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Sample records for surface disease index

  1. Validation of farsi translation of the ocular surface disease index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Pakdel

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: The obtained F-OSDI showed acceptable internal consistency and test-retest reliability. This F-OSDI could be used for assessment of dry eye, ocular surface discomfort and quality of life in Iranian and Farsi speaking populations.

  2. Relationship Between Ocular Surface Disease Index, Dry Eye Tests, and Demographic Properties in Computer Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin Simavlı

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the ocular surface disease index (OSDI in computer users and to investigate the correlations of this index with dry eye tests and demographic properties. Materials and Methods: In this prospective study, 178 subjects with an age range of 20-40 years and who spent most of their daily life in front of the computers were included. All participants underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination including basal secretion test, tear break-up time test, and ocular surface staining. In addition, all patients completed the OSDI questionnaire. Results: A total of 178 volunteers (101 female, 77 male with a mean age of 28.8±4.5 years were included in the study. Mean time of computer use was 7.7±1.9 (5-14 hours/day, and mean computer use period was 71.1±39.7 (4-204 months. Mean OSDI score was 44.1±24.7 (0-100. There was a significant negative correlation between the OSDI score and tear break-up time test in the right (p=0.005 r=-0.21 and the left eyes (p=0.003 r=-0.22. There was a significant positive correlation between the OSDI score and gender (p=0.014 r=0.18 and daily computer usage time (p=0.008 r=0.2. In addition to this, there was a significant positive correlation between the OSDI score and ocular surface staining pattern in the right (p=0.03 r=0.16 and the left eyes (p=0.03 r=0.17. Age, smoking, type of computer, use of glasses, presence of symptoms, and basal secretion test were not found to be correlated with OSDI score. Conclusions: Long-term computer use causes ocular surface problems. The OSDI were found to be correlated with tear break-up time test, gender, daily computer usage time, and ocular surface staining pattern in computer users. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 115-8

  3. Comparison of Efficacy and Ocular Surface Disease Index Score between Bimatoprost, Latanoprost, Travoprost, and Tafluprost in Glaucoma Patients

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    Wissam Georges El Hajj Moussa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The purpose of this study is to evaluate and compare the efficacy of 4 prostaglandin analogues (PGAs and to determine the incidence of ocular surface disease in newly diagnosed, primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG patients started on one of those 4 PGAs: bimatoprost (benzalkonium chloride, BAK, 0.3 mg/mL, latanoprost (BAK 0.2 mg/mL, travoprost (polyquad, and tafluprost (BAK-free. Patients and Methods. In this single-center, open-label trial, 32 patients newly diagnosed with POAG were randomly started on one of the four PGAs. All patients underwent a complete ophthalmological exam at presentation and at 1, 3, and 6 months of follow-up. Dry eye disease (DED was assessed using the original Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI questionnaire, in order to evaluate the impact of the drops on the quality of life of patients. Results. The mean age was 60.06 years ± 11.76. All four drugs equally and significantly reduced the intraocular pressure (IOP with respect to the baseline IOP. There was a trend for a slightly greater reduction of IOP with bimatoprost, but the difference was not found to be statistically significant when compared to other PGAs. OSDI scores were significantly superior for travoprost (10.68 ± 5.73 compared to the other three drugs (p<0.05. Latanoprost caused the most significant eyelash growth and iris discoloration. Conjunctival hyperemia and superficial keratitis occurrence were similar in the four groups. Conclusion. All prostaglandin analogues equally and significantly reduce the IOP in patients with POAG. According to the results of the OSDI score, latanoprost seems to be the least tolerated among the four drugs.

  4. Lower Lid Laxity is Negatively Correlated with Improvement of the Ocular Surface Disease Index in Dry Eye Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Seung Hoon; Lyu, Byul; Yim, Hye Bin; Lee, Na Young

    2016-01-01

    To compare the responses to dry eye treatment of patients sorted by the degree of lower lid laxity. Sixty patients were grouped into three groups according to the degree of lower lid laxity. Tear break-up time (TBUT), Schirmer test (ST) scores, ocular surface disease index (OSDI) scores, and changes in OSDI score in each group were compared, before and at 3 months after treatment. TBUT, ST, and OSDI scores were not different among the three groups at baseline. TBUT improved in each group at 3 months after treatment, and no differences between groups were found. ST scores were not increased after treatment, while OSDI were improved to 22.57 ± 5.243, 31.16 ± 11.353, and 37.85 ± 13.342 in the no, moderate, and high laxity groups, respectively; these improvements were statistically significant (p = 0.003, dry eye treatment, as assessed by change in OSDI score (p = 0.005 versus moderate laxity group, p = 0.005 versus no laxity group). Lower lid laxity is one of the factors contributing to the responses to dry eye treatment assessed by change in OSDI score, independent of TBUT and ST scores.

  5. 2d index and surface operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadde, Abhijit; Gukov, Sergei

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we compute the superconformal index of 2d (2,2) supersymmetric gauge theories. The 2d superconformal index, a.k.a. flavored elliptic genus, is computed by a unitary matrix integral much like the matrix integral that computes the 4d superconformal index. We compute the 2d index explicitly for a number of examples. In the case of abelian gauge theories we see that the index is invariant under flop transition and under CY-LG correspondence. The index also provides a powerful check of the Seiberg-type duality for non-abelian gauge theories discovered by Hori and Tong. In the later half of the paper, we study half-BPS surface operators in N=2 superconformal gauge theories. They are engineered by coupling the 2d (2,2) supersymmetric gauge theory living on the support of the surface operator to the 4d N=2 theory, so that different realizations of the same surface operator with a given Levi type are related by a 2d analogue of the Seiberg duality. The index of this coupled system is computed by using the tools developed in the first half of the paper. The superconformal index in the presence of surface defect is expected to be invariant under generalized S-duality. We demonstrate that it is indeed the case. In doing so the Seiberg-type duality of the 2d theory plays an important role

  6. An index of floodplain surface complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scown, Murray W.; Thoms, Martin C.; DeJager, Nathan R.

    2016-01-01

    Floodplain surface topography is an important component of floodplain ecosystems. It is the primary physical template upon which ecosystem processes are acted out, and complexity in this template can contribute to the high biodiversity and productivity of floodplain ecosystems. There has been a limited appreciation of floodplain surface complexity because of the traditional focus on temporal variability in floodplains as well as limitations to quantifying spatial complexity. An index of floodplain surface complexity (FSC) is developed in this paper and applied to eight floodplains from different geographic settings. The index is based on two key indicators of complexity, variability in surface geometry (VSG) and the spatial organisation of surface conditions (SPO), and was determined at three sampling scales. FSC, VSG, and SPO varied between the eight floodplains and these differences depended upon sampling scale. Relationships between these measures of spatial complexity and seven geomorphological and hydrological drivers were investigated. There was a significant decline in all complexity measures with increasing floodplain width, which was explained by either a power, logarithmic, or exponential function. There was an initial rapid decline in surface complexity as floodplain width increased from 1.5 to 5 km, followed by little change in floodplains wider than 10 km. VSG also increased significantly with increasing sediment yield. No significant relationships were determined between any of the four hydrological variables and floodplain surface complexity.

  7. Corneal Dendritic Cell Density Is Associated with Subbasal Nerve Plexus Features, Ocular Surface Disease Index, and Serum Vitamin D in Evaporative Dry Eye Disease

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    Rohit Shetty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dry eye disease (DED has evolved into a major public health concern with ocular discomfort and pain being responsible for significant morbidity associated with DED. However, the etiopathological factors contributing to ocular pain associated with DED are not well understood. The current IVCM based study investigated the association between corneal dendritic cell density (DCD, corneal subbasal nerve plexus (SBNP features, and serum vitamin D and symptoms of evaporative dry eye (EDE. The study included age and sex matched 52 EDE patients and 43 heathy controls. A significant increase in the OSDI scores (discomfort subscale was observed between EDE (median, 20.8 and control (median, 4.2 cohorts (P23 (P<0.05. A positive correlation was observed between DCD and OSDI discomfort subscale (r=0.348; P<0.0003 and SBNP features. An inverse correlation was observed between vitamin D and OSDI scores (r=-0.332; P=0.0095 and DCD with dendritic processes (r=-0.322; P=0.0122. The findings implicate DCD, SBNP features, and vitamin D with EDE symptoms.

  8. A discussion on disease severity index values: using the disease severity index for null hypothesis testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    A disease severity index (DSI) is a single number for summarizing a large amount of information on disease severity. It has been used to indicate the performance of a cultivar in regard to disease resistance at a particular location, to relate disease severity to yield loss, to determine the effecti...

  9. Normal Incidence for Graded Index Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khankhoje, Uday K.; Van Zyl, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    A plane wave is incident normally from vacuum (eta(sub 0) = 1) onto a smooth surface. The substrate has three layers; the top most layer has thickness d(sub 1) and permittivity epsilon(sub 1). The corresponding numbers for the next layer are d(sub 2); epsilon(sub 2), while the third layer which is semi-in nite has index eta(sub 3). The Hallikainen model [1] is used to relate volumetric soil moisture to the permittivity. Here, we consider the relation for the real part of the permittivity for a typical loam soil: acute epsilon(mv) = 2.8571 + 3.9678 x mv + 118:85 x mv(sup 2).

  10. Surface states in crystals with low-index surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hui-Ping; Tao Rui-Bao

    2015-01-01

    For most of the conventional crystals with low-index surfaces, the hopping between the nearest neighbor (1NN) crystal planes (CPs) is dominant and the ones from the nNN (2 ≤ n < ∞) CPs are relatively weak, considered as small perturbations. The recent theoretical analysis [1] has demonstrated the absence of surface states at the level of the hopping approximation between the 1NN CPs when the original infinite crystal has the geometric reflection symmetry (GRS) for each CP. Meanwhile, based on the perturbation theory, it has also been shown that small perturbations from the hopping between the nNN (2 ≤ n < ∞) CPs and surface relaxation have no impact on the above conclusion. However, for the crystals with strong intrinsic spin-orbit coupling (SOC), the dominant terms of intrinsic SOC associate with two 1NN bond hoppings. Thus SOC will significantly contribute the hoppings from the 1NN and/or 2NN CPs except the ones within each CP. Here, we will study the effect of the hopping between the 2NN CPs on the surface states in model crystals with three different type structures (Type I: “···–P–P–P–P–···”, Type II: “···–P–Q–P–Q–···” and Type III: “···–P=Q–P=Q–···” where P and Q indicate CPs and the signs “−” and “=” mark the distance between the 1NN CPs). In terms of analytical and numerical calculations, we study the behavior of surface states in three types after the symmetric/asymmetric hopping from the 2NN CPs is added. We analytically prove that the symmetric hopping from the 2NN CPs cannot induce surface states in Type I when each CP has only one electron mode. The numerical calculations also provide strong support for the conclusion, even up to 5NN. However, in general, the coupling from the 2NN CPs (symmetric and asymmetric) is favorable to generate surface states except Type I with single electron mode only. (paper)

  11. Screening for Peripheral Artery Disease and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Assessment with Ankle Brachial Index in Adults

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    ... Force Recommendations Screening for Peripheral Artery Disease and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Assessment with Ankle Brachial Index in Adults ... on Screening for Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD) and Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) Risk Assessment with Ankle Brachial Index (ABI) ...

  12. Entomologic index for human risk of Lyme disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, T N; Nicholson, M C; Donnelly, E F; Matyas, B T

    1996-12-01

    An entomologic index based on density estimates of Lyme disease spirochete-infected nymphal deer ticks (lxodes scapularis) was developed to assess human risk of Lyme disease. The authors used a standardized protocol to determine tick density and infection in numerous forested sites in six Rhode Island towns. An entomologic risk index calculated for each town was compared with the number of human Lyme disease cases reported to the Rhode Island State Health Department for the same year. A strong positive relation between entomologic risk index and the Lyme disease case rate for each town suggested that the entomologic index was predictive of Lyme disease risk.

  13. EULAR Sjögren's syndrome disease activity index (ESSDAI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seror, Raphaèle; Bowman, Simon J; Brito-Zeron, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    The EULAR Sjögren's syndrome (SS) disease activity index (ESSDAI) is a systemic disease activity index that was designed to measure disease activity in patients with primary SS. With the growing use of the ESSDAI, some domains appear to be more challenging to rate than others. The ESSDAI is now...

  14. 4D and 2D superconformal index with surface operator

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    Nakayama, Yu

    2011-08-01

    We study the superconformal index of the mathcal{N} = 4 super-Yang-Milles theory on S 3 × S 1 with the half BPS superconformal surface operator (defect) inserted at the great circle of S 3. The half BPS superconformal surface operators preserve the same supersymmetry as well as the symmetry of the chemical potential used in the definition of the superconformal index, so the structure and the parameterization of the superconformal index remain unaffected by the presence of the surface operator. On the surface defect, a two-dimensional (4, 4) superconformal field theory resides, and the four-dimensional super-conformal index may be regarded as a superconformal index of the two-dimensional (4, 4) superconformal field theory coupled with the four-dimensional bulk system. We construct the matrix model that computes the superconformal index with the surface operator when it couples with the bulk mathcal{N} = 4 super-Yang-Milles theory through the defect hypermultiplets on it.

  15. Indexing Glomerular Filtration Rate to Body Surface Area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Redal-Baigorri, Belén; Rasmussen, Knud; Heaf, James Goya

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Kidney function is mostly expressed in terms of glomerular filtration rate (GFR). A common feature is the expression as ml/min per 1.73 m(2) , which represents the adjustment of the individual kidney function to a standard body surface area (BSA) to allow comparison between individuals....... We investigated the impact of indexing GFR to BSA in cancer patients, as this BSA indexation might affect the reported individual kidney function. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 895 adults who had their kidney function measured with (51) chrome ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid. Mean values of BSA...

  16. Calculations of oxide formation on low-index Cu surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lian, Xin; Liu, Renlong, E-mail: lrl@cqu.edu.cn, E-mail: henkelman@utexas.edu [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); Xiao, Penghao; Yang, Sheng-Che; Henkelman, Graeme, E-mail: lrl@cqu.edu.cn, E-mail: henkelman@utexas.edu [Department of Chemistry and the Institute for Computational and Engineering Sciences, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712-0165 (United States)

    2016-07-28

    Density-functional theory is used to evaluate the mechanism of copper surface oxidation. Reaction pathways of O{sub 2} dissociation on the surface and oxidation of the sub-surface are found on the Cu(100), Cu(110), and Cu(111) facets. At low oxygen coverage, all three surfaces dissociate O{sub 2} spontaneously. As oxygen accumulates on the surfaces, O{sub 2} dissociation becomes more difficult. A bottleneck to further oxidation occurs when the surfaces are saturated with oxygen. The barriers for O{sub 2} dissociation on the O-saturated Cu(100)-c(2×2)-0.5 monolayer (ML) and Cu(100) missing-row structures are 0.97 eV and 0.75 eV, respectively; significantly lower than those have been reported previously. Oxidation of Cu(110)-c(6×2), the most stable (110) surface oxide, has a barrier of 0.72 eV. As the reconstructions grow from step edges, clean Cu(110) surfaces can dissociatively adsorb oxygen until the surface Cu atoms are saturated. After slight rearrangements, these surface areas form a “1 ML” oxide structure which has not been reported in the literature. The barrier for further oxidation of this “1 ML” phase is only 0.31 eV. Finally the oxidized Cu(111) surface has a relatively low reaction energy barrier for O{sub 2} dissociation, even at high oxygen coverage, and allows for facile oxidation of the subsurface by fast O diffusion through the surface oxide. The kinetic mechanisms found provide a qualitative explanation of the observed oxidation of the low-index Cu surfaces.

  17. Coronary heart disease index based on longitudinal electrocardiography

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    Townsend, J. C.; Cronin, J. P.

    1977-01-01

    A coronary heart disease index was developed from longitudinal ECG (LCG) tracings to serve as a cardiac health measure in studies of working and, essentially, asymptomatic populations, such as pilots and executives. For a given subject, the index consisted of a composite score based on the presence of LCG aberrations and weighted values previously assigned to them. The index was validated by correlating it with the known presence or absence of CHD as determined by a complete physical examination, including treadmill, resting ECG, and risk factor information. The validating sample consisted of 111 subjects drawn by a stratified-random procedure from 5000 available case histories. The CHD index was found to be significantly more valid as a sole indicator of CHD than the LCG without the use of the index. The index consistently produced higher validity coefficients in identifying CHD than did treadmill testing, resting ECG, or risk factor analysis.

  18. Applying weather index insurance to agricultural pest and disease risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norton, Michael; Sprundel, van Gert Jan; Turvey, Calum G.; Meuwissen, Miranda P.M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the application of weather index insurance to plant pest and disease management strategies using two distinct models: (1) insuring crop loss due to disease incidence (“Crop Insurance”) and (2) insuring the use of pesticides (“Pesticide Insurance”). We find that despite

  19. A surface refractive index scanning system and method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The invention relates to a surface refractive index scanning system for characterization of a sample. The system comprises a grating device for holding or receiving the sample, the device comprising at least a first grating region having a first grating width along a transverse direction, and a s......The invention relates to a surface refractive index scanning system for characterization of a sample. The system comprises a grating device for holding or receiving the sample, the device comprising at least a first grating region having a first grating width along a transverse direction...... a grating period Λ2 in the longitudinal direction, where the longitudinal direction is orthogonal to the transverse direction. A grating period spacing ΔΛ = Λ1 - Λ2 is finite. Further, the first and second grating periods are chosen to provide optical resonances for light respectively in a first...... wavelength band and a second wavelength band, light is being emitted, transmitted, or reflected in an out-of-plane direction, wherein the first wavelength band and the second wavelength band are at least partially non-overlapping in wavelength. The system further comprises a light source for illuminating...

  20. Vector-borne disease risk indexes in spatially structured populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Velázquez-Castro

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available There are economic and physical limitations when applying prevention and control strategies for urban vector borne diseases. Consequently, there are increasing concerns and interest in designing efficient strategies and regulations that health agencies can follow in order to reduce the imminent impact of viruses like Dengue, Zika and Chikungunya. That includes fumigation, abatization, reducing the hatcheries, picking up trash, information campaigns. A basic question that arise when designing control strategies is about which and where these ones should focus. In other words, one would like to know whether preventing the contagion or decrease vector population, and in which area of the city, is more efficient. In this work, we propose risk indexes based on the idea of secondary cases from patch to patch. Thus, they take into account human mobility and indicate which patch has more chance to be a corridor for the spread of the disease and which is more vulnerable, i.e. more likely to have cases?. They can also indicate the neighborhood where hatchery control will reduce more the number of potential cases. In order to illustrate the usefulness of these indexes, we run a set of numerical simulations in a mathematical model that takes into account the urban mobility and the differences in population density among the areas of a city. If we label by i a particular neighborhood, the transmission risk index (TRi measures the potential secondary cases caused by a host in that neighborhood. The vector transmission risk index (VTRi measures the potential secondary cases caused by a vector. Finally, the vulnerability risk index (VRi measures the potential secondary cases in the neighborhood. Transmission indexes can be used to give geographical priority to some neighborhoods when applying prevention and control measures. On the other hand, the vulnerability index can be useful to implement monitoring campaigns or public health investment.

  1. Hydrogen-enriched non-premixed jet flames : analysis of the flame surface, flame normal, flame index and Wobbe index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ranga Dinesh, K.K.J.; Jiang, X.; Oijen, van J.A.

    2014-01-01

    A non-premixed impinging jet flame is studied using three-dimensional direct numerical simulation with detailed chemical kinetics in order to investigate the influence of fuel variability on flame surface, flame normal, flame index and Wobbe index for hydrogen-enriched combustion. Analyses indicate

  2. Resistive index for kidney evaluation in normal and diseased cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipisca, Vlad; Murino, Carla; Cortese, Laura; Mennonna, Giuseppina; Auletta, Luigi; Vulpe, Vasile; Meomartino, Leonardo

    2016-06-01

    The objectives were to determine the resistive index (RI) in normal cats and in cats with various renal diseases, and to evaluate the effect of age on RI. The subjects were cats that had ultrasonography (US) of the urinary tract and RI measurement at our centre between January 2003 and April 2014. Based on clinical evaluation, biochemical and haematological tests, urinalysis and US, the cats were classified as healthy or diseased. RI measurements were made from the interlobar or arcuate arteries. Data were analysed for differences between the right and the left kidney, the two sexes, different age groups in healthy cats, and between healthy and diseased cats. A total of 116 cats (68 males, 48 females) were included: 24 healthy and 92 diseased. In the healthy cats, RI (mean ± SD) differed significantly (P = 0.02) between the right kidney (0.54 ± 0.07) and the left kidney (0.59 ± 0.08). For the left kidney, RI was significantly higher in cats with chronic kidney disease (0.73 ± 0.12) and acute kidney injury (0.72 ± 0.08) (P = 0.0008). For the right kidney, RI was significantly higher in cats with chronic kidney disease (0.72 ± 0.11), acute kidney injury (0.74 ± 0.08), polycystic kidney disease (0.77 ± 0.11) and renal tumour (0.74 ± 0.001) (P cats, useful in the differential diagnosis of diffuse renal diseases. While it does not change with the age of the cat, ultrasonographers should be aware that RI may differ between the two kidneys. © ISFM and AAFP 2015.

  3. Vasovagal tonus index in dog with myxomatous mitral valve disease

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    Bruna C. Brüler

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The vasovagal tonus index (VVTI is a useful and assessable index, obtained from standard ECG recordings, that is used to estimate heart rate variability (HRV, and may provide valuable information regarding the likelihood of progression into congestive heart failure (CHF. In this paperwork, we investigated how the vasovagal tonus index (VVTI behaves in dogs with naturally-occurring myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD Electrocardiographic (ECG recordings and echocardiographic data of 120 patients diagnosed with MMVD were reviewed. The VVTI was calculated from twenty consecutive RR intervals for each dog enrolled in the study. Lower VVTI values were found in MMVD patients in American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine (ACVIM stage C compared with stages B1 and B2. Values were also lower in patients with severe cardiac remodeling. When a cut-off value of 6.66 is used, VVTI was able to discriminate MMVD patients in stage C from B1 and B2 dogs with a sensitivity of 70 per cent and a specificity of 77 per cent. MMVD dogs in which VVTI is lower than 6.66 are 30% more likely to develop congestive heart failure (CHF.

  4. Geotechnical properties of surface sediments in the INDEX area

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khadge, N.H.

    As a part of the environmental impact assessment studies, geotechnical properties of sediments were determined in the Central Indian Basin. The undrained shear strength and index properties of the siliceous sediments were determined on 20 box cores...

  5. Renal resistive index and mortality in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Clarisse; Thomas, George; Schold, Jesse D; Arrigain, Susana; Gornik, Heather L; Nally, Joseph V; Navaneethan, Sankar D

    2015-08-01

    Renal resistive index (RRI) measured by Doppler ultrasonography is associated with cardiovascular events and mortality in hypertensive, diabetic, and elderly patients. We studied the factors associated with high RRI (≥0.70) and its associations with mortality in chronic kidney disease patients without renal artery stenosis. We included 1962 patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate of 15 to 59 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) who also had RRI measured (January 1, 2005, to October 2011) from an existing chronic kidney disease registry. Participants with renal artery stenosis (60%-99% or renal artery occlusion) were excluded. Multivariable logistic regression model was used to study factors associated with high RRI (≥0.70), and its association with mortality was studied using Kaplan-Meier plots and Cox proportional hazards model. Hypertension was prevalent in >90% of the patients. In the multivariable logistic regression, older age, female sex, diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, peripheral vascular disease, higher systolic blood pressure, and the use of β blockers were associated with higher odds of having RRI≥0.70. During a median follow-up of 2.2 years, 428 patients died. After adjusting for covariates, RRI≥0.70 was associated with increased mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.29; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.65; Pchronic kidney disease. Noncardiovascular/non-malignancy-related deaths were higher in those with RRI≥0.70. RRI≥0.70 is associated with higher mortality in hypertensive chronic kidney disease patients without clinically significant renal artery stenosis after accounting for other significant risk factors. Its evaluation may allow early identification of those who are at risk thereby potentially preventing or delaying adverse outcomes. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Body mass index and risk of autoimmune diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harpsøe, Maria C; Basit, Saima; Andersson, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    .57) and type 1 diabetes mellitus (HR 2.67; 95% CI, 1.71 to 4.17). Risk of dermatitis herpetiformis increased by 14% (95% CI, 1% to 30%) per BMI unit. Conversely, risk of celiac disease and Raynaud's phenomenon decreased by 7% (95% CI, 1% to 13%) and 12% (95% CI, 4% to 19%) per BMI unit, respectively. Further......BACKGROUND: A possible aetiological link between obesity and certain autoimmune diseases (ADs) has been suggested. We investigated the associations between body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) and 43 ADs. METHODS: 75,008 women participating in the Danish National Birth Cohort were followed during a median......-up, 2430 women (3.2%) developed a total of 2607 new-onset ADs. Risk of any autoimmune disease was increased in obese women (HR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.11 to 1.46) compared with normal weight women (18.5-≤25 kg/m2). Obese women (BMI≥30 kg/m2) were at increased risk of sarcoidosis (HR 3.59; 95% CI, 2.31 to 5...

  7. Expansion of the prognostic assessment of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease : the updated BODE index and the ADO index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puhan, Milo A.; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; Frey, Martin; ter Riet, Gerben; Anto, Josep M.; Agusti, Alvar G.; Gomez, Federico P.; Rodriguez-Roisin, Roberto; Moons, Karel G. M.; Kessels, Alphons G.; Held, Ulrike

    2009-01-01

    Background The BODE index (including body-mass index, airflow obstruction, dyspnoea, and exercise capacity) was an important contribution to the prognostic assessment of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, no study has assessed whether the risk of mortality predicted

  8. Aerodynamic findings and Voice Handicap Index in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, Sergio; Cesari, Ugo; Paternoster, Mariano; Motta, Giovanni; Orefice, Giuseppe

    2018-04-23

    To verify possible relations between vocal disability and aerodynamic measures in selected Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with low/moderate-grade dysphonia. Fifteen idiopathic dysphonic PD male patients were examined and compared with 15 euphonic subjects. Testing included the following measures: Voice Handicap Index (VHI), maximum phonation time (MPT), mean estimated subglottal pressure (MESGP), mean sound pressure level (MSPL), mean phonatory power (MPP), mean phonatory efficiency (MPE) and mean phonatory resistance (MPR). Statistical analysis showed: a significant reduction in MPR and MSPL in PD subjects compared to the healthy ones; a significant positive correlation between VHI score and MSPL, MPR, MPP, MESGP and a significant negative correlation between VHI and MTP within PD subjects. Test for multiple linear regression showed a significant correlation between VHI score, MPT, MPR and MSPL. A relationship between VHI and aerodynamic measures was shown in the present study. Compensatory mechanisms may aggravate vocal disability in PD subjects.

  9. Body mass index and the risk of Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, G; Jousilahti, P; Nissinen, A; Antikainen, R; Kivipelto, M; Tuomilehto, J

    2006-12-12

    To examine the association between body mass index (BMI) and the risk of Parkinson disease (PD). Study cohorts included 22,367 Finnish men and 23,439 women 25 to 59 years of age without a history of PD at baseline. Hazards ratios (HRs) of incident PD were estimated for different levels of BMI. During a mean follow-up period of 18.8 years, 272 men and 254 women developed incident PD. After adjustment for confounding factors (age, study years, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, education, leisure-time physical activity, smoking, and alcohol, coffee, and tea consumption), the HRs of PD at different levels of BMI ( or =30 kg/m(2)) were 1.00, 1.97 (95% CI: 1.21 to 3.22), 1.83 (95% CI: 1.12 to 2.99), 2.34 (95% CI: 1.45 to 3.78), and 2.44 (95% CI: 1.44 to 4.15) in men, and 1.00, 1.50 (95% CI: 0.95 to 2.37), 1.65 (95% CI: 1.05 to 2.59), 1.79 (95% CI: 1.15 to 2.80), and 1.77 (95% CI: 1.12 to 2.78) in women, and 1.00, 1.70 (95% CI: 1.23 to 2.37), 1.70 (95% CI: 1.23 to 2.37), 2.02 (95% CI: 1.46 to 2.79), and 2.03 (95% CI: 1.44 to 2.85) in men and women combined (adjusted also for sex). In both sexes combined, the multivariate-adjusted direct association between BMI and the risk of PD was present both in subjects aged 25 to 49 years and 50 to 59 years, in never smokers and smokers and in participants diagnosed PD before and after 65 years of age. Body mass index is associated with a risk of Parkinson disease. The effect is graded and independent of other risk factors.

  10. Derivation and validation of a composite index of severity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: the DOSE Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rupert C; Donaldson, Gavin C; Chavannes, Niels H; Kida, Kozui; Dickson-Spillmann, Maria; Harding, Samantha; Wedzicha, Jadwiga A; Price, David; Hyland, Michael E

    2009-12-15

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is increasingly recognized as a multicomponent disease with systemic consequences and effects on quality of life. Single measures such as lung function provide a limited reflection of how the disease affects patients. Composite measures have the potential to account for many of the facets of COPD. To derive and validate a multicomponent assessment tool of COPD severity that is applicable to all patients and health care settings. The index was derived using data from 375 patients with COPD in primary care. Regression analysis led to a model explaining 48% of the variance in health status as measured by the Clinical COPD Questionnaire with four components: dyspnea (D), airflow obstruction (O), smoking status (S), and exacerbation frequency (E). The DOSE Index was validated in cross-sectional and longitudinal samples in various health care settings in Holland, Japan, and the United Kingdom. The DOSE Index correlated with health status in all data sets. A high DOSE Index score (> or = 4) was associated with a greater risk of hospital admission (odds ratio, 8.3 [4.1-17]) or respiratory failure (odds ratio, 7.8 [3.4-18.3]). The index predicted exacerbations in the subsequent year (P Index is a simple, valid tool for assessing the severity of COPD. The index is related to a range of clinically important outcomes such as health care consumption and predicts future events.

  11. Impact of body mass index on adjacent segment disease after lumbar fusion for degenerative spine disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Chien-Yu; Lee, Tao-Chen; Lee, Tsung-Han; Huang, Yu-Hua

    2015-04-01

    Adjacent segment disease is an important complication after fusion of degenerative lumbar spines. However, the role of body mass index (BMI) in adjacent segment disease has been addressed less. To examine the relationship between BMI and adjacent segment disease after lumbar fusion for degenerative spine diseases. For this retrospective study, we enrolled 190 patients undergoing lumbar fusion surgery for degeneration. BMI at admission was documented. Adjacent segment disease was defined by integration of the clinical presentations and radiographic criteria based on the morphology of the dural sac on magnetic resonance images. Adjacent segment disease was identified in 13 of the 190 patients, accounting for 6.8%. The interval between surgery and diagnosis as adjacent segment disease ranged from 21 to 66 months. Five of the 13 patients required subsequent surgical intervention for clinically relevant adjacent segment disease. In the logistic regression model, BMI was a risk factor for adjacent segment disease after lumbar fusion for degenerative spine diseases (odds ratio, 1.68; 95% confidence interval, 1.27-2.21; P disease rate by 67.6%. The patients were subdivided into 2 groups based on BMI, and up to 11.9% of patients with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m were diagnosed as having adjacent segment disease at the last follow-up. BMI is a risk factor for adjacent segment disease in patients undergoing lumbar fusion for degenerative spine diseases. Because BMI is clinically objective and modifiable, controlling body weight before or after surgery may provide opportunities to reduce the rate of adjacent segment disease and to improve the outcome of fusion surgery.

  12. Surface plasmon resonance optical cavity enhanced refractive index sensing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Giorgini, A.; Avino, S.; Malara, P.; Gagliardi, G.; Casalino, M.; Coppola, G.; Iodice, M.; Adam, Pavel; Chadt, Karel; Homola, Jiří; De Natale, P.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 11 (2013), s. 1951-1953 ISSN 0146-9592 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP205/12/G118 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : Resonators * Surface plasmons * Optical sensing and sensors Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 3.179, year: 2013

  13. EULAR Sjögren's syndrome disease activity index (ESSDAI) : a user guide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seror, Raphaèle; Bowman, Simon J; Brito-Zeron, Pilar; Theander, Elke; Bootsma, Hendrika; Tzioufas, Athanasios; Gottenberg, Jacques-Eric; Ramos-Casals, Manel; Dörner, Thomas; Ravaud, Philippe; Vitali, Claudio; Mariette, Xavier; Asmussen, Karsten; Jacobsen, Soren; Bartoloni, Elena; Gerli, Roberto; Bijlsma, Johannes Wj; Kruize, Aike A; Bombardieri, Stefano; Bookman, Arthur; Kallenberg, Cees; Meiners, Petra; Brun, Johan G; Jonsson, Roland; Caporali, Roberto; Carsons, Steven; De Vita, Salvatore; Del Papa, Nicoletta; Devauchelle, Valerie; Saraux, Alain; Fauchais, Anne-Laure; Sibilia, Jean; Hachulla, Eric; Illei, Gabor; Isenberg, David; Jones, Adrian; Manoussakis, Menelaos; Mandl, Thomas; Jacobsson, Lennart; Demoulins, Frederic; Montecucco, Carlomaurizio; Ng, Wan-Fai; Nishiyama, Sumusu; Omdal, Roald; Parke, Ann; Praprotnik, Sonja; Tomsic, Matjia; Price, Elizabeth; Scofield, Hal; L Sivils, Kathy; Smolen, Josef; Laqué, Roser Solans; Steinfeld, Serge; Sutcliffe, Nurhan; Sumida, Takayuki; Valesini, Guido; Valim, Valeria; Vivino, Frederick B; Vollenweider, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The EULAR Sjögren's syndrome (SS) disease activity index (ESSDAI) is a systemic disease activity index that was designed to measure disease activity in patients with primary SS. With the growing use of the ESSDAI, some domains appear to be more challenging to rate than others. The ESSDAI is now in

  14. Surface refractive index of the eye lens determined with an optic fiber sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierscionek, B.K.

    1993-01-01

    The use of a fiber optic sensor for measurement of refractive index on the surface of eye lenses is described. The technique makes use of the fact that the amount of light reflected at the interface of two media (Fresnel reflectance) depends on the refractive-index difference between them. The sample is probed with a single-mode fiber, and the refractive index is calculated from the proportion of light reflected at the probe--sample interface

  15. Overview of total beta activity index and beta rest in surface waters of the Spanish rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pujol, L.; Payeras, J.; Pablo, M. A. de

    2013-01-01

    This work aims to give an overview of the index of total beta activity and the activity index beta rest in surface waters of the main Spanish rivers. These indices are a parameter over water quality that CEDEX comes determined by order of the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Environment, in water policy. (Author)

  16. Evaluation of Ocular Surface Disease in Patients with Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Priya M.; Ramulu, Pradeep Y.; Friedman, David S.; Utine, Canan A.; Akpek, Esen K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the subjective and objective measures of ocular surface disease in patients with glaucoma. Design Cross-sectional study. Participants Sixty-four glaucoma subjects with bilateral visual field (VF) loss and 59 glaucoma suspects with normal VFs. Methods Consecutive patients were recruited prospectively from the Wilmer Eye Institute Glaucoma Clinic. Main Outcome Measures Tear film breakup time (TBUT), corneal staining score (0–15), and Schirmer’s test results were included as objective metrics, whereas the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire was administered to assess symptoms. Total OSDI score, vision-related subscore (derived from questions about vision and task performance), and discomfort-related subscore (derived from questions about ocular surface discomfort) were calculated for each subject. Results Seventy-five percent (48/64) of glaucoma subjects and 41% (24/59) of glaucoma suspects were receiving topical medications. The corneal staining grade was greater in glaucoma subjects than in glaucoma suspects (6.4 vs. 4.1; P0.20 for both). Multivariate regression models showed that topical glaucoma therapy burden was associated with a significantly higher total corneal staining grade (β, +0.9 for each additional glaucoma drop; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.5–1.3; P0.20 for both). Glaucoma subjects had significantly higher total OSDI scores than glaucoma suspects (16.7 vs. 7.9; Pglaucoma group (11.1 vs. 3.3; Pglaucoma therapy burden was not associated with higher total OSDI score or vision- or discomfort-related subscore (P>0.20 for all). Conclusions Glaucoma is associated with significant ocular surface disease, and topical glaucoma therapy burden seems predictive of corneal staining severity. However, OSDI is a poor metric for capturing ocular surface disease in glaucoma because symptoms seem to be related largely to VF loss. PMID:23714318

  17. Indexing aortic valve area by body surface area increases the prevalence of severe aortic stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jander, Nikolaus; Gohlke-Bärwolf, Christa; Bahlmann, Edda

    2014-01-01

    To account for differences in body size in patients with aortic stenosis, aortic valve area (AVA) is divided by body surface area (BSA) to calculate indexed AVA (AVAindex). Cut-off values for severe stenosis are......To account for differences in body size in patients with aortic stenosis, aortic valve area (AVA) is divided by body surface area (BSA) to calculate indexed AVA (AVAindex). Cut-off values for severe stenosis are...

  18. Detection of surface algal blooms using the newly developed algorithm surface algal bloom index (SABI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alawadi, Fahad

    2010-10-01

    Quantifying ocean colour properties has evolved over the past two decades from being able to merely detect their biological activity to the ability to estimate chlorophyll concentration using optical satellite sensors like MODIS and MERIS. The production of chlorophyll spatial distribution maps is a good indicator of plankton biomass (primary production) and is useful for the tracing of oceanographic currents, jets and blooms, including harmful algal blooms (HABs). Depending on the type of HABs involved and the environmental conditions, if their concentration rises above a critical threshold, it can impact the flora and fauna of the aquatic habitat through the introduction of the so called "red tide" phenomenon. The estimation of chlorophyll concentration is derived from quantifying the spectral relationship between the blue and the green bands reflected from the water column. This spectral relationship is employed in the standard ocean colour chlorophyll-a (Chlor-a) product, but is incapable of detecting certain macro-algal species that float near to or at the water surface in the form of dense filaments or mats. The ability to accurately identify algal formations that sometimes appear as oil spill look-alikes in satellite imagery, contributes towards the reduction of false-positive incidents arising from oil spill monitoring operations. Such algal formations that occur in relatively high concentrations may experience, as in land vegetation, what is known as the "red-edge" effect. This phenomena occurs at the highest reflectance slope between the maximum absorption in the red due to the surrounding ocean water and the maximum reflectance in the infra-red due to the photosynthetic pigments present in the surface algae. A new algorithm termed the surface algal bloom index (SABI), has been proposed to delineate the spatial distributions of floating micro-algal species like for example cyanobacteria or exposed inter-tidal vegetation like seagrass. This algorithm was

  19. A topological screening heuristic for low-energy, high-index surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenhao; Ceder, Gerbrand

    2018-03-01

    Robust ab initio investigations of nanoparticle surface properties require a method to identify candidate low-energy surface facets a priori. By assuming that low-energy surfaces are planes with high atomic density, we devise an efficient algorithm to screen for low-energy surface orientations, even if they have high (hkl) miller indices. We successfully predict the observed low-energy, high-index { 10 12 bar } and { 10 1 bar 4 } surfaces of hematite α-Fe2O3, the {311} surfaces of cuprite Cu2O, and the {112} surfaces of anatase TiO2. We further tabulate candidate low-energy surface orientations for nine of the most common binary oxide structures. Screened surfaces are found to be generally applicable across isostructural compounds with varying chemistries, although relative surface energies between facets may vary based on the preferred coordination of the surface atoms.

  20. The development of a magnetic resonance imaging index for fistulising Crohn's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samaan, M. A.; Puylaert, C. A. J.; Levesque, B. G.; Zou, G. Y.; Stitt, L.; Taylor, S. A.; Shackelton, L. M.; Vandervoort, M. K.; Khanna, R.; Santillan, C.; Rimola, J.; Hindryckx, P.; Nio, C. Y.; Sandborn, W. J.; D'Haens, G.; Feagan, B. G.; Jairath, V.; Stoker, J.

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the gold standard for assessment of perianal fistulising Crohn's disease (CD). The Van Assche index is the most commonly used MRI fistula index. To assess the reliability of the Van Assche index, and to modify the instrument to improve reliability and create a

  1. The renal arterial resistive index and stage of chronic kidney disease in patients with renal allograft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Stine O; Thiesson, Helle C; Poulsen, Lene N

    2012-01-01

    The study investigated the optimal threshold value of renal arterial resistive index as assessed by Doppler ultrasonography determining chronic kidney disease stage 4 or higher in patients with renal allograft.......The study investigated the optimal threshold value of renal arterial resistive index as assessed by Doppler ultrasonography determining chronic kidney disease stage 4 or higher in patients with renal allograft....

  2. Structural and electronic properties of low-index stoichiometric BiOI surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Wen-Wu; Zhao, Zong-Yan, E-mail: zzy@kmust.edu.cn

    2017-06-01

    As promising photocatalyst driven by visible-light, BiOI has attracted more and more attention in the past years. However, the surface structure and properties of BiOI that is the most important place for the photocatalytic have not been investigated in details. To this end, density functional theory was performed to calculate the structural and electronic properties of four low-index stoichiometric surfaces of BiOI. It is found that the relaxation of the low-index BiOI surfaces are relatively small, especially the (001) surface. Thus, the surface energies of BiOI are very relatively small. Moreover, there are a few surface states below the bottom of conduction band in the first layer except the (001) surface, which maybe capture the photo-excited carriers. In all of the most stable terminated planes, all the dangling bonds are cleaved from the broken Bi-O bonds. In the case of (001) surface, the dangling bond density of Bi atoms for the (001) surface is zero per square nano. Therefore, the (001) surface is thermodynamically lowest-energy surface of BiOI, and it is the predominant surface (51.4%). As a final remark, the dangling bonds density of bismuth atoms determines not only the surface energy, but also the surface relaxation. Finally, the equilibrium morphology of BiOI was also proposed and provided, which is determined through the Wulff construction. These results will help us to better understand the underlying photocatalytic mechanism that is related to BiOI surfaces, and provide theoretical support for some experimental studies about BiOI-based photocatalyst in future. - Highlights: • Four low-index BiOI surfaces have been calculated by DFT method. • The relaxations of the low-index BiOI surfaces are relatively small. • There are a few surface states below the bottom of conduction band in the first layer. • The dangling bonds density of bismuth atoms determines not only the surface energy, but also the surface relaxation. • The thermodynamic

  3. Indexed

    CERN Document Server

    Hagy, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    Jessica Hagy is a different kind of thinker. She has an astonishing talent for visualizing relationships, capturing in pictures what is difficult for most of us to express in words. At indexed.blogspot.com, she posts charts, graphs, and Venn diagrams drawn on index cards that reveal in a simple and intuitive way the large and small truths of modern life. Praised throughout the blogosphere as “brilliant,” “incredibly creative,” and “comic genius,” Jessica turns her incisive, deadpan sense of humor on everything from office politics to relationships to religion. With new material along with some of Jessica’s greatest hits, this utterly unique book will thrill readers who demand humor that makes them both laugh and think.

  4. Extraction of surface plasmons in organic light-emitting diodes via high-index coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Bert J; Frischeisen, Jörg; Jaeger, Arndt; Setz, Daniel S; Reusch, Thilo C G; Brütting, Wolfgang

    2012-03-12

    The efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) is still limited by poor light outcoupling. In particular, the excitation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) at metal-organic interfaces represents a major loss channel. By combining optical simulations and experiments on simplified luminescent thin-film structures we elaborate the conditions for the extraction of SPPs via coupling to high-index media. As a proof-of-concept, we demonstrate the possibility to extract light from wave-guided modes and surface plasmons in a top-emitting white OLED by a high-index prism.

  5. Cardio-ankle vascular index and subclinical heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillaci, Giuseppe; Battista, Francesca; Settimi, Laura; Anastasio, Fabio; Pucci, Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between arterial stiffness, measured as pulse wave velocity (PWV), and the left ventricle is confounded by the effects of blood pressure. We evaluated the relationship between carotid-femoral PWV and cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI), a less pressure-dependent measurement of the stiffness constant (β) of the aorta and the iliac, femoral and tibial arteries, and obtained prognostically relevant measurements of left ventricular structure and systolic function. CAVI, carotid-femoral PWV and echocardiographic left ventricular mass and systolic function were determined in 133 subjects with either hypertension or high-normal blood pressure (33% treated; 56 ± 16 years, blood pressure 145/89 ± 21/12 mm Hg). Carotid-femoral PWV exhibited a direct relationship with systolic and diastolic blood pressure (r = 0.33/0.26, P 0.1). Both CAVI and PWV correlated significantly with left ventricular mass index (r = 0.31, P0.1). In a multivariate regression model, CAVI was independently associated with inappropriate left ventricular mass (β = 0.40, P < 0.001), along with body mass index. CAVI also demonstrated a negative relationship with left ventricular midwall fractional shortening (r = -0.41, P = 0.001) that was independent of age, sex, blood pressure and left ventricular mass in a multivariate analysis. In conclusion, a high CAVI is associated with inappropriately high left ventricular mass and low midwall systolic function. As a marker of arterial diastolic-to-systolic stiffening, CAVI may have a relationship with left ventricular structure and function that is independent of blood pressure levels.

  6. Body mass index and risk of Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordestgaard, Liv Tybjærg; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Nordestgaard, Børge G.

    2017-01-01

    between low BMI and high risk of Alzheimer's disease. Design, Setting, and Participants: Using a Mendelian randomization approach, we studied 95,578 individuals from the Copenhagen General Population Study (CGPS) with up to 36 years of follow-up and consortia data on 303,958 individuals from the Genetic...... Investigation of Anthropometric Traits (GIANT) and the International Genomics of Alzheimer's Project (IGAP). Main Outcome Measure: Risk of Alzheimer's disease. Results: The causal odds ratio for a 1-kg/m2 genetically determined lower BMI was 0.98 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.77 to 1.23] for a weighted...... allele score in the CGPS. Using 32 BMIdecreasing variants from GIANT and IGAP the causal odds ratio for Alzheimer's disease for a 1-standard deviation (SD) lower genetically determined BMI was 1.02 (95% CI, 0.86 to 1.22). Corresponding observational hazard ratios from the CGPS were 1.07 (95% CI, 1...

  7. Reflection-based fibre-optic refractive index sensor using surface plasmon resonance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlubina, P.; Kadulová, M.; Ciprian, D.; Sobota, Jaroslav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, August 19 (2014), 14033:1-5 ISSN 1990-2573 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212 Keywords : surface plasmon resonance * fibre-optic sensor * spectral interrogation technique * aqueous solutions of ethanol * refractive index Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.231, year: 2014

  8. Explanatory Value of the Ability Index as Assessed by Cardiologists and Patients with Congenital Heart Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrader, Anne-Marie Voss; Lisby, Karen H; King, Catriona

    2012-01-01

    Introduction.  The Ability Index was developed to classify patients with congenital heart disease into four functional classes. Functional class is typically determined by the cardiologist, based on data from a clinical interview. The validity of the Ability Index as assessed by the patient has...

  9. The effect of elevated body mass index on ischemic heart disease risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordestgaard, Børge G; Palmer, Tom M; Benn, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Adiposity, assessed as elevated body mass index (BMI), is associated with increased risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD); however, whether this is causal is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that positive observational associations between BMI and IHD are causal.......Adiposity, assessed as elevated body mass index (BMI), is associated with increased risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD); however, whether this is causal is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that positive observational associations between BMI and IHD are causal....

  10. Generalizability of the Disease State Index Prediction Model for Identifying Patients Progressing from Mild Cognitive Impairment to Alzheimer's Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hall, A.; Munoz-Ruiz, M.; Mattila, J.; Koikkalainen, J.; Tsolaki, M.; Mecocci, P.; Kloszewska, I.; Vellas, B.; Lovestone, S.; Visser, P.J.; Lotjonen, J.; Soininen, H.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Disease State Index (DSI) prediction model measures the similarity of patient data to diagnosed stable and progressive mild cognitive impairment (MCI) cases to identify patients who are progressing to Alzheimer's disease. Objectives: We evaluated how well the DSI generalizes across

  11. Correlation of Gastrophageal Reflux Disease symptoms with Body Mass Index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafar, S.; Haque, Israr U.; Tayyab, Ghias U.N.; Rehman, Ameed U.; Rehman, Adeel U.; Chaudhry, NusratU.

    2008-01-01

    Aim was to find a correlation between symptoms of gastrophageal refluxdisease (GERD) and body mass index (BMI). A total of 603 patients whopresented at Ghurki Trust Teaching Hospital and Surgimed Hospital Lahore withsymptoms of GERD, were included and interviewed according to a validated GERDquestionnaire. It included questions regarding GERD symptoms and theirseverity/frequency. Symptoms were defined: frequent if occurred daily;occasional if weekly and severe if they were sufficiently intense to changelife style. Height and weight were also recorded and their BMI calculated. Weused logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the associationbetween the presence of each specific GI symptom and BMI. The odds ratios(OR) for a given specific symptom and 95% confidence intervals (CI) werecomputed from the coefficients in logistic regression models. The prevalenceof obesity was 25.3%, while 38.1% were overweight. There was an increase inreporting of GI symptoms in obese individuals compared to those with normalBMI who were taken as reference group. Frequent nausea, vomiting, earlysatiety, epigastric pain, heart burn, regurgitation, postprandial fullnessand dysphagia were present in 10.4, 5.6, 8.9, 17.2, 10.2, 22.1, 23.5 and21.7%, respectively, of obese subjects compared to 7.9, 1.2, 6.5, 3.5, 4.4,17.1 and 16.6% of normal BMI subjects. BMI showed a positive relationshipwith frequent vomiting (P=0.02), epigastric pain (P=0.03), regurgitation offood (P=0.02) and postprandial fullness (0.01). The majority of GERD symptomshave a greater likelihood of occurring with increasing BMI. (author)

  12. The extremity function index (EFI), a disability severity measure for neuromuscular diseases : psychometric evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Isaac; Wynia, Klaske; Drost, Gea; Almansa, Josué; Kuks, Joannes

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To adapt and to combine the self-report Upper Extremity Functional Index and Lower Extremity Function Scale, for the assessment of disability severity in patients with a neuromuscular disease and to examine its psychometric properties in order to make it suitable for indicating disease

  13. Ultracompact Refractive Index Sensor Based on Surface-Plasmon-Polariton Interference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chen; Chen Jian-Jun; Tang Wei-Hua; Xiao Jing-Hua

    2012-01-01

    Using an ultracompact groove-slit-groove (GSG) structure, a refractive index sensor with a broadband response is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Due to the interference of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs), the transmission spectra in the GSG structure exhibit oscillation behaviors in a broad bandwidth, and they are quite sensitive to the refractive index of the surroundings. Based on the principle, the characteristics of its refractive index sensing are demonstrated experimentally. In the experiment, the structure is illuminated with a bulk light source (not a tightly focused light source) from the back side. This decreases the difficulty of the experimental measurement and can protect strong light sources from damaging the detection samples. Meanwhile, the whole structure of the sensor can be made more ultracompact without considering the influence of the incident waves

  14. Mediterranean Diet and Cardiovascular Disease: A Critical Evaluation of A Priori Dietary Indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annunziata D'Alessandro

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the a priori dietary indexes used in the studies that have evaluated the role of the Mediterranean Diet in influencing the risk of developing cardiovascular disease. All the studies show that this dietary pattern protects against cardiovascular disease, but studies show quite different effects on specific conditions such as coronary heart disease or cerebrovascular disease. A priori dietary indexes used to measure dietary exposure imply quantitative and/or qualitative divergences from the traditional Mediterranean Diet of the early 1960s, and, therefore, it is very difficult to compare the results of different studies. Based on real cultural heritage and traditions, we believe that the a priori indexes used to evaluate adherence to the Mediterranean Diet should consider classifying whole grains and refined grains, olive oil and monounsaturated fats, and wine and alcohol differently.

  15. Mediterranean Diet and Cardiovascular Disease: A Critical Evaluation of A Priori Dietary Indexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    D’Alessandro, Annunziata; De Pergola, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the a priori dietary indexes used in the studies that have evaluated the role of the Mediterranean Diet in influencing the risk of developing cardiovascular disease. All the studies show that this dietary pattern protects against cardiovascular disease, but studies show quite different effects on specific conditions such as coronary heart disease or cerebrovascular disease. A priori dietary indexes used to measure dietary exposure imply quantitative and/or qualitative divergences from the traditional Mediterranean Diet of the early 1960s, and, therefore, it is very difficult to compare the results of different studies. Based on real cultural heritage and traditions, we believe that the a priori indexes used to evaluate adherence to the Mediterranean Diet should consider classifying whole grains and refined grains, olive oil and monounsaturated fats, and wine and alcohol differently. PMID:26389950

  16. Assimilation of Leaf Area Index and Soil Wetness Index into the ISBA-A-gs land surface model over France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbu, A. L.; Calvet, J.-C.; Lafont, S.

    2012-04-01

    The development of a Land Data Assimilation System (LDAS) dedicated to carbon and water cycles is considered as a key aspect for monitoring activities of terrestrial carbon fluxes. It allows the assimilation of biophysical products in order to reduce the bias between the model simulations and the observations and have a positive impact on carbon and water fluxes. This work shows the benefits of data assimilation of Earth observations for the monitoring of vegetation status and carbon fluxes, in the framework of the GEOLAND2 project, co-funded by the European Commission within the GMES initiative in FP7. In this study, the SURFEX modelling platform developed at Meteo-France is used for describing the continental vegetation state, surface fluxes and soil moisture. It consists of the land surface model ISBA-A-gs that simulates photosynthesis and plant growth. The vegetation biomass and Leaf Area Index (LAI) evolve dynamically in response to weather and climate conditions. The ECOCLIMAP database provides detailed information about the land cover at a resolution of 1 km. Over the France domain, the most present ecosystem types are grasslands (32%), C3 crop lands (24%), deciduous forest (20%), bare soil (11%), and C4 crop lands (8%).The model also includes a representation of the soil moisture stress with two different types of drought responses for herbaceous vegetation and forests. A version of the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) scheme is developed for the joint assimilation of satellite-derived surface soil moisture from ASCAT-25 km product, namely Soil Wetness Index (SWI-01) developed by TU-Wien, and remote sensing LAI product provided by GEOLAND2. The GEOLAND2 LAI product is derived from CYCLOPES V3.1 and MODIS collection 5 data. It is more consistent with an effective LAI for low LAI and close to the actual LAI for high values. The assimilation experiment was conducted across France at a spatial resolution of 8 km. The study period ranges from July 2007 to December

  17. The atomic structure of low-index surfaces of the intermetallic compound InPd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGuirk, G. M.; Ledieu, J.; Gaudry, É.; Weerd, M.-C.; Fournée, V. de, E-mail: vincent.fournee@univ-lorraine.fr [Institut Jean Lamour (UMR 7198 CNRS-Université de Lorraine), Parc de Saurupt, F-54011 Nancy Cedex (France); Hahne, M.; Gille, P. [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Crystallography Section, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Theresienstrasse 41, D-80333 München (Germany); Ivarsson, D. C. A.; Armbrüster, M. [Faculty of Natural Sciences, Institute of Chemistry, Materials for Innovative Energy Concepts, Technische Universität Chemnitz, D-09107 Chemnitz (Germany); Ardini, J.; Held, G. [Department of Chemistry, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6AD (United Kingdom); Diamond Light Source Ltd, Didcot OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Maccherozzi, F. [Diamond Light Source Ltd, Didcot OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Bayer, A. [Lehrstuhl für Physikalische Chemie II, Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Egerlandstraße 3, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Lowe, M. [Surface Science Research Centre and Department of Physics, The University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3BX (United Kingdom); Pussi, K. [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Lappeenranta University of Technology, P.O. Box 20, FIN-53851 Lappeenranta (Finland); Diehl, R. D. [Department of Physics, Penn State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States)

    2015-08-21

    The intermetallic compound InPd (CsCl type of crystal structure with a broad compositional range) is considered as a candidate catalyst for the steam reforming of methanol. Single crystals of this phase have been grown to study the structure of its three low-index surfaces under ultra-high vacuum conditions, using low energy electron diffraction (LEED), X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). During surface preparation, preferential sputtering leads to a depletion of In within the top few layers for all three surfaces. The near-surface regions remain slightly Pd-rich until annealing to ∼580 K. A transition occurs between 580 and 660 K where In segregates towards the surface and the near-surface regions become slightly In-rich above ∼660 K. This transition is accompanied by a sharpening of LEED patterns and formation of flat step-terrace morphology, as observed by STM. Several superstructures have been identified for the different surfaces associated with this process. Annealing to higher temperatures (≥750 K) leads to faceting via thermal etching as shown for the (110) surface, with a bulk In composition close to the In-rich limit of the existence domain of the cubic phase. The Pd-rich InPd(111) is found to be consistent with a Pd-terminated bulk truncation model as shown by dynamical LEED analysis while, after annealing at higher temperature, the In-rich InPd(111) is consistent with an In-terminated bulk truncation, in agreement with density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the relative surface energies. More complex surface structures are observed for the (100) surface. Additionally, individual grains of a polycrystalline sample are characterized by micro-spot XPS and LEED as well as low-energy electron microscopy. Results from both individual grains and “global” measurements are interpreted based on comparison to our single crystals findings, DFT calculations and previous literature.

  18. Downscaling Satellite Land Surface Temperatures in Urban Regions for Surface Energy Balance Study and Heat Index Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norouzi, H.; Bah, A.; Prakash, S.; Nouri, N.; Blake, R.

    2017-12-01

    A great percentage of the world's population reside in urban areas that are exposed to the threats of global and regional climate changes and associated extreme weather events. Among them, urban heat islands have significant health and economic impacts due to higher thermal gradients of impermeable surfaces in urban regions compared to their surrounding rural areas. Therefore, accurate characterization of the surface energy balance in urban regions are required to predict these extreme events. High spatial resolution Land surface temperature (LST) in the scale of street level in the cities can provide wealth of information to study surface energy balance and eventually providing a reliable heat index. In this study, we estimate high-resolution LST maps using combination of LandSat 8 and infrared based satellite products such as Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and newly launched Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-R Series (GOES-R). Landsat 8 provides higher spatial resolution (30 m) estimates of skin temperature every 16 days. However, MODIS and GOES-R have lower spatial resolution (1km and 4km respectively) with much higher temporal resolution. Several statistical downscaling methods were investigated to provide high spatiotemporal LST maps in urban regions. The results reveal that statistical methods such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA) can provide reliable estimations of LST downscaling with 2K accuracy. Other methods also were tried including aggregating (up-scaling) the high-resolution data to a coarse one to examine the limitations and to build the model. Additionally, we deployed flux towers over distinct materials such as concrete, asphalt, and rooftops in New York City to monitor the sensible and latent heat fluxes through eddy covariance method. To account for the incoming and outgoing radiation, a 4-component radiometer is used that can observe both incoming and outgoing longwave and shortwave radiation. This

  19. Development and assessment of users' satisfaction with the systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity index 2000 responder index-50 website.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touma, Zahi; Gladman, Dafna D; MacKinnon, Anne; Carette, Simon; Abu-Shakra, Mahmoud; Askanase, Anca; Nived, Ola; Hanly, John G; Landolt-Marticorena, Carolina; Tam, Lai-Shan; Toloza, Sergio; Nikpour, Mandana; Riddell, Claire; Steiman, Amanda; Eder, Lihi; Haddad, Amir; Barber, Claire; Urowitz, Murray B

    2013-01-01

    To describe the development of the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index 2000 Responder Index-50 (S2K RI-50) Website (www.s2k-ri-50.com) and to assess satisfaction with its training and examination modules among rheumatologists and rheumatology fellows. The development of the Website occurred in 3 phases. The first was a deployment phase that consisted of preparing the site map along with its content. The content included the S2K RI-50 training manual, the tests and corresponding question bank, and the online adaptive training module, along with the extensive site testing. The second phase included the participation of rheumatologists and trainees who completed the Website modules. The third was a quality assurance phase in which an online survey was developed to determine the satisfaction level of its users. Further modifications were implemented per participants' recommendations. The site has been online since it was registered in September 2010. Fourteen rheumatologists and rheumatology trainees from different centers reviewed and completed the material contained in the Website. The survey revealed acceptance among rheumatologists for the Website's content, design, and presentation. The Website was rated as user-friendly and useful in familiarizing investigators with the S2K RI-50. After completion of the training and examination modules, participants reported a suitable level of preparation to implement the S2K RI-50 in clinical trials and research settings in a timely manner. The Website includes training and examination modules that familiarize rheumatologists with the S2K RI-50 and assesses their competence to use the index. This prepares them for the use of the S2K RI-50 in clinical trials and research settings.

  20. Refractive index dispersion of swift heavy ion irradiated BFO thin films using Surface Plasmon Resonance technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paliwal, Ayushi; Sharma, Savita; Tomar, Monika; Singh, Fouran; Gupta, Vinay

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Investigated the optical properties of BiFeO_3 (BFO) thin films after irradiation using SPR. • Otto configuration has been used to excite the surface plasmons using gold metal thin film. • BFO thin films were prepared by sol–gel spin coating technique. • Examined the refractive index dispersion of pristine and irradiated BFO thin film. - Abstract: Swift heavy ion irradiation (SHI) is an effective technique to induce defects for possible modifications in the material properties. There is growing interest in studying the optical properties of multiferroic BiFeO_3 (BFO) thin films for optoelectronic applications. In the present work, BFO thin films were prepared by sol–gel spin coating technique and were irradiated using the 15 UD Pelletron accelerator with 100 MeV Au"9"+ ions at a fluence of 1 × 10"1"2 ions cm"−"2. The as-grown films became rough and porous on ion irradiation. Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) technique has been identified as a highly sensitive and powerful technique for studying the optical properties of a dielectric material. Optical properties of BFO thin films, before and after irradiation were studied using SPR technique in Otto configuration. Refractive index is found to be decreasing from 2.27 to 2.14 on ion irradiation at a wavelength of 633 nm. Refractive index dispersion of BFO thin film (from 405 nm to 633 nm) before and after ion radiation was examined.

  1. Refractive index dispersion of swift heavy ion irradiated BFO thin films using Surface Plasmon Resonance technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paliwal, Ayushi [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Sharma, Savita [Department of Applied Physics, Delhi Technological University, Delhi (India); Tomar, Monika [Physics Department, Miranda House, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Singh, Fouran [Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110075 (India); Gupta, Vinay, E-mail: drguptavinay@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India)

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • Investigated the optical properties of BiFeO{sub 3} (BFO) thin films after irradiation using SPR. • Otto configuration has been used to excite the surface plasmons using gold metal thin film. • BFO thin films were prepared by sol–gel spin coating technique. • Examined the refractive index dispersion of pristine and irradiated BFO thin film. - Abstract: Swift heavy ion irradiation (SHI) is an effective technique to induce defects for possible modifications in the material properties. There is growing interest in studying the optical properties of multiferroic BiFeO{sub 3} (BFO) thin films for optoelectronic applications. In the present work, BFO thin films were prepared by sol–gel spin coating technique and were irradiated using the 15 UD Pelletron accelerator with 100 MeV Au{sup 9+} ions at a fluence of 1 × 10{sup 12} ions cm{sup −2}. The as-grown films became rough and porous on ion irradiation. Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) technique has been identified as a highly sensitive and powerful technique for studying the optical properties of a dielectric material. Optical properties of BFO thin films, before and after irradiation were studied using SPR technique in Otto configuration. Refractive index is found to be decreasing from 2.27 to 2.14 on ion irradiation at a wavelength of 633 nm. Refractive index dispersion of BFO thin film (from 405 nm to 633 nm) before and after ion radiation was examined.

  2. Adsorption of oxygen on low-index surfaces of the TiAl{sub 3} alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latyshev, A. M.; Bakulin, A. V.; Kulkova, S. E., E-mail: kulkova@ms.tsc.ru [National Research Tomsk State University (Russian Federation); Hu, Q. M.; Yang, R. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research (China)

    2016-12-15

    Method of the projector augmented waves in the plane-wave basis within the generalized-gradient approximation for the exchange-correlation functional has been used to study oxygen adsorption on (001), (100), and (110) low-index surfaces of the TiAl{sub 3} alloy. It has been established that the sites that are most energetically preferred for the adsorption of oxygen are hollow (H) positions on the (001) surface and bridge (B) positions on the (110) and (100) surfaces. Structural and electronic factors that define their energy preference have been discussed. Changes in the atomic and electronic structure of subsurface layers that occur as the oxygen concentration increases to three monolayers have been analyzed. It has been shown that the formation of chemical bonds of oxygen with both components of the alloy leads to the appearance of states that are split-off from the bottoms of their valence bands, which is accompanied by the formation of a forbidden gap at the Fermi level and by a weakening of the Ti–Al metallic bonds in the alloy. On the Al-terminated (001) and (110) surfaces, the oxidation of aluminum dominates over that of titanium. On the whole, the binding energy of oxygen on the low-index surfaces with a mixed termination is higher than that at the aluminum-terminated surface. The calculation of the diffusion of oxygen in the TiAl{sub 3} alloy has shown that the lowest barriers correspond to the diffusion between tetrahedral positions in the (001) plane; the diffusion of oxygen in the [001] direction occurs through octahedral and tetrahedral positions. An increase in the concentration of aluminum in the alloy favors a reduction in the height of the energy barriers as compared to the corresponding barriers in the γ-TiAl alloy.

  3. [Childhood body mass index and the risk of coronary heart disease in adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Olsen, L.W.; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.

    2008-01-01

    The severity of the long term consequences of the current childhood obesity epidemic on coronary heart disease is unknown. Therefore we investigated the association between body mass index (BMI) at ages 7-13 years and heart disease in adulthood among 276,835 Danish schoolchildren. We found...... that higher BMI during this period of childhood is associated with an increased risk of any, non-fatal and fatal heart disease in adulthood. Worldwide, as children are becoming heavier, our findings suggest that greater numbers of children are at risk of having coronary heart disease in adulthood...

  4. Positive correlation between disease activity index and matrix metalloproteinases activity in a rat model of colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Luiz Gustavo de; Cunha, André Luiz da; Duarte, Amaury Caiafa; Castañon, Maria Christina Marques Nogueira; Chebli, Júlio Maria Fonseca; Aguiar, Jair Adriano Kopke de

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease, including ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, comprising a broad spectrum of diseases those have in common chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract, histological alterations and an increased activity levels of certain enzymes, such as, metalloproteinases. Evaluate a possible correlation of disease activity index with the severity of colonic mucosal damage and increased activity of metalloproteinases in a model of ulcerative colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium. Colitis was induced by oral administration of 5% dextran sulfate sodium for seven days in this group (n=10), whereas control group (n=16) received water. Effects were analyzed daily by disease activity index. In the seventh day, animals were euthanized and hematological measurements, histological changes (hematoxylin and eosin and Alcian Blue staining), myeloperoxidase and metalloproteinase activities (MMP-2 and MMP-9) were determined. Dextran sulfate sodium group showed elevated disease activity index and reduced hematological parameters. Induction of colitis caused tissue injury with loss of mucin and increased myeloperoxidase (Pcorrelation with the degree of histopathological changes after induction of colitis, and this result may be related mainly to the increased activity of MMP-9 and mieloperoxidase.

  5. Overall glycaemic index and glycaemic load of habitual diet and risk of heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grau, Katrine; Tetens, Inge; Bjørnsbo, Kirsten S

    2011-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that diets with high glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) increase the risk of heart disease. Design Overall GI and GL were assessed from 7 d diet records or diet history interviews. Setting Information on hospitalization and death due to CVD and CHD was o...

  6. A Robust Inversion Algorithm for Surface Leaf and Soil Temperatures Using the Vegetation Clumping Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zunjian Bian

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The inversion of land surface component temperatures is an essential source of information for mapping heat fluxes and the angular normalization of thermal infrared (TIR observations. Leaf and soil temperatures can be retrieved using multiple-view-angle TIR observations. In a satellite-scale pixel, the clumping effect of vegetation is usually present, but it is not completely considered during the inversion process. Therefore, we introduced a simple inversion procedure that uses gap frequency with a clumping index (GCI for leaf and soil temperatures over both crop and forest canopies. Simulated datasets corresponding to turbid vegetation, regularly planted crops and randomly distributed forest were generated using a radiosity model and were used to test the proposed inversion algorithm. The results indicated that the GCI algorithm performed well for both crop and forest canopies, with root mean squared errors of less than 1.0 °C against simulated values. The proposed inversion algorithm was also validated using measured datasets over orchard, maize and wheat canopies. Similar results were achieved, demonstrating that using the clumping index can improve inversion results. In all evaluations, we recommend using the GCI algorithm as a foundation for future satellite-based applications due to its straightforward form and robust performance for both crop and forest canopies using the vegetation clumping index.

  7. Depressive symptoms predict future simple disease activity index scores and simple disease activity index remission in a prospective cohort of patients with early inflammatory polyarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc-Trudeau, Charlotte; Dobkin, Patricia L; Carrier, Nathalie; Cossette, Pierre; de Brum-Fernandes, Artur J; Liang, Patrick; Masetto, Ariel; Boire, Gilles

    2015-12-01

    To determine whether depressive symptoms assessed in treated patients with early inflammatory polyarthritis (EPA) influence disease activity during follow-up. Consecutively recruited EPA patients were actively treated to remission. Simple disease activity index (SDAI) and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) scores were calculated at inclusion and up to 42 months into disease. SDAI scores were log-transformed to compute univariate and multivariate linear regressions. Parametric interval-censored Kaplan-Meier and survival regressions using Weibull distribution were used to assess time to and predictors of SDAI remission. A total of 275 EPA patients were recruited at a median of 4 months into disease. In multivariate linear regression models, accounting for baseline demographic, clinical, serological and functional variables and 12-month inflammation markers, CES-D scores at 12 months into disease were correlated (r(2) = 0.14) with subsequent SDAI scores. Patients with 12-month high CES-D (≥19; suggestive of depression) had a lower proportion of SDAI remission (31.3% vs 84.3%; P < 0.001) and reached SDAI remission less rapidly [hazard ratio = 0.25 (95% CI 0.12, 0.53); P < 0.001]. Each follow-up SDAI correlated significantly with 12-month depressive symptoms, a median of 7 months after initiation of treatment. CES-D scores suggestive of depression at 12 months were strongly correlated with delay and failure to reach remission later on. Depressive symptoms in treated EPA patients represent important clinical issues with long-term association with disease activity. Interventions to alleviate persistent depressive symptoms in treated EPA warrant careful evaluation of their potential to improve disease remission rates. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Effect of surface roughness variation on the transmission characteristics of D-shaped fibers with ambient index change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun-Joo; Kwon, Oh-Jang; Han, Young-Geun

    2010-01-01

    The influence of surface roughness on the sensitivity of D-shaped fibers to changes in the ambient index was investigated. In order to obtain D-shaped fibers with different surface roughness, we polished one side of the fibers by using different abrasive grits. The topographies of the surfaces of the polished D-shaped fibers were then observed by using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The light scattered from the rough surfaces of the D-shaped fibers was measured by using optical microscopy. The effect of an ambient index change on the transmission characteristics of D-shaped fibers was measured for various values of the surface roughness. The experimental results indicate that variations in the surface roughness have a considerable influence on the sensitivity of the transmission characteristics of D-shaped fibers to changes in the ambient index.

  9. Surface Plasmon Scattering in Exposed Core Optical Fiber for Enhanced Resolution Refractive Index Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klantsataya, Elizaveta; François, Alexandre; Ebendorff-Heidepriem, Heike; Hoffmann, Peter; Monro, Tanya M

    2015-09-29

    Refractometric sensors based on optical excitation of surface plasmons on the side of an optical fiber is an established sensing architecture that has enabled laboratory demonstrations of cost effective portable devices for biological and chemical applications. Here we report a Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) configuration realized in an Exposed Core Microstructured Optical Fiber (ECF) capable of optimizing both sensitivity and resolution. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of fabrication of a rough metal coating suitable for spectral interrogation of scattered plasmonic wave using chemical electroless plating technique on a 10 μm diameter exposed core of the ECF. Performance of the sensor in terms of its refractive index sensitivity and full width at half maximum (FWHM) of SPR response is compared to that achieved with an unstructured bare core fiber with 140 μm core diameter. The experimental improvement in FWHM, and therefore the detection limit, is found to be a factor of two (75 nm for ECF in comparison to 150 nm for the large core fiber). Refractive index sensitivity of 1800 nm/RIU was achieved for both fibers in the sensing range of aqueous environment (1.33-1.37) suitable for biosensing applications.

  10. Glazed ceramic roof tiles: influence of surface features in the solar reflectance index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bortoli, Leitcia Silva de; Stapait, Camila Cristina; Marinoski, Deivis Luis; Fredel, Marcio Celso; Schabbach, Luciana M.

    2016-01-01

    In this study the influence of surface features of ceramic roof tiles in the solar reflectance index were evaluated. Two glazed ceramic roof tiles (type stoneware) with the same color (ivory) but with different appearance (matte and brilliant) were the focus of the analysis. The Solar Reflectance Index (SRI) of the roofs tiles were determined by the solar reflectance values (UV-VIS-NIR) and emittance, measured in laboratory. The samples showed SRI> 39 in accordance with LEED certification criteria (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design), contributing to minimizing the Heat Island Effects. Although the matte roof tile shows a slightly higher SRI value (82) than the brilliant one (78), the results for the variables that composes the SRI value (reflectance and emittance) were very similar. Analysis of XRD, SEM and EDS performed on the surfaces of the two roofs indicated for the matte glaze the presence of microcrystals (with barium and zinc) that can contribute to the slightly highest value of SRI. The roughness (optical interferometer white light) and the brightness (brightness meter) of the samples were also measured. (author)

  11. High-resolution imaging of cellular processes across textured surfaces using an indexed-matched elastomer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravasio, Andrea; Vaishnavi, Sree; Ladoux, Benoit; Viasnoff, Virgile

    2015-03-01

    Understanding and controlling how cells interact with the microenvironment has emerged as a prominent field in bioengineering, stem cell research and in the development of the next generation of in vitro assays as well as organs on a chip. Changing the local rheology or the nanotextured surface of substrates has proved an efficient approach to improve cell lineage differentiation, to control cell migration properties and to understand environmental sensing processes. However, introducing substrate surface textures often alters the ability to image cells with high precision, compromising our understanding of molecular mechanisms at stake in environmental sensing. In this paper, we demonstrate how nano/microstructured surfaces can be molded from an elastomeric material with a refractive index matched to the cell culture medium. Once made biocompatible, contrast imaging (differential interference contrast, phase contrast) and high-resolution fluorescence imaging of subcellular structures can be implemented through the textured surface using an inverted microscope. Simultaneous traction force measurements by micropost deflection were also performed, demonstrating the potential of our approach to study cell-environment interactions, sensing processes and cellular force generation with unprecedented resolution. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Implied and Local Volatility Surfaces for South African Index and Foreign Exchange Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonie Kotzé

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Certain exotic options cannot be valued using closed-form solutions or even by numerical methods assuming constant volatility. Many exotics are priced in a local volatility framework. Pricing under local volatility has become a field of extensive research in finance, and various models are proposed in order to overcome the shortcomings of the Black-Scholes model that assumes a constant volatility. The Johannesburg Stock Exchange (JSE lists exotic options on its Can-Do platform. Most exotic options listed on the JSE’s derivative exchanges are valued by local volatility models. These models needs a local volatility surface. Dupire derived a mapping from implied volatilities to local volatilities. The JSE uses this mapping in generating the relevant local volatility surfaces and further uses Monte Carlo and Finite Difference methods when pricing exotic options. In this document we discuss various practical issues that influence the successful construction of implied and local volatility surfaces such that pricing engines can be implemented successfully. We focus on arbitrage-free conditions and the choice of calibrating functionals. We illustrate our methodologies by studying the implied and local volatility surfaces of South African equity index and foreign exchange options.

  13. Heart-Rate Recovery Index Is Impaired in Behçet's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Ergun Baris; Yorgun, Hikmet; Akdogan, Ali; Ates, Ahmet Hakan; Canpolat, Ugur; Sunman, Hamza; Aytemir, Kudret; Tokgozoglu, Lale; Kabakci, Giray; Calguneri, Meral; Ozkutlu, Hilmi; Oto, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Behçet's disease, a multisystemic inflammatory disorder, has been associated with a number of cardiovascular dysfunctions, including ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. Heart-rate recovery after exercise can provide both an estimate of impaired parasympathetic tone and a prognosis in regard to all-cause and cardiovascular death. The aim of our study was to evaluate heart-rate recovery in Behçet's disease From January through July 2008, we examined at our outpatient clinic and prospectively enrolled 30 consecutive patients with Behçet's disease and 50 healthy control participants who were matched for age and sex. Basal electrocardiography, echocardiography, and treadmill exercise testing were performed in all patients and control participants. The heart-rate recovery index was calculated in the usual manner, by subtracting the 1st-minute (Rec1), 2nd-minute (Rec2), and 3rd-minute (Rec3) recovery heart rates from the maximal heart rate after exercise stress testing. Patients with Behçet's disease exhibited significantly lower heart-rate recovery numbers, compared with healthy control participants: Rec1, 24.28 ± 8.2 vs 34.4 ± 7.6, P = 0.002; Rec2, 49.28 ± 11.2 vs 57.5 ± 7.0, P < 0.05; and Rec3, 56.2 ± 12.11 vs 67.4 ± 8.7, P = 0.014. To our knowledge, this is the 1st study that shows an impaired heart-rate recovery index (indicative of reduced parasympathetic activity) among patients with Behçet's disease. Given the independent prognostic value of the heart-rate recovery index, our results may explain the increased occurrence of arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death in Behçet's patients. Therefore, this index may be clinically useful in the identification of high-risk patients. PMID:19693299

  14. Charlson comorbidity index as a predictor of periodontal disease in elderly participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated the validity of the Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) as a predictor of periodontal disease (PD) over a 12-year period. Methods Nationwide representative samples of 149,785 adults aged ≥60 years with PD (International Classification of Disease, 10th revision [ICD-10], K052–K056) were derived from the National Health Insurance Service-Elderly Cohort during 2002–2013. The degree of comorbidity was measured using the CCI (grade 0–6), including 17 diseases weighted on the basis of their association with mortality, and data were analyzed using multivariate Cox proportional-hazards regression in order to investigate the associations of comorbid diseases (CDs) with PD. Results The multivariate Cox regression analysis with adjustment for sociodemographic factors (sex, age, household income, insurance status, residence area, and health status) and CDs (acute myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, peripheral vascular disease, cerebral vascular accident, dementia, pulmonary disease, connective tissue disorders, peptic ulcer, liver disease, diabetes, diabetes complications, paraplegia, renal disease, cancer, metastatic cancer, severe liver disease, and human immunodeficiency virus [HIV]) showed that the CCI in elderly comorbid participants was significantly and positively correlated with the presence of PD (grade 1: hazard ratio [HR], 1.11; P<0.001; grade ≥2: HR, 1.12, P<0.001). Conclusions We demonstrated that a higher CCI was a significant predictor of greater risk for PD in the South Korean elderly population. PMID:29770238

  15. Combining Body Mass Index With Measures of Central Obesity in the Assessment of Mortality in Subjects With Coronary Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coutinho, Thais; Goel, Kashish; Corrêa de Sá, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to assess the mortality risk of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) based ona combination of body mass index (BMI) with measures of central obesity.......This study sought to assess the mortality risk of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) based ona combination of body mass index (BMI) with measures of central obesity....

  16. A Simulation Based Analysis of Motor Unit Number Index (MUNIX) Technique Using Motoneuron Pool and Surface Electromyogram Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyan; Rymer, William Zev; Zhou, Ping

    2013-01-01

    Motor unit number index (MUNIX) measurement has recently achieved increasing attention as a tool to evaluate the progression of motoneuron diseases. In our current study, the sensitivity of the MUNIX technique to changes in motoneuron and muscle properties was explored by a simulation approach utilizing variations on published motoneuron pool and surface electromyogram (EMG) models. Our simulation results indicate that, when keeping motoneuron pool and muscle parameters unchanged and varying the input motor unit numbers to the model, then MUNIX estimates can appropriately characterize changes in motor unit numbers. Such MUNIX estimates are not sensitive to different motor unit recruitment and rate coding strategies used in the model. Furthermore, alterations in motor unit control properties do not have a significant effect on the MUNIX estimates. Neither adjustment of the motor unit recruitment range nor reduction of the motor unit firing rates jeopardizes the MUNIX estimates. The MUNIX estimates closely correlate with the maximum M wave amplitude. However, if we reduce the amplitude of each motor unit action potential rather than simply reduce motor unit number, then MUNIX estimates substantially underestimate the motor unit numbers in the muscle. These findings suggest that the current MUNIX definition is most suitable for motoneuron diseases that demonstrate secondary evidence of muscle fiber reinnervation. In this regard, when MUNIX is applied, it is of much importance to examine a parallel measurement of motor unit size index (MUSIX), defined as the ratio of the maximum M wave amplitude to the MUNIX. However, there are potential limitations in the application of the MUNIX methods in atrophied muscle, where it is unclear whether the atrophy is accompanied by loss of motor units or loss of muscle fiber size. PMID:22514208

  17. Refractive index dispersion of swift heavy ion irradiated BFO thin films using Surface Plasmon Resonance technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paliwal, Ayushi; Sharma, Savita; Tomar, Monika; Singh, Fouran; Gupta, Vinay

    2016-07-01

    Swift heavy ion irradiation (SHI) is an effective technique to induce defects for possible modifications in the material properties. There is growing interest in studying the optical properties of multiferroic BiFeO3 (BFO) thin films for optoelectronic applications. In the present work, BFO thin films were prepared by sol-gel spin coating technique and were irradiated using the 15 UD Pelletron accelerator with 100 MeV Au9+ ions at a fluence of 1 × 1012 ions cm-2. The as-grown films became rough and porous on ion irradiation. Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) technique has been identified as a highly sensitive and powerful technique for studying the optical properties of a dielectric material. Optical properties of BFO thin films, before and after irradiation were studied using SPR technique in Otto configuration. Refractive index is found to be decreasing from 2.27 to 2.14 on ion irradiation at a wavelength of 633 nm. Refractive index dispersion of BFO thin film (from 405 nm to 633 nm) before and after ion radiation was examined.

  18. A sonographic lesion index for Crohn's disease helps monitor changes in transmural bowel damage during therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzi, Francesca; Stasi, Elisa; Bevivino, Gerolamo; Scarozza, Patrizio; Biancone, Livia; Zuzzi, Sara; Rossi, Carla; Pallone, Francesco; Calabrese, Emma

    2014-12-01

    Therapeutic antibodies against tumor necrosis factor α (anti-TNF) are effective in patients with Crohn's disease (CD). Mucosal healing is a surrogate marker of efficacy, but little is known about the effects of anti-TNF agents on structural damage in the intestine. Small-intestine contrast ultrasonography (SICUS) is a valuable tool for assessing CD lesions. A new sonographic quantitative index (the sonographic lesion index for CD [SLIC]) was developed to quantify changes in CD lesions detected by SICUS. We explored whether the SLIC can be used to monitor transmural bowel damage in CD patients during anti-TNF therapy. We performed a prospective study of 29 patients with ileal or ileocolonic CD treated with anti-TNF agents; patients underwent SICUS before and after scheduled induction and maintenance therapy. To determine whether changes that can be detected by SICUS occur independently of anti-TNF therapy, 7 patients with ileal CD treated with mesalamine were enrolled as controls. A clinical response was defined as steroid-free remission, with CD activity index scores less than 150. We observed significant improvements in SLIC scores and subscores after induction and maintenance therapy with anti-TNFs, compared with before therapy. SLIC scores and subscores and index classes were improved significantly in patients with vs without clinical responses. Controls had no improvements in terms of CD activity index or SLIC scores, or index classes. Sonographic assessment using the quantitative index SLIC can be used to monitor changes in transmural bowel damage during anti-TNF therapy for CD. Copyright © 2014 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PERIODONTAL DISEASE INDEX AND LOW BIRTH WEIGHT BABIES IN PREGNANT WOMEN WITH PERIODONTITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ira Komara

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the relationship between periodontitis in pregnant women through the periodontal disease index (PDI and low birth weight babies. Methods: A case-control study was conducted to determine the relationship between periodontitis in pregnant women through the periodontal disease index (PDI and the low birth weight babies (LBW. The participants were mothers with periodontitis and non-periodontitis mothers aged 20–35 years who gave birth in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology-Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital, Bandung in the period of December to January 2005. Results: Based on the chisquare test results a highly significant relationship between periodontitis and low birth weight (p=0.002 was found. The Odd’s ratio showed that the risk of low birth weight in pregnant women with periodontitis was 15.58 times higher compared to those who did not suffer from periodontitis. The periodontal disease index has an accuracy of 88.6% in predicting the incidence of LBW. It strongly influenced the incidence of LBW with a high Odd’s ratio of 28.0. Pregnant women who suffer from periodontitis with a PDI > 3.25, have 19.2 times higher risk for delivering babies with LBW compared to the non-periodontitis mothers. Conclusions: The loss of attachment affects the possibility of delivering LBW babies.

  20. Detection of Severe Respiratory Disease Epidemic Outbreaks by CUSUM-Based Overcrowd-Severe-Respiratory-Disease-Index Model

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    Carlos Polanco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A severe respiratory disease epidemic outbreak correlates with a high demand of specific supplies and specialized personnel to hold it back in a wide region or set of regions; these supplies would be beds, storage areas, hemodynamic monitors, and mechanical ventilators, as well as physicians, respiratory technicians, and specialized nurses. We describe an online cumulative sum based model named Overcrowd-Severe-Respiratory-Disease-Index based on the Modified Overcrowd Index that simultaneously monitors and informs the demand of those supplies and personnel in a healthcare network generating early warnings of severe respiratory disease epidemic outbreaks through the interpretation of such variables. A post hoc historical archive is generated, helping physicians in charge to improve the transit and future allocation of supplies in the entire hospital network during the outbreak. The model was thoroughly verified in a virtual scenario, generating multiple epidemic outbreaks in a 6-year span for a 13-hospital network. When it was superimposed over the H1N1 influenza outbreak census (2008–2010 taken by the National Institute of Medical Sciences and Nutrition Salvador Zubiran in Mexico City, it showed that it is an effective algorithm to notify early warnings of severe respiratory disease epidemic outbreaks with a minimal rate of false alerts.

  1. Detection of Severe Respiratory Disease Epidemic Outbreaks by CUSUM-Based Overcrowd-Severe-Respiratory-Disease-Index Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañón-González, Jorge Alberto; Macías, Alejandro E.; Samaniego, José Lino; Buhse, Thomas; Villanueva-Martínez, Sebastián

    2013-01-01

    A severe respiratory disease epidemic outbreak correlates with a high demand of specific supplies and specialized personnel to hold it back in a wide region or set of regions; these supplies would be beds, storage areas, hemodynamic monitors, and mechanical ventilators, as well as physicians, respiratory technicians, and specialized nurses. We describe an online cumulative sum based model named Overcrowd-Severe-Respiratory-Disease-Index based on the Modified Overcrowd Index that simultaneously monitors and informs the demand of those supplies and personnel in a healthcare network generating early warnings of severe respiratory disease epidemic outbreaks through the interpretation of such variables. A post hoc historical archive is generated, helping physicians in charge to improve the transit and future allocation of supplies in the entire hospital network during the outbreak. The model was thoroughly verified in a virtual scenario, generating multiple epidemic outbreaks in a 6-year span for a 13-hospital network. When it was superimposed over the H1N1 influenza outbreak census (2008–2010) taken by the National Institute of Medical Sciences and Nutrition Salvador Zubiran in Mexico City, it showed that it is an effective algorithm to notify early warnings of severe respiratory disease epidemic outbreaks with a minimal rate of false alerts. PMID:24069063

  2. Assimilation of Soil Wetness Index and Leaf Area Index into the ISBA-A-gs land surface model: grassland case study

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    A. L. Barbu

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The performance of the joint assimilation in a land surface model of a Soil Wetness Index (SWI product provided by an exponential filter together with Leaf Area Index (LAI is investigated. The data assimilation is evaluated with different setups using the SURFEX modeling platform, for a period of seven years (2001–2007, at the SMOSREX grassland site in southwestern France. The results obtained with a Simplified Extended Kalman Filter demonstrate the effectiveness of a joint data assimilation scheme when both SWI and Leaf Area Index are merged into the ISBA-A-gs land surface model. The assimilation of a retrieved Soil Wetness Index product presents several challenges that are investigated in this study. A significant improvement of around 13 % of the root-zone soil water content is obtained by assimilating dimensionless root-zone SWI data. For comparison, the assimilation of in situ surface soil moisture is considered as well. A lower impact on the root zone is noticed. Under specific conditions, the transfer of the information from the surface to the root zone was found not accurate. Also, our results indicate that the assimilation of in situ LAI data may correct a number of deficiencies in the model, such as low LAI values in the senescence phase by using a seasonal-dependent error definition for background and observations. In order to verify the specification of the errors for SWI and LAI products, a posteriori diagnostics are employed. This approach highlights the importance of the assimilation design on the quality of the analysis. The impact of data assimilation scheme on CO2 fluxes is also quantified by using measurements of net CO2 fluxes gathered at the SMOSREX site from 2005 to 2007. An improvement of about 5 % in terms of rms error is obtained.

  3. Heavy metal contamination in surface sediments of Yangtze River intertidal zone: An assessment from different indexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Weiguo; Feng Huan; Chang Jinna; Qu Jianguo; Xie Hongxia; Yu Lizhong

    2009-01-01

    Surface sediments (0-5 cm) from 59 stations within the Yangtze River intertidal zone (YRIZ) were sampled for metal contamination analysis in April and August 2005. The concentrations ranged (in mg kg -1 dry weight): Al, 40,803-97,213; Fe, 20,538-49,627; Cd, 0.12-0.75; Cr, 36.9-173; Cu, 6.87-49.7; Mn, 413-1,112; Ni, 17.6-48.0; Pb, 18.3-44.1; and Zn, 47.6-154; respectively. Among the 59 sampling stations, enrichment factors (EF) indicate enrichment of Cd (52 stations), Cr (54 stations), Cu (5 stations), Ni (26 stations), Pb (5 stations) and Zn (5 stations). Geoaccumulation indexes (I geo ) also suggest individual metal contamination in localized areas. This study indicates that Cd, Cr and Ni enrichment in the YRIZ sediment is widespread whereas Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn enrichment is localized or nonexistent. Factor and cluster analyses indicate that Cd is associated with total organic carbon whereas Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn have a close association with Mn. - Surface sediment metal enrichment is evidenced for Cd, Cr and Ni in the Yangtze River intertidal zone.

  4. Correlation study on waist circumference-triglyceride (WT) index and coronary artery scores in patients with coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, R-F; Liu, X-Y; Lin, Z; Zhang, G

    2015-01-01

    Coronary disease is analyzed through common lipid profiles, but these analyses fail to account for residual risk due to abdominal weight and elevated TG levels. We aimed to investigate the relationship between the waist circumference × triglyceride index (WT index) and the Coronary Artery Score (CAS) in patients with coronary heart disease. 346 patients in our Cardiology Department were recruited from September 2007 to August 2011 and divided into two groups according to whether the patients presented with metabolic syndrome. We performed coronary angiography using the standard Judkins method. The severity of coronary artery stenosis and the CAS were calculated and analyzed with a computerized quantitative analysis system. The signs index, which includes the body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-hip-ratio, and waist-height-ratio, the blood glucose and blood lipid index of all the patients were collected and used to calculate the WT index (waist circumference x triglyceride index. We performed a correlative analysis with age, gender, body mass index, blood glucose and blood lipid, blood pressure and other risk indicators of all patients as the dependent variables and the CAS as the independent variable. We show that the CAS is positively correlated to the WT index. Several lipid profiles and waist circumference were significantly associated with the CAS. The WT index is correlated to the CAS and is a good predictor for the development of coronary artery disease; it can be applied in the clinic for early intervention in populations at risk for coronary heart disease.

  5. Association of Periodontal Diseases with Elevation of Serum C-reactive Protein and Body Mass Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitsazi, Mohammad Taghi; Pourabbas, Reza; Shirmohammadi, Adileh; Ahmadi Zenouz, Gazaleh; Vatankhah, Amir Hossein

    2008-01-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is a well-known acute-phase reactant produced by the liver in response to inflammation caused by various stimuli. Periodontal disease is a chronic infection of tooth-supporting structures characterized by attachment loss and alveolar bone loss. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between serum C-reactive protein levels and periodontal diseases. The study was conducted on 166 patients referring to Tabriz Faculty of Dentistry. The age range was between 35 and 59 years. 83 subjects with periodontitis according to NHANES III index as test group and 83 healthy individuals as controls participated in this study. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), probing depth, attachment loss and CRP levels were measured in both test and control groups. Data was analyzed with Student's t-test, odds ratio (OR), Chi-square test and Spearman's correlation coefficient, using SPSS 13.0 software. The results revealed a statistically significant difference between all of the analyzed variables in test and control groups (P periodontitis and attachment loss (r = 0.662, P = 0.00). Excluding overweight, the association between all the variables was statistically significant (P periodontal disease is correlated with CRP elevation and dis-eases associated with obesity.

  6. The Effect of Body Mass Index on Relapse of Pilonidal Sinus Disease in Adult Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Poorghasem

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pilonidal disease occurs either as a secreting sinus or in the form of an acute abscess in the coccygeal area and is an underlying cyst associated with granulomatous and fibrosis tissue which commonly contains heaps of hair, for which inherited and acquisitive hypotheses are proposed. Body mass index (BMI is the objective indicator of obesity according to height and weight. This study aims to examine the relationship between BMI and the role of obesity in development and relapse of pilonidal cyst disease.Materials and Methods: This retrospective cross-sectional study examined 126 patients with primary or recurrent pilonidal sinus within a year. A separate questionnaire was formed and recorded in the computer for each patient based on the disease type and body mass index.Results: One hundred out of 126 studied patients (79.4% underwent primary Pilonidal Sinus surgery and 26 patients (20.6 had recurrent Pilonidal sinus surgery. 36 patients (28.6 were female and 90 patients (71.4% were male. Among patients with recurrent Pilonidal sinus, 18 patients (69.2% had BMI above 30 and 8 patients (30.8% had BMI of 25 to 30 kg/m2. The patients whose BMI was estimated to be 20 to 25 or less than 20 kg/ m2 per square meter, had no recurrence of disease. Conclusion: In this study, high BMI was associated with relapse of pilonidal sinus disease. Supporting the previous studies, the incidence of disease in this study was also higher in young adults.

  7. Response surface modeling of remifentanil-propofol interaction on cardiorespiratory control and bispectral index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuijs, Diederik J F; Olofsen, Erik; Romberg, Raymonda R; Sarton, Elise; Ward, Denham; Engbers, Frank; Vuyk, Jaap; Mooren, Rene; Teppema, Luc J; Dahan, Albert

    2003-02-01

    Since propofol and remifentanil are frequently combined for monitored anesthesia care, we examined the influence of the separate and combined administration of these agents on cardiorespiratory control and bispectral index in humans. The effect of steady-state concentrations of remifentanil and propofol was assessed in 22 healthy male volunteer subjects. For each subject, measurements were obtained from experiments using remifentanil alone, propofol alone, and remifentanil plus propofol (measured arterial blood concentration range: propofol studies, 0-2.6 microg/ml; remifentanil studies, 0-2.0 ng/ml). Respiratory experiments consisted of ventilatory responses to three to eight increases in end-tidal Pco2 (Petco2). Invasive blood pressure, heart rate, and bispectral index were monitored concurrently. The nature of interaction was assessed by response surface modeling using a population approach with NONMEM. Values are population estimate plus or minus standard error. A total of 94 responses were obtained at various drug combinations. When given separately, remifentanil and propofol depressed cardiorespiratory variables in a dose-dependent fashion (resting V(i) : 12.6 +/- 3.3% and 27.7 +/- 3.5% depression at 1 microg/ml propofol and 1 ng/ml remifentanil, respectively; V(i) at fixed Petco of 55 mmHg: 44.3 +/- 3.9% and 57.7 +/- 3.5% depression at 1 microg/ml propofol and 1 ng/ml remifentanil, respectively; blood pressure: 9.9 +/- 1.8% and 3.7 +/- 1.1% depression at 1 microg/ml propofol and 1 ng/ml remifentanil, respectively). When given in combination, their effect on respiration was synergistic (greatest synergy observed for resting V(i)). The effects of both drugs on heart rate and blood pressure were modest, with additive interactions when combined. Over the dose range studied, remifentanil had no effect on bispectral index even when combined with propofol (inert interaction). These data show dose-dependent effects on respiration at relatively low concentrations of

  8. The Role of Dietary Inflammatory Index in Cardiovascular Disease, Metabolic Syndrome and Mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ruiz-Canela

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is an underlying pathophysiological process in chronic diseases, such as obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. In fact, a number of systematic reviews have shown the association between inflammatory biomarkers, such as CRP, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-4, or IL-10, and cardio-metabolic diseases. Diet is one of the main lifestyle-related factors which modulates the inflammatory process. Different individual foods and dietary patterns can have a beneficial health effect associated with their anti-inflammatory properties. The dietary inflammatory index (DII was recently developed to estimate the inflammatory potential of overall diet. The aim of this review is to examine the findings of recent papers that have investigated the association between the DII, cardio-metabolic risk factors and cardiovascular disease. The relevance of the DII score in the association between inflammation and cardio-metabolic diseases is critically appraised, as well as its role in the context of healthy dietary patterns. We conclude that the DII score seems to be a useful tool to appraise the inflammatory capacity of the diet and to better understand the relationships between diet, inflammation, and cardio-metabolic diseases.

  9. CSF free light chain identification of demyelinating disease: comparison with oligoclonal banding and other CSF indexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurtner, Kari M; Shosha, Eslam; Bryant, Sandra C; Andreguetto, Bruna D; Murray, David L; Pittock, Sean J; Willrich, Maria Alice V

    2018-02-19

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) used in immunoglobulin gamma (IgG) index testing and oligoclonal bands (OCBs) are common laboratory tests used in the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. The measurement of CSF free light chains (FLC) could pose as an alternative to the labor-intensive isoelectric-focusing (IEF) gels used for OCBs. A total of 325 residual paired CSF and serum specimens were obtained after physician-ordered OCB IEF testing. CSF kappa (cKFLC) and lambda FLC (cLFLC), albumin and total IgG were measured. Calculations were performed based on combinations of analytes: CSF sum of kappa and lambda ([cKFLC+cLFLC]), kappa-index (K-index) ([cKFLC/sKFLC]/[CSF albumin/serum albumin]), kappa intrathecal fraction (KFLCIF) {([cKFLC/sKFLC]-[0.9358×CSF albumin/serum albumin]^[0.6687×sKFLC]/cKFLC)} and IgG-index ([CSF IgG/CSF albumin]/[serum IgG/serum albumin]). Patients were categorized as: demyelination (n=67), autoimmunity (n=53), non-inflammatory (n=50), inflammation (n=38), degeneration (n=28), peripheral neuropathy (n=24), infection (n=13), cancer (n=11), neuromyelitis optica (n=10) and others (n=31). cKFLC measurement used alone at a cutoff of 0.0611 mg/dL showed >90% agreement to OCBs, similar or better performance than all other calculations, reducing the number of analytes and variables. When cases of demyelinating disease were reviewed, cKFLC measurements showed 86% clinical sensitivity/77% specificity. cKFLC alone demonstrates comparable performance to OCBs along with increased sensitivity for demyelinating diseases. Replacing OCB with cKFLC would alleviate the need for serum and CSF IgG and albumin and calculated conversions. cKFLC can overcome challenges associated with performance, interpretation, and cost of traditional OCBs, reducing costs and maintaining sensitivity and specificity supporting MS diagnosis.

  10. Using the H-index to assess disease priorities for salmon aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Alexander G; Wardeh, Maya; McIntyre, K Marie

    2016-04-01

    Atlantic salmon's (Salmo salar) annual aquaculture production exceeds 2M tonnes globally, and for the UK forms the largest single food export. However, aquaculture production is negatively affected by a range of different diseases and parasites. Effort to control pathogens should be focused on those which are most "important" to aquaculture. It is difficult to specify what makes a pathogen important; this is particularly true in the aquatic sector where data capture systems are less developed than for human or terrestrial animal diseases. Mortality levels might be one indicator, but these can cause a range of different problems such as persistent endemic losses, occasional large epidemics or control/treatment costs. Economic and multi-criteria decision methods can incorporate this range of impacts, however these have not been consistently applied to aquaculture and the quantity and quality of data required is large, so their potential for comparing aquatic pathogens is currently limited. A method that has been developed and applied to both human and terrestrial animal diseases is the analysis of published scientific literature using the H-index method. We applied this method to salmon pathogens using Web of Science searches for 23 pathogens. The top 3 H-indices were obtained for: sea lice, furunculosis, and infectious salmon anaemia; post 2000, Amoebic Gill Disease (AGD) replaced furunculosis. The number of publications per year describing bacterial disease declined significantly, while those for viruses and sea lice increased significantly. This reflects effective bacterial control by vaccination, while problems related to viruses and sea lice have increased. H-indices by country reflected different national concerns (e.g. AGD ranked top for Australia). Averaged national H-indices for salmon diseases tend to increase with log of salmon production; countries with H-Indices significantly below the trend line have suffered particularly large disease losses. The H-index

  11. Multi-pollutant surface objective analyses and mapping of air quality health index over North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robichaud, Alain; Ménard, Richard; Zaïtseva, Yulia; Anselmo, David

    2016-01-01

    Air quality, like weather, can affect everyone, but responses differ depending on the sensitivity and health condition of a given individual. To help protect exposed populations, many countries have put in place real-time air quality nowcasting and forecasting capabilities. We present in this paper an optimal combination of air quality measurements and model outputs and show that it leads to significant improvements in the spatial representativeness of air quality. The product is referred to as multi-pollutant surface objective analyses (MPSOAs). Moreover, based on MPSOA, a geographical mapping of the Canadian Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) is also presented which provides users (policy makers, public, air quality forecasters, and epidemiologists) with a more accurate picture of the health risk anytime and anywhere in Canada and the USA. Since pollutants can also behave as passive atmospheric tracers, they provide information about transport and dispersion and, hence, reveal synoptic and regional meteorological phenomena. MPSOA could also be used to build air pollution climatology, compute local and national trends in air quality, and detect systematic biases in numerical air quality (AQ) models. Finally, initializing AQ models at regular time intervals with MPSOA can produce more accurate air quality forecasts. It is for these reasons that the Canadian Meteorological Centre (CMC) in collaboration with the Air Quality Research Division (AQRD) of Environment Canada has recently implemented MPSOA in their daily operations.

  12. A Near-Zero Refractive Index Meta-Surface Structure for Antenna Performance Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Habib Ullah

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A new meta-surface structure (MSS with a near-zero refractive index (NZRI is proposed to enhance the performance of a square loop antenna array. The main challenge to improve the antenna performance is increment of the overall antenna volume that is mitigated by assimilating the planar NZRI MSS at the back of the antenna structure. The proposed NZRI MSS-loaded CPW-fed (Co-Planar Waveguide four-element array antenna is designed on ceramic-bioplastic-ceramic sandwich substrate using high-frequency structure simulator (HFSS, a finite-element-method-based simulation tool. The gain and directivity of the antenna are significantly enhanced by incorporating the NZRI MSS with a 7 × 6 set of elements at the back of the antenna structure. Measurement results show that the maximum gains of the antenna increased from 6.21 dBi to 8.25 dBi, from 6.52 dBi to 9.05 dBi and from 10.54 dBi to 12.15 dBi in the first, second and third bands, respectively. The effect of the slot configuration in the ground plane on the reflection coefficient of the antenna was analyzed and optimized. The overall performance makes the proposed antenna appropriate for UHFFM (Ultra High Frequency Frequency Modulation telemetry-based space applications as well as mobile satellite, microwave radiometry and radio astronomy applications.

  13. Joint spatiotemporal variability of global sea surface temperatures and global Palmer drought severity index values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apipattanavis, S.; McCabe, G.J.; Rajagopalan, B.; Gangopadhyay, S.

    2009-01-01

    Dominant modes of individual and joint variability in global sea surface temperatures (SST) and global Palmer drought severity index (PDSI) values for the twentieth century are identified through a multivariate frequency domain singular value decomposition. This analysis indicates that a secular trend and variability related to the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) are the dominant modes of variance shared among the global datasets. For the SST data the secular trend corresponds to a positive trend in Indian Ocean and South Atlantic SSTs, and a negative trend in North Pacific and North Atlantic SSTs. The ENSO reconstruction shows a strong signal in the tropical Pacific, North Pacific, and Indian Ocean regions. For the PDSI data, the secular trend reconstruction shows high amplitudes over central Africa including the Sahel, whereas the regions with strong ENSO amplitudes in PDSI are the southwestern and northwestern United States, South Africa, northeastern Brazil, central Africa, the Indian subcontinent, and Australia. An additional significant frequency, multidecadal variability, is identified for the Northern Hemisphere. This multidecadal frequency appears to be related to the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation (AMO). The multidecadal frequency is statistically significant in the Northern Hemisphere SST data, but is statistically nonsignificant in the PDSI data.

  14. Digital processing of SEM images for the assessment of evaluation indexes of cleaning interventions on Pentelic marble surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moropoulou, A.; Delegou, E.T.; Vlahakis, V.; Karaviti, E.

    2007-01-01

    In this work, digital processing of scanning-electron-microscopy images utilized to assess cleaning interventions applied on the Pentelic marble surfaces of the National Archaeological Museum and National Library in Athens, Greece. Beside mineralogical and chemical characterization that took place by scanning-electron-microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy, the image-analysis program EDGE was applied for estimating three evaluation indexes of the marble micro-structure. The EDGE program was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey for the evaluation of cleaning interventions applied on Philadelphia City Hall. This computer program analyzes scanning-electron-microscopy images of stone specimens cut in cross-section for measuring the fractal dimension of the exposed surfaces, the stone near-surface fracture density, the shape factor (a surface roughness factor) and the friability index which represents the physico-chemical and physico-mechanical stability of the stone surface. The results indicated that the evaluation of the marble surface micro-structure before and after cleaning is achieved by the suggested indexes, while the performance of cleaning interventions on the marble surfaces can be assessed

  15. Validation of the Auto-Inflammatory Diseases Activity Index (AIDAI) for hereditary recurrent fever syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piram, Maryam; Koné-Paut, Isabelle; Lachmann, Helen J; Frenkel, Joost; Ozen, Seza; Kuemmerle-Deschner, Jasmin; Stojanov, Silvia; Simon, Anna; Finetti, Martina; Sormani, Maria Pia; Martini, Alberto; Gattorno, Marco; Ruperto, Nicolino

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To validate the Auto-Inflammatory Diseases Activity Index (AIDAI) in the four major hereditary recurrent fever syndromes (HRFs): familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), mevalonate kinase deficiency (MKD), tumour necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS) and cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes (CAPS). Methods In 2010, an international collaboration established the content of a disease activity tool for HRFs. Patients completed a 1-month prospective diary with 12 yes/no items before a clinical appointment during which their physician assessed their disease activity by a questionnaire. Eight international experts in auto-inflammatory diseases evaluated the patient's disease activity by a blinded web evaluation and a nominal group technique consensus conference, with their consensus judgement considered the gold standard. Sensitivity/specificity/accuracy measures and the ability of the score to discriminate active from inactive patients via the best cut-off score were calculated by a receiver operating characteristic analysis. Results Consensus was achieved for 98/106 (92%) cases (39 FMF, 35 CAPS, 14 TRAPS and 10 MKD), with 26 patients declared as having inactive disease and 72 as having active disease. The median total AIDAI score was 14 (range=0–175). An AIDAI cut-off score ≥9 discriminated active from inactive patients, with sensitivity/specificity/accuracy of 89%/92%/90%, respectively, and an area under the curve of 98% (95% CI 96% to 100%). Conclusions The AIDAI score is a valid and simple tool for assessing disease activity in FMF/MKD/TRAPS/CAPS. This tool is easy to use in clinical practice and has the potential to be used as the standard efficacy measure in future clinical trials. PMID:24026675

  16. Development of a preliminary composite disease activity index in psoriatic arthritis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mumtaz, Aizad

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVES: To develop a preliminary composite psoriatic disease activity index (CPDAI) for psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. METHODS: Five domains were assessed and specific instruments were employed for each domain to determine the extent of domain involvement and the effect of that involvement on quality of life\\/function. Disease activity for each domain was then graded from 0 to 3 giving a CPDAI range of 0-15. Patient and physician global disease activity measures were also recorded and an independent physician was asked to indicate if treatment change was required. Bivariate correlation analysis was performed. Factor, tree analysis and standardised response means were also calculated. RESULTS: Significant correlation was seen between CPDAI and both patient (r = 0.834) and physician (r = 0.825) global disease activity assessments (p = 0.01). Tree analysis revealed that 96.3% of patients had their treatment changed when CPDAI values were greater than 6; no patient had their treatment changed when CPDAI values were less than 5. CONCLUSION: CPDAI correlates well with patient and physician global disease activity assessments and is an effective tool that clearly distinguishes those who require a treatment change from those who do not.

  17. Disease management index of potential years of life lost as a tool for setting priorities in national disease control using OECD health data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Sung-In; Nam, Jung-Mo; Choi, Jongwon; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2014-03-01

    Limited healthcare resources make it necessary to maximize efficiency in disease management at the country level by priority-setting according to disease burden. To make the best priority settings, it is necessary to measure health status and have standards for its judgment, as well as consider disease management trends among nations. We used 17 International Classification of Diseases (ICD) categories of potential years of life lost (YPLL) from Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) health data for 2012, 37 disease diagnoses YPLL from OECD health data for 2009 across 22 countries and disability-adjusted life years (DALY) from the World Health Organization (WHO). We set a range of 1-1 for each YPLL per disease in a nation (position value for relative comparison, PARC). Changes over 5 years were also accounted for in this disease management index (disease management index, DMI). In terms of ICD categories, the DMI indicated specific areas for priority setting for different countries with regard to managing disease treatment and diagnosis. Our study suggests that DMI is a realistic index that reflects trend changes over the past 5 years to the present state, and PARC is an easy index for identifying relative status. Moreover, unlike existing indices, DMI and PARC make it easy to conduct multiple comparisons among countries and diseases. DMI and PARC are therefore useful tools for policy implications and for future studies incorporating them and other existing indexes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Glycemic index and glycemic load of tropical fruits and the potential risk for chronic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Uchôa Passos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to determine the glycemic index and glycemic load of tropical fruits and the potential risk for chronic diseases. Nine fruits were investigated: coconut water (for the purpose of this study, coconut water was classified as a “fruit”, guava, tamarind, passion fruit, custard apple, hog plum, cashew, sapodilla, and soursop. The GI and GL were determined according to the Food and Agriculture Organization protocol. The GL was calculated taking into consideration intake recommendation guidelines; 77.8% of the fruits had low GI although significant oscillations were observed in some graphs, which may indicate potential risks of disease. Coconut water and custard apple had a moderate GI, and all fruits had low GL. The fruits evaluated are healthy and can be consumed following the daily recommended amount. However, caution is recommended with fruits causing early glycemic peak and the fruits with moderated GI (coconut water and custard apple.

  19. Relationship between depression with FEV1 percent predicted and BODE index in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawan, H.; Hanum, H.; Abidin, A.; Hanida, W.

    2018-03-01

    WHO reported more than 3 million people die from COPD in 2012 and are expected to rank third after cardiovascular and cancer diseases in the future. Recent studies reported the prevalence of depression in COPD patients was higher than in control group. So, it’s important for clinicians to understand the relationship of depression symptoms with clinical aspects of COPD. For determining the association of depression symptoms with lung function and BODE index in patients with stable COPD, a cross-sectional study was in 98 stable COPD outpatients from January to June 2017. Data were analyzed using Independent t-test, Mann-Whitney test, and Spearman’s rank correlation. COPD patients with depression had higher mMRC scores, and lower FEV1 percent predicted, and then 6-Minutes Walk Test compared to those without depression. There was a moderate strength of correlation (r=-0.43) between depression symptoms and FEV1 percent predicted, and strong correlation (r=0.614) between depression symptoms and BODE index. It indicates that BODE index is more accurate to describe symptoms of depression in COPD patients.

  20. Gender, body mass index and rheumatoid arthritis disease activity: results from the QUEST-RA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawaheer, D; Olsen, J; Lahiff, M; Forsberg, S; Lähteenmäki, J; da Silveira, I G; Rocha, F A; Magalhães Laurindo, I M; Henrique da Mota, L M; Drosos, A A; Murphy, E; Sheehy, C; Quirke, E; Cutolo, M; Rexhepi, S; Dadoniene, J; Verstappen, S M M; Sokka, T

    2010-01-01

    To investigate whether body mass index (BMI), as a proxy for body fat, influences rheumatoid arthritis (RA) disease activity in a gender-specific manner. Consecutive patients with RA were enrolled from 25 countries into the QUEST-RA program between 2005 and 2008. Clinical and demographic data were collected by treating rheumatologists and by patient self-report. Distributions of Disease Activity Scores (DAS28), BMI, age, and disease duration were assessed for each country and for the entire dataset; mean values between genders were compared using Student's t-tests. An association between BMI and DAS28 was investigated using linear regression, adjusting for age, disease duration and country. A total of 5,161 RA patients (4,082 women and 1,079 men) were included in the analyses. Overall, women were younger, had longer disease duration, and higher DAS28 scores than men, but BMI was similar between genders. The mean DAS28 scores increased with increasing BMI from normal to overweight and obese, among women, whereas the opposite trend was observed among men. Regression results showed BMI (continuous or categorical) to be associated with DAS28. Compared to the normal BMI range, being obese was associated with a larger difference in mean DAS28 (0.23, 95% CI: 0.11, 0.34) than being overweight (0.12, 95% CI: 0.03, 0.21); being underweight was not associated with disease activity. These associations were more pronounced among women, and were not explained by any single component of the DAS28. BMI appears to be associated with RA disease activity in women, but not in men.

  1. Development and validation of the Patient Benefit Index for peripheral arterial disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zander, Nicole; Demirel, Ebru-Berrin; Augustin, Matthias; Sommer, Rachel; Debus, Eike Sebastian; Breuer, Peter; Blome, Christine

    2018-01-25

    The aim of this study was to develop and validate a specific Patient Benefit Index (PBI) version for the treatment of peripheral arterial disease (PAD). A non-interventional longitudinal development study was conducted. The first phase comprised a qualitative pre-study with n = 50 patients, in which the PBI was adapted for peripheral arterial disease. The resulting Patient Benefit Index for peripheral arterial disease (PBI-PAD) was validated in the second phase at two points of measurement. The total PBI-PAD score was calculated by weighting item-wise the achievement of treatment goals with the initially assessed needs. Feasibility, internal consistency, and construct validity were analysed and the generic three level version of the EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire (EQ-5D-3L) and the disease-specific instrument Vascular Quality of Life Questionnaire (VascuQoL) were used for convergent validation. In the pre-study, the PBI-PAD, consisting of 12 items, was developed. N = 103 patients participated in the main study. At T2, data were available for n = 57 patients. Mean age was 71.0 years ± 9.1 and 66.7 % of the participants were male. The amount of missing values of the PBI-PAD score was low (PBI (needs at T1 and benefits at T2) were internally consistent with Cronbach's alpha > 0.7. PBI-PAD total score correlated significantly with the T2-T1-differences of the EuroQol-visual analogue scale (EQ VAS) (r = 0.4, p = 0.007) and the Vascular Quality of Life Questionnaire (r = 0.5, p PBI-PAD is a feasible, internally consistent, and valid instrument to assess patient-relevant benefits in PAD patients receiving minimally invasive treatment or surgical procedures. It can be recommended for use in routine care as well as in clinical studies.

  2. Factors Associated with Decreased Lean Tissue Index in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Wen Wang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Muscle wasting is common and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD. However, factors associated with decreased muscle mass in CKD patients are seldom reported. We performed a cross-sectional study of 326 patients (age 65.8 ± 13.3 years with stage 3–5 CKD who were not yet on dialysis. Muscle mass was determined using the Body Composition Monitor (BCM, a multifrequency bioimpedance spectroscopy device, and was expressed as the lean tissue index (LTI, lean tissue mass/height2. An LTI of less than 10% of the normal value (low LTI indicates muscle wasting. Patients with low LTI (n = 40 tended to be diabetic, had significantly higher fat tissue index, urine protein creatinine ratio, and interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α levels, but had significantly lower serum albumin and hemoglobin levels compared with those with normal LTI. In multivariate linear regression analysis, age, sex, cardiovascular disease, and interleukin-6 were independently associated with LTI. Additionally, diabetes mellitus remained an independent predictor of muscle wasting according to low LTI by multivariate logistic regression analysis. We conclude that LTI has important clinical correlations. Determination of LTI may aid in clinical assessment by helping to identify muscle wasting among patients with stage 3–5 CKD.

  3. Fatty liver index vs waist circumference for predicting non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motamed, Nima; Sohrabi, Masoudreza; Ajdarkosh, Hossein; Hemmasi, Gholamreza; Maadi, Mansooreh; Sayeedian, Fatemeh Sima; Pirzad, Reza; Abedi, Khadijeh; Aghapour, Sivil; Fallahnezhad, Mojtaba; Zamani, Farhad

    2016-03-14

    To determine the discriminatory performance of fatty liver index (FLI) for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The data of 5052 subjects aged over 18 years were analyzed. FLI was calculated from body mass index, waist circumference (WC), triglyceride, and gamma glutamyl transferase data. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine the association between FLI and NAFLD. The discriminatory performance of FLI in the diagnosis of NAFLD was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic analysis. Area under the curves (AUCs) and related confidence intervals were estimated. Optimal cutoff points of FLI in the diagnosis of NAFLD were determined based on the maximum values of Youden's index. The mean age of men and women in the study population were 44.8 ± 16.8 and 43.78 ± 15.43, respectively (P = 0.0216). The prevalence of NAFLD was 40.1% in men and 44.2% in women (P < 0.0017). FLI was strongly associated with NAFLD, so that even a one unit increase in FLI increased the chance of developing NAFLD by 5.8% (OR = 1.058, 95%CI: 1.054-1.063, P < 0.0001). Although FLI showed good performance in the diagnosis of NAFLD (AUC = 0.8656 (95%CI: 0.8548-0.8764), there was no significant difference with regards to WC (AUC = 0.8533, 95%CI: 0.8419-0.8646). The performance of FLI was not significantly different between men (AUC = 0.8648, 95%CI: 0.8505-0.8791) and women (AUC = 0.8682, 95%CI: 0.8513-0.8851). The highest performance with regards to age was related to the 18-39 age group (AUC = 0.8930, 95%CI: 0.8766-0.9093). The optimal cutoff points of FLI were 46.9 in men (sensitivity = 0.8242, specificity = 0.7687, Youden's index = 0.5929) and 53.8 in women (sensitivity = 0.8233, specificity = 0.7655, Youden's index = 0.5888). Although FLI had acceptable discriminatory power in the diagnosis of NAFLD, WC was a simpler and more accessible index with a similar performance.

  4. Transverse and polarization effects in index-guided vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torre, M. S.; Masoller, C.; Mandel, Paul

    2006-01-01

    We study numerically the polarization dynamics of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSEL's) operating in the fundamental transverse mode. We use an extension of the spin-flip model that not only accounts for the vector nature of the laser field, but also considers spatial transverse effects. The model assumes two orthogonal, linearly polarized fields, which are coupled to two carrier populations, associated with different spin sublevels of the conduction and valence bands in the quantum-well active region. Spatial effects are taken into account by considering transverse profiles for the two polarizations, for the two carrier populations, and for the carrier diffusion. The optical profile is the LP 01 mode, suitable for describing index-guided VCSEL's with cylindrical symmetry emitting on the fundamental transverse mode for both polarizations. We find that in small-active-region VCSEL's, fast carrier diffusion induces self-sustained oscillations of the total laser output, which are not present in larger-area devices or with slow carrier diffusion. These self-pulsations appear close to threshold, and, as the injection current increases, they grow in amplitude; however, there is saturation and the self-pulsations disappear at higher injection levels. The dependence of the oscillation amplitude on various laser parameters is investigated, and the results are found to be in good qualitative agreement with those reported by Van der Sande et al. [Opt. Lett. 29, 53 (2004)], based on a rate-equation model that takes into account transverse inhomogeneities through an intensity-dependent confinement factor

  5. Response surface modeling of alfentanil-sevoflurane interaction on cardiorespiratory control and bispectral index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahan, A; Nieuwenhuijs, D; Olofsen, E; Sarton, E; Romberg, R; Teppema, L

    2001-06-01

    Respiratory depression is a serious side effect of anesthetics and opioids. The authors examined the influence of the combined administration of sevoflurane and alfentanil on ventilatory control, heart rate (HR), and Bispectral Index (BIS) in healthy volunteers. Step decreases in end-tidal partial pressure of oxygen from normoxia into hypoxia (approximately 50 mmHg) at constant end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide (approximately 48 mmHg) were performed in nine male volunteers at various concentrations of alfentanil and sevoflurane, ranging from 0 to 50 ng/ml for alfentanil and from 0 to 0.4 end-tidal concentration (ET%) for sevoflurane, and with various combinations of alfentanil and sevoflurane. The alfentanil-sevoflurane interactions on normoxic resting (hypercapnic) ventilation (Vi), HR, hypoxic Vi, and HR responses and BIS were assessed by construction of response surfaces that related alfentanil and sevoflurane to effect using a population analysis. Concentration-effect relations were linear for alfentanil and sevoflurane. Synergistic interactions were observed for resting Vi and resting HR. Depression of Vi by 25% occurred at 38 +/- 11 ng/ml alfentanil (population mean +/- SE) and at 0.7 +/- 0.4 ET% sevoflurane. One possibility for 25% reduction when alfentanil and sevoflurane are combined is 13.4 ng/ml alfentanil plus 0.12 ET% sevoflurane. Additive interactions were observed for hypoxic Vi and HR responses and BIS. Depression of the hypoxic Vi response by 25% occurred at 16 +/- 1 ng/ml alfentanil and 0.14 +/- 0.05 ET% sevoflurane. The effect of sevoflurane on the BIS (25% reduction of BIS occurred at 0.45 +/- 0.08 ET%) was independent of the alfentanil concentration. Response surface modeling was used successfully to analyze the effect of interactions between two drugs on respiration. The combination of alfentanil and sevoflurane causes more depression of Vi and HR than does the summed effect of each drug administered separately. The effects of

  6. Impact of Hospital Variables on Case Mix Index as a Marker of Disease Severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Carmen M.; Harrington, Darrell W.; Christenson, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Case mix index (CMI) has become a standard indicator of hospital disease severity in the United States and internationally. However, CMI was designed to calculate hospital payments, not to track disease severity, and is highly dependent on documentation and coding accuracy. The authors evaluated whether CMI varied by characteristics affecting hospitals' disease severity (eg, trauma center or not). The authors also evaluated whether CMI was lower at public hospitals than private hospitals, given the diminished financial resources to support documentation enhancement at public hospitals. CMI data for a 14-year period from a large public database were analyzed longitudinally and cross-sectionally to define the impact of hospital variables on average CMI within and across hospital groups. Between 1996 and 2007, average CMI declined by 0.4% for public hospitals, while rising significantly for private for-profit (14%) and nonprofit (6%) hospitals. After the introduction of the Medicare Severity Diagnosis Related Group (MS-DRG) system in 2007, average CMI increased for all 3 hospital types but remained lowest in public vs. private for-profit or nonprofit hospitals (1.05 vs. 1.25 vs. 1.20; P<0.0001). By multivariate analysis, teaching hospitals, level 1 trauma centers, and larger hospitals had higher average CMI, consistent with a marker of disease severity, but only for private hospitals. Public hospitals had lower CMI across all subgroups. Although CMI had some characteristics of a disease severity marker, it was lower across all strata for public hospitals. Hence, caution is warranted when using CMI to adjust for disease severity across public vs. private hospitals. (Population Health Management 2014;17:28–34) PMID:23965045

  7. Validation of the "German Inflammatory Bowel Disease Activity Index (GIBDI)": An Instrument for Patient-Based Disease Activity Assessment in Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüppe, Angelika; Langbrandtner, Jana; Häuser, Winfried; Raspe, Heiner; Bokemeyer, Bernd

    2018-05-09

     Assessment of disease activity in Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) is usually based on the physician's evaluation of clinical symptoms, endoscopic findings, and biomarker analysis. The German Inflammatory Bowel Disease Activity Index for CD (GIBDI CD ) and UC (GIBDI UC ) uses data from patient-reported questionnaires. It is unclear to what extent the GIBDI agrees with the physicians' documented activity indices.  Data from 2 studies were reanalyzed. In both, gastroenterologists had documented disease activity in UC with the partial Mayo Score (pMS) and in CD with the Harvey Bradshaw Index (HBI). Patient-completed GIBDI questionnaires had also been assessed. The analysis sample consisted of 151 UC and 150 CD patients. Kappa coefficients were determined as agreement measurements.  Rank correlations were 0.56 (pMS, GIBDI UC ) and 0.57 (HBI, GIBDI CD ), with p < 0.001. The absolute agreement for 2 categories of disease activity (remission yes/no) was 74.2 % (UC) and 76.6 % (CD), and for 4 categories (none/mild/moderate/severe) 60.3 % (UC) and 61.9 % (CD). The kappa values ranged between 0.47 for UC (2 categories) and 0.58 for CD (4 categories).  There is satisfactory agreement of GIBDI with the physician-documented disease activity indices. GIBDI can be used in health care research without access to assessments of medical practitioners. In clinical practice, the index offers a supplementary source of information. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Correlation of endoscopic severity of gastroesophageal reflux disease (gerd) with body mass index (bmi)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafar, S.; Haq, I.U.; Butt, A.R.; Shafiq, F.; Huda, G.; Mirza, G.; Rehman, A.U.

    2007-01-01

    To assess the correlation of endoscopic severity of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) with Body Mass Index (BMI). This study was conducted on 203 patients, who presented with upper GI symptoms. Patients who fulfilled the symptom criteria were referred for endoscopy. Classification of GERD was done according to LA Grading classification system. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated as Body Weight (BW) in kilograms (kg) divided by the square of the body height (BH) in meter (m2). Patient data was analyzed using SPSS 12 software. Statistical evaluation was done using non-parametric Wilcoxon's-sign Rank test. P-value <0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Distribution of GERD was as follows: GERD-A subjects 65 (32%), GERD B subjects 72 (35.4%), GERD-C subjects 23 (11.3%), GERD-D subjects 10 (4.92%), while Non-Erosive Reflux Disease (NERD) was present in 33 subjects (16.2%). Mean BMI was 27+5.02SD (range of 18.2-38.3). BMI of patients having NERD was in normal range but patients who were having advanced disease i.e. Grade C-D were in obese range of BMI, while those who were having LA grade A-B were in overweight BMI range. When regrouped as mild GERD (grade A-B) and NERD versus severe GERD (grade C-D), there was a strong significant correlation between severity of GERD and BMI, as detected by Wilcoxon's signed Rank test (p=0.001). Higher BMI seems to be associated with higher degree of endoscopic GERD severity. (author)

  9. Pulmonary arterial hypertension in congenital heart disease: Correlation of radiologic index with hemodynamic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Young Hi

    1984-01-01

    It is well known that pulmonary arterial hypertension in congenital heart disease is an important prognostic factor, as is pulmonary vascular resistance. So it is tempting to get certain radiologic index that could predict the presence and the degree of pulmonary arterial hypertension. A total of 152 cases of left to right shunt with pulmonary arterial hypertension and 50 cases of left to right shunt without pulmonary arterial hypertension is presented, in which cardiac catheterization and angiocardiography were done at the Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital between March 1981 and February 1983. Statistical analysis of plain radiography findings with the emphasis on the correction of radiologic index with the hemodynamic data. The results are as follows: 1. The incidence of pulmonary arterial hypertension is much less in arterial septal defect than other two disease groups of left to right shunt. 2. PA/T ratio correlates well with pulmonary arterial pressure (r=0.674), especially in mild pulmonary hypertension group. No correlation in moderate pulmonary hypertension group in significant level. 3. PA/T ratio is below 38 in total cases of normal control group and in 32 cases (21.0%) among 152 cases of pulmonary arterial hypertension group. 4. The average PA/T ratio in normal pressure group of left to right shunt is 35.3, which has no significant difference from that of normal control group. 5. The average CT ratio of pulmonary arterial hypertension group is 59.0, which is larger than 49.1 of normal control group. The CT ratio shows no correlation with the pulmonary arterial pressure in statistically significant level. 6. The higher the pulmonary arterial pressure, the larger the Rp/Rs value. The Rp/Rs in atrial septal defect is 0.193 in average, the lowest value in comparison with other two disease groups.

  10. DFT simulations of water adsorption and activation on low-index α-Ga2O3 surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xin; Hensen, Emiel J M; van Santen, Rutger A; Li, Can

    2014-06-02

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations are used to explore water adsorption and activation on different α-Ga2O3 surfaces, namely (001), (100), (110), and (012). The geometries and binding energies of molecular and dissociative adsorption are studied as a function of coverage. The simulations reveal that dissociative water adsorption on all the studied low-index surfaces are thermodynamically favorable. Analysis of surface energies suggests that the most preferentially exposed surface is (012). The contribution of surface relaxation to the respective surface energies is significant. Calculations of electron local density of states indicate that the electron-energy band gaps for the four investigated surfaces appears to be less related to the difference in coordinative unsaturation of the surface atoms, but rather to changes in the ionicity of the surface chemical bonds. The electrochemical computation is used to investigate the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) on α-Ga2O3 surfaces. Our results indicate that the (100) and (110) surfaces, which have low stability, are the most favorable ones for HER and OER, respectively. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Quantitative computed tomography measurements to evaluate airway disease in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Relationship to physiological measurements, clinical index and visual assessment of airway disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nambu, Atsushi; Zach, Jordan; Schroeder, Joyce; Jin, Gongyoung; Kim, Song Soo; Kim, Yu-IL; Schnell, Christina; Bowler, Russell; Lynch, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To correlate currently available quantitative CT measurements for airway disease with physiological indices and the body-mass index, airflow obstruction, dyspnea, and exercise capacity (BODE) index in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Materials and methods: This study was approved by our institutional review board (IRB number 2778). Written informed consent was obtained from all subjects. The subjects included 188 current and former cigarette smokers from the COPDGene cohort who underwent inspiratory and expiratory CT and also had physiological measurements for the evaluation of airflow limitation, including FEF25-75%, airway resistance (Raw), and specific airway conductance (sGaw). The BODE index was used as the index of clinical symptoms. Quantitative CT measures included % low attenuation areas [% voxels ≤ 950 Hounsfield unit (HU) on inspiratory CT, %LAA −950ins ], percent gas trapping (% voxels ≤ −856 HU on expiratory CT, %LAA −856exp ), relative inspiratory to expiratory volume change of voxels with attenuation values from −856 to −950 HU [Relative Volume Change (RVC) −856 to −950 ], expiratory to inspiratory ratio of mean lung density (E/I-ratio MLD ), Pi10, and airway wall thickness (WT), luminal diameter (LD) and airway wall area percent (WA%) in the segmental, subsegmental and subsubsegmental bronchi on inspiratory CT. Correlation coefficients were calculated between the QCT measurements and physiological measurements in all subjects and in the subjects with mild emphysema (%LAA −950ins <10%). Univariate and multiple variable analysis for the BODE index were also performed. Adjustments were made for age, gender, smoking pack years, FEF25-75%, Raw, and sGaw. Results: Quantitative CT measurements had significant correlations with physiological indices. Among them, E/I-ratio MLD had the strongest correlations with FEF25-75% (r = −0.648, <0.001) and sGaw (r = −0.624, <0.001) while in the subjects with

  12. Effect of surface plasmon polaritons on the sensitivity of refractive index measurement using total internal reflection method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roshan Entezar, S.

    2015-01-01

    The phase difference between two p-polarized and s-polarized plane waves which are reflected under total internal reflection from the base of a prism with a thin metal coating is studied. Typically such a quantity can be used to measure the refractive index of a test material using the total internal reflection method. It is shown that due to the excitation of surface plasmon polaritons at the interface between the tested dielectric material and the thin metal layer, the p-polarized light experiences a large phase shift which enlarges the phase difference between the p-polarized and the s-polarized waves. As a result, the sensitivity of refractive index measurement increases and the error in determining the refractive index decreases. - Highlights: • Phase difference of totally internally reflected p and s polarized beams is studied. • Excitation of the surface wave increases the phase shift of the p-polarized light. • The sensitivity of refractive index measurement increases by using a coated prism. • The error in determining the refractive index decreases using the coated prism

  13. Voice Handicap Index (VHI in Persian Speaking Parkinson\\'s Disease Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Madjdinasab

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: “Voice” is affected more and sooner than other speech subsystems in Parkinson's Disease (PD. Voice Handicap Index (VHI is the most applicable subjective self-rating questionnaire in VD patients. The aim of this study was the investigation of Voice handicap in Iranian PD patients. Methods & Materials: This cross-sectional, analytical and non-interventional study was done on 50 (35 males, 15 females patients who reported a VD related to their PD. They were selected from thepatients referring to movement disorders’ clinic in Rasool Akram Hospital affiliated withTehran University of medical sciences, through easy sampling. VHI total score (VHIT and its domains (functional-VHIF, Emotional VHIE, Physical VHIP was assessed in all of participants and by gender segregation. Results: 83% of patients reported voice handicap. There wasn't any difference between VHIT and its mentioned 3 domains in both sexes. There is positive correlation between VHIT, VHIE and VHIF with age. VHIT and VHIF had a positive relationship with disease duration (DD. The males VHIT and the mentioned domains had positive correlations with DD. Conclusion: Most of Iranian PD patients feel handicap due to voice disorder caused by PD and their quality of life was affected by voice impairment. Increase in age and disease duration caused more voice disorder and reduced quality of life especially patients feel more handicaps in functional domain (VHIF. In addition, the males feel more handicap than females when DD develops.

  14. A probability index for surface zonda wind occurrence at Mendoza city through vertical sounding principal components analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Federico; Norte, Federico; Araneo, Diego

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this work is to obtain an index for predicting the probability of occurrence of zonda event at surface level from sounding data at Mendoza city, Argentine. To accomplish this goal, surface zonda wind events were previously found with an objective classification method (OCM) only considering the surface station values. Once obtained the dates and the onset time of each event, the prior closest sounding for each event was taken to realize a principal component analysis (PCA) that is used to identify the leading patterns of the vertical structure of the atmosphere previously to a zonda wind event. These components were used to construct the index model. For the PCA an entry matrix of temperature ( T) and dew point temperature (Td) anomalies for the standard levels between 850 and 300 hPa was build. The analysis yielded six significant components with a 94 % of the variance explained and the leading patterns of favorable weather conditions for the development of the phenomenon were obtained. A zonda/non-zonda indicator c can be estimated by a logistic multiple regressions depending on the PCA component loadings, determining a zonda probability index \\widehat{c} calculable from T and Td profiles and it depends on the climatological features of the region. The index showed 74.7 % efficiency. The same analysis was performed by adding surface values of T and Td from Mendoza Aero station increasing the index efficiency to 87.8 %. The results revealed four significantly correlated PCs with a major improvement in differentiating zonda cases and a reducing of the uncertainty interval.

  15. Electrical Double Layer-Induced Ion Surface Accumulation for Ultrasensitive Refractive Index Sensing with Nanostructured Porous Silicon Interferometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Stefano; Strambini, Lucanos Marsilio; Barillaro, Giuseppe

    2018-03-23

    Herein, we provide the first experimental evidence on the use of electrical double layer (EDL)-induced accumulation of charged ions (using both Na + and K + ions in water as the model) onto a negatively charged nanostructured surface (e.g., thermally growth SiO 2 )-Ion Surface Accumulation, ISA-as a means of improving performance of nanostructured porous silicon (PSi) interferometers for optical refractometric applications. Nanostructured PSi interferometers are very promising optical platforms for refractive index sensing due to PSi huge specific surface (hundreds of m 2 per gram) and low preparation cost (less than $0.01 per 8 in. silicon wafer), though they have shown poor resolution ( R) and detection limit (DL) (on the order of 10 -4 -10 -5 RIU) compared to other plasmonic and photonic platforms ( R and DL on the order of 10 -7 -10 -8 RIU). This can be ascribed to both low sensitivity and high noise floor of PSi interferometers when bulk refractive index variation of the solution infiltrating the nanopores either approaches or is below 10 -4 RIU. Electrical double layer-induced ion surface accumulation (EDL-ISA) on oxidized PSi interferometers allows the interferometer output signal (spectral interferogram) to be impressively amplified at bulk refractive index variation below 10 -4 RIU, increasing, in turn, sensitivity up to 2 orders of magnitude and allowing reliable measurement of refractive index variations to be carried out with both DL and R of 10 -7 RIU. This represents a 250-fold-improvement (at least) with respect to the state-of-the-art literature on PSi refractometers and pushes PSi interferometer performance to that of state-of-the-art ultrasensitive photonics/plasmonics refractive index platforms.

  16. BigFoot Leaf Area Index Surfaces for North and South American Sites, 2000-2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: The BigFoot project gathered leaf area index (LAI) data for nine EOS Land Validation Sites located from Alaska to Brazil from 2000 to 2003. Each site is...

  17. The value of intrarenal resistive index in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Rae; Lee, Kyu Beck; Park, Hae Won

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the value of the intrarenal resistive index(RI), measured by Doppler sonography, in order to assess intrarenal vascular resistance in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) patients. In 26 patients with ADPKD, RI was measured by Doppler sonography and correlated with the presence of hypertension, renal function (creatinine clearance) and anatomical renal severity index (RSI), thus indicating renal morphologic abnormalities during Bmode sonography. RI was significantly higher in 18 hypertensive ADPKD patients (0.64±0.65) (Mean±1SD;range:0.52-0.74) than in eight normotensive patients (0.59± 0.50) (0.48-0.64) (p<0.05). Statistically significant inverse correlation was found between RI values and creatinine clearance (r=3D-0.45, p<0.05), and statistically significant correlation was found between RI values and RSI, indicating the degree of renal parenchymal involvement. RI correlates with the development of hypertension, renal function and renal morphologic abnormality scoring by RSI during B-mode Doppler sonography, and measured in this way may thus be used to assess renal vascular resistance in ADPKD patients.=20

  18. Midlife Healthy-Diet Index and Late-Life Dementia and Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjo H. Eskelinen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study long-term effects of dietary patterns on dementia and Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Methods: Of 525 subjects randomly selected from population-based cohorts surveyed at midlife, a total of 385 (73% subjects were re-examined 14 years later in the CAIDE study. A healthy-diet index (range 0–17 was constructed including both healthy and unhealthy dietary components. Results: Persons with a healthy diet (healthy-diet index >8 points had a decreased risk of dementia (OR 0.12, 95% CI 0.02–0.85 and AD (OR 0.08, 95% CI 0.01–0.89 compared with persons with an unhealthy diet (0–8 points, adjusting for several possible confounders. Conclusions: Healthy diet at midlife is associated with a decreased risk of dementia/AD in late life. These findings highlight the importance of dietary patterns and may make more effective measures for dementia/AD prevention or postponement possible.

  19. Diagnosing obesity by body mass index in chronic kidney disease: an explanation for the "obesity paradox?".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Rajiv; Bills, Jennifer E; Light, Robert P

    2010-11-01

    Although obesity is associated with poor outcomes, among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), obesity is related to improved survival. These results may be related to poor diagnostic performance of body mass index (BMI) in assessing body fat content. Accordingly, among 77 patients with CKD and 20 controls, body fat percentage was estimated by air displacement plethysmography (ADP), skinfold thickness, and body impedance analysis. Defined by BMI ≥30 kg/m(2), the prevalence of obesity was 20% in controls and 65% in patients with CKD. Defined by ADP, the prevalence increased to 60% among controls and to 90% among patients with CKD. Although sensitivity and positive predictive value of BMI to diagnose obesity were 100%, specificity was 72%, but the negative predictive value was only 30%. BMI correctly classified adiposity in 75%. Regardless of the presence or absence of CKD, subclinical obesity (defined as BMI value of BMI for obesity, our study may provide an explanation of the "obesity paradox."

  20. Fatty liver index and hepatic steatosis index for prediction of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sviklāne, Laura; Olmane, Evija; Dzērve, Zane; Kupčs, Kārlis; Pīrāgs, Valdis; Sokolovska, Jeļizaveta

    2018-01-01

    Little is known about the diagnostic value of hepatic steatosis index (HSI) and fatty liver index (FLI), as well as their link to metabolic syndrome in type 1 diabetes mellitus. We have screened the effectiveness of FLI and HSI in an observational pilot study of 40 patients with type 1 diabetes. FLI and HSI were calculated for 201 patients with type 1 diabetes. Forty patients with FLI/HSI values corresponding to different risk of liver steatosis were invited for liver magnetic resonance study. In-phase/opposed-phase technique of magnetic resonance was used. Accuracy of indices was assessed from the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. Twelve (30.0%) patients had liver steatosis. For FLI, sensitivity was 90%; specificity, 74%; positive likelihood ratio, 3.46; negative likelihood ratio, 0.14; positive predictive value, 0.64; and negative predictive value, 0.93. For HSI, sensitivity was 86%; specificity, 66%; positive likelihood ratio, 1.95; negative likelihood ratio, 0.21; positive predictive value, 0.50; and negative predictive value, 0.92. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for FLI was 0.86 (95% confidence interval [0.72; 0.99]); for HSI 0.75 [0.58; 0.91]. Liver fat correlated with liver enzymes, waist circumference, triglycerides, and C-reactive protein. FLI correlated with C-reactive protein, liver enzymes, and blood pressure. HSI correlated with waist circumference and C-reactive protein. FLI ≥ 60 and HSI ≥ 36 were significantly associated with metabolic syndrome and nephropathy. The tested indices, especially FLI, can serve as surrogate markers for liver fat content and metabolic syndrome in type 1 diabetes. © 2017 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  1. A one-layer satellite surface energy balance for estimating evapotranspiration rates and crop water stress indexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbagallo, Salvatore; Consoli, Simona; Russo, Alfonso

    2009-01-01

    Daily evapotranspiration fluxes over the semi-arid Catania Plain area (Eastern Sicily, Italy) were evaluated using remotely sensed data from Landsat Thematic Mapper TM5 images. A one-source parameterization of the surface sensible heat flux exchange using satellite surface temperature has been used. The transfer of sensible and latent heat is described by aerodynamic resistance and surface resistance. Required model inputs are brightness, temperature, fractional vegetation cover or leaf area index, albedo, crop height, roughness lengths, net radiation, air temperature, air humidity and wind speed. The aerodynamic resistance (r(ah)) is formulated on the basis of the Monin-Obukhov surface layer similarity theory and the surface resistance (r(s)) is evaluated from the energy balance equation. The instantaneous surface flux values were converted into evaporative fraction (EF) over the heterogeneous land surface to derive daily evapotranspiration values. Remote sensing-based assessments of crop water stress (CWSI) were also made in order to identify local irrigation requirements. Evapotranspiration data and crop coefficient values obtained from the approach were compared with: (i) data from the semi-empirical approach "K(c) reflectance-based", which integrates satellite data in the visible and NIR regions of the electromagnetic spectrum with ground-based measurements and (ii) surface energy flux measurements collected from a micrometeorological tower located in the experiment area. The expected variability associated with ET flux measurements suggests that the approach-derived surface fluxes were in acceptable agreement with the observations.

  2. Surface relief and refractive index gratings patterned in chalcogenide glasses and studied by off-axis digital holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazac, V; Meshalkin, A; Achimova, E; Abashkin, V; Katkovnik, V; Shevkunov, I; Claus, D; Pedrini, G

    2018-01-20

    Surface relief gratings and refractive index gratings are formed by direct holographic recording in amorphous chalcogenide nanomultilayer structures As 2 S 3 -Se and thin films As 2 S 3 . The evolution of the grating parameters, such as the modulation of refractive index and relief depth in dependence of the holographic exposure, is investigated. Off-axis digital holographic microscopy is applied for the measurement of the photoinduced phase gratings. For the high-accuracy reconstruction of the wavefront (amplitude and phase) transmitted by the fabricated gratings, we used a computational technique based on the sparse modeling of phase and amplitude. Both topography and refractive index maps of recorded gratings are revealed. Their separated contribution in diffraction efficiency is estimated.

  3. Near field evidence of backward surface plasmon polaritons on negative index material boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuevas, Mauro; Grunhut, Vivian; Depine, Ricardo A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Electromagnetic scattering from a localized defect on a NIM surface is presented. • The electromagnetic response strongly depends on the SPPs excited. • Near field distribution reveals the forward or backward character of SPPs excited. - Abstract: We present a detailed analysis about the electromagnetic response of a metamaterial surface with a localized defect. The excitation of electromagnetic surface waves leads to a near-field distribution showing a periodic dependence along the metamaterial surface. We find that this periodic pattern provides a direct demonstration of the forward or backward surface wave propagation.

  4. Near field evidence of backward surface plasmon polaritons on negative index material boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuevas, Mauro, E-mail: cuevas@df.uba.ar [Facultad de Ingeniería y Tecnología Informática, Universidad de Belgrano, Villanueva 1324, C1426BMJ, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET) (Argentina); Grunhut, Vivian [Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Austral (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET) (Argentina); Depine, Ricardo A. [Grupo de Electromagnetismo Aplicado, Departamento de Física, FCEN, Universidad de Buenos Aires and IFIBA, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellón I, C1428EHA, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET) (Argentina)

    2016-12-09

    Highlights: • Electromagnetic scattering from a localized defect on a NIM surface is presented. • The electromagnetic response strongly depends on the SPPs excited. • Near field distribution reveals the forward or backward character of SPPs excited. - Abstract: We present a detailed analysis about the electromagnetic response of a metamaterial surface with a localized defect. The excitation of electromagnetic surface waves leads to a near-field distribution showing a periodic dependence along the metamaterial surface. We find that this periodic pattern provides a direct demonstration of the forward or backward surface wave propagation.

  5. The Clinical Impression of Severity Index for Parkinson's Disease: international validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Martín, Pablo; Rodríguez-Blázquez, Carmen; Forjaz, Maria João; de Pedro, Jesús

    2009-01-30

    This study sought to provide further information about the psychometric properties of the Clinical Impression of Severity Index for Parkinson's Disease (CISI-PD), in a large, international, cross-culturally diverse sample. Six hundred and fourteen patients with PD participated in the study. Apart from the CISI-PD, assessments were based on Hoehn & Yahr (HY) staging, the Scales for Outcomes in PD-Motor (SCOPA-M), -Cognition (SCOPA-COG) and -Psychosocial (SCOPA-PS), the Cumulative Illness Rating Scale-Geriatrics, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. The total CISI-PD score displayed no floor or ceiling effects. Internal consistency was 0.81, the test-retest intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.84, and item homogeneity was 0.52. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (CFI = 0.99, RMSEA = 0.07) confirmed CISI-PD's unifactorial structure. The CISI-PD showed adequate convergent validity with SCOPA-COG and SCOPA-M (r(S) = 0.46-0.85, respectively) and discriminative validity for HY stages and disease duration (P validation study, thus showing that the CISI-PD is a valid instrument to measure clinical impression of severity in PD. Its simplicity and easy application make it an attractive and useful tool for clinical practice and research.

  6. Peripheral artery questionnaire improves ankle brachial index screening in symptomatic patients with peripheral artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, B-H; Cho, K-I; Spertus, J; Park, Y-H; Je, H-G; Shin, M-S; Lee, J-H; Jang, J-S

    2014-12-01

    The peripheral artery questionnaire (PAQ) is a disease-specific health status measure of patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD). Whether the PAQ scores are associated with a PAD diagnosis among patients with symptoms suspicious for PAD is unknown and could help increase the pretest probability of ankle brachial index (ABI) screening among patients with suspicious symptoms. The PAQ was completed by 567 patients evaluated for potential intermittent claudication at six tertiary centres. Demographics, medical history, physical examination findings and the PAQ domain scores were compared with ABI. A diagnostic threshold PAQ scores. The correlation between the PAQ Summary Score and ABI was also calculated. The PAQ Summary Score was significantly lower in patients with low ABI as compared with those having a normal ABI (37.6 ± 19.0 vs. 70.1 ± 22.7, p PAQ Summary Score and ABI were highly correlated (r = 0.56, p PAQ Summary Score for predicting low ABI was 50.3 (AUC = 0.86, sensitivity 80.3%, specificity 78.3%). The PAQ Summary Score was associated with an increased likelihood of PAD in patients with suspected PAD symptoms, and a low summary score (≤ 50.3) was an optimal threshold for predicting PAD among patients referred for ABI. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Association of body mass index and the depletion of nigrostriatal dopamine in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Jung; Oh, Jungsu S; Ham, Jee H; Lee, Dong H; Lee, Injoo; Sohn, Young H; Kim, Jae S; Lee, Phil Hyu

    2016-02-01

    Several antecedent studies had reported close relationship between low body weight and Parkinson's disease (PD). However, there have been few investigations about the role of body weight to nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurodegeneration. This study enrolled 398 de novo patients with PD whom underwent [18F] N-(3-Fluoropropyl)-2β-carbon ethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl) nortropane positron emission tomography scan and body mass index (BMI) measurement. The relationships between BMI and dopamine transporter (DAT) activity were analyzed using linear regression analysis. A multivariate analysis adjusted for age, gender, disease duration, smoking status, coffee and tea consumption, and residence area revealed that BMI remained independently and significantly associated with DAT activity in all striatal subregions. Moreover, multiple logistic regression analyses showed that BMI was a significant predictor for the lowest quartile of DAT activity in the anterior putamen, ventral striatum, caudate nucleus, and total striatum. The present findings suggest that a low BMI might be closely associated with low density of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons in PD, which could support the evidence for the role of low body weight to PD-related pathologies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Dietary Inflammatory Index and Incidence of Cardiovascular Disease in the PREDIMED Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Garcia-Arellano

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have reported an association between a more pro-inflammatory diet profile and various chronic metabolic diseases. The Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII was used to assess the inflammatory potential of nutrients and foods in the context of a dietary pattern. We prospectively examined the association between the DII and the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD: myocardial infarction, stroke or cardiovascular death in the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea study including 7216 high-risk participants. The DII was computed based on a validated 137-item food frequency questionnaire. Multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios (HR and 95% confidence intervals of CVD risk were computed across  quartiles of the DII where the lowest (most anti-inflammatory quartile is the referent. Risk increased across the quartiles (i.e., with increasing inflammatory potential: HRquartile2 = 1.42 (95%CI = 0.97–2.09;  HRquartile3 = 1.85 (1.27–2.71; and HRquartile4 = 1.73 (1.15–2.60. When fit as continuous the multiple-adjusted hazard ratio for each additional standard deviation of the DII was 1.22 (1.06–1.40. Our results provide direct prospective evidence that a pro-inflammatory diet is associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular clinical events.

  9. First-principles study of the interactions of hydrogen with low-index surfaces of PdCu ordered alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Tang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available PdCu catalysts play a key role in several hydrogen-involved processes. Among these reactions, the interaction of hydrogen with PdCu essentially determines the catalytic performance. However, the response of PdCu to surrounding hydrogen has been poorly investigated, especially for specific facets of PdCu at different environment. In this work, taking temperature and hydrogen pressure into account, we studied the hydrogen-surface interactions for four low-index surfaces of PdCu through first-principles calculations. It was found that H-PdCu adsorption strong relies on the facets, hydrogen coverage, and reaction environment (temperature and H-pressure. Our work highlights the importance of the environment on the nature of catalyst surfaces and reactions and offers a plausible way to investigate the interactions between gas and the surfaces of nanocatalysts in real reactions.

  10. First-principles study of the interactions of hydrogen with low-index surfaces of PdCu ordered alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Tang; Hengbo Li; Wentao Yuan; Shihui Zou; Chenghua Sun; Yong Wang

    2017-01-01

    PdCu catalysts play a key role in several hydrogen-involved processes. Among these reactions, the interaction of hydrogen with PdCu essentially determines the catalytic performance. However, the response of PdCu to surrounding hydrogen has been poorly investigated, especially for specific facets of PdCu at different environment.In this work, taking temperature and hydrogen pressure into account, we studied the hydrogen-surface interactions for four low-index surfaces of PdCu through first-principles calculations. It was found that H-PdCu adsorption strong relies on the facets, hydrogen coverage, and reaction environment (temperature and H-pressure).Our work highlights the importance of the environment on the nature of catalyst surfaces and reactions and offers a plausible way to investigate the interactions between gas and the surfaces of nanocatalysts in real reactions.

  11. Water erosion in surface soil conditions: runoff velocity, concentration and D50 index of sediments in runoff

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos,Júlio César; Bertol,Ildegardis; Barbosa,Fabrício Tondello; Bertól,Camilo; Mafra,Álvaro Luiz; Miquelluti,David José; Mecabô Júnior,José

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Water erosion and contamination of water resources are influenced by concentration and diameter of sediments in runoff. This study aimed to quantify runoff velocity and concentration and the D50 index of sediments in runoff under different soil surface managements, in the following treatments: i) cropped systems: no-tilled soil covered by ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) residue, with high soil cover and minimal roughness (HCR); no tilled soil covered by vetch (Vicia sativa L.) res...

  12. Ab initio simulation of structure and surface energy of low-index surfaces of stoichiometric α-Fe2O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirner, Thomas; Scholz, David; Sun, Jizhong

    2018-05-01

    The structure and surface energy of a series of low-index surfaces of stoichiometric α-Fe2O3 (hematite) are investigated using the periodic Hartree-Fock approach with an a posteriori correction of the correlation energy. The simulations show that, amongst the modeled facets, (01 1 bar2) and (0001) are the most stable surfaces of hematite, which is consistent with the fact that the latter are the dominant growth faces exposed on natural α-Fe2O3. The Fe-terminated (0001) surface is shown to exhibit a large relaxation of the surface atoms. It is argued that this arises mainly due to the fact that the surface cations are located opposite empty cation sites in the filled-filled-unfilled cation sequence along the c-axis. In contrast, the (01 1 bar2) plane cuts the crystal through a plane of empty cation sites, thus giving rise to relatively small relaxations and surface energies. The small relaxations and concomitant exposure of five-coordinate cation sites may be important for the catalytic activity of hematite. The simulations also show that the relative stability of the investigated surfaces changes after a full lattice relaxation with the (0001) and (11 2 bar6) facets relaxing disproportionately large. Wherever possible, the simulations are compared with previous simulation data and experimental results. A Wulff-Gibbs construction is also presented.

  13. A robust Multi-Band Water Index (MBWI) for automated extraction of surface water from Landsat 8 OLI imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaobiao; Xie, Shunping; Zhang, Xueliang; Chen, Cheng; Guo, Hao; Du, Jinkang; Duan, Zheng

    2018-06-01

    Surface water is vital resources for terrestrial life, while the rapid development of urbanization results in diverse changes in sizes, amounts, and quality of surface water. To accurately extract surface water from remote sensing imagery is very important for water environment conservations and water resource management. In this study, a new Multi-Band Water Index (MBWI) for Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) images is proposed by maximizing the spectral difference between water and non-water surfaces using pure pixels. Based on the MBWI map, the K-means cluster method is applied to automatically extract surface water. The performance of MBWI is validated and compared with six widely used water indices in 29 sites of China. Results show that our proposed MBWI performs best with the highest accuracy in 26 out of the 29 test sites. Compared with other water indices, the MBWI results in lower mean water total errors by a range of 9.31%-25.99%, and higher mean overall accuracies and kappa coefficients by 0.87%-3.73% and 0.06-0.18, respectively. It is also demonstrated for MBWI in terms of robustly discriminating surface water from confused backgrounds that are usually sources of surface water extraction errors, e.g., mountainous shadows and dark built-up areas. In addition, the new index is validated to be able to mitigate the seasonal and daily influences resulting from the variations of the solar condition. MBWI holds the potential to be a useful surface water extraction technology for water resource studies and applications.

  14. CHI: A contemporaneous health index for degenerative disease monitoring using longitudinal measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yijun; Meng, Qiang; Evans, Heather; Lober, William; Cheng, Yu; Qian, Xiaoning; Liu, Ji; Huang, Shuai

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we develop a novel formulation for contemporaneous patient risk monitoring by exploiting the emerging data-rich environment in many healthcare applications, where an abundance of longitudinal data that reflect the degeneration of the health condition can be continuously collected. Our objective, and the developed formulation, is fundamentally different from many existing risk score models for different healthcare applications, which mostly focus on predicting the likelihood of a certain outcome at a pre-specified time. Rather, our formulation translates multivariate longitudinal measurements into a contemporaneous health index (CHI) that captures patient condition changes over the course of progression. Another significant feature of our formulation is that, CHI can be estimated with or without label information, different from other risk score models strictly based on supervised learning. To develop this formulation, we focus on the degenerative disease conditions, for which we could utilize the monotonic progression characteristic (either towards disease or recovery) to learn CHI. Such a domain knowledge leads us to a novel learning formulation, and on top of that, we further generalize this formulation with a capacity to incorporate label information if available. We further develop algorithms to mitigate the challenges associated with the nonsmooth convex optimization problem by first identifying its dual reformulation as a constrained smooth optimization problem, and then, using the block coordinate descent algorithm to iteratively solve the optimization with a derived efficient projection at each iteration. Extensive numerical studies are performed on both synthetic datasets and real-world applications on Alzheimer's disease and Surgical Site Infection, which demonstrate the utility and efficacy of the proposed method on degenerative conditions that include a wide range of applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Fatty Liver Index and Lipid Accumulation Product Can Predict Metabolic Syndrome in Subjects without Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Lung Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Fatty liver index (FLI and lipid accumulation product (LAP are indexes originally designed to assess the risk of fatty liver and cardiovascular disease, respectively. Both indexes have been proven to be reliable markers of subsequent metabolic syndrome; however, their ability to predict metabolic syndrome in subjects without fatty liver disease has not been clarified. Methods. We enrolled consecutive subjects who received health check-up services at Taipei Veterans General Hospital from 2002 to 2009. Fatty liver disease was diagnosed by abdominal ultrasonography. The ability of the FLI and LAP to predict metabolic syndrome was assessed by analyzing the area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC curve. Results. Male sex was strongly associated with metabolic syndrome, and the LAP and FLI were better than other variables to predict metabolic syndrome among the 29,797 subjects. Both indexes were also better than other variables to detect metabolic syndrome in subjects without fatty liver disease (AUROC: 0.871 and 0.879, resp., and the predictive power was greater among women. Conclusion. Metabolic syndrome increases the cardiovascular disease risk. The FLI and LAP could be used to recognize the syndrome in both subjects with and without fatty liver disease who require lifestyle modifications and counseling.

  16. A surface hydrology model for regional vector borne disease models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Adrian; Asare, Ernest; Bomblies, Arne; Amekudzi, Leonard

    2016-04-01

    Small, sun-lit temporary pools that form during the rainy season are important breeding sites for many key mosquito vectors responsible for the transmission of malaria and other diseases. The representation of this surface hydrology in mathematical disease models is challenging, due to their small-scale, dependence on the terrain and the difficulty of setting soil parameters. Here we introduce a model that represents the temporal evolution of the aggregate statistics of breeding sites in a single pond fractional coverage parameter. The model is based on a simple, geometrical assumption concerning the terrain, and accounts for the processes of surface runoff, pond overflow, infiltration and evaporation. Soil moisture, soil properties and large-scale terrain slope are accounted for using a calibration parameter that sets the equivalent catchment fraction. The model is calibrated and then evaluated using in situ pond measurements in Ghana and ultra-high (10m) resolution explicit simulations for a village in Niger. Despite the model's simplicity, it is shown to reproduce the variability and mean of the pond aggregate water coverage well for both locations and validation techniques. Example malaria simulations for Uganda will be shown using this new scheme with a generic calibration setting, evaluated using district malaria case data. Possible methods for implementing regional calibration will be briefly discussed.

  17. Intrathecal IgM index correlates with a severe disease course in multiple sclerosis: Clinical and MRI results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozakbas, Serkan; Cinar, Bilge Piri; Özcelik, Pinar; Baser, Hatice; Kosehasanoğullari, Gorkem

    2017-09-01

    Intrathecally synthesized IgM can be seen not only in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in infectious and inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system, but also in that of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Intrathecal IgM synthesis in MS seems to be correlated with an unfavorable disease course. In one cross-sectional study, intrathecal synthesis of IgM (IgM index) was found to be correlated with cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) parameters. The purpose of this study was to determine the possible relationship between the IgM index and MRI and clinical parameters. Eighty-one patients with MS (58 female) undergoing lumbar puncture were included in the study. Fifty-one patients had a relapsing-remitting (RR) disease course, while 30 cases were secondary progressive MS (SPMS). IgM was detected in paired CSF and serum specimens using ELISA. The IgM index was calculated using the formula CSF IgM/serum IgM: CSF albumin/serum albumin. IgM indexes higher than 0.1 were considered "increased". All patients underwent brain and whole spinal cord MRI. The IgM index was normal in 43 of the 81 patients (53.1%) and increased in 38 (46.9%). A significant correlation was determined between the IgM index and Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) (r=0.638, p=0.001). Most of the subjects with increased IgM indexes were SPMS patients, 28 having a SPMS course and 10 a RRMS course. Only two patients with SPMS courses had normal IgM indexes. EDSS scores were significantly higher in patients with increased IgM indexes (EDSS 4.3 vs EDSS 2.8, p=0.000). All patients with EDSS >3 had increased IgM indexes. All patients with IgM index values higher than 0.2 IgM had SPMS courses and EDSS >6. Time to onset of the secondary progressive phase of the disease was correlated with IgM index values (p=0.004). IgM index values were also correlated with T1 hypointense lesions (r=0.0431, p=0.008) and Gd enhancing lesions (r=0.0396, p=0.006). Patients with increased IgM indexes also had more

  18. A combined pulmonary function and emphysema score prognostic index for staging in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afroditi K Boutou

    Full Text Available Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD is characterized by high morbidity and mortality. Lung computed tomography parameters, individually or as part of a composite index, may provide more prognostic information than pulmonary function tests alone.To investigate the prognostic value of emphysema score and pulmonary artery measurements compared with lung function parameters in COPD and construct a prognostic index using a contingent staging approach.Predictors of mortality were assessed in COPD outpatients whose lung computed tomography, spirometry, lung volumes and gas transfer data were collected prospectively in a clinical database. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis models with bootstrap techniques were used.169 patients were included (59.8% male, 61.1 years old; Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second % predicted: 40.5±19.2. 20.1% died; mean survival was 115.4 months. Age (HR = 1.098, 95% Cl = 1.04-1.252 and emphysema score (HR = 1.034, 95% CI = 1.007-1.07 were the only independent predictors of mortality. Pulmonary artery dimensions were not associated with survival. An emphysema score of 55% was chosen as the optimal threshold and 30% and 65% as suboptimals. Where emphysema score was between 30% and 65% (intermediate risk the optimal lung volume threshold, a functional residual capacity of 210% predicted, was applied. This contingent staging approach separated patients with an intermediate risk based on emphysema score alone into high risk (Functional Residual Capacity ≥210% predicted or low risk (Functional Residual Capacity <210% predicted. This approach was more discriminatory for survival (HR = 3.123; 95% CI = 1.094-10.412 than either individual component alone.Although to an extent limited by the small sample size, this preliminary study indicates that the composite Emphysema score-Functional Residual Capacity index might provide a better separation of high and low risk patients

  19. Ion bombardment induced topography evolution on low index crystal surfaces of Cu and Pb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanovic, L.; Tanovic, N.; Carter, G.; Nobes, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    (100), (110) and (111) oriented single crystal surfaces of Cu and Pb have been bombarded with inert gas ions, self ions, ions of the other substrate species and Bi in the energy range 50-150 keV and in the fluence range 10 15 -10 18 ions.cm 2 . The evolving surface topography was observed by scanning electron microscopy. This topography was observed to be strongly influenced by ion species and surface orientation but the habit of the topography was delineated at low fluences and the features increased in size and density with increasing fluence with some mutation to the more stable of the features. As an example Bi and Pb bombardment of (100) Cu leads to little topographic evolution, (110) Cu develops a system of parallel ridges with (100) facets and (111) Cu develops a prismatic surface, each prism possessing (100) facets. These, and the more general, results cannot be explained by surface erosion by sputtering theory alone (this predicts surface stability of the lowest sputtering yield orientation (110), nor by surface free energy density minimisation criteria (this predicts stability of (111) surfaces). It is proposed that the observed topography is most strongly related to the crystallographic form of precipitates of implanted species. (orig.)

  20. Ocular surface disease incidence in patients with open-angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radenković Marija

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Ocular surface disease (OSD is a multifactorial disease of the tears and ocular surface that results in symptoms of discomfort, visual disturbances, tear film instability with potential damage to the ocular surface, accompanied by increased tear film osmolarity and inflammation of the ocular surface. It is a consequence of disrupted homeostasis of lacrimal functional unit. The main pathogenetic mechanism stems from tear hyperosmolarity and tear film instability. The etiological classification is hyposecretory (Sy-Sjögren and non-Sjögren and evaporative (extrinsic and intrinsic form. Delphi panel classification grades disease stages. Antiglaucoma topical therapy causes exacerbation or occurrence of symptoms of dry eye due to main ingredients or preservatives (benzalkonium chloride - BAK, which are dose- and time-dependent. BAK reduces the stability of the lipid layer of tears, the number of goblet cells, induces apoptosis and inflammatory infiltration. Objective. The aim of this study was the analysis of the OSD incidence in open-angle glaucoma patients caused by topical medicamentous therapy. Methods. Retrospective analysis of examined patients with open-angle glaucoma was used. Results. Increased incidence of moderate and advanced OSD Index degrees in the group of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG and pseudoexfoliative glaucoma. According to the Delphi Panel Scale the most common grade is IIb (POAG and pseudoexfoliative glaucoma. Evaporative form of OSD prevailed in all treatment groups. High percentage of dry eye in patients with higher concentrations of preservatives applied was noticed. Conclusion. OSD should be timely diagnosed and treated. Dry eye has an impact on surgical outcome and postoperative visual acuity, and in order to improve patient compliance and quality of life, symptoms of dry eye should be addressed and medications with lower concentrations of preservatives should be applied.

  1. Ocular surface disease incidence in patients with open-angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radenković, Marija; Stanković-Babić, Gordana; Jovanović, Predrag; Djordjević-Jocić, Jasmina; Trenkić-Božinović, Marija

    2016-01-01

    Ocular surface disease (OSD) is a multifactorial disease of the tears and ocular surface that results in symptoms of discomfort, visual disturbances, tear film instability with potential damage to the ocular surface, accompanied by increased tear film osmolarity and inflammation of the ocular surface. It is a consequence of disrupted homeostasis of lacrimal functional unit. The main pathogenetic mechanism stems from tear hyperosmolarity and tear film instability. The etiological classification is hyposecretory (Sy-Sjögren and non-Sjögren) and evaporative (extrinsic and intrinsic) form. Delphi panel classification grades disease stages. Antiglaucoma topical therapy causes exacerbation or occurrence of symptoms of dry eye due to main ingredients or preservatives (benzalkonium chloride – BAK), which are dose- and time-dependent. BAK reduces the stability of the lipid layer of tears, the number of goblet cells, induces apoptosis and inflammatory infiltration. The aim of this study was the analysis of the OSD incidence in open-angle glaucoma patients caused by topical medicamentous therapy. Retrospective analysis of examined patients with open-angle glaucoma was used. Increased incidence of moderate and advanced OSD Index degrees in the group of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and pseudoexfoliative glaucoma. According to the Delphi Panel Scale the most common grade is IIb (POAG and pseudoexfoliative glaucoma). Evaporative form of OSD prevailed in all treatment groups. High percentage of dry eye in patients with higher concentrations of preservatives applied was noticed. OSD should be timely diagnosed and treated. Dry eye has an impact on surgical outcome and postoperative visual acuity, and in order to improve patient compliance and quality of life, symptoms of dry eye should be addressed and medications with lower concentrations of preservatives should be applied.

  2. Quantitative computed tomography measurements to evaluate airway disease in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Relationship to physiological measurements, clinical index and visual assessment of airway disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nambu, Atsushi, E-mail: nambu-a@gray.plala.or.jp [Department of Radiology, National Jewish Health, 1400 Jackson Street, Denver, CO, 80206 (United States); Zach, Jordan, E-mail: ZachJ@NJHealth.org [Department of Radiology, National Jewish Health, 1400 Jackson Street, Denver, CO, 80206 (United States); Schroeder, Joyce, E-mail: Joyce.schroeder@stanfordalumni.org [Department of Radiology, National Jewish Health, 1400 Jackson Street, Denver, CO, 80206 (United States); Jin, Gongyoung, E-mail: gyjin@chonbuk.ac.kr [Department of Radiology, National Jewish Health, 1400 Jackson Street, Denver, CO, 80206 (United States); Kim, Song Soo, E-mail: haneul88@hanmail.net [Department of Radiology, National Jewish Health, 1400 Jackson Street, Denver, CO, 80206 (United States); Kim, Yu-IL, E-mail: kyionly@chonnam.ac.kr [Department of Medicine, National Jewish Health, Denver, CO (United States); Schnell, Christina, E-mail: SchnellC@NJHealth.org [Department of Medicine, National Jewish Health, Denver, CO (United States); Bowler, Russell, E-mail: BowlerR@NJHealth.org [Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Medicine, National Jewish Health (United States); Lynch, David A., E-mail: LynchD@NJHealth.org [Department of Radiology, National Jewish Health, 1400 Jackson Street, Denver, CO, 80206 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Purpose: To correlate currently available quantitative CT measurements for airway disease with physiological indices and the body-mass index, airflow obstruction, dyspnea, and exercise capacity (BODE) index in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Materials and methods: This study was approved by our institutional review board (IRB number 2778). Written informed consent was obtained from all subjects. The subjects included 188 current and former cigarette smokers from the COPDGene cohort who underwent inspiratory and expiratory CT and also had physiological measurements for the evaluation of airflow limitation, including FEF25-75%, airway resistance (Raw), and specific airway conductance (sGaw). The BODE index was used as the index of clinical symptoms. Quantitative CT measures included % low attenuation areas [% voxels ≤ 950 Hounsfield unit (HU) on inspiratory CT, %LAA{sub −950ins}], percent gas trapping (% voxels ≤ −856 HU on expiratory CT, %LAA {sub −856exp}), relative inspiratory to expiratory volume change of voxels with attenuation values from −856 to −950 HU [Relative Volume Change (RVC){sub −856} {sub to} {sub −950}], expiratory to inspiratory ratio of mean lung density (E/I-ratio {sub MLD}), Pi10, and airway wall thickness (WT), luminal diameter (LD) and airway wall area percent (WA%) in the segmental, subsegmental and subsubsegmental bronchi on inspiratory CT. Correlation coefficients were calculated between the QCT measurements and physiological measurements in all subjects and in the subjects with mild emphysema (%LAA{sub −950ins} <10%). Univariate and multiple variable analysis for the BODE index were also performed. Adjustments were made for age, gender, smoking pack years, FEF25-75%, Raw, and sGaw. Results: Quantitative CT measurements had significant correlations with physiological indices. Among them, E/I-ratio {sub MLD} had the strongest correlations with FEF25-75% (r = −0.648, <0.001) and sGaw (r = −0

  3. Electrophoretic deposition of carbon nanotubes on a carbon fiber surface with different index graphitization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, E.C.; Baldan, M.R.; Ferreira, N.G.; Edwards, E.R.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: The purpose of this work is to examine the electrophoretic deposition of carbon nanotubes powder on carbon fibers, produced at different heat treatments temperatures. Besides, a systematic study of the effects of graphitization index from substrate on the structure and morphology of CNTs has been available. Carbon fibers were produced from polyacrylonitrile at three different heat treatments temperatures, 1000, 1500 and 2000 deg C. The carbon fibers microstructure or its graphitization index may be controlled by the heat treatments temperatures. The electrophoretic deposition of carbon nanotubes was obtained with the powder of carbon nanotubes dispersed in water by ultrasonication to obtain dispersions of 0.05 mg/mL. The carbon fibers were immersed in the nanotube dispersion, and a positive potential of 10 V/cm was applied. Morphology and microstructure of carbon nanotubes on carbon fibers were obtained by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. (author)

  4. Relation of body mass index to outcome in patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galal, Wael; van Domburg, Ron T; Feringa, Harm H H; Schouten, Olaf; Elhendy, Abdou; Bax, Jeroen J; Awara, Adel M M; Klein, Jan; Poldermans, Don

    2007-06-01

    Increased body mass index (BMI), a parameter of total body fat content, is associated with an increased mortality in the general population. However, recent studies have shown a paradoxic relation between BMI and mortality in specific patient populations. This study investigated the association of BMI with long-term mortality in patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease. In a retrospective cohort study of 5,950 patients (mean age 61 +/- 13 years; 67% men), BMI, cardiovascular risk markers (age, gender, hypertension, diabetes, current smoking, angina pectoris, old myocardial infarction, heart failure, hypercholesterolemia, and previous coronary revascularization), and outcome were noted. The patient population was categorized as underweight, normal, overweight, and obese based on BMI according to the World Health Organization classification. Mean follow-up time was 6 +/- 2.6 years. Incidences of long-term mortality in underweight, normal, overweight, and obese were 39%, 35%, 24%, and 20%, respectively. In a multivariate analysis model, the hazard ratio (HR) for mortality in underweight patients was 2.4 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.7 to 3.7). Overweight and obese patients had a significantly lower mortality than patients with a normal BMI (HR 0.65, 95% CI 0.6 to 0.7, for overweight; HR 0.61, 95% CI 0.5 to 0.7, for obese patients). In conclusion, BMI is inversely related to long-term mortality in patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease. A lower BMI was an independent predictor of long-term mortality, whereas an improved outcome was observed in overweight and obese patients.

  5. Study of inflammatory markers and BODE index in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priti Lokesh Meshram

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a common preventable and treatable disease characterized by progressive airflow limitation and associated with enhanced chronic inflammatory response of the airways to a variety of noxious stimuli. The current concept of COPD, however, extends beyond the respiratory system to include a variety of extrapulmonary manifestations which includes raised inflammatory markers. Methods: This was a single, center observational open-labeled case–controlled study which included fifty patients of diagnosed COPD and 50 age- and gender-matched controls. All patients were evaluated by detailed history taking, pulmonary function test, 6-min walk test, and calculation of BODE scores. Levels of serum inflammatory markers such as cortisol, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-6 (IL-6, lactate dehydrogenase, and C-reactive protein were estimated using standard quality equipments. Observations: Majority of the patients in the study and control groups were males and were aged above 40 years. Thirty-eight of the fifty COPD patients had BODE scores of more than 3. All the studied inflammatory markers were significantly higher in the COPD group as compared to the control group. Of all the studied markers, only IL-6 showed a significant correlation with BODE index, i.e., higher IL-6 values were associated with higher BODE scores. No correlation was seen between the other markers and BODE scores. Conclusions: Our data suggest that IL-6 is a biomarker that correlates with BODE score. IL-6 as a target for therapy in COPD needs to be further studied. Follow-up studies are needed to validate findings.

  6. Nontraditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease and visceral adiposity index among different body size phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, T; Zhang, J; Yuan, G; Zhang, M; Zhou, X; Liu, Z; Sun, X; Yu, X

    2015-01-01

    Increased cardiovascular disease and mortality risk in metabolically healthy obese (MHO) individuals remain highly controversial. Several studies suggested risk while others do not. The traditional cardiovascular risk factors may be insufficient to demonstrate the complete range of metabolic abnormalities in MHO individuals. Hence, we aimed to compare the prevalence of elevated lipoprotein (a), apolipoprotein B, and uric acid (UA) levels, apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A1 ratio, and visceral adiposity index (VAI) scores, and low apolipoprotein A1 levels among 6 body size phenotypes (normal weight with and without metabolic abnormalities, overweight with and without metabolic abnormalities, and obese with or without metabolic abnormalities). We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 7765 Chinese adults using data from the nationwide China Health and Nutrition Survey 2009. MHO persons had intermediate prevalence of elevated apolipoprotein B and UA levels, apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A1 ratio and VAI scores, and low apolipoprotein A1 levels between metabolically healthy normal-weight (MHNW) and metabolically abnormal obese individuals (P < 0.001 for all comparisons). Elevated apolipoprotein B and UA concentrations, apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A1 ratio, and VAI scores were all strongly associated with the MHO phenotype (all P < 0.01). Prevalence of elevated apolipoprotein B and UA levels, apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A1 ratio and VAI scores, and low levels of apolipoprotein A1 was higher among MHO persons than among MHNW individuals. The elevated levels of the nontraditional risk factors and VAI scores in MHO persons could contribute to the increased cardiovascular disease risk observed in long-term studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation And Characterization Of Trace Metals Contamination In The Surface Sediment Using Pollution Load Index PLI And Geo-Accumulation Index Igeo Of Ona River Western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andem

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Evaluation and Characterization of Trace Metal Contamination in the Surface Sediment Using Pollution Load Index PLI and Geo-accumulation Index Igeo Index of Ona River was conducted for six months. From the result of this study the mean values of lead ranged between 0.004 mgkg and 0.330 mgkg while the mean iron was highest 5.05 mgkg in station 4 and lowest 2.26 mgkg in station 5. The mean chromium value ranged from 0.007 mgkg station 1 and 2 to 0.021 mgkg station 3 and 4. The mean copper was highest 3.97 mgkg in station 1 and lowest 0.008 mgkg in station 2. Analysis of variance ANOVA revealed the same trend in spatial variation of these heavy metals. There was a significant difference P 0.05 in lead chromium and copper among the study sampling stations and insignificant difference P0.05 in iron among the study sampling station. The PLI values recorded for all the stations were below 1. Thus the sediment of the study stretch that Ona River is unpolluted. The Igeo values for chromium and iron fall in class 0 in all the five sampling stations indicating that there is no pollution from these metals in the Ona River sediments lead fall in class 3 in station 4indicating moderately to heavily contaminated condition and class 0in station 1 2 3 and 5 and copper fall in class 3 in station 4 and 5 in class 6 in station 3 indicating extremely contaminated condition. The Igeo values were consistent with those derived for PLI. All trace metals had concentrations below the EPA regulatory limits for sediment except iron. From the results of this study sediment quality reflects the impacts of anthropogenic activities on quality of the river. However the continuous build-up of the metal contaminants can be checked if relevant government agencies ensure strict compliant of industrial standards which stipulate treatment of industrial waste before discharging such contaminated effluentswastes into River. Therefore perpetual assessment is highly recommended

  8. Improving the performance of temperature index snowmelt model of SWAT by using MODIS land surface temperature data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan; Onishi, Takeo; Hiramatsu, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Simulation results of the widely used temperature index snowmelt model are greatly influenced by input air temperature data. Spatially sparse air temperature data remain the main factor inducing uncertainties and errors in that model, which limits its applications. Thus, to solve this problem, we created new air temperature data using linear regression relationships that can be formulated based on MODIS land surface temperature data. The Soil Water Assessment Tool model, which includes an improved temperature index snowmelt module, was chosen to test the newly created data. By evaluating simulation performance for daily snowmelt in three test basins of the Amur River, performance of the newly created data was assessed. The coefficient of determination (R (2)) and Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) were used for evaluation. The results indicate that MODIS land surface temperature data can be used as a new source for air temperature data creation. This will improve snow simulation using the temperature index model in an area with sparse air temperature observations.

  9. Duke Activity Status Index for Cardiovascular Diseases: Validation of the Portuguese Translation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutinho-Myrrha, Mariana A.; Dias, Rosângela C.; Fernandes, Aline A.; Araújo, Christiano G.; Hlatky, Mark A.; Pereira, Danielle G.; Britto, Raquel R.

    2014-01-01

    The Duke Activity Status Index (DASI) assesses the functional capacity of patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD), but there is no Portuguese version validated for CVD. To translate and adapt cross-culturally the DASI for the Portuguese-Brazil language, and to verify its psychometric properties in the assessment of functional capacity of patients with CVD. The DASI was translated into Portuguese, then checked by back-translation into English and evaluated by an expert committee. The pre-test version was first evaluated in 30 subjects. The psychometric properties and correlation with exercise testing was performed in a second group of 67 subjects. An exploratory factor analyses was performed in all 97 subjects to verify the construct validity of the DASI. The intraclass correlation coefficient for test-retest reliability was 0.87 and for the inter-rater reliability was 0.84. Cronbach's α for internal consistency was 0.93. The concurrent validity was verified by significant positive correlations of DASI scores with the VO 2 max (r = 0.51, p < 0.001). The factor analysis yielded two factors, which explained 54% of the total variance, with factor 1 accounting for 40% of the variance. Application of the DASI required between one and three and a half minutes per patient. The Brazilian version of the DASI appears to be a valid, reliable, fast and easy to administer tool to assess functional capacity among patients with CVD

  10. Plasma and tissue oxidative stress index in patients with rheumatic and degenerative heart valve disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabus, Murat; Demirbağ, Recep; Sezen, Yusuf; Konukoğlu, Oğuz; Yildiz, Ali; Erel, Ozcan; Zeybek, Rahmi; Yakut, Cevat

    2008-12-01

    We investigated whether patients with rheumatic and degenerative heart valve disease (HVD) differed with regard to plasma and tissue oxidative stress index (OSI). The study included 56 patients who underwent valve replacement due to rheumatic (n=32; 15 males; mean age 47+/-10 years) and degenerative (n=24; 13 males; mean age 55+/-12 years) HVD. Plasma and tissue total oxidative status (TOS) and total antioxidative capacity (TAC) levels were measured and OSI was calculated. Patients with degenerative HVD had significantly higher age, increased interventricular septum thickness, and higher frequency of aortic stenosis, whereas the incidence of mitral stenosis was higher in patients with rheumatic HVD (p0.05). Tissue TAC was significantly lower in patients with rheumatic HVD (p=0.027), whereas tissue TOS and OSI were similar between the two HVD groups (p>0.05). In bivariate analysis, plasma OSI did not show any correlation with clinical, laboratory, and echocardiographic variables (p>0.05). Our data show that plasma and tissue OSI levels are similar in patients with rheumatic and degenerative HVD.

  11. Duke Activity Status Index for Cardiovascular Diseases: Validation of the Portuguese Translation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coutinho-Myrrha, Mariana A. [Ciências da Reabilitação Programa de Pós-Graduação - Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG) (Brazil); Dias, Rosângela C. [Ciências da Reabilitação Programa de Pós-Graduação - Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG) (Brazil); Departamento de Fisioterapia - UFMG (Brazil); Fernandes, Aline A. [Ciências da Reabilitação Programa de Pós-Graduação - Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG) (Brazil); Araújo, Christiano G. [Setor de Cardiologia do Hospital das Clínicas da UFMG (Brazil); Hlatky, Mark A. [Standford University School of Medicine (United States); Pereira, Danielle G.; Britto, Raquel R., E-mail: r3britto@gmail.com [Ciências da Reabilitação Programa de Pós-Graduação - Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG) (Brazil); Departamento de Fisioterapia - UFMG (Brazil)

    2014-04-15

    The Duke Activity Status Index (DASI) assesses the functional capacity of patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD), but there is no Portuguese version validated for CVD. To translate and adapt cross-culturally the DASI for the Portuguese-Brazil language, and to verify its psychometric properties in the assessment of functional capacity of patients with CVD. The DASI was translated into Portuguese, then checked by back-translation into English and evaluated by an expert committee. The pre-test version was first evaluated in 30 subjects. The psychometric properties and correlation with exercise testing was performed in a second group of 67 subjects. An exploratory factor analyses was performed in all 97 subjects to verify the construct validity of the DASI. The intraclass correlation coefficient for test-retest reliability was 0.87 and for the inter-rater reliability was 0.84. Cronbach's α for internal consistency was 0.93. The concurrent validity was verified by significant positive correlations of DASI scores with the VO{sub 2}max (r = 0.51, p < 0.001). The factor analysis yielded two factors, which explained 54% of the total variance, with factor 1 accounting for 40% of the variance. Application of the DASI required between one and three and a half minutes per patient. The Brazilian version of the DASI appears to be a valid, reliable, fast and easy to administer tool to assess functional capacity among patients with CVD.

  12. Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Older Patients: Prognosis Determined by Disease Risk Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Fiona; Cao, Qing; Lazaryan, Aleksandr; Brunstein, Claudio; Holtan, Shernan; Warlick, Erica; Ustun, Celalettin; McClune, Brian; Arora, Mukta; Rashidi, Armin; Eckfeldt, Craig; Weisdorf, Daniel J; Bejanyan, Nelli

    2017-09-01

    The treatment of elderly patients with advanced hematological malignancies has expanded to include reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT) as a potentially curative option. We studied the association between Disease Risk Index (DRI) and clinical outcomes of 196 elderly patients (median age, 64.8; range, 60 to 75 years) with hematological malignancies receiving RIC alloHCT (2000 to 2014). Donors were related and unrelated adults (n = 100, 51.1%) or umbilical cord blood (n = 96, 48.9%). DRI classified 12 patients (6.1%) as low risk (LR), 146 patients (74.5%) as intermediate risk (IR), and 38 patients (19.4%) as high risk (HR). Two-year overall survival (OS) was 47% (52% for LR/IR versus 29% for HR, P risk of relapse (hazard ratio, 2.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.34 to 3.33; P = .02) and treatment failure (hazard ratio, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.35 to 3.18; P risk of relapse leading to poor survival in HR DRI, participation in clinical trials offering relapse prevention strategies after RIC alloHCT should be encouraged when available. Copyright © 2017 The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Ankle Brachial Index: simple non-invasive estimation of peripheral artery disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieniak, Marcin; Cieślicki, Krzysztof; Żyliński, Marek; Górski, Piotr; Murgrabia, Agnieszka; Cybulski, Gerard

    2014-11-01

    According to international guidelines, patients with Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD) are burdened with high cardiovascular risk. One of the simplest, non-invasive methods for PAD detection is the ankle-brachial index (ABI) measurement. The ABI is calculated as the ratio of systolic blood pressure at the ankle (pressure in the posterior tibial artery or the dorsal artery) to the systolic pressure in the arm (in the brachial artery) when the body is in a horizontal position. The physiological value of the ABI is assumed to be between 1 and 1.3; however, these limits vary from study to study. A value less than 0.9 indicates PAD. Some authors propose also measuring the ABI on both sides of the body to highlight possible differences in blood pressure between the opposite arterial segments. The aim of this study was to perform a meta-analysis of the ABI diagnostic criteria used in different publications. Additionally, ABI measurements were performed on 19 healthy patients in age ranged from 20 to 63 years. The results showed a slight dependence between age and the differences between the values obtained from left and right sides of the body.

  14. First-principles study of low Miller index Ni3S2 surfaces in hydrotreating conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aray, Yosslen; Vega, David; Rodriguez, Jesus; Vidal, Alba B; Grillo, Maria Elena; Coll, Santiago

    2009-03-12

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations combined with surface thermodynamic arguments and the Gibbs-Curie-Wulff equilibrium morphology formalism have been employed to explore the effect of the reaction conditions, temperature (T), and gas-phase partial pressures (PH2 and PH2S) on the stability of nickel sulfide (Ni3S2) surfaces. Furthermore, the strength and nature of chemical bonds for selected Ni3S2 surface cuts were investigated with the quantum theory of atoms in molecules methodology. A particular analysis of the electrostatic potential within this theoretical framework is performed to study the potential activity of nickel sulfide nanoparticles as hydrodesulfurization (HDS) catalysts. The calculated thermodynamic surface stabilities and the resulting equilibrium morphology model suggest that unsupported Ni3S2 nanoparticles mainly expose (111) and (111) type surface faces in HDS conditions. Analysis of the electrostatic potential mapped onto a selected electron density isocontour (0.001 au) on those expose surface reveals a poor potential reactivity toward electron-donating reagents (i.e., low Lewis acidity). Consequently, a very low attraction between coordinatively unsaturated active sites (Lewis sites) exposed at the catalytic particles and the S atoms coming from reagent polluting molecules does inactive these kinds of particles for HDS.

  15. Surface morphology of refractive-index waveguide gratings fabricated in polymer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yi; Song, Yan-fang; Ma, Lei; Gao, Fang-fang

    2016-09-01

    The characteristic modifications are reported on the surface of polymeric waveguide film in the process of volume- grating fabrication. The light from a mode-locked 76 MHz femtosecond laser with pulse duration of 200 fs and wavelength of 800 nm is focused normal to the surface of the sample. The surface morphology modifications are ascribed to a fact that surface swelling occurs during the process. Periodic micro-structure is inscribed with increasing incident power. The laser-induced swelling threshold on the grating, which is higher than that of two-photon initiated photo-polymerization (TPIP) (8 mW), is verified to be about 20 mW. It is feasible to enhance the surface smoothness of integrated optics devices for further encapsulation. The variation of modulation depth is studied for different values of incident power and scan spacing. Ablation accompanied with surface swelling appears when the power is higher. By optimizing the laser carving parameters, highly efficient grating devices can be fabricated.

  16. No association between adherence to the healthy Nordic food index and cardiovascular disease amongst Swedish women: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roswall, N; Sandin, S; Scragg, R; Löf, M; Skeie, G; Olsen, A; Adami, H-O; Weiderpass, E

    2015-11-01

    In several intervention trials, a healthy Nordic diet showed beneficial effects on markers of cardiovascular disease. We investigated the association between a healthy Nordic diet and clinical diagnosis of cardiovascular disease. Our aim was first to examine the association between a healthy Nordic food index (wholegrain bread, oatmeal, apples/pears, root vegetables, cabbages and fish) and the incidence of overall cardiovascular disease (ischaemic heart disease, stroke, arrhythmia, thrombosis and hypertensive disease), and secondly to test for possible effect modification by smoking, body mass index (BMI), alcohol consumption and age. We conducted an analysis of data from the prospective Swedish Women's Lifestyle and Health cohort, including 43 310 women who completed a food frequency questionnaire in 1991-1992, and followed up until 31 December 2012 through Swedish registries. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards models. During follow-up, 8383 women developed cardiovascular disease. We found no association between the healthy Nordic food index and overall cardiovascular disease risk or any of the subgroups investigated. There was a statistically significant interaction with smoking status (P = 0.02), with a beneficial effect only amongst former smokers (HR 0.96, 95% CI 0.94-0.99 per 1-point increment). The present results do not support an association between a healthy Nordic food index and risk of cardiovascular disease in Swedish women. There was also no effect modification by alcohol intake, BMI or age. Our finding of an interaction with smoking status requires reproduction. © 2015 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  17. Refractive-index determination of solids from first- and second-order critical diffraction angles of periodic surface patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meichner, Christoph; Kador, Lothar; Schedl, Andreas E.; Neuber, Christian; Kreger, Klaus; Schmidt, Hans-Werner

    2015-01-01

    We present two approaches for measuring the refractive index of transparent solids in the visible spectral range based on diffraction gratings. Both require a small spot with a periodic pattern on the surface of the solid, collimated monochromatic light, and a rotation stage. We demonstrate the methods on a polydimethylsiloxane film (Sylgard ® 184) and compare our data to those obtained with a standard Abbe refractometer at several wavelengths between 489 and 688 nm. The results of our approaches show good agreement with the refractometer data. Possible error sources are analyzed and discussed in detail; they include mainly the linewidth of the laser and/or the angular resolution of the rotation stage. With narrow-band light sources, an angular accuracy of ±0.025 ∘ results in an error of the refractive index of typically ±5 ⋅ 10 −4 . Information on the sample thickness is not required

  18. Validity of the Medication-based Disease Burden Index compared with the Charlson Comorbidity Index and the Cumulative Illness Rating Scale for geriatrics: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beloosesky, Yichayaou; Weiss, Avraham; Mansur, Nariman

    2011-12-01

    Co-morbidity is common in older people. A co-morbidity index reduces coexisting illnesses and their severity to a single numerical score, allowing comparison with scores from other patients. Recently, the Medication-Based Disease Burden Index (MDBI) was developed. The aim of the study was to assess the MDBI's validity in hospitalized elderly patients. Clinical and demographic data and data on patients' medications on admission were obtained prospectively. Retrospectively, we applied the MDBI to the patients' medication regimens, determining their co-morbidity using the Charlson Comorbidity Index and Cumulative Illness Rating Scale for Geriatrics (CIRS-G). The MDBI's criterion validity was assessed against the Charlson and CIRS-G indices. Convergent and discriminant validities were also assessed. The MDBI's predictive validity was assessed by its ability to predict 3-month post-discharge readmissions or mortality compared with the Charlson and CIRS-G indices. MDBI scores were correlated with the Charlson and CIRS-G indices' scores (r = 0.44 and r = 0.37, respectively [p indices had good predictive ability for mortality (OR 1.50 [95% CI 1.22, 1.84; p failed to differentiate between cognitive and functional patient groups. The MDBI should be investigated in larger studies to determine its validity in settings where medication data rather than diagnostic data are more readily available. In clinical practice with elderly patients, we recommend employing co-morbidity indices that are based on medical records, such as the Charlson Comorbidity Index and CIRS-G.

  19. Influence of the surface area approximation on plantar arch index calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth-Taşcǎu, Mirela; Stoia, Dan Ioan; Vigaru, Cosmina; Pasca, Oana

    2012-09-01

    The general purpose of this study was to establish some correction coefficients used in plantar index calculus. In order to compute the correction coefficients, the total area of scanned footprints was estimated using two methods. The footprints were acquired on white plan paper by means of graphite powder, and scanned at five different resolutions. One of the methods of area computing refers to counting squares of an applied grid on the image, while the other method uses a computer software to determine footprint limits and area.

  20. Evaluation of prolactin levels in patients with newly diagnosed pemphigus vulgaris and its correlation with pemphigus disease area index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahideh Lajevardi, MD

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: In our study, 22% of patients had hyperprolactinemia, which was greater among females. The highest PRL level was detected in mucocutaneous group. Although serum PRL levels were higher in patients with a greater Pemphigus Disease Area Index, it did not reach statistical significance.

  1. Swallowing in patients with Parkinson's disease: a surface electromyography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ws Coriolano, Maria das Graças; R Belo, Luciana; Carneiro, Danielle; G Asano, Amdore; Al Oliveira, Paulo José; da Silva, Douglas Monteiro; G Lins, Otávio

    2012-12-01

    Our goal was to study deglutition of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and normal controls (NC) using surface electromyography (sEMG). The study included 15 patients with idiopathic PD and 15 age-matched normal controls. Surface electromyography was collected over the suprahyoid muscle group. Conditions were the following: swallow at once 10 and 20 ml of water and 5 and 10 ml of yogurt of firm consistency, and freely drink 100 ml of water. During swallowing, durations of sEMG were significantly longer in PD patients than in normal controls but no significant differences of amplitudes were found. Eighty percent of the PD patients and 20 % of the NC needed more than one swallow to consume 20 ml of water, while 70 % of the PD patients and none of the NC needed more than one swallow to consume 5 ml of yogurt. PD patients took significantly more time and needed significantly more swallows to drink 100 ml of water than normal controls. We conclude that sEMG might be a simple and useful tool to study and monitor deglutition in PD patients.

  2. Liquid nitrogen cryotherapy for surface eye disease (an AOS thesis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraunfelder, Frederick Web

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of new treatments with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy on some external eye conditions. In this retrospective case study, 6 separate series from a single tertiary care referral center practice are described. Liquid nitrogen cryotherapy was used to treat conjunctival amyloidosis, primary pterygia, recurrent pterygia, advancing wavelike epitheliopathy (AWLE), superior limbic keratoconjunctivitis (SLK), and palpebral vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC). The main outcome measure was the resolution of the disease process after treatment. Four patients with primary localized conjunctival amyloidosis were treated with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy. Two of them had recurrence of the amyloidosis, which cleared with subsequent treatment. Eighteen patients with primary pterygia had excision and cryotherapy with 1 recurrence. Of 6 subjects who presented with recurrent pterygia, 4 had a second recurrence after excision and cryotherapy. In 5 patients with AWLE, the condition resolved within 2 weeks without recurrence or the need for subsequent cryotherapy. Four patients with SLK were treated with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy. Disease recurred in 2 patients and 3 of 7 eyes, although subsequent cryotherapy eradicated SLK in all cases. Two patients and 3 eyelids with palpebral VKC were treated with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy. VKC recurred in all cases. Liquid nitrogen cryotherapy to the surface of the eye is effective in treating AWLE, and SLK. Excision followed by cryotherapy is successful in treating conjunctival amyloidosis and primary pterygia Liquid nitrogen cryotherapy is unsuccessful in the treatment of recurrent pterygia and VKC.

  3. Long-chain alkaenone unsaturation index as sea surface temperature proxy in southwest Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, N.S.; Pasha, S.K.G.; SriRamKrishna, M.; Shirodkar, P.V.; Yadava, M.G.; Rao, K.M.

    As a proxy of the sea surface temperature (SST), C sub(37) long-chain alkenones (LCAs) preserved in sediments of the southwestern Bay of Bengal and dating back to the last glacial period, were identified in SIM GC-EI MS spectra run at m/z 530...

  4. IDENTIFYING RECENT SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES USING A NORMALIZED DIFFERENCE VEGETATION INDEX (NDVI) CHANGE DETECTION METHOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coal mining is a major resource extraction activity on the Appalachian Mountains. The increased size and frequency of a specific type of surface mining, known as mountain top removal-valley fill, has in recent years raised various environmental concerns. During mountainto...

  5. Baseline studies and evaluation of effects of surface discharge of deep-sea mining - INDEX area

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSousa, S.N.; Sardessai, S.

    . An evaluation of possible effects of surface discharge of mining fines - a slurry consisting of fine nodule fragments, bottom water and sediments - suggests that the discharge, with an expected solid content of 50 g/l, will induce increased primary production...

  6. Surface meteorological conditions at benthic disturbance experiment site - INDEX area during austral winter 1997

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suryanarayana, A.; Murty, V.S.N.; RameshBabu, V.; Beena, B.S.

    latent heat flux of 220 W/m sup(2), leading to net surface heat loss (100 W/m sup(2)) in June and near heat balance in August. Temporal variation of weather elements and the heat budget parameters showed fluctuations of period 10-13 days in June and 7...

  7. Relationship between surface tension and refractive index in binary non-electrolyte mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acevedo, I.L.; Pedrosa, G.C.; Katz, M.

    1990-01-01

    Lorentz-Lorenz equation for molecular refraction has been combined with Sugden's parachor equation for binary non-electrolyte mixtures at 298.15 K. The obtained equation has been shown successful in calculating values of surface tensions, by measuring refractive indices of the binary mixtures at the same mole fractions. The estimated error decreases when the mixtures present possible isorefractives. (Author) [es

  8. Inflammatory bowel disease activity assessed by fecal calprotectin and lactoferrin: correlation with laboratory parameters, clinical, endoscopic and histological indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossini Lucio

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research has shown that fecal biomarkers are useful to assess the activity of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. The aim of the study is: to evaluate the efficacy of the fecal lactoferrin and calprotectin as indicators of inflammatory activity. Findings A total of 78 patients presenting inflammatory bowel disease were evaluated. Blood tests, the Crohn's Disease Activity Index (CDAI, Mayo Disease Activity Index (MDAI, and Crohn's Disease Endoscopic Index of Severity (CDEIS were used for the clinical and endoscopic evaluation. Two tests were performed on the fecal samples, to check the levels of calprotectin and lactoferrin. The performance of these fecal markers for detection of inflammation with reference to endoscopic and histological inflammatory activity was assessed and calculated sensitivity, specificity, accuracy. A total of 52 patient's samples whose histological evaluations showed inflammation, 49 were lactoferrin-positive, and 40 were calprotectin-positive (p = 0.000. Lactoferrin and calprotectin findings correlated with C-reactive protein in both the CD and UC groups (p = 0.006; p = 0.000, with CDAI values (p = 0.043; 0.010, CDEIS values in DC cases (p = 0,000; 0.000, and with MDAI values in UC cases (p = 0.000. Conclusion Fecal lactoferrin and calprotectin are highly sensitive and specific markers for detecting intestinal inflammation. Levels of fecal calprotectin have a proportional correlation to the degree of inflammation of the intestinal mucosa.

  9. Evaluation of the relationship and genetic overlap between Kashin-Beck disease and body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Y; Hao, J; Xiao, X; Guo, X; Wang, W; Yang, T; Shen, H; Tian, Q; Tan, L; Deng, H-W; Zhang, F

    2016-11-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is one of the major factors affecting the development of osteoarthritis (OA) but there is currently no information available regarding the relationship between BMI and Kashin-Beck disease (KBD). Our aim in this study was to investigate the relationship and genetic overlap between BMI and KBD. A total of 2050 Han Chinese subjects participated in this study. Using a cohort of 333 grade I KBD patients, logistic regression analysis was conducted to evaluate the correlation between BMI and KBD. Another independent sample of 1717 subjects was genotyped for a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using Affymetrix Human SNP 6.0 Arrays. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) effect concordance analysis (SECA) was applied to the GWAS summaries of KBD and BMI for pleiotropy analysis. Genome-wide bivariate association analysis (GWBAA) of KBD and BMI was carried out to identify the genes with pleiotropic effects on KBD and BMI. The relevance of identified genes with KBD was validated by gene expression profiling and immunohistochemistry. BMI correlated positively with knee movement disorder in KBD (coefficient β = 0.068, p = 0.045). SECA identified a significant pleiotropic effect (empirical p = 0.021) between KBD and BMI. In the GWBAA, the rs1893577 of the ADAMTS1 gene achieved the most significant association signal (p = 7.38 × 10 -9 ). ADAMTS1 was also up-regulated in KBD vs. normal (ratio = 2.64 ± 2.80) and KBD vs. OA (ratio = 2.31 ± 2.01). The rate of ADAMTS1-positive chondrocytes in KBD was significantly higher than that in OA (p < 0.05) and healthy controls (p < 0.05). Our results suggest that ADAMTS1 is a novel susceptibility gene for KBD.

  10. Body mass index and gastroesophageal reflux disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corley, Douglas A; Kubo, Ai

    2006-11-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common cause of morbidity and health-care utilization in many countries. Obesity is a potentially modifiable risk factor, but existing studies have conflicting results, possibly due to differences in study design, definitions, or populations. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies identified using MEDLINE, the Web of Science electronic database, manual literature review, and a review of expert bibliographies. Studies were included if they: (1) evaluated obesity, body mass index (BMI), or another measure of body size; (2) included data on reflux symptoms, esophagitis, or a GERD-related hospitalization; and (3) reported a relative risk or odds ratio (OR) with confidence intervals or provided sufficient data to permit their calculation. We identified 20 studies that included 18,346 patients with GERD. Studies from the United States demonstrated an association between increasing BMI and the presence of GERD (95% confidence interval [CI]= 1.36-1.80, overweight, OR = 1.57, P value homogeneity = 0.51, 95% CI = 1.89-2.45, obese, OR = 2.15, P= 0.10). Studies from Europe provided heterogeneous results despite stratification for several factors; individual studies demonstrated both positive associations and no association. This analysis demonstrates a positive association between increasing BMI and the presence of GERD within the United States; this relationship became apparent only after stratification by country and level of BMI. These results support the evaluation of weight reduction as a potential therapy for GERD. Further studies are needed to evaluate potential mechanisms and any differences in this relationship among different study populations.

  11. Increased pulsatility index supports diagnosis of vascular parkinsonism versus idiopathic Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caba, L M; Ferrairó, J I T; Torres, I M; Costa, J F V; Muñoz, R B; Martin, A L

    2017-12-29

    The diagnosis of vascular parkinsonism (VP) is based on a series of clinical criteria and neuroimaging findings. An increase in transcranial Doppler ultrasonography pulsatility index (PI) has been described as a frequent finding in patients with VP. We aimed to confirm this association and to determine the PI value with the highest sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis of VP. PI was determined in all patients admitted to Hospital Universitari i Politècnic La Fe due to parkinsonism between January 2012 and June 2016. We assessed the probability of having VP based on PI values in patients with a definite diagnosis of either VP or idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD). A ROC curve was created to determine the PI value with the highest sensitivity and specificity. We assessed a total of 146 patients with suspected parkinsonism; 54 (37%) were diagnosed with IPD and 15 (10%) with VP. Patients with VP were significantly older than those with IPD (mean age of 79 vs 68.5, P=.00144) and had a higher PI (median of 1.29 [IQR: 1.09-1.38] vs 0.96 [IQR: 0.89-1.16], P=.01328). In our sample, a PI of 1.09 conferred 84% sensitivity and 70% specificity. In our series, the PI was significantly higher in patients with VP than in those with IPD. We therefore support the use of transcranial Doppler ultrasonography for the initial assessment of elderly patients with akinetic-rigid syndrome. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Edema index-guided disease management improves 6-month outcomes of patients with acute heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min-Hui; Wang, Chao-Hung; Huang, Yu-Yen; Tung, Tao-Hsin; Lee, Chii-Ming; Yang, Ning-I; Wang, Jong-Shyan; Kuo, Li-Tang; Cherng, Wen-Jin

    2012-01-01

    The efficacy of heart failure (HF) management programs is compromised by the challenge of early identification of patients at imminent risk. Segmental multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis can generate an "edema index" (EI) as a surrogate for the body fluid status. In this study, we tested whether integration of EI-guided management improved the 6-month outcomes of HF patients under multidisciplinary care. In total, 159 patients with acute HF were randomized into control, case management (CM), and EI-guided CM (EI) groups (n = 53 in each group). In the EI group, a management algorithm was designed based on the measured EI. The analyzed endpoints included HF-related and all cause-related events during the 6-month follow-up period. In the 6 months, there were 11 (6.9%) deaths, 19 (11.9%) HF-related rehospitalizations, and 45 (28.3%) all-cause-related rehospitalizations. Compared to the control (26.4%) and CM groups (15.1%), the EI group had a lower rate of HF-related death and rehospitalization (3.8%, P = 0.004). Multivariate analysis revealed that EI-guided management was an independent predictor of a lower HF-related event rate (hazard ratio = 0.15, 95%CI = 0.03~0.66, P = 0.012). Patients with a higher pre-discharge EI were older, had lower blood albumin and hemoglobin levels, and had a higher functional class and incidences of diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease. An increase in the pre-discharge EI by 0.001 increased the HF-related event rate by 6% (P = 0.002). Use of EI-guided management lowered this risk (P = 0.03). In conclusion, an EI-based HF management program demonstrated an event-lowering effect superior to traditional nurse-led multidisciplinary care in 6 months after an acute HF episode.

  13. Adverse Events With Sustained-Release Donepezil in Alzheimer Disease: Relation to Body Mass Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chunsoo; Lee, Kyungsang; Yu, Hyewon; Ryu, Seung-Ho; Moon, Seok Woo; Han, Changsu; Lee, Jun-Young; Lee, Young Min; Kim, Shin-Gyeom; Kim, Ki Woong; Lee, Dong Woo; Kim, Seong Yoon; Lee, Sang-Yeol; Bae, Jae Nam; Jung, Young-Eun; Kim, Jeong Lan; Kim, Byung-Soo; Shin, Il-Seon; Kim, Young Hoon; Kim, Bong Jo; Kang, Hyo Shin; Myung, Woojae; Carroll, Bernard J; Kim, Doh Kwan

    2017-08-01

    Sustained-release, high-dose (23 mg/d) donepezil has been approved for treatment of moderate to severe Alzheimer disease (AD). Based on a previous clinical trial, body weight of less than 55 kg is a risk factor for adverse events with donepezil 23 mg/d treatment in global population. To clarify whether this finding is consistent across ethnic groups that vary in absolute body mass, we recruited Korean patients aged 45 to 90 years with moderate to severe AD who had been receiving standard donepezil immediate release 10 mg/d for at least 3 months. After screening, we analyzed a final cohort of 166 patients who received donepezil 23 mg/d for 24 weeks to compare the occurrence of treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) between patients with high versus low body mass index (BMI) based on the World Health Organization overweight criteria for Asian populations (23 kg/m). Treatment-emergent adverse events were reported by 79.45% of patients in the lower BMI group and 58.06% of patients in the higher BMI group (odds ratio, 2.79; 95% confidence interval, 1.39-5.63; χ = 7.58, P = 0.006). In a multivariable survival analysis, the group with lower BMI showed a higher occurrence of TEAEs (hazard ratio, 1.83; 95% confidence interval, 1.25-2.68; P = 0.002). In Korean patients with moderate to severe AD receiving high-dose donepezil over 24 weeks, TEAEs were significantly more common in those with lower BMI (not clinically overweight), especially nausea. This finding may inform clinical practice for Asian patients.

  14. InGaAs Quantum Well Grown on High-Index Surfaces for Superluminescent Diode Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Jiang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The morphological and optical properties of In0.2Ga0.8As/GaAs quantum wells grown on various substrates are investigated for possible application to superluminescent diodes. The In0.2Ga0.8As/GaAs quantum wells are grown by molecular beam epitaxy on GaAs (100, (210, (311, and (731 substrates. A broad photoluminescence emission peak (~950 nm with a full width at half maximum (FWHM of 48 nm is obtained from the sample grown on (210 substrate at room temperature, which is over four times wider than the quantum well simultaneously grown on (100 substrate. On the other hand, a very narrow photoluminescence spectrum is observed from the sample grown on (311 with FWHM = 7.8 nm. The results presented in this article demonstrate the potential of high-index GaAs substrates for superluminescent diode applications.

  15. An index with improved diagnostic accuracy for the diagnosis of Crohn's disease derived from the Lennard-Jones criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinisch, S; Schweiger, K; Pablik, E; Collet-Fenetrier, B; Peyrin-Biroulet, L; Alfaro, I; Panés, J; Moayyedi, P; Reinisch, W

    2016-09-01

    The Lennard-Jones criteria are considered the gold standard for diagnosing Crohn's disease (CD) and include the items granuloma, macroscopic discontinuity, transmural inflammation, fibrosis, lymphoid aggregates and discontinuous inflammation on histology. The criteria have never been subjected to a formal validation process. To develop a validated and improved diagnostic index based on the items of Lennard-Jones criteria. Included were 328 adult patients with long-standing CD (median disease duration 10 years) from three centres and classified as 'established', 'probable' or 'non-CD' by Lennard-Jones criteria at time of diagnosis. Controls were patients with ulcerative colitis (n = 170). The performance of each of the six diagnostic items of Lennard-Jones criteria was modelled by logistic regression and a new index based on stepwise backward selection and cut-offs was developed. The diagnostic value of the new index was analysed by comparing sensitivity, specificity and accuracy vs. Lennard-Jones criteria. By Lennard-Jones criteria 49% (n = 162) of CD patients would have been diagnosed as 'non-CD' at time of diagnosis (sensitivity/specificity/accuracy, 'established' CD: 0.34/0.99/0.67; 'probable' CD: 0.51/0.95/0.73). A new index was derived from granuloma, fibrosis, transmural inflammation and macroscopic discontinuity, but excluded lymphoid aggregates and discontinuous inflammation on histology. Our index provided improved diagnostic accuracy for 'established' and 'probable' CD (sensitivity/specificity/accuracy, 'established' CD: 0.45/1/0.72; 'probable' CD: 0.8/0.85/0.82), including the subgroup isolated colonic CD ('probable' CD, new index: 0.73/0.85/0.79; Lennard-Jones criteria: 0.43/0.95/0.69). We developed an index based on items of Lennard-Jones criteria providing improved diagnostic accuracy for the differential diagnosis between CD and UC. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Refractive index sensing and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy using silver–gold layered bimetallic plasmonic crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somi Kang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Herein we describe the fabrication and characterization of Ag and Au bimetallic plasmonic crystals as a system that exhibits improved capabilities for quantitative, bulk refractive index (RI sensing and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS as compared to monometallic plasmonic crystals of similar form. The sensing optics, which are bimetallic plasmonic crystals consisting of sequential nanoscale layers of Ag coated by Au, are chemically stable and useful for quantitative, multispectral, refractive index and spectroscopic chemical sensing. Compared to previously reported homometallic devices, the results presented herein illustrate improvements in performance that stem from the distinctive plasmonic features and strong localized electric fields produced by the Ag and Au layers, which are optimized in terms of metal thickness and geometric features. Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD simulations theoretically verify the nature of the multimode plasmonic resonances generated by the devices and allow for a better understanding of the enhancements in multispectral refractive index and SERS-based sensing. Taken together, these results demonstrate a robust and potentially useful new platform for chemical/spectroscopic sensing.

  17. First principles study of elemental mercury (Hg0) adsorption on low index CoMnO3 surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Wenchao; Su, Pingru; Tang, Qingli; Cheng, Zhiwen; Shen, Zhemin; Fan, Maohong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Hg 0 adsorption on low index CoMnO 3 surface was predicted by DFT method. • Hg 0 is adsorbed on the CoMnO 3 surface with chemisorption interaction. • Hg 0 has highest adsorption energy on CoMnO 3 (1 0 0) surface with Hg-Mn mechanism. • The electron transfer of Hg 0 has positive relationship with adsorption energy. - Abstract: The density functional theory (DFT) is applied to predict elemental mercury (Hg 0 ) adsorption on CoMnO 3 surface for the first time. GGA/PBE functional were selected to determine the potential Hg 0 capture mechanisms. The results show that Hg 0 has good affinity with CoMnO 3 surfaces with chemical adsorption. The adsorption energy of Hg 0 -CoMnO 3 (1 0 0), Hg 0 -CoMnO 3 (1 0 1) and Hg 0 -CoMnO 3 (1 1 0) are −85.225, −72.305 and −70.729 kJ/mol, respectively. The Hg-Mn and Hg-Co mechanisms were revealed on low index surfaces. Hg 0 was oxidized to its valence state of 0.236 on Mn site in CoMnO 3 (1 0 0) surface. The Hg-Co interaction mechanism occurred on Hg 0 -CoMnO 3 (1 0 1) and Hg 0 -CoMnO 3 (1 1 0) with 0.209e − and 0.189e − transformation, respectively. The PDOS analysis shows that Hg-Mn interaction depends on the hybridization of Hg(s- and d-orbitals) and Mn (s-, p- and d- orbitals). However, Hg-Co interaction stems from s- and d- orbitals of Hg, which only overlapping with d- and p- orbital of Co. Both the adsorption energy and electronic structure analysis indicated that CoMnO 3 catalyst performed excellent in Hg 0 oxidation. Exposing CoMnO 3 (1 0 0) is most favorable in Hg 0 control, which provides theoretical instruction on certain crystal plane synthesis in experiment.

  18. The Omega-3 Index and relative risk for coronary heart disease mortality: Estimation from 10 cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, William S; Del Gobbo, Liana; Tintle, Nathan L

    2017-07-01

    A recent 19-cohort meta-analysis examined the relationships between biomarkers of omega-3 fatty acids and risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). That study did not, however, report hazard ratios (HRs) specifically as a function of erythrocyte eicosapentaenoic (EPA) plus docosahexaenoic (DHA) levels, a metric called the Omega-3 Index in which EPA + DHA content is expressed as a percent of total fatty acids. The Omega-3 Index has been used in several recent studies and is a validated biomarker of omega-3 fatty acid tissue levels, but additional data are needed to confirm (or refute) the originally-proposed clinical cut-points of Omega-3 Index and median quintile values for this metric across 10 of the cohorts for which the needed data were available. The overall mean (SD) for the Omega-3 Index in these 10 cohort studies was 6.1% (2.1%), and the HR for a 1-SD increase was 0.85 (95% confidence interval, 0.80-0.91). Median quintile 1 and 5 levels were 4.2% vs. 8.3%, respectively. Based on these values, we estimate that risk for fatal CHD would have been reduced by about 30% moving from an Omega-3 Index of 4%-8%. These findings support the use of 8% as reasonable therapeutic targets for the Omega-3 Index. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Visceral Adiposity Index and Lipid Accumulation Product Index: Two Alternate Body Indices to Identify Chronic Kidney Disease among the Rural Population in Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongxue Dai

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to compare the relative strength of the association between anthropometric obesity indices and chronic kidney disease (CKD. Another objective was to examine whether the visceral adiposity index (VAI and lipid accumulation product index (LAPI can identify CKD in the rural population of China. There were 5168 males and 6024 females involved in this cross-sectional study, and 237 participants (2.12% suffered from CKD. Obesity indices included body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR, VAI and LAPI. VAI and LAPI were calculated with triglyceride (TG, high-density lipoprotein (HDL, BMI and WC. VAI = [WC/39.68 + (1.88 × BMI] × (TG /1.03 × (1.31/ HDL for males; VAI = [WC/36.58 + (1.89 × BMI] × (TG/0.81 × (1.52/HDL for females. LAPI = (WC-65 × TG for males, LAPI = (WC-58 × TG for females. CKD was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR of less than 60 mL/min per 1.73 m2. The prevalence of CKD increased across quartiles for WHtR, VAI and LAPI. A multivariate logistic regression analysis of the presence of CKD for the highest quartile vs. the lowest quartile of each anthropometric measure showed that the VAI was the best predictor of CKD in females (OR: 4.21, 95% CI: 2.09–8.47, p < 0.001. VAI showed the highest AUC for CKD (AUC: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.65–0.72 and LAPI came second (AUC: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.61–0.70 in females compared with BMI (both p-values < 0.001. However, compared with the traditional index of the BMI, the anthropometric measures VAI, LAPI, WC, and WHtR had no statistically significant capacity to predict CKD in males. Our results showed that both VAI and LAPI were significantly associated with CKD in the rural population of northeast China. Furthermore, VAI and LAPI were superior to BMI, WC and WHtR for predicting CKD only in females.

  20. Photo-induced refractive index and topographical surface gratings in functionalized nanocarbon solid film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGee, David J.; Ferrie, John; Plachy, Aljoscha [Department of Physics, The College of New Jersey, Ewing, New Jersey 08628 (United States); Joo, Yongho; Choi, Jonathan; Kanimozhi, Catherine; Gopalan, Padma, E-mail: pgopalan@cae.wisc.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2015-11-02

    We demonstrate that a single-walled carbon nanotube network noncovalently coupled with a pyrene-modified azo-benzene chromophore functions as a host matrix for a broad range of photo-orientation and photomechanical effects. The chromophore could be efficiently reoriented through repeated trans-cis-trans isomerization under linearly polarized 480 nm light, with Δn of 0.012 at 650 nm and fast characteristic rise-times of 0.12 s. Erasable phase diffraction gratings could also be written, with permanent surface relief gratings forming at sufficiently long irradiation times. In addition to demonstrating a mechanism for photo-manipulation of single-walled carbon nanotubes, these results show photo-orientation of chromophores in azo-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotube networks as a path towards the photosensitive tuning of the electrostatic environment of the nanotube.

  1. Photo-induced refractive index and topographical surface gratings in functionalized nanocarbon solid film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGee, David J.; Ferrie, John; Plachy, Aljoscha; Joo, Yongho; Choi, Jonathan; Kanimozhi, Catherine; Gopalan, Padma

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate that a single-walled carbon nanotube network noncovalently coupled with a pyrene-modified azo-benzene chromophore functions as a host matrix for a broad range of photo-orientation and photomechanical effects. The chromophore could be efficiently reoriented through repeated trans-cis-trans isomerization under linearly polarized 480 nm light, with Δn of 0.012 at 650 nm and fast characteristic rise-times of 0.12 s. Erasable phase diffraction gratings could also be written, with permanent surface relief gratings forming at sufficiently long irradiation times. In addition to demonstrating a mechanism for photo-manipulation of single-walled carbon nanotubes, these results show photo-orientation of chromophores in azo-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotube networks as a path towards the photosensitive tuning of the electrostatic environment of the nanotube

  2. [The characteristics of esophagogastric junction contractile index in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease or functional heartburn].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, K; Duan, L P; Ge, Y; Xia, Z W; Xu, Z J

    2016-04-01

    To study the role of esophagogastric junction contractile index (EGJ-CI) in evaluating the function of anti-reflux barrier, and in differentiating patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) from those with functional heartburn (FH). A total of 115 patients presenting heartburn were enrolled in the study from January 2012 to June 2015.All subjects had completed Gerd-Q questionnaire and undergone gastroscopy, 24-hour pH-impedance monitoring and esophageal high-resolution manometry. GERD patients were divided into as reflux esophagitis, acid-nonerosive reflux disease (NERD) and weakly acid-NERD groups. Patients with normal esophageal mucosa, normal acid exposure and negative proton pump inhibitor test were enrolled in FH group. EGJ-CI (mmHg·cm) as well as EGJ rest pressure and 4s integrated relaxation pressure (IRP 4s) were measured. Among the 115 patients, 18 were reflux esophagitis [(49.0±18.9) years, M∶F=10∶8], 25 were acid-NERD [(48.7±14.4) years, M∶F=13∶12], 37 were weakly acid-NERD [(52.0±14.8) years, M∶F=15∶22] and 35 were FH [(53.6±14.8), M∶F=8∶27]. No differences of Gerd-Q scores were noticed between the four groups. (1)Negative correlations were demonstrated between EGJ-CI and esophageal acid exposure time (r=-0.283, P=0.002), EGJ-CI and acid reflux events (r=-0.233, P=0.012), EGJ-CI and weakly acid reflux events (r=-0.213, P=0.022), EGJ-CI and non-acid reflux events (r=-0.200, P=0.032). (2)The value of EGJ-CI was significantly higher in FH patients than in the three subgroups of GERD(all P<0.01). EGJ rest pressure of FH group was higher than that of acid-NERD (P<0.01). IRP 4s in acid-NERD group was lower than that of FH and weakly acid-NERD (P<0.05). (3)The area under curve (AUC) of EGJ-CI was higher than that of EGJ-CIT, EGJ rest pressure or IRP 4s(0.686 vs 0.678, 0.641 and 0.578). The cut-off value of EGJ-CI to differentiate GERD from FH was 9.74 mmHg·cm with sensitivity 82.86% and specificity 51.52%. The EGJ-CI values are

  3. Evaluation of Asymptomatic Peripheral Arterial Disease by Ankle-brachial Index in Patients with Concomitant Coronary Arterial Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosein Vakili

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Peripheral arterial disease is associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes. As such, it is found that screening for peripheral arterial disease (PAD improves risk assessment. Thus, intensive risk factor modification and medical treatment in these patients are necessary. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic peripheral arterial disease in patients with concomitant coronary arterial disease. Methods: Asymptomatic peripheral arterial disease was investigated in 400 patients (60% males, 40% females, aged 59.7± 11.3 with a documented coronary arterial disease. Results: Among patients with documented CAD, 12% had asymptomatic PAD with the ABI ratio of less than 0.9. Conclusions: It is advisable to screen for PAD not only as a disease but also as a risk assessment method for atherosclerosis.

  4. Index of Theta/Alpha Ratio of the Quantitative Electroencephalogram in Alzheimer's Disease: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahimi, Golshan; Tabatabaei, Seyed Mahmoud; Fahimi, Elnaz; Rajebi, Hamid

    2017-08-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder in human beings associated with cognitive, behavioral and motor impairments. The main symptom of AD is dementia, which causes difficulties in carrying out daily practices. Brain waves are altered in people with AD. Relative indices of brain waves can be beneficial in the diagnosis of AD. In this case-control study, 50 patients with AD and 50 matched healthy individuals were enrolled in case and control groups respectively. With recording and analyzing of brain waves with the utilization of quantitative electroencephalogram (QEEG), index of theta/alpha ratio was assessed in both groups. The index of theta/alpha ratio was significantly higher in patients with AD in comparison to healthy individuals (Pratio obtained by QEEG provides a non-invasive diagnostic marker of AD, which may be helpful in identification of non-advanced disease in susceptible individuals.

  5. Comparison of Disease Activity Score in 28 joints with ESR (DAS28), Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI), Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index (HAQ-DI) & Routine Assessment of Patient Index Data with 3 measures (RAPID3) for assessing disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis at initial presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, B Siddhartha; Suneetha, P; Mohan, Alladi; Kumar, D Prabath; Sarma, K V S

    2017-11-01

    In patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), disease severity assessment is done using Disease Activity Score in 28 joints with ESR (DAS28). Computing DAS28 is time-consuming, requires laboratory testing and an online calculator. There is a need to validate rapid methods of disease severity assessment for routine daily use. This study was conducted to compare DAS28, Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI), Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index (HAQ-DI) and Routine Assessment of Patient Index Data with 3 measures (RAPID3) to assess the disease activity in patients with RA. We prospectively studied the utility of CDAI, HAQ-DI and RAPID3 scoring in 100 consecutive newly diagnosed, disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) naïve adult patients with RA seen during January 2013 and June 2014 at a tertiary care teaching hospital in south India. The mean age of the patients was 42.1±11.6 yr, there were 82 females. The median [interquartile range (IQR)] symptom duration was 6 (range 4-12) months. The median (IQR) DAS28, CDAI, HAQ-DI and RAPID3 scores at presentation were 7 (6-7), 36 (28-43), 2 (1-2) and 17 (13-19), respectively. A significant positive correlation was observed between DAS28 and CDAI (r=0.568; Pfair' agreement was observed in between DAS28 and CDAI (kappa-statistic=0.296). The agreement between DAS28 and HAQ-DI (kappa-statistic=0.007) and RAPID3 (kappa-statistic=0.072) was less robust. In adult patients with RA, in the setting where illiteracy is high, CDAI emerged as the preferred choice for rapid assessment of severity of disease at the time of initial presentation.

  6. Semi-polar GaN heteroepitaxy an high index Si-surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravash, Roghaiyeh; Blaesing, Juergen; Hempel, Thomas; Dadgar, Armin; Christen, Juergen; Krost, Alois [Otto-von-Guericke-University Magdeburg, FNW/IEP/AHE, Magdeburg (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Due to the lack of GaN homosubstrates, the growth of GaN-based devices is usually performed on heterosubstrates as sapphire or SiC. These substrates are either insulating or expensive, and both unavailable in large diameters. Meanwhile, silicon can meet the requirements for a low price and thermally well conducting substrate and also enabling the integration of optoelectronic devices with Si-based electronics. Up to now, the good matching of hexagonal GaN with the three-fold symmetry of Si(111) greatly promotes the c-axis orientated growth of GaN on this surface plane. A large spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization oriented along the c-axis exists in such hexagonal structure leading to low efficiencies for thick quantum wells. The attention to the growth of non-polar or semi-polar GaN based epitaxial structures has been increased recently because of reducing the effect of the polarization fields in these growth directions. Therefore we studied semi-polar GaN epilayers grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy on silicon substrates with different orientations from Si(211) to Si(711). We observed that AlN seeding layer growth time play a significant role in obtaining the different GaN texture.

  7. Discussion on calculation of disease severity index values from scales with unequal intervals

    Science.gov (United States)

    When estimating severity of disease, a disease interval (or category) scale comprises a number of categories of known numeric values – with plant disease this is generally the percent area with symptoms (e.g., the Horsfall-Barratt (H-B) scale). Studies in plant pathology and plant breeding often use...

  8. A new index of risks for lethal diseases by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Fumiaki; Higuti, Isao.

    1979-01-01

    Estimates of the somatic risk of radiation exposure have mainly been based on the incidence of fatal cancers. An improvement on the estimates of the risk will be made by taking mean ages at deaths into consideration in addition to the incidence of cancer. The authors report on an index of contribution of each cause of death to life shortening. The index is the sum of three terms. The first term indicates a contribution of change in incidence and the second term indicates that of changes in mean age at death from the cause of death in question. The last term is an interaction term of the two factors mentioned above. If a radiation exposure increases incidence of a cause of death and shortens the mean age at death from the cause of death, the index gives a large positive value. On the other hand, an increase in incidence of a late occurring cause of death will bring about a small positive or sometimes negative value for the index. The index proposed here will be promising in estimating risks by ionizing radiation. (author)

  9. Generation of surface electromagnetic waves in terahertz spectral range by free-electron laser radiation and their refractive index determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogomolov, G.D.; Jeong, Uk Young; Zhizhin, G.N.; Nikitin, A.K.; Zavyalov, V.V.; Kazakevich, G.M.; Lee, Byung Cheol

    2005-01-01

    First experiments for observation of surface electromagnetic waves (SEW) in the terahertz spectral range generated on dense aluminum films covering the optical quality glass plates are presented in this paper. Coherent radiation of the new free-electron laser covering the frequency range from 30 to 100cm -1 was used. The interference technique employing SEW propagation in the part of one shoulder of the asymmetric interferometer was applied. From the interference pattern the real part of SEW's effective refractive index ae ' was determined for the two laser emission wavelengths: at λ=150μm-ae ' =1+5x10 -5 , at λ=110μm-ae ' =1+8x10 -4 . High sensitivity of the interference patterns to overlayers made of Ge and Si with thickness of 100nm was demonstrated as well

  10. Evaluation of prolactin levels in patients with newly diagnosed pemphigus vulgaris and its correlation with pemphigus disease area index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajevardi, Vahideh; Hallaji, Zahra; Daneshpazhooh, Maryam; Ghandi, Narges; Shekari, Peyman; Khani, Sepideh

    2016-06-01

    Prolactin is a hormone; in addition to it known roles, it has immunomodulatory effects on lymphocytes maturation and immunoglobulins production. Hyperprolactinemia has been demonstrated in various autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, type I diabetes mellitus, and Graves' disease. In view of the prolactin immunomodulatory roles, studying prolactin levels in pemphigus as an autoimmune blistering disease may introduce new ways of understanding disease etiology and developing treatment strategies. Our purpose was to determine the prolactin levels in patients with newly diagnosed pemphigus vulgaris and study its correlation with pemphigus disease area index. Our study was limited by the lack of a control group. In this cross-sectional study, prolactin and anti-desmoglein 1 and 3 autoantibodies levels were measured in 50 patients with newly diagnosed pemphigus vulgaris in Razi Dermatology Hospital. Pemphigus severity and extent was estimated using the Pemphigus Disease Area Index. Of the 50 patients, 18 were male and 32 were female with a mean age of 41.56 ± 13.66 years. Mean prolactin (PRL) level was 15.60 ± 11.72 ng/ml (10.68 in males and 18.37 in females). Mean anti-desmoglein 1 and 3 autoantibodies were 135.8 ± 119.8 and 245.8 ± 157.4 U/ml, respectively. Eleven out of 50 patients had a higher than normal prolactin range. No relation was found between prolactin level and disease activity ( p = .982). Also, correlation studies show no relation between prolactin and anti-desmoglein 1 and 3 autoantibodies levels (respectively, p = .771 and .738). In comparing the extent of the disease between the two groups with normal and high prolactin, paired t-test showed no significance ( p = .204). In our study, 22% of patients had hyperprolactinemia, which was greater among females. The highest PRL level was detected in mucocutaneous group. Although serum PRL levels were higher in patients with a greater Pemphigus Disease Area Index

  11. Dietary hyperglycemia, glycemic index and age-related metabolic retinal diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    The glycemic index (GI) indicates how fast blood glucose is raised after consuming a carbohydrate-containing food. Human metabolic studies indicate that GI is related to patho-physiological responses after meals. Compared with a low-GI meal, a high-GI meal is characterized with hyperglycemia during ...

  12. Effector T-cells are expanded in systemic lupus erythematosus patients with high disease activity and damage indexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piantoni, S; Regola, F; Zanola, A; Andreoli, L; Dall'Ara, F; Tincani, A; Airo', P

    2018-01-01

    Background and objectives T-cell activation may be one of the pathogenic mechanisms of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). After repeated antigenic stimulation, T-cells undergo different modifications, leading to the differentiation into effector memory T-cells (CCR7-CD45RA-) and terminally differentiated effector memory (TDEM) T-cells (CCR7-CD45RA+). Similarly, down-modulation of CD28 may lead to the expansion of the CD28- T-cells, a subpopulation with peculiar effector activities. The aim of this study was the characterization of T-cell phenotype in a cohort of patients with SLE according to disease activity and damage index. Materials and methods Phenotypic analysis of peripheral blood T lymphocytes of 51 SLE patients and 21 healthy controls was done by flow-cytometry. SLE disease activity was evaluated by SLE Disease Activity Index-2000 (SLEDAI-2K) and damage by the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology damage index (SDI). The variations between different groups were evaluated by Mann-Whitney test. Bonferroni correction was applied to adjust for multiple comparisons ( p adj ). Spearman rank test was used to evaluate the correlations between quantitative variables. Results CD4+ lymphopenia was found among SLE patients. Patients showed a trend for a higher percentage of TDEM among the CD4+ T-cell subpopulation in comparison with healthy controls ( p = .04). SLE patients were divided into two groups according to disease activity: patients with SLEDAI-2K ≥ 6 ( n = 13) had a higher percentage of circulating CD4+ T-cells with CD28- phenotype ( p adj  = .005) as well as those with an effector memory ( p adj  = .004) and TDEM ( p adj  = .002) phenotype and a trend of decrease of regulatory T-cells (TREGs) ( p = .02), in comparison with patients with low disease activity ( n = 38). Patients with damage (SDI ≥ 1) tended to show an expansion of TDEM among CD4+ T-cells as compared with

  13. Correlation between peripheral arterial disease and coronary artery disease using ankle brachial index-a study in Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmistha Sarangi

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: There is a definite and strong correlation between PAD and CAD. Correct diagnosis and supervision of patients with PAD is important for preventing the local progression of the disease and effective secondary prevention of future coronary and cerebrovascular events.

  14. Leaf Area Index Estimation in Vineyards from Uav Hyperspectral Data, 2d Image Mosaics and 3d Canopy Surface Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalisperakis, I.; Stentoumis, Ch.; Grammatikopoulos, L.; Karantzalos, K.

    2015-08-01

    The indirect estimation of leaf area index (LAI) in large spatial scales is crucial for several environmental and agricultural applications. To this end, in this paper, we compare and evaluate LAI estimation in vineyards from different UAV imaging datasets. In particular, canopy levels were estimated from i.e., (i) hyperspectral data, (ii) 2D RGB orthophotomosaics and (iii) 3D crop surface models. The computed canopy levels have been used to establish relationships with the measured LAI (ground truth) from several vines in Nemea, Greece. The overall evaluation indicated that the estimated canopy levels were correlated (r2 > 73%) with the in-situ, ground truth LAI measurements. As expected the lowest correlations were derived from the calculated greenness levels from the 2D RGB orthomosaics. The highest correlation rates were established with the hyperspectral canopy greenness and the 3D canopy surface models. For the later the accurate detection of canopy, soil and other materials in between the vine rows is required. All approaches tend to overestimate LAI in cases with sparse, weak, unhealthy plants and canopy.

  15. SFG experiment and ab initio study of the chemisorption of CN - on low-index platinum surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadjeddine, M.; Flament, J.-P.; Le Rille, A.; Tadjeddine, A.

    2006-05-01

    A dual analysis is proposed in order to have a better understanding of the adsorption of the cyanide ions on a platinum electrode. The SFG (Sum Frequency Generation) spectroscopy allows the in situ vibrational study and the SFG spectra of the CN - species adsorbed on single crystal Pt electrode allow a systematic study of the low-index platinum surfaces. This experimental work is supported by ab initio calculations using density functional theory and cluster models. For each surface orientation and each geometry, a cluster model of 20-30 Pt atoms has been built in order to interpret the chemisorption of the CN - ions through four kinds of adsorption geometry: on-top or bridge site, bonding via C or N atoms. Geometries have been optimized and adsorption energies, electronic properties and vibrational frequencies have been computed. From the electronic properties, we can propose an analysis of the bonding mechanism for each studied kind of adsorption. The SFG spectra of the CN -/Pt(1 1 1) system present an unique resonance owing to the top C adsorption. It is mainly the same for the CN -/Pt(1 0 0) system. It is also the case for the SFG spectra of the CN -/Pt(1 1 0) system recorded at negative electrochemical voltage; at more positive voltage, a second resonance appears at a lower frequency, owing to the top N adsorption. Experimental and theoretical values of the C-N stretching frequencies are in excellent agreement.

  16. Health Impact Index. Development and Validation of a Method for Classifying Comorbid Disease Measured against Self-Reported Health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geir Fagerjord Lorem

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to develop a method of classifying comorbid conditions that accounts for both the severity and joint effects of the diseases. The Tromsø Study is a cohort study with a longitudinal design utilizing a survey approach with physical examinations in the Tromsø municipality from 1974 to 2008, where in total 40051 subjects participated. We used Tromsø 4 as reference population and the Norwegian Institute of Public Health (FHI panel as validation population. Ordinal regression was used to assess the effect of comorbid disease on Self-Reported Health (SRH. The model is controlled for interaction between diseases, mental health, age, and gender. The health impact index estimated levels of SRH. The comparison of predicted and observed SRH showed no significant differences. Spearman's correlation showed that increasing levels of comorbidity were related to lower levels of SRH (RS = -0.36, p <.001. The Charlson Comorbidity Index(CCI was also associated with SRH (r = -.25, p <.001. When focusing on only individuals with a comorbid disease, the relation between SRH and the Health Impact Index (HII was strengthened (r = -.42, p <.001, while the association between SRH and CCI was attenuated (r = -.14, p <.001. CCI was designed to control for comorbid conditions when survival/mortality is the outcome of interest but is inaccurate when the outcome is SRH. We conclude that HII should be used when SRH is not available, and well-being or quality of survival/life is the outcome of interest.

  17. Definition of treatment response in rheumatoid arthritis based on the simplified and the clinical disease activity index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aletaha, Daniel; Martinez-Avila, Jose; Kvien, Tore K; Smolen, Josef S

    2012-07-01

    The simplified disease activity index (SDAI) and the clinical disease activity index (CDAI) are established instruments to measure disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). To date, no validated response definitions for the SDAI and CDAI are available. The authors aimed to define minor, moderate and major response criteria for the SDAI. The authors used data from two clinical trials on infliximab versus methotrexate in early (ASPIRE) or established (ATTRACT) RA, and identified the three SDAI cutpoints based on the best agreement (by κ statistics) with the American College of Rheumatology (ACR)20/50/70 responses. Cutpoints were then tested for different aspects of validity in the trial datasets and in a Norwegian disease modifying antirheumatic drug prescription dataset (NOR-DMARD). Based on agreement with the ACR response, the minor, moderate and major responses were identified as SDAI 50%, 70% and 85% improvement. These cutpoints had good face validity concerning the disease activity states achieved by the different response definitions. Construct validity was shown by a clear association of increasing SDAI response categories with increasing levels of functional improvement, achievement of better functional states and lower annual radiographic progression. Across SDAI 50/70/85, the sensitivities regarding a patient-perceived improvement decreased (73%/39%/22%) and the specificities increased (61%/89%/96%) in a meaningful way. Further, the cutpoints discriminated the different treatment arms in ASPIRE and ATTRACT. The same cutpoints were used for the CDAI, with similar results in the validation analyses. These new response criteria expand the usefulness of the SDAI and CDAI for their use as endpoints in clinical trials beyond the definition of disease activity categories.

  18. Loss of surface horizon of an irrigated soil detected by radiometric images of normalized difference vegetation index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian Sallesses, Leonardo; Aparicio, Virginia Carolina; Costa, Jose Luis

    2017-04-01

    The use of the soil in the Humid Pampa of Argentina has changed since the mid-1990s from agricultural-livestock production (that included pastures with direct grazing) to a purely agricultural production. Also, in recent years the area under irrigation by central pivot has been increased to 150%. The waters used for irrigation are sodium carbonates. The combination of irrigation and rain increases the sodium absorption ratio of soil (SARs), consequently raising the clay dispersion and reducing infiltration. This implies an increased risk of soil loss. A reduction in the development of white clover crop (Trifolium repens L.) was observed at an irrigation plot during 2015 campaign. The clover was planted in order to reduce the impact of two maize (Zea mays L.) campaigns under irrigation, which had increased soil SAR and deteriorated soil structure. SPOT-5 radiometric normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) images were used to determine two zones of high and low production. In each zone, four random points were selected for further geo-referenced field sampling. Two geo-referenced measures of effective depth and surface soil sampling were carried out in each point. Texture of soil samples was determined by Pipette Method of Sedimentation Analysis. Data exploratory analysis showed that low production zone had a media effective depth = 80 cm and silty clay loam texture, while high production zone had a media effective depth > 140 cm and silt loam texture. The texture class of the low production zone did not correspond to prior soil studies carried out by the INTA (National Institute of Agricultural Technology), which showed that those soil textures were silt loam at surface and silty clay loam at sub-surface. The loss of the A horizon is proposed as a possible explanation, but further research is required. Besides, the need of a soil cartography actualization, which integrates new satellite imaging technologies and geo-referenced measurements with soil sensors is

  19. Energy absorption during impact on the proximal femur is affected by body mass index and flooring surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhan, Shivam; Levine, Iris C; Laing, Andrew C

    2014-07-18

    Impact mechanics theory suggests that peak loads should decrease with increase in system energy absorption. In light of the reduced hip fracture risk for persons with high body mass index (BMI) and for falls on soft surfaces, the purpose of this study was to characterize the effects of participant BMI, gender, and flooring surface on system energy absorption during lateral falls on the hip with human volunteers. Twenty university-aged participants completed the study with five men and five women in both low BMI (27.5 kg/m(2)) groups. Participants underwent lateral pelvis release experiments from a height of 5 cm onto two common floors and four safety floors mounted on a force plate. A motion-capture system measured pelvic deflection. The energy absorbed during the initial compressive phase of impact was calculated as the area under the force-deflection curve. System energy absorption was (on average) 3-fold greater for high compared to low BMI participants, but no effects of gender were observed. Even after normalizing for body mass, high BMI participants absorbed 1.8-fold more energy per unit mass. Additionally, three of four safety floors demonstrated significantly increased energy absorption compared to a baseline resilient-rolled-sheeting system (% increases ranging from 20.7 to 28.3). Peak system deflection was larger for high BMI persons and for impacts on several safety floors. This study indicates that energy absorption may be a common mechanism underlying the reduced risk of hip fracture for persons with high BMI and for those who fall on soft surfaces. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. First-principles investigation of the bulk and low-index surfaces of MoSe_2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirhosseini, Hossein; Roma, Guido; Kiss, Janos; Felser, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    In the framework of density functional theory, the geometry, electronic structure, and magnetic properties of the bulk and low index surfaces of MoSe_2 have been studied. We have carried out calculations with various exchange-correlation functionals to select one which is able to describe the van der Waals (vdW) interactions and gives the best geometry compared with experiments. The inclusion of the vdW forces, however, does not guarantee a reliable description for the geometry of this compound: some vdW functionals strongly overestimate the interlayer distance, similar to GGA functionals. Our investigation shows that the recently introduced optB86bvdW functional yields the best results for MoSe_2. The vdW functionals have less impact on the electronic structure: the differences between the band structures of the experimental atomic structure, calculated by the vdW-DF and PBE functionals are marginal. We have tried the HSE06 hybrid functional as well but the results are not satisfactory: the overestimated interlayer distance leads to a significant overestimation of the band gap. The band structure of the bulk and monolayer is calculated and by the analysis of the bands character the indirect to direct band-gap transition is explained. The surface energy, work function and band structure of the surfaces are calculated as well. The role of the MoSe_2 buffer layer in Cu(In,Ga)Se_2 based solar cells is discussed by considering the work function values. (authors)

  1. Triglyceride glucose-body mass index is effective in identifying nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in nonobese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shujun; Du, Tingting; Li, Mengni; Jia, Jing; Lu, Huiming; Lin, Xuan; Yu, Xuefeng

    2017-06-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an increasingly common condition that is highly correlated with obesity; however, it is not uncommon among nonobese individuals. Triglyceride (TG) and glucose index combined with body mass index (TyG-BMI) has been proposed as a favorable marker of insulin resistance. We sought to investigate the effectiveness of TyG-BMI in identifying NAFLD in nonobese subjects.We conducted a cross-sectional study in a nonobese (BMI glucose, for identifying nonobese subjects at risk for NAFLD.In this study, the prevalence of NAFLD was over one-fifth in the nonobese population. TyG-BMI was an effective marker to detect NAFLD in nonobese subjects.

  2. The influence of the body weight index (BMI in the recovery of the degenerative diseases of the joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sînziana Călina Silişteanu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The trial proposes the evaluation of an efficient kinetic programme supported by hygiene and diet for the patients with degenerative diseases at the level of the joints. Material and method: The trial was carried out under ambulatory conditions for a period of six months and it included two lots of patients diagnosed with degenerative diseases at the level of the hips and of the knees. They used a complex physical kinetic therapeutic treatment supported by a diet. The lots were evaluated according to the pain scale VAS, to the scale WOMAC, to the quality of life index QOL and to the body weight index BMI. The family’s involvement was also monitored during the patients’ recovery period. The results pointed out that the patients who had followed a complex physical kinetic therapeutic treatment and a diet had significantly better results in comparison to the ones who did not follow the indications of the diet. It was noticed that some patients abandoned the physical exercises, predominantly the women. Conclusions: The complex recovery treatment depends on a complex team: the physician, the physio-kinetic therapist, the nutritionist, the dietetician and the psychologist. The profilaxy of these diseases is very important and the treatment has to be individualised. It was noticed that the motivation and the education were defining elements for the recovery. It is also worth mentioning the involvement of the family/friends in the period of recovery treatment.

  3. Pavement Condition Assessment Using IRI from Roadroid and Surface Distress Index Method on National Road in Sumenep Regency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arianto, T.; Suprapto, M.; Syafi’i

    2018-03-01

    The pavement condition will decrease due to the influence of traffic and environment, so that the maintenance effort is needed to maintain the road condition during the service period. In order to carry out road maintenance activities right on target, there needs to be a plan based on accurate pavement condition data. Road roughness is the most commonly used condition parameter in evaluating pavement conditions objectively because road roughness data is relatively easy to obtain, well correlated with vehicle operating costs and the most relevant parameter in road functional performance measurement. The Roadroid is an Android-based application that measures road roughness by using vibration sensors on a smartphone so it is possible to get an International Roughness Index (IRI) value as an indicator of pavement conditions more easily and efficiently. Besides based on road roughness, pavement condition evaluation can also be done visually by using Surface Distress Index (SDI) method that uses the total crack area parameters, average crack width, total number of potholes and the average depth of rutting. This study attempts to assess the condition of Jenderal Sudirman-Kalianget road by combining IRI Roadroid value and SDI value which will be used as the basis to determine the required road maintenance. This road segment is one of the national strategic road connecting the center of Sumenep regency with the Kalianget harbor. Based on IRI measurement and SDI calculation, the pavement condition of Jenderal Sudirman-Kalianget road can be described 4.2 kilometers (37.17%) were good and 2.3 kilometers (20.35%) were fair that need routine maintenance. While 2.1 kilometers (18.58%) were bad and 2.7 kilometers (23.89%) were poor that need periodical maintenance and reconstruction.

  4. The reliability of three psoriasis assessment tools: Psoriasis area and severity index, body surface area and physician global assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bożek, Agnieszka; Reich, Adam

    2017-08-01

    A wide variety of psoriasis assessment tools have been proposed to evaluate the severity of psoriasis in clinical trials and daily practice. The most frequently used clinical instrument is the psoriasis area and severity index (PASI); however, none of the currently published severity scores used for psoriasis meets all the validation criteria required for an ideal score. The aim of this study was to compare and assess the reliability of 3 commonly used assessment instruments for psoriasis severity: the psoriasis area and severity index (PASI), body surface area (BSA) and physician global assessment (PGA). On the scoring day, 10 trained dermatologists evaluated 9 adult patients with plaque-type psoriasis using the PASI, BSA and PGA. All the subjects were assessed twice by each physician. Correlations between the assessments were analyzed using the Pearson correlation coefficient. Intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated to analyze intra-rater reliability, and the coefficient of variation (CV) was used to assess inter-rater variability. Significant correlations were observed among the 3 scales in both assessments. In all 3 scales the ICCs were > 0.75, indicating high intra-rater reliability. The highest ICC was for the BSA (0.96) and the lowest one for the PGA (0.87). The CV for the PGA and PASI were 29.3 and 36.9, respectively, indicating moderate inter-rater variability. The CV for the BSA was 57.1, indicating high inter-rater variability. Comparing the PASI, PGA and BSA, it was shown that the PGA had the highest inter-rater reliability, whereas the BSA had the highest intra-rater reliability. The PASI showed intermediate values in terms of interand intra-rater reliability. None of the 3 assessment instruments showed a significant advantage over the other. A reliable assessment of psoriasis severity requires the use of several independent evaluations simultaneously.

  5. The association of the 'additional height index' with atopic diseases, non-atopic asthma, ischaemic heart disease and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, R V; Vidal, C; Gonzalez-Quintela, A

    2014-01-01

    outcomes and with ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and IHD mortality. DESIGN: General population-based study. SETTING: Research centre. PARTICIPANTS: A random sample of 2656 men and women living in greater Copenhagen took part in the MONICA10 study (the Danish monitoring trends and determinants...

  6. Scientific authorships and collaboration network analysis on Chagas disease: papers indexed in PubMed (1940-2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Alcaide, Gregorio; Park, Jinseo; Huamaní, Charles; Gascón, Joaquín; Ramos, José Manuel

    2012-08-01

    Chagas disease is a chronic, tropical, parasitic disease, endemic throughout Latin America. The large-scale migration of populations has increased the geographic distribution of the disease and cases have been observed in many other countries around the world. To strengthen the critical mass of knowledge generated in different countries, it is essential to promote cooperative and translational research initiatives. We analyzed authorship of scientific documents on Chagas disease indexed in the Medline database from 1940 to 2009. Bibliometrics was used to analyze the evolution of collaboration patterns. A Social Network Analysis was carried out to identify the main research groups in the area by applying clustering methods. We then analyzed 13,989 papers produced by 21,350 authors. Collaboration among authors dramatically increased over the study period, reaching an average of 6.2 authors per paper in the last five-year period. Applying a threshold of collaboration of five or more papers signed in co-authorship, we identified 148 consolidated research groups made up of 1,750 authors. The Chagas disease network identified constitutes a "small world," characterized by a high degree of clustering and a notably high number of Brazilian researchers.

  7. Modified epiphyseal index for MRI in Legg-Calve-Perthes disease (LCPD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumasaka, Y; Watanabe, H; Higashihara, T; Kishimoto, H [Kansai Rosai Hospital, Hyogo (Japan). Dept. of Radiology; Harada, K; Sakurai, K; Kozuka, T [Osaka Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Radiology

    1991-04-01

    On radiographs flattening of the femoral head is evaluated by the Epiphyseal Index (EI). Using the ability of MRI to show articular cartilage and the physis clearly, we wish to propose the use of Epiphyseal Index for MRI (EIM) and demonstrate the value in LCPD. Fifteen patients were examined using 1.5 T MR scanner and T1-weighted coronal images were obtained. EIM was calculated as a ratio of height and width of cartilaginous contour surrounding epiphysis, and was compared between normal and the three radiographic stages. EIM of normal hips were ranged from 0.39 to 0.60 and had a tendency to decrease with increasing age. All cases of Stage 1 (avascular necrosis) were within the normal range (n=4, mean=0.51, SD=0.045). EIM of Stage 2 (fragmentation, n=15, mean=0.31, SD=0.055) were smaller than that of Stage 1. Stage 2 and 3 (residual, n=12, mean=0.31, SD=0.077) could not be distinguished by EIM. EIM was useful to show the flattening of epiphysis with growth and very important for differenciation between Stage 1 and 2 LCPD. (orig.).

  8. Fetal ascites and oligohydramnios: prenatal diagnosis of a sialic acid storage disease (index case).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulain, P; Odent, S; Maire, I; Milon, J; Proudhon, J F; Jouan, H; Le Marec, B

    1995-09-01

    In a 20-year-old primiparous patient, a routine ultrasound scan performed at 28 weeks revealed fetal ascites, bilateral talipes, and oligohydramnios. This woman, married to possibly her first cousin, was at risk for an autosomal recessive disease, a metabolic disorder. At 29 weeks, an amniotic fluid biochemical study revealed the presence of an abnormal band of free sialic acid, leading to a diagnosis of a congenital form of sialic acid storage disease. Termination of pregnancy was performed at 30 weeks. Measurement of free sialic acid in cultured fetal skin fibroblasts confirmed the diagnosis.

  9. Improvement of chronic corneal opacity in ocular surface disease with prosthetic replacement of the ocular surface ecosystem (PROSE) treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cressey, Anna; Jacobs, Deborah S; Remington, Crystal; Carrasquillo, Karen G

    2018-06-01

    To demonstrate clearing of chronic corneal opacities and improvement of visual acuity with the use of BostonSight prosthetic replacement of the ocular surface ecosystem (PROSE) treatment in ocular surface disease. We undertook retrospective analysis of the medical records of a series of patients who underwent PROSE treatment from August 2006 to December 2014. Patients were referred for ocular surface disease of various etiologies. Primary inclusion criterion was corneal opacity that improved with PROSE treatment. Patients were excluded if topical steroids or adjuvant therapy used once PROSE treatment was initiated. Underlying disease, prior treatment, clinical presentation, and clinical course were extracted from the medical record. Four patients are included in this series. There were three females and one male; median age at time of treatment initiation was 30 years (range = 0.5-58 years). Median duration of PROSE treatment at time of retrospective analysis was 3.5 years (range = 1-8 years). Two cases had corneal opacification in the context of neurotrophic keratopathy: a unilateral case due to presumed herpes simplex keratitis and a bilateral case due to congenital corneal anesthesia associated with familial dysautonomia. One case had corneal opacity from exposure related to seventh nerve palsy, and one had corneal opacification associated with recurrent surface breakdown, neurotrophic keratopathy, and limbal stem deficiency of uncertain etiology. After consistent wear of prosthetic devices used in PROSE treatment for support of the ocular surface, visual acuity improved and clearing of the opacities was observed, without use of topical steroids or adjuvant therapy. These cases demonstrate clearing of chronic corneal opacity with PROSE treatment for ocular surface disease. This clearing can occur with no adjuvant therapy, suggesting that restoration of ocular surface function and integrity allows for corneal remodeling.

  10. Simulating the Refractive Index Structure Constant ({C}_{n}^{2}) in the Surface Layer at Antarctica with a Mesoscale Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Chun; Wu, Xiaoqing; Li, Xuebin; Tian, Qiguo; Liu, Dong; Rao, Ruizhong; Zhu, Wenyue

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce an approach wherein the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is coupled with the bulk aerodynamic method to estimate the surface layer refractive index structure constant (C n 2) above Taishan Station in Antarctica. First, we use the measured meteorological parameters to estimate C n 2 using the bulk aerodynamic method, and second, we use the WRF model output parameters to estimate C n 2 using the bulk aerodynamic method. Finally, the corresponding C n 2 values from the micro-thermometer are compared with the C n 2 values estimated using the WRF model coupled with the bulk aerodynamic method. We analyzed the statistical operators—the bias, root mean square error (RMSE), bias-corrected RMSE (σ), and correlation coefficient (R xy )—in a 20 day data set to assess how this approach performs. In addition, we employ contingency tables to investigate the estimation quality of this approach, which provides complementary key information with respect to the bias, RMSE, σ, and R xy . The quantitative results are encouraging and permit us to confirm the fine performance of this approach. The main conclusions of this study tell us that this approach provides a positive impact on optimizing the observing time in astronomical applications and provides complementary key information for potential astronomical sites.

  11. Advanced Atherogenic Index for the Assessment of Consolidated Lipid Risk in Premature Coronary Artery Disease Patients in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Sanjiv Kumar; Agarwal, Sarita; Daga, Mridul Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The high prevalence, severity, and prematurity of coronary artery disease (CAD) in the Indian population cannot be completely explained by the conventional lipid parameters and the existing lipid indices. To calculate newly defined advanced atherogenic index (AAI) in premature CAD patients and compare it between cases and controls and Correlate its values with the existing indices. One hundred and twenty premature CAD patients and an equal number of age and sex matched healthy individuals were included in this study. Lipid profile and nonconventional lipid parameters like oxidized Low density lipoprotein (OX LDL), small dense LDL (SD LDL), lipoprotein (a) apolipoprotein B (Apo B), and apolipoprotein A1 (Apo A1) were estimated and their values were used to define AAI and existing lipid indices like AI, lipid tetrad index (LTI) and lipid pentad index (LPI). The mean age of cases and controls was 37.29 + 4.50 and 36.13 + 3.53 years, respectively. The value of AAI was highly significant in cases (3461.22 ± 45.20) as compared to controls (305.84 ± 21.80). AAI has shown better statistical significance and correlation (P statistic and cumulative distribution function plot has shown that AAI can discriminate cases and controls more accurately as compared to the earlier indices. Statistically AAI appears to be a better marker of consolidated lipid risk in premature CAD patients as compared to the earlier indices.

  12. Development and Validation of an Inflammatory Bowel Diseases Monitoring Index for Use With Mobile Health Technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Deen, Welmoed K.; van der Meulen-de Jong, Andrea E.; Parekh, Nimisha K.; Kane, Ellen; Zand, Aria; DiNicola, Courtney A.; Hall, Laurin; Inserra, Elizabeth K.; Choi, Jennifer M.; Ha, Christina Y.; Esrailian, Eric; van Oijen, Martijn G. H.; Hommes, Daniel W.

    2016-01-01

    Mobile health technologies are advancing rapidly as smartphone use increases. Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) might be managed remotely through smartphone applications, but no tools are yet available. We tested the ability of an IBD monitoring tool, which can be used with mobile

  13. Toward Development of a Fibromyalgia Responder Index and Disease Activity Score: OMERACT Module Update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mease, Philip J; Clauw, Daniel J; Christensen, Robin

    2011-01-01

    spondylitis represents heuristic models for our work, but FM is challenging in that there is no clear algorithm of treatment that defines disease activity based on treatment decisions, nor are there objective markers that define thresholds of severity or response to treatment. The process of developing...

  14. Development of a Suspicion Index to aid diagnosis of Niemann-Pick disease type C

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijburg, F. A.; Sedel, F.; Pineda, M.; Hendriksz, C. J.; Fahey, M.; Walterfang, M.; Patterson, M. C.; Wraith, J. E.; Kolb, S. A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Niemann-Pick disease type C (NP-C) is a rare, autosomal recessive lysosomal lipid storage disorder that is invariably fatal. NP-C diagnosis can be delayed for years due to heterogeneous presentation; adult-onset NP-C can be particularly difficult to diagnose. We developed a Suspicion

  15. Elevated body mass index as a causal risk factor for symptomatic gallstone disease:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Stefan; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne

    2013-01-01

    disease during up to 34 years of follow-up. Subjects were genotyped for three common variants known to associate with BMI: FTO(rs9939609); MC4R(rs17782313); and TMEM18(rs6548238). The number of BMI-increasing alleles was calculated for each participant. In observational analyses, mean baseline BMI was 55...

  16. Development of the Digital Arthritis Index, a Novel Metric to Measure Disease Parameters in a Rat Model of Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A. Lim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite a broad spectrum of anti-arthritic drugs currently on the market, there is a constant demand to develop improved therapeutic agents. Efficient compound screening and rapid evaluation of treatment efficacy in animal models of rheumatoid arthritis (RA can accelerate the development of clinical candidates. Compound screening by evaluation of disease phenotypes in animal models facilitates preclinical research by enhancing understanding of human pathophysiology; however, there is still a continuous need to improve methods for evaluating disease. Current clinical assessment methods are challenged by the subjective nature of scoring-based methods, time-consuming longitudinal experiments, and the requirement for better functional readouts with relevance to human disease. To address these needs, we developed a low-touch, digital platform for phenotyping preclinical rodent models of disease. As a proof-of-concept, we utilized the rat collagen-induced arthritis (CIA model of RA and developed the Digital Arthritis Index (DAI, an objective and automated behavioral metric that does not require human-animal interaction during the measurement and calculation of disease parameters. The DAI detected the development of arthritis similar to standard in vivo methods, including ankle joint measurements and arthritis scores, as well as demonstrated a positive correlation to ankle joint histopathology. The DAI also determined responses to multiple standard-of-care (SOC treatments and nine repurposed compounds predicted by the SMarTRTM Engine to have varying degrees of impact on RA. The disease profiles generated by the DAI complemented those generated by standard methods. The DAI is a highly reproducible and automated approach that can be used in-conjunction with standard methods for detecting RA disease progression and conducting phenotypic drug screens.

  17. Ultrasonography assessment of renal size and its correlation with body mass index in adults without known renal disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raza, M.; Hameed, A.; Khan, M.I.

    2012-01-01

    Many conditions affect renal size. To evaluate abnormalities in renal size, knowledge of standardised values for normal renal dimensions is essential as it shows variability in the values of normal renal size depending on body size, age and ethnicity. Ultrasound, being an easily available, non-invasive, safe and less expensive modality, is widely used for evaluation of renal dimensions and repeated follow-ups. The objectives of this study were to determine renal size by ultrasound in adults without any known renal disease, and to determine the relationship of renal size with body mass index. Methods: Study was conducted in the Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Shifa International Hospital and PIMS Islamabad. Renal size was assessed by ultrasound in 4,035 adult subjects with normal serum creatinine and without any known renal disease, between November 2002 and December 2010. Renal length, width, thickness and volume were obtained and mean renal length and volume were correlated with body mass index and other factors like age, side, gender, weight and height of the subjects. Results: Mean renal length on right side was 101.6+-8.9 mm, renal width 42.7+-7.1 mm, and parenchymal thickness 14.4+-2.9 mm. On left side, mean renal length was 102.7+-9.2 mm, width 47.6+-7.0 mm, and parenchymal thickness 15.1+-3.1 mm. Mean renal volume on right was 99.8+-37.2 cm/sup 3/ and on left was 124.4+-41.3 cm/sup 3/. Left renal size was significantly larger than right in both genders. Relationship of mean renal length was significant when correlated with age, side, gender, height and weight, and body mass index. Renal volumes also showed a similar relationship with side, gender, height and weight, and body mass index; but with age such a relationship was seen only for left kidney. Conclusion: Pakistani population has mean renal size smaller than reference values available in international literature. Renal length and volume have a direct relationship with body mass index. Mean renal

  18. Body mass index and risk for mental stress induced ischemia in coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soufer, Robert; Fernandez, Antonio B; Meadows, Judith; Collins, Dorothea; Burg, Matthew M

    2016-05-19

    Acute emotionally reactive mental stress (MS) can provoke prognostically relevant deficits in cardiac function and myocardial perfusion, and chronic inflammation increases risk for this ischemic phenomenon. We have described parasympathetic withdrawal and generation of inflammatory factors in MS. Adiposity is also associated with elevated markers of chronic inflammation. High body mass index (BMI) is frequently used as a surrogate for assessment of excess adiposity, and associated with traditional CAD risk factors, and CAD mortality. BMI is also associated with autonomic dysregulation, adipose tissue derived proinflammatory cytokines, which are also attendant to emotion provoked myocardial ischemia. Thus, we sought to determine if body mass index (BMI) contributes to risk of developing myocardial ischemia provoked by mental stress. We performed a prospective interventional study in a cohort of 161 patients with stable CAD. They completed an assessment of myocardial blood flow with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) simultaneously during 2 conditions: laboratory mental stress and at rest. Multivariate logistic regression determined the independent contribution of BMI to the occurrence of mental-stress induced ischemia. Mean age was 65.6±9.0 years; 87.0% had a history of hypertension, and 28.6% had diabetes. Mean BMI was 30.4±4.7. Prevalence of mental stress ischemia was 39.8%. BMI was an independent predictor of mental stress ischemia, OR=1.10, 95% CI [1.01-1.18] for one-point increase in BMI and OR=1.53, 95% CI [1.06-2.21] for a 4.7 point increase in BMI (one standard deviation beyond the cohort BMI mean), p=0.025 for all. These data suggest that BMI may serve as an independent risk marker for mental stress ischemia. The factors attendant with greater BMI, which include autonomic dysregulation and inflammation, may represent pathways by which high BMI contribute to this risk and serve as a conceptual construct to replicate these findings in larger

  19. Surface plasmon resonance biosensors for detection of Alzheimer disease biomarkers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hegnerová, Kateřina; Bocková, Markéta; Vaisocherová, Hana; Krištofíková, Z.; Říčný, J.; Řípová, D.; Homola, Jiří

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 139, č. 1 (2009), s. 69-73 ISSN 0925-4005 R&D Projects: GA MZd NR9322; GA AV ČR KAN200670701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20670512 Keywords : Alzheimer disease * SPR sensor * 17beta-HSD10 Subject RIV: JB - Sensors, Measurment, Regulation Impact factor: 3.083, year: 2009

  20. Efficacy of NETDC (New England Trophoblastic Disease Center prognostic index score to predict gestational trophoblastic tumor from hydatidiform mole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khrismawan Khrismawan

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available A prospective longitudinal analytic study assessing the efficacy of NETDC (New England Trophoblastic Disease Center prognostic index score in predicting malignancy after hydatidiform mole had been performed. Of the parameter evaluated; age of patients, type of hydatidiform mole, uterine enlargement, serum hCG level, lutein cyst, and presence of complicating factors were significant risk factors for malignancy after hydatidiform mole were evacuated (p<0.032. The study were done on 50 women diagnosed with hydatidiform mole with 1 year observation (January 2001-December 2002 at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Mohammad Hoesin Hospital, Palembang. The results showed that the NETDC prognostic index score predicted malignancy in 50% of high risk group and 10% in low risk group (p<0.05. This showed a higher number than that found by the WHO (19%-30%. The risk for incidence of  malignancy after hydatidiform mole in the high risk group is 9.0 times higher compared to that of the low risk group (CI: 1.769-45.786. (Med J Indones 2004; 13: 40-6 Keywords: New England Trophoblastic Disease Center (NETDC, gestational trophoblastic tumor, hydatidiform mole, high and low risk

  1. Progression of Mortality due to Diseases of the Circulatory System and Human Development Index in Rio de Janeiro Municipalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Porto Soares

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Diseases of the circulatory system (DCS are the major cause of death in Brazil and worldwide. Objective: To correlate the compensated and adjusted mortality rates due to DCS in the Rio de Janeiro State municipalities between 1979 and 2010 with the Human Development Index (HDI from 1970 onwards. Methods: Population and death data were obtained in DATASUS/MS database. Mortality rates due to ischemic heart diseases (IHD, cerebrovascular diseases (CBVD and DCS adjusted by using the direct method and compensated for ill-defined causes. The HDI data were obtained at the Brazilian Institute of Applied Research in Economics. The mortality rates and HDI values were correlated by estimating Pearson linear coefficients. The correlation coefficients between the mortality rates of census years 1991, 2000 and 2010 and HDI data of census years 1970, 1980 and 1991 were calculated with discrepancy of two demographic censuses. The linear regression coefficients were estimated with disease as the dependent variable and HDI as the independent variable. Results: In recent decades, there was a reduction in mortality due to DCS in all Rio de Janeiro State municipalities, mainly because of the decline in mortality due to CBVD, which was preceded by an elevation in HDI. There was a strong correlation between the socioeconomic indicator and mortality rates. Conclusion: The HDI progression showed a strong correlation with the decline in mortality due to DCS, signaling to the relevance of improvements in life conditions.

  2. Progression of Mortality due to Diseases of the Circulatory System and Human Development Index in Rio de Janeiro Municipalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Gabriel Porto; Klein, Carlos Henrique; Silva, Nelson Albuquerque de Souza e; de Oliveira, Glaucia Maria Moraes

    2016-01-01

    Background Diseases of the circulatory system (DCS) are the major cause of death in Brazil and worldwide. Objective To correlate the compensated and adjusted mortality rates due to DCS in the Rio de Janeiro State municipalities between 1979 and 2010 with the Human Development Index (HDI) from 1970 onwards. Methods Population and death data were obtained in DATASUS/MS database. Mortality rates due to ischemic heart diseases (IHD), cerebrovascular diseases (CBVD) and DCS adjusted by using the direct method and compensated for ill-defined causes. The HDI data were obtained at the Brazilian Institute of Applied Research in Economics. The mortality rates and HDI values were correlated by estimating Pearson linear coefficients. The correlation coefficients between the mortality rates of census years 1991, 2000 and 2010 and HDI data of census years 1970, 1980 and 1991 were calculated with discrepancy of two demographic censuses. The linear regression coefficients were estimated with disease as the dependent variable and HDI as the independent variable. Results In recent decades, there was a reduction in mortality due to DCS in all Rio de Janeiro State municipalities, mainly because of the decline in mortality due to CBVD, which was preceded by an elevation in HDI. There was a strong correlation between the socioeconomic indicator and mortality rates. Conclusion The HDI progression showed a strong correlation with the decline in mortality due to DCS, signaling to the relevance of improvements in life conditions. PMID:27849263

  3. An International, Multi-Specialty Validation Study of the IgG4-Related Disease Responder Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Zachary S; Khosroshahi, Arezou; Carruthers, Mollie D; Perugino, Cory A; Choi, Hyon; Campochiaro, Corrado; Culver, Emma L; Cortazar, Frank; Della-Torre, Emanuel; Ebbo, Mikael; Fernandes, Ana; Frulloni, Luca; Hart, Philip; Karadag, Omer; Kawa, Shigeyuki; Kawano, Mitsuhiro; Kim, Myung-Hwan; Lanzillotta, Marco; Matsui, Shoko; Okazaki, Kazuichi; Ryu, Jay H; Saeki, Takako; Schleinitz, Nicolas; Tanasa, Paula; Umehara, Hisanori; Webster, George; Zhang, Wen; Stone, John H

    2018-02-18

    IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) can cause fibro-inflammatory lesions in nearly any organ, leading to organ dysfunction and failure. The IgG4-RD Responder Index (RI) was developed to help investigators assess the efficacy of treatment in a structured manner. We sought to validate the RI in a multi-national investigation. The RI guides investigators through assessments of disease activity and damage in 25 domains, incorporating higher weights for disease manifestations that require treatment urgently or that worsen despite treatment. After a training exercise, investigators reviewed 12 written IgG4-RD vignettes (mean length: 279 words, range: 76-511 words) based upon real patients. Investigators calculated both an RI score as well as a physician global assessment (PGA) for each vignette. Three investigators used the RI on fifteen patients followed over serial visits after treatment. We assessed inter- and intra-rater reliability, precision, validity, and responsiveness. Twenty-six physician-investigators included representatives from 6 specialties and 9 countries. The inter-rater and intra-rater reliabilities of the RI were strong (0.88 and 0.69, respectively) and superior to those of the PGA. Correlations (construct validity) between the RI and PGA were high (Spearman's r=0.9, Preliable disease activity assessment tool that can be used to measure response to therapy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Dietary patterns, involvement in physical activity and body mass index of Romanian adults having cardio-vascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Maria Lotrean

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Promotion of a healthy diet, an active lifestyle and appropriate body weight are important components of cardio-vascular disease prevention and control. This study aimed to assess several dietary patterns, involvement in physical activity and body mass index (BMI of Romanian adults hospitalized because of diagnoses of cardio-vascular diseases (CVD. The study was performed in 2014 in 1 hospital setting from Cluj-Napoca, Romania. It involved 80 adult patients (45 to 78 years old hospitalized with diagnoses of CVD. Anonymous questionnaire assessing several lifestyle related behaviours were filled in by the participants; based on their weight and height, the BMI was calculated. The results show that 76.2% of the participants recognize the role of consumption of fruits and vegetables for cardio-vascular diseases prevention and control, but only 5% meet the recommendations of eating at least 5 portions of fruits and vegetables (around 400 g daily. The majority of the subjects know that the consumption of animal fat increases the risk for cardio-vascular diseases, but, only one out of two patients declared their constant preoccupation for avoiding products rich in saturated fatty acids, such as animal fat, high fat dairy products and high fat meat. Around 80% of the participants know the risk of obesity for cardio-vascular diseases, but 81.2% have a BMI higher than 25. A percentage of 60% of the patients declared that they received general information from health care professionals about diet, physical activity and cardio-vascular disease prevention, while one quarter followed an educational program for this issue and only one out of ten patients followed a personalized program for loosing weight. Comprehensive educational and counselling programs for promoting healthy nutrition and achievement of an appropriate body weight are needed for Romanian adults having CVD

  5. A framework for consistent estimation of leaf area index, fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation, and surface albedo from MODIS time-series data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Zhiqiang; Liang, Shunlin; Wang, Jindi

    2015-01-01

    -series MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) surface reflectance data. If the reflectance data showed snow-free areas, an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) technique was used to estimate leaf area index (LAI) for a two-layer canopy reflectance model (ACRM) by combining predictions from a phenology...... model and the MODIS surface reflectance data. The estimated LAI values were then input into the ACRM to calculate the surface albedo and the fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (FAPAR). For snow-covered areas, the surface albedo was calculated as the underlying vegetation canopy...... albedo plus the weighted distance between the underlying vegetation canopy albedo and the albedo over deep snow. The LAI/FAPAR and surface albedo values estimated using this framework were compared with MODIS collection 5 eight-day 1-km LAI/FAPAR products (MOD15A2) and 500-m surface albedo product (MCD43...

  6. The local surface plasmon resonance property and refractive index sensitivity of metal elliptical nano-ring arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Weihua, E-mail: linwh-whu@hotmail.com; Wang, Qian; Dong, Anhua [Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro-and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Li, Qiuze [School of Physics and Engineering, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang 471023, Henan (China)

    2014-11-15

    In this paper, we systematically investigate the optical property and refractive index sensitivity (RIS) of metal elliptical nano-ring (MENR) arranged in rectangle lattice by finite-difference time-domain method. Eight kinds of considered MENRs are divided into three classes, namely fixed at the same outer size, at the same inner size, and at the same middle size. All MENR arrays show a bonding mode local surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) peak in the near-infrared region under longitudinal and transverse polarizations, and lattice diffraction enhanced LSPR peaks emerge, when the LSPR peak wavelength (LSPRPW) matches the effective lattice constant of the array. The LSPRPW is determined by the charge moving path length, the parallel and cross interactions induced by the stable distributed charges, and the moving charges inter-attraction. High RIS can be achieved by small particle distance arrays composed of MENRs with big inner size and small ring-width. On the other hand, for a MENR array, the comprehensive RIS (including RIS and figure of merit) under transverse polarization is superior to that under longitudinal polarization. Furthermore, on condition that compared arrays are fixed at the same lattice constant, the phenomenon that the RIS of big ring-width MENR arrays may be higher than that of small ring-width MENR arrays only appears in the case of compared arrays with relatively small lattice constant and composed of MENRs fixed at the same inner size simultaneously. Meanwhile, the LSPRPW of the former MENR arrays is also larger than that of the latter MENR arrays. Our systematic results may help experimentalists work with this type of systems.

  7. The local surface plasmon resonance property and refractive index sensitivity of metal elliptical nano-ring arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Weihua; Wang, Qian; Dong, Anhua; Li, Qiuze

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we systematically investigate the optical property and refractive index sensitivity (RIS) of metal elliptical nano-ring (MENR) arranged in rectangle lattice by finite-difference time-domain method. Eight kinds of considered MENRs are divided into three classes, namely fixed at the same outer size, at the same inner size, and at the same middle size. All MENR arrays show a bonding mode local surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) peak in the near-infrared region under longitudinal and transverse polarizations, and lattice diffraction enhanced LSPR peaks emerge, when the LSPR peak wavelength (LSPRPW) matches the effective lattice constant of the array. The LSPRPW is determined by the charge moving path length, the parallel and cross interactions induced by the stable distributed charges, and the moving charges inter-attraction. High RIS can be achieved by small particle distance arrays composed of MENRs with big inner size and small ring-width. On the other hand, for a MENR array, the comprehensive RIS (including RIS and figure of merit) under transverse polarization is superior to that under longitudinal polarization. Furthermore, on condition that compared arrays are fixed at the same lattice constant, the phenomenon that the RIS of big ring-width MENR arrays may be higher than that of small ring-width MENR arrays only appears in the case of compared arrays with relatively small lattice constant and composed of MENRs fixed at the same inner size simultaneously. Meanwhile, the LSPRPW of the former MENR arrays is also larger than that of the latter MENR arrays. Our systematic results may help experimentalists work with this type of systems

  8. Interannual variations and trends in global land surface phenology derived from enhanced vegetation index during 1982-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoyang; Tan, Bin; Yu, Yunyue

    2014-05-01

    Land surface phenology is widely retrieved from satellite observations at regional and global scales, and its long-term record has been demonstrated to be a valuable tool for reconstructing past climate variations, monitoring the dynamics of terrestrial ecosystems in response to climate impacts, and predicting biological responses to future climate scenarios. This study detected global land surface phenology from the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data from 1982 to 2010. Based on daily enhanced vegetation index at a spatial resolution of 0.05 degrees, we simulated the seasonal vegetative trajectory for each individual pixel using piecewise logistic models, which was then used to detect the onset of greenness increase (OGI) and the length of vegetation growing season (GSL). Further, both overall interannual variations and pixel-based trends were examined across Koeppen's climate regions for the periods of 1982-1999 and 2000-2010, respectively. The results show that OGI and GSL varied considerably during 1982-2010 across the globe. Generally, the interannual variation could be more than a month in precipitation-controlled tropical and dry climates while it was mainly less than 15 days in temperature-controlled temperate, cold, and polar climates. OGI, overall, shifted early, and GSL was prolonged from 1982 to 2010 in most climate regions in North America and Asia while the consistently significant trends only occurred in cold climate and polar climate in North America. The overall trends in Europe were generally insignificant. Over South America, late OGI was consistent (particularly from 1982 to 1999) while either positive or negative GSL trends in a climate region were mostly reversed between the periods of 1982-1999 and 2000-2010. In the Northern Hemisphere of Africa, OGI trends were mostly insignificant, but prolonged GSL was evident over individual climate regions during the last 3

  9. The influence of body mass index, age and sex on inflammatory disease risk in semi-captive Chimpanzees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Obanda

    Full Text Available Obesity and ageing are emerging issues in the management of captive primates, including Chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes. Studies on humans show that obesity and old age can independently increase the risk of inflammatory-associated diseases indicated by elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cells and proteins in the blood of older or obese compared to levels in younger or non-obese individuals. In humans, sex can influence the outcomes of these risks. Health management of these problems in chimpanzee populations requires an understanding of similarities and differences of factors influencing inflammatory disease risks in humans and in chimpanzees. We examined the relationship between age, sex and Body Mass Index (BMI with hematological biomarkers of inflammatory disease risk established for humans which include the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR, and neutrophil, white blood cell (WBC, platelet microparticle and platelet counts. We found that higher values of NLR, neutrophil count and platelet microparticle count were associated with higher BMI values and older age indicating increased inflammation risk in these groups; a similar pattern to humans. There was a strong sex by age interaction on inflammation risk, with older males more at risk than older females. In contrast to human studies, total WBC count was not influenced by BMI, but like humans, WBC and platelet counts were lower in older individuals compared to younger individuals. Our findings are similar to those of humans and suggest that further insight on managing chimpanzees can be gained from extensive studies of ageing and obesity in humans. We suggest that managing BMI should be an integral part of health management in captive chimpanzee populations in order to partially reduce the risk of diseases associated with inflammation. These results also highlight parallels in inflammation risk between humans and chimpanzees and have implications for understanding the evolution of

  10. The association of body mass index with disease activity and clinical response to combination therapy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Mirpourian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The role of obesity in clinical curse of rheumatoid arthritis (RA is not clear. We investigated the association of obesity and adiposity with disease activity and clinical response to combination therapy in RA patients. Materials and Methods: Active RA patients with the disease activity score using 28 joint counts (DAS28 > 2.6 were studied. Height, weight, and waist and hip circumferences were measured and body mass index (BMI and waist to hip ratio were calculated. Patients were treated with methotrexate (7.5 to 10 mg/week plus hydroxychloroquine (200 to 400 mg/day and prednisolone (2.5 to 10 mg/day and were followed by DAS28 for up to 24 weeks. Results: One hundred and six patients were studied; age = 48.5 ± 13.8 years, 87.7% female, disease duration = 4.4 years [SE = 0.48]. DAS28 was decreased from 4.5 ± 1.6 to 2.9 ± 1.4 (P < 0.001 after 24 weeks of treatment. Only in patients with disease duration of ≤2 years, BMI (r = -0.415, P = 0.005 and waist circumference (r = -0.296, P = 0.05 were correlated with baseline DAS28. Although BMI (r = -0.337, P = 0.025 and waist circumference (r = -0.315, P = 0.038 were correlated with change in DAS28 after therapy, these correlations were disappeared after controlling for baseline DAS28. Conclusion: Obesity and adiposity are associated with less severe disease activity in early stage of RA, but are not associated with response to combination therapy with methotrexate plus hydroxychloroquine in RA patients.

  11. Comparison of Nutritional Behaviors and Body Mass Index in Patients with and without Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali-Asghar Kolahi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground and Objective: The prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver Disease (NAFLD and its complications in adults are increasing. Nutritional habits and its consequent obesity are major risk factors for developing the disease. The aim of this study was comparing nutritional habits and body mass index in two groups of participants with and without NAFLD.Materials and Methods: This case control study was performed with participation of 170 people aged 20-55, who referred to the department of sonography in the Taleghani teaching hospital of Tehran. The sampling method was convenience sampling. Data collected by interview with the individuals. Socio-demographic characteristics, reason for referring, and nutritional habits were determined. Anthropometric measurements and liver ultrasound were also performed. Data were analyzed by using t-test for comparing the means between 2 groups and chi-square test for determining the relationship between the variables. P-values of 0.05 or less were considered statistically significant.Results: The group with the disease significantly consumed more high-fat dairy products than the group without the disease (42% vs. 23% (P=0.013. The mean (SD for weekly consumption of fruits in the group with the disease was significantly higher than that in the group without the disease 11.6(6.7 vs. 8.2(5.5 unit (P=0.001. The mean (SD for BMI of the group with the disease was higher than that of the group without the disease 32.8(6.6 vs. 24.4(3 respectively (P<0.001.  Unexpectedly, the mean (SD for weekly consumption of fast foods in the group without fatty liver with 0.8(0.9 was two times more than that in the affected group with 0.4(0.8 (P=0.012.              Conclusion: The prevalence of obesity and some unhealthy eating habits in patients with NAFLD and those at risk, requires designing and implementing educational interventions for increasing individuals’ awareness and improving their attitude

  12. Cross-cultural adaptation of the "Australian National University Alzheimer's Disease Risk Index" for the Brazilian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Marcus Kiiti; Jacinto, Alessandro Ferrari; Citero, Vanessa de Albuquerque

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) represents a major public health problem and it is therefore crucial that modifiable risk factors be known prior to onset of dementia in late-life. The "Australian National University - Alzheimer's Disease Risk Index" (ANU-ADRI) is one of the potential tools for primary prevention of the disease. The aim of this study was to devise an adapted version of the ANU-ADRI for use in Brazil. The instrument was translated from its original language of English into Portuguese and then back-translated into English by bilingual translators. It was subsequently reviewed and evaluated as to the degree of translation issues and equivalence. In this study, the ANU-ADRI was applied using individual (face-to-face) interviews in a public hospital, unlike the original version which is applied online by self-report. The final version (pretest) was evaluated in a sample of 10 participants with a mean age of 60 years (±11.46) and mean education of 11 years (±6.32). The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) (inter-rater) was 0.954 (P<0.001 for a confidence interval (CI) of 95%=[0.932; 0.969]). Cultural equivalence was performed without the need for a second instrument application step. After cross-cultural adaptation, the language of the resultant questionnaire was deemed easily understandable by the Brazilian population.

  13. Cross-cultural adaptation of the "Australian National University Alzheimer's Disease Risk Index" for the Brazilian population

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    Marcus Kiiti Borges

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Alzheimer's disease (AD represents a major public health problem and it is therefore crucial that modifiable risk factors be known prior to onset of dementia in late-life. The "Australian National University - Alzheimer's Disease Risk Index" (ANU-ADRI is one of the potential tools for primary prevention of the disease. Objective: The aim of this study was to devise an adapted version of the ANU-ADRI for use in Brazil. Methods: The instrument was translated from its original language of English into Portuguese and then back-translated into English by bilingual translators. It was subsequently reviewed and evaluated as to the degree of translation issues and equivalence. In this study, the ANU-ADRI was applied using individual (face-to-face interviews in a public hospital, unlike the original version which is applied online by self-report. The final version (pretest was evaluated in a sample of 10 participants with a mean age of 60 years (±11.46 and mean education of 11 years (±6.32. Results: The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC (inter-rater was 0.954 (P<0.001 for a confidence interval (CI of 95%=[0.932; 0.969]. Cultural equivalence was performed without the need for a second instrument application step. Conclusion: After cross-cultural adaptation, the language of the resultant questionnaire was deemed easily understandable by the Brazilian population.

  14. Refractometers for different refractive index range by surface plasmon resonance sensors in multimode optical fibers with different metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuppella, P.; Corso, Alain J.; Pelizzo, Maria G.; Cennamo, N.; Zeni, L.

    2016-09-01

    We have realized a plasmonic sensor based on Au/Pd metal bilayer in a multimode plastic optical fiber. This metal bilayer, based on a metal with high imaginary part of the refractive index and gold, shows interesting properties in terms of sensitivity and performances, in different refractive index ranges. The development of highly sensitive platforms for high refractive index detection (higher than 1.38) is interesting for chemical applications based on molecularly imprinted polymer as receptors, while the aqueous medium is the refractive index range of biosensors based on bio-receptors. In this work we have presented an Au/Pd metal bilayer optimized for 1.38-1.42 refractive index range.

  15. Consumer Quality Index Chronic Skin Disease (CQI-CSD): a new instrument to measure quality of care from the patient's perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Cranenburgh, O. D.; Krol, M. W.; Hendriks, M. C. P.; de Rie, M. A.; Smets, E. M. A.; de Korte, J.; Sprangers, M. A. G.

    2015-01-01

    Assessing quality of care from the patient's perspective is considered to be highly relevant. As a standardized instrument in dermatology was lacking, we developed a patient experience questionnaire regarding chronic skin disease care: the Consumer Quality Index Chronic Skin Disease (CQI-CSD). (i)

  16. Chronic Liver Disease : Value of Sonographic Study of the Liver Surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Jae Joon; Kim, Myeong Jin; Han, Kwang Hyub; Chon, Chae Yoon; Yoo, Hyung Sik; Lee, Jong Tae; Kim, Ki Whang

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic value of sonographic irregularities of liver surface in the differentiation of chronic liver disease. Fifty-eight patients with either chronic hepatitis or early stage of liver cirrhosis were examined with 5 MHz linear array transducer by observing the liver surface.We compared the sonographic findings with peritoneoscopic and pathologic findings. Thirty-five patients with smooth surface showed variable pathological results, including chronic active and persistent hepatitis, inactive hepatitis and alcoholic hepatitis without any evidence of cirrhosis. Nineteen patients with micronodules mostly revealed chronic active hepatitis and cirrhosis. All 4 patients with macronodules were proved pathologically ascirrhosis. High resolution ultrasonography(HRUS) showed smooth liver surface in 35 patients(60.3%),micronodular surface in l9(32.8%), and macronodular surface in 4 (6.9%). Twenty-one cases(60.0%) among 35 patients with smooth surface were peritoneoscopically normal and 12 cases(34.3%) showed dimpling surface. However among l9 patients with micronodular surface, only 5 cases(26.3%) showed micronodular surface on peritoneoscopy. while 8 cases(42.l%) showed nracronodular surface and 6 cases(3l.6%) dimpling surface. All 4 patients with macronodulesrevealed peritoneoscopically nracronodular surface. Observation of liver surface by HRUS was useful in predicting the progression of chronic hepatitis to cirrhosis. However, it was not helpful in the differentiation between normal liver and chronic hepatrtrs

  17. Visceral adiposity index is associated with significant fibrosis in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petta, S; Amato, M C; Di Marco, V; Cammà, C; Pizzolanti, G; Barcellona, M R; Cabibi, D; Galluzzo, A; Sinagra, D; Giordano, C; Craxì, A

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic factors have been associated with liver damage in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). To test a new marker of adipose dysfunction, the visceral adiposity index (VAI), in NAFLD patients to assess whether or not it is associated with host factors, and to investigate a potential correlation with histological findings. One hundred and forty-two consecutive NAFLD patients were evaluated by liver biopsy, and clinical and metabolic measurements, including insulin resistance with the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA), and VAI by using waist circumference, body mass index, triglycerides and HDL. Serum levels of TNFα, IL-6, adiponectin and leptin were also assessed. All biopsies were scored for NAFLD activity score (NAS) and its components, and for staging (Kleiner). By multiple linear regression analysis, VAI was independently associated with higher HOMA (P = 0.04), and fibrosis (P = 0.04). In addition, an independent association was found between higher VAI and lower adiponectin levels (P = 0.002). Higher HOMA (OR 1.149, 95% CI 1.003-1.316, P = 0.04), higher VAI (OR 1.446, 95% CI 1.023-2.043, P = 0.03), lobular inflammation (OR 3.777, 95% CI 1.771-8.051, P = 0.001), and ballooning (OR 2.884, 95% CI 1.231-6.757, P = 0.01) were correlated with significant fibrosis (F2-F4) on multiple logistic regression analysis. In particular, the prevalence of significant fibrosis progressively increased from patients with a VAI ≤ 2.1 and HOMA ≤ 3.4 (26%) to those with a VAI > 2.1 and HOMA > 3.4 (83%). In NAFLD patients, visceral adiposity index is an expression of both qualitative and quantitative adipose tissue dysfunction and, together with insulin resistance, is independently correlated with significant fibrosis. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Advanced atherogenic index for the assessment of consolidated lipid risk in premature coronary artery disease patients in India

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    Sanjiv Kumar Bansal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The high prevalence, severity, and prematurity of coronary artery disease (CAD in the Indian population cannot be completely explained by the conventional lipid parameters and the existing lipid indices. Aims and Objectives: To calculate newly defined advanced atherogenic index (AAI in premature CAD patients and compare it between cases and controls and Correlate its values with the existing indices. Material and Methods: One hundred and twenty premature CAD patients and an equal number of age and sex matched healthy individuals were included in this study. Lipid profile and nonconventional lipid parameters like oxidized Low density lipoprotein (OX LDL, small dense LDL (SD LDL, lipoprotein (a apolipoprotein B (Apo B, and apolipoprotein A1 (Apo A1 were estimated and their values were used to define AAI and existing lipid indices like AI, lipid tetrad index (LTI and lipid pentad index (LPI. Results: The mean age of cases and controls was 37.29 + 4.50 and 36.13 + 3.53 years, respectively. The value of AAI was highly significant in cases (3461.22 ± 45.20 as compared to controls (305.84 ± 21.80. AAI has shown better statistical significance and correlation (P < 0.0001, r = 0.737 as compared to the earlier indices such as AI (P < 0.01, r = 0.52, LTI (P < 0.001, r = 0.677 and LPI (P < 0.001, r = 0.622 in premature CAD. Kolmogorov D statistic and cumulative distribution function plot has shown that AAI can discriminate cases and controls more accurately as compared to the earlier indices. Conclusion: Statistically AAI appears to be a better marker of consolidated lipid risk in premature CAD patients as compared to the earlier indices.

  19. Differences in time-domain and spectral indexes of skin-surface laser-Doppler signals between controls and breast-cancer subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiu, Hsin; Chen, Chao-Tsung; Hung, Shuo-Hui; Chen, Guan-Zhang; Huang, Yu-Ling

    2018-04-13

    There is an urgent need to improve the early diagnosis of breast cancer. The present study applied spectral and beat-to-beat analyses to laser-Doppler (LDF) data sequences measured on the skin surface on the back of the right hands, with the aim of comparing the different peripheral microcirculatory-blood-flow (MBF) perfusion condition between breast-cancer and control subjects. ECG and LDF signals were obtained simultaneously and noninvasively from 23 breast-cancer patients and 23 age-matched control subjects. Time-domain beat-to-beat indexes and their variability parameters were calculated. Spectral indexes were calculated using the Morlet wavelet transform. The beat-to-beat LDF pulse width and its variability were significantly smaller in cancer patients than in the controls. The energy contributions of endothelial-, neural-, and myogenic-related frequency bands were also significantly smaller in cancer patients. The present study has revealed significant differences in the beat-to-beat and spectral indexes of skin-surface-acquired LDF signals between control subjects and breast-cancer patients. This illustrates that LDF indexes may be useful for monitoring the changes in the MBF perfusion condition induced by breast cancer. Since the breast-cancer patients were at TNM stages 0- 2, the present findings may aid the development of indexes for detecting breast cancer.

  20. Long-range surface plasmon resonance sensor with liquid micro-channels to maintain the symmetry condition of the refractive index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan, Tetsuo; Kojo, Hiroyuki; Iwase, Eiji; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Shimoyama, Isao

    2010-01-01

    We propose a method to maintain the symmetry of the refractive index with respect to an Au film, in which the refractive indices are the same near both surfaces of the Au film, for LRSPR (long-range surface plasmon resonance) sensors. Maintenance of the symmetry is necessary for exciting the LRSPR mode. However, because the buffer layer under the Au film is usually made of a solid dielectric material with a constant refractive index, the quality of the measurement is reduced when the refractive index of the analyte used is dramatically different from that of the buffer layer. To solve this problem, the proposed sensor is equipped with liquid channels under the Au film. The Au film used in this study was supported by a thin (100 nm) polymer film forming parallel, one-dimensional liquid channels with a 29 µm pitch. Because the analyte solution flows in the channels, both surfaces of the Au film face the same analyte. Thus, this configuration automatically satisfies the symmetry condition for analytes with a wide range of refractive indices. We examined the validity of the sensor and compared it to that of a conventional sensor by measuring the LRSPR for five analyte solutions with different refractive indices. LRSPR dips were clearly observed for all of the analytes tested. The dip of the conventional LRSPR sensor became shallow when the refractive index increased, with the final dip depth being 65% of the initial dip depth for a refractive index of 1.358. In contrast, the dip depth of the proposed LRSPR sensor remained constant over the entire measured refractive index range of 1.331 to 1.358. These results indicate that the proposed sensor maintains the symmetry condition and confirm that the proposed method is effective for highly sensitive LRSPR measurements for a wide variety of analyte species

  1. Non-invasive assessment of peripheral arterial disease: Automated ankle brachial index measurement and pulse volume analysis compared to duplex scan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jane Ea; Williams, Paul; Davies, Jane H

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to individually and cumulatively compare sensitivity and specificity of the (1) ankle brachial index and (2) pulse volume waveform analysis recorded by the same automated device, with the presence or absence of peripheral arterial disease being verified by ultrasound duplex scan. Patients (n=205) referred for lower limb arterial assessment underwent ankle brachial index measurement and pulse volume waveform recording using volume plethysmography, followed by ultrasound duplex scan. The presence of peripheral arterial disease was recorded if ankle brachial index 50% was evident with ultrasound duplex scan. Outcome measure was agreement between the measured ankle brachial index and interpretation of pulse volume waveform for peripheral arterial disease diagnosis, using ultrasound duplex scan as the reference standard. Sensitivity of ankle brachial index was 79%, specificity 91% and overall accuracy 88%. Pulse volume waveform sensitivity was 97%, specificity 81% and overall accuracy 85%. The combined sensitivity of ankle brachial index and pulse volume waveform was 100%, specificity 76% and overall accuracy 85%. Combining these two diagnostic modalities within one device provided a highly accurate method of ruling out peripheral arterial disease, which could be utilised in primary care to safely reduce unnecessary secondary care referrals.

  2. Three-dimensional speckle tracking imaging assessment of left ventricular change in patient with coronary heart disease and its correlation with serum indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Li Fu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the three-dimensional speckle tracking imaging assessment of left ventricular change in patient with coronary heart disease and its correlation with serum indexes. Methods: A total of 152 patients first diagnosed with coronary heart disease were the observation group of the study and 117 healthy subjects were the control group. Threedimensional speckle tracking imaging (3D-STI was used to evaluate the left ventricular function parameters of two groups, the serum content of endothelial function indexes and platelet function indexes were detected, and the correlation between left ventricular function parameters under 3D-STI and serum indexes was further analyzed. Results: Absolute values of left ventricular function parameters LVGLS, LVGRS, LVGCS and LVGAS from 3D-STI of observation group were significantly less than those of control group while Ptw and Torsion levels were greater than those of control group; endothelial function indexes vWF, sICAM-1, sVCAM-1 and ET-1 content in serum were significantly higher than those of control group while vWF-cp and NO content were significantly lower than those of control group; platelet function indexes CD62P, GMP-140, CD63, sP-selectin, sCD40L and PAC-1 content in serum were significantly higher than those of control group. The levels of left ventricular function parameters from 3D-STI in patients with coronary heart disease were directly correlated with serum indexes. Conclusion: 3D-STI can accurately assess the left ventricular function and the overall disease severity in patients with coronary heart disease, and it is expected to become an effective method for early diagnosis of diseases and guidance of clinical treatment.

  3. Antenatal Dexamethasone Exposure in Preterm Infants Is Associated with Allergic Diseases and the Mental Development Index in Children

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    Wan-Ning Tseng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antenatal steroid administration may benefit fetal lung maturity in preterm infants. Although some studies have shown that this treatment may increase asthma in childhood, the correlation between antenatal dexamethasone exposure and allergic diseases remains unclear. The purpose of this study is to investigate the association between antenatal dexamethasone and T cell expression in childhood allergic diseases. Methods: We recruited a cohort of preterm infants born at Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital between 2007 and 2010 with a gestational age of less than 35 weeks and body weight at birth of less than 1500 g. The status of antenatal exposure to steroids and allergic diseases were surveyed using a modified ISAAC questionnaire for subjects aged 2–5 years old. We analyzed Th1/Th2/Th17 expression of mRNA, cytokines (using the Magpix® my-system, and mental development index (MDI. Results: Among the 40 patients that were followed, the data showed that the antenatal dexamethasone exposure group (N = 24 had a significantly higher incidence of allergic diseases (75.0% vs. 18.8%, p < 0.0001 when compared to the non-dexamethasone exposure group (N = 16, especially with regard to asthma (41.7% vs. 0.0%, p = 0.003 and allergic rhinitis (58.3% vs. 18.8%, p = 0.013, but not atopic dermatitis. No statistical difference was observed in the mRNA expression levels of total white blood cell count between the dexamethasone exposure and non-exposure groups (p > 0.05. However, the asthma group had higher IL-5 levels (p = 0.009, and the MDI was shown to be significantly higher in the dexamethasone exposure group (90.38 ± 3.31 vs. 79.94 ± 3.58, p = 0.043 while no significant difference was found between the PDI of the two groups. Conclusions: Exposure to antenatal dexamethasone in preterm infants will increase their susceptibility to allergic diseases, particularly asthma and allergic rhinitis. Preterm infants’ exposure to antenatal

  4. Three-center feasibility of lung clearance index in infants and preschool children with cystic fibrosis and other lung diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Mirjam; Graeber, Simon Y; Joachim, Cornelia; Barth, Sandra; Ricklefs, Isabell; Diekmann, Gesa; Kopp, Matthias V; Naehrlich, Lutz; Mall, Marcus A

    2018-03-01

    Lung clearance index (LCI) detects early ventilation inhomogeneity and has been suggested as sensitive endpoint in multicenter intervention trials in infants and preschoolers with cystic fibrosis (CF). However, the feasibility of multicenter LCI in this age group has not been determined. We, therefore, investigated the feasibility of LCI in infants and preschoolers with and without CF in a three-center setting. Following central training, standardized SF 6 -MBW measurements were performed in 73 sedated children (10 controls, 49 with CF and 14 with other lung diseases), mean age 2.3±1.2years across three centers, and data were analyzed centrally. Overall success rate of LCI measurements was 91.8% ranging from 78.9% to 100% across study sites. LCI was increased in patients with CF (P<0.05) and with other lung diseases (P<0.05) compared to controls. Our results support feasibility of LCI as multicenter endpoint in clinical trials in infants and preschoolers with CF. Copyright © 2017 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessing medication adherence in inflammatory bowel diseases. A comparison between a self-administered scale and a pharmacy refill index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, María Luisa; Sanromán, Luciano; Martín, Alicia; Figueira, Montserrat; Martínez, Noemi; Hernández, Vicent; Del Campo, Victor; Pineda, Juan R; Martínez-Cadilla, Jesús; Pereira, Santos; Rodríguez Prada, José Ignacio

    2017-08-01

    Medication non-adherence in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has a negative impact on disease outcome. Different tools have been proposed to assess non-adherence. We aimed to compare a self-administered scale and a pharmacy refill index as a reliable measure of medication adherence and to determine what factors are related to adherence. Consecutive non-active IBD outpatients were asked to fill in the self-reported Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8) and the Beliefs about Medication Questionnaire (BMQ). Pharmacy refill data were reviewed from the previous three or six months and the medication possession ratio (MPR) was calculated. Non-adherence was defined as MMAS-8 scores harm of medication were significantly associated with MPR non-adherence (p = 0.01). The accuracy of MMAS-8 to identify medication non-adherence in inactive IBD outpatients in our setting is poor due to a low specificity and a negative predictive value. Psychosocial factors such as beliefs about medication seem to be related to IBD non-adherence.

  6. INDEXING AND INDEX FUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAKAN SARITAŞ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Proponents of the efficient market hypothesis believe that active portfolio management is largely wasted effort and unlikely to justify the expenses incurred. Therefore, they advocate a passive investment strategy that makes no attempt to outsmart the market. One common strategy for passive management is indexing where a fund is designed to replicate the performance of a broad-based index of stocks and bonds. Traditionally, indexing was used by institutional investors, but today, the use of index funds proliferated among individual investors. Over the years, both international and domestic index funds have disproportionately outperformed the market more than the actively managed funds have.

  7. The Localized Scleroderma Skin Severity Index and Physician Global Assessment of Disease Activity: A Work in Progress Toward Development of Localized Scleroderma Outcome Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ARKACHAISRI, THASCHAWEE; VILAIYUK, SOAMARAT; LI, SUZANNE; O’NEIL, KATHLEEN M.; POPE, ELENA; HIGGINS, GLORIA C.; PUNARO, MARILYNN; RABINOVICH, EGLA C.; ROSENKRANZ, MARGALIT; KIETZ, DANIEL A.; ROSEN, PAUL; SPALDING, STEVEN J.; HENNON, TERESA R.; TOROK, KATHRYN S.; CASSIDY, ELAINE; MEDSGER, THOMAS A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To develop and evaluate a Localized Scleroderma (LS) Skin Severity Index (LoSSI) and global assessments’ clinimetric property and effect on quality of life (QOL). Methods A 3-phase study was conducted. The first phase involved 15 patients with LS and 14 examiners who assessed LoSSI [surface area (SA), erythema (ER), skin thickness (ST), and new lesion/extension (N/E)] twice for inter/intrarater reliability. Patient global assessment of disease severity (PtGA-S) and Children’s Dermatology Life Quality Index (CDLQI) were collected for intrarater reliability evaluation. The second phase was aimed to develop clinical determinants for physician global assessment of disease activity (PhysGA-A) and to assess its content validity. The third phase involved 2 examiners assessing LoSSI and PhysGA-A on 27 patients. Effect of training on improving reliability/validity and sensitivity to change of the LoSSI and PhysGA-A was determined. Results Interrater reliability was excellent for ER [intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) 0.71], ST (ICC 0.70), LoSSI (ICC 0.80), and PhysGA-A (ICC 0.90) but poor for SA (ICC 0.35); thus, LoSSI was modified to mLoSSI. Examiners’ experience did not affect the scores, but training/practice improved reliability. Intrarater reliability was excellent for ER, ST, and LoSSI (Spearman’s rho = 0.71–0.89) and moderate for SA. PtGA-S and CDLQI showed good intrarater agreement (ICC 0.63 and 0.80). mLoSSI correlated moderately with PhysGA-A and PtGA-S. Both mLoSSI and PhysGA-A were sensitive to change following therapy. Conclusion mLoSSI and PhysGA-A are reliable and valid tools for assessing LS disease severity and show high sensitivity to detect change over time. These tools are feasible for use in routine clinical practice. They should be considered for inclusion in a core set of LS outcome measures for clinical trials. PMID:19833758

  8. Reduced risk of Parkinson's disease associated with lower body mass index and heavy leisure-time physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sääksjärvi, Katri; Knekt, Paul; Männistö, Satu; Lyytinen, Jukka; Jääskeläinen, Tuija; Kanerva, Noora; Heliövaara, Markku

    2014-04-01

    The risk factors for Parkinson's disease (PD) are not well established. We therefore examined the prediction of various lifestyle factors on the incidence of PD in a cohort drawn from the Finnish Mobile Clinic Health Examination Survey, conducted in 1973-1976. The study population comprised 6,715 men and women aged 50-79 years and free of PD at the baseline. All of the subjects completed a baseline health examination (including height and weight measurements) and a questionnaire providing information on leisure-time physical activity, smoking, and alcohol consumption. During a 22-year follow-up, 101 incident cases of PD occurred. The statistical analyses were based on Cox's model including age, sex, education, community density, occupation, coffee consumption, body mass index (BMI), leisure-time physical activity, smoking and alcohol consumption as independent variables. At first, BMI was not associated with PD risk, but after exclusion of the first 15 years of follow-up, an elevated risk appeared at higher BMI levels (P for trend 0.02). Furthermore, subjects with heavy leisure-time physical activity had a lower PD risk than those with no activity [relative risk (RR) 0.27, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.08-0.90]. In variance with findings for other chronic diseases, current smokers had a lower PD risk than those who had never smoked (RR 0.23, 95 % CI 0.08-0.67), and individuals with moderate alcohol intake (at the level of Parkinson's disease, but more research is needed.

  9. Assessing medication adherence in inflammatory bowel diseases: a comparison between a self-administered scale and a pharmacy refill index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-Luisa de-Castro

    Full Text Available Background: Medication non-adherence in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD has a negative impact on disease outcome. Different tools have been proposed to assess non-adherence. We aimed to compare a self-administered scale and a pharmacy refill index as a reliable measure of medication adherence and to determine what factors are related to adherence. Methods: Consecutive non-active IBD outpatients were asked to fill in the self-reported Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8 and the Beliefs about Medication Questionnaire (BMQ. Pharmacy refill data were reviewed from the previous three or six months and the medication possession ratio (MPR was calculated. Non-adherence was defined as MMAS-8 scores < 6 or MPR < 0.8. Results: Two-hundred and three patients were enrolled (60% ulcerative colitis, 40% Crohn's disease; 51% were men, and the mean age was 46.3 (14 years. Seventy-four per cent of patients were on monotherapy and 26% on combination therapy; altogether, 65% received mesalazine, 46% thiopurines and 16% anti-tumor necrosis factor alfa. Non-adherence rate assessed by MPR was 37% and 22.4% by MMAS-8. Receiver operator curve analysis using a MMAS-8 cut-off of six gave an area under the curve of 0.6 (95% CI 0.5-0.7, p = 0.001. This score had an 85% sensitivity and 34% specificity to predict medication non-adherence, with negative and positive predictive values of 57% and 70% respectively. High scores in the BMQ potential for harm of medication were significantly associated with MPR non-adherence (p = 0.01. Conclusion: The accuracy of MMAS-8 to identify medication non-adherence in inactive IBD outpatients in our setting is poor due to a low specificity and a negative predictive value. Psychosocial factors such as beliefs about medication seem to be related to IBD non-adherence.

  10. The pediatric NAFLD fibrosis index: a predictor of liver fibrosis in children with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

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    Pietrobattista Andrea

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Liver fibrosis is a stage of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD which is responsible for liver-related morbidity and mortality in adults. Accordingly, the search for non-invasive markers of liver fibrosis has been the subject of intensive efforts in adults with NAFLD. Here, we developed a simple algorithm for the prediction of liver fibrosis in children with NAFLD followed at a tertiary care center. Methods The study included 136 male and 67 female children with NAFLD aged 3.3 to 18.0 years; 141 (69% of them had fibrosis at liver biopsy. On the basis of biological plausibility, readily availability and evidence from adult studies, we evaluated the following potential predictors of liver fibrosis at bootstrapped stepwise logistic regression: gender, age, body mass index, waist circumference, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, gamma-glutamyl-transferase, albumin, prothrombin time, glucose, insulin, triglycerides and cholesterol. A final model was developed using bootstrapped logistic regression with bias-correction. We used this model to develop the 'pediatric NAFLD fibrosis index' (PNFI, which varies between 0 and 10. Results The final model was based on age, waist circumference and triglycerides and had a area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.85 (95% bootstrapped confidence interval (CI with bias correction 0.80 to 0.90 for the prediction of liver fibrosis. A PNFI ≥ 9 (positive likelihood ratio = 28.6, 95% CI 4.0 to 201.0; positive predictive value = 98.5, 95% CI 91.8 to 100.0 could be used to rule in liver fibrosis without performing liver biopsy. Conclusion PNFI may help clinicians to predict liver fibrosis in children with NAFLD, but external validation is needed before it can be employed for this purpose.

  11. Correlation of Body Mass Index and Serum Parameters With Ultrasonographic Grade of Fatty Change in Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abangah, Ghobad; Yousefi, Atefeh; Asadollahi, Rouhangiz; Veisani, Yousef; Rahimifar, Paria; Alizadeh, Sajjad

    2014-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common liver disease in the western population and expanding disease in the world. Pathological changes in fatty liver are like alcohol liver damage, which can lead to end-stage liver disease. The prevalence of NAFLD in obese or overweight people is higher than general population, and it seems that people with high Body Mass Index (BMI) or abnormality in some laboratory tests are more susceptible for severe fatty liver and high grade of NAFLD in ultrasonography (U.S). This study aimed to evaluate the correlation of BMI and laboratory tests with NAFLD in ultrasonography. During a multi-step process, we selected two-hundred and thirteen cases from four hundred and eighteen patients with NAFLD. Laboratory tests performed included: ALT, AST, FBS, Triglyceride and cholesterol levels, hepatitis B surface antigen, hepatitis C antibody, ceruloplasmin, serum iron, TIBC, transferrin saturation, ferritin, AMA, ANA, ANTI LKM1, serum protein electrophoresis, TSH, anti TTG (IgA). BMI and ultrasonography for 213 patients were performed, and then data was analyzed. These parameters and grades of ultrasonography were compared with the values obtained using one way ANOVA. An ordinal logistic regression model was used to estimate the probability of ultrasonography grade. The Statistical Package for the Social Science program (SPSS, version 16.0) was used for data analysis. Two-hundred and thirteen cases including 140 male and 73 female, were studied. In general, 72.3% of patients were overweight and obese. Post-hoc tests showed that only BMI (P < 0.001) and TG (P < 0.011) among variables had statistically significant associations with ultrasonography grade (USG), and ordinal logistic regression model showed that BMI and AST were the best predictors. Our results suggest that in patients with NAFLD, BMI and TG are most effective factors in severity of fatty liver disease and ultrasonography grade (USG). On the other hand, BMI as a

  12. Utility of Bacillary Index in Slit Skin Smears in Correlation with Clinical and Histopathological Alterations in Hansen's Disease: An Attempt to Revive a Simple Useful Procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premalatha, P; Renuka, I V; Meghana, A; Devi, S I; Charyulu, Pavk; Sampoorna, G

    2016-01-01

    Leprosy, a relatively common chronic contagious disease having diverse modes of clinical presentation, can mimic a variety of unrelated diseases. For proper and adequate treatment, the diagnosis must be made accurately with subtyping which should be done with the help of bacillary index, histopathological features, and clinical correlation. This is extremely important in patient care as paucibacillary and multibacillary types have different modes of treatment. Our aim is to categorize leprosy into various types based on bacillary index, morphological findings both in slit skin smears, and biopsy along with clinical correlation.

  13. The ocular surface and tear film and their dysfunction in dry eye disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolando, M; Zierhut, M

    2001-03-01

    The ocular surface, tear film, lacrimal glands, and eyelids act as a functional unit to preserve the quality of the refractive surface of the eye and to resist injury and protect the eye against changing bodily and environmental conditions. Events that disturb the homeostasis of this functional unit can result in a vicious cycle of ocular surface disease. The tear film is the most dynamic structure of the functional unit, and its production and turnover is essential to maintaining the health of the ocular surface. Classically, the tear film is reported to be composed of three layers: the mucin, aqueous, and lipid layers. The boundaries and real thickness of such layers is still under discussion. A dysfunction of any of these layers can result in dry eye disease.

  14. Ultrasound assessment of mitral annular displacement in patients with coronary heart disease and its correlation with left heart function and serum indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing-Yan Lai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the ultrasound assessment of mitral annular displacement in patients with coronary heart disease and its correlation with left heart function and serum indexes. Methods: A total of 89 patients with coronary heart disease were divided into angina pectoris group 42 cases and myocardial infarction group 47 cases according to the illness, and 58 cases of healthy subjects were included in control group. Values of mitral annular displacement (MAD parameters, left heart function indexes and serum illness-related indexes of three groups were detected, and the correlation between values of MAD parameters and values of cardiac function indexes and serum illness-related indexes were further analyzed. Results: MAD parameters TMAD1, TMAD2 and TMADmid values, heart function LVEF values and serum CysC level of myocardial infarction group and angina pectoris group were lower than those of control group, and cardiac function LVEDD, LVESD and A/E values as well as serum H-FABP, ICTP, Hcy and vWF levels were higher than those of control group (P<0.05; MAD parameters TMAD1, TMAD2 and TMADmid values of patients with coronary heart disease were negatively correlated with LVEDD, LVESD and A/E values as well as H-FABP, ICTP, Hcy and vWF levels, and were positively correlated with LVEF value and CysC level (P<0.05. Conclusions: Ultrasound assessment of mitral annular displacement in patients with coronary heart disease can early diagnose coronary heart disease and judge the disease severity, and it plays a positive role in optimizing disease prognosis.

  15. Prospective association between a dietary quality index based on a nutrient profiling system and cardiovascular disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriouch, Solia; Julia, Chantal; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Méjean, Caroline; Ducrot, Pauline; Péneau, Sandrine; Donnenfeld, Mathilde; Deschasaux, Mélanie; Menai, Mehdi; Hercberg, Serge; Touvier, Mathilde; Fezeu, Léopold K

    2016-10-01

    Public health strategies are essential to guide consumers' choices and produce a substantial population impact on cardiovascular disease risk prevention through nutrition. Our aim was to investigate the prospective association between the Food Standards Agency nutrient profiling system dietary index (FSA-NPS DI) and cardiovascular disease risk. The FSA-NPS has been proposed to serve as a basis for a five-colour nutrition label suggested in France to be put on the front of pack of food products. A total of 6515 participants to the SU.VI.MAX cohort (1994-2007), who completed at least six 24-hour dietary records during the first two years of the study, were followed for a median of 12.4 years (25th-75th percentiles: 11.0-12.6). Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to characterise the associations between FSA-NPS DI (continuous and sex-specific quartiles) and the incidence of cardiovascular diseases. Interactions with individual characteristics were tested; 181 major cardiovascular events were reported (59 myocardial infarctions, 43 strokes, 79 anginas). A higher FSA-NPS DI, characterising poorer food choices, was associated with an overall increase in cardiovascular disease risk (HRfor a 1-point increment = 1.14 (1.03-1.27); HRQ4vs.Q1 = 1.61 (1.05-2.47), Ptrend Q4-Q1 = 0.03). This association tended to be stronger in smokers (HRfor a 1-point increment = 1.39 (1.11-1.73); Pinteraction = 0.01) and those less physically active (HRfor a 1-point increment = 1.26 (1.08-1.46); Pinteraction = 0.04). Our results suggest that poorer food choices, as reflected by a higher FSA-NPS DI, may be associated with a significant increase in cardiovascular risk, especially in at-risk individuals (smokers and physically inactive persons). This score could be a useful tool for public health prevention strategies. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00272428. © The European Society of Cardiology 2016.

  16. Atherogenic index of plasma and 10-year risk of cardiovascular disease in adult Africans living with HIV infection: A cross-sectional study from Yaoundé, Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Raoul Noumegni

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background The paucity of data regarding the association between atherogenic index of plasma and risk of cardiovascular disease in HIV-infected populations living in sub-Saharan Africa prompted us to conduct this study which aimed to assess the relationship between atherogenic index of plasma and risk of cardiovascular disease among a Cameroonian HIV-infected population. Methods This was a cross-sectional study conducted among 452 HIV-infected adults in Yaoundé, Cameroon. Risk of cardiovascular disease was calculated using the Framingham risk score; atherogenic index of plasma was derived as log (triglycerides/high-density lipoproteins cholesterol. Results Participants’ mean age (80% females was 44.4 ± 9.8 years. Atherogenic index of plasma values ranged from –0.63 to 1.36 with a median of 0.11 (25th–75th percentiles: –0.08-0.31. Most participants (88.5% were on antiretroviral treatment. There was a significant correlation between atherogenic index of plasma and fasting plasma glucose (r = 0.116; p  = 0.014, atherogenic index of plasma and total cholesterol (r = –0.164; p  < 0.001. Atherogenic index of plasma was significantly associated with the risk of cardiovascular disease either in univariable (β = 5.05, 95% CI: 3.31–6.79; p  < 0.001, R 2  = 0.067 or in multivariable linear regression model after adjusting for socio-demographic, clinical and biological confounders (adjusted β = 3.79, 95% CI: 1.65 – 4.88; p  < 0.001, R 2  = 0.187. Conclusion Atherogenic index of plasma may be an independent factor impacting the risk of cardiovascular disease among Cameroonian HIV-infected people. More studies are needed to better elucidate the association between atherogenic index of plasma and risk of cardiovascular disease in our setting.

  17. Association of body mass index with disease severity and prognosis in patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Q.; Li, T. [Department of Respirology, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong Province (China); Li, J.C. [Neurosurgical Intensive Care Unit, the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province (China); Li, Y. [Department of Respirology, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong Province (China)

    2015-07-10

    The objective of this observational, multicenter study was to evaluate the association of body mass index (BMI) with disease severity and prognosis in patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. A total of 339 patients (197 females, 142 males) diagnosed with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis by high-resolution computed tomography were classified into four groups: underweight (BMI<18.5 kg/m{sup 2}), normal weight (18.5≤BMI<25.0 kg/m{sup 2}), overweight (25.0≤BMI<30.0 kg/m{sup 2}), and obese (BMI≥30.0 kg/m{sup 2}). Clinical variables expressing disease severity were recorded, and acute exacerbations, hospitalizations, and survival rates were estimated during the follow-up period. The mean BMI was 21.90 kg/m{sup 2}. The underweight group comprised 28.61% of all patients. BMI was negatively correlated with acute exacerbations, C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, radiographic extent of bronchiectasis, and chronic colonization by P. aeruginosa and positively correlated with pulmonary function indices. BMI was a significant predictor of hospitalization risk independent of relevant covariates. The 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-year cumulative survival rates were 94%, 86%, 81%, and 73%, respectively. Survival rates decreased with decreasing BMI (χ{sup 2}=35.16, P<0.001). The arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure, inspiratory capacity, age, BMI, and predicted percentage of forced expiratory volume in 1 s independently predicted survival in the Cox proportional hazard model. In conclusion, an underweight status was highly prevalent among patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. Patients with a lower BMI were prone to developing more acute exacerbations, worse pulmonary function, amplified systemic inflammation, and chronic colonization by P. aeruginosa. BMI was a major determinant of hospitalization and death risks. BMI should be considered in the routine assessment of patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis.

  18. Association of body mass index with disease severity and prognosis in patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, Q.; Li, T.; Li, J.C.; Li, Y.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this observational, multicenter study was to evaluate the association of body mass index (BMI) with disease severity and prognosis in patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. A total of 339 patients (197 females, 142 males) diagnosed with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis by high-resolution computed tomography were classified into four groups: underweight (BMI<18.5 kg/m 2 ), normal weight (18.5≤BMI<25.0 kg/m 2 ), overweight (25.0≤BMI<30.0 kg/m 2 ), and obese (BMI≥30.0 kg/m 2 ). Clinical variables expressing disease severity were recorded, and acute exacerbations, hospitalizations, and survival rates were estimated during the follow-up period. The mean BMI was 21.90 kg/m 2 . The underweight group comprised 28.61% of all patients. BMI was negatively correlated with acute exacerbations, C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, radiographic extent of bronchiectasis, and chronic colonization by P. aeruginosa and positively correlated with pulmonary function indices. BMI was a significant predictor of hospitalization risk independent of relevant covariates. The 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-year cumulative survival rates were 94%, 86%, 81%, and 73%, respectively. Survival rates decreased with decreasing BMI (χ 2 =35.16, P<0.001). The arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure, inspiratory capacity, age, BMI, and predicted percentage of forced expiratory volume in 1 s independently predicted survival in the Cox proportional hazard model. In conclusion, an underweight status was highly prevalent among patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. Patients with a lower BMI were prone to developing more acute exacerbations, worse pulmonary function, amplified systemic inflammation, and chronic colonization by P. aeruginosa. BMI was a major determinant of hospitalization and death risks. BMI should be considered in the routine assessment of patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis

  19. Can mean platelet component be used as an index of platelet activity in stable coronary artery disease?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooke, John

    2012-01-31

    Acute coronary syndrome is associated with intracoronary thrombosis secondary to platelet activation. Previous groups have investigated platelet activation in both stable and unstable vascular disease. Most measures of platelet activation are not routinely available or easily adaptable to large scale clinical use. Recently, measurement of the mean platelet component (MPC) has become part of the routine data provided by an automated full blood count analyser, the Advia 120. MPC measures platelet density which changes on platelet activation. Our objectives were to determine if platelet activation, as measured by MPC, is increased in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) and to determine if MPC could be useful in differentiating people with stable CAD from controls on an everyday clinical basis. Three hundred and forty-five consecutive patients attending for elective coronary angiography had full blood count analysis and MPC measurement performed using an ADVIA-120 analyser. Three hundred and twenty-four were analysed in our final dataset. Two hundred and fifty-three (78%) had CAD. Patients with CAD were significantly (p<0.001) older than those without (63.8 versus 56.0 years). Results failed to demonstrate a difference (p=0.467) in MPC between patients with CAD and those with normal coronary arteries (25.8 versus 26.0). Likewise, there was no correlation between MPC and the severity of CAD (Kendall\\'s tau b=-0.086, p=0.04). MPC is not a useful index of platelet activity in stable CAD when used in everyday clinical practice.

  20. Can mean platelet component be used as an index of platelet activity in stable coronary artery disease?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooke, John

    2009-04-01

    Acute coronary syndrome is associated with intracoronary thrombosis secondary to platelet activation. Previous groups have investigated platelet activation in both stable and unstable vascular disease. Most measures of platelet activation are not routinely available or easily adaptable to large scale clinical use. Recently, measurement of the mean platelet component (MPC) has become part of the routine data provided by an automated full blood count analyser, the Advia 120. MPC measures platelet density which changes on platelet activation. Our objectives were to determine if platelet activation, as measured by MPC, is increased in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) and to determine if MPC could be useful in differentiating people with stable CAD from controls on an everyday clinical basis. Three hundred and forty-five consecutive patients attending for elective coronary angiography had full blood count analysis and MPC measurement performed using an ADVIA-120 analyser. Three hundred and twenty-four were analysed in our final dataset. Two hundred and fifty-three (78%) had CAD. Patients with CAD were significantly (p<0.001) older than those without (63.8 versus 56.0 years). Results failed to demonstrate a difference (p=0.467) in MPC between patients with CAD and those with normal coronary arteries (25.8 versus 26.0). Likewise, there was no correlation between MPC and the severity of CAD (Kendall\\'s tau b=-0.086, p=0.04). MPC is not a useful index of platelet activity in stable CAD when used in everyday clinical practice.

  1. Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve-Based Prediction Model for Periodontal Disease Updated With the Calibrated Community Periodontal Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chiu-Wen; Yen, Amy Ming-Fang; Lai, Hongmin; Chen, Hsiu-Hsi; Chen, Sam Li-Sheng

    2017-12-01

    The accuracy of a prediction model for periodontal disease using the community periodontal index (CPI) has been undertaken by using an area under a receiver operating characteristics (AUROC) curve. How the uncalibrated CPI, as measured by general dentists trained by periodontists in a large epidemiologic study, and affects the performance in a prediction model, has not been researched yet. A two-stage design was conducted by first proposing a validation study to calibrate CPI between a senior periodontal specialist and trained general dentists who measured CPIs in the main study of a nationwide survey. A Bayesian hierarchical logistic regression model was applied to estimate the non-updated and updated clinical weights used for building up risk scores. How the calibrated CPI affected performance of the updated prediction model was quantified by comparing AUROC curves between the original and updated models. Estimates regarding calibration of CPI obtained from the validation study were 66% and 85% for sensitivity and specificity, respectively. After updating, clinical weights of each predictor were inflated, and the risk score for the highest risk category was elevated from 434 to 630. Such an update improved the AUROC performance of the two corresponding prediction models from 62.6% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 61.7% to 63.6%) for the non-updated model to 68.9% (95% CI: 68.0% to 69.6%) for the updated one, reaching a statistically significant difference (P prediction model was demonstrated for periodontal disease as measured by the calibrated CPI derived from a large epidemiologic survey.

  2. The relation between ankle-brachial index (ABI and coronary artery disease severity and risk factors: an angiographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Sadeghi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The current study aims to determine the relation between ankle–brachialindex (ABI and angiographic findings and major cardiovascular risk factors in patients withsuspected coronary artery diseases (CAD in Isfahan.METHODS: In this cross-sectional descriptive-analytic research, patients with suspected CADwere studied. Characteristics of studied subjects including demographics, familial history, pastmedical history and atherosclerotic risk factors such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension,hyperlipidemia and smoking were obtained using a standard questionnaire. ABI was measuredin all studied patients. ABI ≤ 0.9 (ABI+ was considered as peripheral vessel disease and ABI >0.9 (ABI- was considered as normal. Then, all studied patients underwent coronary arteryangiography. The results of the questionnaire and angiographic findings were compared in ABI+and ABI- groups. Data were analyzed by SPSS 15 using ANOVA, t-test, Spearman's rankcorrelation coefficient, and discriminant analysis.RESULTS: In this study, 125 patients were investigated. ABI ≤ 0.9 was seen in 25 patients (20%.The prevalence of ABI+ among men and women was 25.9% and 7.5%, respectively (P = 0.01. Theprevalence of atherosclerotic risk factors was significantly higher in ABI+ patients than in ABIones(P < 0.05. ABI+ patients had more significant stenosis than ABI- ones. The mean ofocclusion was significantly higher in ABI+ patients with left main artery (LMA, right coronaryartery (RCA, left anterior descending artery (LAD, diagonal artery 1 (D1 and left circumflexartery (LCX involvements (P < 0.05.CONCLUSION: The findings of this research indicated that ABI could be a useful method inassessing both the atherosclerotic risk factors and the degree of coronary involvements insuspected patients. However, in order to make more accurate decisions for using this method indiagnosing and preventing CAD, we should plan further studies in large sample sizes of generalpopulation

  3. Association of body mass index with disease severity and prognosis in patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Qi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this observational, multicenter study was to evaluate the association of body mass index (BMI with disease severity and prognosis in patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. A total of 339 patients (197 females, 142 males diagnosed with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis by high-resolution computed tomography were classified into four groups: underweight (BMI<18.5 kg/m2, normal weight (18.5≤BMI<25.0 kg/m2, overweight (25.0≤BMI<30.0 kg/m2, and obese (BMI≥30.0 kg/m2. Clinical variables expressing disease severity were recorded, and acute exacerbations, hospitalizations, and survival rates were estimated during the follow-up period. The mean BMI was 21.90 kg/m2. The underweight group comprised 28.61% of all patients. BMI was negatively correlated with acute exacerbations, C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, radiographic extent of bronchiectasis, and chronic colonization by P. aeruginosa and positively correlated with pulmonary function indices. BMI was a significant predictor of hospitalization risk independent of relevant covariates. The 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-year cumulative survival rates were 94%, 86%, 81%, and 73%, respectively. Survival rates decreased with decreasing BMI (χ2=35.16, P<0.001. The arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure, inspiratory capacity, age, BMI, and predicted percentage of forced expiratory volume in 1 s independently predicted survival in the Cox proportional hazard model. In conclusion, an underweight status was highly prevalent among patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. Patients with a lower BMI were prone to developing more acute exacerbations, worse pulmonary function, amplified systemic inflammation, and chronic colonization by P. aeruginosa. BMI was a major determinant of hospitalization and death risks. BMI should be considered in the routine assessment of patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis.

  4. An evaluation study of research efficiency of the Guangzhou institute of respiratory diseases based on malmquist index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jian-Feng; Wang, Juan; Liang, Liang; Wu, Yong-Ding; Huang, Mei-Juan; Liu, Tian-Qiang; Zhou, Lin; Wang, Xin-Wang

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to analyze the dynamic changes of the scientific research innovation efficiency of Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Diseases (GIRD) during the year 2009-2013 to explore the reason for these changes and give some suggestions on how to improve the overall efficiency of the Institute. The panel data used in this study were taken from 19 research teams of GIRD during 2009 to 2013. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) based on Malmquist index (MI) was used to analyze the performance of each research team in terms of productivity changes over time. Data were analyzed using DEAP 2.1 software. The annual average increase rate of total factor productivity (TFP), technological progress, technical efficiency, pure technical efficiency, and scale efficiency was 30.4%, 22.5%, 6.4%, 0.9%, and 5.4%, respectively from 2009 to 2013. The scientific research innovation efficiency of the GIRD was generally high and kept on growing. The increase of TFP was mainly caused by the progress of tech, the descending of TFP in some teams should be mainly attributable to the declining pure technical efficiency, and scale efficiency on the whole, maintaining a stable growth at a low speed. To achieve higher scientific research innovation, GIRD not only needs to further improve the management level and introduce advanced management mode, but also needs to focus on optimization of resource allocation, as well as to strengthen the talent introduction, and continue to maintain the absorption of new technologies and innovation.

  5. Correlation between Patient-Reported Symptoms and Ankle-Brachial Index after Revascularization for Peripheral Arterial Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung Gon Je

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Improvement in quality of life (QoL is a primary treatment goal for patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD. The current study aimed to quantify improvement in the health status of PAD patients following peripheral revascularization using the peripheral artery questionnaire (PAQ and ankle-brachial index (ABI, and to evaluate possible correlation between the two methods. The PAQ and ABI were assessed in 149 symptomatic PAD patients before, and three months after peripheral revascularization. Mean PAQ summary scores improved significantly three months after revascularization (+49.3 ± 15 points, p < 0.001. PAQ scores relating to patient symptoms showed the largest improvement following revascularization. The smallest increases were seen in reported treatment satisfaction (all p’s < 0.001. As expected the ABI of treated limbs showed significant improvement post-revascularization (p < 0.001. ABI after revascularization correlated with patient-reported changes in the physical function and QoL domains of the PAQ. Twenty-two percent of PAD patients were identified as having a poor response to revascularization (increase in ABI < 0.15. Interestingly, poor responders reported improvement in symptoms on the PAQ, although this was less marked than in patients with an increase in ABI > 0.15 following revascularization. In conclusion, data from the current study suggest a significant correlation between improvement in patient-reported outcomes assessed by PAQ and ABI in symptomatic PAD patients undergoing peripheral revascularization.

  6. Correlation between Patient-Reported Symptoms and Ankle-Brachial Index after Revascularization for Peripheral Arterial Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Je, Hyung Gon; Kim, Bo Hyun; Cho, Kyoung Im; Jang, Jae Sik; Park, Yong Hyun; Spertus, John

    2015-05-18

    Improvement in quality of life (QoL) is a primary treatment goal for patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). The current study aimed to quantify improvement in the health status of PAD patients following peripheral revascularization using the peripheral artery questionnaire (PAQ) and ankle-brachial index (ABI), and to evaluate possible correlation between the two methods. The PAQ and ABI were assessed in 149 symptomatic PAD patients before, and three months after peripheral revascularization. Mean PAQ summary scores improved significantly three months after revascularization (+49.3 ± 15 points, p PAQ scores relating to patient symptoms showed the largest improvement following revascularization. The smallest increases were seen in reported treatment satisfaction (all p's PAQ. Twenty-two percent of PAD patients were identified as having a poor response to revascularization (increase in ABI PAQ, although this was less marked than in patients with an increase in ABI > 0.15 following revascularization. In conclusion, data from the current study suggest a significant correlation between improvement in patient-reported outcomes assessed by PAQ and ABI in symptomatic PAD patients undergoing peripheral revascularization.

  7. Derivation and validation of REASON: a risk score identifying candidates to screen for peripheral arterial disease using ankle brachial index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Rafel; Baena-Díez, Jose Miguel; Quesada, Miquel; Solanas, Pascual; Subirana, Isaac; Sala, Joan; Alzamora, Maite; Forès, Rosa; Masiá, Rafel; Elosua, Roberto; Grau, María; Cordón, Ferran; Pera, Guillem; Rigo, Fernando; Martí, Ruth; Ponjoan, Anna; Cerezo, Carlos; Brugada, Ramon; Marrugat, Jaume

    2011-02-01

    The recommendation of screening with ankle brachial index (ABI) in asymptomatic individuals is controversial. The aims of the present study were to develop and validate a pre-screening test to select candidates for ABI measurement in the Spanish population 50-79 years old, and to compare its predictive capacity to current Inter-Society Consensus (ISC) screening criteria. Two population-based cross-sectional studies were used to develop (n = 4046) and validate (n = 3285) a regression model to predict ABI guidelines, and similar sensitivity. This resulted in fewer patients screened per diagnosis of ABI < 0.9 (10.6 vs. 8.75) and a lower proportion of the population aged 50-79 years candidate to ABI screening (63.3% vs. 55.0%). This model provides accurate ABI < 0.9 risk estimates for ages 50-79, with a better predictive capacity than that of ISC criteria. Its use could reduce possible harms and unnecessary work-ups of ABI screening as a risk stratification strategy in primary prevention of peripheral vascular disease. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Education and inequalities in risk scores for coronary heart disease and body mass index: evidence for a population strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sze Yan; Kawachi, Ichiro; Glymour, M Maria

    2012-09-01

    Concerns have been raised that education may have greater benefits for persons at high risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) than for those at low risk. We estimated the association of education (less than high school, high school, or college graduates) with 10-year CHD risk and body mass index (BMI), using linear and quantile regression models, in the following two nationally representative datasets: the 2006 wave of the Health and Retirement Survey and the 2003-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Higher educational attainment was associated with lower 10-year CHD risk for all groups. However, the magnitude of this association varied considerably across quantiles for some subgroups. For example, among women in NHANES, a high school degree was associated with 4% (95% confidence interval = -9% to 1%) and 17% (-24% to -8%) lower CHD risk in the 10th and 90th percentiles, respectively. For BMI, a college degree was associated with uniform decreases across the distribution for women, but with varying increases for men. Compared with those who had not completed high school, male college graduates in the NHANES sample had a BMI that was 6% greater (2% to 11%) at the 10th percentile of the BMI distribution and 7% lower (-10% to -3%) at the 90th percentile (ie, overweight/obese). Estimates from the Health and Retirement Survey sample and the marginal quantile regression models showed similar patterns. Conventional regression methods may mask important variations in the associations between education and CHD risk.

  9. Analysis of Margin Index as a Method for Predicting Residual Disease After Breast-Conserving Surgery in a European Cancer Center.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bolger, Jarlath C

    2011-06-03

    INTRODUCTION: Breast-conserving surgery (BCS), followed by appropriate adjuvant therapies is established as a standard treatment option for women with early-stage invasive breast cancers. A number of factors have been shown to correlate with local and regional disease recurrence. Although margin status is a strong predictor of disease recurrence, consensus is yet to be established on the optimum margin necessary. Margenthaler et al. recently proposed the use of a "margin index," combining tumor size and margin status as a predictor of residual disease after BCS. We applied this new predictive tool to a population of patients with primary breast cancer who presented to a symptomatic breast unit to determine its suitability in predicting those who require reexcision surgery. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of our breast cancer database from January 1, 2000 to June 30, 2010 was performed, including all patients who underwent BCS. Of 531 patients who underwent BCS, 27.1% (144\\/531) required further reexcision procedures, and 55 were eligible for inclusion in the study. Margin index was calculated as: margin index = closest margin (mm)\\/tumor size (mm) × 100, with index >5 considered optimum. RESULTS: Of the 55 patients included, 31% (17\\/55) had residual disease. Fisher\\'s exact test showed margin index not to be a significant predictor of residual disease on reexcision specimen (P = 0.57). Of note, a significantly higher proportion of our patients presented with T2\\/3 tumors (60% vs. 38%). CONCLUSIONS: Although an apparently elegant tool for predicting residual disease after BCS, we have shown that it is not applicable to a symptomatic breast unit in Ireland.

  10. Analysis of margin index as a method for predicting residual disease after breast-conserving surgery in a European cancer center.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bolger, Jarlath C

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: Breast-conserving surgery (BCS), followed by appropriate adjuvant therapies is established as a standard treatment option for women with early-stage invasive breast cancers. A number of factors have been shown to correlate with local and regional disease recurrence. Although margin status is a strong predictor of disease recurrence, consensus is yet to be established on the optimum margin necessary. Margenthaler et al. recently proposed the use of a "margin index," combining tumor size and margin status as a predictor of residual disease after BCS. We applied this new predictive tool to a population of patients with primary breast cancer who presented to a symptomatic breast unit to determine its suitability in predicting those who require reexcision surgery. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of our breast cancer database from January 1, 2000 to June 30, 2010 was performed, including all patients who underwent BCS. Of 531 patients who underwent BCS, 27.1% (144\\/531) required further reexcision procedures, and 55 were eligible for inclusion in the study. Margin index was calculated as: margin index = closest margin (mm)\\/tumor size (mm) x 100, with index >5 considered optimum. RESULTS: Of the 55 patients included, 31% (17\\/55) had residual disease. Fisher\\'s exact test showed margin index not to be a significant predictor of residual disease on reexcision specimen (P = 0.57). Of note, a significantly higher proportion of our patients presented with T2\\/3 tumors (60% vs. 38%). CONCLUSIONS: Although an apparently elegant tool for predicting residual disease after BCS, we have shown that it is not applicable to a symptomatic breast unit in Ireland.

  11. Discriminative and predictive properties of disease-specific and generic health status indexes in elderly COPD patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forastiere Francesco

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The association between bronchial obstruction severity and mortality in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD is well established, but it is unknown whether disease-specific health status measures and multidimensional assessment (MDA have comparable prognostic value. Methods We analyzed data coming from the Salute Respiratoria nell'Anziano (Respiratory Health in the Elderly – SaRA study, enrolling elderly people attending outpatient clinics for respiratory and non-respiratory problems. From this population we selected 449 patients with bronchial obstruction (77.3% men, mean age 73.1. We classified patients' health status using tertiles of the Saint George Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ and a MDA including functional (the 6' walking test, WT, cognitive (Mini-Mental State Examination, MMSE and affective status (Geriatric Depression Scale, GDS. The agreement of the classification methods was calculated using the kappa statistic, and survival associated with group membership was evaluated using survival analysis. Results Pulmonary function, expressed by the FEV1, worsened with increasing SGRQ or MDA scores. Cognitive function was not associated with the SGRQ, while physical performance and mood status were impaired only in the highest tertile of SGRQ. A poor agreement was found between the two classification systems tested (k = 0.194. Compared to people in the first tertile of SGRQ score, those in the second tertile had a sex-adjusted HR of 1.22 (0.75 – 1.98 and those in the third tertile of 2.90 (1.92 – 4.40. The corresponding figures of the MDA were 1.49 (95% CI 1.02 – 2.18 and 2.01 (95% CI: 1.31 – 3.08. After adjustment for severity of obstruction, only a SGRQ in the upper tertile was associated with mortality (HR: 1.86; 95% CI: 1.14 – 3.02. Conclusion In elderly outpatients with mild-moderate COPD, a disease-specific health status index seems to be a better predictor of death compared to a MDA.

  12. Dipyridamole Body Surface Potential Mapping: Noninvasive Differentiation of Syndrome X from Coronary Artery Disease

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Boudík, F.; Anger, Z.; Aschermann, M.; Vojáček, J.; Tomečková, Marie

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 3 (2002), s. 181-191 ISSN 0022-0736 R&D Projects: GA MZd IZ4038 Keywords : body surface potential mapping * dipyridamole * coronary artery disease * syndrome X Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 0.599, year: 2002

  13. Effect of a medical food on body mass index and activities of daily living in patients with Alzheimer's disease: secondary analyses from a randomized, controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, P.J.G.H.; Verhey, F.R.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.; Twisk, J.W.; Swinkels, S.H.; Scheltens, P.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the effect of a medical food (Souvenaid) on body mass index (BMI) and functional abilities in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). Design/setting/participants/intervention /measurements: These analyses were performed on data from a 12-week, double-blind,

  14. Effect of a medical food on body mass index and activities of daily living in patients with Alzheimer's disease: secondary analyses from a randomized, controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, P.J.; Verhey, F.R.J.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Swinkels, S.H.N.; Scheltens, P.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of a medical food (Souvenaid) on body mass index (BMI) and functional abilities in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). DESIGN/SETTING/PARTICIPANTS/INTERVENTION /MEASUREMENTS: These analyses were performed on data from a 12-week, double-blind,

  15. Separate and combined associations of body-mass index and abdominal adiposity with cardiovascular disease: collaborative analysis of 58 prospective studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wormser, David; Kaptoge, Stephen; Di Angelantonio, Emanuele

    2011-01-01

    Guidelines differ about the value of assessment of adiposity measures for cardiovascular disease risk prediction when information is available for other risk factors. We studied the separate and combined associations of body-mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio with risk ...

  16. Generation of an index for physiological imbalance and its use as a predictor of primary disease in dairy cows during early lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moyes, Kasey; Larsen, Torben; Ingvartsen, Klaus Lønne

    2013-01-01

    Physiological imbalance (PI) is a situation in which physiological parameters deviate from the normal and cows consequently have an increased risk of developing production diseases and reduced production or reproduction. The objectives of this work were (1) to generate an index for PI based...

  17. Calculation of the surface water pollution index in the evaluation of environmental component of product life cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олег Аскольдович Проскурнин

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The assessment feasibility of the combined effect of the product life cycle on the environment is grounded. As an example, the pollution of surface waters at the production stage is considered in the article. A mechanism of ranking indicators of surface water pollution according to their importance is proposed. An algorithm for checking the consistency of the statistical expert judgment in determining weight coefficient for the indicators of pollution, based on the use of the concordance coefficient, is given

  18. Psoriasis area severity index (pasi) and the dermatology life quality index (dlqi): the correlation between disease severity and quality of life in patients of psoriasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.A.; Shaikh, Z.I.

    2017-01-01

    To determine the correlation between Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI) and Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) in patients of psoriasis. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Both outdoor and indoor patients of Dermatology Department, Military Hospital (MH) Rawalpindi for duration of 6 months i.e. from 6th Oct 2014 to 5th Apr 2014 were selected. Material and Methods: A total of 155 patients of chronic plaque psoriasis diagnosed clinically, ranging from 20 to 80 years of age and of either gender were included in the study. A careful history and clinical examination was done and for each case PASI and DLQI were calculated and registered in the designed proforma. Data were entered and analyzed in SPSS version-17.0. Mean and standard deviations were calculated for quantitative variables like age, PASI and DLQI. Frequencies and percentages were calculated for qualitative variables like gender. Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) (+1,-1) was calculated between mean PASI and mean DLQI. A p-value <0.05 was considered as significant. Stratification was done for age and gender and post stratification correlation was calculated. Results: Out of 155 patients studied, 110 (70.97%) were males and 45 (29.03%) were females. Ages of the patients ranged from 20-80 years (mean age 49.5 +- 15.6 years). Mean PASI score was 27.92 +- 5.83 and DLQ1 was 11.46 +- 4.22. The value of Pearson correlation coefficient (r) was 0.1324 which showed weak correlation between PASI and DLQ1 with p-value of 0.100. Weak correlation (r=-0.3394) in age 51-80 years while very weak correlation (r=-0.0651) in age 20-50 years was noted. PASI and DLQ1 showed weak correlation in males (r=0.132) and in females (r=0.461). Conclusion: This study concluded that there is a weak correlation between PASI and DLQI.

  19. MULTI-TEMPORAL CROP SURFACE MODELS COMBINED WITH THE RGB VEGETATION INDEX FROM UAV-BASED IMAGES FOR FORAGE MONITORING IN GRASSLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Possoch

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing of crop biomass is important in regard to precision agriculture, which aims to improve nutrient use efficiency and to develop better stress and disease management. In this study, multi-temporal crop surface models (CSMs were generated from UAV-based dense imaging in order to derive plant height distribution and to determine forage mass. The low-cost UAV-based RGB imaging was carried out in a grassland experiment at the University of Bonn, Germany, in summer 2015. The test site comprised three consecutive growths including six different nitrogen fertilizer levels and three replicates, in sum 324 plots with a size of 1.5×1.5 m. Each growth consisted of six harvesting dates. RGB-images and biomass samples were taken at twelve dates nearly biweekly within two growths between June and September 2015. Images were taken with a DJI Phantom 2 in combination of a 2D Zenmuse gimbal and a GoPro Hero 3 (black edition. Overlapping images were captured in 13 to 16 m and overview images in approximately 60 m height at 2 frames per second. The RGB vegetation index (RGBVI was calculated as the normalized difference of the squared green reflectance and the product of blue and red reflectance from the non-calibrated images. The post processing was done with Agisoft PhotoScan Professional (SfM-based and Esri ArcGIS. 14 ground control points (GCPs were located in the field, distinguished by 30 cm × 30 cm markers and measured with a RTK-GPS (HiPer Pro Topcon with 0.01 m horizontal and vertical precision. The errors of the spatial resolution in x-, y-, z-direction were in a scale of 3-4 cm. From each survey, also one distortion corrected image was georeferenced by the same GCPs and used for the RGBVI calculation. The results have been used to analyse and evaluate the relationship between estimated plant height derived with this low-cost UAV-system and forage mass. Results indicate that the plant height seems to be a suitable indicator for forage mass

  20. Multi-Temporal Crop Surface Models Combined with the RGB Vegetation Index from Uav-Based Images for Forage Monitoring in Grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possoch, M.; Bieker, S.; Hoffmeister, D.; Bolten, A.; Schellberg, J.; Bareth, G.

    2016-06-01

    Remote sensing of crop biomass is important in regard to precision agriculture, which aims to improve nutrient use efficiency and to develop better stress and disease management. In this study, multi-temporal crop surface models (CSMs) were generated from UAV-based dense imaging in order to derive plant height distribution and to determine forage mass. The low-cost UAV-based RGB imaging was carried out in a grassland experiment at the University of Bonn, Germany, in summer 2015. The test site comprised three consecutive growths including six different nitrogen fertilizer levels and three replicates, in sum 324 plots with a size of 1.5×1.5 m. Each growth consisted of six harvesting dates. RGB-images and biomass samples were taken at twelve dates nearly biweekly within two growths between June and September 2015. Images were taken with a DJI Phantom 2 in combination of a 2D Zenmuse gimbal and a GoPro Hero 3 (black edition). Overlapping images were captured in 13 to 16 m and overview images in approximately 60 m height at 2 frames per second. The RGB vegetation index (RGBVI) was calculated as the normalized difference of the squared green reflectance and the product of blue and red reflectance from the non-calibrated images. The post processing was done with Agisoft PhotoScan Professional (SfM-based) and Esri ArcGIS. 14 ground control points (GCPs) were located in the field, distinguished by 30 cm × 30 cm markers and measured with a RTK-GPS (HiPer Pro Topcon) with 0.01 m horizontal and vertical precision. The errors of the spatial resolution in x-, y-, z-direction were in a scale of 3-4 cm. From each survey, also one distortion corrected image was georeferenced by the same GCPs and used for the RGBVI calculation. The results have been used to analyse and evaluate the relationship between estimated plant height derived with this low-cost UAV-system and forage mass. Results indicate that the plant height seems to be a suitable indicator for forage mass. There is a

  1. Evaluation of Surface Water Quality by Using GIS and a Heavy Metal Pollution Index (HPI) Model in a Coal Mining Area, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Ashwani Kumar; De Maio, Marina; Singh, Prasoon Kumar; Mahato, Mukesh Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Twenty eight surface water samples were collected from fourteen sites of the West Bokaro coalfield, India. The concentration of Mn, Cu, Zn, Ni, As, Se, Al, Cr, Ba, and Fe were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for determination of seasonal fluctuations and a heavy metal pollution index (HPI). The HPI values were below the critical pollution index value of 100. Metal concentrations were higher in the pre-monsoon season as compared to the post-monsoon season. The Zn, Ni, Mn, As, Se, Al, Ba, Cu, and Cr concentrations did not exceed the desirable limits for drinking water in either season. However, at many sites, concentrations of Fe were above the desirable limit of the WHO (2006) and Indian drinking water standard (BIS 2003) in both seasons. The water that contained higher concentrations of Fe would require treatment before domestic use.

  2. The reliability and validity of a Venezuelan version of the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI) and Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauseo Vera, Mayra; Gutiérrez-González, Luis Arturo; Maldonado, Irama; Al Snih, Soham

    2017-09-21

    Spondyloarthropathies (SpA) are disabling diseases with a prevalence of 1.9% in the general population. The indices designed for monitoring the disease should be valid, reliable and cross-culturally adapted for decision-making concerning the appropriate treatment. Changing an adjective or pronoun in a self-administered questionnaire could be the big difference in condensing an idea in a few words and transmitting that concept to all those who share the same language. To develop a Venezuelan version of the original English version of the BASDAI/BASFI and to evaluate its reliability and validity in Venezuelan patients with SpA. Certified linguists were needed for the translation of a Venezuelan version of the BASDAI/BASFI. The evaluation of reliability and validity was performed by calculating correlation coefficients in addition to Cronbach's alpha correlation between the BASDAI score and the clinical parameters (for example: erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, modified Schöber test, occiput-to-wall distance and enthesis count). We studied 40 patients including 31 men (77.5%) and 9 women (22.5%). The mean age was 35.9 years ± standard deviation (SD) 12.01 and the disease duration was 11.5 years (± SD 9.5). The most common diagnoses were undifferentiated spondyloarthritis (45%), ankylosing spondylitis (27.5%) and psoriatic arthritis (20%). The incidences of reactive arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis and juvenile Reiter's syndrome were 2.5% each. The test-retest reliability of the BASDAI and BASFI was high (R = 0.99 and 0.99, respectively; P<.0001). The internal consistency for the BASDAI was high (Cronbach's alpha = 0.88; P=.002) and the intraclass correlation coefficient for internal consistency: 0.9867 (P=.001). Internal consistency for the BASFI: Cronbach's alpha = 0.7985 (P=.002), intraclass correlation coefficient for internal consistency: 0.9055 (P=.001). Construct validity of the BASDAI was high for general well-being of the patient (R = 0

  3. Spatial Correlations of Anomaly Time Series of AIRS Version-6 Land Surface Skin Temperatures with the Nino-4 Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susskind, Joel; Lee, Jae N.; Iredell, Lena

    2013-01-01

    The AIRS Science Team Version-6 data set is a valuable resource for meteorological studies. Quality Controlled earth's surface skin temperatures are produced on a 45 km x 45 km spatial scale under most cloud cover conditions. The same retrieval algorithm is used for all surface types under all conditions. This study used eleven years of AIRS monthly mean surface skin temperature and cloud cover products to show that land surface skin temperatures have decreased significantly in some areas and increased significantly in other areas over the period September 2002 through August 2013. These changes occurred primarily at 1:30 PM but not at 1:30 AM. Cooling land areas contained corresponding increases in cloud cover over this time period, with the reverse being true for warming land areas. The cloud cover anomaly patterns for a given month are affected significantly by El Nino/La Nina activity, and anomalies in cloud cover are a driving force behind anomalies in land surface skin temperature.

  4. SURFACE FLUID REGISTRATION OF CONFORMAL REPRESENTATION: APPLICATION TO DETECT DISEASE BURDEN AND GENETIC INFLUENCE ON HIPPOCAMPUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jie; Thompson, Paul M.; Gutman, Boris; Wang, Yalin

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a new automated surface registration system based on surface conformal parameterization by holomorphic 1-forms, inverse consistentsurface fluid registration, and multivariate tensor-based morphometry (mTBM). First, we conformally map a surface onto a planar rectangle space with holomorphic 1-forms. Second, we compute surface conformal representation by combining its local conformal factor and mean curvature and linearly scale the dynamic range of the conformal representation to form the feature image of the surface. Third, we align the feature image with a chosen template image via the fluid image registration algorithm, which has been extended into the curvilinear coordinates to adjust for the distortion introduced by surface parameterization. The inverse consistent image registration algorithm is also incorporated in the system to jointly estimate the forward and inverse transformations between the study and template images. This alignment induces a corresponding deformation on the surface. We tested the system on Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) baseline dataset to study AD symptoms on hippocampus. In our system, by modeling a hippocampus as a 3D parametric surface, we nonlinearly registered each surface with a selected template surface. Then we used mTBM to analyze the morphometrydifference between diagnostic groups. Experimental results show that the new system has better performance than two publically available subcortical surface registration tools: FIRST and SPHARM. We also analyzed the genetic influence of the Apolipoprotein E ε4 allele (ApoE4),which is considered as the most prevalent risk factor for AD.Our work successfully detected statistically significant difference between ApoE4 carriers and non-carriers in both patients of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and healthy control subjects. The results show evidence that the ApoE genotype may be associated with accelerated brain atrophy so that our workprovides

  5. Does Increased Body Mass Index Effect the Gains of Pulmonary Rehabilitation in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hülya Doğan Şahin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to compare the gain of pulmonary rehabilitation (PR in obese, pre-obese, and normal-weight patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD who underwent a PR program. Methods: COPD patients (n=137 underwent pulmonary and cardiac system examination and pulmonary function tests (PFTs before PR. Chest X-rays, arterial blood gases, body mass index, quality of life (QOL questionnaires, anxiety and depression scores, and Modified Medical Research Council dyspnea scale (MMRC scores were evaluated in all patients. A 6-min walk test was performed to determine the exercise capacity of the patients. All patients underwent an 8-week outpatient PR program. The patients were reevaluated at the end of 8th week in terms of all parameters. Results: The study group consisted of 44 normal-weight, 52 pre-obese, and 41 obese COPD patients. Before PR, there was no significant difference in terms of 6-min walk distance (6MWD, PFT, MMRC, or QOL scores between the groups (p>0.05 for all. After PR, partial arterial oxygen pressure and arterial saturation, MMRC, and QOL scores improved significantly in all three groups (p<0.05 for all. 6MWD and walkwork significantly increased after PR in all three groups (p<0.001 for all, but the gain in 6MWD was significantly lower in obese patients compared to pre-obese and normal-weight patients (p=0.049. Conclusion: Pre-obese and obese patients benefit from PR similarly to the normal-weight patients in terms of gas exchange, dyspnea perception, and QOL. But it seems to be that exercise capacity improves less in obese COPD patients compared to pre-obese and normal- weight patients.

  6. Comparison of Physical Activity and Body Mass Index in Patients with and without Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooneh Dehghan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: The prevalence of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD, as one of the health problems, and its complications are increasing. Inadequate physical activity and obesity are the determinants of the incidence of NAFLD. This study aimed to compare physical activity and Body Mass Index (BMI in both groups of patients with and without NAFLD in Tehran.Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 170 outpatients aged 20 to 55 who referred to Taleghani Hospital of Tehran for sonography participated. They were selected using convenience sampling method. Using completing the questionnaires through systematic interviews with individuals, socio-demographic characteristics, complain and the level of  physical activity were assessed. Anthropometric measurements and ultrasound were also performed. Data were analyzed using descriptive methods for descriptive data analysis, T-test and Chi-square tests to compare of the means between groups and to determine the relationship between variables.Results: Most patients with NAFLD (60% had intense level of physical activity and only a small percentage of them (11.3% had low level of physical activity. While in the group of patients with NAFLD, most people (36.7% had moderate level of physical activity and 28.9% had low level physical activity. The difference between the level of physical activity in the two groups was significant (p=0.001. The mean (SD BMI of patients with NAFLD was higher than patients without NAFLD (32.8(6.6 vs. 24.4(3 (p<0.001.Conclusion: Considering the prevalence of obesity and inadequate physical activity in patients with NAFLD, life style change recommended through designing and implementation of educational interventions to increase their knowledge and improve attitude, also physical activity interventions as option with diet to improve clinical status

  7. Significant decrease of saturation index in erythrocytes membrane from subjects with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notarnicola, Maria; Caruso, Maria Gabriella; Tutino, Valeria; Bonfiglio, Caterina; Cozzolongo, Raffaele; Giannuzzi, Vito; De Nunzio, Valentina; De Leonardis, Giampiero; Abbrescia, Daniela I; Franco, Isabella; Intini, Vincenza; Mirizzi, Antonella; Osella, Alberto R

    2017-08-23

    The lipidomic profiling of erythrocyte membranes is expected to provide a peculiar scenario at molecular level of metabolic and nutritional pathways which may influence the lipid balance and the adaptation and homeostasis of the organism. Considering that lipid accumulation in the cell is important in promoting tissue inflammation, the purpose of this study is to analyze the fatty acid profile in red blood cell membranes of patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD), in order to identify and validate membrane profiles possibly associated with the degree of hepatic damage. This work presents data obtained at baseline from 101 subjects that participated to a nutritional trial (registration number: NCT02347696) enrolling consecutive subjects with NAFLD. Diagnosis of liver steatosis was performed by using vibration-controlled elastography implemented on FibroScan. Fatty acids, extracted from phospholipids of erythrocyte membranes, were quantified by gas chromatography method. The subjects with severe NAFLD showed a significant decrease of the ratio of stearic acid to oleic acid (saturation index, SI) compared to controls, 1.281 ± 0.31 vs 1.5 ± 0.29, respectively. Low levels of SI in red blood cell membranes, inversely associated with degree of liver damage, suggest that an impairment of circulating cell membrane structure can reflect modifications that take place in the liver. Subjects with severe NAFLDalso showed higher levels of elongase 5 enzymatic activity, evaluated as vaccenic acid to palmitoleic acid ratio. Starting from these evidences, our findings show the importance of lipidomic approach in the diagnosis and the staging of NAFLD.

  8. Serum cystatin C is an independent biomarker associated with the renal resistive index in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa-Akiyama, Ayu; Sugiyama, Hitoshi; Kitagawa, Masashi; Tanaka, Keiko; Onishi, Akifumi; Yamanari, Toshio; Morinaga, Hiroshi; Uchida, Haruhito Adam; Nakamura, Kazufumi; Ito, Hiroshi; Wada, Jun

    2018-01-01

    Cystatin C is a cysteine protease inhibitor that is produced by nearly all human cells. The serum level of cystatin C is a stronger predictor of the renal outcome and the risk of cardiovascular events than the creatinine level. The resistive index (RI) on renal Doppler ultrasonography is a good indicator of vascular resistance as well as the renal outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, it is unclear whether serum cystatin C is associated with signs of vascular dysfunction, such as the renal RI. We measured the serum cystatin C levels in 101 CKD patients and investigated the relationships between cystatin C and markers of vascular dysfunction, including the renal RI, ankle-brachial pulse wave velocity (baPWV), intima-media thickness (IMT), and cardiac function. The renal RI was significantly correlated with the serum cystatin C level (p < 0.0001, r = 0.6920). The serum cystatin C level was found to be a significant determinant of the renal RI (p < 0.0001), but not the baPWV, in a multivariate regression analysis. The multivariate odds ratio of the serum cystatin C level for a renal RI of more than 0.66 was statistically significant (2.92, p = 0.0106). The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve comparing the sensitivity and specificity of cystatin C for predicting an RI of more than 0.66 was 0.882 (cutoff value: 2.04 mg/L). In conclusion, the serum cystatin C level is an independent biomarker associated with the renal RI in patients with CKD.

  9. An open-source, self-explanatory touch screen in routine care. Validity of filling in the Bath measures on Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index, Function Index, the Health Assessment Questionnaire and Visual Analogue Scales in comparison with paper versions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schefte, David B; Hetland, Merete L

    2010-01-01

    The Danish DANBIO registry has developed open-source software for touch screens in the waiting room. The objective was to assess the validity of outcomes from self-explanatory patient questionnaires on touch screen in comparison with the traditional paper form in routine clinical care. Fifty-two AS patients and 59 RA patients completed Visual Analogue Scales (VASs) for pain, fatigue and global health, and Bath measures on Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI) and Function Index (BASFI) (AS patients) or HAQs (RA patients) on touch screen and paper form in random order with a 1-h interval. Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs), 95% CIs and smallest detectable differences (SDDs) were calculated. ICC ranged from 0.922 to 0.988 (P health when compared with the traditional paper form. Implementation of touch screens in clinical practice is feasible and patients need no instruction.

  10. The effects of acupoint-catgut embedment combined with medical treatment on the BODE index scores of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, P. B. S. W.; Srilestari, A.; Abdurrohim, K.; Yunus, F.

    2017-08-01

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is now the fourth leading cause of death in the world. As COPD medications are associated with high mortality levels, continuous research into the improvement of treatment modalities is being conducted. This study aimed to identify the effects of acupoint-catgut embedment combined with medical treatment on the Body mass index, airflow Obstruction, Dyspnea and Exercise capacity (BODE) index scores of COPD patients. A single-blind randomized controlled trial was conducted on 48 patients; participants were allocated into either the acupoint-catgut embedment with medication group (case group) or the sham acupuncture with medication group (control group). Acupoint-catgut embedment was conducted at the BL13 Feishu, BL43 Gaohuangshu, BL20 Pishu, BL23 Shenshu, and ST40 Fenglong points two times at an interval of 15 days. The BODE index, a primary outcome indicator, was assessed on Day 1 and Day 30. The results showed statistically and clinically significant differences between the two groups—in fact, BODE index scores were reduced by 1.83 points in the case group (p = 0.000). Ultimately, BODE index scores were lower in the intervention group than in the control group, thus indicating a statistically significant and clinically important improvement of COPD-related symptoms. According to these results, acupoint-catgut embedment combined with medical treatment is concluded to be more effective than medical treatment alone in reducing BODE index scores.

  11. Ocular surface immunity: homeostatic mechanisms and their disruption in dry eye disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barabino, Stefano; Chen, Yihe; Chauhan, Sunil; Dana, Reza

    2012-05-01

    The tear film, lacrimal glands, corneal and conjunctival epithelia and Meibomian glands work together as a lacrimal functional unit (LFU) to preserve the integrity and function of the ocular surface. The integrity of this unit is necessary for the health and normal function of the eye and visual system. Nervous connections and systemic hormones are well known factors that maintain the homeostasis of the ocular surface. They control the response to internal and external stimuli. Our and others' studies show that immunological mechanisms also play a pivotal role in regulating the ocular surface environment. Our studies demonstrate how anti-inflammatory factors such as the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 (VEGFR-3) in corneal cells, immature corneal resident antigen-presenting cells, and regulatory T cells play an active role in protecting the ocular surface. Dry eye disease (DED) affects millions of people worldwide and negatively influences the quality of life for patients. In its most severe forms, DED may lead to blindness. The etiology and pathogenesis of DED remain largely unclear. Nonetheless, in this review we summarize the role of the disruption of afferent and efferent immunoregulatory mechanisms that are responsible for the chronicity of the disease, its symptoms, and its clinical signs. We illustrate current anti-inflammatory treatments for DED and propose that prevention of the disruption of immunoregulatory mechanisms may represent a promising therapeutic strategy towards controlling ocular surface inflammation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Quality index of the surface water of Amazonian rivers in industrial areas in Pará, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Adaelson Campelo; Faial, Kleber Raimundo Freitas; do Carmo Freitas Faial, Kelson; da Silva Lopes, Iris Danielly; de Oliveira Lima, Marcelo; Guimarães, Raphael Mendonça; Mendonça, Neyson Martins

    2017-10-15

    In this study was to evaluate the waters quality of the Murucupi River, located in urban agglomerate area and intense industrial activity in Barcarena City, Pará State. The Arapiranga River in Abaetetuba City was used as control area (Background), next to Barcarena. Was used the Water Quality Index (WQI) based on nine variables analized. Waters quality of the Arapiranga and Murucupi rivers were regular to good and bad to good, respectively. Anthropogenic influence on the Murucupi River was higher, mainly by the disposal of domestic effluents from the urban agglomerate and of the industrial waste tailing basins upstream of this river. Due to its less inhabited environment and further away from the area urban and industrial, the Arapiranga River was more preserved. Waters pollution of around these area is increasingly intense, and restricted its uses for various purposes. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of leaf area index on the coupling between water table, land surface energy fluxes, and planetary boundary layer at the regional scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y.; Rihani, J.; Langensiepen, M.; Simmer, C.

    2013-12-01

    Vegetation plays an important role in the exchange of moisture and energy at the land surface. Previous studies indicate that vegetation increases the complexity of the feedbacks between the atmosphere and subsurface through processes such as interception, root water uptake, leaf surface evaporation, and transpiration. Vegetation cover can affect not only the interaction between water table depth and energy fluxes, but also the development of the planetary boundary layer. Leaf Area Index (LAI) is shown to be a major factor influencing these interactions. In this work, we investigate the sensitivity of water table, surface energy fluxes, and atmospheric boundary layer interactions to LAI as a model input. We particularly focus on the role LAI plays on the location and extent of transition zones of strongest coupling and how this role changes over seasonal timescales for a real catchment. The Terrestrial System Modelling Platform (TerrSysMP), developed within the Transregional Collaborative Research Centre 32 (TR32), is used in this study. TerrSysMP consists of the variably saturated groundwater model ParFlow, the land surface model Community Land Model (CLM), and the regional climate and weather forecast model COSMO (COnsortium for Small-scale Modeling). The sensitivity analysis is performed over a range of LAI values for different vegetation types as extracted from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) dataset for the Rur catchment in Germany. In the first part of this work, effects of vegetation structure on land surface energy fluxes and their connection to water table dynamics are studied using the stand-alone CLM and the coupled subsurface-surface components of TerrSysMP (ParFlow-CLM), respectively. The interconnection between LAI and transition zones of strongest coupling are investigated and analyzed through a subsequent set of subsurface-surface-atmosphere coupled simulations implementing the full TerrSysMP model system.

  14. Impact of the Winter North Pacific Oscillation on the Surface Air Temperature over Eurasia and North America: Sensitivity to the Index Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shangfeng; Song, Linye

    2018-06-01

    This study analyzes the impact of the winter North Pacific Oscillation (NPO) on the surface air temperature (SAT) variations over Eurasia and North America based on six different NPO indices. Results show that the influences of the winter NPO on the SAT over Eurasia and North America are sensitive to the definition of the NPO index. The impact of the winter NPO on the SAT variations over Eurasia (North America) is significant (insignificant) when the anticyclonic anomaly associated with the NPO index over the North Pacific midlatitudes shifts westward and pronounced northerly wind anomalies appear around Lake Baikal. By contrast, the impact of the winter NPO on the SAT variations over Eurasia (North America) is insignificant (significant) when the anticyclonic anomaly over the North Pacific related to the NPO index shifts eastward and the associated northerly wind anomalies to its eastern flank extend to North America. The present study suggests that the NPO definition should be taken into account when analyzing the impact of the winter NPO on Eurasian and North American SAT variations.

  15. First principles study of elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) adsorption on low index CoMnO{sub 3} surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Wenchao; Su, Pingru; Tang, Qingli; Cheng, Zhiwen [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200240 (China); Shen, Zhemin, E-mail: zmshen@sjtu.edu.cn [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200240 (China); Fan, Maohong [Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming, 82071 (United States); School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia, 30332 (United States)

    2017-06-30

    Highlights: • Hg{sup 0} adsorption on low index CoMnO{sub 3} surface was predicted by DFT method. • Hg{sup 0} is adsorbed on the CoMnO{sub 3} surface with chemisorption interaction. • Hg{sup 0} has highest adsorption energy on CoMnO{sub 3} (1 0 0) surface with Hg-Mn mechanism. • The electron transfer of Hg{sup 0} has positive relationship with adsorption energy. - Abstract: The density functional theory (DFT) is applied to predict elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) adsorption on CoMnO{sub 3} surface for the first time. GGA/PBE functional were selected to determine the potential Hg{sup 0} capture mechanisms. The results show that Hg{sup 0} has good affinity with CoMnO{sub 3} surfaces with chemical adsorption. The adsorption energy of Hg{sup 0}-CoMnO{sub 3} (1 0 0), Hg{sup 0}-CoMnO{sub 3} (1 0 1) and Hg{sup 0}-CoMnO{sub 3} (1 1 0) are −85.225, −72.305 and −70.729 kJ/mol, respectively. The Hg-Mn and Hg-Co mechanisms were revealed on low index surfaces. Hg{sup 0} was oxidized to its valence state of 0.236 on Mn site in CoMnO{sub 3} (1 0 0) surface. The Hg-Co interaction mechanism occurred on Hg{sup 0}-CoMnO{sub 3} (1 0 1) and Hg{sup 0}-CoMnO{sub 3} (1 1 0) with 0.209e{sup −} and 0.189e{sup −} transformation, respectively. The PDOS analysis shows that Hg-Mn interaction depends on the hybridization of Hg(s- and d-orbitals) and Mn (s-, p- and d- orbitals). However, Hg-Co interaction stems from s- and d- orbitals of Hg, which only overlapping with d- and p- orbital of Co. Both the adsorption energy and electronic structure analysis indicated that CoMnO{sub 3} catalyst performed excellent in Hg{sup 0} oxidation. Exposing CoMnO{sub 3} (1 0 0) is most favorable in Hg{sup 0} control, which provides theoretical instruction on certain crystal plane synthesis in experiment.

  16. Glazed ceramic roof tiles: influence of surface features in the solar reflectance index; Influencia das caracteristicas da superficie no indice de refletancia solar de telhas ceramicas esmaltadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bortoli, Leitcia Silva de; Stapait, Camila Cristina; Marinoski, Deivis Luis; Fredel, Marcio Celso; Schabbach, Luciana M., E-mail: luciana.maccarini@ufsc.br [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Blumenau, SC (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    In this study the influence of surface features of ceramic roof tiles in the solar reflectance index were evaluated. Two glazed ceramic roof tiles (type stoneware) with the same color (ivory) but with different appearance (matte and brilliant) were the focus of the analysis. The Solar Reflectance Index (SRI) of the roofs tiles were determined by the solar reflectance values (UV-VIS-NIR) and emittance, measured in laboratory. The samples showed SRI> 39 in accordance with LEED certification criteria (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design), contributing to minimizing the Heat Island Effects. Although the matte roof tile shows a slightly higher SRI value (82) than the brilliant one (78), the results for the variables that composes the SRI value (reflectance and emittance) were very similar. Analysis of XRD, SEM and EDS performed on the surfaces of the two roofs indicated for the matte glaze the presence of microcrystals (with barium and zinc) that can contribute to the slightly highest value of SRI. The roughness (optical interferometer white light) and the brightness (brightness meter) of the samples were also measured. (author)

  17. Effect of Qianggan capsules on insulin resistance index and liver fibrosis score in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OU Qiang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the effect of Qianggan capsules on liver fibrosis score and insulin resistance index in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Methods A total of 85 NAFLD patients who were treated in the Eighth People′s Hospital of Shanghai from August 2014 to July 2015 were enrolled and randomly divided into treatment group (45 patients and control group (40 patients. The patients in the treatment group were given Qianggan capsules, and those in the control group were given polyene phosphatidylcholine capsules. The course of treatment was 24 weeks for both groups. The changes in serum aminotransferases [aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT], homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, and NAFLD fibrosis score (NAFLDFS after treatment were observed in both groups. The t-test was used for comparison of continuous data between groups, before-after comparison within each group was made by paired t-test; and the chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data between groups. Results Both groups showed significant improvements in ALT and AST levels after treatment (all P<0.01. After treatment the treatment group showed significant reductions in HOMA-IR and NAFLDFS (3.58±0.85 vs 2.48±078,t=6.40,P<0.01; -1.78±1.24 vs -2.35±0.98,t=2.40,P<0.01 and the treatment group had significantly lower HOMA-IR and NAFLDFS than the control group(12.48±0.78 vs 3.09±0.89, t=3.36, P<0.01; -2.35±0.98 vs -1.48±1.08, t=3.80, P<0.01. No serious adverse events were observed during the course of treatment. Conclusion Qianggan capsules not only reduce the levels of serum aminotransferases, but also improve insulin resistance and reduce fibrosis degree in NAFLD patients.

  18. Estimating the causal influence of body mass index on risk of Parkinson disease: A Mendelian randomisation study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alastair J Noyce

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Both positive and negative associations between higher body mass index (BMI and Parkinson disease (PD have been reported in observational studies, but it has been difficult to establish causality because of the possibility of residual confounding or reverse causation. To our knowledge, Mendelian randomisation (MR-the use of genetic instrumental variables (IVs to explore causal effects-has not previously been used to test the effect of BMI on PD.Two-sample MR was undertaken using genome-wide association (GWA study data. The associations between the genetic instruments and BMI were obtained from the GIANT consortium and consisted of the per-allele difference in mean BMI for 77 independent variants that reached genome-wide significance. The per-allele difference in log-odds of PD for each of these variants was estimated from a recent meta-analysis, which included 13,708 cases of PD and 95,282 controls. The inverse-variance weighted method was used to estimate a pooled odds ratio (OR for the effect of a 5-kg/m2 higher BMI on PD. Evidence of directional pleiotropy averaged across all variants was sought using MR-Egger regression. Frailty simulations were used to assess whether causal associations were affected by mortality selection. A combined genetic IV expected to confer a lifetime exposure of 5-kg/m2 higher BMI was associated with a lower risk of PD (OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.69-0.98. MR-Egger regression gave similar results, suggesting that directional pleiotropy was unlikely to be biasing the result (intercept 0.002; p = 0.654. However, the apparent protective influence of higher BMI could be at least partially induced by survival bias in the PD GWA study, as demonstrated by frailty simulations. Other important limitations of this application of MR include the inability to analyse non-linear associations, to undertake subgroup analyses, and to gain mechanistic insights.In this large study using two-sample MR, we found that variants known to influence

  19. The triglyceride and glucose index (TyG) is an effective biomarker to identify nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shujun; Du, Tingting; Zhang, Jianhua; Lu, Huiming; Lin, Xuan; Xie, Junhui; Yang, Yan; Yu, Xuefeng

    2017-01-19

    The triglyceride and glucose index (TyG) has been proposed as a marker of insulin resistance. We aimed to investigate the ability of TyG, through comparing with the predictive value of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), to identify individuals at risk for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). A cross-sectional study was conducted in a Chinese health examination cohort of 10 761 people aged above 20 years. NAFLD was diagnosed by ultrasonography. Compared with the participants in the lowest quartile of TyG, the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for NAFLD were 1.8 (1.5-2.1), 3.0 (2.5-3.5), and 6.3 (5.3-7.5) for those in the second, the third, and the fourth quartile of TyG, whereas the corresponding ORs (95% CI) for NAFLD were 1.5 (1.3-1.7), 1.9 (1.6-2.2), and 3.1 (2.6-3.7) for the upper three quartiles of ALT. These results suggested that TyG was superior to ALT in association with NAFLD risk. According to the ROC analysis, the optimal cut-off point of TyG for NAFLD was 8.5 and the area under the ROC curve (AUC) was 0.782 (95% CI 0.773-0.790), with 72.2 and 70.5% sensitivity and specificity, respectively. The AUC of TyG was larger than that of ALT (0.715 (95% CI 0.705-0.725), P for difference <0.0001), whereas the largest AUC was obtained when adding TyG to ALT (0.804 (95% CI 0.795-0.812), P for difference <0.0001). TyG is effective to identify individuals at risk for NAFLD. A TyG threshold of 8.5 was highly sensitive for detecting NAFLD subjects and may be suitable as a diagnostic criterion for NAFLD in Chinese adults.

  20. Birth weight, childhood body mass index and risk of coronary heart disease in adults: combined historical cohort studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lise Geisler Andersen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low birth weight and high childhood body mass index (BMI is each associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD in adult life. We studied individual and combined associations of birth weight and childhood BMI with the risk of CHD in adulthood. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Birth weight and BMI at age seven years were available in 216,771 Danish and Finnish individuals born 1924-1976. Linkage to national registers for hospitalization and causes of death identified 8,805 CHD events during up to 33 years of follow-up (median = 24 years after age 25 years. Analyses were conducted with Cox regression based on restricted cubic splines. Using median birth weight of 3.4 kg as reference, a non-linear relation between birth weight and CHD was found. It was not significantly different between cohorts, or between men and women, nor was the association altered by childhood BMI. For birth weights below 3.4 kg, the risk of CHD increased linearly and reached 1.28 (95% confidence limits: 1.13 to 1.44 at 2 kg. Above 3.4 kg the association weakened, and from about 4 kg there was virtually no association. BMI at age seven years was strongly positively associated with the risk of CHD and the relation was not altered by birth weight. The excess risk in individuals with a birth weight of 2.5 kg and a BMI of 17.7 kg/m(2 at age seven years was 44% (95% CI: 30% to 59% compared with individuals with median values of birth weight (3.4 kg and BMI (15.3 kg/m(2. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Birth weight and BMI at age seven years appeared independently associated with the risk of CHD in adulthood. From a public health perspective we suggest that particular attention should be paid to children with a birth weight below the average in combination with excess relative weight in childhood.

  1. Comparison of the SF6D, the EQ5D, and the oswestry disability index in patients with chronic low back pain and degenerative disc disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, Lars G; Hellum, Christian; Nygaard, Oystein P; Storheim, Kjersti; Brox, Jens I; Rossvoll, Ivar; Leivseth, Gunnar; Grotle, Margreth

    2013-04-26

    The need for cost effectiveness analyses in randomized controlled trials that compare treatment options is increasing. The selection of the optimal utility measure is important, and a central question is whether the two most commonly used indexes - the EuroQuol 5D (EQ5D) and the Short Form 6D (SF6D) - can be used interchangeably. The aim of the present study was to compare change scores of the EQ5D and SF6D utility indexes in terms of some important measurement properties. The psychometric properties of the two utility indexes were compared to a disease-specific instrument, the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), in the setting of a randomized controlled trial for degenerative disc disease. In a randomized controlled multicentre trial, 172 patients who had experienced low back pain for an average of 6 years were randomized to either treatment with an intensive back rehabilitation program or surgery to insert disc prostheses. Patients filled out the ODI, EQ5D, and SF-36 at baseline and two-year follow up. The utility indexes was compared with respect to measurement error, structural validity, criterion validity, responsiveness, and interpretability according to the COSMIN taxonomy. At follow up, 113 patients had change score values for all three instruments. The SF6D had better similarity with the disease-specific instrument (ODI) regarding sensitivity, specificity, and responsiveness. Measurement error was lower for the SF6D (0.056) compared to the EQ5D (0.155). The minimal important change score value was 0.031 for SF6D and 0.173 for EQ5D. The minimal detectable change score value at a 95% confidence level were 0.157 for SF6D and 0.429 for EQ5D, and the difference in mean change score values (SD) between them was 0.23 (0.29) and so exceeded the clinical significant change score value for both instruments. Analysis of psychometric properties indicated that the indexes are unidimensional when considered separately, but that they do not exactly measure the same

  2. Chemisorption of oxygen and subsequent reactions on low index surfaces of β-Mo2C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Xue Rong; Wang, Shengguang; Wang, Jianguo

    2016-01-01

    to the carbon vacancy were identified. We examined the effect of oxygen coverage on the morphology of β-Mo2C by plotting the equilibrium crystal shape. Thermodynamic effect of temperature and reactant or product pressure on the CO/CO2 desorption were investigated. The CO/CO2 desorption is more favorable...... at the saturated oxygen coverage than the low oxygen coverage thermodynamically. The subsequent oxygen diffusion to the carbon vacancy after CO/CO2 desorption may happen depending on the surfaces and oxygen coverage....

  3. Atomic structure of a stable high-index Ge surface: G2(103)-(4x1)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seehofer, L.; Bunk, O.; Falkenberg, G.

    1997-01-01

    Based on scanning tunneling microscopy and surface X-ray diffraction, we propose a complex structural model for the Ge(103)-(4 x 1) reconstruction. Each unit cell contains two (103) double steps, which gives rise to the formation of stripes of Ge atoms oriented in the [] direction....... The stripes and the spaces between them are covered with threefold-coordinated Ge adatoms. Charge is transferred from the bulk-like edge atoms of the double steps to the adatoms. The formation of the reconstruction can be explained in terms of stress relief, charge transfer, and minimization of the dangling...

  4. Overview of total beta activity index and beta rest in surface waters of the Spanish rivers; Vision general del indice de actividad beta total y beta resto en las aguas superficiales de los rios espanoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pujol, L.; Payeras, J.; Pablo, M. A. de

    2013-07-01

    This work aims to give an overview of the index of total beta activity and the activity index beta rest in surface waters of the main Spanish rivers. These indices are a parameter over water quality that CEDEX comes determined by order of the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Environment, in water policy. (Author)

  5. Specific capture of target bacteria onto sensor surfaces for infectious disease diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong-Hoon; Inoue, Shinnosuke; Chung, Jae-Hyun; Cangelosi, Gerard A; Lee, Kyong-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    A long-sought goal for infectious disease care is a rapid and accurate diagnostic tool that is compatible with the needs of low-resource settings. To identify target biomarkers of infectious diseases, immunoassays utilizing the binding affinity between antigen and antibody have been widely used. In immunoassays, the interaction between antigen and antibody on sensor surfaces should be precisely controlled for specific identification of targets. This paper studies the specific capturing mechanisms of target bacteria onto sensor surfaces through investigation of combined effects of capillary action and binding affinity. As a model system, cells of both Escherichia coli and the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin strain of Mycobacterium bovis were used to study specific and nonspecific capturing mechanisms onto a microtip sensor. The capillary action was observed to arrange the concentrated cells onto the two-dimensional sensor surface. Due to the capillary-induced organization of target cells on the antibody-functionalized sensor surface, the number of the captured target cells was three times greater than that of the non-targeted cells. The capturing and detection capabilities varied with the width of a microtip. The specific capturing mechanism can be used to enhance the sensitivity and specificity of an immunoassay. (paper)

  6. Three-dimensional surface display of brain perfusion with 123I-IMP in Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachibana, H.; Kawabata, K.; Tomino, Y.; Sugita, M.; Fukuchi, M.

    1994-01-01

    We reconstructed three-dimensional (3D) surface images from single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) data using N-isopropyl-p[ 123 I]-iodoamphetamine ( 123 I-IMP) in 27 patients with Parkinson's disease and 11 normal control subjects. The 3D reconstruction was performed using distance-shaded methods at threshold levels with an interval of 5% from 45-80%. Any area of decreased perfusion at each threshold level was visualised as a defect area by the algorithm. In nondemented patients with Parkinson's disease, perfusion defects were frequently found in the parietal cortex at a threshold value of 65%. In demented patients, perfusion defects were frequently seen at thresholds of 45-65%, and were more marked in the temporal and parietal cortex bilaterally. This suggests that dementia in Parkinson's disease is related to a reduction of perfusion in the temporoparietal cortex. (orig.)

  7. Surface plasmon resonance based biosensor: A new platform for rapid diagnosis of livestock diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravas Ranjan Sahoo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Surface plasmon resonance (SPR based biosensors are the most advanced and developed optical label-free biosensor technique used for powerful detection with vast applications in environmental protection, biotechnology, medical diagnostics, drug screening, food safety, and security as well in livestock sector. The livestock sector which contributes the largest economy of India, harbors many bacterial, viral, and fungal diseases impacting a great loss to the production and productive potential which is a major concern in both small and large ruminants. Hence, an accurate, sensitive, and rapid diagnosis is required for prevention of these above-mentioned diseases. SPR based biosensor assay may fulfill the above characteristics which lead to a greater platform for rapid diagnosis of different livestock diseases. Hence, this review may give a detail idea about the principle, recent development of SPR based biosensor techniques and its application in livestock sector.

  8. Nanoparticle technology for treatment of Parkinson's disease: the role of surface phenomena in reaching the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyva-Gómez, Gerardo; Cortés, Hernán; Magaña, Jonathan J; Leyva-García, Norberto; Quintanar-Guerrero, David; Florán, Benjamín

    2015-07-01

    The absence of a definitive treatment for Parkinson's disease has driven the emerging investigation in the search for novel therapeutic alternatives. At present, the formulation of different drugs on nanoparticles has represented several advantages over conventional treatments. This type of multifunctional carrier, owing to its size and composition, has different interactions in biological systems that can lead to a decrease in ability to cross the blood-brain barrier. Therefore, this review focuses on the latest advances in obtaining nanoparticles for Parkinson's disease and provides an overview of technical aspects in the design of brain drug delivery of nanoparticles and an analysis of surface phenomena, a key aspect in the development of functional nanoparticles for Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Triglyceride-to-high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol ratio is an index of heart disease mortality and of incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Gloria Lena; Barlow, Carolyn E; Grundy, Scott M; Leonard, David; DeFina, Laura F

    2014-02-01

    High triglyceride (TG) and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) impart risk for heart disease. This study examines the relationships of TG/HDL-C ratio to mortality from all causes, coronary heart disease (CHD), or cardiovascular disease (CVD). Survival analysis was done in 39,447 men grouped by TG/HDL-C ratio cut point of 3.5 and for metabolic syndrome. National Death Index International Classification of Diseases (ICD-9 and ICD-10) codes were used for CVD and CHD deaths occurring from 1970 to 2008. Incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) according to ratio was estimated in 22,215 men. Triglyceride/HDL-C ratio and cross-product of TG and fasting blood glucose (TyG index) were used in analysis. Men were followed up for 581,194 person-years. Triglyceride/HDL-C ratio predicted CHD, CVD, and all-cause mortality after adjustment for established risk factors and non-HDL-C. Mortality rates were higher in individuals with a high ratio than in those with a low ratio. Fifty-five percent of men had metabolic syndrome that was also predictive of CHD, CVD, and all-cause mortality. Annual incidence of DM was 2 times higher in men with high TG/HDL-C ratio than in those with a low ratio. Individuals with high TG/HDL-C ratio had a higher incidence of DM than those with a low ratio. The TyG index was not equally predictive of causes of mortality to TG/HDL-C, but both were equally predictive of diabetes incidence. Triglyceride/HDL-C ratio predicts CHD and CVD mortality as well as or better than do metabolic syndrome in men. Also, a high ratio predisposes to DM. The TyG index does not predict CHD, CVD, or all-cause mortality equally well, but like TG/HDL-C ratio, it predicts DM incidence.

  10. Association between Low Dietary Protein Intake and Geriatric Nutrition Risk Index in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease: A Retrospective Single-Center Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Aki Kiuchi; Yasushi Ohashi; Reibin Tai; Toshiyuki Aoki; Sonoo Mizuiri; Toyoko Ogura; Atsushi Aikawa; Ken Sakai

    2016-01-01

    Reduced dietary protein intake in malnourished patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) may be associated with adverse clinical outcomes, which may mask any efficacy of a low-protein diet. The study included 126 patients with CKD who attended a dedicated dietary counseling clinic in 2005–2009 and were systematically followed until January 2015. Of these patients, 20 (15.9%) had moderate or severe nutrition-related risk of geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI) < 92; these patients were ...

  11. Ambulatory arterial stiffness index in chronic kidney disease stage 2-5. Reproducibility and relationship with pulse wave parameters and kidney function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesby, Lene; Thijs, Lutgarde; Elung-Jensen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Arterial stiffness contributes to the increased cardiovascular risk in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Reproducible and easily obtainable indices of arterial stiffness are needed in order to monitor therapeutic strategies. The ambulatory arterial stiffness index (AASI) has been propos...... as such a marker. The present study investigated the day-to-day reproducibility of AASI in CKD stage 2-5 and its relationship with other markers of arterial stiffness as well as with kidney function....

  12. Mapping paddy rice planting areas through time series analysis of MODIS land surface temperature and vegetation index data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Geli; Xiao, Xiangming; Dong, Jinwei; Kou, Weili; Jin, Cui; Qin, Yuanwei; Zhou, Yuting; Wang, Jie; Menarguez, Michael Angelo; Biradar, Chandrashekhar

    2015-08-01

    Knowledge of the area and spatial distribution of paddy rice is important for assessment of food security, management of water resources, and estimation of greenhouse gas (methane) emissions. Paddy rice agriculture has expanded rapidly in northeastern China in the last decade, but there are no updated maps of paddy rice fields in the region. Existing algorithms for identifying paddy rice fields are based on the unique physical features of paddy rice during the flooding and transplanting phases and use vegetation indices that are sensitive to the dynamics of the canopy and surface water content. However, the flooding phenomena in high latitude area could also be from spring snowmelt flooding. We used land surface temperature (LST) data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor to determine the temporal window of flooding and rice transplantation over a year to improve the existing phenology-based approach. Other land cover types (e.g., evergreen vegetation, permanent water bodies, and sparse vegetation) with potential influences on paddy rice identification were removed (masked out) due to their different temporal profiles. The accuracy assessment using high-resolution images showed that the resultant MODIS-derived paddy rice map of northeastern China in 2010 had a high accuracy (producer and user accuracies of 92% and 96%, respectively). The MODIS-based map also had a comparable accuracy to the 2010 Landsat-based National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) of China in terms of both area and spatial pattern. This study demonstrated that our improved algorithm by using both thermal and optical MODIS data, provides a robust, simple and automated approach to identify and map paddy rice fields in temperate and cold temperate zones, the northern frontier of rice planting.

  13. 3D-shaded surface rendering of gadolinium-enhanced MR angiography in congenital heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuda, S.; Kikinis, R.; Dumanli, H.; Geva, T.; Powell, A.J.; Chung, T.

    2000-01-01

    Background. Gadolinium-enhanced three-dimensional (3D) MR angiography is a useful imaging technique for patients with congenital heart disease. Objective. This study sought to determine the added value of creating 3D shaded surface displays compared to standard maximal intensity projection (MIP) and multiplanar reformatting (MPR) techniques when analyzing 3D MR angiography data. Materials and methods. Seventeen patients (range, 3 months to 51 years old) with a variety of congenital cardiovascular defects underwent gadolinium-enhanced 3D MR angiography of the thorax. Color-coded 3D shaded surface models were rendered from the image data using manual segmentation and computer-based algorithms. Models could be rotated, translocated, or zoomed interactively by the viewer. Information available from the 3D models was compared to analysis based on viewing standard MIP/MPR displays. Results. Median postprocessing time for the 3D models was 6 h (range, 3-25 h) compared to approximately 20 min for MIP/MPR viewing. No additional diagnostic information was gained from 3D model analysis. All major findings with MIP/MPR postprocessing were also apparent on the 3D models. Qualitatively, the 3D models were more easily interpreted and enabled adjacent vessels to be distinguished more readily. Conclusion. Routine use of 3D shaded surface reconstructions for visualization of contrast enhanced MR angiography in congenital heart disease cannot be recommended. 3D surface rendering may be more useful for presenting complex anatomy to an audience unfamiliar with congenital heart disease and as an educational tool. (orig.)

  14. Retrieval of the photochemical reflectance index for assessing xanthophyll cycle activity: a comparison of near-surface optical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, A.; Gamon, J. A.; Pastorello, G. Z.; Wong, C. Y. S.

    2014-11-01

    Unattended optical sensors are increasingly being deployed on eddy covariance flux towers and are often used to complement existing vegetation and micrometeorological measurements to enable assessment of biophysical states and biogeochemical processes over a range of spatial scales. Of particular interest are sensors that can measure the photochemical reflectance index (PRI), which can provide information pertaining to leaf pigments and photosynthetic activity. This interest has facilitated the production of a new range of lower-cost multispectral sensors specifically designed to measure temporal changes in the PRI signal. However, little is known about the characteristics (spectral, radiometric and temporal) of many of these PRI sensors, making it difficult to compare data obtained from these sensors across time, geographical locations and instruments. Furthermore, direct testing of the capability of these sensors to actually detect the conversion of the xanthophyll cycle, which is the original biological basis of the PRI diurnal signal, is largely absent, often resulting in an unclear interpretation of the signal, particularly given the wide range of factors now known to influence PRI. Through a series of experiments, we assess the sensitivity of one of the leading brands of PRI sensor (Skye SKR 1800) to changes in vegetation photosynthetic activity in response to changing irradiance. We compare the results with those obtained using a more expensive industry-standard visible to near-infrared hyperspectral spectrometer (PP Systems UniSpec) and determine the radiometric compatibility of measurements made by the different instruments. Results suggest that the SKR 1800 instrument is able to track rapid (seconds to minutes) and more gradual diurnal changes in photosynthetic activity associated with xanthophyll cycle pigment conversion. Measurements obtained from both the high and lower cost instrument were significantly linearly correlated but were subject to a large

  15. Waist Circumference, Body Mass Index, and Other Measures of Adiposity in Predicting Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Peruvian Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Knowles, K. M.; Paiva, L. L.; Sanchez, S. E.; Revilla, L.; Lopez, T.; Yasuda, M. B.; Yanez, N. D.; Gelaye, B.; Williams, M. A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. To examine the extent to which measures of adiposity can be used to predict selected components of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and elevated C-reactive protein (CRP). Methods. A total of 1,518 Peruvian adults were included in this study. Waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR), waist-height ratio (WHtR), and visceral adiposity index (VAI) were examined. The prevalence of each MetS component was determined according to tertiles of each anthropometric mea...

  16. An Ultrasound Surface Wave Technique for Assessing Skin and Lung Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhou, Boran; Kalra, Sanjay; Bartholmai, Brian; Greenleaf, James; Osborn, Thomas

    2018-02-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a multi-organ connective tissue disease characterized by immune dysregulation and organ fibrosis. Severe organ involvement, especially of the skin and lung, is the cause of morbidity and mortality in SSc. Interstitial lung disease (ILD) includes multiple lung disorders in which the lung tissue is fibrotic and stiffened. The purpose of this study was to translate ultrasound surface wave elastography (USWE) for assessing patients with SSc and/or ILD via measuring surface wave speeds of both skin and superficial lung tissue. Forty-one patients with both SSc and ILD and 30 healthy patients were enrolled in this study. An external harmonic vibration was used to generate the wave propagation on the skin or lung. Three excitation frequencies of 100, 150 and 200 Hz were used. An ultrasound probe was used to measure the wave propagation in the tissue non-invasively. Surface wave speeds were measured on the forearm and upper arm of both left and right arm, as well as the upper and lower lungs, through six intercostal spaces of patients and healthy patients. Viscoelasticity of the skin was calculated by the wave speed dispersion with frequency using the Voigt model. The magnitudes of surface wave speed and viscoelasticity of patients' skin were significantly higher than those of healthy patients (p wave speeds of patients' lung were significantly higher than those of healthy patients (p ionizing technique for measuring both skin and lung surface wave speed and may be useful for quantitative assessment of SSc and/or ILD. Copyright © 2018 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Transition between bulk and surface refractive index sensitivity of micro-cavity in-line Mach-Zehnder interferometer induced by thin film deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śmietana, Mateusz; Janik, Monika; Koba, Marcin; Bock, Wojtek J

    2017-10-16

    In this work we discuss the refractive index (RI) sensitivity of a micro-cavity in-line Mach-Zehnder interferometer in the form of a cylindrical hole (40-50 μm in diameter) fabricated in a standard single-mode optical fiber using a femtosecond laser. The surface of the micro-cavity was coated with up to 400 nm aluminum oxide thin film using the atomic layer deposition method. Next, the film was progressively chemically etched and the influence on changes in the RI of liquid in the micro-cavity was determined at different stages of the experiment, i.e., at different thicknesses of the film. An effect of transition between sensitivity to the film thickness (surface) and the RI of liquid in the cavity (bulk) is demonstrated for the first time. We have found that depending on the interferometer working conditions determined by thin film properties, the device can be used for investigation of phenomena taking place at the surface, such as in case of specific label-free biosensing applications, or for small-volume RI analysis as required in analytical chemistry.

  18. Efficacy of the Omega-3 Index in predicting non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in overweight and obese adults: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Helen M; O'Connor, Helen T; Keating, Shelley E; Cohn, Jeffrey S; Garg, Manohar L; Caterson, Ian D; George, Jacob; Johnson, Nathan A

    2015-09-14

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an independent predictor of CVD in otherwise healthy individuals. Low n-3 PUFA intake has been associated with the presence of NAFLD; however, the relationship between a biomarker of n-3 status - the Omega-3 Index - and liver fat is yet to be elucidated. A total of eighty overweight adults (fifty-six men) completed the anthropometric and biochemical measurements, including the Omega-3 Index, and underwent proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy assessment of liver fat. Bivariate correlations and multiple regression analyses were performed with reference to prediction of liver fat percentage. The mean Omega-3 Index was high in both NAFLD (intrahepatic lipid concentration≥5·5 %) and non-NAFLD groups. The Omega-3 Index, BMI, waist circumference, glucose, insulin, TAG, high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were positively correlated, and HDL and erythrocyte n-6:n-3 ratio negatively correlated with liver fat concentration. Regression analysis found that simple anthropometric and demographic variables (waist, age) accounted for 31 % of the variance in liver fat and the addition of traditional cardiometabolic blood markers (TAG, HDL, hsCRP and ALT) increased the predictive power to 43 %. The addition of the novel erythrocyte fatty acid variable (Omega-3 Index) to the model only accounted for a further 3 % of the variance (P=0·049). In conclusion, the Omega-3 Index was associated with liver fat concentration but did not improve the overall capacity of demographic, anthropometric and blood markers to predict NAFLD.

  19. The Relationship of the Post-reflux Swallow-induced Peristaltic Wave Index and Esophageal Baseline Impedance with Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young Kyu; Lee, Joon Seong; Lee, Tae Hee; Hong, Su Jin; Park, Sang Joon; Jeon, Seong Ran; Kim, Hyun Gun; Kim, Jin-Oh

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims The post-reflux swallow-induced peristaltic wave (PSPW) index and esophageal baseline impedance (BI) are novel impedance parameters used to evaluate esophageal chemical clearance and mucosal integrity. However, their relationship with reflux symptoms is not known. We aim to evaluate the correlations of PSPW index and esophageal BI with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms. Methods We performed a retrospective review of multichannel intraluminal impedance and pH (MII-pH) tracings in patients with suspected GERD. Reflux symptoms were also analyzed from checklists using ordinal scales. The PSPW index and esophageal BIs in 6 spots (z1–z6) were measured. Bivariate (Spearman) correlation was used to analyze the relationship between the PSPW index or esophageal BI, and the degree of GERD symptoms measured. Results The MII-pH records of 143 patients were analyzed. The PSPW index was significantly lower in patients who had heartburn and negatively correlated with the degree of heartburn (r = −0.186, P < 0.05). On the contrary, the PSPW index was not significantly correlated with the degree of dysphagia (r = −0.013, P = 0.874). Distal esophageal BI was not significantly correlated with heartburn, but negatively correlated with the degree of dysphagia (z3: r = −0.328, z4: r = −0.361, z5: r = −0.316, z6: r = −0.273; P < 0.05). Conclusions These findings suggest that delayed chemical clearance of the esophagus may induce heartburn, but that it is not related to dysphagia. However, a lack of esophageal mucosal integrity may be related to dysphagia. PMID:28044052

  20. The association of inflammatory markers and periodontal indexes with the risk of coronary heart disease in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ling; Wei, Bin; Xu, Liang; Wu, Yun

    2018-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the association of four inflammatory markers and five periodontal indexes with the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in 131 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). All subjects were inpatients, including 63 T2DM patients with comorbid CHD ("cases") and 68 T2DM patients without CHD ("controls"). The diagnosis of CHD is based on coronary angiography. Peripheral blood concentrations of high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) (11.51 vs. 10.39 mg/L), leptin (24.60 vs. 21.22 ng/L) and visfatin (65.92 vs. 57.62 ng/L) were significantly higher in cases than in controls (P = .033, 0.041 and 0.041, respectively). The levels of three periodontal indexes - probing pocket depth, attachment loss (AL) and sulcus bleeding index, were significantly higher in cases than in controls, especially for periodontal AL (3.60 mm vs. 3.29 mm, P = .002). A Forward logistic regression was performed for selection, and specifically hs-CRP, leptin, visfatin and periodontal AL were found to be associated with the significant risk of CHD (odds ratio: 1.16, 1.07, 1.03 and 2.04; P = .025, .022, .022 and .010, respectively). Importantly, the benefits of inflammatory markers and periodontal indexes over basic risk factors were significant (likelihood ratio test) and obvious (decision curve analysis). A nomogram was delineated based on significant variables, and it had good accuracy (C-index: 0.801, P periodontal indexes to the pathogenesis of CHD in T2DM. Specifically, hs-CRP, leptin, visfatin and periodontal AL were identified as significant contributors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Long chain diol index (LDI) as an organic-based sea surface temperature proxy in the Korean East Sea (NW Pacific)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal, Jong-Ku; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Kang, Su-Jin; Lee, Dong-Hun; Shin, Kyung-Hoon

    2016-04-01

    Long chain diol index (LDI) was introduced as an organic-based sea surface temperature (SST) proxy. LDI is expressed as the C30 1,15-diol abundance relative to those of C28 1,13-, C30 1,13- and C30 1,15-diols. There were a few studies which accessed the potential of LDI based on the culture, core top sediments, suspended particulate organic matters, and down-core sediments. However it is still unknown about the source of the diols and robustness as the SST proxy in the various marine environments. In the current study, we examined the applicability of the LDI in the East Sea of Korea where productivity and thus sedimentation rates are high. We will compare the LDI data with those of alkenone-based UK'37 by analyzing two multicores covering the last 100 year.

  2. PEER ASSESSMENT RATING (PAR INDEX CALCULATION ON 2D DENTAL MODEL IMAGE FOR OVER JET, OPEN BITE, AND TEETH SEGMENTATION ON OCCLUSION SURFACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Febrian Rachmadi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Malocclusion is a clinical symptom, in which the teeth of maxilla and mandible are not located at the proper location. If malocclusion left untreated, it can lead to complications in the digestive system, headache, and periodontal disease disorders. Malocclusion problems involving abnormalities of teeth, bones, and muscles around the jaw are obligation of orthodontic specialists to treat them. The treatments can be varying based on the type of malocclusion, including tooth extraction and tooth braces. To know certain degree of malocclusion experienced by the patient, an assessment method called Peer Assessment Rating (PAR Index is usually used by the specialist. To help the works of orthodontic specialists in Indonesia, a new automated calculation system based on 2D image of tooth model for PAR Index is being developed. In this paper, the calculation system for over-jet, open-bite, and teeth segmentation is developed. The result of the developed system is then compared with manual assessment done by orthodontic specialist, in order to verify the accuracy of the system.

  3. Validation study of the prototype of a disease-specific index measure for health-related quality of life in dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schölzel-Dorenbos Carla J M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Index measures for health-related quality of life (HRQoL quantify the desirability (utility of a certain health state. The commonly used generic index measure, e.g. EuroQol: EQ-5D, may underestimate relevant areas of specific diseases, resulting in lower validity. Disease-specific index measures on the other hand combine disease-specificity and quantification of perceived quality on several health domains of a certain disease into one single figure. These instruments have been developed for several diseases, but a dementia-specific HRQoL index instrument was not yet available. Facing the increasing individual and societal burden of dementia, specific HRQoL values with metric characteristics are especially useful because they will provide vital information for health outcome research and economic evaluations. Aims of the study To develop and validate the prototype of a dementia-specific HRQoL index measure: Dementia Quality of life Instrument (DQI, as the first step towards valuation of the dementia health state. Methods For development of the DQI we created a conceptual framework based on a review of the literature, qualitative interviews with people with dementia and their carers, expert opinion and team discussion. To assess validity we undertook a survey under 241 dementia professionals. Measurements consisted of ranking (1–5 and rating (1–10 of 5 dementia-specific DQI domains (memory, orientation, independence, social activities and mood and simultaneously rating of 9 DQI-derived health states on a visual analogue scale (VAS. We also performed a cross-sectional study in a large sample of people with very mild to moderate dementia and their caregivers (N = 145 to assess feasibility and concurrent validity. In addition, caregivers valued 10 DQI and 10 EQ-5D + C derived health states of the patient simultaneously on the same VAS. Setting: outpatient clinics, nursing homes and patient residences. Results All

  4. Therapeutic eyelids hygiene in the algorithms of prevention and treatment of ocular surface diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Trubilin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available When acute inflammation in anterior eye segment of a forward piece of an eye was stopped, ophthalmologists face a problem of absence of acute inflammation signs and at the same time complaints to the remain discomfort feelings. It causes dissatisfaction from the treatment. The complaints are typically caused by disturbance of tears productions. No accidental that the new group of diseases was allocated — the diseases of the ocular surface. Ocular surface is a difficult biologic system, including epithelium of the conjunctiva, cornea and limb, as well as the area costal margin eyelid and meibomian gland ducts. Pathological processes in conjunctiva, cornea and eyelids are linked with tears production. Ophthalmologists prescribes tears substitutions, providing short-term relief to patients. However, in respect that the lipid component of the tear film plays the key role in the preservation of its stability, eyelids hygiene is the basis for the treatment of dry eye associated with ocular surface diseases. Eyelids hygiene provides normal functioning of glands, restores the metabolic processes in skin and ensures the formation of a complete tear film. Protection of eyelids, especially the marginal edge from aggressive environmental agents, infections and parasites and is the basis for the prevention and treatment of blepharitis and dry eye syndrome. The most common clinical situations and algorithms of their treatment and prevention of dysfunction of the meibomian glands; demodectic blepharitis; seborrheic blepharitis; staphylococcal blepharitis; allergic blepharitis; barley and chalazion are discussed in the article. The prevention keratoconjunctival xerosis (before and postoperative period, caused by contact lenses, computer vision syndrome, remission after acute conjunctiva and cornea inflammation is also presented. The first part of the article presents the treatment and prevention algorithms for dysfunction of the meibomian glands, as well as

  5. Debilitating lung disease among surface coal miners with no underground mining tenure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halldin, Cara N; Reed, William R; Joy, Gerald J; Colinet, Jay F; Rider, James P; Petsonk, Edward L; Abraham, Jerrold L; Wolfe, Anita L; Storey, Eileen; Laney, A Scott

    2015-01-01

    To characterize exposure histories and respiratory disease among surface coal miners identified with progressive massive fibrosis from a 2010 to 2011 pneumoconiosis survey. Job history, tenure, and radiograph interpretations were verified. Previous radiographs were reviewed when available. Telephone follow-up sought additional work and medical history information. Among eight miners who worked as drill operators or blasters for most of their tenure (median, 35.5 years), two reported poor dust control practices, working in visible dust clouds as recently as 2012. Chest radiographs progressed to progressive massive fibrosis in as few as 11 years. One miner's lung biopsy demonstrated fibrosis and interstitial accumulation of macrophages containing abundant silica, aluminum silicate, and titanium dust particles. Overexposure to respirable silica resulted in progressive massive fibrosis among current surface coal miners with no underground mining tenure. Inadequate dust control during drilling/blasting is likely an important etiologic factor.

  6. Estimating the surface layer refractive index structure constant over snow and sea ice using Monin-Obukhov similarity theory with a mesoscale atmospheric model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Chun; Wu, Xiaoqing; Huang, Honghua; Tian, Qiguo; Zhu, Wenyue; Rao, Ruizhong; Li, Xuebin

    2016-09-05

    Since systematic direct measurements of refractive index structure constant ( Cn2) for many climates and seasons are not available, an indirect approach is developed in which Cn2 is estimated from the mesoscale atmospheric model outputs. In previous work, we have presented an approach that a state-of-the-art mesoscale atmospheric model called Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled with Monin-Obukhov Similarity (MOS) theory which can be used to estimate surface layer Cn2 over the ocean. Here this paper is focused on surface layer Cn2 over snow and sea ice, which is the extending of estimating surface layer Cn2 utilizing WRF model for ground-based optical application requirements. This powerful approach is validated against the corresponding 9-day Cn2 data from a field campaign of the 30th Chinese National Antarctic Research Expedition (CHINARE). We employ several statistical operators to assess how this approach performs. Besides, we present an independent analysis of this approach performance using the contingency tables. Such a method permits us to provide supplementary key information with respect to statistical operators. These methods make our analysis more robust and permit us to confirm the excellent performances of this approach. The reasonably good agreement in trend and magnitude is found between estimated values and measurements overall, and the estimated Cn2 values are even better than the ones obtained by this approach over the ocean surface layer. The encouraging performance of this approach has a concrete practical implementation of ground-based optical applications over snow and sea ice.

  7. Speculation of the Time-Dependent Change of FIB4 Index in Patients with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Hiroshi; Miyata, Satoru

    2018-01-01

    To speculate on the time-dependent change of FIB4 index in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and its increase-decrease rate per year, simply and accurately. In all 23 patients with NAFLD with the value of FIB4 index over 1.30 at the peak, the period from the first to each examination date was calculated and this period (years) was regarded as x . Next, the mean value of FIB4 index during the past year to each examination date was regarded as y . In every y , the minimum and the maximum y value were found out. Between x corresponding to this minimum y and x corresponding to this maximum y , the correlation between x and y was analyzed as the main subject. Then, the slope of each correlation was investigated, because it should indicate increase-decrease rate per year. In all 23 patients, the correlations as the main subject were recognized and the mean absolute value of correlation coefficient ( r ) was 0.91 ± 0.08. As for the slope, the mean absolute value was 0.1371 ± 0.1147 (/year). Simply and accurately, the time-dependent change of FIB4 index and its increase-decrease rate per year could be approximately speculated.

  8. Diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease using brain SPECT with three-dimensional stereotactic surface projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanyu, Haruo; Asano, Tetsuichi; Kogure, Daiji; Abe, Shine; Iwamoto, Toshihiko; Takasaki, Masaru

    2001-01-01

    We compared the diagnostic usefulness of three-dimensional stereotactic surface projection (3D-SSP) with that of standard transaxial images in brain SPECT in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The subjects consisted of 69 patients with AD and 60 patients with non-AD, including vascular dementia, Parkinson's disease with dementia, frontotemporal dementia, other dementing diseases and neuropsychiatric diseases. Standard transaxial section and 3D-SSP SPECT images with N-isopropyl-p-[ 123 I] iodoamphetamine were blindly interpreted by three examiners and were classified into the following three patterns: typical AD, atypical AD, and not indicative AD patterns. The 3D-SSP images demonstrated reductions of cerebral blood flow in the parieto-temporal association cortex and posterior cingulate gyrus more clearly and easily than the standard transaxial images. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 93% and 85% with 3D-SSP and 83% and 82% with standard transaxial section respectively. 3D-SSP was especially useful for early or atypical AD which showed no characteristic perfusion abnormalities on standard transaxial images. These results suggest that SPECT with 3D-SSP provides an sensitive as well as accurate tool for the diagnosis of AD. (author)

  9. Relationship between interleukin 1α levels in the gingival crevicular fluid in health and in inflammatory periodontal disease and periodontal inflamed surface area: A correlative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalaichelvi Govindarajan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontitis has been suggested as a source of inflammation for pathological changes in distant sites. Interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1α has shown to have specific roles in inflammation, immunity, tissue breakdown, and tissue homeostasis. This study assessed the correlation of periodontal inflamed surface area (PISA index with the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF levels of IL-1α, which would be helpful in evaluating the validity of PISA index in terms of reflection of the disease. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 subjects were recruited for this study and 20 subjects with healthy gingiva (Group I served as controls and 20 subjects served as cases with periodontitis (Group II. Samples of GCF were obtained from one site in each patient by placing color-coded, calibrated, volumetric microcapillary pipettes extracrevicularly, and subjected to ELISA test. Results: There was a statistical significance for mean probing depth (PD and periodontal epithelial surface area (PESA (P < 0.01, mean bleeding on probing and PISA, IL-1α (P < 0.01 and PESA (P < 0.05 in Group I. Statistical significance was found between PISA and IL-1α in Group I (P < 0.01. A positive correlation was found in Group II between mean PD and mean attachment loss (P < 0.01, PISA, IL-1α and PESA (P < 0.01, PISA and IL-1α levels (P < 0.01 which was statistically significant. Conclusion: The inflammatory burden index was statistically significant in the periodontitis group correlating with higher IL-1α levels, which clearly indicates the validity of PISA index.

  10. Measuring health-related quality of life in population-based studies of coronary heart disease: comparing six generic indexes and a disease-specific proxy score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garster, Noelle C; Palta, Mari; Sweitzer, Nancy K; Kaplan, Robert M; Fryback, Dennis G

    2009-11-01

    To compare HRQoL differences with CHD in generic indexes and a proxy CVD-specific score in a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults. The National Health Measurement Study, a cross-sectional random-digit-dialed telephone survey of adults aged 35-89, administered the EQ-5D, QWB-SA, HUI2, HUI3, SF-36v2 (yielding PCS, MCS, and SF-6D), and HALex. Analyses compared 3,350 without CHD (group 1), 265 with CHD not taking chest pain medication (group 2), and 218 with CHD currently taking chest pain medication (group 3), with and without adjustment for demographic variables and comorbidities. Data on 154 patients from heart failure clinics were used to construct a proxy score utilizing generic items probing CVD symptoms. Mean scores differed between CHD groups for all indexes with and without adjustment (P < 0.0001 for all except MCS P = 0.018). Unadjusted group 3 versus 1 differences were about three times larger than for group 2 versus 1. Standardized differences for the proxy score were similar to those for generic indexes, and were about 1.0 for all except MCS for group 3 versus 1. Generic indexes capture differences in HRQoL in population-based studies of CHD similarly to a score constructed from questions probing CVD-specific symptoms.

  11. Identification of Major Risk Sources for Surface Water Pollution by Risk Indexes (RI) in the Multi-Provincial Boundary Region of the Taihu Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hong; Li, Weixin; Qian, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Environmental safety in multi-district boundary regions has been one of the focuses in China and is mentioned many times in the Environmental Protection Act of 2014. Five types were categorized concerning the risk sources for surface water pollution in the multi-provincial boundary region of the Taihu basin: production enterprises, waste disposal sites, chemical storage sites, agricultural non-point sources and waterway transportations. Considering the hazard of risk sources, the purification property of environmental medium and the vulnerability of risk receptors, 52 specific attributes on the risk levels of each type of risk source were screened out. Continuous piecewise linear function model, expert consultation method and fuzzy integral model were used to calculate the integrated risk indexes (RI) to characterize the risk levels of pollution sources. In the studied area, 2716 pollution sources were characterized by RI values. There were 56 high-risk sources screened out as major risk sources, accounting for about 2% of the total. The numbers of sources with high-moderate, moderate, moderate-low and low pollution risk were 376, 1059, 101 and 1124, respectively, accounting for 14%, 38%, 5% and 41% of the total. The procedure proposed could be included in the integrated risk management systems of the multi-district boundary region of the Taihu basin. It could help decision makers to identify major risk sources in the risk prevention and reduction of surface water pollution. PMID:26308032

  12. Identification of Major Risk Sources for Surface Water Pollution by Risk Indexes (RI) in the Multi-Provincial Boundary Region of the Taihu Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hong; Li, Weixin; Qian, Xin

    2015-08-21

    Environmental safety in multi-district boundary regions has been one of the focuses in China and is mentioned many times in the Environmental Protection Act of 2014. Five types were categorized concerning the risk sources for surface water pollution in the multi-provincial boundary region of the Taihu basin: production enterprises, waste disposal sites, chemical storage sites, agricultural non-point sources and waterway transportations. Considering the hazard of risk sources, the purification property of environmental medium and the vulnerability of risk receptors, 52 specific attributes on the risk levels of each type of risk source were screened out. Continuous piecewise linear function model, expert consultation method and fuzzy integral model were used to calculate the integrated risk indexes (RI) to characterize the risk levels of pollution sources. In the studied area, 2716 pollution sources were characterized by RI values. There were 56 high-risk sources screened out as major risk sources, accounting for about 2% of the total. The numbers of sources with high-moderate, moderate, moderate-low and low pollution risk were 376, 1059, 101 and 1124, respectively, accounting for 14%, 38%, 5% and 41% of the total. The procedure proposed could be included in the integrated risk management systems of the multi-district boundary region of the Taihu basin. It could help decision makers to identify major risk sources in the risk prevention and reduction of surface water pollution.

  13. Identification of Major Risk Sources for Surface Water Pollution by Risk Indexes (RI in the Multi-Provincial Boundary Region of the Taihu Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Yao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Environmental safety in multi-district boundary regions has been one of the focuses in China and is mentioned many times in the Environmental Protection Act of 2014. Five types were categorized concerning the risk sources for surface water pollution in the multi-provincial boundary region of the Taihu basin: production enterprises, waste disposal sites, chemical storage sites, agricultural non-point sources and waterway transportations. Considering the hazard of risk sources, the purification property of environmental medium and the vulnerability of risk receptors, 52 specific attributes on the risk levels of each type of risk source were screened out. Continuous piecewise linear function model, expert consultation method and fuzzy integral model were used to calculate the integrated risk indexes (RI to characterize the risk levels of pollution sources. In the studied area, 2716 pollution sources were characterized by RI values. There were 56 high-risk sources screened out as major risk sources, accounting for about 2% of the total. The numbers of sources with high-moderate, moderate, moderate-low and low pollution risk were 376, 1059, 101 and 1124, respectively, accounting for 14%, 38%, 5% and 41% of the total. The procedure proposed could be included in the integrated risk management systems of the multi-district boundary region of the Taihu basin. It could help decision makers to identify major risk sources in the risk prevention and reduction of surface water pollution.

  14. Control of Cross Talk between Angiogenesis and Inflammation by Mesenchymal Stem Cells for the Treatment of Ocular Surface Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis is beneficial in the treatment of ischemic heart disease and peripheral artery disease. However, it facilitates inflammatory cell filtration and inflammation cascade that disrupt the immune and angiogenesis privilege of the avascular cornea, resulting in ocular surface diseases and even vision loss. Although great progress has been achieved, healing of severe ocular surface injury and immunosuppression of corneal transplantation are the most difficult and challenging step in the treatment of ocular surface disorders. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, derived from various adult tissues, are able to differentiate into different cell types such as endothelial cells and fat cells. Although it is still under debate whether MSCs could give rise to functional corneal cells, recent results from different study groups showed that MSCs could improve corneal disease recovery through suppression of inflammation and modulation of immune cells. Thus, MSCs could become a promising tool for ocular surface disorders. In this review, we discussed how angiogenesis and inflammation are orchestrated in the pathogenesis of ocular surface disease. We overviewed and updated the knowledge of MSCs and then summarized the therapeutic potential of MSCs via control of angiogenesis, inflammation, and immune response in the treatment of ocular surface disease.

  15. Insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) in the differentiation of patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, Ana Lúcia Farias de Azevedo; Carvalho, Luciana de; Oliveira, Ana Claudia; Santos, Virgínia Nascimento dos; Vieira, Jose Gilberto; Parise, Edison Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Due to its good correlation to glycemic clamp, HOMA-IR has been widely utilized as insulin resistance index in clinical and epidemiological studies involving non-alcoholic fatty liver disease carriers. However, values used for this parameter have shown large variability. To identify the HOMA-IR cut value that best distinguishes non-diabetic non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients from a control group. One hundred sixteen non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients were studied, diagnosed by clinical, biochemical, and liver image or biopsy criteria, and 88 healthy individuals, without any liver disease and testing for oral glucose tolerance within normality. These groups did not differ in age and gender. All were submitted to oral glucose tolerance test and blood samples were collected for glucose and insulin measurements by immunofluorometric method. HOMA-IR was calculated according to the formula: fasting insulin (microU/L) x fasting glucose (nmol/L)/22.5. NAFLD patients showed higher insulin, glycemia, and HOMA-IR values than control group, even when excluding glucose intolerant and diabetes mellitus patients by their glycemic curves. HOMA-IR 75th percentile for control group was 1.78 and the best area under the curve index was obtained for HOMA-IR values of 2.0 [AUC= 0.840 (0.781-0.899 CI 95%), sensitivity (Se): 85%, specificity (Sp): 83%] while value 2.5 showed best specificity without important loss in sensitivity [AUC=0,831 (0.773-0.888) Se = 72%, Sp = 94%]. HOMA-IR values above or equal to 2.0 or 2.5 show enhanced diagnostic value in distinguishing non-alcoholic fatty liver disease carriers from control group individuals.

  16. The Use of Pre-Storm Boundary-Layer Baroclinicity in Determining and Operationally Implementing the Atlantic Surface Cyclone Intensification Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cione, Joseph; Pietrafes, Leonard J.

    The lateral motion of the Gulf Stream off the eastern seaboard of the United States during the winter season can act to dramatically enhance the low-level baroclinicity within the coastal zone during periods of offshore cold advection. The ralative close proximity of the Gulf Stream current off the mid-Atlantic coast can result in the rapid and intense destabilization of the marine atmospheric boundary layer directly above and shoreward of the Gulf Stream within this region. This airmass modification period often precedes either wintertime coastal cyclogenesis or the cyclonic re-development of existing mid-latitude cyclones. A climatological study investigating the relationship between the severity of the pre-storm, cold advection period and subsequent cyclogenic intensification was undertaken by Cione et al. in 1993. Findings from this study illustrate that the thermal structure of the continental airmass as well as the position of the Gulf Stream front relative to land during the pre-storm period (i.e., 24-48 h prior to the initial cyclonic intensification) are linked to the observed rate of surface cyclonic deepening for storms that either advected into or initially developed within the Carolina-southeast Virginia offshore coastal zone. It is a major objective of this research to test the potential operational utility of this pre-storm low level baroclinic linkage to subsequent cyclogenesis in an actual National Weather Service (NWS) coastal winter storm forecast setting.The ability to produce coastal surface cyclone intensity forecasts recently became available to North Carolina State University researchers and NWS forecasters. This statistical forecast guidance utilizes regression relationships derived from a nine-season (January 1982-April 1990), 116-storm study conducted previously. During the period between February 1994 and February 1996, the Atlantic Surface Cyclone Intensification Index (ASCII) was successfully implemented in an operational setting by

  17. Effect of Dan seven soft capsule adjuvant therapy on serum inflammatory factors, coagulation function and blood rheology indexes in patients with acute hemorrhagic cerebrovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Hua Gui

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effect of Dan seven soft capsule on the treatment of acute hemorrhagic cerebrovascular disease and the influence of serum inflammatory factors, coagulation function and blood rheology indexes. Methods: A total of 112 cases of patients with acute hemorrhagic cerebrovascular disease, according to the random data table were divided into the control group (n=57 and observation group (n=55, the patients in the control group received routine treatment combined with edaravone, on the basis of the treatment of the control group, the observation group was treated with Dan seven soft capsule. The serum levels of inflammatory factors, coagulation function and blood rheology indexes were compared between the two groups before and after treatment. Results: Before treatment, there were no significant difference in the inflammatory factors (hs-CRP, TNF-α and IL-6, blood coagulation function (FIB, PT and APTT and hemorheology (high cut whole blood viscosity, low cut whole blood viscosity and plasma viscosity levels between the control group and observation group. Compared with the levels of the same group before treatment, two groups of hs-CRP, TNF-α, IL-6, FIB, high cut whole blood viscosity, low cut whole blood viscosity and plasma viscosity level after treatment were significantly decreased, and levels in the observation group were significantly lower than those in the control group; Compared with the group before treatment, the levels of PT and APTT in the two groups were significantly increased, and the observation group was significantly higher than the control group. Conclusion: Dan seven soft capsule in the treatment of acute hemorrhagic cerebrovascular disease can effectively reduce the level of serum inflammatory factors, improve coagulation function and blood rheology index, it has an important clinical value.

  18. Development and initial validation of the Localized Scleroderma Skin Damage Index and Physician Global Assessment of disease Damage: a proof-of-concept study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilaiyuk, Soamarat; Torok, Kathryn S.; Medsger, Thomas A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective. To develop and assess the psychometric properties of the Localized Scleroderma (LS) Skin Damage Index (LoSDI) and Physician Global Assessment of disease Damage (PGA-D). Methods. Damage was defined as irreversible/persistent changes (>6 months) due to previous active disease/complications of therapy. Eight rheumatologists assessed the importance of 17 variables in formulating the PGA-D/LoSDI. LS patients were evaluated by two rheumatologists using both tools to assess their psychometric properties. LoSDI was calculated by summing three scores for cutaneous features of damage [dermal atrophy (DAT), subcutaneous atrophy (SAT) and dyspigmentation (DP)] measured at 18 anatomic sites. Patient GA of disease severity (PtGA-S), Children's Dermatology Life Quality Index (CDLQI) and PGA-D were recorded at the time of each examination. Results. Thirty LS patients (112 lesions) and nine patient-visit pairs (18 lesions) were included for inter- and intra-rater reliability study. LoSDI and its domains DAT, SAT, DP and PGA-D demonstrated excellent inter- and intra-rater reliability (reliability coefficients 0.86–0.99 and 0.74–0.96, respectively). LoSDI correlated moderately with PGA-D and poorly with PtGA-S and CDLQI. PGA-D correlated moderately with PtGA-S, but poorly with CDLQI. Conclusions. To complete the LS Cutaneous Assessment Tool (LoSCAT), we developed and evaluated the psychometric properties of the LoSDI and PGA-D in addition to the LS Skin Severity Index (LoSSI). These instruments will facilitate evaluation of LS patients for individual patient management and clinical trials. LoSDI and PGA-D demonstrated excellent reliability and high validity. LoSCAT provides an improved understanding of LS natural history. Further study in a larger group of patients is needed to confirm these preliminary findings. PMID:20008472

  19. Disease prevalence and the index of detectability: a survey of studies of lung cancer detection by chest radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundel, Harold L.

    2000-04-01

    A survey of 12 studies of lung cancer detection with cancer prevalence ranging from 0.9 to 476 cancers per 1000 showed that the unit-slope index of detectability, d', decreased from a high value of 3.9 at low prevalence to 1.4 at high prevalence. A proposed explanation is that the readers are operating on an ROC curve with a slope that is less than unity approximating 0.6. On such a curve, a shift to more stringent criteria that occurs with decreasing prevalence in order to minimize false positives, would result in a increased unity- slope d'.

  20. A new quantitative index of lobar air trapping in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): Comparison with conventional methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagatani, Yukihiro, E-mail: yatsushi@belle.shiga-med.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Shiga University of Medical Science, Seta-tsukinowa-cho, Otsu, Shiga 520-2192 (Japan); Murata, Kiyoshi; Takahashi, Masashi; Nitta, Norihisa [Department of Radiology, Shiga University of Medical Science, Seta-tsukinowa-cho, Otsu, Shiga 520-2192 (Japan); Nakano, Yasutaka [Division of Respiratory Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Shiga University of Medical Science, Seta-tsukinowa-cho, Otsu, Shiga 520-2192 (Japan); Sonoda, Akinaga; Otani, Hideji [Department of Radiology, Shiga University of Medical Science, Seta-tsukinowa-cho, Otsu, Shiga 520-2192 (Japan); Okabe, Hidetoshi [Department of Clinical Laboratory, Shiga University of Medical Science, Seta-tsukinowa-cho, Otsu, Shiga 520-2192 (Japan); Ogawa, Emiko [Health Administration Center, Shiga University of Medical Science, Seta-tsukinowa-cho, Otsu, Shiga 520-2192 (Japan)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • In the total lung field, AVI had excellent correlation with FEV{sub 1}/FVC. • AVI showed differences between three groups classified by the COPD severity. • In a lobe-based analysis, AVI did not mostly correlated with volume decrease ratio. • In a lobe-based analysis, coefficient of variation was relatively small in AVI. • In some lobes, AVI associated with the COPD severity despite respiratory level. - Abstract: Purpose: To determine the usefulness of newly-proposed index (attenuation–volume index, AVI: increase in mean value of lung attenuation (MVLA) divided by volume decrease ratio (VDR)) for quantitative assessment of lobar air trapping (LAT) using expiratory/inspiratory (E/I) computed tomography (CT) by minimizing influence of respiratory level. Materials and methods: Institutional review board approved study protocol. Twenty-one moderate or severe COPD (group A), 16 mild COPD (group B) and 26 normal volunteers (group C) underwent both E/I scans via 320-row CT and pulmonary functional test (PFT). Volume image data were automatically segmented into six lung lobes with minimal manual intervention. AVI, pixel index (PI), air trapping ratio (ATR) and relative volume change (RVC{sub 860–950}) were calculated in total lung (TL) and each lobe. Four indices in TL were correlated with both PFT result and VDR and those in TL and each lobe were compared between three groups. Results: Similar to ATR, AVI correlated with both FEV{sub 1}/FVC (r = 0.772, p < 0.01) and RV/TLC (r = −0.726, p < 0.01) and demonstrated a significant difference between three groups in both TL (group A: 1.69 ± 0.45, group B: 2.21 ± 0.45 and group C: 2.80 ± 0.44) and five lobes except for left lingular segment. In a lobe-based analysis regarding relationship with VDR, AVI was much less dependent than ATR, although regression lines of groups A and C were separated for AVI as well as ATR. Coefficient of variation of either PI or RVC{sub 860–950} was significantly

  1. Cortical Thickness, Surface Area and Subcortical Volume Differentially Contribute to Cognitive Heterogeneity in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrits, Niels J H M; van Loenhoud, Anita C; van den Berg, Stan F; Berendse, Henk W; Foncke, Elisabeth M J; Klein, Martin; Stoffers, Diederick; van der Werf, Ysbrand D; van den Heuvel, Odile A

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is often associated with cognitive deficits, although their severity varies considerably between patients. Recently, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to show that individual differences in gray matter (GM) volume relate to cognitive heterogeneity in PD. VBM does, however, not differentiate between cortical thickness (CTh) and surface area (SA), which might be independently affected in PD. We therefore re-analyzed our cohort using the surface-based method FreeSurfer, and investigated (i) CTh, SA, and (sub)cortical GM volume differences between 93 PD patients and 45 matched controls, and (ii) the relation between these structural measures and cognitive performance on six neuropsychological tasks within the PD group. We found cortical thinning in PD patients in the left pericalcarine gyrus, extending to cuneus, precuneus and lingual areas and left inferior parietal cortex, bilateral rostral middle frontal cortex, and right cuneus, and increased cortical surface area in the left pars triangularis. Within the PD group, we found negative correlations between (i) CTh of occipital areas and performance on a verbal memory task, (ii) SA and volume of the frontal cortex and visuospatial memory performance, and, (iii) volume of the right thalamus and scores on two verbal fluency tasks. Our primary findings illustrate that i) CTh and SA are differentially affected in PD, and ii) VBM and FreeSurfer yield non-overlapping results in an identical dataset. We argue that this discrepancy is due to technical differences and the subtlety of the PD-related structural changes.

  2. Exercise body surface potential mapping in single and multiple coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montague, T.J.; Witkowski, F.X.; Miller, R.M.; Johnstone, D.E.; MacKenzie, R.B.; Spencer, C.A.; Horacek, B.M.

    1990-01-01

    Body surface ST integral maps were recorded in 36 coronary artery disease (CAD) patients at: rest; peak, angina-limited exercise; and, 1 and 5 min of recovery. They were compared to maps of 15 CAD patients who exercised to fatigue, without angina, and eight normal subjects. Peak exercise heart rates were similar (NS) in all groups. With exercise angina, patients with two and three vessel CAD had significantly (p less than 0.05) greater decrease in the body surface sum of ST integral values than patients with single vessel CAD. CAD patients with exercise fatigue, in the absence of angina, had decreased ST integrals similar (NS) to patients with single vessel CAD who manifested angina and the normal control subjects. There was, however, considerable overlap among individuals; some patients with single vessel CAD had as much exercise ST integral decrease as patients with three vessel CAD. All CAD patients had persistent ST integral decreases at 5 min of recovery and there was a direct correlation of the recovery and peak exercise ST changes. Exercise ST changes correlated, as well, with quantitative CAD angiographic scores, but not with thallium perfusion scores. These data suggest exercise ST integral body surface mapping allows quantitation of myocardium at ischemic risk in patients with CAD, irrespective of the presence or absence of ischemic symptoms during exercise. A major potential application of this technique is selection of CAD therapy guided by quantitative assessment of ischemic myocardial risk

  3. Targeting diseased tissues by pHLIP insertion at low cell surface pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg A. Andreev

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of the pH Low Insertion Peptides (pHLIPs provides an opportunity to develop imaging and drug delivery agents targeting extracellular acidity. Extracellular acidity is associated with many pathological states, such as those in cancer, ischemic stroke, neurotrauma, infection, lacerations and others. The metabolism of cells in injured or diseased tissues often results in the acidification of the extracellular environment, so acidosis might be useful as a general marker for the imaging and treatment of diseased states if an effective targeting method can be developed. The molecular mechanism of a pHLIP peptide is based on pH-dependent membrane-associated folding. pHLIPs, being moderately hydrophobic peptides, have high affinities for cellular membranes at normal pH, but fold and insert across membranes at low pH, allowing them to sense pH at the surfaces of cells in diseased tissues, where it is the lowest. Here we discuss the main principles of pHLIP interactions with membrane lipid bilayers at neutral and low pHs, the possibility of tuning the folding and insertion pH by peptide sequence variation, and potential applications of pHLIPs for imaging, therapy and image-guided interventions.

  4. Targeting diseased tissues by pHLIP insertion at low cell surface pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev, Oleg A; Engelman, Donald M; Reshetnyak, Yana K

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of the pH Low Insertion Peptides (pHLIPs®) provides an opportunity to develop imaging and drug delivery agents targeting extracellular acidity. Extracellular acidity is associated with many pathological states, such as those in cancer, ischemic stroke, neurotrauma, infection, lacerations, and others. The metabolism of cells in injured or diseased tissues often results in the acidification of the extracellular environment, so acidosis might be useful as a general marker for the imaging and treatment of diseased states if an effective targeting method can be developed. The molecular mechanism of a pHLIP peptide is based on pH-dependent membrane-associated folding. pHLIPs, being moderately hydrophobic peptides, have high affinities for cellular membranes at normal pH, but fold and insert across membranes at low pH, allowing them to sense pH at the surfaces of cells in diseased tissues, where it is the lowest. Here we discuss the main principles of pHLIP interactions with membrane lipid bilayers at neutral and low pHs, the possibility of tuning the folding and insertion pH by peptide sequence variation, and potential applications of pHLIPs for imaging, therapy and image-guided interventions.

  5. Distinguishing Different Stages of Parkinson’s Disease Using Composite Index of Speed and Pen-Pressure of Sketching a Spiral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonam Zham

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The speed and pen-pressure while sketching a spiral are lower among Parkinson’s disease (PD patients with higher severity of the disease. However, the correlation between these features and the severity level (SL of PD has been reported to be 0.4. There is a need for identifying parameters with a stronger correlation for considering this for accurate diagnosis of the disease. This study has proposed the use of the Composite Index of Speed and Pen-pressure (CISP of sketching as a feature for analyzing the severity of PD. A total of 28 control group (CG and 27 PD patients (total 55 participants were recruited and assessed for Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS. They drew guided Archimedean spiral on an A3 sheet. Speed, pen-pressure, and CISP were computed and analyzed to obtain their correlation with severity of the disease. The correlation of speed, pen-pressure, and CISP with the severity of PD was −0.415, −0.584, and −0.641, respectively. Mann–Whitney U test confirmed that CISP was suitable to distinguish between PD and CG, while non-parametric k-sample Kruskal–Wallis test confirmed that it was significantly different for PD SL-1 and PD SL-3. This shows that CISP during spiral sketching may be used to differentiate between CG and PD and between PD SL-1 and PD SL-3 but not SL-2.

  6. Waist Circumference, Body Mass Index, and Other Measures of Adiposity in Predicting Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Peruvian Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, K M; Paiva, L L; Sanchez, S E; Revilla, L; Lopez, T; Yasuda, M B; Yanez, N D; Gelaye, B; Williams, M A

    2011-01-24

    Objectives. To examine the extent to which measures of adiposity can be used to predict selected components of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and elevated C-reactive protein (CRP). Methods. A total of 1,518 Peruvian adults were included in this study. Waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR), waist-height ratio (WHtR), and visceral adiposity index (VAI) were examined. The prevalence of each MetS component was determined according to tertiles of each anthropometric measure. ROC curves were used to evaluate the extent to which measures of adiposity can predict cardiovascular risk. Results. All measures of adiposity had the strongest correlation with triglyceride concentrations (TG). For both genders, as adiposity increased, the prevalence of Mets components increased. Compared to individuals with low-BMI and low-WC, men and women with high-BMI and high- WC had higher odds of elevated fasting glucose, blood pressure, TG, and reduced HDL, while only men in this category had higher odds of elevated CRP. Overall, the ROCs showed VAI, WC, and WHtR to be the best predictors for individual MetS components. Conclusions. The results of our study showed that measures of adiposity are correlated with cardiovascular risk although no single adiposity measure was identified as the best predictor for MetS.

  7. Waist Circumference, Body Mass Index, and Other Measures of Adiposity in Predicting Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Peruvian Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Knowles

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To examine the extent to which measures of adiposity can be used to predict selected components of metabolic syndrome (MetS and elevated C-reactive protein (CRP. Methods. A total of 1,518 Peruvian adults were included in this study. Waist circumference (WC, body mass index (BMI, waist-hip ratio (WHR, waist-height ratio (WHtR, and visceral adiposity index (VAI were examined. The prevalence of each MetS component was determined according to tertiles of each anthropometric measure. ROC curves were used to evaluate the extent to which measures of adiposity can predict cardiovascular risk. Results. All measures of adiposity had the strongest correlation with triglyceride concentrations (TG. For both genders, as adiposity increased, the prevalence of Mets components increased. Compared to individuals with low-BMI and low-WC, men and women with high-BMI and high- WC had higher odds of elevated fasting glucose, blood pressure, TG, and reduced HDL, while only men in this category had higher odds of elevated CRP. Overall, the ROCs showed VAI, WC, and WHtR to be the best predictors for individual MetS components. Conclusions. The results of our study showed that measures of adiposity are correlated with cardiovascular risk although no single adiposity measure was identified as the best predictor for MetS.

  8. Comparing MODIS and near-surface vegetation indexes for monitoring tropical dry forest phenology along a successional gradient using optical phenology towers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankine, C.; Sánchez-Azofeifa, G. A.; Guzmán, J. Antonio; Espirito-Santo, M. M.; Sharp, Iain

    2017-10-01

    Tropical dry forests (TDFs) present strong seasonal greenness signals ideal for tracking phenology and primary productivity using remote sensing techniques. The tightly synchronized relationship these ecosystems have with water availability offer a valuable natural experiment for observing the complex interactions between the atmosphere and the biosphere in the tropics. To investigate how well the MODIS vegetation indices (normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and the enhanced vegetation index (EVI)) represented the phenology of different successional stages of naturally regenerating TDFs, within a widely conserved forest fragment in the semi-arid southeast of Brazil, we installed several canopy towers with radiometric sensors to produce high temporal resolution near-surface vegetation greenness indices. Direct comparison of several years of ground measurements with a combined Aqua/Terra 8 day satellite product showed similar broad temporal trends, but MODIS often suffered from cloud contamination during the onset of the growing season and occasionally during the peak growing season. The strength of the in-situ and MODIS linear relationship was greater for NDVI than for EVI across sites but varied with forest stand age. Furthermore, we describe the onset dates and duration of canopy development phases for three years of in-situ monitoring. A seasonality analysis revealed significant discrepancies between tower and MODIS phenology transitions dates, with up to five weeks differences in growing season length estimation. Our results indicate that 8 and 16 day MODIS satellite vegetation monitoring products are suitable for tracking general patterns of tropical dry forest phenology in this region but are not temporally sufficient to characterize inter-annual differences in phenology phase onset dates or changes in productivity due to mid-season droughts. Such rapid transitions in canopy greenness are important indicators of climate change sensitivity of these

  9. Comparison of Disease Activity Score in 28 joints with ESR (DAS28, Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI, Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index (HAQ-DI & Routine Assessment of Patient Index Data with 3 measures (RAPID3 for assessing disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis at initial presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Siddhartha Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: In adult patients with RA, in the setting where illiteracy is high, CDAI emerged as the preferred choice for rapid assessment of severity of disease at the time of initial presentation.

  10. Assessment of various systolic phase indexes for the detection of coronary artery disease by multi-gated blood pool imaging at rest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narita, Michihiro; Kurihara, Tadashi; Murano, Kenichi; Usami, Masahisa; Honda, Minoru; Kanao, Keisuke

    1982-01-01

    After Tc-99m was labeled with red blood cells in vivo, multi-gated blood pool imaging (MGBPI) was obtained at anterior and 40-degree left anterior oblique (LAO) position at rest. In addition to left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) and wall motion (WM) abnormality, first-third EF, mean normalized systolic ejection rate, SdV/dt/EDV (LV peak ejection rate normalized by end-diastolic volume) and SdV/dt/V (peak ejection rate normalized by LV volume at the peak ejection) were calculated. Patients were divided into 3 groups; Normal (n = 14), coronary artery disease (CAD) with normal EF (> = 55%) and normal WM (Group I, n = 16), and CAD with abnormal EF and/or WM abnormality (Group II, n = 31). In all subjects of Normal and 13 patients of Group I, graded supine exercise stress MGBPI was performed at LAO position by using bicycle ergometer. All systolic phase indexes were correlated well with EF (r > = 0.77, p - 1 , p - 1 as a criteria of CAD, sensitivity of this index was 91% (100% in Group II and 75% in Group I). This sensitivity in Group I was identical with that of exercise stress MGBPI. Specificity of SdV/dt/V (86%) was a little inferior to that of exercise stress MGBPI (93%), but it was not statistically significant. In conclusion, SdV/dt/V is a useful systolic phase index to detect CAD. (J.P.N.)

  11. Integrating ASCAT surface soil moisture and GEOV1 leaf area index into the SURFEX modelling platform: a land data assimilation application over France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Barbu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The land monitoring service of the European Copernicus programme has developed a set of satellite-based biogeophysical products, including surface soil moisture (SSM and leaf area index (LAI. This study investigates the impact of joint assimilation of remotely sensed SSM derived from Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT backscatter data and the Copernicus Global Land GEOV1 satellite-based LAI product into the the vegetation growth version of the Interactions between Soil Biosphere Atmosphere (ISBA-A-gs land surface model within the the externalised surface model (SURFEX modelling platform of Météo-France. The ASCAT data were bias corrected with respect to the model climatology by using a seasonal-based CDF (Cumulative Distribution Function matching technique. A multivariate multi-scale land data assimilation system (LDAS based on the extended Kalman Filter (EKF is used for monitoring the soil moisture, terrestrial vegetation, surface carbon and energy fluxes across the domain of France at a spatial resolution of 8 km. Each model grid box is divided into a number of land covers, each having its own set of prognostic variables. The filter algorithm is designed to provide a distinct analysis for each land cover while using one observation per grid box. The updated values are aggregated by computing a weighted average. In this study, it is demonstrated that the assimilation scheme works effectively within the ISBA-A-gs model over a four-year period (2008–2011. The EKF is able to extract useful information from the data signal at the grid scale and distribute the root-zone soil moisture and LAI increments throughout the mosaic structure of the model. The impact of the assimilation on the vegetation phenology and on the water and carbon fluxes varies from one season to another. The spring drought of 2011 is an interesting case study of the potential of the assimilation to improve drought monitoring. A comparison between simulated and in situ soil

  12. Using Health Utility Index (HUI for Measuring the Impact on Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQL Among Individuals with Chronic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Mo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality of life is an important indicator in assessing the burden of disease, especially for chronic conditions. The Health Utilities Index (HUI is a recently developed system for measuring the overall health status and health-related quality of life (HRQL of individuals, clinical groups, and general populations. Using the HUI (constructed based on eight attributes: vision, hearing, speech, mobility, dexterity, cognition, emotion, and pain/discomfort to measure the HRQL for chronic disease patients and to detect possible associations between HUI system and various chronic conditions, this study provides information to improve the management of chronic diseases.This study is of interest to data analysts, policy makers, and public health practitioners involved in descriptive clinical studies, clinical trials, program evaluation, population health planning, and assessments. Based on the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS for 2000–01, the HUI was used to measure the quality of life for individuals living with various chronic conditions (Alzheimer/other dementia, effects of stroke, urinary incontinence, arthritis/rheumatism, bowel disorder, cataracts, back problems, stomach/intestinal ulcers, emphysema/COPD, chronic bronchitis, epilepsy, heart disease, diabetes, migraine headaches, glaucoma, asthma, fibromyalgia, cancers, high blood pressure, multiple sclerosis, thyroid condition, and other remaining chronic diseases. Logistic Regression Model was employed to estimate the associations between the overall HUI scores and various chronic conditions. The HUI scores ranged from 0.00 (corresponding to a state close to death to 1.00 (corresponding to perfect health; negative scores reflect health states considered worse than death. The mean HUI score by sex and age group indicated the typical quality of life for persons with various chronic conditions. Logistic Regression results showed a strong relationship between low HUI scores (≤ 0.5 and 0.06

  13. Relationship between adiponectin and hepatic fibrosis markers expressions as well as insulin resistance index in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Jianhe; Pan Feng; Zhou Chuanwen; Ren Jianguo; Li Donghai

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the retationship between expressions of adiponectin and hepatic fibrosis markers as well as insulin resistance index in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Methods: Serum adiponectin, type III pro-collagen (PCIII), hyaluronic acid (HA), type IV collagen (CIV), laminin levels (with ELISA) and insulin resistance index (IRI) (calculated from homeostasis model assessment) were determined in 46 patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and 46 controls. Results The serum adiponectin levels in patients with NAFLD were significantly lower than those in controls while the serum hepatic fibrosis markers (PCIII, HA, CIV, LN) levels and IRI were significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.05). IRI was significantly positively correlated with the hepatic fibrosis markers levels (P<0.05). Serum adiponectin levels were significantly negatively correlated with WHR, RMI, HOMA-IRI and levels of FRG, TG, FINS hepatic fibrosis markers (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Conclusion: Serum adiponectin levels were greatly reduced in patients with NAFLD, which might play important role in the increase of insulin resistance and development of hepatic fibrosis. (authors)

  14. Identification of Changing Lower Limb Neuromuscular Activation in Parkinson’s Disease during Treadmill Gait with and without Levodopa Using a Nonlinear Analysis Index

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    Amir Pourmoghaddam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of electromyographic (EMG data is a cornerstone of research related to motor control in Parkinson’s disease. Nonlinear EMG analysis tools have shown to be valuable, but analysis is often complex and interpretation of the data may be difficult. A previously introduced algorithm (SYNERGOS that provides a single index value based on simultaneous multiple muscle activations (MMA has been shown to be effective in detecting changes in EMG activation due to modifications of walking speeds in healthy adults. In this study, we investigated if SYNERGOS detects MMA changes associated with both different walking speeds and levodopa intake. Nine male Parkinsonian patients walked on a treadmill with increasing speed while on or off medication. We collected EMG data and computed SYNERGOS indices and employed a restricted maximum likelihood linear mixed model to the values. SYNERGOS was sensitive to neuromuscular modifications due to both alterations of gait speed and intake of levodopa. We believe that the current experiment provides evidence for the potential value of SYNERGOS as a nonlinear tool in clinical settings, by providing a single value index of MMA. This could help clinicians to evaluate the efficacy of interventions and treatments in Parkinson’s disease in a simple manner.

  15. Relation of body mass index to risk of developing inflammatory bowel disease amongst women in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mendall, Michael; Harpsøe, Maria Christina; Kumar, Devinder

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Crohn's disease (CD) has traditionally been associated with weight loss and low BMI, yet paradoxically obesity has recently been suggested as a risk factor for CD, but not for ulcerative colitis (UC). We therefore hypothesized that the relation between BMI and CD is U shaped. AIM...... diagnosed at age 18-weight subjects as the reference, adjusted HRs for risk of developing CD (at age 18-

  16. Application of Amniotic Membrane in Ocular Surface Diseases: Clinical Features and Treatment Outcome

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    Derya Cindarik

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Pur po se: To investigate the effectiveness of amniotic membrane transplantation in cases with corneal thinning, desmatocele and refractive corneal ulcer. Ma te ri al and Met hod: Fifty-four eyes of 54 patients who were applied amniotic membrane transplantation for various ocular surface disease between January 2004 and February 2009 in Çukurova University Ophthalmology Department were included in the study. A complete ophthalmologic examination was performed. Corneal culture and corneal cytology samples were collected from the patients with the diagnosis of corneal ulcers. The patients were informed about the surgical procedure and the possible complications and informed consent was obtained. The amniotic membranes that were prepared under optimal conditions and protected in frozen forms were used in the operations. Follow-up examinations were done at postoperative 1st day, 1st week, 1st month, 3rd month, 6th month and then once in a year. Re sults: Of 54 patients, 26 (48.1% were men and 28 (51.8% were women. The mean age of patients was 52.53±19.75 (2-87 years. The cases were separated into 2 groups according to the etiology: group 1 - eyes with corneal ulcer (n:26 and group 2 - eyes with corneal stromal thinning, persistent epithelial defects and desmatocel (n:28. The transplantations were performed using cover technique in 17 eyes (31.4%, graft technique in 37 eyes (68.5% and graft technique with corneal patch in 2 eyes (3.7%. Partial penetrating keratoplasty was required in 38 of 54 eyes (70.3%. One eye was enucleated. Dis cus si on: The amniotic membrane transplantation has advantages like: it can be prepared easily and is cost-effective. It is a safe and effective procedure in ocular surface disease. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2012; 42: 177-82

  17. IMPACT OF NUTRITIONAL COUNSELLING ON BODY MASS INDEX (BMI AND NUTRIENT INTAKE OF THE NON - COMMUNICABLE DISEASE PATIENTS (NCD

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    Manisha Singh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Good health is an important discussion of the quality of life. Health problem is a major concern in all over the world but especially in developing countries. Non-communicable diseases ( NCDs contribute the ill health. Diabetes, coronary heart disease, various forms of cancer, gastro intestinal disorder and various diseases of bones and joints are diet related NCDs. Nutritional counselling is one of the effective tools of changing the food habits of people. The data for this study is taken from the out patients services of Department of Endocrinology & Metabolism and Cardiology of Sir Sunder Lal Hospital, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-5. Total 250 samples were included in the study. Age group 40 – 60 years were considered as study samples who attended the Endocrinology and Cardiology departments. Purposive sampling method was used in the study. Questionnaire cum interview method was adopted in the study. Anthropametric measurements were taken by using standard techniques. 24 hours diet recall method was also used in this study. Evaluation of councelling was done on basis of changes in BMI and nutrient intake. Result shows the positive impact of nutritional counselling in BMI and nutrient intake of NCD patients.

  18. Monitoring change in refractive index of cytosol of animal cells on affinity surface under osmotic stimulus for label-free measurement of viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jina; Jin, Sung Il; Kim, Hyung Min; Ahn, Junhyoung; Kim, Yeon-Gu; Lee, Eun Gyo; Kim, Min-Gon; Shin, Yong-Beom

    2015-02-15

    We demonstrated that a metal-clad waveguide (MCW)-based biosensor can be applied to label-free measurements of viability of adherent animal cells with osmotic stimulation in real time. After Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and human embryonic kidney cell 293 (HEK293) cells were attached to a Concanavalin A (Con A)-modified sensor surface, the magnitudes of cell responses to non-isotonic stimulation were compared between live and dead cells. The live cells exhibited a change in the refractive index (RI) of the cytosol caused by a redistribution of water through the cell membrane, which was induced by the osmotic stimulus, but the dead cells did not. Moreover, the normalized change in the RI measured via the MCW sensor was linearly proportional to the viability of attached cells and the resolution in monitoring cell viability was about 0.079%. Therefore, the viability of attached animal cells can be measured without labels by observing the relative differences in the RI of cytosol in isotonic and non-isotonic buffers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Abstracts and parameter index database for reports pertaining to the unsaturated zone and surface water-ground water interactions at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloomsburg, G.; Finnie, J.; Horn, D.; King, B.; Liou, J.

    1993-05-01

    This report is a product generated by faculty at the University of Idaho in support of research and development projects on Unsaturated Zone Contamination and Transport Processes, and on Surface Water-Groundwater Interactions and Regional Groundwater Flow at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. These projects are managed by the State of Idaho's INEL Oversight Program under a grant from the US Department of Energy. In particular, this report meets project objectives to produce a site-wide summary of hydrological information based on a literature search and review of field, laboratory and modeling studies at INEL, including a cross-referenced index to site-specific physical, chemical, mineralogic, geologic and hydrologic parameters determined from these studies. This report includes abstracts of 149 reports with hydrological information. For reports which focus on hydrological issues, the abstracts are taken directly from those reports; for reports dealing with a variety of issues beside hydrology, the abstracts were generated by the University of Idaho authors concentrating on hydrology-related issues. Each abstract is followed by a ''Data'' section which identifies types of technical information included in a given report, such as information on parameters or chemistry, mineralogy, stream flows, water levels. The ''Data'' section does not include actual values or data

  20. High-Efficiency and High-Color-Rendering-Index Semitransparent Polymer Solar Cells Induced by Photonic Crystals and Surface Plasmon Resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ping; Wang, Guoxin; Kang, Bonan; Guo, Wenbin; Shen, Liang

    2018-02-21

    Semitransparent polymer solar cells (ST-PSCs) show attractive potential in power-generating windows or building-integrated photovoltaics. However, the development of ST-PSCs is lagging behind opaque PSCs because of the contradiction between device efficiency and transmission. Herein, Ag/Au alloy nanoparticles and photonic crystals (PCs) were simultaneously introduced into ST-PSCs, acting compatibly as localized surface plasmon resonances and distributed Bragg reflectors to enhance light absorption and transmission. As a result, ST-PSCs based on a hybrid PTB7-Th:PC 71 BM active layer contribute an efficiency as high as 7.13 ± 0.15% and an average visible transmission beyond 20%, which are superior to most of the reported results. Furthermore, PCs can partly compensate valley range of transmission by balancing reflection and transmission regions, yielding a high color rendering index of 95. We believe that the idea of two light management methods compatibly enhancing the performance of ST-PSCs can offer a promising path to develop photovoltaic applications.

  1. The Conjunctiva-Associated Lymphoid Tissue in Chronic Ocular Surface Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastropasqua, Rodolfo; Agnifili, Luca; Fasanella, Vincenzo; Nubile, Mario; Gnama, Agbeanda A; Falconio, Gennaro; Perri, Paolo; Di Staso, Silvio; Mariotti, Cesare

    2017-08-01

    Ocular surface diseases (OSDs) represent a widely investigated field of research given their growing incidence and the negative impact on quality of life. During OSDs, cytokines generated by damaged epithelia trigger and deregulate the lymphoid cells composing the eye-associated lymphoid tissues, inducing an immune-mediated chronic inflammation that amplifies and propagates the disease during time. The conjunctiva-associated lymphoid tissue (CALT), given its particular position that permits immune cells covering the cornea, might play a crucial role in the development of OSDs. Despite the recognized inflammatory role of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues in other stations taking contact with the external environment (gut or bronchus), CALT did not gain the deserved consideration. In the last years, the diffusion of the in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) stimulated the interest to CALT, especially in dry eye, ocular allergy, and glaucoma. Though the initial stimuli were different, IVCM documented similar changes, represented by increased lymphoid cells within the diffuse layer, follicles and interfollicular spaces. These findings, which need to be validated by immunohistology, support the CALT stimulation during OSDs. However, while an involvement of the CALT in OSDs is hypothesizable, the exact role of this structure in their pathogenesis remains unclear and warrants further investigations.

  2. Index of alpha/theta ratio of the electroencephalogram: a new marker for Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magali eSchmidt

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We evaluated quantitative EEG measures to determine a screening index to discriminate AD patients from normal individuals. Methods: Two groups of individuals older than 50 years, comprising a control group of 57 normal volunteers and a study group of 50 patients with probable AD, were compared. EEG recordings were obtained from subjects in a wake state with eyes closed at rest for 30 min. Logistic regression analysis was conducted. Results: Spectral potentials of the alpha and theta bands were computed for all electrodes and the alpha/theta ratio calculated. Logistic regression of alpha/theta of the mean potential of the C3 and O1 electrodes was carried out. A formula was calculated to aid the diagnosis of AD yielding 76.4 % sensitivity and 84.6 specificity for AD with an area under the ROC curve of 0.92. Conclusions: Logistic regression of alpha/theta of the spectrum of the mean potential of EEG represents a good marker discriminating AD patients from normal controls.

  3. Impact of the Ki-67 labeling index and p53 expression status on disease-free survival in pT1 urothelial carcinoma of the bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetterlein, Malte W; Roschinski, Julia; Gild, Philipp; Marks, Phillip; Soave, Armin; Doh, Ousman; Isbarn, Hendrik; Höppner, Wolfgang; Wagner, Walter; Shariat, Shahrokh F; Brausi, Maurizio; Büscheck, Franziska; Sauter, Guido; Fisch, Margit; Rink, Michael

    2017-12-01

    The identification of protein biomarkers to guide treatment decisions regarding adjuvant therapies for high-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) has been of increasing interest. Evidence of the impact of tumor suppressor gene product p53 and cell proliferation marker Ki-67 on oncologic outcomes in bladder cancer patients at highest risk of recurrence and progression is partially contradictory. We sought to mirror contemporary expression patterns of p53 and Ki-67 in a select cohort of patients with pT1 bladder cancer. Patients from four Northern German institutions with a primary diagnosis of pT1 bladder cancer between 2009 and 2016 and complete data regarding p53 or Ki-67 expression status were included for final analyses. Baseline patient characteristics (age, gender, age-adjusted Charlson comorbidity index) and tumor characteristics [diagnostic sequence, tumor focality, concomitant carcinoma in situ, 1973 World Health Organization (WHO) grading, lymphovascular invasion, adjuvant instillation therapy] were abstracted by retrospective chart review. Immunohistochemistry for detection of p53 and Ki-67 expression was performed according to standardized protocols. Microscopic analyses were performed by central pathologic review. First, we compared patients with positive vs. negative p53 expression and Ki-67 labeling index [>40% vs. ≤40%; cutoffs based on best discriminative ability in univariable Cox regression analysis with disease-free survival (DFS) as endpoint] with regard to baseline and tumor characteristics. Second, we evaluated the effect of biomarker positivity on DFS by plotting univariable Kaplan-Meier curves and performing uni- and multivariable Cox regression analyses. Of 102 patients with complete information on p53 status, 44 (43.1%) were p53 positive, and they more often harbored concomitant carcinoma in situ (50.0% vs. 27.6%; P=0.032) and 1973 WHO grade 3 (97.7% vs. 69.0%; P=0.001) compared to their p53 negative counterparts. Of 79

  4. Pulmonary venous flow index as a predictor of pulmonary vascular resistance variability in congenital heart disease with increased pulmonary flow: a comparative study before and after oxygen inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Ivan Romero; Mendonça, Maria Alayde; Andrade, José Lázaro; Moises, Valdir; Campos, Orlando; Silva, Célia Camelo; Carvalho, Antonio Carlos

    2013-09-01

    There is no definitive and reliable echocardiographic method for estimating the pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) to differentiate persistent vascular disease from dynamic pulmonary hypertension. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between the pulmonary venous blood flow velocity-time integral (VTIpv) and PVR. Eighteen patients (10 females; 4 months to 22 years of age) with congenital heart disease and left to right shunt were studied. They underwent complete cardiac catheterization, including measurements of the PVR and Qp:Qs ratio, before and after 100% oxygen inhalation. Simultaneous left inferior pulmonary venous flow VTIpv was obtained by Doppler echocardiography. The PVR decreased significantly from 5.0 ± 2.6 W to 2.8 ± 2.2 W (P = 0.0001) with a significant increase in the Qp:Qs ratio, from 3.2 ± 1.4 to 4.9 ± 2.4 (P = 0.0008), and the VTIpv increased significantly from 22.6 ± 4.7 cm to 28.1 ± 6.2 cm (P = 0.0002) after 100% oxygen inhalation. VTIpv correlated well with the PVR and Qp:Qs ratio (r = -0.74 and 0.72, respectively). Diagnostic indexes indicated a sensitivity of 86%, specificity of 75%, accuracy of 83%, a positive predictive value of 92% and a negative predictive value of 60%. The VTIpv correlated well with the PVR. The measurement of this index before and after oxygen inhalation may become a useful noninvasive test for differentiating persistent vascular disease from dynamic and flow-related pulmonary hypertension. © 2013, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Obesity and Peritoneal Surface Disease: Outcomes after Cytoreductive Surgery with Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy for Appendiceal and Colon Primary Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votanopoulos, Konstantinos I.; Swords, Douglas S.; Swett, Katrina R.; Randle, Reese W.; Shen, Perry; Stewart, John H.; Levine, Edward A.

    2014-01-01

    Background It is estimated that 37 % of the U.S. population is obese. It is unknown how obesity influences the operative and survival outcomes of cytoreductive surgery (CRS)/hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) procedures. Methods A retrospective analysis of a prospective database of 1,000 procedures was performed. Type of malignancy, performance status, resection status, hospital and intensive care unit stay, comorbidities, morbidity, mortality, and survival were reviewed. Results A total of 246 patients with body mass index (BMI) of >30 kg/m2 underwent 272 CRS/HIPEC procedures. Ninety-five (38.6 %) were severely obese (BMI > 35 kg/m2). A total of 135 (49.6 %) procedures were performed for appendiceal and 60 (22.1 %) for colon cancer. Median follow-up was 52 months. Both major and minor morbidity were similar for obese and non-obese patients. The 30-day mortality rates for obese and nonobese patients were 1.5 and 2.5 %, respectively. Median intensive care unit and hospital stay were 1 and 9 days, regardless of BMI. The 30-day readmission rate was similar between obese and non-obese patients (24.8 vs. 19.4 %, p = 0.11). Median survival for low-grade appendiceal cancer (LGA) was 76 months for obese patients and 107 months for non-obese patients (p = 0.32). Survival was worse for severely obese patients (median survival 54 months) versus non-obese patients with LGA (p = 0.04). Survival was similar for obese and non-obese patients with peritoneal surface disease (PSD) from colon cancer or high-grade appendiceal cancer. Conclusions Obesity does not influence postoperative morbidity or mortality of patients with PSD, regardless of primary tumor. Severe obesity is associated with decreased long-term survival only in patients with LGA primary disease; however, application of CRS/HIPEC still offers meaningful prolongation of life. Obesity should not be considered a contraindication for CRS/HIPEC procedures. PMID:23800899

  6. Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Mimicking Alzheimer Disease and Dementia With Lewy Bodies-Findings of FDG PET With 3-Dimensional Stereotactic Surface Projection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, Nobuhiko

    2017-05-01

    A 78-year-old man received a diagnosis of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease based on symptoms and findings of MRI, FDG PET, and cerebrospinal fluid markers. PET with 3-dimensional stereotactic surface projection (3D-SSP) showed that the distribution of hypometabolism mimicked that of Alzheimer disease. A 68-year-old woman was treated under a diagnosis of convulsion. Findings of MRI, PET, familial history, and cerebrospinal fluid markers revealed familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. FDG PET with 3D-SSP disclosed that the hypometabolic pattern mimicked that of dementia with Lewy bodies. FDG PET with 3D-SSP can demonstrate similar patterns in various neurodegenerative disorders.

  7. Waist-to-height ratio: an accurate anthropometric index of abdominal adiposity and a predictor of high HOMA-IR values in nondialyzed chronic kidney disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Maria Inês Barreto; Lemos, Carla Cavalheiro da Silva; Torres, Márcia Regina Simas Gonçalves; Bregman, Rachel

    2014-03-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with metabolic disorders, including insulin resistance (IR), mainly when associated with obesity and characterized by high abdominal adiposity (AbAd). Anthropometric measures are recommended for assessing AbAd in clinical settings, but their accuracies need to be evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the precision of different anthropometric measures of AbAd in patients with CKD. We also sought to determine the AbAd association with high homeostasis model assessment index of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) values and the cutoff point for AbAd index to predict high HOMA-IR values. A subset of clinically stable nondialyzed patients with CKD followed at a multidisciplinary outpatient clinic was enrolled in this cross-sectional study. The accuracy of the following anthropometric indices: waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, conicity index and waist-to-height ratio (WheiR) to assess AbAd, was evaluated using trunk fat, by dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), as a reference method. HOMA-IR was estimated to stratify patients in high and low HOMA-IR groups. The total area under the receiver-operating characteristic curves (AUC-ROC; sensitivity/specificity) was calculated: AbAd with high HOMA-IR values (95% confidence interval [CI]). We studied 134 patients (55% males; 54% overweight/obese, body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m(2), age 64.9 ± 12.5 y, estimated glomerular filtration rate 29.0 ± 12.7 mL/min). Among studied AbAd indices, WheiR was the only one to show correlation with DXA trunk fat after adjusting for confounders (P HOMA-IR values (r = 0.47; P HOMA-IR values was 0.55 (AUC-ROC = 0.69 ± 0.05; 95% CI, 0.60-0.77; sensitivity/specificity, 68.9/61.9). WheiR is recommended as an effective and precise anthropometric index to assess AbAd and to predict high HOMA-IR values in nondialyzed patients with CKD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. First-principles study of magnetic properties of stoichiometric and O deficient low-index surfaces of rutile SnO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Ruilin; Yang, Hui [Key Laboratory of Physics and Technology for Advanced Batteries (Ministry of Education), Department of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Wang, Dingdi [Department of Physics, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Du, Xiaobo [Key Laboratory of Physics and Technology for Advanced Batteries (Ministry of Education), Department of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Yan, Yu, E-mail: yanyu@jlu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Physics and Technology for Advanced Batteries (Ministry of Education), Department of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2015-01-15

    In consideration of experimental evidences of O vacancies or/and surface state as the possible origin of d{sup 0} ferromagnetism in SnO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2}, the electronic structure and magnetic properties of stoichiometric and O deficient (110), (100), (101) and (001) surfaces of rutile SnO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2} are investigated using first-principles calculations. The calculations show that the stoichiometric (110), (100), (101) and (001) surfaces of rutile SnO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2} are nonmagnetic. The O vacancy at these low-index surfaces of SnO{sub 2} do not induce magnetic moment due to extended character of 5s and 5p orbitals of the reduced Sn atom, while the vacancy at the low-index surfaces of TiO{sub 2} produce spin splitting defect states in the band gap, resulting in the formation of magnetic moment of 2.0 μ{sub B}. The induced magnetic moment by surface O vacancy is mainly contributed by partially filled 3d orbitals of the reduced Ti atoms. It is noticed that the magnetic coupling between magnetic moments induced by two O vacancies at the low-index surfaces of rutile TiO{sub 2} are long-range ferromagnetic, which can be explained by the overlap of spin density around the common Ti or O atoms among reduced Ti atoms produced by two O vacancies. - Highlights: • Surface O vacancy does not induce magnetic moment in SnO{sub 2}. • Coupling between the moments induced by O vacancies at surfaces of TiO{sub 2} is ferromagnetic. • d{sup 0} ferromagnetism of TiO{sub 2} can be attributed to surface O vacancy.

  9. The nutritional index 'CONUT' is useful for predicting long-term prognosis of patients with end-stage liver diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Koji; Ueno, Yoshiyuki; Kawagishi, Naoki; Kondo, Yasuteru; Inoue, Jun; Kakazu, Eiji; Ninomiya, Masashi; Wakui, Yuta; Saito, Naoko; Satomi, Susumu; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2011-07-01

    Organ allocation in Japan remains difficult due to the shortage of deceased-donor livers. The screening tool for controlling nutritional status (CONUT) has been considered to be an established assessment model for evaluating nutritional aspects in surgical patients. However, the application of this CONUT for evaluating the prognosis of patients with end-stage liver diseases has not been evaluated. We assessed the predictability of the prognoses of 58 patients with end-stage liver disease using various prognostic models. The patients registered at the transplantation center of Tohoku University Hospital for the waiting list of Japan Organ Transplant Network for liver transplantation were retrospectively analyzed. The prognoses of the patients were evaluated using the following 5 models: CONUT, the model for ELD with incorporation of sodium (MELD-Na), Child-Turcotte-Pugh score (CTP), prognostic nutritional indices (Onodera: PNI-O), and the Japan Medical Urgency criteria of the liver (JMU). Cox's proportional hazard model, log-rank test and concordance(c)-static were used for the statistics. The indices were 17.74 ± 5.80 for MELD-Na, 9.21 ± 2.19 for CTP, 33.92 ± 11.16 for PNI-O, and 7.57 ± 3.09 for CONUT. Univariate analysis revealed the significance of CONUT (p = 0.017, Odds: 1.325) but not MELD-Na, CTP, JMU or PNI-O for prediction. The cumulative survival rate was clearly discriminated at CONUT point 7. The c-static was 0.081 for the 6-month (M) survival rate, 0.172 for 12M, 0.517 for 36M, 0.821 for 48M, and 0.938 for 60M for CONUT. In conclusion, CONUT shows best predictability for the distant prognoses of patients with ELD.

  10. [Usefulness of the ankle-arm index for detection of peripheral arterial disease in a working population of Junta de Andalucía at Málaga].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Inmaculada; Valdivielso, Pedro; Josefa Zamudio, María; Sánchez Chaparro, Miguel Angel; Pérez, Francisca; Ramos, Heliodoro; González Santos, Pedro

    2009-01-17

    Detection of asymptomatic peripheral arterial disease increases the risk of vascular morbibity and mortality. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of clinical and subclinical peripheral arterial disease using the ankle-arm index (AAI) as diagnostic tool in a working population. We included 450 workers, older than 50 years old, attending voluntary regular health check-up at Centro de Prevención de Riesgos Laborales de la Junta de Andalucía in Málaga (Spain). We recorded clinical and anthopometrical data. Blood samples were taken after an overnight fast. Vascular risk was calculated using Framinghan and SCORE scales. Every participant was asked for symptoms of intermittent claudicatio and AAI was measured. AAI was considered normal within 0.9-1.3 values. Most of our workers were at low- or moderate vascular risk. Only 48 (10.6%) of individuals had an abnormal AAI: 9 (2%) showed an AAI1.3. An AAI or = 5%, and in 11% of those having a Framinghan risk > or = 20%. Intermittent claudication was present in 4 out of 9 (44%) of those having an AAI<0.9 and in 7 out of 402 (1.7%) with a normal AAI. Systematic screening of peripheral arterial disease using the AAI is not recommended in active working population over 50 years-old of age. Thus, AAI measurement is indicated only for those individuals suffering from intermitent claudicatio and those who are at moderate- or high vascular risk.

  11. Waist-to-height ratio is a useful index for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in children and adolescents: a secondary data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ming-Shyan; Lin, Tsai-Hui; Guo, Su-Er; Tsai, Ming-Horng; Chiang, Ming-Shin; Huang, Tung-Jung; Chen, Mei-Yen

    2017-10-30

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a global problem and pediatric obesity has risen dramatically. Early NAFLD might progress to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) or liver cirrhosis and significantly increase liver disease-related mortality. We looked for NAFLD predictors in children and adolescents. This community-based, cross-sectional study ran from December 2012 to September 2013 in southwestern Taiwan. Children 19 years old, with detected hepatic diseases, or who drank alcohol were excluded. The diagnosis of NAFLD was based on ultrasound: age, sex, anthropometric measurements, and laboratory data were evaluated for associated risks by using logistic regression analysis. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to determine cutoff values. We enrolled one thousand, two hundred and ten children (594 males; 616 females; mean age: 15.5 ± 2.8 years). Age, anthropometric measurements, and laboratory data were significantly higher in children with NAFLD. The association between NAFLD and the waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) was significant (adjusted odds ratio: 2.6; 95% confidence interval: 1.909-3.549; P < 0.001). It indicated highly suspicion of NAFLD (sensitivity: 70.1%; specificity 76.9%) when the WHtR for children and adolescents is above the cutoff value of 0.469. The WHtR might be a powerful index of the severity of pediatric NAFLD.

  12. Montreal Cognitive Assessment Memory Index Score (MoCA-MIS) as a predictor of conversion from mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julayanont, Parunyou; Brousseau, Mélanie; Chertkow, Howard; Phillips, Natalie; Nasreddine, Ziad S

    2014-04-01

    To assess the usefulness of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) total score (MoCA-TS) and Memory Index Score (MoCA-MIS) in predicting conversion to Alzheimer's disease (AD) in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Retrospective chart review. Community-based memory clinic. Individuals meeting Petersen's MCI criteria (N = 165). Baseline MoCA scores at MCI diagnosis were collected from charts of eligible individuals with MCI, and MoCA-TS, MoCA-MIS, and a cognitive domain index score were calculated to assess their prognostic value in predicting conversion to AD. One hundred fourteen participants progressed to AD (MCI-AD), and 51 did not (nonconverters; MCI-NC); 90.5% of participants with MCI with a MoCA-TS less than 20/30 and a MoCA-MIS less than 7/15 at baseline converted to AD within the average follow-up period of 18 months, compared with 52.7% of participants with MCI above the cutoffs on both scores. Individuals with multiple-domain amnestic MCI had the highest AD conversion rates (73.9%). Identifying individuals with MCI at high risk of conversion to AD is important clinically and for selecting appropriate subjects for therapeutic trials. Individuals with MCI with a low MoCA-TS and a low newly devised memory index score (MoCA-MIS) are at greater risk of short-term conversion to AD. © 2014, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2014, The American Geriatrics Society.

  13. Cortical thickness, surface area and volume measures in Parkinson's disease, multiple system atrophy and progressive supranuclear palsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Worker

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD, Multiple System Atrophy (MSA and Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP are neurodegenerative diseases that can be difficult to distinguish clinically. The objective of the current study was to use surface-based analysis techniques to assess cortical thickness, surface area and grey matter volume to identify unique morphological patterns of cortical atrophy in PD, MSA and PSP and to relate these patterns of change to disease duration and clinical features.High resolution 3D T1-weighted MRI volumes were acquired from 14 PD patients, 18 MSA, 14 PSP and 19 healthy control participants. Cortical thickness, surface area and volume analyses were carried out using the automated surface-based analysis package FreeSurfer (version 5.1.0. Measures of disease severity and duration were assessed for correlation with cortical morphometric changes in each clinical group.Results show that in PSP, widespread cortical thinning and volume loss occurs within the frontal lobe, particularly the superior frontal gyrus. In addition, PSP patients also displayed increased surface area in the pericalcarine. In comparison, PD and MSA did not display significant changes in cortical morphology.These results demonstrate that patients with clinically established PSP exhibit distinct patterns of cortical atrophy, particularly affecting the frontal lobe. These results could be used in the future to develop a useful clinical application of MRI to distinguish PSP patients from PD and MSA patients.

  14. Correlation between coronary artery disease severity, left ventricular mass index and carotid intima media thickness, assessed by radio-frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciccone Marco M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery (CCA-IMT is a validated marker of systemic atherosclerosis process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between coronary artery disease (CAD, left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH and CCA-IMT, assessed by Radio Frequency-Quality Intima Media Thickness (RFQIMT method, the next generation of IMT real-time measurement, based on the direct analysis of the radiofrequency signal and endowed with high accuracy and reproducibility in early detection of arterial wall thickness. Methods 115 patients (76 men, mean age: 65.1 ± 12 years referred to our department and shown significant (≥ 70% luminal obstruction stenosis at least in one major epicardial coronary artery were studied. Coronary angiograms were divided for severity and extent of the disease: 79 patients (69% had one, 24 patients (21% two, 12 patients (10% three major epicardial coronary arteries with ≥ 70% stenosis. All patients underwent echocardiography and carotid ultrasound examination, assessed by RF. Results Dividing RFQIMT data in tertiles, dyslipidaemia (31 patients with IMT ≥ 1.20 mm vs 16 with IMT = 0.91-1.19 vs 25 with IMT ≤ 0.9, p = 0.004, LVMI (153.5 ± 20.6 g/m2 in IMT ≥ 1.20 mm vs 131.2 ± 8.4 g/m2 in IMT = 0.91-1.19 mm vs 114.3 ± 11.1 g/m2 in IMT ≤ 0.9 mm, P 2 = 0.88, RFQIMT remained significantly associated with the dyslipidemia (regression coefficient ± standard error [SE]: 0.057 ± 0.023; p = 0.017, LVMI (regression coefficient ± SE: 0.01 ± 0.001; P Conclusions RFQIMT is a sophisticated method for carotid ultrasound evaluation. Its evaluation in patients with at least one important major epicardial coronary vessel stenosis would help the accuracy in the general assessment of the number of coronary lesions in these patients.

  15. Motor unit number index (MUNIX) derivation from the relationship between the area and power of surface electromyogram: a computer simulation and clinical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miralles, Francesc

    2018-06-01

    Objective. The motor unit number index (MUNIX) is a technique based on the surface electromyogram (sEMG) that is gaining acceptance as a method for monitoring motor neuron loss, because it is reliable and produces less discomfort than other electrodiagnostic techniques having the same intended purpose. MUNIX assumes that the relationship between the area of sEMG obtained at increasing levels of muscle activation and the values of a variable called ‘ideal case motor unit count’ (ICMUC), defined as the product of the ratio between area and power of the compound muscle action potential (CMAP) by that of the sEMG, is described by a decreasing power function. Nevertheless, the reason for this comportment is unknown. The objective of this work is to investigate if the definition of MUNIX could derive from more basic properties of the sEMG. Approach. The CMAP and sEMG epochs obtained at different levels of muscle activation from (1) the abductor pollicis brevis (APB) muscle of persons with and without a carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and (2) from a computer model of sEMG generation previously published were analysed. Main results. MUNIX reflects the power relationship existing between the area and power of a sEMG. The exponent of this function was smaller in patients with motor CTS than in the rest of the subjects. The analysis of the relationship between the area and power of a sEMG could aid in distinguishing a MUNIX reduction due to a motoneuron loss from that due to a loss of muscle fibre. Significance. MUNIX is derived from the relationship between the area and power of a sEMG. This relationship changes when there is a loss of motor units (MUs), which partially explains the diagnostic sensibility of MUNIX. Although the reasons for this change are unknown, it could reflect an increase in the proportion of MUs of great amplitude.

  16. Evaluation of gefitinib efficacy according to body mass index, body surface area, and body weight in patients with EGFR-mutated advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Hisao; Kuwako, Tomohito; Kaira, Kyoichi; Masuda, Tomomi; Miura, Yosuke; Seki, Kaori; Sakurai, Reiko; Utsugi, Mitsuyoshi; Shimizu, Kimihiro; Sunaga, Noriaki; Tomizawa, Yoshio; Ishihara, Shinichi; Ishizuka, Takao; Mogi, Akira; Hisada, Takeshi; Minato, Koichi; Takise, Atsushi; Saito, Ryusei; Yamada, Masanobu

    2017-03-01

    In patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mutated, advanced, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), common gefitinib-sensitive EGFR mutations that predict a greater response to therapy include the exon 19 deletion and L858R point mutation. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether body surface area (BSA), body weight (BW), and body mass index (BMI) affect gefitinib efficacy in such patients. The medical charts of 138 consecutive patients with advanced NSCLC harboring sensitive EGFR mutations, who underwent gefitinib treatment, were reviewed. The median BSA and BW were used as cutoff values to evaluate their impact on gefitinib efficacy. BMI was categorized as underweight (<18.5 kg/m 2 ), normal (18.5-25 kg/m 2 ), and overweight (≥25 kg/m 2 ). The median BSA and BW were 1.48 m 2 and 53 kg, respectively. The overall response rate, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) were 65.2%, 12.2, and 24.2 months, respectively. There were no significant differences in clinical outcomes according to BSA, BW, or BMI alone. Subgroup analysis based on the mutation type and BSA revealed no significant differences in PFS between the groups; however, the median OS in those with exon 19 deletion combined with low BSA was significantly favorable compared with the other groups. Gefitinib efficacy in patients with NSCLC harboring sensitive EGFR mutations did not differ according to BSA, BW, and BMI. However, OS was superior in patients with both the exon 19 deletion and low BSA.

  17. Pooled analysis of two case-control studies in New Caledonia and French Polynesia of body mass index and differentiated thyroid cancer: the importance of body surface area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cléro, Enora; Leux, Christophe; Brindel, Pauline; Truong, Thérèse; Anger, Antoinette; Teinturier, Cécile; Diallo, Ibrahima; Doyon, Françoise; Guénel, Pascal; de Vathaire, Florent

    2010-11-01

    New Caledonia and French Polynesia have among of the world highest thyroid cancer incidence rates. Studies have demonstrated a relationship between anthropometric parameters and the prevalence of cancer. In this study we evaluated further the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and other anthropometric parameters on the incidence of thyroid cancer in the New Caledonia and French Polynesia populations. We performed a pooled analysis of two case-control studies in New Caledonia and French Polynesia. We included a total of 554 cases (65 men and 489 women) of differentiated thyroid cancers and 776 population control subjects matched on sex, age, and study. Anthropometric factors (height, weight, BMI, body fat percentage [BF%], and body surface area [BSA]), at age 18 and before diagnosis, were analyzed by conditional logistic regression, adjusting for other independent risk factors. A high proportion of cases (73%) were overweight (25-29.9 kg/m(2)) or obese (≥30 kg/m(2)) before diagnosis of thyroid cancer (against 57% of control subjects). An increased risk of thyroid cancer was observed with greater height, weight, BMI, BF%, and BSA. The association of thyroid cancer risk with height, weight, BMI, and BF% did not remain when adjustment was made for BSA. By comparison, the odds ratios for the highest versus the lowest quartile of BSA at age 18 were 3.97 (95% confidence interval, 2.57-6.15; p < 0.001) for women and 4.06 (95% confidence interval, 1.03-16.06; p = 0.04) for men. The association between thyroid cancer risk and each of anthropometric factors did not depend on tumor size or menopausal status before diagnosis. Among anthropometric factors, BSA plays a dominant role in thyroid cancer risk and explains the apparent role of BMI.

  18. Characterizing ecosystem response to water supply changes inferred from GRACE drought severity index and surface soil moisture anomalies from ESA CCI and SMAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, M.; Velicogna, I.; Kimball, J. S.

    2017-12-01

    Climate change such as more frequent heatwaves and drought is threatening our food security and ecosystem by reducing water supply to vegetation. Characterizing vegetation response to water supply changes is not only important for evaluating and mitigating climatic change impacts on ecosystem functions and services, but also to determine the feedback mechanisms that ecosystem response may generate on the climate itself. However, such characterization is not well-known at the global scale partly because large scale observations of underground water supply changes are limited. Satellite observations of soil moisture (SM) datasets such as from Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) and European Space Agency Climate Change Initiative (ESA CCI) do not penetrate more than a few centimeters and do not capture the entire root-zone. Here we employ a newly developed Drought Severity Index from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE-DSI) to complement SM observations by informing total water supply changes in the entire terrestrial hydrological cycle. We use MODIS vegetation indices as proxies for vegetation growth and investigate their seasonal and interannual variability in relation to GRACE-DSI. We find that total water supply constrains vegetation growth across the entire continental US. Water constraint begins at an earlier date of year and lasts for a longer period in the lower latitude than in the higher latitude. We also find that water constraint occurs at different phenological stages depending on vegetation type. For instance, water constrain forest growth during reproductive period in eastern US but constrain shrub land growth during green-up in Arizona (Fig. 1). In western United States, eastern Australia and the horn of Africa, we find that vegetation growth changes closely follows GRACE-DSI but can have 16-day to one-month delay with respect to SM anomalies from SMAP and ESA CCI. This suggests that in these regions, vegetation is sensitive to water

  19. Delirium superimposed on dementia: defining disease states and course from longitudinal measurements of a multivariate index using latent class analysis and hidden Markov chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciampi, Antonio; Dyachenko, Alina; Cole, Martin; McCusker, Jane

    2011-12-01

    The study of mental disorders in the elderly presents substantial challenges due to population heterogeneity, coexistence of different mental disorders, and diagnostic uncertainty. While reliable tools have been developed to collect relevant data, new approaches to study design and analysis are needed. We focus on a new analytic approach. Our framework is based on latent class analysis and hidden Markov chains. From repeated measurements of a multivariate disease index, we extract the notion of underlying state of a patient at a time point. The course of the disorder is then a sequence of transitions among states. States and transitions are not observable; however, the probability of being in a state at a time point, and the transition probabilities from one state to another over time can be estimated. Data from 444 patients with and without diagnosis of delirium and dementia were available from a previous study. The Delirium Index was measured at diagnosis, and at 2 and 6 months from diagnosis. Four latent classes were identified: fairly healthy, moderately ill, clearly sick, and very sick. Dementia and delirium could not be separated on the basis of these data alone. Indeed, as the probability of delirium increased, so did the probability of decline of mental functions. Eight most probable courses were identified, including good and poor stable courses, and courses exhibiting various patterns of improvement. Latent class analysis and hidden Markov chains offer a promising tool for studying mental disorders in the elderly. Its use may show its full potential as new data become available.

  20. Association between Low Dietary Protein Intake and Geriatric Nutrition Risk Index in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease: A Retrospective Single-Center Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiuchi, Aki; Ohashi, Yasushi; Tai, Reibin; Aoki, Toshiyuki; Mizuiri, Sonoo; Ogura, Toyoko; Aikawa, Atsushi; Sakai, Ken

    2016-10-23

    Reduced dietary protein intake in malnourished patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) may be associated with adverse clinical outcomes, which may mask any efficacy of a low-protein diet. The study included 126 patients with CKD who attended a dedicated dietary counseling clinic in 2005-2009 and were systematically followed until January 2015. Of these patients, 20 (15.9%) had moderate or severe nutrition-related risk of geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI) patients were more likely to be older, have a greater proteinuria, and have lower body mass index and serum albumin concentration. Dietary protein intake was significantly lower in older patients ( r = -0.33, p protein to nitrogen calorie ratio was independently associated with GNRI. Reduced GNRI was significantly associated with mortality (hazard ratio (HR) = 4.94; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.61-15.42, p = 0.012) and cardiovascular events (HR = 9.37; 95% CI = 2.49-37.34, p = 0.006), but not with adverse renal outcomes. Restricting protein intake may be harmful to patients with any nutrition-related risk, suggesting that improvement of nutritional status should be a high priority.

  1. Association between Low Dietary Protein Intake and Geriatric Nutrition Risk Index in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease: A Retrospective Single-Center Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aki Kiuchi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Reduced dietary protein intake in malnourished patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD may be associated with adverse clinical outcomes, which may mask any efficacy of a low-protein diet. The study included 126 patients with CKD who attended a dedicated dietary counseling clinic in 2005–2009 and were systematically followed until January 2015. Of these patients, 20 (15.9% had moderate or severe nutrition-related risk of geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI < 92; these patients were more likely to be older, have a greater proteinuria, and have lower body mass index and serum albumin concentration. Dietary protein intake was significantly lower in older patients (r = −0.33, p < 0.001 and those with lower glomerular filtration rate (r = 0.47, p < 0.001. The non-protein to nitrogen calorie ratio was independently associated with GNRI. Reduced GNRI was significantly associated with mortality (hazard ratio (HR = 4.94; 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.61–15.42, p = 0.012 and cardiovascular events (HR = 9.37; 95% CI = 2.49–37.34, p = 0.006, but not with adverse renal outcomes. Restricting protein intake may be harmful to patients with any nutrition-related risk, suggesting that improvement of nutritional status should be a high priority.

  2. Clinical impact of left ventricular eccentricity index using cardiac MRI in assessment of right ventricular hemodynamics and myocardial fibrosis in congenital heart disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamasaki, Yuzo; Kamitani, Takeshi; Yamanouchi, Torahiko; Honda, Hiroshi [Kyushu University, Departments of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan); Nagao, Michinobu; Kawanami, Satoshi [Kyushu University, Molecular Imaging and Diagnosis, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan); Yamamura, Kenichiro [Kyushu University, Pediatrics, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan); Sakamoto, Ichiro [Kyushu University, Cardiovascular Medicine, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan); Yabuuchi, Hidetake [Kyushu University, Health SciencesGraduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2016-10-15

    To investigate the utility of eccentricity index (EI) using cardiac cine MRI for the assessment of right ventricular (RV) hemodynamics in congenital heart disease (CHD). Fifty-five patients with CHD (32 women; mean age, 40.7 ± 20.9 years) underwent both cardiac MRI and right heart catheterization. EI was defined as the ratio of the distance between the anterior-posterior wall and the septal-lateral wall measured in the short-axis of mid-ventricular cine MRI. Correlations between EIs and RV hemodynamic parameters were analyzed. EIs were compared between patients with and without late gadolinium enhancement (LGE). A strong correlation between mean pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) and systolic EI (r = 0.81, p < 0.0001) and a moderate negative correlation between diastolic EI and RV ejection fraction (EF) (r = -0.62, p < 0.0001) were observed. Receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed optimal EI thresholds for detecting patients with mean PAP ≥40 mmHg with C-statistics of 0.90 and patients with RVEF <40 % with C-statistics of 0.78. Systolic EIs were significantly greater for patients with LGE (1.45 ± 0.05) than for those without LGE (1.15 ± 0.07; p < 0.001). EI offers a simple, comprehensive index that can predict pulmonary hypertension and RV dysfunction in CHD. (orig.)

  3. Do Physical Activity, Body Mass Index, and Sleep Duration Predict Clustered Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Children?- A Part of the OPUS Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Mads F.; Damsgaard, Camilla T.; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde

    Objective To investigate the single and combined associations of physical activity (PA), body mass index (BMI), and sleep duration with clustering of cardiovascular disease risk markers in healthy children. Methods We did a cross-sectional pilot-study of 74 Danish school children aged 8-11 years...... BMI was 17.1 (range 13.4-25.4) kg/m2, with 10.8% classified as overweight using isoBMI. Controlled for age and sex, P A was negatively associated with cMET-score (Standardised beta coefficients (sBeta)=-0.32); n=74; P=0.016) and BMI was positively associated with cMETscore (sBeta=0.49; n=74; P...

  4. Walkability Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Walkability Index dataset characterizes every Census 2010 block group in the U.S. based on its relative walkability. Walkability depends upon characteristics of the built environment that influence the likelihood of walking being used as a mode of travel. The Walkability Index is based on the EPA's previous data product, the Smart Location Database (SLD). Block group data from the SLD was the only input into the Walkability Index, and consisted of four variables from the SLD weighted in a formula to create the new Walkability Index. This dataset shares the SLD's block group boundary definitions from Census 2010. The methodology describing the process of creating the Walkability Index can be found in the documents located at ftp://newftp.epa.gov/EPADataCommons/OP/WalkabilityIndex.zip. You can also learn more about the Smart Location Database at https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/OP/Smart_Location_DB_v02b.zip.

  5. Resting early peak diastolic filling rate: a sensitive index of myocardial dysfunction in patients with coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polak, J.F.; Kemper, A.J.; Bianco, J.A.; Parisi, A.F.; Tow, D.E.

    1982-01-01

    Resting first-pass radionuclide angiocardiography (RNA) was used to derive left-ventricular (LV) peak diastolic filling rates (PFR) in normals (Group 1:N . 12) and in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), both without (Group 2:N . 27) and with previous myocardial infarction (Group 3:N . 23). Resting peak filling rates were significantly depressed in both Group 2 (1.61 +/- 0.36; p less than 0.01) and Group 3 (1:35 +/- 0.26; p less than 0.001) patients when compared with Group 1, normals (2.14 +/- 0.63). Even though LV systolic function of Group 2 patients was normal and comparable to that in Group 1 (EF . 0.55 +/- 0.06 against EF 0.55 +/- 0.06 NS), diastolic dysfunction [PFR less than 1.61 end diastolic volume/sec (EDV/sec)] was present at rest in 14 of 27 (52%). Depressed PFR values was also seen in 20 of 23 Group 3 patients (87%). It appears that (a) resting PFR is a sensitive and easily obtainable parameter of the diastolic dysfunction associated with CAD; (b) abnormal PFR values are seen in almost all patients with previous myocardial damage, and (c) a significant proportion of CAD patients without any evidence of abnormal systolic function have depressed resting PFR of the LV

  6. Concordance of Barthel Index, ECOG-PS, and Palliative Performance Scale in the assessment of functional status in patients with advanced medical diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Quiles, C; Bernabeu-Wittel, M; Pérez-Belmonte, L M; Macías-Mir, P; Camacho-González, D; Massa, B; Maiz-Jiménez, M; Ollero-Baturone, M

    2017-09-01

    Analysing most relevant clinical features and concordance between different functional scales in patients with advanced medical diseases (PAMD). Cross-sectional multicentre study that included PAMD (heart, lung, kidney, liver, and neurological diseases) in hospital settings from February 2009 to October 2010. We analysed clinical, biological and functional features in performing activities of daily living (ADL) by medians of Barthel Index (BI); additionally we assessed their performance status by medians of Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group-Performance Status (ECOG-PS) and Palliative Performance Scale (PPS) scores. We evaluated the concordance of these instruments in assessing functional impairment by κ and intraclass correlation coefficient tests. 1847 patients were included (average age 79 years, 50.1% men). Most common symptoms were dyspnoea (62.31%), asthenia (23%) and delirium (20.14%). Functional assessment showed a high prevalence of severe or total impairment in performing basic ADL by medians of used instruments (BI median=35 (IQR=70), and 52.1% of patients with severe-total impairment; ECOG-PS median=2 (IQR 30), and 44% of patients with severe-total impairment; and PPS median=50 (IQR 30), and 32% of patients with severe-total impairment). Concordance among these instruments was acceptably good ( κ indexes ranging from 0.653 to 0.745 (pmanagement. Assessment of functional ability in this population by BI, ECOG-PS, and PPS showed good concordance. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  7. Non-perforating small bowel Crohn's disease assessed by MRI enterography: Derivation and histopathological validation of an MR-based activity index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steward, Michael J.; Punwani, Shonit; Proctor, Ian; Adjei-Gyamfi, Yvette; Chatterjee, Fiona; Bloom, Stuart; Novelli, Marco; Halligan, Steve; Rodriguez-Justo, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To develop and validate a qualitative scoring system for enteric Crohn's disease activity using MR enterography (MRE). Methods: MRE was performed in 16 patients (mean age 33, 8 male) undergoing small bowel resection. Mural thickness, T2 signal, contrast enhancement, and perimural oedema were scored qualitatively (0–3) at 44 locations. Transmural histopathological scoring of acute inflammation (AIS) was performed at all locations (score 0–13). MRI parameters best predicting AIS were derived using multivariate analysis. The MRI activity index was applied to 26 Crohn's patients (mean age 32, range 13–69 years, 15 male) and correlated to terminal ileal biopsy scores of acute inflammation (“eAIS” score 1–6). Receiver operator characteristic curves were calculated. Results: Mural thickness (coefficient 1.34 (95% CI 0.36, 2.32)], p = 0.007) and T2 signal (coefficient 0.90 (95% CI −0.24, 2.04) p = 0.06) best predicted AIS (AIS = 1.79 + 1.34*mural thickness + 0.94*mural T2 score [R-squared 0.52]). There was a significant correlation between the MRI index and eAIS (Kendall's tau = 0.40, 95% CI 0.11–0.64, p = 0.02). The model achieved a sensitivity of 0.81 (95% CI 0.54–0.96), specificity of 0.70 (0.35–0.93) and AUC 0.77 for predicting acute inflammation (eAIS ≥2). Conclusions: A simple qualitative MRI Crohn's disease activity score appears predictive against a histopathological standard of reference

  8. Non-perforating small bowel Crohn's disease assessed by MRI enterography: Derivation and histopathological validation of an MR-based activity index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steward, Michael J., E-mail: mikejsteward@gmail.com [Department of Specialist Imaging, University College Hospital London, 235 Euston Road, London NW1 2BU (United Kingdom); Punwani, Shonit, E-mail: shonit.punwani@uclh.nhs.net [Department of Specialist Imaging, University College Hospital London, 235 Euston Road, London NW1 2BU (United Kingdom); Centre for Medical Imaging, Division of Medicine, University College London, 235 Euston Road, London NW1 2BU (United Kingdom); Proctor, Ian, E-mail: ian.proctor@nhs.net [Department of Histopathology, University College London Hospital, London, 235 Euston Road, London NW1 2BU (United Kingdom); Adjei-Gyamfi, Yvette, E-mail: yvette.adjei-gyamfi@uclh.nhs.net [Department of Specialist Imaging, University College Hospital London, 235 Euston Road, London NW1 2BU (United Kingdom); Chatterjee, Fiona, E-mail: fiona.chaterjee@uclh.nhs.net [Department of Specialist Imaging, University College Hospital London, 235 Euston Road, London NW1 2BU (United Kingdom); Bloom, Stuart, E-mail: stuart.bloom@uclh.nhs.net [Department of Gastroenterology, University College London Hospital, London, 235 Euston Road, London NW1 2BU (United Kingdom); Novelli, Marco, E-mail: marco.novealli@uclh.nhs.net [Department of Histopathology, University College London Hospital, London, 235 Euston Road, London NW1 2BU (United Kingdom); Halligan, Steve, E-mail: S.halligan@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Specialist Imaging, University College Hospital London, 235 Euston Road, London NW1 2BU (United Kingdom); Centre for Medical Imaging, Division of Medicine, University College London, 235 Euston Road, London NW1 2BU (United Kingdom); Rodriguez-Justo, Manuel, E-mail: manuel.rodriguez-justo@uclh.nhs.uk [Department of Histopathology, University College London Hospital, London, 235 Euston Road, London NW1 2BU (United Kingdom); and others

    2012-09-15

    Objectives: To develop and validate a qualitative scoring system for enteric Crohn's disease activity using MR enterography (MRE). Methods: MRE was performed in 16 patients (mean age 33, 8 male) undergoing small bowel resection. Mural thickness, T2 signal, contrast enhancement, and perimural oedema were scored qualitatively (0–3) at 44 locations. Transmural histopathological scoring of acute inflammation (AIS) was performed at all locations (score 0–13). MRI parameters best predicting AIS were derived using multivariate analysis. The MRI activity index was applied to 26 Crohn's patients (mean age 32, range 13–69 years, 15 male) and correlated to terminal ileal biopsy scores of acute inflammation (“eAIS” score 1–6). Receiver operator characteristic curves were calculated. Results: Mural thickness (coefficient 1.34 (95% CI 0.36, 2.32)], p = 0.007) and T2 signal (coefficient 0.90 (95% CI −0.24, 2.04) p = 0.06) best predicted AIS (AIS = 1.79 + 1.34*mural thickness + 0.94*mural T2 score [R-squared 0.52]). There was a significant correlation between the MRI index and eAIS (Kendall's tau = 0.40, 95% CI 0.11–0.64, p = 0.02). The model achieved a sensitivity of 0.81 (95% CI 0.54–0.96), specificity of 0.70 (0.35–0.93) and AUC 0.77 for predicting acute inflammation (eAIS ≥2). Conclusions: A simple qualitative MRI Crohn's disease activity score appears predictive against a histopathological standard of reference.

  9. Correlation between the Modified Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index 2000 and the European Consensus Lupus Activity Measurement in juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, J O; Corrente, J E; Saad-Magalhães, C

    2016-11-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to assess Modified Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index 2000 (SLEDAI-2K) and European Consensus Lupus Activity Measurement (ECLAM) disease activity correlation in addition to their respective correlation to Pediatric Systemic Lupus International Collaborative Clinics/American College of Rheumatology (SLICC/ACR) Damage Index (Ped-SDI), in juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE). Methods The activity indices were scored retrospectively and summarized by adjusted means during follow-up. The Ped-SDI was scored during the last visit for those with more than six months follow-up. Pearson correlation between the Modified SLEDAI-2K and ECLAM, as well as Spearman correlations between the Modified SLEDAI-2K, ECLAM, and Ped-SDI were calculated. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was calculated for both activity indices discriminating damage measured by Ped-SDI. Results Thirty-seven patients with mean age at diagnosis 11 ± 2.9 years and mean follow-up time 3.2 ± 2.4 years were studied. The Modified SLEDAI-2K and ECLAM adjusted means were highly correlated ( r = 0.78, p  0.7, p < 0.001), but Modified SLEDAI-2K and ECLAM correlation with Ped-SDI was only moderate. ROC analysis discriminant performance for both activity indices resulted in area under curve (AUC) of 0.74 and 0.73 for Modified SLEDAI-2K and ECLAM, respectively. Conclusion The high correlation found between the Modified SLEDAI-2K and ECLAM adjusted means indicated that both tools can be equally useful for longitudinal estimates of JSLE activity.

  10. Body Mass Index and Mortality in the General Population and in Subjects with Chronic Disease in Korea: A Nationwide Cohort Study (2002-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam Hoon Kim

    Full Text Available The association between body mass index (BMI and mortality is not conclusive, especially in East Asian populations. Furthermore, the association has been neither supported by recent data, nor assessed after controlling for weight changes.We evaluated the relationship between BMI and all-cause or cause-specific mortality, using prospective cohort data by the National Health Insurance Service in Korea, which consisted of more than one million subjects. A total of 153,484 Korean adults over 30 years of age without pre-existing cardiovascular disease or cancer at baseline were followed-up until 2010 (mean follow-up period = 7.91 ± 0.59 years. Study subjects repeatedly measured body weight 3.99 times, on average.During follow-up, 3,937 total deaths occurred; 557 deaths from cardiovascular disease, and 1,224 from cancer. In multiple-adjusted analyses, U-shaped associations were found between BMI and mortality from any cause, cardiovascular disease, and cancer after adjustment for age, sex, smoking status, alcohol consumption, physical activity, socioeconomic status, and weight change. Subjects with a BMI < 23 kg/m2 and ≥ 30 kg/m2 had higher risks of all-cause and cause-specific mortality compared with the reference group (BMI 23-24.9 kg/m2. The lowest risk of all-cause mortality was observed in subjects with a BMI of 25-26.4 kg/m2 (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0.86; 95% CI 0.77 to 0.97. In subgroup analyses, including the elderly and those with chronic diseases (diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and chronic kidney disease, subjects with a BMI of 25-29.9 kg/m2 (moderate obesity had a lower risk of mortality compared with the reference. However, this association has been attenuated in younger individuals, in those with higher socioeconomic status, and those without chronic diseases.Moderate obesity was associated more strongly with a lower risk of mortality than with normal, underweight, and overweight groups in the general population of South Korea

  11. Association of Body Mass Index with DNA Methylation and Gene Expression in Blood Cells and Relations to Cardiometabolic Disease: A Mendelian Randomization Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joehanes, Roby; Liu, Chunyu; Aslibekyan, Stella; Demerath, Ellen W.; Guan, Weihua; Zhi, Degui; Willinger, Christine; Courchesne, Paul; Multhaup, Michael; Irvin, Marguerite R.; Schadt, Eric E.; Bressler, Jan; North, Kari; Sundström, Johan; Gustafsson, Stefan; Shah, Sonia; McRae, Allan F.; Harris, Sarah E.; Gibson, Jude; Redmond, Paul; Corley, Janie; Starr, John M.; Visscher, Peter M.; Wray, Naomi R.; Krauss, Ronald M.; Feinberg, Andrew; Fornage, Myriam; Pankow, James S.; Lind, Lars; Fox, Caroline; Ingelsson, Erik; Arnett, Donna K.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Liang, Liming; Levy, Daniel; Deary, Ian J.

    2017-01-01

    Background The link between DNA methylation, obesity, and adiposity-related diseases in the general population remains uncertain. Methods and Findings We conducted an association study of body mass index (BMI) and differential methylation for over 400,000 CpGs assayed by microarray in whole-blood-derived DNA from 3,743 participants in the Framingham Heart Study and the Lothian Birth Cohorts, with independent replication in three external cohorts of 4,055 participants. We examined variations in whole blood gene expression and conducted Mendelian randomization analyses to investigate the functional and clinical relevance of the findings. We identified novel and previously reported BMI-related differential methylation at 83 CpGs that replicated across cohorts; BMI-related differential methylation was associated with concurrent changes in the expression of genes in lipid metabolism pathways. Genetic instrumental variable analysis of alterations in methylation at one of the 83 replicated CpGs, cg11024682 (intronic to sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1 [SREBF1]), demonstrated links to BMI, adiposity-related traits, and coronary artery disease. Independent genetic instruments for expression of SREBF1 supported the findings linking methylation to adiposity and cardiometabolic disease. Methylation at a substantial proportion (16 of 83) of the identified loci was found to be secondary to differences in BMI. However, the cross-sectional nature of the data limits definitive causal determination. Conclusions We present robust associations of BMI with differential DNA methylation at numerous loci in blood cells. BMI-related DNA methylation and gene expression provide mechanistic insights into the relationship between DNA methylation, obesity, and adiposity-related diseases. PMID:28095459

  12. Association of Body Mass Index with DNA Methylation and Gene Expression in Blood Cells and Relations to Cardiometabolic Disease: A Mendelian Randomization Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael M Mendelson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The link between DNA methylation, obesity, and adiposity-related diseases in the general population remains uncertain.We conducted an association study of body mass index (BMI and differential methylation for over 400,000 CpGs assayed by microarray in whole-blood-derived DNA from 3,743 participants in the Framingham Heart Study and the Lothian Birth Cohorts, with independent replication in three external cohorts of 4,055 participants. We examined variations in whole blood gene expression and conducted Mendelian randomization analyses to investigate the functional and clinical relevance of the findings. We identified novel and previously reported BMI-related differential methylation at 83 CpGs that replicated across cohorts; BMI-related differential methylation was associated with concurrent changes in the expression of genes in lipid metabolism pathways. Genetic instrumental variable analysis of alterations in methylation at one of the 83 replicated CpGs, cg11024682 (intronic to sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1 [SREBF1], demonstrated links to BMI, adiposity-related traits, and coronary artery disease. Independent genetic instruments for expression of SREBF1 supported the findings linking methylation to adiposity and cardiometabolic disease. Methylation at a substantial proportion (16 of 83 of the identified loci was found to be secondary to differences in BMI. However, the cross-sectional nature of the data limits definitive causal determination.We present robust associations of BMI with differential DNA methylation at numerous loci in blood cells. BMI-related DNA methylation and gene expression provide mechanistic insights into the relationship between DNA methylation, obesity, and adiposity-related diseases.

  13. Adding Recognition Discriminability Index to the Delayed Recall Is Useful to Predict Conversion from Mild Cognitive Impairment to Alzheimer's Disease in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, María J; Campos, Jorge; Vázquez, Silvia; Sevlever, Gustavo; Allegri, Ricardo F

    2017-01-01

    Background: Ongoing research is focusing on the identification of those individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) who are most likely to convert to Alzheimer's disease (AD). We investigated whether recognition memory tasks in combination with delayed recall measure of episodic memory and CSF biomarkers can predict MCI to AD conversion at 24-month follow-up. Methods: A total of 397 amnestic-MCI subjects from Alzheimer's disease Neuroimaging Initiative were included. Logistic regression modeling was done to assess the predictive value of all RAVLT measures, risk factors such as age, sex, education, APOE genotype, and CSF biomarkers for progression to AD. Estimating adjusted odds ratios was used to determine which variables would produce an optimal predictive model, and whether adding tests of interaction between the RAVLT Delayed Recall and recognition measures (traditional score and d-prime) would improve prediction of the conversion from a-MCI to AD. Results: 112 (28.2%) subjects developed dementia and 285 (71.8%) subjects did not. Of the all included variables, CSF Aβ1-42 levels, RAVLT Delayed Recall, and the combination of RAVLT Delayed Recall and d-prime were predictive of progression to AD (χ 2 = 38.23, df = 14, p < 0.001). Conclusions: The combination of RAVLT Delayed Recall and d-prime measures may be predictor of conversion from MCI to AD in the ADNI cohort, especially in combination with amyloid biomarkers. A predictive model to help identify individuals at-risk for dementia should include not only traditional episodic memory measures (delayed recall or recognition), but also additional variables (d-prime) that allow the homogenization of the assessment procedures in the diagnosis of MCI.

  14. Three-dimensional stereotactic surface projection of brain perfusion SPECT improves diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Norinari; Machida, Kikuo

    2003-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is diagnosed by either inspection of the brain perfusion SPECT, or three-dimensional stereotactic surface display (3D-SSP). The purpose was to compare diagnostic performances of these methods. Sixteen nuclear medicine physicians independently interpreted 99m Tc-ECD SPECT in one session and SPECT with 3D-SSP in another session without clinical information for 50 studies of AD patients and 40 studies of healthy volunteers. Probabilities of AD were reported according to a subjective scale from 0% (normal) to 100% (definite AD). Receiver operating characteristics curves were generated to calculate areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves (Az's) for the inspection as well as for an automated diagnosis based on a mean Z value in the bilateral posterior cingulate gyri in a 3D-SSP template. Mean Az for visual interpretation of SPECT alone (0.679±0.058) was significantly smaller than that for visual interpretation of both SPECT and 3D-SSP (0.778±0.060). Az for the automated diagnosis (0.883±0.037) was significantly greater than that for both modes of visual interpretation. 3D-SSP enhanced performance of the nuclear medicine physicians inspecting SPECT. Performance of the automated diagnosis exceeded that of the physicians inspecting SPECT with and without 3D-SSP. (author)

  15. AP Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Planetary Amplitude index - Bartels 1951. The a-index ranges from 0 to 400 and represents a K-value converted to a linear scale in gammas (nanoTeslas)--a scale that...

  16. Association Between Change in Body Mass Index, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Scores, and Survival Among Persons With Parkinson Disease: Secondary Analysis of Longitudinal Data From NINDS Exploratory Trials in Parkinson Disease Long-term Study 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Anne-Marie A; Pérez, Adriana; Wang, Jue; Su, Xiao; Morgan, John; Rajan, Suja S; Leehey, Maureen A; Pontone, Gregory M; Chou, Kelvin L; Umeh, Chizoba; Mari, Zoltan; Boyd, James

    2016-03-01

    Greater body mass index (BMI, calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) is associated with improved survival among persons with Huntington disease or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Weight loss is common among persons with Parkinson disease (PD) and is associated with worse quality of life. To explore the association between change in BMI, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) motor and total scores, and survival among persons with PD and to test whether there is a positive association between BMI at randomization and survival. Secondary analysis (from May 27, 2014, to October 13, 2015) of longitudinal data (3-6 years) from 1673 participants who started the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Exploratory Trials in PD Long-term Study-1 (NET-PD LS-1). This was a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial of creatine monohydrate (10 g/d) that was performed at 45 sites throughout the United States and Canada. Participants with early (within 5 years of diagnosis) and treated (receiving dopaminergic therapy) PD were enrolled from March 2007 to May 2010 and followed up until September 2013. Change across time in motor UPDRS score, change across time in total UPDRS score, and time to death. Generalized linear mixed models were used to estimate the effect of BMI on the change in motor and total UPDRS scores after controlling for covariates. Survival was analyzed using Cox proportional hazards models of time to death. A participant's BMI was measured at randomization, and BMI trajectory groups were classified according to whether participants experienced weight loss ("decreasing BMI"), weight stability ("stable BMI"), or weight gain ("increasing BMI") during the study. Of the 1673 participants (mean [SD] age, 61.7 [9.6] years; 1074 [64.2%] were male), 158 (9.4%) experienced weight loss (decreasing BMI), whereas 233 (13.9%) experienced weight gain (increasing BMI). After adjusting for covariates, we

  17. The clinical utility of lung clearance index in early cystic fibrosis lung disease is not impacted by the number of multiple-breath washout trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel E. Foong

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The lung clearance index (LCI from the multiple-breath washout (MBW test is a promising surveillance tool for pre-school children with cystic fibrosis (CF. Current guidelines for MBW testing recommend that three acceptable trials are required. However, success rates to achieve these criteria are low in children aged <7 years and feasibility may improve with modified pre-school criteria that accepts tests with two acceptable trials. This study aimed to determine if relationships between LCI and clinical outcomes of CF lung disease differ when only two acceptable MBW trials are assessed. Healthy children and children with CF aged 3–6 years were recruited for MBW testing. Children with CF also underwent bronchoalveolar lavage fluid collection and a chest computed tomography scan. MBW feasibility increased from 46% to 75% when tests with two trials were deemed acceptable compared with tests where three acceptable trials were required. Relationships between MBW outcomes and markers of pulmonary inflammation, infection and structural lung disease were not different between tests with three acceptable trials compared with tests with two acceptable trials. This study indicates that pre-school MBW data from two acceptable trials may provide sufficient information on ventilation distribution if three acceptable trials are not possible.

  18. Consumer Quality Index Chronic Skin Disease (CQI-CSD): a new instrument to measure quality of care from the patient's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Cranenburgh, O D; Krol, M W; Hendriks, M C P; de Rie, M A; Smets, E M A; de Korte, J; Sprangers, M A G

    2015-10-01

    Assessing quality of care from the patient's perspective is considered to be highly relevant. As a standardized instrument in dermatology was lacking, we developed a patient experience questionnaire regarding chronic skin disease care: the Consumer Quality Index Chronic Skin Disease (CQI-CSD). (i) To evaluate the dimensional structure of the CQI-CSD, (ii) to assess its ability to distinguish between hospitals according to patients' experiences with quality of care, (iii) to explore patients' experiences with dermatological care and priorities for quality improvement according to the patients, and (iv) to optimize the questionnaire based on psychometric results and stakeholders' input. In a cross-sectional study 5647 adult patients who received dermatological care in the past 12 months in 20 hospitals were randomly selected and invited to fill out the questionnaire. Overall 1160 of 3989 eligible respondents (29% response rate, 30-87 per hospital) were included for analysis. The CQI-CSD comprised seven scales with high internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0·74-0·92). The instrument's discriminative power was limited. Patients were positive about the care provided by nurses and doctors, but the provision of information by healthcare providers, accessibility of care and patient involvement could be improved. We optimized the CQI-CSD, resulting in a revised questionnaire containing 65 items. In conclusion, the CQI-CSD is a useful instrument to measure patient experiences with dermatological care. © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists.

  19. The clinical utility of lung clearance index in early cystic fibrosis lung disease is not impacted by the number of multiple-breath washout trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foong, Rachel E.; Harper, Alana J.; King, Louise; Turkovic, Lidija; Davis, Miriam; Clem, Charles C.; Davis, Stephanie D.; Ranganathan, Sarath; Hall, Graham L.

    2018-01-01

    The lung clearance index (LCI) from the multiple-breath washout (MBW) test is a promising surveillance tool for pre-school children with cystic fibrosis (CF). Current guidelines for MBW testing recommend that three acceptable trials are required. However, success rates to achieve these criteria are low in children aged tests with two acceptable trials. This study aimed to determine if relationships between LCI and clinical outcomes of CF lung disease differ when only two acceptable MBW trials are assessed. Healthy children and children with CF aged 3–6 years were recruited for MBW testing. Children with CF also underwent bronchoalveolar lavage fluid collection and a chest computed tomography scan. MBW feasibility increased from 46% to 75% when tests with two trials were deemed acceptable compared with tests where three acceptable trials were required. Relationships between MBW outcomes and markers of pulmonary inflammation, infection and structural lung disease were not different between tests with three acceptable trials compared with tests with two acceptable trials. This study indicates that pre-school MBW data from two acceptable trials may provide sufficient information on ventilation distribution if three acceptable trials are not possible.

  20. Early cystic fibrosis lung disease: Role of airway surface dehydration and lessons from preventive rehydration therapies in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mall, Marcus A; Graeber, Simon Y; Stahl, Mirjam; Zhou-Suckow, Zhe

    2014-07-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease starts in the first months of life and remains one of the most common fatal hereditary diseases. Early therapeutic interventions may provide an opportunity to prevent irreversible lung damage and improve outcome. Airway surface dehydration is a key disease mechanism in CF, however, its role in the in vivo pathogenesis and as therapeutic target in early lung disease remains poorly understood. Mice with airway-specific overexpression of the epithelial Na(+) channel (βENaC-Tg) recapitulate airway surface dehydration and phenocopy CF lung disease. Recent studies in neonatal βENaC-Tg mice demonstrated that airway surface dehydration produces early mucus plugging in the absence of mucus hypersecretion, which triggers airway inflammation, promotes bacterial infection and causes early mortality. Preventive rehydration therapy with hypertonic saline or amiloride effectively reduced mucus plugging and mortality in neonatal βENaC-Tg mice. These results support clinical testing of preventive/early rehydration strategies in infants and young children with CF. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Polymorphisms of the GR and HSD11B1 genes influence body mass index and weight gain during hormone replacement treatment in patients with Addison's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár, Ágnes; Kövesdi, Annamária; Szücs, Nikolette; Tóth, Miklós; Igaz, Péter; Rácz, Károly; Patócs, Attila

    2016-08-01

    Glucocorticoid substitution is essential in patients with chronic primary adrenocortical insufficiency (Addison's disease) and both over-treatment and inadequate dosage have deleterious effects. Individual sensitivity to glucocorticoids is partly genetically determined. To test the hypothesis whether the well-characterized SNPs of the GR and HSD11B1 genes may modulate the individual sensitivity to exogenous glucocorticoids and may influence clinical and/or laboratory parameters and the glucocorticoid substitution dosage in patients with Addison's disease. 68 patients with primary adrenocortical insufficiency were involved. Clinical and laboratory data, as well as the dosage of the hormone replacement therapy were collected. Peripheral blood DNA was isolated, and the GR and HSD11B1 SNPs were examined using allele-specific PCR or Taqman assay on Real Time PCR. The allele frequency of the GR N363S polymorphism was higher in patients compared to the control group and the disease appeared significantly earlier in patients harbouring the GR A3669G compared to noncarriers. These patients had higher ACTH level measured at the time of diagnosis. Homozygous BclI carriers had higher body mass index (BMI) and lower total hydrocortisone equivalent supplementation dose needed than heterozygous or noncarriers. The BMI and weight gain during hormone replacement therapy were also higher in carriers of the HSD11B1 rs4844880 treated with glucocorticoids other than dexamethasone. The BclI polymorphism of the GR gene and the rs4844880 of the HSD11B1 gene may contribute to weight gain and may affect the individual need of glucocorticoid substitution dose in these patients. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Validated Alzheimer's Disease Risk Index (ANU-ADRI) is associated with smaller volumes in the default mode network in the early 60s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherbuin, Nicolas; Shaw, Marnie E; Walsh, Erin; Sachdev, Perminder; Anstey, Kaarin J

    2017-12-14

    Strong evidence is available suggesting that effective reduction of exposure to demonstrated modifiable risk factors in mid-life or before could significantly decrease the incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and delay its onset. A key ingredient to achieving this goal is the reliable identification of individuals at risk well before they develop clinical symptoms. The aim of this study was to provide further neuroimaging evidence of the effectiveness of a validated tool, the ANU Alzheimer's Disease Risk Index, for the assessment of future risk of cognitive decline. Participants were 461 (60-64 years, 48% female) community-living individuals free of dementia at baseline. Associations between risk estimates obtained with the ANU-ADRI, total and regional brain volumes including in the default mode network (DMN) measured at the same assessment and diagnosis of MCI/dementia over a 12-year follow-up were tested in a large sample of community-living individuals free of dementia at baseline. Higher risk estimates on the ANU-ADRI were associated with lower cortical gray matter and particularly in the DMN. Importantly, difference in participants with high and low risk scores explained 7-9% of the observed difference in gray matter volume. In this sample, every one additional risk point on the ANU-ADRI was associated with an 8% increased risk of developing MCI/dementia over a 12-year follow-up and this association was partly mediated by a sub-region of the DMN. Risk of cognitive decline assessed with a validated instrument is associated with gray matter volume, particularly in the DMN, a region known to be implicated in the pathological process of the disease.

  3. Association of depression with body mass index classification, metabolic disease, and lifestyle: A web-based survey involving 11,876 Japanese people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidese, Shinsuke; Asano, Shinya; Saito, Kenji; Sasayama, Daimei; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2018-02-10

    Body mass index (BMI) and lifestyle-related physical illnesses have been implicated in the pathology of depression. We aimed to investigate the association of depression wih BMI classification (i.e., underweight, normal, overweight, and obese), metabolic disease, and lifestyle using a web-based survey in a large cohort. Participants were 1000 individuals who have had depression (mean age: 41.4 ± 12.3 years, 501 men) and 10,876 population-based controls (45.1 ± 13.6 years, 5691 men). The six-item Kessler scale (K6) test was used as a psychological distress scale. Compared to in the controls, obesity and hyperlipidemia were more common and frequency of a snack or night meal consumption was higher, whereas frequencies of breakfast consumption and vigorous and moderate physical activities were lower in the patients. K6 test scores were higher for underweight or obese people compared to normal or overweight people. A logistic regression analysis showed that the K6 test cut-off score was positively associated with being underweight, hyperlipidemia, and the frequency of a snack or night meal consumption, whereas it was negatively associated with the frequency of breakfast consumption in the patients. Logistic regression analyses showed that self-reported depression was positively associated with metabolic diseases and the frequency of a snack or night meal consumption, whereas it was negatively associated with the frequency of breakfast consumption. The observed associations of depression with BMI classification, metabolic disease, and lifestyle suggest that lifestyle and related physical conditions are involved in at least a portion of depressive disorders. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Body-mass index and risk of advanced chronic kidney disease: Prospective analyses from a primary care cohort of 1.4 million adults in England.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William G Herrington

    Full Text Available It is uncertain whether being overweight, but not obese, is associated with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD and how the size and shape of associations between body-mass index (BMI and advanced CKD differs among different types of people.We used Clinical Practice Research Datalink records (2000-2014 with linkage to English secondary care and mortality data to identify a prospective cohort with at least one BMI measure. Cox models adjusted for age, sex, smoking and social deprivation and subgroup analyses by diabetes, hypertension and prior cardiovascular disease assessed relationships between BMI and CKD stages 4-5 and end-stage renal disease (ESRD.1,405,016 adults aged 20-79 with mean BMI 27.4kg/m2 (SD 5.6 were followed for 7.5 years. Compared to a BMI of 20 to <25kg/m2, higher BMI was associated with a progressively increased risk of CKD stages 4-5 (hazard ratio 1.34, 95% CI 1.30-1.38 for BMI 25 to <30kg/m2; 1.94, 1.87-2.01 for BMI 30 to <35kg/m2; and 3.10, 2.95-3.25 for BMI ≥35kg/m2. The association between BMI and ESRD was shallower and reversed at low BMI. Current smoking, prior diabetes, hypertension or cardiovascular disease all increased risk of CKD, but the relative strength and shape of BMI-CKD associations, which were generally log-linear above a BMI of 25kg/m2, were similar among those with and without these risk factors. There was direct evidence that being overweight was associated with increased risk of CKD stages 4-5 in these subgroups. Assuming causality, since 2000 an estimated 39% (36-42% of advanced CKD in women and 26% (22-30% in men aged 40-79 resulted from being overweight or obese.This study provides direct evidence that being overweight increases risk of advanced CKD, that being obese substantially increases such risk, and that this remains true for those with and without diabetes, hypertension or cardiovascular disease. Strategies to reduce weight among those who are overweight, as well as those who are obese may

  5. Goblet cells contribute to ocular surface immune tolerance—implications for dry eye disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barbosa, Flavia L.; Xiao, Yangyan; Bian, Fang; Coursey, Terry G.; Ko, Byung Yi; Clevers, Hans; de Paiva, Cintia S.; Pflugfelder, Stephen C.

    2017-01-01

    Conjunctival goblet cell (GC) loss in dry eye is associated with ocular surface inflammation. This study investigated if conjunctival GCs contribute to ocular surface immune tolerance. Antigens applied to the ocular surface, imaged by confocal microscopy, passed into the conjunctival stroma through

  6. Goblet Cells Contribute to Ocular Surface Immune Tolerance-Implications for Dry Eye Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barbosa, Flavia L; Xiao, Yangyan; Bian, Fang; Coursey, Terry G; Ko, Byung Yi; Clevers, Hans; de Paiva, Cintia S; Pflugfelder, Stephen C

    2017-01-01

    Conjunctival goblet cell (GC) loss in dry eye is associated with ocular surface inflammation. This study investigated if conjunctival GCs contribute to ocular surface immune tolerance. Antigens applied to the ocular surface, imaged by confocal microscopy, passed into the conjunctival stroma through

  7. Cut-Offs and Response Criteria for the Hospital Universitario La Princesa Index (HUPI and Their Comparison to Widely-Used Indices of Disease Activity in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isidoro González-Álvaro

    Full Text Available To estimate cut-off points and to establish response criteria for the Hospital Universitario La Princesa Index (HUPI in patients with chronic polyarthritis.Two cohorts, one of early arthritis (Princesa Early Arthritis Register Longitudinal [PEARL] study and other of long-term rheumatoid arthritis (Estudio de la Morbilidad y Expresión Clínica de la Artritis Reumatoide [EMECAR] including altogether 1200 patients were used to determine cut-off values for remission, and for low, moderate and high activity through receiver operating curve (ROC analysis. The areas under ROC (AUC were compared to those of validated indexes (SDAI, CDAI, DAS28. ROC analysis was also applied to establish minimal and relevant clinical improvement for HUPI.The best cut-off points for HUPI are 2, 5 and 9, classifying RA activity as remission if ≤2, low disease activity if >2 and ≤5, moderate if >5 and <9 and high if ≥9. HUPI's AUC to discriminate between low-moderate activity was 0.909 and between moderate-high activity 0.887. DAS28's AUCs were 0.887 and 0.846, respectively; both indices had higher accuracy than SDAI (AUCs: 0.832 and 0.756 and CDAI (AUCs: 0.789 and 0.728. HUPI discriminates remission better than DAS28-ESR in early arthritis, but similarly to SDAI. The HUPI cut-off for minimal clinical improvement was established at 2 and for relevant clinical improvement at 4. Response criteria were established based on these cut-off values.The cut-offs proposed for HUPI perform adequately in patients with either early or long term arthritis.

  8. Cut-Offs and Response Criteria for the Hospital Universitario La Princesa Index (HUPI) and Their Comparison to Widely-Used Indices of Disease Activity in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Álvaro, Isidoro; Castrejón, Isabel; Ortiz, Ana M; Toledano, Esther; Castañeda, Santos; García-Vadillo, Alberto; Carmona, Loreto

    2016-01-01

    To estimate cut-off points and to establish response criteria for the Hospital Universitario La Princesa Index (HUPI) in patients with chronic polyarthritis. Two cohorts, one of early arthritis (Princesa Early Arthritis Register Longitudinal [PEARL] study) and other of long-term rheumatoid arthritis (Estudio de la Morbilidad y Expresión Clínica de la Artritis Reumatoide [EMECAR]) including altogether 1200 patients were used to determine cut-off values for remission, and for low, moderate and high activity through receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis. The areas under ROC (AUC) were compared to those of validated indexes (SDAI, CDAI, DAS28). ROC analysis was also applied to establish minimal and relevant clinical improvement for HUPI. The best cut-off points for HUPI are 2, 5 and 9, classifying RA activity as remission if ≤2, low disease activity if >2 and ≤5), moderate if >5 and <9 and high if ≥9. HUPI's AUC to discriminate between low-moderate activity was 0.909 and between moderate-high activity 0.887. DAS28's AUCs were 0.887 and 0.846, respectively; both indices had higher accuracy than SDAI (AUCs: 0.832 and 0.756) and CDAI (AUCs: 0.789 and 0.728). HUPI discriminates remission better than DAS28-ESR in early arthritis, but similarly to SDAI. The HUPI cut-off for minimal clinical improvement was established at 2 and for relevant clinical improvement at 4. Response criteria were established based on these cut-off values. The cut-offs proposed for HUPI perform adequately in patients with either early or long term arthritis.

  9. Fructose, high-fructose corn syrup, sucrose, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease or indexes of liver health: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Mei; Ma, Jiantao; Patel, Kamal; Berger, Samantha; Lau, Joseph; Lichtenstein, Alice H

    2014-09-01

    Concerns have been raised about the concurrent temporal trend between simple sugar intakes, especially of fructose or high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS), and rates of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in the United States. We examined the effect of different amounts and forms of dietary fructose on the incidence or prevalence of NAFLD and indexes of liver health in humans. We conducted a systematic review of English-language, human studies of any design in children and adults with low to no alcohol intake and that reported at least one predetermined measure of liver health. The strength of the evidence was evaluated by considering risk of bias, consistency, directness, and precision. Six observational studies and 21 intervention studies met the inclusion criteria. The overall strength of evidence for observational studies was rated insufficient because of high risk of biases and inconsistent study findings. Of 21 intervention studies, 19 studies were in adults without NAFLD (predominantly healthy, young men) and 1 study each in adults or children with NAFLD. We found a low level of evidence that a hypercaloric fructose diet (supplemented by pure fructose) increases liver fat and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) concentrations in healthy men compared with the consumption of a weight-maintenance diet. In addition, there was a low level of evidence that hypercaloric fructose and glucose diets have similar effects on liver fat and liver enzymes in healthy adults. There was insufficient evidence to draw a conclusion for effects of HFCS or sucrose on NAFLD. On the basis of indirect comparisons across study findings, the apparent association between indexes of liver health (ie, liver fat, hepatic de novo lipogenesis, alanine aminotransferase, AST, and γ-glutamyl transpeptase) and fructose or sucrose intake appear to be confounded by excessive energy intake. Overall, the available evidence is not sufficiently robust to draw conclusions regarding effects of fructose

  10. Fructose, high-fructose corn syrup, sucrose, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease or indexes of liver health: a systematic review and meta-analysis1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Mei; Ma, Jiantao; Patel, Kamal; Berger, Samantha; Lau, Joseph; Lichtenstein, Alice H

    2014-01-01

    Background: Concerns have been raised about the concurrent temporal trend between simple sugar intakes, especially of fructose or high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS), and rates of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in the United States. Objective: We examined the effect of different amounts and forms of dietary fructose on the incidence or prevalence of NAFLD and indexes of liver health in humans. Design: We conducted a systematic review of English-language, human studies of any design in children and adults with low to no alcohol intake and that reported at least one predetermined measure of liver health. The strength of the evidence was evaluated by considering risk of bias, consistency, directness, and precision. Results: Six observational studies and 21 intervention studies met the inclusion criteria. The overall strength of evidence for observational studies was rated insufficient because of high risk of biases and inconsistent study findings. Of 21 intervention studies, 19 studies were in adults without NAFLD (predominantly healthy, young men) and 1 study each in adults or children with NAFLD. We found a low level of evidence that a hypercaloric fructose diet (supplemented by pure fructose) increases liver fat and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) concentrations in healthy men compared with the consumption of a weight-maintenance diet. In addition, there was a low level of evidence that hypercaloric fructose and glucose diets have similar effects on liver fat and liver enzymes in healthy adults. There was insufficient evidence to draw a conclusion for effects of HFCS or sucrose on NAFLD. Conclusions: On the basis of indirect comparisons across study findings, the apparent association between indexes of liver health (ie, liver fat, hepatic de novo lipogenesis, alanine aminotransferase, AST, and γ-glutamyl transpeptase) and fructose or sucrose intake appear to be confounded by excessive energy intake. Overall, the available evidence is not sufficiently robust

  11. Presence of antibodies against a cell-surface protein, cross-reactive with DNA, in systemic lupus erythrematosus: a marker of the disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, L.; Lety, M.A.; Choquette, D.; Viard, J.P.; Jacob, F.; Louvard, D.; Bach, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    Antibodies against a cell-surface protein, cross-reactive with double-stranded DNA, were detected in the serum of 25 patients with active human systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), defined on the basis of the revised American Rheumatism Association classification. Among these sera, two did not display anti-DNA antibodies, as shown by Farr assay, solid-phase radioimmunoassay, and Crithidia luciliae test. Five other SLE patients were consecutively studied in active and remission states. Antibodies against the protein were detected in the serum of the 5 SLE patients when they were in active phase but not in the serum of the same patients in inactive phase of the disease. The anti-protein antibodies were not found in the serum of 10 inactive SLE patients or in the sera of 10 normal human controls, 10 patients with rheumatoid arthritis, 5 patients with scleroderma, and 4 patients with primary sicca syndrome. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that antibodies against this cell-surface protein could provide a better diagnosis marker and activity index than anti-DNA antibodies in SLE

  12. AA Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The geomagnetic aa index provides a long climatology of global geomagnetic activity using 2 antipodal observatories at Greenwich and Melbourne- IAGA Bulletin 37,...

  13. Walkability Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Walkability Index dataset characterizes every Census 2010 block group in the U.S. based on its relative walkability. Walkability depends upon characteristics of...

  14. Diversity Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — This map service summarizes racial and ethnic diversity in the United States in 2012.The Diversity Index shows the likelihood that two persons chosen at random from...

  15. AUTHOR INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    a granitic terrain of southern India using factor analysis and GIS. 1059. Radhakrishna M see Dev Sheena V .... Landslide susceptibility analysis using Probabilistic. Certainty Factor ... index via entropy-difference analysis. 687. Yidana Sandow ...

  16. Intelligent indexing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, J.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the relevance of artificial intelligence to the automatic indexing of natural language text. We describe the use of domain-specific semantically-based thesauruses and address the problem of creating adequate knowledge bases for intelligent indexing systems. We also discuss the relevance of the Hilbert space ι 2 to the compact representation of documents and to the definition of the similarity of natural language texts. (author). 17 refs., 2 figs

  17. Intelligent indexing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, J

    1993-12-31

    In this paper we discuss the relevance of artificial intelligence to the automatic indexing of natural language text. We describe the use of domain-specific semantically-based thesauruses and address the problem of creating adequate knowledge bases for intelligent indexing systems. We also discuss the relevance of the Hilbert space {iota}{sup 2} to the compact representation of documents and to the definition of the similarity of natural language texts. (author). 17 refs., 2 figs.

  18. Lack of correlation between immunologic markers and cell surface ultrastructure in the leukemic phase of lymphoproliferative diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golomb, Harvey M.; Simon, Deberah

    1977-01-01

    In a prospective study of malignant cells from 13 patients with the leukemic phase of lymphoproliferative diseases, we wished to determine whether any correlation between the immunologic markers and the cell surface ultrastructure. Five patients had chronic lymphocytic leukemia, four had malignant lymphomas, poorly differentiated lymphocytic type, two had the Sezary syndrome, and one each had acute prolymphocytic leukemia and acute lymphocytic leukemia. Cell separation and isolation was done at room temperature for all specimens. Immunologic markers tested for were surface immunoglobins, a B-cell property, and E-rosettes, a T-cell property. Three patients had T-cell diseases, 6 had B-cell diseases, and 4 were classified as ''null.'' All but one patient had moderate to large numbers of microvilli on their malignant cells. The single exception had a typical B-cell form of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. There appears to be no correlation between immunologic markers and cell surface ultrastructure; therefore, SEM appears not to be valuable in the diagnosis or classification of immunologic sub-types of certain lymphoproliferative diseases.

  19. Neurodegenerative disease mutations in TREM2 reveal a functional surface and distinct loss-of-function mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kober, Daniel L.; Alexander-Brett, Jennifer M.; Karch, Celeste M.; Cruchaga, Carlos; Colonna, Marco; Holtzman, Michael J.; Brett, Thomas J. (WU-MED)

    2016-12-20

    Genetic variations in the myeloid immune receptor TREM2 are linked to several neurodegenerative diseases. To determine how TREM2 variants contribute to these diseases, we performed structural and functional studies of wild-type and variant proteins. Our 3.1 Å TREM2 crystal structure revealed that mutations found in Nasu-Hakola disease are buried whereas Alzheimer’s disease risk variants are found on the surface, suggesting that these mutations have distinct effects on TREM2 function. Biophysical and cellular methods indicate that Nasu-Hakola mutations impact protein stability and decrease folded TREM2 surface expression, whereas Alzheimer’s risk variants impact binding to a TREM2 ligand. Additionally, the Alzheimer’s risk variants appear to epitope map a functional surface on TREM2 that is unique within the larger TREM family. These findings provide a guide to structural and functional differences among genetic variants of TREM2, indicating that therapies targeting the TREM2 pathway should be tailored to these genetic and functional differences with patient-specific medicine approaches for neurodegenerative disorders.

  20. Alphabetical Index of Parasitic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cercarial Dermatitis) Swimming Pools Back To Top T Taeniasis ( Taenia Infection, Tapeworm Infection) Tapeworm Infection (Taeniasis, Taenia Infection) Toxocariasis ( Toxocara Infection, Ocular Larva Migrans, ...

  1. Chemokine receptors CCR6 and CXCR3 are necessary for CD4(+) T cell mediated ocular surface disease in experimental dry eye disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coursey, Terry G; Gandhi, Niral B; Volpe, Eugene A; Pflugfelder, Stephen C; de Paiva, Cintia S

    2013-01-01

    CD4(+) T cells are essential to pathogenesis of ocular surface disease in dry eye. Two subtypes of CD4(+) T cells, Th1 and Th17 cells, function concurrently in dry eye to mediate disease. This occurs in spite of the cross-regulation of IFN-γ and IL-17A, the prototypical cytokines Th1 and Th17 cells, respectively. Essential to an effective immune response are chemokines that direct and summon lymphocytes to specific tissues. T cell trafficking has been extensively studied in other models, but this is the first study to examine the role of chemokine receptors in ocular immune responses. Here, we demonstrate that the chemokine receptors, CCR6 and CXCR3, which are expressed on Th17 and Th1 cells, respectively, are required for the pathogenesis of dry eye disease, as CCR6KO and CXCR3KO mice do not develop disease under desiccating stress. CD4(+) T cells from CCR6KO and CXCR3KO mice exposed to desiccating stress (DS) do not migrate to the ocular surface, but remain in the superficial cervical lymph nodes. In agreement with this, CD4(+) T cells from CCR6 and CXCR3 deficient donors exposed to DS, when adoptively transferred to T cell deficient recipients manifest minimal signs of dry eye disease, including significantly less T cell infiltration, goblet cell loss, and expression of inflammatory cytokine and matrix metalloproteinase expression compared to wild-type donors. These findings highlight the important interaction of chemokine receptors on T cells and chemokine ligand expression on epithelial cells of the cornea and conjunctiva in dry eye pathogenesis and reveal potential new therapeutic targets for dry eye disease.

  2. Chemokine Receptors CCR6 and CXCR3 Are Necessary for CD4+ T Cell Mediated Ocular Surface Disease in Experimental Dry Eye Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coursey, Terry G.; Gandhi, Niral B.; Volpe, Eugene A.; Pflugfelder, Stephen C.; de Paiva, Cintia S.

    2013-01-01

    CD4+ T cells are essential to pathogenesis of ocular surface disease in dry eye. Two subtypes of CD4+ T cells, Th1 and Th17 cells, function concurrently in dry eye to mediate disease. This occurs in spite of the cross-regulation of IFN-γ and IL-17A, the prototypical cytokines Th1 and Th17 cells, respectively. Essential to an effective immune response are chemokines that direct and summon lymphocytes to specific tissues. T cell trafficking has been extensively studied in other models, but this is the first study to examine the role of chemokine receptors in ocular immune responses. Here, we demonstrate that the chemokine receptors, CCR6 and CXCR3, which are expressed on Th17 and Th1 cells, respectively, are required for the pathogenesis of dry eye disease, as CCR6KO and CXCR3KO mice do not develop disease under desiccating stress. CD4+ T cells from CCR6KO and CXCR3KO mice exposed to desiccating stress (DS) do not migrate to the ocular surface, but remain in the superficial cervical lymph nodes. In agreement with this, CD4+ T cells from CCR6 and CXCR3 deficient donors exposed to DS, when adoptively transferred to T cell deficient recipients manifest minimal signs of dry eye disease, including significantly less T cell infiltration, goblet cell loss, and expression of inflammatory cytokine and matrix metalloproteinase expression compared to wild-type donors. These findings highlight the important interaction of chemokine receptors on T cells and chemokine ligand expression on epithelial cells of the cornea and conjunctiva in dry eye pathogenesis and reveal potential new therapeutic targets for dry eye disease. PMID:24223818

  3. Effect of a medical food on body mass index and activities of daily living in patients with Alzheimer's disease: secondary analyses from a randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphuis, P J G H; Verhey, F R J; Olde Rikkert, M G M; Twisk, J W R; Swinkels, S H N; Scheltens, P

    2011-08-01

    To investigate the effect of a medical food (Souvenaid) on body mass index (BMI) and functional abilities in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). DESIGN/SETTING/PARTICIPANTS/INTERVENTION /MEASUREMENTS: These analyses were performed on data from a 12-week, double-blind, randomized, controlled, multicenter, proof-of-concept study with a similarly designed and exploratory 12-week extension period. Patients with mild AD (Mini-Mental State Examination score of 20-26) were randomized to receive either the active product or an iso-caloric control product. While primary outcomes included measures of cognition, the 23-item Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study-Activities of Daily Living (ADCS-ADL) scale was included as a secondary outcome. Both ADCS-ADL and BMI were assessed at baseline and Weeks 6, 12 and 24. Data were analyzed using a repeated-measures mixed model. Overall, data suggested an increased BMI in the active versus the control group at Week 24 (ITT: p = 0.07; PP: p = 0.03), but no treatment effect on ADCS-ADL was observed. However, baseline BMI was found to be a significant treatment effect modifier (ITT: p = 0.04; PP: p = 0.05), and an increase in ADCS-ADL was observed at Week 12 in patients with a 'low' baseline BMI (ITT: p = 0.02; PP: p = 0.04). These data indicate that baseline BMI significantly impacts the effect of Souvenaid on functional abilities. In addition, there was a suggestion that Souvenaid increased BMI.

  4. Dietary glycemic load and glycemic index and risk of coronary heart disease and stroke in Dutch men and women: the EPIC-MORGEN study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koert N J Burger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The associations of glycemic load (GL and glycemic index (GI with the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD are not well-established, particularly in men, and may be modified by gender. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether high dietary GL and GI increase the risk of CVD in men and women. METHODS: A large prospective cohort study (EPIC-MORGEN was conducted within the general Dutch population among 8,855 men and 10,753 women, aged 21-64 years at baseline (1993-1997 and free of diabetes and CVD. Dietary intake was assessed with a validated food-frequency questionnaire and GI and GL were calculated using Foster-Powell's international table of GI. Information on morbidity and mortality was obtained through linkage with national registries. Cox proportional hazards analysis was performed to estimate hazard ratios (HRs for incident coronary heart disease (CHD and stroke, while adjusting for age, CVD risk factors, and dietary factors. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 11.9 years, 581 CHD cases and 120 stroke cases occurred among men, and 300 CHD cases and 109 stroke cases occurred among women. In men, GL was associated with an increased CHD risk (adjusted HR per SD increase, 1.17 [95% CI, 1.02-1.35], while no significant association was found in women (1.09 [0.89-1.33]. GI was not associated with CHD risk in both genders, while it was associated with increased stroke risk in men (1.27 [1.02-1.58] but not in women (0.96 [0.75-1.22]. Similarly, total carbohydrate intake and starch intake were associated with a higher CHD risk in men (1.23 [1.04-1.46]; and 1.24 [1.07-1.45], but not in women. CONCLUSION: Among men, high GL and GI, and high carbohydrate and starch intake, were associated with increased risk of CVD.

  5. Virginia ESI: INDEX (Index Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the boundaries of all hardcopy cartographic products produced as part of the Environmental Sensitivity Index...

  6. THERAPEUTIC EYELIDS HYGIENE IN THE ALGORITHMS OF PREVENTION AND TREATMENT OF OCULAR SURFACE DISEASES. PART II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Trubilin

    2016-01-01

    problem of modern ophthalmology.Part 1 — Trubilin VN, Poluninа EG, Kurenkov VV, Kapkova SG, Markova EY, Therapeutic eyelids hygiene in the algorithms of prevention and treatment of ocular surface diseases. Ophthalmology in Russia. 2016;13(2:122–127 doi: 10.18008/1816–5095– 2016–2–122–127

  7. Ankle Brachial Index <0.9 Underestimates the Prevalence of Peripheral Artery Occlusive Disease Assessed with Whole-Body Magnetic Resonance Angiography in the Elderly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wikstroem, J.; Hansen, T.; Johansson, L.; Lind, L.; Ahlstroem, H.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Whole-body magnetic resonance angiography (WBMRA) permits noninvasive vascular assessment, which can be utilized in epidemiological studies. Purpose: To assess the relation between a low ankle brachial index (ABI) and high-grade stenoses in the pelvic and leg arteries in the elderly. Material and Methods: WBMRA was performed in a population sample of 306 subjects aged 70 years. The arteries below the aortic bifurcation were graded after the most severe stenosis according to one of three grades: 0-49% stenosis, 50-99% stenosis, or occlusion. ABI was calculated for each side. Results: There were assessable WBMRA and ABI examinations in 268 (right side), 265 (left side), and 258 cases (both sides). At least one ≥50% stenosis was found in 19% (right side), 23% (left side), and 28% (on at least one side) of the cases. The corresponding prevalences for ABI <0.9 were 4.5%, 4.2%, and 6.6%. An ABI cut-off value of 0.9 resulted in a sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive value of 20%, 99%, 83%, and 84% on the right side, and 15%, 99%, 82%, and 80% on the left side, respectively, for the presence of a ≥ 50% stenosis in the pelvic or leg arteries. Conclusion: An ABI <0.9 underestimates the prevalence of peripheral arterial occlusive disease in the general elderly population

  8. Development of the Community Healthy Living Index: a tool to foster healthy environments for the prevention of obesity and chronic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soowon; Adamson, Katie Clarke; Balfanz, Deborah R; Brownson, Ross C; Wiecha, Jean L; Shepard, Dennis; Alles, Wesley F

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a new, comprehensive tool for communities to assess opportunities for active living and healthy eating and to mobilize all sectors of society to conquer obesity and chronic disease. Relevant existing tools and input from an expert panel were considered to draft the Community Healthy Living Index (CHLI). CHLI covers five major sectors where people live, work, learn, and play: schools, afterschools, work sites, neighborhoods, and the community-at-large. CHLI and the accompanying procedures enable community teams to assess programs, the physical environment, and policies related to healthy living and to plan improvement strategies. In 2008, with local YMCAs acting as conveners, community assessment teams from six US communities pilot-tested CHLI for cognitive response testing, inter-rater reliability, and implementation feasibility. CHLI was revised to reflect the test results. Pilot analyses demonstrated that the process was feasible, with most questions being interpreted as intended and showing substantial to almost perfect agreement between raters. The final CHLI is being disseminated nationally. Preliminary data illustrate CHLI obtains reliable results and is feasible to implement. CHLI is a promising tool for community-based prevention efforts to draw attention to opportunities for healthy living and create impetus for community changes.

  9. Impact of Body Mass Index on the relationship of epicardial adipose tissue to metabolic syndrome and coronary artery disease in an Asian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Myeong-Ho

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a previous study, we demonstrated that the thickness of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT, measured by echocardiography, was increased in patients with metabolic syndrome (MS and coronary artery disease (CAD. Several studies on obese patients, however, failed to demonstrate any relationship between EAT and CAD. We hypothesized that body mass index (BMI affected the link between EAT and MS and CAD. Methods We consecutively enrolled 643 patients (302 males, 341 females; 59 ± 11 years, who underwent echocardiography and coronary angiography. The EAT thickness was measured on the free wall of the right ventricle at the end of diastole. All patients were divided into two groups: high BMI group, ≥27 kg/m2 (n = 165, and non-high BMI group, 2 (n = 478. Results The median and mean EAT thickness of 643 patients were 3.0 mm and 3.1 ± 2.4 mm, respectively. In the non-high BMI group, the median EAT thickness was significantly increased in patients with MS compared to those without MS (3.5 vs. 1.9 mm, p Conclusions While EAT thickness was significantly increased in patients with MS and CAD, the power of EAT thickness to predict MS and CAD was stronger in patients with BMI 2. These findings showed that the measurement of EAT thickness by echocardiography might be especially useful in an Asian population with a non-high BMI, less than 27 kg/m2.

  10. Change of central cholinergic receptors following lesions of nucleus basalis magnocellularis in rats: search for an imaging index suitable for the early detection of Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Mikako; Iida, Yasuhiko; Nakagawa, Masaki; Kuge, Yugi; Kawashima, Hidekazu; Tominaga, Akiko; Ueda, Masashi; Magata, Yasuhiro; Saji, Hideo

    2006-01-01

    Cholinergic system in the central nervous system is involved in the memory function. Thus, because the dysfunction of cholinergic system that project to the cerebral cortex from nucleus basalis of Meynert (nbM) would be implicated in the memory function deficits in Alzheimer's disease (AD), evaluating cholinergic function may be useful for the early detection of AD. In this study, because the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM) in rats is equivalent to nbM in human, we investigated the change in cholinergic receptors in the frontal cortex of rats with unilateral lesion to the NBM to find an appropriate index for the early detection of AD using techniques of nuclear medicine. The right NBM was injected with ibotenic acid. [ 18 F]FDG-PET images were obtained 3 days later. Some rats were sacrificed at 1 week, whereas others were subjected to a second [ 18 F]FDG-PET at 4 weeks then sacrificed for membrane preparation. The prepared membranes were subjected to radioreceptor assays to measure the density of nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. Glucose metabolism had decreased on the damaged side compared to the control side at 3 days, but at 4 weeks, there was no difference between the sides. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors had significantly decreased in density compared to the control side at both 1 and 4 weeks. However, muscarinic receptors were not affected. These results suggested that neuronal dysfunction in AD could be diagnosed at an early stage by imaging nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

  11. A new index for differential diagnosis between mild hepatic lesions associated with chronic alcoholism (steatosis, steatofibrosis) and severe alcoholic liver disease (cirrhosis) by a combination of an aminopyrine breath test and a colloid hepatosplenic scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbain, D.; Jeghers, O.; Lenaers, A.; Wanet, P.; Abramovici, J.; Preux, C.

    1984-01-01

    The severity of liver disease is related not only to the degree of hepatocellular lesions but also to the hemodynamic changes created by extensive fibrosis. Theoretically, the combination of two tests providing information on these two aspects should allow a better identification of patients with severe alcoholic liver disease. In the present work our new functional index clearly improves the ability in differentiating mild alcoholic hepatic lesions from alcoholic cirrhosis. (orig.)

  12. Clinical significance of inter-arm pressure difference and ankle-brachial pressure index in patients with suspected coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, Yuko; Chikamori, Taishiro; Tomiyama, Hirofumi; Usui, Yasuhiro; Hida, Satoshi; Tanaka, Hirokazu; Nagao, Tadashi; Yamashina, Akira

    2007-01-01

    Although measuring blood pressure at the bilateral brachia is common in medical practice, its clinical significance in patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) has not been fully clarified. The method of this study was to define the significance of inter-arm systolic blood pressure difference in patients with suspected CAD, and to assess the relationship between inter-arm pressure difference and CAD, simultaneous brachial and ankle blood pressure measurements and stress myocardial single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) were performed in 386 consecutive patients with suspected CAD, excluding those with previous myocardial infarction or coronary revascularization. Subclavian artery stenosis, defined as ≥15 mmHg inter-arm systolic blood pressure difference, was found in 27 patients (7%). Age (65±12 vs 65±11 years), male sex (21/27 vs 244/359), prevalence of hypertension (63% vs 56%), hypercholesterolemia (63% vs 62%), diabetes mellitus (33% vs 38%), cigarette smoking (44% vs 41%) and family history of CAD (15% vs 12%) were similar between patients with subclavian artery stenosis and those without. The incidence of decreased ankle-brachial pressure index (ABI) was higher (37% vs 12%, p=0.001), and percentage ischemic myocardium as assessed by SPECT was greater (9.0±8.5% vs 5.6±6.6%, p=0.05) in patients with subclavian artery stenosis than in those without. Furthermore, significant correlations were observed between inter-arm pressure difference and percentage ischemic myocardium (r=0.13; p=0.01), and ABI (r=-0.26, p<0.0001). Among 386 patients, 283 underwent coronary angiography, and 63% of those who had inter-arm blood pressure difference had CAD. Furthermore, 83% of those CAD patients had multi-vessel CAD, which is regarded as a high-risk subset for subsequent cardiac events. Inter-arm pressure difference is often found in patients with suspected CAD, and is associated with significant CAD and peripheral artery disease. Thus, inter

  13. Quantitative Assessment of Erector Spinae Muscles in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Novel Chest Computed Tomography-derived Index for Prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimura, Kazuya; Sato, Susumu; Fuseya, Yoshinori; Hasegawa, Koichi; Uemasu, Kiyoshi; Sato, Atsuyasu; Oguma, Tsuyoshi; Hirai, Toyohiro; Mishima, Michiaki; Muro, Shigeo

    2016-03-01

    Loss of skeletal muscle mass and physical inactivity are important manifestations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and both are closely related to poor prognoses in patients with COPD. Antigravity muscles are involved in maintaining normal posture and are prone to atrophy with inactivity. The erector spinae muscles (ESM) are one of the antigravity muscle groups, and they can be assessed by chest computed tomography (CT). We hypothesized that the cross-sectional area of ESM (ESMCSA) visualized on chest CT images may serve as a predictor of mortality in patients with COPD. This study was part of the prospective observational study undertaken at Kyoto University Hospital. ESMCSA was measured on a single-slice axial CT image at the level of the 12th thoracic vertebra in patients with COPD. The cross-sectional area of the pectoralis muscles (PMCSA) was also measured. We evaluated the relationship between ESMCSA and clinical parameters, including mortality, in patients with COPD. Age- and height-matched smoking control subjects were also evaluated. In total, 130 male patients and 20 smoking control males were enrolled in this study. ESMCSA was significantly lower in patients with COPD than in the smoking control subjects and was significantly correlated with disease severity. There was a significant but only moderate correlation between ESMCSA and PMCSA. ESMCSA was significantly correlated with previously reported prognostic factors, such as body mass index, dyspnea (modified Medical Research Council dyspnea scale score), FEV1 percent predicted value, inspiratory capacity to total lung capacity ratio, and emphysema severity (percentage of the lung field occupied by low attenuation area). Compared with PMCSA, ESMCSA was more strongly associated with mortality in patients with COPD. Stepwise multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis revealed that, among these known prognostic factors, ESMCSA was the strongest risk factor for mortality (hazard ratio, 0

  14. Indexing mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, A.G.; Parker, G.E.; Berry, R.

    1976-01-01

    It is stated that the indexing mechanism described can be used in a nuclear reactor fuel element inspection rig. It comprises a tubular body adapted to house a canister containing a number of fuel elements located longtitudinally, and has two chucks spaced apart for displacing the fuel elements longitudinally in a stepwise manner, together with a plunger mechanism for displacing them successively into the chucks. A measuring unit is located between the chucks for measuring the diameter of the fuel elements at intervals about their circumferences, and a secondary indexing mechanism is provided for rotating the measuring unit in a stepwise manner. (U.K.)

  15. Use of surface water in drinking water production associated with municipal Legionnaires' disease incidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Boer, J. W.; Coutinho, R. A.; Yzerman, E. P. F.; van der Sande, M. A. B.

    2008-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: Given an observed geographical variation in Legionnaires' disease incidence in The Netherlands, the aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that the type of drinking water production was an independent determinant of the incidence of Legionnaires' disease. DESIGN: For the

  16. Metabolic mediators of the effects of body-mass index, overweight, and obesity on coronary heart disease and stroke: a pooled analysis of 97 prospective cohorts with 1.8 million participants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kromhout, D.; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Hollander, de E.L.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background - Body-mass index (BMI) and diabetes have increased worldwide, whereas global average blood pressure and cholesterol have decreased or remained unchanged in the past three decades. We quantified how much of the effects of BMI on coronary heart disease and stroke are mediated through blood

  17. Ocular surface disease in patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension treated with either BAK-preserved latanoprost or BAK-free travoprost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Katz

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Gregory Katz1, Clark L Springs2, E Randy Craven3, Michela Montecchi-Palmer41Huron Ophthalmology, Ypsilanti, MI, USA; 2Indiana University Eye Care, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 3Specialty Eye Care, Denver, CO, USA; 4Alcon Research Ltd., Fort Worth, TX, USAPurpose: The preservative benzalkonium chloride (BAK may adversely affect ocular surface health. This study evaluated symptoms of ocular surface disease (OSD in patients previously treated with a BAK-preserved therapy to lower their intraocular pressure, who either continued that therapy or switched to a BAK-free therapy.Methods: Eligible adult patients with ocular hypertension or open-angle glaucoma that had been controlled with BAK-preserved latanoprost 0.005% monotherapy (Xalatan® for at least one month and had a score of ≥ 13 (0 = none, 100 = most severe on the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI questionnaire were entered into this prospective, double-masked, randomized, active-controlled, multicenter trial. By random assignment, patients either continued with BAK-preserved latanoprost 0.005% or transitioned to BAK-free travoprost 0.004% (Travatan Z® ophthalmic solution. OSDI scores were assessed again after six and 12 weeks.Results: For the 678 evaluable patients, mean change in OSDI score from baseline to week 12 favored the travoprost 0.004% BAK-free group, but was not statistically different between groups (P = 0.10. When patients with mild OSD at baseline were assessed after 12 weeks, the mean OSDI score was significantly lower (P = 0.04 in the BAK-free travoprost 0.004% group (score = 11.6 ± 10.8 units than in the BAK-preserved latanoprost 0.005% group (score = 14.4 ± 11.9 units, and a significantly larger percentage (P < 0.01 improved to normal OSDI scores in the BAK-free travoprost 0.004% group (62.9% of group than in the BAK-preserved latanoprost 0.005% group (47.0% of group. Patients pretreated with BAK-preserved latanoprost 0.005% for >24 months were significantly more likely (P

  18. Assessment of pulmonary function using pixel indexes of multiple-slice spiral CT low-dose two-phase scanning in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lihua; Wang Yunhua; Jiang Zhongbiao; Zhang Lejun; Sun Wanli; Zhang Chunming

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the values of pixel indexes (PI) with multiple-slice spiral CT low-dose two-phase scanning for assessing the pulmonary function in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods: Thirty-six patients with COPD (COPD group)and 30 healthy people (control group)underwent pulmonary function test (PFT). Chest 64-MSCT low-dose (50 mAs) scanning at full inspiration and expiration, routine scanning (100 mAs) at inspiration were performed. The effective dose (ED) was calculated. The lung was divided into three regions (upper, middle, lower). PI of lung were divided into five groups: -960--1024, -910--960, -800--910, -700--800, -400--700. The PI -910 (sum of the PI under -910 HU) of low-dose scanning at each region were measured and calculated using pulmo software. All PI included PIin -910 , PIiex -910 , PIin -910 -PIiex -910 , PIiex -910 /PIin -910 and (PIin -910 -PIiex -910 )/PIin -910 . All patients underwent PFT within 3 days after 64-MSCT canning, FEV1% and FEV1/FVC were selected for comparison. Results: The PIin in three regions (-960 - -1024, -910 - -960, -800 - -910) were statistically significant between normal and COPD groups (U=0.00, 57.00, 20.50, P<0.01). The PIex in all regions were statistically significant (U=0.00, 0.00, 71.52, 191.00, 6.00, P<0.01). PI -910--1024 at expiration and inspiration were correlated with FEV1% and FEV1/FVC (r=-0.548, -0.664, -0.752, -0.781, P<0.01). PIin -910 , PIex -910 ,PIiex -910 /PIin -910 , (PIin -910 -PIex -910 )/PIin -910 had a good correlation with FEV1% and FEV1/FVC (r=-0.548, -0.664, -0.752, -0.781, -0.674, -0.642, 0.674, 0.642, P<0.01). Conclusion: Pixel indexes of 64-MSCT low-dose two-phase scanning can be used to evaluate pulmonary function in COPD patients. (authors)

  19. Applying tensor-based morphometry to parametric surfaces can improve MRI-based disease diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yalin; Yuan, Lei; Shi, Jie; Greve, Alexander; Ye, Jieping; Toga, Arthur W; Reiss, Allan L; Thompson, Paul M

    2013-07-01

    Many methods have been proposed for computer-assisted diagnostic classification. Full tensor information and machine learning with 3D maps derived from brain images may help detect subtle differences or classify subjects into different groups. Here we develop a new approach to apply tensor-based morphometry to parametric surface models for diagnostic classification. We use this approach to identify cortical surface features for use in diagnostic classifiers. First, with holomorphic 1-forms, we compute an efficient and accurate conformal mapping from a multiply connected mesh to the so-called slit domain. Next, the surface parameterization approach provides a natural way to register anatomical surfaces across subjects using a constrained harmonic map. To analyze anatomical differences, we then analyze the full Riemannian surface metric tensors, which retain multivariate information on local surface geometry. As the number of voxels in a 3D image is large, sparse learning is a promising method to select a subset of imaging features and to improve classification accuracy. Focusing on vertices with greatest effect sizes, we train a diagnostic classifier using the surface features selected by an L1-norm based sparse learning method. Stability selection is applied to validate the selected feature sets. We tested the algorithm on MRI-derived cortical surfaces from 42 subjects with genetically confirmed Williams syndrome and 40 age-matched controls, multivariate statistics on the local tensors gave greater effect sizes for detecting group differences relative to other TBM-based statistics including analysis of the Jacobian determinant and the largest eigenvalue of the surface metric. Our method also gave reasonable classification results relative to the Jacobian determinant, the pair of eigenvalues of the Jacobian matrix and volume features. This analysis pipeline may boost the power of morphometry studies, and may assist with image-based classification. Copyright © 2013

  20. Three-dimensional surface reconstruction imaging for evaluation of congenital heart disease from ECG-triggered MR images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vannier, M.W.; Laschinger, J.; Knapp, R.H.; Gutierrez, F.R.; Gronnemeyer, S.A.

    1987-01-01

    Three-dimensional surface reconstruction images of the heart and great vessels were produced from contiguous sequences of electrocardiographically triggered MR images in 25 patients with congenital heart disease and in three healthy subjects. The imaging data were semiautomatically processed to separate the epicardial and endocardial surfaces and to define the outline of the enclosed blood volumes on a section by section basis. Images were obtained at 5-mm intervals in patients aged 3 months to 30 years with anomalies of the great vessels, tetralogy of Fallot, septal defects, pulmonary atresia, and other congenital heart malformations. The results were used to facilitate the surgical treatment of these patients and were compared with echocardiographic and cineradiographic studies, and with surgical findings or pathologic specimens. These surface reconstruction images were useful for communicating the results of diagnostic examinations to cardiac surgeons, for sizing and location of intracardiac defects, for imaging the pulmonary venous drainage, and for assessing regional and global function

  1. Three-dimensional surface display of brain perfusion with [sup 123]I-IMP in Parkinson's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tachibana, H [Fifth Dept. of Internal Medicine, Hyogo Coll. of Medicine, Nishinomiya (Japan); Kawabata, K [Fifth Dept. of Internal Medicine, Hyogo Coll. of Medicine, Nishinomiya (Japan); Tomino, Y [Fifth Dept. of Internal Medicine, Hyogo Coll. of Medicine, Nishinomiya (Japan); Sugita, M [Fifth Dept. of Internal Medicine, Hyogo Coll. of Medicine, Nishinomiya (Japan); Fukuchi, M [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Hyogo Coll. of Medicine, Nishinomiya (Japan)

    1994-05-01

    We reconstructed three-dimensional (3D) surface images from single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) data using N-isopropyl-p[[sup 123]I]-iodoamphetamine ([sup 123]I-IMP) in 27 patients with Parkinson's disease and 11 normal control subjects. The 3D reconstruction was performed using distance-shaded methods at threshold levels with an interval of 5% from 45-80%. Any area of decreased perfusion at each threshold level was visualised as a defect area by the algorithm. In nondemented patients with Parkinson's disease, perfusion defects were frequently found in the parietal cortex at a threshold value of 65%. In demented patients, perfusion defects were frequently seen at thresholds of 45-65%, and were more marked in the temporal and parietal cortex bilaterally. This suggests that dementia in Parkinson's disease is related to a reduction of perfusion in the temporoparietal cortex. (orig.)

  2. Author Index

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    user1

    Astr. (2012) 33, 419–420. Author Index. 419. AGGARWAL SUNNY. Photoionization Cross-Section of Chlorine-like Iron, 291. AMBASTHA ASHOK see Das, A. C., 1. ARAKIDA HIDEYOSHI. Effect of Inhomogeneity of the Universe on a Gravitationally. Bound Local System: A No-Go Result for Explaining the Secular Increase in.

  3. AUTHOR INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    automorphic solutions to fractional order abstract integro-differential equations. 323. Afrouzi G A see Ala Samira ... 521. Agarwal Praveen. Certain fractional integral operators and the generalized multi-index Mittag- ... of positive solutions for sys- tems of second order multi-point bound- ary value problems on time scales 353.

  4. Comparison of Expert Adjudicated Coronary Heart Disease and Cardiovascular Disease Mortality With the National Death Index: Results From the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olubowale, Olusola Tope; Safford, Monika M; Brown, Todd M; Durant, Raegan W; Howard, Virginia J; Gamboa, Christopher; Glasser, Stephen P; Rhodes, J David; Levitan, Emily B

    2017-05-03

    The National Death Index (NDI) is widely used to detect coronary heart disease (CHD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) deaths, but its reliability has not been examined recently. We compared CHD and CVD deaths detected by NDI with expert adjudication of 4010 deaths that occurred between 2003 and 2013 among participants in the REGARDS (REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke) cohort of black and white adults in the United States. NDI derived CHD mortality had sensitivity 53.6%, specificity 90.3%, positive predictive value 54.2%, and negative predictive value 90.1%. NDI-derived CVD mortality had sensitivity 73.4%, specificity 84.5%, positive predictive value 70.6%, and negative predictive value 86.2%. Among NDI-derived CHD and CVD deaths, older age (odds ratios, 1.06 and 1.04 per 1-year increase) was associated with a higher probability of disagreement with the adjudicated cause of death, whereas among REGARDS adjudicated CHD and CVD deaths a history of CHD or CVD was associated with a lower probability of disagreement with the NDI-derived causes of death (odds ratios, 0.59 and 0.67, respectively). The modest accuracy and differential performance of NDI-derived cause of death may impact CHD and CVD mortality statistics. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  5. Ocular surface immunity: Homeostatic mechanisms and their disruption in dry eye disease

    OpenAIRE

    Barabino, Stefano; Chen, Yihe; Chauhan, Sunil Kumar; Dana, Reza

    2012-01-01

    The tear film, lacrimal glands, corneal and conjunctival epithelia and Meibomian glands work together as a lacrimal functional unit (LFU) to preserve the integrity and function of the ocular surface. The integrity of this unit is necessary for the health and normal function of the eye and visual system. Nervous connections and systemic hormones are well known factors that maintain the homeostasis of the ocular surface. They control the response to internal and external stimuli. Our and others...

  6. Disaggregation of SMOS soil moisture over West Africa using the Temperature and Vegetation Dryness Index based on SEVIRI land surface parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tagesson, T.; Horion, S.; Nieto, H.

    2018-01-01

    the Temperature and Vegetation Dryness Index (TVDI) that served as SM proxy within the disaggregation process. West Africa (3 N, 26 W; 28 N, 26 E) was selected as a case study as it presents both an important North-South climate gradient and a diverse range of ecosystem types. The main challenge was to set up...... resolution of SMOS SM, with potential application for local drought/flood monitoring of importance for the livelihood of the population of West Africa....

  7. Improved differential diagnosis of anemia of chronic disease and iron deficiency anemia: a prospective multicenter evaluation of soluble transferrin receptor and the sTfR/log ferritin index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skikne, Barry S; Punnonen, Kari; Caldron, Paul H; Bennett, Michael T; Rehu, Mari; Gasior, Gail H; Chamberlin, Janna S; Sullivan, Linda A; Bray, Kurtis R; Southwick, Paula C

    2011-11-01

    Anemia of chronic disease (ACD) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) are the most prevalent forms of anemia and often occur concurrently. Standard tests of iron status used in differential diagnosis are affected by inflammation, hindering clinical interpretation. In contrast, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) indicates iron deficiency and is unaffected by inflammation. Objectives of this prospective multicenter clinical trial were to evaluate and compare the diagnostic accuracy of sTfR and the sTfR/log ferritin index (sTfR Index) for differential diagnosis using the automated Access(®) sTfR assay (Beckman Coulter) and sTfR Index. We consecutively enrolled 145 anemic patients with common disorders associated with IDA and ACD. Subjects with IDA or ACD + IDA had significantly higher sTfR and sTfR Index values than subjects with ACD (P < 0.0001). ROC curves produced the following cutoffs for sTfR: 21 nmol/L (or 1.55 mg/L), and the sTfR Index: 14 (using nmol/L) (or 1.03 using mg/L). The sTfR Index was superior to sTfR (AUC 0.87 vs. 0.74, P < 0.0001). Use of all three parameters in combination more than doubled the detection of IDA, from 41% (ferritin alone) to 92% (ferritin, sTfR, sTfR Index). Use of sTfR and the sTfR Index improves detection of IDA, particularly in situations where routine markers provide equivocal results. Findings demonstrate a significant advantage in the simultaneous determination of ferritin, sTfR and sTfR Index. Obtaining a ferritin level alone may delay diagnosis of combined IDA and ACD. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. High index surfaces of Au-nanocrystals supported on one-dimensional MoO3-nanorod as a bi-functional electrocatalyst for ethanol oxidation and oxygen reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karuppasamy, L.; Chen, C.Y.; Anandan, S.; Wu, J.J.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Synthesis of a new class of Au nanocrystals enclosed with high index surface supported on MoO 3 nanorods by ultrasonic probe method. •The role of supporting materials reduces the loading of Au and acts as a co-catalyst. •The as prepared electrocatalyst exhibits enhanced catalytic activity and stability towards both EOR and ORR. -- Abstract: The design of highly active electrocatalyst for ethanol electrooxidation (EOR) and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is of great significance for the improvement of efficient direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs). Therefore, creating high index facets nanocrystals with abundant catalytic active sites of stepped atoms is an effective way to enhance the electrocatalytic performance. In this article, we prepared the high index surface structures of Au nanocrystals supported on one-dimensional (1-D) MoO 3 nanorods by using two steps ultrasonic probe irradiation method. The size and physical properties of as electrocatalysts were studied by using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), and x-ray diffraction (XRD) instrumentation. Besides, the catalytic activity of as Au-MoO 3 electrocatalyst was determined by using cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometric (CA), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), CO-stripping, and linear sweep voltammetry-rotating disk electrode (LSV-RDE). As a consequence, the Au-MoO 3 nanocomposites has been considered as an effective electrocatalyst for both ethanol oxidation and oxygen reduction reaction.

  9. Reduction in the interface-states density of metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors fabricated on high-index Si (114) surfaces by using an external magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina, J.; De La Hidalga, J.; Gutierrez, E.

    2014-01-01

    After fabrication of Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor (MOSFET) devices on high-index silicon (114) surfaces, their threshold voltage (Vth) and interface-states density (Dit) characteristics were measured under the influence of an externally applied magnetic field of B = 6 μT at room temperature. The electron flow of the MOSFET's channel presents high anisotropy on Si (114), and this effect is enhanced by using an external magnetic field B, applied parallel to the Si (114) surface but perpendicular to the electron flow direction. This special configuration results in the channel electrons experiencing a Lorentzian force which pushes the electrons closer to the Si (114)-SiO 2 interface and therefore to the special morphology of the Si (114) surface. Interestingly, Dit evaluation of n-type MOSFETs fabricated on Si (114) surfaces shows that the Si (114)-SiO 2 interface is of high quality so that Dit as low as ∼10 10  cm −2 ·eV −1 are obtained for MOSFETs with channels aligned at specific orientations. Additionally, using both a small positive Vds ≤ 100 mV and B = 6 μT, the former Dit is reduced by 35% in MOSFETs whose channels are aligned parallel to row-like nanostructures formed atop Si (114) surfaces (channels having a 90° rotation), whereas Dit is increased by 25% in MOSFETs whose channels are aligned perpendicular to these nanostructures (channels having a 0° rotation). From these results, the special morphology of a high-index Si (114) plane having nanochannels on its surface opens the possibility to reduce the electron-trapping characteristics of MOSFET devices having deep-submicron features and operating at very high frequencies

  10. Effect of 0.3% Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose/Dextran Versus 0.18% Sodium Hyaluronate in the Treatment of Ocular Surface Disease in Glaucoma Patients: A Randomized, Double-Blind, and Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhasawat, Pinnita; Ruangvaravate, Ngamkae; Tesavibul, Nattaporn; Thewthong, Maneerat

    2015-01-01

    To compare the efficacy and safety of 0.3% hydroxypropyl methylcellulose/dextran (HPMC/dextran) and 0.18% sodium hyaluronate (SH) in the treatment of ocular surface disease in patients using antiglaucoma drugs containing preservatives. This was a double-blind, randomized, parallel-group study in 70 glaucoma patients with Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) score greater than 20 points and/or presence of ocular signs. Patients were randomized to receive either preservative-free 0.3% HPMC/dextran (n=35) or preservative-free 0.18% SH (n=35). Treatment was 1 drop in each eye, 4 times a day. Data were collected at baseline, at day 7 and day 28. The groups were homogeneous at baseline. At day 28, both treatments showed significant improvements (Pdextran group. FBUT and the Schirmer I test also showed significant improvements (Pdextran group, at day 28. No adverse reactions were observed in either group. Preservative-free artificial tear, 0.3% HPMC/dextran, and 0.18% SH, caused a significant relief of the ocular surface disease in glaucoma patients. However, 0.18% SH led to a greater improvement in ocular signs and symptoms than 0.3% HPMC/dextran.

  11. Relationship between degenerative joint disease and hip joint laxity by use of distraction index and Norberg angle measurement in a group of cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langenbach, A.; Giger, U.; Green, P.; Rhodes, H.; Gregor, T.P.; Lafond, E.; Smith, G.

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To determine the relationship between degenerative joint disease (DJD) and passive laxity of the hip joint in a group of cats. Design: Prospective study. Animals: A select (nonrandomized) group of 78 cats. Procedure: Standard hip-extended radiographic views and compression and distraction views of the pelvis were obtained from cats during sedation. Radiographs were evaluated, using an Orthopedic Foundation for Animals (OFA)-like scoring system for dogs. Passive joint laxity was measured, using Norberg angle (NA) and distraction index (DI). Hip laxity in cats with DJD was compared with hip laxity in cats without DJD. Results: Hip dysplasia (HD) was subjectively diagnosed radiographically in 25 of 78 (32%) cats using the OFA-like scoring system. Nineteen cats had mild HD 4 had moderate HD, and 2 had severe HD. Fifteen of the 25 cats with HD had DJD. The NA ranged from 56 to 105. The mean NA in cats with DJD was (84 degrees) significantly lower than in cats without DJD (95 degrees). The DI ranged from 0.2 to 0.84. The mean DI for cats with DJD was (0.6) significantly higher than that for cats without DJD (0.49). Cats with a DI < 0.4 did not have DJD. Cats had an increased likelihood of having DJD with increased laxity in the coxofemoral joint, as measured by NA or DI. Clinical Implications: The mean NA for radiographically normal cats (92.4 degrees) was lower than that in radiographically normal dogs (103 degrees). The overall mean DI for cats in this group (0.51) is similar to dogs of breeds with high joint laxity, such as the Labrador Retriever (0.5). As in dogs, there is a relationship between DJD and laxity in the hip joint of cats

  12. Association of Far-Infrared Radiation Therapy and Ankle-Brachial Index of Patients on Hemodialysis with Peripheral Artery Occlusive Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Szu-Chia; Lee, Mei-Yueh; Huang, Jiun-Chi; Kuo, I-Ching; Mai, Hsiu-Chin; Kuo, Po-Lin; Chang, Jer-Ming; Hwang, Shang-Jyh; Chen, Hung-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim: The ankle-brachial index (ABI) is recognized to be a good marker for atherosclerosis, and is useful in the diagnosis of peripheral artery occlusive disease (PAOD) which is prevalent among patients on hemodialysis (HD). Methods: This randomized trial aimed to evaluate the effect of far-infrared radiation (FIR) therapy on ABI in HD patients with PAOD. PAOD was defined as patients with ABI < 0.95. One hundred and eight HD patients were enrolled, including 50 in the control group and 58 in the FIR group. A WS TY101 FIR emitter was applied for 40 minutes during each HD session, three times per week for six months. The ABI was measured before and after the FIR therapy. Results: Regardless of FIR therapy, the bilateral ABI decreased (in the FIR group, left: 0.88±0.22 to 0.85±0.24, p = 0.188; right: 0.92±0.20 to 0.90±0.23, p = 0.372; in control group, left: 0.91±0.23 to 0.88±0.21, p = 0144; right: 0.93±0.17 to 0.89±0.21, p = 0.082). Multivariate logistic analysis of the FIR group revealed that high uric acid (odds ratio [OR]: 2.335; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.117-4.882; p =0.024) and aspirin use (OR: 16.463; 95% CI: 1.787-151.638; p =0.013) were independently associated with increased bilateral ABI after FIR therapy. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that ABI is not increased after FIR therapy in HD patients with PAOD. However, in the FIR group, patients with higher uric acid level or those who used aspirin have increased bilateral ABI after FIR therapy.

  13. Afghanistan Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Poul Martin

    2007-01-01

    basis. The data are divided into different indicators such as security, polls, drug, social, economic, refugees etc. This represents a practical division and does not indicate that a picture as to for instance security can be obtained by solely looking at the data under security. In order to obtain...... a more valid picture on security this must incorporate an integrated look on all data meaning that for instance the economic data provides an element as to the whole picture of security.......The Afghanistan index is a compilation of quantitative and qualitative data on the reconstruction and security effort in Afghanistan. The index aims at providing data for benchmarking of the international performance and thus provides the reader with a quick possibility to retrieve valid...

  14. Down-regulation of Pax6 is associated with abnormal differentiation of corneal epithelial cells in severe ocular surface diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W; Chen, Y-T; Hayashida, Y; Blanco, G; Kheirkah, A; He, H; Chen, S-Y; Liu, C-Y; Tseng, SCG

    2010-01-01

    Pax6 is the universal master control gene for eye morphogenesis. Other than retina and lens, Pax6 also expressed in the ocular surface epithelium from early gestation until the postnatal stage, in which little is known about the function of Pax6. In this study, corneal pannus tissues from patients with ocular surface diseases such as Stevens–Johnson syndrome (SJS), chemical burn, aniridia and recurrent pterygium were investigated. Our results showed that normal ocular surface epithelial cells expressed Pax6. However, corneal pannus epithelial cells from the above patients showed a decline or absence of Pax6 expression, accompanied by a decline or absence of K12 keratin but an increase of K10 keratin and filaggrin expression. Pannus basal epithelial cells maintained nuclear p63 expression and showed activated proliferation, evidenced by positive Ki67 and K16 keratin staining. On 3T3 fibroblast feeder layers, Pax6 immunostaining was negative in clones generated from epithelial cells harvested from corneal pannus from SJS or aniridia, but positive in those from the normal limbal epithelium; whereas western blots showed that some epithelial clones expanded from pannus retained Pax6 expression. Transient transfection of an adenoviral vector carrying EGFP–Pax6 transgenes into these Pax6− clones increased both Pax6 and K12 keratin expression. These results indicate that Pax6 helps to maintain the normal corneal epithelial phenotype postnatally, and that down-regulation of Pax6 is associated with abnormal epidermal differentiation in severe ocular surface diseases. Reintroduction of activation of the Pax6 gene might be useful in treating squamous metaplasia of the ocular surface epithelium. PMID:18027901

  15. Assessment of serum lipid metabolism index and cytokine levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus complicated by coronary heart disease after telmisartan combined with lipid-lowering drug treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of telmisartan combined with lipid-lowering drug therapy on serum lipid metabolism index and cytokine levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus complicated by coronary heart disease. Methods: A total of 106 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus complicated by coronary heart disease who were treated in our hospital between September 2013 and October 2016 were collected and then divided into the control group (n=55 who received conventional treatment + lipid-lowering drug treatment and the observation group (n=51 who received conventional treatment + lipid-lowering drug + telmisartan treatment after the therapies were reviewed. Before and after treatment, serum levels of lipid metabolism indexes, inflammatory mediators and oxidative stress indexes were compared between two groups of patients. Results: Before treatment, the differences in serum levels of lipid metabolism indexes, inflammatory mediators and oxidative stress indexes were not statistically significant between two groups of patients. After treatment, serum TG and LDL-C levels in observation group were lower than those in control group while HDL-C level was higher than that in control group; serum inflammatory mediators IL-6, IL-8, HMGB1 and TNF-α levels were lower than those in control group; serum oxidative stress indexes MDA and ROS levels were lower than those in control group while GSH-Px level was higher than that in control group. Conclusion: Telmisartan combined with lipid-lowering drug therapy can effectively optimize the lipid metabolism and reduce the systemic inflammatory response and oxidative stress response in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus complicated by coronary heart disease.

  16. Organic Matter Fractions and Quality of the Surface Layer of a Constructed and Vegetated Soil After Coal Mining. II - Physical Compartments and Carbon Management Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otávio dos Anjos Leal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Soils constructed after mining often have low carbon (C stocks and low quality of organic matter (OM. Cover crops are decisive for the recovery process of these stocks, improving the quality of constructed soils. Therefore, the goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of cover crops on total organic C (TOC stocks, C distribution in physical fractions of OM and the C management index (CMI of a soil constructed after coal mining. The experiment was initiated in 2003 with six treatments: Hemarthria altissima (T1, Paspalum notatum (T2, Cynodon dactylon (T3, Urochloa brizantha (T4, bare constructed soil (T5, and natural soil (T6. Soil samples were collected in 2009 from the 0.00-0.03 m layer, and the TOC and C stocks in the physical particle size fractions (carbon in the coarse fraction - CCF, and mineral-associated carbon - MAC and density fractions (free light fraction - FLF; occluded light fraction - OLF, and heavy fraction - HF of OM were determined. The CMI components: carbon pool index (CPI, lability (L and lability index (LI were estimated by both fractionation methods. No differences were observed between TOC, CCF and MAC stocks. The lowest C stocks in FLF and OLF fractions were presented by T2, 0.86 and 0.61 Mg ha-1, respectively. The values of TOC stock, C stock in physical fractions and CMI were intermediate, greater than T5 and lower than T6 in all treatments, indicating the partial recovery of soil quality. As a result of the better adaptation of the species Hemarthria and Brizantha, resulting in greater accumulation of labile organic material, the CPI, L, LI and CMI values were higher in these treatments, suggesting a greater potential of these species for recovery of constructed soils.

  17. Vitamins mediate immunological homeostasis and diseases at the surface of the body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunisawa, Jun; Kiyono, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    The host immune system is regulated not only by endogenous factors, such as cytokines and chemokines, but also by exogenous factors, such as commensal bacteria and dietary materials. Vitamins are vital nutrients that are mainly derived from the diet and commensal bacteria. Accumulating evidence has revealed specific functions of vitamins in the control of host immunity. In agreement with their vital roles in the appropriate maintenance of immunity, excessive or insufficient intake of vitamins leads to the development of immune diseases or susceptibility to infection. In this review, we focus on the diverse but specific immunologic functions of vitamins in regulating host immune responses and their association with immune and infectious diseases.

  18. Multi-dimensional TOF-SIMS analysis for effective profiling of disease-related ions from the tissue surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji-Won; Jeong, Hyobin; Kang, Byeongsoo; Kim, Su Jin; Park, Sang Yoon; Kang, Sokbom; Kim, Hark Kyun; Choi, Joon Sig; Hwang, Daehee; Lee, Tae Geol

    2015-06-05

    Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) emerges as a promising tool to identify the ions (small molecules) indicative of disease states from the surface of patient tissues. In TOF-SIMS analysis, an enhanced ionization of surface molecules is critical to increase the number of detected ions. Several methods have been developed to enhance ionization capability. However, how these methods improve identification of disease-related ions has not been systematically explored. Here, we present a multi-dimensional SIMS (MD-SIMS) that combines conventional TOF-SIMS and metal-assisted SIMS (MetA-SIMS). Using this approach, we analyzed cancer and adjacent normal tissues first by TOF-SIMS and subsequently by MetA-SIMS. In total, TOF- and MetA-SIMS detected 632 and 959 ions, respectively. Among them, 426 were commonly detected by both methods, while 206 and 533 were detected uniquely by TOF- and MetA-SIMS, respectively. Of the 426 commonly detected ions, 250 increased in their intensities by