WorldWideScience

Sample records for surface elevated levels

  1. Sea level and turbidity controls on mangrove soil surface elevation change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovelock, Catherine E.; Fernanda Adame, Maria; Bennion, Vicki; Hayes, Matthew; Reef, Ruth; Santini, Nadia; Cahoon, Donald R.

    2015-01-01

    Increases in sea level are a threat to seaward fringing mangrove forests if levels of inundation exceed the physiological tolerance of the trees; however, tidal wetlands can keep pace with sea level rise if soil surface elevations can increase at the same pace as sea level rise. Sediment accretion on the soil surface and belowground production of roots are proposed to increase with increasing sea level, enabling intertidal habitats to maintain their position relative to mean sea level, but there are few tests of these predictions in mangrove forests. Here we used variation in sea level and the availability of sediments caused by seasonal and inter-annual variation in the intensity of La Nina-El Nino to assess the effects of increasing sea level on surface elevation gains and contributing processes (accretion on the surface, subsidence and root growth) in mangrove forests. We found that soil surface elevation increased with mean sea level (which varied over 250 mm during the study) and with turbidity at sites where fine sediment in the water column is abundant. In contrast, where sediments were sandy, rates of surface elevation gain were high, but not significantly related to variation in turbidity, and were likely to be influenced by other factors that deliver sand to the mangrove forest. Root growth was not linked to soil surface elevation gains, although it was associated with reduced shallow subsidence, and therefore may contribute to the capacity of mangroves to keep pace with sea level rise. Our results indicate both surface (sedimentation) and subsurface (root growth) processes can influence mangrove capacity to keep pace with sea level rise within the same geographic location, and that current models of tidal marsh responses to sea level rise capture the major feature of the response of mangroves where fine, but not coarse, sediments are abundant.

  2. Sea level and turbidity controls on mangrove soil surface elevation change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovelock, Catherine E.; Adame, Maria Fernanda; Bennion, Vicki; Hayes, Matthew; Reef, Ruth; Santini, Nadia; Cahoon, Donald R.

    2015-02-01

    Increases in sea level are a threat to seaward fringing mangrove forests if levels of inundation exceed the physiological tolerance of the trees; however, tidal wetlands can keep pace with sea level rise if soil surface elevations can increase at the same pace as sea level rise. Sediment accretion on the soil surface and belowground production of roots are proposed to increase with increasing sea level, enabling intertidal habitats to maintain their position relative to mean sea level, but there are few tests of these predictions in mangrove forests. Here we used variation in sea level and the availability of sediments caused by seasonal and inter-annual variation in the intensity of La Nina-El Nino to assess the effects of increasing sea level on surface elevation gains and contributing processes (accretion on the surface, subsidence and root growth) in mangrove forests. We found that soil surface elevation increased with mean sea level (which varied over 250 mm during the study) and with turbidity at sites where fine sediment in the water column is abundant. In contrast, where sediments were sandy, rates of surface elevation gain were high, but not significantly related to variation in turbidity, and were likely to be influenced by other factors that deliver sand to the mangrove forest. Root growth was not linked to soil surface elevation gains, although it was associated with reduced shallow subsidence, and therefore may contribute to the capacity of mangroves to keep pace with sea level rise. Our results indicate both surface (sedimentation) and subsurface (root growth) processes can influence mangrove capacity to keep pace with sea level rise within the same geographic location, and that current models of tidal marsh responses to sea level rise capture the major feature of the response of mangroves where fine, but not coarse, sediments are abundant.

  3. Iowa Bedrock Surface Elevation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of the bedrock surface elevation in Iowa was compiled using all available data, principally information from GEOSAM, supplemented...

  4. Surface elevation change and susceptibility of different mangrove zones to sea-level rise on Pacific high islands of Micronesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, K.W.; Cahoon, D.R.; Allen, J.A.; Ewel, K.C.; Lynch, J.C.; Cormier, N.

    2010-01-01

    Mangroves on Pacific high islands offer a number of important ecosystem services to both natural ecological communities and human societies. High islands are subjected to constant erosion over geologic time, which establishes an important source of terrigeneous sediment for nearby marine communities. Many of these sediments are deposited in mangrove forests and offer mangroves a potentially important means for adjusting surface elevation with rising sea level. In this study, we investigated sedimentation and elevation dynamics of mangrove forests in three hydrogeomorphic settings on the islands of Kosrae and Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia (FSM). Surface accretion rates ranged from 2.9 to 20.8 mm y-1, and are high for naturally occurring mangroves. Although mangrove forests in Micronesian high islands appear to have a strong capacity to offset elevation losses by way of sedimentation, elevation change over 61/2 years ranged from -3.2 to 4.1 mm y-1, depending on the location. Mangrove surface elevation change also varied by hydrogeomorphic setting and river, and suggested differential, and not uniformly bleak, susceptibilities among Pacific high island mangroves to sea-level rise. Fringe, riverine, and interior settings registered elevation changes of -1.30, 0.46, and 1.56 mm y-1, respectively, with the greatest elevation deficit (-3.2 mm y-1) from a fringe zone on Pohnpei and the highest rate of elevation gain (4.1 mm y-1) from an interior zone on Kosrae. Relative to sea-level rise estimates for FSM (0.8-1.8 mm y-1) and assuming a consistent linear trend in these estimates, soil elevations in mangroves on Kosrae and Pohnpei are experiencing between an annual deficit of 4.95 mm and an annual surplus of 3.28 mm. Although natural disturbances are important in mediating elevation gain in some situations, constant allochthonous sediment deposition probably matters most on these Pacific high islands, and is especially helpful in certain hydrogeomorphic zones

  5. Created mangrove wetlands store belowground carbon and surface elevation change enables them to adjust to sea-level rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Ken W; Cormier, Nicole; Osland, Michael J; Kirwan, Matthew L; Stagg, Camille L; Nestlerode, Janet A; Russell, Marc J; From, Andrew S; Spivak, Amanda C; Dantin, Darrin D; Harvey, James E; Almario, Alejandro E

    2017-04-21

    Mangrove wetlands provide ecosystem services for millions of people, most prominently by providing storm protection, food and fodder. Mangrove wetlands are also valuable ecosystems for promoting carbon (C) sequestration and storage. However, loss of mangrove wetlands and these ecosystem services are a global concern, prompting the restoration and creation of mangrove wetlands as a potential solution. Here, we investigate soil surface elevation change, and its components, in created mangrove wetlands over a 25 year developmental gradient. All created mangrove wetlands were exceeding current relative sea-level rise rates (2.6 mm yr -1 ), with surface elevation change of 4.2-11.0 mm yr -1 compared with 1.5-7.2 mm yr -1 for nearby reference mangroves. While mangrove wetlands store C persistently in roots/soils, storage capacity is most valuable if maintained with future sea-level rise. Through empirical modeling, we discovered that properly designed creation projects may not only yield enhanced C storage, but also can facilitate wetland persistence perennially under current rates of sea-level rise and, for most sites, for over a century with projected medium accelerations in sea-level rise (IPCC RCP 6.0). Only the fastest projected accelerations in sea-level rise (IPCC RCP 8.5) led to widespread submergence and potential loss of stored C for created mangrove wetlands before 2100.

  6. Created mangrove wetlands store belowground carbon and surface elevation change enables them to adjust to sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Ken W.; Cormier, Nicole; Osland, Michael J.; Kirwan, Matthew L.; Stagg, Camille L.; Nestlerode, Janet A.; Russell, Marc J.; From, Andrew; Spivak, Amanda C.; Dantin, Darrin D.; Harvey, James E.; Almario, Alejandro E.

    2017-01-01

    Mangrove wetlands provide ecosystem services for millions of people, most prominently by providing storm protection, food and fodder. Mangrove wetlands are also valuable ecosystems for promoting carbon (C) sequestration and storage. However, loss of mangrove wetlands and these ecosystem services are a global concern, prompting the restoration and creation of mangrove wetlands as a potential solution. Here, we investigate soil surface elevation change, and its components, in created mangrove wetlands over a 25 year developmental gradient. All created mangrove wetlands were exceeding current relative sea-level rise rates (2.6 mm yr−1), with surface elevation change of 4.2–11.0 mm yr−1 compared with 1.5–7.2 mm yr−1 for nearby reference mangroves. While mangrove wetlands store C persistently in roots/soils, storage capacity is most valuable if maintained with future sea-level rise. Through empirical modeling, we discovered that properly designed creation projects may not only yield enhanced C storage, but also can facilitate wetland persistence perennially under current rates of sea-level rise and, for most sites, for over a century with projected medium accelerations in sea-level rise (IPCC RCP 6.0). Only the fastest projected accelerations in sea-level rise (IPCC RCP 8.5) led to widespread submergence and potential loss of stored C for created mangrove wetlands before 2100.

  7. Elevation of water table and various stratigraphic surfaces beneath e area low level waste disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagwell, Laura [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Bennett, Patti [; Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-11-02

    This memorandum describes work that supports revision of the Radiological Performance Assessment (PA) for the E Area Low Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility (LLRWDF). The work summarized here addresses portions of the PA Strategic Planning Team's recommendation #148b (Butcher and Phifer, 2016).

  8. Surface dust wipes are the best predictors of blood leads in young children with elevated blood lead levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulson, Brian, E-mail: brian.gulson@mq.edu.au [Graduate School of the Environment, Macquarie University, North Ryde NSW 2109 (Australia); CSIRO Earth Science and Resource Engineering, North Ryde NSW 2113 (Australia); Anderson, Phil [Information and Statistics Group, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Canberra ACT 2601 (Australia); Faculty of Health, University of Canberra, Canberra ACT 2601 (Australia); Taylor, Alan [Department of Psychology, Macquarie University, Sydney NSW 2109 (Australia)

    2013-10-15

    Background: As part of the only national survey of lead in Australian children, which was undertaken in 1996, lead isotopic and lead concentration measurements were obtained from children from 24 dwellings whose blood lead levels were ≥15 µg/dL in an attempt to determine the source(s) of their elevated blood lead. Comparisons were made with data for six children with lower blood lead levels (<10 µg/dL). Methods: Thermal ionisation and isotope dilution mass spectrometry were used to determine high precision lead isotopic ratios ({sup 208}Pb/{sup 206}Pb, {sup 207}Pb/{sup 206}Pb and {sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb) and lead concentrations in blood, dust from floor wipes, soil, drinking water and paint (where available). Evaluation of associations between blood and the environmental samples was based on the analysis of individual cases, and Pearson correlations and multiple regression analyses based on the whole dataset. Results and discussion: The correlations showed an association for isotopic ratios in blood and wipes (r=0.52, 95% CI 0.19–0.74), blood and soil (r=0.33, 95% CI −0.05–0.62), and blood and paint (r=0.56, 95% CI 0.09–0.83). The regression analyses indicated that the only statistically significant relationship for blood isotopic ratios was with dust wipes (B=0.65, 95% CI 0.35–0.95); there were no significant associations for lead concentrations in blood and environmental samples. There is a strong isotopic correlation of soils and house dust (r=0.53, 95% CI 0.20–0.75) indicative of a common source(s) for lead in soil and house dust. In contrast, as with the regression analyses, no such association is present for bulk lead concentrations (r=−0.003, 95% CI −0.37–0.36), the most common approach employed in source investigations. In evaluation of the isotopic results on a case by case basis, the strongest associations were for dust wipes and blood. -- Highlights: • Children with elevated blood lead ≥15 µg/dL compared with a group with <10

  9. Surface dust wipes are the best predictors of blood leads in young children with elevated blood lead levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulson, Brian; Anderson, Phil; Taylor, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Background: As part of the only national survey of lead in Australian children, which was undertaken in 1996, lead isotopic and lead concentration measurements were obtained from children from 24 dwellings whose blood lead levels were ≥15 µg/dL in an attempt to determine the source(s) of their elevated blood lead. Comparisons were made with data for six children with lower blood lead levels ( 208 Pb/ 206 Pb, 207 Pb/ 206 Pb and 206 Pb/ 204 Pb) and lead concentrations in blood, dust from floor wipes, soil, drinking water and paint (where available). Evaluation of associations between blood and the environmental samples was based on the analysis of individual cases, and Pearson correlations and multiple regression analyses based on the whole dataset. Results and discussion: The correlations showed an association for isotopic ratios in blood and wipes (r=0.52, 95% CI 0.19–0.74), blood and soil (r=0.33, 95% CI −0.05–0.62), and blood and paint (r=0.56, 95% CI 0.09–0.83). The regression analyses indicated that the only statistically significant relationship for blood isotopic ratios was with dust wipes (B=0.65, 95% CI 0.35–0.95); there were no significant associations for lead concentrations in blood and environmental samples. There is a strong isotopic correlation of soils and house dust (r=0.53, 95% CI 0.20–0.75) indicative of a common source(s) for lead in soil and house dust. In contrast, as with the regression analyses, no such association is present for bulk lead concentrations (r=−0.003, 95% CI −0.37–0.36), the most common approach employed in source investigations. In evaluation of the isotopic results on a case by case basis, the strongest associations were for dust wipes and blood. -- Highlights: • Children with elevated blood lead ≥15 µg/dL compared with a group with <10 µg/dL. • High precision lead isotopic ratios in blood, house dust wipes, soil, water, paint. • Associations for isotopic measures of blood and dust, blood and

  10. Tanzania Elevation and Surface Characteristics

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The dataset displays Elevation, Slope, Aspect, Topographic Position Index, Terrain Ruggedness, and Roughness based on Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) (3...

  11. Effect of uncertainty in surface mass balance–elevation feedback on projections of the future sea level contribution of the Greenland ice sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. L. Edwards

    2014-01-01

    Régional: Fettweis, 2007 climate projections are for 2000–2199, forced by the ECHAM5 and HadCM3 global climate models (GCMs under the SRES A1B emissions scenario. The additional sea level contribution due to the SMB–elevation feedback averaged over five ISM projections for ECHAM5 and three for HadCM3 is 4.3% (best estimate; 95% credibility interval 1.8–6.9% at 2100, and 9.6% (best estimate; 95% credibility interval 3.6–16.0% at 2200. In all results the elevation feedback is significantly positive, amplifying the GrIS sea level contribution relative to the MAR projections in which the ice sheet topography is fixed: the lower bounds of our 95% credibility intervals (CIs for sea level contributions are larger than the "no feedback" case for all ISMs and GCMs. Our method is novel in sea level projections because we propagate three types of modelling uncertainty – GCM and ISM structural uncertainties, and elevation feedback parameterisation uncertainty – along the causal chain, from SRES scenario to sea level, within a coherent experimental design and statistical framework. The relative contributions to uncertainty depend on the timescale of interest. At 2100, the GCM uncertainty is largest, but by 2200 both the ISM and parameterisation uncertainties are larger. We also perform a perturbed parameter ensemble with one ISM to estimate the shape of the projected sea level probability distribution; our results indicate that the probability density is slightly skewed towards higher sea level contributions.

  12. Plants with elevated levels of glucan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pauly, Markus; Kraemer, Florian J.; Hake, Sarah

    2018-03-20

    The present disclosure relates to mutations in licheninase genes encoding polypeptides with decreased licheninase activity, which when expressed in plants results in elevated levels of glucan in the plants. In particular, the disclosure relates to licheninase nucleic acids and polypeptides related to glucan accumulation in plants, plants with reduced expression of a licheninase nucleic acid, and methods related to the generation of plants with increased glucan content in the cell walls of leaf tissue.

  13. Competing effects of surface albedo and orographic elevated heating on regional climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shineng; Boos, William R.

    2017-07-01

    All else being equal, a given atmospheric pressure level is thought to be warmer over a plateau than over surrounding nonelevated terrain because of orographic "elevated heating." However, elevated surfaces are also typically brighter due to reduced vegetation and increased ice cover. Here we assess the degree to which surface albedo compensates for orographic elevated heating. We confirm that land surface albedo generally increases with surface elevation in observations. Using a cloud system-resolving model, we show that increased surface albedo strongly compensates for orographic elevated heating in radiative-convective equilibrium. A nonelevated surface with the albedo of modern India would enter a runaway greenhouse regime without ventilation by monsoonal winds, while a surface with the albedo and elevation of Tibet would achieve a cooler radiative-convective equilibrium. Surface albedo changes may thus be just as important as surface elevation changes for the evolution of low-latitude regional climate throughout Earth's history.

  14. The surface elevation table: marker horizon method for measuring wetland accretion and elevation dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaway, John C.; Cahoon, Donald R.; Lynch, James C.

    2014-01-01

    Tidal wetlands are highly sensitive to processes that affect their elevation relative to sea level. The surface elevation table–marker horizon (SET–MH) method has been used to successfully measure these processes, including sediment accretion, changes in relative elevation, and shallow soil processes (subsidence and expansion due to root production). The SET–MH method is capable of measuring changes at very high resolution (±millimeters) and has been used worldwide both in natural wetlands and under experimental conditions. Marker horizons are typically deployed using feldspar over 50- by 50-cm plots, with replicate plots at each sampling location. Plots are sampled using a liquid N2 cryocorer that freezes a small sample, allowing the handling and measurement of soft and easily compressed soils with minimal compaction. The SET instrument is a portable device that is attached to a permanent benchmark to make high-precision measurements of wetland surface elevation. The SET instrument has evolved substantially in recent decades, and the current rod SET (RSET) is widely used. For the RSET, a 15-mm-diameter stainless steel rod is pounded into the ground until substantial resistance is achieved to establish a benchmark. The SET instrument is attached to the benchmark and leveled such that it reoccupies the same reference plane in space, and pins lowered from the instrument repeatedly measure the same point on the soil surface. Changes in the height of the lowered pins reflect changes in the soil surface. Permanent or temporary platforms provide access to SET and MH locations without disturbing the wetland surface.

  15. Geodetic Imaging of Marsh Surface Elevation with Terrestrial Laser Scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, C. T.; Starek, M. J.; Gibeaut, J. C.; Lord, A.

    2015-12-01

    The resilience of marshes to a rising sea is dependent on their elevation response. Given the level of precision required to measure minute changes in marsh elevation over time, survey methods have to be adapted to minimize impacts to the sediment surface. Current approaches include Surface Elevation Tables (SETs), which are used to monitor wetland surface change with respect to an in situ vertical benchmark. Although SETs have been proven as an effective technique to track subtle sedimentation rates (RTK GPS for comparison. Grand Bay in Mississippi USA is one of the most biologically productive estuarine ecosystems in the Gulf of Mexico. The study region is covered by dense and tall saw-grass that makes it a challenging environment for bare-earth mapping. For this survey, a Riegl VZ-400 TLS (1550 nm wavelength) was utilized. The system is capable of recording multiple returns per a transmitted pulse (up to 15) and provides full-waveform output for signal post-processing to extract returns. The objectives of the study are twofold: 1) examine impacts of TLS survey design, scan angle and scan density on marsh elevation mapping; 2) assess the capabilities of multiple-echo and full-waveform TLS data to extract the bare-earth surface below the dense vegetation. This presentation will present results of the study including the developed TLS survey protocol and data processing workflow, details on waveform and multi-echo approaches for ground point detection, and a discussion on error analysis and challenges for measuring marsh surface elevation with TLS.

  16. Cokriging surface elevation and seismic refraction data for bedrock topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyquist, J.E.; Doll, W.E.; Davis, R.K.; Hopkins, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    Analysis of seismic refraction data collected at a proposed site of the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) Facility showed a strong correlation between surface and bedrock topography. By combining seismically determined bedrock elevation data with surface elevation data using cokriging, we were able to significantly improve our map of bedrock topography without collecting additional seismic data

  17. Roosevelt Island Bedrock and Surface Elevations, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set consists of bedrock and surface elevation readings taken by ground penetrating radar and Global Positioning System (GPS) on Roosevelt Island, an ice...

  18. Measuring the role of seagrasses in regulating sediment surface elevation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potouroglou, Maria; Bull, James C; Krauss, Ken W; Kennedy, Hilary A; Fusi, Marco; Daffonchio, Daniele; Mangora, Mwita M; Githaiga, Michael N; Diele, Karen; Huxham, Mark

    2017-09-20

    Seagrass meadows provide numerous ecosystem services and their rapid global loss may reduce human welfare as well as ecological integrity. In common with the other 'blue carbon' habitats (mangroves and tidal marshes) seagrasses are thought to provide coastal defence and encourage sediment stabilisation and surface elevation. A sophisticated understanding of sediment elevation dynamics in mangroves and tidal marshes has been gained by monitoring a wide range of different sites, located in varying hydrogeomorphological conditions over long periods. In contrast, similar evidence for seagrasses is sparse; the present study is a contribution towards filling this gap. Surface elevation change pins were deployed in four locations, Scotland, Kenya, Tanzania and Saudi Arabia, in both seagrass and unvegetated control plots in the low intertidal and shallow subtidal zone. The presence of seagrass had a highly significant, positive impact on surface elevation at all sites. Combined data from the current work and the literature show an average difference of 31 mm per year in elevation rates between vegetated and unvegetated areas, which emphasizes the important contribution of seagrass in facilitating sediment surface elevation and reducing erosion. This paper presents the first multi-site study for sediment surface elevation in seagrasses in different settings and species.

  19. Measuring the role of seagrasses in regulating sediment surface elevation

    KAUST Repository

    Potouroglou, Maria

    2017-09-13

    Seagrass meadows provide numerous ecosystem services and their rapid global loss may reduce human welfare as well as ecological integrity. In common with the other \\'blue carbon\\' habitats (mangroves and tidal marshes) seagrasses are thought to provide coastal defence and encourage sediment stabilisation and surface elevation. A sophisticated understanding of sediment elevation dynamics in mangroves and tidal marshes has been gained by monitoring a wide range of different sites, located in varying hydrogeomorphological conditions over long periods. In contrast, similar evidence for seagrasses is sparse; the present study is a contribution towards filling this gap. Surface elevation change pins were deployed in four locations, Scotland, Kenya, Tanzania and Saudi Arabia, in both seagrass and unvegetated control plots in the low intertidal and shallow subtidal zone. The presence of seagrass had a highly significant, positive impact on surface elevation at all sites. Combined data from the current work and the literature show an average difference of 31 mm per year in elevation rates between vegetated and unvegetated areas, which emphasizes the important contribution of seagrass in facilitating sediment surface elevation and reducing erosion. This paper presents the first multi-site study for sediment surface elevation in seagrasses in different settings and species.

  20. Etiology and Therapeutic Approach to Elevated Lactate Levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiuff Andersen, Lars; Mackenhauer, Julie; Roberts, Jonathan C

    2013-01-01

    Lactate levels are commonly evaluated in acutely ill patients. Although most often used in the context of evaluating shock, lactate levels can be elevated for many reasons. While tissue hypoperfusion may be the most common cause of elevation, many other etiologies or contributing factors exist....... Clinicians need to be aware of the many potential causes of lactate level elevation as the clinical and prognostic importance of an elevated lactate level varies widely by disease state. Moreover, specific therapy may need to be tailored to the underlying cause of elevation. The present review is based...... on a comprehensive PubMed search between the dates of January 1, 1960, to April 30, 2013, using the search term lactate or lactic acidosis combined with known associations, such as shock, sepsis, cardiac arrest, trauma, seizure, ischemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, thiamine, malignancy, liver, toxins, overdose...

  1. A search profile for dwellings with elevated radon levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkjær, A.; Andersen, C.E.; Majborn, B.

    1996-01-01

    A search profile for dwellings with elevated radon levels has been employed to investigate possibly radon-prone areas in Denmark and to find houses suitable for radon mitigation studies. The profile is defined as dwellings which are single-family houses with slab-on-grade foundation or partly...... basement/slab-on-grade foundation built on either fractured granitic basement rocks, or fractured limestone. Clayey till areas were also included in the profile in order to confirm earlier findings. Three areas representing these surface geologies were selected for indoor radon measurements with CR-39...... track detectors, and a total of 200 houses matching the profile underwent radon measurements during the winter 1994-95. The distribution of the measured radon concentrations were found in most cases to comply with log-normal distributions. Measurements in the living rooms of houses in each of the three...

  2. Elevated peripheral visfatin levels in narcoleptic patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Dahmen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Narcolepsy is a severe sleep disorder that is characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexies and a tendency towards obesity. Recent discoveries indicate that the major pathophysiology is a loss of hypocretin (orexin producing neurons due to immunologically mediated degeneration. Visfatin is a recently described proinflammatory adipokine. It is identical to the immune modulating pre-B-cell colony enhancing factor (PBEF. Our study examines the hypothesis that visfatin levels are altered in narcoleptic patients. METHODS: For the analysis, a total of n = 54 patients (n = 18 males and n = 36 females with the diagnosis of narcolepsy according to DSM-IV and the International Classification of Sleep Disorders were examined (BMI mean 30.3+/-5.5, age mean 52.5+/-16.1 years. As a control group 39 unrelated (n = 12 males and n = 27 females healthy volunteers with no sleep disorder according to DSM-IV were included (BMI mean 28.5+/-4.6, age mean 51.1+/-13.6 years. Peripheral visfatin levels were measured using a commercial enzyme immunoassay kit with a measurement range from 0.1-1000 ng/ml. Narcolepsy symptoms, severity and frequency of symptoms as well as the total duration of various aspects of the symptomatology were assessed by unstructured and structured clinical interviews in including the Stanford Center for Narcolepsy Sleep Inventory. RESULTS: Circulating visfatin was found to be significantly increased in HLA DR2 positive narcoleptic patients compared to controls. CONCLUSION: Taken together, our results add to the evidence of disturbed immunological regulation in patients with narcolepsy.

  3. Note on the surface wave due to the prescribed elevation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 62; Issue 1. Note on the surface wave due to the prescribed elevation. Niranjan Das. Brief Reports Volume 62 Issue 1 January 2004 pp 135-142. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/pram/062/01/0135-0142 ...

  4. Note on the surface wave due to the prescribed elevation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    oscillatory motion with the increase of time, leaving behind the highest elevation initially. On the other hand in case of spiral cyclonic motion for which the sea surface experiences the elliptical pressure distribution, the motion diminishes as g the ac- celeration due to gravity diminishes and oscillates with the variation of time.

  5. The Reliability of Highly Elevated CA 19-9 Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. R. Osswald

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available CA 19-9 is used as a tumour marker of the upper gastrointestinal tract. However, extremely elevated CA 19-9 levels are found also in patients with benign diseases. Cholestasis was present in 97.1 % of patients with high elevated CA 19-9, independent of their primary disease. 50% of patients with non-malignant diseases and increased CA 19-9 levels showed liver cirrhosis, cholecystitis, pancreatitis and/or hepatitis. In 8.8% no explanation was found for the extremely high CA 19-9 level. The results provide evidence of different factors influencing the CA 19-9 level.

  6. A Case of Isolated Elevated Copper Levels during Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LaToya R. Walker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Outside of Wilson's Disease, abnormal copper metabolism is a rare condition. In pregnancy, excess copper levels can be associated with intrauterine growth restriction, preeclampsia and neurological disease. Case Report. A 32 year old Gravida 4 para 2012 with an obstetrical history complicated by elevated copper levels presented for routine prenatal care. Her children had elevated copper levels at birth, with her firstborn child being diagnosed with autism and suffering three myocardial infarctions and being treated for elevated copper levels. During her prior pregnancies, she declined treatment for her elevated copper levels. During this pregnancy, she had declined chelation therapy and instead choose zinc therapy. She delivered a healthy infant with normal copper levels. Conclusion. Alterations in copper metabolism are rare, the consequences in pregnancy can be devastating. While isolated elevations of copper in pregnancy is exceedingly rare, it is treated the same as Wilson's disease. The goal is to prevent fetal growth restricting and neurological sequelae in the newborn and preeclampsia in the mother. Counseling, along with treatment options and timely delivery can greatly improve neonatal and maternal outcome.

  7. Elevated potassium levels in patients with chronic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Reimar W; Nicolaisen, Sia K; Hasvold, Pål

    2018-01-01

    Background: Data on the true burden of hyperkalemia (HK) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in a real-world setting are scarce. Methods: The incidence rate of HK [first blood test with an elevated blood potassium level level >5.0 mmol/L] in primary or hospital care was assessed...

  8. Elevated CO2 stimulates marsh elevation gain, counterbalancing sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, J.A.; McKee, K.L.; Cahoon, D.R.; Cherry, J.A.; Megonigala, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    Tidal wetlands experiencing increased rates of sea-level rise (SLR) must increase rates of soil elevation gain to avoid permanent conversion to open water. The maximal rate of SLR that these ecosystems can tolerate depends partly on mineral sediment deposition, but the accumulation of organic matter is equally important for many wetlands. Plant productivity drives organic matter dynamics and is sensitive to global change factors, such as rising atmospheric CO2 concentration. It remains unknown how global change will influence organic mechanisms that determine future tidal wetland viability. Here, we present experimental evidence that plant response to elevated atmospheric [CO2] stimulates biogenic mechanisms of elevation gain in a brackish marsh. Elevated CO2 (ambient + 340 ppm) accelerated soil elevation gain by 3.9 mm yr−1in this 2-year field study, an effect mediated by stimulation of below-ground plant productivity. Further, a companion greenhouse experiment revealed that the CO2 effect was enhanced under salinity and flooding conditions likely to accompany future SLR. Our results indicate that by stimulating biogenic contributions to marsh elevation, increases in the greenhouse gas, CO2, may paradoxically aid some coastal wetlands in counterbalancing rising seas.

  9. Modelling Periglacial Processes on Low-Relief High-Elevation Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jane Lund; Knudsen, Mads Faurschou; Egholm, D.L.

    Are low-relief high-elevation surfaces generally a result of uplift of flat surfaces formed close to sea-level or can they be formed "in situ" by climate dependent surface processes such as those associated with glaciation? This question is important to resolve in order to understand the geological...... as a function of mean annual air temperature and sediment thickness. This allows us to incorporate periglacial processes into a long-term landscape evolution model where surface elevation, sediment thickness, and climate evolve over time. With this model we are able to explore the slow feedbacks between...... periglacial erosion, sediment transport, and the evolving topography. We show that smooth peaks, convex hillslopes, and a few meters thick regolith cover at high elevation are emergent properties of the landscape evolution model. By varying climate and other model parameters, we discuss how the landscape...

  10. Elevated serum immunoglobulin G levels in patients with chronic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus, the ability to distinguish AIH patients from patients with other liver disease, especially patients with advanced liver cirrhosis, is important since most AIH patients will a have favorable treatment response if diagnosed properly. Objective: We conducted this study to evaluate the significance of elevated IgG levels in ...

  11. Elevated atmospheric sulfur levels off the Peruvian coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltzman, E. S.; Savoie, D. L.; Prospero, J. M.; Zika, R. G.; Mosher, B.

    1986-06-01

    Elevated levels of non-sea-salt sulfate and SO2 in samples collected off the west coast of South America indicate that there is a major source of atmospheric sulfur in the region of southern Peru and northern Chile. During a 1983 cruise, observed concentrations of non-sea-salt sulfur, SO2, selenium, arsenic, and antimony were comparable to levels reported for moderately polluted urban air. In contrast, methanesulfonic acid levels were typical of coastal marine air. Clearly, the elevated atmospheric sulfur levels in this region cannot be ascribed to oceanic organosulfur emissions. The major inputs are tentatively attributed to the smelting of sulfide ores which is a major industry in this region. The transport of smelter derived aerosols to this region may have a number of consequences for the atmospheric and oceanic chemistry of the Peruvian upwelling area.

  12. Inclusion of Solar Elevation Angle in Land Surface Albedo Parameterization Over Bare Soil Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhiyuan; Wei, Zhigang; Wen, Zhiping; Dong, Wenjie; Li, Zhenchao; Wen, Xiaohang; Zhu, Xian; Ji, Dong; Chen, Chen; Yan, Dongdong

    2017-12-01

    Land surface albedo is a significant parameter for maintaining a balance in surface energy. It is also an important parameter of bare soil surface albedo for developing land surface process models that accurately reflect diurnal variation characteristics and the mechanism behind the solar spectral radiation albedo on bare soil surfaces and for understanding the relationships between climate factors and spectral radiation albedo. Using a data set of field observations, we conducted experiments to analyze the variation characteristics of land surface solar spectral radiation and the corresponding albedo over a typical Gobi bare soil underlying surface and to investigate the relationships between the land surface solar spectral radiation albedo, solar elevation angle, and soil moisture. Based on both solar elevation angle and soil moisture measurements simultaneously, we propose a new two-factor parameterization scheme for spectral radiation albedo over bare soil underlying surfaces. The results of numerical simulation experiments show that the new parameterization scheme can more accurately depict the diurnal variation characteristics of bare soil surface albedo than the previous schemes. Solar elevation angle is one of the most important factors for parameterizing bare soil surface albedo and must be considered in the parameterization scheme, especially in arid and semiarid areas with low soil moisture content. This study reveals the characteristics and mechanism of the diurnal variation of bare soil surface solar spectral radiation albedo and is helpful in developing land surface process models, weather models, and climate models.

  13. Use of cokriging to estimate surface air temperature from elevation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, T.; Kawashima, S.

    1993-09-01

    Surface air temperature in central Japan was predicted from the temperature recordings from sensors in the Automated Meteorological Data Acquisition System (AMeDAS), using seven different procedures: the usual simple and universal kriging and cokriging estimators, the traditional regression analysis and the inverse distance weighted method. The cokriging estimator integrated digital elevation data as well as the air temperature readings. The performance of the procedures was evaluated and compared using cross-validation. The kriging estimator provided a better estimate than the traditional regression analysis that treated the data as spatially independent observations. The kriging estimate was also better than the inverse distance weighted method. Further improvement in the estimation accuracy was achieved by using cokriging procedures because of high correlation of air temperature with elevation. The accuracy of spatial prediction decreased due to nocturnal cooling in winter and daytime heating in summer. This decrease implies that a strong radiation balance at the surface, whether positive or negative, causes a relatively short-range variation in surface air temperature through the effects of local environments.

  14. Elevated serum angiotensin converting enzyme levels in metastatic ovarian dysgerminoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cotter, T P

    2012-02-03

    A case of a 32-year-old XY genotype female is described, presenting with mediastinal and abdominal lymphadenopathy and associated with an elevated serum angiotensin I converting enzyme (SACE) level. Lymph node histology showed a malignant dysgerminoma of ovarian origin. Combined chemotherapy led to a radiological regression of the lymphadenopathy and coincided with a decrease in SACE concentration. The authors suggest that SACE may be a marker for disseminated germinoma tumours and may be useful for monitoring treatment.

  15. Photosynthesis and Plant Growth at Elevated Levels of CO_2

    OpenAIRE

    Amane, Makino; Tadahiko, Mae; Department of Applied Plant Science, Graduate School of Agricultural Sciences, Tohoku University; Department of Applied Plant Science, Graduate School of Agricultural Sciences, Tohoku University

    1999-01-01

    In this review, we discuss the effects of elevated CO_2 levels on photosynthesis in relation to the whole plant growth in terrestrial higher C_3 plants. Short-term CO_2 enrichment stimulates the rate of phtosynthesis. Plant mass is also enhanced by CO_2 enrichment. However, the effects of long-term CO_2 enrichment on photosynthesis are variable. Generally, the prolonged exposure to CO_2 enrichment reduces the initial stimulation of photosynthesis in many spesies, and frequently suppresses pho...

  16. Groundwater control of mangrove surface elevation: shrink and swell varies with soil depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, K.R.T.; Smith, T. J.; Cahoon, D.R.; Lynch, J.C.; Anderson, G.H.

    2005-01-01

    We measured monthly soil surface elevation change and determined its relationship to groundwater changes at a mangrove forest site along Shark River, Everglades National Park, Florida. We combined the use of an original design, surface elevation table with new rod-surface elevation tables to separately track changes in the mid zone (0?4 m), the shallow root zone (0?0.35 m), and the full sediment profile (0?6 m) in response to site hydrology (daily river stage and groundwater piezometric pressure). We calculated expansion and contraction for each of the four constituent soil zones (surface [accretion and erosion; above 0 m], shallow zone [0?0.35 m], middle zone [0.35?4 m], and bottom zone [4?6 m]) that comprise the entire soil column. Changes in groundwater pressure correlated strongly with changes in soil elevation for the entire profile (Adjusted R2 5 0.90); this relationship was not proportional to the depth of the soil profile sampled. The change in thickness of the bottom soil zone accounted for the majority (R2 5 0.63) of the entire soil profile expansion and contraction. The influence of hydrology on specific soil zones and absolute elevation change must be considered when evaluating the effect of disturbances, sea level rise, and water management decisions on coastal wetland systems.

  17. Evaluation of Airborne Lidar Elevation Surfaces for Propagation of Coastal Inundation: The Importance of Hydrologic Connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Poppenga

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Detailed information about coastal inundation is vital to understanding dynamic and populated areas that are impacted by storm surge and flooding. To understand these natural hazard risks, lidar elevation surfaces are frequently used to model inundation in coastal areas. A single-value surface method is sometimes used to inundate areas in lidar elevation surfaces that are below a specified elevation value. However, such an approach does not take into consideration hydrologic connectivity between elevation grids cells resulting in inland areas that should be hydrologically connected to the ocean, but are not. Because inland areas that should drain to the ocean are hydrologically disconnected by raised features in a lidar elevation surface, simply raising the water level to propagate coastal inundation will lead to inundation uncertainties. We took advantage of this problem to identify hydrologically disconnected inland areas to point out that they should be considered for coastal inundation, and that a lidar-based hydrologic surface should be developed with hydrologic connectivity prior to inundation analysis. The process of achieving hydrologic connectivity with hydrologic-enforcement is not new, however, the application of hydrologically-enforced lidar elevation surfaces for improved coastal inundation mapping as approached in this research is innovative. In this article, we propagated a high-resolution lidar elevation surface in coastal Staten Island, New York to demonstrate that inland areas lacking hydrologic connectivity to the ocean could potentially be included in inundation delineations. For inland areas that were hydrologically disconnected, we evaluated if drainage to the ocean was evident, and calculated an area exceeding 11 ha (~0.11 km2 that could be considered in inundation delineations. We also assessed land cover for each inland area to determine the type of physical surfaces that would be potentially impacted if the inland areas

  18. Field verification of ADCP surface gravity wave elevation spectra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoitink, A.J.F.; Peters, H.C.; Schroevers, M.

    2007-01-01

    Acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) can measure orbital velocities induced by surface gravity waves, yet the ADCP estimates of these velocities are subject to a relatively high noise level. The present paper introduces a linear filtration technique to significantly reduce the influence of

  19. Elevated cerebrospinal fluid tau protein levels in Wernicke's encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Sachio; Miyakawa, Tomohiro; Maesato, Hitoshi; Matsui, Toshifumi; Yokoyama, Akira; Arai, Hiroyuki; Higuchi, Susumu; Kashima, Haruo

    2008-06-01

    Limited neuronal cell loss is seen in the neuropathology of Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE), but the extent of neuronal damage has not been well studied. Moreover, there is still a debate as to whether alcohol itself causes brain damage in humans. Although, it is difficult to examine the extent of neuronal damage in living patients, recent studies have revealed that total tau protein levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) reflect the rate of neuronal degeneration. Therefore, we hypothesized that the elevated CSF total tau in patients with WE was due to neuronal damage and thus we examined CSF total tau protein in patients with WE, as well as in those with alcohol withdrawal delirium (WD) and Korsakoff syndrome (KS). We also examined CSF total tau in nonalcohol dependent patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) as a disease control. CSF samples were obtained from 13 acute WE patients with alcohol dependence, 9 WD patients with alcohol dependence and 16 KS patients with alcohol dependence, and from 20 nonalcohol dependent AD patients. CSF was also obtained from 10 of the WE patients after their disease had progressed to the chronic stage. CSF tau protein levels in all samples were determined by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Tau phosphorylated at threonine 181 (p-tau(181)) and amyloid beta-protein ending at amino acid 42 (A beta 42) in CSF were also determined for comparison between acute WE with AD. Total tau was significantly elevated in acute WE and decreased on long-term follow-up, but was not elevated in WD or KS. The patterns of p-tau(181) and A beta 42 differed between acute WE and AD. Intense neuronal cell death occurs transiently in WE, and the mechanism differs from that in AD. Neuronal damage is generally unaccompanied in WD. These results suggest that CSF total tau is a useful biological marker for WE.

  20. Gender difference of alanine aminotransferase elevation may be associated with higher hemoglobin levels among male adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Chih-Cheng Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To explore the gender difference of ALT elevation and its association with high hemoglobin levels. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 3547 adolescents (2005 females, mean age of 16.5?.3 years who were negative for hepatitis B surface antigen received health checkups in 2006. Body mass index (BMI, levels of hemoglobin, ALT and cholesterol were measured. ALT >42 U/L was defined as elevated ALT. Elevated ALT levels were detected in 112 of the 3547 participants (3.3%, more prevalent in males than in females (5.4% vs. 1.4%, p11 g/dl in females or >13.5 g/dl in males, but the cumulative cases of elevated ALT increased more quickly in males. Proportion of elevated ALT increased as either the BMI or hemoglobin level rise, more apparent in male adolescents. Logistic regression modeling showed odds ratio (95% confidence interval were 24.7 (15.0-40.6 for BMI ≥27 kg/m(2; 5.5 (2.9-10.4 for BMI 24-27 kg/m(2; 2.7 (1.3-5.5 for Q5 (top 20th percentile hemoglobin level; and 2.6 (1.6-4.1 for male gender. Further separately fitting the logistic models for two genders, the significance of Q5 hemoglobin level only appeared in the males. CONCLUSIONS: High hemoglobin level is a significant risk factor of ALT elevation after control hepatitis B, obesity and gender. Males have greater risk of abnormal liver function which may be associated with higher hemoglobin levels.

  1. Maternal serum CA-125 level is elevated in severe preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaman, Erbil; Karaman, Yasemin; Alkış, İsmet; Han, Agahan; Yıldırım, Gökhan; Ark, Hasan Cemal

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between serum concentrations of cancer antigen-125 (CA-125) and pre-eclampsia severity. We evaluated 91 females with a singleton pregnancy. Serum CA-125 levels were measured in subjects with severe pre-eclampsia (n=34) and those with mild pre-eclampsia (n=24). Females with healthy pregnancies (n=31) served as the control group. The three study groups were statistically similar in terms of maternal age, gestational age, and body mass index. The CA-125 level was significantly higher in the severe pre-eclampsia group than that in the mild pre-eclampsia and control groups (pCA-125 levels between the mild pre-eclampsia and control groups was observed. CA-125 level was positively correlated with proteinuria (r=0.489, p=0.000), systolic blood pressure (r=0.503, p=0.018), and diastolic blood pressure (r=0.532, p=0.000). In contrast, CA-125 was negatively correlated with birth weight (r=0.266, p=0.012) and gestational age at birth (r=0.250, p=0.018). CA-125 level increased in severe pre-eclampsia, which reflected abnormal trophoblastic invasion and chronic inflammation. Elevated levels of CA-125 in pre-eclamptic patients may be a marker of the disease severity. Copyright © 2013 International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Elevated CO2 enhances biological contributions to elevation change in coastal wetlands by offsetting stressors associated with sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, J.A.; McKee, K.L.; Grace, J.B.

    2009-01-01

    1. Sea-level rise, one indirect consequence of increasing atmospheric CO2, poses a major challenge to long-term stability of coastal wetlands. An important question is whether direct effects of elevated CO 2 on the capacity of marsh plants to accrete organic material and to maintain surface elevations outweigh indirect negative effects of stressors associated with sea-level rise (salinity and flooding). 2. In this study, we used a mesocosm approach to examine potential direct and indirect effects of atmospheric CO2 concentration, salinity and flooding on elevation change in a brackish marsh community dominated by a C3 species, Schoenoplectus americanus, and a C4 grass, Spartina patens. This experimental design permitted identification of mechanisms and their role in controlling elevation change, and the development of models that can be tested in the field. 3. To test hypotheses related to CO2 and sea-level rise, we used conventional anova procedures in conjunction with structural equation modelling (SEM). SEM explained 78% of the variability in elevation change and showed the direct, positive effect of S. americanus production on elevation. The SEM indicated that C3 plant response was influenced by interactive effects between CO2 and salinity on plant growth, not a direct CO2 fertilization effect. Elevated CO2 ameliorated negative effects of salinity on S. americanus and enhanced biomass contribution to elevation. 4. The positive relationship between S. americanus production and elevation change can be explained by shoot-base expansion under elevated CO 2 conditions, which led to vertical soil displacement. While the response of this species may differ under other environmental conditions, shoot-base expansion and the general contribution of C3 plant production to elevation change may be an important mechanism contributing to soil expansion and elevation gain in other coastal wetlands. 5. Synthesis. Our results revealed previously unrecognized interactions and

  3. Elevated blood lead levels associated with illegally distilled alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegues, D A; Hughes, B J; Woernle, C H

    1993-06-28

    Whiskey produced in illegal stills (ie, "moonshine") remains an important and underappreciated source of lead toxicity in some rural counties of the Southeast. From March 5 through October 26, 1991, eight adult patients with elevated blood lead levels were identified at a rural county hospital in Alabama and were reported to the Alabama Department of Public Health notifiable disease surveillance system. A case-patient was defined as any person 17 years of age or more who presented to the hospital from January 1, 1990, through December 31, 1991, and had a blood lead level of 0.72 mumol/L or more (15 micrograms/dL or more). To identify cases and potential sources of lead exposure, we reviewed medical and laboratory records from the hospital, interviewed patients with elevated blood lead levels, and determined the lead content of moonshine samples. Nine patients met the case definition, including one patient who was not reported to the state. Patients ranged in age from 28 to 62 years; blood lead values ranged from 0.77 to 12.50 mumol/L (16 to 259 micrograms/dL). The most frequent signs of possible lead toxicity included seizures (six), microcytic anemia (five), and encephalopathy (two); one patient died. The only identified source of lead exposure for the nine patients was moonshine ingestion. Moonshine samples available from local stills contained sufficient amounts of lead (340 to 4600 mumol/L) to result in the observed blood lead levels. This investigation emphasizes the adverse health effects and ongoing public health impact of moonshine ingestion.

  4. Elevated serum levels of Chromogranin A in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondi, Antonio; Malaguarnera, Giulia; Vacante, Marco; Berretta, Massimiliano; D'Agata, Velia; Malaguarnera, Michele; Basile, Francesco; Drago, Filippo; Bertino, Gaetano

    2012-01-01

    During the past three decades, the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma in the United States has tripled. The neuroendocrine character has been observed in some tumor cells within some hepatocellular carcinoma nodules and elevated serum chromogranin A also been reported in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim of this work was to investigate the role of serum concentration of chromogranin A in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma at different stages. The study population consisted of 96 patients (63 males and 33 females age range 52-84) at their first hospital admission for hepatocellular carcinoma. The control group consisted of 35 volunteers (20 males and 15 females age range 50-80). The hepatocellular carcinoma patients were stratified according the Barcelona-Clinic Liver Cancer classification. Venous blood samples were collected before treatment from each patients before surgery, centrifuged to obtain serum samples and stored at -80° C until assayed. The chromogranin A serum levels were elevated (> 100 ng/ml) in 72/96 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. The serum levels of chromogranin A were significantly correlated (p<0.05) with alpha-fetoprotein. In comparison with controls, the hepatocellular carcinoma patients showed a significant increase (p<0.001) vs controls. The chromogranin A levels in the Barcelona staging of hepatocellular carcinoma was higher in stage D compared to stage C (p<0.01), to stage B (p<0.001), and to stage A (p<0.001). Molecular markers, such as chromogranin A, could be very useful tools for hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosis. However the molecular classification should be incorporated into a staging scheme, which effectively separated patients into groups with homogeneous prognosis and response to treatment, and thus serves to aid in the selection of appropriate therapy.

  5. Caribbean mangroves adjust to rising sea level through biotic controls on change in soil elevation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, K.L.; Cahoon, D.R.; Feller, Ilka C.

    2007-01-01

    Aim The long-term stability of coastal ecosystems such as mangroves and salt marshes depends upon the maintenance of soil elevations within the intertidal habitat as sea level changes. We examined the rates and processes of peat formation by mangroves of the Caribbean Region to better understand biological controls on habitat stability. Location Mangrove-dominated islands on the Caribbean coasts of Belize, Honduras and Panama were selected as study sites. Methods Biological processes controlling mangrove peat formation were manipulated (in Belize) by the addition of nutrients (nitrogen or phosphorus) to Rhizophora mangle (red mangrove), and the effects on the dynamics of soil elevation were determined over a 3-year period using rod surface elevation tables (RSET) and marker horizons. Peat composition and geological accretion rates were determined at all sites using radiocarbon-dated cores. Results The addition of nutrients to mangroves caused significant changes in rates of mangrove root accumulation, which influenced both the rate and direction of change in elevation. Areas with low root input lost elevation and those with high rates gained elevation. These findings were consistent with peat analyses at multiple Caribbean sites showing that deposits (up to 10 m in depth) were composed primarily of mangrove root matter. Comparison of radiocarbon-dated cores at the study sites with a sea-level curve for the western Atlantic indicated a tight coupling between peat building in Caribbean mangroves and sea-level rise over the Holocene. Main conclusions Mangroves common to the Caribbean region have adjusted to changing sea level mainly through subsurface accumulation of refractory mangrove roots. Without root and other organic inputs, submergence of these tidal forests is inevitable due to peat decomposition, physical compaction and eustatic sea-level rise. These findings have relevance for predicting the effects of sea-level rise and biophysical processes on tropical

  6. Thorough investigation of radon in a school with elevated levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaupotic, J.; Hunyadi, I.; Baradacs, E.

    2001-01-01

    Among the 890 schools surveyed for radon levels in Slovenia, 24 buildings were found in which air concentrations exceeded 1000 Bq m -3 in classrooms. These schools have been thoroughly investigated to find the source of elevated radon concentration and to undertake measures for the most effective remediation. The highest radon concentrations, up to 7 kBq m -3 in classrooms, were found in a poorly constructed school situated in a karstic area. The annual effective doses received by staff (3 persons) and pupils (21 persons) were estimated to range from 3.7 to 6.7 mSv, according to ICRP 65 methodology. Their homes were also tested for radon, where annual effective doses received from radon decay products range from 1.3 to 12.6 mSv. On average, the school contributed 60% to the annual effective dose

  7. Elevated Adiponectin Serum Levels in Women with Systemic Autoimmune Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éric Toussirot

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue produces a wide range of proteins that may influence the immune system. In this study, we assessed the serum levels of leptin, adiponectin, and ghrelin, in association with the measurements of body composition, in 15 female patients with various autoimmune diseases (systemic lupus erythematosus, primary Sjögren's syndrome, sarcoidosis, mixed connective tissue disease, vasculitis, CREST syndrome, and polymyositis and in 15 healthy female controls. There were no statistically significant differences between the patients and controls with regard to serum leptin, serum ghrelin, global fat mass, adiposity, and fat mass in the android or gynoid regions, whereas serum adiponectin levels were higher in patients than controls (16.3±1.6 μg/mL versus 9.7±0.6 μg/mL; =.01. As adiponectin is known to exhibit potent anti-inflammatory properties, a high adiponectinemia in patients with systemic autoimmune disease may mitigate the inflammatory response. However, the precise consequences of these elevated serum adiponectin levels on the metabolic syndrome development and atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk in this patient population still needs to be determined.

  8. Use of remotely sensed land surface temperature as a proxy for air temperatures at high elevations: Findings from a 5000 m elevational transect across Kilimanjaro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepin, N. C.; Maeda, E. E.; Williams, R.

    2016-09-01

    High elevations are thought to be warming more rapidly than lower elevations, but there is a lack of air temperature observations in high mountains. This study compares instantaneous values of land surface temperature (10:30/22:30 and 01:30/13:30 local solar time) as measured by Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer MOD11A2/MYD11A2 at 1 km resolution from the Terra and Aqua platforms, respectively, with equivalent screen-level air temperatures (in the same pixel). We use a transect of 22 in situ weather stations across Kilimanjaro ranging in elevation from 990 to 5803 m, one of the biggest elevational ranges in the world. There are substantial differences between LST and Tair, sometimes up to 20°C. During the day/night land surface temperature tends to be higher/lower than Tair. LST-Tair differences (ΔT) show large variance, particularly during the daytime, and tend to increase with elevation, particularly on the NE slope which faces the morning Sun. Differences are larger in the dry seasons (JF and JJAS) and reduce in cloudy seasons. Healthier vegetation (as measured by normalized difference vegetation index) and increased humidity lead to reduced daytime surface heating above air temperature and lower ΔT, but these relationships weaken with elevation. At high elevations transient snow cover cools LST more than Tair. The predictability of ΔT therefore reduces. It will therefore be challenging to use satellite data at high elevations as a proxy for in situ air temperatures in climate change assessments, especially for daytime Tmax. ΔT is smaller and more consistent at night, so it will be easier to use LST to monitor changes in Tmin.

  9. Influence of elevator acceleration induced loading on injury levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Funai, K.; Schijndel-de Nooij, M. van; Nunen, E. van

    2008-01-01

    The influence on human body of the acceleration caused by the elevator emergency stop has been studied. Experiments were performed with an automotive dummy in an elevator. The study is furthermore based on numerical simulations in MADYMO with an active human model. Kinematics and contact forces of

  10. Control and perception of balance at elevated and sloped surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeonov, Peter I; Hsiao, Hongwei; Dotson, Brian W; Ammons, Douglas E

    2003-01-01

    Understanding roof-work-related risk of falls and developing low-cost, practical engineering controls for reducing this risk remain in high demand in the construction industry. This study investigated the effects of the roof work environment characteristics of surface slope, height, and visual reference on standing balance in construction workers. The 24 participants were tested in a laboratory setting at 4 slopes (0 degrees, 18 degrees, 26 degrees, and 34 degrees), 2 heights (0, 3 m), and 2 visual conditions (with and without visual references). Postural sway characteristics were calculated using center of pressure recordings from a force platform. Workers' perceptions of postural sway and instability were also evaluated. The results indicated that slope and height synergistically increased workers' standing postural instability. Workers recognized the individual destabilizing effects of slope and height but did not recognize the synergistic effect of the two. Visual references significantly reduced the destabilizing effects of height and slope. Actual and potential applications of this research include the use of temporary level work surfaces and proximal vertical reference structures as postural instability control measures during roofing work.

  11. On Monin–Obukhov Scaling in and Above the Atmospheric Surface Layer: The Complexities of Elevated Scintillometer Measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braam, M.; Bosveld, F.C.; Moene, A.F.

    2012-01-01

    In scintillometry Monin–Obukhov similarity theory (MOST) is used to calculate the surface sensible heat flux from the structure parameter of temperature (CT2)(CT2) . In order to prevent saturation a scintillometer can be installed at an elevated level. However, in that case the observation level

  12. IceBridge UAF Lidar Profiler L1B Geolocated Surface Elevation Triplets

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA IceBridge UAF Lidar Profiler L1B Geolocated Surface Elevation Triplets data set contains surface profiles of Alaska Glaciers acquired using the airborne...

  13. IceBridge Riegl Laser Altimeter L2 Geolocated Surface Elevation Triplets V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The IceBridge Riegl Laser Altimeter L2 Geolocated Surface Elevation Triplets (ILUTP2) data set contains surface range values for Antarctica and Greenland derived...

  14. IceBridge Riegl Laser Altimeter L2 Geolocated Surface Elevation Triplets

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The IceBridge Riegl Laser Altimeter L2 Geolocated Surface Elevation Triplets (ILUTP2) data set contains surface range values for Antarctica and Greenland derived...

  15. Elevated Amylase and Lipase Levels in the Neurosurgery Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Chia Lee

    2010-01-01

    Conclusion: Various neurosurgery events and diagnoses may lead to different degrees of serum pancreatic enzyme elevation. Patients with elevated pancreatic enzyme levels have a higher mortality rate than those with normal enzyme levels. We believe that abdominal CT should be indicated for patients if their amylase levels are more than 3-fold the upper normal limit and lipase levels are more than 5-fold.

  16. The elevation of blood levels of zinc protoporphyrin in mice following whole body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walden, T.L.; Draganac, P.S.; Farkas, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    Elevation of zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) levels in the blood has served as an indicator of lead poisoning and iron deficiency anemia for many years. We have discovered that sublethal doses of whole body irradiation with x-rays also elevates ZPP 2-3-fold over normal levels. The ZPP level does not begin to increase until days 12-14 postirradiation and peaks between days 18 and 20 before returning to normal levels between days 28 and 35. Increasing the radiation dose delays the onset of the rise in ZPP, but does not affect the magnitude of the elevation. At lethal doses, ZPP elevation is not observed. Neither of the two previously described mechanisms that cause elevations of ZPP, namely iron deficiency and inhibition of ferrochelatase, are responsible for the radiation-induced elevation of ZPP. The elevation of ZPP appears to be correlated with the recovery of the hematopoietic system from radiation injury

  17. Elevation of blood levels of zinc protoporphyrin in mice following whole-body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walden, T.L. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Elevation of zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) levels in the blood has served as an indicator of lead poisoning and iron deficiency anemia for many years. The author has discovered that sublethal doses of whole body irradiation with X-rays also elevates ZPP two- to three-fold over normal levels. The ZPP level does not begin to increase until days 12 to 14 post-irradiation and peaks between days 18 to 20 before returning to normal levels between days 28 to 35. Increasing the radiation dose delays the onset of the rise in ZPP but does not affect the magnitude of the elevation. At lethal doses, ZPP elevation is not observed. Neither of the two previously described mechanisms which cause elevations of ZPP, namely iron deficiency and inhibition of ferrochelatase, are responsible for the radiation induced elevation of ZPP. The elevation of ZPP appears to be correlated with the recovery of the hematopoietic system from radiation injury

  18. Radiation Level Changes at RAM Package Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Opperman, Erich [Washington Savannah River Company; Hawk, Mark B [ORNL; Kapoor, Ashok [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Packaging and Transportation; Natali, Ronald [R. B. Natali Consulting, Inc.

    2010-01-01

    This paper will explore design considerations required to meet the regulations that limit radiation level variations at external surfaces of radioactive material (RAM) packages. The radiation level requirements at package surfaces (e.g. TS-R-1 paragraphs 531 and 646) invoke not only maximum radiation levels, but also strict limits on the allowable increase in the radiation level during transport. This paper will explore the regulatory requirements by quantifying the amount of near surface movement and/or payload shifting that results in a 20% increase in the radiation level at the package surface. Typical IP-2, IP-3, Type A and Type B packaging and source geometries will be illustrated. Variations in surface radiation levels are typically the result of changes in the geometry of the surface due to an impact, puncture or crush event, or shifting and settling of radioactive contents.

  19. The Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document for the Derivation of Range and Range Distributions from Laser Pulse Waveform Analysis for Surface Elevations, Roughness, Slope, and Vegetation Heights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Anita C.; Zwally, H. Jay; Bentley, Charles R.; Csatho, Bea M.; Harding, David J.; Hofton, Michelle A.; Minster, Jean-Bernard; Roberts, LeeAnne; Saba, Jack L.; Thomas, Robert H.; hide

    2012-01-01

    The primary purpose of the GLAS instrument is to detect ice elevation changes over time which are used to derive changes in ice volume. Other objectives include measuring sea ice freeboard, ocean and land surface elevation, surface roughness, and canopy heights over land. This Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document (ATBD) describes the theory and implementation behind the algorithms used to produce the level 1B products for waveform parameters and global elevation and the level 2 products that are specific to ice sheet, sea ice, land, and ocean elevations respectively. These output products, are defined in detail along with the associated quality, and the constraints, and assumptions used to derive them.

  20. MISR Level 2 Surface parameters V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Level 2 Land Surface product contains information on land directional reflectance properties,albedos(spectral & PAR integrated),FPAR,asssociated radiation...

  1. SWOT: The Surface Water and Ocean Topography Mission. Wide- Swath Altimetric Elevation on Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Lee-Lueng (Editor); Alsdorf, Douglas (Editor); Morrow, Rosemary; Rodriguez, Ernesto; Mognard, Nelly

    2012-01-01

    The elevation of the surface of the ocean and freshwater bodies on land holds key information on many important processes of the Earth System. The elevation of the ocean surface, called ocean surface topography, has been measured by conventional nadirlooking radar altimeter for the past two decades. The data collected have been used for the study of large-scale circulation and sea level change. However, the spatial resolution of the observations has limited the study to scales larger than about 200 km, leaving the smaller scales containing substantial kinetic energy of ocean circulation that is responsible for the flux of heat, dissolved gas and nutrients between the upper and the deep ocean. This flux is important to the understanding of the ocean's role in regulatingfuture climate change.The elevation of the water bodies on land is a key parameter required for the computation of storage and discharge of freshwater in rivers, lakes, and wetlands. Globally, the spatial and temporal variability of water storage and discharge is poorly known due to the lack of well-sampled observations. In situ networks measuring river flows are declining worldwide due to economic and political reasons. Conventional altimeter observations suffers from the complexity of multiple peaks caused by the reflections from water, vegetation canopy and rough topography, resulting in much less valid data over land than over the ocean. Another major limitation is the large inter track distance preventing good coverage of rivers and other water bodies.This document provides descriptions of a new measurement technique using radar interferometry to obtain wide-swath measurement of water elevation at high resolution over both the ocean and land. Making this type of measurement, which addresses the shortcomings of conventional altimetry in both oceanographic and hydrologic applications, is the objective of a mission concept called Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT), which was recommended by

  2. Surface Elevation and Ice Thickness, Western Marie Byrd Land, Antarctica, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides surface elevation and ice thickness data for a portion of the Marie Byrd Land sector of West Antarctica, including the Ford Ranges, the...

  3. An experimental study of the surface elevation probability distribution and statistics of wind-generated waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, N. E.; Long, S. R.

    1980-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were performed to measure the surface elevation probability density function and associated statistical properties for a wind-generated wave field. The laboratory data along with some limited field data were compared. The statistical properties of the surface elevation were processed for comparison with the results derived from the Longuet-Higgins (1963) theory. It is found that, even for the highly non-Gaussian cases, the distribution function proposed by Longuet-Higgins still gives good approximations.

  4. Laughter elevates the levels of breast-milk melatonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimata, Hajime

    2007-06-01

    Patients with atopic eczema (AE) often complain of sleep disturbance. Melatonin is involved in sleep, and the levels of blood melatonin in patients with AE are decreased in comparison to healthy subjects. However, the levels of breast-milk melatonin had only been reported in healthy subjects. Laughter increased natural killer cell activity in blood and free radical-scavenging capacity in saliva in healthy subjects. Thus, the effect of laughter on the levels of breast-milk melatonin was studied in mothers with AE. Moreover, the effect of feeding with breast milk after laughter on allergic responses in infants was studied. Forty-eight infants aged 5-6 months were enrolled. All of the infants had AE and were allergic to latex and house dust mite (HDM). Half (n=24) of the mothers of these infants were patients with AE, while another 24 mothers were healthy subjects. The mothers viewed either an 87-min humorous DVD (Modern Times, featuring Charlie Chaplin) or an 87-min nonhumorous weather information DVD at 2000 h. After viewing, breast milk was collected sequentially from 2200, 2400, 0200, 0400 to 0600 h. The levels of breast-milk melatonin were measured. In addition, skin wheal responses to HDM and histamine were studied in infants. Laughter caused by viewing a humorous DVD increased the levels of breast-milk melatonin in both mothers with AE and healthy mothers. In addition, allergic responses to latex and HDM of infants were reduced by feeding with breast milk after laughter of mothers with AE or of healthy mothers. Laughter increased the levels of breast-milk melatonin in both mothers with AE and healthy mothers, and feeding infants with increased levels of melatonin-containing milk reduced allergic responses in infants. Thus, laughter of mothers may be helpful in the treatment of infants with AE.

  5. Evaluation of factors associated with elevated newborn 17-hydroxyprogesterone levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anandi, V Shobi; Shaila, Bhattacharyya

    2017-05-24

    Measurement of 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) in dried blood spots has been widely used as a newborn screening tool for congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). Various maternal and neonatal factors can result in falsely high values of 17-OHP. There is a paucity of Indian studies in this regard because routine evaluation of newborn 17-OHP levels as a screening program is not widely practiced in India. Hence, this study was undertaken to evaluate the influence of various maternal and neonatal factors on newborn 17-OHP levels. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of various maternal and neonatal factors on the newborn 17-OHP values. Retrospective data related to a total of 3080 newborn 17-OHP values and clinical characteristics were collected for 3 years (2013-2015). The data were analyzed to determine the influence of various factors on 17-OHP values. The mean value of 17-OHP in our study was 5.486±3.96 ng/mL. Gender and mode of delivery did not significantly affect the 17-OHP levels. The levels were significantly higher in preterm and low birth weight babies as compared to term babies and babies with normal birth weight. Stress factors like pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH), early onset sepsis (EOS), neonatal seizures and birth asphyxia significantly increase the neonatal 17-OHP levels. The levels of 17-OHP in newborns was measured around day 3 of life are very sensitive to the influence of gestational age, birth weight and presence of stress factors like maternal PIH, birth asphyxia, neonatal sepsis and neonatal seizures and should be interpreted cautiously.

  6. Typhoon and elevated radon level in a municipal water supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Cheng-Hsin; Weng, Pao-Shan

    2000-01-01

    The Municipal Water Supply at Hsinchu City is a water treatment plant using poly- aluminum chloride (PAC) for coagulation and then followed by precipitation and filtration. Its capacity is 70,000 m 3 /day. The raw water is drawn from the nearby river. Since the subject of interest is the radon level during typhoon season, the sampling period was from March to December 1999. Commercially available electret was used for water samples taken from the five ponds in the plant. This technique relies on the measurement of radon in air above a water sample enclosed in a sealed vessel. The concentration of airbone radon released from water was determined by means of the electret ion chamber. During the first sampling period there came two typhoons. One is called Magie during June 10-17, and the other called Sam during August 20-26. The first typhoon led to the radon level measured from the water samples as high as 705 Bq/m 3 , while the second caused even higher radon level as high as 772 Bq/m 3 . Similar results were obtained for the second sampling period after August till December 1999. For those measured without typhoon influence, the average radon was lower from the coagulation pond yet without coagulation process during March through August 1999. However, water samples taken from the pond after precipitation did not show similar results in radon level. (author)

  7. High-resolution pattern of mangrove species distribution is controlled by surface elevation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Rick C.; Friess, Daniel A.; Crase, Beth; Lee, Wei Kit; Webb, Edward L.

    2018-03-01

    Mangrove vegetation species respond to multiple environmental gradients, and an enhanced understanding of how mangrove species are distributed across these gradients will facilitate conservation and management. Many environmental gradients correlate with tidal inundation; however small-scale inundation patterns resulting from microtopographical changes are difficult to capture empirically. In contrast, surface elevation is often a suitable, measurable and cost-effective proxy for inundation. This study investigated the relationships between species distribution and surface elevation in a mangrove forest in northwest Singapore. Through high-resolution land surveying, we developed a digital elevation model (DEM) and conducted a comprehensive survey of 4380 trees with a stem diameter ≥ 5 cm. A total of 15 species were encountered, and elevation envelopes were generated for 12. Species envelopes were distributed along an elevation continuum, with most species overlapping within the continuum. Spatial autocorrelation (SAC) was present for nine of the 15 species, and when taken into account, species ordering was modified across the elevation continuum. The presence of SAC strongly reinforces the need for research to control for SAC: classical spatial description of mangrove species distribution should be revised to account for ecological factors. This study suggests that (1) surface elevation applies strong controls on species distribution and (2) most mangroves at our study site have similar physiological tolerances.

  8. Elevated serum level of human alkaline phosphatase in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abdul Rehman; Awan, Fazli Rabbi; Najam, Syeda Sadia; Islam, Mehboob; Siddique, Tehmina; Zain, Maryam

    2015-11-01

    To investigate a correlation between serum alkaline phosphatase level and body mass index in human subjects. The comparative cross-sectional study was carried out at the National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Faisalabad, Pakistan, from April 2012 to June 2013. Blood serum alkaline phosphatase levels were estimated and the subjects were divided into three sub-groups on the basis of their body mass. normal weight (27kg/m2) subjects. The serum samples were used for the estimation of clinically important biochemical parameters, using commercial kits on clinical chemistry analyser. Of the 197 subjects, 97(49%) were obese and 100(51%) were non-obese. The serum alkaline phosphatase level increased in obese (214±6.4 IU/L) compared to the non-obese subjects (184.5±5 IU/L). Furthermore, a significant linear relationship (r=0.3;p-0.0001) was found between serum alkaline phosphatase and body mass index. Other biochemical variables were not correlated to the body mass index. Over activity and higher amounts of alkaline phosphatase were linked to the development of obesity.

  9. Elevated Serum Level of Human Alkaline Phosphatase in Obesity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A. R.; Awan, F. R.; Najam, S. S.; Islam, M.; Siddique, T.; Zain, M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate a correlation between serum alkaline phosphatase level and body mass index in human subjects. Methods: The comparative cross-sectional study was carried out at the National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Faisalabad, Pakistan, from April 2012 to June 2013. Blood serum alkaline phosphatase levels were estimated and the subjects were divided into three sub-groups on the basis of their body mass index: normal weight (<25kg/m2), overweight (25-27kg/m2) and obese (>27kg/m2) subjects. The serum samples were used for the estimation of clinically important biochemical parameters, using commercial kits on clinical chemistry analyser. Results: Of the 197 subjects, 97(49 percent) were obese and 100(51 percent) were non-obese. The serum alkaline phosphatase level increased in obese (214±6.4 IU/L) compared to the non-obese subjects (184.5±5 IU/L). Furthermore, a significant linear relationship (r=0.3;p-0.0001) was found between serum alkaline phosphatase and body mass index. Other biochemical variables were not correlated to the body mass index. Conclusion: Over activity and higher amounts of alkaline phosphatase were linked to the development of obesity. (author)

  10. Elevated serum osteoprotegerin levels in women: friend or foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasso, Gisela Rodrigues da Silva; Florencio-Silva, Rinaldo; Simões, Ricardo Santos; Baracat, Maria Cândida Pinheiro; Soares Júnior, José Maria; Baracat, Edmund Chada

    2015-01-01

    osteoprotegerin has emerged as a new candidate for the treatment of osteoporosis. However, high levels of osteoprotegerin have been linked to vascular calcification, an independent and well-defined risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality. Thus, the action of osteoprotegerin in these situations has been questioned. to evaluate the effect of osteoprotegerin (OPG) on the human body, especially in bone tissue and in vascular diseases. the scientific databases consulted were PubMed-Medline and Cochrane, using keywords (MeSH terms) grouped into the following syntaxes: (Osteoprotegerin OR Osteoclastogenesis Inhibitory Factor OR Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Member 11b OR Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily, Member 11b OR FDCR-1 Protein OR FDCR 1 Protein OR OCIF Protein OR Follicular Dendritic Cell-Derived Receptor-1) AND (Bones AND Bone OR Bones AND Bone Tissue OR Bones OR Bone Tissue OR Cardiovascular Diseases). Osteoprotegerin is present in various organs and binds to two ligands: nuclear factor kB (RANKL) related to the differentiation of osteoclasts, and tumor necrosis factor related to the apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). OPG inhibits the regulation effects of nuclear factor kB on inflammation and on the skeletal and vascular systems, preventing the apoptosis induced by TRAIL, being related to the preservation of bone tissue. a deeper knowledge of the mechanisms involved in the association between OPG serum levels, bone integrity and cardiovascular disease can provide important data for future therapeutic interventions.

  11. Elevated tritium levels at the World Trade Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semkow, Thomas M.; Hafner, Ronald S.; Parekh, Pravin P.; Wozniak, Gordon J.; Haines, Douglas K.; Husain, Liaquat; Rabun, Robert L.; Williams, Philip G.

    2002-01-01

    Traces of tritiated water (HTO) were detected at [the]World Trade Center (WTC) ground zero after the 9/11/01 terrorist attack. A method of ultralow-background liquid scintillation counting was used after distilling HTO from the samples. A water sample from the WTC sewer, collected on 9/13/01, contained 0.174 plus or minus 0.074 (2s) nCi/L of HTO. A split water sample, collected on 9/21/01 from the basement of WTC Building 6, contained 3.53 plus or minus 0.17 and 2.83 plus or minus 0.15 nCi/L, respectively. Several water and vegetation samples were analyzed from areas outside the ground zero, located in Manhattan, Brooklyn, Queens, and Kensico Reservoir. No HTO above the background was found in those samples. All these results are well below the levels of concern to human exposure

  12. Elevated tritium levels at the World Trade Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semkow, Thomas M.; Hafner, Ronald S.; Parekh, Pravin P.; Wozniak, Gordon J.; Haines, Douglas K.; Husain, Liaquat; Rabun, Robert L.; Williams, Philip G.

    2002-05-14

    Traces of tritiated water (HTO) were detected at [the]World Trade Center (WTC) ground zero after the 9/11/01 terrorist attack. A method of ultralow-background liquid scintillation counting was used after distilling HTO from the samples. A water sample from the WTC sewer, collected on 9/13/01, contained 0.174 plus or minus 0.074 (2s) nCi/L of HTO. A split water sample, collected on 9/21/01 from the basement of WTC Building 6, contained 3.53 plus or minus 0.17 and 2.83 plus or minus 0.15 nCi/L, respectively. Several water and vegetation samples were analyzed from areas outside the ground zero, located in Manhattan, Brooklyn, Queens, and Kensico Reservoir. No HTO above the background was found in those samples. All these results are well below the levels of concern to human exposure.

  13. The prevalence and clinical correlates of elevated ALT levels in an urban Chinatown community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotler, S J; Dhamija, M K; Luc, B J; Siqueira, F; Bartram, A H; Layden, T J; Wong, S S

    2010-02-01

    Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels are a primary consideration in treatment decisions regarding hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Levels can be elevated as a result of HBV-related liver injury or to other causes. The aim of this study was to assess the background prevalence and clinical correlates of elevated ALT levels in Chinese immigrants who were HBsAg negative. Subjects consisted of adults seen in an urban Chinatown Internal Medicine practice between 1, 2006 and 12, 2007. Clinical information was collected retrospectively. An elevated ALT level was defined as >19 U/L for women and >30 U/L for men. The primary analysis focused on 2457 persons who were HBsAg negative. Their mean age was 55 +/- 18 years, 64% were female and 36% were obese. All subjects were ethnically Chinese and 96% were born in Asia. Thirty percent had an elevated ALT level. In univariate analysis, factors associated with elevated ALT included older age (P < 0.001), female gender (P = 0.001), obesity (P < 0.001), diabetes (P < 0.001), hypercholesterolemia (P < 0.001) and hypertension (P < 0.001). In multivariate analysis BMI, diabetes, female gender and hypercholesterolemia were significantly associated with elevated ALT level. An additional analysis focused on a group of patients who were HBsAg positive, HBeAg negative and had HBV-DNA levels <1000 copies/mL. Fifty percent had elevated ALT levels. In conclusion, elevated ALT levels are common among Chinese immigrants without HBV (30%) and are associated with features of the metabolic syndrome. Liver biopsy should be performed in selected patients with HBV to distinguish the cause of ALT elevation before initiating antiviral therapy.

  14. Effect of exercise timing on elevated postprandial glucose levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatamoto, Yoichi; Goya, Ryoma; Yamada, Yosuke; Yoshimura, Eichi; Nishimura, Sena; Higaki, Yasuki; Tanaka, Hiroaki

    2017-08-01

    There is no consensus regarding optimal exercise timing for reducing postprandial glucose (PPG). The purpose of the present study was to determine the most effective exercise timing. Eleven participants completed four different exercise patterns 1 ) no exercise; 2 ) preprandial exercise (jogging); 3 ) postprandial exercise; and 4 ) brief periodic exercise intervention (three sets of 1-min jogging + 30 s of rest, every 30 min, 20 times total) in a random order separated by a minimum of 5 days. Preprandial and postprandial exercise consisted of 20 sets of intermittent exercise (1 min of jogging + 30 s rest per set) repeated 3 times per day. Total daily exercise volume was identical for all three exercise patterns. Exercise intensities were 62.4 ± 12.9% V̇o 2peak Blood glucose concentrations were measured continuously throughout each trial for 24 h. After breakfast, peak blood glucose concentrations were lower with brief periodic exercise (99 ± 6 mg/dl) than those with preprandial and postprandial exercise (109 ± 10 and 115 ± 14 mg/dl, respectively, P glucose concentrations were lower with brief periodic exercise than those with postprandial exercise (97 ± 5 and 108 ± 8 mg/dl, P glucose concentrations did not significantly differ among exercise patterns. Areas under the curve over 24 h and 2 h postprandially did not differ among exercise patterns. These findings suggest that brief periodic exercise may be more effective than preprandial and postprandial exercise at attenuating PPG in young active individuals. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This was the first study to investigate the effect of different exercise timing (brief periodic vs. preprandial vs. postprandial exercise) on postprandial glucose (PPG) attenuation in active healthy men. We demonstrated that brief periodic exercise attenuated peak PPG levels more than preprandial and postprandial exercise, particularly in the morning. Additionally, PPG rebounded soon after discontinuing postprandial

  15. Elevated plasma vitamin B12 levels and cancer prognosis: A population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendt, Johan Frederik Håkonsen; Farkas, Dora Kormendine; Pedersen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Elevated plasma vitamin B12 levels (cobalamin, Cbl) are associated with increased short-term cancer risk among patients referred for this laboratory measurement. We aimed to assess prognosis in cancer patients with elevated plasma Cbl. METHODS: We conducted a population-based cohort...

  16. Elevated Serum Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Levels in Post-operative Biliary Atresia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papit Nattee

    2009-04-01

    Conclusion: MIF production was elevated in BA patients compared to normal controls. It is likely that MIF plays a role in the pathophysiology of post-operative BA patients. However, the elevated MIF levels are not associated with either jaundice status or portal hypertension.

  17. Elevating endocannabinoid levels: pharmacological strategies and potential therapeutic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pertwee, Roger G

    2014-02-01

    The endocannabinoid system consists of cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors, of endogenous agonists for these receptors known as 'endocannabinoids', and of processes responsible for endocannabinoid biosynthesis, cellular uptake and metabolism. There is strong evidence first, that this system up-regulates in certain disorders as indicated by an increased release of endocannabinoids onto their receptors and/or by increases in the expression levels or coupling efficiency of these receptors, and second, that this up-regulation often appears to reduce or abolish unwanted effects of these disorders or to slow their progression. This discovery has raised the possibility of developing a medicine that enhances up-regulation of the endocannabinoid system associated with these disorders by inhibiting the cellular uptake or intracellular metabolism of an endocannabinoid following its 'autoprotective' endogenous release. For inhibition of endocannabinoid metabolism, research has focused particularly on two highly investigated endocannabinoids, anandamide and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol, and hence on inhibitors of the main anandamide-metabolising enzyme, fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), and of the main 2-arachidonoyl glycerol-metabolising enzyme, monoacylglycerol (MAG) lipase. The resulting data have provided strong preclinical evidence that selective FAAH and MAG lipase inhibitors would ameliorate the unwanted effects of several disorders, when administered alone or with a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, and that the benefit-to-risk ratio of a FAAH inhibitor would exceed that of a MAG lipase inhibitor or dual inhibitor of FAAH and MAG lipase. Promising preclinical data have also been obtained with inhibitors of endocannabinoid cellular uptake. There is now an urgent need for clinical research with these enzyme and uptake inhibitors.

  18. Elevated Social Stress Levels and Depressive Symptoms in Primary Hyperhidrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Katharina M.; Schote, Andrea B.; Schneider, Katja Kerstin; Schulz, André; Meyer, Jobst

    2014-01-01

    Primary hyperhidrosis is defined as excessive sweating of certain body areas without physiological reasons. Hyperhidrotic individuals report a high psychological strain and an impairment of their quality of life. Thus, the aim of the study is to investigate the relation between hyperhidrosis and different psychological as well as physiological aspects of chronic stress as a co-factor for the etiology of depression. In this study, forty hyperhidrotic subjects were compared to forty age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects. The Trier Inventory of Chronic Stress (‘Trierer Inventar zum chronischen Stress’: TICS), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and the Screening for Somatoform Disorders (SOMS-2) were used to examine the correlation between primary hyperhidrosis and stress as well as accompanying depressive and somatic symptoms. The cortisol awakening response of each subject was analyzed as a physiological stress correlate. In hyperhidrotics, we found a significant lack of social recognition as well as significantly more depressive symptoms compared to the control subjects. A subgroup of patients with axillary hyperhidrosis had the highest impact on these increased issues of chronic stress, pointing to a higher embarrassment in these subjects. Especially in social situations, hyperhidrotics showed higher stress levels, whereby a vicious circle of stress and sweating is triggered. However, the cortisol awakening response did not significantly differ between hyperhidrotics and controls. Moreover, affected persons suffer from more depressive symptoms, which may be caused by feelings of shame and a lack of self-confidence. This initial study provides an impetus for further investigation to reveal a causative relationship between hyperhidrosis and its psychological concomitants. PMID:24647796

  19. Surface-to-surface registration using level sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mads Fogtmann; Erbou, Søren G.; Vester-Christensen, Martin

    2007-01-01

    problem can be approximated by the image registration (IR) problem of the signed distance maps (SDMs) of the surfaces confined to some narrow band. By shrinking the narrow bands around the zero level sets the solution to the IR problem converges towards the S2SR problem. It is our hypothesis...... that this approach is more robust and less prone to fall into local minima than ordinary surface-to-surface registration. The IR problem is solved using the inverse compositional algorithm. In this paper, a set of 40 pelvic bones of Duroc pigs are registered to each other w.r.t. the Euclidean transformation...

  20. Improving maps of ice-sheet surface elevation change using combined laser altimeter and stereoscopic elevation model data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredenslund Levinsen, Joanna; Howat, I. M.; Tscherning, C. C.

    2013-01-01

    ) and Kangerdlugssuaq (KL). We find that the main trunks of JI and KL lowered at rates of 30–35 and 7–20ma_1, respectively. The rates decreased inland. The corresponding errors were 0.3–5.2ma_1 for JI and 0.3–5.1ma_1 for KL, with errors increasing proportionally with distance from the altimeter paths....... that surface to extrapolate elevations away from altimeter flight lines. This reduces the DEM registration errors and fills the gap between the altimeter paths. We use data from ICESat and ATM as well as SPOT 5 DEMs from 2007 and 2008 and apply them to the outlet glaciers Jakobshavn Isbræ (JI...

  1. Filling the voids in the SRTM elevation model — A TIN-based delta surface approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luedeling, Eike; Siebert, Stefan; Buerkert, Andreas

    The Digital Elevation Model (DEM) derived from NASA's Shuttle Radar Topography Mission is the most accurate near-global elevation model that is publicly available. However, it contains many data voids, mostly in mountainous terrain. This problem is particularly severe in the rugged Oman Mountains. This study presents a method to fill these voids using a fill surface derived from Russian military maps. For this we developed a new method, which is based on Triangular Irregular Networks (TINs). For each void, we extracted points around the edge of the void from the SRTM DEM and the fill surface. TINs were calculated from these points and converted to a base surface for each dataset. The fill base surface was subtracted from the fill surface, and the result added to the SRTM base surface. The fill surface could then seamlessly be merged with the SRTM DEM. For validation, we compared the resulting DEM to the original SRTM surface, to the fill DEM and to a surface calculated by the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) from the SRTM data. We calculated the differences between measured GPS positions and the respective surfaces for 187,500 points throughout the mountain range (ΔGPS). Comparison of the means and standard deviations of these values showed that for the void areas, the fill surface was most accurate, with a standard deviation of the ΔGPS from the mean ΔGPS of 69 m, and only little accuracy was lost by merging it to the SRTM surface (standard deviation of 76 m). The CIAT model was much less accurate in these areas (standard deviation of 128 m). The results show that our method is capable of transferring the relative vertical accuracy of a fill surface to the void areas in the SRTM model, without introducing uncertainties about the absolute elevation of the fill surface. It is well suited for datasets with varying altitude biases, which is a common problem of older topographic information.

  2. Elevated serum levels of free triiodothyronine in adolescent boys with gynaecomastia compared with controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mieritz, Mikkel G; Sørensen, Kaspar; Aksglæde, Lise

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Pubertal gynaecomastia is a frequent phenomenon occurring in 20-40% of otherwise healthy adolescent boys. Little is known about the aetiology of pubertal gynaecomastia. Markedly elevated thyroid hormone levels in adults with hyperthyroidism are associated with gynaecomastia. DESIGN...

  3. [Clinical characteristics and prognosis of colon cancer patient with extremely elevated carcinoembryonic antigen level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pengju; Yao, Yunfeng; Zhang, Dakui; Gu, Jin

    2015-10-01

    To explore the clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis of colon cancer patients with extremely elevated serum carcinoembryonic antigen(CEA) level before operation(>50 μg/L). Clinicopathological and follow-up data of 1250 patients with colonic adenocarcinoma undergoing primary tumor resection between January 2001 and December 2011 were retrospectively analyzed. All the patients were divided into three groups according to the preoperative serum CEA levels as normal group (0-5 μg/L, 721 cases), elevated group(5-50 μg/L, 408 cases) and extremely elevated(>50 μg/L, 121 cases). Kaplan-Meier method was used to analyze the overall survival and disease-free survival. Log-rank test was used to compare the survival between groups. Cox regression was used to screen the independent prognostic factors of colon cancer. Compared with normal and elevated groups, patients with extremely elevated CEA had more advanced T,N,M stages (Pcolon cancer (all PColon cancer patients with extremely elevated preoperative CEA levels are associated with more unfavorable pathological factors, advanced TNM stage and more distant metastases (especially the liver metastases) during the follow-up. The elevated degree of preoperative CEA level is an independent poor prognostic factor of patients with colon cancer.

  4. High sensitivity to chronically elevated CO2 levels in a eurybathic marine sipunculid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenbuch, M; Pörtner, H O

    2004-10-18

    CO2 levels are expected to rise (a) in surface waters of the oceans as atmospheric accumulation continues or (b) in the deep sea, once industrial CO2 dumping is implemented. These scenarios suggest that CO2 will become a general stress factor in aquatic environments. The mechanisms of sensitivity to CO2 as well as adaptation capacity of marine animals are insufficiently understood. Here, we present data obtained in Sipunculus nudus, a sediment-dwelling marine worm that is able to undergo drastic metabolic depression to survive regular exposure to elevated CO2 levels within its natural habitat. We investigated animal survival and the proximate biochemical body composition during long-term CO2 exposure. Results indicate an unexpected and pronounced sensitivity characterized by the delayed onset of enhanced mortality at CO2 levels within the natural range of concentrations. Therefore, the present study contrasts the previously assumed high-CO2 tolerance of animals adapted to temporary hypercapnia. As a consequence, we expect future loss of species and, thereby, detrimental effects on marine benthic ecosystems with as yet poorly defined critical thresholds of long-term tolerance to CO2.

  5. Surface elevation changes of the greenland ice sheet - results from ESA'S ice sheet CCI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredenslund Levinsen, Joanna; Khvorostovky, Kirill; Meister, Rakia

    2013-01-01

    In order to ensure long-term climate data records for the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS), ESA have launched the Climate Change Initiative (CCI). This work presents the preliminary steps towards the Ice Sheet CCI's surface elevation change (SEC) derivation using radar altimeter data. In order to find...

  6. Leaf size and surface characteristics of Betula papyrifera exposed to elevated CO2 and O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johanna Riikonen; Kevin E. Percy; Minna Kivimaenpaa; Mark E. Kubiske; Neil D. Nelson; Elina Vapaavuori; David F. Karnosky

    2010-01-01

    Betula papyrifera trees were exposed to elevated concentrations of CO2 (1.4 x ambient), O3 (1.2 x ambient) or CO2 + O3 at the Aspen Free-air CO2 Enrichment Experiment. The treatment effects on leaf surface characteristics were studied...

  7. Surface elevation changes of the greenland ice sheet - results from ESA'S ice sheet CCI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredenslund Levinsen, Joanna; Khvorostovky, Kirill; Meister, Rakia

    2013-01-01

    In order to ensure long-term climate data records for the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS), ESA have launched the Climate Change Initiative (CCI). This work presents the preliminary steps towards the Ice Sheet CCI's surface elevation change (SEC) derivation using radar altimeter data. In order to find t...

  8. Comparison of Surface Flow Features from Lidar-Derived Digital Elevation Models with Historical Elevation and Hydrography Data for Minnehaha County, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppenga, Sandra K.; Worstell, Bruce B.; Stoker, Jason M.; Greenlee, Susan K.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has taken the lead in the creation of a valuable remote sensing product by incorporating digital elevation models (DEMs) derived from Light Detection and Ranging (lidar) into the National Elevation Dataset (NED), the elevation layer of 'The National Map'. High-resolution lidar-derived DEMs provide the accuracy needed to systematically quantify and fully integrate surface flow including flow direction, flow accumulation, sinks, slope, and a dense drainage network. In 2008, 1-meter resolution lidar data were acquired in Minnehaha County, South Dakota. The acquisition was a collaborative effort between Minnehaha County, the city of Sioux Falls, and the USGS Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center. With the newly acquired lidar data, USGS scientists generated high-resolution DEMs and surface flow features. This report compares lidar-derived surface flow features in Minnehaha County to 30- and 10-meter elevation data previously incorporated in the NED and ancillary hydrography datasets. Surface flow features generated from lidar-derived DEMs are consistently integrated with elevation and are important in understanding surface-water movement to better detect surface-water runoff, flood inundation, and erosion. Many topographic and hydrologic applications will benefit from the increased availability of accurate, high-quality, and high-resolution surface-water data. The remotely sensed data provide topographic information and data integration capabilities needed for meeting current and future human and environmental needs.

  9. Decadal changes of surface elevation over permafrost area estimated using reflected GPS signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lin; Larson, Kristine M.

    2018-02-01

    Conventional benchmark-based survey and Global Positioning System (GPS) have been used to measure surface elevation changes over permafrost areas, usually once or a few times a year. Here we use reflected GPS signals to measure temporal changes of ground surface elevation due to dynamics of the active layer and near-surface permafrost. Applying the GPS interferometric reflectometry technique to the multipath signal-to-noise ratio data collected by a continuously operating GPS receiver mounted deep in permafrost in Barrow, Alaska, we can retrieve the vertical distance between the antenna and reflecting surface. Using this unique kind of observables, we obtain daily changes of surface elevation during July and August from 2004 to 2015. Our results show distinct temporal variations at three timescales: regular thaw settlement within each summer, strong interannual variability that is characterized by a sub-decadal subsidence trend followed by a brief uplift trend, and a secular subsidence trend of 0.26 ± 0.02 cm year-1 during 2004 and 2015. This method provides a new way to fully utilize data from continuously operating GPS sites in cold regions for studying dynamics of the frozen ground consistently and sustainably over a long time.

  10. Unusual surface morphology from digital elevation models of the Greenland ice sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekholm, Simon; Keller, K.; Bamber, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    In this study of the North Greenland ice sheet, we have used digital elevation models to investigate the topographic signatures of a large ice flow feature discovered in 1993 and a unique surface anomaly which we believe has not been observed previously. The small scale topography of the flow...... feature is revealed in striking detail in a high-pass filtered elevation model. Furthermore, ice penetrating radar show that the sub-stream bed is rough with undulation amplitude increasing downstream. The new feature consists of two large depressions in the ice sheet connected by a long curving trench...

  11. Towards quantitave ecological risk assessment of elevated carbon dioxide levels in the marine environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de P.; Tamis, J.E.; Foekema, E.M.; Klok, T.C.; Murk, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    The environmental impact of elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) levels has become of more interest in recent years. This, in relation to globally rising CO2 levels and related considerations of geological CO2 storage as a mitigating measure. In the present study effect data from literature were collected

  12. Elevated atmospheric CO2 levels affect community structure of rice root-associated bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiwamu eMinamisawa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A number of studies have shown that elevated atmospheric CO2 ([CO2] affects rice yields and grain quality. However, the responses of root-associated bacteria to [CO2] elevation have not been characterized in a large-scale field study. We conducted a free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE experiment (ambient + 200 μmol⋅mol−1 using three rice cultivars (Akita 63, Takanari, and Koshihikari and two experimental lines of Koshihikari (chromosome segment substitution and near-isogenic lines to determine the effects of [CO2] elevation on the community structure of rice root-associated bacteria. Microbial DNA was extracted from rice roots at the panicle formation stage and analyzed by pyrosequencing the bacterial 16S rRNA gene to characterize the members of the bacterial community. Principal coordinate analysis of a weighted UniFrac distance matrix revealed that the community structure was clearly affected by elevated [CO2]. The predominant community members at class level were Alpha-, Beta-, and Gamma-proteobacteria in the control (ambient and FACE plots. The relative abundance of Methylocystaceae, the major methane-oxidizing bacteria in rice roots, tended to decrease with increasing [CO2] levels. Quantitative PCR revealed a decreased copy number of the methane monooxygenase (pmoA gene and increased methyl coenzyme M reductase (mcrA in elevated [CO2]. These results suggest elevated [CO2] suppresses methane oxidation and promotes methanogenesis in rice roots; this process affects the carbon cycle in rice paddy fields.

  13. The contrasting responses of soil microorganisms in two rice cultivars to elevated ground-level ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Youzhi; Yu, Yongjie; Tang, Haoye; Zu, Qianhui; Zhu, Jianguo; Lin, Xiangui

    2015-01-01

    Although elevated ground-level O 3 has a species–specific impact on plant growth, the differences in soil biota responses to O 3 pollution among rice cultivars are rarely reported. Using O 3 Free-Air Concentration Enrichment, the responses of the rhizospheric bacterial communities in the O 3 -tolerant (YD6) and the O 3 -sensitive (IIY084) rice cultivars to O 3 pollution and their differences were assessed by pyrosequencing at rice tillering and anthesis stages. Elevated ground-level O 3 negatively influenced the bacterial community in cultivar YD6 at both rice growth stages by decreasing the bacterial phylogenetic diversities and response ratios. In contrast, in cultivar IIY084, the bacterial community responded positively at the rice tillering stage under O 3 pollution. However, several keystone bacterial guilds were consistently negatively affected by O 3 pollution in two rice cultivars. These findings indicate that continuously O 3 pollution would negatively influence rice agroecosystem and the crop cultivar is important in determining the soil biota responses to elevated O 3 . - Highlights: • We investigated the soil biota in two rice cultivars in presence of elevated O 3 . • The contrasting responses of soil biota were found between two rice cultivars. • Some keystone bacterial guilds were consistently negatively affected by O 3 pollution. • The crop cultivar is important in determining soil biota responses to elevated O 3 . - The crop cultivar is important in determining the soil biota responses to elevated O 3

  14. The relation between Arctic sea ice surface elevation and draft: A case study using coincident AUV sonar and airborne scanning laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doble, Martin J.; Skourup, Henriette; Wadhams, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Data are presented from a survey by airborne scanning laser profilometer and an AUV-mounted, upward looking swath sonar in the spring Beaufort Sea. The air-snow (surface elevation) and water-ice (draft) surfaces were mapped at 1 x 1 m resolution over a 300 x 300 m area. Data were separated...... into level and deformed ice fractions using the surface roughness of the sonar data. The relation (R = d/f) between draft, d, and surface elevation, f, was then examined. Correlation between top and bottom surfaces was essentially zero at full resolution, requiring averaging over patches of at least 11 m...... diameter to constrain the relation largely because of the significant error (similar to 15 cm) of the laser instrument. Level ice points were concentrated in two core regions, corresponding to level FY ice and refrozen leads, with variations in R attributed primarily to positive snow thickness variability...

  15. Multiple sclerosis showing elevation of adenosine deaminase levels in the cerebrospinal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuraki, Miharu; Sakai, Kenji; Odake, Yasuko; Yoshita, Mitsuhiro; Misaki, Kouichi; Nakada, Mitsutoshi; Yamada, Masahito

    2017-04-01

    An 80-year-old man developed dysarthria, quadriplegia, sensory disturbance and ataxia in all limbs. Brain and spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed multiple enhanced lesions. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of adenosine deaminase (ADA) remarkably elevated. Tuberculosis DNA was not detected, and tuberculosis was not cultured either in the CSF. Brain biopsy revealed the inflammatory demyelinating lesions. With the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis, corticosteroid therapy resulted in rapid improvement of his symptoms and MRI abnormalities. CSF levels of ADA also decreased. Multiple sclerosis should be included in differential diagnosis of disorders with ADA elevation in the CSF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Elevation change of the Greenland Ice Sheet due to surface mass balance and firn processes, 1960-2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers Munneke, P.; Ligtenberg, S. R M; Noël, B. P Y; Howat, I. M.; Box, J. E.; Mosley-Thompson, E.; McConnell, J. R.; Steffen, K.; Harper, J. T.; Das, S. B.; Van Den Broeke, M. R.

    2015-01-01

    Observed changes in the surface elevation of the Greenland Ice Sheet are caused by ice dynamics, basal elevation change, basal melt, surface mass balance (SMB) variability, and by compaction of the overlying firn. The last two contributions are quantified here using a firn model that includes

  17. Surface drainage in leveled land: Implication of slope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoniony S. Winkler

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the lowlands of Rio Grande do Sul, land leveling is mostly carried out with no slope for the purpose of rice production. In this environment, soils with a low hydraulic conductivity are predominant owing to the presence of a practically impermeable B-horizon near the surface. Land leveling leads to soil accommodation resulting in the formation of depressions where water accumulates after heavy rainfalls, subsequently leading to problems with crops implanted in succession to rice, such as soybeans. The objective of this research was to quantify the areas and volumes of water accumulation in soil as a function of the slope of land leveling. Five typical leveled lowland areas were studied as a part of this research. The original areas presented slopes of 0, 0.20, 0.25, 0.28 and 0.40%, which were used to generate new digital elevation models with slopes between 0 and 0.5%. These newly generated digital models were used to map the depressions with surface water storage. In conclusion, land leveling with slopes higher than 0.1% is recommended to minimize problems with superficial water storage in rice fields.

  18. Tidal marsh plant responses to elevated CO2 , nitrogen fertilization, and sea level rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam Langley, J; Mozdzer, Thomas J; Shepard, Katherine A; Hagerty, Shannon B; Patrick Megonigal, J

    2013-05-01

    Elevated CO2 and nitrogen (N) addition directly affect plant productivity and the mechanisms that allow tidal marshes to maintain a constant elevation relative to sea level, but it remains unknown how these global change drivers modify marsh plant response to sea level rise. Here we manipulated factorial combinations of CO2 concentration (two levels), N availability (two levels) and relative sea level (six levels) using in situ mesocosms containing a tidal marsh community composed of a sedge, Schoenoplectus americanus, and a grass, Spartina patens. Our objective is to determine, if elevated CO2 and N alter the growth and persistence of these plants in coastal ecosystems facing rising sea levels. After two growing seasons, we found that N addition enhanced plant growth particularly at sea levels where plants were most stressed by flooding (114% stimulation in the + 10 cm treatment), and N effects were generally larger in combination with elevated CO2 (288% stimulation). N fertilization shifted the optimal productivity of S. patens to a higher sea level, but did not confer S. patens an enhanced ability to tolerate sea level rise. S. americanus responded strongly to N only in the higher sea level treatments that excluded S. patens. Interestingly, addition of N, which has been suggested to accelerate marsh loss, may afford some marsh plants, such as the widespread sedge, S. americanus, the enhanced ability to tolerate inundation. However, if chronic N pollution reduces the availability of propagules of S. americanus or other flood-tolerant species on the landscape scale, this shift in species dominance could render tidal marshes more susceptible to marsh collapse. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Quantification of morphological properties of terrace surface using digital elevation model and its application to stratigraphic correlation of terraces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Shinya; Hataya, Ryuta; Hamada, Takaomi

    2008-01-01

    Uplift estimation during late Quaternary is required for site selection of geological disposal facility of high level radioactive waste (NUMO, 2004). Terrace level and/or difference in elevation of terraces are good indicators of uplift. Therefore, a reliable method of terrace correlation and chronology is a key issues. Air-photograph interpretation is generally carried out in the early stage of a terrace investigation. However, a terrace classification often depends on the observer's qualitative interpretation. In order to improve objectivity of geomorphic investigation with air-photograph interpretation, we examine to quantify the morphological properties of terrace surface by some morphometric variables that are computed from Digital Elevation Model (DEM). In this study, four morphometric variables (average slope, average laplacian, remaining ratio of a terrace surface, and average depth of erosion) were calculated using data sets of terraces of which chronological data are clearly described. The relationship between these variables and terrace ages shows constant tendencies respond to the geomorphological process caused by the erosion. To examine capability of morphometric variables as an index of terrace correlation, regression analyses were carried out. The regression age estimated from morphometric variables allows to classify terraces in correct sequence, and the error with the observed age falls up to 100,000 years. In addition, to discuss appropriate quantities of DEM for terrace correlation, we used three different elevation data to create DEM: 1) aerial photogrammetry data; 2) airborne laser scanner data; 3) 1:25000-scale contour map. By comparing analysis results of each DEMs, we show suitable qualities of elevation data and DEM grid size to represent the degree of erosion correctly. (author)

  20. Spectrum of Disorders Associated with Elevated Serum IgG4 Levels Encountered in Clinical Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay H. Ryu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD is a recently described systemic fibroinflammatory disease associated with elevated circulating levels of IgG4 and manifests a wide spectrum of clinical presentations. Although serum IgG4 level has been described to be the most sensitive and specific laboratory test for the diagnosis of IgG4-RD, it is recognized that an elevated serum IgG4 level can be encountered in other diseases. In this study, we sought to identify the frequency of IgG4-RD and other disease associations in patients with elevated serum IgG4 levels seen in clinical practice. Among 3,300 patients who underwent IgG subclass testing over a 2-year period from January 2009 to December 2010, 158 (4.8% had an elevated serum IgG4 level (>140 mg/dL. IgG4 subclass testing was performed for evaluation of suspected IgG4-RD or immunodeficiency. Twenty-nine patients (18.4% had definite or possible IgG4-RD. Among those patients without IgG4-RD, a broad spectrum of biliary tract, pancreatic, liver, and lung diseases, as well as systemic vasculitis, was diagnosed. We conclude that patients with elevated serum IgG4 levels encountered in clinical practice manifest a wide array of disorders, and only a small minority of them has IgG4-RD.

  1. Elevated ground-level O3 negatively influences paddy methanogenic archaeal community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Youzhi; Lin, Xiangui; Yu, Yongchang; Zhang, Huayong; Chu, Haiyan; Zhu, Jianguo

    2013-01-01

    The current knowledge regarding the effect of global climate change on rice-paddy methane (CH4) emissions is incomplete, partly because information is limited concerning the mechanism of the microbial response to elevated ground-level ozone (O3). A field experiment was conducted in the China Ozone Free-Air Concentration Enrichment facility in a rice–wheat rotation system to investigate the responses of methanogenic archaeal communities to elevated ground-level O3 by culture-independent and -reliant approaches. We found that elevated ground-level O3 inhibited methanogenic activity and influenced the composition of paddy methanogenic communities, reducing the abundance and diversity of paddy methanogens by adversely affecting dominant groups, such as aceticlastic Methanosaeta, especially at the rice tillering stage. Our results indicated that continuously elevated ground-level O3 would negatively influence paddy methanogenic archaeal communities and its critical ecological function. These findings will contribute to a comprehensive understanding of the responses and feedbacks of paddy ecosystems to global climate change. PMID:24217205

  2. Elevated Level of Serum Triglyceride may be the only threat of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heena

    2012-06-28

    Jun 28, 2012 ... Full Length Research Paper. Elevated level of serum triglyceride among high risk stress bank employees in Riyadh region of Saudi. Arabia. Abbas H Alsaeed. Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. E-mail: abbasalsaeed@yahoo.com. Tel: +966 555459161 ...

  3. Elevated plasma levels of the long pentraxin, pentraxin 3, in severe dengue virus infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mairuhu, Albert T. A.; Peri, Giuseppe; Setiati, Tatty E.; Hack, C. Erik; Koraka, Penelopie; Soemantri, Augustinus; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.; Brandjes, Dees P. M.; van der Meer, Jos W. M.; Mantovani, Alberto; van Gorp, Eric C. M.

    2005-01-01

    C-reactive protein is one of the most widely used indicators of the response of acute-phase proteins. The measurement of C-reactive protein in dengue, however, is clinically not useful, because of marginally elevated levels and absent association with disease severity. The prototypic long pentraxin,

  4. Elevated plasma levels of the long pentraxin, pentraxin 3, in severe dengue virus infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mairuhu, ATA; Peri, G; Setiati, TE; Hack, CE; Koraka, P; Soemantri, A; Osterhaus, ADME; Brandjes, DPM; van der Meer, JWM; Mantovani, A; van Gorp, ECM

    C-reactive protein is one of the most widely used indicators of the response of acute-phase proteins. The measurement of C-reactive protein in dengue, however, is clinically not useful, because of marginally elevated levels and absent association with disease severity. The prototypic long pentraxin,

  5. Elevated plasma levels of the long pentraxin, pentraxin 3, in severe dengue virus infections.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mairuhu, A.T.; Peri, G.; Setiati, T.E.; Hack, C.E.; Koraka, P.; Soemantri, A.; Osterhaus, A.D.; Brandjes, D.P.; Meer, J.W.M. van der; Mantovani, A.; Gorp, E. van

    2005-01-01

    C-reactive protein is one of the most widely used indicators of the response of acute-phase proteins. The measurement of C-reactive protein in dengue, however, is clinically not useful, because of marginally elevated levels and absent association with disease severity. The prototypic long pentraxin,

  6. Elevated circulating leptin levels in arterial hypertension: relationship to arteriovenous overflow and extraction of leptin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Holst, J J; Møller, Søren

    2000-01-01

    Leptin, a peptide hormone produced mainly in fat cells, appears to be important for the regulation of metabolism, insulin secretion/sensitivity and body weight. Recently, elevated plasma leptin levels have been reported in patients with arterial hypertension. Because a change in circulating lepti...

  7. Malakoplakia of the prostate diagnosed by elevated PSA level and transrectal prostate biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacit Nuri Görgel

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Malakoplakia is an inflammation which is thought to develop secondary to chronic Escherichia coli infections. Although often seen in the genitourinary tract, it can also be seen in colon, stomach, lung, liver, bone, uterus, and skin. In this case report, we present prostatic malakoplakia diagnosed by elevated prostate-specific antigen level and transrectal prostate biopsy.

  8. Elevated circulating leptin levels in arterial hypertension: relationship to arteriovenous overflow and extraction of leptin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Holst, J J; Moller, S

    2000-01-01

    during catheterization with elective blood sampling from different vascular beds (artery, and renal, hepatic, iliac and cubital veins). Plasma leptin was determined by a radioimmunoassay. Patients with hypertension had significantly elevated levels of circulating leptin (12.8 ng/l, compared with 4.1 ng....../l in the controls; Pblood pressure (r=0.38-0.62, P...

  9. There Is No Elevation of Immunoglobulin E Levels in Albanian Patients with Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatixhe Latifi-Pupovci

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Studies in several ethnic groups reported high incidence of elevated levels of immunoglobulin E (IgE in patients with autoimmune thyroid diseases (ATD, especially in patients with Graves’ disease. Objective. To study association between serum levels of IgE and thyroid stimulating hormone receptor antibodies (TRAb in Albanian patients with ATD. Material and Methods. Study was performed in 40 patients with Graves’ disease, 15 patients with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, and 14 subjects in the control group. The IgE levels were measured by immunoradiometric assay, whereas the TRAb levels were measured by radioreceptor assay. Results. In all groups of subjects the IgE levels were within reference values (<200 kIU/L. Significant difference in mean concentration of IgE was found between two groups of Graves’ disease patients, and those with normal and elevated TRAb levels (22.57 versus 45.03, P<0.05. Positive correlation was found between TRAb and IgE only in Graves’ disease patients (r=0.43, P=0.006. Conclusion. In Albanian patients with ATD there is no elevation of IgE levels. This could be the result of low prevalence of allergic diseases in Albanian population determined by genetic and environmental factors.

  10. Elevated second-trimester serum homocyst(e)ine levels and subsequent risk of preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, T K; Malinow, M R; Williams, M A; King, I B; Luthy, D A

    1999-01-01

    Elevated plasma homocyst(e)ine is a risk factor for endothelial dysfunction and vascular disease. In late gestation, levels of homocyst(e)ine are higher in preeclamptics, as compared with normotensive pregnant women. Our objective was to determine whether homocyst(e)ine elevations precede the development of preeclampsia. We used a prospective nested case-control study design to compare second trimester maternal serum homocyst(e)ine concentrations in 52 patients who developed preeclampsia (pregnancy-induced hypertension with proteinuria) compared with 56 women who remained normotensive throughout pregnancy. Study subjects were selected from a base population of 3, 042 women who provided blood samples at an average gestational age of 16 weeks and later delivered at our center. Serum homocyst(e)ine was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography and electrochemical detection. Approximately 29% of preeclamptics, as compared to 13% of controls had homocyst(e)ine levels >/=5.5 micromol/l (upper decile of distribution of control values). Adjusted for maternal age, parity, and body mass-index, a second trimester elevation of homocyst(e)ine was associated with a 3. 2-fold increased risk of preeclampsia (adjusted OR = 3.2; 95% CI 1. 1-9.2; p = 0.030). There was evidence of a interaction between maternal adiposity (as indicated by her prepregnancy body mass index) and parity with second trimester elevations in serum homocyst(e)ine. Nulliparous women with elevated homocyst(e)ine levels experienced a 9.7-fold increased risk of preeclampsia as compared with multiparous women without homocyst(e)ine elevations (95% CI 2.1-14.1; p = 0.003). Women with a higher prepregnancy body mass index (>/=21.4 kg/m(2), or upper 50th percentile) and who also had elevated homocyst(e)ine levels, as compared with leaner women without homocyst(e)ine elevations were 6.9 times more likely to later develop preeclampsia (95% CI 1.4-32.1; p = 0.016). Our findings are consistent with other

  11. Serum alkaline phosphatase levels associate with elevated serum C-reactive protein in chronic kidney disease

    OpenAIRE

    Damera, Sriharsha; Raphael, Kalani L.; Baird, Bradley C.; Cheung, Alfred K.; Greene, Tom; Beddhu, Srinivasan

    2010-01-01

    High serum alkaline phosphatase concentrations are associated with elevated serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in the general population. To examine whether this association is independent of serum vitamin D levels or modified in chronic kidney disease (CKD), we determined if such associations exist using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III of 14,420 adult participants in which 5.7% had CKD (defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate < 60 ml/min per 1.73...

  12. CT Findings of Disease with Elevated Serum D-Dimer Levels in an Emergency Room Setting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Ji Youn; Kwon, Woo Cheol; Kim, Young Ju [Dept. of Radiology, Wonju Christian Hospital, Yensei University Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    Pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis are the leading causes of elevated serum D-dimer levels in the emergency room. Although D-dimer is a useful screening test because of its high sensitivity and negative predictive value, it has a low specificity. In addition, D-dimer can be elevated in various diseases. Therefore, information on the various diseases with elevated D-dimer levels and their radiologic findings may allow for accurate diagnosis and proper management. Herein, we report the CT findings of various diseases with elevated D-dimer levels in an emergency room setting, including an intravascular contrast filling defect with associated findings in a venous thromboembolism, fracture with soft tissue swelling and hematoma formation in a trauma patient, enlargement with contrast enhancement in the infected organ of a patient, coronary artery stenosis with a perfusion defect of the myocardium in a patient with acute myocardial infarction, high density of acute thrombus in a cerebral vessel with a low density of affected brain parenchyma in an acute cerebral infarction, intimal flap with two separated lumens in a case of aortic dissection, organ involvement of malignancy in a cancer patient, and atrophy of a liver with a dilated portal vein and associated findings.

  13. C-reactive protein, genetically elevated levels and risk of ischemic heart and cerebrovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zacho, Jeppe; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne

    2009-01-01

    We tested whether genetically elevated levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) cause increased risk of ischemic heart disease and ischemic cerebrovascular disease. Levels of CRP >3mg/L, compared with levels disease and ischemic...... cerebrovascular disease. Genotype combinations of the 4 CRP polymorphisms associated with up to a 64% increase in CRP levels, resulting in a theoretically predicted increased risk of up to 32% for ischemic heart disease and up to 25% for ischemic cerebrovascular disease. However, these genotype combinations did...... not associate with increased risk of ischemic heart and cerebrovascular disease....

  14. HDAC inhibition induces increased choline uptake and elevated phosphocholine levels in MCF7 breast cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher S Ward

    Full Text Available Histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors have emerged as effective antineoplastic agents in the clinic. Studies from our lab and others have reported that magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS-detectable phosphocholine (PC is elevated following SAHA treatment, providing a potential noninvasive biomarker of response. Typically, elevated PC is associated with cancer while a decrease in PC accompanies response to antineoplastic treatment. The goal of this study was therefore to elucidate the underlying biochemical mechanism by which HDAC inhibition leads to elevated PC. We investigated the effect of SAHA on MCF-7 breast cancer cells using (13C MRS to monitor [1,2-(13C] choline uptake and phosphorylation to PC. We found that PC synthesis was significantly higher in treated cells, representing 154±19% of control. This was within standard deviation of the increase in total PC levels detected by (31P MRS (129±7% of control. Furthermore, cellular choline kinase activity was elevated (177±31%, while cytidylyltransferase activity was unchanged. Expression of the intermediate-affinity choline transporter SLC44A1 and choline kinase α increased (144% and 161%, respectively relative to control, as determined by mRNA microarray analysis with protein-level confirmation by Western blotting. Taken together, our findings indicate that the increase in PC levels following SAHA treatment results from its elevated synthesis. Additionally, the concentration of glycerophosphocholine (GPC increased significantly with treatment to 210±45%. This is likely due to the upregulated expression of several phospholipase A2 (PLA2 isoforms, resulting in increased PLA2 activity (162±18% in SAHA-treated cells. Importantly, the levels of total choline (tCho-containing metabolites, comprised of choline, PC and GPC, are readily detectable clinically using (1H MRS. Our findings thus provide an important step in validating clinically translatable non-invasive imaging methods for follow

  15. Plasma PCSK9 levels are elevated with acute myocardial infarction in two independent retrospective angiographic studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naif A M Almontashiri

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9 is a circulating protein that promotes degradation of the low density lipoprotein (LDL receptor. Mutations that block PCSK9 secretion reduce LDL-cholesterol and the incidence of myocardial infarction (MI. However, it remains unclear whether elevated plasma PCSK9 associates with coronary atherosclerosis (CAD or more directly with rupture of the plaque causing MI. METHODS AND RESULTS: Plasma PCSK9 was measured by ELISA in 645 angiographically defined controls (50% stenosis in a major coronary artery from the Ottawa Heart Genomics Study. Because lipid lowering medications elevated plasma PCSK9, confounding association with disease, only individuals not taking a lipid lowering medication were considered (279 controls and 492 with CAD. Replication was sought in 357 controls and 465 with CAD from the Emory Cardiology Biobank study. PCSK9 levels were not associated with CAD in Ottawa, but were elevated with CAD in Emory. Plasma PCSK9 levels were elevated in 45 cases with acute MI (363.5±140.0 ng/ml compared to 398 CAD cases without MI (302.0±91.3 ng/ml, p = 0.004 in Ottawa. This finding was replicated in the Emory study in 74 cases of acute MI (445.0±171.7 ng/ml compared to 273 CAD cases without MI (369.9±139.1 ng/ml, p = 3.7×10(-4. Since PCSK9 levels were similar in CAD patients with or without a prior (non-acute MI, our finding suggests that plasma PCSK9 is elevated either immediately prior to or at the time of MI. CONCLUSION: Plasma PCSK9 levels are increased with acute MI.

  16. Long-term outcome of patients with elevated parathyroid hormone levels after successful parathyroidectomy for sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solorzano, Carmen C; Mendez, William; Lew, John I; Rodgers, Steven E; Montano, Raquel; Carneiro-Pla, Denise M; Irvin, George L

    2008-07-01

    Untreated long-term elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels after successful parathyroidectomy may predict recurrent hyperparathyroidism (HPT). Although elevated PTH levels have been reported in eucalcemic patients after parathyroidectomy for sporadic primary HPT, the long-term clinical significance of this finding remains unclear. Retrospective case series. Tertiary referral center. Five hundred seventy-six consecutive patients with HPT. Parathyroidectomy guided by intraoperative monitoring of PTH levels. Overall incidence of elevated PTH levels (measurements of >or= 70 pg/mL at any time during follow-up) and recurrent HPT (hypercalcemia and elevated PTH levels more than 6 months after parathyroidectomy). Of the 505 patients who underwent successful parathyroidectomy in this series and were followed up for more than 6 months, 337 (66.7%) consistently had PTH levels within the reference range, and 168 (33.3%) had elevated PTH levels. Of the 168 patients with elevated PTH levels, only 8 (4.8%) developed recurrent disease. The earliest recurrence occurred 2 years postoperatively. Factors associated with elevated PTH levels included advanced age, higher preoperative PTH levels, and mild postoperative renal insufficiency. Although one-third of the patients had elevated PTH levels after successful parathyroidectomy, most of these patients with elevated PTH levels (95%) will achieve long-term eucalcemia.

  17. Elevated C-reactive protein levels in schizophrenia inpatients is associated with aggressive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzilay, R; Lobel, T; Krivoy, A; Shlosberg, D; Weizman, A; Katz, N

    2016-01-01

    An association between inflammation and behavioral domains of mental disorders is of growing interest. Recent studies reported an association between aggression and inflammation. In this study, we investigated the association between aggressive behavior and inflammatory markers in schizophrenia inpatients. Adult schizophrenia inpatients without affective symptoms (n=213) were retrospectively identified and categorized according to their C-reactive protein measurement at admission as either elevated (CRP>1 mg/dL; n=57) or normal (CRPaggression were compared: PANSS excitement component (PANSS-EC), restraints and suicidal behavior during hospitalization. Univariate comparisons between elevated and normal CRP levels were performed and multivariate analysis was conducted to control for relevant covariates. CRP levels significantly correlated with other laboratory markers indicating increased inflammation including leukocyte count and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (r=0.387, Paggressive behavior compared to patients with normal CRP levels (aggression) in schizophrenia inpatients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Vitamin D levels and susceptibility to asthma, elevated immunoglobulin E levels, and atopic dermatitis: A Mendelian randomization study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manousaki, Despoina; Paternoster, Lavinia; Standl, Marie; Moffatt, Miriam F; Farrall, Martin; Bouzigon, Emmanuelle; Strachan, David P; Demenais, Florence; Lathrop, Mark; Cookson, William O C M; Richards, J Brent

    2017-05-01

    Low circulating vitamin D levels have been associated with risk of asthma, atopic dermatitis, and elevated total immunoglobulin E (IgE). These epidemiological associations, if true, would have public health importance, since vitamin D insufficiency is common and correctable. We aimed to test whether genetically lowered vitamin D levels were associated with risk of asthma, atopic dermatitis, or elevated serum IgE levels, using Mendelian randomization (MR) methodology to control bias owing to confounding and reverse causation. The study employed data from the UK Biobank resource and from the SUNLIGHT, GABRIEL and EAGLE eczema consortia. Using four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) strongly associated with 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels in 33,996 individuals, we conducted MR studies to estimate the effect of lowered 25OHD on the risk of asthma (n = 146,761), childhood onset asthma (n = 15,008), atopic dermatitis (n = 40,835), and elevated IgE level (n = 12,853) and tested MR assumptions in sensitivity analyses. None of the four 25OHD-lowering alleles were associated with asthma, atopic dermatitis, or elevated IgE levels (p ≥ 0.2). The MR odds ratio per standard deviation decrease in log-transformed 25OHD was 1.03 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.90-1.19, p = 0.63) for asthma, 0.95 (95% CI 0.69-1.31, p = 0.76) for childhood-onset asthma, and 1.12 (95% CI 0.92-1.37, p = 0.27) for atopic dermatitis, and the effect size on log-transformed IgE levels was -0.40 (95% CI -1.65 to 0.85, p = 0.54). These results persisted in sensitivity analyses assessing population stratification and pleiotropy and vitamin D synthesis and metabolism pathways. The main limitations of this study are that the findings do not exclude an association between the studied outcomes and 1,25-dihydoxyvitamin D, the active form of vitamin D, the study was underpowered to detect effects smaller than an OR of 1.33 for childhood asthma, and the analyses were restricted to white populations of

  19. Where’s the Ground Surface? – Elevation Bias in LIDAR-derived Digital Elevation Models Due to Dense Vegetation in Oregon Tidal Marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) is a powerful resource for coastal and wetland managers and its use is increasing. Vegetation density and other land cover characteristics influence the accuracy of LIDAR-derived ground surface digital elevation models; however the degree to wh...

  20. Changes in canopy cover alter surface air and forest floor temperature in a high-elevation red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnny L. Boggs; Steven G. McNulty

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to describe winter and summer surface air and forest floor temperature patterns and diurnal fluctuations in high-elevation red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) forests with different levels of canopy cover. In 1988, a series of 10- x 10-meter plots (control, low nitrogen [N] addition, and high nitrogen addition) were...

  1. The influence of changes in glacier extent and surface elevation on modeled mass balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Paul

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Glaciers are widely recognized as unique demonstration objects for climate change impacts, mostly due to the strong change of glacier length in response to small climatic changes. However, glacier mass balance as the direct response to the annual atmospheric conditions can be better interpreted in meteorological terms. When the climatic signal is deduced from long-term mass balance data, changes in glacier geometry (i.e. surface extent and elevation must be considered as such adjustments form an essential part of the glacier reaction to new climatic conditions. In this study, a set of modelling experiments is performed to assess the influence of changes in glacier geometry on mass balance for constant climatic conditions. The calculations are based on a simplified distributed energy/mass balance model in combination with information on glacier extent and surface elevation for the years 1850 and 1973/1985 for about 60 glaciers in the Swiss Alps. The results reveal that over this period about 50–70% of the glacier reaction to climate change (here a one degree increase in temperature is "hidden" in the geometric adjustment, while only 30–50% can be measured as the long-term mean mass balance. For larger glaciers, the effect of the areal change is partly reduced by a lowered surface elevation, which results in a slightly more negative balance despite a potential increase of topographic shading. In view of several additional reinforcement feedbacks that are observed in periods of strong glacier decline, it seems that the climatic interpretation of long-term mass balance data is rather complex.

  2. Elevated levels of plasma homocyst(e)ine and asymmetric dimethylarginine in elderly patients with stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, J H; Lee, S C

    2001-10-01

    Cerebrovascular risk factors, including hypertension, smoking, diabetes mellitus, aging, dyslipidemia, and hyperhomocyst(e)inemia are linked to endothelial dysfunction. Endothelial-derived nitric oxide (NO) has inhibitory effects on key processes in atherothrombosis. Although asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous inhibitor of NO synthase, is associated with atherosclerotic disease, there has been no report on association of ADMA with ischemic stroke. Here we investigated the relation of plasma ADMA, stroke, and homocyst(e)inemia in the elderly. Plasma ADMA and homocyst(e)ine concentration was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection. Patients with ischemic stroke had significantly higher concentrations of plasma ADMA than controls (1.85+/-1.32 vs. 0.93+/-0.32 micromol/l, P=0.0001). After adjustment for risk factors, elevated ADMA levels, above 90th percentile of normal controls (> or =1.43 micromol/l) was associated with stroke (OR=6.05, 95% CI; 2.77-13.3, P=0.02). ADMA plasma levels were positively correlated to homocyst(e)ine levels (r=0.43, P=0.01). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that hyperhomocyst(e)inemia (plasma homocyst(e)ine concentration > or =15.0 micromol/l) was a significant predictor of elevated ADMA level. Altogether, findings indicate that elevated ADMA concentrations are at increased risk for ischemic stroke in the elderly, and may account for increased risk of stroke in patients with hyperhomocyst(e)inemia.

  3. Elevated Salivary Levels of Oxytocin Persist More than 7 h after Intranasal Administration

    OpenAIRE

    van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Bhandari, Ritu; van der Veen, Rixt; Grewen, Karen M.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.

    2012-01-01

    We addressed the question how long salivary oxytocin levels remain elevated after intranasal administration, and whether it makes a difference when 16 or 24 IU of oxytocin administration is used. Oxytocin levels were measured in saliva samples collected from 46 female participants right before intranasal administration (at 9:30 a.m.) of 16 IU (n = 18) or 24 IU (n = 10) of oxytocin, or a placebo (n = 18), and each hour after administration, for 7 h in total. Oxytocin levels did not differ amon...

  4. Elevated salivary levels of oxytocin persist more than seven hours after intranasal administration

    OpenAIRE

    Marinus H. Van IJzendoorn; Ritu eBhandari; Rixt evan der Veen; Karen eGrewen; Marian J. Bakermans-Kranenburg

    2012-01-01

    We addressed the question how long salivary oxytocin levels remain elevated after intranasal administration, and whether it makes a difference when 16 IU or 24 IU of oxytocin administration is used. Oxytocin levels were measured in saliva samples collected from 46 female participants right before intranasal administration (at 9:30 AM) of 16 IU (n = 18) or 24 IU (n = 10) of oxytocin, or a placebo (n = 18), and each hour after administration, for 7h in total.Oxytocin levels did not differ among...

  5. Elevated Blood Lead Levels of Children in Guiyu, an Electronic Waste Recycling Town in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Xia; Peng, Lin; Xu, Xijin; Zheng, Liangkai; Qiu, Bo; Qi, Zongli; Zhang, Bao; Han, Dai; Piao, Zhongxian

    2007-01-01

    Background Electronic waste (e-waste) recycling has remained primitive in Guiyu, China, and thus may contribute to the elevation of blood lead levels (BLLs) in children living in the local environment. Objectives We compared the BLLs in children living in the e-waste recycling town of Guiyu with those living in the neighboring town of Chendian. Methods We observed the processing of e-waste recycling in Guiyu and studied BLLs in a cluster sample of 226 children 10 μg/dL, compared with 37.7% of children (23 of 61) in Chendian (p e-waste workshops. However, no significant difference in Hgb level or physical indexes was found between the two towns. Conclusions The primitive e-waste recycling activities may contribute to the elevated BLLs in children living in Guiyu. PMID:17637931

  6. Divergence of seafloor elevation and sea level rise in coral reef ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Kimberly K.; Zawada, David G.; Smiley, Nathan A.; Tiling-Range, Ginger

    2017-04-01

    Coral reefs serve as natural barriers that protect adjacent shorelines from coastal hazards such as storms, waves, and erosion. Projections indicate global degradation of coral reefs due to anthropogenic impacts and climate change will cause a transition to net erosion by mid-century. Here, we provide a comprehensive assessment of the combined effect of all of the processes affecting seafloor accretion and erosion by measuring changes in seafloor elevation and volume for five coral reef ecosystems in the Atlantic, Pacific, and Caribbean over the last several decades. Regional-scale mean elevation and volume losses were observed at all five study sites and in 77 % of the 60 individual habitats that we examined across all study sites. Mean seafloor elevation losses for whole coral reef ecosystems in our study ranged from -0.09 to -0.8 m, corresponding to net volume losses ranging from 3.4 × 106 to 80.5 × 106 m3 for all study sites. Erosion of both coral-dominated substrate and non-coral substrate suggests that the current rate of carbonate production is no longer sufficient to support net accretion of coral reefs or adjacent habitats. We show that regional-scale loss of seafloor elevation and volume has accelerated the rate of relative sea level rise in these regions. Current water depths have increased to levels not predicted until near the year 2100, placing these ecosystems and nearby communities at elevated and accelerating risk to coastal hazards. Our results set a new baseline for projecting future impacts to coastal communities resulting from degradation of coral reef systems and associated losses of natural and socioeconomic resources.

  7. Divergence of seafloor elevation and sea level rise in coral reef ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Kimberly K.; Zawada, David G.; Smiley, Nathan A.; Tiling-Range, Ginger

    2017-01-01

    Coral reefs serve as natural barriers that protect adjacent shorelines from coastal hazards such as storms, waves, and erosion. Projections indicate global degradation of coral reefs due to anthropogenic impacts and climate change will cause a transition to net erosion by mid-century. Here, we provide a comprehensive assessment of the combined effect of all of the processes affecting seafloor accretion and erosion by measuring changes in seafloor elevation and volume for five coral reef ecosystems in the Atlantic, Pacific, and Caribbean over the last several decades. Regional-scale mean elevation and volume losses were observed at all five study sites and in 77 % of the 60 individual habitats that we examined across all study sites. Mean seafloor elevation losses for whole coral reef ecosystems in our study ranged from −0.09 to −0.8 m, corresponding to net volume losses ranging from 3.4  ×  106 to 80.5  ×  106 m3 for all study sites. Erosion of both coral-dominated substrate and non-coral substrate suggests that the current rate of carbonate production is no longer sufficient to support net accretion of coral reefs or adjacent habitats. We show that regional-scale loss of seafloor elevation and volume has accelerated the rate of relative sea level rise in these regions. Current water depths have increased to levels not predicted until near the year 2100, placing these ecosystems and nearby communities at elevated and accelerating risk to coastal hazards. Our results set a new baseline for projecting future impacts to coastal communities resulting from degradation of coral reef systems and associated losses of natural and socioeconomic resources.

  8. Elevated Blood Lead Levels Are Associated with Reduced Risk of Malaria in Beninese Infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Moya-Alvarez

    Full Text Available Elevated blood lead levels (BLL and malaria carry an important burden of disease in West Africa. Both diseases might cause anemia and they might entail long-term consequences for the development and the health status of the child. Albeit the significant impact of malaria on lead levels described in Nigeria, no evaluation of the effect of elevated BLL on malaria risk has been investigated so far.Between 2010 and 2012, blood lead levels of 203 Beninese infants from Allada, a semi-rural area 50km North from Cotonou, were assessed at 12 months of age. To assess lead levels, blood samples were analyzed by mass spectrometry. In parallel, clinical, microbiological and hematological data were collected. More precisely, hemoglobin, serum ferritin, CRP, vitamin B12, folate levels, and Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia were assessed and stool samples were also analyzed.At 12 months, the mean BLL of infants was 7.41 μg/dL (CI: 65.2; 83, and 128 infants (63% had elevated blood lead levels, defined by the CDC as BLL>5 μg/dL. Lead poisoning, defined as BLL>10 μg/dL, was found in 39 infants (19%. Twenty-five infants (12.5% had a positive blood smear at 12 months and 144 infants were anemic (71%, hemoglobin<110 g/L. Elevated blood lead levels were significantly associated with reduced risk of a positive blood smear (AOR = 0.38, P-value = 0.048 and P. falciparum parasite density (beta-estimate = -1.42, P-value = 0.03 in logistic and negative binomial regression multivariate models, respectively, adjusted on clinical and environmental indicators.Our study shows for the first time that BLL are negatively associated with malarial risk considering other risk factors. Malaria is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in infants under 5 years worldwide, and lead poisoning is the 6th most important contributor to the global burden of diseases measured in disability adjusted life years (DALYs according to the Institute of Health Metrics. In conclusion, due

  9. Factors Associated with Elevated HIV RNA Levels in HIV-Infected Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Degener, Tyler; Allen, Sara; Wilson, Alicia; Baranoski, Amy

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Virologic suppression is necessary to reduce the risk of complications from HIV infection and to prevent transmission to other individuals. Understanding factors associated with elevated HIV RNA levels in HIV-infected individuals could lead to interventions to improve engagement in care. Methods This retrospective, observational study assessed HIV-infected individuals engaged in care in an urban HIV clinic between April 1, 2015 and March 31, 2016. The electronic medical re...

  10. Elevated levels of AST, ALT, and CPK · no family history of liver disease · Dx?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mitesh B; Maddur, Haripriya

    2017-07-01

    A 26-year-old healthy male veteran with bipolar disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder was referred for a gastroenterology consultation after a routine laboratory evaluation revealed elevated levels of aspartate aminotransferase, 1040 IU/L (normal range, 10-40 IU/L), and alanine aminotransferase, 334 IU/L (normal range, 7-56 IU/L). He had been taking divalproex and ziprasidone for the previous 2 years, during which time liver test results had been normal.

  11. Plasma levels of myeloperoxidase are not elevated in patients with stable coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubala, Lukas; Lu, Guijing; Baldus, Stephan; Berglund, Lars; Eiserich, Jason P

    2008-08-01

    Plasma and serum levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO), a redox-active hemoprotein released by polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) upon activation, is now recognized as a powerful prognostic determinant of myocardial infarction in patients suffering acute coronary syndromes. However, there is limited information on whether systemic MPO levels are also elevated and of discriminating value in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) representing different ethnic groups. Plasma levels of MPO and traditional CAD risk factors were quantified in African American and Caucasian patients (n=557) undergoing elective coronary angiography. MPO levels did not differ significantly between patients with or without CAD [421 pM (321, 533) vs. 412 pM (326, 500), p>0.05]. MPO levels were similar across ethnicity and gender, and correlated positively with CRP and fibrinogen levels (r=0.132, p=0.002 and r=0.106, p=0.011, respectively). In conclusion, plasma MPO levels were not elevated in patients with stable CAD, suggesting that systemic release of MPO is not a characteristic feature of asymptomatic CAD.

  12. Effect of Sustained Elevated Gastric pH Levels on Gefitinib Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Weifeng; Tomkinson, Helen; Masson, Eric

    2017-09-01

    This open-label, randomized, phase 1 crossover study investigated the effect of elevated gastric pH level (>5) on the relative bioavailability and pharmacokinetic profile of the epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor gefitinib. Healthy male volunteers (n = 26) were randomized to gefitinib 250 mg (fasted), either alone on day 1 (unmodified gastric pH) or 1 hour following the second of 2 oral doses of the H 2 -receptor antagonist ranitidine 450 mg (elevated gastric pH). After a 3-week washout period, volunteers crossed to the other treatment. The geometric least-squares (GLS) mean AUC 0-∞ and C max for gefitinib were reduced by 47% and 71%, respectively, under conditions of sustained elevated gastric pH; for both parameters, the 90%CI for the ratio of the GLS means lay below the prespecified lower limit. Median t max was delayed from 5 to 6 hours. Mean t 1/2 was similar under both gastric pH conditions. No serious adverse events were reported. The bioavailability of a single oral gefitinib 250-mg dose was reduced by approximately 50% when gefitinib was administered under conditions of sustained elevated gastric pH. © 2017, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  13. Greek rheumatoid arthritis patients have elevated levels of antibodies against antigens from Proteus mirabilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopoulos, Georgios; Christopoulou, V; Routsias, J G; Babionitakis, A; Antoniadis, C; Vaiopoulos, G

    2017-03-01

    Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) from different ethnic groups present elevated levels of antibodies against Proteus mirabilis. This finding implicates P. mirabilis in the development of RA. The aim of this study was to investigate the importance of P. mirabilis in the etiopathogenesis of RA in Greek RA patients. In this study, 63 patients with RA and 38 healthy controls were included. Class-specific antibodies IgM, IgG, and IgA against three human cross-reactive and non-cross-reactive synthetic peptides from P. mirabilis-hemolysin (HpmB), urease C (UreC), and urease F (UreF)-were performed in all subjects, using the ELISA method. RA patients had elevated levels of IgM, IgG, and IgA antibodies against HpmB and UreC Proteus peptide which are significantly different compared to healthy controls: p = 0.005, p Greek RA patients present elevated levels of antibodies against P. mirabilis antigenic epitopes, such as in North European populations, albeit Greek RA patients presenting the cross-reaction antigen in a low percentage. These results indicate that P. mirabilis through the molecular mimicry mechanism leads to inflammation and damage of the joints in RA.

  14. Cronkhite-Canada syndrome showing elevated levels of antinuclear and anticentromere antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Seisuke; Kasahara, Akinori; Tada, Shoko; Tanaka, Takehiro; Umena, Sachio; Fukatsu, Haruka; Noguchi, Toshio; Matsumura, Tadashi

    2015-02-01

    A 56-year-old female initially visited an otorhinolaryngologist because of an impaired sense of taste in September, 2010 and was referred to our facility in October, 2010. She was diagnosed with Basedow's disease for which she underwent subtotal thyroidectomy in 1984 and arthritis involving multiple joints, primarily affecting her hands. In addition, the anticentromere antibody (ACA) level was markedly high. On physical examination, alopecia as well as hyperpigmentation of the dorsum of the hands and back was observed. Dystrophic changes of the fingernails and a bilateral thumb abduction deformity were observed. Antinuclear antibodies were elevated. Gastrointestinal endoscopy and colonoscopy revealed the mucosa carpeted with strawberry-like polypoid lesions. Histopathological examination of the biopsied specimen of the stomach revealed a corkscrew-like appearance. Thus, the patient was diagnosed with Cronkhite-Canada syndrome (CCS). She admitted to our hospital in November, 2010. Oral prednisolone was administered with success. In July, 2012, her antimitochondrial M2 antibody level was elevated. To the best of our knowledge, the present case is the first patient with CCS, a history of Basedow's disease, and elevated levels of ACA and antimitochondrial M2 antibody. We consider the present case suggests CCS could be caused by immunological abnormality.

  15. Vacuum level effects on gait characteristics for unilateral transtibial amputees with elevated vacuum suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hang; Greenland, Kasey; Bloswick, Donald; Zhao, Jie; Merryweather, Andrew

    2017-03-01

    The elevated vacuum suspension system has demonstrated unique health benefits for amputees, but the effect of vacuum pressure values on gait characteristics is still unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of elevated vacuum levels on temporal parameters, kinematics and kinetics for unilateral transtibial amputees. Three-dimensional gait analysis was conducted in 9 unilateral transtibial amputees walking at a controlled speed with five vacuum levels ranging from 0 to 20inHg, and also in 9 able-bodied subjects walking at self-preferred speed. Repeated ANOVA and Dunnett's t-test were performed to determine the effect of vacuum level and limb for within subject and between groups. The effect of vacuum level significantly affected peak hip external rotation and external knee adduction moment. Maximum braking and propulsive ground reaction forces generally increased for the residual limb and decreased for the intact limb with increasing vacuum. Additionally, the intact limb experienced an increased loading due to gait asymmetry for several variables. There was no systematic vacuum level effect on gait. Higher vacuum levels, such as 15 and 20inHg, were more comfortable and provided some relief to the intact limb, but may also increase the risk of osteoarthritis of the residual limb due to the increased peak external hip and knee adduction moments. Very low vacuum should be avoided because of the negative effects on gait symmetry. A moderate vacuum level at 15inHg is suggested for unilateral transtibial amputees with elevated vacuum suspension. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The two-thumb technique using an elevated surface is preferable for teaching infant cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Trang K; Hemway, Rae Jean; Perlman, Jeffrey M

    2012-10-01

    To determine whether the two-thumb technique is superior to the two-finger technique for administering chest compressions using the floor surface and the preferred location for performing infant cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) (ie, floor, table, or radiant warmer). Twenty Neonatal Resuscitation Program trained medical personnel performed CPR on a neonatal manikin utilizing the two-thumb vs two-finger technique, a compression to ventilation ratio of 30:2 for 2 minutes in random order on the floor, table, and radiant warmer. Compression depth favored the two-thumb over two-finger technique on the floor (27 ± 8 mm vs 23 ± 7), table (26 ± 7 mm vs 22 ± 7), and radiant warmer (29 ± 4 mm vs 23 ± 4) (all P CPR preferably using an elevated firm surface. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Improving surface stability of elevated spoil landforms using natural landform analogy and geological information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmerton, Bevan; Burgess, Jon; Esterle, Joan; Erskine, Peter; Baumgartl, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Large-scale open cut mining in the Bowen Basin, Queensland, Australia has undergone an evolutionary process over the period of a few decades, transitioning from shallow mining depths, limited spoil elevation and pasture based rehabilitation to increased mining depths, escalating pre-stripping, elevated mesa-like landforms and native woody species rehabilitation. As a consequence of this development, the stabilisation of recent constructed landforms has to be assured through means other than the establishment of vegetative cover. Recent developments are the specific selection and partitioning of resilient fragmental spoil types for the construction of final landform surface. They can also be used as cladding resources for stabilizing steep erosive batters and this has been identified as a practical methodology that has the potential to significantly improve rehabilitation outcomes. Examples of improvements are an increase of the surface rock cover, roughness and infiltration and reducing inherent erodibility and runoff and velocity of surface flow. However, a thorough understanding of the properties and behavior of individual spoil materials disturbed during mining is required. Relevant information from published literature on the geological origins, lithology and weathering characteristics of individual strata within the Bowen Basin Coal Measures located in Queensland, Australia (and younger overlying weathered strata) has been studied, and related both to natural landforms and to the surface stability of major strata types when disturbed by mining. The resulting spoil classification developed from this study is based primarily on inherent geological characteristics and weathering behaviour of identifiable lithologic components, and as such describes the expected fragmental resilience likely within disturbed materials at Bowen Basin coal mines. The proposed classification system allows the allocation of spoil types to use categories which have application in pre

  18. Water surface elevation from the upcoming SWOT mission under different flows conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domeneghetti, Alessio; Schumann, Guy J. P.; Wei, Rui; Frasson, Renato P. M.; Durand, Michael; Pavelsky, Tamlin; Castellarin, Attilio; Brath, Armando

    2017-04-01

    The upcoming SWOT (Surface Water and Ocean Topography) satellite mission will provide unprecedented bi-dimensional observations of terrestrial water surface heights along rivers wider than 100m. Despite the literature reports several activities showing possible uses of SWOT products, potential and limitations of satellite observations still remain poorly understood and investigated. We present one of the first analyses regarding the spatial observation of water surface elevation expected from SWOT for a 140 km reach of the middle-lower portion of the Po River, in Northern Italy. The river stretch is characterized by a main channel varying from 100-500 m in width and a floodplain delimited by a system of major embankments that can be as wide as 5 km. The reconstruction of the hydraulic behavior of the Po River is performed by means of a quasi-2D model built with detailed topographic and bathymetric information (LiDAR, 2m resolution), while the simulation of remotely sensed hydrometric data is performed with a SWOT simulator that mimics the satellite sensor characteristics. Referring to water surface elevations associated with different flow conditions (maximum, minimum and average flow) this work characterizes the spatial observations provided by SWOT and highlights the strengths and limitations of the expected products. The analysis provides a robust reference for spatial water observations that will be available from SWOT and assesses possible effects of river embankments, river width and river topography under different hydraulic conditions. Results of the study characterize the expected accuracy of the upcoming SWOT mission and provide additional insights towards the appropriate exploitation of future hydrological observations.

  19. [Elevated levels of homocysteine in plasma as a risk factor for coronary artery disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzielińska, Z; Kadziela, J; Sitkiewicz, D; Kruk, M; Przyłuski, J; Deptuch, T; Piotrowski, W; Dabrowski, M; Ruzyłło, W

    2000-07-01

    This study was performed to assess the significance of association between coronary artery disease (CAD) and circulating homocysteine concentrations. 100 consecutive CAD patients (78 men and 22 women, aged 31 to 79 years) qualified for PTCA were investigated. At the time of PTCA, the risk factors for CAD and plasma for homocysteine and vitamins were obtained. The controls were without clinical evidence of coronary artery disease and hypertension (90 men and 30 women aged 32 to 81 years). Homocysteine was assayed using ELISA test. Red cell folate and plasma vitamin B12 were assayed by immunofluoroscency (Delphia test). Homocysteine concentrations were higher in patients than in controls (13.61 +/- 4.5 vs 10.99 +/- 4.49 mumol/L, p or = 12.83 mumol/L--was seen in 46% of the patients compared with 20% of the control group (p = 0.001). The odds ratio (OR) for CAD in persons with elevated homocysteine level was 3.1 (95% Cl 1.6-5.8, p < 0.001, adjusted for age). The OR for CAD of 5 mumol/L increment in homocysteine level was 2.1 (95% Cl 1.4-3.1 p < 0.001, adjusted for age). After adjustment for conventional risk factors (age, smoking, hypertension, family history of CAD, hyperlipidemia), elevated homocysteine level remained independent risk factor for CAD (OR 2.88, 95% Cl 1.1-7.8, p < 0.05). We observed inverse correlation between homocysteine and folate level (r = -0.32, p = 0.005) and between homocysteine and vitamin B12 concentrations (r = -0.24, p = 0.03), especially in men. Patients with elevated homocysteine level had lower levels of folate (629.6 +/- 241.2 nmol/L vs 735.1 +/- 252.4 nmol/L, p < 0.05), and vitamin B12 (213.6 +/- 64.4 pmol/L vs 246.6 +/- 62.3 pmol/L, p < 0.05) than patients with normal level of homocysteine. Elevated plasma homocysteine level is a strong risk factor for coronary artery disease. A 5 mumol/L increment in total homocysteine level may be associated with twofold increase of risk for the disease.

  20. Surface anatomy of the lip elevator muscles for the treatment of gummy smile using botulinum toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Woo-Sang; Hur, Mi-Sun; Hu, Kyung-Seok; Song, Wu-Chul; Koh, Ki-Seok; Baik, Hyoung-Seon; Kim, Seong-Taek; Kim, Hee-Jin; Lee, Kee-Joon

    2009-01-01

    To propose a safe and reproducible injection point for botulinum toxin-A (BTX-A) as a supplementary method for the treatment of gummy smile, as determined by assessment of the morphologic characteristics of three lip elevator muscles. A total of 50 hemi-faces from 25 adult cadavers (male 13, female 12; ages, 47 to 88 years) were used in this study. Topographic relations and the directions of the lip elevator muscles (ie, levator labii superioris [LLS], levator labii superioris alaeque nasi [LLSAN], and zygomaticus minor [ZMi]), were investigated. Possible injection points were examined through the study of predetermined surface landmarks. The insertion of the LLS was covered partially or entirely by the LLSAN and the ZMi, and the three muscles converged on the area lateral to the ala. The mean angle between the facial midline and each muscle vector was 25.8 +/- 4.8 degrees for the LLS, 55.7 +/- 6.4 degrees for the ZMi, and -20.2 +/- 3.2 degrees for the LLSAN; no significant differences were noted between male and female subjects or between left and right sides. The three vectors passed near a triangular region formed by three surface landmarks. The center of this triangle, named the "Yonsei point", was suggested as an appropriate injection point for BTX-A. The clinical effectiveness of the injection point was demonstrated in selected cases with or without orthodontic treatment. Under careful case selection, BTX-A may be an effective treatment alternative for patients with excessive gingival display caused by hyperactive lip elevator muscles.

  1. Impact of the surface characteristics on the quality of INSAR elevation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidelmeyer, G.; Klingauf, U.

    2006-09-01

    Due to upcoming new data driven technologies in the aviation the impact of digital terrain data is growing conspicuously. Especially for ground near operations reliable terrain information is necessarily demanded. Based on modern earth observation technologies a new generation of elevation data is obtainable. However it shall be analysed how far data derived from remote sensing techniques like INSAR or LIDAR can be applied for aviation purposes. Formerly terrain data were represented in relation to the bare earth to obtain a "Digital Terrain Model" (DTM). For aviation purposes a "Digital Surface Model" (DSM) representing the real surface of the earth including all cover like vegetation and buildings is recommended. Due to the characteristics of active remote sensors the derived model always describes an in between of the two elevation representations. To satisfy the special requirements the Institute of Flight Systems and Automatic Control (FSR) at the Technische Universitaet Darmstadt is dealing with the determination of the influencing factors which affect the quality of the terrain models being appropriate to be used as a DSM. In order to enhance the integrity of the data a "safety buffer" is created to allow the applicability for dedicated applications (figure 1).

  2. Development of a GNSS Buoy for Monitoring Water Surface Elevations in Estuaries and Coastal Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yen-Pin; Huang, Ching-Jer; Chen, Sheng-Hsueh; Doong, Dong-Jiing; Kao, Chia Chuen

    2017-01-18

    In this work, a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) buoy that utilizes a Virtual Base Station (VBS) combined with the Real-Time Kinematic (RTK) positioning technology was developed to monitor water surface elevations in estuaries and coastal areas. The GNSS buoy includes a buoy hull, a RTK GNSS receiver, data-transmission devices, a data logger, and General Purpose Radio Service (GPRS) modems for transmitting data to the desired land locations. Laboratory and field tests were conducted to test the capability of the buoy and verify the accuracy of the monitored water surface elevations. For the field tests, the GNSS buoy was deployed in the waters of Suao (northeastern part of Taiwan). Tide data obtained from the GNSS buoy were consistent with those obtained from the neighboring tide station. Significant wave heights, zero-crossing periods, and peak wave directions obtained from the GNSS buoy were generally consistent with those obtained from an accelerometer-tilt-compass (ATC) sensor. The field tests demonstrate that the developed GNSS buoy can be used to obtain accurate real-time tide and wave data in estuaries and coastal areas.

  3. Association of Elevated Amyloid Levels With Cognition and Biomarkers in Cognitively Normal People From the Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Ronald C.; Wiste, Heather J.; Weigand, Stephen D.; Rocca, Walter A.; Roberts, Rosebud O.; Mielke, Michelle M.; Lowe, Val J.; Knopman, David S.; Pankratz, Vernon S.; Machulda, Mary M.; Geda, Yonas E.; Jack, Clifford R.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE The role of amyloid in the progression of Alzheimer disease (AD) pathophysiology is of central interest to the design of randomized clinical trials. The presence of amyloid has become a prerequisite for enrollment in several secondary prevention trials for AD, yet the precise effect of elevated amyloid levels on subsequent clinical and biomarker events is less certain. OBJECTIVE To explore the effect of elevated amyloid levels on subsequent changes in cognition and biomarkers. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A total of 564 cognitively normal individuals (median age, 78 years) from the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging, a population-based longitudinal study in Olmsted County, Minnesota, with serial cognitive data were selected for this study. The data used in this study were collected from January 12, 2006, to January 9, 2014. Individuals included in this study had undergone magnetic resonance imaging, fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), and Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB) PET at baseline were not cognitively impaired at baseline and had at least 1 clinical follow-up. A subset of 286 individuals also underwent serial imaging. Elevated amyloid level was defined as a standardized uptake value ratio of greater than 1.5 on PiB PET. Associations with baseline amyloid status and baseline and longitudinal change in clinical and imaging measures were evaluated after adjusting for age and hippocampal volume. APOE4 effects were also evaluated. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Cognitive measures of memory, language, attention/executive function, visuospatial skills, PiB levels, hippocampal and ventricular volumes, and FDG-PET measures. RESULTS At baseline, 179 (31.7%) individuals with elevated amyloid levels had poorer cognition in all domains measured, reduced hippocampal volume, and greater FDG-PET hypometabolism. Elevated amyloid levels at baseline were associated with a greater rate of cognitive decline in all domains (0.04 to 0.09 z score units per year

  4. Systemic administration of monosodium glutamate elevates intramuscular glutamate levels and sensitizes rat masseter muscle afferent fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Brian E; Dong, Xudong; Mann, Mandeep K; Svensson, Peter; Sessle, Barry J; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; McErlane, Keith M

    2007-11-01

    There is evidence that elevated tissue concentrations of glutamate may contribute to pain and sensitivity in certain musculoskeletal pain conditions. In the present study, the food additive monosodium glutamate (MSG) was injected intravenously into rats to determine whether it could significantly elevate interstitial concentrations of glutamate in the masseter muscle and whether MSG administration could excite and/or sensitize slowly conducting masseter afferent fibers through N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activation. The interstitial concentration of glutamate after systemic injection of isotonic phosphate-buffered saline (control) or MSG (10 and 50mg/kg) was measured with a glutamate-selective biosensor. The pre-injection baseline interstitial concentration of glutamate in the rat masseter muscle was 24+/-11 microM. Peak interstitial concentration after injection of 50mg/kg MSG was 63+/-18 microM and remained elevated above baseline for approximately 18 min. In vivo single unit recording experiments were undertaken to assess the effect of MSG (50mg/kg) on masseter afferent fibers. Injection of MSG evoked a brief discharge in one afferent fiber, and significantly decreased ( approximately 25%) the average afferent mechanical threshold (n=10) during the first 5 min after injection of MSG. Intravenous injection of ketamine (1mg/kg), 5 min prior to MSG, prevented the MSG-induced decreases in the mechanical threshold of masseter afferent fibers. The present results indicate that a 2- to 3-fold elevation in interstitial glutamate levels in the masseter muscle is sufficient to excite and induce afferent mechanical sensitization through NMDA receptor activation. These findings suggest that modest elevations of interstitial glutamate concentration could alter musculoskeletal pain sensitivity in humans.

  5. Behavioral toxicology of breeding common loons exposed to elevated levels of mercury in Atlantic Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nocera, J.; Taylor, P. [Acadia Univ., Atlantic Cooperative Wildlife Ecology Research Network, Wolfville, NS (Canada)

    1998-11-01

    A comparative investigation of loon behaviour was conducted across a range of lakes in Kejimkujik National Park in Nova Scotia and the Lepreau watershed in southwestern New Brunswick that exhibited variations in lake chemistry, lake morphometry and mercury levels. Results showed an association of sub-lethal blood mercury contamination with changes in behaviour of young loon chicks. For example, the amount of time that chicks spend brooding (by back-riding) decreases as mercury levels in the blood rise. Preening increases at the same time. The increase in energy expenditure is not compensated with increases in feeding rates, suggesting that such altered time activity budgets disrupt the energetic balance of the young. Adult behaviour appeared to be less affected by increased mercury levels, but an association is suspected. It was concluded that loons and other upper-trophic level predators could be at risk from elevated levels of bioavailable mercury.

  6. A three-dimensional analysis of vergence movements at various levels of elevation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minken, A W; Van Gisbergen, J A

    1994-01-01

    Earlier studies have shown that eye positions, recorded in subjects scanning a distant visual scene with the head in a stable position, have only two degrees of freedom (Listing's law). Due to cyclovergence, this law is modified in near-vision. Two previous quantitative studies have documented that the sign of the torsional vergence component depends systematically on elevation: when fixating a nearby target, the eyes show intorsion in up gaze, extorsion in down gaze and no cyclotorsion at some intermediate elevation level (to be denoted as the null elevation). Both studies found a linear cyclovergence/elevation relation, but disagreed on the amount of cyclotorsion. A further uncertainty is how this phenomenon develops dynamically when the binocular fixation point shifts from a far to a near position. Therefore, we have investigated the dynamic coupling between the horizontal and torsional components of vergence in human subjects who were instructed to refixate a light target after it stepped in depth. The target steps were presented at various vertical and horizontal directions relative to the straight-ahead axis of the cyclopean eye. We found that the quantitative relations among horizontal vergence, torsional vergence and elevation were intermediate between those found in the two earlier near-vision studies and that they correspond reasonably to the predictions of a model by Mok and co-workers. The cyclotorsion vergence component had about the same latency and dynamics as the horizontal component. When refixations were studied at different elevations, the torsional vergence component changed from incyclotorsion in up gaze to excyclotorsion in down gaze. In agreement with expectations derived from two quantitative models, the null elevation of cyclovergence was near the binocular primary position. Furthermore, we found no consistent additional dependence on the horizontal direction of the refixation trajectory relative to the midsaggital plane. Other experiments

  7. Metastatic prostate cancer with elevated serum levels of CEA and CA19-9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Dar Juang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Prostate-specific antigen (PSA is well known as a specific tumor marker for prostate cancer, but carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA- and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9-elevating adenocarcinomas originating in the prostate gland are rare. We report a case of metastatic adenocarcinoma of the prostate gland with a high serum level of CEA and CA19-9 in a 78-year-old man in whom prostate cancer (T3N1M1 had been diagnosed 2 years ago and who was treated with androgen deprivation therapy. He visited the emergency department because of a loss of appetite and abdominal pain. The serum CEA and CA19-9 levels were increased to 218.9 ng/mL (normal, <5 ng/mL and 212 ng/mL (normal, <27 ng/mL, respectively. The serum PSA level was slightly elevated (4.41 ng/mL. Computed tomography demonstrated multiple liver metastases, para-aortic lymph node enlargement, and lung metastases. A liver biopsy was performed and the specimen showed high-grade adenocarcinoma with focal positive staining for PSA. Despite chemotherapy with docetaxel, the patient died 3 months after treatment. Based on this case and a review of the literature, an aggressive variant of prostatic carcinoma with a high serum level of CEA and CA19-9 and a low PSA level was shown to progress rapidly with a poor prognosis.

  8. Electrochemical removal of segregated silicon dioxide impurities from yttria stabilized zirconia surfaces at elevated temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas; Hansen, Karin Vels; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2011-01-01

    Here we report on the electrochemical removal of segregated silicon dioxide impurities from Yttria Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) surfaces at elevated temperatures studied under Ultra High Vacuum (UHV) conditions. YSZ single crystals were heated in vacuum by an applied 18kHz a.c. voltage using the ion....... This was demonstrated by silicon enrichment of a gold foil placed behind the YSZ crystal surface while annealed. The results suggest a fast way to clean YSZ for trace silicon dioxide impurities found in the bulk of the cleanest crystals commercially available....... conductivity of YSZ. The crystals were annealed in vacuum and atmospheres of water or oxygen from 10−5 mbar to 100mbar in the temperature range of 1100°C to 1275°C. The surface was after annealing analyzed by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) without exposing the crystal to atmosphere between annealing...... and XPS analysis. Silicon enrichment of the surface was only observed at oxygen and water vapor partial pressures above 25mbar and 10mbar, respectively. No silicon was observed on crystals annealed in vacuum and at oxygen and water vapor partial pressures below 10mbar. The YSZ seems to get partially...

  9. AirSWOT Measurements of Water Surface Elevations and Hydraulic Gradients over the Yukon Flats, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitcher, L. H.; Pavelsky, T.; Smith, L. C.; Moller, D.; Altenau, E. H.; Lion, C.; Bertram, M.; Cooley, S. W.

    2017-12-01

    AirSWOT is an airborne, Ka-band synthetic aperture radar interferometer (InSAR) intended to quantify surface water fluxes by mapping water surface elevations (WSE). AirSWOT will also serve as a calibration/validation tool for the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission (scheduled for launch in 2021). The hydrology objectives for AirSWOT and SWOT are to measure WSE with accuracies sufficient to estimate hydrologic fluxes in lakes, wetlands and rivers. However, current understanding of the performance of these related though not identical instruments when applied to complex river-lake-wetland fluvial environments remains predominantly theoretical. We present AirSWOT data acquired 15-June-2015 over the Yukon Flats, Alaska, USA, together with in situ field surveys, to assess the accuracy of AirSWOT WSE measurements in lakes and rivers. We use these data to demonstrate that AirSWOT can be used to estimate large-scale hydraulic gradients across wetland complexes. Finally, we present key lessons learned from this AirSWOT analysis for consideration in future campaigns, including: maximizing swath overlap for spatial averaging to minimize uncertainty as well as orienting flight paths parallel to river flow directions to reduce along track aircraft drift for neighboring flight paths. We conclude that spatially dense AirSWOT measurements of river and lake WSEs can improve geospatial understanding of surface water hydrology and fluvial processes.

  10. Elevated Plasma Level of Leukotrienes in Bronchial Asthma Patients: A Possible Clinical Relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Mansour

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasma from bronchial asthma patients and healthy controls was investigated for the content of lipoxygenase products. After lipid extraction using SEP-PAK C18 Cartridges, the lipoxygenase products were measured by Enzyme-Immunoassay. Elevated chemotactic B4 was found in plasma from asthmatic patients with mean value (483±75 pmoUL, while the mean value in normal healthy donors was (140± 12.1 pmol/L (M±SE. The levels of spasmogenic cysteinyl containing leukotrienes were also very high in the bronchial asthma patients. Elevations of leukotriene B4 and cysteinyl containing leukotrienes were detected during attacks of bronchial asthma. These results suggest that leukotriene B4 may be important in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma and confirmed that peptidoleukotrienes playa role as chemical mediators during the asthmatic attack.

  11. Men with elevated testosterone levels show more affiliative behaviours during interactions with women

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meij, Leander; Almela, Mercedes; Buunk, Abraham P.; Fawcett, Tim W.; Salvador, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    Testosterone (T) is thought to play a key role in male–male competition and courtship in many vertebrates, but its precise effects are unclear. We explored whether courtship behaviour in humans is modulated and preceded by changes in T. Pairs of healthy male students first competed in a non-physical contest in which their T levels became elevated. Each participant then had a short, informal interaction with either an unfamiliar man or woman. The sex of the stimulus person did not affect the participants' behaviour overall. However, in interactions with women, those men who had experienced a greater T increase during the contest subsequently showed more interest in the woman, engaged in more self-presentation, smiled more and made more eye contact. No such effects were seen in interactions with other men. This is the first study to provide direct evidence that elevating T during male–male competition is followed by increased affiliative behaviour towards women. PMID:21632627

  12. Unmanned aerial vehicle observations of water surface elevation and bathymetry in the cenotes and lagoons of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandini, Filippo; Lopez-Tamayo, Alejandro; Merediz-Alonso, Gonzalo; Olesen, Daniel; Jakobsen, Jakob; Wang, Sheng; Garcia, Monica; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

    2018-04-01

    Observations of water surface elevation (WSE) and bathymetry of the lagoons and cenotes of the Yucatán Peninsula (YP) in southeast Mexico are of hydrogeological interest. Observations of WSE (orthometric water height above mean sea level, amsl) are required to inform hydrological models, to estimate hydraulic gradients and groundwater flow directions. Measurements of bathymetry and water depth (elevation of the water surface above the bed of the water body) improve current knowledge on how lagoons and cenotes connect through the complicated submerged cave systems and the diffuse flow in the rock matrix. A novel approach is described that uses unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to monitor WSE and bathymetry of the inland water bodies on the YP. UAV-borne WSE observations were retrieved using a radar and a global navigation satellite system on-board a multi-copter platform. Water depth was measured using a tethered floating sonar controlled by the UAV. This sonar provides depth measurements also in deep and turbid water. Bathymetry (wet-bed elevation amsl) can be computed by subtracting water depth from WSE. Accuracy of the WSE measurements is better than 5-7 cm and accuracy of the water depth measurements is estimated to be 3.8% of the actual water depth. The technology provided accurate measurements of WSE and bathymetry in both wetlands (lagoons) and cenotes. UAV-borne technology is shown to be a more flexible and lower cost alternative to manned aircrafts. UAVs allow monitoring of remote areas located in the jungle of the YP, which are difficult to access by human operators.

  13. Flood Damage Analysis: First Floor Elevation Uncertainty Resulting from LiDAR-Derived Digital Surface Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Bodoque

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of high resolution ground-based light detection and ranging (LiDAR datasets provides spatial density and vertical precision for obtaining highly accurate Digital Surface Models (DSMs. As a result, the reliability of flood damage analysis has improved significantly, owing to the increased accuracy of hydrodynamic models. In addition, considerable error reduction has been achieved in the estimation of first floor elevation, which is a critical parameter for determining structural and content damages in buildings. However, as with any discrete measurement technique, LiDAR data contain object space ambiguities, especially in urban areas where the presence of buildings and the floodplain gives rise to a highly complex landscape that is largely corrected by using ancillary information based on the addition of breaklines to a triangulated irregular network (TIN. The present study provides a methodological approach for assessing uncertainty regarding first floor elevation. This is based on: (i generation an urban TIN from LiDAR data with a density of 0.5 points·m−2, complemented with the river bathymetry obtained from a field survey with a density of 0.3 points·m−2. The TIN was subsequently improved by adding breaklines and was finally transformed to a raster with a spatial resolution of 2 m; (ii implementation of a two-dimensional (2D hydrodynamic model based on the 500-year flood return period. The high resolution DSM obtained in the previous step, facilitated addressing the modelling, since it represented suitable urban features influencing hydraulics (e.g., streets and buildings; and (iii determination of first floor elevation uncertainty within the 500-year flood zone by performing Monte Carlo simulations based on geostatistics and 1997 control elevation points in order to assess error. Deviations in first floor elevation (average: 0.56 m and standard deviation: 0.33 m show that this parameter has to be neatly characterized in order

  14. Reconstructing surface elevation changes for the Greenland Ice Sheet (1993-2013) and analysis of Zachariae Isstrom, northeast Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Kyle

    Previous studies investigating the velocity and elevation change records of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) revealed rapid and complex changes. It is therefore imperative to determine changes with both high spatial and temporal resolutions. By fusing multiple laser altimetry data sets, the Surface Elevation Reconstruction and Change (SERAC) program is capable of reconstructing surface elevation changes with high spatial and temporal resolution over the entire GrIS. The input data include observations from NASA's Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) mission (2003-2009) as well as data collected by NASA's Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) (1993-2013) and Land, Vegetation and Ice Sensor (LVIS) (2007-2012) airborne laser altimetry systems. This study extends the record of surface elevation changes over the GrIS by adding 2012 and 2013 laser altimetry data to the previous 1993-2011 record. Extending the record leads to a new, more accurate and detailed altimetry record for 1993-2013. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) are fused with laser altimetry data over Zachariae Isstrom, northeast Greenland to analyze surface elevation changes and associated thinning rates during 1978-2014. Little to no elevation change occurred over Zachariae Isstrom from 1978-1999, however, from 1999-2014 elevation changes near the calving front became increasingly negative and accelerated. Calving front position showed steady retreat and grounding line position has been retreating towards the interior of the ice sheet at an increasing rate from 2010-2014 when compared to the 1996-2010 period. The measured elevation changes near the calving front have brought a large portion of the glacier close to the height of flotation. If the current thinning trend continues this portion of the glacier will reach flotation within the next 2-5 years allowing for further retreat and increased vulnerability to retreat for sections of

  15. Elevated high-mobility group box 1 levels in patients with cerebral and myocardial ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Richard S; Gallowitsch-Puerta, Margot; Yang, Lihong; Rosas-Ballina, Mauricio; Huston, Jared M; Czura, Christopher J; Lee, David C; Ward, Mae F; Bruchfeld, Annette N; Wang, Haichao; Lesser, Martin L; Church, Adam L; Litroff, Adam H; Sama, Andrew E; Tracey, Kevin J

    2006-06-01

    Cerebral and myocardial ischemia, two of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, are associated with inflammation that can lead to multiple organ failure and death. High-mobility group box 1(HMGB1), a recently described mediator of lethal systemic inflammation, has been detected in individuals with severe sepsis and hemorrhagic shock, but its role during ischemic injury in humans is unknown. To determine whether systemic HMGB1 levels are elevated after ischemic injury, a prospective observational study was performed in subjects with a diagnosis of either Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) or cerebral vascular ischemia (transient ischemic attack or cerebral vascular accident). Subjects (n, 16; age [mean], 67+/-16.3 years) were enrolled in the North Shore-LIJ emergency department within 24 h of symptom onset. Blood samples were collected, and HMGB1 levels analyzed by Western blot analysis using previously described methods (Wang et al. Science. 1999). Control samples were obtained from healthy age- and sex-matched volunteers (n, 16; age [mean], 68+/-15.8 years). Here, we report that serum HMGB1 levels were significantly elevated in both myocardial ischemia subjects (myocardial control serum HMGB1, 1.94+/-2.05 ng/mL, vs. myocardial ischemia serum HMGB1, 159+/-54.3 ng/mL; Pischemia subjects (cerebral control serum HMGB1, 16.8+/-10.9 ng/mL, vs. cerebral ischemia serum HMGB1, 218+/-18.8 ng/mL; P<0.001). These results suggest that systemic HMGB1 levels are elevated in human ischemic disease.

  16. Barrier island response to an elevated sea-level anomaly: Onslow Beach, North Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theuerkauf, E. J.; Rodriguez, A. B.; Fegley, S. R.; Luettich, R.

    2012-12-01

    Variations in sea level over time scales ranging from hours to millennia influence coastal processes and evolution. At annual time scales, elevated sea-level anomalies produce coastal flooding and promote beach erosion. This study examines the coastal response of Onslow Beach, North Carolina to the summer 2009 East Coast sea-level anomaly. Onslow Beach is a 12-km-long wave-dominated barrier island with highly variable along-barrier morphology. The transgressive southern portion of the island is characterized by a narrow beach, low dunes, and multiple washover fans, while the regressive northern portion is characterized by a wide beach and continuous tall dunes. Hourly tide gauge data from adjacent NOAA stations (Beaufort and Wrightsville Beach) are used to determine the timing and extent of elevated water levels. The seasonal and longer term trends (relative sea level rise) are removed from both of the water level series and the sea-level anomaly is represented by a large residual between the observed and predicted water levels. Beach response is quantified using terrestrial laser scanning for morphology and from geoprobe cores to determine the maximum depth of erosion (MDOE). The mean high water (MHW) shoreline and dune toe are digitized from digital elevation models derived from the laser scans and analyzed using the Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS). Landward (negative) movement of these contacts indicates erosion. Wave data collected from an Acoustic Wave and Current Meter (AWAC) located offshore of the southern end of Onslow Beach is used to characterize the wave regime throughout the study. Water level is elevated in the tide gauge data from June 2009 to March 2010. This sea-level anomaly corresponds with an increase in the maximum depth of erosion between 2009 and 2010. Landward movement of the MHW shoreline and the dunetoe increased during the period between September 2009 and May 2010 indicating an increase in beach erosion during the sea-level

  17. Relation of elevated levels of plasma myeloperoxidase to impaired myocardial microcirculation after reperfusion in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yunoki, Kei; Naruko, Takahiko; Komatsu, Ryushi; Shirai, Nobuyuki; Nakagawa, Masashi; Sugioka, Kenichi; Ikura, Yoshihiro; Kusano, Kengo Fukushima; Itoh, Akira; Haze, Kazuo; Yoshiyama, Minoru; Becker, Anton E.; Ueda, Makiko

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction are related to impaired myocardial microcirculation after reperfusion. Moreover, elevated myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels are associated with endothelial dysfunction. Plasma MPO levels were measured in patients with

  18. The impact of elevated CO2 on the energy and water balance over terrestrial surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roderick, Michael; Donohue, Randall; Yang, Yuting; McVicar, Tim

    2017-04-01

    When we think of the enhanced greenhouse effect, the tendency is to focus on the effects on near-surface air temperature and the consequence impacts. On that approach the underlying cause of the enhanced greenhouse effect, that is, increasing atmospheric CO2 tends to be ignored. But laboratory experiments have long shown that increasing CO2 has a large impact on vegetation gas exchange, by, for example, increasing water use efficiency of photosynthesis. This tends to be a forgotten factor in the meteorological and hydrologic sciences. In this talk we outline some key expected effects of atmospheric CO2 on leaf-, canopy- and catchment-scale fluxes and compare those expectations with both site- (e.g. FACE) and catchment-scale observations. We find the expected effects have been observed over undisturbed vegetation. However, we find the effects of elevated CO2 are more complex in disturbed vegetation that is actively regrowing, This finding suggests the disturbance history will be a key factor on the canopy- and catchment-scale responses to elevated CO2.

  19. A Global Map of Coherent M2 Internal Tide Surface Elevations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, R. D.; Zaron, E. D.

    2014-12-01

    Satellite altimetry reveals small surface waves, with elevations of order 1 cm or smaller, associated with internal tides in the deep ocean. The global satellite data provide an unprecedented picture of such waves, potentially yielding much information about the ocean interior. Accurate knowledge of these waves is also needed for de-tiding altimetry in certain sensitive applications, including the future SWOT mission. Several approaches have been initiated recently to map these tiny waves, usually with some reliance on hydrographic information (e.g., recent work by Dushaw et al., 2011). Here we explore the feasibility of a purely empirical approach which avoids assumptions about stratification or modal wavelengths. A global elevation map is constructed based on tidal analysis of Topex/Poseidon, Jason, ERS-2, Envisat and GFO data. Small (order 5 mm) residuals, with wavelengths much longer than the baroclinic tide, appear unless now-standard along-track high-pass filters are applied, but filtering is shown to cause serious loss of information for east-west propagating waves (given typical track patterns). The technique is probably infeasible for S2 because of Envisat's and ERS's sun-synchronous orbits. Independent data from Cryosat-2 is used to validate the results. Applying our internal-tide 'correction' to Cryosat-2 data confirms a small reduction in variance in expected locations of significant internal tides.

  20. Liver histology in hepatitis C virus positive patients with normal and elevated alanine amino transferase levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatty, S.A.; Shaikh, N.A.; Akhter, S.S.

    2009-01-01

    To compare liver histology in HCV RNA positive patients with normal and elevated Alanine Aminotransferase Level (AST). This Cohort (prospective) study was conducted at Civil Hospital Karachi from Jan 2007 to July 2007. Forty patients with positive HCV RNA were included. Their liver function tests were followed for three months. Those having normal ALT on three occasions were taken as controls and those having elevated ALT were taken as cases. Liver biopsy was performed, Specimens were reviewed by single pathologist. Scheuer's scoring for grading of inflammation and staging of fibrosis of chronic hepatitis was used. Out of Forty patients having positive HCV RNA, 14 (35%) were male and 26 (65%) were female. Mean ALT in control group was 27.3 +- 6.1mu/l, mean ALT in cases was 91.7 +- 39.95 mu/l. Mean age in controls was 34.2 +- 10.75 years and in cases was 33.6 +- 9.40 years. On histopathology, the mean grade of inflammation in controls was 1.40 +- 0.681 while in cases was 1.20 +- 0.834, which was not statistically significantly different in the two groups (p= 0.411). Similarly mean staging of fibrosis in controls was 1.20 +- 0.768 and in cases was 1.35 +- 1.348 which was also not statistically different in the two groups (p=0.668). Stage 3 and 4 fibrosis was seen only in raised ALT group and not in the controls. Patients with persistently normal ALT and elevated ALT, although had similar grading of inflammation but the fibrosis score was more in elevated ALT group. None of the patients with normal ALT had normal histology, so decision for antiviral treatment should be individualized in this group also (JPMA 59:832; 2009). (author)

  1. Fungal and bacterial growth in floor dust at elevated relative humidity levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannemiller, K C; Weschler, C J; Peccia, J

    2017-03-01

    Under sustained, elevated building moisture conditions, bacterial and fungal growth occurs. The goal of this study was to characterize microbial growth in floor dust at variable equilibrium relative humidity (ERH) levels. Floor dust from one home was embedded in coupons cut from a worn medium-pile nylon carpet and incubated at 50%, 80%, 85%, 90%, 95%, and 100% ERH levels. Quantitative PCR and DNA sequencing of ribosomal DNA for bacteria and fungi were used to quantify growth and community shifts. Over a 1-wk period, fungal growth occurred above 80% ERH. Growth rates at 85% and 100% ERH were 1.1 × 10 4 and 1.5 × 10 5 spore equivalents d -1 mg dust -1 , respectively. Bacterial growth occurred only at 100% ERH after 1 wk (9.0 × 10 4 genomes d -1 mg dust -1 ). Growth resulted in significant changes in fungal (Pbacterial community structure (Pbacterial species that were attributable to elevated ERH. Resuspension modeling indicated that more than 50% of airborne microbes could originate from the resuspension of fungi grown at ERH levels of 85% and above. © 2016 The Authors. Indoor Air published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Elevated Squamous Cell Carcinoma Antigen, Cytokeratin 19 Fragment, and Carcinoembryonic Antigen Levels in Diabetic Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianzhong Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We aimed to explore whether squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC, cytokeratin 19 fragment (Cyfra21-1, neuron-specific enolase (NSE, and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA are elevated in diabetic nephropathy (DN and the association between urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR and tumor markers in diabetic patients. Methods. Nondialysis patients with diabetes (n=261 and 90 healthy controls were enrolled. DN was defined as an UACR ≥ 30 mg/g in the absence of a urinary tract infection or other renal abnormalities. Results. Patients with DN had significantly higher serum SCC, Cyfra21-1, and CEA levels than those with normoalbuminuria and healthy controls. The rates of positive SCC, Cyfra21-1, and CEA significantly increased with increasing urinary albumin excretion (all P for trend < 0.001. In contrast, NSE was not affected by DN. SCC, Cyfra21-1, and CEA were significantly and positively correlated with UACR. In logistic regression, after multivariable adjustment, increased UACR was associated with increased odds ratio of elevated tumor marker levels (all P for trend < 0.05. Conclusions. Serum levels of SCC, Cyfra21-1, and CEA are markedly increased with increasing urinary albumin excretion, which affects the specificity for diagnosis for lung cancer. Appropriate interpretation of tumor markers in diabetic patients is mandatory to avoid unnecessary and even hazardous biopsies.

  3. Prediction and comparison of noise levels from ground and elevated flare systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obasi, E.

    2009-01-01

    Flaring is a process to dispose of hydrocarbons during clean-up, emergency shut downs or dispose a small volume waste streams of mixed gasses that cannot easily or safely be separated. This presentation discussed flaring as a noise issue. It focused on flaring noise characterization; flare noise modeling; flare sound power levels; and flare sound pressure level comparison at a distance of 1.5 km. The presentation included a photograph of flaring at a gas plant in Nigeria. The presentation listed some of the potential health effects associated with long term exposure to excessive noise, such as hearing loss; headaches; stress; fatigue; sleep disturbance; and high blood pressure. Companies flare gas to dispose waste gases in a safe and reliable manner through combustion and to depressurize gas lines during maintenance and emergencies. This presentation also discussed ground and elevated flares; components of flare noise characterization; and key factors affecting flare noise. A model to predict flaring noise was also presented. It demonstrated that at the same gas mass flow rate, the noise level from elevated flare stacks are significantly higher than ground flares. tabs., figs.

  4. Prediction and comparison of noise levels from ground and elevated flare systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obasi, E. [Stantec Consulting Ltd., Surrey, BC (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Flaring is a process to dispose of hydrocarbons during clean-up, emergency shut downs or dispose a small volume waste streams of mixed gasses that cannot easily or safely be separated. This presentation discussed flaring as a noise issue. It focused on flaring noise characterization; flare noise modeling; flare sound power levels; and flare sound pressure level comparison at a distance of 1.5 km. The presentation included a photograph of flaring at a gas plant in Nigeria. The presentation listed some of the potential health effects associated with long term exposure to excessive noise, such as hearing loss; headaches; stress; fatigue; sleep disturbance; and high blood pressure. Companies flare gas to dispose waste gases in a safe and reliable manner through combustion and to depressurize gas lines during maintenance and emergencies. This presentation also discussed ground and elevated flares; components of flare noise characterization; and key factors affecting flare noise. A model to predict flaring noise was also presented. It demonstrated that at the same gas mass flow rate, the noise level from elevated flare stacks are significantly higher than ground flares. tabs., figs.

  5. Elevated serum levels of MMP-11 correlate with poor prognosis in colon cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Li; Wang, Da-Wei; Zhang, Nan; Xu, Da-Hai; Meng, Xiang-Wei

    2016-03-11

    Matrix metalloproteinase 11 (MMP11) has been shown to play a key role in human tumor progression and indicates poor clinical outcome in cancer patients. The current study aimed to evaluate the relationship between serum levels of MMP-11 and prognosis in colon cancer patients. Serum levels of MMP-11 were determined in 92 colon cancer patients and 92 healthy individuals using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Associations between serum MMP-11 levels and clinicopathological characteristics of the patients and their outcomes were investigated. Survival analyses were performed to measure the 5-year overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). Serum MMP-11 levels were substantially higher in colon cancer patients than in healthy controls. Moreover, serum MMP-11 levels were significantly higher in patients with advanced T status, lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis, and a higher TNM stage. Elevated serum levels of MMP-11 were identified as an independent prognostic factor for 5-year mortality and adverse events associated with colon cancer. Multivariate Cox regression analysis identified the serum MMP-11 level as an independent predictor of OS and DFS. Our study established that high serum levels of MMP-11 are associated with poor clinical outcome and may serve as a prognostic biomarker in colon cancer patients.

  6. Prediction of the shape of inline wave force and free surface elevation using First Order Reliability Method (FORM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghadirian, Amin; Bredmose, Henrik; Schløer, Signe

    2017-01-01

    In design of substructures for offshore wind turbines, the extreme wave loads which are of interest in Ultimate Limit States are often estimated by choosing extreme events from linear random sea states and replacing them by either stream function wave theory or the NewWave theory of a certain...... as the free surface elevation time series. The discrepancies between the FORM results and the measurements is found to be a result of more nonlinearity in the selected events than second order and negligence of the drag forces above still water level in the present analysis. This paper is one step toward more...... precise prediction of extreme wave shape and loads. Ultimately such waves can be used in the design process of offshore structures. The approach can be generalized to fully nonlinear models....

  7. [Responses of rice growth and development to elevated near-surface layer ozone (O3) concentration: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lian-xin; Wang, Yu-long; Shi, Guang-yao; Wang, Yun-xia; Zhu, Jian-guo

    2008-04-01

    Ozone (O3) is recognized as one of the most important air pollutants. At present, the worldwide average tropospheric O3 concentration has been increased from an estimated pre-industrial level of 38 nl L(-1) (25-45 nl L(-1), 8-h summer seasonal average) to approximately 50 nl L(-1) in 2000, and to 80 nl L(-1) by 2100 based on most pessimistic projections. Oryza sativa L. (rice) is the most important grain crop in the world, and thus, to correctly evaluate how the elevated near-surface layer O3 concentration will affect the growth and development of rice is of great significance. This paper reviewed the chamber (including closed and open top chamber)-based studies about the effects of atmospheric ozone enrichment on the rice visible injury symptoms, photosynthesis, water relationship, phenology, dry matter production and allocation, leaf membrane protective system, and grain yield and its components. Further research directions in this field were discussed.

  8. Elevated levels of Dickkopf-related protein 3 in seminal plasma of prostate cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenzmaier Christoph

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expression of Dkk-3, a secreted putative tumor suppressor, is altered in age-related proliferative disorders of the human prostate. We now investigated the suitability of Dkk-3 as a diagnostic biomarker for prostate cancer (PCa in seminal plasma (SP. Methods SP samples were obtained from 81 patients prior to TRUS-guided prostate biopsies on the basis of elevated serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA; > 4 ng/mL levels and/or abnormal digital rectal examination. A sensitive indirect immunoenzymometric assay for Dkk-3 was developed and characterized in detail. SP Dkk-3 and PSA levels were determined and normalized to total SP protein. The diagnostic accuracies of single markers including serum PSA and multivariate models to discriminate patients with positive (N = 40 and negative (N = 41 biopsy findings were investigated. Results Biopsy-confirmed PCa showed significantly higher SP Dkk-3 levels (100.9 ± 12.3 vs. 69.2 ± 9.4 fmol/mg; p = 0.026. Diagnostic accuracy (AUC of SP Dkk-3 levels (0.633 was enhanced in multivariate models by including serum PSA (model A; AUC 0.658 or both, serum and SP PSA levels (model B; AUC 0.710. In a subpopulation with clinical follow-up > 3 years post-biopsy to ensure veracity of negative biopsy status (positive biopsy N = 21; negative biopsy N = 25 AUCs for SP Dkk-3, model A and B increased to 0.667, 0.724 and 0.777, respectively. Conclusions In multivariate models to detect PCa, inclusion of SP Dkk-3 levels, which were significantly elevated in biopsy-confirmed PCa patients, improved the diagnostic performance compared with serum PSA only.

  9. Estimating Discharge, Depth and Bottom Friction in Sand Bed Rivers Using Surface Currents and Water Surface Elevation Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeonov, J.; Czapiga, M. J.; Holland, K. T.

    2017-12-01

    We developed an inversion model for river bathymetry estimation using measurements of surface currents, water surface elevation slope and shoreline position. The inversion scheme is based on explicit velocity-depth and velocity-slope relationships derived from the along-channel momentum balance and mass conservation. The velocity-depth relationship requires the discharge value to quantitatively relate the depth to the measured velocity field. The ratio of the discharge and the bottom friction enter as a coefficient in the velocity-slope relationship and is determined by minimizing the difference between the predicted and the measured streamwise variation of the total head. Completing the inversion requires an estimate of the bulk friction, which in the case of sand bed rivers is a strong function of the size of dune bedforms. We explored the accuracy of existing and new empirical closures that relate the bulk roughness to parameters such as the median grain size diameter, ratio of shear velocity to sediment fall velocity or the Froude number. For given roughness parameterization, the inversion solution is determined iteratively since the hydraulic roughness depends on the unknown depth. We first test the new hydraulic roughness parameterization using estimates of the Manning roughness in sand bed rivers based on field measurements. The coupled inversion and roughness model is then tested using in situ and remote sensing measurements of the Kootenai River east of Bonners Ferry, ID.

  10. Full 2D observation of water surface elevation from SWOT under different flow conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domeneghetti, Alessio; Schumann, Guy; Rui, Wei; Durand, Michael; Pavelsky, Tamlin

    2016-04-01

    The upcoming Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission is a joint project of NASA, Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES, France), the Canadian Space Agency, and the Space Agency of the UK that will provide a first global, high-resolution observation of ocean and terrestrial water surface heights. Characterized by an observation swath of 120 km and an orbit repeat interval of about 21 days, SWOT will provide unprecedented bi-dimensional observations of rivers wider than 50-100 m. Despite many research activities that have investigated potential uses of remotely sensed data from SWOT, potentials and limitations of the spatial observations provided by the satellite mission for flood modeling still remain poorly understood and investigated. In this study we present a first analysis of the spatial observation of water surface elevation that is expected from SWOT for a 140 km reach of the middle-lower portion of the Po River, in Northern Italy. The river stretch is characterized by a main channel varying from 200-500 m in width and a floodplain that can be as wide as 5 km and that is delimited by a system of major embankments. The reconstruction of the hydraulic behavior of the Po River is performed by means of a quasi-2d model built with detailed topographic and bathymetric information (LiDAR, 2 m resolution), while the simulation of the spatial observation sensed by SWOT is performed with a SWOT simulator that mimics the satellite sensor characteristics. Referring to water surface elevations associated with different flow conditions (maximum, minimum and average flow reproduced by means of the quasi-2d numerical model) this work provides a first characterization of the spatial observations provided by SWOT and highlights the strengths and limitations of the expected products. By referring to a real river reach the analysis provides a credible example of the type of spatial observations that will be available after launch of SWOT and offers a first

  11. Predictors of Elevated Cardiac Enzyme Levels in Hospitalized Patients with Atrial Fibrillation and No Known Coronary Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinales, Karyne L; Najib, Mohammad Q; Marella, Punnaiah C; Katayama, Minako; Chaliki, Hari P

    2016-02-01

    We retrospectively studied the predictive capabilities of elevated cardiac enzyme levels in terms of the prognosis of patients who were hospitalized with atrial fibrillation and who had no known coronary artery disease. Among 321 patients with atrial fibrillation, 60 without known coronary artery disease had their cardiac enzyme concentrations measured during hospitalization and underwent stress testing or cardiac catheterization within 12 months before or after hospitalization. We then compared the clinical and electrocardiographic characteristics of the 20 patients who had elevated cardiac enzyme levels and the 40 patients who had normal levels. Age, sex, and comorbidities did not differ between the groups. In the patients with elevated cardiac enzyme levels, the mean concentrations of troponin T and creatine kinase-MB isoenzymes were 0.08 ± 0.08 ng/mL and 6.49 ± 4.94 ng/mL, respectively. In univariate analyses, only peak heart rate during atrial tachyarrhythmia was predictive of elevated enzyme levels (P <0.0001). Mean heart rate was higher in the elevated-level patients (146 ± 22 vs 117 ± 29 beats/min; P=0.0007). Upon multivariate analysis, heart rate was the only independent predictor of elevated levels. Coronary artery disease was found in only 2 patients who had elevated levels and in one patient who had normal levels (P=0.26). Increased myocardial demand is probably why the presenting heart rate was predictive of elevated cardiac enzyme levels. Most patients with elevated enzyme levels did not have coronary artery disease, and none died of cardiac causes during the 6-month follow-up period. To validate our findings, larger studies are warranted.

  12. Elevated cerebral spinal fluid cytokine levels in boys with cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy correlates with MRI severity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy C Lund

    Full Text Available X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD is a metabolic, peroxisomal disease that results from a mutation in the ABCD1 gene. The most severe course of ALD progression is the cerebral inflammatory and demyelinating form of the disease, cALD. To date there is very little information on the cytokine mediators in the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF of these boys.Measurement of 23 different cytokines was performed on CSF and serum of boys with cerebral ALD and patients without ALD. Significant elevations in CSF IL-8 (29.3±2.2 vs 12.8±1.1 pg/ml, p = 0.0001, IL-1ra (166±30 vs 8.6±6.5 pg/ml, p = 0.005, MCP-1 (610±47 vs 328±34 pg/ml, p = 0.002, and MIP-1b (14.2±1.3 vs 2.0±1.4 pg/ml, p<0.0001 were found in boys with cALD versus the control group. The only serum cytokine showing an elevation in the ALD group was SDF-1 (2124±155 vs 1175±125 pg/ml, p = 0.0001. The CSF cytokines of IL-8 and MCP-1b correlated with the Loes MRI severity score (p = 0.04 and p = 0.008 respectively, as well as the serum SDF-1 level (p = 0.002. Finally, CSF total protein was also significantly elevated in boys with cALD and correlated with both IL-8, MCP-1b (p = 0.0001 for both, as well as Loes MRI severity score (p = 0.0007.IL-8, IL-1ra, MCP-1, MIP-1b and CSF total protein were significantly elevated in patients with cALD; IL-8, MCP-1b, and CSF total protein levels correlated with disease severity determined by MRI. This is the largest report of CSF cytokine levels in cALD to date, and identification of these key cytokines will provide further insight into disease progression and perhaps lead to improved targeted therapies.

  13. Kynurenine Levels in Patients with Schizophrenia with Elevated Anti-Gliadin Immunoglobulin G Antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okusaga, Olaoluwa; Fuchs, Dietmar; Reeves, Gloria; Giegling, Ina; Hartmann, Annette M.; Konte, Bettina; Friedl, Marion; Groer, Maureen; Cook, Thomas; Stearns-Yoder, Kelly A.; Pandey, Janardan P.; Kelly, Deanna L.; Hoisington, Andrew J.; Lowry, Christopher A.; Eaton, William; Brenner, Lisa A.; Rujescu, Dan; Postolache, Teodor T.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Several studies have reported an association between non-celiac gluten sensitivity and schizophrenia. Immune and kynurenine pathways have also been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, and certain proinflammatory immune mediators may increase kynurenine (KYN) and reduce tryptophan (TRP) levels. Methods We thus measured serum anti-gliadin IgG, KYN and TRP in 950 patients with schizophrenia. Patients with antibody level at the 90th percentile or higher of control participants (21.9% of all patients) were classified as having elevated anti-gliadin IgG. Independent t-tests and linear regression models were used to compare TRP, KYN and KYN-TRP ratio (indicator of TRP metabolism) between patients with, and those without elevated anti-gliadin IgG. The correlation between anti-gliadin IgG and TRP, KYN and the ratio was also evaluated in the patients. Results KYN and KYN-TRP ratio were higher in patients with elevated anti-gliadin IgG (geometric mean 2.65 mmol/l, SD = 0.25 vs. 2.25mmol/l, SD = 0.23, p < 0.001 and 0.05, SD = 0.26 vs. 0.04, SD = 0.25, p = 0.001 respectively), findings robust to adjustment for potential demographic and clinical confounders. Anti-gliadin IgG correlated with KYN and KYN-TRP ratio in unadjusted analysis (r = 0.12, p < 0.001; r = 0.11, p = 0.002). TRP did not differ between the 2 groups and did not correlate with anti-gliadin IgG. Conclusions Our results connect non-celiac gluten sensitivity with the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism in psychotic illness and hint towards potential individualized treatment targets. PMID:27359171

  14. Elevated fasting insulin levels increase the risk of abdominal obesity in Korean men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung Keun; Oh, Chang-Mo; Jung, Taegi; Choi, Young-Jun; Chung, Ju Youn; Ryoo, Jae-Hong

    2017-04-01

    This study was designed to investigate whether an elevated fasting insulin level predicts abdominal obesity. A cohort study was conducted with 13,707 non-obese Korean men. They were categorized into 4 groups according to the quartile of fasting insulin level, and followed up from 2005 to 2010. Incidence rates of obesity were compared among the 4 groups during follow-up, and a Cox proportional hazards model was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) for abdominal obesity according to fasting insulin level. The overall incidence rate of obesity was 16.2%, but the rate increased in proportion to the fasting insulin level (quartiles 1-4: 9.8%, 12.4%, 16.9%, 25.5%, Pfasting insulin level in an unadjusted model. However, after adjustment for covariates, including baseline waist circumference (WC), only in the quartile 4 group was the statistical significance of the association maintained [quartile 2-4; abdominal obesity: 0.89 (0.76-1.02), 1.00 (0.86-1.14) and 1.24 (1.08-1.43), P for trend fasting insulin levels, an overall proportional relationship between fasting insulin level and incident abdominal obesity was not found. Additionally, this association was largely accounted for by baseline WC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Investigation of potential sea level rise impact on the Nile Delta, Egypt using digital elevation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Emad; Khan, Sadiq Ibrahim; Hong, Yang

    2015-10-01

    In this study, the future impact of Sea Level Rise (SLR) on the Nile Delta region in Egypt is assessed by evaluating the elevations of two freely available Digital Elevation Models (DEMs): the SRTM and the ASTER-GDEM-V2. The SLR is a significant worldwide dilemma that has been triggered by recent climatic changes. In Egypt, the Nile Delta is projected to face SLR of 1 m by the end of the 21th century. In order to provide a more accurate assessment of the future SLR impact on Nile Delta's land and population, this study corrected the DEM's elevations by using linear regression model with ground elevations from GPS survey. The information for the land cover types and future population numbers were derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land cover and the Gridded Population of the Worlds (GPWv3) datasets respectively. The DEM's vertical accuracies were assessed using GPS measurements and the uncertainty analysis revealed that the SRTM-DEM has positive bias of 2.5 m, while the ASTER-GDEM-V2 showed a positive bias of 0.8 m. The future inundated land cover areas and the affected population were illustrated based on two SLR scenarios of 0.5 m and 1 m. The SRTM DEM data indicated that 1 m SLR will affect about 3900 km(2) of cropland, 1280 km(2) of vegetation, 205 km(2) of wetland, 146 km(2) of urban areas and cause more than 6 million people to lose their houses. The overall vulnerability assessment using ASTER-GDEM-V2 indicated that the influence of SLR will be intense and confined along the coastal areas. For instance, the data indicated that 1 m SLR will inundate about 580 Km(2) (6%) of the total land cover areas and approximately 887 thousand people will be relocated. Accordingly, the uncertainty analysis of the DEM's elevations revealed that the ASTER-GDEM-V2 dataset product was considered the best to determine the future impact of SLR on the Nile Delta region.

  16. Elevated urine heparanase levels are associated with proteinuria and decreased renal allograft function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itay Shafat

    Full Text Available Heparanase is an endo-β-glucuronidase that cleaves heparan sulfate side chains, leading to structural modifications that loosen the extracellular matrix barrier and associated with tumor metastasis, inflammation and angiogenesis. In addition, the highly sulfated heparan sulfate proteoglycans are important constituents of the glomerular basement membrane and its permselective properties. Recent studies suggest a role for heparanase in several experimental and human glomerular diseases associated with proteinuria such as diabetes, minimal change disease, and membranous nephropathy. Here, we quantified blood and urine heparanase levels in renal transplant recipients and patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD, and assessed whether alterations in heparanase levels correlate with proteinuria and renal function. We report that in transplanted patients, urinary heparanase was markedly elevated, inversely associated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, suggesting a relationship between heparanase and graft function. In CKD patients, urinary heparanase was markedly elevated and associated with proteinuria, but not with eGFR. In addition, urinary heparanase correlated significantly with plasma heparanase in transplanted patients. Such a systemic spread of heparanase may lead to damage of cells and tissues alongside the kidney.The newly described association between heparanase, proteinuria and decreased renal function is expected to pave the way for new therapeutic options aimed at attenuating chronic renal allograft nephropathy, leading to improved graft survival and patient outcome.

  17. The effect of educational level elevation on the mathematical skill in hearing-impaired students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Sharifi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: There is a relation between language skills and science learning in educational approach. Hearing-impairment and delay in learning of language skills influence the progress of learning. The aim of this research was to study the effect of educational level elevation on growth of mathematical skill. Therefore, third grade hearing-impaired students of secondary school, and forth grade hearing-impaired and normal-hearing students of elementary school were compared in terms of mathematical skill.Methods: The research was cross-sectional and the internationally standardized mathematics questions (2007 were selected as the tools of the test. The sample included 31 students of 4th grade elementary and third grade of secondary school with sever hearing loss from exceptional schools, and 17 normal-hearing students were randomly selected from ordinary schools next to the exceptional schools in Robatkarim, Karaj, and Shahriyar cities, Iran.Results: According to data analysis there was a meaningful difference between hearing-impaired students of forth and third grades and normal-hearing students in the three fields of knowledge, application and argument (p0.05.Conclusion: No significant improvement was seen in the mathematical skill of hearing-impaired students by educational level elevation. Writing mathematical books for the pre-elementary courses, revision of teaching methods, and increasing teaching hours are necessary in mathematics.

  18. IL-10 plasma levels are elevated after LPS injection in splenectomized A/J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Manuel B; Vega, Virginia L; Bedri, Mazen; Saad, Daniel; Trentzsch, Heiko; Reeves, Roger H; De Maio, Antonio

    2005-11-01

    Splenectomy is clinically indicated in certain cases of hypersplenism and splenic trauma. However, it is associated with serious complications, in particular, reduced clearance of encapsulated organisms and a high incidence of sepsis, which has been coined overwhelming post-splenectomy sepsis (OPSS). In addition to the role of the spleen in the clearance of microorganisms, this organ may be involved in regulation of the inflammatory response. We investigated the effect of splenectomy on the inflammatory process induced by LPS in a murine model that resembles, in part, the pathophysiological aspects of sepsis. Male mice (8-weeks-old) from different inbred strains were randomized into three groups: splenectomized (SPX), sham operated (SHAM), and non-operated controls (NoOp). After 9 days of recovery, mice were injected with LPS (15 mg/kg) and cytokine plasma levels were measured by ELISA at 1.5 or 6 h after injection. Peritoneal macrophages (PMphi) were isolated from the three groups, and cytokine production was evaluated after incubation with LPS in culture conditions. IL-10 plasma levels were elevated in SPX A/J mice (6.7 +/- 0.4 mug/ml) after injection of LPS (15 mg/kg) compared to NoOp A/J mice (4.2 +/- 0.2 mug/ml, P < 0.05). Similar elevation in IL-10 plasma levels was detected in SPX DBA/2J mice as compared to NoOp DBA/2J mice, but not in C57BL/6J and BALB/cJ mice. In contrast, SPX AKR mice displayed lower IL-10 levels than NoOp mice. PMphis from SPX A/J mice produced elevated levels of IL-10 compared to PMphis from SHAM or NoOp A/J mice, mimicking the in vivo observations. Our data suggest that the spleen plays an important role in modulating the inflammatory process induced by LPS, extending beyond passive clearance of encapsulated organisms. In addition, the contribution of the spleen to the inflammatory process may be influenced by the genetic background.

  19. Predictors of elevational biodiversity gradients change from single taxa to the multi-taxa community level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Marcell K; Hemp, Andreas; Appelhans, Tim; Behler, Christina; Classen, Alice; Detsch, Florian; Ensslin, Andreas; Ferger, Stefan W; Frederiksen, Sara B; Gebert, Friederike; Haas, Michael; Helbig-Bonitz, Maria; Hemp, Claudia; Kindeketa, William J; Mwangomo, Ephraim; Ngereza, Christine; Otte, Insa; Röder, Juliane; Rutten, Gemma; Schellenberger Costa, David; Tardanico, Joseph; Zancolli, Giulia; Deckert, Jürgen; Eardley, Connal D; Peters, Ralph S; Rödel, Mark-Oliver; Schleuning, Matthias; Ssymank, Axel; Kakengi, Victor; Zhang, Jie; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Brandl, Roland; Kalko, Elisabeth K V; Kleyer, Michael; Nauss, Thomas; Tschapka, Marco; Fischer, Markus; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

    2016-12-22

    The factors determining gradients of biodiversity are a fundamental yet unresolved topic in ecology. While diversity gradients have been analysed for numerous single taxa, progress towards general explanatory models has been hampered by limitations in the phylogenetic coverage of past studies. By parallel sampling of 25 major plant and animal taxa along a 3.7 km elevational gradient on Mt. Kilimanjaro, we quantify cross-taxon consensus in diversity gradients and evaluate predictors of diversity from single taxa to a multi-taxa community level. While single taxa show complex distribution patterns and respond to different environmental factors, scaling up diversity to the community level leads to an unambiguous support for temperature as the main predictor of species richness in both plants and animals. Our findings illuminate the influence of taxonomic coverage for models of diversity gradients and point to the importance of temperature for diversification and species coexistence in plant and animal communities.

  20. Factors associated with elevated serum chromogranin A levels in patients with autoimmune gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, Çağdaş; Karakaya, Fatih; Soykan, İrfan

    2016-11-01

    Chromogranin A is an important tool in the diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumors. Autoimmune gastritis is an autoimmune disorder marked by hypergastrinemia, which stimulates enterochromaffin-like cell proliferation. Chromogranin A is also elevated in autoimmune gastritis patients with a different level of increase in each patient. The goal of this study is to explore constituents that influence serum chromogranin A levels in autoimmune gastritis patients. One hundred and eighty-eight autoimmune gastritis patients and 20 patients with type I gastric carcinoid tumors were analyzed retrospectively and compared to 110 functional dyspepsia patients in terms of factors that might affect serum chromogranin A levels. The mean serum chromogranin A level was 171.17±67.3 ng/mL in autoimmune gastritis patients (n=62) without enterochromaffin-like cell hyperplasia, and 303.3±102.82 ng/mL in patients (n=126) with enterochromaffin-like cell hyperplasia (pgastritis were the presence of ECL cell hyperplasia and serum gastrin levels. Serum chromogranin A levels maybe helpful in distinguishing autoimmune gastritis patients and gastric carcinoid type I from the control group, but not useful in the differentiation of individuals with autoimmune gastritis from patients with gastric carcinoids.

  1. Metabolic syndrome and elevated C-reactive protein levels in elderly patients with newly diagnosed depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soyeon; Joo, Yeon Ho; McIntyre, Roger S; Kim, Byungsu

    2014-01-01

    Depression and metabolic syndrome (MeS) are prevalent in elderly people and are associated with adverse outcomes, especially cardiovascular disease. Increased C-reactive protein (CRP) levels are a risk factor for depression and chronic medical disorders, such as cardiovascular disease and MeS. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of MeS and CRP levels in elderly (>60y) patients with newly-diagnosed major depressive disorder. We enrolled 30 subjects with newly diagnosed depression and 30 age- and sex-matched controls who presented for a health examination at Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Korea. Sociodemographic, MeS components, and CRP were measured before starting treatment with antidepressants. There were no significant differences in sociodemographic characteristics or lifestyle factors between depressive and healthy control patients. The newly-diagnosed depression group showed a significantly increased risk of MeS (odds ratio = 4.75, 95% CI: 1.58-14.25) compared with the control group. Of the 5 MeS components examined, only waist circumference was significantly different between the 2 groups (odds ratio = 4.33, 95% CI: 1.20-15.61). Elevated CRP levels were significantly associated with an increased risk for depression (odds ratio = 4.57, 95% 1.45-14.39). The risks of MeS and elevated CRP levels are higher in elderly patients with depression than in normal subjects. Physicians need to be alert to these cardiovascular risk factors when diagnosing and prescribing antidepressants for depression in the elderly. Clinical investigators are encouraged to assess markers of inflammation and review detailed information on risk factors such as waist circumference for MeS in patients with depression. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Fermi level on hydrogen terminated diamond surfaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rezek, Bohuslav; Saurer, C.; Nebel, C. E.; Stutzmann, M.; Ristein, J.; Ley, L.; Snidero, E.; Bergonzo, P.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 14 (2003), s. 2266-2268 ISSN 0003-6951 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) HPRN-CT-1999-00139 Grant - others:DFC(DE) NE524-2 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : atomic force microscope(AFM) * Kelvin probe experiments * diamond surface Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 4.049, year: 2003

  3. Stairs instead of elevators at the workplace decreases PCSK9 levels in a healthy population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamani, Christel H; Gencer, Baris; Montecucco, Fabrizio; Courvoisier, Delphine; Vuilleumier, Nicolas; Meyer, Philippe; Mach, François

    2015-10-01

    Regular physical activity is recommended to lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in a healthy population. Inhibition of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) was shown to reduce (LDL-C) levels; however, the impact of physical exercise on PCSK9 levels remains unclear. We used data from 67 healthy hospital employees who participated in a 6-month intervention promoting active use of stairs instead of elevators during 3 months, followed by 3 months without recommendation. We confirmed the degree of physical activity with estimated aerobic capacity (VO2 max ) and measured serum PCSK9 levels at baseline, 3 and 6 month. Using a multilevel regression model, we analysed changes of PCSK9 levels over time adjusting for age, gender, aerobic capacity, baseline LDL-C, and LDL-C and body mass index (BMI) changes. At baseline, PCSK9 levels were associated with higher aerobic capacity (P-value = 0·024). At 3 months, we observed a significant decrease in mean PCSK9 levels from 403·6 to 324·3 ng/mL (P-value = 0·001), as well a significant decrease in mean LDL-C levels from 3·5 to 3·3 mM (P-value = 0·01). During this period, mean aerobic capacity (VO2 max ) increased from 37·0 to 40·4 mL/kg/min (P-value < 0·001). Physical activity was independently associated with a decrease in PCSK9 levels after adjustment for age, gender, baseline aerobic capacity, and LDL-C and BMI changes. Daily physical activity at the work place is independently associated with a decrease in PCSK9 levels over time. © 2015 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  4. Increased serum levels of hyaluronic acid in pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia or hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmers, R G; Schütz, E; Diedrich, F; Wehry, B; Krauss, T; Oellerich, M; Kuhn, W

    1998-02-01

    Fifteen percent of patients who later have hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets syndrome develop initially have nonspecific symptoms. Early diagnosis could ensure adequate obstetric management; however, prognostic biochemical tests are lacking. We hypothesized that elevated hyaluronic acid serum levels might be an early indicator of hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets syndrome because it is known to be a sensitive marker of liver cell function. Hyaluronic acid in serum was measured in patients with normal pregnancies (n = 109) and in those patients with pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia (n = 14) or hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets syndrome (n = 11). A significant increase in hyaluronic acid serum concentrations was observed in patients with hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets syndrome or with preeclampsia (p hyaluronic acid serum levels in hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets syndrome correlated with the clinical severity of the individual course of disease as measured by intensive care unit time (r = 0.72; p hyaluronic acid in preeclampsia and hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets syndrome are significantly elevated and might play an important diagnostic and prognostic role in patients with hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets syndrome.

  5. Elevated serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase isoform 5a levels in metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi-Jhih; Huang, Tsai-Wang; Chao, Tsu-Yi; Sun, Yu-Shan; Chen, Shyi-Jou; Chu, Der-Ming; Chen, Wei-Liang; Wu, Li-Wei

    2017-09-29

    Tartrate-resistant phosphatase isoform 5a is expressed in tumor-associated macrophages and is a biomarker of chronic inflammation. Herein, we correlated serum tartrate-resistant phosphatase isoform 5a levels with metabolic syndrome status and made comparisons with traditional markers of inflammation, including c-reactive protein and interleukin-6. One hundred healthy volunteers were randomly selected, and cut-off points for metabolic syndrome related inflammatory biomarkers were determined using receiver operating characteristic curves. Linear and logistic regression models were subsequently used to correlate inflammatory markers with the risk of metabolic syndrome. Twenty-two participants met the criteria for metabolic syndrome, and serum tartrate-resistant phosphatase isoform 5a levels of >5.8 μg/L were associated with metabolic syndrome (c-statistics, 0.730; p = 0.001; 95% confidence interval, 0.618-0.842). In addition, 1 μg/L increases in tartrate-resistant phosphatase isoform 5a levels were indicative of a 1.860 fold increase in the risk of metabolic syndrome (p = 0.012). Elevated serum tartrate-resistant phosphatase isoform 5a levels are associated with the risk of metabolic syndrome, with a cut-off level of 5.8 μg/L.

  6. Surveillance of elevated blood lead levels in children in Torreon, Coahuila, Mexico, 1998-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recio-Vega, Rogelio; Valdez-Abrego, Camilo; Adame-Lopez, Beatriz; Gurrola-Mendez, Aurora

    2012-09-01

    Because children exposed to lead have a very high health risk, surveillance and prevention programs are very important to avoid short- and long-term health effects. To describe the trend for the blood lead levels over a 12-year period in environmentally exposed children and to document the actions implemented to reduce the blood lead levels. We performed a retrospective cohort study of children aged 0-15 years who were enrolled in the Coahuila Health Secretary's Childhood Blood Lead Level Surveillance program. This database includes children from the city of Torreon, Coahuila, Mexico, where the biggest smelter in Latin America is located. A total of 151,322 observations were analyzed in the study. The percentage of samples with elevated blood lead levels decreased from 84.9% to 10.4% during 1998-2010, and the decrease was greater in girls than in boys. According to the results of our study, the majority of strategies and activities to decrease blood lead levels in an environmentally exposed population should be focused on children aged 0-5 years, on the home environment, on preventing fugitive emissions from smelters and other sources and on the proper disposal and confinement of industrial residues. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Elevated levels of serum sulfite in patients with chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajiyama, H; Nojima, Y; Mitsuhashi, H; Ueki, K; Tamura, S; Sekihara, T; Wakamatsu, R; Yano, S; Naruse, T

    2000-05-01

    Sulfite, a well known air pollutant, is toxic for humans, especially those with sulfite hypersensitivity. Sulfite is also generated endogenously, during normal metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids. Mammalian tissues contain the enzyme sulfite oxidase, which detoxifies both endogenous and exogenous sulfite by oxidation to sulfate. Deficiency of sulfite oxidase in humans is fatal, demonstrating its physiologic importance. Nevertheless, information about serum and tissue levels of sulfite in normal and pathologic conditions is limited. Using a sensitive HPLC assay, it is shown here that sera from patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) contain significantly higher amounts of sulfite than those from healthy subjects. Mean +/- SD of serum sulfite in healthy subjects (n = 20) was 1.55 +/- 0.54 microM, whereas those in patients under maintenance hemodialysis (HD patients; n = 44) and CRF patients before introducing dialysis therapy (pre-HD patients; n = 33) were 3. 23 +/- 1.02 microM (P sulfite was positively correlated with serum creatinine (r = 0.714, P sulfite and patient age, gender, or leukocyte counts. Multiple regression analysis revealed serum creatinine as the sole independent predictor of serum sulfite levels. Each HD treatment was associated with approximately 27% reduction in serum sulfite levels, suggesting the presence of a dialyzable form in serum. Thus, these results indicate that reduced glomerular filtration is a factor that determines serum sulfite levels. Chronic elevation in serum sulfite levels might contribute to tissue or organ dysfunction in patients with CRF.

  8. Mineral nutrition and plant responses to elevated levels of atmospheric CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahluwalia, A.

    1996-08-01

    The atmospheric concentration of CO{sub 2}, a radiatively-active ({open_quotes}green-house{close_quotes}) gas, is increasing. This increase is considered a post-industrial phenomenon attributable to increasing rates of fossil fuel combustion and changing land use practices, particularly deforestation. Climate changes resulting from such elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels, in addition to the direct effects of increased CO{sub 2}, are expected to modify the productivity of forests and alter species distributions. Elevated levels of CO{sub 2} have been shown, in some cases, to lead to enhanced growth rates in plants, particularly those with C{sub 3} metabolism - indicating that plant growth is CO{sub 2}-limited in these situations. Since the major process underlying growth is CO{sub 2} assimilation via photosynthesis in leaves, plant growth represents a potential for sequestering atmospheric carbon into biomass, but this potential could be hampered by plant carbon sink size. Carbon sinks are utilization sites for assimilated carbon, enabling carbon assimilation to proceed without potential inhibition from the accumulation of assimilate (photosynthate). Plant growth provides new sinks for assimilated carbon which permits greater uptake of atmospheric carbon dioxide. However, sinks are, on the whole, reduced in size by stress events due to the adverse effects of stress on photosynthetic rates and therefore growth. This document reviews some of the literature on plant responses to increasing levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide and to inadequate nutrient supply rates, and with this background, the potential for nutrient-limited plants to respond to increasing carbon dioxide is addressed. Conclusions from the literature review are then tested experimentally by means of a case study exploring carbon-nitrogen interactions in seedlings of loblolly pine.

  9. Statin-related aminotransferase elevation according to baseline aminotransferases level in real practice in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H-S; Lee, S H; Kim, H; Lee, S-H; Cho, J H; Lee, H; Yim, H W; Kim, S-H; Choi, I-Y; Yoon, K-H; Kim, J H

    2016-06-01

    Higher rate of statin-related hepatotoxicity has been reported for Koreans than for Westerners. Moreover, statin-related aminotransferase elevation for those who show borderline levels of aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) (≤×3 of UNL) at baseline has not been fully investigated. Post-statin changes AST/ALT levels during the first year for 21 233 Korean outpatients at two large academic teaching hospitals from January 2009 to December 2013 were analysed using electronic health record data. The date of the first statin prescription was set as baseline. We also performed a comparative analysis of statin-related AST/ALT elevations according to the type of statin, followed by an analysis of clinical risk factors. The progression rate to abnormal AST/ALT values [>×3 the upper normal limit (UNL)] was significantly higher (2·4-16% vs. 0·3-1·7%, P ×1, but ≤×3 of UNL) compared with normal AST/ALT values at baseline. Those with normal baseline AST/ALT did not show significantly different progression rate between different statin medications (P = 0·801). However, patients taking pitavastatin (HR = 0·76, P = 0·657) were least likely to develop abnormal AST/ALT, whereas those taking fluvastatin (HR = 2·96, P = 0·029) were the most likely to develop abnormal AST/ALT compared with atorvastatin for patients who were with baseline borderline AST/ALT. However, given the small sample sizes and the observational nature of our study, these need further study. It is advisable to regularly monitor AST/ALT levels even in patients with AST/ALT increases >×1. Future studies should aim to determine the possible risk factors for each specific statin type by analysing various confounding variables. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Early Elevated Troponin Levels After Ischemic Stroke Suggests a Cardioembolic Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghi, Shadi; Chang, Andrew D; Ricci, Brittany A; Jayaraman, Mahesh V; McTaggart, Ryan A; Hemendinger, Morgan; Narwal, Priya; Dakay, Katarina; Mac Grory, Brian; Cutting, Shawna M; Burton, Tina M; Song, Christopher; Mehanna, Emile; Siket, Matthew; Madsen, Tracy E; Reznik, Michael; Merkler, Alexander E; Lerario, Michael P; Kamel, Hooman; Elkind, Mitchell S V; Furie, Karen L

    2018-01-01

    Elevated cardiac troponin is a marker of cardiac disease and has been recently shown to be associated with embolic stroke risk. We hypothesize that early elevated troponin levels in the acute stroke setting are more prevalent in patients with embolic stroke subtypes (cardioembolic and embolic stroke of unknown source) as opposed to noncardioembolic subtypes (large-vessel disease, small-vessel disease, and other). We abstracted data from our prospective ischemic stroke database and included all patients with ischemic stroke during an 18-month period. Per our laboratory, we defined positive troponin as ≥0.1 ng/mL and intermediate as ≥0.06 ng/mL and stroke subtype (embolic stroke of unknown source and cardioembolic subtypes) and positive and intermediate troponin levels, adjusting for key confounders, including demographics (age and sex), clinical characteristics (hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus, renal function, coronary heart disease, congestive heart failure, current smoking, and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score), cardiac variables (left atrial diameter, wall-motion abnormalities, ejection fraction, and PR interval on ECG), and insular involvement of infarct. We identified 1234 patients, of whom 1129 had admission troponin levels available; 10.0% (113/1129) of these had a positive troponin. In fully adjusted models, there was an association between troponin positivity and embolic stroke of unknown source subtype (adjusted odds ratio, 4.46; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-7.97; P =0.003) and cardioembolic stroke subtype (odds ratio, 5.00; 95% confidence interval, 1.83-13.63; P =0.002). We found that early positive troponin after ischemic stroke may be independently associated with a cardiac embolic source. Future studies are needed to confirm our findings using high-sensitivity troponin assays and to test optimal secondary prevention strategies in patients with embolic stroke of unknown source and positive troponin. © 2017 American

  11. Preliminary results of the ice_sheet_CCI round robin activity on the estimation of surface elevation changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ticconi, F.; Fredenslund Levinsen, Joanna; Khvorostovsky, K.

    2013-01-01

    This work presents the first results of a research activity aiming to compare estimates of Surface Elevation Changes (SEC) over the Jakobshavn Isbræ basin (Greenland) using different repeat altimetry techniques and different sensors (laser vs. radar altimetry). The goal of this comparison...... is the identification of the best performing algorithm, in terms of accuracy, coverage and processing effort, for the generation of surface elevation change maps. The methods investigated here are the cross-over and repeat-track. The results of the inter-comparison are here reported and, from a first analysis......, it is found that both radar and laser altimetry resolve the surface elevation changes quite well, and that the problems found mainly in the coastal region and along the main trunk can be solved by combining the two methods. The comparison with airborne lidar data from the NASA ICEBridge and the ESA Cryo...

  12. Hong Kong Chinese school children with elevated urine melamine levels: A prospective follow up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu Winnie CW

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2008, the outbreak of kidney stones in children fed by melamine-tainted milk products in Mainland China has caused major public concern of food safety. We identified Hong Kong school children with elevated urine melamine level from a community-based school survey in 2007-08 and reviewed their clinical status in 2009. Methods In 2007-08, 2119 school children participated in a primary and secondary school survey in Hong Kong using a cluster sampling method. Urine aliquots from 502 subjects were assayed for melamine level. High urine melamine level was defined as urine melamine/creatinine ratio >7.1 μg/mmol. Subjects with high urine melamine level were invited for clinical evaluation in 2009 including urinalysis and ultrasound imaging of the urinary system. Results The age range of this subcohort was 6 - 20 years with 67% girls (335 female and 167 male subjects. The spot urine melamine/creatinine ratio of the 502 urine aliquots ranged from undetectable to 1467 μg/mmol (median 0.8 μg/mmol. Of these, 213 subjects had undetectable level (42%. We invited 47 (9% subjects with high urine melamine level for re-evaluation and one subject declined. The median duration of follow-up was 23.5 months (interquartile range: 19.8 - 30.6 months. None of the 46 subjects (28% boys, mean age 13.9 ± 2.9 years had any abnormality detected on ultrasound study of the urinary system. All subjects had stable renal function with a median urine albumin-creatinine ratio of 0.70 mg/mmol (interquartile range: 0.00 - 2.55 mg/mmol. Conclusions Hong Kong Chinese school children with high urine melamine levels appeared to have benign clinical course in the short term although a long term follow-up study is advisable in those with persistently high urine melamine level.

  13. Elevated Homocysteine Levels Are Associated With the Metabolic Syndrome and Cardiovascular Events in Hypertensive Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catena, Cristiana; Colussi, Gianluca; Nait, Francesca; Capobianco, Frine; Sechi, Leonardo A

    2015-07-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia and the metabolic syndrome are established cardiovascular risk factors and are frequently associated with hypertension. The relationship of plasma homocysteine (Hcy) with the metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance, however, is debated and studies in hypertensive patients are limited. In this study, we have investigated the association of Hcy with the metabolic syndrome and cerebro- cardiovascular events in hypertension. In 562 essential hypertensive patients who underwent accurate assessment of fasting and postload glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and renal function, we measured plasma levels of Hcy, vitamin B12, folate, and fibrinogen and assessed the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and of coronary heart and cerebrovascular disease (CVD). Patients with the metabolic syndrome had significantly higher plasma Hcy levels. After correction for covariates, increasing Hcy levels were associated with an increasing prevalence of the metabolic syndrome, coronary heart disease, and CVD. Plasma Hcy was directly correlated with age, waist circumference, fasting glucose, triglyceride, uric acid, and fibrinogen levels, and homeostatic model assessment index and inversely with creatinine clearance and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, vitamin B12, and folate levels. Logistic regression analysis showed an independent association of Hcy levels with age, male gender, vitamin B12 and folate levels, and the metabolic syndrome. Logistic regression indicated also an independent association of Hcy with cerebro-cardiovascular disease that was independent of the metabolic syndrome. Elevated plasma Hcy is associated with the metabolic syndrome in hypertensive patients. Prevalence of events increases with increasing plasma Hcy levels suggesting a contribution of Hcy to cerebro-cardiovascular diseases in these patients. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2014. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Hong Kong Chinese school children with elevated urine melamine levels: a prospective follow up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Alice P S; Choi, Kai-Chow; Ho, Chung Shun; Chan, Michael H M; Wong, Chun Kwok; Liu, Eric K H; Chu, Winnie C W; Chow, Viola C Y; Lau, Joseph T F; Chan, Juliana C N

    2011-05-20

    In 2008, the outbreak of kidney stones in children fed by melamine-tainted milk products in Mainland China has caused major public concern of food safety. We identified Hong Kong school children with elevated urine melamine level from a community-based school survey in 2007-08 and reviewed their clinical status in 2009. In 2007-08, 2119 school children participated in a primary and secondary school survey in Hong Kong using a cluster sampling method. Urine aliquots from 502 subjects were assayed for melamine level. High urine melamine level was defined as urine melamine/creatinine ratio >7.1 μg/mmol. Subjects with high urine melamine level were invited for clinical evaluation in 2009 including urinalysis and ultrasound imaging of the urinary system. The age range of this subcohort was 6 - 20 years with 67% girls (335 female and 167 male subjects). The spot urine melamine/creatinine ratio of the 502 urine aliquots ranged from undetectable to 1467 μg/mmol (median 0.8 μg/mmol). Of these, 213 subjects had undetectable level (42%). We invited 47 (9%) subjects with high urine melamine level for re-evaluation and one subject declined. The median duration of follow-up was 23.5 months (interquartile range: 19.8 - 30.6 months). None of the 46 subjects (28% boys, mean age 13.9 ± 2.9 years) had any abnormality detected on ultrasound study of the urinary system. All subjects had stable renal function with a median urine albumin-creatinine ratio of 0.70 mg/mmol (interquartile range: 0.00 - 2.55 mg/mmol). Hong Kong Chinese school children with high urine melamine levels appeared to have benign clinical course in the short term although a long term follow-up study is advisable in those with persistently high urine melamine level.

  15. beta-Alanine elevates dopamine levels in the rat nucleus accumbens: antagonism by strychnine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericson, Mia; Clarke, Rhona B C; Chau, PeiPei; Adermark, Louise; Söderpalm, Bo

    2010-04-01

    Glycine receptors (GlyRs) in the nucleus accumbens (nAc) have recently been suggested to be involved in the reinforcing and dopamine-elevating properties of ethanol via a neuronal circuitry involving the VTA. Apart from ethanol, both glycine and taurine have the ability to modulate dopamine output via GlyRs in the same brain region. In the present study, we wanted to explore whether yet another endogenous ligand for the GlyR, beta-alanine, had similar effects. To this end, we monitored dopamine in the nAc by means of in vivo microdialysis and found that local perfusion of beta-alanine increased dopamine output. In line with previous observations investigating ethanol, glycine and taurine, the competitive GlyR antagonist strychnine completely blocked the dopamine elevation. The present results suggest that beta-alanine has the ability to modulate dopamine levels in the nAc via strychnine-sensitive GlyRs, and are consistent with previous studies suggesting the importance of this receptor for modulating dopamine output.

  16. Genetically defined elevated homocysteine levels do not result in widespread changes of DNA methylation in leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandaviya, Pooja R; Joehanes, Roby; Aïssi, Dylan; Kühnel, Brigitte; Marioni, Riccardo E; Truong, Vinh; Stolk, Lisette; Beekman, Marian; Bonder, Marc Jan; Franke, Lude; Gieger, Christian; Huan, Tianxiao; Ikram, M Arfan; Kunze, Sonja; Liang, Liming; Lindemans, Jan; Liu, Chunyu; McRae, Allan F; Mendelson, Michael M; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Peters, Annette; Slagboom, P Eline; Starr, John M; Trégouët, David-Alexandre; Uitterlinden, André G; van Greevenbroek, Marleen M J; van Heemst, Diana; van Iterson, Maarten; Wells, Philip S; Yao, Chen; Deary, Ian J; Gagnon, France; Heijmans, Bastiaan T; Levy, Daniel; Morange, Pierre-Emmanuel; Waldenberger, Melanie; Heil, Sandra G; van Meurs, Joyce B J

    2017-01-01

    DNA methylation is affected by the activities of the key enzymes and intermediate metabolites of the one-carbon pathway, one of which involves homocysteine. We investigated the effect of the well-known genetic variant associated with mildly elevated homocysteine: MTHFR 677C>T independently and in combination with other homocysteine-associated variants, on genome-wide leukocyte DNA-methylation. Methylation levels were assessed using Illumina 450k arrays on 9,894 individuals of European ancestry from 12 cohort studies. Linear-mixed-models were used to study the association of additive MTHFR 677C>T and genetic-risk score (GRS) based on 18 homocysteine-associated SNPs, with genome-wide methylation. Meta-analysis revealed that the MTHFR 677C>T variant was associated with 35 CpG sites in cis, and the GRS showed association with 113 CpG sites near the homocysteine-associated variants. Genome-wide analysis revealed that the MTHFR 677C>T variant was associated with 1 trans-CpG (nearest gene ZNF184), while the GRS model showed association with 5 significant trans-CpGs annotated to nearest genes PTF1A, MRPL55, CTDSP2, CRYM and FKBP5. Our results do not show widespread changes in DNA-methylation across the genome, and therefore do not support the hypothesis that mildly elevated homocysteine is associated with widespread methylation changes in leukocytes.

  17. Genetically defined elevated homocysteine levels do not result in widespread changes of DNA methylation in leukocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja R Mandaviya

    Full Text Available DNA methylation is affected by the activities of the key enzymes and intermediate metabolites of the one-carbon pathway, one of which involves homocysteine. We investigated the effect of the well-known genetic variant associated with mildly elevated homocysteine: MTHFR 677C>T independently and in combination with other homocysteine-associated variants, on genome-wide leukocyte DNA-methylation.Methylation levels were assessed using Illumina 450k arrays on 9,894 individuals of European ancestry from 12 cohort studies. Linear-mixed-models were used to study the association of additive MTHFR 677C>T and genetic-risk score (GRS based on 18 homocysteine-associated SNPs, with genome-wide methylation.Meta-analysis revealed that the MTHFR 677C>T variant was associated with 35 CpG sites in cis, and the GRS showed association with 113 CpG sites near the homocysteine-associated variants. Genome-wide analysis revealed that the MTHFR 677C>T variant was associated with 1 trans-CpG (nearest gene ZNF184, while the GRS model showed association with 5 significant trans-CpGs annotated to nearest genes PTF1A, MRPL55, CTDSP2, CRYM and FKBP5.Our results do not show widespread changes in DNA-methylation across the genome, and therefore do not support the hypothesis that mildly elevated homocysteine is associated with widespread methylation changes in leukocytes.

  18. Geared-elevator flutter study. [wind tunnel tests of transonic flutter effects on control surfaces of supersonic transport tail assemblies, conducted in a NASA-Langley transonic wind tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhlin, C. L.; Doggett, R. V., Jr.; Gregory, R. A.

    1976-01-01

    An experimental and analytical study was made of the transonic flutter characteristics of a supersonic transport tail assembly model having an all-movable, horizontal tail with a geared elevator. Two model configurations, namely, one with a gear-elevator (2.8 to 1.0 gear ratio) and one with locked-elevator (1.0 to 1.0 gear ratio), were flutter tested in the Langley transonic dynamics tunnel with an empennage cantilever-mounted on a sting. The geared-elevator configuration fluttered experimentally at about 20% higher dynamic pressures than the locked-elevator configuration. The experimental flutter dynamic pressure boundaries for both configurations were nearly flat over a Mach number range from 0.9 to 1.1. Flutter calculations (mathematical models) were made for the geared-elevator configuration using three subsonic lifting-surface methods. In one method, the elevator was treated as a discrete surface, and in the other two methods, the stabilizer and elevator were treated as a single warped-surface with the primary difference between these two methods being in the mathematical implementation used. A comparison of the experimental and analytical results shows that the discrete-elevator method predicted best the experimental flutter dynamic pressure level. However, the single warped-surface methods predicts more closely the experimental flutter frequencies and Mach number trends.

  19. Elevated plasma N-terminal ProBNP levels in unmedicated patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politi, Pierluigi; Minoretti, Piercarlo; Piaggi, Noemi; Brondino, Natascia; Emanuele, Enzo

    2007-05-07

    There is considerable evidence that cardiovascular diseases are more prevalent in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Secretion of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) increases in several cardiac illnesses, making this neurohormone a reliable diagnostic and prognostic biomarker of cardiovascular risk. We measured plasma NT-proBNP levels in the following three groups of subjects free of overt cardiovascular disease: unmedicated patients with MDD (n=40), unmedicated patients with schizophrenia (n=44), and normal control subjects (n=42). The severity of depressive symptoms was rated using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD). Plasma NT-proBNP levels were assayed by ELISA. Plasma NT-proBNP levels were significantly higher in the MDD group (median: 217.1 pmol/L; interquartile range: 179.4-277.1 pmol/L) than in patients with schizophrenia (175.7 pmol/L [139.0-218.9]; P<0.05) or in the control group (158.9 pmol/L [98.3-212.1]; P<0.001). Among patients with MDD, there was a significant positive correlation (Spearman's rank correlation=0.422, P=0.008) between plasma NT-proBNP and HAMD scores. Altogether, our results indicate that elevated NT-proBNP levels may play a role in linking MDD with increased cardiovascular risk.

  20. Elevated Serum Level of HMGB1 in Patients with the Antiphospholipid Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Manganelli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy problems are common in patients with rheumatic disease; indeed, autoimmune disorders and autoantibodies can affect pregnancy progress and lead to maternal complications. Recent studies have highlighted a close association between HMGB1, chronic inflammation, and autoimmune diseases. Thus, in this investigation, we analyzed serum levels of HMGB1, an alarmin which plays a pivotal role in inducing and enhancing immune cell function. Sera from 30 patients with antiphospholipid syndrome (11 primary and 19 secondary APS, 35 subjects with pregnancy morbidity, and 30 healthy women were analysed for HMGB1 and its putative receptor RAGE (sRAGE by Western blot and for TNF-α by ELISA. Results revealed that APS patients showed significantly increased serum levels of HMGB1, sRAGE, and the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α, as compared to healthy women. However, also, the pregnancy morbidity subjects showed significantly increased levels of HMGB1 and sRAGE as well as TNF-α compared to healthy women. Our findings suggest that in subjects with pregnancy morbidity, including obstetric APS, elevated levels of HMGB1/sRAGE may represent an alarm signal, indicating an increase of proinflammatory triggers. Further studies are needed to evaluate the role of HMGB1/sRAGE as a possible tool to evaluate the risk stratification of adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  1. [Association of hypercalcemia, elevated levels of calcitriol and tuberculosis in patients on hemodialysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peces, R; Díaz Corte, C

    2000-01-01

    Hypercalcemia is associated with numerous chronic granulomatous processes and chronic infections. Increased production of calcitriol by activated macrophages has been shown to be the cause in most cases. In this article, we describe three cases of hypercalcemia associated with inappropriately elevated calcitriol levels and suppressed PTH in hemodialysis. In addition to conventional techniques for tuberculosis diagnosis we used Ligase Chain Reaction (LCR) to detect mycobacterial DNA in pleural effusion with acid-fast stain and culture negativity. Antituberculous therapy was associated with a decrease in the levels of calcium, as well as in serum calcitriol concentrations, and a substantial increase in the levels of iPTH. The serum levels of 25(OH)D3 remained unchanged. These findings suggested ectopic production of calcitriol. The discussion reviews the previously reported cases of hypercalcemia and tuberculosis that occurred during hemodialysis, and concludes that ectopic production of calcitriol by tuberculous granulomas is extremely unusual and its demonstration requires a high index of suspicion. Molecular techniques are a potentially useful approach for early and rapid diagnosis of tuberculous infection in dialysis patients.

  2. ELEVATED LEVELS OF SOLUBLE ST2 PROTEIN IN DENGUE VIRUS INFECTED PATIENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra, Aniuska; Warke, Rajas V.; de Bosch, Norma; Rothman, Alan L.; Bosch, Irene

    2008-01-01

    Levels of the soluble form of the interleukin-1 receptor like 1 protein (IL-1RL-1 / ST2) are elevated in the serum of patients with diseases characterized by an inflammatory response. The objective of this study was to determine the concentration of soluble ST2 (sST2) in dengue infected patients during the course of the disease. Twenty four patients with confirmed dengue infection, classified as dengue fever, and eleven patients with other febrile illness (OFI) were evaluated. Levels of sST2 in serum and laboratory variables usually altered during dengue infections were measured. Dengue infected patients had higher serum sST2 levels than OFI at the end of the febrile stage and at defervescence (p=0.0088 and p=0.0004 respectively). Patients with secondary dengue infections had higher serum sST2 levels compared with patients with primary dengue infections (p=0.047 at last day of fever and p=0.030 at defervescence). Furthermore, in dengue infected patients, we found a significant negative correlation of sST2 with platelet and WBC counts, and positive correlation with thrombin time and transaminases activity. We suggest that sST2 could be a potential marker of dengue infection, could be associated with severity or could play a role in the immune response in secondary dengue virus infection. PMID:18226917

  3. Elevated IL-5 levels in pleural fluid of patients with paragonimiasis westermani

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, H; Mukae, H; Matsumoto, N; Tokojima, M; Katoh, S; Matsukura, S; Ogawa, K; Kohno, S; Nawa, Y

    2001-01-01

    To investigate the pathogenic mechanisms of eosinophilic pleural effusion in patients with paragonimiasis, we measured the levels of IL-5, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) in pleural effusions. Samples were obtained from 11 patients with Paragonimus westermani infection. In addition, samples from 12 patients with pleural transudates, 16 with tuberculous pleurisy, seven with empyema and 20 with lung cancer were also examined. Eosinophilia was remarkable in peripheral blood (range 4–34%, median 23·4%) and pleural fluid (range 0–95%, median 71%) of paragonimiasis patients. IL-5 concentrations in pleural effusions of paragonimiasis were markedly higher than those in other groups. Although marked elevation of GM-CSF and IFN-γ levels was observed in pleural effusion of empyema and tuberculosis patients, it was marginal in the pleural effusion of paragonimiasis patients. In paragonimiasis patients, IL-5 levels in the pleural effusion correlated well with the percentage of eosinophils in peripheral blood and pleural fluid. Such a correlation was not observed between GM-CSF levels in pleural effusion and percentages of eosinophils in pleural fluid or peripheral blood. Our findings suggest that in paragonimiasis IL-5 in the local inflammatory site is particularly important in mediating eosinophilia in peripheral blood and pleural effusion. PMID:11168004

  4. Elevated Systemic Levels of Endocannabinoids and Related Mediators Across the Menstrual Cycle in Women With Endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Ana Maria; Cioffi, Raffaella; Viganò, Paola; Candiani, Massimo; Verde, Roberta; Piscitelli, Fabiana; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Garavaglia, Elisabetta; Panina-Bordignon, Paola

    2016-08-01

    Cannabinoids and modulators of the endocannabinoid system affect specific mechanisms that are critical to the establishment and development of endometriosis. The aim of this study was to measure the systemic levels of endocannabinoids and related mediators in women with and without endometriosis and to investigate whether such levels correlated with endometriosis-associated pain. Plasma and endometrial biopsies were obtained from women with a laparoscopic diagnosis of endometriosis (n = 27) and no endometrial pathology (n = 29). Plasma levels of endocannabinoids (N-arachidonoylethanolamine [AEA] and 2-arachidonoylglycerol [2-AG]) and related mediators (N-oleoylethanolamine [OEA] and N-palmitoylethanolamine [PEA]), messenger RNA expression of some of their receptors (cannabinoid receptor type 1 [CB1], CB2, transient receptor potential vanilloid type [TRPV1]), and the enzymes involved in the synthesis (N-acyl-phosphatidylethanolamine-hydrolyzing phospholipase D [NAPE-PLD]) and degradation (fatty acid amide hydrolase 1 [FAAH]) of AEA, OEA, and PEA were evaluated in endometrial stromal cells. The systemic levels of AEA, 2-AG, and OEA were elevated in endometriosis in the secretory phase compared to controls. The expression of CB1 was higher in secretory phase endometrial stromal cells of controls versus endometriosis. Similar expression levels of CB2, TRPV1, NAPE-PLD, and FAAH were detected in controls and endometriosis. Patients with moderate-to-severe dysmenorrhea and dyspareunia showed higher AEA and PEA levels than those with low-to-moderate pain symptoms, respectively. The association of increased circulating AEA and 2-AG with decreased local CB1 expression in endometriosis suggests a negative feedback loop regulation, which may impair the capability of these mediators to control pain. These preliminary data suggest that the pharmacological manipulation of the action or levels of these mediators may offer an alternative option for the management of endometriosis

  5. Elevated levels of high-molecular-weight adiponectin in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, H.; Andersen, K.K.; Frystyk, J.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several studies have shown that type 1 diabetic patients have elevated total levels of the adipocyte-derived adipocytokine adiponectin. However, adiponectin circulates in three different subforms, and the high-molecular-weight (HMW) subform is believed to be the primary biologically...... active form. The effects of the medium-molecular-weight (MMW) subform and the low-molecular-weight (LMW) subform are still unresolved. PURPOSE: The objective of the study was to investigate the distribution of the three molecular subforms of adiponectin in well-characterized groups of type 1 diabetics...... with varying degrees of nephropathy as well as in healthy control subjects. STUDY POPULATION: Two hundred seven individuals were included: 58 type 1 diabetics with normoalbuminuria, 46 with microalbuminuria, 46 with macroalbuminuria, and 57 matched controls. METHODS: The HMW, MMW, and LMW subforms were...

  6. Exposure to Elevated Carbon Monoxide Levels at an Indoor Ice Arena--Wisconsin, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, Paul D; Meiman, Jon G; Nehls-Lowe, Henry; Vogt, Christy; Wozniak, Ryan J; Werner, Mark A; Anderson, Henry

    2015-11-20

    On December 13, 2014, the emergency management system in Lake Delton, Wisconsin, was notified when a male hockey player aged 20 years lost consciousness after participation in an indoor hockey tournament that included approximately 50 hockey players and 100 other attendees. Elevated levels of carbon monoxide (CO) (range = 45 ppm-165 ppm) were detected by the fire department inside the arena. The emergency management system encouraged all players and attendees to seek medical evaluation for possible CO poisoning. The Wisconsin Department of Health Services (WDHS) conducted an epidemiologic investigation to determine what caused the exposure and to recommend preventive strategies. Investigators abstracted medical records from area emergency departments (EDs) for patients who sought care for CO exposure during December 13-14, 2014, conducted a follow-up survey of ED patients approximately 2 months after the event, and conducted informant interviews. Ninety-two persons sought ED evaluation for possible CO exposure, all of whom were tested for CO poisoning. Seventy-four (80%) patients had blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels consistent with CO poisoning; 32 (43%) CO poisoning cases were among hockey players. On December 15, the CO emissions from the propane-fueled ice resurfacer were demonstrated to be 4.8% of total emissions when actively resurfacing and 2.3% when idling, both above the optimal range of 0.5%-1.0%. Incomplete fuel combustion by the ice resurfacer was the most likely source of elevated CO. CO poisonings in ice arenas can be prevented through regular maintenance of ice resurfacers, installation of CO detectors, and provision of adequate ventilation.

  7. Litterfall dynamics and nutrient deposition at different elevation and land use levels on Mt. Kilimanjaro, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Joscha; Pabst, Holger; Mnyonga, James; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2014-05-01

    One of the major pathways that connect above- and belowground nutrient and carbon stocks in forest ecosystems is litterfall. Depending on climate, tree species composition and stand structure it varies considerably between different ecosystems. Another driving factor that is known to affect ecosystem cycles is the level of anthropogenic disturbance such as land use. In case of tropical regions this is often present as the transformation from rainforests to plantation economy and sustainable agroforestry. The objective of this study was to quantify and determine patterns of carbon and nutrient deposition via tree litterfall in natural and anthropogenically affected forest ecosystems along an elevation gradient of Mt. Kilimanjaro. Tree litter of three natural (lower montane forest), two sustainably used (home gardens) and one intensively managed (shaded coffee plantation) ecosystem was collected on a biweekly basis from May 2012 to July 2013. Samples were separated into leaves, branches and remaining residues, dried and weighted. Carbon and nutrient content were measured in leave samples. We found that the overall annual pattern of litterfall was closely related to rainfall exhibiting a large peak during the dry season. Albeit visible on all plots, this characteristic decreased with elevation. No consistent patterns were found for other components than leaves. Total annual litter mainly consisted of leaf litter and ranges from 4639 kg/ha to 10673 kg/ha for all vegetation types. Flowers, fruits, etc. make up roughly 20% of total litter. Highest and lowest values occurred at home gardens and could not be significantly related to land use or elevation levels. Chemistry though differed between natural and used forest plots. N, P and K contents increased significantly with usage intensity while Mn decreased and C is more or less unaffected. We conclude that on the southern slope of Mt. Kilimanjaro, short term variations in litterfall are related to seasonal climatic

  8. Analysis of overdeepened valleys using the digital elevation model of the bedrock surface of Northern Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, P.

    2010-11-15

    Based on surface and borehole information, together with pre-existing regional and local interpretations, a 7,150 square kilometre Raster Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of the bedrock surface of northern Switzerland was constructed using a 25 m cell size. This model represents a further important step in the understanding of Quaternary sediment distribution and is open to a broad field of application and analysis, including hydrogeological, geotechnical and geophysical studies as well as research in the field of Pleistocene landscape evolution. An analysis of the overdeepened valleys in the whole model area and, more specifically in the Reuss area, shows that, in most cases, overdeepening is restricted to the areas covered by the Last Glaciation Maximum (LGM). However, at various locations relatively narrow overdeepened valleys outreach the tongue basins and the LGM ice shield limits. Therefore, an earlier and further-reaching glacial event has probably contributed significantly to the overdeepening of these valleys. No significant overdeepening has been identified downstream of Boettstein (Aare) and Kaiserstuhl (Rhine), although the ice extended considerably further downstream, at least during the most extensive glaciation. Except for the bedrock between Brugg and Boettstein, no overdeepened valleys are found significantly north of the outcrop of Mesozoic limestone of the Folded and Tabular Jura. A detailed analysis of the Reuss area shows that the Lake and Suhre valleys are separated from the Emmen-Gisikon Reuss valley basin by a significant bedrock barrier. The individual bedrock valleys are divided into several sub-basins, indicating a multiphase evolution of the valleys. Some of the swells or barriers separating the sub-basins coincide with known late LGM retreat stages. In the Suhre valley, an old fluvial valley floor with restricted overdeepened sections is documented. (author)

  9. Vacuum level effects on knee contact force for unilateral transtibial amputees with elevated vacuum suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hang; Greenland, Kasey; Bloswick, Donald; Zhao, Jie; Merryweather, Andrew

    2017-05-24

    The elevated vacuum suspension system (EVSS) has demonstrated unique health benefits for amputees, but the effect of vacuum pressure values on knee contact force (KCF) is still unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of vacuum levels on KCF for unilateral transtibial amputees (UTA) using the EVSS. Three-dimensional gait was modeled for 9 UTA with five vacuum levels (0-20inHg [67.73kPa], 5inHg [16.93kPa] increments) and 9 non-amputees based on kinematic and ground reaction force data. The results showed that the vacuum level effects were significant for peak axial KCF, which had a relatively large value at 0 and 20inHg (67.73kPa). The intact limb exhibited a comparable peak axial KCF to the non-amputees at 15inHg (50.79kPa). At moderate vacuum levels (5inHg [16.93kPa] to 15inHg [50.79kPa]), co-contraction of quadriceps and hamstrings at peak axial KCF was similar for the intact limb, but was smaller for the residual limb comparing with the non-amputees. The intact limb showed a similar magnitude of quadriceps and hamstrings force at 15inHg (50.79kPa) to the non-amputees, but the muscle coordination patterns varied between the residual and intact limbs. These findings indicate that a proper vacuum level may partially compensate for the lack of ankle plantarflexor and reduce the knee loading. Of the tested vacuum levels, 15inHg (50.79kPa) appears most favorable, although additional analyses with more amputees are suggested to confirm these results prior to establishing clinical guidelines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Elevated serum bilirubin levels are inversely associated with coronary artery atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seung Joo; Kim, Donghee; Park, Hyo Eun; Chung, Goh Eun; Choi, Seung Ho; Choi, Su-Yeon; Lee, Whal; Kim, Joo Sung; Cho, Sang-Heon

    2013-10-01

    Inverse correlations of high serum bilirubin with metabolic and cardiovascular disease have been suggested. However, anti-atherogenic effects of bilirubin have not been well-established in terms of the presence of plaques and stenosis identified in coronary computed tomography (CT). A cross-sectional study was conducted on 2862 men who were free of cardiovascular disease and underwent coronary CT as part of a routine medical screening examination. Coronary stenotic lesions were considered to be incidences of coronary atherosclerosis, and stenosis was classified as stenosis atherosclerosis and stenosis ≥50% in subjects with elevated bilirubin levels (>1.2 mg/dL) were lower than those in subjects with normal bilirubin levels (≤1.2 mg/dL) (19.9% vs. 27.9%, p atherosclerosis (OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.56-0.94 in the 4th quartile vs. 1st quartile) and calcified plaque (OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.53-0.84) were inversely associated with the bilirubin grade in a dose-dependent manner. The serum bilirubin level was inversely associated with coronary atherosclerosis and calcified plaques in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggested that serum bilirubin could be used as a protective biomarker of coronary artery disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Elevated C-Reactive Protein Levels, Psychological Distress, and Depression in 73 131 Individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wium-Andersen, Marie Kim; Ørsted, David Dynnes; Nielsen, Sune Fallgaard

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT The pathogenesis of depression is not fully understood, but studies suggest that low-grade systemic inflammation contributes to the development of depression. OBJECTIVE To test whether elevated plasma levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) are associated with psychological distress...... to 100 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES We ascertained psychological distress with 2 single-item self-reports and depression using self-reported antidepressant use, register-based prescription of antidepressants, and register-based hospitalization with depression. RESULTS In cross-sectional analyses......, increasing CRP levels were associated with increasing risk for psychological distress and depression (P = 3 × 10-8 to P = 4 × 10-105 for trend). For self-reported use of antidepressants, the odds ratio was 1.38 (95% CI, 1.23-1.55) for CRP levels of 1.01 to 3.00 mg/L, 2.02 (1.77-2.30) for 3.01 to 10.00 mg...

  12. Enhanced abundance of tintinnids under elevated CO2 level from coastal Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Biswas, H.; Gadi, S.D.; Venkataramana, V.; Bharathi, M.D.; Priyan, R.K.; Manjari, D.T.; DileepKumar, M.

    College of Arts, Science and Commerce for Women, Nuvem, Goa – 403 601, India 3 National Institute of Oceanography, Doan Paula, Goa 43004, India Address for correspondence: Dr. Haimanti Biswas, Regional Center, National Institute of Oceanography, 176... group. The present study was conducted to understand the responses of microzooplankton and phytoplankton community and their interactive effects under future predicted CO 2 level. Methods Between May 20 th and June 1 st 2010 surface seawater...

  13. [Elevated serum aldosterone levels in dialysis patients: Are we underusing renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Reyes, M J; Velasco, S; Gutierrez, C; Gonzalez Villalba, M J; Heras, M; Molina, A; Callejas, R; Rodríguez, A; Calle, L; Lopes, V

    Serum aldosteronelevels (SA) are a marker of cardiovascular (CV) risk in the general population. To analyze SA levels in dialysis patients and its relationship with characteristics of dialysis; comorbidity; blood pressure and the use of blocking renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system agents (BSRAA). We determined SA in 102 patients: 81 on hemodialysis (HD) and 21 on peritoneal dialysis. Mean age 71.4±12 years; 54.9% male; 29.4% diabetics. Mean time on dialysis 59.3±67 months. In 44 HD patients plasma renin activity (PRA) was measured. Mean SA was 72.6±114.9ng/dl (normal range 1.17-23.6ng/dl). A total of 57.8% of patients had above normal levels which were not related to dialysis characteristics or comorbidity. Only 21% of patients with heart failure and 19.2% with ischemic heart disease used BSRAA. A number of 25 patients treated with BSRAA had significantly lower levels of SA. There was an inverse correlation between AS and systolic blood pressure (SBP), and direct with PRA. The logistic regression analysis conducted to find SA levels above the median associated factors showed that SBP was the only independent risk variable in the overall population (OR 0.97; P=.022); in the 44 patients in whom PRA was determined this was the only independent risk factor (OR 2.24; P=.012). A high percentage of dialysis patients have elevated levels of SA that are associated to diminished SBP and activated PRA and not to dialysis characteristics. In patients with a history of heart disease we underuse BSRAA. Copyright © 2016 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. High prevalence of elevated blood lead levels in both rural and urban Iowa newborns: Spatial patterns and area-level covariates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrel, Margaret; Zahrieh, David; Young, Sean G; Oleson, Jacob; Ryckman, Kelli K; Wels, Brian; Simmons, Donald L; Saftlas, Audrey

    2017-01-01

    Lead in maternal blood can cross the placenta and result in elevated blood lead levels in newborns, potentially producing negative effects on neurocognitive function, particularly if combined with childhood lead exposure. Little research exists, however, into the burden of elevated blood lead levels in newborns, or the places and populations in which elevated lead levels are observed in newborns, particularly in rural settings. Using ~2300 dried bloods spots collected within 1-3 days of birth among Iowa newborns, linked with the area of mother's residence at the time of birth, we examine the spatial patterns of elevated (>5 μg/dL) blood lead levels and the ecological-level predictors of elevated blood lead levels. We find that one in five newborns exceed the 5 μg/dL action level set by the US Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC). Bayesian spatial zero inflated regression indicates that elevated blood lead in newborns is associated with areas of increased pre-1940s housing and childbearing-age women with low educational status in both rural and urban settings. No differences in blood lead levels or the proportion of children exceeding 5 μg/dL are observed between urban and rural maternal residence, though a spatial cluster of elevated blood lead is observed in rural counties. These characteristics can guide the recommendation for testing of infants at well-baby appointments in places where risk factors are present, potentially leading to earlier initiation of case management. The findings also suggest that rural populations are at as great of risk of elevated blood lead levels as are urban populations. Analysis of newborn dried blood spots is an important tool for lead poisoning surveillance in newborns and can direct public health efforts towards specific places and populations where lead testing and case management will have the greatest impact.

  15. Integrin α(IIb)β₃ exists in an activated state in subjects with elevated plasma homocysteine levels.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGarrigle, Sarah A

    2011-01-01

    Elevated levels of plasma homocysteine (Hcy) are an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and thrombosis. The molecular basis for this phenomenon is not known but may relate to modification of cell surface thiols. The platelet specific integrin α(IIb)β₃ is a cysteine-rich cell adhesion molecule that plays a critical role in platelet aggregation and adhesion in haemostasis and thrombosis. In this study, we looked for evidence of a homocysteine-induced modification of α(IIb)β₃ using a fluorescently labeled PAC-1 antibody that recognizes the activated conformation of the integrin on the platelet surface. We show that exogenous Hcy (10-100 µM) and homocysteine thiolactone (HcyTL) (10-100 µM) increased PAC-1 binding to platelets in a concentration dependent manner in vitro. In parallel, we show subjects with clinical hyperhomocysteinemia exhibit a greater degree of activation of α(IIb)β₃ compared to age-matched controls. These findings demonstrate that circulating Hcy can modulate the activation state of the platelet integrin α(IIb)β₃, a key player in platelet aggregation and thrombosis.

  16. Elevated levels of antibodies against xenobiotics in a subgroup of healthy subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojdani, Aristo; Kharrazian, Datis; Mukherjee, Partha Sarathi

    2015-01-01

    In spite of numerous research efforts, the exact etiology of autoimmune diseases remains largely unknown. Genetics and environmental factors, including xenobiotics, are believed to be involved in the induction of autoimmune disease. Some environmental chemicals, acting as haptens, can bind to a high-molecular-weight carrier protein such as human serum albumin (HSA), causing the immune system to misidentify self-tissue as an invader and launch an immune response against it, leading to autoimmunity. This study aimed to examine the percentage of blood samples from healthy donors in which chemical agents mounted immune challenges and produced antibodies against HSA-bound chemicals. The levels of specific antibodies against 12 different chemicals bound to HSA were measured by ELISA in serum from 400 blood donors. We found that 10% (IgG) and 17% (IgM) of tested individuals showed significant antibody elevation against aflatoxin-HSA adduct. The percentage of elevation against the other 11 chemicals ranged from 8% to 22% (IgG) and 13% to 18% (IgM). Performance of serial dilution and inhibition of the chemical–antibody reaction by specific antigens but not by non-specific antigens were indicative of the specificity of these antibodies. Although we lack information about chemical exposure in the tested individuals, detection of antibodies against various protein adducts may indicate chronic exposure to these chemical haptens in about 20% of the tested individuals. Currently the pathological significance of these antibodies in human blood is still unclear, and this protein adduct formation could be one of the mechanisms by which environmental chemicals induce autoimmune reactivity in a significant percentage of the population. PMID:25042713

  17. Clinical Relevance and Discriminatory Value of Elevated Liver Aminotransferase Levels for Dengue Severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Linda K.; Gan, Victor C.; Lee, Vernon J.; Tan, Adriana S.; Leo, Yee Sin; Lye, David C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Elevation of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is prominent in acute dengue illness. The World Health Organization (WHO) 2009 dengue guidelines defined AST or ALT≥1000 units/liter (U/L) as a criterion for severe dengue. We aimed to assess the clinical relevance and discriminatory value of AST or ALT for dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and severe dengue. Methodology/Principal Findings We retrospectively studied and classified polymerase chain reaction positive dengue patients from 2006 to 2008 treated at Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore according to WHO 1997 and 2009 criteria for dengue severity. Of 690 dengue patients, 31% had DHF and 24% severe dengue. Elevated AST and ALT occurred in 86% and 46%, respectively. Seven had AST or ALT≥1000 U/L. None had acute liver failure but one patient died. Median AST and ALT values were significantly higher with increasing dengue severity by both WHO 1997 and 2009 criteria. However, they were poorly discriminatory between non-severe and severe dengue (e.g., AST area under the receiver operating characteristic [ROC] curve = 0.62; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.57–0.67) and between dengue fever (DF) and DHF (AST area under the ROC curve = 0.56; 95% CI: 0.52–0.61). There was significant overlap in AST and ALT values among patients with dengue with or without warning signs and severe dengue, and between those with DF and DHF. Conclusions Although aminotransferase levels increased in conjunction with dengue severity, AST or ALT values did not discriminate between DF and DHF or non-severe and severe dengue. PMID:22679523

  18. Elevated levels of antibodies against xenobiotics in a subgroup of healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojdani, Aristo; Kharrazian, Datis; Mukherjee, Partha Sarathi

    2015-04-01

    In spite of numerous research efforts, the exact etiology of autoimmune diseases remains largely unknown. Genetics and environmental factors, including xenobiotics, are believed to be involved in the induction of autoimmune disease. Some environmental chemicals, acting as haptens, can bind to a high-molecular-weight carrier protein such as human serum albumin (HSA), causing the immune system to misidentify self-tissue as an invader and launch an immune response against it, leading to autoimmunity. This study aimed to examine the percentage of blood samples from healthy donors in which chemical agents mounted immune challenges and produced antibodies against HSA-bound chemicals. The levels of specific antibodies against 12 different chemicals bound to HSA were measured by ELISA in serum from 400 blood donors. We found that 10% (IgG) and 17% (IgM) of tested individuals showed significant antibody elevation against aflatoxin-HSA adduct. The percentage of elevation against the other 11 chemicals ranged from 8% to 22% (IgG) and 13% to 18% (IgM). Performance of serial dilution and inhibition of the chemical-antibody reaction by specific antigens but not by non-specific antigens were indicative of the specificity of these antibodies. Although we lack information about chemical exposure in the tested individuals, detection of antibodies against various protein adducts may indicate chronic exposure to these chemical haptens in about 20% of the tested individuals. Currently the pathological significance of these antibodies in human blood is still unclear, and this protein adduct formation could be one of the mechanisms by which environmental chemicals induce autoimmune reactivity in a significant percentage of the population. Copyright © 2014. The Authors. Journal of Applied Toxicology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Clinical relevance and discriminatory value of elevated liver aminotransferase levels for dengue severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Linda K; Gan, Victor C; Lee, Vernon J; Tan, Adriana S; Leo, Yee Sin; Lye, David C

    2012-01-01

    Elevation of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is prominent in acute dengue illness. The World Health Organization (WHO) 2009 dengue guidelines defined AST or ALT ≥ 1000 units/liter (U/L) as a criterion for severe dengue. We aimed to assess the clinical relevance and discriminatory value of AST or ALT for dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and severe dengue. We retrospectively studied and classified polymerase chain reaction positive dengue patients from 2006 to 2008 treated at Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore according to WHO 1997 and 2009 criteria for dengue severity. Of 690 dengue patients, 31% had DHF and 24% severe dengue. Elevated AST and ALT occurred in 86% and 46%, respectively. Seven had AST or ALT ≥ 1000 U/L. None had acute liver failure but one patient died. Median AST and ALT values were significantly higher with increasing dengue severity by both WHO 1997 and 2009 criteria. However, they were poorly discriminatory between non-severe and severe dengue (e.g., AST area under the receiver operating characteristic [ROC] curve=0.62; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.57-0.67) and between dengue fever (DF) and DHF (AST area under the ROC curve=0.56; 95% CI: 0.52-0.61). There was significant overlap in AST and ALT values among patients with dengue with or without warning signs and severe dengue, and between those with DF and DHF. Although aminotransferase levels increased in conjunction with dengue severity, AST or ALT values did not discriminate between DF and DHF or non-severe and severe dengue.

  20. Elevated serum levels of heat shock protein 70 can be detected after radiofrequency ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haen, Sebastian P; Gouttefangeas, Cécile; Schmidt, Diethard; Boss, Andreas; Clasen, Stephan; von Herbay, Alexandra; Kosan, Bora; Aebert, Hermann; Pereira, Philippe L; Rammensee, Hans-Georg

    2011-09-01

    Due to their adjuvant effect and their ability to chaperone tumor-associated peptides, heat shock proteins constitute a potent alarm signal for the immune system and can lead to activation of anti-tumor T-cell immunity. Radiofrequency ablation has been reported to induce heat shock protein expression especially that of heat shock protein 70 in sublethally damaged tumor cells. In this study, we evaluated the release of heat shock protein 70 into the serum of cancer-bearing patients directly after radiofrequency ablation. Sera of 22 patients undergoing radiofrequency ablation for the treatment of primary and secondary malignancies of the liver, kidney, and lung, as well as control sera of 20 patients undergoing diagnostic liver biopsy were analyzed using a manufactured heat shock protein 70 ELISA. A significant increase in serum levels of heat shock protein 70 was detectable in the patient cohort 1 day after radiofrequency ablation. More than a twofold increase was observed in nine out of 22 patients, which tended to correlate with favorable clinical outcome. No patient of the control group revealed a comparable increase. Radiofrequency ablation can lead to a release of heat shock protein 70 into the serum, which is transiently detectable 1 day after treatment. Elevated heat shock protein 70 serum levels may constitute a biomarker for favorable clinical outcome.

  1. Penguin chicks benefit from elevated yolk androgen levels under sibling competition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maud Poisbleau

    Full Text Available Crested penguins (genus Eudyptes have a peculiar hatching pattern, with the first-laid egg (A-egg hatching after the second-laid egg (B-egg and chicks from A-eggs typically having a much lower survival probability. Maternal yolk androgens have been suggested to contribute to the competitive superiority of the B-chick in southern rockhopper penguins Eudyptes chrysocome, given their important role in mediating sibling competition in other species. We therefore increased the yolk androgen levels in freshly-laid eggs and examined the consequences for sibling competition--via effects on embryonic developmental times, chick growth and early survival. We placed one androgen-treated egg and one control egg into each foster nest, matching them for mass, laying date and laying order. The androgen treatment did not significantly affect embryonic developmental times or chick measurements at hatching. However, elevated yolk androgen levels benefitted chick growth in interaction with the number of siblings in a brood. Chicks from androgen-treated eggs had faster growth in the presence of a sibling than chicks from control eggs. Under these circumstances they also had a higher survival probability. Thus maternal androgens appear to reinforce the observed hatching pattern, facilitating brood reduction. This contrasts to most previous studies in other species where yolk androgens have been shown to compensate for the negative consequences of delayed hatching within the brood hierarchy.

  2. Nuclear medicine diagnostic experience for 25 patients with parathyroid disease accompanied elevated serum PTH level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Li; Huang Chenggang; Niu Wenqiang; Wu Liwen

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore nuclear medicine diagnostic method for parathyroid disease accompanied elevated serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) level. Methods: The images of 25 patients with parathyroid disease were obtained by SPECT 99 Tc m -MIBI double-phase parathyroid imaging and 99 Tc m -methylene diphosphonate ( 99 Tc m -MDP) whole-body static bone imaging. All subject were measured serum PTH, calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase. Results: (1) Serum PTH level increased to varying degrees in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT), secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT). (2) PHPT and SHPT showed significant change before and after surgery (t=6.24 and t=6.85, P 99 Tc m -MIBI were above 90%. (4) Whole-body bone imaging results of SHPT patients showed complex and diverse caused by high background, increased uptakes mainly. 99 Tc m -MIBI dual-phase parathyroid imaging showed hyperparathyroidism in varying degree, up to 56% or more. Conclusion: Determination of serum PTH combined SPECT for parathyroid and whole-body bone imaging showed high clinical value in diagnosis and treatment of parathyroid disease. (authors)

  3. Elevated urine levels of bufotenine in patients with autistic spectrum disorders and schizophrenia.

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    Emanuele, Enzo; Colombo, Roberto; Martinelli, Valentina; Brondino, Natascia; Marini, Mara; Boso, Marianna; Barale, Francesco; Politi, Pierluigi

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that the endogeneous psychotomimetic molecule bufotenine (N-N-dimethyl-5-idroxytryptamine) may play a role in the pathogenesis of severe mental disorders. The potential association of bufotenine with the clinical features of autism and schizophrenia is not entirely understood. In this study, we measured urinary levels of bufotenine in subjects with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD), schizophrenia and healthy comparison subjects free of psychiatric symptoms. We also sought to assess whether urine concentrations of this molecule may be associated with the clinical characteristics of psychiatric patients. Urine bufotenine levels were measured using a high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) assay in young adults with severe ASD (n=15), patients with schizophrenia (n=15), and healthy control subjects (n=18). The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale was used to measure adaptive behaviors in ASD individuals. The Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) was used for patients with schizophrenia. Urine bufotenine levels were significantly higher in ASD subjects (3.30 +/- 0.49 microg/L, p<0.05) and patients with schizophrenia (4.39 +/- 0.43 microg/L, p<0.001) compared with controls (1.53 +/- 0.30 microg/L). Among patients with ASD, there was a significant positive correlation between urine bufotenine and hyperactivity scores on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (r=0.479, p<0.05). No other associations were detected. Our results indicate that elevated urine levels of the endogeneous psychotomimetic molecule bufotenine may play a role in ASD and schizophrenia, and can be correlated with hyperactivity scores in autism.

  4. NUCB2/nesfatin-1 Is Associated with Elevated Levels of Anxiety in Anorexia Nervosa.

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    Tobias Hofmann

    Full Text Available NUCB2/nesfatin-1 is an anorexigenic hormone with elevated levels in obese and decreased levels in anorexia nervosa (AN patients. Moreover, a role in the regulation of stress and emotions was suggested by several rodent and preliminary human studies. Since anxiety and depression are common comorbidities in AN, we investigated the association of NUCB2/nesfatin-1 with anxiety, depression and perceived stress in AN.We analyzed circulating NUCB2/nesfatin-1 levels in 64 female inpatients diagnosed with anorexia nervosa (body mass index, BMI; mean±SD, 14.7±2.3 kg/m2. At the same time anxiety (GAD-7, depression (PHQ-9, stress (PSQ-20 and disordered eating (EDI-2 were measured psychometrically.No correlation was observed between NUCB2/nesfatin-1 and BMI (r = 0.06, p = 0.70. The study population was divided in patients with low anxiety (n = 32, GAD-7 scores, mean±SD, 7.5±3.3 and high anxiety (n = 32, 16.0±3.0, p0.05. EDI-2 total score was also higher in the high anxiety group (52.3±14.1 vs. 40.2±16.0, p = 0.02, while no correlations of EDI-2-scores with plasma NUCB2/nesfatin-1 were observed (p>0.05.Circulating NUCB2/nesfatin-1 levels correlated positively with perceived anxiety, whereas no association with BMI or eating disorder symptoms was observed. NUCB2/nesfatin-1 might be primarily involved in the modulation of anxiety and subsequently in the regulation of eating habits and body weight in AN.

  5. Is Systemic Inflammation Associated With Elevated PSA Serum Levels In Patients Submitted Chronic Hemodialysis?

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    Gilmar Pereira Silva

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Backgroundː whereas that systemic inflammation (SI affects 40–60% of patients on hemodialysis (HD is characterized by serum C-reactive protein (CRP level elevation or proinflammatory interleukin production or both. We evaluated the association between SI and total (tPSA and free PSA (fPSA in patients on HD with tPSA 6 months. Patients were excluded if they had local infections or SI. Hs-CRP was measured using turbidimetry, and tPSA and fPSA levels using immunochemoluminescence. Overall, 27 patients had inflammation (hs-CRP >5 mg/L and 33 had no inflammation (hs-CRP was ≤5 mg/L. In the control group, hs-CRP was ≤ 1 mg/L. Resultsː there was no significant difference in mean levels among groups 3 and 4 for age (p=0,058, tPSA (p=0,74 and fPSA (p=0,30. The SI did not promote differences between groups 1, 2 and 4 for the levels of tPSA (0,71 ± 0,18  vs   0,67 ± 0,15  vs  0,67 ± 0,11; p=0,69 and fPSA (0,34  ±  0,01  vs  0,34  ±  0,01  vs   0,35  ±  0,01, p= 0,59 . As well as maintained no correlation with tPSA and fPSA (p>0,05. Conclusionː The systemic inflammation in hemodialytic patients without clinically detectable cancer (PSA<4ng/ml is no associated with changes fractions of tPSA and fPSA.

  6. Workplaces with elevated levels of exposure to natural radiation: The situation in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mjoenes, L.; Aakerblom, G.

    2002-01-01

    Because of the geological conditions with an abundance of granites and pegmatites rich in uranium and thorium together with large areas of uranium-rich alum shale, exposure from natural radiation is not unusual in certain types of industries and other work activities in Sweden. Although no representative survey of radon at regular workplaces has been performed in Sweden, smaller surveys and the high radon concentrations in dwellings indicate that workplaces with elevated radon levels are frequent in Sweden. Very high levels of indoor radon have been found in waterworks. Radon in mines has been regulated in Sweden since 1972 and radon in other workplaces since 1990. The situation in schools and day-care centres was thoroughly investigated in 2000. The estimated number of school and child care buildings with radon concentrations exceeding the action level 400 Bq/m 3 , is 800, about 200 of these have been identified and in about 100 buildings remedial measures have been taken. Regulations for natural radioactivity in building materials (for new buildings) have been in force since 1980. Lightweight concrete produced from uranium-rich alum shale was in use between 1929 and 1975. Almost 400,000 dwellings, 10 percent of the building stock, contain this material. The situation at NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material) industries is currently being investigated. Since the beginning of the 1950s it is known that residues from several industrial activities contain enhanced levels of natural radioactivity. Some examples are burnt alum shale from lime burning, radium-rich slag from metal production and waste gypsum from sulphuric acid production. The impact of the exposure from these residues is now being reinvestigated. So far no systematic search for up to now unknown work activities where substantial exposures from natural radiation could occur, has been initiated. For the protection of aircrew from cosmic radiation the responsible Swedish authorities have

  7. AirSWOT observations versus hydrodynamic model outputs of water surface elevation and slope in a multichannel river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenau, Elizabeth H.; Pavelsky, Tamlin M.; Moller, Delwyn; Lion, Christine; Pitcher, Lincoln H.; Allen, George H.; Bates, Paul D.; Calmant, Stéphane; Durand, Michael; Neal, Jeffrey C.; Smith, Laurence C.

    2017-04-01

    Anabranching rivers make up a large proportion of the world's major rivers, but quantifying their flow dynamics is challenging due to their complex morphologies. Traditional in situ measurements of water levels collected at gauge stations cannot capture out of bank flows and are limited to defined cross sections, which presents an incomplete picture of water fluctuations in multichannel systems. Similarly, current remotely sensed measurements of water surface elevations (WSEs) and slopes are constrained by resolutions and accuracies that limit the visibility of surface waters at global scales. Here, we present new measurements of river WSE and slope along the Tanana River, AK, acquired from AirSWOT, an airborne analogue to the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission. Additionally, we compare the AirSWOT observations to hydrodynamic model outputs of WSE and slope simulated across the same study area. Results indicate AirSWOT errors are significantly lower than model outputs. When compared to field measurements, RMSE for AirSWOT measurements of WSEs is 9.0 cm when averaged over 1 km squared areas and 1.0 cm/km for slopes along 10 km reaches. Also, AirSWOT can accurately reproduce the spatial variations in slope critical for characterizing reach-scale hydraulics, while model outputs of spatial variations in slope are very poor. Combining AirSWOT and future SWOT measurements with hydrodynamic models can result in major improvements in model simulations at local to global scales. Scientists can use AirSWOT measurements to constrain model parameters over long reach distances, improve understanding of the physical processes controlling the spatial distribution of model parameters, and validate models' abilities to reproduce spatial variations in slope. Additionally, AirSWOT and SWOT measurements can be assimilated into lower-complexity models to try and approach the accuracies achieved by higher-complexity models.

  8. Serum levels of IGFBP7 are elevated during acute exacerbation in COPD patients

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    Ruan W

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Wenjing Ruan,1 Minliang Wu,2 Liuhong Shi,1 Fengying Li,3 Liangliang Dong,1 Yuanhua Qiu,1 Xiaohong Wu,1 Kejing Ying1 1Department of Respiratory Diseases, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, 2Department of Laboratory, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University, School of Medicine, 3Department of Laboratory, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore the insulin-like growth factor binding protein 7 (IGFBP7 level in the serum of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients during acute exacerbation (AE.Methods: The study population consisted of 47 AECOPD patients, including 25 patients enrolled between January 2011 and February 2011 (the first group and 22 patients enrolled from December 2011 to August 2012 (the second group and 29 healthy controls. Chemiluminescence–linked immunoassay was used to detect serum IGFBP7 levels. For the second group patients, IGFBP7 and C-reactive protein (CRP levels were measured both on the admission day and on the discharge day.Results: Among the first group AECOPD patients, serum IGFBP7 levels were significantly ­elevated in AECOPD patients in the intensive care unit (ICU; 52.92±16.32 ng/mL, and in ­hospitalized AECOPD patients not in ICU (40.66±13.9, compared to healthy subjects (30.3±7.09 ng/mL; P<0.01. For the second group AECOPD patients, the increased IGFBP7 levels reduced after the patients had recovered (34.42±11.88 vs 27.24±7.2 ng/mL; P<0.01. During AE, the correlation coefficient between IGFBP7 and CRP was 0.357. In receiver operating characteristic analysis, the area under the curve was 0.799 for CRP, and 0.663 for IGFBP7 in distinguishing patients with AECOPD on the admission day from the discharge day.Conclusion: Serum IGFBP7 levels were raised during AECOPD. Similar to the expression pattern of CRP, the IGFBP7 levels reduced after convalescence, suggesting that IGFBP7

  9. Structure-from-Motion Using Historical Aerial Images to Analyse Changes in Glacier Surface Elevation

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    Nico Mölg

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The application of structure-from-motion (SfM to generate digital terrain models (DTMs derived from different image sources has strongly increased, the major reason for this being that processing is substantially easier with SfM than with conventional photogrammetry. To test the functionality in a demanding environment, we applied SfM and conventional photogrammetry to archival aerial images from Zmuttgletscher, a mountain glacier in Switzerland, for nine dates between 1946 and 2005 using the most popular software packages, and compared the results regarding bundle adjustment and final DTM quality. The results suggest that by using SfM it is possible to produce DTMs of similar quality as with conventional photogrammetry. Higher point cloud density and less noise allow a higher ground resolution of the final DTM, and the time effort from the user is 3–6 times smaller, while the controls of the commercial software packages Agisoft PhotoScan (Version 1.2; Agisoft, St. Petersburg, Russia and Pix4Dmapper (Version 3.0; Pix4D, Lausanne, Switzerland are limited in comparison to ERDAS photogrammetry. SfM performs less reliably when few images with little overlap are processed. Even though SfM facilitates the largely automated production of high quality DTMs, the user is not exempt from a thorough quality check, at best with reference data where available. The resulting DTM time series revealed an average change in surface elevation at the glacier tongue of −67.0 ± 5.3 m. The spatial pattern of changes over time reflects the influence of flow dynamics and the melt of clean ice and that under debris cover. With continued technological advances, we expect to see an increasing use of SfM in glaciology for a variety of purposes, also in processing archival aerial imagery.

  10. Elevated Serum PSA is Associated With Human Herpesvirus 8 Infection and Increased Circulating Cytokine Levels in Men From Tobago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Jill D; Karamchandani, Jaideep M; Bonachea, Luis A; Bunker, Clareann H; Patrick, Alan L; Jenkins, Frank J

    2017-05-01

    Serum-prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels have been used for many years as a biomarker for prostate cancer. This usage is under scrutiny due to the fact that elevated PSA levels can be caused by other conditions such as benign prostatic hyperplasia and infections of or injury to the prostate. As a result, the identification of specific pathogens capable of increasing serum levels of PSA is important. A potential candidate responsible for elevated PSA is human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8). We have reported previously that HHV-8 is capable of infecting and establishing a latent infection in the prostate. In this current study we test the hypothesis that HHV-8 infection is associated with elevated PSA levels. Circulating cytokine levels between men with elevated PSA and controls are also compared. HHV-8 serostatus was determined among men with elevated serum PSA (≥4 ng/ml; n = 168, no prostate cancer on biopsy) and age-matched controls (PSA PSA and 85 controls). Men with an elevated serum PSA were significantly more likely to be HHV-8 seropositive (42.9%) than the age-matched cancer-free men (22.2%; OR 2.51; 95%CI 1.48-4.29, P = 00001). Comparison of circulating cytokine levels between men with elevated serum PSA and controls indicated that elevated serum PSA is associated with a pro-inflammatory response with a mixed Th1/Th2 response while HHV-8 infection was associated with significantly higher levels of IL12p70, IL-10, and IL-13 indicating a Th2 immune response. We found a significant association between HHV-8 infection and increased levels of serum PSA. In an age of patient-centered medicine, men with an elevated serum PSA should be considered for HHV-8 serology testing to determine if HHV-8 is responsible for the elevated PSA. Prostate 77: 617-624, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Surface Elevation Change of Transantarctic Outlet Glaciers using Historical Aerial Imagery and Structure-from-Motion Photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child, S. F.; Stearns, L. A.; Girod, L.

    2017-12-01

    Transantarctic Mountain outlet glaciers drain ice from the East Antarctic Ice Sheet to the Ross Ice Shelf and are generally considered to be stable. However, studies that assess these glaciers typically use data with coarse spatial resolutions (1 - 20 km) and span only the last 15 - 20 years. Here, we use trimetrogon aerial (TMA) photographs collected by the United States Geological Survey from 1960 - 1965 to create historical surface elevation maps. We construct elevations from both the vertical (0° nadir) and oblique photographs using MicMac, a Structure-from-Motion (SfM) software. With typical SfM processing, accurate ground control points (GCPs) are necessary for the best results; however, in situ GCPs are extremely sparse in Antarctica, so we manually identify GCPs using exposed rock outcrops in the WorldView imagery. The historical glacier surface elevations are then compared with present-day elevations derived from WorldView imagery. With this methodology, we assess how Transantarctic outlet glaciers have changed over 55 years. Recent studies indicate thinning of the eastern Ross Ice Shelf, where it borders the Transantarctic Mountains. With long-term records of glacier elevation change, we can differentiate whether ice shelf thinning is driven by changes in glacier or ocean dynamics. These results give us a better understanding of the long-term stability of East Antarctic outlet glaciers, which is essential in improving predictive models of ice sheet behavior.

  12. Plasma Levels of Biotin Metabolites Are Elevated in Hemodialysis Patients with Cramps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Masako; Ando, Itiro; Yagi, Shigeaki; Nishizawa, Manabu; Oguma, Shiro; Satoh, Keisuke; Sato, Hiroshi; Imai, Yutaka

    2016-08-01

    Patients with renal failure undergoing hemodialysis (HD) are susceptible to muscle cramps during and after HD. Muscle cramps are defined as the sudden onset of a prolonged involuntary muscle contraction accompanied by severe pain. Through HD, water-soluble vitamins are drawn out with water. Since biotin, a water-soluble vitamin, plays an essential role as one of the coenzymes in producing energy, we have hypothesized that deficiency of biotin may be responsible for HD-associated cramps. We previously reported that biotin administration ameliorated the muscle cramps, despite the elevated plasma biotin levels before HD and biotin administration, as judged by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). However, the ELISA measures not only biotin but also total avidin-binding substances (TABS) including biotin metabolites. In the present study, we determined biotin in HD patients as well as healthy controls, using a newly developed method with ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). The plasma samples were collected from 28 HD patients (16 patients with cramps and 12 patients without cramps) before HD and biotin administration and from 11 controls. The results showed that the accumulation of biotin and TABS in plasma of HD patients compared to controls. Importantly, the levels of biotin metabolites, i.e. TABS subtracted by biotin, increased significantly in patients with cramps over those without cramps. Moreover, the levels of biotin metabolites were significantly higher in patients with a poor response to administered biotin, compared to those with a good response. We propose that accumulated biotin metabolites impair biotin's functions as a coenzyme.

  13. Northeastern Salt Marshes: Elevation Capital and Resilience to Sea Level Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stable tidal salt marshes exist at an elevation that is supra-optimal relative to peak biomass production, which for Spartina alterniflora, and other marsh macrophytes, follows a parabolic distribution as a function of elevation, as a surrogate for inundation frequency. In order...

  14. Meigs' syndrome with elevated serum CA 125 level in a case of ovarian fibrothecoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, M Y; Roh, H J; You, S K; Lee, S H; Cho, H J; Kwon, Y S

    2014-01-01

    Meigs' syndrome is the association of benign ovarian tumor, pleural effusion, and ascites. Meigs' syndrome with marked elevated CA 125 is a rare clinical entity and only 42 cases have been reported. Although there is difficulty in discerning the diagnosis of Meigs' syndrome from that of an ovarian malignancy, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis in postmenopausal patients with an ovarian mass, hydrothorax, ascites, and elevated CA 125. In this report, the authors present the case of a 52-year-old postmenopausal woman with ovarian fibrothecoma, pleural effusion, ascites, and elevated CA 125 (319.2 IU/ml). Exploratory laparotomy with total hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy was performed, and the pathologic diagnosis was ovarian fibrothecoma. After the surgery, the pleural effusion disappeared spontaneously and the CA 125 became normal. The authors also summarized other cases of Meigs' syndrome with elevated CA 125, and reviewed the mechanism of elevation of CA 125, ascites, and pleural effusion.

  15. Brain BDNF levels elevation induced by physical training is reduced after unilateral common carotid artery occlusion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banoujaafar, Hayat; Van Hoecke, Jacques; Mossiat, Claude M; Marie, Christine

    2014-10-01

    We investigated the contribution of blood flow elevation in the cerebrovasculature to physical training-induced brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels elevation in the brain. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor protein levels were measured in the motor cortex 24 h after the last session of a forced treadmill walking (30 minutes a day, 18 m/minute for 7 consecutive days). Unilateral common carotid artery occlusion and modulation of exercise intensity (0 versus -10% inclination of the treadmill) were used as strategies to reduce the (normal) elevation of flow in the cerebrovasculature occurring during exercise. Administration of N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 60 mg/kg before each exercise sessions) and genetic hypertension (spontaneously hypertensive rats) were used as approaches to reduce stimulation of nitric oxide production in response to shear stress elevation. Vascular occlusion totally and partially abolished the effect of physical training on BDNF levels in the hemisphere ipsilateral and contralateral to occlusion, respectively. BDNF levels were higher after high than low exercise intensity. In addition, both genetic hypertension and L-NAME treatment blunted the effects of physical training on BDNF. From these results, we propose that elevation of brain BDNF levels elicited by physical training involves changes in cerebral hemodynamics.

  16. Inhibition of fatty acid binding proteins elevates brain anandamide levels and produces analgesia.

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    Martin Kaczocha

    Full Text Available The endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA is an antinociceptive lipid that is inactivated through cellular uptake and subsequent catabolism by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH. Fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs are intracellular carriers that deliver AEA and related N-acylethanolamines (NAEs to FAAH for hydrolysis. The mammalian brain expresses three FABP subtypes: FABP3, FABP5, and FABP7. Recent work from our group has revealed that pharmacological inhibition of FABPs reduces inflammatory pain in mice. The goal of the current work was to explore the effects of FABP inhibition upon nociception in diverse models of pain. We developed inhibitors with differential affinities for FABPs to elucidate the subtype(s that contributes to the antinociceptive effects of FABP inhibitors. Inhibition of FABPs reduced nociception associated with inflammatory, visceral, and neuropathic pain. The antinociceptive effects of FABP inhibitors mirrored their affinities for FABP5, while binding to FABP3 and FABP7 was not a predictor of in vivo efficacy. The antinociceptive effects of FABP inhibitors were mediated by cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα and FABP inhibition elevated brain levels of AEA, providing the first direct evidence that FABPs regulate brain endocannabinoid tone. These results highlight FABPs as novel targets for the development of analgesic and anti-inflammatory therapeutics.

  17. Elevated circulating homocyst(e)ine levels in placental vascular disease and associated pre-eclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J; Trudinger, B J; Duarte, N; Wilcken, D E; Wang, X L

    2000-07-01

    We examined the hypothesis that hyperhomocyst(e)inaemia in the maternal or fetal circulation is associated with placental vascular disease with either the maternal syndrome of pre-eclampsia and/or fetal syndrome of growth restriction. Maternal plasma homocyst(e)ine levels were significantly higher in pregnancies complicated by pre-eclampsia, pregnancies with evidence of umbilical placental vascular disease, and pregnancies with both complications compared with the normal pregnancy group. In the fetal circulation mean plasma homocyst(e)ine concentration was significantly higher in the pre-eclampsia group compared with the normal group. The results suggest that hyperhomocyst(e)inaemia may be a risk marker for placental vascular disease and maternal pre-eclampsia. The elevated fetal plasma homocyst(e)ine concentrations, found only in the group of pregnancies with pre-eclampsia in the absence of umbilical placental vascular disease, may be due to an effect of placental vascular disease on homocyst(e)ine transfer from the maternal to fetal circulation.

  18. Elevated levels of plasma tumor necrosis factor alpha in patients with pseudoexfoliation glaucoma

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    Kondkar AA

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Altaf A Kondkar,1 Taif A Azad,1 Faisal A Almobarak,1 Hatem Kalantan,1 Saleh A Al-Obeidan,1 Khaled K Abu-Amero1,2 1Glaucoma Research Chair, Department of Ophthalmology, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA Background: Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α is a pro-inflammatory cytokine, which plays a role in glaucomatous neurodegeneration. Based on the plausible role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of pseudoexfoliation glaucoma (PEG, we investigated whether there is any relationship between the levels of plasma TNF-α and PEG or any of its clinical indices in comparison to normal controls.Methods: The study was designed as a retrospective analysis. Plasma samples from 49 PEG patients and 88 non-glaucomatous controls were evaluated for TNF-α levels using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The assay was performed in duplicates on a biochemical/ELISA analyzer.Results: The two study groups were similar in age, sex and systemic disease distribution. The mean TNF-α concentration was significantly higher in the PEG patients (5.54±4.58 pg/mL than in the control subjects (0.93±1.49 pg/mL; 95% confidence interval [CI] =3.50–5.72; p=0.000. The overall dose–response trend was significant (χ2=57.07, df=2; p=0.000. A moderate positive and significant correlation was seen between TNF-α level and cup/disc ratio, an important clinical index for PEG. Besides, binary logistic regression analysis showed that the risk of PEG was most significantly affected by TNF-α level as compared to no association with age and sex. In receiver operating characteristic analysis, the area under the curve was 0.777 (95% CI =0.682–0.872 and statistically significant (p=0.000.Conclusion: Elevated systemic levels of inflammatory marker, TNF-α, are associated with PEG and may possibly serve as a biomarker for undiagnosed early

  19. Sulfur mustard resistant keratinocytes obtained elevated glutathione levels and other changes in the antioxidative defense mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothmiller, Simone; Schröder, Sarah; Strobelt, Romano; Wolf, Markus; Wang, Jin; Jiang, Xiqian; Worek, Franz; Steinritz, Dirk; Thiermann, Horst; Schmidt, Annette

    2017-11-26

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a potent blistering chemical warfare agent, which was first used in 1917. Despite the Chemical Weapons Convention, a use was recently reported in Syria in 2015. This emphasizes the importance to develop countermeasures against chemical warfare agents. Despite intensive research, there is still no antidote or prophylaxis available against SM. The newly developed SM-resistant keratinocyte cell line HaCaT/SM was used to identify new target structures for drug development, particularly the adaptations in protective measures against oxidative stress. For this purpose, glutathione (GSH) and NAD(P)H levels, the effect of glutathione S-transferase (GST) inhibition as well as activation and expression of Nrf2, GST, glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL) and glutathione-disulfide reductase (GSR) as well as multi-drug resistance (MDR) proteins 1, 3 and 5 were investigated. The HaCaT/SM cells showed not only a better survival after treatment with SM or cytostatic drugs, but also hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ). They exhibit more GSH even after SM treatment. Nrf2 levels were significantly lower. Inhibition of GST led to significantly decreased, activation to slightly higher IC 50 values after SM treatment and a lower expression of GST was observed. The cells also expressed less GCLC and GSR. Expression of MDR1, MDR3 and MDR5 was higher under control conditions, but less stimulated by SM treatment. An increased NADP + /NADPH ratio as well as higher NAD + levels were shown. In summary, an improved response of the resistant cell line to oxidative stress was observed. The underlying mechanisms are elevated GSH levels as well as lower expression of Nrf2 and its targets GCLC and GST as well as GSR and MDR1, MDR3 and MDR5. GST is an especially interesting target because its inhibition already induced a significant SM sensitivity. SM resistance also caused redox equivalent level differences. Taken together, these findings provide further insight into the mechanism of SM

  20. Compared to Intermittant Claudication Critical Limb Ischemia Is Associated with Elevated Levels of Cytokines.

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    Juho Jalkanen

    Full Text Available Critical limb ischemia (CLI is the advanced stage of peripheral artery disease (PAD and associated with an extremely poor clinical outcome. In order to understand the possible role of circulating cytokines and poor outcome associated with CLI we compared the circulating cytokine profile of patients with CLI against patients with intermittent claudication (IC. The levels of 48 circulating cytokines were examined in 226 consecutive patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD admitted for elective, non-urgent, invasive treatment of IC or CLI. The PAD patient cohort was evenly distributed between subjects with IC (46.5% and CLI (53.5%. As accustomed in PAD, CLI was associated with higher age, chronic kidney disease and diabetes when compared to IC (P < 0.01 for all. In multivariable linear regression modeling taking into account the baseline differences between IC and CLI groups CLI was independently associated with elevated levels of a large number of cytokines: IL-1β, IL-1ra, IL-2Rα, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IFN-γ, GM-CSF, G-CSF (P < 0.01 for all, and IL-2, IL-7, IL-12, IL-13, IL-17, bFGF, VEGF, SCGF-β (P < 0.05 for all. The current findings indicate that CLI is associated with a circulating cytokine profile, which resembles serious medical conditions such as severe pancreatitis, sepsis, or even cancer. Compared to IC, CLI is a systemic inflammatory condition, which may explain the extremely poor outcome associated with it.

  1. Endothelin-1 plasma levels are not elevated in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimpen, F; Kanne, P; Schulz, E; Hagenah, G; Hasenfuss, G; Andreas, S

    2000-02-01

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1), a potent vasoconstrictor, is released mainly by vascular endothelial cells under the influence of hypoxia and other stimuli. ET-1 is related to endothelial dysfunction, as well as arterial and pulmonary hypertension, all of which are thought to be associated with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). This study evaluated venous plasma concentrations of ET-1 and noradrenaline and 24-h systemic blood pressure in 29 patients with OSA (age=56.9+/-1.6 yrs; body mass index=29.5+/-0.7 kg x m2 (mean+/-SEM)). Blood samples were taken in the morning, evening and during sleep. In the same way, the patients were assessed during a night of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and after 13.9+/-1.4 months while still on CPAP. ET-1 levels were compared to those of control subjects, who were selected from in- and outpatients and were matched to patients for age, sex, presence of arterial hypertension and coronary artery disease. ET-1 plasma levels were not elevated in the patients compared to the controls (41.6+/-2.2 and 44.9+/-1.3 pg x mL(-1), respectively, p=0.20). The ET-1 concentration did not change significantly, neither during sleep nor in the first night on CPAP therapy, nor under long-term treatment with CPAP. ET-1 neither correlated to the severity of OSA nor to that of systemic hypertension. The results suggest that endothelin-1 does not play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of obstructive sleep apnoea.

  2. Elevated Levels of Peripheral Kynurenine Decrease Bone Strength in Rats with Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartlomiej Kalaska

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis and treatment of bone disorders in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD represent a clinical challenge. CKD leads to mineral and bone complications starting early in the course of renal failure. Recently, we have observed the positive relationship between intensified central kynurenine turnover and bone strength in rats with subtotal 5/6 nephrectomy (5/6 Nx-induced CKD. The aim of the present study was to determine the association between peripheral kynurenine pathway metabolites and bone strength in rats with 5/6 Nx-induced CKD. The animals were sacrificed 1 and 3 months after 5/6 Nx or sham operation. Nephrectomized rats presented higher concentrations of serum creatinine, urea nitrogen, and parathyroid hormone both 1 and 3 months after nephrectomy. These animals revealed higher concentrations of kynurenine and 3-hydroxykynurenine in the serum and higher gene expression of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR as a physiological receptor for kynurenine and AhR-dependent cytochrome in the bone tissue. Furthermore, nephrectomy significantly increased the number of osteoclasts in the bone without affecting their resorptive activity measured in serum. These changes were particularly evident in rats 1 month after 5/6 Nx. The main bone biomechanical parameters of the tibia were unchanged between nephrectomized and sham-operated rats but were significantly increased in older compared to younger animals. A similar trend was observed for geometrical parameters measured with calipers, bone mineral density based on Archimedes' method and image of bone microarchitecture obtained from micro-computed tomography analyses of tibial cortical bone. In nephrectomized animals, peripheral kynurenine levels correlated negatively with the main parameters of bone biomechanics, bone geometry, and bone mineral density values. In conclusion, our data suggest that CKD-induced elevated levels of peripheral kynurenine cause pathological changes in bone

  3. Anemia and elevated systemic levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunst, J.; Becker, A.; Lautenschlaeger, C.; Markau, S.; Becker, H.; Fischer, K.; Haensgen, G. [Martin-Luther Univ. Halle-Wittenberg (Germany)

    2002-08-01

    Background: Tissue hypoxia is a major stimulus for the up-regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Anemia might theoretically impact on angiogenesis via impairment of tissue oxygenation. We have investigated this hypothesis in patients with solid cancers and benign diseases. Patients and methods: 49 patients with untreated locoregionally confined solid cancers of the head and neck, cervix, rectum and lung and 59 additional patients with non-malignant diseases (36 normemic patients without serious diseases and 23 patients with renal anemia) were enrolled and the impact of anemia on plasma VEGF levels were determined. VEGF was measured with a commercially available sandwich enzyme immunoassay technique. Results: Plasma levels of VEGF were 16.2{+-}12.7 pg/ml in 36 normemic patients without malignant disease, 49,2{+-}34.5 pg/ml in 49 patients with cancers (p<0.001), and 89.9{+-}67.8 pg/ml in 23 patients with renal anemia (p=0.001). VEGF levels in cancer patients were significantly correlated with hemoglobin (hb) levels and platelet counts (each p=0.001), but not with type of tumor, stage, histology or age. Patients with cancers had higher plasma levels of VEGF than patients with non-malignant diseases in case of hb{>=}12 g/dl (33.1{+-}17.5 vs. 16.6{+-}13.0 pg/ml, p<0.001) and in case of hb between 11.0 and 11.9 g/dl (56.1{+-}26.4 vs 18.5{+-}14.5 pg/ml, p=0.038). In case of a hb<11 g/dl, plasma VEGF levels were significantly elevated in patients with and without cancers (67.0{+-}47.5 vs 88.9{+-}68.8 pg/ml, n.s.). In a multivariate model, a significant association between low hb levels and increased plasma levels of VEGF was confirmed. In 16 patients with renal anemia, changes in hb under erythropoietin treatment were inversely correlated with changes in plasma VEGF levels with decreasing VEGF after increase in hb (p=0.01). Conclusions: Anemic patients have elevated levels of VEGF. The data suggest that anemia might impact on the progression of

  4. A surface elevation changes of the Greenland ice sheet from SARAL/AltiKa satellite radar altimeter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khvorostovsky, Kirill; Simonsen, Sebastian Bjerregaard

    Radar altimeter measurements from ERS, Envisat and Cryosat-2 ESA’s satellites have been used for study of the ice sheet elevation changes for more than two decades. The follow-on SARAL ISRO/CNES mission with the radar altimeter AltiKa on board was launched in February 2013 on the same orbit...... as Envisat. However, in contrast to the previous Ku-band radar altimeters, AltiKa operates in Ka-band (36.8 GHz) resulting in smaller footprint, better vertical resolution and decreased penetration of the signal in the snowpack. This work presents Greenland ice sheet surface elevation changes (SEC) derived...... from the first years of SARAL/AltiKa operation as part of the ESA’s Climate Change Initiative program, which addresses the GrIS as one of the Essential Climate Variables. Seasonal changes in elevation and radar altimeter waveform parameters are estimated using crossover and stacking methods...

  5. Elevated levels of circulating microRNA-200 family members correlate with serous epithelial ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kan Casina WS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a critical need for improved diagnostic markers for high grade serous epithelial ovarian cancer (SEOC. MicroRNAs are stable in the circulation and may have utility as biomarkers of malignancy. We investigated whether levels of serum microRNA could discriminate women with high-grade SEOC from age matched healthy volunteers. Methods To identify microRNA of interest, microRNA expression profiling was performed on 4 SEOC cell lines and normal human ovarian surface epithelial cells. Total RNA was extracted from 500 μL aliquots of serum collected from patients with SEOC (n = 28 and age-matched healthy donors (n = 28. Serum microRNA levels were assessed by quantitative RT-PCR following preamplification. Results microRNA (miR-182, miR-200a, miR-200b and miR-200c were highly overexpressed in the SEOC cell lines relative to normal human ovarian surface epithelial cells and were assessed in RNA extracted from serum as candidate biomarkers. miR-103, miR-92a and miR -638 had relatively invariant expression across all ovarian cell lines, and with small-nucleolar C/D box 48 (RNU48 were assessed in RNA extracted from serum as candidate endogenous normalizers. No correlation between serum levels and age were observed (age range 30-79 years for any of these microRNA or RNU48. Individually, miR-200a, miR-200b and miR-200c normalized to serum volume and miR-103 were significantly higher in serum of the SEOC cohort (P  Conclusions We identified serum microRNAs able to discriminate patients with high grade SEOC from age-matched healthy controls. The addition of these microRNAs to current testing regimes may improve diagnosis for women with SEOC.

  6. Baseline cardiac troponin t levels are elevated in subjects with untreated diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pareek, M; Nielsen, M L; Leósdóttir, M

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Cardiac troponins are biomarkers of myocardial injury and serve both diagnostic and prognostic purposes. Even mild elevations represent subclinical myocardial damage in the general population. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between glucometabolic status...

  7. Predictors of elevated blood lead levels among 3-year-old Ukrainian children: a nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, L S; Lukyanova, O M; Kundiev, Y I; Shkiryak-Nizhnyk, Z A; Chislovska, N V; Mucha, A; Zvinchuk, A V; Oliynyk, I; Hryhorczuk, D

    2005-10-01

    Lead is common in the general population. However, data are lacking for the Ukraine and many other countries from the former Soviet Union (FSU). In this study we evaluate the level of blood lead among 212 Ukrainian children and determine predictors of elevated lead levels. We also describe the health effects associated with elevated blood lead. A nested case-control study from a prospective cohort of Ukrainian 3-year-old children was conducted in March 1998. Blood assays were analyzed for lead by labs at the Centers for Disease Control and using portable examination kits. We evaluated predictors of elevated blood lead (blood levels in the upper quartile >4.65 microg/dL) using a multivariable logistic regression model. The model included socioeconomic status, parent occupation, environmental tobacco smoke, hygiene, diet, and health status. The geometric mean lead level was 3.15 microg/dL (range, 0.7--22.7). In our adjusted model, we observed a strong association between lead levels in the upper quartile and children whose fathers worked manual labor jobs in industries associated with lead exposures [adjusted odds ratio (OR)=2.25; P=0.025] and mothers who smoke indoors (adjusted OR=2.87; P=0.047). Daily hygiene and dietary habits were not associated with elevated lead levels. No increased risks of overall morbidity or lead-associated illness were observed (anemia, dental caries, renal disease, cardiovascular diseases, and musculoskeletal complaints). This is the first study to describe lead levels and associated variables among Ukrainian children in the peer-reviewed literature. Elevated lead levels in these children were associated with paternal occupation and mothers smoking indoors. At age 3 no adverse health effects were observed. More data are needed to determine the level of heavy metal contamination in children from the Ukraine and many other former Soviet nation-states.

  8. Elevated blood lead levels in a riverside population in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Fernando; Fillion, Myriam; Lemire, Mélanie; Passos, Carlos José Sousa; Rodrigues, Jairo Lisboa; Philibert, Aline; Guimarães, Jean-Rémy; Mergler, Donna

    2009-07-01

    Lead (Pb) is recognized as one of the most toxic metals. Sources of Pb exposure have been widely documented in North America, and the removal of Pb additives from gasoline was reflected in a dramatic lowering of blood Pb concentration. In Latin America, the removal of Pb from gasoline resulted in decreased exposure, but Pb levels in many areas remain high due to occupational and environmental sources of exposure. While many of the Pb sources have been identified (mining, industries, battery recycling, lead-based paint, ceramics), new ones occasionally crop up. Here we report on blood Pb (B-Pb) levels in remote riverside communities of the Brazilian Amazon. Blood Pb (B-Pb) levels were determined in 448 persons from 12 villages of the Lower Tapajós River Basin, Pará, Brazil. Socio-demographic and dietary information, as well as occupational, residential and medical history was collected using an interview-administered questionnaire. B-Pb, measured by ICP-MS, showed elevated concentrations. Mean B-Pb was 13.1 microg/dL +/- 8.5, median B-Pb was 11.2 microg/dL and ranged from 0.59 to 48.3 microg/dL. Men had higher B-Pb compared to women (median: 15.3 microg/dL vs 7.9 microg/dL respectively). B-Pb increased with age for women, while it decreased for men. For both genders, B-Pb decreased with education. There were significant differences between villages. Exploratory analyses, using linear partition models, showed that for men B-Pb was lower among those who were involved in cattle-raising, and higher among those who hunted, farmed and fished. The distribution profile of B-Pb directed us towards artisanal transformation of manioc to flour (farinha), which requires heating in a large metal pan, with stirring primarily done by young men. In the village with the highest B-Pb, analysis of Pb concentrations (dry weight) of manioc (prior to transformation) and farinha (following transformation) from 6 houses showed a tenfold increase in Pb concentration (mean: 0.017 +/- 0

  9. Elevated levels of selenium in the typical diet of Amazonian riverside populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemire, Melanie; Fillion, Myriam; Barbosa, Fernando; Guimaraes, Jean Remy Davee; Mergler, Donna

    2010-01-01

    Selenium (Se) intake is generally from food, whose Se content depends on soil Se and plant accumulation. For humans, adequate Se intake is essential for several selenoenzymes. In the Lower Tapajos region of the Brazilian Amazon, Se status is elevated with large inter-community variability. Se intake in this region, where Hg exposure is among the highest in the world, may be important to counteract mercury (Hg) toxicity. The present study was conducted in 2006 with 155 persons from four communities of the Lower Tapajos. The objectives were: i) to evaluate Se content in their typical diet and drinking water; ii) to compare food Se concentrations with respect to geographic location; and iii) to examine the contribution of consumption of different food items to blood Se. More than 400 local foods and 40 drinking water samples were collected. Participants responded to an interview-administered food frequency questionnaire and provided blood samples. Food, water and blood Se levels were assessed by ICP-MS. Since Brazil nuts may also contain significant levels of barium (Ba) and strontium (Sr), these elements were likewise analyzed in nuts. The highest Se concentrations were found in Brazil nuts, but concentrations were highly variable (median: 13.9 μg/g; range: 0.4-158.4 μg/g). Chicken, game meat, eggs and beef also contained considerable levels of Se, with median concentrations from 0.3 to 1.4 μg/g. There was no particular geographic distribution of food Se. Se concentration in drinking water was very low (< 1.4 μg/L). Blood Se covered a (103-1500 μg/L), and was positively related to regular consumption of Brazil nuts, domestic chicken and game meat. Brazil nuts were found to contain highly variable and often very high concentrations of Ba (88.0 μg/g, 1.9-1437 μg/g) and Sr (38.7 μg/g, 3.3-173 μg/g). Further studies should address multiple nutrient/toxic interactions in the diet and related effects on health.

  10. Elevated levels of selenium in the typical diet of Amazonian riverside populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemire, Melanie, E-mail: lemire.melanie@courrier.uqam.ca [Centre de recherche interdisciplinaire sur la biologie, la sante, la societe et l' environnement (CINBIOSE), Universite du Quebec a Montreal, Montreal (Canada); Fillion, Myriam [Centre de recherche interdisciplinaire sur la biologie, la sante, la societe et l' environnement (CINBIOSE), Universite du Quebec a Montreal, Montreal (Canada); Barbosa, Fernando [Depto. de Analises Clinicas, Toxicologicas e Bromatologicas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto (Brazil); Guimaraes, Jean Remy Davee [Instituto de Biofisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Mergler, Donna [Centre de recherche interdisciplinaire sur la biologie, la sante, la societe et l' environnement (CINBIOSE), Universite du Quebec a Montreal, Montreal (Canada)

    2010-09-01

    Selenium (Se) intake is generally from food, whose Se content depends on soil Se and plant accumulation. For humans, adequate Se intake is essential for several selenoenzymes. In the Lower Tapajos region of the Brazilian Amazon, Se status is elevated with large inter-community variability. Se intake in this region, where Hg exposure is among the highest in the world, may be important to counteract mercury (Hg) toxicity. The present study was conducted in 2006 with 155 persons from four communities of the Lower Tapajos. The objectives were: i) to evaluate Se content in their typical diet and drinking water; ii) to compare food Se concentrations with respect to geographic location; and iii) to examine the contribution of consumption of different food items to blood Se. More than 400 local foods and 40 drinking water samples were collected. Participants responded to an interview-administered food frequency questionnaire and provided blood samples. Food, water and blood Se levels were assessed by ICP-MS. Since Brazil nuts may also contain significant levels of barium (Ba) and strontium (Sr), these elements were likewise analyzed in nuts. The highest Se concentrations were found in Brazil nuts, but concentrations were highly variable (median: 13.9 {mu}g/g; range: 0.4-158.4 {mu}g/g). Chicken, game meat, eggs and beef also contained considerable levels of Se, with median concentrations from 0.3 to 1.4 {mu}g/g. There was no particular geographic distribution of food Se. Se concentration in drinking water was very low (< 1.4 {mu}g/L). Blood Se covered a (103-1500 {mu}g/L), and was positively related to regular consumption of Brazil nuts, domestic chicken and game meat. Brazil nuts were found to contain highly variable and often very high concentrations of Ba (88.0 {mu}g/g, 1.9-1437 {mu}g/g) and Sr (38.7 {mu}g/g, 3.3-173 {mu}g/g). Further studies should address multiple nutrient/toxic interactions in the diet and related effects on health.

  11. Elevated Levels of SOX10 in Serum from Vitiligo and Melanoma Patients, Analyzed by Proximity Ligation Assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andries Blokzijl

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of malignant melanoma currently relies on clinical inspection of the skin surface and on the histopathological status of the excised tumor. The serum marker S100B is used for prognostic estimates at later stages of the disease, but analyses are marred by false positives and inadequate sensitivity in predicting relapsing disorder.To investigate SOX10 as a potential biomarker for melanoma and vitiligo.In this study we have applied proximity ligation assay (PLA to detect the transcription factor SOX10 as a possible serum marker for melanoma. We studied a cohort of 110 melanoma patients. We further investigated a second cohort of 85 patients with vitiligo, which is a disease that also affects melanocytes.The specificity of the SOX10 assay in serum was high, with only 1% of healthy blood donors being positive. In contrast, elevated serum SOX10 was found with high frequency among vitiligo and melanoma patients. In patients with metastases, lack of SOX10 detection was associated with treatment benefit. In two responding patients, a change from SOX10 positivity to undetectable levels was seen before the response was evident clinically.We show for the first time that SOX10 represents a promising new serum melanoma marker for detection of early stage disease, complementing the established S100B marker. Our findings imply that SOX10 can be used to monitor responses to treatment and to assess if the treatment is of benefit at stages earlier than what is possible radiologically.

  12. Coxsackie B5 infection in an adult with fever, truncal rash, diarrhea and splenomegaly with highly elevated ferritin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valestra, Paul K; Fornos, Scarlet Herrarte; Gian, John; Cunha, Burke A

    2016-01-01

    Coxsackie viruses are enteroviruses most common in children. Coxsackie B viral infections often present with biphasic fever, headache, pharyngitis, nausea/vomiting, diarrhea and a maculopapular rash that spares the palms and soles. These clinical features may be present in other viral infections. We present a case of a hospitalized adult with rash and fever with highly elevated ferritin levels later found to be due to Coxsackie B5. We believe this is the first case of Coxsackie B infection with otherwise unexplained highly elevated ferritin levels.

  13. Effects of pH and elevated glucose levels on the electrochemical behavior of dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamam, Evsen; Turkyilmaz, Ilser

    2014-04-01

    Implant failure is more likely to occur in persons with medically compromising systemic conditions, such as diabetes related to high blood glucose levels and inflammatory diseases related to pH levels lower than those in healthy people. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of lower pH level and simulated- hyperglycemia on implant corrosion as these effects are critical to biocompatibility and osseointegration. The electrochemical corrosion properties of titanium implants were studied in four different solutions: Ringer's physiological solution at pH = 7.0 and pH = 5.5 and Ringer's physiological solution containing 15 mM dextrose at pH = 7 and pH = 5.5. Corrosion behaviors of dental implants were determined by cyclic polarization test and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Surface alterations were studied using a scanning electron microscope. All test electrolytes led to apparent differences in corrosion behavior of the implants. The implants under conditions of test exhibited statistically significant increases in I(corr) from 0.2372 to 1.007 μAcm(-2), corrosion rates from 1.904 to 8.085 mpy, and a decrease in polarization resistances from 304 to 74 Ω. Implants in dextrose-containing solutions were more prone to corrosion than those in Ringer's solutions alone. Increasing the acidity also yielded greater corrosion rates for the dextrose-containing solutions and the solutions without dextrose.

  14. Mycobacterium tuberculosis has diminished capacity to counteract redox stress induced by elevated levels of endogenous superoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Priyanka; Dharmaraja, Allimuthu T; Bhaskar, Ashima; Chakrapani, Harinath; Singh, Amit

    2015-07-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) has evolved protective and detoxification mechanisms to maintain cytoplasmic redox balance in response to exogenous oxidative stress encountered inside host phagocytes. In contrast, little is known about the dynamic response of this pathogen to endogenous oxidative stress generated within Mtb. Using a noninvasive and specific biosensor of cytoplasmic redox state of Mtb, we for first time discovered a surprisingly high sensitivity of this pathogen to perturbation in redox homeostasis induced by elevated endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS). We synthesized a series of hydroquinone-based small molecule ROS generators and found that ATD-3169 permeated mycobacteria to reliably enhance endogenous ROS including superoxide radicals. When Mtb strains including multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) patient isolates were exposed to this compound, a dose-dependent, long-lasting, and irreversible oxidative shift in intramycobacterial redox potential was detected. Dynamic redox potential measurements revealed that Mtb had diminished capacity to restore cytoplasmic redox balance in comparison with Mycobacterium smegmatis (Msm), a fast growing nonpathogenic mycobacterial species. Accordingly, Mtb strains were extremely susceptible to inhibition by ATD-3169 but not Msm, suggesting a functional linkage between dynamic redox changes and survival. Microarray analysis showed major realignment of pathways involved in redox homeostasis, central metabolism, DNA repair, and cell wall lipid biosynthesis in response to ATD-3169, all consistent with enhanced endogenous ROS contributing to lethality induced by this compound. This work provides empirical evidence that the cytoplasmic redox poise of Mtb is uniquely sensitive to manipulation in steady-state endogenous ROS levels, thus revealing the importance of targeting intramycobacterial redox metabolism for controlling TB infection. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by

  15. Reduced right frontal fractional anisotropy correlated with early elevated plasma LDL levels in obese young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baohui Lou

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the underlying physiological mechanisms of the structural differences in gray matter (GM and white matter (WM associated with obesity in young Chinese adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 49 right-handed obese or overweight (n = 22, mean age 31.72±8.04 years and normal weight (n = 27, mean age 29.04±7.32 years Han Chinese individuals were recruited. All participants underwent voxel-based morphometry analysis of T1-weighted MRI and tract-based spatial statistics analysis of diffusion tensor imaging. Partial correlation analysis was performed between the physiological data obtained and the abnormal structural alterations. RESULTS: In the OO group, GM atrophy occurred in the left prefrontal cortex, bilateral cingulate gyrus, and the right temporal lobe, while enlargement was observed in the bilateral putamen. WM atrophy was observed predominantly in the regions that regulate food intake, such as the bilateral basal ganglia, the right amygdala, and the left insula. The OO group exhibited lower fractional anisotropy (FA in bilateral frontal corticospinal tracts and the right brainstem. Significant negative correlations were observed between FA values of those three clusters and BMI, and waist circumference, while the volume of bilateral putamen positively correlated with both BMI and waist circumference. High plasma LDL levels were correlated with low FA values in the right frontal corticospinal tract. Interestingly, the negative correlation was limited to male participants. CONCLUSIONS: Obesity-related alterations of GM and WM volumes were observed predominantly in food reward circuit, which may motivate abnormal dietary intake. Further, early elevated plasma LDL might contribute to low right frontal FA values of male adults, which requires further demonstration by larger-scale and longitudinal studies.

  16. Growth response of Spirulina platensis PCC9108 to elevated CO2 levels and flue gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedmahdi Hoseini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Because their ability to capture CO2, photosynthetical microorganisms have some advantages to CO2 mitigation from high CO2 streams such as flue gases and they can use CO2 as carbon source. Recently, experts have made efforts to exploit microorganisms intended for recovering CO2 from power plants. Materials and methods: To achieve this purpose, we studied the growth response of the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis PCC9108 under different concentrations of carbon dioxide (ranging from 0.036% to 10% and flue gas in a bench-scale system. Preparation of different concentrations of CO2 and injection into Erlenmeyer flasks was performed by a system including air compressor, CO2 capsule, pressure gauge and flow meter. Results: The main goal of studying this paper is a survey of organism's potential to grow by generated CO2 from flue gas of power plant. It already had the potential and highest biomass production recorded at 8% CO2 (v/v. Also we proved that S.platensis PCC9108 can be grown under flue gas, although biomass production decreased fairly. Total lipid content of algae interestingly enhanced with elevated CO2 levels from ambient air to 4% and 6% which ranged from 14.5 to 15.8 and 16 dry weight (wt. % respectively. In contrast, total protein content illustrated no difference between all treatment and its value was about 46 wt.%. Discussion and conclusion: The results of present study suggested that understudied S.platensis PCC9108 is appropriate for mitigating CO2 because of its carbon fixation ability. Also due to its high protein content, this cyanobacterium is a good candidate to produce SCP (single cell protein.

  17. The role of surface and subsurface processes in keeping pace with sea level rise in intertidal wetlands of Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovelock, Catherine E.; Bennion, Vicki; Grinham, Alistair; Cahoon, Donald R.

    2011-01-01

    Increases in the elevation of the soil surfaces of mangroves and salt marshes are key to the maintenance of these habitats with accelerating sea level rise. Understanding the processes that give rise to increases in soil surface elevation provides science for management of landscapes for sustainable coastal wetlands. Here, we tested whether the soil surface elevation of mangroves and salt marshes in Moreton Bay is keeping up with local rates of sea level rise (2.358 mm y-1) and whether accretion on the soil surface was the most important process for keeping up with sea level rise. We found variability in surface elevation gains, with sandy areas in the eastern bay having the highest surface elevation gains in both mangrove and salt marsh (5.9 and 1.9 mm y-1) whereas in the muddier western bay rates of surface elevation gain were lower (1.4 and -0.3 mm y-1 in mangrove and salt marsh, respectively). Both sides of the bay had similar rates of surface accretion (~7–9 mm y-1 in the mangrove and 1–3 mm y-1 in the salt marsh), but mangrove soils in the western bay were subsiding at a rate of approximately 8 mm y-1, possibly due to compaction of organic sediments. Over the study surface elevation increments were sensitive to position in the intertidal zone (higher when lower in the intertidal) and also to variation in mean sea level (higher at high sea level). Although surface accretion was the most important process for keeping up with sea level rise in the eastern bay, subsidence largely negated gains made through surface accretion in the western bay indicating a high vulnerability to sea level rise in these forests.

  18. Decreased glutathione and elevated hair mercury levels are associated with nutritional deficiency-based autism in Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Nathaniel W; Waly, Mostafa I; Al-Farsi, Yahya M; Al-Sharbati, Marwan M; Al-Farsi, Omar; Ali, Amanat; Ouhtit, Allal; Zang, Tianzhu; Zhou, Zhaohui Sunny; Deth, Richard C

    2014-06-01

    Genetic, nutrition, and environmental factors have each been implicated as sources of risk for autism. Oxidative stress, including low plasma levels of the antioxidant glutathione, has been reported by numerous autism studies, which can disrupt methylation-dependent epigenetic regulation of gene expression with neurodevelopmental consequences. We investigated the status of redox and methylation metabolites, as well as the level of protein homocysteinylation and hair mercury levels, in autistic and neurotypical control Omani children, who were previously shown to exhibit significant nutritional deficiencies in serum folate and vitamin B₁₂. The serum level of glutathione in autistic subjects was significantly below control levels, while levels of homocysteine and S-adenosylhomocysteine were elevated, indicative of oxidative stress and decreased methionine synthase activity. Autistic males had lower glutathione and higher homocysteine levels than females, while homocysteinylation of serum proteins was increased in autistic males but not females. Mercury levels were markedly elevated in the hair of autistic subjects vs. control subjects, consistent with the importance of glutathione for its elimination. Thus, autism in Oman is associated with decreased antioxidant resources and decreased methylation capacity, in conjunction with elevated hair levels of mercury.

  19. Elevated serum BAFF levels in patients with localized scleroderma in contrast to other organ-specific autoimmune diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Takashi; Hasegawa, Minoru; Matsushita, Yukiyo; Echigo, Takeshi; Wayaku, Takamasa; Horikawa, Mayuka; Ogawa, Fumihide; Takehara, Kazuhiko; Sato, Shinichi

    2007-02-01

    Serum levels of B-cell activating factor belonging to the tumor necrosis factor family (BAFF), a potent B-cell survival factor, are elevated in patients with systemic autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis and systemic sclerosis (SSc). The objective of this study was to determine serum BAFF levels and relate the results to the clinical features in patients with organ-specific autoimmune diseases of the skin, such as localized scleroderma and autoimmune bullous diseases. Serum BAFF levels were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 44 patients with localized scleroderma, 20 with pemphigus vulgaris/pemphigus foliaceus, 20 with bullous pemphigoid and 30 healthy controls. Twenty patients with SSc and 20 with SLE were also examined as disease controls. Serum BAFF levels were elevated in localized scleroderma patients compared with healthy controls. Concerning localized scleroderma subgroups, patients with generalized morphea, the severest form of localized scleroderma, had higher serum BAFF levels than linear scleroderma or morphea patients. The BAFF levels of generalized morphea were comparable with those of SSc or SLE. Furthermore, serum BAFF levels correlated positively with antihistone antibody levels and the severity of skin lesion as well as the number of skin lesions. By contrast, serum BAFF levels were not significantly elevated in patients with pemphigus or pemphigoid. These results suggest that BAFF may be contributing to autoimmunity and disease development in localized scleroderma.

  20. The microstructure and surface hardness of Ti6Al4V alloy implanted with nitrogen ions at an elevated temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlcak, Petr, E-mail: petr.vlcak@fs.cvut.cz [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Technicka 4, 16607 Prague (Czech Republic); Cerny, Frantisek [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Technicka 4, 16607 Prague (Czech Republic); Drahokoupil, Jan [Department of Metals, Institute of Physics, AS CR, v.v.i., Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague (Czech Republic); Sepitka, Josef [Department of Mechanics, Biomechanics and Mechatronics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Technicka 4, 16607 Prague (Czech Republic); Tolde, Zdenek [Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Technicka 4, 16607 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2015-01-25

    Highlights: • The Ti6Al4V samples were implanted with 90 keV nitrogen ions. • The samples were annealed at 500 °C during the ion implantation process. • An elevated temperature increases the mobility of the atoms and the quantity of TiN. • The hardness showed a significant increase compared to room temperature implantation. - Abstract: The effect of an elevated temperature during nitrogen ion implantation on the microstructure and on the surface hardness of Ti6Al4V titanium alloy was examined. The implantation process was carried out at fluences of 1 ⋅ 10{sup 17}, 2.7 ⋅ 10{sup 17} and 6 ⋅ 10{sup 17} cm{sup −2} and at ion energy 90 keV. The implanted samples were annealed at 500 °C during the implantation process. X-ray diffraction analysis was performed to obtain a phase characterization and a phase quantification in the implanted sample surface. The surface hardness was investigated by nanoindentation testing, and the nitrogen depth distribution was measured by Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy. Elevated temperature led to increased formation of a TiN compound. It was found that a mixture of TiN and an α-Ti(+N) solid solution had a predominant amount of TiN for samples with fluence of 2.7 ⋅ 10{sup 17} cm{sup −2} or higher. Elevated temperature during ion implantation caused an increase in surface hardening more towards the depth of the substrate in comparison with room temperature implantation. The hardness showed a remarkably significant increase at a fluence of 1 ⋅ 10{sup 17} and 2.7 ⋅ 10{sup 17} cm{sup −2} compared to samples implanted at the same fluences and at room temperature. There is a discussion of such mechanisms that explain the observed hardening more towards the depth of the substrate, and the increase in hardness.

  1. Results of the measurement survey of elevation and environmental media in surface impoundments 3513 (B) and 3524 (A) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, M.E.; Rose, D.A.; Brown, K.S.; Coe, R.H.C. III; Lawrence, J.D.; Winton, W.

    1998-07-01

    A measurement survey of the elevation and environmental media in impoundments 3513 (B) and 3524 (A) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was conducted during April 1998. The investigation was performed by the Measurement Applications and Development Group of the Life Sciences Division of ORNL at the request of Bechtel Jacobs Company. Measurement activities were conducted at selected locations in order to determine the depth and appearance of the sediment and describe the clay underlying the impoundments prior to remediation. The survey was a follow-up to a previous elevation survey. The survey included the following: collection of sediment/clay cores from selected locations in each impoundment; measurement and documentation of the elevation at the water surface, at the top of sediment, at the top of clay, and at the bottom of each core; visual inspection of each core by a soil scientist to confirm the presence of clay and not material such as fly ash and soda lime compacted over the last 50 years; measurement and documentation of the background beta-gamma radiation level at the time and location of collection of each core, the highest beta-gamma level along the sediment portion of each core, and the highest beta-gamma level along the clay portion of each core; measurement and documentation of the length of the clay and of the sediment portion of each core; photographic documentation of each core; and replacement of each core in the impoundment.

  2. Results of the measurement survey of elevation and environmental media in surface impoundments 3513 (B) and 3524 (A) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, M.E.; Rose, D.A.; Brown, K.S.; Coe, R.H.C. III; Lawrence, J.D.; Winton, W.

    1998-07-01

    A measurement survey of the elevation and environmental media in impoundments 3513 (B) and 3524 (A) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was conducted during April 1998. The investigation was performed by the Measurement Applications and Development Group of the Life Sciences Division of ORNL at the request of Bechtel Jacobs Company. Measurement activities were conducted at selected locations in order to determine the depth and appearance of the sediment and describe the clay underlying the impoundments prior to remediation. The survey was a follow-up to a previous elevation survey. The survey included the following: collection of sediment/clay cores from selected locations in each impoundment; measurement and documentation of the elevation at the water surface, at the top of sediment, at the top of clay, and at the bottom of each core; visual inspection of each core by a soil scientist to confirm the presence of clay and not material such as fly ash and soda lime compacted over the last 50 years; measurement and documentation of the background beta-gamma radiation level at the time and location of collection of each core, the highest beta-gamma level along the sediment portion of each core, and the highest beta-gamma level along the clay portion of each core; measurement and documentation of the length of the clay and of the sediment portion of each core; photographic documentation of each core; and replacement of each core in the impoundment

  3. Analysis of lidar elevation data for improved identification and delineation of lands vulnerable to sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesch, Dean B.

    2009-01-01

    The importance of sea-level rise in shaping coastal landscapes is well recognized within the earth science community, but as with many natural hazards, communicating the risks associated with sea-level rise remains a challenge. Topography is a key parameter that influences many of the processes involved in coastal change, and thus, up-to-date, high-resolution, high-accuracy elevation data are required to model the coastal environment. Maps of areas subject to potential inundation have great utility to planners and managers concerned with the effects of sea-level rise. However, most of the maps produced to date are simplistic representations derived from older, coarse elevation data. In the last several years, vast amounts of high quality elevation data derived from lidar have become available. Because of their high vertical accuracy and spatial resolution, these lidar data are an excellent source of up-to-date information from which to improve identification and delineation of vulnerable lands. Four elevation datasets of varying resolution and accuracy were processed to demonstrate that the improved quality of lidar data leads to more precise delineation of coastal lands vulnerable to inundation. A key component of the comparison was to calculate and account for the vertical uncertainty of the elevation datasets. This comparison shows that lidar allows for a much more detailed delineation of the potential inundation zone when compared to other types of elevation models. It also shows how the certainty of the delineation of lands vulnerable to a given sea-level rise scenario is much improved when derived from higher resolution lidar data.

  4. Elevation of cytosolic calcium level triggers calcium antagonist-induced gingival overgrowth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Toshimi; Wang, Pao-Li

    2008-03-31

    Calcium (Ca2+) antagonists induce gingival overgrowth as a side effect but the pathogenic mechanism is still unknown. The Ca2+-channel activator Bay K 8644 elevates intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) and enhances the cell proliferation of gingival fibroblasts in a dose-dependent manner. Verapamil, an L-type Ca2+-channel blocker, also elevates [Ca2+]i in gingival fibroblasts, but it has no effect on other fibroblasts such as those of the lung, skin, and muscle. Moreover, verapamil enhances the proliferation of fibroblasts of the gingiva but has no effect on the proliferation of those of other tissues. These findings confirm that [Ca2+]i elevation induces the proliferation of gingival fibroblasts.

  5. Elevation and forest clearing effects on foraging differ between surface--and subterranean--foraging army ants (Formicidae: Ecitoninae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anjali; O'Donnell, Sean

    2009-01-01

    1. Forest fragmentation often results in a matrix of open areas mixed with patches of forest. Both biotic and abiotic factors can affect consumer species' ability to utilize the altered habitat, especially for species that range over large areas searching for prey. 2. Army ants (Formicidae: Ecitoninae) are highly mobile top predators in terrestrial Neotropical ecosystems. Army ant foraging behaviour is influenced by forest clearing at lowland sites, and clearing can reduce army ant population persistence. 3. Because high temperatures are implicated in hindering above-ground army ant foraging, we predicted that forest clearing effects on army ant foraging would be reduced at higher (cooler) elevations in montane forest. We also predicted that subterranean foraging, employed by some army ant species, would buffer them from the negative effects of forest clearing. 4. We quantified the foraging rates of above-ground and underground foraging army ants at eight sites along an elevational gradient from 1090 to 1540 m a.s.l. We asked whether these two foraging strategies cause a difference in the ability of army ants to forage in open matrix areas relative to elevationally matched forested habitats, and whether elevation predicts open area vs. forest foraging rate differences. 5. As predicted, army ants that forage above-ground had lower foraging rates in open areas, but the open area vs. forest difference declined with elevation. In contrast, underground foragers were not affected by habitat type, and underground foraging rates increased with elevation. Ground surface temperatures were higher in open areas than forested areas. Temperatures declined with elevation, and temperature differences between open and forested areas decreased with elevation. 6. We conclude that army ants that forage above-ground may be restricted to forested areas due to a thermal tolerance threshold, but that they are released from this limitation at higher elevations. We further suggest that

  6. Additive pressures of elevated sea surface temperatures and herbicides on symbiont-bearing foraminifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joost W van Dam

    Full Text Available Elevated ocean temperatures and agrochemical pollution individually threaten inshore coral reefs, but these pressures are likely to occur simultaneously. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the combined effects of elevated temperature and the photosystem II (PSII inhibiting herbicide diuron on several types of symbiotic algae (diatom, dinoflagellate or rhodophyte of benthic foraminifera in hospite. Diuron was shown to evoke a direct effect on photosynthetic efficiency (reduced effective PSII quantum yield ΔF/F'(m, while elevated temperatures (>30 °C, only 2 °C above current average summer temperatures were observed to impact photosynthesis more indirectly by causing reductions in maximum PSII quantum yield (F(v/F(m, interpreted as photodamage. Additionally, elevated temperatures were shown to cause bleaching through loss of chlorophyll a in foraminifera hosting either diatoms or dinoflagellates. A significant linear correlation was found between reduced F(v/F(m and loss of chlorophyll a. In most cases, symbionts within foraminifera proved more sensitive to thermal stress in the presence of diuron (≥ 1 µg L(-1. The mixture toxicity model of Independent Action (IA described the combined effects of temperature and diuron on the photosystem of species hosting diatoms or dinoflagellates convincingly and in agreement with probabilistic statistics, so a response additive joint action can be assumed. We thus demonstrate that improving water quality can improve resilience of symbiotic phototrophs to projected increases in ocean temperatures. As IA described the observed combined effects from elevated temperature and diuron stress it may therefore be employed for prediction of untested mixtures and for assessing the efficacy of management measures.

  7. Additive pressures of elevated sea surface temperatures and herbicides on symbiont-bearing foraminifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dam, Joost W; Negri, Andrew P; Mueller, Jochen F; Altenburger, Rolf; Uthicke, Sven

    2012-01-01

    Elevated ocean temperatures and agrochemical pollution individually threaten inshore coral reefs, but these pressures are likely to occur simultaneously. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the combined effects of elevated temperature and the photosystem II (PSII) inhibiting herbicide diuron on several types of symbiotic algae (diatom, dinoflagellate or rhodophyte) of benthic foraminifera in hospite. Diuron was shown to evoke a direct effect on photosynthetic efficiency (reduced effective PSII quantum yield ΔF/F'(m)), while elevated temperatures (>30 °C, only 2 °C above current average summer temperatures) were observed to impact photosynthesis more indirectly by causing reductions in maximum PSII quantum yield (F(v)/F(m)), interpreted as photodamage. Additionally, elevated temperatures were shown to cause bleaching through loss of chlorophyll a in foraminifera hosting either diatoms or dinoflagellates. A significant linear correlation was found between reduced F(v)/F(m) and loss of chlorophyll a. In most cases, symbionts within foraminifera proved more sensitive to thermal stress in the presence of diuron (≥ 1 µg L(-1)). The mixture toxicity model of Independent Action (IA) described the combined effects of temperature and diuron on the photosystem of species hosting diatoms or dinoflagellates convincingly and in agreement with probabilistic statistics, so a response additive joint action can be assumed. We thus demonstrate that improving water quality can improve resilience of symbiotic phototrophs to projected increases in ocean temperatures. As IA described the observed combined effects from elevated temperature and diuron stress it may therefore be employed for prediction of untested mixtures and for assessing the efficacy of management measures.

  8. Elevated levels of G-quadruplex formation in human stomach and liver cancer tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biffi, Giulia; Tannahill, David; Miller, Jodi; Howat, William J; Balasubramanian, Shankar

    2014-01-01

    Four-stranded G-quadruplex DNA secondary structures have recently been visualized in the nuclei of human cultured cells. Here, we show that BG4, a G-quadruplex-specific antibody, can be used to stain DNA G-quadruplex structures in patient-derived tissues using immunohistochemistry. We observe a significantly elevated number of G-quadruplex-positive nuclei in human cancers of the liver and stomach as compared to background non-neoplastic tissue. Our results suggest that G-quadruplex formation can be detected and measured in patient-derived material and that elevated G-quadruplex formation may be a characteristic of some cancers.

  9. Marine CDOM accumulation during a coastal Arctic mesocosm experiment: No response to elevated pCO2 levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavlov, A.K.; Silyakova, A.; Granskog, M.A.; Bellerby, R.G.J.; Engel, A.; Schulz, K.G.; Brussaard, C.P.D.

    2014-01-01

    A large-scale multidisciplinary mesocosm experiment in an Arctic fjord (Kongsfjorden, Svalbard; 78°56.2′N) was used to study Arctic marine food webs and biogeochemical elements cycling at natural and elevated future carbon dioxide (CO2) levels. At the start of the experiment, marine-derived

  10. Impact of elevated H2S on metabolite levels, activity of enzymes and expression of genes involved in cysteine metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riemenschneider, A; Nikiforova, V.; Hoefgen, R; De Kok, LJ; Papenbrock, J

    The effects of elevated atmospheric hydrogen sulfide (H2S) levels (0.25, 0.5, and 0.75 mu l l(-1)) have been investigated in a short-term exposure experiment (3-48 h) on the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. in comparison to untreated control plants. The most pronounced effects of H2S

  11. Serum and peritoneal interleukin-33 levels are elevated in deeply infiltrating endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santulli, Pietro; Borghese, Bruno; Chouzenoux, Sandrine; Vaiman, Daniel; Borderie, Didier; Streuli, Isabelle; Goffinet, François; de Ziegler, Dominique; Weill, Bernard; Batteux, Frédéric; Chapron, Charles

    2012-07-01

    Interleukin 33 (IL-33) is a cytokine involved in fibrotic disorders. We have analyzed IL-33 levels in the sera and peritoneal fluids of women with various forms of endometriosis and investigated the correlation with disease activity. We conducted a prospective laboratory study in a tertiary-care university hospital between January 2005 and December 2010. Five hundred and ten women with histologically proven endometriosis and 132 endometriosis-free controls were enrolled in this study. Complete surgical exploration of the abdominopelvic cavity was performed in each patient. Blood samples and peritoneal fluids were obtained before and during surgical procedures, respectively. IL-33 was measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in sera and peritoneal fluids, and the concentrations correlated with the extent and the severity of endometriotic lesions. IL-33 was detectable in 23.1% of serum samples from all 642 women studied and 75.0% of peritoneal fluid samples studied (44 women with endometriosis and 36 controls). Serum IL-33 was higher in deeply infiltrating endometriosis (DIE) (median, 104.9 pg/ml; range, 8.0-104.9) than in endometriosis-free women (median, 61.3 pg/ml; range, 7.5-526.0; P = 0.022) or in women affected by superficial endometriosis (median, 36.8 pg/ml; range, 7.5-179.0; P Peritoneal IL-33 was higher in DIE than in endometriosis-free women (median, 642.0 pg/ml; range, 25.9-3350.6 versus median, 194.2 pg/ml; range, 12.7-1818.2, respectively; P = 0.003). We found positive correlations between serum IL-33 concentration and intensity of dysmenorrhea (r = 0.174; P = 0.028) and gastrointestinal symptoms (r = 0.199; P = 0.027), total number of DIE lesions (r = 0.224; P = 0.016) and the worst DIE lesion (r = 0.299; P endometriosis and principally in DIE. Elevated serum IL-33 is correlated with the intensity of preoperative painful symptoms, and with the extent and severity of the DIE. IL-33 may be considered as a novel cytokine involved in the

  12. Bitter gourd reduces elevated fasting plasma glucose levels in an intervention study among prediabetics in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawinkel, Michael B; Ludwig, Christine; Swai, Mark E; Yang, Ray-Yu; Chun, Kwok Pan; Habicht, Sandra D

    2018-04-24

    Impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes mellitus have become major health issues even in non-industrialized countries. As access to clinical management is often poor, dietary interventions and alternative medicines are required. For bitter gourd, Momordica charantia L., antidiabetic properties have been claimed. The main objective of the intervention study was to assess antidiabetic effects of daily bitter gourd consumption of 2.5g powder over the course of eight weeks among prediabetic individuals. In a randomized placebo-controlled single blinded clinical trial, 52 individuals with prediabetes were studied after consuming a bitter gourd or a cucumber juice. For reducing the impact of between subject differences in the study population, a crossover design was chosen with eight weeks for each study period and four weeks washout in between. Fasting plasma glucose was chosen as the primary outcome variable. Comparing the different exposures, the CROS analysis (t=-2.23, p=0.031, r=0.326) revealed a significant difference in the change of FPG of 0.31mmol/L (5.6mg/dL) with a trend (R 2 =0,42387). The number of 44 finally complete data sets achieved a power of 0.82, with a medium-to-large effect size (Cohen's d 0.62). The effect was also proven by a general linear mixed model (estimate 0.31; SE: 0.12; p: 0.01; 95%CI: 0.08; 0.54). Not all participants responded, but the higher the initial blood glucose levels were, the more pronounced the effect was. No serious adverse effects were observed. Bitter gourd supplementation appeared to have benefits in lowering elevated fasting plasma glucose in prediabetes. The findings should be replicated in other intervention studies to further investigate glucose lowering effects and the opportunity to use bitter gourd for dietary self-management, especially in places where access to professional medical care is not easily assured. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Cellular responses to elevated light levels in Fucus spiralis embryos during the first days after fertilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coelho, S.; Rijstenbil, J.W.; Sousa-Pinto, I.; Brown, M.

    2001-01-01

    Cellular responses of 1-, 2- and 4-d-old Fucus spiralis embryos subjected to a single dose of elevated photosynthetically active photon flux density (PPFD), with or without ultraviolet (U-V) radiation, were investigated by measuring the effects on the effective quantum yield of photosystem II

  14. Risk of Myocardial Infarction Attributable to Elevated Levels of Total Cholesterol Among Hypertensives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glazer, Nicole L.; Smith, Nicholas L.; Heckbert, Susan R.; Doggen, Catharina Jacoba Maria; Lemaitre, Rozenn N.; Psaty, Bruce M.

    2005-01-01

    Background Although cholesterol is an important risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD) among hypertensives, the burden of CHD among hypertensives that may be due to elevated cholesterol has not been well documented. This study aimed to estimate the proportion of incident myocardial infarction

  15. Plasma proteome profiling of atherosclerotic disease manifestations reveals elevated levels of the cytoskeletal protein vinculin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Lars P; Larsen, Martin Røssel; Mickley, Hans

    2014-01-01

    an increased expression profile from group 1 to 4. The top-most elevated protein, vinculin (Vcl) displayed a similar profile. Immunoassays confirmed the expression profile of apo(a) and CRP. A 5-plex SRM-MS assay for Vcl, SAA, CRP, apo(a) and thrombospondin-4 (TSP-4) was developed for multiplex verification...

  16. Laser surface processing with controlled nitrogen-argon concentration levels for regulated surface life time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeidi, M. Ahmed; McCarthy, E.; Brabazon, D.

    2018-03-01

    Laser surface modification can be used to enhance the mechanical properties of a material, such as hardness, toughness, fatigue strength, and corrosion resistance. Surface nitriding is a widely used thermochemical method of surface modification, in which nitrogen is introduced into a metal or other material at an elevated temperature within a furnace. It is used on parts where there is a need for increased wear resistance, corrosion resistance, fatigue life, and hardness. Laser nitriding is a novel method of nitriding where the surface is heated locally by a laser, either in an atmosphere of nitrogen or with a jet of nitrogen delivered to the laser heated site. It combines the benefits of laser modification with those of nitriding. Recent work on high toughness tool steel samples has shown promising results due to the increased nitrogen gas impingement onto the laser heated region. Increased surface activity and nitrogen adsorption was achieved which resulted in a deeper and harder surface compared to conventional hardening methods. In this work, the effects of the laser power, pulse repetition frequency, and overlap percentage on laser surface treatment of 316 L SST steel samples with an argon-nitrogen jet will be presented. Resulting microstructure, phase type, microhardness, and wear resistance are presented.

  17. PAPP-A and IGFBP-4 fragment levels in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction treated with heparin and PCI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortebjerg, Rikke; Lindberg, Søren; Hoffmann, Søren

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Circulating levels of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) predict outcome in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Unfortunately, administration of heparin to patients with ACS increases circulating PAPP-A, probably by a detachment of PAPP-A from cell surfaces......-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Prior to PCI, patients were injected with 10,000IU of unfractionated heparin (UFH). Blood samples were collected immediately before PCI, but after UFH-injection, immediately after PCI and on day 1 and day 2...

  18. Acceleration levels on board the Space Station and a tethered elevator for micro and variable-gravity applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzini, E. C.; Cosmo, M.; Vetrella, S.; Moccia, A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper investigates the dynamics and acceleration levels of a new tethered system for micro and variable-gravity applications. The system consists of two platforms tethered on opposite sides to the Space Station. A fourth platform, the elevator, is placed in between the Space Station and the upper platform. Variable-g levels on board the elevator are obtained by moving this facility along the upper tether, while micro-g experiments are carried out on board the Space Station. By controlling the length of the lower tether the position of the system CM can be maintained on board the Space Station despite variations of the station's distribution of mass. The paper illustrates the mathematical model, the environmental perturbations and the control techniques which have been adopted for the simulation and control of the system dynamics. Two sets of results from two different simulation runs are shown. The first set shows the system dynamics and the acceleration spectra on board the Space Station and the elevator during station-keeping. The second set of results demonstrates the capability of the elevator to attain a preselected g-level.

  19. Measurement of amino acid levels in the vitreous humor of rats after chronic intraocular pressure elevation or optic nerve transection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levkovitch-Verbin, Hana; Martin, Keith R G; Quigley, Harry A; Baumrind, Lisa A; Pease, Mary Ellen; Valenta, Danielle

    2002-10-01

    To investigate whether the levels of free amino acids and protein in the vitreous of rat eyes are altered with chronic intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation or after optic nerve transection. The concentrations of 20 amino acids in the vitreous humor were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography in both eyes of 41 rats with unilateral IOP elevation induced by translimbal photocoagulation. Eyes were studied 1 day and 1, 2, 4, and 9 weeks after initial IOP elevation. The same amino acids were measured in 41 rats 1 day and 2, 4, and 9 weeks after unilateral transection of the orbital optic nerve. The intravitreal protein level was assayed in additional 22 rats with IOP elevation and 12 rats after nerve transection. Two masked observers evaluated the amount of optic nerve damage with a semiquantitative, light-microscopic technique. In rats with experimental glaucoma, amino acid concentrations were unchanged 1 day after treatment. At 1 week, 4 of 20 amino acids (aspartate, proline, alanine, and lysine) were higher than in control eyes ( 0.05). Vitreous protein level was significantly higher in glaucomatous eyes than their paired controls at 1 day ( 0.01).

  20. Fabrication and characterization of multi-level hierarchical surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhushan, Bharat; Lee, Hyungoo

    2012-01-01

    A nanostructured surface may exhibit low adhesion or high adhesion depending upon fibrillar density, and it presents the possibility of realizing eco-friendly surface structures with desirable adhesion by mimicking the mechanics of fibrillar adhesive surfaces of biological systems. The current research uses a patterning technique to fabricate smart adhesion surfaces: one-, two- and three-level hierarchical synthetic adhesive structure surfaces with various fibrillar densities and diameters. The contact angles and contact angle hysteresis were measured to characterize the wettability. A conventional and a glass ball attached to an atomic force microscope (AFM) tip were used to obtain the adhesive forces via force-distance curves and to study the buckling behavior of a single fiber on the hierarchical structures.

  1. Effects of elevated temperatures and rising sea level on Arctic Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Peter W.

    1990-01-01

    Ice is a major agent on the inner shelf, gouging the bottom, increasing hydraulic scour, transporting sediment, and influencing river flood patterns. Rapid coastal retreat is common and low barrier islands and beaches are constantly changing due to the influence of permafrost, ice-push, waves, and currents. Coastal processes are presently a balance between the influence of ice and the action of waves and currents. Quantitative values for processes are poorly known, however our qualitative understanding is nearly complete. Climatic warming and rising sea levels would decrease the temporal and aerial extent of coastal ice thereby expanding the role of waves and currents. As a result, shoreline retreat rates would increase, producing a transgressive erosional surface on the low coastal plain. With increased wave activity, beaches and barrier islands presently nourished by ice push processes would decay and disappear. Increased sediment supply from a deeply thawed, active layer would release more sediments to rivers and coasts. Additional research should be focused on permafrost and sea ice processes active during freeze up and breakup; the two seasons of most vigorous activity and change.

  2. The conservation value of elevation data accuracy and model sophistication in reserve design under sea-level rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mingjian; Hoctor, Tom; Volk, Mike; Frank, Kathryn; Linhoss, Anna

    2015-10-01

    Many studies have explored the value of using more sophisticated coastal impact models and higher resolution elevation data in sea-level rise (SLR) adaptation planning. However, we know little about to what extent the improved models and data could actually lead to better conservation outcomes under SLR. This is important to know because high-resolution data are likely to not be available in some data-poor coastal areas in the world and running more complicated coastal impact models is relatively time-consuming, expensive, and requires assistance by qualified experts and technicians. We address this research question in the context of identifying conservation priorities in response to SLR. Specifically, we investigated the conservation value of using more accurate light detection and ranging (Lidar)-based digital elevation data and process-based coastal land-cover change models (Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model, SLAMM) to identify conservation priorities versus simple "bathtub" models based on the relatively coarse National Elevation Dataset (NED) in a coastal region of northeast Florida. We compared conservation outcomes identified by reserve design software (Zonation) using three different model dataset combinations (Bathtub-NED, Bathtub-Lidar, and SLAMM-Lidar). The comparisons show that the conservation priorities are significantly different with different combinations of coastal impact models and elevation dataset inputs. The research suggests that it is valuable to invest in more accurate coastal impact models and elevation datasets in SLR adaptive conservation planning because this model-dataset combination could improve conservation outcomes under SLR. Less accurate coastal impact models, including ones created using coarser Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data can still be useful when better data and models are not available or feasible, but results need to be appropriately assessed and communicated. A future research priority is to investigate how

  3. Response of vegetation to carbon dioxide - sorghum at elevated levels of CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnett, R.B.; Chaudhuri, U.N.; Kanemasu, E.T.; Kirkham, M.B.

    1985-12-31

    Enhancement of plant growth is an important effect of the rising concentration of atmospheric CO{sub 2}. Crops vary in response to elevated CO{sub 2}. Growth often appears greater in C{sub 3} plants than in C{sub 4} plants. But relatively little work has been done with C{sub 4} plants, and most of it has been with corn. The few existing C{sub 4} data conflict. Some studies indicate that the yield of C{sub 4} plants at elevated CO{sub 2} is about one-fourth that of C{sub 3} crops, but other studies show that C{sub 4} plants with increased CO{sub 2} yield at a rate the average for all crops.

  4. The origin of elevated water levels in emplacement boreholes, Pahute Mesa, Nevada Test Site: A numerical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, G.G.; Brikowski, T.H.

    1993-12-01

    The origin of elevated water levels in emplacement boreholes at Pahute Mesa, Nevada Test Site, is uncertain. If the water is from naturally perched aquifers, then presumed ``above water table`` weapons tests may directly impact the groundwater quality. The purpose of this study is to determine the probable source of the elevated water in boreholes by comparing modeled seepage of infiltrated drilling fluids, and the seepage from a simulated naturally perched aquifer with the observed water level history. In the model, large volumes of water are infiltrated, yet return flow of fluids back into the hole stops within three days after the end of drilling and is insufficient to produce observed standing water. Return flow is limited for two reasons: (1) the volume of the saturated rock next to the borehole is small; (2) pressure head gradient direct unsaturated flow away from the borehole. Simulation of seepage from a naturally perched aquifer readily reproduces the observed water levels.

  5. Triclosan elevates estradiol levels in serum and tissues of cycling and peri-implantation female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Tyler; Greville, Lucas J; Tang, Brandon; deCatanzaro, Denys

    2016-10-01

    Triclosan, an antimicrobial agent added to personal care products, can modulate estrogenic actions. We investigated whether triclosan affects concentrations of exogenous and endogenous estradiol. Female mice were given injections of triclosan followed by 1μCi tritium-labeled estradiol. Mice given daily 2-mg triclosan doses (57.9mg/kg/dose) showed significantly elevated radioactivity in tissues and serum compared to controls. A single dose of 1 or 2mg triclosan increased radioactivity in the uterus in both cycling and peri-implantation females. We also measured natural urinary estradiol at 2-12h following triclosan injection. Unconjugated estradiol was significantly elevated for several hours following 1 or 2mg of triclosan. These data are consistent with evidence that triclosan inhibits sulfonation of estrogens by interacting with sulfotransferases, preventing metabolism of these steroids into biologically inactive forms. Elevation of estrogen concentrations by triclosan is potentially relevant to anti-reproductive and carcinogenic actions of excessive estrogen activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Vitamin A intake and elevated serum retinol levels in children and young adults with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqbool, Asim; Graham-Maar, Rose C; Schall, Joan I; Zemel, Babette S; Stallings, Virginia A

    2008-03-01

    Individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF) and pancreatic insufficiency (PI) are at risk for fat-soluble vitamin deficiency, including vitamin A. Recent evidence suggests current practices of vitamin A intake results in elevated serum retinol. Serum retinol was assessed in 78 subjects (8 to 25 years old) with CF and PI by high performance liquid chromatography, and compared to the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data of subjects of similar age and gender. Vitamin A intake, anthropometry and FEV(1) were measured, and their relationship to serum retinol status was assessed. Median (range) serum retinol was 80 microg/dL (33 to 208) in subjects with CF; 58% were above the NHANES reference range (30 to 72 microg/dL). Total vitamin A intake from diet and supplements was high (608+431% Recommended Dietary Allowance). Serum retinol was not correlated with vitamin A intake, age or gender, and was inversely correlated with weight and height z scores (r=-0.28, p<0.05) in the subjects with CF. Both vitamin A intake and serum retinol were elevated in subjects with CF and PI, corroborating recent evidence of elevated serum retinol in preadolescent children with CF. These findings indicate the need for further study of dosing and monitoring care practices of vitamin A, to ensure adequacy and to avoid toxicity.

  7. Chemical and Sensory Evaluation of Silicone and Polylactic Acid-Based Remedial Treatments for Elevated Methoxypyrazine Levels in Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Botezatu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Alkylmethoxypyrazines (MPs are a class of compounds that can elicit undesirable aroma and flavor characteristics in wine, and resist remediation using traditional wine making approaches. MPs are grape-derived constituents as well as contaminants from Coccinellidae beetles present during wine processing; the latter eliciting an off-flavor referred to as ‘ladybug taint’. In this study we investigated the capacity of two plastic polymers—one silicone-based, the other polylactic acid-based—applied with varying surface areas to reduce concentrations of isopropylmethoxypyrazine (IPMP, sec-butylmethoxypyrazine (SBMP and isobutylmethoxypyrazine (IBMP in a Merlot wine using multi-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and headspace solid phase microextraction (SPME-MDGCMS. The impact of treatments on the sensory characteristics of the wine (descriptive analysis and volatile aroma compounds (VOCs (SPME-MDGCMS was also investigated. Results showed substantial reductions for all of the target odorants: up to 38%, 44% and 39% for IPMP, SBMP and IBMP, respectively, for the silicone polymer, and up to 75%, 78% and 77% for IPMP, SBMP and IBMP, respectively, for the polylactic acid polymer. These polymers had no or minimal effect on VOCs at applications of 200 cm2/L for silicone or for all polylactic acid treatments. Sensory impacts were less clear, but generally showed minimal effect from the treatments. Taken overall, the data confirm the utility of both polylactic acid and silicone polymers in reducing elevated levels of grape-derived MPs, as well as potentially improving wine contaminated by ladybug taint.

  8. Chemistry and isotopic composition of precipitation and surface waters in Khumbu valley (Nepal Himalaya): N dynamics of high elevation basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrini, Raffaella; Polesello, Stefano; Sacchi, Elisa

    2014-07-01

    We monitored the chemical and isotopic compositions of wet depositions, at the Pyramid International Laboratory (5050 ma.s.l.), and surrounding surface waters, in the Khumbu basin, to understand precipitation chemistry and to obtain insights regarding ecosystem responses to atmospheric inputs. The major cations in the precipitation were NH4(+) and Ca(2+), whereas the main anion was HCO3(-), which constituted approximately 69% of the anions, followed by NO3(-), SO4(2-) and Cl(-). Data analysis suggested that Na(+), Cl(-) and K(+) were derived from the long-range transport of marine aerosols. Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and HCO3(-) were related to rock and soil dust contributions and the NO3(-) and SO4(2-) concentrations were derived from anthropogenic sources. Furthermore, NH4(+) was derived from gaseous NH3 scavenging. The isotopic composition of weekly precipitation ranged from -1.9 to -23.2‰ in δ(18)O, and from -0.8 to -174‰ in δ(2)H, with depleted values characterizing the central part of the monsoon period. The chemical composition of the stream water was dominated by calcite and/or gypsum dissolution. However, the isotopic composition of the stream water did not fully reflect the composition of the monsoon precipitation, which suggested that other water sources contributed to the stream flow. Precipitation contents for all ions were the lowest ones among those measured in high elevation sites around the world. During the monsoon periods the depositions were not substantially influenced by anthropogenic inputs, while in pre- and post-monsoon seasons the Himalayas could not represent an effective barrier for airborne pollution. In the late monsoon phase, the increase of ionic contents in precipitation could also be due to a change in the moisture source. The calculated atmospheric N load (0.30 kg ha(-1) y(-1)) was considerably lower than the levels that were measured in other high-altitude environments. Nevertheless, the NO3(-) concentrations in the surface waters

  9. Chemistry and isotopic composition of precipitation and surface waters in Khumbu valley (Nepal Himalaya): N dynamics of high elevation basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balestrini, Raffaella; Polesello, Stefano; Sacchi, Elisa

    2014-01-01

    We monitored the chemical and isotopic compositions of wet depositions, at the Pyramid International Laboratory (5050 m a.s.l.), and surrounding surface waters, in the Khumbu basin, to understand precipitation chemistry and to obtain insights regarding ecosystem responses to atmospheric inputs. The major cations in the precipitation were NH 4 + and Ca 2+ , whereas the main anion was HCO 3 − , which constituted approximately 69% of the anions, followed by NO 3 − , SO 4 2− and Cl − . Data analysis suggested that Na + , Cl − and K + were derived from the long-range transport of marine aerosols. Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ and HCO 3 − were related to rock and soil dust contributions and the NO 3 − and SO 4 2− concentrations were derived from anthropogenic sources. Furthermore, NH 4 + was derived from gaseous NH 3 scavenging. The isotopic composition of weekly precipitation ranged from − 1.9 to − 23.2‰ in δ 18 O, and from − 0.8 to − 174‰ in δ 2 H, with depleted values characterizing the central part of the monsoon period. The chemical composition of the stream water was dominated by calcite and/or gypsum dissolution. However, the isotopic composition of the stream water did not fully reflect the composition of the monsoon precipitation, which suggested that other water sources contributed to the stream flow. Precipitation contents for all ions were the lowest ones among those measured in high elevation sites around the world. During the monsoon periods the depositions were not substantially influenced by anthropogenic inputs, while in pre- and post-monsoon seasons the Himalayas could not represent an effective barrier for airborne pollution. In the late monsoon phase, the increase of ionic contents in precipitation could also be due to a change in the moisture source. The calculated atmospheric N load (0.30 kg ha −1 y −1 ) was considerably lower than the levels that were measured in other high-altitude environments. Nevertheless, the NO 3

  10. The participation of elevated levels of cyclic GMP in the recovery from radiation-induced mitotic delay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, J.W.; Oleinick, N.L.

    1984-01-01

    The levels of cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP have been measured in Physarum plasmodia before and after treatment with gamma-radiation, 2 mM caffeine, or combinations of the two agents compared to the length of the radiation-induced mitotic delay. Caffeine alone produces a rapid transient elevation of cyclic AMP and a slower delayed elevation of cyclic GMP. Irradiation elicits an immediate transient increase in cyclic AMP and a later cyclic GMP increase which accompanies or precedes the delayed mitosis. A composite pattern is produced by combinations of radiation and caffeine, a distinctive feature of which is an elevated level of cyclic GMP near the time of the radiation-delayed and caffeine-promoted mitosis. With pretreatment by caffeine, the least radiation-induced mitotic delay occurs when plasmodia are irradiated during the caffeine-elicited increase in cyclic GMP. The plasmodium becomes refractory to the reduction of mitotic delay by caffeine at approximately the time it becomes refractory to the further elevation of cyclic GMP by caffeine. The data support a role for cyclic AMP in the onset of and for cyclic GMP in the recovery from mitotic delay induced by ionizing radiation. (author)

  11. A siphon gage for monitoring surface-water levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCobb, T.D.; LeBlanc, D.R.; Socolow, R.S.

    1999-01-01

    A device that uses a siphon tube to establish a hydraulic connection between the bottom of an onshore standpipe and a point at the bottom of a water body was designed and tested for monitoring surface-water levels. Water is added to the standpipe to a level sufficient to drive a complete slug of water through the siphoning tube and to flush all air out of the system. The water levels in the standpipe and the water body equilibrate and provide a measurable static water surface in the standpipe. The siphon gage was designed to allow quick and accurate year-round measurements with minimal maintenance. Currently available devices for monitoring surface-water levels commonly involve time-consuming and costly installation and surveying, and the movement of reference points and the presence of ice cover in cold regions cause discontinuity and inaccuracy in the data collected. Installation and field testing of a siphon gage using 0.75-in-diameter polyethylene tubing at Ashumet Pond in Falmouth, Massachusetts, demonstrated that the siphon gage can provide long-term data with a field effort and accuracy equivalent to measurement of ground-water levels at an observation well.A device that uses a siphon tube to establish a hydraulic connection between the bottom of an onshore standpipe and a point at the bottom of a water body was designed and tested for monitoring surface-water levels. Water is added to the standpipe to a level sufficient to drive a complete slug of water through the siphoning tube and to flush all air out of the system. The water levels in the standpipe and the water body equilibrate and provide a measurable static water surface in the standpipe. The siphon gage was designed to allow quick and accurate year-round measurements with minimal maintenance. Currently available devices for monitoring surface-water levels commonly involve time-consuming and costly installation and surveying, and the movement of reference points and the presence of ice cover in cold

  12. Contextualization of Holocene beach ridge systems for relative sea-level reconstruction using the SRTM elevation model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Lasse; Raniolo, Luís Ariél; Alberdi, Ernesto

    2014-01-01

    research are the consistent definition and confidence of information on surface elevation of the beach ridge deposits. In most parts of the world, the availability of high-resolution geodata is very limited. The measurement of e.g. high-precision GPS (Global Positioning System) data is costly, time...... for the WGS84 ellipsoid. On a beach ridge plain at Caleta de los Loros, Río Negro, Argentina, we observed a good correlation of GPS-RTK (GPS-Real Time Kinematic) measurements (estimated vertical accuracy: ...,96 m (SD: 0,48m) between the SRTM and the GPS-RTK-based elevations was determined for mostof the beach ridge transect (79% of length). Larger errors (maximum average error: 2,78 m, SD: 1,88 m) can be explained by eolian deposition and dune migration during the approx. 13 years between the date of SRTM...

  13. RIP Input Tables From WAPDEG for LA Design Selection: Repository Horizon Elevation - 2-Level AML 50% and Near Maximum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    B.E. Bullard

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this calculation is to document the WAPDEG version 3.09 (CRWMS M and O 1998b). Software Routine Report for WAPDEG (Version 3.09) simulations used to analyze waste package degradation and failure under the repository exposure conditions characterized by a two-tier thermal loading repository design. Also documented is the post-processing of these results into tables of waste-package-degradation-time histories suitable for use as input into the Integrated Probabilistic Simulator for Environmental Systems (RIP) version 5.19.01 (Golder Associates 1998) computer program. Specifically, the WAPDEG simulations discussed in this calculation correspond to waste package emplacement conditions (repository environment and design) as defined in the Total System Performance Assessment-Viability Assessment (CRWMS M and O 1998a). Total System Performance Assessment-Viability Assessment (TSPA-VA) Analyses Technical Basis Document--Chapter 5, Waste Package Degradation Modeling And Abstraction, pp. 5-27 to 5-29, with the exception that a two-tier thermal loading design feature as specified in the License Application Design Selection (LADS) study was analyzed. The particular design feature evaluated in this report is a modification of the repository horizon elevation and layout within the Topopah Springs Member of Yucca Mountain. Specifically, the modification consists of adding a second level, 50-m above the base case repository layout. Two options were considered, representing two variations in thermal loading. In Design Feature 25e (designated DF25e), each level has an Areal Mass Loading (AML) of 42.5 MTU/acre (i.e., half the VA base case). In Design Feature 25f (designated DF25), each level has an AML of 64MTU/acre. As a result of the change in waste package placement relative to the TSPA-VA base-case design, different temperature and relative humidity time histories at the waste package surface are calculated (input to the WAPDEG simulations), and consequently

  14. Surface melt effects on Cryosat-2 elevation retrievals in the ablation zone of the Greenland ice sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, T.; McMillan, M.; Shepherd, A.; Leeson, A.; Cornford, S. L.; Hogg, A.; Gilbert, L.; Muir, A. S.; Briggs, K.

    2017-12-01

    Over the past two decades, there has been an acceleration in the rate of mass losses from the Greenland ice sheet. This acceleration is, in part, attributed to an increasingly negative surface mass balance (SMB), linked to increasing melt water runoff rates due to enhanced surface melting. Understanding the past, present and future evolution in surface melting is central to ongoing monitoring of ice sheet mass balance and, in turn, to building realistic future projections. Currently, regional climate models are commonly used for this purpose, because direct in-situ observations are spatially and temporally sparse due to the logistics and resources required to collect such data. In particular, modelled SMB is used to estimate the extent and magnitude of surface melting, which influences (1) many geodetic mass balance estimates, and (2) snowpack microwave scattering properties. The latter is poorly understood and introduces uncertainty into radar altimeter estimates of ice sheet evolution. Here, we investigate the changes in CryoSat-2 waveforms and elevation measurements caused by the onset of surface melt in the summer months over the ablation zone of the Greenland ice sheet. Specifically, we use CryoSat-2 SARIn mode data acquired between 2011 and 2016, to characterise the effect of high variability in surface melt during this period, and to assess the associated impact on estimates of ice mass balance.

  15. Immobilized enzymes: understanding enzyme - surface interactions at the molecular level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoarau, Marie; Badieyan, Somayesadat; Marsh, E Neil G

    2017-11-22

    Enzymes immobilized on solid supports have important and industrial and medical applications. However, their uses are limited by the significant reductions in activity and stability that often accompany the immobilization process. Here we review recent advances in our understanding of the molecular level interactions between proteins and supporting surfaces that contribute to changes in stability and activity. This understanding has been facilitated by the application of various surface-sensitive spectroscopic techniques that allow the structure and orientation of enzymes at the solid/liquid interface to be probed, often with monolayer sensitivity. An appreciation of the molecular interactions between enzyme and surface support has allowed the surface chemistry and method of enzyme attachement to be fine-tuned such that activity and stability can be greatly enhanced. These advances suggest that a much wider variety of enzymes may eventually be amenable to immobilization as green catalysts.

  16. 6430.1A Compliance Matrix for 241-SY-101 Surface Level Rise Remediation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ERHART, M.F.

    1999-01-01

    Tank 241-SY-101 (SY-101) has recently exhibited a steady waste surface level growth. A path forward to mitigate the SY-101 surface level growth issue has been developed. The project has been directed to install the necessary equipment to transfer 380-570m 3 (100,000-150,000 gallons) of waste from SY-101 to SY-102 before the waste elevation reached the region of the tank where the transition from a double to a single shell tank occurs. The purpose of this document is to record the design attributes of the RAPID mitigation system which fulfill the requirements specified in DOE order 6430.1A as it relates to the 241-SY-101 RAPID Mitigation System

  17. Automatic Measurement of Low Level Contamination on Concrete Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachibana, M.; Itoh, H.; Shimada, T.; Yanagihara, S.

    2002-01-01

    Automatic measurement of radioactivity is necessary for considering cost effectiveness in final radiological survey of building structures in decommissioning nuclear facilities. The RAPID (radiation measuring pilot device for surface contamination) was developed to be applied to automatic measurement of low level contamination on concrete surfaces. The RAPID has a capability to measure contamination with detection limit of 0.14 Bq/cm2 for 60Co in 30 seconds of measurement time and its efficiency is evaluated to be 5 m2/h in a normal measurement option. It was confirmed that low level contamination on concrete surfaces could be surveyed by the RAPID efficiently compared with direct measurement by workers through its actual application

  18. Origin of metallic surface core-level shifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aldén, Magnus; Skriver, Hans Lomholt; Abrikosov, I. A.

    1995-01-01

    The unique property of the open 4f energy shell in the lanthanide metals is used to show that the initial-state energy shift gives an insufficient description of surface core-level shifts. Instead a treatment, which fully includes the final-state screening, account for the experimentally observed...

  19. Hydrolytic Stability of 3-Aminopropylsilane Coupling Agent on Silica and Silicate Surfaces at Elevated Temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okhrimenko, Denis; Budi, Akin; Ceccato, Marcel

    2017-01-01

    in coupling efficiency, thus decreasing the product quality and the mechanical strength of the polymer-inorganic material interface. Therefore, a better understanding of the chemical state and stability of APS on inorganic surfaces is needed. In this work, we investigated APS adhesion on silica wafers...... and compared its properties with those on complex silicate surfaces such as those used by industry (mineral fibers and fiber melt wafers). The APS was deposited from aqueous and organic (toluene) solutions and studied with surface sensitive techniques, including X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic......- and laboratory-scale APS deposition methods and increasing adhesion and stability, thus increasing the quality and effectiveness of materials where APS is used as a coupling agent....

  20. CryoSat-2 Level-4 Sea Ice Elevation, Freeboard, and Thickness V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains 30-day averaged Arctic sea ice thickness estimates, with freeboard and ice surface roughness, derived from the ESA CryoSat-2 Synthetic...

  1. IL-18 paradox in pancreatic carcinoma: elevated serum levels of free IL-18 are correlated with poor survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Anna; Vizio, Barbara; Novarino, Anna; Mauri, Francesco Angelo; Geuna, Massimo; Robino, Carlo; Brondino, Gabriele; Prati, Adriana; Giacobino, Alice; Campra, Donata; Chiarle, Roberto; Fronda, Gian Ruggero; Ciuffreda, Libero; Bellone, Graziella

    2009-01-01

    The role of the proinflammatory interleukin (IL)-18 in cancer progression remains controversial; we thus examined the hypothesis that impaired antitumor immune response in pancreatic carcinoma patients is related to elevated levels of its natural inhibitor IL-18 binding protein (BP) and/or to alteration in the IL-18 receptor complex expression and function. IL-18 and IL-18 binding protein isoform a (BPa) was assessed in pancreatic carcinoma patients at various disease stages, and after surgery/chemotherapy; free bioactive IL-18 concentrations were calculated. IL-18 receptor complex expression in lymphocyte subsets was analyzed and signaling function was assessed versus healthy donors. Carcinoma cells exhibited below normal IL-18BPa expression and above normal IL-18 expression. Circulating IL-18BPa and IL-18 were above controls. Unexpectedly, free unbound IL-18 serum levels were correlated with disease severity and poor survival. IL-18BPa levels were unchanged by surgery but free IL-18 levels were elevated. Gemcitabine with 5-fluorouracil or oxaliplatin, but not alone, increased IL-18 and free IL-18 levels statistically significantly, without affecting IL-18BPa. Spontaneous/induced IL-18 receptor alpha and receptor beta expression in peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets from patients with advanced disease were near-normal, although CD4+ and CD8+ cells were fewer in percentage, and fully functional in inducing interferon-gamma. IL-18 is proposed as novel adjuvant cancer therapy, but free IL-18 levels are increased in the blood of pancreatic carcinoma patients, despite elevated IL-18BP levels, and are associated with poor survival; this highlights recent experimental insights into the prometastatic and proangiogenic effects of IL-18, and suggests that careful preclinical studies are needed to determine the proper application of IL-18 in cancer therapy.

  2. Elevated serum leptin levels are associated with good nutritional status in non-obese chronic hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Ekrem; Ahbap, Elbis; Sahutoglu, Tuncay; Sakaci, Tamer; Basturk, Taner; Koc, Yener; Sevinc, Mustafa; Akgol, Cuneyt; Ucar, Zuhal Atan; Kayalar, Arzu Ozdemir; Bayraktar, Feyza; Unsal, Abdulkadir

    2015-03-01

    Leptin is a hormone and a proinflammatory cytokine secreted from adipocytes, which functions to suppress appetite in healthy persons. Serum leptin levels are significantly elevated in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) primarily due to decreased clearance by the kidneys The consequence of hyperleptinemia in ESRD is not fully understood. We aimed to investigate the association between serum leptin levels and nutrition/inflammation status in non-obese chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients. 65 chronic, anuric, nonobese (body mass index (BMI) nutrition and inflammation status. Patients were classified into the 3 groups according to serum leptin levels; group 1 (low leptin, n = 9), group 2 (normal leptin, n = 31), and group 3 (high leptin, n = 25). Mean age and duration on dialysis of 65 patients (male/female: 34/31) were 51.6 ± 17.8 years and 78.0 ± 67.9 months, respectively. Serum leptin levels increased with older age, female gender, higher BMI and triceps skinfold thickness. Elevated serum leptin levels were significantly associated with good nutritional status parameters, such as higher albumin (p = 0.001), prealbumin (p = 0.033), total iron binding capacity (p = 0.045), total cholesterol (p = 0.041), and lower malnutrition inflammation score (MIS) (p = 0.002). Serum leptin levels remained a negative correlation with MIS after adjustments made for BMI. No correlation was established between leptin and inflammation parameters including ferritin, highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and tumor necorsis factor alpha (TNF-α). Elevated serum leptin levels seem to be associated with good nutritional status. However, there was no correlation between leptin and inflammatory status.

  3. Metagenomic profiling of the viromes of plasma collected from blood donors with elevated serum alanine aminotransferase levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, Rika A; Sakamoto, Hirotaka; Kuroishi, Ayumu; Yasiui, Kazuta; Matsukura, Harumichi; Hirayama, Fumiya

    2015-08-01

    In Japanese Red Cross (JRC) blood centers, blood collected from donors with serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels of more than 60 U/L are disqualified even if serologically negative for transfusion-transmitted infections (TTIs). To assess potential risks of TTIs in plasma with elevated serum ALT levels in the current donor screening program of the JRC, we conducted a metagenomic analysis (MGA) of virome profiles in the plasma of blood donors with or without elevated serum ALT levels. Based on serum ALT levels, donors were classified into three groups: "high," more than 79 U/L; "middle," 61 to 79 U/L; and "low," less than 61 U/L. We individually analyzed 100 plasma samples from each group by MGA, employing shotgun sequencing. Viral sequences detected using MGA were partly confirmed using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Donors with high and middle ALT levels were significantly younger than those with low ALT levels, and more than 90% were males. Herpesviridae, Anelloviridae, Picornaviridae, and Flaviviridae sequences were identified in plasma samples, and their distribution and frequency were not significantly different among the three groups. The serum ALT test may be unsuitable for monitoring for additional risks of TTIs in blood donors who were negative for typical TTIs using serologic and nucleic acid tests. Although MGA is less sensitive than PCR, it remains the best technology to detect known viruses in these donors. © 2015 AABB.

  4. Detection of surface elevation changes using an unmanned aerial vehicle on the debris-free Storbreen glacier in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraaijenbrink, Philip; Andreassen, Liss; Immerzeel, Walter

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies have shown that the application of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) has great potential to investigate the dynamic behavior of glaciers. The studies have successfully deployed UAVs over generally contrast-rich surfaces of debris-covered glaciers and highly crevassed bare ice glaciers. In this study, the potential of UAVs in glaciology is further exploited, as we use a fixed-wing UAV over the largely snow-covered Storbreen glacier in Norway in September 2015. The acquired UAV-imagery was processed into accurate digital elevation models and image mosaics using a Structure from Motion workflow. Georeferencing of the data was obtained by ingesting ground control points into the workflow that were accurately measured with a differential global navigation satellite system (DGNSS). Geodetic accuracy was determined by comparison with DGNSS surface profiles and stake positions that were measured on the same day. The processed data were compared with a LIDAR survey and airborne imagery acquisition from September and October 2009 to examine mass loss patterns and glacier retreat. Results show that the UAV is capable of producing high-quality elevation models and image mosaics for the low-contrast snow-covered Storbreen at unprecedented detail. The accuracy of the output product is lower when compared to contrast-rich debris-covered glaciers, but still considerably more accurate than spaceborne data products. Comparison with LIDAR data shows a spatially heterogeneous downwasting pattern of about 0.75 m a-1 over 2009-2015 for the upper part of Storbreen. The lower part exhibits considerably more downwasting in the range of 0.9-2.1 m a-1. We conclude that UAVs can be valuable for surveys of snow-covered glaciers to provide sufficient accurate elevation models and image mosaics, and we recommend the use of UAVs for the routine monitoring of benchmark glaciers such as Storbreen.

  5. Shift work at young age is associated with elevated long-term cortisol levels and body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manenschijn, Laura; van Kruysbergen, Rulanda G P M; de Jong, Frank H; Koper, Jan W; van Rossum, Elisabeth F C

    2011-11-01

    The incidence of obesity and other features of the metabolic syndrome is increased in shift workers. This may be due to a misalignment between the internal circadian rhythm and the behavioral rhythm. The stress hormone cortisol could play a role in this phenomenon because it is secreted in a circadian rhythm, and long-term elevated cortisol leads to components of the metabolic syndrome. We compared cortisol levels in scalp hair of shift and day workers to study changes in long-term cortisol due to shift work. Hair samples were collected from 33 shift workers and 89 day workers. Cortisol was extracted from the hair samples with methanol, and cortisol levels were measured using ELISA. Height and weight were measured, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Shift workers had higher hair cortisol levels than day workers: 47.32 pg/mg hair [95% confidence interval (CI) = 38.37-58.21] vs. 29.72 pg/mg hair (95% CI = 26.18-33.73) (P cortisol levels were present only in younger shift workers: 48.53 pg/mg hair (95% CI = 36.56-64.29) vs. 26.42 pg/mg hair (95% CI = 22.91-30.55) (P cortisol and BMI were positively correlated (β = 0.262; P = 0.005). Shift work at a young adult age is associated with elevated long-term cortisol levels and increased BMI. Elevated cortisol levels and BMI may contribute to the increased cardiovascular risk found in shift workers.

  6. Elevated plasma homocysteine level is possibly associated with skin sclerosis in a series of Japanese patients with systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motegi, Sei-Ichiro; Toki, Sayaka; Yamada, Kazuya; Uchiyama, Akihiko; Ishikawa, Osamu

    2014-11-01

    Homocysteine is a sulfhydryl-containing amino acid that is derived from dietary methionine, and there has been increasing evidence that elevated plasma homocysteine levels are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, including carotid, coronary and peripheral arterial disease (PAD). The association of plasma homocysteine levels with peripheral vascular involvements, such as Raynaud phenomenon (RP), digital ulcers (DU) in systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients has not been well studied. The objective of this study was to examine plasma homocysteine levels and their clinical associations in patients with SSc. Plasma homocysteine levels in 151 Japanese patients with SSc and 20 healthy controls were examined. No significant differences were observed in plasma homocysteine levels between SSc patients and healthy individuals. Demographic and clinical features of the SSc patients revealed that severe skin sclerosis, anti-topoisomerase I antibody positivity, complications of DU, acro-osteolysis (AO) and interstitial lung disease (ILD) were significantly more prevalent among the patients with elevated plasma homocysteine levels. The plasma homocysteine levels were positively correlated with modified Rodnan total skin score. The plasma homocysteine levels in the SSc patients with DU, AO and ILD were significantly higher than those in the SSc without DU, AO and ILD, respectively. Plasma homocysteine levels did not correlate with either the mean or max intima-media thickness (IMT) or plaque score, suggesting that plasma homocysteine levels might not be associated with carotid artery atherosclerosis in SSc patients. The measurement of plasma homocysteine levels in SSc patients might be useful for the risk stratifications of severe skin sclerosis, DU and AO. © 2014 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  7. Evaluation of hydrogen and oxygen impurity levels on silicon surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenny, M.J.; Wielunski, L.S.; Netterfield, R.P.; Martin, P.J.; Leistner, A. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Lindfield, NSW (Australia). Div. of Applied Physics

    1996-12-31

    This paper reports on surface analytical techniques used to quantify surface concentrations of impurities such as oxygen and hydrogen. The following analytical techniques were used: Rutherford and Backscattering, elastic recoil detection, time-of-flight SIMS, spectroscopic ellipsometry, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results have shown a spread in thickness of oxide layer, ranging from unmeasurable to 1.6 nm. The data must be considered as preliminary at this stage, but give some insight into the suitability of the techniques and a general idea of the significance of impurities at the monolayer level. These measurements have been carried out on a small number of silicon surfaces both semiconductor grade <111> crystalline material and silicon which has been used in sphere fabrication. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  8. Elevated homocysteine levels in suction-induced blister fluid of active vitiligo lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbar, Tag; Zuel-Fakkar, Nehal Mohamed; Matta, Mary Fikry; Arbab, Mai Mohammed Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Vitiligo is the most prevalent acquired pigmentary disorder as a result of destruction of melanocytes. Several studies have reported increased serum levels of homocysteine (Hcy) in vitiligo patients which may be the result of decreased Vitamin B12 and folic acid levels. In addition, homocystinuria is associated with pigmentary dilution. On the other hand, other studies reported normal serum homocysteine levels. Our aim was to study the Hcy level in active vitiligo patients both in serum and in suction blister fluid obtained from the lesional skin. A total of 30 patients with active vitiligo of both sexes and 30 healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study. Sera from the blood and from lesional induced bullae were obtained from the patients and controls and were assayed for Hcy by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The collected data were analyzed by SPSS version 17. There were no significant differences in the serum levels of Hcy between patients and healthy controls, however, the increase in Hcy level was highly statistically significant in the patients' lesional induced bulla compared to the healthy controls. There was no significant difference in Hcy levels between males and females and between patients with negative or positive family histories of vitiligo. The presence of a high homocysteine level in active vitiligo lesions points to a local event occurring in this lesion, which is not reflected as an increase in the patient's serum level.

  9. Elevated Plasma Long Pentraxin-3 Levels and Primary Graft Dysfunction after Lung Transplantation for Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Joshua M.; Lederer, David J.; Kawut, Steven M.; Lee, James; Ahya, Vivek N.; Bellamy, Scarlett; Palmer, Scott M.; Lama, Vibha N.; Bhorade, Sangeeta; Crespo, Maria; Demissie, Ejigayehu; Sonett, Joshua; Wille, Keith; Orens, Jonathan; Shah, Pali D.; Weinacker, Ann; Weill, David; Kohl, Benjamin A.; Deutschman, Clifford C.; Arcasoy, Selim; Shah, Ashish S.; Belperio, John A.; Wilkes, David; Reynolds, John M.; Ware, Lorraine B.; Christie, Jason D.

    2011-01-01

    Primary graft dysfunction (PGD) after lung transplantation may result from ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). The innate immune response to IRI may be mediated by Toll-like receptor and IL-1-induced long pentraxin-3 (PTX3) release. We hypothesized that elevated PTX3 levels were associated with PGD. We performed a nested case control study of lung transplant recipients with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) or Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) from the Lung Transplant Outcomes Group cohort. PTX3 levels were measured pre-transplant, and 6 and 24 hours post reperfusion. Cases were subjects with grade 3 PGD within 72 of transplantation and controls were those without grade 3 PGD. Generalized estimating equations and multivariable logistic regression was used for analysis. We selected 40 PGD cases and 79 non-PGD controls. Plasma PTX3 level was associated with PGD in IPF but not COPD recipients (p for interaction<0.03). Among patients with IPF, PTX3 levels at 6 and 24 hours were associated with PGD (OR=1.6, p=0.02 at 6hrs; OR=1.4, p=0.008 at 24hrs). Elevated PTX3 levels were associated with the development of PGD after lung transplantation in IPF patients. Future studies evaluating the role of innate immune activation in IPF and PGD are warranted. PMID:21883907

  10. The plasma level of soluble urokinase receptor is elevated in patients with Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteraemia and predicts mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittenhagen, P; Kronborg, G; Weis, N

    2004-01-01

    .05). In multivariate analysis, only suPAR remained a significant predictor of death (mortality rate of 13 for suPAR levels of > 10 ng/mL; 95% CI: 1.1-158). The increase in suPAR levels may reflect increased expression by vascular or inflammatory cells in the setting of pneumococcal sepsis. This plasma protein may......This multicentre prospective study was conducted to investigate whether the level of the soluble form of urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is elevated during pneumococcal bacteraemia and is of predictive value in the early stage of the disease. Plasma levels of suPAR were...... increased significantly (median 5.5; range 2.4-21.0 ng/mL) in 141 patients with pneumococcal bacteraemia, compared to 31 healthy controls (median 2.6, range 1.5-4.0 ng/mL, p 0.001). Furthermore, suPAR levels were elevated significantly in patients who died from the infection (n = 24) compared to survivors...

  11. Elevated Levels of Serum Tumor Markers CEA and CA15-3 Are Prognostic Parameters for Different Molecular Subtypes of Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yingbo; Sun, Xianfu; He, Yaning; Liu, Chaojun; Liu, Hui

    2015-01-01

    The utility of measuring carcinoembryonic antigen(CEA) and cancer antigen 15-3 (CA15-3) levels in patients with breast cancer remains controversial. The present study aims to investigate the prognostic value of preoperative serum CEA and CA15-3 levels in breast cancer patients. Serum preoperative CEA and CA 15-3 concentration levels were measured in a total of 432 breast cancer patients. The association of tumor markers levels with clinicopathological parameters and outcomes were analyzed. Elevated serum levels of CEA and CA15-3 were identified in 47 (10.9%) and 60(13.9%) patients, respectively. Larger tumor size, advanced axillary lymph nodal and TNM stage exhibited higher proportion of elevated CEA and CA15-3 levels. The elevation of CEA levels was significantly greater in patients with HER2 positive tumors, and the elevation of CA15-3 levels was significantly greater in ER negative breast patients. Univariate and multivariate Cox's regression analysis revealed that elevated preoperative CEA and CA 15-3 levels were independent prognostic factors for DFS and OS. When considering the combination of both markers levels, patients with both elevated markers presented the worst survival. Independent prognostic significance of elevated preoperative serum CEA and CA15-3 levels were reconfirmed in Luminal B breast cancer. Preoperative serum levels of CEA and CA15-3 are independent prognostic parameters for breast cancer.

  12. Elevated Levels of Serum Tumor Markers CEA and CA15-3 Are Prognostic Parameters for Different Molecular Subtypes of Breast Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingbo Shao

    Full Text Available The utility of measuring carcinoembryonic antigen(CEA and cancer antigen 15-3 (CA15-3 levels in patients with breast cancer remains controversial. The present study aims to investigate the prognostic value of preoperative serum CEA and CA15-3 levels in breast cancer patients.Serum preoperative CEA and CA 15-3 concentration levels were measured in a total of 432 breast cancer patients. The association of tumor markers levels with clinicopathological parameters and outcomes were analyzed.Elevated serum levels of CEA and CA15-3 were identified in 47 (10.9% and 60(13.9% patients, respectively. Larger tumor size, advanced axillary lymph nodal and TNM stage exhibited higher proportion of elevated CEA and CA15-3 levels. The elevation of CEA levels was significantly greater in patients with HER2 positive tumors, and the elevation of CA15-3 levels was significantly greater in ER negative breast patients. Univariate and multivariate Cox's regression analysis revealed that elevated preoperative CEA and CA 15-3 levels were independent prognostic factors for DFS and OS. When considering the combination of both markers levels, patients with both elevated markers presented the worst survival. Independent prognostic significance of elevated preoperative serum CEA and CA15-3 levels were reconfirmed in Luminal B breast cancer.Preoperative serum levels of CEA and CA15-3 are independent prognostic parameters for breast cancer.

  13. Investigating the response of tropical maize (Zea mays L.) cultivars against elevated levels of O3 at two developmental stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Aditya Abha; Agrawal, S B; Shahi, J P; Agrawal, Madhoolika

    2014-10-01

    Tropospheric ozone (O3) concentrations are rising in Indo-Gangetic plains of India, causing potential threat to agricultural productivity. Maize (Zea mays L.) is the third most important staple crop at global level after rice and wheat. Two high yielding cultivars of Indian maize (HQPM1-quality protein maize and DHM117-normal/non quality protein maize) were exposed to two levels of elevated O3 above the ambient level (NFC) viz. NFC + 15 ppb O3 (NFC + 15) and NFC + 30 ppb O3 (NFC + 30) using open top chambers under field conditions. The study was conducted to evaluate the biochemical responses of two cultivars at different developmental stages leading to change in yield responses. Initially at lower O3 dose, photosynthetic pigments showed an increase but reduction at later stage, while higher dose caused a decline at both the stages of sampling. Levels of superoxide radical (O2 (-)) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) significantly increased and contributed to lipid peroxidation at elevated O3. Histochemical localization assay of O2 (-) and H2O2 showed that guard cells of stomata and cells around trichomes took deeper stain at elevated O3 reflecting more formation of reactive oxygen species. Secondary metabolites like total phenol, flavonoids and anthocyanin pigments also increased in plants under O3 stress. Enzymatic antioxidants were triggered in both the cultivars due to elevated O3, while induction of non-enzymatic antioxidants was more in HQPM1. Native PAGE analysis also showed that SOD, POX, CAT, APX and GPX were stimulated at elevated O3 concentrations compared to NFC. SDS-PAGE showed reductions of major photosynthetic proteins with higher decrease in DHM117. Principal Component Analysis showed that both the cultivars showed differential response against O3 at two developmental stages. HQPM1 maintained the analogous defense strategy at both the sampling stages while DHM117 showed variable response. Overall metabolic induction of antioxidants related to defense was

  14. Response of vegetation to carbon dioxide. Field studies of plant responses to elevated carbon dioxide levels 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    In the present study, CO{sub 2} enrichment has been applied to sweet potatoes and cowpeas in order to investigate its effect on their growth, physiology, and yield under field condition. Objectives were: (1) to establish at Tuskegee Institute the facilities for growing crops in the field under enriched CO{sub 2} atmospheric conditions; (2) to obtain field data on the morphological, physiological, biochemical, growth and yield responses of sweet potatoes and cowpeas to elevated levels of CO{sub 2}; (3) to determine the effects of elevated CO{sub 2} in the rate of nitrogen fixation of cowpeas; (4) to provide data for a generalized crop growth model for predicting yield of both sweet potatoes and cowpeas as a function of atmospheric CO{sub 2} enrichment.

  15. Elevated Plasma Vitamin B12 Levels as a Marker for Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendt, Johan Frederik Berg; Pedersen, Lars; Nexo, Ebba

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A substantial proportion of patients referred for plasma vitamin B12 (cobalamin [Cbl]) measurement present with high Cbl levels, which have been reported in patients with different cancer types. However, the cancer risk among patients with newly diagnosed high Cbl levels has not been...

  16. Maternal levels of free fetal DNA are elevated in pregnancies with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was no significant difference in the ffDNA levels between the fetuses of normal growth and those with FGR from other causes. Conclusion. The level of ffDNA in maternal plasma is increased in pregnancies complicated by FGR secondary to placental dysfunction but not in those with small fetuses with normal placental ...

  17. Trace-level mercury removal from surface water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klasson, K.T.; Bostick, D.T.

    1998-01-01

    Many sorbents have been developed for the removal of mercury and heavy metals from waters; however, most of the data published thus far do not address the removal of mercury to the target levels represented in this project. The application to which these sorbents are targeted for use is the removal of mercury from microgram-per-liter levels to low nanogram-per-liter levels. Sorbents with thiouronium, thiol, amine, sulfur, and proprietary functional groups were selected for these studies. Mercury was successfully removed from surface water via adsorption onto Ionac SR-4 and Mersorb resins to levels below the target goal of 12 ng/L in batch studies. A thiol-based resin performed the best, indicating that over 200,000 volumes of water could be treated with one volume of resin. The cost of the resin is approximately $0.24 per 1,000 gal of water

  18. Sea level: measuring the bounding surfaces of the ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamisiea, Mark E; Hughes, Chris W; Williams, Simon D P; Bingley, Richard M

    2014-09-28

    The practical need to understand sea level along the coasts, such as for safe navigation given the spatially variable tides, has resulted in tide gauge observations having the distinction of being some of the longest instrumental ocean records. Archives of these records, along with geological constraints, have allowed us to identify the century-scale rise in global sea level. Additional data sources, particularly satellite altimetry missions, have helped us to better identify the rates and causes of sea-level rise and the mechanisms leading to spatial variability in the observed rates. Analysis of all of the data reveals the need for long-term and stable observation systems to assess accurately the regional changes as well as to improve our ability to estimate future changes in sea level. While information from many scientific disciplines is needed to understand sea-level change, this review focuses on contributions from geodesy and the role of the ocean's bounding surfaces: the sea surface and the Earth's crust. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  19. Sea level: measuring the bounding surfaces of the ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamisiea, Mark E.; Hughes, Chris W.; Williams, Simon D. P.; Bingley, Richard M.

    2014-01-01

    The practical need to understand sea level along the coasts, such as for safe navigation given the spatially variable tides, has resulted in tide gauge observations having the distinction of being some of the longest instrumental ocean records. Archives of these records, along with geological constraints, have allowed us to identify the century-scale rise in global sea level. Additional data sources, particularly satellite altimetry missions, have helped us to better identify the rates and causes of sea-level rise and the mechanisms leading to spatial variability in the observed rates. Analysis of all of the data reveals the need for long-term and stable observation systems to assess accurately the regional changes as well as to improve our ability to estimate future changes in sea level. While information from many scientific disciplines is needed to understand sea-level change, this review focuses on contributions from geodesy and the role of the ocean's bounding surfaces: the sea surface and the Earth's crust. PMID:25157196

  20. Kidney fibroblast growth factor 23 does not contribute to elevation of its circulating levels in uremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mace, Maria L.; Gravesen, Eva; Nordholm, Anders

    2017-01-01

    to normal rats. Removal of the remnant kidney had no effect on plasma FGF23 levels. Well-known regulators of FGF23 expression in bone, such as parathyroid hormone, calcitriol, and inhibition of the FGF receptor by PD173074, had no impact on kidney expression of FGF23. Thus, the only direct contribution......Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) secreted by osteocytes is a circulating factor essential for phosphate homeostasis. High plasma FGF23 levels are associated with cardiovascular complications and mortality. Increases of plasma FGF23 in uremia antedate high levels of phosphate, suggesting...... of the injured kidney to circulating FGF23 levels in uremia appears to be reduced renal extraction of bone-derived FGF23. Kidney-derived FGF23 does not generate high plasma FGF23 levels in uremia and is regulated differently than the corresponding regulation of FGF23 gene expression in bone....

  1. Resistance of human erythrocytes containing elevated levels of vitamin E to radiation-induced hemolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.

    1983-08-01

    Human erythrocytes were isolated from the blood of healthy donors and then incubated in the presence of suspensions of ..cap alpha..-tocopherol for 30 min at 37/sup 0/C. Unabsorbed tocopherol was removed by centrifugation using several washes of isotonic phosphate-buffered saline. Washed erythrocytes were resuspended to 0.05% Hct and exposed to hemolyzing doses of /sup 60/Co gamma radiation, and hemolysis was monitored continuously by light scattering at 700 nm in a recording spectrophotometer. The extent of hemolysis with time was sigmoid and data analysis was carried out on the time taken for 50% hemolysis to occur (t/sub 50%/). The vitamin E content of erythrocytes was significantly elevated by the incubation procedure and resulted in the cells exhibiting a significantly increased resistance to hemolysis as reflected by the extended t/sub 50%/ values. Oral supplementation of 500 IU of vitamin E per day to eight normal human subjects for a period of 16 days also resulted in their washed erythrocytes exhibiting a significant increase in resistance to radiation-induced hemolysis. When comparing vitamin E incubated cells with control cells, both the dose-reducing factor (DRF) and the time for 50% hemolysis quotient (Qt/sub 50%/) were observed to increase with increasing radiation dose.

  2. Resistance of human erythrocytes containing elevated levels of vitamin E to radiation-induced hemolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.

    1983-08-01

    Human erythrocytes were isolated from the blood of healthy donors and then incubated in the presence of suspensions of alpha-tocopherol for 30 min at 37 degrees C. Unabsorbed tocopherol was removed by centrifugation using several washes of isotonic phosphate-buffered saline. Washed erythrocytes were resuspended to 0.05%. Hct and exposed to hemolyzing doses of /sup 60/Co gamma radiation, and hemolysis was monitored continuously by light scattering at 700 nm in a recording spectrophotometer. The extent of hemolysis with time was sigmoid and data analysis was carried out on the time taken for 50% hemolysis to occur (t50%). The vitamin E content of erythrocytes was significantly elevated by the incubation procedure and resulted in the cells exhibiting a significantly increased resistance to hemolysis as reflected by the extended t50% values. Oral supplementation of 500 IU of vitamin E per day to eight normal human subjects for a period of 16 days also resulted in their washed erythrocytes exhibiting a significant increase in resistance to radiation-induced hemolysis. When comparing vitamin E incubated cells with control cells, both the dose-reducing factor (DRF) and the time for 50% hemolysis quotient (Qt50%) were observed to increase with increasing radiation dose.

  3. Elevated lead levels from e-waste exposure are linked to decreased olfactory memory in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Huo, Xia; Xu, Long; Cheng, Zhiheng; Cong, Xiaowei; Lu, Xueling; Xu, Xijin

    2017-12-01

    Lead (Pb) is a developmental neurotoxicant and can cause abnormal development of the nervous system in children. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Pb exposure on child olfactory memory by correlating the blood Pb levels of children in Guiyu with olfactory memory tests. We recruited 61 preschool children, 4- to 7-years of age, from Guiyu and 57 children from Haojiang. The mean blood Pb level of Guiyu children was 9.40 μg/dL, significantly higher than the 5.04 μg/dL mean blood Pb level of Haojiang children. In addition, approximately 23% of Guiyu children had blood Pb levels exceeding 10.00 μg/dL. The correlation analysis showed that blood Pb levels in children highly correlated with e-waste contact (r s  = 0.393). Moreover, the mean concentration of serum BDNF in Guiyu children (35.91 ng/ml) was higher than for Haojiang (28.10 ng/ml) and was positively correlated with blood Pb levels. Both item and source olfactory memory tests at 15 min, 5 h and 24 h after odor exposure showed that scores were lower in Guiyu children indicative of reduced olfactory memory in Guiyu children. Olfactory memory tests scores negatively correlated with blood Pb and serum BDNF levels, but were positively associated with parental education levels. At the same time, scores of both tests on children in the high blood Pb level group (blood Pb levels > 5.00 μg/dL) were lower than those in the low blood Pb level group (blood Pb levels ≤ 5.00 μg/dL), implying that Pb exposure decreases olfactory memory in children. Our findings suggest that Pb exposure in e-waste recycling and dismantling areas could result in an increase in serum BDNF level and a decrease in child olfactory memory, in addition, BDNF might be involved in olfactory memory impairment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Estimation of surface UV levels based on Meteor-3/TOMS ozone data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borisov, Y.A. [Central Aerological Observatory, Moscow (Russian Federation); Geogdzhaev, I.V. [Moscow Inst. of Physics and Technology, Moscow (Russian Federation); Khattatov, V.U. [Central Aerological Observatory, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    The major consequence of ozone layer depletion for the environment is an increase of harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation on the Earth surface and in the upper ocean. This implies the importance of environmental UV monitoring. Since the direct global monitoring is not currently possible, indirect estimations of surface UV levels may be used based on satellite ozone data (Madronich, S. 1992). Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) on board the METEOR-3 satellite provided regular set of data for such estimates. During the time of its operation (August, 1991 - December, 1994) the instrument registered several ozone hole events over Antarctica, when ozone levels dropped by as much as 60 % from their unperturbed values. Probably even more alarming ozone depletions were observed over highly populated regions of middle latitudes of northern hemisphere. Radiative transfer modeling was used to convert METEOR-3/TOMS daily ozone values into regional and global maps of biologically active UV. Calculations demonstrate the effect on surface UV levels produced by ozone hole over Antarctica and ozone depletions over the territory of Russia (March, 1994). UV contour lines deviate from the normal appearance which is determined by growing southward solar elevation. UV contour lines are almost perpendicular to the ozone ones in the ozone depletions areas. The 30 % ozone depletion, over Siberia caused more than 30 % increase in noontime erythemal UV levels, which is equivalent to 10-15 degrees southward latitude displacement. Higher UV radiation increases were found in ozone hole over South America (October 1992) equivalent to about 20 degrees southward displacement

  5. Elevated Plasma Homocysteine Level Increased the Risk of Early Renal Impairment in Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingjuan; Li, Guode; Xu, Zuohang; Zhang, Chengguo; Wang, Yukai; Xie, Haiqun; Shao, Yan; Peng, Lingmei; Lu, Jiancong; Yuan, Dahua

    2017-11-01

    Renal insufficiency is associated with the prognosis of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and homocysteine (Hcy) levels. This study investigated the association between plasma Hcy levels and renal insufficiency in patients with AIS. A total of 987 patients with AIS who had been treated at the First People's Hospital of Foshan between 2011 and 2014 were retrospectively studied. Based on their cystatin C (Cys C) levels, the patients were divided into the normal renal function group (Cys C ≤ 1.25 mg/L) or the renal impairment group (Cys C > 1.25 mg/L). Multivariate regression analysis was applied to reveal the association between hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) and renal impairment. The renal impairment group showed more advanced age of onset, higher percentage of prior stroke and hypertension, higher baseline National Institute of Health Stroke Scale score, lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and higher Hcy levels compared with the normal renal function group. A multivariate analysis revealed a relationship between early renal impairment and Hcy levels: an increase of Hcy by 1 μmol/L was associated with an increase of 12-18% of the risk of renal impairment among patients with AIS and HHcy. Patients with AIS and HHcy had a 2.42-3.51 fold increase of the risk of renal impairment compared with patients with normal Hcy level (P renal impairment.

  6. Elevation of tau protein levels in the cerebrospinal fluid of children with West syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Hirofumi; Matsushige, Takeshi; Hasegawa, Shunji; Abe, Arisa; Iida, Yasunori; Inoue, Teruaki; Ichiyama, Takashi

    2012-11-01

    West syndrome is an epileptic encephalopathy with a poor developmental outcome. Tau protein levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are reported to be markers of axonal damage and neurodegeneration. This study aimed to investigate axonal damage and the effects of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) therapy on axons in West syndrome, as measured by tau protein levels in CSF. Tau protein levels in CSF before and after ACTH therapy were determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 26 children with West syndrome. Of these 26 children, 18 were symptomatic, and 8 had a cryptogenic form of West syndrome. A group of 41 unaffected children was included in the study as a control group. The levels of tau protein in CSF were significantly higher in children with West syndrome than in the control group, and these levels remained high after ACTH therapy. ACTH therapy was effective for 20 of the 26 children with West syndrome, and their CSF tau protein levels were significantly higher after ACTH therapy than before therapy. Our results suggest that axonal damage occurs in West syndrome, as judged by tau protein levels in CSF. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Influence of the individual DPOAE growth behavior on DPOAE level variations caused by conductive hearing loss and elevated intracranial pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deppe, Christoph; Kummer, Peter; Gürkov, Robert; Olzowy, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    Minor conductive hearing loss (CHL) can compromise the evaluation of the inner ear function with distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE). Elevation of the intracranial pressure (ICP) is also expected to alter the middle ear (ME) sound transmission. An impaired ME sound transmission leads to an attenuation of the DPOAE primary tone levels (L1 and L2) during forward transmission and of DPOAE levels (LDP) during backward transmission. The effect of the attenuation of L1 and L2 is complex and might have unexpected effects on DPOAE levels. In this work, CHL- and ICP-induced alterations of LDP versus L1 growth functions (constant L2 and increasing L1) are investigated. The first aim of this study is to explain how alterations of ME sound transmission can affect DPOAEs and to characterize the dependency of DPOAE level alterations on L2,L1 combinations and on the individual shape of LDP versus L1 growth functions. The second aim is to identify analogies between CHL- and ICP-induced alterations of DPOAEs and to discuss implications for a potential noninvasive ICP monitoring. This study focuses on general theoretical considerations, supported by selected experimental observations in different species and simulations. DPOAEs were measured in guinea pigs before and after induction of a CHL (1 ear) and during increased ICP (1 ear), and in humans during changes of the postural position to alter the ICP (4 ears). In both CHL and elevated ICP, DPOAE levels are not only reduced, but LDP versus L1 growth functions exhibit a shift to higher L1. The absolute DPOAE level alterations strongly depend on the L2,L1 combinations and the individual shape of the LDP versus L1 growth functions. In steeper LDP versus L1 growth functions, the DPOAE level alterations exhibit a larger variation. DPOAE levels can even increase. The largest variation can be found in ears with a nonmonotonic DPOAE growth behavior. An example of a guinea pig ear is presented with a nonmonotonic DPOAE growth

  8. Elevated levels of plasma uric acid and its relation to hypertension in arsenic-endemic human individuals in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huda, Nazmul [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi 6205 (Bangladesh); Department of Medicine, Rajshahi Medical College, Rajshahi 6000 (Bangladesh); Hossain, Shakhawoat; Rahman, Mashiur [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi 6205 (Bangladesh); Karim, Md. Rezaul [Department of Applied Nutrition and Food Technology, Islamic University, Kushtia 7003 (Bangladesh); Islam, Khairul [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Mawlana Bhashani Science and Technology University, Santosh, Tangail 1902 (Bangladesh); Mamun, Abdullah Al; Hossain, Md. Imam; Mohanto, Nayan Chandra; Alam, Shahnur; Aktar, Sharmin; Arefin, Afroza; Ali, Nurshad; Salam, Kazi Abdus; Aziz, Abdul; Saud, Zahangir Alam [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi 6205 (Bangladesh); Miyataka, Hideki; Himeno, Seiichiro [Laboratory of Molecular Nutrition and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokushima Bunri University, Tokushima 770-8514 (Japan); Hossain, Khaled, E-mail: khossainbio@gmail.com [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi 6205 (Bangladesh)

    2014-11-15

    Blood uric acid has been recognized as a putative marker for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). CVDs are the major causes of arsenic-related morbidity and mortality. However, the association of arsenic exposure with plasma uric acid (PUA) levels in relation to CVDs has not yet been explored. This study for the first time demonstrated the associations of arsenic exposure with PUA levels and its relationship with hypertension. A total of 483 subjects, 322 from arsenic-endemic and 161 from non-endemic areas in Bangladesh were recruited as study subjects. Arsenic concentrations in the drinking water, hair and nails of the study subjects were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. PUA levels were measured using a colorimetric method. We found that PUA levels were significantly (p < 0.001) higher in males and females living in arsenic-endemic areas than those in non-endemic area. Arsenic exposure (water, hair and nail arsenic) levels showed significant positive correlations with PUA levels. In multiple regression analyses, arsenic exposure levels were found to be the most significant contributors on PUA levels among the other variables that included age, body mass index, blood urea nitrogen, and smoking. There were dose–response relationships between arsenic exposure and PUA levels. Furthermore, diastolic and systolic blood pressure showed significant positive correlations with PUA levels. Finally, the average PUA levels were significantly higher in the hypertensive group than those in the normotensive group in both males and females living in arsenic-endemic areas. These results suggest that arsenic exposure-related elevation of PUA levels may be implicated in arsenic-induced CVDs. - Highlights: • PUA levels were higher in arsenic-endemic subjects than in non-endemic subjects. • Drinking water, hair and nail arsenic showed significant associations with PUA levels. • Drinking water, hair and nail arsenic showed dose–response relationships with

  9. Elevated levels of plasma uric acid and its relation to hypertension in arsenic-endemic human individuals in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huda, Nazmul; Hossain, Shakhawoat; Rahman, Mashiur; Karim, Md. Rezaul; Islam, Khairul; Mamun, Abdullah Al; Hossain, Md. Imam; Mohanto, Nayan Chandra; Alam, Shahnur; Aktar, Sharmin; Arefin, Afroza; Ali, Nurshad; Salam, Kazi Abdus; Aziz, Abdul; Saud, Zahangir Alam; Miyataka, Hideki; Himeno, Seiichiro; Hossain, Khaled

    2014-01-01

    Blood uric acid has been recognized as a putative marker for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). CVDs are the major causes of arsenic-related morbidity and mortality. However, the association of arsenic exposure with plasma uric acid (PUA) levels in relation to CVDs has not yet been explored. This study for the first time demonstrated the associations of arsenic exposure with PUA levels and its relationship with hypertension. A total of 483 subjects, 322 from arsenic-endemic and 161 from non-endemic areas in Bangladesh were recruited as study subjects. Arsenic concentrations in the drinking water, hair and nails of the study subjects were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. PUA levels were measured using a colorimetric method. We found that PUA levels were significantly (p < 0.001) higher in males and females living in arsenic-endemic areas than those in non-endemic area. Arsenic exposure (water, hair and nail arsenic) levels showed significant positive correlations with PUA levels. In multiple regression analyses, arsenic exposure levels were found to be the most significant contributors on PUA levels among the other variables that included age, body mass index, blood urea nitrogen, and smoking. There were dose–response relationships between arsenic exposure and PUA levels. Furthermore, diastolic and systolic blood pressure showed significant positive correlations with PUA levels. Finally, the average PUA levels were significantly higher in the hypertensive group than those in the normotensive group in both males and females living in arsenic-endemic areas. These results suggest that arsenic exposure-related elevation of PUA levels may be implicated in arsenic-induced CVDs. - Highlights: • PUA levels were higher in arsenic-endemic subjects than in non-endemic subjects. • Drinking water, hair and nail arsenic showed significant associations with PUA levels. • Drinking water, hair and nail arsenic showed dose–response relationships with

  10. Stigma-related stress, shame and avoidant coping reactions among members of the general population with elevated symptom levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schibalski, J V; Müller, M; Ajdacic-Gross, V; Vetter, S; Rodgers, S; Oexle, N; Corrigan, P W; Rössler, W; Rüsch, N

    2017-04-01

    It is unclear whether mental illness stigma affects individuals with subthreshold syndromes outside clinical settings. We therefore investigated the role of different stigma variables, including stigma-related stress and shame reactions, for avoidant stigma coping among members of the general population with elevated symptom levels. Based on a representative population survey, general stress resilience, stigma variables, shame about having a mental illness as well as avoidant stigma coping (secrecy and social withdrawal) were assessed by self-report among 676 participants with elevated symptom levels. Stigma variables and resilience were examined as predictors of avoidant stigma coping in a path model. Increased stigma stress was predicted by lower general stress resilience as well as by higher levels of perceived stigma, group identification and perceived legitimacy of discrimination. More shame was associated with higher perceived legitimacy. Lower resilience as well as more perceived stigma, group identification and perceived legitimacy predicted avoidant coping. Stigma stress partly mediated effects of resilience, perceived stigma and group identification on avoidant coping; shame partly mediated effects of perceived legitimacy on coping. Stigma stress and shame were also directly and positively related to avoidant stigma coping. Analyses were adjusted for symptoms, neuroticism and sociodemographic variables. Stigma may affect a larger proportion of the population than previously thought because stigma variables predicted secrecy and withdrawal among members of the general population with elevated, but overall mild symptom levels. Avoidant stigma coping likely has harmful effects, potentially exacerbating pre-existing psychological distress and undermining social networks. This highlights the need to reduce public stigma as well as to support individuals with subthreshold syndromes in their coping with stigma stress and shame reactions. Copyright © 2017

  11. Elevated guanosine 5'-diphosphate 3'-diphosphate level inhibits bacterial growth and interferes with FtsZ assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Takayoshi; Iida, Ken-Ichiro; Shiota, Susumu; Nakayama, Hiroaki; Yoshida, Shin-Ichi

    2015-12-01

    FtsZ, a protein essential for prokaryotic cell division, forms a ring structure known as the Z-ring at the division site. FtsZ has a GTP binding site and is assembled into linear structures in a GTP-dependent manner in vitro. We assessed whether guanosine 5'-diphosphate 3'-diphosphate (ppGpp), a global regulator of gene expression in starved bacteria, affects cell division in Salmonella Paratyphi A. Elevation of intracellular ppGpp levels by using the relA expression vector induced repression of bacterial growth and incorrect FtsZ assembly. We found that FtsZ forms helical structures in the presence of ppGpp by using the GTP binding site; however, ppGpp levels required to form helical structures were at least 20-fold higher than the required GTP levels in vitro. Furthermore, once formed, helical structures did not change to the straight form even after GTP addition. Our data indicate that elevation of the ppGpp level leads to inhibition of bacterial growth and interferes with FtsZ assembly. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Osteoprotegerin levels in ST-elevation myocardial infarction: Temporal profile and association with myocardial injury and left ventricular function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetelig, Christian; Limalanathan, Shanmuganathan; Eritsland, Jan; Hoffmann, Pavel; Seljeflot, Ingebjørg; Gran, Jon Michael; Aukrust, Pål; Ueland, Thor; Andersen, Geir Øystein

    2017-01-01

    Background Elevated levels of osteoprotegerin (OPG) have been associated with adverse outcomes in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). However, the role of OPG in myocardial injury and adverse remodeling in STEMI patients remains unclear. The aims of this observational cohort study were to evaluate: 1) the temporal profile of OPG during STEMI, 2) possible associations between OPG measured acutely and after 4 months, with infarct size, adverse left ventricular (LV) remodeling, microvascular obstruction (MVO) and myocardial salvage and 3) the effect of heparin administration on OPG levels. Methods Blood samples were drawn repeatedly from 272 STEMI patients treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) was performed in the acute phase and after 4 months. The effect of heparin administration on OPG levels was studied in 20 patients referred to elective coronary angiography. Results OPG levels measured acutely were significantly higher than Day 1 and during follow-up. OPG levels were correlated with age. No association was found between early OPG levels and CMR measurements at 4 months. Patients with >median OPG levels measured at Day 1 had larger final infarct size, lower LV ejection fraction (LVEF) at 4 months and higher frequency of MVO. There were no associations between OPG and change in end-diastolic volume or myocardial salvage. OPG remained associated with infarct size and LVEF after adjustment for relevant covariates, except peak troponin T and CRP. A 77% increase in OPG levels following heparin administration was found in patients undergoing elective coronary angiography. Conclusions OPG was found to be associated with myocardial injury, but not with LV remodeling or myocardial salvage. The use of OPG as a biomarker in STEMI patients seems to be limited by a strong association with age, confounding effect of heparin administration, and little additive value to established biomarkers. PMID

  13. Predominant role of the 9-hydroxy metabolite of risperidone in elevating blood prolactin levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knegtering, R; Baselmans, P; Castelein, S; Bosker, F; Bruggeman, R; van den Bosch, RJ

    Objective: The atypical antipsychotic risperidone significantly raises plasma prolactin levels in patients, but clozapine, olanzapine, and quetiapine do not. The differences in neuroendocrine response may be connected with the metabolism of the medications. The authors examined the contributory role

  14. Elevated levels of cell-free circulating DNA in patients with acute dengue virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Thi Ngoc Ha

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Apoptosis is thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of severe dengue and the release of cell-free DNA into the circulatory system in several medical conditions. Therefore, we investigated circulating DNA as a potential biomarker for severe dengue. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A direct fluorometric degradation assay using PicoGreen was performed to quantify cell-free DNA from patient plasma. Circulating DNA levels were significantly higher in patients with dengue virus infection than with other febrile illnesses and healthy controls. Remarkably, the increase of DNA levels correlated with the severity of dengue. Additionally, multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that circulating DNA levels independently correlated with dengue shock syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Circulating DNA levels were increased in dengue patients and correlated with dengue severity. Additional studies are required to show the benefits of this biomarker in early dengue diagnosis and for the prognosis of shock complication.

  15. Serum soluble Talin-1 levels are elevated in patients with multiple sclerosis, reflecting its disease activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muto, Mayumi; Mori, Masahiro; Liu, Jia; Uzawa, Akiyuki; Uchida, Tomohiko; Masuda, Hiroki; Ohtani, Ryohei; Sugimoto, Kazuo; Kuwabara, Satoshi

    2017-04-15

    Previously, we identified anti-Talin-1 antibodies in the serum of MS. In this case, we measured the serum soluble Talin-1 (sTalin-1) levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The serum sTalin-1 levels were significantly higher in 40 patients with MS than in 43 normal controls and in the acute phase of disease than in the remission phase. Interestingly, serum sTalin-1 levels were associated with a sustained increase in disability after MS attack but not with serum anti-Talin-1 antibody levels. sTalin-1 may be a biomarker for the acute phase of MS and may be used for the short-term prognosis of MS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Elevated triglyceride levels are associated with cognitive impairments among patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Tian Nan; Yin, Guang Zhong; Yin, Xiao Li; Wu, Jing Qin; Du, Xiang Dong; Zhu, Hong Liang; Liu, Jia Hong; Wang, Xiao Qiong; Xu, Dong Wu; Tang, Wen Jie; Hui, Li

    2017-05-01

    Cognitive deficits have been identified as one of core clinical symptoms of major depressive disorder (MDD). Accumulating evidence indicated that triglycerides (TG) might be associated with MDD and cognitive decline. This study examined whether patients with MDD had poorer cognitive functions than healthy controls, and further investigate whether TG levels were involved in MDD, and its cognitive impairments in a Han Chinese population. 115 patients with MDD and 119 healthy controls were enrolled. Cognitive functions were assessed by the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS), and serum TG levels were examined using enzymatic colorimetry. TG levels were higher in patients with MDD than healthy controls after controlling for the variables. Cognitive test scores were lower in patients with MDD than healthy controls except for visuospatial/constructional index after controlling for the variables. TG levels were negatively correlated with visuospatial/constructional score, delayed memory score and RBANS total score of MDD. Further multivariate regression analysis showed that TG levels were negatively associated with visuospatial/constructional score, attention score, delayed memory score and RBANS total score of MDD. Our findings supported that serum TG levels might be involved in MDD, and play an important role in cognitive impairments of MDD, especially in delayed memory. Moreover, patients with MDD experienced greater cognitive impairments than healthy controls except for visuospatial/constructional index. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A case series of histoplasmosis patients with elevated serum soluble interleukin-2 receptor levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, Tatsuro; Takazono, Takahiro; Iwata, Kazuma; Senju, Hiroaki; Shimazaki, Takaharu; Tashiro, Masato; Saijo, Tomomi; Tanaka, Takeshi; Nakamura, Shigeki; Imamura, Yoshifumi; Kojiro, Maiko; Miyazaki, Taiga; Tsukamoto, Misuzu; Furumoto, Akitsugu; Morimoto, Konosuke; Muraosa, Yasunori; Matsubara, Yuichi; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Mukae, Hiroshi; Kamei, Katsuhiko; Kohno, Shigeru; Izumikawa, Koichi

    2017-09-01

    Histoplasmosis is a common endemic mycosis that is usually asymptomatic but occasionally results in severe illness. Histoplasmosis and its causative agent, Histoplasma capsulatum, are found worldwide but rarely in Japan. In recent years, however, the number of histoplasmosis patients in Japan has increased. In addition, to our knowledge, there are no previous reports of increased serum soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R) levels in patients with histoplasmosis. We report a case series of histoplasmosis in three Japanese temporary workers in Manzanillo, Mexico. All three patients developed a persistent high fever and general fatigue. Laboratory tests showed increased C-reactive protein levels and mild liver dysfunction. All patients also showed increased soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R) levels. Chest computed tomography revealed multiple nodules in both lung fields. All patients were positive for serum anti-Histoplasma antibodies, and two patients were positive for Histoplasma on polymerase chain reaction tests. After treatment that included antifungals, their conditions gradually improved and laboratory data normalized. Although one patient developed respiratory failure, this patient recovered with antifungal therapy in combination with methylprednisolone. Serum sIL-2R levels in all patients gradually declined to normal levels, indicating their recovery from Histoplasma infection. From our experience with these patients, sIL-2R levels may be a useful biomarker for patients with histoplasmosis. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The effectiveness of fermented turmeric powder in subjects with elevated alanine transaminase levels: a randomised controlled study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous animal studies have shown that Curcuma longa (turmeric) improves liver function. Turmeric may thus be a promising ingredient in functional foods aimed at improving liver function. The purpose of the study is to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of fermented turmeric powder (FTP) on liver function in subjects with elevated alanine transaminase (ALT) levels. Methods A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted between November 2010 and April 2012 at the clinical trial center for functional foods of the Chonbuk National University Hospital. The trial included 60 subjects, 20 years old and above, who were diagnosed mild to moderate elevated ALT levels between 40 IU/L and 200 IU/L. Sixty subjects were randomised to receive FTP 3.0 g per day or placebo 3.0 g per day for 12 weeks. The treatment group received two capsules of FTP three times a day after meals, for 12 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was change in the ALT levels in the two groups. The secondary efficacy endpoints included its effect on aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), total bilirubin (TB), and lipid profiles. Safety was assessed throughout the study using ongoing laboratory tests. Adverse events (AEs) were also recorded. Results Sixty subjects were randomised in the study (30 into the FTP group, 30 into the placebo group), and among them, twelve subjects were excluded from the analysis for protocol violation, adverse events or consent withdrawal. The two groups did not differ in baseline characteristics. After 12 weeks of treatment, 48 subjects were evaluated. Of the 48 subjects, 26 randomly received FTP capsules and 22 received placebo. The FTP group showed a significant reduction in ALT levels after 12 weeks of treatment compared with the placebo group (p = 0.019). There was also observed that the serum AST levels were significantly reduce in the FTP group than placebo group (p = 0.02). The GGT levels

  19. Elevated serum 25(OH)-vitamin D levels are negatively correlated with molar-incisor hypomineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühnisch, J; Thiering, E; Kratzsch, J; Heinrich-Weltzien, R; Hickel, R; Heinrich, J

    2015-02-01

    To date, the precise etiology of molar-incisor hypomineralization (MIH) is uncertain. Vitamin D plays a key role in hard tissue formation. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the relationship between serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25(OH)D) status and dental health data obtained from 1,048 children in a 10-year follow-up of the Munich GINIplus and LISAplus birth cohorts. The dental examination included the diagnosis of MIH and recording of (non-)cavitated caries lesions in primary and permanent teeth. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were taken from blood samples of the 10-year investigation and measured with a fully automated, modular system. Different logistic regression and Poisson hurdle models were calculated. MIH was diagnosed in 13.6% of the study population. Approximately 16.4% of the children demonstrated caries-related defects (D3-4MFS > 0). The mean season-adjusted concentration of 25(OH)D was 75.8 nmol/l (standard deviation 22.0 nmol/l). After adjusting for sex, age, body mass index, parental education, equivalent income, and television/personal computer (TV/PC) viewing hours, a 10 nmol/l increase in serum 25(OH)D concentrations was significantly associated with a lower odds ratio of having MIH (OR = 0.89; P = 0.006). Furthermore, higher 25(OH)D values were associated with a lower number of caries-affected permanent teeth. It is concluded that elevated serum 25(OH)D concentrations were associated with better dental health parameters. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2014.

  20. Chemistry and isotopic composition of precipitation and surface waters in Khumbu valley (Nepal Himalaya): N dynamics of high elevation basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balestrini, Raffaella, E-mail: balestrini@irsa.cnr.it [Water Research Institute, National Research Council (IRSA-CNR), Via del Mulino 19, Brugherio, MB (Italy); Polesello, Stefano [Water Research Institute, National Research Council (IRSA-CNR), Via del Mulino 19, Brugherio, MB (Italy); Sacchi, Elisa [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Pavia and IGG-CNR, Via Ferrata 1, 27100 Pavia (Italy)

    2014-07-01

    We monitored the chemical and isotopic compositions of wet depositions, at the Pyramid International Laboratory (5050 m a.s.l.), and surrounding surface waters, in the Khumbu basin, to understand precipitation chemistry and to obtain insights regarding ecosystem responses to atmospheric inputs. The major cations in the precipitation were NH{sub 4}{sup +} and Ca{sup 2+}, whereas the main anion was HCO{sub 3}{sup −}, which constituted approximately 69% of the anions, followed by NO{sub 3}{sup −}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} and Cl{sup −}. Data analysis suggested that Na{sup +}, Cl{sup −} and K{sup +} were derived from the long-range transport of marine aerosols. Ca{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+} and HCO{sub 3}{sup −} were related to rock and soil dust contributions and the NO{sub 3}{sup −} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} concentrations were derived from anthropogenic sources. Furthermore, NH{sub 4}{sup +} was derived from gaseous NH{sub 3} scavenging. The isotopic composition of weekly precipitation ranged from − 1.9 to − 23.2‰ in δ{sup 18}O, and from − 0.8 to − 174‰ in δ{sup 2}H, with depleted values characterizing the central part of the monsoon period. The chemical composition of the stream water was dominated by calcite and/or gypsum dissolution. However, the isotopic composition of the stream water did not fully reflect the composition of the monsoon precipitation, which suggested that other water sources contributed to the stream flow. Precipitation contents for all ions were the lowest ones among those measured in high elevation sites around the world. During the monsoon periods the depositions were not substantially influenced by anthropogenic inputs, while in pre- and post-monsoon seasons the Himalayas could not represent an effective barrier for airborne pollution. In the late monsoon phase, the increase of ionic contents in precipitation could also be due to a change in the moisture source. The calculated atmospheric N load (0.30 kg ha{sup −1} y{sup −1

  1. CNS germinoma with elevated serum human chorionic gonadotropin level: Clinical characteristics and treatment outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogino, Hiroyuki; Shibamoto, Yuta; Takanaka, Tsuyoshi; Suzuki, Kazunori; Ishihara, Shun-Ichi; Yamada, Tetsuya; Sugie, Chikao; Nomoto, Yoshihito; Mimura, Mikio

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The prognostic significance of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) level in central nervous system germinoma remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to compare clinical characteristics and prognosis of germinoma patients with normal and high HCG titers in the serum. Methods and Materials: We undertook a multi-institutional retrospective analysis of 103 patients with central nervous system germinoma whose serum HCG and/or β-HCG level had been measured before treatment between 1984 and 2002. All patients had been treated with radiation therapy either alone (n = 66) or in combination with chemotherapy (n = 37) with a median dose of 47.8 Gy. Results: HCG and/or β-HCG level in the serum was high in 39% of all patients. The proportion of HCG-producing tumors was higher in the lesions at the basal ganglia than in the lesions at the other sites. No correlation was found between tumor size and HCG level, but there seemed to be a weak correlation between size and β-HCG. The 5- and 10-year survival rates were 96% and 94%, respectively, in both patient groups with normal and high HCG (p = 0.99). The 5- and 10-year relapse-free survival rates were 87% and 82%, respectively, in patients with normal HCG level and were both 87% in patients with high HCG (p = 0.74). Also, no other patient-, tumor-, or treatment-related factors seemed to influence the prognosis of the patients. Conclusion: Serum HCG level does not seem to influence patient prognosis when treated with sufficient doses of radiation. Relationship between tumor size and site and HCG level should be investigated further

  2. Groundwater withdrawals 1976, 1990, and 2000--10 and land-surface-elevation changes 2000--10 in Harris, Galveston, Fort Bend, Montgomery, and Brazoria Counties, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasmarek, Mark C.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2013-01-01

    The study area comprising Harris County and parts of Galveston, Fort Bend, Montgomery, and Brazoria Counties in southeastern Texas forms part of one of the largest areas of land-surface-elevation change in the United States. Land-surface-elevation change in the study area primarily is caused by the withdrawal of groundwater. Groundwater withdrawn from the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers has been the primary source of water for municipal supply, industrial and commercial use, and irrigation in the study area. Groundwater withdrawals cause compaction of clay and silt layers abundant in the aquifers, which has in turn resulted in the widespread, substantial land-surface-elevation changes in the region with increased flooding. To estimate land-surface-elevation changes, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Harris-Galveston Subsidence District (HGSD), documented land-surface-elevation changes in the study area that occurred during 2000–10 and 2005–10 based on elevation data measured by 11 USGS borehole-extensometer sites, a National Geodetic Survey Continuously Operating Reference Station, and Global Positioning System Port-A-Measure (PAM) sites operated by the HGSD and the Fort Bend Subsidence District. Groundwater withdrawals in the study area also were documented for 1976, 1990, and 2000–10.

  3. Retrospective evaluation of patients with elevated digoxin levels at an emergency department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulsum Limon

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: We investigated the demographic characteristics, clinical and laboratory findings, treatment strategies and clinical outcomes of patients presenting at emergency department (ED with digoxin levels at or above 1.2 ng/ml. Materials and methods: The demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with serum digoxin levels at or above 1.2 ng/ml admitted to an ED between January 2010 and July 2011 were investigated in this cross-sectional descriptive study. Patients with ECG and clinical findings consistent with digoxin toxicity and no additional explanation of their symptoms were evaluated for digoxin toxicity. Results: In this study 137 patients were included, and 68.6% of patients were women with mean age 76.1 ± 12.2. There was no significant difference between gender and digoxin intoxication. The mean age of intoxicated group was significantly higher than the non-intoxicated group (P = 0.03. The most common comorbidities were congestive heart failure (n = 91 and atrial fibrillation (n = 74. The most common symptoms were nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain. The levels of hospitalization and mortality in this group were significantly higher. Conclusion: Digoxin intoxication must be suspected in patients present in the ED, particularly those with complaints that include nausea and vomiting, as well as new ECG changes; serum digoxin levels must be determined. Keywords: Digoxin, Digoxin level, Intoxication, Emergency department

  4. Elevated Angiopoietin-1 Serum Levels in Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Schreitmüller

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Alzheimer's disease (AD is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly. AD is characterized by the accumulation of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles and by massive neuronal loss in the brain. There is epidemiologic and pathologic evidence that AD is associated with vascular risk factors and vascular diseases, contributing to cerebral hypoperfusion with consecutive stimulation of angiogenesis and upregulation of proangiogenic factors such as Angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1. Methods. In the present study, we measured Ang-1 serum levels in 42 patients with AD, 20 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI, and in 40 healthy elderly controls by ELISA. Results. We found significantly increased Ang-1 serum levels in patients with AD compared to control subjects (P=0.003. There was no significant difference between MCI patients and healthy controls (P=0.553 or between AD and MCI patients (P=0.054. The degree of cognitive impairment as measured by the mini-mental status examination (MMSE score was significantly correlated with the Ang-1 serum levels in all patients and healthy controls. Conclusions. We found significantly increased Ang-1 serum levels in AD patients. We could also show an association between Ang-1 serum levels and the cognitive status in all patients and healthy controls. Thus, serum Ang-1 could be a potential candidate for a biomarker panel for AD diagnosis.

  5. Elevated levels of interleukin-23 in sera of patients with pemphigus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouralibaba, Firouz; Babaloo, Zohreh; Pakdel, Farzaneh; Abdollahian, Tahmoores; Pourzare, Solmaz

    2012-12-01

    Pemphigus vulgaris, a chronic mucocutaneous disease, is the most prevalent type of pemphigus which manifests with development of bullae and erosions on skin and mucosal membranes. To investigate the potential role of IL-23 in pemphigus vulgaris. In this study, 30 patients with pemphigus vulgaris and 30 healthy individuals were selected according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. Measurement of IL-23 serum levels in blood samples was conducted by ELISA. Data was analyzed using Student's t-test for comparison of IL-23 levels between the two groups. Mean serum levels of IL-23 in patients with pemphigus and healthy controls were 25.1 ± 4.2 and 17.9 ± 4.7 pg/ml, respectively (ppemphigus in comparison to healthy individuals with no clinical significance.

  6. Elevated levels of plasma brain derived neurotrophic factor in rapid cycling bipolar disorder patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Klaus; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2014-01-01

    Impaired neuroplasticity may be implicated in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder, involving peripheral alterations of the neurotrophins brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin 3 (NT-3). Evidence is limited by methodological issues and is based primarily on case......-control designs. The aim of this study was to investigate whether BDNF and NT-3 levels differ between patients with rapid cycling bipolar disorder and healthy control subjects and whether BDNF and NT-3 levels alter with affective states in rapid cycling bipolar disorder patients. Plasma levels of BDNF and NT-3...... patients during a 6-12 months period and compared with repeated measurements in healthy control subjects. Careful attention was given to standardization of all procedures and adjustment for potential confounders of BDNF and NT-3. In linear mixed models, adjusting for demographical and lifestyle factors...

  7. Fructose levels are markedly elevated in cerebrospinal fluid compared to plasma in pregnant women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice J Hwang

    Full Text Available Fructose, unlike glucose, promotes feeding behavior in rodents and its ingestion exerts differential effects in the human brain. However, plasma fructose is typically 1/1000 th of glucose levels and it is unclear to what extent fructose crosses the blood-brain barrier. We investigated whether local endogenous central nervous system (CNS fructose production from glucose via the polyol pathway (glucose → sorbitol → fructose contributes to brain exposure to fructose.In this observational study, fasting glucose, sorbitol and fructose concentrations were measured using gas-chromatography-liquid mass spectroscopy in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, maternal plasma, and venous cord blood collected from 25 pregnant women (6 lean, 10 overweight/obese, and 9 T2DM/gestational DM undergoing spinal anesthesia and elective cesarean section.As expected, CSF glucose was ~ 60% of plasma glucose levels. In contrast, fructose was nearly 20-fold higher in CSF than in plasma (p < 0.001, and CSF sorbitol was ~ 9-times higher than plasma levels (p < 0.001. Moreover, CSF fructose correlated positively with CSF glucose (ρ 0.45, p = 0.02 and sorbitol levels (ρ 0.75, p < 0.001. Cord blood sorbitol was also ~ 7-fold higher than maternal plasma sorbitol levels (p = 0.001. There were no differences in plasma, CSF, and cord blood glucose, fructose, or sorbitol levels between groups.These data raise the possibility that fructose may be produced endogenously in the human brain and that the effects of fructose in the human brain and placenta may extend beyond its dietary consumption.

  8. Elevated dioxin levels in chloracne cases twenty years after the Seveso, Italy accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baccarelli, A.; Pesatori, A.C.; Consonni, D.; Bonzini, M.; Giacomini, S.M.; Bertazzi, P.A. [EPOCA Research Center, Univ. of Milan (Italy); Mocarelli, P. [Dept. of Lab. Medicine, Univ. of Milan-Bicocca, Desio (Italy); Patterson, D.G. Jr. [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States); Caporaso, N.E.; Landi, M.T. [Div. of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Inst., NIH, DHHS, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2004-09-15

    In July 1976, an industrial accident contaminated a residential area surrounding Seveso, Italy, with high levels of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). The exposure was acute, relatively pure, and affected more than 45,000 men, women, and children. By February 1978, 193 chloracne cases, mostly children, had been identified in the exposed population. Twenty years after, we conducted a case-control study on subjects diagnosed with chloracne and control subjects, who had not developed chloracne after the accident, to evaluate their TCDD plasma levels, as well as the exposure-response relationship and possible determinants of susceptibility to TCDD effects in this population.

  9. The earliest stages of ecosystem succession in high-elevation (5000 metres above sea level), recently deglaciated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, S K; Reed, Sasha C; Nemergut, Diana R; Grandy, A Stuart; Cleveland, Cory C; Weintraub, Michael N; Hill, Andrew W; Costello, Elizabeth K; Meyer, A F; Neff, J C; Martin, A M

    2008-12-22

    Global climate change has accelerated the pace of glacial retreat in high-latitude and high-elevation environments, exposing lands that remain devoid of vegetation for many years. The exposure of 'new' soil is particularly apparent at high elevations (5000 metres above sea level) in the Peruvian Andes, where extreme environmental conditions hinder plant colonization. Nonetheless, these seemingly barren soils contain a diverse microbial community; yet the biogeochemical role of micro-organisms at these extreme elevations remains unknown. Using biogeochemical and molecular techniques, we investigated the biological community structure and ecosystem functioning of the pre-plant stages of primary succession in soils along a high-Andean chronosequence. We found that recently glaciated soils were colonized by a diverse community of cyanobacteria during the first 4-5 years following glacial retreat. This significant increase in cyanobacterial diversity corresponded with equally dramatic increases in soil stability, heterotrophic microbial biomass, soil enzyme activity and the presence and abundance of photosynthetic and photoprotective pigments. Furthermore, we found that soil nitrogen-fixation rates increased almost two orders of magnitude during the first 4-5 years of succession, many years before the establishment of mosses, lichens or vascular plants. Carbon analyses (pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy) of soil organic matter suggested that soil carbon along the chronosequence was of microbial origin. This indicates that inputs of nutrients and organic matter during early ecosystem development at these sites are dominated by microbial carbon and nitrogen fixation. Overall, our results indicate that photosynthetic and nitrogen-fixing bacteria play important roles in acquiring nutrients and facilitating ecological succession in soils near some of the highest elevation receding glaciers on the Earth.

  10. Impairment of extra-high frequency auditory thresholds in subjects with elevated levels of fasting blood glucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anindya Das

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to assess whether there is an association between elevated Fasting Blood Glucose (FBG and hearing impairment in Bangladeshi population. A total of 142 subjects (72 with elevated FBG; 70 control were included in the study. The mean auditory thresholds of the control subjects at 1, 4, 8 and 12 kHz frequencies were 6.35 ± 0.35, 10.07 ± 0.91, 27.57 ± 1.82, 51.28 ± 3.01 dB SPL (decibel sound pressure level, respectively and that of the subjects with elevated FBG were 8.33 ± 0.66, 14.37 ± 1.14, 38.96 ± 2.23, and 71.11 ± 2.96 dB, respectively. The auditory thresholds of the subjects with elevated FBG were significantly (p 10 years showed significantly (p 40 years and younger (≤40 years age groups compared to the respective controls. The binary logistic regression analysis showed a 5.79-fold increase in the odds of extra-high frequency hearing impairment in diabetic subjects after adjustment for age, gender and BMI. This study provides conclusive evidence that auditory threshold at an extra-high frequency could be a sensitive marker for hearing impairment in diabetic subjects.

  11. Elevating your elevator talk

    Science.gov (United States)

    An important and often overlooked item that every early career researcher needs to do is compose an elevator talk. The elevator talk, named because the talk should not last longer than an average elevator ride (30 to 60 seconds), is an effective method to present your research and yourself in a clea...

  12. A New Method to Estimate Changes in Glacier Surface Elevation Based on Polynomial Fitting of Sparse ICESat—GLAS Footprints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianjin Huang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We present in this paper a polynomial fitting method applicable to segments of footprints measured by the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS to estimate glacier thickness change. Our modification makes the method applicable to complex topography, such as a large mountain glacier. After a full analysis of the planar fitting method to characterize errors of estimates due to complex topography, we developed an improved fitting method by adjusting a binary polynomial surface to local topography. The improved method and the planar fitting method were tested on the accumulation areas of the Naimona’nyi glacier and Yanong glacier on along-track facets with lengths of 1000 m, 1500 m, 2000 m, and 2500 m, respectively. The results show that the improved method gives more reliable estimates of changes in elevation than planar fitting. The improved method was also tested on Guliya glacier with a large and relatively flat area and the Chasku Muba glacier with very complex topography. The results in these test sites demonstrate that the improved method can give estimates of glacier thickness change on glaciers with a large area and a complex topography. Additionally, the improved method based on GLAS Data and Shuttle Radar Topography Mission-Digital Elevation Model (SRTM-DEM can give estimates of glacier thickness change from 2000 to 2008/2009, since it takes the 2000 SRTM-DEM as a reference, which is a longer period than 2004 to 2008/2009, when using the GLAS data only and the planar fitting method.

  13. CSF Neurofilament Proteins Levels are Elevated in Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, Jeroen J. J.; van Everbroeck, Bart; Abdo, W. Farid; Kremer, Berry P. H.; Verbeek, Marcel M.

    2010-01-01

    In this study we investigated the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of neurofilament light (NFL) and heavy chain (NFHp35), total tau (t-tau), and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) to detect disease specific profiles in sporadic Creutzfeldt Jakob disease (sCJD) patients and Alzheimer's disease

  14. Elevated levels of homocysteine increase IL-6 production in monocytic Mono Mac 6 cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Aken, B. E.; Jansen, J.; van Deventer, S. J.; Reitsma, P. H.

    2000-01-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for atherosclerosis and thrombosis. The aim of this study was to analyze if exposure of monocytic cells to increased levels of homocysteine (HCY) induces the accumulation of inflammatory mediators. Interleukin (IL)-6 production by monocytic cell line Mono Mac 6

  15. Plasma serotonin levels are elevated in pregnant women with hyperemesis gravidarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengiz, Huseyin; Dagdeviren, Hediye; Caypinar, Sema Suzen; Kanawati, Ammar; Yildiz, Sukru; Ekin, Murat

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to determine the association between serotonin and hyperemesis gravidarum. Plasma samples of 87 women in their first trimester pregnancies with HG (n = 28), morning sickness of pregnancy (n = 30) and control (n = 29) groups were obtained. Plasma levels of serotonin were compared between the groups, and the correlations with severity of symptoms using modified PUQE (Pregnancy Unique Quantification of Emesis) scoring, BMI, E2, hCG and TSH were calculated. When the groups were compared with respect to serotonin levels, the group with hyperemesis gravidarum was found to have significantly higher serotonin levels (p = 0.001). A significant positive correlation was found between the serotonin level and the PUQE score in all study subjects (r = 0.578, p = 0.0001). A serotonin threshold of >277.58 ng/mL had a sensitivity of 75%, specificity of 86.4%, positive predictive value of 72.4%, negative predictive value of 87.9%, and a likelihood ratio of 5.53 (p = 0.0001). Our findings support the possible role of serotonin in the pathogenesis of hyperemesis gravidarum.

  16. Elevated salivary dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate but normal cortisol levels in medicated depressed patients: preliminary findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assies, Johanna; Visser, Ieke; Nicolson, Nancy A.; Eggelte, Teunis A.; Wekking, Elisabeth M.; Huyser, Jochanan; Lieverse, Ritsaert; Schene, Aart H.

    2004-01-01

    Major depression is often associated with dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. In contrast to cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S) has been less extensively studied in depressed patients. This study examined salivary morning and evening levels of cortisol and

  17. Select transition zone prostate cancers may be radiocurable despite markedly elevated prostate-specific antigen levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Amico, Anthony V.; Kaplan, Irving

    1996-01-01

    In 1993, three men with transition zone prostate cancers were described (Stamey et al., J. Urol. 149: 510-515, 1993) who despite high prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels remained PSA failure-free at 22 months postoperatively. This report illustrates that prolonged PSA failure free survival may be achieved when external beam radiation therapy is used to treat similar patients

  18. Factors associated with elevated blood lead levels in inner ·city ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional analytical study was carried out to determine risk factors for childhood lead exposure. Blood lead levels of inner-city Sub A coloured children living in Woodstock were examined in relation to information obtained by questionnaire on environmental and social factors. The mean blood lead concentration of ...

  19. Elevated levels of plasma Big endothelin-1 and its relation to hypertension and skin lesions in individuals exposed to arsenic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, Ekhtear; Islam, Khairul; Yeasmin, Fouzia; Karim, Md. Rezaul; Rahman, Mashiur; Agarwal, Smita; Hossain, Shakhawoat; Aziz, Abdul; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Sheikh, Afzal; Haque, Abedul; Hossain, M. Tofazzal; Hossain, Mostaque; Haris, Parvez I.; Ikemura, Noriaki; Inoue, Kiyoshi; Miyataka, Hideki; Himeno, Seiichiro; Hossain, Khaled

    2012-01-01

    Chronic arsenic (As) exposure affects the endothelial system causing several diseases. Big endothelin-1 (Big ET-1), the biological precursor of endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a more accurate indicator of the degree of activation of the endothelial system. Effect of As exposure on the plasma Big ET-1 levels and its physiological implications have not yet been documented. We evaluated plasma Big ET-1 levels and their relation to hypertension and skin lesions in As exposed individuals in Bangladesh. A total of 304 study subjects from the As-endemic and non-endemic areas in Bangladesh were recruited for this study. As concentrations in water, hair and nails were measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The plasma Big ET-1 levels were measured using a one-step sandwich enzyme immunoassay kit. Significant increase in Big ET-1 levels were observed with the increasing concentrations of As in drinking water, hair and nails. Further, before and after adjusting with different covariates, plasma Big ET-1 levels were found to be significantly associated with the water, hair and nail As concentrations of the study subjects. Big ET-1 levels were also higher in the higher exposure groups compared to the lowest (reference) group. Interestingly, we observed that Big ET-1 levels were significantly higher in the hypertensive and skin lesion groups compared to the normotensive and without skin lesion counterpart, respectively of the study subjects in As-endemic areas. Thus, this study demonstrated a novel dose–response relationship between As exposure and plasma Big ET-1 levels indicating the possible involvement of plasma Big ET-1 levels in As-induced hypertension and skin lesions. -- Highlights: ► Plasma Big ET-1 is an indicator of endothelial damage. ► Plasma Big ET-1 level increases dose-dependently in arsenic exposed individuals. ► Study subjects in arsenic-endemic areas with hypertension have elevated Big ET-1 levels. ► Study subjects with arsenic

  20. Elevated levels of plasma Big endothelin-1 and its relation to hypertension and skin lesions in individuals exposed to arsenic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossain, Ekhtear; Islam, Khairul; Yeasmin, Fouzia [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi-6205 (Bangladesh); Karim, Md. Rezaul [Department of Applied Nutrition and Food Technology, Islamic University, Kushtia-7003 (Bangladesh); Rahman, Mashiur; Agarwal, Smita; Hossain, Shakhawoat; Aziz, Abdul; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Sheikh, Afzal; Haque, Abedul; Hossain, M. Tofazzal [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi-6205 (Bangladesh); Hossain, Mostaque [Department of Medicine, Bangladesh Institute of Research and Rehabilitation in Diabetes, Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders (BIRDEM), Dhaka (Bangladesh); Haris, Parvez I. [Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, De Montfort University, Leicester, LE1 9BH (United Kingdom); Ikemura, Noriaki; Inoue, Kiyoshi; Miyataka, Hideki; Himeno, Seiichiro [Laboratory of Molecular Nutrition and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokushima Bunri University, Tokushima 770–8514 (Japan); Hossain, Khaled, E-mail: khossain69@yahoo.com [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi-6205 (Bangladesh)

    2012-03-01

    Chronic arsenic (As) exposure affects the endothelial system causing several diseases. Big endothelin-1 (Big ET-1), the biological precursor of endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a more accurate indicator of the degree of activation of the endothelial system. Effect of As exposure on the plasma Big ET-1 levels and its physiological implications have not yet been documented. We evaluated plasma Big ET-1 levels and their relation to hypertension and skin lesions in As exposed individuals in Bangladesh. A total of 304 study subjects from the As-endemic and non-endemic areas in Bangladesh were recruited for this study. As concentrations in water, hair and nails were measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The plasma Big ET-1 levels were measured using a one-step sandwich enzyme immunoassay kit. Significant increase in Big ET-1 levels were observed with the increasing concentrations of As in drinking water, hair and nails. Further, before and after adjusting with different covariates, plasma Big ET-1 levels were found to be significantly associated with the water, hair and nail As concentrations of the study subjects. Big ET-1 levels were also higher in the higher exposure groups compared to the lowest (reference) group. Interestingly, we observed that Big ET-1 levels were significantly higher in the hypertensive and skin lesion groups compared to the normotensive and without skin lesion counterpart, respectively of the study subjects in As-endemic areas. Thus, this study demonstrated a novel dose–response relationship between As exposure and plasma Big ET-1 levels indicating the possible involvement of plasma Big ET-1 levels in As-induced hypertension and skin lesions. -- Highlights: ► Plasma Big ET-1 is an indicator of endothelial damage. ► Plasma Big ET-1 level increases dose-dependently in arsenic exposed individuals. ► Study subjects in arsenic-endemic areas with hypertension have elevated Big ET-1 levels. ► Study subjects with arsenic

  1. Elevated human chorionic gonadotropin levels in patients with chronic kidney disease: Case series and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Soni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Women are often subjected to serum human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG testing prior to diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. A positive result leads to further testing to rule out pregnancy and avoid possible fetal teratogenicity. The impact of chronic kidney disease (CKD on HCG testing has not been studied. We report a series of 5 women out of 62 with CKD, who had a positive HCG test on routine pre-transplant screening at a single transplant center. We analyzed their case records retrospectively. Despite aggressive investigation, their elevated HCG levels remained unexplained. The positive test contributed to delays in transplantation and increased overall cost of treatment.

  2. The plasma level of soluble urokinase receptor is elevated in patients with Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteraemia and predicts mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittenhagen, p; Kronborg, Gitte; Weis, Nina Margrethe

    2004-01-01

    increased significantly (median 5.5; range 2.4-21.0 ng/mL) in 141 patients with pneumococcal bacteraemia, compared to 31 healthy controls (median 2.6, range 1.5-4.0 ng/mL, p 0.001). Furthermore, suPAR levels were elevated significantly in patients who died from the infection (n = 24) compared to survivors...... (n = 117; p hypotension, renal failure, cerebral symptoms and high serum concentrations of protein YKL-40 and suPAR were associated significantly with mortality (p

  3. Elevated copper levels during larval development cause altered locomotor behavior in the adult carabid beetle Pterostichus cupreus L. (Coleoptera: Carbidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bayley, M; Baatrup, E; Heimbach, U

    1995-01-01

    It is generally believed that copper causes changes in carabid communities indirectly by reducing food availability, because these animals are frequently found to have only slightly elevated metal contents even close to pollution sources. Using computer-centered video tracking, the locomotor......, but not to effect the emergence weights of adults of either sex. This toxic effect on the larvae was preserved through pupation to the surviving adults, which were normal in size and appearance, but displayed a dramatically depressed locomotor behavior. Copper analysis of these adults revealed that copper levels...

  4. Elevated morning cortisol is a stratified population-level biomarker for major depression in boys only with high depressive symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Matthew; Herbert, Joe; Jones, Peter B.; Sahakian, Barbara J.; Wilkinson, Paul O.; Dunn, Valerie J.; Croudace, Timothy J.; Goodyer, Ian M.

    2014-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MD) is a debilitating public mental health problem with severe societal and personal costs attached. Around one in six people will suffer from this complex disorder at some point in their lives, which has shown considerable etiological and clinical heterogeneity. Overall there remain no validated biomarkers in the youth population at large that can aid the detection of at-risk groups for depression in general and for boys and young men in particular. Using repeated measurements of two well-known correlates of MD (self-reported current depressive symptoms and early-morning cortisol), we undertook a population-based investigation to ascertain subtypes of adolescents that represent separate longitudinal phenotypes. Subsequently, we tested for differential risks for MD and other mental illnesses and cognitive differences between subtypes. Through the use of latent class analysis, we revealed a high-risk subtype (17% of the sample) demarcated by both high depressive symptoms and elevated cortisol levels. Membership of this class of individuals was associated with increased levels of impaired autobiographical memory recall in both sexes and the greatest likelihood of experiencing MD in boys only. These previously unidentified findings demonstrate at the population level a class of adolescents with a common physiological biomarker specifically for MD in boys and for a mnemonic vulnerability in both sexes. We suggest that the biobehavioral combination of high depressive symptoms and elevated morning cortisol is particularly hazardous for adolescent boys. PMID:24550453

  5. Effect of elevated total CoA levels on metabolic pathways in cultured hepatocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steffen, C.A.; Smith, C.M.

    1987-05-01

    Livers from fasted rats have 30% higher total CoA levels than fed rats. To determine whether this increase of total CoA influences metabolism, the rates of gluconeogenesis, fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis were measured in hepatocytes with cyanamide (CYM) or pantothenate (PA) deficient medium used to vary total CoA levels independently of hormonal status. Primary cultures of rat hepatocytes were incubated 14 hrs with Bt/sub 2/ cAMP, dexamethasone + theophylline in PA deficient medium or with CYM (500 ..mu..M) + PA, rinsed and preincubated 0.5 hr to remove the CYM. Hepatocytes treated with CYM had total CoA levels 10-24% higher than PA deficient cells and lower rates of glucose production from lactate + pyruvate (L/P) or from alanine (0.23 +/- 0.05 and 0.089 +/- 0.02 ..mu..m/mg protein, respectively in CYM treated cells compared to 0.33 +/- 0.06 and 0.130 +/- 0.006 in PA deficient cells). This decrease was not due to CYM per se, as the direct addition of CYM stimulated glucose production from L/P. CYM treated cells with 15-40% higher total CoA and 30% higher fatty acyl-CoA levels had the same rates of (/sup 14/C)-palmitate oxidation as PA deficient cells. However, rates of ketogenesis were lower in CYM treated cells (163 +/- 11 nm/mg compared to 217 +/- 14 nm/mg protein). These results suggest that physiological alterations of hepatic total CoA levels are not necessary for fasting rates of gluconeogenesis, fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis.

  6. Elevated serum levels of a biliary glycoprotein (BGP I) in patients with liver or biliary tract disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svenberg, T.; Wahren, B.; Hammarstroem, S.

    1979-01-01

    Human hepatic bile contains a glycoprotein (Biliary glycoprotein I BGP I) which cross-reacts with the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). A radioimmunoassay for BGP I was developed. The interference of CEA or 'non-specific cross-reacting antigen' (NCA) was small. The serum levels of BGP I were determined in healthy subjects, in patients with hepato-biliary diseases and in patients with various infections or inflammatory disorders. Healthy individuals, including pregnant women, had a serum BGP I concentration of about 0.5 - 1 mg/l. Diseases of the liver or biliary tract (e.g. hepatitis A or B, cytomegalovirus Hepatitis, obstructive jaundice or primary biliary cirrhosis) were associated with elevated serum levels of BGP I, as opposed to infectious diseases not affecting the liver mostly showing values within the normal range. Raised levels of serum BGP I activity may reflect biliary obstruction as a results of interference with normal BGP I secretion in the bile. (author)

  7. De novo biofilm community assembly from tap water source communities favors Nitrotoga over Nitrospira under elevated nitrite surface loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinnunen, Marta; Dechesne, Arnaud; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    -through biofilm system to continuous immigration from a tap water metacommunity while applying different nitrite surface loading rates. After 63 days of operation, we extracted biofilms and analyzed the community composition via Illumina MiSeq targeting the 16S rRNA gene. Previous studies have shown...... in the metacommunity, Nitrotoga and Nitrospira were found at near equal abundances, in the biofilm community, elevated nitrite loading strongly selected for Nitrotoga over Nitrospira. The biofilms were also significantly different in their alpha-diversity (p... of the biofilm community decreased significantly (p=0.004) compared to the metacommunity. These observations indicate that the selection towards Nitrotoga and Nitrospira dominated community assembly under different nitrite loadings. Lastly, we compared our observations of community composition...

  8. Effects of rapid, high-dose, elevated temperature ion implantation on the microstructure and tribology of ferrous surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, D. L.; Wei, R.; Wilbur, P. J.

    1991-05-01

    High-current, broad-beam ion implantation at 60 keV using a relatively simple system produces elevated target temperatures and results in remarkable enhancements in the wear resistance of ferrous materials compared to lower implantation temperatures. Effects of N, C and O implantation into AISI 304 stainless steel at 200 and 400°C on the microstructure and tribology are evaluated by conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and a specially designed pin-on-disc tribotester. C and N implantation at 400°C yields unusually thick layers of austenite containing high concentrations of C and N in interstitial solid solution thereby accounting for the enhanced mechanical properties. O implantation at 400°C results in Fe 2O 3-like oxide rather than O in solid solution so a dispersion strengthening of the surface layer is suggested.

  9. Ab initio surface core-level shifts and surface segregation energies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aldén, Magnus; Skriver, Hans Lomholt; Johansson, Börje

    1993-01-01

    We have calculated the surface core-level energy shifts of the 4d and 5d transition metals by means of local-density theory and a Green’s-function technique based on the linear muffin-tin orbitals method. Final-state effects are included by treating the core-ionized atom as an impurity located...

  10. Elevated CO2 levels affect the activity of nitrate reductase and carbonic anhydrase in the calcifying rhodophyte Corallina officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Laurie C; Straub, Sandra; Bischof, Kai

    2013-02-01

    The concentration of CO(2) in global surface ocean waters is increasing due to rising atmospheric CO(2) emissions, resulting in lower pH and a lower saturation state of carbonate ions. Such changes in seawater chemistry are expected to impact calcification in calcifying marine organisms. However, other physiological processes related to calcification might also be affected, including enzyme activity. In a mesocosm experiment, macroalgal communities were exposed to three CO(2) concentrations (380, 665, and 1486 µatm) to determine how the activity of two enzymes related to inorganic carbon uptake and nutrient assimilation in Corallina officinalis, an abundant calcifying rhodophyte, will be affected by elevated CO(2) concentrations. The activity of external carbonic anhydrase, an important enzyme functioning in macroalgal carbon-concentrating mechanisms, was inversely related to CO(2) concentration after long-term exposure (12 weeks). Nitrate reductase, the enzyme responsible for reduction of nitrate to nitrite, was stimulated by CO(2) and was highest in algae grown at 665 µatm CO(2). Nitrate and phosphate uptake rates were inversely related to CO(2), while ammonium uptake was unaffected, and the percentage of inorganic carbon in the algal skeleton decreased with increasing CO(2). The results indicate that the processes of inorganic carbon and nutrient uptake and assimilation are affected by elevated CO(2) due to changes in enzyme activity, which change the energy balance and physiological status of C. officinalis, therefore affecting its competitive interactions with other macroalgae. The ecological implications of the physiological changes in C. officinalis in response to elevated CO(2) are discussed.

  11. Interactive effects of elevated temperature and CO2 levels on energy metabolism and biomineralization of marine bivalves Crassostrea virginica and Mercenaria mercenaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanina, Anna V; Dickinson, Gary H; Matoo, Omera B; Bagwe, Rita; Dickinson, Ashley; Beniash, Elia; Sokolova, Inna M

    2013-09-01

    The continuing increase of carbon dioxide (CO2) levels in the atmosphere leads to increases in global temperatures and partial pressure of CO2 (PCO2) in surface waters, causing ocean acidification. These changes are especially pronounced in shallow coastal and estuarine waters and are expected to significantly affect marine calcifiers including bivalves that are ecosystem engineers in estuarine and coastal communities. To elucidate potential effects of higher temperatures and PCO2 on physiology and biomineralization of marine bivalves, we exposed two bivalve species, the eastern oysters Crassostrea virginica and the hard clams Mercenaria mercenaria to different combinations of PCO2 (~400 and 800μatm) and temperatures (22 and 27°C) for 15weeks. Survival, bioenergetic traits (tissue levels of lipids, glycogen, glucose and high energy phosphates) and biomineralization parameters (mechanical properties of the shells and activity of carbonic anhydrase, CA) were determined in clams and oysters under different temperature and PCO2 regimes. Our analysis showed major inter-species differences in shell mechanical traits and bioenergetics parameters. Elevated temperature led to the depletion of tissue energy reserves indicating energy deficiency in both species and resulted in higher mortality in oysters. Interestingly, while elevated PCO2 had a small effect on the physiology and metabolism of both species, it improved survival in oysters. At the same time, a combination of high temperature and elevated PCO2 lead to a significant decrease in shell hardness in both species, suggesting major changes in their biomineralization processes. Overall, these studies show that global climate change and ocean acidification might have complex interactive effects on physiology, metabolism and biomineralization in coastal and estuarine marine bivalves. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Reduction of elevated IGF-1 levels in coincident amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and acromegaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    PEREIRA, ERLICK A. C.; TURNER, MARTIN R.; WASS, JOHN A. H.; TALBOT, KEVIN

    2011-01-01

    We report a patient presenting with ALS in whom acromegaly was later confirmed. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) has been tried in the treatment of ALS and despite equivocal results from clinical trials, efforts have continued to try to harness the significant positive effects on motor neuron growth observed in vitro and in survival of mouse models of the disease. One subsequent study has reported an association between higher circulating serum IGF-1 levels and longer disease duration in ALS patients. Concern therefore arose in our case that treatment of the acromegaly with a somatostatin analogue might adversely affect the natural course of his ALS through lowering of potentially beneficial IGF-1 levels. Through clinical observation and prognostic modelling we suggest that this concern was unfounded. The potential interaction of these two rarely coincident disorders in our patient is discussed. PMID:19634028

  13. Anemia and elevated systemic levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunst, J.; Becker, A.; Lautenschlaeger, C.; Markau, S.; Becker, H.; Fischer, K.; Haensgen, G.

    2002-01-01

    Background: Tissue hypoxia is a major stimulus for the up-regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Anemia might theoretically impact on angiogenesis via impairment of tissue oxygenation. We have investigated this hypothesis in patients with solid cancers and benign diseases. Patients and methods: 49 patients with untreated locoregionally confined solid cancers of the head and neck, cervix, rectum and lung and 59 additional patients with non-malignant diseases (36 normemic patients without serious diseases and 23 patients with renal anemia) were enrolled and the impact of anemia on plasma VEGF levels were determined. VEGF was measured with a commercially available sandwich enzyme immunoassay technique. Results: Plasma levels of VEGF were 16.2±12.7 pg/ml in 36 normemic patients without malignant disease, 49,2±34.5 pg/ml in 49 patients with cancers (p [de

  14. Matrix elements for level shifts and widths of hydrogenic levels in ion-surface interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thumm, U.; Kuerpick, P.

    1996-05-01

    The authors present a derivation of basic one-electron matrix elements involved in the ion-metal surface scattering theory. Their method allows for the convenient generation of matrix elements for high principal quantum numbers of the projectile states and thus provides basic building blocks for the ab-initio description of highly charged ion-surface interactions. The matrix elements related to the energy shifts can be evaluated for an arbitrary one-dimensional potential therefore allowing the inclusion of electronic and nuclear self-image potentials. The authors extend these concepts to wave functions generated from an arbitrary one-dimensional surface potential and show applications to various surface potentials, projectile nuclear charges and hydrogenic levels.

  15. Muscle cramps and elevated serum creatine phosphokinase levels induced by beta-adrenoceptor blockers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Y; Watanabe, N; Hashimoto, J; Nishiyama, A; Sakuma, H; Sekino, H; Omata, K; Abe, K

    1995-01-01

    We have assessed the propensity of beta-adrenoceptor blockers to cause muscle cramps and to raise the serum creatine phosphokinase (CPK) level in 78 patients with essential hypertension. After a control period, a beta-adrenoceptor blocker without intrinsic sympathomimetic activity (ISA; propranolol, metoprolol or arotinolol) was administered for three months. Thereafter, the patients were randomised to receive a beta-adrenoceptor blocker with ISA (pindolol or carteolol) for three months or a beta-adrenoceptor blocker without ISA for a further three months. This pattern was continued until all beta-adrenoceptor blockers had been given. At the end of each period, CPK and CPK-MB levels were measured. Of the 78 subjects, muscle cramps occurred in 27 during treatment with pindolol and 32 during treatment with carteolol. No complaints were made by subjects treated with propranolol and arotinolol, but muscle cramps were reported in 2 treated with metoprolol. While muscle cramps were caused both by pindolol and carteolol in 16 subjects, they were caused by either of these drugs in the remainder of the subjects. Muscle cramp occurred mainly in the calves when the patients were in bed at night. Serum CPK and CPK-MB levels increased significantly during treatment with pindolol (control period vs pindolol, CPK = 96 vs 133 IU.ml-1, CPK-MB = 14 vs 18 IU.ml-1) or carteolol (CPK = 117 IU.ml-1, CPK-MB = 18 IU.ml-1) while the levels during treatment with propranolol, arotinolol and metoprolol did not change from those in the control period.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Responses to Elevated c-di-GMP Levels in Mutualistic and Pathogenic Plant-Interacting Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Mendoza, Daniel; Aragón, Isabel M.; Prada-Ramírez, Harold A.; Romero-Jiménez, Lorena; Ramos, Cayo; Gallegos, María-Trinidad; Sanjuán, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Despite a recent burst of research, knowledge on c-di-GMP signaling pathways remains largely fragmentary and molecular mechanisms of regulation and even c-di-GMP targets are yet unknown for most bacteria. Besides genomics or bioinformatics, accompanying alternative approaches are necessary to reveal c-di-GMP regulation in bacteria with complex lifestyles. We have approached this study by artificially altering the c-di-GMP economy of diverse pathogenic and mutualistic plant-interacting bacteria and examining the effects on the interaction with their respective host plants. Phytopathogenic Pseudomonas and symbiotic Rhizobium strains with enhanced levels of intracellular c-di-GMP displayed common free-living responses: reduction of motility, increased production of extracellular polysaccharides and enhanced biofilm formation. Regarding the interaction with the host plants, P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi cells containing high c-di-GMP levels formed larger knots on olive plants which, however, displayed reduced necrosis. In contrast, development of disease symptoms in P. syringae-tomato or P. syringae-bean interactions did not seem significantly affected by high c-di-GMP. On the other hand, increasing c-di-GMP levels in symbiotic R. etli and R. leguminosarum strains favoured the early stages of the interaction since enhanced adhesion to plant roots, but decreased symbiotic efficiency as plant growth and nitrogen contents were reduced. Our results remark the importance of c-di-GMP economy for plant-interacting bacteria and show the usefulness of our approach to reveal particular stages during plant-bacteria associations which are sensitive to changes in c-di-GMP levels. PMID:24626229

  17. Elevated serum levels of interferon-regulated chemokines are biomarkers for active human systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason W Bauer

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is a serious systemic autoimmune disorder that affects multiple organ systems and is characterized by unpredictable flares of disease. Recent evidence indicates a role for type I interferon (IFN in SLE pathogenesis; however, the downstream effects of IFN pathway activation are not well understood. Here we test the hypothesis that type I IFN-regulated proteins are present in the serum of SLE patients and correlate with disease activity.We performed a comprehensive survey of the serologic proteome in human SLE and identified dysregulated levels of 30 cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, and soluble receptors. Particularly striking was the highly coordinated up-regulation of 12 inflammatory and/or homeostatic chemokines, molecules that direct the movement of leukocytes in the body. Most of the identified chemokines were inducible by type I IFN, and their levels correlated strongly with clinical and laboratory measures of disease activity.These data suggest that severely disrupted chemokine gradients may contribute to the systemic autoimmunity observed in human SLE. Furthermore, the levels of serum chemokines may serve as convenient biomarkers for disease activity in lupus.

  18. Surface core-level shifts for simple metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aldén, Magnus; Skriver, Hans Lomholt; Johansson, Börje

    1994-01-01

    We have performed an ab initio study of the surface core-level binding energy shift (SCLS) for 11 of the simple metals by means of a Green’s-function technique within the tight-binding linear-muffin-tin-orbitals method. Initial- and final-state effects are included within the concept of complete....... We furthermore conclude that the unexpected negative sign of the SCLS in beryllium is predominantly an initial-state effect and is caused by the high electron density in this metal....

  19. Roles of elevated intravitreal IL-1β and IL-10 levels in proliferative diabetic retinopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Mao, Chunjie; Yan, Hua

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the roles of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-10 in the vitreous of proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). Materials and Methods: Vitreous samples were obtained from 26 eyes of 26 patients with PDR and from eight eyes of eight cases without PDR. The IL-1β and IL-10 concentration in the vitreous was measured by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: Levels of IL-1β and IL-10 in vitreous were higher in PDR patients compared with control group. And there ...

  20. A moderate elevation of circulating levels of IGF-I does not alter ErbB2 induced mammary tumorigenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Powel H

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological evidence suggests that moderately elevated levels of circulating insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I are associated with increased risk of breast cancer in women. How circulating IGF-I may promote breast cancer incidence is unknown, however, increased IGF-I signaling is linked to trastuzumab resistance in ErbB2 positive breast cancer. Few models have directly examined the effect of moderately high levels of circulating IGF-I on breast cancer initiation and progression. The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of circulating IGF-I to independently initiate mammary tumorigenesis and/or accelerate the progression of ErbB2 mediated mammary tumor growth. Methods We crossed heterozygous TTR-IGF-I mice with heterozygous MMTV-ErbB2 mice to generate 4 different genotypes: TTR-IGF-I/MMTV-ErbB2 (bigenic, TTR-IGF-I only, MMTV-ErbB2 only, and wild type (wt. Virgin females were palpated twice a week and harvested when tumors reached 1000 mm3. For study of normal development, blood and tissue were harvested at 4, 6 and 9 weeks of age in TTR-IGF-I and wt mice. Results TTR-IGF-I and TTR-IGF-I/ErbB2 bigenic mice showed a moderate 35% increase in circulating total IGF-I compared to ErbB2 and wt control mice. Elevation of circulating IGF-I had no effect upon pubertal mammary gland development. The transgenic increase in IGF-I alone wasn't sufficient to initiate mammary tumorigenesis. Elevated circulating IGF-I had no effect upon ErbB2-induced mammary tumorigenesis or metastasis, with median time to tumor formation being 30 wks and 33 wks in TTR-IGF-I/ErbB2 bigenic and ErbB2 mice respectively (p = 0.65. Levels of IGF-I in lysates from ErbB2/TTR-IGF-I tumors compared to ErbB2 was elevated in a similar manner to the circulating IGF-I, however, there was no effect on the rate of tumor growth (p = 0.23. There were no morphological differences in tumor type (solid adenocarcinomas between bigenic and ErbB2 mammary glands

  1. Elevated systemic glutamic acid level in the non-obese diabetic mouse is Idd linked and induces beta cell apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banday, Viqar Showkat; Lejon, Kristina

    2017-02-01

    Although type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a T-cell-mediated disease in the effector stage, the mechanism behind the initial beta cell assault is less understood. Metabolomic differences, including elevated levels of glutamic acid, have been observed in patients with T1D before disease onset, as well as in pre-diabetic non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. Increased levels of glutamic acid damage both neurons and beta cells, implying that this could contribute to the initial events of T1D pathogenesis. We investigated the underlying genetic factors and consequences of the increased levels of glutamic acid in NOD mice. Serum glutamic acid levels from a (NOD×B6)F 2 cohort (n = 182) were measured. By genome-wide and Idd region targeted microsatellite mapping, genetic association was detected for six regions including Idd2, Idd4 and Idd22. In silico analysis of potential enzymes and transporters located in and around the mapped regions that are involved in glutamic acid metabolism consisted of alanine aminotransferase, glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase, aldehyde dehydrogenase 18 family, alutamyl-prolyl-tRNA synthetase, glutamic acid transporters GLAST and EAAC1. Increased EAAC1 protein expression was observed in lysates from livers of NOD mice compared with B6 mice. Functional consequence of the elevated glutamic acid level in NOD mice was tested by culturing NOD. Rag2 -/- Langerhans' islets with glutamic acid. Induction of apoptosis of the islets was detected upon glutamic acid challenge using TUNEL assay. Our results support the notion that a dysregulated metabolome could contribute to the initiation of T1D. We suggest that targeting of the increased glutamic acid in pre-diabetic patients could be used as a potential therapy. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Elevated Blood Lead Levels in Infants and Mothers in Benin and Potential Sources of Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodeau-Livinec, Florence; Glorennec, Philippe; Cot, Michel; Dumas, Pierre; Durand, Séverine; Massougbodji, Achille; Ayotte, Pierre; Le Bot, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Lead in childhood is well known to be associated with poor neurodevelopment. As part of a study on maternal anemia and offspring neurodevelopment, we analyzed blood lead level (BLL) with no prior knowledge of lead exposure in 225 mothers and 685 offspring 1 to 2 years old from Allada, a semi-rural area in Benin, sub-Saharan Africa, between May 2011 and May 2013. Blood samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Environmental assessments in households and isotopic ratio measurements were performed for eight children with BLL > 100 µg/L. High lead levels (BLL > 50 µg/L) were found in 44% of mothers and 58% of children. The median BLL was 55.1 (interquartile range 39.2–85.0) and 46.6 (36.5–60.1) µg/L, respectively. Maternal BLL was associated with offspring’s consumption of piped water and animals killed by ammunition. Children’s BLL was associated with presence of paint chips in the house and consumption of animals killed by ammunition. In this population, with 98% of children still breastfed, children’s BLL was highly associated with maternal BLL on multivariate analyses. Environmental measures and isotopic ratios supported these findings. Offspring may be highly exposed to lead in utero and probably via breastfeeding in addition to lead paint exposure. PMID:26978384

  3. Acute rejection after kidney transplantation promotes graft fibrosis with elevated adenosine level in rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingliang Li

    Full Text Available Chronic allograft nephropathy is a worldwide issue with the major feature of progressive allograft fibrosis, eventually ending with graft loss. Adenosine has been demonstrated to play an important role in process of fibrosis. Our study aimed to investigate the relationship between adenosine and fibrosis in renal allograft acute rejection in rat.Wistar rats and SD rats were selected as experimental animals. Our study designed two groups. In the allograft transplantation group, kidneys of Wistar rats were orthotopically transplanted into SD rat recipients, the same species but not genetically identical, to induce acute rejection. Kidney transplantations of SD rats to SD rats which were genetically identical were served as the control. We established rat models and detected a series of indicators. All data were analyzed statistically. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant.Compared with the control group, levels of adenosine increased significantly in the allograft transplantation group, in which acute rejection was induced (P<0.05. Progressive allograft fibrosis as well as collagen deposition were observed.These findings suggested that level of adenosine was upregulated in acute rejection after kidney allograft transplantation in rat. Acute rejection may promote renal allograft fibrosis via the adenosine signaling pathways.

  4. Radon level in China and elevated indoor exposure in carbon brick and cave dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zuoyuan

    1992-01-01

    A nation wide survey of Chinese houses was conducted to determine the average annual effective dose to Chinese population from exposure to radon and its daughter products. The indoor and outdoor concentrations of radon and its daughters were measured using scintillation flask, two filter and carbon canister methods, as well as modified Tsivoglou methods for Rn daughters. Average Rn concentrations are 26.2Bqm -3 and 13.5Bqm -3 for indoor and outdoor environment, respectively. Potential alpha energy concentration, indoor is 744 x 10 -10 Jm -3 , outdoor is 511 x 10 -10 Jm -3 . Equilibrium Factor of Rn daughters are 0.49 (indoor) and 0.61 (outdoor). Occupancy Factor is 0.77 and 0.23. Using appropriate conversion factors, the annual average effective dose to Chinese population is 0.967 mSv. And also, the indoor Rn concentration and gamma dose rate were surveyed in two rural Provinces: Gansu and Jianxi. The fact was found that lung cancer mortality of population lived in high Rn level dwellings is higher than in control groups. An epidemiological retrospective case-control study is recommended in houses with high Rn level. (author)

  5. Cardioprotective Effect of Intermittent Fasting is Associated with an Elevation of Adiponectin Levels in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Ruiqian; Ahmet, Ismayil; Brown, Martin; Cheng, Aiwu; Kamimura, Naomi; Talan, Mark; Mattson, Mark P.

    2009-01-01

    It has been reported that dietary energy restriction, including intermittent fasting (IF), can protect heart and brain cells against injury and improve functional outcome in animal models of myocardial infarction and stroke. Here we report that IF improves glycemic control and protects the myocardium against ischemia-induced cell damage and inflammation in rats. Echocardiographic analysis of heart structural and functional variables revealed that IF attenuates the growth-related increase in posterior ventricular wall thickness, , end systolic and diastolic volumes, and reduces the ejection fraction. The size of the ischemic infarct 24 hours following permanent ligation of a coronary artery was significantly smaller, and markers of inflammation (infiltration of leukocytes in the area at risk and plasma IL-6 levels) were less, in IF rats compared to rats on the control diet. IF resulted in increased levels of circulating adiponectin prior to and after myocardial infarction. Because recent studies have shown that adiponectin can protect the heart against ischemic injury, our findings suggest a potential role for adiponectin as a mediator of the cardioprotective effect of IF. PMID:19423320

  6. Elevated Blood Lead Levels in Infants and Mothers in Benin and Potential Sources of Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Bodeau-Livinec

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Lead in childhood is well known to be associated with poor neurodevelopment. As part of a study on maternal anemia and offspring neurodevelopment, we analyzed blood lead level (BLL with no prior knowledge of lead exposure in 225 mothers and 685 offspring 1 to 2 years old from Allada, a semi-rural area in Benin, sub-Saharan Africa, between May 2011 and May 2013. Blood samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Environmental assessments in households and isotopic ratio measurements were performed for eight children with BLL > 100 µg/L. High lead levels (BLL > 50 µg/L were found in 44% of mothers and 58% of children. The median BLL was 55.1 (interquartile range 39.2–85.0 and 46.6 (36.5–60.1 µg/L, respectively. Maternal BLL was associated with offspring’s consumption of piped water and animals killed by ammunition. Children’s BLL was associated with presence of paint chips in the house and consumption of animals killed by ammunition. In this population, with 98% of children still breastfed, children’s BLL was highly associated with maternal BLL on multivariate analyses. Environmental measures and isotopic ratios supported these findings. Offspring may be highly exposed to lead in utero and probably via breastfeeding in addition to lead paint exposure.

  7. Elevated circulating nitric oxide levels correlates with enhanced oxidative stress in patients with hyperemesis gravidarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyazit, Fatma; Türkön, Hakan; Pek, Eren; Ozturk, Filiz Halici; Ünsal, Mesut

    2018-02-01

    Since the biochemical and molecular mechanisms responsible for ongoing oxidative stress in hyperemesis gravidarum (HEG) patients have not yet been fully elucidated, the aim of this study was to evaluate the possible role of nitric oxide (NO), malondialdehyde (MDA) and other oxidative stress markers in the disease pathophysiology. Moreover, the relation between oxidative stress markers and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection was also investigated. Women with pregnancies complicated by HEG (n = 33) were compared with pregnant women without HEG (n = 30) and with healthy non-pregnant women (n = 31). Serum NO, MDA, total oxidant status (TOS), total antioxidant status (TAS), oxidative stress index (OSI) and H. pylori infection status were determined for each subject. Serum NO levels and OSI index were found to be increased (p = .001 and .013, respectively) and TAS levels were decreased (p Hyperemesis gravidarum is an oxidative stress condition, as reflected by increased nitric oxide (NO) and decreased total antioxidant status activity, regardless of H. Pylori infection. What are the implications for clinical practice and/or further research? Full disclosure of the association between circulating NO and hyperemesis gravidarum would shed light on underlying biological mechanisms and could help clinical management of similar pregnancy-associated morbidity states.

  8. Elevated PCDD/F levels and distinctive PCDD/F congener profiles in free range eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Jing-Fang; Chen, Chun; Liao, Pao-Chi

    2010-07-14

    Chicken eggs are one of the most important foods in the human diet all over the world, and the demand for eggs from free range hens has steadily increased. Congener-specific analyses of 17 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were performed on 6 free range and 12 caged chicken egg samples collected in Taiwan. The mean level of PCDD/Fs in the free range egg samples was 5.7 (1.79/0.314) times higher than those in the caged egg samples. Principle component analysis revealed that at least three characteristic patterns of PCDD/F congener were observed among the 18 egg samples. The different PCDD/F congener patterns between free range and caged egg samples may reflect distinctive exposure scenarios among the free range and caged hens. We suggest that the differences of PCDD/F levels and congener patterns between free range and caged egg samples give rise to the issues related to the safety of eating free range chicken eggs. The present data may provide useful information for further investigation of the possible PCDD/F sources in the contaminated free range eggs.

  9. Elevated Hair Cortisol Levels among Heroin Addicts on Current Methadone Maintenance Compared to Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jin; Li, Jifeng; Xu, Guanyi; Zhang, Jing; Chen, Zheng; Lu, Zuhong; Deng, Huihua

    2016-01-01

    Whether methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) can improve the basal function of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis, which is suppressed by long-term heroin consumption, is a matter of debate. The stress state and depression and anxiety symptoms may affect the basal activity of the HPA axis in MMT patients. However, the effect of psychological factors on HPA activity was not simultaneously controlled in previous studies. This study investigated differences in HPA basal activity between MMT patients and controls using psychological variables as covariates. The participants included 52 MMT patients and 41 age-matched, non-heroin-dependent controls. Psychological states were self-reported with the Perceived Stress Scale, Self-Rating Depression Scale and Self-Rating Anxiety Scale. The hair cortisol level was adopted as a biomarker of HPA basal activity and was determined with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The results revealed that MMT patients had significantly higher hair cortisol levels than the controls (p0.05) when the perceived stress, depression and anxiety scores were used as covariates. We concluded that patients with long-term MMT showed higher basal activity of the HPA axis. The high chronic stress state and increase in depression and anxiety symptoms may mask the suppression effect of methadone on the HPA activity. PMID:27010803

  10. Elevated lipocalin-2 level in aqueous humor of patients with central retinal vein occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koban, Yaran; Sahin, Seda; Boy, Fatih; Kara, Fatih

    2018-03-23

    To assess the concentrations of lipocalin-2 (LCN2) in the serum and the aqueous humor of patients with central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). The concentrations of LCN2 in the serum and aqueous humor of 16 cataract patients and 16 patients with CRVO with macular edema were compared. Collection of aqueous samples was conducted in the operating theater under sterile conditions and just prior to intravitreal ranibizumab injection or cataract surgery. LCN2 levels in serum and aqueous humor samples were measured using a commercial kit (human lipocalin-2/NGAL PicoKine ELISA Kit, MyBioSource Inc., USA; Catalog No: MBS175829) based on standard sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technology. The concentrations of LCN2 in the aqueous humors of the CRVO group were higher than those of the control group (p = 0.021). There was no significant difference in serum LCN2 level between the two groups (p = 0.463). Concentrations of LCN2 in aqueous humor are increased in CRVO. LCN2 may be part of a pro-catabolic phenotype, and it may play an important role in the dreaded complications of CRVO, such as macular edema, macular ischemia, and neovascularization, which lead to blindness.

  11. Elevated bilirubin levels are associated with a better renal prognosis and ameliorate kidney fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sehoon; Kim, Do Hyoung; Hwang, Jin Ho; Kim, Yong-Chul; Kim, Jin Hyuk; Lim, Chun Soo; Kim, Yon Su; Yang, Seung Hee; Lee, Jung Pyo

    2017-01-01

    Bilirubin has been reported to protect against kidney injury. However, further studies highlighting the beneficial effects of bilirubin on renal fibrosis and chronic renal function decline are necessary. We assessed a prospective cohort with a reference range of total bilirubin levels. The primary outcome was a 30% reduction in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) from baseline, and the secondary outcome was a doubling of the serum creatinine levels, halving of the eGFR and the initiation of dialysis. In addition, experiments with tubular epithelial cells and C57BL/6 mice were performed to investigate the protective effects of bilirubin on kidney fibrosis. As a result, 1,080 patients were included in the study cohort. The study group with relative hyperbilirubinemia (total bilirubin 0.8-1.2 mg/dL) showed a better prognosis in terms of the primary outcome (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 0.33, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.19-0.59, P renal prognosis, and bilirubin treatment induced a beneficial effect on renal fibrosis. Therefore, bilirubin could be a potential therapeutic target to delay fibrosis-related kidney disease progression.

  12. Dolphin foraging sounds suppress calling and elevate stress hormone levels in a prey species, the Gulf toadfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remage-Healey, Luke; Nowacek, Douglas P; Bass, Andrew H

    2006-11-01

    The passive listening hypothesis proposes that dolphins and whales detect acoustic signals emitted by prey, including sound-producing (soniferous) fishes. Previous work showed that bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) behaviorally orient toward the sounds of prey, including the advertisement calls of male Gulf toadfish (Opsanus beta). In addition, soniferous fishes constitute over 80% of Tursiops diet, and toadfishes alone account for approximately 13% of the stomach contents of adult bottlenose dolphins. Here, we used both behavioral (vocalizations) and physiological (plasma cortisol levels) parameters to determine if male Gulf toadfish can, in turn, detect the acoustic signals of bottlenose dolphins. Using underwater playbacks to toadfish in their natural environment, we found that low-frequency dolphin sounds (;pops') within the toadfish's range of hearing dramatically reduce toadfish calling rates by 50%. High frequency dolphin sounds (whistles) and low-frequency snapping shrimp pops (ambient control sounds) each had no effect on toadfish calling rates. Predator sound playbacks also had consequences for circulating stress hormones, as cortisol levels were significantly elevated in male toadfish exposed to dolphin pops compared with snapping shrimp pops. These findings lend strong support to the hypothesis that individuals of a prey species modulate communication behavior in the presence of a predator, and also suggest that short-term glucocorticoid elevation is associated with anti-predator behavior.

  13. Dynamics of gas-surface interactions atomic-level understanding of scattering processes at surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Díez Muniño, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    This book gives a representative survey of the state of the art of research on gas-surface interactions. It provides an overview of the current understanding of gas surface dynamics and, in particular, of the reactive and non-reactive processes of atoms and small molecules at surfaces. Leading scientists in the field, both from the theoretical and the experimental sides, write in this book about their most recent advances. Surface science grew as an interdisciplinary research area over the last decades, mostly because of new experimental technologies (ultra-high vacuum, for instance), as well as because of a novel paradigm, the ‘surface science’ approach. The book describes the second transformation which is now taking place pushed by the availability of powerful quantum-mechanical theoretical methods implemented numerically. In the book, experiment and theory progress hand in hand with an unprecedented degree of accuracy and control. The book presents how modern surface science targets the atomic-level u...

  14. Levels of circulating MMP-7 degraded elastin are elevated in pulmonary disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, J.H.; Larsen, L.; Dasgupta, B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Elastin is a signature protein of the lungs. Matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7) is important in lung defence mechanisms and degrades elastin. However, MMP-7 activity in regard to elastin degradation has never been quantified serologically in patients with lung diseases. An assay...... for the quantification of MMP-7 generated elastin fragments (ELM7) was therefore developed to investigate MMP-7 derived elastin degradation in pulmonary disorders such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and lung cancer. Design and methods:  Monoclonal antibodies (mABs) were raised against eight carefully selected...... MMP-7 cleavage sites on elastin. After characterisation and validation of the mABs, one mAB targeting the ELM7 fragment was chosen. ELM7 fragment levels were assessed in serum samples from patients diagnosed with IPF (n = 123, baseline samples, CTgov reg. NCT00786201), and lung cancer (n = 40...

  15. Elevated lead levels and adverse effects on natural killer cells in children from an electronic waste recycling area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Huo, Xia; Cao, Junjun; Yang, Tian; Xu, Long; Xu, Xijin

    2016-06-01

    Lead (Pb) has been proved to exert immunotoxicity to influence immune homeostasis in humans. To monitor the internal Pb level and evaluate its effect on natural killer (NK) cells and cytokine/chemokine concentrations, we recruited 285 preschool children from Guiyu, one of the largest electronic waste (e-waste) destinations and recycling areas in the world, and known to have high concentrations of Pb in the air, soil, water, sediment and plants. A total of 126 preschool children were selected from Haojiang as a reference group. Results showed that children in Guiyu, the exposed area, had higher blood Pb levels and lower percentages of NK cells than children from the reference area. A significantly negative association was found between the percentage of NK cells and increasing Pb levels. Moreover, children in Guiyu area had higher platelet counts and IL-1β concentrations, and lower levels of IL-2, IL-27, MIP-1α and MIP-1β were observed in the exposed children. These changes might not be conducive to the development and differentiation of NK cells. Taken together, the elevated Pb levels result in the lower percentages of NK cells, but also alter the levels of platelets, IL-1β and IL-27, which might be unconducive to the activity and function of NK cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Elevation of Glucose 6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Activity Induced by Amplified Insulin Response in Low Glutathione Levels in Rat Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misako Taniguchi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Weanling male Wistar rats were fed on a 10% soybean protein isolate (SPI diet for 3 weeks with or without supplementing 0.3% sulfur-containing amino acids (SAA; methionine or cystine to examine relationship between glutathione (GSH levels and activities of NADPH-producing enzymes, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD and malic enzyme (ME, in the liver. Of rats on the 10% SPI diet, GSH levels were lower and the enzyme activities were higher than of those fed on an SAA-supplemented diet. Despite the lower GSH level, γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCS activity was higher in the 10% SPI group than other groups. Examination of mRNAs of G6PD and ME suggested that the GSH-suppressing effect on enzyme induction occurred prior to and/or at transcriptional levels. Gel electrophoresis of G6PD indicated that low GSH status caused a decrease in reduced form and an increase in oxidized form of the enzyme, suggesting an accelerated turnover rate of the enzyme. In primary cultured hepatocytes, insulin response to induce G6PD activity was augmented in low GSH levels manipulated in the presence of buthionine sulfoximine. These findings indicated that elevation of the G6PD activity in low GSH levels was caused by amplified insulin response for expression of the enzyme and accelerated turnover rate of the enzyme molecule.

  17. Prevalence of Elevated Blood Lead Levels and Risk Factors Among Residents Younger Than 6 Years, Puerto Rico--2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dignam, Timothy; Rivera García, Brenda; De León, Maridali; Curtis, Gerald; Creanga, Andreea A; Azofeifa, Alejandro; OʼNeill, Maureen; Blanton, Curtis; Kennedy, Chinaro; Rullán, Maria; Caldwell, Kathy; Rullán, John; Brown, Mary Jean

    2016-01-01

    Limited data exist about blood lead levels (BLLs) and potential exposures among children living in Puerto Rico. The Puerto Rico Department of Health has no formal blood lead surveillance program. We assessed the prevalence of elevated BLLs (≥5 micrograms of lead per deciliter of blood), evaluated household environmental lead levels, and risk factors for BLL among children younger than 6 years of age living in Puerto Rico in 2010. We used a population-based, cross-sectional sampling strategy to enroll an island-representative sample of Puerto Rican children younger than 6 years. We estimated the island-wide weighted prevalence of elevated BLLs and conducted bivariable and multivariable linear regression analyses to ascertain risk factors for elevated BLLs. The analytic data set included 355 households and 439 children younger than 6 years throughout Puerto Rico. The weighted geometric mean BLL of children younger than 6 years was 1.57 μg/dL (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.27-1.88). The weighted prevalence of children younger than 6 years with BLLs of 5 μg/dL or more was 3.18% (95% CI, 0.93-5.43) and for BLLs of 10 μg/dL or more was 0.50% (95% CI, 0-1.31). Higher mean BLLs were significantly associated with data collection during the summer months, a lead-related activity or hobby of anyone in the residence, and maternal education of less than 12 years. Few environmental lead hazards were identified. The prevalence of elevated BLLs among Puerto Rican children younger than 6 years is comparable with the most recent (2007-2010) US national estimate (BLLs ≥5 μg/dL = 2.6% [95% CI = 1.6-4.0]). Our findings suggest that targeted screening of specific higher-risk groups of children younger than 6 years can replace island-wide or insurance-specific policies of mandatory blood lead testing in Puerto Rico.

  18. Genetic predisposition to elevated levels of C-reactive protein is associated with a decreased risk for preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spracklen, Cassandra N; Smith, Caitlin J; Saftlas, Audrey F; Triche, Elizabeth W; Bjonnes, Andrew; Keating, Brendan J; Saxena, Richa; Breheny, Patrick J; Dewan, Andrew T; Robinson, Jennifer G; Hoh, Josephine; Ryckman, Kelli K

    2017-02-01

    To examine the association between genetic predisposition to elevated C-reactive protein (CRP)and risk for preeclampsia using validated genetic loci for C-reactive protein. Preeclampsia cases (n = 177) and normotensive controls (n = 116) were selected from live birth certificates to nulliparous Iowa women during the period August 2002-May 2005. Disease status was verified by the medical chart review. Genetic predisposition to CRP was estimated by a genetic risk score on the basis of established loci for CRP levels. Logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the relationships between the genotype score and preeclampsia. Replication analyses were performed in an independent, US population of preeclampsia cases (n = 516) and controls (n = 1,097) of European ancestry. The genetic risk score (GRS) related to higher levels of CRP demonstrated a significantly decreased risk of preeclampsia (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.82-0.96). When the GRS was analyzed by quartile, an inverse linear trend was observed (p = 0.0006). The results were similar after adjustments for the body mass index (BMI), smoking, and leisure-time physical activity. In the independent replication population, the association with the CRP GRS was also marginally significant (OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.92, 1.02). Meta-analysis of the two studies was statistically significant (OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.90, 0.99). Our data suggest an inverse, counterintuitive association between the genetic predisposition to elevated levels of CRP and a decreased risk of preeclampsia. This suggests that the blood CRP level is a marker of preeclampsia, but it does not appear to be a factor on the causal pathway.

  19. The Role of 18F-FDG PET/CT in Evaluating Elevated Levels of Tumor Markers in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İnan Göktaş

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Our aim was to assess the diagnostic performance of integrated positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT in the follow-up of breast cancer patients, who underwent a PET/CT scan due to a suspicion of recurrence based on elevated levels of serum tumor markers. Methods: Seventy-seven consecutive patients were included in this study. PET/CT scan results were compared with the final diagnoses that were obtained from histopathological sampling or a minimum 6 months of radiological follow-up. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV, negative predictive value (NPV and the diagnostic accuracy of PET/CT for detecting recurrence were calculated. Results: All 77 patients had increased serum cancer antigen 15-3 levels while 37 had increased serum carcinoembryonic antigen levels. According to PET/CT scan results, 59 of 77 patients (PET/CT positive had local recurrence and/or distant metastasis while there was no pathological finding in 18 patients (PET/CT negative. In a follow-up of minimum 6 months, tumor recurrence was confirmed in 58 of “PET/CT positive” patients while no tumor recurrence was detected in 16 of “PET/CT negative” patients. According to these results the sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and the diagnostic accuracy of PET/CT for detecting recurrence on a per-person basis were calculated as 98%, 88%, 96%, 94% and 96%, respectively. Conclusion: In case of elevated levels of serum tumor markers, PET/CT has a high diagnostic accuracy in detecting tumor recurrence in patients with breast cancer, and it is an effective modality that can be used in addition to conventional imaging techniques.

  20. Evidence for Elevated Cerebrospinal Fluid ERK1/2 Levels in Alzheimer Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Spitzer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF samples from 33 patients with Alzheimer dementia (AD, 21 patients with mild cognitive impairment who converted to AD during followup (MCI-AD, 25 patients with stable mild cognitive impairment (MCI-stable, and 16 nondemented subjects (ND were analyzed with a chemiluminescence immunoassay to assess the levels of the mitogen-activated protein kinase ERK1/2 (extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2. The results were evaluated in relation to total Tau (tTau, phosphorylated Tau (pTau, and beta-amyloid 42 peptide (Aβ42. CSF-ERK1/2 was significantly increased in the AD group as compared to stable MCI patients and the ND group. Western blot analysis of a pooled cerebrospinal fluid sample revealed that both isoforms, ERK1 and ERK2, and low amounts of doubly phosphorylated ERK2 were detectable. As a predictive diagnostic AD biomarker, CSF-ERK1/2 was inferior to tTau, pTau, and Aβ42.

  1. An anti-herbivore defense mutualism under elevated CO2 levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marks, S.; Lincoln, D.E. (Winthrop Univ., Rock Hill, SC (United States))

    1994-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that insects typically consume more when fed leaf tissue grown under CO2 enrichment, but with few negative effects on growth. On the other hand, Lepidopteran larvae fed tissue infected with Balansiae fungal endophytes (which produce toxic alkaloids) typically eat less but suffer negative effects on growth and survival. This study was carried out to see how these two factors would interact to affect consumption and growth of Fall Armyworm larvae (Spodoptera frugiperda). Infected and uninfected ramets of a single genotype of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) were grown under CO2 concentrations of 400 and 700 ul/L. Larvae had increased relative growth in the high CO2 treatment, but decreased growth when fed infected tissue. Relative consumption of leaf tissue was greater in the high CO2 treatment, but was not effected by infection. CO2 level, infection, and their interaction all significantly reduced the efficiency of conversion of food ingested (ECI). It appears that tall fescue may not be as well defended against herbivores under CO2 enrichment, although insects may still avoid and be negatively effected by endophyte infected plants.

  2. Elevated Tribbles homolog 2–specific antibody levels in narcolepsy patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetkovic-Lopes, Vesna; Bayer, Laurence; Dorsaz, Stéphane; Maret, Stéphanie; Pradervand, Sylvain; Dauvilliers, Yves; Lecendreux, Michel; Lammers, Gert-Jan; Donjacour, Claire E.H.M.; Du Pasquier, Renaud A.; Pfister, Corinne; Petit, Brice; Hor, Hyun; Mühlethaler, Michel; Tafti, Mehdi

    2010-01-01

    Narcolepsy is a sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and attacks of muscle atonia triggered by strong emotions (cataplexy). Narcolepsy is caused by hypocretin (orexin) deficiency, paralleled by a dramatic loss in hypothalamic hypocretin-producing neurons. It is believed that narcolepsy is an autoimmune disorder, although definitive proof of this, such as the presence of autoantibodies, is still lacking. We engineered a transgenic mouse model to identify peptides enriched within hypocretin-producing neurons that could serve as potential autoimmune targets. Initial analysis indicated that the transcript encoding Tribbles homolog 2 (Trib2), previously identified as an autoantigen in autoimmune uveitis, was enriched in hypocretin neurons in these mice. ELISA analysis showed that sera from narcolepsy patients with cataplexy had higher Trib2-specific antibody titers compared with either normal controls or patients with idiopathic hypersomnia, multiple sclerosis, or other inflammatory neurological disorders. Trib2-specific antibody titers were highest early after narcolepsy onset, sharply decreased within 2–3 years, and then stabilized at levels substantially higher than that of controls for up to 30 years. High Trib2-specific antibody titers correlated with the severity of cataplexy. Serum of a patient showed specific immunoreactivity with over 86% of hypocretin neurons in the mouse hypothalamus. Thus, we have identified reactive autoantibodies in human narcolepsy, providing evidence that narcolepsy is an autoimmune disorder. PMID:20160349

  3. Evidence for Elevated Cerebrospinal Fluid ERK1/2 Levels in Alzheimer Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzer, Philipp; Schieb, Heinke; Kamrowski-Kruck, Heike; Otto, Markus; Chiasserini, Davide; Parnetti, Lucilla; Herukka, Sanna-Kaisa; Schuchhardt, Johannes; Wiltfang, Jens; Klafki, Hans-Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from 33 patients with Alzheimer dementia (AD), 21 patients with mild cognitive impairment who converted to AD during followup (MCI-AD), 25 patients with stable mild cognitive impairment (MCI-stable), and 16 nondemented subjects (ND) were analyzed with a chemiluminescence immunoassay to assess the levels of the mitogen-activated protein kinase ERK1/2 (extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2). The results were evaluated in relation to total Tau (tTau), phosphorylated Tau (pTau), and beta-amyloid 42 peptide (Aβ42). CSF-ERK1/2 was significantly increased in the AD group as compared to stable MCI patients and the ND group. Western blot analysis of a pooled cerebrospinal fluid sample revealed that both isoforms, ERK1 and ERK2, and low amounts of doubly phosphorylated ERK2 were detectable. As a predictive diagnostic AD biomarker, CSF-ERK1/2 was inferior to tTau, pTau, and Aβ42. PMID:22145083

  4. Antiherbivore defense mutualism under elevated carbon dioxide level: A fungal endophyte and grass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marks, S. [Winthrop Univ., Rock Hill, SC (United States); Lincoln, D.E. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

    1996-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that insects commonly consume more when fed leaf tissue grown under CO{sub 2} enrichment, but with few negative effects on growth. However, lepidoteran larvae fed tissue infected with Balansiae fungal endophytes (which product toxic alkaloids) typically eat less but also suffer negative effects on growth and survival. This study was carried out to understand how these 2 factors may interact to affect larval consumption and growth in fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Infected and uninfected ramets of a single genotype of tall fescue, Festuca arundinacea Schreb., were grown under CO{sub 2} concentrations, but was not influenced by infection. As expected, larvae had significantly reduced efficiency of conversion of ingested food. These 2 factors also interacted so that the lowest efficiency of conversion of ingested food was seen when both infection and an enriched atmospheric CO{sub 2} environment were present. As global atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels continue to increase, it appears that fungal endophytes will continue to be important in turfgrasses as protection against insect herbivores and may lead to increased fitness for infected plant genotypes. 47 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Elevated stress hormone levels relate to Epstein-Barr virus reactivation in astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowe, R. P.; Pierson, D. L.; Barrett, A. D.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of stress and spaceflight on levels of neuroendocrine hormones and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific antibodies in astronauts. METHODS: Antiviral antibody titers and stress hormones were measured in plasma samples collected from 28 astronauts at their annual medical exam (baseline), 10 days before launch (L-10), landing day (R+0), and 3 days after landing (R+3). Urinary stress hormones were also measured at L-10 and R+0. RESULTS: Significant increases (p virus capsid antigen antibodies were found at all three time points (L-10, R+0, and R+3) as compared with baseline samples. Anti-EBV nuclear antigen antibodies were significantly decreased at L-10 (p virus. The 11 astronauts who showed evidence of EBV reactivation had significant increases in urinary epinephrine and norepinephrine as compared with astronauts without EBV reactivation. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that physical and psychological stresses associated with spaceflight resulted in decreased virus-specific T-cell immunity and reactivation of EBV.

  6. Elevated levels of serum alpha(2) macroglobulin in wild black bears during hibernation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Ashfaq M; Chauhan, Ved; Tsiouris, John A; Mehta, Pankaj D; Burguess, Kelcey; Fenko, Michael D; Spivack, Warren; Vaughan, Michael; Malik, Mazhar

    2003-10-01

    Bear serum alpha(2) macroglobulin (alpha(2)M) was purified by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and partially characterized by tryptic digestion of alpha(2)M and analysis of the peptides by peptide mass fingerprinting. The molecular weight of bear serum alpha(2)M was 181 kDa, same as for human serum alpha(2)M, on SDS-PAGE. However, the MALDI mass spectrum of the tryptic digested bear serum alpha(2)M showed that it is different from human alpha(2)M or other data bank proteins. Liquid chromatography (LC)/mass spectrometry (MS)/MS of the proteolytic products of bear serum alpha(2)M showed eight peptides that had similarities to human alpha(2)M suggesting that the protein of interest was indeed alpha(2)M of bear. The polyclonal antibody against bear serum alpha(2)M recognized only one protein from the western blot of bear serum proteins. It also recognized human alpha(2)M. The levels of serum alpha(2)M were significantly increased during hibernating state as compared to active state of bears indicating its protective role from the consequences of the metabolic depression during hibernation.

  7. Coastal climate is associated with elevated solar irradiance and higher 25(OH)D level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherrie, M P C; Wheeler, B W; White, M P; Sarran, C E; Osborne, N J

    2015-04-01

    There is evidence that populations living close to the coast have improved health and wellbeing. Coastal environments are linked to promotion of physical activity through provision of safe, opportune, aesthetic and accessible spaces for recreation. Exposure to coastal environments may also reduce stress and induce positive mood. We hypothesised that coastal climate may influence the vitamin D status of residents and thus partly explain benefits to health. Ecological and cross-sectional analyses were designed to elucidate the connection between coastal residence and vitamin D status. We divided residential data, from developed land use areas and the Lower Super Output Areas or Data Zones (Scotland) of the 1958 Birth Cohort participants, into the following coastal bands: 50 km. This relationship was modified by latitude with settlements at a lower latitude exhibiting a greater effect. Individuals living closer to the coast in England had higher vitamin D levels than those inland, particularly in autumn. Geographic location may influence biochemistry and health outcomes due to environmental factors. This can provide benefits in terms of vitamin D status but may also pose a risk due to higher skin cancer risk. We provide further evidence in support of the claim that coastal environments can provide opportunities for health and wellbeing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Elevated levels of serum tumor markers CA 15-3 and CEA are prognostic factors for diagnosis of metastatic breast cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun Sang; Park, Seho; Park, Ji Min; Cho, Jung Hoon; Kim, Seung Il; Park, Byeong-Woo

    2013-10-01

    To investigate the prognostic value of tumor markers, cancer antigen 15-3 (CA 15-3) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels at diagnosis of systemic recurrence. After primary treatments of locoregional breast cancers, serum CA 15-3 and/or CEA concentrations were regularly measured, and systemic recurrences were identified in 351 patients between January 1999 and December 2009. The association between tumor marker levels at systemic recurrence and survival were investigated by univariate and multivariate analyses. Elevated CA 15-3 and CEA levels were identified in 194 of 349 (55.6 %) and 111 of 308 (36.0 %) patients, respectively, at diagnosis of systemic recurrence. Elevated levels of CA 15-3 and CEA were correlated with visceral or multiple recurrences and elevated preoperative levels. Elevation of CA 15-3 was more prominent in younger patients and in primary node-positive tumors, while CEA was elevated in older patients at diagnosis and in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive tumors. Elevated tumor markers as well as ER negativity, short disease-free interval, and advanced stage at initial diagnosis showed independent prognostic significance on multivariate analysis. Among 306 patients for whom levels of both tumor markers at recurrence were available, 106 patients without elevation of either marker showed significantly better overall survival than those with elevated levels of either one or both markers, and the significance persisted in multivariate analysis. Elevated serum CA 15-3 and CEA levels at recurrence suggest increased tumor burden and may be prognostic for survival for metastatic breast cancer patients.

  9. Porphyromonas Gingivalis Elevated High-Mobility Group Box 1 Levels After Myocardial Infarction in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srisuwantha, Rungtiwa; Shiheido, Yuka; Aoyama, Norio; Sato, Hiroki; Kure, Keitetsu; Laosrisin, Narongsak; Izumi, Yuichi; Suzuki, Jun-Ichi

    2017-10-21

    High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a nuclear protein released from necrotic cells, inducing inflammatory responses. Epidemiological studies suggested a possible association between periodontitis and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Due to tissue damage and necrosis of cardiac cells following myocardial infarction (MI), HMGB1 is released, activating an inflammatory reaction. However, it remains unclear whether periodontitis is also involved in myocardial damage. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis (P.g.) after MI in mice.C57BL/6J wild type mice in post-MI were inoculated with P.g. in the infected group (P.g.-inoculated MI group) and with phosphate buffer saline (PBS) in the control group (PBS-injected MI group). Plasma samples and twelve tissue samples from mice hearts after MI were obtained. We determined the expression of HMGB1 by ELISA and immunohistochemistry.The level of HMGB1 protein in the P.g.-inoculated MI group was significantly higher than in the PBS-injected MI group on day 5, but not on day 14. Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed that HMGB1 was mainly expressed in cardiomyocytes, immune cells, and vascular endothelial cells in the PBS-injected MI group, while HMGB1 was seen broadly in degenerated cardiomyocytes, extracellular fields, immune cells, and vascular endothelial cells in the P.g.-inoculated MI group. A significant increase in the number of HMGB1 positive cells was observed in the P.g.-inoculated MI group compared to the PBS-injected MI group.Infection with P.g. after MI enhanced myocardial HMGB1 expression. There is a possible relationship between periodontitis and post-infarction myocardial inflammation through HMGB-1.

  10. Triple oxygen isotope evidence for elevated CO2 levels after a Neoproterozoic glaciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Huiming; Lyons, J R; Zhou, Chuanming

    2008-05-22

    Understanding the composition of the atmosphere over geological time is critical to understanding the history of the Earth system, as the atmosphere is closely linked to the lithosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere. Although much of the history of the lithosphere and hydrosphere is contained in rock and mineral records, corresponding information about the atmosphere is scarce and elusive owing to the lack of direct records. Geologists have used sedimentary minerals, fossils and geochemical models to place constraints on the concentrations of carbon dioxide, oxygen or methane in the past. Here we show that the triple oxygen isotope composition of sulphate from ancient evaporites and barites shows variable negative oxygen-17 isotope anomalies over the past 750 million years. We propose that these anomalies track those of atmospheric oxygen and in turn reflect the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (P(CO2)) in the past through a photochemical reaction network linking stratospheric ozone to carbon dioxide and to oxygen. Our results suggest that P(CO2) was much higher in the early Cambrian than in younger eras, agreeing with previous modelling results. We also find that the (17)O isotope anomalies of barites from Marinoan (approximately 635 million years ago) cap carbonates display a distinct negative spike (around -0.70 per thousand), suggesting that by the time barite was precipitating in the immediate aftermath of a Neoproterozoic global glaciation, the P(CO2) was at its highest level in the past 750 million years. Our finding is consistent with the 'snowball Earth' hypothesis and/or a massive methane release after the Marinoan glaciation.

  11. Empiric antibiotics for an elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level: a randomised, prospective, controlled multi-institutional trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggener, Scott E; Large, Michael C; Gerber, Glenn S; Pettus, Joseph; Yossepowitch, Ofer; Smith, Norm D; Kundu, Shilajit; Kunnavakkam, Rangesh; Zorn, Kevin; Raman, Jay D

    2013-11-01

    To determine the impact of empiric antibiotics on men with an elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level. Men of any age with a PSA level of >2.5 ng/mL and normal digital rectal examination undergoing their first prostate biopsy were recruited from five medical centres. Patients with previous biopsy, prostate cancer, urinary tract infection (UTI) or prostatitis within the prior year, antibiotic use within 1 month, 5α-reductase inhibitor use, allergy to fluoroquinolones or clinical suspicion of UTI were excluded. Men were randomised to 2 weeks of ciprofloxacin or no antibiotic. A PSA measurement was obtained 21-45 days after randomisation immediately before prostate biopsy. The primary endpoint was the change in PSA level between baseline and immediately before biopsy. Complete data were available for 77 men with a mean (interquartile range) age of 60.6 (53-66) years. In the control group of men not receiving antibiotic (39 men), the mean baseline and pre-biopsy PSA levels were 6.5 and 6.9 ng/mL, respectively (P = 0.8). In men receiving ciprofloxacin (38 men), the mean baseline PSA level was 7.6 ng/mL and after 2 weeks of ciprofloxacin was 8.5 ng/mL (P = 0.7). Compared with controls not receiving antibiotic, use of ciprofloxacin was not associated with a statistically significant change in PSA level (P = 0.33). Prostate cancer was detected in 36 (47%) men, 23 (59%) in the control group and 13 (34%) in the antibiotic group (P = 0.04). Detection rates were not significantly associated with the change in PSA level between baseline and biopsy. The primary limitation of the study is early stoppage due to an interim futility analysis and poor accrual. Despite not meeting the target accrual goal, empiric use of antibiotics for asymptomatic men with an elevated PSA level does not appear to be of clinical benefit. © 2013 The Authors. BJU International © 2013 BJU International.

  12. The effect of serum potassium level on in-hospital and long-term mortality in ST elevation myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Muhammed; Kaya, Adnan; Tatlısu, Mustafa Adem; Hayıroğlu, Mert İlker; Uzman, Osman; Börklü, Edibe Betül; Çinier, Göksel; Çakıllı, Yasin; Yaylak, Barış; Eren, Mehmet

    2016-10-15

    Current studies evaluating the effect of serum potassium levels on mortality in patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) are lacking. We analyzed retrospectively 3760 patients diagnosed with STEMI. Mean serum potassium levels were categorized accordingly: <3.0, 3.0 to <3.5, 3.5 to <4.0, 4.0 to <4.5, 4.5 to <5.0, 5.0 to <5.5, and ≥5.5mEq/L. The lowest mortality was determined in patients with serum potassium level of 4 to <4.5mEq/L whereas mortality was higher in patients with serum potassium levels of ≥5.0 and <3.5mEq/L. In a multivariable Cox-proportional regression analysis, the mortality risk was higher for patients with serum potassium levels of ≥5mEq/L [hazard ratio (HR), 2.11; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.23-4.74 and HR, 4.20; 95% CI 1.08-8.23, for patients with potassium levels of 5 to <5.5mEq/L and ≥5.5mEq/L, respectively]. In-hospital and long-term mortality risks were also higher for patients with serum potassium levels of ≤3.5mEq/L. Conversely, ventricular arrhythmias were higher only for patients with serum potassium level of ≤3.5mEq/L. Furthermore, a significant relationship was found between the patient with serum potassium levels of ≤3.5mEq/L and ventricular arrhythmias. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Elevated serum triglyceride and retinol-binding protein 4 levels associated with fructose-sweetened beverages in adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Te-Fu Chan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The metabolic effect of fructose in sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB has been linked to de novo lipogenesis and uric acid (UA production. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the biological effects of SSB consumption on serum lipid profiles and retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4 among Taiwanese adolescents. METHODS: We evaluated the anthropometric parameters and biochemical outcomes of 200 representative adolescents (98 boys and 102 girls who were randomly selected from a large-scale cross-sectional study. Data were analyzed using multiple regression models adjusted for covariates. RESULTS: Increased SSB consumption was associated with increased waist and hip circumferences, body mass index (BMI values and serum UA, triglyceride (TG and RBP4 levels. Adolescents who consumed >500 ml/day of beverages half-to-heavily sweetened with high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS exhibited TG and RBP4 levels 22.7 mg/dl and 13.92 ng/ml higher than non-drinkers, respectively. HFCS drinkers with hyperuricemia had higher TG levels than HFCS drinkers with normal UA levels (98.6 vs. 81.6 mg/dl. The intake of HFCS-rich SSBs and high value of BMI (≥24 interactively reinforced RBP4 levels among overweight/obese adolescents. Circulating RBP4 levels were significantly correlated with weight-related outcomes and TG and UA concentration among HFCS drinkers (r = 0.253 to 0.404, but not among non-drinkers. CONCLUSIONS: High-quantity HFCS-rich beverage consumption is associated with higher TG and RBP4 levels. Hyperuricemia is likely to intensify the influence of HFCS-rich SSB intake on elevated TG levels, and in overweight and obese adolescents, high BMI may modify the action of fructose on higher circulating levels of RBP4.

  14. Surface Water Connectivity, Flow Pathways and Water Level Fluctuation in a Cold Region Deltaic Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, D. L.; Niemann, O.; Skelly, R.; Monk, W. A.; Baird, D. J.

    2017-12-01

    The Peace-Athabasca Delta (PAD) is a 6000 km2 deltaic floodplain ecosystem of international importance (Wood Buffalo National Park, Ramsar Convention, UNESCO World Heritage, and SWOT satellite water level calibration/validation site). The low-relief floodplain formed at the confluence of the Peace, Athabasca and Birch rivers with Lake Athabasca. More than 1000 wetland and lake basins have varying degrees of connectivity to the main flow system. Hydroperiod and water storage is influenced by ice-jam and open-water inundations and prevailing semi-arid climate that control water drawdown. Prior studies have identified pathways of river-to-wetland floodwater connection and historical water level fluctuation/trends as a key knowledge gaps, limiting our knowledge of deltaic ecosystem status and potential hydroecological responses to climate change and upstream water alterations to flow contributions. To address this knowledge gap, surface elevation mapping of the PAD has been conducted since 2012 using aerial remote sensing Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR), plus thousands of ground based surface and bathymetric survey points tied to Global Positioning System (GPS) were obtained. The elevation information was used to develop a high resolution digital terrain model to simulate and investigate surface water connectivity. Importantly, the surveyed areas contain a set of wetland monitoring sites where ground-based surface water connectivity, water level/depth, water quality, and aquatic ecology (eg, vegetation, macroinvertebrate and muskrat) have been examined. The goal of this presentation is to present an assessment of: i) surface water fluctuation and connectivity for PAD wetland sites; ii) 40+ year inter-annual hydroperiod reconstruction for a perched basin using a combination of field measurements, remote sensing estimates, and historical documents; and iii) outline an approach to integrate newly available hydro-bio-geophysical information into a novel, multi

  15. Sulfur-rich geothermal emissions elevate acid aerosol levels in metropolitan Taipei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Hung; Mao, I-Fang; Tsai, Pei-Hsien; Chuang, Hsin-Yi; Chen, Yi-Ju; Chen, Mei-Lien

    2010-08-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that millions of people globally are potentially exposed to volcanic gases. Hydrogen sulfide is a typical gas in volcanic and geothermal areas. The gas is toxic at high concentrations that predominantly affects the nervous, cardiovascular, and respiratory systems. The WHO air quality guideline for hydrogen sulfide is 150 microg m(-3) (105 ppb). The northwest part of Taipei is surrounded by sulfur-rich geothermal and hot springs. Active fumaroles and bubbling springs around the geothermal area emit acidic gases. In combination with automobile emissions, the pollution of acid aerosols is characteristic of the metropolis. This study considered sulfur-rich geothermal, suburban and downtown locations of this metropolis to evaluate geothermally emitted acid aerosol and H(2)S pollution. Acid aerosols were collected using a honeycomb denuder filter pack sampling system (HDS), and then analyzed by ion chromatography (IC). Results indicated that long-term geothermal emissions, automobile emissions and photochemical reactions have led to significant variations in air pollution among regions of metropolitan Taipei. The highest H(2)S concentration was 1705 ppb in the geothermal area with low traffic density and the mean concentration was 404.06 ppb, which was higher than WHO guideline and might cause eye irritation. The SO(2) concentrations were relatively low (mean concentration was 3.9 ppb) in this area. It may partially result from the chemical reduction reaction in the geothermal emission, which converted the SO(2) gas into SO(4)(2-) and H(2)S. Consequently, very high sulfate concentrations (mean concentration higher than 25.0 microg m(-3)) were also observed in the area. The geothermal areas also emitted relatively high levels of aerosol acidity, Cl(-), F(-), PO(4)(3-), and N-containing aerosols. As a result, concentrations of HNO(3), NO(2)(-), PO(4)(3-), and SO(4)(2-) in metropolitan Taipei are significantly higher than those in other

  16. Elevated phosphodiester and T2levels can be measured in the absence of fat infiltration in Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooijmans, M T; Niks, E H; Burakiewicz, J; Verschuuren, J J G M; Webb, A G; Kan, H E

    2017-01-01

    Quantitative MRI and MRS are increasingly important as non-invasive outcome measures in therapy development for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Many studies have focussed on individual measures such as fat fraction and metabolite levels in relation to age and functionality, but much less attention has been given to how these indices relate to each other. Here, we assessed spatially resolved metabolic changes in leg muscles of DMD patients, and classified muscles according to the degree of fat replacement compared with healthy controls. Quantitative MRI (three-point Dixon and multi-spin echo without fat suppression and a tri-exponential fit) and 2D-CSI 31 P MRS scans were obtained from 18 DMD patients and 12 healthy controls using a 3 T and a 7 T MR scanner. Metabolite levels, T 2 values and fat fraction were individually assessed for five lower leg muscles. In muscles with extensive fat replacement, phosphodiester over adenosine triphosphate (PDE/ATP), inorganic phosphate over phosphocreatine, intracellular tissue pH and T 2 were significantly increased compared with healthy controls. In contrast, in muscles without extensive fat replacement, only PDE/ATP and T 2 values were significantly elevated. Overall, our results show that PDE levels and T 2 values increase prior to the occurrence of fat replacement and remain elevated in later stages of the disease. This suggests that these individual measures could not only function as early markers for muscle damage but also reflect potentially reversible pathology in the more advanced stages. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. C-type natriuretic peptide plasma levels are elevated in subjects with achondroplasia, hypochondroplasia, and thanatophoric dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olney, Robert C; Prickett, Timothy C R; Espiner, Eric A; Mackenzie, William G; Duker, Angela L; Ditro, Colleen; Zabel, Bernhard; Hasegawa, Tomonobu; Kitoh, Hiroshi; Aylsworth, Arthur S; Bober, Michael B

    2015-02-01

    C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) is a crucial regulator of endochondral bone growth. In a previous report of a child with acromesomelic dysplasia, Maroteaux type (AMDM), caused by loss-of-function of the CNP receptor (natriuretic peptide receptor-B [NPR-B]), plasma levels of CNP were elevated. In vitro studies have shown that activation of the MAPK kinase (MEK)/ERK MAPK pathway causes functional inhibition of NPR-B. Achondroplasia, hypochondroplasia, and thanatophoric dysplasia are syndromes of short-limbed dwarfism caused by activating mutations of fibroblast growth factor receptor-3, which result in overactivation of the MEK/ERK MAPK pathway. The purpose of this study was to determine whether these syndromes exhibit evidence of CNP resistance as reflected by increases in plasma CNP and its amino-terminal propeptide (NTproCNP). This was a prospective, observational study. Participants were 63 children and 20 adults with achondroplasia, 6 children with hypochondroplasia, 2 children with thanatophoric dysplasia, and 4 children and 1 adult with AMDM. Plasma levels of CNP and NTproCNP were higher in children with achondroplasia with CNP SD scores (SDSs) of 1.0 (0.3-1.4) (median [interquartile range]) and NTproCNP SDSs of 1.4 (0.4-1.8; P achondroplasia (CNP SDSs of 1.5 [0.7-2.1] and NTproCNP SDSs of 0.5 [0.1-1.0], P < .005). In children with hypochondroplasia, CNP SDSs were 1.3 (0.7-1.5) (P = .08) and NTproCNP SDSs were 1.9 (1.8-2.3) (P < .05). In children with AMDM, CNP SDSs were 1.6 (1.4-3.3) and NTproCNP SDSs were 4.2 (2.7-6.2) (P < .01). In these skeletal dysplasias, elevated plasma levels of proCNP products suggest the presence of tissue resistance to CNP.

  18. Elevated levels of FOXA1 facilitate androgen receptor chromatin binding resulting in a CRPC-like phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jessica L.L.; Hickey, Theresa E.; Warren, Anne Y.; Vowler, Sarah L.; Carroll, Tom; Lamb, Alastair D.; Papoutsoglou, Nikolaos; Neal, David E.; Tilley, Wayne D.; Carroll, Jason S.

    2014-01-01

    Castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) continues to pose a significant clinical challenge with new generation second line hormonal therapies affording limited improvement in disease outcome. As the androgen receptor (AR) remains a critical driver in CRPC, understanding the determinants of its transcriptional activity is important for developing new AR targeted therapies. FOXA1 is a key component of the AR transcriptional complex yet its role in prostate cancer progression and the relationship between AR and FOXA1 are not completely resolved. It is well established that FOXA1 levels are elevated in advanced prostate cancer and metastases. We mimicked these conditions by over-expressing FOXA1 in the androgen-responsive LNCaP prostate cancer cell line and observed a significant increase in AR genomic binding at novel regions that possess increased chromatin accessibility. High levels of FOXA1 resulted in increased proliferation at both sub-optimal and high 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) concentrations. Immunohistochemical staining for FOXA1 in a clinical prostate cancer cohort revealed that high FOXA1 expression is associated with shorter time to biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy (HR 5.0, 95% CI 1.2-21.1, p=0.028), positive surgical margins and higher stage disease at diagnosis. The gene expression program that results from FOXA1 over-expression is enriched for PTEN, Wnt and other pathways typically represented in CRPC gene signatures. Together these results suggest that in an androgen-depleted state, elevated levels of FOXA1 enhance AR binding at genomic regions not normally occupied by AR, which in turn facilitates prostate cancer cell growth. PMID:24292680

  19. Divergent responses of methanogenic archaeal communities in two rice cultivars to elevated ground-level O3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianwei; Tang, Haoye; Zhu, Jianguo; Lin, Xiangui; Feng, Youzhi

    2016-06-01

    Inhibitive effect of elevated ground-level ozone (O3) on paddy methane (CH4) emission varies with rice cultivars. However, little information is available on its microbial mechanism. For this purpose, the responses of methane-metabolizing microorganisms, methanogenic archaea and methanotrophic bacteria to O3 pollution were investigated in the O3-tolerant (YD6) and the O3-sensitive (IIY084) cultivars at two rice growth stages in Free Air Concentration Elevation of O3 (O3-FACE) system of China. It was found that O3 pollution didn't change the abundances of Type I and Type II methanotrophic bacteria at two rice stages. For methanogenic archaea, their abundances in both cultivars were decreased by O3 pollution at the tillering stage. Furthermore, a greater negative influence on methanogenic archaeal community was observed on IIY084 than on YD6: at tillering stage, the alpha diversity indices of methanogenic archaeal community in IIY084 was decreased to a greater extent than in YD6; IIY084 shifted methanogenic archaeal community composition and decreased the abundances and the diversities of Methanosarcinaceae and Methanosaetaceae as well as the abundance of Methanomicrobiales, while the diversity of Methanocellaceae were increased in YD6. These findings indicate that the variations in the responses of paddy CH4 emission to O3 pollution between cultivars could result from the divergent responses of their methanogenic archaea. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Risk factors for elevated blood lead levels among children aged 6-36 months living in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapitsinou, A; Soldatou, A; Tsitsika, A; Kossiva, L; Tsentidis, Ch; Nisianakis, P; Theocharis, S; Garoufi, A

    2015-11-01

    Childhood lead poisoning remains a critical environmental health concern because even low blood lead levels (BLLs) can result in permanent adverse health effects. Social factors and living conditions have been correlated with BLLs. There is no recent survey about the prevalence of elevated BLLs among children in Greece. The purpose of this study was to assess BLLs among children aged 6-36 months born and living in Greece and to evaluate their association with demographic, socio-economic and housing conditions. In a cross-sectional hospital-based study including 814 randomly selected children aged 6-36 months, BLLs and haematological parameters were evaluated. A questionnaire investigating demographic and socio-economic conditions was completed in all children. Statistical analysis was performed using STATA for Windows v.8.5, and P herbs and/or spices and having a mother with a manual occupation were independent risk factors for elevated BLLs. Lead exposure remains a threat for optimal health especially for toddlers and children of socio-economically disadvantaged families living in Greece. A nationwide survey to assess lead exposure in children is necessary to guide prevention governmental policies. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Efficacy and safety of deferasirox in non-thalassemic patients with elevated ferritin levels after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaekel, N; Lieder, K; Albrecht, S; Leismann, O; Hubert, K; Bug, G; Kröger, N; Platzbecker, U; Stadler, M; de Haas, K; Altamura, S; Muckenthaler, M U; Niederwieser, D; Al-Ali, H K

    2016-01-01

    Elevated serum ferritin contributes to treatment-related morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The multicenter DE02 trial assessed the safety, efficacy and impact of deferasirox on iron homeostasis after allogeneic HSCT. Deferasirox was administered at a starting dose of 10 mg/kg per day to 76 recipients of allogeneic HSCT, with subsequent dose adjustments based on efficacy and safety. Deferasirox was initiated at a median of 168 days after HSCT, with 84% of patients still on immunosuppression. Baseline serum ferritin declined from 2045 to 957 ng/mL. Deferasirox induced a negative iron balance in 84% of patients. Hemoglobin increased in the first 3 months, and trough serum cyclosporine levels were stable. Median exposure was 330 days, with a median compliance rate of >80%. The most common investigator-reported drug-related adverse events (AEs) were increased blood creatinine (26.5%), nausea (9.0%) and abdominal discomfort (8.3%). Fifty-four (71.1%) patients experienced drug-related AEs, which occasionally resulted in discontinuation (gastrointestinal (n=6), skin (n=3), elevated transaminases (n=1) and creatinine (n=1)). The incidence of AEs appeared to be dose related, with 7.5 mg/kg per day being the best-tolerated dose. Low-dose deferasirox is an effective chelation therapy after allogeneic HSCT, with a manageable safety profile, even in patients receiving cyclosporine.

  2. Geochemical and γ ray characterization of Pennsylvanian black shales: Implications for elevated home radon levels in Vanderburgh County, Indiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheller, Kent W.; Elliott, William S.

    2015-01-01

    Radon ( 222 Rn) is a radioactive gas that results from the decay of uranium ( 238 U) in the Earth's crust. This study characterizes the presence and relative quantity of radon precursors in the Pennsylvanian black shales of southwest Indiana. Cores were drilled on the campus of the University of Southern Indiana to a depth of 237.7 m (780 ft) during exploration for coal-bed methane. Gamma ray logs were taken to measure radioactive activity as a function of depth in the bore hole. Activity readings of 270, 467, 555, and 388 GAPI (American Petroleum Institute γ ray units) were measured at depths of 124.3 m (408 ft), 154.0 m (505 ft), 187.1 m (614 ft) and 214.0 m (702 ft) in four separate shale layers of the Pennsylvanian stratigraphic column. GAPI units are used in the petroleum industry when drilling to represent the relative intensities of γ radiation from 40 K, 232 Th, and 238 U in bore holes (Belknap et al., 1959). For purposes of this study, the high activity readings on the gamma ray logs were used only to identify at which depths further gamma ray spectroscopy of the cores would be completed in the laboratory. Gamma ray spectroscopic studies of these cores were conducted with a large volume NaI crystal detector to observe γ rays of specific energies. Characteristic γ rays from various isotopes were identified confirming the presence and relative quantity of radon precursors in core samples. Geochemical analysis of cores was also conducted to measure presence and quantity of trace metals and radon precursors. Of 744 homes tested in Vanderburgh County from 2007 to 2013, 169 homes (22.7 percent) had elevated radon levels greater than 148 mBq L −1 (4.0 pCi L −1 ). Additionally, 246 homes (33.1 percent) had measured radon levels of 74–145 mBq L −1 (2.0–3.9 pCi L −1 ). About 80 percent of elevated radon levels greater than 148 mBq L −1 (4.0 pCi L −1 ) are located in proximity to depositional contacts between the Dugger

  3. Curcumin elevates sirtuin level but does not postpone in vitro senescence of human cells building the vasculature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowska, Wioleta; Suszek, Małgorzata; Wnuk, Maciej; Lewinska, Anna; Wasiak, Emilia; Sikora, Ewa; Bielak-Zmijewska, Anna

    2016-01-01

    It is believed that curcumin, a component of the turmeric that belongs to hormetins, possesses anti-aging propensity. This property of curcumin can be partially explained by its influence on the level of sirtuins. Previously, we have shown that relatively high (2.5-10 μM) doses of curcumin induce senescence of cancer cells and cells building the vasculature. In the present study we examined whether curcumin at low doses (0.1 and 1 μM) is able to delay cell senescence and upregulate the level of sirtuins in human cells building the vasculature, namely vascular smooth muscle (VSMC) and endothelial (EC) cells. To this end we used cells senescing in a replicative and premature manner. We showed that low doses of curcumin in case of VSMC neither postponed the replicative senescence nor protected from premature senescence induced by doxorubicin. Moreover, curcumin slightly accelerated replicative senescence of EC. Despite some fluctuations, a clear increasing tendency in the level of sirtuins was observed in curcumin-treated young, senescing or already senescent cells. Sirtuin activation could be caused by the activation of AMPK resulting from superoxide elevation and ATP reduction. Our results show that curcumin at low doses can increase the level of sirtuins without delaying senescence of VSMC. PMID:27034011

  4. Elevated levels of circulating histones indicate disease activity in patients with hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiuhui; Li, Qin; Li, Junhong; Li, Ying; Chen, Yuping; Lv, Aiping; Zhang, Jian; Ding, Jianbo; Von Maltzan, Kristine; Wen, Tao

    2014-12-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common infectious disease in children, characterized by acute viral infection accompanying acute inflammatory responses. Circulating histones are leading mediators of the inflammatory processes. This study aimed to elucidate whether circulating histones play a contributory role during HFMD. We measured plasma levels of histones, myeloperoxidase (MPO), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and cytokines in HFMD patients (n = 126) and compared the results with those of a control group (n = 30). Circulating histone levels were significantly increased in HFMD patients (3.794 ± 0.156 μg/ml) compared with healthy controls (0.238 ± 0.023 μg/ml, p histones correlated positively with plasma IL-6 and IL-10, whereas in severe HFMD, histones were associated with elevated IL-6 and TNF-ɑ levels. These data demonstrate that circulating histones are excessively released in patients with HFMD, which may indicate disease severity and contribute to systemic inflammation by promoting cytokine production (e.g. IL-6). We suggest that in mild HFMD, circulating histones may originate largely from neutrophil activation, whereas in severe HFMD, dying tissue cells and neutrophil activation may be synergistically involved in the increased levels of histones.

  5. Elevated serum levels of ghrelin and TNF-α in patients with cyanotic and acyanotic congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sai; Guo, Gong-Liang; Yang, Li-Li; Sun, Li-Qun

    2017-04-01

    The levels of ghrelin and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) are considered biological markers of congenital heart diseases (CHD). The present meta-analysis was conducted to investigate the clinical significance of serum levels of ghrelin and TNF-α in children with (CHD). Chinese and English scientific literature databases were searched to retrieve published studies relevant to ghrelin, TNF-α and CHD. Manual search was additionally employed to identify other relevant studies from cross-references. The retrieved studies were screened on the basis of our stringent inclusion and exclusion criteria to select high quality case-control studies for meta-analysis. We initially retrieved 108 published studies (20 in Chinese and 88 in English) from database searches. Finally, 6 case-control studies (5 in English and 1 in Chinese) were enrolled in our meta-analysis, and contained a total of 160 cyanotic congenital heart disease (CCHD) patients and 215 acyanotic congenital heart disease (ACHD) patients, along with 162 healthy controls. The results of meta-analysis showed that serum levels of ghrelin and TNF-α in CCHD or ACHD children were significantly higher than those in healthy controls. Our meta-analysis results showed that serum levels of ghrelin and TNF-α are elevated in children with CHD, and could be used as effective biologic markers in early diagnosis of CHD.

  6. Isolation of Aspergillus fumigatus from sputum is associated with elevated airborne levels in homes of patients with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairs, A; Agbetile, J; Bourne, M; Hargadon, B; Monteiro, W R; Morley, J P; Edwards, R E; Wardlaw, A J; Pashley, C H

    2013-08-01

    Indoor bioaerosols, such as mold spores, have been associated with respiratory symptoms in patients with asthma; however, dose-response relationships and guidelines on acceptable levels are lacking. Furthermore, a causal link between mold exposure and respiratory infections or asthma remains to be established. The aim of this study was to determine indoor concentrations of Aspergillus fumigatus and a subset of clinically relevant fungi in homes of people with asthma, in relation to markers of airways colonization and sensitization. Air and dust samples were collected from the living room of 58 properties. Fungal concentrations were quantified using mold-specific quantitative PCR and compared with traditional microscopic analysis of air samples. Isolation of A. fumigatus from sputum was associated with higher airborne concentrations of the fungus in patient homes (P = 0.04), and a similar trend was shown with Aspergillus/Penicillium-type concentrations analyzed by microscopy (P = 0.058). No association was found between airborne levels of A. fumigatus and sensitization to this fungus, or dustborne levels of A. fumigatus and either isolation from sputum or sensitization. The results of this study suggest that the home environment should be considered as a potential source of fungal exposure, and elevated home levels may predispose people with asthma to airways colonization. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Insulin elevates leptin secretion and mRNA levels via cyclic AMP in 3T3-L1 adipocytes deprived of glucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomomi Tsubai

    2016-11-01

    Conclusion: Insulin alone stimulates leptin secretion and elevates leptin mRNA levels via cAMP under the lack of glucose metabolism, while glucose is a significant and ambivalent effector on the insulin effects of leptin.

  8. Elevated Serum Levels of Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 in Severe Dengue Virus Infection at Sanglah Hospital Denpasar, Bali - Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Dian Sukmawati

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Dengue virus - infected dendritic cells along with cytokines overproduction trigger endothelial barrier dysfunction and plasma leakage through matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-9 over production. The event is responsible for more severe dengue virus infection’s manifestation. The study objective is to measure the association of MMP-9 serum level with disease severity of dengue virus infection. Prospective study of 70 participants hospitalized in Internal Medicine ward of Sanglah Hospital Denpasar, during 1 July 2011 – 31 December 2011 and diagnosed as dengue virus infection were followed during their hospital stay. Baseline demographic were obtained on admission, serum level of MMP-9 was measured once at third – fifth day from fever onset. Independent-samples t test was used to compare the MMP 9 levels among diagnosis groups and exploration of variables were using logistic regression analysis.  There was significant higher level of MMP-9 serum level on DHF (median [range] compared to DF (367.78 ng/mL [81.16 – 797.79] vs. 128.67 ng/mL [41.79 – 327.32]; p < 0.0001. After adjusted with baseline hematocrit, for every 10 ng/mL elevation of MMP-9 serum contributes to 1.159 increased risk of DHF with optimal threshold MMP-9 level is 330 ng/mL (100 % sensitivity, 64% specificity.MMP-9 level is associated with dengue severity. The measurement was able to predict the DHF among those infected with dengue virus infection. This may lead to a novel marker of dengue hemorrhagic fever predictor.

  9. SDF-1/CXCL12 and CXCR4 gene variants, and elevated serum SDF-1 levels are associated with preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakus, Savas; Bagci, Binnur; Bagci, Gokhan; Sancakdar, Enver; Yildiz, Caglar; Akkar, Ozlem; Cetin, Ali

    2017-05-01

    We aimed to compare the frequencies of stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) 3'A and CXCR4 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and serum SDF-1 levels in patients with preeclampsia (PE). In total, 89 women with PE and 89 control women were included in the study. Genotyping was done by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method was used to measure serum SDF-1 level. For SDF-1 3'A SNP, the frequency of GA genotype, total number of GA and AA genotypes, and the A allele frequency was higher in PE patients than controls (p = 0.04, 0.023, and 0.029, respectively). For CXCR4 SNP, the frequency of CT genotype, total number of CT and TT genotypes, and the T allele frequency were higher in PE patients than controls (p = 0.04, 0.006, and 0.005, respectively). SDF-1 serum level was detected higher in preeclamptic women compared with controls (p = 0.001). In PE patients, there was no significant association between serum SDF-1 levels and genotypes of SDF-1 3'A SNP. SDF-1 level was significantly higher in patients bearing CXCR4 CT genotype than CC genotype (p = 0.001). Furthermore, SDF-1 levels in patients bearing CT+TT genotype were found higher than that of patients with CC genotypes (p = 0.001). Results of our study suggest that SDF-1 3'A and CXCR4 polymorphisms and elevated serum SDF-1 levels may have a role in the development of PE.

  10. Overexpression of hydroxynitrile lyase in cassava roots elevates protein and free amino acids while reducing residual cyanogen levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Narayanan N; Ihemere, Uzoma; Ellery, Claire; Sayre, Richard T

    2011-01-01

    Cassava is the major source of calories for more than 250 million Sub-Saharan Africans, however, it has the lowest protein-to-energy ratio of any major staple food crop in the world. A cassava-based diet provides less than 30% of the minimum daily requirement for protein. Moreover, both leaves and roots contain potentially toxic levels of cyanogenic glucosides. The major cyanogen in cassava is linamarin which is stored in the vacuole. Upon tissue disruption linamarin is deglycosylated by the apolplastic enzyme, linamarase, producing acetone cyanohydrin. Acetone cyanohydrin can spontaneously decompose at pHs >5.0 or temperatures >35°C, or is enzymatically broken down by hydroxynitrile lyase (HNL) to produce acetone and free cyanide which is then volatilized. Unlike leaves, cassava roots have little HNL activity. The lack of HNL activity in roots is associated with the accumulation of potentially toxic levels of acetone cyanohydrin in poorly processed roots. We hypothesized that the over-expression of HNL in cassava roots under the control of a root-specific, patatin promoter would not only accelerate cyanogenesis during food processing, resulting in a safer food product, but lead to increased root protein levels since HNL is sequestered in the cell wall. Transgenic lines expressing a patatin-driven HNL gene construct exhibited a 2-20 fold increase in relative HNL mRNA levels in roots when compared with wild type resulting in a threefold increase in total root protein in 7 month old plants. After food processing, HNL overexpressing lines had substantially reduced acetone cyanohydrin and cyanide levels in roots relative to wild-type roots. Furthermore, steady state linamarin levels in intact tissues were reduced by 80% in transgenic cassava roots. These results suggest that enhanced linamarin metabolism contributed to the elevated root protein levels.

  11. Elevated Urinary Methylmalonic Acid/creatinine ratio and Serum Sterol levels in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivrikaya Abdullah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sitosterolemia, defined as phytosterolemia, is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by elevated blood sterol levels. Our aim was to investigate serum plant sterols, methylmalonic acid, vitamin B12, oxidized-LDL and homocysteine levels in ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke patients and healthy subjects. Material and Methods: 50 healthy subjects (without a family history of coronary artery disease and 89 patients hospitalized in the Selcuk University neurology clinic or intensive care unit with a diagnosis of stroke were included in this study. Serum plant sterols, homocysteine and methylmalonic acid, oxidized-LDL, total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-Cholesterol and vitamin B12 levels were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, commercially available ELISA kit, spectrophotometry and chemiluminescence methods, respectively. Results: Urinary methylmalonic acid/creatinine ratio (p< 0.05, serum β-sitosterol levels and β-sitosterol/ cholesterol ratio were significantly higher (p <0.01 in patients compared to the control group. There was a significant positive correlation between the serum OxLDL- methylmalonic acid, serum homocysteine- urinary methylmalonic acid /creatinine ratio, serum methylmalonic acid - Urinary methylmalonic acid (p<0.05, serum homocysteine- urinary methylmalonic acid, urinary methylmalonic acid-methylmalonic acid/creatinine ratio, serum methylmalonic acid- methylmalonic acid/creatinine ratio, serum beta-sitosterol- beta-sitosterol /cholesterol, total cholesterol-HDL, total cholesterol-LDL (p <0.01 levels and negative correlation between vitamin B12- serum methylmalonic acid (p<0.05, cholesterol-stigmasterol/cholesterol, LDL- stigmasterol/cholesterol (p <0.01 levels in the patient group. Conclusion: Our findings presented that the serum sitosterol levels were significantly higher in stroke patients compared to controls.

  12. [Elevation of proinflammatory cytokines level at early age as the risk factor of neurological and mental pathology development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubarev, O E; Klimenko, V M

    2011-10-01

    Proinflammatory cytokines Interleukin-1, Interleukin-6 (IL-1, IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), the key mediators of neuroimmune interactions, are the common pathogenic part of various kinds of the perinatal pathology leading to severe neurological and mental diseases. In the review, features of expression of the proinflammatory cytokines and their receptors in the brain at early age under normal and pathological conditions, their influence on processes of maturing of the CNS cells are described, the data of experimental and clinical researches of disturbances of the mental functions arising in adults owing to elevation of the IL-1, IL-6 levels and TNFalpha in early ontogenesis are cited. The role of the cytokines in pathogenesis of schizophrenia, a syndrome of attention deficiency, autism and a Parkinsonism is discussed.

  13. Evaluation of Elevated Tritium Levels in Groundwater Downgradient from the 618-11 Burial Ground Phase I Investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresel, P.E.; Smith, R.M.; Williams, B.A.; Thompson, C.J.; Evans, J.C.; Hulstrom, L.C.

    2000-01-01

    This report describes the results of the preliminary investigation of elevated tritium in groundwater discovered near the 618-11 burial ground, located in the eastern part of the Hanford Site. Tritium in one well downgradient of the burial ground was detected at levels up to 8,140,000 pCi/L. The 618-11 burial ground received a variety of radioactive waste from the 300 Area between 1962 and 1967. The burial ground covers 3.5 hectare (8.6 acre) and contains trenches, large diameter caissons, and vertical pipe storage units. The burial ground was stabilized with a native sediment covering. The Energy Northwest reactor complex was constructed immediately east of the burial ground

  14. Evaluation of Elevated Tritium Levels in Groundwater Downgradient from the 618-11 Burial Ground Phase I Investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, P.E.; Smith, R.M.; Williams, B.A.; Thompson, C.J.; Evans, J.C.; Hulstrom, L.C.

    2000-05-01

    This report describes the results of the preliminary investigation of elevated tritium in groundwater discovered near the 618-11 burial ground, located in the eastern part of the Hanford Site. Tritium in one well downgradient of the burial ground was detected at levels up to 8,140,000 pCi/L. The 618-11 burial ground received a variety of radioactive waste from the 300 Area between 1962 and 1967. The burial ground covers 3.5 hectare (8.6 acre) and contains trenches, large diameter caissons, and vertical pipe storage units. The burial ground was stabilized with a native sediment covering. The Energy Northwest reactor complex was constructed immediately east of the burial ground.

  15. Elevated ammonium levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Rikke; Novak, Ivana; MacAulay, Nanna

    2012-01-01

    Increased ammonium (NH(4)(+)/NH(3)) in the brain is a significant factor in the pathophysiology of hepatic encephalopathy, which involves altered glutamatergic neurotransmission. In glial cell cultures and brain slices, glutamate uptake either decreases or increases following acute ammonium expos...

  16. Elevated surface temperature depresses survival of banner-tailed kangaroo rats: will climate change cook a desert icon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Martin R; Frey, Jennifer K; Roemer, Gary W

    2012-01-01

    Modest increases in global temperature have been implicated in causing population extirpations and range shifts in taxa inhabiting colder environs and in ectotherms whose thermoregulation is more closely tied to environmental conditions. Many arid-adapted endotherms already experience conditions at their physiological limits, so it is conceivable that they could be similarly affected by warming temperatures. We explored how climatic variables might influence the apparent survival of the banner-tailed kangaroo rat (Dipodomys spectabilis), a rodent endemic to the Chihuahuan Desert of North America and renowned for its behavioral and physiological adaptations to arid environments. Relative variable weight, strength of variable relationships, and other criteria indicated that summer, diurnal land surface temperature (SD_LST) was the primary environmental driver of apparent survival in these arid-adapted rodents. Higher temperatures had a negative effect on apparent survival, which ranged from 0.15 (SE = 0.04) for subadults to 0.50 (SE = 0.07) for adults. Elevated SD_LST may negatively influence survival through multiple pathways, including increased water loss and energy expenditure that could lead to chronic stress and/or hyperthermia that could cause direct mortality. Land surface temperatures are predicted to increase by as much 6.5°C by 2099, reducing apparent survival of adults to ~0.15 in some regions of the species' range, possibly causing a shift in their distribution. The relationship between SD_LST and survival suggests a mechanism whereby physiological tolerances are exceeded resulting in a reduction to individual fitness that may ultimately cause a shift in the species' range over time.

  17. Data Assimilation of AirSWOT and Synthetically Derived SWOT Observations of Water Surface Elevation in a Multichannel River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenau, E. H.; Pavelsky, T.; Andreadis, K.; Bates, P. D.; Neal, J. C.

    2017-12-01

    Multichannel rivers continue to be challenging features to quantify, especially at regional and global scales, which is problematic because accurate representations of such environments are needed to properly monitor the earth's water cycle as it adjusts to climate change. It has been demonstrated that higher-complexity, 2D models outperform lower-complexity, 1D models in simulating multichannel river hydraulics at regional scales due to the inclusion of the channel network's connectivity. However, new remote sensing measurements from the future Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission and it's airborne analog AirSWOT offer new observations that can be used to try and improve the lower-complexity, 1D models to achieve accuracies closer to the higher-complexity, 2D codes. Here, we use an Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) to assimilate AirSWOT water surface elevation (WSE) measurements from a 2015 field campaign into a 1D hydrodynamic model along a 90 km reach of Tanana River, AK. This work is the first to test data assimilation methods using real SWOT-like data from AirSWOT. Additionally, synthetic SWOT observations of WSE are generated across the same study site using a fine-resolution 2D model and assimilated into the coarser-resolution 1D model. Lastly, we compare the abilities of AirSWOT and the synthetic-SWOT observations to improve spatial and temporal model outputs in WSEs. Results indicate 1D model outputs of spatially distributed WSEs improve as observational coverage increases, and improvements in temporal fluctuations in WSEs depend on the number of observations. Furthermore, results reveal that assimilation of AirSWOT observations produce greater error reductions in 1D model outputs compared to synthetic SWOT observations due to lower measurement errors. Both AirSWOT and the synthetic SWOT observations significantly lower spatial and temporal errors in 1D model outputs of WSEs.

  18. An elevated level of BNP in plasma is related to the development of good collateral circulation in coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Wei-Wei; Cheng, Gang; Lv, Shumin; Gao, Qinqin; Bu, Gang; Zhou, Ying; Xu, Geng

    2011-12-01

    B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) was recently demonstrated to be a potential stimulator of angiogenesis and arteriogenesis. The correlation between BNP level and collateral formation in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) has not been reported. The study included 311 consecutive patients who underwent coronary angiography were divided into three groups according to coronary angiography and collateral formation: normal group (100 patients with normal coronary angiographic findings); poor collateral group (116 patients with at least one coronary stenosis of ≥75% without visible collateral circulation); and good collateral group (95 patients with at least one coronary stenosis of ≥75% with well-developed collateral circulation). Collateral score was analyzed using the Cohen-Rentrop classification. Plasma BNP levels were 45.77 ± 4.66 pg/ml, 116.40 ± 28.15 pg/ml, and 254.20 ± 42.85 pg/ml for patients in normal, poor collateral, and good collateral groups, respectively. Plasma BNP levels in the latter were significantly higher than in the normal group (p collateral group (p collateral group and poor collateral group when compared with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), left ventricular dimensions at end diastole (LVEDd), age, severity of angiographic disease, and other cardiovascular risk factors. After adjustment in the multiple ordinal logistic regression model, plasma BNP levels showed a strong independent association with collateral Cohen-Rentrop score (χ(2 )= 5.636, OR = 1.002, 95% CI 1.000-1.004, p = 0.018). An elevated level of BNP in plasma is independently associated with collateral development; patients with good collaterals tend to have a higher BNP level.

  19. Transport processes associated with the initial elevated concentrations of Chernobyl radioactivity in surface air in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, R.J.; Haagenson, P.L.; Reiss, N.M.

    1989-01-01

    Elevated concentrations of radioactivity from the Chernobyl accident were encountered in the surface air over the United States along the east coast and in the north-west on 9 and 10 May 1986. The nearly simultaneous arrival of radioactive debris at widely separated locations resulted from different paths being taken by the debris released at different times during the course of the accident. Debris released during the explosion at the Chernobyl reactor was transported across the Arctic, within the lower troposphere, and zonally across Asia and the North Pacific Ocean, within the mid-troposphere. This debris descended into the planetary boundary layer along the east coast of the US. The descent was associated with a quasi-stationary cyclone located over the western North Atlantic Ocean. Debris that had a different composition of radioactivity was released from the damaged reactor during the week immediately following the initial explosion. This debris was then transported zonally across Asia and the North Pacific Ocean within the planetary boundary layer and lower troposphere and was swept into the north-western US. (author)

  20. Elevated Serum Levels of Soluble CD30 in Ankylosing Spondylitis Patients and Its Association with Disease Severity-Related Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongfen Gao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Soluble CD30 (sCD30, a transmembrane glycoprotein that belongs to the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR superfamily, has been shown to be associated with various pathological conditions. This study was designed to measure the levels of serum sCD30 in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS and to evaluate the relationships between serum sCD30 levels and other disease severity-related indexes, including bath ankylosing spondylitis disease activity index (BASDAI, ankylosing spondylitis disease activity score (ASDAS, and bath ankylosing spondylitis functional index (BASFI. Our results demonstrated significantly elevated sCD30 levels in AS patients compared to healthy controls (HCs with mean values of 32.0±12.2 and 24.9±8.0 ng/mL, respectively (P**=0.007, suggesting a potential role of sCD30 in the pathogenesis of AS. However, no significant correlations of sCD30 with BASDAI, ASDAS, or BASFI were detected in our study (P>0.05. Therefore, sCD30 cannot be used as a reliable marker for reflecting disease activity and functional ability of AS patients.

  1. Hepatic ALT isoenzymes are elevated in gluconeogenic conditions including diabetes and suppressed by insulin at the protein level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Kun; Zhong, Shao; Xie, Keming; Yu, Daozhan; Yang, Rongze; Gong, Da-Wei

    2015-09-01

    Alanine transaminase (ALT) plays an important role in gluconeogenesis by converting alanine into pyruvate for glucose production. Early studies have shown that ALT activities are upregulated in gluconeogenic conditions and may be implicated in the development of diabetes. ALT consists of two isoforms, ALT1 and ALT2, with distinctive subcellular and tissue distributions. Whether and how they are regulated are largely unknown. By using Western blotting analysis, we measured hepatic ALT isoforms at the protein level in obese and diabetic animals and in Fao hepatoma cells treated with dexamethasone and insulin. In addition, we measured glucose output in Fao cells over-expressing ALT1 and ALT2. Both ALT isoforms in the liver were increased in diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats and during fasting. However, in ob/ob mice, only ALT2, but not ALT1, protein levels were elevated, and the increase of ALT2 was correlated with that of ALT activity. We further demonstrated that, in vitro, both ALT1 and ALT2 were induced by glucocorticoid dexamethasone, but suppressed by insulin in Fao cells. Finally, we showed that the over-expression of ALT1 and ALT2 in Fao cells directly increased glucose output. We have shown the similarity and difference in the regulation of ALT isoforms in gluconeogenic conditions at the protein level, supporting that ALT isoenzymes play an important role in glucose metabolism and may be implicated the development of insulin resistance and diabetes. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Marine CDOM accumulation during a coastal Arctic mesocosm experiment: No response to elevated pCO2 levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, Alexey K.; Silyakova, Anna; Granskog, Mats A.; Bellerby, Richard G. J.; Engel, Anja; Schulz, Kai G.; Brussaard, Corina P. D.

    2014-06-01

    A large-scale multidisciplinary mesocosm experiment in an Arctic fjord (Kongsfjorden, Svalbard; 78°56.2'N) was used to study Arctic marine food webs and biogeochemical elements cycling at natural and elevated future carbon dioxide (CO2) levels. At the start of the experiment, marine-derived chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) dominated the CDOM pool. Thus, this experiment constituted a convenient case to study production of autochthonous CDOM, which is typically masked by high levels of CDOM of terrestrial origin in the Arctic Ocean proper. CDOM accumulated during the experiment in line with an increase in bacterial abundance; however, no response was observed to increased pCO2 levels. Changes in CDOM absorption spectral slopes indicate that bacteria were most likely responsible for the observed CDOM dynamics. Distinct absorption peaks (at 330 and 360 nm) were likely associated with mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs). Due to the experimental setup, MAAs were produced in absence of ultraviolet exposure providing evidence for MAAs to be considered as multipurpose metabolites rather than simple photoprotective compounds. We showed that a small increase in CDOM during the experiment made it a major contributor to total absorption in a range of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm) and, therefore, is important for spectral light availability and may be important for photosynthesis and phytoplankton groups composition in a rapidly changing Arctic marine ecosystem.

  3. Low levels of estradiol are associated with elevated conditioned responding during fear extinction and with intrusive memories in daily life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegerer, Melanie; Kerschbaum, Hubert; Blechert, Jens; Wilhelm, Frank H.

    2014-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can be conceptualized as a disorder of emotional memory showing strong (conditioned) responses to trauma reminders and intrusive memories among other symptoms. Women are at greater risk of developing PTSD than men. Recent studies have demonstrated an influence of ovarian steroid hormones in both fear conditioning and intrusive memory paradigms. However, although intrusive memories are considered non-extinguished emotional reactions to trauma reminders, none of the previous studies has investigated effects of ovarian hormones on fear conditioning mechanisms and intrusive memories in conjunction. This may have contributed to an overall inconsistent picture of the role of these hormones in emotional learning and memory. To remedy this, we exposed 37 healthy women with a natural menstrual cycle (during early follicular or luteal cycle phase) to a novel conditioned-intrusion paradigm designed to model real-life traumatic experiences. The paradigm included a differential fear conditioning procedure with short violent film clips as unconditioned stimuli. Intrusive memories about the film clips were assessed ambulatorily on subsequent days. Women with lower levels of estradiol displayed elevated differential conditioned skin conductance responding during fear extinction and showed stronger intrusive memories. The inverse relationship between estradiol and intrusive memories was at least partially accounted for by the conditioned responding observed during fear extinction. Progesterone levels were not associated with either fear acquisition/extinction or with intrusive memories. This suggests that lower levels of estradiol might promote stronger symptoms of PTSD through associative processes. PMID:25463649

  4. Elevated levels of MYB30 in the phloem accelerate flowering in Arabidopsis through the regulation of FLOWERING LOCUS T.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangyu Liu

    Full Text Available In Arabidopsis thaliana, the R2R3 MYB-like transcription factor MYB30 is a positive regulator of the pathogen-induced hypersensitive response and of brassinosteroid and abscisic acid signaling. Here, we show that MYB30 expressed under the control of the strong phloem-specific SUC2 promoter accelerates flowering both in long and short days. Early flowering is mediated by elevated expression of flowering locus T (FT, which can be observed in the absence and presence of CONSTANS (CO, the main activator of FT. CO-independent activation by high MYB30 expression results in FT levels that remain below those observed in the wild-type plants, which show an additive CO-dependent activation. In contrast, twin sister of FT (TSF is repressed in plants expressing high levels of MYB30 in the phloem. In transient assays, MYB30 and CO additively increase the activity of a reporter construct driven by a 1 kb FT promoter. Acceleration of flowering by MYB30 does not require the presence of salicylic acid and is independent of FLC. Taken together, increased levels of MYB30, which was reported to be induced in response to the perception of pathogens, can accelerate flowering and MYB30 may thus be a candidate to mediate cross-talk between gene networks involved in biotic stress perception and flowering time.

  5. Underwater and surface strategies of 200 m world level swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Santiago; Roig, Andreu

    2016-01-01

    Pacing strategies of elite swimmers have been consistently characterised from the average lap velocities. In the present study, we examined the racing strategies of 200 m world class-level swimmers with regard to their underwater and surface lap components. The finals and semi-finals of the 200 m races at the 2013 World Swimming Championships (Barcelona, Spain) were analysed by an innovative image-processing system (InThePool® 2.0). Free swimming velocities of elite swimmers typically decreased throughout the 200 m race laps (-0.12 m · s(-1), 95% CI -0.11 to -0.14 m · s(-1), P = 0.001, η(2) = 0.81), whereas underwater velocities, which were faster than free swimming, were not meaningfully affected by the race progress (0.02 m · s(-1), -0.01 to 0.04 m · s(-1), P = 0.01, η(2) = 0.04). When swimming underwater, elite swimmers typically travelled less distance (-0.66 m, -0.83 to -0.49 m, P = 0.001, η(2) = 0.34) from the first to the third turn of the race, although underwater distances were maintained on the backstroke and butterfly races. These strategies allowed swimmers to maintain their average velocity in the last lap despite a decrease in the free swimming velocity. Elite coaches and swimmers are advised to model their racing strategies by considering both underwater and surface race components.

  6. Spatial regression between soil surface elevation, water storage in root zone and biomass productivity of alfalfa within an irrigated field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeyliger, Anatoly; Ermolaeva, Olga

    2014-05-01

    with formation of water flow and water storage. The major changes are formed as a result of imposing of the intensity fields on a soil surface and its field capillary infiltration rate. Excess of the first intensity over the second in each point of soil surface leads to formation of a layer of intensity of water not infiltrated in soil. Thus generate the new field of vectors of intensity which can consist of vertically directed vector of speed of evaporation, a quasi horizontal vector of intensity of a surface water flow and quasi vertical vector of intensity of a preferential flow directed downwards. Principal cause of excess of irrigation water application intensity over capillary infiltration rate can be on the one hand spatial non-uniformity of irrigation water application, and with other spatial variability of capillary infiltration rate, connected with spatial variability of water storage in the top layers of soil. As a result the spatial redistribution of irrigation water over irrigated filed forms distortions of ideal model of irrigation water storage in root zone of soil profile. The major differences consist in increasing of water storage in the depressions of a relief of an irrigated field and accordingly in their reduction on elevated zones of a relief, as well as losses of irrigation water outside of boundaries of a root zone of an irrigated field, in vertical, and horizontal directions. One of key parameters characterizing interaction between irrigation technology and soil state an irrigated field are intensity of water application, intensity and volume of a capillary infiltration, the water storage in root zone at the moment of infiltration starting and a topography of an irrigated field. Fnalyzing of spatial links between these characteristics a special research had been carried out on irrigated by sprinkler machine called Fregate at alfalfa field during the summer of 2012. This research carried out at experimental farm of the research institute Volg

  7. Long-Term Intermittent Hypoxia Elevates Cobalt Levels in the Brain and Injures White Matter in Adult Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veasey, Sigrid C.; Lear, Jessica; Zhu, Yan; Grinspan, Judith B.; Hare, Dominic J.; Wang, SiHe; Bunch, Dustin; Doble, Philip A.; Robinson, Stephen R.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Exposure to the variable oxygenation patterns in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) causes oxidative stress within the brain. We hypothesized that this stress is associated with increased levels of redox-active metals and white matter injury. Design: Participants were randomly allocated to a control or experimental group (single independent variable). Setting: University animal house. Participants: Adult male C57BL/6J mice. Interventions: To model OSA, mice were exposed to long-term intermittent hypoxia (LTIH) for 10 hours/day for 8 weeks or sham intermittent hypoxia (SIH). Measurements and Results: Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry was used to quantitatively map the distribution of the trace elements cobalt, copper, iron, and zinc in forebrain sections. Control mice contained 62 ± 7 ng cobalt/g wet weight, whereas LTIH mice contained 5600 ± 600 ng cobalt/g wet weight (P Cobalt was concentrated within white matter regions of the brain, including the corpus callosum. Compared to that of control mice, the corpus callosum of LTIH mice had significantly more endoplasmic reticulum stress, fewer myelin-associated proteins, disorganized myelin sheaths, and more degenerated axon profiles. Because cobalt is an essential component of vitamin B12, serum methylmalonic acid (MMA) levels were measured. LTIH mice had low MMA levels (P cobalt, predominantly in the white matter. The increased cobalt is associated with endoplasmic reticulum stress, myelin loss, and axonal injury. Low plasma methylmalonic acid levels are associated with white matter injury in long-term intermittent hypoxia and possibly in obstructive sleep apnea. Citation: Veasey SC; Lear J; Zhu Y; Grinspan JB; Hare DJ; Wang S; Bunch D; Doble PA; Robinson SR. Long-term intermittent hypoxia elevates cobalt levels in the brain and injures white matter in adult mice. SLEEP 2013;36(10):1471-1481. PMID:24082306

  8. The usefulness of point-of-care (POC) tests in screening elevated glucose and ketone body levels postmortem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walta, Anna-Mari; Keltanen, Terhi; Lindroos, Katarina; Sajantila, Antti

    2016-09-01

    The aim was to evaluate the performance of point-of-care (POC) tests in detecting glucose and ketone bodies in postmortem (PM) samples and to assess the usefulness of POC tests in sample screening for more precise analyses. Glucose and ketone body, β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), were measured from vitreous humor (VH) in 52 autopsy cases with a POC blood glucose monitoring device (BGMD). In addition glucose and ketone bodies, acetone (Ac) and acetoacetate (AcAc), were measured from urine samples in another set of 59 cases with semi-quantitative stick tests. The results were compared to the concentration in VH measured with validated methods (values ≥ 7mmol/l indicate possible hyperglycemia and total ketone body levels ≥ 3mmol/l ketoacidosis). The sensitivity for glucose with the BGMD was 1.0 and specificity 0.94 when the threshold value for the meter to predict elevated glucose was set to ≥ 10mmol/l. The correlation between the BGMD and the validated method was strong (R(2)=0.89). For detecting ketoacidosis, the BGMD had a sensitivity of 1.0 and specificity of 0.73, when the threshold value was set to 2.5mmol/l. The urine stick test presented a sensitivity of 0.89 and specificity of 0.90 for detecting elevated VH glucose concentration. The sensitivity and specificity for the stick test to detect cases with possible ketoacidosis were 0.84 and 0.68, respectively. According to the results, BGMD can be reliably applied for sample screening, although more samples need to be analyzed for delineating the correct threshold values. In the case of glucose, the urine stick tests could be indicative in detecting cases with VH glucose ≥ 10mmol/l. For predicting possible ketoacidosis with elevated VH total ketone bodies, the stick test is not reliable as the test presented both false-positive and -negative results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Elevated levels of the complement activation product C4d in bronchial fluids for the diagnosis of lung cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ajona

    Full Text Available Molecular markers in bronchial fluids may contribute to the diagnosis of lung cancer. We previously observed a significant increase of C4d-containing complement degradation fragments in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL supernatants from lung cancer patients in a cohort of 50 cases and 22 controls (CUN cohort. The present study was designed to determine the diagnostic performance of these complement fragments (hereinafter jointly referred as C4d in bronchial fluids. C4d levels were determined in BAL supernatants from two independent cohorts: the CU cohort (25 cases and 26 controls and the HUVR cohort (60 cases and 98 controls. A series of spontaneous sputum samples from 68 patients with lung cancer and 10 controls was also used (LCCCIO cohort. Total protein content, complement C4, complement C5a, and CYFRA 21-1 were also measured in all cohorts. C4d levels were significantly increased in BAL samples from lung cancer patients. The area under the ROC curve was 0.82 (95%CI = 0.71-0.94 and 0.67 (95%CI = 0.58-0.76 for the CU and HUVR cohorts, respectively. In addition, unlike the other markers, C4d levels in BAL samples were highly consistent across the CUN, CU and HUVR cohorts. Interestingly, C4d test markedly increased the sensitivity of bronchoscopy in the two cohorts in which cytological data were available (CUN and HUVR cohorts. Finally, in the LCCCIO cohort, C4d levels were higher in sputum supernatants from patients with lung cancer (area under the ROC curve: 0.7; 95%CI = 0.56-0.83. In conclusion, C4d is consistently elevated in bronchial fluids from lung cancer patients and may be used to improve the diagnosis of the disease.

  10. Inhibition of neutral sphingomyelinase decreases elevated levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase and apoptotic cell death in ocular hypertensive rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aslan, Mutay, E-mail: mutayaslan@akdeniz.edu.tr [Department of Medical Biochemistry, Akdeniz University Faculty of Medicine, Antalya (Turkey); Basaranlar, Goksun [Department of Biophysics, Akdeniz University Faculty of Medicine, Antalya (Turkey); Unal, Mustafa [Department of Ophthalmology, Akdeniz University Faculty of Medicine, Antalya (Turkey); Ciftcioglu, Akif [Department of Pathology, Akdeniz University Faculty of Medicine, Antalya (Turkey); Derin, Narin [Department of Biophysics, Akdeniz University Faculty of Medicine, Antalya (Turkey); Mutus, Bulent [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-11-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and excessive nitric oxide production via induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of neuronal retinal cell death in ocular hypertension. Neutral sphingomyelinase (N-SMase)/ceramide pathway can regulate NOS2 expression, hence this study determined the role of selective neutral sphingomyelinase (N-SMase) inhibition on retinal NOS2 levels, ER stress, apoptosis and visual evoked potentials (VEPs) in a rat model of elevated intraocular pressure (EIOP). NOS2 expression and retinal protein nitration were significantly greater in EIOP and significantly decreased with N-SMase inhibition. A significant increase was observed in retinal ER stress markers pPERK, CHOP and GRP78 in EIOP, which were not significantly altered by N-SMase inhibition. Retinal TUNEL staining showed increased apoptosis in all EIOP groups; however N-SMase inhibition significantly decreased the percent of apoptotic cells in EIOP. Caspase-3, -8 and -9 activities were significantly increased in EIOP and returned to baseline levels following N-SMase inhibition. Latencies of all VEP components were significantly prolonged in EIOP and shortened following N-SMase inhibition. Data confirm the role of nitrative injury in EIOP and highlight the protective effect of N-SMase inhibition in EIOP via down-regulation of NOS2 levels and nitrative stress. - Highlights: • Inhibition of N-SMase decreases NOS2 levels in ocular hypertension. • Inhibition of N-SMase decreases protein nitration in ocular hypertension. • Inhibition of N-SMase decreases caspase activation in ocular hypertension. • Inhibition of N-SMase decreases apoptosis in ocular hypertension.

  11. Surface encapsulation process for managing low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unger, S.L.; Telles, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    Current processes for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) stabilization involve mixing contaminants with a fixative such as cement, asphalt, polyethylene, or vinyl monomers, and subsequently curing the mixtures in containers. These methods give rise to processing difficulties and yield products lacking performance to assure long-term LLRW immobilization. Mixing of LLRW into fixatives is impeded by viscous media and the curing reaction is inhibited by LLRW constituents. Product performance is affected by corrosion of the containers which ultimately expose the cured mixtures to environmental stresses. This process, termed the ''Surface Encapsulation Process,'' circumvents these problems. A thermosetting fixative is employed that mixes readily with LLRW and is highly insensitive to inhibition in curing. The agglomerated mixtures are further stabilized by encapsulation with seamless jackets of corrosion resistant plastic, such as polyethylene. In laboratory-scale investigations, feasibility of the technique was demonstrated for managing a broad spectrum of LLRW simulants including ion-exchange resins, beads, and glasses, and sodium salts. Products tested to date meet all relevant NRC and DOT regulations governing waste fixation. The high waste loadings of the products, use of commodity resins, and processing simplicity indicated our process would provide high performance LLRW stabilization at costs that are competitive to those for processes employing state-of-the-art fixatives. An economic analysis based on managing LLRW generated by commercial power plants (≅1,000 MeW) substantiates the competitive process costs advantages

  12. Elevated levels of interleukin 17A and kynurenine in candidemic patients, compared with levels in noncandidemic patients in the intensive care unit and those in healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Robert; Zollner-Schwetz, Ines; Salzer, Helmut J F; Valentin, Thomas; Rabensteiner, Jasmin; Prüller, Florian; Raggam, Reinhard; Meinitzer, Andreas; Prattes, Jürgen; Rinner, Beate; Strohmaier, Heimo; Quehenberger, Franz; Strunk, Dirk; Heidrich, Katharina; Buzina, Walter; Hoenigl, Martin

    2015-02-01

    The interplay between Candida species and pattern recognition receptors, interleukins, kynurenine, and T cells has been studied in murine and ex vivo human studies, but data are lacking from patients with invasive fungal infections. Interleukin 17A (IL-17A) is considered an important component in host defense against Candida infections and is modulated by Candida-induced impairment of tryptophan-kynurenine metabolism. Dectin-1, Toll-like receptor 2, and Toll-like receptor 4 expression; regulatory T cell (Treg) percentages; and interleukin 6, interleukin 10, IL-17A, interleukin 22, interleukin 23, interferon γ, kynurenine, and tryptophan levels were determined in candidemic patients and compared to levels in noncandidemic patients who are in the intensive care unit (ICU) and receiving antibiotic therapy and those in healthy controls, both with and without Candida colonization. Candidemic patients had significantly higher IL-17A and kynurenine levels, compared with noncandidemic patients, including Candida-colonized ICU patients and healthy controls. Within candidemic patients, time-dependent elevation of IL-17A and kynurenine levels was detected. IL-17A areas under the curve for differentiation between patients with early candidemia and those without candidemia (ICU patients, including Candida-colonized patients, and healthy controls) were between 0.94 (95% confidence interval [CI], .89-.99) and 0.99 (95% CI, .99-1). Candidemic patients had significantly higher IL-17A and kynurenine levels, compared with noncandidemic patients. The statistically significant association between IL-17A and kynurenine levels and candidemia suggests their potential as biomarkers for anticipation of invasive candidiasis. NCT00786903. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Elevated Levels of Interferon-γ Are Associated with High Levels of Epstein-Barr Virus Reactivation in Patients with the Intestinal Type of Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María G. Cárdenas-Mondragón

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The inflammatory response directed against Helicobacter pylori (HP is believed to be one of the main triggers of the appearance of gastric lesions and their progression to gastric cancer (GC. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV has been found responsible for about 10% of all GCs, but the inflammatory response has not been studied in GC patients with evidence of high levels of EBV reactivation. Objective. To determine the relationship between inflammation and antibodies against EBV reactivation antigens, HP, and the bacterium virulence factor CagA in patients with GC. Methods. 127 GC patients, 46 gastritis patients, and 197 healthy subjects were studied. IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α, TGF-β, MCP-1, and IFN-γ levels were measured in serum or plasma and compared against the antibody titers of VCA-IgG, HP, and the HP virulence factor CagA. Statistical associations were estimated. Results. Significant ORs and positive trends were found between VCA-IgG and IFN-γ, specifically for patients with GC of intestinal type (OR: 6.4, 95% C.I. 1.2–35.4 (p<0.044. Conclusions. We confirmed a positive association between a marker of EBV reactivation and intestinal gastric cancer and present evidence of a correlation with elevated serum levels of IFN-γ, but not with the other cytokines.

  14. The Implication of Combat Stress and PTSD Trajectories in Metabolic Syndrome and Elevated C-Reactive Protein Levels: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Zahava; Levin, Yafit; Assayag, Einor Ben; Furman, Orit; Shenhar-Tsarfaty, Shani; Berliner, Shlomo; Ohry, Avi

    This study sheds light on the importance of long-term follow-up of trauma survivors, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) trajectories, and early detection of health risk factors in trauma survivors. The present study prospectively assessed the following over 23 years: (1) the association of psychological and physiologic stress during captivity with elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and metabolic syndrome (MetS), which includes hypertension; elevated levels of insulin, triglycerides, and fasting glucose; decreased levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; and obesity and (2) the implication of PTSD trajectories in elevated CRP levels and MetS. Measurements were taken in 1991, 2003, 2008, and 2015. Participants were 116 Israeli combat veterans of the 1973 Yom Kippur War (of these, 101 were former prisoners of war [ex-POWs] and 15 were comparable controls). The medical assessments relevant for this study were body mass index, fasting blood glucose levels, and diabetes, blood pressure or a diagnosis of hypertension, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels, and medication intake. In addition, the PTSD Inventory was used to assess PTSD symptoms and trajectories over time according to DSM-IV-TR PTSD criteria. Captivity-in particular, the captivity stressors of weight loss, physical suffering, psychological suffering, and humiliation-was implicated in both elevated CRP levels and MetS, significantly so with elevated CRP levels (P = .01, R² = 0.33). Captivity-induced PTSD, in particular chronic and delayed PTSD trajectories, was associated with elevated CRP levels and MetS, significantly so for MetS (P = .05). Monitoring inflammation using markers like CRP level in trauma survivors can be beneficial, particularly if PTSD is chronic or delayed. Clinicians treating trauma survivors should raise awareness of the importance of such measures in light of long-term health vulnerabilities. © Copyright 2017 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  15. Prognostic value of sustained elevated C-reactive protein levels in patients with acute aortic intramural hematoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitai, Takeshi; Kaji, Shuichiro; Kim, Kitae; Ehara, Natsuhiko; Tani, Tomoko; Kinoshita, Makoto; Furukawa, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    The appropriate management of aortic intramural hematoma is still controversial, because a variety of aortic events can arise during follow-up in some patients. However, simplified identification of these patients remains challenging. The present study aimed to determine the prognostic significance of serial C-reactive protein measurements for the prediction of adverse events in patients with acute aortic intramural hematoma. A total of 180 patients with aortic intramural hematoma were retrospectively reviewed. The C-reactive protein data were obtained at admission and 2 days, 1 week, and 2 weeks from the onset, and the maximum value was obtained during the acute phase. Adverse aorta-related events were defined by a composite of aortic rupture, aortic aneurysm, and surgical or endovascular aortic repair. The C-reactive protein value was 3.0 ± 4.6, 8.7 ± 5.9, 9.0 ± 5.5, and 5.7 ± 4.5 mg/dL on admission and 2 days, 1 week, and 2 weeks from the onset, respectively. The maximal value of C-reactive protein was 12.4 ± 6.3 mg/dL at a mean of 4 days from the onset. Patients with elevated C-reactive protein levels (≥7.2 mg/dL) at 2 weeks had significantly greater rates of aorta-related events (P analysis, an elevated C-reactive protein level at 2 weeks (hazard ratio, 3.16; P value compared with the development of an ulcer-like projection (chi-square, 16.94 for ulcer-like projection only vs 34.32 with the addition of C-reactive protein at 2 weeks, P < .001). C-reactive protein was a simple and useful marker providing incremental prognostic information compared with the development of an ulcer-like projection in patients with aortic intramural hematoma. Copyright © 2014 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Anti-depressant and anxiolytic like behaviors in PKCI/HINT1 knockout mice associated with elevated plasma corticosterone level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jia

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein kinase C interacting protein (PKCI/HINT1 is a small protein belonging to the histidine triad (HIT family proteins. Its brain immunoreactivity is located in neurons and neuronal processes. PKCI/HINT1 gene knockout (KO mice display hyper-locomotion in response to D-amphetamine which is considered a positive symptom of schizophrenia in animal models. Postmortem studies identified PKCI/HINT1 as a candidate molecule for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. We investigated the hypothesis that the PKCI/HINT1 gene may play an important role in regulating mood function in the CNS. We submitted PKCI/HINT1 KO mice and their wild type (WT littermates to behavioral tests used to study anti-depressant, anxiety like behaviors, and goal-oriented behavior. Additionally, as many mood disorders coincide with modifications of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis function, we assessed the HPA activity through measurement of plasma corticosterone levels. Results Compared to the WT controls, KO mice exhibited less immobility in the forced swim (FST and the tail suspension (TST tests. Activity in the TST tended to be attenuated by acute treatment with valproate at 300 mg/kg in KO mice. The PKCI/HINT1 KO mice presented less thigmotaxis in the Morris water maze and spent progressively more time in the lit compartment in the light/dark test. In a place navigation task, KO mice exhibited enhanced acquisition and retention. Furthermore, the afternoon basal plasma corticosterone level in PKCI/HINT1 KO mice was significantly higher than in the WT. Conclusion PKCI/HINT1 KO mice displayed a phenotype of behavioral and endocrine features which indicate changes of mood function, including anxiolytic-like and anti-depressant like behaviors, in conjunction with an elevated corticosterone level in plasma. These results suggest that the PKCI/HINT 1 gene could be important for the mood regulation function in the CNS.

  17. Elevated D-dimer level is a risk factor for coronary artery lesions accompanying intravenous immunoglobulin-unresponsive Kawasaki disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuzawa, Yuko; Mori, Masaaki; Hara, Takuma; Inaba, Aya; Oba, Mari S; Yokota, Shumpei

    2015-04-01

    Although there are many reports on the resistance of Kawasaki disease (KD) to initial intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) therapy, risk factors for coronary artery lesions in such cases remain to be established. The objective of this study was to explore when additional therapies should be administered and to identify factors helpful for selecting a therapeutic option. Based on their written clinical records, we performed a retrospective review of KD patients who did not respond to initial IVIg therapy and who therefore then underwent plasma exchange (PE) therapy. This was a case-control study to compare the presence or absence of acute coronary lesions in patients treated by PE for IVIg-unresponsive KD at Yokohama City University Hospital or at Yokohama City University Medical Center. Fifteen of 44 patients had acute coronary artery lesions (CAL) correlating with high levels of white blood cells (WBC) (P = 0.045), D-dimer (P = 0.008), and fibrin/fibrinogen degradation products (P = 0.009) and lower levels of fibrinogen (P = 0.013) prior to PE therapy. There was a strong correlation between pre-PE levels of albumin and D-dimer (Pearson's correlation coefficient of 0.610). Multivariate analyses revealed that the odds ratio for CAL when D-dimer was ≥ 4.5 μg/mL was 25.06 (95% CI, 2.56-244.91, P = 0.006). D-dimer elevation and albumin decline in IVIg-unresponsive KD patients could be risk factors for acute CAL, suggesting the possibility that angitis has spread throughout the arterial system, as far as the coronary artery. © 2014 The Authors. Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis © 2014 International Society for Apheresis.

  18. Elevated levels of plasminogen activators in the pathogenesis of delayed radiation damage in rat cervical spinal cord in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawaya, R.; Rayford, A.; Kono, S.; Rao, J.S.; Ang, K.K.; Feng, Y.; Stephens, L.C.

    1994-01-01

    The pathophysiology of the cellular basis of radiation-induced demyelination and white-matter necrosis of the central nervous system (CNS) is poorly understood. Preliminary data suggest that tissue damage is partly mediated through changes in the proteolytic enzymes. In this study, we irradiated rat cervical spinal cords with single doses of 24 Gy of 18 MV photons or 20 MeV electrons and measured the levels of plasminogen activators at days 2, 7, 30, 60, 90, 120, 130 and 145 after irradiation, using appropriate controls at each time. Fibrin zymography revealed fibrinolytic bands representing molecular weights of 68,000 and 48,000 in controls and irradiated samples; these bands increased significantly at days 120, 130 and 145 after irradiation. Inhibition of these enzymatic bands with specific antibodies against tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) and amiloride, an inhibitor for urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), confirmed that these bands were tPA and uPA. Enzymatic levels quantified by densitometry showed a twofold elevation in the levels of tPA and more than a tenfold increase in uPA after 120 days' irradiation. Activity of uPA was increased threefold by day 2 and increased steadily with time compared to nonirradiated control samples. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) also showed a threefold increase in the tPA content in the extracts of irradiated rat cervical spinal cords at days 120, 130 and 145. This study adds additional information to the proposed role of plasminogen activators in the pathogenic pathways of radiation damage in the CNS. 38 refs., 6 figs

  19. Elevated levels of plasminogen activators in the pathogenesis of delayed radiation damage in rat cervical spinal cord in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawaya, R.; Rayford, A.; Kono, S.; Rao, J.S.; Ang, K.K.; Feng, Y.; Stephens, L.C. [Univ. of Texas, Houston, TX (United States)

    1994-06-01

    The pathophysiology of the cellular basis of radiation-induced demyelination and white-matter necrosis of the central nervous system (CNS) is poorly understood. Preliminary data suggest that tissue damage is partly mediated through changes in the proteolytic enzymes. In this study, we irradiated rat cervical spinal cords with single doses of 24 Gy of 18 MV photons or 20 MeV electrons and measured the levels of plasminogen activators at days 2, 7, 30, 60, 90, 120, 130 and 145 after irradiation, using appropriate controls at each time. Fibrin zymography revealed fibrinolytic bands representing molecular weights of 68,000 and 48,000 in controls and irradiated samples; these bands increased significantly at days 120, 130 and 145 after irradiation. Inhibition of these enzymatic bands with specific antibodies against tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) and amiloride, an inhibitor for urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), confirmed that these bands were tPA and uPA. Enzymatic levels quantified by densitometry showed a twofold elevation in the levels of tPA and more than a tenfold increase in uPA after 120 days` irradiation. Activity of uPA was increased threefold by day 2 and increased steadily with time compared to nonirradiated control samples. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) also showed a threefold increase in the tPA content in the extracts of irradiated rat cervical spinal cords at days 120, 130 and 145. This study adds additional information to the proposed role of plasminogen activators in the pathogenic pathways of radiation damage in the CNS. 38 refs., 6 figs.

  20. Acute dosing of latrepirdine (Dimebon™, a possible Alzheimer therapeutic, elevates extracellular amyloid-β levels in vitro and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sano Mary

    2009-12-01

    increases in extracellular Aβx-42 levels (+10%; p = 0.001; of note, however, was the observation that extracellular Aβx-40 levels did not change. Conclusions Here, we report the surprising association of acute latrepirdine dosing with elevated levels of extracellular Aβ as measured in three independent neuron-related or neuron-derived systems, including the hippocampus of freely moving Tg2576 mice. Given the reported association of chronic latrepirdine treatment with improvement in cognitive function, the effects of chronic latrepirdine treatment on extracellular Aβ levels must now be determined.

  1. Surface Modification of Austenitic Stainless Steels by High-Flux Elevated-Temperature Nitrogen-Ion Implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Orhan

    Nitrogen diffusivity is found to be enhanced under unusual N ion beam conditions used for modification of fcc AISI 304 stainless steel