cross-sectional study was carried out on 6o children aged 2-5 years, which were divided into 3 groups: children with at least one cervical caries; children with at least one proximal caries and caries-free. The infected dentine was collected from cervical and proximal caries lesions and plaque samples were collected from the three groups in order to compare the frequency of candida albicans in the collected sites. All samples were cultured in Sabouraud and CHROMagar medium and the cases that were positive for candida albicans were cultured in germ tube. Data were collected and analyzed. The mean age of the children was 3.9 years. From 100 samples, candida albicans samples were isolated in 55%, mold fungi were found in 29% cases and there was no fungal growth in 16% of the samples. In plaque samples, candida albicans were found in 15% of caries-free samples, 20% of the proximal and 80% of the cervical caries. In samples extracted from the caries, candida albicans were found in 60% of the proximal and 100% of the cervical caries. Mothers with university educational level had children with more cervical decays, caries free and proximal caries, respectively. The results showed that prevalence of Candida albicans in dental plaque and caries lesions of children with early childhood caries were relatively high and the prevalence was higher in cervical caries group.

  10. Evaluation of non-microbial salivary caries activity parameters and salivary biochemical indicators in predicting dental caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Kaur

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study was the evaluation of non-microbial salivary caries activity parameters and salivary biochemical indicators in predicting dental caries. Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out on 60 children, aged 4-6 years, selected from the schools of Panchkula district, Haryana, on the basis of their caries status. Level of hydration, flow rate, pH, buffering capacity, relative viscosity, calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase levels in caries-free and caries-active children were evaluated. Results: Results showed that 90% of subjects in the caries-free group and 30% of subjects in the caries-active group had normal level of hydration value of less than 60 s and the difference was found to be statistically very highly significant. Normal flow rate of stimulated saliva was found in 90% of the subjects in caries-free group and 33.3% subjects in the caries active group and difference was found to be statistically very highly significant. Adequate salivary pH was found in 100% subjects in caries-free group and 30% in caries-active group and the difference was statistically very highly significant. Conclusion: To conclude, within limitations of this study, it became clear that normal level of hydration and higher values for flow rate, pH, buffering capacity of saliva lead to good oral health and a reduced caries occurrence. Increased salivary viscosity plays a role in increasing caries incidence. Salivary biochemical indicators like calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase also play their respective role in determining caries susceptibility of an individual. These salivary parameters can be used as diagnostic tool for caries risk assessment.

  11. Interoceptive awareness in experienced meditators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalsa, Sahib S; Rudrauf, David; Damasio, Antonio R; Davidson, Richard J; Lutz, Antoine; Tranel, Daniel

    2008-07-01

    Attention to internal body sensations is practiced in most meditation traditions. Many traditions state that this practice results in increased awareness of internal body sensations, but scientific studies evaluating this claim are lacking. We predicted that experienced meditators would display performance superior to that of nonmeditators on heartbeat detection, a standard noninvasive measure of resting interoceptive awareness. We compared two groups of meditators (Tibetan Buddhist and Kundalini) to an age- and body mass index-matched group of nonmeditators. Contrary to our prediction, we found no evidence that meditators were superior to nonmeditators in the heartbeat detection task, across several sessions and respiratory modulation conditions. Compared to nonmeditators, however, meditators consistently rated their interoceptive performance as superior and the difficulty of the task as easier. These results provide evidence against the notion that practicing attention to internal body sensations, a core feature of meditation, enhances the ability to sense the heartbeat at rest.

  12. Customer-experienced rapid prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lijuan; Zhang, Fu; Li, Anbo

    2008-12-01

    In order to describe accurately and comprehend quickly the perfect GIS requirements, this article will integrate the ideas of QFD (Quality Function Deployment) and UML (Unified Modeling Language), and analyze the deficiency of prototype development model, and will propose the idea of the Customer-Experienced Rapid Prototyping (CE-RP) and describe in detail the process and framework of the CE-RP, from the angle of the characteristics of Modern-GIS. The CE-RP is mainly composed of Customer Tool-Sets (CTS), Developer Tool-Sets (DTS) and Barrier-Free Semantic Interpreter (BF-SI) and performed by two roles of customer and developer. The main purpose of the CE-RP is to produce the unified and authorized requirements data models between customer and software developer.

  13. Experiencing Security in Interaction Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, Niels Raabjerg; Bødker, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    Security is experienced differently in different contexts. This paper argues that in everyday situations, users base their security decisions on a mix of prior experiences. When approaching security and interaction design from an experience approach, tools that help bring out such relevant...... experiences for design are needed. This paper reports on how Prompted exploration workshops and Acting out security were developed to target such experiences when iteratively designing a mobile digital signature solution in a participatory design process. We discuss how these tools helped the design process...... and illustrate how the tangibility of such tools matters. We further demonstrate how the approach grants access to non-trivial insights into people's security experience. We point out how the specific context is essential for exploring the space between experience and expectations, and we illustrate how people...

  14. Multimodal optical device for early childhood caries: a clinical prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Ridge, Jeremy S.; Nelson, Leonard Y.; Berg, Joel H.; Seibel, Eric J.

    There is currently a need for a safe and effective way to detect and diagnose early childhood caries. We have developed a multimodal optical clinical prototype for testing in vivo. The device can be used to quickly image and screen for any signs of demineralized enamel by obtaining high-resolution and highcontrast surface images using a 405-nm laser as the illumination source, as well as obtaining autofluorescence and bacterial fluorescence images. Then, when a suspicious region is located, the device can perform dual laser fluorescence spectroscopy using 405-nm and 532-nm laser excitation which is used to compute an autofluorescence ratio. This ratio can be used to quantitatively diagnose enamel health. The device is tested on four in vivo test subjects as well as 17 extracted teeth with clinically diagnosed carious lesions. The device was able to provide detailed images which served to screen for suspected early caries. The autofluorescence ratios obtained from the extracted teeth were able to discriminate between healthy and unhealthy enamel. Therefore, the clinical prototype demonstrates feasibility in screening for and in quantitatively diagnosing healthy from demineralized enamel.

  15. Degradation of a dental filling material after high caries challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Antonio Paraizo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available New types of copolymers using monomers which form inorganic polymers network (glass-like and organic networks have been developed, known as ormocers. The aim of this work was to study how a particular dental filling material is degraded when subjected to a caries challenge by using low pH solutions. The supernadants were studied by HPLC to detect the presence of molecules from the resin, while the changes of the material surface were evaluated by contact angle. An organic modified ceromer (ormocer called Definite® (Degussa was tested. Samples were built following manufacturer's instructions. After pH cycles, solutions were injected in a HPLC. The contact angle was obtained using a goniometer after and before the cycles. HPLC results showed material degradation, only detected in acid solutions. Bis-GMA and TEGDMA were detected in Definite® residues. Means and S.D. of contact angle were (p < 0,05: baseline: 85.16° ± 3.90° and after pH cycles: 69.77° ± 7.12°. The authors concluded that an ormocer filling material degraded on a caries simulated environment.

  16. Dyes for caries detection: influence on composite and compomer microleakage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piva, Evandro; Meinhardt, Luciene; Demarco, Flávio F; Powers, John M

    2002-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of caries-detecting dyes on the microleakage of adhesive materials. Sixty cubic class V cavities were prepared on buccal and lingual surfaces of 30 human third molars. Coronal margins were located in enamel and gingival margins in cementum. The teeth were randomly divided into six groups of ten restorations each. Cavities were restored with an adhesive system (Single Bond, 3M ESPE, St. Paul, Minn., USA), a compomer (F2000, 3M ESPE), or a composite resin (Z100, 3M ESPE) according to the manufacturer's directions. Acid red dye (Seek, Ultradent, South Jordan, Ut., USA) and basic fuchsin dye (Vide Cárie, Inodon, Porto Alegre, Brazil) were tested. Control groups were prepared without the use of dyes. After 7 days of storage in distilled water, the restorations were polished and the teeth were subjected to thermal cycling followed by immersion in 2% methylene blue. The teeth were sectioned, and microleakage scores were evaluated under magnification (40x). Data were submitted to statistical analysis using the nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test. A statistically significant difference ( PF2000) but not in enamel. Control and experimental groups using dyes showed similar results. It was concluded that dyes for caries detection did not increase microleakage of the adhesive materials tested.

  17. Clinical use of lasers in caries diagnosis and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ambrose

    2008-06-01

    Laser technology is now ubiquitous in science, business, the arts, the military, industry, telecommunications, entertainment and medicine. It is increasingly finding a useful place in dentistry to offer the potential for practical solutions to managing difficult clinical problems. Research into the clinical use of lasers in diagnostic and therapeutic dental procedures has escalated rapidly in recent years. Laser technology has revolutionized the treatment of dental caries. This article reviews the role of laser technology in the clinical management of caries, early caries diagnosis and treatment planning decision making, caries prevention, soft tissue management, fluorescence aided caries elimination and fluorescence feedback-controlled selective caries removal. Laser technology plays a vital role in enhancing caries diagnosis and therapy.

  18. A comparative evaluation of bifidobacteria levels in early childhood caries and severe early childhood caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suraj Nair

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bifidobacteria levels in saliva were found to be significantly correlated in adults with dental caries but less information available in the literature regarding its role in children. Aim: The aim is to compare the salivary levels of Bifidobacteria in children who are caries free with that of early childhood caries (ECC and severe ECC (S-ECC. Materials and Methods: Saliva was collected using the tongue-loop method from a total of 60 children between the age group of 3–5 years and they were further divided into 3 groups. In addition, the age and gender of the children, sugar amount in diet, sugar frequency in diet, were recorded. Results: Bifidobacteria was isolated from all the three groups, but more were from S-ECC, followed by ECC and very few cases of caries-free children and was found to statistically significant (P < 0.001. Salivary levels of Bifidobacteria were significantly correlated with amount of sugar in the diet and frequency of sugar consumption. Conclusions: Salivary levels of Bifidobacteria were significantly associated with S-ECC and ECC, followed by caries free group. In future, it can be used as a salivary marker for caries risk assesment.

  19. cGVHD-Related Caries and Its Shared Features with Other 'Dry-Mouth'-Related Caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Silva, Alan Roger; Feio, Patricia do Socorro Queiroz; Vargas, Pablo Agustin; Correa, Maria Elvira Pizzigatti; Lopes, Marcio Ajudarte

    2015-01-01

    Several systemic diseases and their medical treatment may predispose the development of aggressive dental caries. Head and neck radiotherapy, chemotherapy, Sjögren's syndrome and long-standing treatment with drugs that induce hyposalivation are some of these conditions. The aim of this article is to describe the clinical features of five patients who developed chronic graft-versus-host-disease (cGVHD) as a complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) and, in spite of close dental follow-up, subsequently developed rampant caries. In these cases, the restorations showed early failure and the caries still progressed until generalized teeth destruction. The majority of the teeth therefore had to be extracted due to advanced dental caries and rapid clinical progression. Herein the term "cGVHD-related caries" is proposed to describe this under-recognized complication of cancer treatment that may evolve in allo-HSCT recipients that develop cGVHD. This condition is poorly recognized in the literature and may represent the final result of the clustering of oral complications in cGVHD patients, including mucositis, oral pain, hyposalivation, taste loss and oral infections, leading to rampant caries due to impaired oral hygiene and increased intake of highly cariogenic food. Consequently, the knowledge of this oral complication should improve the medical and dental management of cGVHD oral manifestations and improve the quality of life of patients with this post allo-HSCT complication.

  20. The Clinical, Environmental, and Behavioral Factors That Foster Early Childhood Caries: Evidence for Caries Risk Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Margherita

    2015-01-01

    Caries risk assessment, an essential component of targeted health care delivery for young children, is of paramount importance in the current environment of increasing health care costs and resource constraints. The purpose of this manuscript was to review recent best available evidence behind the factors that influence caries risk assessment and the validity of strategies to assess the caries risk of young children. Moderate to weak evidence supports the following recommendations: (1) Children should have a caries risk assessment done in their first year (or as soon as their first tooth erupts) as part of their overall health assessment, and this should be reassessed periodically over time. (2) Multiple clinical, environmental, and behavioral factors should be considered when assessing caries risk in young children, including factors associated with the primary caregiver. (3) The use of structured forms, although most may not yet be validated, may aid in systematic assessment of multiple caries risk factors and in objective record-keeping. (4) Children from low socioeconomic status groups should be considered at increased risk when developing community preventive programs.

  1. Prevención versus caries

    OpenAIRE

    Cuenca Sala, Emili

    1989-01-01

    Tradicionalmente, cuando se ha­blaba de enfermedades dentales, en particular de caries dental, era obli­gatorio calificarlas como una de las enfermedades más prevalentes en­tre las que sufre el hombre moder­no. Actualmente este concepto ya no es universal y conviene matizar­lo...

  2. Caries prevention through life course approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramos-Gomez, F.; van Loveren, C.; Eden, E.

    2016-01-01

    Recent epidemiological analyses showed that caries risk continues throughout all age groups. Moreover, it seems that there are trajectories of oral health. Individuals seem to enter such a trajectory at an early age and it shows to be difficult to escape to another trajectory with better health

  3. Socioeconomic factors that affect international caries levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehnelt, D E; Kiyak, H A

    2001-06-01

    Health policy makers have examined the impact of economic policies and a nation's social development on the health of its population. The purpose of this research was to investigate the association between health care expenditures, socioeconomic factors, and caries levels in 109 countries representing an array of social and economic conditions, and to determine how such factors are related to caries experience at different levels of economic development. Countries were divided into established market economies and three groups of developing nations, based on their GNP (high, medium, low income). Total health expenditures as percent GDP and as US dollars per capita, public expenditures and aid flow as percent of total health expenditures, dentists per 100,000 population, per capita sugar consumption, and urbanization of the population were compared among these countries. Correlations between these variables, and decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) of 12-year-olds in these countries were assessed. The highest correlations were found between DMFT and public expenditures, sugar consumption, and urbanization. Highly significant differences emerged across nation groups by stages of development on several variables. The findings suggest that it is important to consider the stage of development of a given country when planning caries prevention policies and programs. Such a contextual approach is more likely to be successful in reducing caries levels.

  4. Dental caries from a molecular microbiological perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyvad, B.; Crielaard, W.; Mira, A.; Takahashi, N.; Beighton, D.

    2013-01-01

    Dental caries results from an imbalance of the metabolic activity in the dental biofilm. The microbial communities of teeth have traditionally been studied by standard cultural approaches. More recently, cloning and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene have been used to characterize the microbial

  5. DENTAL CARIES, GINGIVITIS AND ORAL HYGIENE STATUS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRAC'f: A survey was conducted among 200 school children in llala district. The average age of the children was 12 years. The schools were chosen from the city centre namely Kisarawe and Mnazi. Mmoja Primary Schools. Prevalence of caries and periodontal condi- tions was studied. The diagnostic cr:teria used.

  6. Vroegdiagnostiek van cariës

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Strijp, A.J.P.

    2010-01-01

    Early detection of carious lesions enables the dental p rofessional to interfere in caries development. Visual inspection in combination with bitewing radiographs p erformed better than new quantitative methods in detecting early non-cavitated carious lesions. Once a lesion has been detected

  7. Sealing Occlusal Dentin Caries in Permanent Molars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, Vibeke; Borum, Mette Kit; Møller, Kirsten Dynes

    2017-01-01

    .001). The median survival time for sealings not replaced by restorations was 7.3 y (CI, 6.4 y to NA). Survival of sealings was increased in patients with low caries risk and/or excellent oral hygiene, second molars compared with first molars, and lesions not extending the middle one-third of the dentin. Survival...

  8. Probiotics for caries prevention and control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, S; Keller, M K

    2012-01-01

    of heterogeneity among the included investigations hampered the analysis. Significant reductions of mutans streptococci in saliva or plaque following daily intake of probiotic lactobacilli or bifidobacteria were reported in 12 out of 19 papers, whereas 3 reported an increase of lactobacilli. Three caries trials...

  9. Sex differentials in caries frequencies in Medieval London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Brittany S; DeWitte, Sharon N; Redfern, Rebecca C

    2016-03-01

    Tooth decay is one of the most common oral infections observed in skeletal assemblages. Sex differentials in caries frequency are commonly examined, with most studies finding that females tend to have a higher frequency of carious lesions (caries) compared to males. Less research has examined differences in caries between males and females with respect to age in past populations. Findings from living populations indicate that caries frequencies are higher in females, at least in part, because of the effects of estrogen and pregnancy. We are interested in the interaction of age, sex, and caries in medieval London, during a period of repeated famines, which might have exacerbated underlying biological causes of caries sex differentials. We examined caries in adults from two medieval London cemeteries dating to c. 1120-1539 AD: St. Mary Spital (n=291) and St. Mary Graces (n=80) to test the hypothesis that males and females have different caries frequencies irrespective of age. The association between maxillary molar caries and sex was tested using hierarchical log-linear analysis to control for the effects of age on caries frequencies. The results indicate a higher frequency of maxillary molar caries in females (P<0.00), and that the age distribution of caries differs between the sexes (P=0.01), with a consistent increase in frequency with age for females until late adulthood, but not males. The difference in caries frequencies is not explained by differences in the age distributions of the sexes. Differences in the age patterns of caries for males and females could be the result of biological factors that present during reproductive age, differences in diet, or differential access to resources during famine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Impact of parent-related factors on dental caries in the permanent dentition of 6-12-year-old children: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Santhosh; Tadakamadla, Jyothi; Kroon, Jeroen; Johnson, Newell W

    2016-03-01

    To synthesise data from the literature on the effects of various parent-related characteristics (socio-demographic, behavioural and family environment) on dental caries in the permanent dentition of children. Available studies in which the effects of parent-related characteristics on dental caries experience in the permanent dentition of children aged 6-12 years were evaluated. PubMed, Medline via OVID and CINAHL Plus via EBSCO, restricted to scientific articles, were searched in April 2015. English language and time filters (articles published from 2000) were used. A total of 4162 titles were retrieved, of which 2578 remained after duplicates were removed. After review of titles and their abstracts by two independent reviewers, 114 articles were considered relevant for full text review. Of these, 48 were considered for final inclusion. Data extraction was performed by two authors using piloted data extraction sheets. Most of the literature on determinants of dental caries has been limited to socio-economic and behavioural aspects: we found few studies evaluating the effects of family environment and parental oral hygiene behaviour. Children belonging to lower socio-economic classes experienced more caries. In more than half the studies, children of highly educated, professional and high income parents were at lower risk for dental caries. There were conflicting results from studies on the effect of variables related to family environment, parents' oral hygiene behaviour and parent's disease status on dental caries in their children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Clinical evaluation of caries removal in primary teeth using conventional, chemomechanical and laser technique: an in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohari, Mariya R; Chunawalla, Yusuf K; Ahmed, Bijle Mohammed Nadeem

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate four different techniques of caries excavation in primary teeth in terms of efficacy, efficiency and pain experienced during the procedure. Sample of 120 teeth from children aged 5 to 9 years were equally divided into 4 groups - Air rotor (group A), Carisolv (group B), Papacarie (group C) and Er:YAG laser (group D). Visual and tactile criteria along with DIAGNOdent pen value was used to evaluate efficacy. Time was recorded to determine efficiency and FLACC scale was used to assess the pain experienced. Air rotor and laser were more effective and efficient method whereas laser and CMCR methods were more comfortable methods. Laser irradiation and CMCR methods are comparable to conventional methods in terms of effectiveness and are less painful methods. Newer techniques of CMCR and laser irradiation of dentinal caries are minimally invasive methods and are less painful and thus should be more frequently employed in pediatric dentistry.

  12. Caries dental en escolares del Distrito Federal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IRIGOYEN-CAMACHO MARÍA ESTHER

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Presentar las estimaciones de la prevalencia y la severidad de caries dental, así como las necesidades de tratamiento de la población escolar del Distrito Federal examinada en la encuesta de caries dental que se llevó a cabo en 1988 con la finalidad de obtener datos basales sobre caries en los escolares al inicio del Programa Nacional de Fluoruración de la Sal en México. Material y métodos. La población de estudio fue seleccionada empleando un marco muestral basado en el listado de las escuelas primarias y los jardines de niños registrados por la Secretaría de Educación Pública en 1988. En el examen de la cavidad bucal de los escolares se utilizaron los criterios diagnósticos señalados por la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Resultados. Un total de 4 475 escolares de 5 a 12 años de edad participaron en el estudio. La prevalencia de caries dental en la población alcanzó 90.5%. El índice de necesidades de tratamiento fue elevado (79.6%. El promedio de los índices de caries en los escolares de 12 años de edad fue CPOD= 4.42 (desviación estándar -DE- 3.2 y CPOS= 6.53 (DE 4.8. Conclusiones. Los resultados de la encuesta subrayan la pertinencia de un programa preventivo de amplia cobertura, como el de fluoruración de la sal. Además, muestran que se requiere elaborar estrategias para mejorar el acceso de la población escolar a los servicios odontológicos del sistema de salud en México.

  13. Limited evidence for existing caries assessment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Susan J

    2013-03-01

    Data were sourced from the Cochrane Oral Health Groups Specialised Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trails, Medline, bibliographic references of identified systematic reviews, prospective cohort studies and clinical trials, textbooks and review articles. The studies included presented validating criteria for caries incidence/ increment and were limited to those with human subjects and natural carious lesions. Only studies published in peer reviewed journals were included. Excluded were studies which gave an incomplete description of sample selection, or of outcome, or had a small sample size. Studies which did not meet the Oxford Centre for Evidence Based Medicine prognosis category criteria for best evidence were also excluded. Data were extracted by the first review author and were independently checked by a second author. The criteria reported in the ADA Clinical Recommendations Handbook(1) were used to assess the quality of the studies. Adjustments made for potential confounders were considered as a means to evaluate the internal validity of each study. One hundred and thirty-seven study reports remained for review following systematic strategic search and title review. Of these, six studies of existing caries risk assessment models were selected for inclusion. Of the six studies reviewed four were deemed 'fair' by the ADA criteria and two 'poor'. The authors found variation in the parameters used for caries risk assessment and the population groups studied. No study found the risk assessment systems to have reliable prediction utility in children. One prospective study found Cariogram to give good to moderate caries prediction in elderly adults and one retrospective study found the CAMBRA assessment to provide prediction for cavitated lesions, but only between low risk and extreme risk individuals over the age of six. This systematic review suggests that evidence available on the validity of a number of existing systems for caries risk

  14. Diagnosis of occlusal caries using laser fluorescence versus conventional methods in permanent posterior teeth: a clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinanoglu, Alper; Ozturk, Elif; Ozel, Emre

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this in vivo study was to compare three different caries detection methods [laser fluorescence (LFE), visual examination (VE), and radiological examination (RE)] for the detection of occlusal caries in permanent posterior teeth. Early diagnosis of caries is critical in the management of dental caries. Two examiners assessed the occlusal surfaces of 217 teeth by visual, radiographic, and laser fluorescence (DIAGNOdent Pen) examination methods. After a 1 week interval, randomly selected patients were recalled. Each measurement was repeated by two examiners before the cases were selected for operative intervention to classify lesion depths. Statistical analysis of the data was performed using SPSS and Stata IC. The intra- and inter-examiner reliabilities and reproducibilities of the VE, RE, and LFE were calculated using Cohen's κ statistics. The sensitivities and specificities were plotted in receiver operating characteristic curves. The differences between LFE scores were analyzed using the nonparametric Mann-Whitney U and Wilcoxon tests (α=0.05). The VE method exhibited the highest sensitivity, accuracy, and κ values among the diagnostic groups in terms of inter-examiner agreement. With regard to the sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios for the two examiners, significant differences were found between sensitivity and specificity for examiner 1, whereas no statistically significant differences were noted between sensitivity and specificity for examiner 2 for the LFE scores. The DIAGNOdent pen is useful for the detection of dentinal caries of occlusal surfaces in permanent posterior teeth. Combination with other diagnostic conventional methods may enhance the reliability of this tool.

  15. A comparison between conventional radiography and digitized image accuracy in proximal caries detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pangnoosh M

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Computer Sciences, in radiology, like other fields, is of high importance. It should"nalso be noted that the accuracy of the technique and work conditions affects the radiographs information"nconsiderably. There for, in order to get more accurate diagnostic information, it seems necessary to investigate"ndifferent digitized radiographic techniques and to compare them with the conventional technique."nPurpose: The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of conventional and digitized radiographic"nimages by three digitization techniques in proximal caries detection."nMaterial and Methods: In this research study, sixty extracted human canines, premolars and molars were"nmounted in blocks and imaged on E-Kodak film, similar to bitewing radiographs. Ten bitewing radiographs"nwere then scanned at 600 d.p.i with flat bed scanner and a digital camera, then digitized at 300 d.p.i with"nanother digital camera. The digitized images were displayed randomly on a high-resolution monitor. Six"nobservers assessed the caries status of 120 proximal surfaces by conventional and digitized images. The"nobserver's scores were compared with the results of the macroscopic examination. Reliability of each"ntechnique was calculated. Data were analyzed using chi-square and ANOVA tests."nResults: No significant differences were detected between different techniques in intact proximal surfaces and"nenamel caries diagnosis. However, digital techniques were more sensitive in dentin caries detection (P<0.05."nConclusions: When conventional film images are digitized, medium resolution (300 d.p.i seems to be"nsufficient. At this resolution the file size is decreased and there is no significant loss of the information"nnecessary for caries diagnosis.

  16. Near infrared transillumination compared with radiography to detect and monitor proximal caries: A clinical retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelaziz, Marwa; Krejci, Ivo; Perneger, Thomas; Feilzer, Albert; Vazquez, Lydia

    2018-03-01

    To compare near infrared transillumination device, DIAGNOcam (DC) and bitewing radiography (BW) for the detection of proximal caries. This retrospective analysis of DC and BW images of 18 students in dental medicine who had consented to the anonymous use of their dental record. The data included BW and DC images performed for a check-up in 2013, and corresponding follow-up images performed in 2015. Two observers rated 376 proximal surfaces on a 4-level dentin lesion scale and reached a unanimous rating for each surface. Calculated measures of agreement for each assessment method over time provided the reproducibility of the information obtained by each method. Agreement between 2013 and 2015 within each method was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient, BW: 0.86, DC: 0.90). Agreement between DC and BW was similar for dentin lesion detection, but was low for enamel caries detection; DC detected more enamel caries than BW. Agreement between DC and BW was modest (0.33 in 2013 and 0.36 in 2015), chiefly because DC identified more enamel caries. This study shows that DC is as reliable as BW to detect proximal dentin lesions. DC detects proximal enamel lesions at an earlier stage than BW. DC enables clinicians to differentiate lesions limited to the enamel from lesions that have reached the enamel dentin junction. Regular monitoring with DC should help provide individualized preventive measures and early non-invasive caries management. The early detection of enamel lesions with near infrared transillumination can help clinicians undertake early non invasive treatments to prevent or slow down the progression of initial proximal lesions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of immunological and microbiological characteristics in children and the elderly with or without dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ying; Li, Yuhong; Lin, Yuhong; Du, Minquan; Zhang, Ping; Fan, Mingwen

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships among early childhood caries (ECC), root caries (RC), the quantity of Streptococcus mutans in saliva, and the concentrations of total and specific secretory IgA (sIgA). Saliva samples were collected from 70 children, 3-4 yr of age, with and without ECC, and from 43 adults, ≥60 yr of age, with and without RC. The decayed, missing, and filled teeth (dmft) and decayed, missing, and filled surfaces (dmfs) scores of each child, and the root decayed and filled teeth (RDFT) and root decayed and filled surfaces (RDFS) scores of each elderly subject, were determined. The S. mutans levels, total sIgA, and specific sIgA against two virulence antigens of S. mutans in saliva were analysed using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and ELISAs. The quantity of S. mutans was significantly higher in caries-positive subjects within the two populations than in the caries-free subjects; and a positive correlation was found between the quantity of S. mutans and the dmft, dmfs, RDFT, and RDFS scores. In addition, the salivary total sIgA was significantly higher in children with severe early childhood caries (SECC) and in the elderly subjects with RC. Moreover, although the S. mutans level was significantly higher, the concentrations of specific sIgA against S. mutans antigens were significantly lower in samples from elderly subjects than in samples from children. These results support the concept that S. mutans is positively associated with ECC and RC. Furthermore, the levels of S. mutans-specific antibodies in saliva are too low to prevent infection with cariogenic bacteria and to inhibit development of ECC and RC. © 2015 Eur J Oral Sci.

  18. Laboratorial training of examiners for using a visual caries detection system in epidemiological surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piovesan, Chaiana; Moro, Bruna Lp; Lara, Juan S; Ardenghi, Thiago M; Guedes, Renata S; Haddad, Ana E; Braga, Mariana M; Mendes, Fausto M

    2013-10-03

    In epidemiological surveys, a good reliability among the examiners regarding the caries detection method is essential. However, training and calibrating those examiners is an arduous task because it involves several patients who are examined many times. To facilitate this step, we aimed to propose a laboratory methodology to simulate the examinations performed to detect caries lesions using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) in epidemiological surveys. A benchmark examiner conducted all training sessions. A total of 67 exfoliated primary teeth, varying from sound to extensive cavitated, were set in seven arch models to simulate complete mouths in primary dentition. Sixteen examiners (graduate students) evaluated all surfaces of the teeth under illumination using buccal mirrors and ball-ended probe in two occasions, using only coronal primary caries scores of the ICDAS. As reference standard, two different examiners assessed the proximal surfaces by direct visual inspection, classifying them in sound, with non-cavitated or with cavitated lesions. After, teeth were sectioned in the bucco-lingual direction, and the examiners assessed the sections in stereomicroscope, classifying the occlusal and smooth surfaces according to lesion depth. Inter-examiner reproducibility was evaluated using weighted kappa. Sensitivities and specificities were calculated at two thresholds: all lesions and advanced lesions (cavitated lesions in proximal surfaces and lesions reaching the dentine in occlusal and smooth surfaces). Regarding the reproducibility, the mean (range) of kappa values was 0.781 (0.529-0.927) for occlusal surfaces, 0.568 (0.191-0.881) for smooth surfaces, and 0.844 (0.698-0.971) for proximal surfaces. Considering all lesions, sensitivity and specificity mean values were respectively 0.724 and 0.844 for occlusal, 0.635 and 0.943 for smooth and 0.658 and 0.927 for proximal surfaces. For detecting advanced lesions, sensitivities and

  19. Korelasi Jumlah Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans dan Level Ekspresi Interlukin 8 (IL-8 pada Severe Early Childhood Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Luthfi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Karies gigi pada anak usia dini merupakan masalah kesehatan yang sangat serius karena merupakan penyakit infeksi kronis yang menular. Dalam beberapa tahun terakhir pandangan tentang neutrofil telah berubah secara dramatis. Neutrofil tidak hanya berperan sebagai pembunuh mikroba melalui proses fagositosis, pelepasan reactive oxigen species (ROS dan peptida antimikrobialnya tetapi neutrofil turut mengatur aktifasi respon imun. Interleukin-8 (IL-8 berfungsi sebagai aktivator kuat dan kemoatraktan neutrofil oleh karena itu IL-8 merupakan mediator kunci dalam migrasi neutrofil ke lokasi peradangan dan infeksi. Untuk menganalisis hubungan dari jumlah S. mutans dan ekspresi IL-8 neutrofil saliva pada anak usia dini bebas karies dan severe early childhood caries (S-ECC. Perlakuan dilakukan pada dua kelompok yaitu isolasi dan menghitung jumlah S. mutans pada sampel saliva dan sampel hasil kumur dengan NaCl 1,5% yang diisolasi neutrofilnya kemudian dianalisis ekspresi IL-8 menggunakan flow cytometry dari 20 anak bebas karies dan 20 anak severe early childhood caries. Hasil nilai rata-rata diketahui bahwa jumlah S. mutans anak usia dini bebas karies lebih rendah (513.500,00±185.565,28 CFU/ml dibandingkan dengan S-ECC (977.000,00±222.500,15 CFU/ml, sedangkan ekspresi IL-8 neutrofil saliva anak usia dini bebas karies lebih tinggi (3,31±0,50 dibandingkan dengan S-ECC (2,95+0,56. Penurunan ekspresi IL-8 neutrofil saliva kemungkinan sebagai penyebab meningkatnya jumlah S. mutans pada S-ECC. Correlation of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans Level and Interleukin 8 (IL-8 Expressions of Salivary Neutrophils in Severe Early Childhood Caries. Early childhood caries is a very serious health problem because it is a chronic infectious disease that is contagious. Dental caries begins after the primary teeth grow and develop on the tooth surface very quickly and progressively. In recent years the views of neutrophils have changed dramatically. Neutrophils

  20. Dentist and practice characteristics associated with restorative treatment of enamel caries in permanent teeth: multiple-regression modeling of observational clinical data from the National Dental PBRN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellows, Jeffrey L; Gordan, Valeria V; Gilbert, Gregg H; Rindal, D Brad; Qvist, Vibeke; Litaker, Mark S; Benjamin, Paul; Flink, Håkan; Pihlstrom, Daniel J; Johnson, Neil

    2014-04-01

    Current evidence in dentistry recommends non-surgical treatment to manage enamel caries lesions. However, surveyed practitioners report they would restore enamel lesions that are confined to the enamel. Actual clinical data were used to evaluate patient, dentist, and practice characteristics associated with restoration of enamel caries, while accounting for other factors. Data from a National Dental Practice-Based Research Network observational study of consecutive restorations placed in previously unrestored permanent tooth surfaces and practice/demographic data from 229 participating network dentists were combined. ANOVA and logistic regression, using generalized estimating equations (GEE) and variable selection within blocks, were used to test the hypothesis that patient, dentist, and practice characteristics were associated with variations in enamel restorations of occlusal and proximal caries compared to dentin lesions, accounting for dentist and patient clustering. Network dentists from five regions placed 6,891 restorations involving occlusal and/or proximal caries lesions. Enamel restorations accounted for 16% of enrolled occlusal caries lesions and 6% of enrolled proximal caries lesions. Enamel occlusal restorations varied significantly (P < 0.05) by patient age and race/ethnicity, dentists' use of caries risk assessment, network region, and practice type. Enamel proximal restorations varied significantly (P < 0.05) by dentist race/ethnicity, network region, and practice type.

  1. A comparative study of high-resolution cone beam computed tomography and charge-coupled device sensors for detecting caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, S M; Lee, J T; Hodges, R J; Chang, T-L; Elashoff, D A; White, S C

    2009-10-01

    Conventional radiographic imaging of teeth underestimates the presence of caries. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of high-resolution cone beam CT (CBCT) images and conventional charge-coupled device (CCD) images for detecting proximal and occlusal caries. Non-restored, extracted human permanent pre